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Sample records for aging male focus

  1. Cost and Impact of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in South Africa: Focusing the Program on Specific Age Groups and Provinces.

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    Katharine Kripke

    Full Text Available In 2012, South Africa set a goal of circumcising 4.3 million men ages 15-49 by 2016. By the end of March 2014, 1.9 million men had received voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC. In an effort to accelerate progress, South Africa undertook a modeling exercise to determine whether circumcising specific client age groups or geographic locations would be particularly impactful or cost-effective. Results will inform South Africa's efforts to develop a national strategy and operational plan for VMMC.The study team populated the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0 with HIV incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM, as well as national and provincial population and HIV prevalence estimates. We derived baseline circumcision rates from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The model showed that circumcising men ages 20-34 offers the most immediate impact on HIV incidence and requires the fewest circumcisions per HIV infection averted. The greatest impact over a 15-year period is achieved by circumcising men ages 15-24. When the model assumes a unit cost increase with client age, men ages 15-29 emerge as the most cost-effective group. When we assume a constant cost for all ages, the most cost-effective age range is 15-34 years. Geographically, the program is cost saving in all provinces; differences in the VMMC program's cost-effectiveness across provinces were obscured by uncertainty in HIV incidence projections.The VMMC program's impact and cost-effectiveness vary by age-targeting strategy. A strategy focusing on men ages 15-34 will maximize program benefits. However, because clients older than 25 access VMMC services at low rates, South Africa could consider promoting demand among men ages 25-34, without denying services to those in other age groups. Uncertainty in the provincial estimates makes them insufficient to support geographic targeting.

  2. Cost and Impact of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in South Africa: Focusing the Program on Specific Age Groups and Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripke, Katharine; Thambinayagam, Ananthy; Pillay, Yogan; Loykissoonlal, Dayanund; Bonnecwe, Collen; Barron, Peter; Kiwango, Eva; Castor, Delivette

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012, South Africa set a goal of circumcising 4.3 million men ages 15–49 by 2016. By the end of March 2014, 1.9 million men had received voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). In an effort to accelerate progress, South Africa undertook a modeling exercise to determine whether circumcising specific client age groups or geographic locations would be particularly impactful or cost-effective. Results will inform South Africa’s efforts to develop a national strategy and operational plan for VMMC. Methods and Findings The study team populated the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0) with HIV incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM), as well as national and provincial population and HIV prevalence estimates. We derived baseline circumcision rates from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The model showed that circumcising men ages 20–34 offers the most immediate impact on HIV incidence and requires the fewest circumcisions per HIV infection averted. The greatest impact over a 15-year period is achieved by circumcising men ages 15–24. When the model assumes a unit cost increase with client age, men ages 15–29 emerge as the most cost-effective group. When we assume a constant cost for all ages, the most cost-effective age range is 15–34 years. Geographically, the program is cost saving in all provinces; differences in the VMMC program’s cost-effectiveness across provinces were obscured by uncertainty in HIV incidence projections. Conclusion The VMMC program’s impact and cost-effectiveness vary by age-targeting strategy. A strategy focusing on men ages 15–34 will maximize program benefits. However, because clients older than 25 access VMMC services at low rates, South Africa could consider promoting demand among men ages 25–34, without denying services to those in other age groups. Uncertainty in the provincial estimates makes them

  3. The Economic and Epidemiological Impact of Focusing Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention on Specific Age Groups and Regions in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Since its launch in 2010, the Tanzania National Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) Program has focused efforts on males ages 10–34 in 11 priority regions. Implementers have noted that over 70% of VMMC clients are between the ages of 10 and 19, raising questions about whether additional efforts would be required to recruit men age 20 and above. This analysis uses mathematical modeling to examine the economic and epidemiological consequences of scaling up VMMC among specific age groups and priority regions in Tanzania. Methods and Findings Analyses were conducted using the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), a compartmental model implemented in Microsoft Excel 2010. The model was populated with population, mortality, and HIV incidence and prevalence projections from external sources, including outputs from Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM). A separate DMPPT 2.0 model was created for each of the 11 priority regions. Tanzania can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising males ages 20–34. This strategy would also require the fewest VMMCs for each HIV infection averted. Circumcising men ages 10–24 will have the greatest impact on HIV incidence over a 15-year period. The most cost-effective approach (lowest cost per HIV infection averted) targets men ages 15–34. The model shows the VMMC program is cost saving in all 11 priority regions. VMMC program cost-effectiveness varies across regions due to differences in projected HIV incidence, with the most cost-effective programs in Njombe and Iringa. Conclusions The DMPPT 2.0 results reinforce Tanzania’s current VMMC strategy, providing newfound confidence in investing in circumcising adolescents. Tanzanian policy makers and program implementers will continue to focus scale-up of VMMC on men ages 10–34 years, seeking to maximize program impact and cost-effectiveness while acknowledging trends in demand among the younger and older age groups

  4. Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in Malawi: Modeling the Impact and Cost of Focusing the Program by Client Age and Geography

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    Kripke, Katharine; Chimbwandira, Frank; Mwandi, Zebedee; Matchere, Faustin; Schnure, Melissa; Reed, Jason; Castor, Delivette; Sgaier, Sema

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in priority countries with high HIV prevalence and low male circumcision (MC) prevalence. According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), an estimated 5.8 million males had undergone VMMC by the end of 2013. Implementation experience has raised questions about the need to refocus VMMC programs on specific subpopulations for the greatest epidemiological impact and programmatic effectiveness. As Malawi prepared its national operational plan for VMMC, it sought to examine the impacts of focusing on specific subpopulations by age and region. Methods We used the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Toolkit, Version 2.0, to study the impact of scaling up VMMC to different target populations of Malawi. National MC prevalence by age group from the 2010 Demographic and Health Survey was scaled according to the MC prevalence for each district and then halved, to adjust for over-reporting of circumcision. In-country stakeholders advised a VMMC unit cost of $100, based on implementation experience. We derived a cost of $451 per patient-year for antiretroviral therapy from costs collected as part of a strategic planning exercise previously conducted in- country by UNAIDS. Results Over a fifteen-year period, circumcising males ages 10–29 would avert 75% of HIV infections, and circumcising males ages 10–34 would avert 88% of infections, compared to the current strategy of circumcising males ages 15–49. The Ministry of Health’s South West and South East health zones had the lowest cost per HIV infection averted. Moreover, VMMC met WHO’s definition of cost-effectiveness (that is, the cost per disability-adjusted life-year [DALY] saved was less than three times the per capita gross domestic product) in all health zones except Central East. Comparing urban versus rural areas in the country, we found that circumcising men in urban

  5. Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in Malawi: Modeling the Impact and Cost of Focusing the Program by Client Age and Geography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Kripke

    Full Text Available In 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO recommended scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC in priority countries with high HIV prevalence and low male circumcision (MC prevalence. According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS, an estimated 5.8 million males had undergone VMMC by the end of 2013. Implementation experience has raised questions about the need to refocus VMMC programs on specific subpopulations for the greatest epidemiological impact and programmatic effectiveness. As Malawi prepared its national operational plan for VMMC, it sought to examine the impacts of focusing on specific subpopulations by age and region.We used the Decision Makers' Program Planning Toolkit, Version 2.0, to study the impact of scaling up VMMC to different target populations of Malawi. National MC prevalence by age group from the 2010 Demographic and Health Survey was scaled according to the MC prevalence for each district and then halved, to adjust for over-reporting of circumcision. In-country stakeholders advised a VMMC unit cost of $100, based on implementation experience. We derived a cost of $451 per patient-year for antiretroviral therapy from costs collected as part of a strategic planning exercise previously conducted in- country by UNAIDS.Over a fifteen-year period, circumcising males ages 10-29 would avert 75% of HIV infections, and circumcising males ages 10-34 would avert 88% of infections, compared to the current strategy of circumcising males ages 15-49. The Ministry of Health's South West and South East health zones had the lowest cost per HIV infection averted. Moreover, VMMC met WHO's definition of cost-effectiveness (that is, the cost per disability-adjusted life-year [DALY] saved was less than three times the per capita gross domestic product in all health zones except Central East. Comparing urban versus rural areas in the country, we found that circumcising men in urban areas would be both cost

  6. Focus Issue on Male Infertility

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    Hideyuki Kobayashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Male infertility problems can occur when sperms are limited in number or function. In this paper, we describe the clinical evaluation of male infertility. A detailed history, physical examination, and basic semen analysis are required. In addition, ultrasound, karyotyping, and hormonal studies are needed to determine specific causes of infertility. In addition, the World Health Organization (WHO, 2009 has developed a manual to provide guidance in performing a comprehensive semen analysis. Among the possible reasons for male infertility, nonobstructive azoospermia is the least treatable, because few or no mature sperm may be produced. In many cases, men with nonobstructive azoospermia typically have small-volume testes and elevated FSH. Although treatment may not completely restore the quality of semen from men with subnormal fertility, in some cases a successful pregnancy can still be achieved through assisted reproductive technology.

  7. The aging male project

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    Farid Saad

    2001-06-01

    alpha estradiol have been synthesized some of which show selectivity for the central nervous system. CNS effects have been demonstrated in female and male animals. Cardiovascular protection by estrogens has been shown in animal and human studies. Atherosclerotic plaque size was reduced after estrogen injections in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Phytoestrogen-fed monkeys had lower total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and higher HDL cholesterol. Apart from atherosclerotic lesions, coronary artery vascular reactivity was improved. Some of these experimental findings were confirmed in human studies in postmenopausal women with and without estrogen treatment. Whether all of the described estrogenic effects can be seen in men remains to be investigated. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 127-33Keywords : aging, andropause, testosterone, estrogens

  8. Male Anorexia Nervosa: A New Focus.

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    Crosscope-Happel, Cindy; Hutchins, David E.; Getz, Hildy G.; Hayes, Gerald L.

    2000-01-01

    Although anorexia nervosa affects over one million males yearly, it is often misdiagnosed or overlooked by mental health and medical practitioners. This article brings the problem to the forefront and outlines features that are unique to these males. Greater recognition of the disorder can lead to more accurate diagnoses and, subsequently, better…

  9. Androgens and the ageing male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    Hypogonadal men share a variety of signs and symptoms such as decreased muscle mass, osteopoenia, increased fat mass, fatigue, decreased libido and cognitive dysfunctions. Controlled trials have demonstrated favourable effects of androgen substitution therapy on these signs and symptoms in men wi...... in some elderly males with low-normal testosterone levels. However, at this point in time, widespread use of testosterone in an elderly male population outside controlled clinical trials seems inappropriate....

  10. Mitochondria, maternal inheritance, and male aging.

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    Camus, M Florencia; Clancy, David J; Dowling, Damian K

    2012-09-25

    The maternal transmission of mitochondrial genomes invokes a sex-specific selective sieve, whereby mutations in mitochondrial DNA can only respond to selection acting directly on females. In theory, this enables male-harming mutations to accumulate in mitochondrial genomes when these same mutations are neutral, beneficial, or only slightly deleterious in their effects on females. Ultimately, this evolutionary process could result in the evolution of male-specific mitochondrial mutation loads; an idea previously termed Mother's Curse. Here, we present evidence that the effects of this process are broader than hitherto realized, and that it has resulted in mutation loads affecting patterns of aging in male, but not female Drosophila melanogaster. Furthermore, our results indicate that the mitochondrial mutation loads affecting male aging generally comprise numerous mutations over multiple sites. Our findings thus suggest that males are subject to dramatic consequences that result from the maternal transmission of mitochondrial genomes. They implicate the diminutive mitochondrial genome as a hotspot for mutations that affect sex-specific patterns of aging, thus promoting the idea that a sex-specific selective sieve in mitochondrial genome evolution is a contributing factor to sexual dimorphism in aging, commonly observed across species.

  11. Electroencephalographic changes with age in male mice.

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    Eleftheriou, B E; Zolovick, A J; Elias, M F

    1975-01-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) changes, as measured by the awake state, slow-wave sleep (SWS), rapid-eye movement (REM) patterns and ratio of REM/total sleep, were recorded in aging male mice of DBA/2J and C57BL/6J strains. Results indicate that there is a significant increase in the awake state accompanied by significant decrease in SWS with advancing age for both strains, although these changes appear more pronounced in DBA/2J mice than C57BL/6J mice. Of considerable significance is the finding that REM sleep is absent in mice of DBA/2J strain at 23.5 months of age. Based on these findings, the conclusion was reached that strain DBA/2J ages significantly faster than C57BL/6J. The difference in aging between the two strains emphasizes the need for additional studies dealing with genetic aspects of aging.

  12. The management of hypogonadism in aging male patients.

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    Sharma, Vishwamitra; Perros, Petros

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the evaluation and management of hypogonadism in aging male patients in the light of recent guidelines. The benefits of treating severe hypogonadism resulting from identifiable pituitary or primary gonadal disease are well established. Milder forms of hypogonadism in the aging male, known as andropause, are common, and constitute an expanding area of clinical interest and research. Several studies indicate that testosterone replacement therapy may produce a wide range of benefits for men with hypogonadism, including improvement in libido, bone density, muscle mass, body composition, mood, and cognition. Currently available data are insufficient to permit a definitive verdict on the balance between risks and benefits of testosterone replacement therapy in aging males.

  13. Interest of individuals from BRCA families to participate in research studies focused on male BRCA carriers.

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    Pal, Tuya; Vadaparampil, Susan; Kim, Jongphil; Xu, Yan; Friedman, Sue; Narod, Steven A; Metcalfe, Kelly

    2013-12-01

    Although men and women are equally likely to carry a mutation in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) genes, the clinical significance of mutations in men remains incompletely defined. We sought evaluate interest of individuals from BRCA families to participate in a research study focused on men from BRCA families. Through an anonymous survey posted on the website of the BRCA patient advocacy organization, facing our risk of cancer empowered (FORCE), data was collected over a 21 month period (August 2010-June 2012) from members of BRCA families. The survey was completed by 405 individuals with known BRCA mutations, including 150 males and 232 females. The median age of survey respondents was 49 years (50 years for males and 48 years for females). Overall, 84% of survey respondents indicated prior BRCA mutation testing (95.2% females, 67.3% males). For the overall group of survey respondents, 84% (86% females, 84% males) indicated they would tell their male relatives about a research study focused on high risk men from BRCA families, and 53% (39% females, 74% males) thought that their male relatives would be interested in participating in such a study. Despite limited studies focused on men from BRCA mutation positive families, our survey suggests that both male and female family members are highly interested in focused on male BRCA mutation carriers. The importance of further studying this topic is underscored by emerging literature that suggest cancer surveillance and treatment decisions may improve outcomes in men with BRCA mutations.

  14. Relative age effect in junior tennis (male

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    Adrián Agricola

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The issues of the age effect (the theory of the age influence have been shown in sport sciences since the 1980s. The theory of age effect works on the assumption that athletes born in the beginning of a calendar year are, particularly in children’s and junior age, more successful than athletes born in the end of the year. This fact has been proved by a number of research studies, mainly in ice hockey, soccer, and tennis but also in other sports. OBJECTIVE: The submitted contribution is aimed at verifying of the age effect in junior tennis. The research objective was to find out the distribution of birth date frequencies in a population of tennis players’ in individual months, quarters, and half-years in the observed period 2007–2011 and to check the significance of differences. METHODS: The research was conducted on male tennis players aged 13–14 (N = 239, participants of the World Junior Tennis Finals. From the methodological point of view, it was an intentional selection. The birth dates of individual tennis players were taken from official materials of the ITF, the research data were processed using Microsoft Excel. The personal data were processed with the approval of players and the hosting organization (ITF. RESULTS: Testing of the hypothesis on the significance of differences in the distribution of frequencies between individual quarters (Q1–Q4 has proved statistically relevant differences between Q1 and Q3, Q1 and Q4, Q2 and Q3, and Q2 and Q4; a statistically relevant difference has been also found in the distribution of frequencies between the first and second half of the year. On the basis of the results of the presented research, the age effect in the studied population of junior male tennis players can be regarded as significant. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the analysis of the research data confirm the conclusions of similar studies in other sports and prove that in the population of elite junior players

  15. Nutrition and AGE-ing: Focusing on Alzheimer's Disease

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    Marziano, Mariagrazia; Rungratanawanich, Wiramon; Memo, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the role of food and nutrition in preventing or delaying chronic disability in the elderly population has received great attention. Thanks to their ability to influence biochemical and biological processes, bioactive nutrients are considered modifiable factors capable of preserving a healthy brain status. A diet rich in vitamins and polyphenols and poor in saturated fatty acids has been recommended. In the prospective of a healthy diet, cooking methods should be also considered. In fact, cooking procedures can modify the original dietary content, contributing not only to the loss of healthy nutrients, but also to the formation of toxins, including advanced glycation end products (AGEs). These harmful compounds are adsorbed at intestinal levels and can contribute to the ageing process. The accumulation of AGEs in ageing (“AGE-ing”) is further involved in the exacerbation of neurodegenerative and many other chronic diseases. In this review, we discuss food's dual role as both source of bioactive nutrients and reservoir for potential toxic compounds—paying particular attention to the importance of proper nutrition in preventing/delaying Alzheimer's disease. In addition, we focus on the importance of a good education in processing food in order to benefit from the nutritional properties of an optimal diet. PMID:28168012

  16. Ageing male and testosterone: Current status and treatment guidelines

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    S S Vasan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Because the decline in androgens is generally gradual and not a complete deficiency, clinical significance of this decline is still unclear, and there is controversy as to whether a specific syndrome of androgen deficiency or ′andropause′ exists. The term andropause or androgen deficiency in aging males (ADAM underwent revisions to, partial androgen deficiency in aging male (PADAM, late onset hypogonadism (LOH and now symptomatic late onset hypogonadism (SLOH, signifying, the evolving nature of this phenomenon. Since this happens at a time of life, when many men have associated comorbities, it′s difficult to assess the exact impact of androgen decline, due to which, the issues surrounding androgen replacement therapy in men with symptomatic late-onset hypogonadism have been marred in controversy. Although with age, a decline in testosterone levels will occur in virtually all men, there is no way of predicting, who, will experience andropausal symptoms of sufficient severity and also long-term safety data on testosterone administration in this setting, is lacking. This article will focus on the controversies and practices of androgen replacement.

  17. Aging changes in the male reproductive system

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    ... continue to produce sperm, but the rate of sperm cell production slows. The epididymis, seminal vesicles, and prostate gland lose some of their surface cells. But they continue to ... sperm. Urinary function: The prostate gland enlarges with age ...

  18. Sexual maturation and aging of adult male mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

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    Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Jasrotia, P; Silva, E B; Zada, A; Franco, J C

    2012-08-01

    The physiological age of adult males of seven mealybug species was measured in relation to the elongation of the male pair of the waxy caudal filaments. These filaments begin to emerge after eclosion and reached their maximum length from 29.4-46.6 h. The studied males were divided into three age groups, expressed as percentages of the total waxy caudal filaments length. Attraction to a sex pheromone source was significantly higher in the oldest male group (maximum filaments growth) compared with youngest one. Only the oldest male group copulated successfully; few of the younger males tested displayed 'courtship' behavior towards conspecific virgin females. The calculated duration of the sexually active phase of the adult male life cycle varied among species ranging from 34.4 to 46.6 h. There were marked variations in the strength of attraction to a pheromone source according to time of day. There was a continuous decrease in sexual activity from morning to evening. Our findings reveal clear maturation periods for adult males of the seven studied species. The long immature phase of the adult male mealybug is probably also related to several physiological processes that are needed to complete male maturation. The most noticeable change is the elongation of the waxy caudal filaments. However, mating may be performed at any time ambient conditions are suitable. Whereas male mealybug flight towards a pheromone source is restricted to a few hours, the male may continue mating activity throughout its sexually active period.

  19. Male Cross-Dressers in Therapy: A Solution-Focused Perspective for Marriage and Family Therapists.

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    Dzelme, Kristina; Jones, Rene A.

    2001-01-01

    Offers techniques on how to work with male cross-dressers using solution focused therapy. Solution focused therapy is discussed as a way to work with male cross dressers and their partners. A case study of a male cross dresser and his wife is presented and possible directions are suggested for marriage and family therapists. (BF)

  20. Male age and female mate choice in a synchronizing katydid.

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    Hartbauer, M; Siegert, M E; Römer, H

    2015-08-01

    In acoustically communicating species, females often evaluate the frequency content, signal duration and the temporal signal pattern to gain information about the age of the signaller. This is different in the synchronizing bush cricket Mecopoda elongata where females select males on the basis of relative signal timing in duets. In a longitudinal approach, we recorded songs of M. elongata males produced 2 weeks (young male) and 9 weeks (old male) after their ultimate moult. Signal timing of both age categories was studied in acoustic interactions, and female preference was investigated in choice situations. Young male chirps were significantly shorter and contained less energy compared to "old chirps". In mixed-age duets younger males timed their chirps as leader significantly more often. Females preferred the young male chirp when broadcast as leader over the old male chirp, but choice was random when the old male chirp was leader. This choice asymmetry was abolished after reducing the duration of the "old chirp". Results were mirrored in response of a bilateral pair of auditory neurons, where the asymmetry in spike count and first-spike latency correlated with behaviour. We suggest that older males may compensate their disadvantage in a more complex chorus situation.

  1. Traditional male circumcision in Uganda: a qualitative focus group discussion analysis.

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    Amir Sabet Sarvestani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The growing body of evidence attesting to the effectiveness of clinical male circumcision in the prevention of HIV/AIDS transmission is prompting the majority of sub-Saharan African governments to move towards the adoption of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC. Even though it is recommended to consider collaboration with traditional male circumcision (TMC providers when planning for VMMC, there is limited knowledge available about the TMC landscape and traditional beliefs. METHODOLOGY AND MAIN FINDINGS: During 2010-11 over 25 focus group discussions (FGDs were held with clan leaders, traditional cutters, and their assistants to understand the practice of TMC in four ethnic groups in Uganda. Cultural significance and cost were among the primary reasons cited for preferring TMC over VMMC. Ethnic groups in western Uganda circumcised boys at younger ages and encountered lower rates of TMC related adverse events compared to ethnic groups in eastern Uganda. Cutting styles and post-cut care also differed among the four groups. The use of a single razor blade per candidate instead of the traditional knife was identified as an important and recent change. Participants in the focus groups expressed interest in learning about methods to reduce adverse events. CONCLUSION: This work reaffirmed the strong cultural significance of TMC within Ugandan ethnic groups. Outcomes suggest that there is an opportunity to evaluate the involvement of local communities that still perform TMC in the national VMMC roll-out plan by devising safer, more effective procedures through innovative approaches.

  2. Rock sparrow song reflects male age and reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Erwin; Kempenaers, Bart; Matessi, Giuliano; Brumm, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of mating signals is closely linked to sexual selection. Acoustic ornaments are often used as secondary sexual traits that signal the quality of the signaller. Here we show that song performance reflects age and reproductive success in the rock sparrow (Petronia petronia). In an Alpine population in south-east France, we recorded the songs of males and assessed their genetic breeding success by microsatellite analysis. In addition to temporal and spectral song features, we also analysed for the first time whether the sound pressure level of bird song reflects reproductive success. Males with higher breeding success sang at a lower rate and with a higher maximum frequency. We found also that older males gained more extra-pair young and had a higher overall breeding success, although they also differed almost significantly by having a higher loss of paternity in their own nests. Older males could be distinguished from yearlings by singing at lower rate and higher amplitudes. Our findings suggest that song rate may be used as a signal of age and together with song pitch as a signal of reproductive success in this species. Alternatively, younger and less successful males might try to compensate their inferior status by increased song rates and lower pitch. Independent of age and quality, high-amplitude songs correlated with paternity loss in the own nest, suggesting that in this species song amplitude is not an indicator of male quality but high-intensity songs may be rather a response to unfaithful social mates.

  3. "Aging males" symptoms and general health of adult males: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, John W; Ng, Chi-Fai; Chiu, Peter Ka Fung; Teoh, Jeremy Yuen Chun; Yee, C H

    2016-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the prevalence and severity of health-related complaints perceived by adult males of Hong Kong by using the Hong Kong Traditional Chinese versions of the Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale and the 5-dimensional and 3-level European Quality of life (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire. A total of 825 adult males aged 40 years or above were surveyed, and observed that 80% of the population was living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms with mean total scores ranged between 26.02 ± 7.91 and 32.99 ± 7.91 in different age groups. Such symptoms were correlated with age, especially for the somato-vegetative and sexual symptoms. The most severe AMS symptoms were observed in the oldest age group at 70 years or above, with 76%, 34% and 70% living with moderate-to-severe levels of somato-vegetative, psychological and sexual symptoms, respectively. The result was highly correlated with the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. Secondly, the Hong Kong Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale was shown to have good reliability with test-retest coefficient at 0.79 (ranged 0.66-0.87) and Cronbach's alpha coefficient at 0.88 (ranged 0.70-0.84). In summary, the population of Hong Kong male adults was commonly living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms, whereas their severity was correlated with age.

  4. Cannabis, Cocaine and the Wages of Prime Age Males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses a dataset collected among inhabitants of Amsterdam, to study whether wages of prime age male workers are affected by the use of cannabis and cocaine.The analysis shows that cocaine use and infrequent cannabis use do not affect wages.Frequent cannabis use has a negative wage effect.Th

  5. Rock sparrow song reflects male age and reproductive success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Nemeth

    Full Text Available The evolution of mating signals is closely linked to sexual selection. Acoustic ornaments are often used as secondary sexual traits that signal the quality of the signaller. Here we show that song performance reflects age and reproductive success in the rock sparrow (Petronia petronia. In an Alpine population in south-east France, we recorded the songs of males and assessed their genetic breeding success by microsatellite analysis. In addition to temporal and spectral song features, we also analysed for the first time whether the sound pressure level of bird song reflects reproductive success. Males with higher breeding success sang at a lower rate and with a higher maximum frequency. We found also that older males gained more extra-pair young and had a higher overall breeding success, although they also differed almost significantly by having a higher loss of paternity in their own nests. Older males could be distinguished from yearlings by singing at lower rate and higher amplitudes. Our findings suggest that song rate may be used as a signal of age and together with song pitch as a signal of reproductive success in this species. Alternatively, younger and less successful males might try to compensate their inferior status by increased song rates and lower pitch. Independent of age and quality, high-amplitude songs correlated with paternity loss in the own nest, suggesting that in this species song amplitude is not an indicator of male quality but high-intensity songs may be rather a response to unfaithful social mates.

  6. Effects of aging on the male reproductive system.

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    Gunes, Sezgin; Hekim, Gulgez Neslihan Taskurt; Arslan, Mehmet Alper; Asci, Ramazan

    2016-04-01

    The study aims to discuss the effects of aging on the male reproductive system. A systematic review was performed using PubMed from 1980 to 2014. Aging is a natural process comprising of irreversible changes due to a myriad of endogenous and environmental factors at the level of all organs and systems. In modern life, as more couples choose to postpone having a child due to various socioeconomic reasons, research for understanding the effects of aging on the reproductive system has gained an increased importance. Paternal aging also causes genetic and epigenetic changes in spermatozoa, which impair male reproductive functions through their adverse effects on sperm quality and count as, well as, on sexual organs and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Hormone production, spermatogenesis, and testes undergo changes as a man ages. These small changes lead to decrease in both the quality and quantity of spermatozoa. The offspring of older fathers show high prevalence of genetic abnormalities, childhood cancers, and several neuropsychiatric disorders. In addition, the latest advances in assisted reproductive techniques give older men a chance to have a child even with poor semen parameters. Further studies should investigate the onset of gonadal senesce and its effects on aging men.

  7. Rock Sparrow Song Reflects Male Age and Reproductive Success

    OpenAIRE

    Erwin Nemeth; Bart Kempenaers; Giuliano Matessi; Henrik Brumm

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of mating signals is closely linked to sexual selection. Acoustic ornaments are often used as secondary sexual traits that signal the quality of the signaller. Here we show that song performance reflects age and reproductive success in the rock sparrow (Petronia petronia). In an Alpine population in south-east France, we recorded the songs of males and assessed their genetic breeding success by microsatellite analysis. In addition to temporal and spectral song features, we also ...

  8. Age, task complexity, and sex as potential moderators of attentional focus effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kevin; Smith, Peter J K

    2013-08-01

    The study tested whether age, sex, or task complexity moderate the effect of attentional focus on motor learning. Children (24 boys, 24 girls) and adults (24 men, 24 women) were assigned to an internal or external attentional focus, and were timed while riding either a Double Pedalo with handles (simple task) or without handles (complex task) over a distance of 7 meters. A Double Pedalo is a four-wheeled device that involves standing on two connected platforms, and alternately pushing them forward to make it move. Participants completed 20 acquisition trials, followed by a 24-hour retention test. For the simpler task, no time differences due to attentional focus emerged. With the complex task, an external focus resulted in faster times in retention than an internal focus, but only for males. These findings suggest that attentional focus affects children and adults similarly, but task complexity and sex moderate these effects.

  9. Modeling the Impact of Uganda's Safe Male Circumcision Program: Implications for Age and Regional Targeting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Kripke

    Full Text Available Uganda aims to provide safe male circumcision (SMC to 80% of men ages 15-49 by 2016. To date, only 2 million men have received SMC of the 4.2 million men required. In response to age and regional trends in SMC uptake, the country sought to re-examine its targets with respect to age and subnational region, to assess the program's progress, and to refine the implementation approach.The Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0, was used in conjunction with incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM to conduct this analysis. Population, births, deaths, and HIV incidence and prevalence were used to populate the model. Baseline male circumcision prevalence was derived from the 2011 AIDS Indicator Survey. Uganda can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising men ages 20-34. This group will also require the fewest circumcisions for each HIV infection averted. Focusing on men ages 10-19 will offer the greatest impact over a 15-year period, while focusing on men ages 15-34 offers the most cost-effective strategy over the same period. A regional analysis showed little variation in cost-effectiveness of scaling up SMC across eight regions. Scale-up is cost-saving in all regions. There is geographic variability in program progress, highlighting two regions with low baseline rates of circumcision where additional efforts will be needed.Focusing SMC efforts on specific age groups and regions may help to accelerate Uganda's SMC program progress. Policy makers in Uganda have already used model outputs in planning efforts, proposing males ages 10-34 as a priority group for SMC in the 2014 application to the Global Fund's new funding model. As scale-up continues, the country should also consider a greater effort to expand SMC in regions with low MC prevalence.

  10. [Medicine, aging, masculinity: towards a cultural history of the male climacterium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Hans-Georg

    2007-01-01

    Most historical studies on aging, gender and medicine have hitherto focused on menopausal women. There is comparatively little work on aging men and the contested idea of climacteric or "menopausal" men. This paper seeks to examine the male climacterium as a culturally and historically shaped idea in twentieth-century medicine. In the first part I shall map historical changes in understanding and defining the subject. In the second and third part, my main emphasis is put on answering the question: "What does it mean to write a cultural history of the male climacterium?" Drawing upon positions from cultural, gender and men's studies, I argue that the production of medical knowledge about the aging process of men is inevitably embedded in a cultural universe constituted by narratives, symbols, metaphors and images.

  11. The Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study (FAMAS: Design, procedures & participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Middleton Sue M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study (FAMAS examines the reproductive, physical and psychological health, and health service utilisation of the ageing male in Australia. We describe the rationale for the study, the methods used participant response rates, representativeness and attrition to date. Methods FAMAS is a longitudinal study involving approximately 1200 randomly selected men, aged 35–80 years and living in the north – west regions of Adelaide. Respondents were excluded at screening if they were considered incapable of participating because of immobility, language, or an inability to undertake the study procedures. Following a telephone call to randomly selected households, eligible participants were invited to attend a baseline clinic measuring a variety of biomedical and socio-demographic factors. Beginning in 2002, these clinics are scheduled to reoccur every five years. Follow-up questionnaires are completed annually. Participants are also invited to participate in sub-studies with selected collaborators. Results Of those eligible to participate, 45.1% ultimately attended a clinic. Non-responders were more likely to live alone, be current smokers, have a higheevalence of self-reported diabetes and stroke, and lower levels of hypercholesterolemia. Comparisons with the Census 2001 data showed that participants matched the population for most key demographics, although younger groups and never married men were under-represented and elderly participants were over-represented. To date, there has been an annual loss to follow-up of just over 1%. Conclusion FAMAS allows a detailed investigation into the effects of bio-psychosocial and behavioural factors on the health and ageing of a largely representative group of Australian men.

  12. Testosterone treatment in the aging male: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Nicole; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2012-03-19

    The definition of late onset hypogonadism in the aging male is controversially debated, and according to the latest literature consists of at least three especially sexual symptoms such as loss of morning erection, low sexual desire and erectile dysfunction as well as a total testosterone products for the aging male increased by over 170% in the previous five years. Furthermore, there is a lot of epidemiological data showing an inverse relationship between testosterone levels and obesity, insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, only few small randomised placebo-controlled studies have investigated the effect of testosterone replacement therapy on insulin resistance and HbA1c levels, with controversial results. Importantly, so far the long-term safety and efficacy of testosterone replacement therapy has not been established. Although until now no clear evidence has been found that testosterone replacement therapy has a causative role in prostate cancer or indeed in changes of the biology of the prostate, in a recent meta-analysis a 4-fold increased risk of prostate-associated event rates in testosterone treated elderly men sounds a note of caution. Also the risk for cardiovascular events is still not clear and caution is warranted especially in elderly men with cardiovascular disease and limited mobility. In summary, the actual available evidence of long-term risks and outcome of testosterone replacement therapy is still very limited and carefully designed placebo-controlled trials of testosterone administration to assess the risks and benefits of such a therapy are required. Until then, testosterone treatment in elderly men should be restricted to elderly men with clearly low testosterone levels in the presence of clinical symptoms, and the advantages and disadvantages need to be accurately weighted. A careful monitoring of potential side effects is necessary.

  13. The relative age effect in the Spanish elite male handball

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    Carlos Sánchéz Rodríguez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The birth in different quarters of the year involved differences regarding maturational development in handball players, which may influence the selection, development and consolidation in the elite in handball. This study sought to investigate the relative age effect in elite male handball players in Spain. To do this, data of birth and specific position of 586 players were analyzed, who participe in the League ASOBAL in seasons between 2003-04 and 2008-09. Comparisons and differences were studied by 2 tests and Z.Analysis of results revealed a higher percentage of players born in the first quarter, significant differences were confirmed in spanish players. Specifically, the highest percentages of players born in the first months of the year were the specific positions of the first offensive line and the goalkeeper.In conclusion, the results seem to confirm a relative effect of age on the players analyzed. The nationality and specific positions have a significant relationship with this.Keys words:  RAE, professional, birth date, detection, selection, talent.

  14. Diagnosis and prognosis of male infertility in mammal: the focusing of tyrosine phosphorylation and phosphotyrosine proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Woo-Sung; Rahman, Md Saidur; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2014-11-01

    Male infertility refers to the inability of a man to achieve a pregnancy in a fertile female. In more than one-third of cases, infertility arises due to the male factor. Therefore, developing strategies for the diagnosis and prognosis of male infertility is critical. Simultaneously, a satisfactory model for the cellular mechanisms that regulate normal sperm function must be established. In this regard, tyrosine phosphorylation is one of the most common mechanisms through which several signal transduction pathways are adjusted in spermatozoa. It regulates the various aspects of sperm function, for example, motility, hyperactivation, capacitation, the acrosome reaction, fertilization, and beyond. Several recent large-scale studies have identified the proteins that are phosphorylated in spermatozoa to acquire fertilization competence. However, most of these studies are basal and have not presented an overall mechanism through which tyrosine phosphorylation regulates male infertility. In this review, we focus of this mechanism, discussing most of the tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in spermatozoa that have been identified to date. We categorized tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in spermatozoa that regulate male infertility using MedScan Reader (v5.0) and Pathway Studio (v9.0).

  15. All Night Spectral Analysis of EEG Sleep in Young Adult and Middle-Aged Male Subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Derk Jan; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    1989-01-01

    The sleep EEGs of 9 young adult males (age 20-28 years) and 8 middle-aged males (42-56 years) were analyzed by visual scoring and spectral analysis. In the middle-aged subjects power density in the delta, theta and sigma frequencies were attenuated as compared to the young subjects. In both age grou

  16. Age Targeting of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Programs Using the Decision Makers' Program Planning Toolkit (DMPPT 2.0.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Kripke

    Full Text Available Despite considerable efforts to scale up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC for HIV prevention in priority countries over the last five years, implementation has faced important challenges. Seeking to enhance the effect of VMMC programs for greatest and most immediate impact, the U. S. President's Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR supported the development and application of a model to inform national planning in five countries from 2013-2014.The Decision Makers' Program Planning Toolkit (DMPPT 2.0 is a simple compartmental model designed to analyze the effects of client age and geography on program impact and cost. The DMPPT 2.0 model was applied in Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, and Uganda to assess the impact and cost of scaling up age-targeted VMMC coverage. The lowest number of VMMCs per HIV infection averted would be produced by circumcising males ages 20-34 in Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda and males ages 15-34 in Swaziland. The most immediate impact on HIV incidence would be generated by circumcising males ages 20-34 in Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda and males ages 20-29 in Swaziland. The greatest reductions in HIV incidence over a 15-year period would be achieved by strategies focused on males ages 10-19 in Uganda, 15-24 in Malawi and South Africa, 10-24 in Tanzania, and 15-29 in Swaziland. In all countries, the lowest cost per HIV infection averted would be achieved by circumcising males ages 15-34, although in Uganda this cost is the same as that attained by circumcising 15- to 49-year-olds.The efficiency, immediacy of impact, magnitude of impact, and cost-effectiveness of VMMC scale-up are not uniform; there is important variation by age group of the males circumcised and countries should plan accordingly.

  17. Age Targeting of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Programs Using the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Toolkit (DMPPT) 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripke, Katharine; Opuni, Marjorie; Schnure, Melissa; Sgaier, Sema; Castor, Delivette; Reed, Jason; Stover, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite considerable efforts to scale up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention in priority countries over the last five years, implementation has faced important challenges. Seeking to enhance the effect of VMMC programs for greatest and most immediate impact, the U. S. President’s Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) supported the development and application of a model to inform national planning in five countries from 2013–2014. Methods and Findings The Decision Makers’ Program Planning Toolkit (DMPPT) 2.0 is a simple compartmental model designed to analyze the effects of client age and geography on program impact and cost. The DMPPT 2.0 model was applied in Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, and Uganda to assess the impact and cost of scaling up age-targeted VMMC coverage. The lowest number of VMMCs per HIV infection averted would be produced by circumcising males ages 20–34 in Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda and males ages 15–34 in Swaziland. The most immediate impact on HIV incidence would be generated by circumcising males ages 20–34 in Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda and males ages 20–29 in Swaziland. The greatest reductions in HIV incidence over a 15-year period would be achieved by strategies focused on males ages 10–19 in Uganda, 15–24 in Malawi and South Africa, 10–24 in Tanzania, and 15–29 in Swaziland. In all countries, the lowest cost per HIV infection averted would be achieved by circumcising males ages 15–34, although in Uganda this cost is the same as that attained by circumcising 15- to 49-year-olds. Conclusions The efficiency, immediacy of impact, magnitude of impact, and cost-effectiveness of VMMC scale-up are not uniform; there is important variation by age group of the males circumcised and countries should plan accordingly. PMID:27410966

  18. The comparison of the aging male symptoms (AMS) scale and androgen deficiency in the aging male (ADAM) questionnaire to detect androgen deficiency in middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueh, Kuang-Shun; Huang, Shu-Pin; Lee, Yung-Chin; Wang, Chii-Jye; Yeh, Hsin-Chih; Li, Wei-Ming; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Tsai, Yueh-Fong; Tsai, Chia-Chun; Juan, Hsu-Cheng; Huang, Chun-Hsiung; Liu, Chia-Chu

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of androgen deficiency in men increases with aging. Two common instruments, the Aging Male Symptoms (AMS) scale and the Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male (ADAM) questionnaire, are often used to screen for androgen deficiency in clinical practice. The aim of this study is to compare the capability of the AMS scale and the ADAM questionnaire to detect androgen deficiency in middle-aged Taiwanese men. In April 2008, a free health screening was conducted by Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital. All participants completed a health questionnaire and had blood samples drawn between 8:00 am and noon. Serum total testosterone (TT), albumin, and sex hormone-binding globulin levels were measured. The level of free testosterone (FT) was calculated. Clinical symptoms associated with androgen deficiency were screened by using the AMS scale and ADAM questionnaire. Androgen deficiency was defined as TT AMS scale were 57.4% and 48.1%, compared with 66.7% and 25.6% for the ADAM questionnaire. In a sample of middle-aged Taiwanese men, neither the AMS scale nor the ADAM questionnaire had sufficient sensitivity and specificity to detect androgen deficiency. In addition to using those 2 screening instruments, a thorough physical and biochemical workup should still be conducted in patients at risk or suspected of androgen deficiency.

  19. Androgen deficiency in the aging male and chronic prostatitis: clinical and diagnostic comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spirin Р.V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to study probability, period of development and characteristics of a clinical course of chronic prostatitis against the background of androgen deficiency in the aging male. Materials and methods: The Aging Male Symptoms (AMS rating scale has been applied for androgen deficiency evaluation and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS — for chronic prostatitis evaluation. 57 men with chronic prostatitis in combination with androgen deficiency in the aging male have been examined. Results: It has been concluded that the development of chronic prostatitis against the background of androgen deficiency in the aging male occurs in a shorter time period and about 1.5 times more frequently compared to androgen deficiency in the aging male at the background of chronic prostatitis. The analysis of time periods between the onset of chronic prostatitis symptoms against the background of androgen deficiency in the aging male and androgen deficiency in the aging male symptoms against the background of chronic prostatitis showed that androgen deficiency in the aging male symptoms have been revealed 1-2 years earlier than the onset of chronic prostatitis. The development of androgen deficiency in the aging male against the background of chronic prostatitis has showed a backward tendency. Signs of chronic prostatitis have been more frequently occurred in a period of four-five years earlier the androgen deficiency in the aging male development. Conclusion: The risk of development of chronic prostatitis against the background of androgen deficiency in the aging male during the next two years is actually four times higher in comparison with the development of androgen deficiency in the aging male against the background of chronic prostatitis. According to the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS, patients with chronic prostatitis in combination with androgen deficiency in the aging male showed higher degree of severity than

  20. Focus Groups Reveal Differences in Career Experiences Between Male and Female Geoscientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oconnell, S.; Frey, C. D.; Holmes, M.

    2003-12-01

    We conducted twelve telephone focus groups of geoscientists to discover what motivates geoscientists to enter our field and stay in our field. There were separate male and female groups from six different professional categories: administrators, full and associate professors, non-tenure track personnel, assistant professors, post-docs and PhD candidates, Bachelor's and Master's candidates. A total of 96 geoscientists participated. Specifically, respondents were asked what initially brought them into the geosciences. Three dominant themes emerged: the subject matter itself, undergraduate experiences, and relationships. A total of 51 responses to this question related to the subject matter itself. Approximately 61 percent (31) of those responses were given by male focus group participants. Across all focus groups, participants brought up issues such as a general appreciation of the outdoors, weather, rocks, and dinosaurs. Following closely behind the general subject matter is undergraduate events. Fifty-one responses mentioned something about undergraduate experiences such as an introductory class, a laboratory experience, or field experiences. While both female and male participants discussed the role of interpersonal relationships in their decision to become a geoscientist, females were slightly more likely to bring up relevant relationships (26 times for females compared to 21 for males). These relationships varied in both groups from a parent or grandparents influence to camping trips with professors. When respondents were asked whether they had ever considered leaving the geosciences and under what circumstances, there was a striking difference between males and females: males were far less likely to have ever considered leaving. Younger males were more likely to consider leaving than older geoscientists. They feel challenged by the financial constraints of graduate school and the time constraints of academic vs. family life. Many females considered leaving at

  1. Study of androgen and atherosclerosis in old-age male

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yun-mei; LV Xue-ying; HUANG Wei-dong; XU Zhe-rong; WU Ling-jiao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the difference of androgen and inflammatory cytokines level in atherosclerosis and analyse their relations. Method: Both carotid arteries and arteries of lower extremity were subjected to ultrasonic examination by Doppler's method. Those with much atheromatous plaque formation were ranged into case group, and those with normal result formed control group. Total, free testosterone and estradiol were assayed by radioimmunoassay. C reactive protein (CRP) was assayed by nepheloturbidity. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-8 (IL-8), Interleukin-10 (IL-10), Interleukin- 18 (IL- 18), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule- 1 (sICAM- 1) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule- 1 (sVCAM- 1)were assayed by ELISA. The mean difference between two groups and the correlation between free testosterone and cytokines were analysed. Results: Free testosterone was (6.337±3.371) pg/L in case group and (11.375±4.733) pg/L in control group, P<0.01.No differences were found in total testosterone and estradiol. CRP was (27.294±10.238) mg/L in case group and (12.843±6.318)mg/L in control group, P<0.01. IL-6 was (41.700±31.385) pg/L in case group and (25.396±20.772) pg/L in control group, P<0.05.IL-8 was (89.249±58.357) pg/L in case group and (67.873±31.227) pg/L in control group, P<0.05. sICAM-1 was (470.491±134.078) pg/L in case group and (368.487±97.183) pg/L in control group, P<0.01. sVCAM-1 was (537.808±213.172)pg/L in case group and (457.275±157.273) pg/L in control group, P<0.05. There were no differences in TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-18.Correlation analysis showed that FT (free testosterone) had negative correlation with CRP, IL-6 and sICAM-1. Among them FT had well correlation with CRP, correlation index was -0.678. Conclusion: Free testosterone was in negative correlation with atherosclerosis in old-age male. Free testosterone may have the role of anti-atherosclerosis, and this effect was not achieved

  2. Heart rate responses of male orienteers aged 21-67 years during competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, S; George, M; Theakston, S; Balmer, J; Davison, R C R

    2003-03-01

    Orienteering is a sport in which it is common for most participants to be aged over 40 years, but research into the demands of the sport has focused almost exclusively on elite participants aged 21-35 years. The aim of the present study was to examine the heart rate responses of older male orienteers. Thirty-nine competitive male orienteers were divided into three groups: group 1 (international competitive standard, n = 11, age 21-67 years), group 2 (national competitive standard, n = 15, age 24-66 years) and group 3 (club competitive standard, n = 13, age 23-60 years). Each participant had his heart rate monitored during two orienteering races of contrasting technical difficulty. The results were analysed using analysis of covariance, with age as a covariate, and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients to determine whether age was related to the observed heart rate responses. The groups did not differ in their peak (175 +/- 12 beats x min(-1), P = 0.643) or mean (159 +/- 13 beats x min(-1), P = 0.171) heart rates during the races. There was a decline of 6 beats x min(-1) x decade(-1) (P = 0.001) for peak heart rate and 5 beats x min(-1) x decade(-1) (P orienteers in group 1 displayed a lower (P orienteers ran at a relative high intensity and the international competitive standard orienteers displayed a less variable heart rate, which may have been related to fewer instances of slowing down to relocate and being able to navigate while running at relatively high speeds.

  3. The Maillard hypothesis on aging: time to focus on DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, John W

    2002-04-01

    Aging is the outcome of the contest between chemistry and biology in living systems. Chronic, cumulative chemical modifications compromise the structure and function of biomolecules throughout the body. Proteins with long life spans serve as cumulators of exposure to chemical damage, which is detectable in the form of advanced glycation and lipoxidation end products (AGEs, ALEs); amino acids modified by reactive oxygen, chlorine, and nitrogen species; and deamidated and racemized amino acids. Not all of these modifications are oxidative in nature, although oxidative reactions are an important source of age-related damage. Measurements of AGEs and ALEs in proteins are useful for assessing the rate and extent of Maillard reaction damage, but it is the damage to the genome that undoubtedly has the greatest effect on the viability of the organism. The extent of genomic damage represents a balance between the rate of modification and the rate and fidelity of repair. Damage to DNA accumulates not in the form of modified nucleic acids, but as chemically "silent" errors in repair-insertions, deletions, substitutions, transpositions, and inversions in DNA sequences-that affect the expression and structure of proteins. These mutations are random, vary from cell to cell, and are passed forward from one cell generation to another. Although they are not detectable in DNA by conventional analytical techniques, purines and pyrimidines modified by Maillard reaction intermediates may be detectable in urine, and studies on these compounds should provide insight into the role of Maillard reactions of DNA in aging and disease.

  4. Online focus groups as an HIV prevention program for gay, bisexual, and queer adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; DuBois, L Zachary; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Prescott, Tonya L; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Seventy-five 14-18-year-old gay, bisexual, and queer (GBQ) males provided feedback about how their participation in national, online focus groups (FG) about GBQ sexual health related topics resulted in behavioral and attitudinal changes. Most sexually experienced youth agreed that their participation positively changed their views and behavioral intentions. Some said that being in the FG made them more comfortable talking about sex, their sexuality, and making safer choices such as negotiating condoms. Others indicated intentions to become more involved in the LGBT community. Sexually inexperienced FG participants similarly said that the FG discussion positively affected them-most commonly by reducing their sense of isolation as young GBQ men who were waiting to have sex. Many also thought that they would become more vocal advocates of abstinence and/or safe sex. Online FGs and facilitated discussion boards should be further explored as a low-cost HIV prevention program for GBQ youth.

  5. Pathophysiology of cell phone radiation: oxidative stress and carcinogenesis with focus on male reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesari Kavindra K

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hazardous health effects stemming from exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW emitted from cell phones have been reported in the literature. However, the cellular target of RF-EMW is still controversial. This review identifies the plasma membrane as a target of RF-EMW. In addition, the effects of RF-EMW on plasma membrane structures (i.e. NADH oxidase, phosphatidylserine, ornithine decarboxylase and voltage-gated calcium channels are discussed. We explore the disturbance in reactive oxygen species (ROS metabolism caused by RF-EMW and delineate NADH oxidase mediated ROS formation as playing a central role in oxidative stress (OS due to cell phone radiation (with a focus on the male reproductive system. This review also addresses: 1 the controversial effects of RF-EMW on mammalian cells and sperm DNA as well as its effect on apoptosis, 2 epidemiological, in vivo animal and in vitro studies on the effect of RF-EMW on male reproductive system, and 3 finally, exposure assessment and dosimetry by computational biomodeling.

  6. Pathophysiology of cell phone radiation: oxidative stress and carcinogenesis with focus on male reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Nisarg R; Kesari, Kavindra K; Agarwal, Ashok

    2009-10-22

    Hazardous health effects stemming from exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) emitted from cell phones have been reported in the literature. However, the cellular target of RF-EMW is still controversial. This review identifies the plasma membrane as a target of RF-EMW. In addition, the effects of RF-EMW on plasma membrane structures (i.e. NADH oxidase, phosphatidylserine, ornithine decarboxylase) and voltage-gated calcium channels are discussed. We explore the disturbance in reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism caused by RF-EMW and delineate NADH oxidase mediated ROS formation as playing a central role in oxidative stress (OS) due to cell phone radiation (with a focus on the male reproductive system). This review also addresses: 1) the controversial effects of RF-EMW on mammalian cells and sperm DNA as well as its effect on apoptosis, 2) epidemiological, in vivo animal and in vitro studies on the effect of RF-EMW on male reproductive system, and 3) finally, exposure assessment and dosimetry by computational biomodeling.

  7. Modeling the Impact of Uganda’s Safe Male Circumcision Program: Implications for Age and Regional Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripke, Katharine; Vazzano, Andrea; Kirungi, William; Musinguzi, Joshua; Opio, Alex; Ssempebwa, Rhobbinah; Nakawunde, Susan; Kyobutungi, Sheila; Akao, Juliet N.; Magala, Fred; Mwidu, George; Castor, Delivette

    2016-01-01

    Background Uganda aims to provide safe male circumcision (SMC) to 80% of men ages 15–49 by 2016. To date, only 2 million men have received SMC of the 4.2 million men required. In response to age and regional trends in SMC uptake, the country sought to re-examine its targets with respect to age and subnational region, to assess the program’s progress, and to refine the implementation approach. Methods and Findings The Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), was used in conjunction with incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM) to conduct this analysis. Population, births, deaths, and HIV incidence and prevalence were used to populate the model. Baseline male circumcision prevalence was derived from the 2011 AIDS Indicator Survey. Uganda can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising men ages 20–34. This group will also require the fewest circumcisions for each HIV infection averted. Focusing on men ages 10–19 will offer the greatest impact over a 15-year period, while focusing on men ages 15–34 offers the most cost-effective strategy over the same period. A regional analysis showed little variation in cost-effectiveness of scaling up SMC across eight regions. Scale-up is cost-saving in all regions. There is geographic variability in program progress, highlighting two regions with low baseline rates of circumcision where additional efforts will be needed. Conclusion Focusing SMC efforts on specific age groups and regions may help to accelerate Uganda’s SMC program progress. Policy makers in Uganda have already used model outputs in planning efforts, proposing males ages 10–34 as a priority group for SMC in the 2014 application to the Global Fund’s new funding model. As scale-up continues, the country should also consider a greater effort to expand SMC in regions with low MC prevalence. PMID:27410234

  8. Rock Sparrow Song Reflects Male Age and Reproductive Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemeth, Erwin; Kempenaers, Bart; Matessi, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of mating signals is closely linked to sexual selection. Acoustic ornaments are often used as secondary sexual traits that signal the quality of the signaller. Here we show that song performance reflects age and reproductive success in the rock sparrow (Petronia petronia). In an Alp...

  9. Definition of Successful Aging by Elderly Canadian Males: The Manitoba Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Robert B.; Lah, Leedine; Cuddy, T. Edward

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Although the concept of successful aging is used widely in the field of gerontology, there is no agreed-on standard or common underlying definition for measuring success in aging. Our recent survey of an elderly male population asked respondents to define "successful aging." This paper describes the themes that evolved from…

  10. Male chimpanzees' grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proctor, Darby P; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steve;

    2011-01-01

    , should show little or no preference when choosing mating partners (e.g. should mate indiscriminately). To determine if the preferences indicated by copulations appear in other contexts as well as how they interact, we examined how male chimpanzees' grooming patterns varied amongst females. We found...... that males' preferences were based on interactions among females' fertility status, age, and parity. First, grooming increased with increasing female parity. We further found an effect of the estrous cycle on grooming; when females were at the lowest point of their cycle, males preferentially groomed parous...... females at peak reproductive age, but during maximal tumescence, males preferred the oldest multiparous females. Nulliparous females received relatively little grooming regardless of age or fertility. Thus, male chimpanzees apparently chose grooming partners based on both female's experience and fertility...

  11. Effect of male age on sperm traits and sperm competition success in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, C; Marino, I A M; Boschetto, C; Pilastro, A

    2010-01-01

    Deleterious mutations can accumulate in the germline with age, decreasing the genetic quality of sperm and imposing a cost on female fitness. If these mutations also affect sperm competition ability or sperm production, then females will benefit from polyandry as it incites sperm competition and, consequently, minimizes the mutational load in the offspring. We tested this hypothesis in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a species characterized by polyandry and intense sperm competition, by investigating whether age affects post-copulatory male traits and sperm competition success. Females did not discriminate between old and young males in a mate choice experiment. While old males produced longer and slower sperm with larger reserves of strippable sperm, compared to young males, artificial insemination did not reveal any effect of age on sperm competition success. Altogether, these results do not support the hypothesis that polyandry evolved in response to costs associated with mating with old males in the guppy.

  12. Body Image Concerns in College-Aged Male Physical Education Students: A Descriptive Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michele S.; Esco, Michael R.; Willifo, Hank

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine body image concerns in college-aged male physical education majors. Sixty volunteers completed validated body image instruments including two-dimensional figure drawings. In general, the sample reported that they preferred a larger, more muscular physique reflective of male images that currently abound the…

  13. Aging related changes in determinants of muscle force generating capacity: a comparison of muscle aging in men and male rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballak, Sam B; Degens, Hans; de Haan, Arnold; Jaspers, Richard T

    2014-03-01

    Human aging is associated with a progressive decline in skeletal muscle mass and force generating capacity, however the exact mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. Rodents models have often been used to enhance our understanding of mechanisms of age-related changes in human skeletal muscle. However, to what extent age-related alterations in determinants of muscle force generating capacity observed in rodents resemble those in humans has not been considered thoroughly. This review compares the effect of aging on muscle force generating determinants (muscle mass, fiber size, fiber number, fiber type distribution and muscle specific tension), in men and male rodents at similar relative age. It appears that muscle aging in male F344*BN rat resembles that in men most; 32-35-month-old rats exhibit similar signs of muscle weakness to those of 70-80-yr-old men, and the decline in 36-38-month-old rats is similar to that in men aged over 80 yrs. For male C57BL/6 mice, age-related decline in muscle force generating capacity seems to occur only at higher relative age than in men. We conclude that the effects on determinants of muscle force differ between species as well as within species, but qualitatively show the same pattern as that observed in men.

  14. Focus on opportunities as a mediator of the relationship between business owners' age and venture growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielnik, Michael M.; Zacher, Hannes; Frese, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Combining upper echelons and lifespan theories, we investigated the mediating effect of focus on opportunities on the negative relationship between business owners' age and venture growth. We also expected that mental health moderates the negative relationship between business owners' age and focus

  15. All Night Spectral Analysis of EEG Sleep in Young Adult and Middle-Aged Male Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, Derk Jan; Beersma, Domien G. M.; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    1989-01-01

    The sleep EEGs of 9 young adult males (age 20-28 years) and 8 middle-aged males (42-56 years) were analyzed by visual scoring and spectral analysis. In the middle-aged subjects power density in the delta, theta and sigma frequencies were attenuated as compared to the young subjects. In both age groups power density in the delta and theta frequencies declined from NREM period 1 to 3. In the sigma frequencies, however, no systematic changes in power density were observed over the sleep episode....

  16. Survey for late-onset hypogonadism among old and middle-aged males in Shanghai communities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Sun; Guo-Qing Liang; Xiang-Feng Chen; Ping Ping; Wen-Liang Yao; Shi-Jun Zhang; Bo Wang; Ying-Hao Sun; Zheng Li

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to investigate late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) in old and middle-aged males in Shanghai communities,using symptom score evaluation systems and measurements of sex hormone levels.One thousand cases of males aged 40-70 years were investigated.The aging male symptoms (AMS) scale and androgen deficiency in aging males (ADAM) questionnaire were used at the beginning of the investigation,followed by measurement of the sex hormone-related factors (total testosterone (TT),free testosterone (fT),sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and bioavailability of testosterone (Bio-T)).There were 977 valid questionnaires.The LOH-positive rates shown by AMS and ADAM were 59.88% and 84.65%,respectively; values increased with the age of the patients.There were 946 results related to sex hormone measurements,which showed the following results:TT was not related to aging (P>0.05); levels of SHBG increased with age; and fT and Bio-T decreased with age.There was a significant difference in fT between LOH-positive and LOH-negative patients,as shown by the ADAM.In summary,TT levels were not related to aging,even though SHBG did increase while fT and Bio-T decreased with aging.Clinically,the diagnosis of LOH cannot be based on serum TT level.

  17. Age-Concordant and Age-Discordant Sexual Behavior Among Gay and Bisexual Male Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W.; Fernández, M. Isabel; Jamil, Omar B.

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that risks for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among adolescent females are higher for those with older male sexual partners. Yet, little empirical research has been conducted with male adolescents who engage in sexual activity with older men. In this article, we summarize in a number of ways the range of sexual activity reported by an ethnically diverse sample of 200 gay and bisexual male youth (15–22 years old) in Chicago and Miami. A general pattern of progression...

  18. Male-to-Female Transgender Individuals Building Social Support and Capital From Within a Gender-Focused Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Rogério M; Melendez, Rita M; Spector, Anya Y

    2008-09-01

    The literature on male-to-female transgender (MTF) individuals lists myriad problems such individuals face in their day-to-day lives, including high rates of HIV/AIDS, addiction to drugs, violence, and lack of health care. These problems are exacerbated for ethnic and racial minority MTFs. Support available from their social networks can help MTFs alleviate these problems. This article explores how minority MTFs, specifically in an urban environment, develop supportive social networks defined by their gender and sexual identities. Using principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), 20 African American and Latina MTFs were recruited at a community-based health care clinic. Their ages ranged from 18 to 53. Data were coded and analyzed following standard procedure for content analysis. The qualitative interviews revealed that participants formed their gender and sexual identities over time, developed gender-focused social networks based in the clinic from which they receive services, and engaged in social capital building and political action. Implications for using CBPR in research with MTFs are discussed.

  19. Evaluation of Effect of Oleuropein on Skin Wound Healing in Aged Male Balb/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Mehraein

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Olive oil and olive leaf extract are used for treatment of skin diseases and wounds in Iran. The main component of olive leaf extract is Oleuropein. This research is focused on the effects of Oleuropein on skin wound healing in aged male Balb/c mice. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, Oleuropein was provided by Razi Herbal Medicine Institute, Lorestan, Iran. Twenty four male Balb/c mice, 16 months of age, were divided equally into control and experimental groups. Under ether anesthesia, the hairs on the back of neck of all groups were shaved and a 1 cm long full-thickness incision was made. The incision was then left un-sutured. The experimental group received intradermal injections with a daily single dose of 50 mg/kg Oleuropein for a total period of 7 days. The control group received only distilled water. On days 3 and 7 after making the incision and injections, mice were sacrificed, and the skin around incision area was dissected and stained by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and Van Gieson’s methods for tissue analysis. In addition, western blot analysis was carried out to evaluate the level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF protein expression. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA. The t test was applied to assess the significance of changes between control and experimental groups. Results: Oleuropein not only reduced cell infiltration in the wound site on days 3 and 7 post incision, but also a significant increase in collagen fiber deposition and more advanced re- epithelialization were observed (p<0.05 in the experimental group as compared to the control group. The difference of hair follicles was not significant between the two groups at the same period of time. Furthermore, western blot analysis showed an increased in VEGF protein level from samples collected on days 3 and 7 post-incision of experimental group as compared to the control group (p<0.05. Conclusion

  20. Effects of Attentional Focus and Age on Suprapostural Task Performance and Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNevin, Nancy; Weir, Patricia; Quinn, Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Suprapostural task performance (manual tracking) and postural control (sway and frequency) were examined as a function of attentional focus, age, and tracking difficulty. Given the performance benefits often found under external focus conditions, it was hypothesized that external focus instructions would promote superior tracking and…

  1. Taurine enhances the sexual response and mating ability in aged male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiancheng; Lin, Shumei; Feng, Ying; Wu, Gaofeng; Hu, Jianmin

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that taurine is abundant in male reproductive organs, and can be biosynthesized by testis, but the taurine concentration will reduce with aging. The levels of serum LH, T, NOS, and NO were found to be obviously increased by taurine supplementation in aged rats in our previous study. In addition, aging will result in a significant decline in sexual response and function, which may be attributed to the androgen deficiency. Furthermore, NO has been proposed as a crucial mediator of penile erection. That makes us hypothesize that there is potential relationship between taurine decline and erection dysfunction in aged males. So the primary aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of taurine on male sexuality in rats. Taurine was offered in water to male aged (20 months old) rats for 110 days. The effects of taurine on the sexual response, mating ability, levels of serum reproductive hormones, and penile NOS and NO levels were investigated. The results showed that taurine can significantly reduce the EL and ML; obviously increase the ERF, MF, IF, and EJF; stimulate the secretion of GnRH, LH, and T; and elevate penis NOS and NO level in aged rats. The results indicated that taurine can enhance the sexual response and mating ability in aged male rats by increasing the level of testosterone and NO, but the exact mechanism of which needs to be further investigated.

  2. Male chimpanzees' grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Darby P; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2011-10-01

    Copulation preferences in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, suggest that males prefer older females who have had previous offspring. However, this finding is counter to some behavioral models, which predict that chimpanzee males, as promiscuous breeders with minimal costs to mating, should show little or no preference when choosing mating partners (e.g. should mate indiscriminately). To determine if the preferences indicated by copulations appear in other contexts as well as how they interact, we examined how male chimpanzees' grooming patterns varied amongst females. We found that males' preferences were based on interactions among females' fertility status, age, and parity. First, grooming increased with increasing female parity. We further found an effect of the estrous cycle on grooming; when females were at the lowest point of their cycle, males preferentially groomed parous females at peak reproductive age, but during maximal tumescence, males preferred the oldest multiparous females. Nulliparous females received relatively little grooming regardless of age or fertility. Thus, male chimpanzees apparently chose grooming partners based on both female's experience and fertility, possibly indicating a two-pronged social investment strategy. Male selectivity seems to have evolved to effectively distribute costly social resources in a pattern which may increase their overall reproductive success.

  3. Canine length in wild male baboons: maturation, aging and social dominance rank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Galbany

    Full Text Available Canines represent an essential component of the dentition for any heterodont mammal. In primates, like many other mammals, canines are frequently used as weapons. Hence, tooth size and wear may have significant implications for fighting ability, and consequently for social dominance rank, reproductive success, and fitness. We evaluated sources of variance in canine growth and length in a well-studied wild primate population because of the potential importance of canines for male reproductive success in many primates. Specifically, we measured maxillary canine length in 80 wild male baboons (aged 5.04-20.45 years from the Amboseli ecosystem in southern Kenya, and examined its relationship with maturation, age, and social dominance rank. In our analysis of maturation, we compared food-enhanced baboons (those that fed part time at a refuse pit associated with a tourist lodge with wild-feeding males, and found that food-enhanced males achieved long canines earlier than wild-feeding males. Among adult males, canine length decreased with age because of tooth wear. We found some evidence that, after controlling for age, longer canines were associated with higher adult dominance rank (accounting for 9% of the variance in rank, but only among relatively high-ranking males. This result supports the idea that social rank, and thus reproductive success and fitness, may depend in part on fighting ability mediated by canine size.

  4. Canine length in wild male baboons: maturation, aging and social dominance rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbany, Jordi; Tung, Jenny; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2015-01-01

    Canines represent an essential component of the dentition for any heterodont mammal. In primates, like many other mammals, canines are frequently used as weapons. Hence, tooth size and wear may have significant implications for fighting ability, and consequently for social dominance rank, reproductive success, and fitness. We evaluated sources of variance in canine growth and length in a well-studied wild primate population because of the potential importance of canines for male reproductive success in many primates. Specifically, we measured maxillary canine length in 80 wild male baboons (aged 5.04-20.45 years) from the Amboseli ecosystem in southern Kenya, and examined its relationship with maturation, age, and social dominance rank. In our analysis of maturation, we compared food-enhanced baboons (those that fed part time at a refuse pit associated with a tourist lodge) with wild-feeding males, and found that food-enhanced males achieved long canines earlier than wild-feeding males. Among adult males, canine length decreased with age because of tooth wear. We found some evidence that, after controlling for age, longer canines were associated with higher adult dominance rank (accounting for 9% of the variance in rank), but only among relatively high-ranking males. This result supports the idea that social rank, and thus reproductive success and fitness, may depend in part on fighting ability mediated by canine size.

  5. A Mistaken Account of the Age-Crime Curve: Response to Males and Brown (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Steinberg, Laurence; Piquero, Alex R.

    2014-01-01

    The present article responds to Males and Brown's "Teenagers' High Arrest Rates: Features of Young Age or Youth Poverty?" which claims that the widely observed pattern of crime rates peaking in late adolescence or early adulthood is an artifact of age differences in poverty. We note that the authors' interpretation of their aggregated…

  6. Age of partners at first intercourse among Danish males and females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielandt, H; Boldsen, J; Jeune, B

    1989-01-01

    .8 years for both male and female. Generally the age difference between the partners at first intercourse was only a few years. However, the young women almost never reported their first sexual partner as younger than themselves. A cross-check was made of the information given by two homogeneous subsamples...... of the 47 young women and 80 young men who had their first sexual intercourse with a partner who was also a debutant. Self-reported age among the males differed significantly from the age of the first sexual partner as stated by the females in these subsamples. Therefore, there is bias in the reporting...

  7. Advancing maternal age is associated with lower bone mineral density in young adult male offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Rudäng, R.; Mellström, D.; Clark, E.; Ohlsson, C; Lorentzon, M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Advancing maternal age has been related to increased risk of fetal death and morbidity, as well as higher fracture risk during childhood, in the offspring. In the present study, we demonstrate that advancing maternal age is independently associated with reduced bone mass in the young adult male offspring. Introduction In Sweden the maternal age in both primi- and multipara mothers has steadily increased during the last three decades. It has been previously reported that advancing mate...

  8. Quality of life in Swedish patients with post-polio syndrome with a focus on age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Tae-Du; Broman, Lisbet; Stibrant-Sunnerhagen, Katharina; Gonzalez, Henrik; Borg, Kristian

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the health-related quality of life (QOL) in Swedish patients with post-polio syndrome (PPS), with a focus on sex and age. A total of 364 patients were recruited from five Swedish post-polio clinics. Analysis was carried out using SF-36 and data were compared with those of a normal population. QOL was significantly lower in PPS patients for all eight subdomains and the two main scores (physical compound score and mental compound score) when compared with the controls. Male patients had a significantly higher QOL than female patients for all subdomains and also for mental compound score and physical compound score, a phenomenon also observed in the normal population. There was a decrease in QOL in the physical domains and an increase in vitality with age. PPS decreases health-related QOL in both sexes, more in female patients. QOL for physical domains decreases whereas vitality increases with age in both sexes.

  9. Fundamental frequency perturbation indicates perceived health and age in male and female speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, David R.

    2004-05-01

    There is strong support for the idea that healthy vocal chords are able to produce fundamental frequencies (F0) with minimal perturbation. Measures of F0 perturbation have been shown to discriminate pathological versus healthy populations. In addition to measuring vocal chord health, F0 perturbation is a correlate of real and perceived age. Here, the role of jitter (periodic variation in F0) and shimmer (periodic variation in amplitude of F0) in perceived health and age in a young adult (males aged 18-33, females aged 18-26), nondysphonic population was investigated. Voices were assessed for health and age by peer aged, opposite-sex raters. Jitter and shimmer were measured with Praat software (www.praat.org) using various algorithms (jitter: DDP, local, local absolute, PPQ5, and RAP; shimmer: DDA, local, local absolute, APQ3, APQ5, APQ11) to reduce measurement error, and to ascertain the robustness of the findings. Male and female voices were analyzed separately. In both sexes, ratings of health and age were significantly correlated. Measures of jitter and shimmer correlated negatively with perceived health, and positively with perceived age. Further analysis revealed that these effects were independent in male voices. Implications of this finding are that attributions of vocal health and age may reflect actual underlying condition.

  10. Age-dependent chromosomal distribution of male-biased genes in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong E; Vibranovski, Maria D; Krinsky, Benjamin H; Long, Manyuan

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the correlation between the chromosomal location and age distribution of new male-biased genes formed by duplications via DNA intermediates (DNA-level) or by de novo origination in Drosophila. Our genome-wide analysis revealed an excess of young X-linked male-biased genes. The proportion of X-linked male-biased genes then diminishes through time, leading to an autosomal excess of male-biased genes. The switch between X-linked and autosomal enrichment of male-biased genes was also present in the distribution of both protein-coding genes on the D. pseudoobscura neo-X chromosome and microRNA genes of D. melanogaster. These observations revealed that the evolution of male-biased genes is more complicated than the previously detected one-step X→A gene traffic and the enrichment of the male-biased genes on autosomes. The pattern we detected suggests that the interaction of various evolutionary forces such as the meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), faster-X effect, and sexual antagonism in the male germline might have shaped the chromosomal distribution of male-biased genes on different evolutionary time scales.

  11. The effect of ageing on human lymphocyte subsets: comparison of males and females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henderson Robert D

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is reported to be a decline in immune function and an alteration in the frequency of circulating lymphocytes with advancing age. There are also differences in ageing and lifespan between males and females. We performed this study to see if there were differences between males and females in the frequency of the different lymphocyte subsets with age. Results Using flow cytometry we have examined different populations of peripheral blood leukocytes purified from healthy subjects with age ranging from the third to the tenth decade. We used linear regression analysis to determine if there is a linear relationship between age and cell frequencies. For the whole group, we find that with age there is a significant decline in the percentage of naïve T cells and CD8+ T cells, and an increase in the percentage of effector memory cells, CD4+foxp3+ T cells and NK cells. For all cells where there was an effect of ageing, the slope of the curve was greater for men than for women and this was statistically significant for CD8+αβ+ T cells and CD3+CD45RA-CCR7- effector memory cells. There was also a difference for naïve cells but this was not significant. Conclusion The cause of the change in percentage of lymphocyte subsets with age, and the different effects on males and females is not fully understood but warrants further study.

  12. Age-related and Individual Variation in Male Piezodorus hybneri (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae Pheromones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Endo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Males of the Piezodorus hybneri stink bug produce a pheromone comprising β-sesquiphellandrene (Sesq, (R-15-hexadecanolide (R15, and methyl (Z-8-hexadecenoate (Z8. We collected airborne volatiles from individual P. hybneri males and analyzed them by GC-MS. Daily analysis from 1 to 16 days after adult emergence showed that pheromone emission started around 3 to 6 days after adult emergence and peaked (~1 μg/male/day on day 11. The proportion of Sesq tended to increase with age to about 80% on days 12 to 16. On the other hand, the proportion of R15 tended to decrease with age. The proportion of Z8 reached a maximum of about 34% on day 9 but otherwise remained below 20%. The total amount of pheromone emitted by individual males varied considerably: three males emitted more than 10 μg, whereas another three males emitted little or no pheromone and failed to survive by the end of the experiment. These results suggest that the amount of P. hybneri pheromone and its blend ratio could be affected by the male’s physical conditions, such as vitality and age.

  13. Brain Volume Reductions within Multiple Cognitive Systems in Male Preterm Children at Age Twelve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Shelli R.; Reiss, Allan L.; Vohr, Betty; Watson, Christa; Schneider, Karen C.; Katz, Karol H.; Maller-Kesselman, Jill; Silbereis, John; Constable, R. Todd; Makuch, Robert W.; Ment, Laura R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To more precisely examine regional and subregional microstructural brain changes associated with preterm birth. Study design We obtained brain volumes from 29 preterm children, age 12 years, with no ultrasound scanning evidence of intraventricular hemorrhage or cystic periventricular leukomalacia in the newborn period, and 22 age- and sex-matched term control subjects. Results Preterm male subjects demonstrated significantly lower white matter volumes in bilateral cingulum, corpus callosum, corticospinal tract, prefrontal cortex, superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi compared with term male subjects. Gray matter volumes in prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, and temporal lobe also were significantly reduced in preterm male subjects. Brain volumes of preterm female subjects were not significantly different from those of term female control subjects. Voxel-based morphometry results were not correlated with perinatal variables or cognitive outcome. Higher maternal education was associated with higher cognitive performance in preterm male subjects. Conclusions Preterm male children continue to demonstrate abnormal neurodevelopment at 12 years of age. However, brain morphology in preterm female children may no longer differ from that of term female children. The neurodevelopmental abnormalities we detected in preterm male subjects appear to be relatively diffuse, involving multiple neural systems. The relationship between aberrant neurodevelopment and perinatal variables may be mediated by genetic factors, environmental factors, or both reflected in maternal education level. PMID:18346506

  14. Warming the nursing education climate for traditional-age learners who are male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Scriber, Marietta J

    2008-01-01

    For nurse educators to facilitate student learning and the achievement of desired cognitive, affective, and psychomotor outcomes, they need to be competent in recognizing the influence of gender, experience, and other factors on teaching and learning. A study was conducted in one academic institution to describe how traditional-age male learners' perceptions of the nursing education climate compare to perceptions of female learners. Interviews were conducted with a sample of four male and four female learners. Additional data from interviews with nurse educators, classroom observations, and a review of textbooks provided breadth and depth to their perceptions. Findings support a nursing education climate that is cooler to traditional-age male learners and warmer to traditional-age female learners. The main cooling factor for men was caused by nurse educators' characteristics and unsupportive behaviors. Additional factors inside and outside the education environment contributed to a cooler climate for the male learners. Based on these findings, strategies for nurse educators to warm the education climate for traditional-age male learners are presented.

  15. No Evidence for Significant Effect of Body Size and Age on Male Mating Success in the Spot-legged Treefrog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianping YU; Cheng CHEN; Long JIN; Li ZHAO; Wenbo LIAO

    2016-01-01

    In anurans, body size and age of individuals generally affect male mating success. To test whether body size and age have effects on male mating success in the foam-nesting treefrog Polypedates megacephalus, a species widely distributed in China, we analyzed differences in body size and age between mated and unmated males for three populations using a Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM). The results showed that mated males did not exhibit larger body size and older age than unmated males, suggesting that large and/or old male individuals did not have greater mating success than small and/or young males. Moreover, we also found a non-significant size-assortative mating pattern for all populations. Our findings suggest that body size and age of the foam-nesting treefrog do not affect male mating success.

  16. Infertility in the light of new scientific reports – focus on male factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Szkodziak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological data indicate that infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting one- fifth of couples trying to conceive worldwide (60–80 mln. According to the trends observed, the problem is predicted to increase by another two million cases annually. In Poland, infertility-related issues are found in about 19% of couples, including 4% with infertility and 15% with limited fertility. Inability to conceive occurs equally in men and women (50%, irrespective of the direct cause. Although it is generally thought that reproductive issues concern women, infertility affects men and women equally. This study is an attempted to systematize knowledge about the role of the male factor in infertility, particularly current knowledge concerning the environmental factors of infertility. For this purpose, the Medline and CINAHL databases and the Cochrane Library was searched for articles published in English during the last 10 years, using the following keywords: infertility, male factor, semen examination and environmental factor of infertility.

  17. Is Greulich–Pyle age estimation applicable for determining maturation in male Africans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan G. Morri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal age estimation as a means of assessing development and skeletal maturation in children and adolescents is of great importance for clinical and forensic purposes. The skeletal age of a test population is estimated by comparison with established standards, the most common standards being those in the Radiographic atlas of skeletal development of the hand and wristpublished by Greulich and Pyle in 1959. These standards are based on the assumption that skeletal maturity in male individuals is attained by the chronological age of 19 years. Although they have been widely tested, the applicability of these standards to contemporary populations has yet to be tested on a population of African biological origin living in South Africa. We therefore estimated the skeletal age of 131 male Africans aged between 13 and 21 years, using the Greulich–Pyle method which we applied to pre-existing hand–wrist radiographs. Estimated skeletal age was compared to the known chronological age for each radiograph. Skeletal age was on average approximately 6 months younger than chronological age. The Greulich–Pyle method underestimated skeletal age for approximately 74%of the sample and overestimated skeletal age for 26%of the sample. Skeletal maturity as characterised by complete epiphyseal fusion occurred approximately 2.1 years later than Greulich and Pyle’s estimate of 19 years. Thus skeletal maturation was still in progress in a large proportion of the 20- and 21-year-old individuals in our study. The Greulich–Pyle method showed high precision but low accuracy and was therefore not directly applicable to African male individuals. Formulation of skeletal age estimation standards specific to South African populations is therefore recommended.

  18. Psychomotor and spatial memory performance in aging male Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, B; Mouzakis, G; Joseph, J A

    1998-09-01

    Psychomotor and spatial memory performance were examined in male Fischer 344 rats that were 6, 12, 15, 18, and 22 months of age, to assess these parameters as a function of age and to determine at what age these behaviors begin to deteriorate. Complex motor behaviors, as measured by rod walk, wire suspension, plank walk, inclined screen, and accelerating rotarod performance, declined steadily with age, with most measures being adversely affected as early as 12 to 15 months of age. Spatial learning and memory performance, as measured by the working memory version of the Morris water maze (MWM), showed decrements at 18 and 22 months of age (higher latencies on the working memory trial), with some change noticeable as early as 12-15 months of age (no improvement on the second trial following a 10-min retention interval); these differences were not due to swim speed. Therefore, complex motor and spatial memory behaviors show noticeable declines early in the lifespan of the male Fisher 344 rat. This cross-sectional age analysis study using the latest behavioral techniques determines the minimal age at which psychomotor and spatial learning and memory behaviors deteriorate; this information is important when planning for longitudinal studies where interventions are tested for their efficacy in preventing or restoring age-related behavioral deficits.

  19. Peer influence on speeding behaviour among male drivers aged 18 and 28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2014-03-01

    Despite extensive research, preventive efforts and general improvements in road safety levels, the accident risk of young male drivers remains increased. Based on a standardized survey of a random sample of 2018 male drivers at the age of 18 and 28, this study looked into attitudes and behaviours related to traffic violations of male drivers. More specifically, the role of peer influence on speeding was examined in both age groups. In regression analyses it could be shown that the descriptive subjective norm, i.e., the perception of friends' speeding, was the most important predictor of speeding in both age groups. Other significant factors were: negative attitude towards speed limits, injunctive subjective norm, and the perceived risk of having an accident when speeding. In the older age group it was more common to drive faster than allowed and their speeding was largely in line with the perceived level of their friends' speeding. In the younger age group a higher discrepancy between own and friends' speeding was found indicating that young male drivers are socialized into increased speeding behaviour based on peer pressure. By contrast for the 28-year-olds peer pressure mainly seems to maintain or justify individual speeding behaviour. It is suggested that preventive measures should take these different influences of peer pressure into account by using a peer-based approach for the 18-year-olds and a more individual approach for the 28-year-olds.

  20. Trait compensation and sex-specific aging of performance in male and female professional basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lailvaux, Simon P; Wilson, Robbie; Kasumovic, Michael M

    2014-05-01

    Phenotypic traits are often influenced by dynamic resource allocation trade-offs which, when occurring over the course of individual lifespan, may manifest as trait aging. Although aging is studied for a variety of traits that are closely tied to reproduction or reproductive effort, the aging of multiple traits related to fitness in other ways are less well understood. We took advantage of almost 30 years of data on human whole-organism performance in the National Basketball Association (USA) to examine trends of aging in performance traits associated with scoring. Given that patterns of aging differ between sexes in other animal species, we also analyzed a smaller dataset on players in the Women's National Basketball Association to test for potential sex differences in the aging of comparable traits. We tested the hypothesis that age-related changes in a specific aspect of overall performance can be compensated for by elevated expression of another, related aspect. Our analyses suggest that the aging of performance traits used in basketball is generally characterized by senescence in males, whereas age-related changes in basketball performance are less evident in females. Our data also indicate a different rate of senescence of different performance traits associated with scoring over a male's lifetime.

  1. Excess mortality among male unskilled and semi-skilled workers. A negative slope with age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, E; Jeune, B

    1983-01-01

    Mortality for male unskilled and semi-skilled workers in Denmark, Norway, and England and Wales is 40-50%--about the average for all men with equivalent economic status in the younger age groups, but declines towards the average at pensionable age. The negative slope of the graph for relative...... circulatory diseases almost equal to the average for other social groups. Finally, movements between social groups should be taken into account in the analysis of mortality differences....

  2. Working memory in middle-aged males: age-related brain activation changes and cognitive fatigue effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Elissa B; Evers, Elisabeth A T; de Groot, Renate H M; Backes, Walter H; Veltman, Dick J; Jolles, Jelle

    2014-02-01

    We examined the effects of aging and cognitive fatigue on working memory (WM) related brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Age-related differences were investigated in 13 young and 16 middle-aged male school teachers. Cognitive fatigue was induced by sustained performance on cognitively demanding tasks (compared to a control condition). Results showed a main effect of age on left dorsolateral prefrontal and superior parietal cortex activation during WM encoding; greater activation was evident in middle-aged than young adults regardless of WM load or fatigue condition. An interaction effect was found in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC); WM load-dependent activation was elevated in middle-aged compared to young in the control condition, but did not differ in the fatigue condition due to a reduction in activation in middle-aged in contrast to an increase in activation in the young group. These findings demonstrate age-related activation differences and differential effects of fatigue on activation in young and middle-aged adults.

  3. Metabolic Effects of Chronic Heavy Physical Training on Male Age Group Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Garret P.; And Others

    This study attempts to appraise the effectiveness of chronic heavy exercise on 13 male swimmers from 10 to 17 years of age. The experimental group trained six days a week, often with more than one workout per day. During this period, the principles of interval training were employed in conjunction with high-intensity swimming. At the completion of…

  4. The effect of age on the mating competitiveness of male Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and G. palpalis palpalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P. Abila

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of age on male Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, Newstead, and Glossina palpalis palpalis, Austin (Diptera: Glossinidae competiveness were investigated with a view to estimate optimal age for sterile male release. Sterile insect technique involves the mass production, sterilization and sequential release of males of the target species to out compete the wild male population. Mating between released sterile males and wild females produce inviable progeny and the population is reduced over several generations to unsustainable levels. It is vital that the released male are of high quality and are sexually competitive. Age is one parameter affecting the sexual competiveness of the male tsetse fly. The optimal release age was estimated by assessing sexual competitiveness of flies of different age categories, 1, 5, 8 and 13-days after adult eclosion. A walk-in field-cage was used in order to approximate as closely as possible the actual field scenario during sterile insect release programes. It was shown that 8 and 13-day old males mated significantly more frequently, i.e. were more competitive, in the presence of equal numbers of 1 and 5-day old males. The age of male tsetse flies significantly affected competitiveness in both species studied. The ability of G. f. fuscipes to inseminate was not age dependent, and insemination occurred in all females that mated regardless of male age. In G. p. palpalis, however, 1-day old males were least able to inseminate. Mating duration was not significantly affected by age in both species. Eight to thirteen day old males of the test species are here recommended as the optimal sterile male release age.

  5. Evaluation of age estimation technique: testing traits of the acetabulum to estimate age at death in adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calce, Stephanie E; Rogers, Tracy L

    2011-03-01

    This study evaluates the accuracy and precision of a skeletal age estimation method, using the acetabulum of 100 male ossa coxae from the Grant Collection (GRO) at the University of Toronto, Canada. Age at death was obtained using Bayesian inference and a computational application (IDADE2) that requires a reference population, close in geographic and temporal distribution to the target case, to calibrate age ranges from scores generated by the technique. The inaccuracy of this method is 8 years. The direction of bias indicates the acetabulum technique tends to underestimate age. The categories 46-65 and 76-90 years exhibit the smallest inaccuracy (0.2), suggesting that this method may be appropriate for individuals over 40 years. Eighty-three percent of age estimates were ±12 years of known age; 79% were ±10 years of known age; and 62% were ±5 years of known age. Identifying a suitable reference population is the most significant limitation of this technique for forensic applications.

  6. Early birds are sexy: male age, dawn song and extrapair paternity in blue tits, Cyanistes (formerly Parus) caeruleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poesel, Angelika; Kunc, H.P.; Foerster, K.

    2006-01-01

    . Studies have shown that female blue tits prefer older males and that aspects of dawn song reflect male quality, but it remains unknown whether dawn song characteristics correlate with male age. We compared dawn song characteristics of second-year (SY) and older (ASY) male blue tits (cross......-sectional analysis), and tested for age-related changes within individuals (longitudinal analysis) and differential overwinter survival of SY males. We further investigated the relation between dawn song and paternity gain and loss. We found that ASY male blue tits began to sing earlier relative to sunrise than did...

  7. Circadian variation in salivary testosterone across age classes in Ache Amerindian males of Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bribiescas, Richard G; Hill, Kim R

    2010-01-01

    Testosterone levels exhibit a circadian rhythm in healthy men, with morning levels tending to be higher compared to evening titers. However, circadian rhythms wane with age. Although this has been described in males living within industrialized settings, age-related changes have not received similar attention in populations outside these contexts. Because many nonindustrialized populations, such as Ache Amerindians of Paraguay, exhibit testosterone levels that are lower than what is commonly reported in the clinical literature and lack age-associated variation in testosterone, it was hypothesized that Ache men would not show age-related variation in testosterone circadian rhythms. Diurnal rhythmicity in testosterone within and between Ache men in association with age (n = 52; age range, 18-64) was therefore examined. A significant negative association was evident between the ratio of morning and evening salivary testosterone and age (r = -0.28, P = 0.04). Men in their third decade of life exhibited significant diurnal variation (P = 0.0003), whereas older and younger age classes did not. Men between the ages of 30 and 39 also exhibited a higher AM:PM testosterone ratio compared to 40-49 and 50< year old men (P = 0.002, 0.006). Overall, declines in testosterone with aging may not be universal among human males, however, within-individual analyses of diurnal variation capture age-related contrasts in daily testosterone fluctuations. Circadian rhythmicity differs with age among the Ache and may be a common aspect of reproductive senescence among men regardless of ecological context.

  8. Male Age Affects Female Mate Preference, Quantity of Accessory Gland Proteins, and Sperm Traits and Female Fitness in D. melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Abolhasan; Krishna, Mysore Siddaiah; Santhosh, Hassan T

    2015-01-01

    For species in which mating is resource-independent and offspring do not receive parental care, theoretical models of age-based female mate preference predict that females should prefer to mate with older males as they have demonstrated ability to survive. Thus, females should obtain a fitness benefit from mating with older males. However, male aging is often associated with reductions in quantity of sperm. The adaptive significance of age-based mate choice is therefore unclear. Various hypotheses have made conflicting predictions concerning this issue, because published studies have not investigated the effect of age on accessory gland proteins and sperm traits. D. melanogaster exhibits resource-independent mating, and offspring do not receive parental care, making this an appropriate model for studying age-based mate choice. In the present study, we found that D. melanogaster females of all ages preferred to mate with the younger of two competing males. Young males performed significantly greater courtship attempts and females showed least rejection for the same than middle-aged and old males. Young males had small accessory glands that contained very few main cells that were larger than average. Nevertheless, compared with middle-aged or old males, the young males transferred greater quantities of accessory gland proteins and sperm to mated females. As a result, females that mated with young male produced more eggs and progeny than those that mated with older males. Furthermore, mating with young male reduced female's lifespan. These studies indicate that quantity of accessory gland proteins and sperm traits decreased with male age and females obtain direct fitness benefit from mating with preferred young males.

  9. Age differences in working memory updating: the role of interference, focus switching and substituting information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendínez, Cristina; Pelegrina, Santiago; Lechuga, M Teresa

    2015-05-01

    Working memory updating (WMU) tasks require different elements in working memory (WM) to be maintained simultaneously, accessing one of these elements, and substituting its content. This study examined possible developmental changes from childhood to adulthood both in focus switching and substituting information in WM. In addition, possible age-related changes in interference due to representational overlap between the different elements simultaneously held in these tasks were examined. Children (8- and 11-year-olds), adolescents (14-year-olds) and younger adults (mean age=22 years) were administered a numerical updating memory task, in which updating and focus switching were manipulated. As expected, response times decreased and recall performance increased with age. More importantly, the time needed for focus switching was longer in children than in adolescents and younger adults. On the other hand, substitution of information and interference due to representational overlap were not affected by age. These results suggest that age-related changes in focus switching might mediate developmental changes in WMU performance.

  10. Age effects on the social interaction test in early adulthood male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garau, A; Martí, M A; Sala, J; Balada, F

    2000-01-01

    The effects of age on active and passive social interaction were studied in Wistar rats using the social interaction test (S.I.T.). Individual behaviors such as ambulation, rearing, and defecation were also studied. Despite the widespread use of the S.I.T. in anxiety research, the effects of age on the S.I.T. have not been studied thoroughly. Male Wistar rats of 75, 135, and 180 days old were used. Our results showed age effects on active social contact, passive social contact, ambulation, rearing, and defecation. At 135 days old, animals presented the lowest scores on active social behavior and the highest scores on defecation. Moreover, exploratory behavior measured by ambulation and rearing decreased with age. These results suggest that age could be a relevant variable in the social interaction test.

  11. Sexual behavior and HIV risk among age-discrepant, same-sex male couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Chadwick K; Gomez, Anu Manchikanti; Hoff, Colleen; Grisham, Kirk K; Wilson, Patrick A; Dworkin, Shari L

    2016-06-13

    Research has suggested that men who have sex with men and who have older sexual partners are at increased risk of HIV infection. However, while several studies have explored risk among men in age-discrepant non-primary partnerships, only two have explored age discrepancy and risk in primary same-sex male relationships. We used data from semi-structured in-depth interviews to explore sexual behaviour and HIV risk among 14 Black, white and interracial (Black/white) same-sex male couples with an age difference of 10 or more years. Most couples regularly used condoms, and sexual positioning tended to lead to lower risk for younger partners. Some serodiscordant couples abstained from anal sex, while others used seropositioning to avoid transmission within the relationship. Within some couples, older partners acted as mentors on HIV prevention and broader life lessons. Future studies should further explore the potential risks and benefits of large age differences in same-sex male primary relationships.

  12. The evolution and plasticity of life histories upon variation in nutrition : on aging focused integrative approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, Joost van den

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis I describe studies of life history traits under variation in nutrition focused on ageing. The predictive adaptive response is a type of plastic response which is advantageous later in life, rather than immediately. We tested with a resource allocation model whether for a relatively sh

  13. Age-Related Increase in Electromyography Burst Activity in Males and Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Theou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid advancement of electromyography (EMG technology facilitates measurement of muscle activity outside the laboratory during daily life. The purpose of this study was to determine whether bursts in EMG recorded over a typical 8-hour day differed between young and old males and females. Muscle activity was recorded from biceps brachii, triceps brachii, vastus lateralis, and biceps femoris of 16 young and 15 old adults using portable surface EMG. Old muscles were active 16–27% of the time compared to 5–9% in young muscles. The number of bursts was greater in old than young adults and in females compared to males. Burst percentage and mean amplitude were greater in the flexor muscles compared with the extensor muscles. The greater burst activity in old adults coupled with the unique activity patterns across muscles in males and females provides further understanding of how changes in neuromuscular activity effects age-related functional decline between the sexes.

  14. Peak expiratory flow rate; the effect of smoking on younger AND middle aged males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Satyanarayana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A total of 80 male subjects in age group of 20-50 years were selected for the purpose of the study. They were divided in two groups, smokers and non smokers. Each group subdivided into age groups of 20-35 and 36-50 yrs. The criteria for smoking was about 5-10 cigarettes per day since 6-12 months. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (P.E.F.R. was determined by using Wright’s peak flow meter. The results showed that in Non-Smoker of age group 20-35 years, (n= 30 the mean PEFR value was 535±50 L/min, whereas in age group 36-50 years, (n=15 the mean P.E.F.R value was 515±50 L/min. In Smokers of age group 20-35 years, (n=10 mean P.E.F.R. value was 374±128 L/min whereas in age group 36-50 years, (n=25 mean P.E.F.R. value was 357±86 L/min. This shows that in smokers P.E.F.R. value is lower compared to Non-smokers in both age groups and that P.E.F.R. is lower in the elder age group in comparison to younger age group. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 441-442

  15. Differential effects of relaxin deficiency on vascular aging in arteries of male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinic, Maria; Tare, Marianne; Conrad, Kirk P; Parry, Laura J

    2015-08-01

    Exogenous treatment with the naturally occurring peptide relaxin increases arterial compliance and reduces vascular stiffness. In contrast, relaxin deficiency reduces the passive compliance of small renal arteries through geometric and compositional vascular remodeling. The role of endogenous relaxin on passive mechanical wall properties in other vascular beds is unknown. Importantly, no studies have investigated the effects of aging in arteries of relaxin-deficient mice. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that mesenteric and femoral arteries stiffen with aging, and this is exacerbated with relaxin deficiency. Male wild-type (Rln (+/+)) and relaxin knockout (Rln (-/-)) mice were aged to 3, 6, 12, 18, and 23 months. Passive mechanical wall properties were assessed by pressure myography. In both genotypes, there was a significant increase in circumferential stiffening in mesenteric arteries with aging, whereas in the femoral artery, aging reduced volume compliance. This was associated with a reduced ability of the artery to lengthen with aging. The predominant phenotype observed in Rln (-/-) mice was reduced volume compliance in young mice in both mesenteric and femoral arteries. In summary, aging induces circumferential stiffening in mesenteric arteries and axial stiffening in femoral arteries. Passive mechanical wall properties of Rln (-/-) mouse arteries predominantly differ at younger ages compared with Rln (+/+) mice, suggesting that a lack of endogenous relaxin only has a minor effect on vascular aging.

  16. Age-associated changes in hearts of male Fischer 344/Brown Norway F1 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ernest M; Nillas, Michael S; Mangiarua, Elsa I; Cansino, Sylvestre; Morrison, Ryan G; Perdue, Romaine R; Triest, William E; Wright, Gary L; Studeny, Mark; Wehner, Paulette; Rice, Kevin M; Blough, Eric R

    2006-01-01

    Aging is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy, dilatation, and fibrosis of the heart. The Fischer 344/Brown Norway F1 (F344/BNF1) rat is recommended for age-related studies by the National Institutes on Aging because this hybrid rat lives longer and has a lower rate of pathological conditions than inbred rats. However, little is known about age-associated changes in cardiac and aortic function and structure in this model. This study evaluated age-related cardiac changes in male F344/BNF1 rats using ECHO, gross, and microscopic examinations. Rats aged 6-, 30-, and 36-mo were anesthetized and two-dimensional ECHO measurements, two-dimensional guided M-mode, Doppler M-mode, and other recordings from parasternal long- and short-axis views were obtained using a Phillips 5500 ECHO system with a 12 megahertz transducer. Hearts and aortas from sacrificed rats were evaluated grossly and microscopically. The ECHO studies revealed persistent cardiac arrhythmias (chiefly PVCs) in 72% (13/18) of 36-mo rats, 10% (1/10) of 30-mo rats, and none in 6-mo rats (0/16). Gross and microscopic studies showed left ventricular (LV) dilatation, borderline to mild hypertrophy, and areas of fibrosis that were common in 36-mo rats, less evident in 30-mo rats, and absent in 6-mo rats. Aging was associated with mild to moderate decreases of LV diastolic and systolic function. Thus, male F344/BN F1 rats demonstrated progressive age-related (a) decline in cardiac function (diastolic and systolic indices), (b) LV structural changes (chamber dimensions, volumes, and wall thicknesses), and (c) persistent arrhythmias. These changes are consistent with those in humans. The noninvasive ECHO technique offers a means to monitor serial age-related cardiac failure and therapeutic responses in the same rats over designated time intervals.

  17. Finisher and performance trends in female and male mountain ultramarathoners by age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüst CA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Evelyn Eichenberger,1 Thomas Rosemann,1 Romuald Lepers31Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3French Institute of Health and Medical Research, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Burgundy, Dijon, FranceBackground: This study examined changes according to age group in the number of finishers and running times for athletes in female and male mountain ultramarathoners competing in the 78 km Swiss Alpine Marathon, the largest mountain ultramarathon in Europe and held in high alpine terrain.Methods: The association between age and performance was investigated using analysis of variance and both single and multilevel regression analyses.Results: Between 1998 and 2011, a total of 1,781 women and 12,198 men finished the Swiss Alpine Marathon. The number of female finishers increased (r2 = 0.64, P = 0.001, whereas the number of male finishers (r2 = 0.18, P = 0.15 showed no change. The annual top ten men became older and slower, whereas the annual top ten women became older but not slower. Regarding the number of finishers in the age groups, the number of female finishers decreased in the age group 18–24 years, whereas the number of finishers increased in the age groups 30–34, 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, and 70–74 years. In the age groups 25–29 and 35–39 years, the number of finishers showed no changes across the years. In the age group 70–74 years, the increase in number of finishers was linear. For all other age groups, the increase was exponential. For men, the number of finishers decreased in the age groups 18–24, 25–29, 30–34, and 35–39 years. In the age groups 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, 70–74, and 75–79 years, the number of finishers increased. In the age group 40–44 years, the increase was linear. For all other age groups, the

  18. Physiological responding to stress in middle-aged males enriched for longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Steffy W M; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen;

    2016-01-01

    Individuals enriched for familial longevity display a lower prevalence of age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular- and metabolic diseases. Since these diseases are associated with stress and increased cortisol levels, one of the underlying mechanisms that may contribute to healthy longevity....... Physiological (cortisol, blood pressure, heart rate) and subjective responses were measured during the entire procedure. The results showed that Offspring had lower overall cortisol levels compared to Non-offspring regardless of condition, and lower absolute cortisol output (AUCg) during stress compared to Non...... might be a more adaptive response to stress. To investigate this, male middle-aged offspring from long-lived families (n = 31) and male non-offspring (with no familial history of longevity) (n = 26) were randomly allocated to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control condition in an experimental design...

  19. Effect of Preexercise Creatine Ingestion on Muscle Performance in Healthy Aging Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Taylor P; Candow, Darren G; Farthing, Jonathan P

    2016-06-01

    Preexercise creatine supplementation may have a beneficial effect on aging muscle performance. Using a double-blind, repeated measures, crossover design, healthy males (N = 9, 54.8 ± 4.3 years; 92.9 ± 11.5 kg; 179.2 ± 11.1 cm) were randomized to consume creatine (20 g) and placebo (20 g corn starch maltodextrin), on 2 separate occasions (7 days apart), 3 hours before performing leg press and chest press repetitions to muscle fatigue (3 sets at 70% 1-repetition maximum; 1 minute rest between sets). There was a set main effect (p ≤ 0.05) for the leg press and chest press with the number of repetitions performed decreasing similarly for creatine and placebo. These results suggest that a bolus ingestion of creatine consumed 3 hours before resistance exercise has no effect on upper or lower-body muscle performance in healthy aging males.

  20. Sympathetic innervation of the spleen in male Brown Norway rats: a longitudinal aging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Sam D; Silva, Dorian; Millar, Ashley Brooke; Molinaro, Christine A; Carter, Jeff; Bassett, Katie; Lorton, Dianne; Garcia, Paola; Tan, Laren; Gross, Jonathon; Lubahn, Cheri; Thyagarajan, Srinivasan; Bellinger, Denise L

    2009-12-11

    Aging leads to reduced cellular immunity with consequent increased rates of infectious disease, cancer, and autoimmunity in the elderly. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) modulates innate and adaptive immunity via innervation of lymphoid organs. In aged Fischer 344 (F344) rats, noradrenergic (NA) nerve density in secondary lymphoid organs declines, which may contribute to immunosenescence with aging. These studies suggest there is SNS involvement in age-induced immune dysregulation. The purpose of this study was to longitudinally characterize age-related change in sympathetic innervation of the spleen and sympathetic activity/tone in male Brown Norway (BN) rats, which live longer and have a strikingly different immune profile than F344 rats, the traditional animal model for aging research. Splenic sympathetic neurotransmission was evaluated between 8 and 32 months of age by assessing (1) NA nerve fiber density, (2) splenic norepinephrine (NE) concentration, and (3) circulating catecholamine levels after decapitation. We report a decline in NA nerve density in splenic white pulp (45%) at 15 months of age compared with 8-month-old (M) rats, which is followed by a much slower rate of decline between 24 and 32 months. Lower splenic NE concentrations between 15 and 32 months of age compared with 8M rats were consistent with morphometric findings. Circulating catecholamine levels after decapitation stress generally dropped with increasing age. These findings suggest there is a sympathetic-to-immune system dysregulation beginning at middle age. Given the unique T-helper-2 bias in BN rats, altered sympathetic-immune communication may be important for understanding the age-related rise in asthma and autoimmunity.

  1. Substantial health and economic returns from delayed aging may warrant a new focus for medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Dana P; Cutler, David; Rowe, John W; Michaud, Pierre-Carl; Sullivan, Jeffrey; Peneva, Desi; Olshansky, S Jay

    2013-10-01

    Recent scientific advances suggest that slowing the aging process (senescence) is now a realistic goal. Yet most medical research remains focused on combating individual diseases. Using the Future Elderly Model--a microsimulation of the future health and spending of older Americans--we compared optimistic "disease specific" scenarios with a hypothetical "delayed aging" scenario in terms of the scenarios' impact on longevity, disability, and major entitlement program costs. Delayed aging could increase life expectancy by an additional 2.2 years, most of which would be spent in good health. The economic value of delayed aging is estimated to be $7.1 trillion over fifty years. In contrast, addressing heart disease and cancer separately would yield diminishing improvements in health and longevity by 2060--mainly due to competing risks. Delayed aging would greatly increase entitlement outlays, especially for Social Security. However, these changes could be offset by increasing the Medicare eligibility age and the normal retirement age for Social Security. Overall, greater investment in research to delay aging appears to be a highly efficient way to forestall disease, extend healthy life, and improve public health.

  2. Age-Related Variation in Male Youth Athletes' Countermovement Jump After Plyometric Training: A Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Jason J; Sandercock, Gavin R H; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Meylan, César M P; Collison, Jay A; Parry, Dave A

    2017-02-01

    Moran, J, Sandercock, GRH, Ramírez-Campillo, R, Meylan, CMP, Collison, J, and Parry, DA. Age-related variation in male youth athletes' countermovement jump after plyometric training: A meta-analysis of controlled trials. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 552-565, 2017-Recent debate on the trainability of youths has focused on the existence of periods of accelerated adaptation to training. Accordingly, the purpose of this meta-analysis was to identify the age- and maturation-related pattern of adaptive responses to plyometric training in youth athletes. Thirty effect sizes were calculated from the data of 21 sources with studies qualifying based on the following criteria: (a) healthy male athletes who were engaged in organized sport; (b) groups of participants with a mean age between 10 and 18 years; and (c) plyometric-training intervention duration between 4 and 16 weeks. Standardized mean differences showed plyometric training to be moderately effective in increasing countermovement jump (CMJ) height (Effect size = 0.73 95% confidence interval: 0.47-0.99) across PRE-, MID-, and POST-peak height velocity groups. Adaptive responses were of greater magnitude between the mean ages of 10 and 12.99 years (PRE) (ES = 0.91 95% confidence interval: 0.47-1.36) and 16 and 18 years (POST) (ES = 1.02 [0.52-1.53]). The magnitude of adaptation to plyometric training between the mean ages of 13 and 15.99 years (MID) was lower (ES = 0.47 [0.16-0.77]), despite greater training exposure. Power performance as measured by CMJ may be mediated by biological maturation. Coaches could manipulate training volume and modality during periods of lowered response to maximize performance.

  3. The Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS scale: review of its methodological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Claudia

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current paper reviews data from different sources to get a closer impression on the psychometric and other methodological characteristics of the Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS scale gathered recently. The scale was designed and standardized as self-administered scale to (a to assess symptoms of aging (independent from those which are disease-related between groups of males under different conditions, (b to evaluate the severity of symptoms over time, and (c to measure changes pre- and post androgen replacement therapy. The scale is in widespread use (14 languages. Method Original data from different studies in many countries were centrally analysed to evaluate reliability and validity of the AMS. Results Reliability measures (consistency and test-retest stability were found to be good across countries, although the sample size was sometimes small. Validity: The internal structure of the AMS in healthy and androgen deficient males, and across countries was sufficiently similar to conclude that the scale really measures the same phenomenon. The sub-scores and total score correlations were high (0.8–0.9 but lower among the sub-scales (0.5–0.7. This however suggests that the subscales are not fully independent. The comparison with other scales for aging males or screening instruments for androgen deficiency showed sufficiently good correlations, illustrating a good criterion-oriented validity. The same is true for the comparison with the generic quality-of-life scale SF36 where also high correlation coefficients have been shown. Methodological analyses of a treatment study of symptomatic males with testosterone demonstrated the ability of the AMS scale to measure treatment effect, irrespective of the severity of complaints before therapy. It was also shown that the AMS result can predict the independently generated (physician's opinion about the individual treatment effect. Conclusion The currently available methodological

  4. Non-injurious neonatal hypoxia confers resistance to brain senescence in aged male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Martin

    Full Text Available Whereas brief acute or intermittent episodes of hypoxia have been shown to exert a protective role in the central nervous system and to stimulate neurogenesis, other studies suggest that early hypoxia may constitute a risk factor that influences the future development of mental disorders. We therefore investigated the effects of a neonatal "conditioning-like" hypoxia (100% N₂, 5 min on the brain and the cognitive outcomes of rats until 720 days of age (physiologic senescence. We confirmed that such a short hypoxia led to brain neurogenesis within the ensuing weeks, along with reduced apoptosis in the hippocampus involving activation of Erk1/2 and repression of p38 and death-associated protein (DAP kinase. At 21 days of age, increased thicknesses and cell densities were recorded in various subregions, with strong synapsin activation. During aging, previous exposure to neonatal hypoxia was associated with enhanced memory retrieval scores specifically in males, better preservation of their brain integrity than controls, reduced age-related apoptosis, larger hippocampal cell layers, and higher expression of glutamatergic and GABAergic markers. These changes were accompanied with a marked expression of synapsin proteins, mainly of their phosphorylated active forms which constitute major players of synapse function and plasticity, and with increases of their key regulators, i.e. Erk1/2, the transcription factor EGR-1/Zif-268 and Src kinase. Moreover, the significantly higher interactions between PSD-95 scaffolding protein and NMDA receptors measured in the hippocampus of 720-day-old male animals strengthen the conclusion of increased synaptic functional activity and plasticity associated with neonatal hypoxia. Thus, early non-injurious hypoxia may trigger beneficial long term effects conferring higher resistance to senescence in aged male rats, with a better preservation of cognitive functions.

  5. Responses of female rock lizards to multiple scent marks of males: effects of male age, male density and scent over-marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, José; López, Pilar

    2013-03-01

    Scent-marked substrates may inform conspecifics on the characteristics of territorial males. Scent-marks of male Carpetan rock lizards (Iberolacerta cyreni) affect space use of females, which by selecting an area may increase the probability of mating with the male that has scent-marked that area. However, males do not hold exclusive territories, and scent-marks of different individual males are often together. This may provide complex information from multiple sources on the social structure. Here, we examined female preference in response to scent marks of various males and combinations in a laboratory experiment. Females preferred areas scent-marked by territorial old males against those scent-marked by young satellite-sneaker males. This reflected the known preference of females for mating with old males. In a second experiment, females preferred areas scent-marked by two males to areas of similar size marked by a single male. This may increase the probability of obtaining multiple copulations with different males, which may favour sperm competition and cryptic female choice, or may be a way to avoid infertile males. Finally, when we experimentally over-marked the scent-marks of an old male with scent-marks of a young male, females did not avoid, nor prefer, the over-marked area, suggesting that the quality of the old male may override the presence of a satellite male. We suggest that, irrespective of the causes underlying why a female selects a scent-marked area, this strategy may affect her reproductive success, which may have the same evolutionary consequences that "direct" mate choice decisions of other animals.

  6. Failing to Focus on Healthy Aging: A Frailty of Our Discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Susan M; Shah, Krupa; Hall, William J

    2015-07-01

    The academic geriatrics community has provided outstanding leadership in addressing frailty and complexity in older adults, but a minority of older adults are frail. Although resources to treat older adults are limited, and it is appropriate to focus clinical efforts on those with frailty and multimorbidity, there is also important expertise that can be brought to bear on the health of ALL older adults. A review of the literature suggests that attention to healthy or successful aging has failed to keep pace with the focus on frailty. By providing leadership to promote successful aging, the quality of life of older adults across the spectrum can be improved and transitions to frailty reduced. The template that leaders have established in understanding frailty-defining and operationalizing it, understanding outcomes, identifying pathophysiology-can be used as an approach to successful aging. Several community-based programs have been successful in promoting successful aging. These are potentially highly scalable and could have a substantial effect on the aging population, but their essential components need to be better understood. The geriatrics community is uniquely positioned to take on this role. This is a critical time to work together to make the lives of all older adults as healthy and fulfilling as possible.

  7. The effects of male age on sperm DNA damage in healthy non-smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, T; Eskenazi, B; Baumgartner, A; Marchetti, F; Young, S; Weldon, R; Anderson, D; Wyrobek, A

    2006-03-08

    The trend for men to have children at older ages raises concerns that advancing age may increase the production of genetically defective sperm, increasing the risks of transmitting germ-line mutations. We investigated the associations between male age and sperm DNA damage and the influence of several lifestyle factors in a healthy non-clinical group of 80 non-smokers (age: 22-80) with no known fertility problems using the sperm Comet analyses. The average percent of DNA that migrated out of the sperm nucleus under alkaline electrophoresis increased with age (0.18% per year, p=0.006); but there was no age association for damage measured under neutral conditions (p=0.7). Men who consumed >3 cups coffee per day had {approx}20% higher % tail DNA under neutral but not alkaline conditions compared to men who consumed no caffeine (p=0.005). Our findings indicate that (a) older men have increased sperm DNA damage associated with alkali-labile sites or single-strand DNA breaks, and (b) independent of age, men with substantial daily caffeine consumption have increased sperm DNA damage associated with double-strand DNA breaks. DNA damage in sperm can be converted to chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations after fertilization increasing the risks for developmental defects and genetic diseases among offspring.

  8. Age-specific fertility by educational level in the Finnish male cohort born 1940‒1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Nisén

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Education is positively associated with completed fertility rate (CFR among men in Nordic countries, but the age patterns of fertility by educational level are poorly documented. Moreover, it is not known what parities contribute to the higher CFR among more highly educated men. Objective: To describe men's fertility by age, parity, and education in Finland. Methods: The study is based on register data covering the male cohort born in 1940‒1950 (N=38,838. Education was measured at ages 30‒34 and classified as basic, lower secondary, upper secondary, and tertiary. Fertility was measured until ages 59‒69. We calculated completed and age-specific fertility rates, and decomposed the educational gradient in CFR into parity-specific contributions. Results: The more highly educated men had more children (CFR: basic 1.71 and tertiary 2.06, had them later (mean age at having the first child: basic 26.1 and tertiary 28.1, and had them within a shorter interval (interquartile range of age at having the first child: basic 5.8 and tertiary 5.2. The educational gradient in the cumulative fertility rate was negative at young ages but turned positive by the early thirties. High levels of childlessness among those with a basic education explained three-quarters of the CFR difference between the lowest and highest educational groups. Fertility at ages above 45 was low and did not widen the educational gradient in CFR. Conclusions: The fact that highly educated men have more children than their counterparts with less education is largely attributable to higher fertility levels at older ages and the lower probability of remaining childless. Variation in fertility timing and quantity is wider among men with a low level of education.

  9. Effects of age, dysphoria, and emotion-focusing on autobiographical memory specificity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, Ronan E; Dalgleish, Tim; Drummond, Lyndsey E; Dritschel, Barbara; Astell, Arlene

    2006-04-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is strongly associated with depression in adults and appears to reflect a stable cognitive bias. However, it is not known whether this bias exists in children or what factors contribute to its development. We examined the roles of age, dysphoria, and a new variable, emotion-focusing (EF), on the production of specific autobiographical memory (AM) in children, using the standard Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986 ). Results show that older children are more specific than younger children, irrespective of cue valence. Dysphoria was linked to less specific retrieval of positive memories in children. A three-way interaction between age, valence, and dysphoria was also found, such that older dysphoric children demonstrated a difficulty in retrieving specific negative memories. In addition, emotion-focusing was associated with specific AM recall, especially to negative cues. Results are discussed with reference to the development of depressogenic biases.

  10. Females remyelinate more efficiently than males following demyelination in the aged but not young adult CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Wu; Penderis, Jacques; Zhao, Chao; Schumacher, Michael; Franklin, Robin J M

    2006-11-01

    To assess the effects of sex on CNS remyelination, demyelinating lesions were induced by injection of ethidium bromide into the caudal cerebellar peduncle of Sprague-Dawley rats divided into the following 8 groups: young adult male, young adult female, old adult male and old adult female and each of these in which the gonads had been removed 4 weeks prior to lesion induction. Remyelination was assessed, blinded to grouping, by a ranking analysis using standard morphological criteria. In young adult animals, where remyelination proceeds rapidly, there was no difference in the remyelination at four weeks after lesion induction in male or females regardless of whether they were intact or castrated/ovariectomised. However, in old adult rats, where remyelination proceeds slowly, the extent of oligodendrocyte remyelination was significantly less in males compared to females at 8 weeks after lesion induction. Removal of gonads did not affect remyelination in old rats of either gender. These results indicate a sex-associated divergence in remyelination efficiency that occurs with ageing that is unaffected by the removal of gonadal sources of sex steroid hormones.

  11. Male sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Terrie B

    2010-05-01

    It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient.

  12. Male Circumcision at Different Ages in Rwanda: A Cost-Effectiveness Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binagwaho, Agnes; Pegurri, Elisabetta; Muita, Jane; Bertozzi, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Background There is strong evidence showing that male circumcision (MC) reduces HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In Rwanda, where adult HIV prevalence is 3%, MC is not a traditional practice. The Rwanda National AIDS Commission modelled cost and effects of MC at different ages to inform policy and programmatic decisions in relation to introducing MC. This study was necessary because the MC debate in Southern Africa has focused primarily on MC for adults. Further, this is the first time, to our knowledge, that a cost-effectiveness study on MC has been carried out in a country where HIV prevalence is below 5%. Methods and Findings A cost-effectiveness model was developed and applied to three hypothetical cohorts in Rwanda: newborns, adolescents, and adult men. Effectiveness was defined as the number of HIV infections averted, and was calculated as the product of the number of people susceptible to HIV infection in the cohort, the HIV incidence rate at different ages, and the protective effect of MC; discounted back to the year of circumcision and summed over the life expectancy of the circumcised person. Direct costs were based on interviews with experienced health care providers to determine inputs involved in the procedure (from consumables to staff time) and related prices. Other costs included training, patient counselling, treatment of adverse events, and promotion campaigns, and they were adjusted for the averted lifetime cost of health care (antiretroviral therapy [ART], opportunistic infection [OI], laboratory tests). One-way sensitivity analysis was performed by varying the main inputs of the model, and thresholds were calculated at which each intervention is no longer cost-saving and at which an intervention costs more than one gross domestic product (GDP) per capita per life-year gained. Results: Neonatal MC is less expensive than adolescent and adult MC (US$15 instead of US$59 per procedure) and is cost-saving (the cost

  13. Male circumcision at different ages in Rwanda: a cost-effectiveness study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Binagwaho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence showing that male circumcision (MC reduces HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs. In Rwanda, where adult HIV prevalence is 3%, MC is not a traditional practice. The Rwanda National AIDS Commission modelled cost and effects of MC at different ages to inform policy and programmatic decisions in relation to introducing MC. This study was necessary because the MC debate in Southern Africa has focused primarily on MC for adults. Further, this is the first time, to our knowledge, that a cost-effectiveness study on MC has been carried out in a country where HIV prevalence is below 5%. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cost-effectiveness model was developed and applied to three hypothetical cohorts in Rwanda: newborns, adolescents, and adult men. Effectiveness was defined as the number of HIV infections averted, and was calculated as the product of the number of people susceptible to HIV infection in the cohort, the HIV incidence rate at different ages, and the protective effect of MC; discounted back to the year of circumcision and summed over the life expectancy of the circumcised person. Direct costs were based on interviews with experienced health care providers to determine inputs involved in the procedure (from consumables to staff time and related prices. Other costs included training, patient counselling, treatment of adverse events, and promotion campaigns, and they were adjusted for the averted lifetime cost of health care (antiretroviral therapy [ART], opportunistic infection [OI], laboratory tests. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed by varying the main inputs of the model, and thresholds were calculated at which each intervention is no longer cost-saving and at which an intervention costs more than one gross domestic product (GDP per capita per life-year gained. RESULTS: Neonatal MC is less expensive than adolescent and adult MC (US$15 instead of US$59 per procedure and is cost

  14. Optimizing a Male Reproductive Aging Mouse Model by d-Galactose Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hou Liao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The d-galactose (d-gal-injected animal model, which is typically established by administering consecutive subcutaneous d-gal injections to animals for approximately six or eight weeks, has been frequently used for aging research. In addition, this animal model has been demonstrated to accelerate aging in the brain, kidneys, liver and blood cells. However, studies on aging in male reproductive organs that have used this animal model remain few. Therefore, the current study aimed to optimize a model of male reproductive aging by administering d-gal injections to male mice and to determine the possible mechanism expediting senescence processes during spermatogenesis. In this study, C57Bl/6 mice were randomized into five groups (each containing 8–10 mice according to the daily intraperitoneal injection of vehicle control or 100 or 200 mg/kg dosages of d-gal for a period of six or eight weeks. First, mice subjected to d-gal injections for six or eight weeks demonstrated considerably decreased superoxide dismutase activity in the serum and testis lysates compared to those in the control group. The lipid peroxidation in testis also increased in the d-gal-injected groups. Furthermore, the d-gal-injected groups exhibited a decreased ratio of testis weight/body weight and sperm count compared to the control group. The percentages of both immotile sperm and abnormal sperm increased considerably in the d-gal-injected groups compared to those of the control group. To determine the genes influenced by the d-gal injection during murine spermatogenesis, a c-DNA microarray was conducted to compare testicular RNA samples between the treated groups and the control group. The d-gal-injected groups exhibited RNA transcripts of nine spermatogenesis-related genes (Cycl2, Hk1, Pltp, Utp3, Cabyr, Zpbp2, Speer2, Csnka2ip and Katnb1 that were up- or down-regulated by at least two-fold compared to the control group. Several of these genes are critical for forming sperm

  15. Shift work aggravates metabolic syndrome development among early-middle-aged males with elevated ALT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Cheng Lin; Tun-Jen Hsiao; Pau-Chung Chen

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To examine whether shift work accelerates metabolic syndrome (MetS) development among early middle- aged males with elevated alanine aminotransferase (e-ALT).METHODS: A retrospective, observational followup study on MetS development at a 5-year interval was conducted using health examination data. Nine hundred and ninety six male employees not fulfilling MetS criteria at screening were enrolled. Age, MetScomponents,liver enzymes, serological markers for viral hepatitis, abdominal ultrasound, insulin resistance status, lifestyles, and workplace factors were analyzed.RESULTS: The prevalence of elevated serum ALT (> 40 U/L, e-ALT) at baseline was 19.1%. There were 381 (38.3%) workers with long-term exposures to daynight rotating shift work (RSW). 14.2% of subjects developed MetS during follow-up. After 5 years, the workers with e-ALT had significantly unfavorable changes in MetS-components, and higher rates of MetS development, vs subjects with normal baseline ALT levels. Workers with both baseline e-ALT and 5-year persistent RSW (pRSW) exposure had the highest rate of MetS development. Also, e-ALT-plus-pRSW workers had a significant increase in MetS-components at follow-up, compared with the other subgroups. After controlling for potential confounders, e-ALT-plus-pRSW workers posed a significant risk for MetS development (odds ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-5.3, vs workers without baseline e-ALT nor pRSW). CONCLUSION: We suggest that all early middleaged male employees with e-ALT should be evaluated and managed for MetS. Particularly in terms of job arrangements, impacts of long-term RSW on MetS development should be assessed for all male employees having baseline e-ALT.

  16. Cross-sectional relationships of exercise and age to adiposity in60,617 male runners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.; Pate, Russell R.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in men whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 male runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1 percent), hip (47.1 percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Between 18 to 55 years old, the decline in BMI with weekly distance run (slope+-SE) was significantly greater in men 25-55 years old (slope+-:-0.036+-0.001 kg/m2 per km/wk) than in younger men (-0.020+-0.002 kg/m 2 per km/wk). Declines in waist circumference with running distance were also significantly greater in older than younger men (P<10-9 for trend),i.e., the slopes decreased progressively from -0.035+-0.004 cm per km/wk in 18-25 year old men to -0.097+-0.003 cm per km/wk in 50-55 year old men. Increases in BMI with age were greater for men who ran under 16km/wk than for longer distance runners. Waist circumference increased with age at all running levels, but the increase appeared to diminish by running further (0.259+-0.015 cm per year if running<8 km/wk and 0.154+-0.003 cm per year for>16 km/wk). In men over 50 years old, BMI declined -0.038+-0.001 kg/m2 per km/wk run when adjusted for age and declined -0.054+-0.003 kg/m2 (increased 0.021+-0.007 cm) per year of age when adjusted for running distance. Their waist circumference declined-0.096+-0.002 cm per km/wk run when adjusted for age and increased 0.021+-0.007 cm per year of age when adjusted for running distance. These cross-sectional data suggest that age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting mens adiposity, and support the proposition that vigorous physical activity must increase with age to prevent middle-age weight gain. We estimate that a man who ran 16 km/wk at age 25 would need to increase their weekly running distance by 65.7 km/wk by age 50 in order to maintain his same waist

  17. Metabolic Profiling Reveals Effects of Age, Sexual Development and Neutering in Plasma of Young Male Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaway, David; Gilham, Matthew S.; Colyer, Alison; Jönsson, Thomas J.; Swanson, Kelly S.; Morris, Penelope J.

    2016-01-01

    Neutering is a significant risk factor for obesity in cats. The mechanisms that promote neuter-associated weight gain are not well understood but following neutering, acute changes in energy expenditure and energy consumption have been observed. Metabolic profiling (GC-MS and UHPLC-MS-MS) was used in a longitudinal study to identify changes associated with age, sexual development and neutering in male cats fed a nutritionally-complete dry diet to maintain an ideal body condition score. At eight time points, between 19 and 52 weeks of age, fasted blood samples were taken from kittens neutered at either 19 weeks of age (Early Neuter (EN), n = 8) or at 31 weeks of age (Conventional Neuter (CN), n = 7). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to compare plasma metabolites (n = 370) from EN and CN cats. Age was the primary driver of variance in the plasma metabolome, including a developmental change independent of neuter group between 19 and 21 weeks in lysolipids and fatty acid amides. Changes associated with sexual development and its subsequent loss were also observed, with differences at some time points observed between EN and CN cats for 45 metabolites (FDR p<0.05). Pathway Enrichment Analysis also identified significant effects in 20 pathways, dominated by amino acid, sterol and fatty acid metabolism. Most changes were interpretable within the context of male sexual development, and changed following neutering in the CN group. Felinine metabolism in CN cats was the most significantly altered pathway, increasing during sexual development and decreasing acutely following neutering. Felinine is a testosterone-regulated, felid-specific glutathione derivative secreted in urine. Alterations in tryptophan, histidine and tocopherol metabolism observed in peripubertal cats may be to support physiological functions of glutathione following diversion of S-amino acids for urinary felinine secretion. PMID:27942045

  18. Antler growth in male roe deer in field hunting grounds in Vojvodina: Effect of age on trophy value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gačić Dragan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Antler growth in male roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L was studied on the representative sample consisting of 546 trophies (227 from Bačka and 319 from Banat hunted in the period 19982005. No significant differences in antler characters and trophy values were noted between Bačka and Banat (except weight of antlers for 5 year old males, and the data for both regions were pooled. Antler growth is a curvilinear function of age. Mean values of length, weight and volume of antlers, and total trophy score varied significantly between the males in different age groups. The study results prove that in Vojvodina field hunting grounds, healthy males attain the culmination in antler growth and trophy value at the age of six years but already after the age of seven years, they show the first sign of old age and decline.

  19. Peer influence on speeding behaviour among male drivers aged 18 and 28

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    with the perceived level of their friends’ speeding. In the younger age group a higher discrepancy between own and friends’ speeding was found indicating that young male drivers are socialized into increased speeding behaviour based on peer pressure. By contrast for the 28-year-olds peer pressure mainly seems...... to maintain or justify individual speeding behaviour. It is suggested that preventive measures should take these different influences of peer pressure into account by using a peer-based approach for the 18-year-olds and a more individual approach for the 28-year-olds....

  20. Hypogonadism in the Aging Male Diagnosis, Potential Benefits, and Risks of Testosterone Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanth N. Surampudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypogonadism in older men is a syndrome characterized by low serum testosterone levels and clinical symptoms often seen in hypogonadal men of younger age. These symptoms include decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, decreased vitality, decreased muscle mass, increased adiposity, depressed mood, osteopenia, and osteoporosis. Hypogonadism is a common disorder in aging men with a significant percentage of men over 60 years of age having serum testosterone levels below the lower limits of young male adults. There are a variety of testosterone formulations available for treatment of hypogonadism. Data from many small studies indicate that testosterone therapy offers several potential benefits to older hypogonadal men. A large multicenter NIH supported double blind, placebo controlled study is ongoing, and this study should greatly enhance the information available on efficacy and side effects of treatment. While safety data is available across many age groups, there are still unresolved concerns associated with testosterone therapy. We have reviewed the diagnostic methods as well as benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy for hypogonadism in aging men.

  1. The Therapeutic role of Magnesium in different depressive syndromes of the male population comprising of different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *N. Bano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic and fundamental role of Mg as being the second most abundant intercellular cation is established in various studies. It is identified as a divalent metal cofactor in over 300 enzymatic reactions involving energy metabolism and protein and nucleic acid synthesis. The biological function is identified in neuromuscular excitability. Mg ion regulates calcium ion flow in neuronal channels, helping to regulate neuronal Nitric Oxide production1. Mg deficiency causes NMDA coupled Calcium channels to be biased towards opening, causing neuronal injury & neurological dysfunction, which may appear to humans as major depression. The present study confirms a reduction in the symptoms of depression found in the male population comprising of different age group by Mg treatment. CSF Mg has been found low in treatment resistant suicidal depression. Brain Mg is also low in TRD using phosphorous nuclear magnetic resonance Spectroscopy2. A 2009 randomized clinical trial shows that Mg therapy was an effective as TCAs in depressed diabetics. Increase in brain Mg enhances both short term synaptic facilitation and long term potentiation and improves learning and memory function3 The present study is based on findings that male subjects diagnosed as depressed showed a marked reduction in behavioral and somatic features of the disease after administration of Magnesium supplement. Physiological and somatic anxiety was also alleviated in a certain age group which displayed recovery from Insomnia and agitation. Suicidal tendency was also negative in all age groups. This study focuses on the behavioral and somatic responses pertaining to brain biochemical changes induced by Magnesium therapy.

  2. Correlation between male age, WHO sperm parameters, DNA fragmentation, chromatin packaging and outcome in assisted reproduction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, M; De Jonge, C; Cox, A; Janssen, M; Bosmans, E; Ombelet, W

    2011-06-01

    In the human, male ageing results in reproductive hormonal and cellular changes that can influence semen quality (volume, motility, concentration and morphology) and ultimately result in a reduced fertilising capacity and a longer 'time to pregnancy' for ageing men as well as an increased risk for miscarriage. This prospective cohort study of 278 patients undergoing a first in vitro fertilisation or intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment was undertaken to examine whether patient's age was reflected in sperm motility, concentration, morphology as well as in DNA fragmentation (DFI) and immature chromatin (unprocessed nuclear proteins and/or poorly condensed chromatin) as measured by the sperm chromatin structure assay. This study also investigated the possible influence of male age (after correcting for female age) on their fertilising capacity, on obtaining a pregnancy and a healthy baby at home. Logistic regression analysis did not reveal any male age-related influences on sperm parameters like concentration, motility or morphology. No significant male age-related increase in DFI or immature chromatin was demonstrable for these patients. Elevated male age, after correcting for female age, was not related to lower fertilisation rates or significant decreases in the chance for a healthy baby at home.

  3. The Relative Age Effect and Physical Fitness Characteristics in German Male Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ulbricht, Jaime Fernandez-Fernandez, Alberto Mendez-Villanueva, Alexander Ferrauti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to test: 1 whether the relative age effect (RAE was prevalent in young (U12-U18 German male tennis players; 2 the potential influence of age and/or skill level on RAE and 3 whether maturity, anthropometric and fitness measures vary according to birth date distribution in elite youth tennis players. For the present study the following male populations were analysed: Overall German population (n = 3.216.811, all players affiliated to the German Tennis Federation (DTB (n = 120.851, players with DTB official ranking (n = 7165, regional (n = 381 and national (n = 57 squads (11-17 years old, as well as the top 50 German senior players were analyzed. RAEs were more prevalent at higher competitive levels with more players born in the first quarter of the year compared with the reference population for ranked (29.6%, regional (38.1% and national (42.1% players. No systematic differences were found in any of the maturity, anthropometric and fitness characteristics of the regional squad players born across different quarters. RAEs are present in the DTB competitive system and it was more pronounced at higher competitive levels. Compared with early born, late born players who were selected into elite squads did not differ in maturation, anthropometric and fitness characteristics.

  4. [Serum lipid and lipoprotein fractions in 2 age groups of male rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriakov, A; Tinterova, Z; Stoianova, S; Kavrŭkova, Iu; Rashev, M

    1980-01-01

    The authors examined in 125 young sexually mature and in 50 young sexually immature male rabbits of a New Zealand improved Bulgarian breed the following serum lipid indices: total lipids, total and free cholesterol triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol and triglyceride content of VLDL (very low density lipoproteins), LDL (high density lipoproteins), HDL (high density lipoproteins) and the percentage concentration of serum lipopropteins, examined electrophoretically. The concentrations of the examined lipid and lipoprotein fractions in the sera of both age groups of rabbits showed asymetrical distribution. The hystograms of the total lipids and total cholesterol in younger animals was excluded. The logarithnictrandsformation of asymetricaly distributed concentrations of the examined fractions normalized their distribution in a part of them. The authors determined the ranges of the norm with the help of the percentile analysis in the remaining indices with asymetric distribution. Serum lipid and lipoprotein profile revealed substantial differnces in both age groups of animals. Serum lipids and lipoproteins in young sexually mature male rabbits differed from those of a man not only by their absolute concentrations, but also by their structural characteristics.

  5. Evolution of male age-specific reproduction under differential risks and causes of death: males pay the cost of high female fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H-Y; Spagopoulou, F; Maklakov, A A

    2016-04-01

    Classic theories of ageing evolution predict that increased extrinsic mortality due to an environmental hazard selects for increased early reproduction, rapid ageing and short intrinsic lifespan. Conversely, emerging theory maintains that when ageing increases susceptibility to an environmental hazard, increased mortality due to this hazard can select against ageing in physiological condition and prolong intrinsic lifespan. However, evolution of slow ageing under high-condition-dependent mortality is expected to result from reallocation of resources to different traits and such reallocation may be hampered by sex-specific trade-offs. Because same life-history trait values often have different fitness consequences in males and females, sexually antagonistic selection can preserve genetic variance for lifespan and ageing. We previously showed that increased condition-dependent mortality caused by heat shock leads to evolution of long-life, decelerated late-life mortality in both sexes and increased female fecundity in the nematode, Caenorhabditis remanei. Here, we used these cryopreserved lines to show that males evolving under heat shock suffered from reduced early-life and net reproduction, while mortality rate had no effect. Our results suggest that heat-shock resistance and associated long-life trade-off with male, but not female, reproduction and therefore sexually antagonistic selection contributes to maintenance of genetic variation for lifespan and fitness in this population.

  6. Developing a plasma focus research training system for the fusion energy age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.

    2014-08-01

    The 3 kJ UNU/ICTP Plasma Focus Facility is the most significant device associated with the AAAPT (Asian African Association for Plasma Training). In original and modified/upgraded form it has trained generations of plasma focus (PF) researchers internationally, producing many PhD theses and peer-reviewed papers. The Lee Model code was developed for the design of this PF. This code has evolved to cover all PF machines for design, interpretation and optimization, for derivation of radiation scaling laws; and to provide insights into yield scaling limitations, radiative collapse, speed-enhanced and current-stepped PF variants. As example of fresh perspectives derivable from this code, this paper presents new results on energy transfers of the axial and radial phases of generalized PF devices. As the world moves inexorably towards the Fusion Energy Age it becomes ever more important to train plasma fusion researchers. A recent workshop in Nepal shows that demand for such training continues. Even commercial project development consultants are showing interest. We propose that the AAAPT-proven research package be upgraded, by modernizing the small PF for extreme modes of operation, switchable from the typical strong-focus mode to a slow-mode which barely pinches, thus producing a larger, more uniform plasma stream with superior deposition properties. Such a small device would be cost-effective and easily duplicated, and have the versatility of a range of experiments from intense multi-radiation generation and target damage studies to superior advanced-materials deposition. The complementary code is used to reference experiments up to the largest existing machine. This is ideal for studying machine limitations and scaling laws and to suggest new experiments. Such a modernized versatile PF machine complemented by the universally versatile code would extend the utility of the PF experience; so that AAAPT continues to provide leadership in pulsed plasma research training in

  7. Effect of recombinant human growth hormone on age-related hepatocyte changes in old male and female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Carmen; Salazar, Veronica; Ariznavarreta, Carmen; Vara, Elena; Tresguerres, Jesus A F

    2004-10-01

    Aging induces changes in several organs, such as the liver, and this process might be due to damage caused by free radicals and inflammatory mediators. The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis shows a reduction with age, and this fact could be associated with some age-related changes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of GH administration on age-induced alterations in hepatocytes. Two and twenty two month-old male and female Wistar rats were used. Old rats were treated with human recombinant GH for 10 wk. At the end of the treatment, hepatocytes were isolated from the liver and cultured, and different parameters were measured in cells and medium. Plasma IGF-1 was also measured. Aging significantly decreased plasma IGF-1 in males. In females, plasma IGF-1 was also reduced, but not significantly. GH treatment restored plasma IGF-1 levels to values similar to young males. Aging was associated with a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and cyclic guanosyl-monophosphate (cGMP), as well as a reduction in adenosyl triphosphate (ATP) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis. GH administration partially prevented all these changes in males. In females, some of the parameters were significantly improved by GH (ATP, CO, cGMP), while others showed a tendency to improvement, although differences did not reach significance. In conclusion, GH administration could exert beneficial effects against age-related changes in hepatocytes, mainly in males.

  8. Brain Food for Alzheimer-Free Ageing: Focus on Herbal Medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hügel, Helmut M

    2015-01-01

    Healthy brain aging and the problems of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are a global concern. Beyond 60 years of age, most, if not everyone, will experience a decline in cognitive skills, memory capacity and changes in brain structure. Longevity eventually leads to an accumulation of amyloid plaques and/or tau tangles, including some vascular dementia damage. Therefore, lifestyle choices are paramount to leading either a brain-derived or a brain-deprived life. The focus of this review is to critically examine the evidence, impact, influence and mechanisms of natural products as chemopreventive agents which induce therapeutic outcomes that modulate the aggregation process of beta-amyloid (Aβ), providing measureable cognitive benefits in the aging process. Plants can be considered as chemical factories that manufacture huge numbers of diverse bioactive substances, many of which have the potential to provide substantial neuroprotective benefits. Medicinal herbs and health food supplements have been widely used in Asia since over 2,000 years. The phytochemicals utilized in traditional Chinese medicine have demonstrated safety profiles for human consumption. Many herbs with anti-amyloidogenic activity, including those containing polyphenolic constituents such as green tea, turmeric, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and Panax ginseng, are presented. Also covered in this review are extracts from kitchen spices including cinnamon, ginger, rosemary, sage, salvia herbs, Chinese celery and many others some of which are commonly used in herbal combinations and represent highly promising therapeutic natural compounds against AD. A number of clinical trials conducted on herbs to counter dementia and AD are discussed.

  9. Structural equation modeling identifies markers of damage and function in the aging male Fischer 344 rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunz-Borgmann, Elizabeth A; Nichols, LaNita A; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Spagnoli, Sean; Trzeciakowski, Jerome P; Parrish, Alan R

    2016-06-01

    The male Fischer 344 rat is an established model to study progressive renal dysfunction that is similar, but not identical, to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in humans. These studies were designed to assess age-dependent alterations in renal structure and function at late-life timepoints, 16-24 months. Elevations in BUN and plasma creatinine were not significant until 24 months, however, elevations in the more sensitive markers of function, plasma cystatin C and proteinuria, were detectable at 16 and 18 months, respectively. Interestingly, cystatin C levels were not corrected by caloric restriction. Urinary Kim-1, a marker of CKD, was elevated as early as 16 months. Klotho gene expression was significantly decreased at 24 months, but not at earlier timepoints. Alterations in renal structure, glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, were noted at 16 months, with little change from 18 to 24 months. Tubulointerstitial inflammation was increased at 16 months, and remained similar from 18 to 24 months. A SEM (structural equation modeling) model of age-related renal dysfunction suggests that proteinuria is a marker of renal damage, while urinary Kim-1 is a marker of both damage and function. Taken together, these results demonstrate that age-dependent nephropathy begins as early as 16 months and progresses rapidly over the next 8 months.

  10. Late-Onset Hypogonadism in Male Patients Over 60 Years of Age with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Kara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the study was to determine serum androgen levels and the frequency of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH in patients over 60 years of age with metabolic syndrome (MS and its correlation with parameters of MS. Material and Method: Men over 60 years of age who were diagnosed with MS according to the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III criteria in the internal medicine outpatient clinics at Cerrahpasa Medical School (n=30 and healthy controls (n=30 were included in the study. Total testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG levels were analysed. Bioavailable and free testosterone levels were calculated. The participants filled up the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and Aging Male Symptoms (AMS questionnaire forms themselves without any help of the physician. Results: LOH rates were 30% and 13.3% in the MS group and healthy control group, respectively (p=0.11. Serum total testosterone and SHBG levels were significantly lower in the MS group compared to controls (p=0.004 and p=0.003, respectively. A negative correlation was found between total testosterone and MS components. BDI and AMS questionnaire scores in the two groups were not significantly different.Discussion: Serum total testosterone and SHBG levels were lower in the MS group, and inversely proportional to this, insulin resistance and intensity of MS components were increased. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 22-7

  11. Reviewing reports of semen volume and male aging of last 33 years:From 1980 through 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pallav; Sengupta

    2015-01-01

    Since several decades numerous experimental and epidemiological experiments tend to establish that in humans the semen volume declines with progression of age. This literature review is intended to report the association between male age and semen volume. Review of English language-published research over the last 33 years, from January 1, 1980, up to December 31, 2013, has been conveniently constructed using MEDLINE database. Studies with inadequate numbers of subjects and case reports were excluded. Among the methodologically stronger studies, declines in semen volume of 3% - 22% were likely when comparing 30-year-old men to 50-year-old men. The report suggests that increased male age is associated with a decline in semen volume, i.e. there has been a genuine diminution in semen volume over the past 33 years. As male fertility is to some extent correlated with semen volume the results may reflect an overall reduction in male fertility.

  12. Physiological responding to stress in middle-aged males enriched for longevity: a social stress study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Steffy W M; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen; Westendorp, Rudi; Oei, Nicole Y L

    2016-01-01

    Individuals enriched for familial longevity display a lower prevalence of age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular- and metabolic diseases. Since these diseases are associated with stress and increased cortisol levels, one of the underlying mechanisms that may contribute to healthy longevity might be a more adaptive response to stress. To investigate this, male middle-aged offspring from long-lived families (n = 31) and male non-offspring (with no familial history of longevity) (n = 26) were randomly allocated to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control condition in an experimental design. Physiological (cortisol, blood pressure, heart rate) and subjective responses were measured during the entire procedure. The results showed that Offspring had lower overall cortisol levels compared to Non-offspring regardless of condition, and lower absolute cortisol output (AUCg) during stress compared to Non-Offspring, while the increase (AUCi) did not differ between groups. In addition, systolic blood pressure in Offspring was lower compared to Non-offspring during the entire procedure. At baseline, Offspring had significantly lower systolic blood pressure and reported less subjective stress than Non-offspring and showed a trend towards lower heart rate. Offspring from long-lived families might thus be less stressed prior to potentially stressful events and consequently show overall lower levels in physiological responses. Although attenuated physiological responding cannot be ruled out, lower starting points and a lower peak level in physiological responding when confronted with an actual stressor, might already limit damage due to stress over a lifetime. Lower physiological responding may also contribute to the lower prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and other stress-related diseases in healthy longevity.

  13. Testosterone and the aging male: to treat or not to treat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Jerald

    2010-05-01

    It is well-established that total testosterone (TT) in men decreases with age and that bioavailable testosterone (bio-T) falls to an even greater extent. The clinical relevance of declining androgens in the aging male and use of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in this situation is controversial. Most studies have been short term and there are no large randomized placebo-controlled trials. Testosterone has many physiological actions in: muscles, bones, hematopoietic system, brain, reproductive and sexual organs, adipose tissue. Within these areas it stimulates: muscle growth and maintenance, bone development while inhibiting bone resorption, the production of red blood cells to increase hemoglobin, libido, enhanced mood and cognition, erectile function and lipolysis. Anabolic deficits in aging men can induce: frailty, sarcopenia, poor muscle quality, muscle weakness, hypertrophy of adipose tissue and impaired neurotransmission. The aging male with reduced testosterone availability may present with a wide variety of symptoms which in addition to frailty and weakness include: fatigue, decreased energy, decreased motivation, cognitive impairment, decreased self-confidence, depression, irritability, osteoporotic pain and the lethargy of anemia. In addition, testosterone deficiency is also associated with type-2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, coronary artery disease, stroke and transient ischemic attacks, and cardiovascular disease in general. Furthermore, there are early studies to suggest that TRT in men with low testosterone levels may improve metabolic status by: lowering blood sugar and HbA1C in men with type-2 diabetes, reducing abdominal girth, ameliorating features of the metabolic syndrome, all of which may be protective of the cardiovascular system. The major safety issue is prostate cancer but there is no evidence that supports the idea that testosterone causes the development of a de novo cancer. So on balance in a man with symptoms of hygonadism

  14. Effects of Saikokaryukotsuboreito on Spermatogenesis and Fertility in Aging Male Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Jun Zang; Su-Yun Ji; Ya-Nan Zhang; Yong Gao; Bin Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Background:Aspermia caused by exogenous testosterone limit its usage in late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) patients desiring fertility.Saikokaryukotsuboreito (SKRBT) is reported to improve serum testosterone and relieve LOH-related symptoms.However,it is unclear whether SKRBT affects fertility.We aimed to examine the effects of SKRBT on spermatogenesis and fertility in aging male mice.Methods:Thirty aging male mice were randomly assigned to three groups.Mice were orally administered with phosphate-buffer solution or SKRBT (300 mg/kg,daily) or received testosterone by subcutaneous injections (10 mg/kg,every 3 days).Thirty days later,each male mouse was mated with two female mice.All animals were sacrificed at the end of 90 days.Intratesticular testosterone (ITT) levels,quality of sperm,expression of synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SYCP3),and fertility were assayed.Results:In the SKRBT-treated group,ITT,quality of sperm,and expression of SYCP3 were all improved compared with the control group (ITT:85.50± 12.31 ng/gvs.74.10± 11.45 ng/g,P=0.027;sperm number:[14.94± 4.63] × 106 cells/ml vs.[8.79±4.38] × 106 cells/ml,P =0.002;sperm motility:43.16 ± 9.93% vs.33.51 ± 6.98%,P =0.015;the number of SYCP3-positive cells/tubule:77.50 ± 11.01 ng/ml vs.49.30 ± 8.73 ng/ml,P < 0.001;the expression of SYCP3 protein:1.23 ± 0.09 vs.0.84 ± 0.10,P < 0.001),but fertility was not significantly changed (P > 0.05,respectively).In the testosterone-treated group,ITT,quality of sperm,and expression of SYCP3 were markedly lower than the control group (ITT:59.00 ± 8.67,P =0.005;sperm number:[4.34 ± 2.45] × l06 cells/ml,P =0.018;sperm motility:19.53 ± 7.69%,P =0.001;the number of SYCP3-positive cells/tubule:30.00 ± 11.28,P < 0.001;the percentage of SYCP3-positive tubules/section 71.98 ± 8.88%,P =0.001;the expression of SYCP3 protein:0.71 ± 0.09,P < 0.001),and fertility was also suppressed (P < 0.05,respectively).Conclusion:SKRBT had no adverse effect on fertility

  15. Lipid and lipoprotein profiles among middle aged male smokers: a study from southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendiran Chinnasamy

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The objectives were to investigate into the relationship between lipid profile including Apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1 and Apolipoprotein-B (Apo-B and smokers and to relate them with smoking pack years. Materials and Methods A total of 274 active male smokers without any other illnesses and age matched male healthy control subjects (78 with similar socio-cultural background were assessed for clinical details, dietary habits, physical activities, smoking and alcohol consumption. Standard methods were adopted to check the lipid levels. The data were analyzed statistically. Results Their ages ranged from 40 to 59 years, systolic BP from 110 to 130 mmHg, and diastolic BP from 76 to 88 mmHg. All of them had similar pattern of diet (vegetarianism with occasional meat. None was on any medication influences lipid level. Their physical activity was moderate. Number of pack years varied from 10 to 14 (mild, 15 to 19 (moderate and 20 and above (heavy among 69, 90 and 115 cases, whose mean ages were 43, 44 and 49 respectively. The mean (+SD values in mg/dl of total cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TGL, Apo-B, low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and Apo-A1 in mg/dl among mild/ moderate/ heavy smokers and control subjects were 198 (30.6/ 224 (27.2/ 240 (24.3 and 160 (20.4; 164(42.6/ 199 (39.5/ 223(41.7 and 124 (31.6; 119 (24.9/ 121 (27/ 127 (28.3 and 116 (21.4; 94 (19.7/ 104 (21.8/ 120 (20.5 and 82 (17.6; 42 (5.9/ 39 (3.1/ 35(4.4 and 48 (5.3; and 120 (17/ 119 (21/ 115 (25 and 126 (19, respectively. In smokers, there was a rise in TC, TGL, LDL, Apo-B and fall in HDL and Apo-A; these changes were significant (P Conclusion Number of pack years was directly proportional to abnormal lipid profile. It is also concluded that changes in Apo-A1 and Apo-B were more significant when compared to HDL and LDL cholesterol among smokers. In the view of double risk for smokers (smoking and altered lipid profile

  16. [Lower urinary tract symptoms and male sexual dysfunction: the multinational survey of the aging.male (MSAM-7)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosen, R.; Altwein, J.; Boyle, P.; Kirby, R.S.; Lukacs, B.; Meuleman, E.J.H.; O'Leary, M.; Puppo, P.; Chris, R.; Giuliano, F.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), which are often caused by benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), and sexual dysfunction are common in older men, with an overall prevalence of > 50% in men aged > 50 years. Men with LUTS have been reported to experience sexual dysfunction, includin

  17. First Asian ISSAM Meeting on the Aging Male, Kuala Lumpur Malaysia, 1 - 3 March 2001 - an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renate Leinmüller; Bruno Lunenfeld

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1 Aging in Asia- an avalanche starts to form With decreasing fertility rate and increasing life expectan cy, the world is aging- with highest rates in Asia. The socio economic, financial and medical consequences of the aging popu lation will be even more pro nounced due to the limited re sources of many Asian coun tries. During the First Asin ISSAM Meeting on the Aging Male distinguished speakers de picted the scenario in the various countries and proposed solutions of how to manage the aging pop ulations.

  18. Socioeconomic factors and incidence of erectile dysfunction: findings of the longitudinal Massachussetts Male Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytaç, I A; Araujo, A B; Johannes, C B; Kleinman, K P; McKinlay, J B

    2000-09-01

    Despite the well-documented relationship of socioeconomic factors (SEF) to various health problems, the relationship of SEF to erectile dysfunction (ED) is not well understood. As such, the goals of this paper are: (1) to determine whether incident ED is more likely to occur among men with low SEF; and (2) to determine whether incident ED varies by SEF after taking into consideration other well-established ED risk factors that are also associated with SEF such as smoking, diabetes, and high blood pressure. We used data from 797 participants in the longitudinal population-based Massachusetts Male Aging Study (baseline 1987-1989, follow-up 1995-1997) who were free of ED at baseline and had complete data on ED and all risk factors. ED was determined by a self-administered questionnaire and its relationship to SEF was assessed using logistic regression. We first analyzed the age-adjusted relationship of education, income, and occupation to incidence of ED. The results show that men with low education (O.R. = 1.46, 95% C.I. = 1.02-2.08) or men in blue-collar occupations (O.R. = 1.68, 95% C.I. = 1.16-2.43) are significantly more likely to develop ED. For the multivariate model, due to multicollinearity among education, income, and occupation, we ran three separate models. After taking into consideration all the other risk factors--age, lifestyle and medical conditions--the effect of occupation remained significant. Men who worked in blue-collar occupations were one and a half times more likely to develop ED compared to men in white-collar occupations (O.R. = 1.55, 95% C.I. = 1.06-2.28).

  19. Are the Aging Male's Symptoms (AMS) scale and the Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male (ADAM) questionnaire suitable for the screening of late-onset hypogonadism in aging Chinese men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Liu, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Lin-Hui; Zeng, Qin-Song; Wang, Hui-Qing; Sun, Ying-hao

    2013-09-01

    The Aging Male's Symptoms (AMS) scale and the Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male (ADAM) questionnaire have been widely used for screening men suspected of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). We evaluated the consistency of the two questionnaires with sex hormone levels. A total of 985 men completed the two questionnaires, as well as an analysis of the serum levels of total testosterone (TT), bioavailable testosterone (BT), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). No correlation was observed between any hormone level and the psychological or somatic section of the AMS score, whereas the sexual section was correlated with the levels of FT, LH, FSH, SHBG and BT. Significant correlations were observed between the result of the two questionnaires and these hormone levels. When LOH was defined as TT AMS scale were 54.0% and 41.2% compared with 78.7% and 14.8% for the ADAM questionnaire. Several sex hormone levels correlated with the two questionnaires, but neither of these questionnaires had sufficient sensitivity and specificity. It is necessary to provide a new questionnaire applicable to the Chinese population to screening LOH.

  20. Age and isolation influence steroids release and chemical signaling in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Cavaggioni, Andrea; Redaelli, Marco; Da Dalt, Laura; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Gabai, Gianfranco

    2014-05-01

    Social interactions in mice involve olfactory signals, which convey information about the emitter. In turn, the mouse social and physiological status may modify the release of chemical cues. In this study, the influences of age and social isolation on the endocrine response and the release of chemical signals were investigated in male CD1 mice, allocated into four groups: Young Isolated (from weaning till 60days; N=6), Adult Isolated (till 180days; N=6), Young Grouped (6 mice/cage; till 60days; N=18), Adult Grouped (6 mice/cage; till 180days; N=18). Mice were transferred in a clean cage to observe the micturition pattern and then sacrificed. Body and organs weights, serum testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, corticosterone and the ratio Major Urinary Protein/creatinine were measured. Urinary volatile molecules potentially involved in pheromonal communication were identified. Androgen secretion was greater in isolated mice (P<0.05), suggesting a greater reactivity of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal axis. Grouped mice presented a higher degree of adrenal activity, and young mice showed a higher serum corticosterone (P<0.05) suggesting a greater stimulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis. The micturition pattern typical of dominant male, consisting in voiding numerous droplets, was observed in Young Isolated mice only, which showed a higher protein/creatinine ratio (P<0.05). Urinary 2-s-butyl-thiazoline was higher in both Young and Adult Isolated mice (P<0.005). Young Isolated mice showed the most prominent difference in both micturition pattern and potentially active substance emission, while long term isolation resulted in a less extreme phenotype; therefore social isolation had a higher impact on young mice hormone and pheromone release.

  1. Keep on cruising: Changes in lifestyle and driving style among male drivers between the age of 18 and 23

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent improvements in general road safety levels, young male drivers in most western countries continue to be overrepresented in road traffic accidents. Lifestyle related motivational factors are a key element in the young male driver problem. Based on 379 posted questionnaires completed...... by the same male drivers at the age of 18 and again at the age of 23, this study examined changes in the relationship between lifestyle and driving style over a 5 year period. A number of changes in car use, driving style and engagement in different leisure time activities were found. Cruising was related...... to an extrovert social life as well as problem behaviours such as drink driving. At the age of 18 cruising was a part of the normal social life of the majority of the participants. However, while most drivers reduced their level of cruising as well as related problem behaviour over time, a smaller group still...

  2. Bone metabolism biomarkers, body weight, and bone age in healthy Brazilian male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Carla Cristiane; Kurokawa, Cilmery Suemi; Nga, Hong Si; Moretto, Maria Regina; Dalmas, José Carlos; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer

    2012-01-01

    Eighty-seven male volunteers were grouped according to bone age (BA): 10-12 years (n=25), 13-15 years (n=36), and 16-18 years (n=26), and the following were recorded for each: weight (kg), height (m), BMI (kg/m(2)), calcium intake from three 24-h food recalls (mg/day), puberty evaluation by Tanner stages, bone biomarker (BB) evaluation, serum osteocalcin (OC), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), carboxyterminal telopeptide (S-CTx), and bone mineral density (BMD) evaluations by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (g x cm(2)) in the lumbar spine, proximal femur, and the whole body. BBs showed similar behaviors, and very high median values were observed for individuals aged 13-15 years (BAP = 155.50 IU/L, OC = 41.63 ng/mL, S-CT x =2.09 ng/mL). Lower median BB values were observed with advancing BA between 16 and 18 years (BA P =79.80 IU/L, O C =27.80 ng/mL, S-CT x =1.65 ng/mL). Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed body weight associated with BA as independent variables with greater determination power for S-CTx (r(2) = 0.40) and OC (r(2)=0.21). For BAP, stepwise analysis showed body weight and whole-body BMD (r(2) = 0.34). All predictive models showed significance ( p Weight and BA were significant in determining predictive equations of OC and of S-CTx, whereas for BAP, weight and BMD of full body were selected.

  3. Effects of Forest Bathing on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Parameters in Middle-Aged Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the effects of a forest bathing on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters. Nineteen middle-aged male subjects were selected after they provided informed consent. These subjects took day trips to a forest park in Agematsu, Nagano Prefecture, and to an urban area of Nagano Prefecture as control in August 2015. On both trips, they walked 2.6 km for 80 min each in the morning and afternoon on Saturdays. Blood and urine were sampled before and after each trip. Cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured during the trips. The Japanese version of the profile of mood states (POMS test was conducted before, during, and after the trips. Ambient temperature and humidity were monitored during the trips. The forest bathing program significantly reduced pulse rate and significantly increased the score for vigor and decreased the scores for depression, fatigue, anxiety, and confusion. Urinary adrenaline after forest bathing showed a tendency toward decrease. Urinary dopamine after forest bathing was significantly lower than that after urban area walking, suggesting the relaxing effect of the forest bathing. Serum adiponectin after the forest bathing was significantly greater than that after urban area walking.

  4. Aging US males with multiple sources of emotional social support have low testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettler, Lee T; Oka, Rahul C

    2016-02-01

    Among species expressing bi-parental care, males' testosterone is often low when they cooperate with females to raise offspring. In humans, low testosterone men might have an advantage as nurturant partners and parents because they are less prone to anger and reactive aggression and are more empathetic. However, humans engage in cooperative, supportive relationships beyond the nuclear family, and these prosocial capacities were likely critical to our evolutionary success. Despite the diversity of human prosociality, no prior study has tested whether men's testosterone is also reduced when they participate in emotionally supportive relationships, beyond partnering and parenting. Here, we draw on testosterone and emotional social support data that were collected from older men (n=371; mean: 61.2years of age) enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a US nationally-representative study. Men who reported receiving emotional support from two or more sources had lower testosterone than men reporting zero support (all psocial relationships. Our results contribute novel insights on the intersections between health, social support, and physiology.

  5. Surveys of serum reproductive hormone levels and the prevalence rates of late onset of hypogonadism in Chinese aging males

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Shan-jie; Li Xian-kun; Lu Wen-hong; Liang Xiao-wei; Yuan Dong; Li Hong; Gu Yi-qun; Zhang Bao-long; Ji Yu-dang; Wang Can-gang

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the change patterns of reproductive hormones in serum of aging males and the difference among male age brackets and the prevalence rates of late onset of hypogonadism (LOH) in males in Chinese middle and aging males.Methods:Subjects included 1,498 men aged 40 to 69 from a county,and the serum reproductive hormones of 434 subjects were measured and calculated.In addition,the prevalence rates of LOH were analyzed by cut-off point of total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (cFT),and screening scales (a questionnaire of androgen deficiency in the aging males (ADAM) and a scale of aging males' symptoms (AMS)).TT,cFT,bio-available testosterone (Bio-T),luteinizing hormone (LH),sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG),testosterone secretion index (TSI),free testosterone index (FTI),the positive rates of LOH screening,androgen deficiency rates and the clinical prevalence rates of LOH were measured or calculated.Results:The serum TT levels did not change significantly with male aging while serum LH and SHBG levels gradually increased,but cFT,Bio-T,TSI and FTI levels gradually decreased with male aging.There was very significant difference in other six parameters of reproductive hormones (P<0.01),except for serum TT among the four age brackets(P>0.05).There was no correlation between serum TT levels and aging,LH levels(P>0.05).However,there was significantly a positive correlation between serum LH,SHBG and age (P<0.01),while there were negative correlation between cFT,Bio-T,TSI,FTI and age,LH levels (P<0.01).Moreover,SHBG level was positively correlated with LH level (P<0.01).Utilizing the Questionnaire of ADAM and AMS to screen subjects aged 40 to 69 years,mean positive rates of LOH screening were 80.77% and 32.34% respectively.Mean androgen deficiency rates were 14.02% and 43.69%by using TT and cFT cut-off point.In addition,mean LOH clinical prevalence rates of subjects on positive questionnaire results were 37.85% and 15.42

  6. Influence of Physical Exercise and Food Restriction on the Biomechanical Properties of the Femur of Ageing Male Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Skalicky, Monika; Viidik, Andrus

    2008-01-01

    were used: baseline (BL), voluntarily running in wheels (RW), food restriction to attain pair weight with RW animals (PW), forced running in treadmills (TM), and sedentary controls (SE). The biomechanical properties of femoral neck, diaphysis, and distal metaphysis were measured. RESULTS: While......BACKGROUND: Voluntary running in wheels as well as food reduction increase the life spans of rats. Disparate parameters such as the collagen biomarker of ageing and the development of kidney pathologies are decreased by voluntary exercise. There are few reports on the influence of physical exercise...... restriction on the biomechanical properties of bone tissue of ageing male rats with the interventions starting at the age of 5 months with the end point at 23 months. This enables the study of the influence of these interventions on the ageing of the skeleton. METHODS: Five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats...

  7. Daily melatonin administration at middle age suppresses male rat visceral fat, plasma leptin, and plasma insulin to youthful levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, D D; Boldt, B M; Wilkinson, C W; Yellon, S M; Matsumoto, A M

    1999-02-01

    Human and rat pineal melatonin secretion decline with aging, whereas visceral fat and plasma insulin levels increase. Melatonin modulates fat metabolism in some mammalian species, so these aging-associated melatonin, fat and insulin changes could be functionally related. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of daily melatonin supplementation to male Sprague-Dawley rats, starting at middle age (10 months) and continuing into old age (22 months). Melatonin was added to the drinking water (92% of which was consumed at night) at a dosage (4 microg/ml) previously reported to attenuate the aging-associated decrease in survival rate in male rats, as well as at a 10-fold lower dosage. The higher dosage produced nocturnal plasma melatonin levels in middle-aged rats which were 15-fold higher than in young (4 months) rats; nocturnal plasma melatonin levels in middle-aged rats receiving the lower dosage were not significantly different from young or middle-aged controls. Relative (% of body wt) retroperitoneal and epididymal fat, as well as plasma insulin and leptin levels, were all significantly increased at middle age when compared to young rats. All were restored within 10 weeks to youthful (4 month) levels in response to both dosages of melatonin. Continued treatment until old age maintained suppression of visceral (retroperitoneal + epididymal) fat levels. Plasma corticosterone and total thyroxine (T4) levels were not significantly altered by aging or melatonin treatment. Plasma testosterone, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and total triiodothyronine (T3) decreased by middle age; these aging-associated decreases were not significantly altered by melatonin treatment. Thus, visceral fat, insulin and leptin responses to melatonin administration may be independent of marked changes in gonadal, thyroid, adrenal or somatotropin regulation. Since increased visceral fat is associated with increased insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, these results

  8. Melatonin can improve insulin resistance and aging-induced pancreas alterations in senescence-accelerated prone male mice (SAMP8)

    OpenAIRE

    Cuesta, Sara; Kireev, Roman; García, Cruz; Rancan, Lisa; Vara, Elena; Jesús A. F. Tresguerres

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of aging on several parameters related to glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in pancreas and how melatonin administration could affect these parameters. Pancreas samples were obtained from two types of male mice models: senescence-accelerated prone (SAMP8) and senescence-accelerated-resistant mice (SAMR1). Insulin levels in plasma were increased with aging in both SAMP8 and SAMR1 mice, whereas insulin content in pancreas was d...

  9. Form of the male and female corpus callosum internal organization at the mature age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юрий Петрович Костиленко

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the special features of the male and female corpus callosum internal organization at the mature age.Materials and methods: the total preparations of the male and female corpus callosum (10 preparation of each sex at 45–60 years old were used as the material. The given preparations were used to get from it the plate cuts in the two mutually perpendicular planes with 2 mm. thick. Then the received tissue plates of the corpus callosum underwent plastination in the epoxy. Then the preparations were extracted from the non-polymerized epoxy and placed on the polyethylene film that was covered with the other film of the same size. Further this stratified block was placed amid the two glasses of the equal size that shrunk together by placing the small load on it. After the complete polymerization the received epoxy plates with the corpus callosum tissue contained in it underwent the gentle grinding and the accurate polish and as the result was obtained the surface denudation of its tissue structures that were colored with the 1 % solution of blue methylene for 1% borax solution.Results of research: at the study of the corpus callosum plastinated cuts in saggital plane was revealed that the transverse platen-form elevations of its higher surface are the cord-form tenias standing out from within and going through the corpus callosum. At its studying in the transverse cut was established that in adults can be separated two types of corpus callosum by its density: the dense one and disperse one.At the large increases of the binocular loupe (microscope MBS-9 can be seen the gaps between the adjacent commissural cords. Within it can be detected the blood vessels. On the transverse cut of commissural cords in its depth are revealed the thinnest streaks which totality consists of the two alternate dark and light lines that form the layered striation. Among the series of the light lines are visible the interlayer that separate the whole depth of

  10. Age effect of male and female broiler breeders on sperm penetration of the perivitelline layer overlying the germinal disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramwell, R K; McDaniel, C D; Wilson, J L; Howarth, B

    1996-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the effect of age (male and female) on the number of spermatozoa penetrating the perivitelline layer (PL) overlying the germinal disc (GD) in broiler breeders. Eighty young broiler breeder hens (39 wk old, Y), and 80 old spent broiler breeder hens (69 wk old, O) were randomly divided into eight groups of 20 hens each by age. Hens were inseminated weekly for 4 consecutive wk with 5 x 10(7) pooled sperm/50 microL from either young or old broiler breeder males. Sperm penetration (SP) of the PL at the GD was assessed in a random sample of 12 oviposited eggs from each hen group for each day postinsemination, with the remainder of the eggs incubated for 10 d to obtain fertility values. For the main effect of sex, and for age within sex, there were differences in mean SP (7.3 vs 4.8; Y vs O hens; P hens; P artificial insemination of a constant number of sperm, age of hens appears to contribute more to the decrease in SP and fertility than the age of male broiler breeders. Eggs were obtained from naturally mated broiler breeder flocks from different strains (A and B), lines (male and female), and ages. There was an effect on overall mean SP values due to strain (105.8 vs 78.6 holes per GD area; Strains A and B, respectively; P < 0.0001), and line within Strain B (106.4 vs 50.8 holes per GD; male and female line, respectively; P < 0.0001). There was a quadratic relationship between SP of the PL and age in Strain A with values ranging from 153.3 to 20.0 holes per GD area (P < 0.003). In Strain B, SP holes in the PL decreased in the male line due to age (127.8 to 59.7 per GD; P < 0.01), with an effect of age on the female line also (62.1 vs. 37.8 holes per GD; P < 0.05).

  11. The effect of caffeine on working memory load-­related brain activation in middle-­aged males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Elissa; De Groot, Renate; Evers, Lisbeth; Snel, Jan; Veerman, Enno; Ligtenberg, Antoon; Jolles, Jelle; Veltman, Dick

    2012-01-01

    Klaassen, E. B., De Groot, R. H. M., Evers, E. A. T., Snel, J., Veerman, E. C. I., Ligtenberg, A. J. M., Jolles, J., & Veltman, D. J. (2013). The effect of caffeine on working memory load-related brain activation in middle-aged male. Neuropharmacology, 64, 160-167. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2012.06.0

  12. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of…

  13. Modeling Developmental Changes in Functional Capacities and Soccer-Specific Skills in Male Players Aged 11-17 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente-dos-Santos, Joao; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J.; Simoes, Filipe; Figueiredo, Antonio J.; Leite, Neiva; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Malina, Robert M.; Sherar, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the contributions of age. growth, skeletal maturation, playing position and training to longitudinal changes in functional and skill performance in male youth soccer. Players were annually followed over 5 years (n = 83, 4.4 measurements per player). Composite scores for function

  14. World Assembly on Aging First Global Focus on Action and Strategies for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sybil E.

    1985-01-01

    The author interprets the diversity of humanitarian and development issues behind "the age of aging" as highlighted by the United Nations World Assembly on Aging. She examines education as a basic human right of the elderly, continuous adult education, access to education and culture, and funding for these programs. (CT)

  15. Depression-like behavior of aged male and female mice is ameliorated with administration of testosterone or its metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Cheryl A; Walf, Alicia A

    2009-05-25

    There may be a role of age-related decline in androgen production and/or its metabolism for late-onset depression disorders of men and women. Thus, the anti-depressant-like effects of testosterone (T) and its metabolites are of interest. Given that these androgens have disparate mechanisms of action, it is important to begin to characterize and compare their effects in an aged animal model. We hypothesized that there would be sex differences in depression behavior of aged mice and that androgens would reduce depression-like behaviors in the forced swim test. To investigate this, male and female mice (approximately 24 months old) were subcutaneously administered T, or one of its 5alpha-reduced metabolites (dihydrotesterone-DHT, 5alpha-androstane,17beta-diol-3alpha-diol), or aromatized metabolite (estradiol--E(2)), or oil vehicle. Mice were administered androgens (1 mg/kg) 1 h before being tested in the forced swim test, an animal model of depression. We found that males spent more time immobile, and less time swimming, than females. Administration of T, DHT, or 3alpha-diol similarly reduced time spent immobile, and increased time spent struggling, of male and female mice. E(2), compared to vehicle administration, decreased time spent immobile of males and females, but increased time spent swimming of females and time spent struggling of male mice. Together, these data suggest that T and its 5alpha-reduced and aromatized metabolites have anti-depressant-like effects in aged male and female mice.

  16. What it Takes to Successfully Implement Technology for Aging in Place: Focus Groups With Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Eveline JM; Luijkx, Katrien G; Vrijhoef, Hubertus JM

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a growing interest in empowering older adults to age in place by deploying various types of technology (ie, eHealth, ambient assisted living technology, smart home technology, and gerontechnology). However, initiatives aimed at implementing these technologies are complicated by the fact that multiple stakeholder groups are involved. Goals and motives of stakeholders may not always be transparent or aligned, yet research on convergent and divergent positions of stakeholders is scarce. Objective To provide insight into the positions of stakeholder groups involved in the implementation of technology for aging in place by answering the following questions: What kind of technology do stakeholders see as relevant? What do stakeholders aim to achieve by implementing technology? What is needed to achieve successful implementations? Methods Mono-disciplinary focus groups were conducted with participants (n=29) representing five groups of stakeholders: older adults (6/29, 21%), care professionals (7/29, 24%), managers within home care or social work organizations (5/29, 17%), technology designers and suppliers (6/29, 21%), and policy makers (5/29, 17%). Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Stakeholders considered 26 different types of technologies to be relevant for enabling independent living. Only 6 out of 26 (23%) types of technology were mentioned by all stakeholder groups. Care professionals mentioned fewer different types of technology than other groups. All stakeholder groups felt that the implementation of technology for aging in place can be considered a success when (1) older adults’ needs and wishes are prioritized during development and deployment of the technology, (2) the technology is accepted by older adults, (3) the technology provides benefits to older adults, and (4) favorable prerequisites for the use of technology by older adults exist. While stakeholders seemed to have identical aims, several underlying

  17. Age-related changes in male forearm skin-to-fat tissue dielectric constant at 300 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrovitz, Harvey N; Grammenos, Alexandra; Corbitt, Kelly; Bartos, Simona

    2017-03-01

    Prior research suggests that tissue dielectric constant (TDC) values are useful to assess localized skin water in females for early diagnosing breast cancer treatment-related lymphoedema and TDC values in young adults have shown gender differences. However, no TDC data are available for older males nor have ageing effects been studied despite known shifts in water state and other skin age-related changes. Thus our goals were to (i) characterize TDC values at various skin depths in young and older males, (ii) determine the dependence of these values on body composition parameters and (iii) establish inter-arm TDC ratios for use as normal male reference values. TDC measurements were made to depths of 0·5, 1·5, 2·5 and 5·0 mm bilaterally on volar forearm skin in 60 males in three groups of 20 that had mean ages ± SD of 24·0 ± 0·9, 40·0 ± 12·9 and 71·0 ± 8·0 years. Total body fat and water percentages were determined via bioimpedance at 50 KHz. Results showed that (i) for all age groups TDC values decreased with increasing depth, (ii) TDC values were not statistically different among age groups except at a depth of 0·5 mm, (iii) TDC values were highly negatively correlated with total body fat and (iv) inter-arm ratios varied little among age groups and depths. It is concluded that (i) age-related larger TDC values at only the shallowest depth is consistent with skin water shifting state from bound to more mobile in the oldest group and (ii) inter-arm ratios at any depth provide a basis to test for unilateral oedema.

  18. Do males evaluate female age for precopulatory mate guarding in the two-spotted spider mite?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oku, K.; Saito, Y.

    2014-01-01

    In the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), because only the first mating results in fertilisation, adult males guard quiescent deutonymph females, the stage immediately before adult emergence. Previous studies showed that T. urticae males prefer to guard older rather

  19. Impact of female age and male infertility on ovarian reserve markers to predict outcome of assisted reproduction technology cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Kung-Chen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to assess the capability of ovarian reserve markers, including baseline FSH levels, baseline anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH levels, and antral follicle count (AFC, as predictors of live births during IVF cycles, especially for infertile couples with advanced maternal age and/or male factors. Methods A prospective cohort of 336 first IVF/ICSI cycles undergoing a long protocol with GnRH agonist was investigated. Patients with endocrine disorders or unilateral ovaries were excluded. Results Among the ovarian reserve tests, AMH and age had a greater area under the receiving operating characteristic curve than FSH in predicting live births. Furthermore, AMH and age were the sole predictive factors of live births for women greater than or equal to 35 years of age; while AMH was the major determinant of live births for infertile couples with absence of male factors by multivariate logistic regression analysis. However, all the studied ovarain reserve tests were not preditive of live births for women Conclusion The serum AMH levels were prognostic for pregnancy outcome for infertile couples with advanced female age or absence of male factors. The predictive capability of ovarian reserve tests is clearly influenced by the etiology of infertility.

  20. Male-to-Female Transgender Individuals Building Social Support and Capital From Within a Gender-Focused Network

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Rogério M.; Melendez, Rita M.; Spector, Anya Y.

    2008-01-01

    The literature on male-to-female transgender (MTF) individuals lists myriad problems such individuals face in their day-to-day lives, including high rates of HIV/AIDS, addiction to drugs, violence, and lack of health care. These problems are exacerbated for ethnic and racial minority MTFs. Support available from their social networks can help MTFs alleviate these problems. This article explores how minority MTFs, specifically in an urban environment, develop supportive social networks defined...

  1. Modified forelimb grip strength test detects aging-associated physiological decline in skeletal muscle function in male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Hikari; Yamamoto, Koichi; Nozato, Satoko; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Shirai, Mikiyasu; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Imaizumi, Yuki; Hongyo, Kazuhiro; Yokoyama, Serina; Takeda, Masao; Oguro, Ryosuke; Takami, Yoichi; Itoh, Norihisa; Takeya, Yasushi; Sugimoto, Ken; Fukada, So-ichiro; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2017-01-01

    The conventional forelimb grip strength test is a widely used method to assess skeletal muscle function in rodents; in this study, we modified this method to improve its variability and consistency. The modified test had lower variability among trials and days than the conventional test in young C57BL6 mice, especially by improving the variabilities in male. The modified test was more sensitive than the conventional test to detect a difference in motor function between female and male mice, or between young and old male mice. When the modified test was performed on male mice during the aging process, reduction of grip strength manifested between 18 and 24 months of age at the group level and at the individual level. The modified test was similar to the conventional test in detecting skeletal muscle dysfunction in young male dystrophic mice. Thus, the modified forelimb grip strength test, with its improved validity and reliability may be an ideal substitute for the conventional method. PMID:28176863

  2. Four-month enriched environment prevents myelinated fiber loss in the white matter during normal aging of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu; Lu, Wei; Zhou, De-shan; Tang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    White matter degenerates with normal aging and accordingly results in declines in multiple brain functions. Previous neuroimaging studies have implied that the white matter is plastic by experiences and contributory to the experience-dependent recovery of brain functions. However, it is not clear how and how far enriched environment (EE) plays a role in the white matter remodeling. Male rats exhibit earlier and severer age-related damages in the white matter and its myelinated fibers than female rats; therefore, in this current study, 24 middle-aged (14-month-old) and 24 old-aged (24-month-old) male SD rats were randomly assigned to an EE or standard environment (SE) for 4 months prior to Morris water maze tests. Five rats from each group were then randomly sampled for stereological assessment of the white matter. Results revealed that EE could somewhat induce improvement of spatial learning and significantly increase the white matter volume, the myelinated fiber volume and the myelinated fiber length during normal aging. The EE-induced improvement of spatial learning ability was significantly correlated with the EE-induced increase of the white matter and its myelinated fibers. We suggested that exposure to an EE could delay the progress of age-related changes in the white matter and the effect could extend to old age.

  3. Effects of age on marathon finishing time among male amateur runners in Stockholm Marathon 1979-2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niklas Lehto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the age-related changes in the endurance performance among male amateur marathon runners. Methods: Subjects were taken from the 36 Stockholm Marathons held from 1979 through 2014, and age and finishing time were analyzed for a total of 312,342 male runners. Results: The relation was found to be a second-order polynomial, t=a+bx+cx2, which models 99.7%of the variation in the average running time t as a function of age x. The model shows that the marathon performance of the average runner improves up to age 34.3 ± 2.6 years, thereafter, the performance starts to decline. A quantification of the age’s influence on running time shows that it accounts for 4.5%of the total variance seen in the performance data. Conclusion: These outcomes indicate that the effect of age on performance in endurance running events is clearly measurable, quantifiable, and possible to describe. At the same time the findings indicate that other factors, such as training, affect the performance more. A comparison with the elite showed peak performance at the same age, but the rates of change in performance with age, improvement as well as degradation, was found to be higher among the elite.

  4. Season- and age-related reproductive changes based on fecal androgen concentrations in male koalas, Phascolarctos cinereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuda, Satoshi; Hashikawa, Hisashi; Takeda, Masato; Ito, Hideki; Goto, Atsushi; Oguchi, Jun; Doi, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to clarify age- and season- related androgen patterns, and to compare the reproductive physiology between Japanese captive koala populations and Australian populations. To measure fecal androgens, feces were collected from male koalas (4.2 to 13.8 years of age) kept in Japanese zoos. Fecal androgens were extracted with methanol from the lyophilized samples and determined by enzyme immunoassay using 4-androstene-3,17-dione antibody. Fecal androgen concentration in male koalas increased after sexual maturation and remained relatively high until old age. In the survey with the Japanese zoo studbook of koalas, copulation (conception) month showed a pyramid shape with a peak in March to June (60.7%) in koalas born and reared in Japanese zoos and from July to April with the highest concentration in September to January (69.7%) in Australian institutes. Japanese zoo koala populations have a characteristic physiological cycle adapted to Japan's seasonal changes. The suitable month of year for copulation or conception in Japan is diametrically opposed to that in Australia. Mean fecal androgen concentrations by month in the males born and reared in Japan indicated annual changes with the highest concentration in May and the lowest value in November. Fecal androgen analysis may be a noninvasive alternative tool to monitor circulating testosterone and may be helpful in understanding reproductive activity and physiology in male koalas.

  5. Focus on opportunities as a mediator of the relationships between age, job complexity, and work performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Heusner, Sandra; Schmitz, Michael; Zwierzanska, Monika M.; Frese, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Focus on opportunities is a cognitive-motivational facet of occupational future time perspective that describes how many new goals, options, and possibilities individuals expect to have in their personal work-related futures. This study examined focus on opportunities as a mediator of the relationsh

  6. Male-biased sex allocation in ageing parents; a longitudinal study in a long-lived seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedder, Oscar; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Benito, María M; Becker, Peter H

    2016-08-01

    Optimal sex allocation is frequency-dependent, but senescence may cause behaviour at old age to be suboptimal. We investigated whether sex allocation changes with parental age, using 16 years of data comprising more than 2500 molecularly sexed offspring of more than 600 known-age parents in common terns (Sterna hirundo), slightly sexually size-dimorphic seabirds. We decomposed parental age effects into within-individual change and sex allocation-associated selective (dis)appearance. Individual parents did not differ consistently in sex allocation, but offspring sex ratios at fledging changed from female- to male-biased as parents aged. Sex ratios at hatching were not related to parental age, suggesting sons to outperform daughters after hatching in broods of old parents. Our results call for the integration of sex allocation theory with theory on ageing and demography, as a change in sex allocation with age per se will cause the age structure of a population to affect the frequency-dependent benefits and the age-specific strength of selection on sex allocation.

  7. What Does Age Have to Do with Skills Proficiency? Adult Skills in Focus #3

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Adults tend to lose their information-processing skills as they age, especially if they do not use them. While older adults may compensate for this loss by developing other valuable skills, the importance of being proficient in information-processing skills in determining wages and employment does not diminish as workers age. Probably the most…

  8. The emerging role of Notch pathway in ageing: Focus on the related mechanisms in age-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balistreri, Carmela Rita; Madonna, Rosalinda; Melino, Gerry; Caruso, Calogero

    2016-08-01

    Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway, which is fundamental for the development of all tissues, organs and systems of human body. Recently, a considerable and still growing number of studies have highlighted the contribution of Notch signaling in various pathological processes of the adult life, such as age-related diseases. In particular, the Notch pathway has emerged as major player in the maintenance of tissue specific homeostasis, through the control of proliferation, migration, phenotypes and functions of tissue cells, as well as in the cross-talk between inflammatory cells and the innate immune system, and in onset of inflammatory age-related diseases. However, until now there is a confounding evidence about the related mechanisms. Here, we discuss mechanisms through which Notch signaling acts in a very complex network of pathways, where it seems to have the crucial role of hub. Thus, we stress the possibility to use Notch pathway, the related molecules and pathways constituting this network, both as innovative (predictive, diagnostic and prognostic) biomarkers and targets for personalised treatments for age-related diseases.

  9. Childhood ADHD and conduct disorder as independent predictors of male alcohol dependence at age 40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Joachim; Penick, Elizabeth C; Nickel, Elizabeth J;

    2009-01-01

    The Danish Longitudinal Study on Alcoholism was designed to identify antecedent predictors of adult male alcoholism. The influence of premorbid behaviors consistent with childhood conduct disorder (CD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the development of alcohol misuse...

  10. Male Eating Disorder Symptom Patterns and Health Correlates From 13 to 26 Years of Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calzo, J.P. (Jerel P.); Horton, N.J. (Nicholas J.); Sonneville, K.R. (Kendrin R.); S.A. Swanson (Sonja); Crosby, R.D. (Ross D.); N. Micali (Nadia); Eddy, K.T. (Kamryn T.); Field, A.E. (Alison E.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective Research on the manifestations and health correlates of eating disorder symptoms among males is lacking. This study identified patterns of appearance concerns and eating disorder behaviors from adolescence through young adulthood and their health correlates. Method Participants

  11. Recent progress in genetics of aging, senescence and longevity: focusing on cancer-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Albert E; Leontieva, Olga V; Natarajan, Venkatesh; McCubrey, James A; Demidenko, Zoya N; Nikiforov, Mikhail A

    2012-12-01

    It is widely believed that aging results from the accumulation of molecular damage, including damage of DNA and mitochondria and accumulation of molecular garbage both inside and outside of the cell. Recently, this paradigm is being replaced by the "hyperfunction theory", which postulates that aging is caused by activation of signal transduction pathways such as TOR (Target of Rapamycin). These pathways consist of different enzymes, mostly kinases, but also phosphatases, deacetylases, GTPases, and some other molecules that cause overactivation of normal cellular functions. Overactivation of these sensory signal transduction pathways can cause cellular senescence, age-related diseases, including cancer, and shorten life span. Here we review some of the numerous very recent publications on the role of signal transduction molecules in aging and age-related diseases. As was emphasized by the author of the "hyperfunction model", many (or actually all) of them also play roles in cancer. So these "participants" in pro-aging signaling pathways are actually very well acquainted to cancer researchers. A cancer-related journal such as Oncotarget is the perfect place for publication of such experimental studies, reviews and perspectives, as it can bridge the gap between cancer and aging researchers.

  12. Focus on the young ones”: Discourses on substance abuse and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selseng Lillian Bruland

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS – Previous research has shown that age categories play a vital part in the decision-making processes of counsellors in substance abuse services, yet very little is known about how the meanings of “age” and “substance abuse” are constructed and intertwined. This article aims to provide insights into the dynamic relationship between discourses on age and substance abuse. It explores the narratives of a group of counsellors on age and substance abuse, and looks at the subject positions this intersection produces.

  13. Recent progress in genetics of aging, senescence and longevity: focusing on cancer-related genes

    OpenAIRE

    Berman, Albert E.; Leontieva, Olga V.; Natarajan, Venkatesh; McCubrey, James A.; Demidenko, Zoya N; Nikiforov, Mikhail A.

    2012-01-01

    It is widely believed that aging results from the accumulation of molecular damage, including damage of DNA and mitochondria and accumulation of molecular garbage both inside and outside of the cell. Recently, this paradigm is being replaced by the “hyperfunction theory”, which postulates that aging is caused by activation of signal transduction pathways such as TOR (Target of Rapamycin). These pathways consist of different enzymes, mostly kinases, but also phosphatases, deacetylases, GTPases...

  14. Effects of aging on mouse tongue epithelium focusing on cell proliferation rate and morphological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrard, Vinicius Coelho; Pires, Aline Segatto; Badauy, Cristiano Macabu; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki; Lauxen, Isabel Silva; Sant'Ana Filho, Manoel

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate cell proliferation rate and certain morphological features of mouse epithelium as aging progresses. Tongue biopsies were performed on female mice (Mus domesticus domesticus) at 2, 8, 14 and 20 months of age as indicative of adolescence, adulthood, early senescence and senescence, respectively. Histological sections of tongue were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and subjected to silver staining for active nucleolar organizer region counting. Cell proliferation rate and epithelial thickness analysis were carried out. Analysis of variance detected no differences between the groups in terms of numbers of silver-stained dots associated with nucleolar proteins. There was an increase in mean epithelial thickness in adult animals, followed by a gradual reduction until senescence. Mean keratin thickness presented an increase at 8 and 20 months of age. This difference is probably related to puberty, growth or dietary habits. Aging has no influence on oral epithelial proliferation rate in mice. A gradual reduction in epithelial thickness is a feature of aging in mammals. A conspicuous increase in the keratin layer was observed in senescence as an adaptative response to the reduction in epithelial thickness. These results suggest that aging affects the oral epithelium maturation process through a mechanism that is not related to cell proliferation.

  15. Effects of perinatal diet and prenatal stress on the behavioural profile of aged male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengoetxea, Xabier; Paternain, Laura; Martisova, Eva; Milagro, Fermin I; Martínez, J Alfredo; Campión, Javier; Ramírez, María J

    2017-03-01

    The present work studies whether chronic prenatal stress (PS) influences the long-term sex-dependent neuropsychological status of offspring and the effects of an early dietary intervention in the dam. In addition, dams were fed with either a high-fat sugar diet (HFSD) or methyl donor supplemented diet (MDSD). PS procedure did not affect body weight of the offspring. MDSD induced decreases in body weight both in male and female offspring (1 month) that were still present in aged rats. HFSD induced an increase in body weight both in male and female offspring that did not persist in aged rats. In the Porsolt forced swimming test, only young males showed increases in immobility time that were reversed by MDSD. In old female rats (20 months), PS-induced cognitive impairment in both the novel object recognition test (NORT) and in the Morris water maze that was reversed by MDSD, whereas in old males, cognitive impairments and reversion by MDSD was evident only in the Morris water maze. HFSD induced cognitive impairment in both control and PS old rats, but there was no additive effect of PS and HFSD. It is proposed here that the diversity of symptoms following PS could arise from programming effects in early brain development and that these effects could be modified by dietary intake of the dam.

  16. Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity among Kuwaiti Elementary Male School Children Aged 6–10 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulwahab Naser Al-Isa; Jennifer Campbell; Ediriweera Desapriya

    2010-01-01

    Background. Childhood obesity is becoming a global epidemic which may result in increased morbidity and mortality during young adulthood. Objectives. To identify factors associated with overweight and that of obesity among Kuwaiti elementary male school children aged 6–10 years. Methods. Weights and heights of 662 students at a randomly selected school were collected to obtain body mass index (BMI). Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among the students were 20.2% and 16.8...

  17. Examining the relationship between relative age, competition level, and dropout rates in male youth ice-hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemez, S; Baker, J; Horton, S; Wattie, N; Weir, P

    2014-12-01

    The relative age effect suggests that athletes born in the first two quartiles of a given selection year experience a selection advantage and therefore a greater opportunity for success. We describe two studies examining the relationship between relative age, competition level, and dropout rates of Ontario Minor Hockey Association male ice-hockey players from ages 10 to 15 years (n = 14 325). In Study 1, dropout was highest among players born in quartiles three and four [χ(2) (3) = 16.32, P less movement between competition levels compared to retained players. This study confirms a relationship between relative age and dropout from ice-hockey and adds further depth to our understanding of this persistent phenomenon.

  18. Growth hormone and melatonin prevent age-related alteration in apoptosis processes in the dentate gyrus of male rats

    OpenAIRE

    R A Kireev; Vara, E. (E.); Tresguerres, J. A. F.

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the age-related decrease in the number of neurons in the hippocampus that leads to alterations in brain function, may be associated with an increase in apoptosis due to the reduced secretion of growth hormone (GH) and/or melatonin in old animals. In order to investigate this possibility, male Wistar rats of 22 months of age were divided into three groups. One group remained untreated and acted as the control group. The second was treated with growth hormone (hGH) fo...

  19. Age-related changes in the percentage of oleate in adipose tissue of male and female Fischer rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorling, E.B.; Hansen, Harald S.

    1995-01-01

    Fischer 344 rats showed sex difference in the percentage of oleate in lipids of the omental adipose tissue (Thorling, E.B. and Overvad, K. (1994) Nutr. Res. 14, 569-576). The development of this difference was studied with respect to time in rats maintained on laboratory chow, from the age of 3...... in the female than in the male rats, and this difference increased with age. The results of the present study suggest that these changes in percentage of oleate in adipose tissue lipids may partly have been caused by an effect of sex steroids on the delta-9-desaturase....

  20. The contribution of attenuated selection in utero to small-for-gestational-age (SGA) among term African American male infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Julia M; Karasek, Deborah; Anderson, Elizabeth; Catalano, Ralph A

    2013-07-01

    Natural selection conserves mechanisms allowing women to spontaneously abort gestations least likely to yield fit offspring. Small gestational size has been proposed as an indicator of fitness observable by maternal biology. Previous research suggests that exposure to ambient stress in utero results in more "culling" of small fetuses and therefore lower rates of small-for-gestational-age (SGA). However, African American women persistently have higher rates of SGA than non-Hispanic white women, despite experiencing more ambient stress. This paper tests whether attenuation of the stress response among highly stressed African American women, as suggested by the weathering hypothesis, may help to explain this apparent inconsistency. We apply time-series modeling to over 2 million African American and non-Hispanic white male term births in California over the period of January 1989 through December 2010. We test for the parabolic (i.e., "U" shaped) relationship, implied by an attenuated stress response, between unusually strong labor market contraction and the rate of SGA among African American term male infants, and a linear relationship among non-Hispanic whites. We find the hypothesized parabolic relationship among term male African American infants. As expected, we find a linear relationship between unexpected layoffs and the rate of SGA among term male non-Hispanic whites. These results are robust to sensitivity analyses. These results may help to explain the high rates of SGA among term male African American infants, despite greater maternal exposure to ambient stress during pregnancy.

  1. Are invertebrates relevant models in ageing research? Focus on the effects of rapamycin on TOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Cihan Suleyman; Hansen, Benni Winding; Vang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Ageing is the organisms increased susceptibility to death, which is linked to accumulated damage in the cells and tissues. Ageing is a complex process regulated by crosstalk of various pathways in the cells. Ageing is highly regulated by the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) pathway activity. TOR is an evolutionary conserved key protein kinase in the TOR pathway that regulates growth, proliferation and cell metabolism in response to nutrients, growth factors and stress. Comparing the ageing process in invertebrate model organisms with relatively short lifespan with mammals provides valuable information about the molecular mechanisms underlying the ageing process faster than mammal systems. Inhibition of the TOR pathway activity via either genetic manipulation or rapamycin increases lifespan profoundly in most invertebrate model organisms. This contribution will review the recent findings in invertebrates concerning the TOR pathway and effects of TOR inhibition by rapamycin on lifespan. Besides some contradictory results, the majority points out that rapamycin induces longevity. This suggests that administration of rapamycin in invertebrates is a promising tool for pursuing the scientific puzzle of lifespan prolongation.

  2. Male dominance linked to size and age, but not to 'good genes' in brown trout (Salmo trutta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanno Guillaume

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Males that are successful in intra-sexual competition are often assumed to be of superior quality. In the mating system of most salmonid species, intensive dominance fights are common and the winners monopolise most mates and sire most offspring. We drew a random sample of mature male brown trout (Salmo trutta from two wild populations and determined their dominance hierarchy or traits linked to dominance. The fish were then stripped and their sperm was used for in vitro fertilisations in two full-factorial breeding designs. We recorded embryo viability until hatching in both experiments, and juvenile survival during 20 months after release into a natural streamlet in the second experiment. Since offspring of brown trout get only genes from their fathers, we used offspring survival as a quality measure to test (i whether males differ in their genetic quality, and if so, (ii whether dominance or traits linked to dominance reveal 'good genes'. Results We found significant additive genetic variance on embryo survival, i.e. males differed in their genetic quality. Older, heavier and larger males were more successful in intra-sexual selection. However, neither dominance nor dominance indicators like body length, weight or age were significantly linked to genetic quality measured as embryo or juvenile survival. Conclusion We found no evidence that females can improve their offspring's genetic viability by mating with large and dominant males. If there still were advantages of mating with dominant males, they may be linked to non-genetic benefits or to genetic advantages that are context dependent and therefore possibly not revealed under our experimental conditions – even if we found significant additive genetic variation for embryo viability under such conditions.

  3. Dentition and Life History of a 16-year-old Known-age Free-living Male Lion Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758 from the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.J. Whyte

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available Wear in the dentition of a known-age, free-living, 16-year-old male lion is described and compared to existing age-determination techniques. Aspects of his life history are described as they are in some contrast to what is known of male lions' life history strategies.

  4. The Reproductive Tract of the Males of the Zoophytophagous Predator Brontocoris tabidus (Signoret (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae with Different Diets and Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walkymario P. Lemos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Brontocoris tabidus (Signoret (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae is a common and important species for the biological control of defoliating Lepidoptera caterpillars. Although it has a predatory feeding habit, this species make use of plant resources, which are essential for the maintenance of its population in laboratory colonies as well as in the field during periods of prey shortage. Thus B. tabidus has been considered an obligate zoophytophagous insect. However the impact of the age and herbivory on the morphology of the reproductive organs has been poorly studied in predatory Pentatomidae. The morphology of the reproductive tract of B. tabidus males with different ages and fed on different diets were analyzed. Approach: Nymphs of B. tabidus were maintained in the field with or without plants and fed on T. molitor pupae without plant (T1; T. molitor pupae and Eucalyptus cloeziana plants (T2; T. molitor pupae and Eucalyptus urophylla plants (T3 or T. molitor pupae and guava plants (Psidium guajava L. (T4. Adults of B. tabidus obtained from each treatment were sexed in the first day of their emergence and thirty-six pairs were formed per treatment. Ten males of B. tabidus 15 and 21 days old, obtained in each treatment were dissected and the reproductive tract submitted to histological analyses. The total area of the testes of B. tabidus was measured and the data were submitted to the variance analysis and means between treatments were compared by the test of Newman-Keuls (p = 0.05. Results: The inner genitalia of B. tabidus males had red color and the testes with six follicles. Males 15 days old presented larger testes when fed on E. cloeziana (0.94 mm2, E. urophylla (0.98 mm2 or only T. molitor pupae (0.99 mm2 than with guava plants (0.76 mm2. Twenty-one days old B. tabidus males presented testes with similar size, independent of the diet. The testes follicles of B. tabidus had larger amount of spermatozoa with

  5. Barriers and motivators to voluntary medical male circumcision uptake among different age groups of men in Zimbabwe: results from a mixed methods study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Hatzold

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We conducted quantitative and qualitative studies to explore barriers and motivating factors to VMMC for HIV prevention, and to assess utilization of existing VMMC communication channels. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A population-based survey was conducted with 2350 respondents aged 15-49. Analysis consisted of descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis between circumcision and selected demographics. Logistic regression was used to determine predictors of male circumcision uptake compared to intention to circumcise. Focus group discussions (FGDs were held with men purposively selected to represent a range of ethnicities. 68% and 53% of female/male respondents, respectively, had heard about VMMC for HIV prevention, mostly through the radio (71%. Among male respondents, 11.3% reported being circumcised and 49% reported willingness to undergo VMMC. Factors which men reported motivated them to undergo VMMC included HIV/STI prevention (44%, improved hygiene (26%, enhanced sexual performance (6% and cervical cancer prevention for partner (6%. Factors that deterred men from undergoing VMMC included fear of pain (40%, not believing that they were at risk of HIV (18%, lack of partner support (6%. Additionally, there were differences in motivators and barriers by age. FGDs suggested additional barriers including fear of HIV testing, partner refusal, reluctance to abstain from sex and myths and misconceptions. CONCLUSIONS: VMMC demand-creation messages need to be specifically tailored for different ages and should emphasize non-HIV prevention benefits, such as improved hygiene and sexual appeal, and need to address men's fear of pain. Promoting VMMC among women is crucial as they appear to have considerable influence over men's decision to get circumcised.

  6. Pharmaceutical marketing in a new age. Effective campaigns still need to focus on what customers want.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sanjay K

    2002-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry has focused heavily on marketers' ability to market new products more efficiently. However, a more streamlined marketing approach can help address customers' needs and ease the pressure on drug companies to discover new drugs with blockbuster appeal. Through discussion and a detailed example, this article describes a stream-lined approach to creating more effective marketing and sales force strategies.

  7. Factors influencing behavior of group-housed male rats in the social interaction test: focus on cohort removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kask, A; Nguyen, H P; Pabst, R; von Hörsten, S

    2001-10-01

    The rat social interaction (SI) test is used widely to measure anxiety-like behavior, yet the influence of various factors such as testing time, pre-experimental manipulations (transport stress), and testing of animals from the same cage (cohort removal, CR) on SI has not been systematically studied. We measured SI behavior of male triad-housed Wistar rats in a novel dimly lit arena (low light unfamiliar, LU) and found that SI time is higher in the beginning of the activity (dark) phase when compared with SI time in first half of the light phase. Furthermore, SI time is significantly increased by habituation of animals to the testing room during light phase, but this intervention has no effect in early dark phase when SI behavior is already maximal. Sequential removal of rats from the home cage led to the stress-like behavioral and physiological consequences. Rats removed in the last position had shorter SI time and higher body temperature. These data demonstrate that SI is higher during early dark vs. early light phase and confirm that CR has anxiogenic-like effects in rats. We conclude that the usage of sequentially removed group-housed rats in behavioral tests can be a source for considerable variation due to anxiety that develops in animals remaining in the cage. On the other hand, CR may be a useful method to study behavioral/neurochemical mechanisms of psychogenic stress in rats.

  8. STUTERING WITH MALE CHILDREN IN REGARD TO FEMALE ONES AT THE AGE OF SIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna STEPANOVSKA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents opinions and data in regard to shuttering as a syndrome of speech, psychological, philosophical and sociological manifestations. The sublimated results, quantitatively presented refer to conclusion that stuttering is more frequent with male than with female children.

  9. Lasofoxifene (CP-336,156) protects against the age-related changes in bone mass, bone strength, and total serum cholesterol in intact aged male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, H Z; Qi, H; Chidsey-Frink, K L; Crawford, D T; Thompson, D D

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if long-term (6 months) treatment with lasofoxifene (LAS), a new selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), can protect against age-related changes in bone mass and bone strength in intact aged male rats. Sprague-Dawley male rats at 15 months of age were treated (daily oral gavage) with either vehicle (n = 12) or LAS at 0.01 mg/kg per day (n = 12) or 0.1 mg/kg per day (n = 11) for 6 months. A group of 15 rats was necropsied at 15 months of age and served as basal controls. No significant change was found in body weight between basal and vehicle controls. However, an age-related increase in fat body mass (+42%) and decrease in lean body mass (-8.5%) was observed in controls. Compared with vehicle controls, LAS at both doses significantly decreased body weight and fat body mass but did not affect lean body mass. No significant difference was found in prostate wet weight among all groups. Total serum cholesterol was significantly decreased in all LAS-treated rats compared with both the basal and the vehicle controls. Both doses of LAS treatment completely prevented the age-related increase in serum osteocalcin. Peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT) analysis at the distal femoral metaphysis indicated that the age-related decrease in total density, trabecular density, and cortical thickness was completely prevented by treatment with LAS at 0.01 mg/kg per day or 0.1 mg/kg per day. Histomorphometric analysis of proximal tibial cancellous bone showed an age-related decrease in trabecular bone volume (TBV; -46%), trabecular number (Tb.N), wall thickness (W.Th), mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate-tissue area referent. Moreover, an age-related increase in trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) and eroded surface was observed. LAS at 0.01 mg/kg per day or 0.1 mg/kg per day completely prevented these age-related changes in bone mass, bone structure, and bone turnover. Similarly, the age-related decrease in TBV

  10. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco, E-mail: luiz.baccaro@gmail.com [Department of Gynecology, State University of Campinas, Rua Alexander Fleming, 101, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, Campinas, São Paulo 13.083-881 (Brazil); Conde, Délio Marques [Breast Clinic, Hospital for Maternal and Child Healthcare, Goiânia, Goiás 74.125-120 (Brazil); Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Machado, Vanessa de Souza Santos; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes [Department of Gynecology, State University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo 13.083-881 (Brazil)

    2015-03-17

    The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%), colorectal (12.7%) and skin (12.7%). In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06–3.89). The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking.

  11. Healthy aging diets other than the Mediterranean: a focus on the Okinawan diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Donald Craig; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Willcox, Bradley J

    2014-01-01

    The traditional diet in Okinawa is anchored by root vegetables (principally sweet potatoes), green and yellow vegetables, soybean-based foods, and medicinal plants. Marine foods, lean meats, fruit, medicinal garnishes and spices, tea, alcohol are also moderately consumed. Many characteristics of the traditional Okinawan diet are shared with other healthy dietary patterns, including the traditional Mediterranean diet, DASH diet, and Portfolio diet. All these dietary patterns are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, among other age-associated diseases. Overall, the important shared features of these healthy dietary patterns include: high intake of unrefined carbohydrates, moderate protein intake with emphasis on vegetables/legumes, fish, and lean meats as sources, and a healthy fat profile (higher in mono/polyunsaturated fats, lower in saturated fat; rich in omega-3). The healthy fat intake is likely one mechanism for reducing inflammation, optimizing cholesterol, and other risk factors. Additionally, the lower caloric density of plant-rich diets results in lower caloric intake with concomitant high intake of phytonutrients and antioxidants. Other shared features include low glycemic load, less inflammation and oxidative stress, and potential modulation of aging-related biological pathways. This may reduce risk for chronic age-associated diseases and promote healthy aging and longevity.

  12. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Francisco Baccaro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%, colorectal (12.7% and skin (12.7%. In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06–3.89. The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking.

  13. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco; Conde, Délio Marques; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; de Souza Santos Machado, Vanessa; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes

    2015-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%), colorectal (12.7%) and skin (12.7%). In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06-3.89). The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking.

  14. Parkinson disease male-to-female ratios increase with age: French nationwide study and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, Frédéric; Kab, Sofiane; Mohamed, Fatima; Canonico, Marianne; Le Guern, Morgane; Quintin, Cécile; Carcaillon, Laure; Nicolau, Javier; Duport, Nicolas; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Boussac-Zarebska, Marjorie; Elbaz, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is 1.5 times more frequent in men than women. Whether age modifies this ratio is unclear. We examined whether male-to-female (M–F) ratios change with age through a French nationwide prevalence/incidence study (2010) and a meta-analysis of incidence studies. Methods We used French national drug claims databases to identify PD cases using a validated algorithm. We computed M–F prevalence/incidence ratios overall and by age using Poisson regression. Ratios were regressed on age to estimate their annual change. We identified all PD incidence studies with age/sex-specific data, and performed a meta-analysis of M–F ratios. Results On the basis of 149 672 prevalent (50% women) and 25 438 incident (49% women) cases, age-standardised rates were higher in men (prevalence=2.865/1000; incidence=0.490/1000 person-years) than women (prevalence=1.934/1000; incidence=0.328/1000 person-years). The overall M–F ratio was 1.48 for prevalence and 1.49 for incidence. Prevalence and incidence M–F ratios increased by 0.05 and 0.14, respectively, per 10 years of age. Incidence was similar in men and women under 50 years (M–F ratio 0.20), and over 1.6 (p<0.001) times higher in men than women above 80 years (p trend <0.001). A meta-analysis of 22 incidence studies (14 126 cases, 46% women) confirmed that M– F ratios increased with age (0.26 per 10 years, p trend=0.005). Conclusions Age-increasing M–F ratios suggest that PD aetiology changes with age. Sex-related risk/protective factors may play a different role across the continuum of age at onset. This finding may inform aetiological PD research. PMID:26701996

  15. Brain SERT Expression of Male Rats Is Reduced by Aging and Increased by Testosterone Restitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jaime Herrera-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In preclinical and clinical studies aging has been associated with a deteriorated response to antidepressant treatment. We hypothesize that such impairment is explained by an age-related decrease in brain serotonin transporter (SERT expression associated with low testosterone (T levels. The objectives of this study were to establish (1 if brain SERT expression is reduced by aging and (2 if the SERT expression in middle-aged rats is increased by T-restitution. Intact young rats (3–5 months and gonad-intact middle-aged rats with or without T-restitution were used. The identification of the brain SERT expression was done by immunofluorescence in prefrontal cortex, lateral septum, hippocampus, and raphe nuclei. An age-dependent reduction of SERT expression was observed in all brain regions examined, while T-restitution recovered the SERT expression only in the dorsal raphe of middle-aged rats. This last action seems relevant since dorsal raphe plays an important role in the antidepressant action of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. All data suggest that this mechanism accounts for the T-replacement usefulness to improve the response to antidepressants in the aged population.

  16. Aging in the vestibular nuclear complex of the male golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus): anatomic and morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J A; Suárez, C; Navarro, A; Díaz, C; Alvarez, J C; González del Rey, C; Tolivia, J

    2007-08-01

    To study the effects of senescence on the vestibular nuclear complex twenty brainstems from male golden hamsters between 3 and 27 months-old were used and the possible variations in the number of neurons, neuronal morphology and nuclear volume were studied. The neuron profiles were drawn with a camera lucida and Abercrombie's method was used to estimate the total number of neurons. The test of Kolmogorov-Smirnov with the correction of Lilliefors was used to evaluate the fit of our data to a normal distribution and a regression analysis was done to decide if the variation of our data with age was statistically significant. The results of the present study are relevant only for male animals and the effect of senescence could be different in female vestibular nuclear complex. Aging affects the volume of the superior and lateral vestibular nuclei, as well as the nuclear neuronal diameter of the medial vestibular nucleus, but no significant neuronal loss has been appreciated in vestibular nuclear complex related with age. During the aging process we have observed that the distribution of neurons within the vestibular nuclei of the golden hamster does not show important changes and most of their morphometric parameters do not vary significantly.

  17. Artificial insemination of individually caged broiler breeders. 1. Reproductive performance of males in relation to age and strain of females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansah, G A; Crober, D C; Buckland, R B; Sefton, A E; Kennedy, B W

    1980-02-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the reproductive capacity of male broiler breeders used for artificial insemination over an extended period and mated to females of six strains. Biweekly determinations were made of semen volume, semen concentration, and spermatozoal motility for each of the 47 males caged individually from their 39th to 63rd week of age. The percent fertility, duration of fertility, and percent hatchability were determined at five-week intervals (periods) using three young and three force-molted broiler female strains. With young female strains, the mean percent fertility for a 7-day collection of eggs following a single insemination (1 to 7 days) ranged from 95.7 to 81.1 over six consecutive periods. The mean duration of fertility (days) and the mean percent hatchability of fertile eggs was 13.3 and 13.0, and 92.5 and 84.9 respectively, for the first two periods. With force-molted hens, the mean percent fertility (1 to 7 days) ranged between 97.2 and 86.0 over the first three periods, and the mean duration of fertility and the mean percent hatchability was 13.2 and 12.8, and 91.5 and 84.1, respectively, for the first two periods. Fertility of eggs collected for 10 days following a single insemination was slightly but consistently lower than fertility over 7 days for both female groups. Significant differences among males and between periods existed for each semen trait. The effects of male, young female strain and period on fertility and duration of fertility were significant. Hatchability was significantly affected by period only. No male by female strain interaction existed for percent fertility or hatchability. A significant male by period interaction existed for percent fertility, semen volume and concentration. The results obtained are considered to support the feasibility of maintaining broiler breeders in cages and the use of artificial insemination (AI) to produce broiler hatching eggs.

  18. Plant-derived alternative treatments for the aging male: facts and myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, Wolfgang; Jarry, Hubertus; Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana

    2010-06-01

    Soy- or red clover- derived products containing isoflavones have been amply studied in climacteric and postmenopausal women, and confusing contradicting results have been published. The beneficial effects on climacteric complaints, cholesterol and the development of osteoporosis are marginally at best and there are no uterine and mammary safety studies. In males, however, isoflavones may protect the prostate to make them less prone to develop cancer. Cell biological and animal experimental data support this notion. Clinical data about possible beneficial effects on cholesterol or in the bone are largely missing. Hence, soy or red clover products containing the mild estrogenic isoflavones with a slightly higher affinity to the estrogen receptor of the beta in comparison to the alpha subtype may prove to have some beneficial effects in males.

  19. Age-dependent arginine phosphokinase activity changes in male vestigial and wild-type Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, G T

    1975-01-01

    The activity of arginine phosphokinase, an important muscle enzyme in insects, was investigated with age in vestigial-winged and wild-type Drosophila melanogaster. Identical patterns of age-dependent activity changes were observed in the vestigial-winged flies as in the wild-type, even though vestigial-winged flies exhibit a 50% mortality approximately two thirds that of the wild-type as well as being incapable of flight. Results indicate that the age-dependent changes in arginine phosphokinase activity are intrinsically regulated within the cells of the flight muscle.

  20. Early Menarche is Associated With Preference for Masculine Male Faces and Younger Preferred Age to Have a First Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlota Batres

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available One developmental factor that is associated with variation in reproductive strategy is pubertal timing. For instance, women who experience earlier menarche have their first pregnancy earlier and prefer more masculinized male voices. Early menarche may also lead to preferences for masculine faces, but no study has shown such a link. We therefore investigated the relationships between pubertal timing, reproductive plans, sexual attitudes and behaviors, and masculinity preferences in nulliparous women aged 18–30 from the United Kingdom (N = 10,793. We found that women who experienced earlier menarche reported a younger preferred age to have a first child and showed stronger masculinity preferences. This provides evidence that women experiencing early menarche not only have children earlier but notably plan to have children earlier. Additionally, our findings provide evidence that age of menarche influences partner selection, which is instrumental for the implementation of reproductive strategies.

  1. Determination of the standard values of the hand bone mineral density values in males according to ages

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    Şule Temiztürk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study we purposed to determine standardvalues of hand Bone Mineral Density (BMD accordingto ages by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXAin males who applied to our hospital, evaluate associationof hand BMD with lumbar and femur BMD and searchusefulness of hand BMD measurement by DXA.Methods: Totally, 239 male included, whose ages differbetween 27 to 87 years, had no disease associatedwith bone density were included. The cases, betweenthe ages 20 to 70 separated to age groups, comprisedof 5 years. Cases, whose age is 70 and older, included inthe same group. Average of dominant and nondominanthand BMD values of the chosen cases were computedaccording to age groups comprised of 5 years and theassociation with values of L2-L4 and femur neck BMD issearched separately.Results: There is significant association between dominanthand BMD scores with L2-L4 and femur neck BMDscores. Also there is significant association between nondominanthand BMD scores with L2-L4 and femur neckBMD scores. Also there is asignificant association betweenscores of hand BMD with hand grip strenght.Conclusion: In this study there is significant associationbetween BMD scores of dominant and nondominanthand with BMD scores of L2-L4 and femur neck in all agegroups. Rheumatological diseases, reflex sympatheticdystrophy, tendon and nerve lacerations of hand and forearm,fractures of upper extremity and hemiplegy, that cancauses local osteoporosis in the hand, measurement ofhand BMD can be done by DXA.Key words: Bone mineral density, dual energy X ray absorptiometry,osteoporosis

  2. Prediction of mortality at age 40 in Danish males at high and low risk for alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, J; Penick, E C; L Mortensen, E

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This prospective high-risk study examined the influence of father's alcoholism and other archival-generated measures on premature death. METHOD: Sons of alcoholic fathers (n = 223) and sons of non-alcoholic fathers (n = 106) have been studied from birth to age 40. Archival predictors...... of premature death included father's alcoholism, childhood developmental data, and diagnostic information obtained from the Psychiatric Register and alcoholism clinics. RESULTS: By age 40, 21 of the 329 subjects had died (6.4%), a rate that is more than two times greater than expected. Sons of alcoholic...... fathers were not more likely to die by age 40. Premature death was associated with physical immaturity at 1-year of age and psychiatric/alcoholism treatment. No significant interactions were found between risk and archival measures. CONCLUSION: Genetic vulnerability did not independently predict death...

  3. Pragmatic inferences and self-relevant judgments: The moderating role of age, prevention, focus, and need for cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Puente-Diaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three studies examined the influence of type of scale on self-relevant judgments and the moderating role of age, prevention, focus, and need for cognition. Participants were randomly assigned to a bipolar or a unipolar scale condition in all three studies. Results from study 1 with a representative sample of the adult population of Mexico showed that participants evaluated themselves more positively on a bipolar than a unipolar scale. Age did not moderate this relationship. Results from studies 2 and 3 also showed a significant influence of type of scale on self-relevant judgments. Prevention, focus and need for cognition did not moderate the relationship between type of scale and self-relevant judgments. The theoretical and applied implications of our results were discussed.

  4. Symptoms and lung function decline in a middle-aged cohort of males and females in Australia

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    Abramson MJ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Abramson,1 Sonia Kaushik,1 Geza P Benke,1 Brigitte M Borg,2 Catherine L Smith,1 Shyamali C Dharmage,3 Bruce R Thompson21Department of Epidemiology & Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health & Preventive Medicine, Monash University, 2Department of Allergy, Immunology & Respiratory Medicine, The Alfred Hospital, 3Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, AustraliaBackground: The European Community Respiratory Health Survey is a major international study designed to assess lung health in adults. This Australian follow-up investigated changes in symptoms between sexes and the roles of asthma, smoking, age, sex, height, and change in body mass index (ΔBMI on lung function decline (LFD, which is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.Methods: LFD was measured as the rate of decline over time in FEV1 (mL/year (ΔFEV1 and FVC (ΔFVC between 1993 and 2013. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and LFD, separately for males and females. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess sex differences and changes in respiratory symptoms over time.Results: In Melbourne, 318 subjects (53.8% females participated. The prevalence of most respiratory symptoms had either remained relatively stable over 20 years or decreased (significantly so for wheeze. The exception was shortness of breath after activity, which had increased. Among the 262 subjects who completed spirometry, current smoking declined from 20.2% to 7.3%. Overall mean (± standard deviation FEV1 declined by 23.1 (±17.1 and FVC by 22.9 (±20.2 mL/year. Predictors of ΔFEV1 in males were age, maternal smoking, and baseline FEV1; and in females they were age, ΔBMI, baseline FEV1, and pack-years in current smokers. Decline in FVC was predicted by baseline FVC, age, and ΔBMI in both sexes; however, baseline FVC predicted

  5. A review of the equine age-related changes in the immune system: comparisons between human and equine aging, with focus on lung-specific immune-aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, S; Baptiste, K E; Fjeldborg, J; Horohov, D W

    2015-03-01

    The equine aging process involves many changes to the immune system that may be related to genetics, the level of nutrition, the environment and/or an underlying subclinical disease. Geriatric horses defined as horses above the age of 20, exhibit a decline in body condition, muscle tone and general well-being. It is not known whether these changes contribute to decreased immune function or are the result of declining immune function. Geriatric years are characterized by increased susceptibility to infections and a reduced antibody response to vaccination as a result of changes in the immune system. Humans and horses share many of these age-related changes, with only a few differences. Thus, inflamm-aging and immunosenescence are well-described phenomena in both human and equine research, particularly in relation to the peripheral blood and especially the T-cell compartment. However, the lung is faced with unique challenges because of its constant interaction with the external environment and thus may not share similarities to peripheral blood when considering age-related changes in immune function. Indeed, recent studies have shown discrepancies in cytokine mRNA and protein expression between the peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage immune cells. These results provide important evidence that age-related immune changes or 'dys-functions' are organ-specific.

  6. Persistent depression is a significant risk factor for the development of arteriosclerosis in middle-aged Japanese male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hiroki; Fujii, Satoshi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Depression often coexists with hypertension and various cardiovascular diseases. However, the relationship between depression and the development of arteriosclerosis has not been fully established. We assessed depression and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in 828 middle-aged Japanese male subjects at baseline and during 3 years of follow-up. Depression was assessed using Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression questionnaires, and the study subjects were divided into the following three groups: persistent depression, transient depression and no depression. The number (%) of subjects with persistent, transient and no depression were 104 (12.6), 76 (9.2) and 648 (78.2), respectively. Blood pressure and baPWV did not differ among the three groups at baseline. The changes in the baPWV values (⊿baPWV) correlated significantly and positively with age, body mass index, baseline systolic blood pressure and persistent depression (r = 0.32, P arteriosclerosis in middle-aged Japanese male subjects.

  7. Inverse Correlation between Adiponectin and the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-aged Japanese Male Workers

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    Miyazaki,Motonobu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite a close association between adiponectin and both hypertension and type 2 diabetes, the relationship between adiponectin and metabolic syndrome has not yet been well-investigated. To examine and evaluate the association between serum adiponectin levels and metabolic syndrome based on Japanese diagnostic criteria, we analyzed adiponectin and anthropometric parameters in 869 male employees aged 40-59 who belonged to a health insurance society in Fukuoka Prefecture and who underwent annual health check-ups from August 2006 to July 2007. Two hundred and thirty-two of the 869 subjects (26.7% were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. The serum adiponectin levels were significantly higher in the non-metabolic syndrome group. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, the subjects in the top quartile of serum adiponectin (adjusted odds ratio:0.36;95% confidence interval:0.21-0.63 and the second (adjusted odds ratio:0.51;95% confidence interval:0.31-0.84 quartile had a significantly decreased risk for metabolic syndrome in comparison to the bottom quartile. The dose-response relationship between serum adiponectin levels and metabolic syndrome was significant (p for trend 0.0001 after adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status, and drinking status. The current findings suggest that hypoadiponectinemia is inversely correlated with the risk of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged Japanese male workers.

  8. Clinical Features and Polysomnographic Findings in Greek Male Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: Differences Regarding the Age

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    Efremidis George

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background-Aim. Although sleep disturbance is a common complaint among patients of all ages, research suggests that older adults are particularly vulnerable. The aim of this retrospective study was to elucidate the influence of age on clinical characteristics and polysomnographic findings of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS between elderly and younger male patients in a Greek population. Methods. 697 male patients with OSAS were examined from December 2001 to August 2011. All subjects underwent an attended overnight polysomnography (PSG. They were divided into two groups: young and middle-aged (<65 years old and elderly (≥65 years old. We evaluated the severity of OSAS, based on apnea-hypopnea index (AHI, and the duration of apnea-hypopnea events, the duration of hypoxemia during total sleep time (TST and during REM and NREM sleep, and the oxygen saturation in REM and in NREM sleep. Results. PSG studies showed that elderly group had significant higher duration of apnea-hypopnea events, longer hypoxemia in TST and in NREM sleep, as well as lower oxygen saturation in REM and NREM sleep than the younger group. Otherwise, significant correlation between BMI and neck circumference with AHI was observed in both groups. Conclusions. The higher percentages of hypoxemia during sleep and longer duration of apnea-hypopnea events that were observed in the elderly group might be explained by increased propensity for pharyngeal collapse and increased deposition of parapharyngeal fat, which are associated with aging. Another factor that could explain these findings might be a decreased partial arterial pressure of oxygen (PaO2 due to age-related changes in the respiratory system.

  9. Are the determinants of vertebral endplate changes and severe disc degeneration in the lumbar spine the same? A magnetic resonance imaging study in middle-aged male workers

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    Korpelainen Raija

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modic changes are bone marrow lesions visible in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and they are assumed to be associated with symptomatic intervertebral disc disease, especially changes located at L5-S1. Only limited information exists about the determinants of Modic changes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the determinants of vertebral endplate (Modic changes, and whether they are similar for Modic changes and severe disc degeneration focusing on L5-S1 level. Methods 228 middle-aged male workers (159 train engineers and 69 sedentary factory workers from northern Finland underwent sagittal T1- and T2-weighted MRI. Modic changes and disc degeneration were analyzed from the scans. The participants responded to a questionnaire including items of occupational history and lifestyle factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations between selected determinants (age, lifetime exercise, weight-related factors, fat percentage, smoking, alcohol use, lifetime whole-body vibration and Modic type I and II changes, and severe disc degeneration (= grade V on Pfirrmann's classification. Results The prevalences of the Modic changes and severe disc degeneration were similar in the occupational groups. Age was significantly associated with all degenerative changes. In the age-adjusted analyses, only weight-related determinants (BMI, waist circumference were associated with type II changes. Exposure to whole-body vibration, besides age, was the only significant determinant for severe disc degeneration. In the multivariate model, BMI was associated with type II changes at L5-S1 (OR 2.75 per one SD = 3 unit increment in BMI, and vibration exposure with severe disc degeneration at L5-S1 (OR 1.08 per one SD = 11-year increment in vibration exposure. Conclusion Besides age, weight-related factors seem important in the pathogenesis of Modic changes, whereas whole-body vibration was the only significant determinant

  10. Voluntary exercise rescues sevoflurane-induced memory impairment in aged male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dan; Tian, Miao; Ma, Zhiming; Zhang, Leilei; Cui, Yunfeng; Li, Jinlong

    2016-12-01

    Postoperative cognitive impairment is especially common in older patients following major surgery. Although exposure to sevoflurane is known to cause memory deficits, few studies have examined the putative approaches to reduce such impairments. This study tested the hypotheses that sevoflurane exposure can decrease NR2B subunit-containing NMDA receptor activity in hippocampus of aged mice, and voluntary exercise may counteract the declining hippocampal functions. We found that long exposure (3 h/day for 3 days), but not short exposure (1 h/day for 3 days), to 3 % sevoflurane produced a long-lasting spatial memory deficits up to 3 weeks in aged mice, and such an effect was not due to the neuronal loss in the hippocampus, but was correlated with a long-term decrease in Fyn kinase expression and NR2B subunit phosphorylation in the hippocampus. Furthermore, voluntary exercise rescued sevoflurane-induced spatial memory deficits in aged mice and restored Fyn kinase expression and NR2B subunit phosphorylation in the hippocampus to a level comparable to control animals. Generally, our results suggested that Fyn-mediated NR2B subunit phosphorylation may play a critical role in sevoflurane-induced impairment in cognitive functions in aged animals, and voluntary exercise might be an important non-pharmacological approach to treatment of inhaled anesthetics-induced postoperative cognitive impairment in clinical settings.

  11. Age effect of deafening on stereotyped song maintenance in adult male bengalese finches Lonchura striata domestica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingyu SUN; Rui WANG; Shuli SHAO; Shaoju ZENG; Mingxue ZUO

    2009-01-01

    Birdsong is a complex learned vocal behavior that relies on auditory experience for development. However, it appears that among different species of close-ended songbirds, there are some variations in the necessity of auditory feedback for maintaining stereotyped aduh song. In zebra finches, the deterioration of adult songs following deafness depends on the birds' age. It is unknown whether this age effect is a general ride in other avian species as well. Therefore, we chose Bengalese finches, whose songs show more complexity and have much heavier dependency on auditory feedback than that of zebra finches, to compare the degree of song degradation after heating loss in old (over 18 months old) and young adult birds (5-6 months old). We found that beth syllable sequence and syllable phonology were much leas severely affected by deafening in old adults than that in young ones. Moreover, young adults almost lost their capability to sing trills over 6 months following deafening, while old birds continued to sing plenty of trills and trilled syllables after the same period of deafening. Our results suggest that age plays an important role in affecting the dependency of adult song maintenance on auditory feedback in Bengalese finches. Furthermore, the age dependency may be a general phenomenon in different species of close-ended songbirds.

  12. Peak muscle mass in young men and sarcopenia in the ageing male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Nielsen, T L; Brixen, K;

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of sarcopenia increases with age. The diagnosis of sarcopenia relies in part on normative data on muscle mass, but these data are lacking. This study provides population-based reference data on muscle mass in young men, and these results may be used clinically for the diagnosis of ...

  13. Physiological responding to stress in middle-aged males enriched for longevity: a social stress study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.W.M.; van Heemst, D.; van der Grond, J.; Westendorp, R.; Oei, N.Y.L.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals enriched for familial longevity display a lower prevalence of age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular- and metabolic diseases. Since these diseases are associated with stress and increased cortisol levels, one of the underlying mechanisms that may contribute to healthy longevity mig

  14. Quantitative SPET 99Tcm-DMSA uptake by the kidneys: age-related decline in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groshar, D; Gorenberg, M; Osamah, H

    1998-09-01

    To evaluate if 99Tcm-dimercaptosuccinic acid (99Tcm-DMSA) uptake by the kidneys is related to age and creatinine clearance in males with normal renal function, quantitative single photon emission tomography (SPET) of DMSA uptake by the kidneys was performed in 18 volunteers aged 20-79 years. The quantitative uptake of DMSA in the right kidney was 13.9 +/- 2.9% and in the left kidney 14.2 +/- 3.0%. There was no statistically significant difference between left and right kidney uptake (t = 1.2, N.S.). Global kidney uptake (right + left) was 28.1 +/- 5.9%. There was a statistically significant age-related decline in global DMSA uptake. The estimated DMSA uptake (%) was given by -0.27 x age + 42 (r = -0.87, P DMSA uptake (r = 0.87, y = 2.8x + 28.3, P DMSA uptake by the kidneys are age-dependent.

  15. Influence of age on measured anatomical and physiological interpupillary distance (far and near), and near heterophoria, in Arab males

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAnazi, Saud A; AlAnazi, Mana A; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effects of age and near phoria on interpupillary distance measured at far (FIPD) and near (NIPD) using the Viktorin’s and pupillometer (PD-5) methods. Methods Interpupillary distance (IPD) by Viktorin’s method and the corneal reflex pupillometer (PD-5) method, as well as near heterophoria by the Saladin near point card, were each obtained on 133 randomly selected normal subjects aged 20–67 years. Comparison within and between techniques, influence of age on IPD, and near heterophoria were assessed. Results The mean FIPD varied significantly from the NIPD (P 0.05) for FIPD, and −3.1 mm and 2.9 mm (P > 0.05) for NIPD. Both IPDs varied significantly across age groups (P 0.04; P < 0.03, both techniques). Conclusion The difference between FIPD and NIPD (about 4.4 mm in Arab males) was observed independent of the technique used. The Viktorin’s and the PD-5 methods of IPD assessment resulted in similar values, and therefore, could be interchangeably used. However, caution is advised in cases of high power refractive corrections as the difference could vary from −4 mm to +3 mm (FIPD) and −3 mm to +3 mm (NIPD). Both IPDs have demonstrated an increase until the patients are in their early 40s, and a slight decrease has been observed thereafter. Age and NIPD were significantly associated with heterophoria in our subjects. PMID:23620654

  16. The Effects of Dietary Macronutrient Balance on Skin Structure in Aging Male and Female Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Aisling C.; Ruohonen, Kari; Raubenheimer, David; Ballard, J. William O.; Le Couteur, David G.; Nicholls, Caroline; Li, Zhe; Maitz, Peter K. M.; Wang, Yiwei; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition influences skin structure; however, a systematic investigation into how energy and macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate and fat) affects the skin has yet to be conducted. We evaluated the associations between macronutrients, energy intake and skin structure in mice fed 25 experimental diets and a control diet for 15 months using the Geometric Framework, a novel method of nutritional analysis. Skin structure was associated with the ratio of dietary macronutrients eaten, not energy intake, and the nature of the effect differed between the sexes. In males, skin structure was primarily associated with protein intake, whereas in females carbohydrate intake was the primary correlate. In both sexes, the dermis and subcutaneous fat thicknesses were inversely proportional. Subcutaneous fat thickness varied positively with fat intake, due to enlarged adipocytes rather than increased adipocyte number. We therefore demonstrated clear interactions between skin structure and macronutrient intakes, with the associations being sex-specific and dependent on dietary macronutrient balance. PMID:27832138

  17. Sentencing Male Sex Offenders Under the Age of 14: A Law Reform Advocacy Journey in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wai-Ching Irene; Cheung, Monit; Ma, Anny Kit-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The common law presumption that a boy under the age of 14 is incapable of sexual intercourse has provoked controversial debates in Hong Kong. This article describes a 6-step advocacy journey to examine how community efforts have helped modify this law so that juvenile male sexual offenders under the age of 14 who have committed the crime of having sexual intercourse with underage females can be sentenced to receive appropriate treatment. Seven court cases provided by the magistrates' courts in Hong Kong were used in this advocacy effort for the removal of the presumption in July 2012. Although this effort has yet to reveal signs of effectiveness, it represents greater public awareness about providing rehabilitation appropriate for juvenile sex offenders through a formal sentence. Restorative justice, as opposed to retributive or punitive justice, places an emphasis on rehabilitation of the offender and restoration of victims to a place of wholeness.

  18. Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity among Kuwaiti Elementary Male School Children Aged 6–10 Years

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    Abdulwahab Naser Al-Isa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Childhood obesity is becoming a global epidemic which may result in increased morbidity and mortality during young adulthood. Objectives. To identify factors associated with overweight and that of obesity among Kuwaiti elementary male school children aged 6–10 years. Methods. Weights and heights of 662 students at a randomly selected school were collected to obtain body mass index (BMI. Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among the students were 20.2% and 16.8%, respectively. There were a variety of factors associated with overweight and obesity; however, having one or more obese brother, an unemployed father, or a high (>11 number of persons living at home was significantly associated with higher risk of overweight and obesity. Increased age and school level as well as having a chronic disease were associated with the risk of overweight. Conclusion. Health education programs for families should be implemented to help control overweight and obesity in Kuwaiti children.

  19. Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity among Kuwaiti Elementary Male School Children Aged 6-10 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Isa, Abdulwahab Naser; Campbell, Jennifer; Desapriya, Ediriweera

    2010-01-01

    Background. Childhood obesity is becoming a global epidemic which may result in increased morbidity and mortality during young adulthood. Objectives. To identify factors associated with overweight and that of obesity among Kuwaiti elementary male school children aged 6-10 years. Methods. Weights and heights of 662 students at a randomly selected school were collected to obtain body mass index (BMI). Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among the students were 20.2% and 16.8%, respectively. There were a variety of factors associated with overweight and obesity; however, having one or more obese brother, an unemployed father, or a high (>11) number of persons living at home was significantly associated with higher risk of overweight and obesity. Increased age and school level as well as having a chronic disease were associated with the risk of overweight. Conclusion. Health education programs for families should be implemented to help control overweight and obesity in Kuwaiti children.

  20. Decreased response inhibition in middle-aged male patients with type 2 diabetes

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    Sakura Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was performed to examine whether patients with type 2 diabetes have cognitive deficits associated with the prefrontal cortex (PFC. Methods Twenty-seven middle-aged patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and 27 healthy controls underwent physical measurements and neuropsychological tasks. Response inhibition, reward prediction, and executive function were assessed by the Go/NoGo task, the reversal and extinction tasks, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. To examine the interactions of being overweight with diabetes on cognitive performance, performance data were analysed by two-way ANCOVA with diabetes and overweight as factors and age as a covariate. Results Patients with type 2 diabetes showed significantly decreased response inhibition in the Go/NoGo task (discriminability index: P = 0.001. There was an interaction of being overweight with diabetes on reaction time in the Go trials of the Go/NoGo task (P = 0.009. Being overweight was related to retained responses to the presentiment of reward in the extinction task (P = 0.029. The four groups showed normal cognitive performance in the WCST. Conclusions Our results showed that middle-aged, newly diagnosed and medication-free patients with type 2 diabetes have a particular neuropsychological deficit in inhibitory control of impulsive response, which is an independent effect of diabetes apart from being overweight.

  1. beta. -adrenergic receptor-mediated hepatic glycogenolysis is increased in aged male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, P.A.; Graham, S.M.; Arinze, I.J.

    1986-03-05

    The effect of age on catecholamine-stimulated glycogenolysis was studied in isolated hepatocytes prepared from 3, 12, and 24 month-old rats. Glucose release was stimulated by epinephrine and norepinephrine, this was inhibited by phentolamine and prazosin. Isoproterenol (ISO) stimulated glycogenolysis only in cells from 24 month-old rats, this was blocked by propranolol. In liver plasma membranes, binding of (/sup 3/H)yohimbine (100-130 fmol/mg protein) did not change with age, whereas (/sup 3/H)prazosin binding decreased from 870 fmol/mg at 3 months to 435 fmol/mg at 12 months, but subsequently rose to 656 fmol/mg at 24 months. (/sup 125/I)Cyanopindolol binding increased from 8 fmol/mg at 3 months to 19 fmol/mg at 24 months. The proportion of ..beta..-receptors in the high affinity state increased from 28% at 3 months to 42% at 24 months. ISO stimulated adenylate cyclase at 24 months but not at 3 months. Basal, fluoride-, GTP-, and Gpp(NH)p-stimulated activities were 1.4- to 2.4-fold greater at 24 months than at 3 months. These results suggest an age-related increase in the sensitivity of adenylate cyclase to ..beta..-receptor stimulation.

  2. Growth hormone and melatonin prevent age-related alteration in apoptosis processes in the dentate gyrus of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireev, R A; Vara, E; Tresguerres, J A F

    2013-08-01

    It has been suggested that the age-related decrease in the number of neurons in the hippocampus that leads to alterations in brain function, may be associated with an increase in apoptosis due to the reduced secretion of growth hormone (GH) and/or melatonin in old animals. In order to investigate this possibility, male Wistar rats of 22 months of age were divided into three groups. One group remained untreated and acted as the control group. The second was treated with growth hormone (hGH) for 10 weeks (2 mg/kg/d sc) and the third was subjected to melatonin treatment (1 mg/kg/d) in the drinking water for the same time. A group of 2-months-old male rats was used as young controls. All rats were killed by decapitation at more than 24 month of age and dentate gyri of the hippocampi were collected. Aging in the dentate gyrus was associated with an increase in apoptosis promoting markers (Bax, Bad and AIF) and with the reduction of some anti-apoptotic ones (XIAP, NIAP, Mcl-1). Expressions of sirtuin 1 and 2 (SIRT1 and 2) as well as levels of HSP 70 were decreased in the dentate gyrus of old rats. GH treatment was able to reduce the pro/anti-apoptotic ratio to levels observed in young animals and also to increase SIRT2. Melatonin reduced also expression of pro-apoptotic genes and proteins (Bax, Bad and AIF), and increased levels of myeloid cell leukemia-1 proteins and SIRT1. Both treatments were able to reduce apoptosis and to enhance survival markers in this part of the hippocampus.

  3. The influence of exercises under isokinetic conditions on heart rate in males aged between 40 and 51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czamara, Andrzej; Krzemińska, Aleksandra; Szuba, Lukasz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate changes in heart rate (HR) values in response to the exercise under isokinetic conditions, with defined protocol using three different angular velocities and 2 minute break. The subjects were divided into two groups. The first group contained 18 males aged between 40 and 50, and the second group contained 20 males who were 20-30 years old. The heart rate was monitored before, during and after the strength moment measurement under isokinetic conditions of extensors and flexors of knee joint. The strength moment was measured with an angular velocity of 180 °/s, 120°/s and 60 °/s. The number of repetitions of extension and flexion of the knee joint was 10 for the angular velocity of 180 °/s, 8 for the angular velocity of 120 °/s and 5 for the angular velocity of 60 °/s. The break between each series of repetitions took 2 minutes. The peak torques for extensors and flexors of both lower extremities were measured. The peak torque and heart rate values increased with a decrease in the preset angular velocity and were lower in the second group. The results were within the norm accepted for submaximal heart rate index in both age groups.

  4. The Efficacy of Mirodenafil for Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome in Middle-Aged Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Do Hoon; Yun, Chang Jin; Park, Nam Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of mirodenafil in middle-aged male patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). Materials and Methods Eighty-eight males with CP/CPPS were randomized to receive either levofloxacin (500 mg/d) (group L, 40 patients) or levofloxacin (500 mg/d) and mirodenafil (50 mg/d) (group ML, 48 patients) for six weeks. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI), and erectile function (EF) domain scores of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire were used to grade symptoms at baseline and 6 weeks after treatment. Results The mean change in total IPSS from baseline was higher in group ML than that in group L (group L, -1.1 vs. group ML, -4.3; p<0.05). Significant improvements were also seen in the IPSS voiding subscore (group L, -0.7 vs. group ML, -3.0; p<0.05). Changes observed in the NIH-CPSI of group ML at six weeks were greater than those at baseline (group L, -3.2 vs. group ML, -7.2; p<0.05). Significant improvements were seen in the NIH-CPSI voiding (group L, -0.5 vs. group ML, -1.7; p<0.05) and quality of life domains (group L, -1.0 vs. group ML, -1.8; p<0.05). Group ML showed a significantly greater increase in the IIEF-EF score than did group ML (group L, +0.2 vs. group ML, +7.8; p<0.05). Conclusions Mirodenafil (50 mg once daily) was well tolerated and resulted in significant symptomatic improvement in middle-aged males with CP/CPPS. PMID:25606563

  5. Melatonin can improve insulin resistance and aging-induced pancreas alterations in senescence-accelerated prone male mice (SAMP8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Sara; Kireev, Roman; García, Cruz; Rancan, Lisa; Vara, Elena; Tresguerres, Jesús A F

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of aging on several parameters related to glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in pancreas and how melatonin administration could affect these parameters. Pancreas samples were obtained from two types of male mice models: senescence-accelerated prone (SAMP8) and senescence-accelerated-resistant mice (SAMR1). Insulin levels in plasma were increased with aging in both SAMP8 and SAMR1 mice, whereas insulin content in pancreas was decreased with aging in SAMP8 and increased in SAMR1 mice. Expressions of glucagon and GLUT2 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were increased with aging in SAMP8 mice, and no differences were observed in somatostatin and insulin mRNA expressions. Furthermore, aging decreased also the expressions of Pdx-1, FoxO 1, FoxO 3A and Sirt1 in pancreatic SAMP8 samples. Pdx-1 was decreased in SAMR1 mice, but no differences were observed in the rest of parameters on these mice strains. Treatment with melatonin was able to decrease plasma insulin levels and to increase its pancreatic content in SAMP8 mice. In SAMR1, insulin pancreatic content and plasma levels were decreased. HOMA-IR was decreased with melatonin treatment in both strains of animals. On the other hand, in SAMP8 mice, treatment decreased the expression of glucagon, GLUT2, somatostatin and insulin mRNA. Furthermore, it was also able to increase the expression of Sirt1, Pdx-1 and FoxO 3A. According to these results, aging is associated with significant alterations in the relative expression of pancreatic genes associated to glucose metabolism. This has been especially observed in SAMP8 mice. Melatonin administration was able to improve pancreatic function in old SAMP8 mice and to reduce HOMA-IR improving their insulin physiology and glucose metabolism.

  6. Chronic disease prevalence and associations in a cohort of Australian men: The Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study (FAMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Middleton Sue M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing proportion of Australia's chronic disease burden is carried by the ageing male. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma, cancer, diabetes, angina and musculoskeletal conditions and their relationship to behavioural and socio-demographic factors in a cohort of Australian men. Methods Self-reports of disease status were obtained from baseline clinic visits (August 2002 – July 2003 & July 2004 – May 2005 from 1195 randomly selected men, aged 35–80 years and living in the north-west regions of Adelaide. Initially, relative risks were assessed by regression against selected variables for each outcome. Where age-independent associations were observed with the relevant chronic disease, independent variables were fitted to customized multiadjusted models. Results The prevalence of all conditions was moderately higher in comparison to national data for age-matched men. In particular, there was an unusually high rate of men with cancer. Multiadjusted analyses revealed age as a predictor of chronic conditions (type 2 diabetes mellitus, angina, cancer & osteoarthritis. A number of socio-demographic factors, independent of age, were associated with chronic disease, including: low income status (diabetes, separation/divorce (asthma, unemployment (cancer, high waist circumference (diabetes, elevated cholesterol (angina and a family history of obesity (angina. Conclusion Socio-demographic factors interact to determine disease status in this broadly representative group of Australian men. In addition to obesity and a positive personal and family history of disease, men who are socially disadvantaged (low income, unemployed, separated should be specifically targeted by public health initiatives.

  7. Influence of age on measured anatomical and physiological interpupillary distance (far and near, and near heterophoria, in Arab males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanazi SA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Saud A AlAnazi, Mana A AlAnazi, Uchechukwu L Osuagwu Corneal Research Chair, Department of Optometry and Vision Science, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Purpose: To compare the effects of age and near phoria on interpupillary distance measured at far (FIPD and near (NIPD using the Viktorin's and pupillometer (PD-5 methods. Methods: Interpupillary distance (IPD by Viktorin's method and the corneal reflex pupillometer (PD-5 method, as well as near heterophoria by the Saladin near point card, were each obtained on 133 randomly selected normal subjects aged 20–67 years. Comparison within and between techniques, influence of age on IPD, and near heterophoria were assessed. Results: The mean FIPD varied significantly from the NIPD (P 0.05 for FIPD, and -3.1 mm and 2.9 mm (P > 0.05 for NIPD. Both IPDs varied significantly across age groups (P 0.04; P < 0.03, both techniques. Conclusion: The difference between FIPD and NIPD (about 4.4 mm in Arab males was observed independent of the technique used. The Viktorin's and the PD-5 methods of IPD assessment resulted in similar values, and therefore, could be interchangeably used. However, caution is advised in cases of high power refractive corrections as the difference could vary from -4 mm to +3 mm (FIPD and -3 mm to +3 mm (NIPD. Both IPDs have demonstrated an increase until the patients are in their early 40s, and a slight decrease has been observed thereafter. Age and NIPD were significantly associated with heterophoria in our subjects. Keywords: phoria, interpupillary distance, Viktorin's method, pupillometer, Saladin near point card, age

  8. Aged garlic extract ameliorates immunotoxicity, hematotoxicity and impaired burn-healing in malathion- and carbaryl-treated male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Gamal; El-Beih, Nadia M; Ahmed, Rehab S A

    2017-03-01

    Malathion and carbaryl are the most widely used organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, respectively, especially in developing countries; they pose a potential health hazard for both humans and animals. Here, we evaluated the protective effects of an odorless (free from allicin) Kyolic aged garlic extract (AGE, containing 0.1% S-allylcysteine; 200 mg/kg body weight) on the toxicity induced by 0.1 LD50 of malathion (89.5 mg/kg body weight) and/or carbaryl (33.9 mg/kg body weight) in male Wistar rats. Doses were orally administered to animals for four consecutive weeks. The present study showed that AGE completely modulated most adverse effects induced by malathion and/or carbaryl in rats including the normocytic normochromic anemia, immunosuppression, and the delay in the skin-burning healing process through normalizing the count of blood cells (erythrocytes, leucocytes and platelets), hemoglobin content, hematocrit value, blood glucose-6-phosphodehydrogenase activity, weights and cellularity of lymphoid organs, serum γ-globulin concentration, and the delayed type of hypersensitivity response to the control values, and accelerating the inflammatory and proliferative phases of burn-healing. In addition, AGE completely modulated the decrease in serum reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration and the increase in clotting time in malathion alone and carbaryl alone treated rats. Moreover, AGE induced a significant increase (P < 0.001) in serum GSH concentration (above the normal value) and accelerating burn-healing process in healthy rats. In conclusion, AGE was effective in modulating most adverse effects induced in rats by malathion and carbaryl, and hence may be useful as a dietary adjunct for alleviating the toxicity in highly vulnerable people to insecticides intoxication. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 789-798, 2017.

  9. Age differences in fear retention and extinction in male Sprague-Dawley rats: effects of ethanol challenge during conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadwater, Margaret; Spear, Linda P

    2013-09-01

    Pavlovian fear conditioning is an ideal model to investigate how learning and memory are influenced by alcohol use during adolescence because the neural mechanisms involved have been studied extensively. In Exp 1, adolescent and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were non-injected or injected with saline, 1 or 1.5 g/kg ethanol intraperitoneally 10 min prior to tone or context conditioning. Twenty-four hours later, animals were tested for tone or context retention and extinction, with examination of extinction retention conducted 24h thereafter. In Exp 2, a context extinction session was inserted between the tone conditioning and the tone fear retention/extinction days to reduce pre-CS baseline freezing levels at test. Basal levels of acquisition, fear retention, extinction, and extinction retention after tone conditioning were similar between adolescent and adult rats. In contrast adolescents showed faster context extinction than adults, while again not differing from adults during context acquisition, retention or extinction retention. In terms of ethanol effects, adolescents were less sensitive to ethanol-induced context retention deficits than adults. No age differences emerged in terms of tone fear retention, with ethanol disrupting tone fear retention at both ages in Exp 1, but at neither age in Exp 2, a difference seemingly due to group differences in pre-CS freezing during tone testing in Exp 1, but not Exp 2. These results suggest that age differences in the acute effects of ethanol on cognitive function are task-specific, and provide further evidence for age differences cognitive functioning in a task thought to be hippocampally related.

  10. Biochemical Alterations during the Obese-Aging Process in Female and Male Monosodium Glutamate (MSG-Treated Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René J. Hernández-Bautista

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, from children to the elderly, has increased in the world at an alarming rate over the past three decades, implying long-term detrimental consequences for individual’s health. Obesity and aging are known to be risk factors for metabolic disorder development, insulin resistance and inflammation, but their relationship is not fully understood. Prevention and appropriate therapies for metabolic disorders and physical disabilities in older adults have become a major public health challenge. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate inflammation markers, biochemical parameters and glucose homeostasis during the obese-aging process, to understand the relationship between obesity and health span during the lifetime. In order to do this, the monosodium glutamate (MSG obesity mice model was used, and data were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 months in both female and male mice. Our results showed that obesity was a major factor contributing to premature alterations in MSG-treated mice metabolism; however, at older ages, obesity effects were attenuated and MSG-mice became more similar to normal mice. At a younger age (four months old, the Lee index, triglycerides, total cholesterol, TNF-α and transaminases levels increased; while adiponectin decreased and glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity levels were remarkably altered. However, from 16 months old-on, the Lee index and TNF-α levels diminished significantly, while adiponectin increased, and glucose and insulin homeostasis was recovered. In summary, MSG-treated obese mice showed metabolic changes and differential susceptibility by gender throughout life and during the aging process. Understanding metabolic differences between genders during the lifespan will allow the discovery of specific preventive treatment strategies for chronic diseases and functional decline.

  11. Biochemical Alterations during the Obese-Aging Process in Female and Male Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)-Treated Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bautista, René J.; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Escobar-Villanueva, María Del C.; Almanza-Pérez, Julio C.; Merino-Aguilar, Héctor; Konigsberg Fainstein, Mina; López-Diazguerrero, Norma E.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, from children to the elderly, has increased in the world at an alarming rate over the past three decades, implying long-term detrimental consequences for individual’s health. Obesity and aging are known to be risk factors for metabolic disorder development, insulin resistance and inflammation, but their relationship is not fully understood. Prevention and appropriate therapies for metabolic disorders and physical disabilities in older adults have become a major public health challenge. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate inflammation markers, biochemical parameters and glucose homeostasis during the obese-aging process, to understand the relationship between obesity and health span during the lifetime. In order to do this, the monosodium glutamate (MSG) obesity mice model was used, and data were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 months in both female and male mice. Our results showed that obesity was a major factor contributing to premature alterations in MSG-treated mice metabolism; however, at older ages, obesity effects were attenuated and MSG-mice became more similar to normal mice. At a younger age (four months old), the Lee index, triglycerides, total cholesterol, TNF-α and transaminases levels increased; while adiponectin decreased and glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity levels were remarkably altered. However, from 16 months old-on, the Lee index and TNF-α levels diminished significantly, while adiponectin increased, and glucose and insulin homeostasis was recovered. In summary, MSG-treated obese mice showed metabolic changes and differential susceptibility by gender throughout life and during the aging process. Understanding metabolic differences between genders during the lifespan will allow the discovery of specific preventive treatment strategies for chronic diseases and functional decline. PMID:24979131

  12. Nocturnal hyperthermia induced by social stress in male tree shrews: relation to low testosterone and effects of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhause, Susan; Hoffmann, Kerstin; Schlumbohm, Christina; Fuchs, Eberhard; Flügge, Gabriele

    2011-10-24

    Stress is known to elevate core body temperature (CBT). We recorded CBT in a diurnal animal, the male tree shrew, during a one-week control period and a one-week period of social stress using a telemetric system. During the stress period, when animals were confronted with a dominant male for about 1h daily, CBT was increased throughout the day. We analyzed CBT during the night when animals were left undisturbed and displayed no locomotor activity. To determine whether nocturnal hyperthermia may be related to stress-induced changes in hormonal status, we measured testosterone, noradrenalin and cortisol in the animals' morning urine. The daily social stress increased the mean nocturnal temperature by 0.37 °C. Urinary testosterone was reduced during the stress period, and there was a significant negative correlation between testosterone and the area under the curve (AUC) of the nocturnal CBT. This means that stress-induced hyperthermia was strongest in the animals with the lowest testosterone concentrations. As expected, urinary noradrenalin was elevated during the stress week but a positive correlation with the AUC data was only found for animals younger than 12 months. Cortisol was also increased during the stress week but there were no correlations with nocturnal hyperthermia. However, the stress-induced increases in noradrenalin and cortisol correlated with each other. Furthermore, there were no correlations between the stress-induced increase in nocturnal CBT and body weight reduction or locomotor activity during the light phase. Interestingly, the extent of nocturnal hyperthermia depended on the animals' ages: In animals younger than 12 months, stress increased the AUC by 48%, in animals aged between 12 and 24 months, stress increased the AUC by 36%, and older animals showed only a 7% increase. However, testosterone was not significantly reduced in the older animals. The present data reveal an interrelation between the extent of stress-induced nocturnal

  13. Comparison of Morphometric Aspects of Light and Electron Microscopy of the Hypoglossal Nerve between Young and Aged Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Pourghasem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Age-related changes occur in many different systems of the body. Many elderlypeople show dysphagia and dysphonia. This research was conducted to evaluatequantitatively the morphometrical changes of the hypoglossal nerve resulting from theaging process in young and aged rats.Materials and Methods: Through an experimental study ten male wistar rats (4 months: 5rats, 24 months: 5 rats were selected randomly from a colony of wistars in the UWC. Aftera fixation process and preparation of samples of the cervical portion of the hypoglossalnerve of these rats, light and electron microscopic imaging were performed. These imageswere evaluated according to the numbers and size of myelinated nerve fibers, nucleoli ofSchwann cells, myelin sheath thickness, axon diameter, and g ratio. All data were analyzedby Mann-Whitney, a non-parametric statistical test.Results: In light microscope, numbers of myelinated nerve fibers, the mean entire nerveperimeters, the mean entire nerve areas and the mean entire nerve diameters in youngand aged rats’ were not significantly different between the two groups.In electron microscope, numbers of myelinated axons, numbers of Schwann cell nucleoliand the mean g ratios of myelinated axon to Schwann cell in young and aged rats werenot significantly different. The myelinated fiber diameters, the myelin sheath thicknesses,myelinated axon diameters and the mean g ratio of axon diameter to myelinated fiberdiameter in young and aged fibers were significantly differentConclusion: The mean g ratio of myelinated nerve fibers of peripheral nerves stabilizes atthe level of 0.6 after maturation and persists without major change during adulthood. Thisratio of axon diameter to fiber diameter (0.6 is optimum for normal conduction velocity ofneural impulses. Our study indicated that the g ratio of myelinated nerve fiber of the hypoglossalnerve decreased prominently in aged rats and can be a cause of impairment innerve function in

  14. Relationship Power Among Same-Sex Male Couples in New York and San Francisco: Laying the Groundwork for Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions Focused on Interpersonal Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Shari L; Zakaras, Jennifer M; Campbell, Chadwick; Wilson, Patrick; Grisham, Kirk; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Neilands, Torsten B; Hoff, Colleen

    2017-02-16

    Research is clear that power differentials between women and men shape women's human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risks; however, little research has attempted to examine power differentials within same-sex male (SSM) couples and whether these influence sexual risk outcomes. To produce the first quantitative scale that measures power in SSM relationships, the current work was a Phase 1 qualitative study that sought to understand domains of relationship power and how power operated in the relationship among 48 Black, White, and interracial (Black-White) SSM couples recruited from San Francisco and New York. Interview domains were focused on definitions of power and perceptions of how power operated in the relationship. Findings revealed that couples described power in three key ways: as power exerted over a partner through decision-making dominance and relationship control; as power to accomplish goals through personal agency; and as couple-level power. In addition, men described ways that decision-making dominance and relationship control could be enacted in the relationship-through structural resources, emotional and sexual influence, and gender norm expectations. We discuss the implications of these findings for sexual risks and HIV care and treatment with SSM couples that are focused on closing gaps in power.

  15. Discriminatory power of game-related statistics in 14-15 year age group male volleyball, according to set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hermoso, Antonio; Dávila-Romero, Carlos; Saavedra, Jose M

    2013-02-01

    This study compared volleyball game-related statistics by outcome (winners and losers of sets) and set number (total, initial, and last) to identify characteristics that discriminated game performance. Game-related statistics from 314 sets (44 matches) played by teams of male 14- to 15-year-olds in a regional volleyball championship were analysed (2011). Differences between contexts (winning or losing teams) and "set number" (total, initial, and last) were assessed. A discriminant analysis was then performed according to outcome (winners and losers of sets) and "set number" (total, initial, and last). The results showed differences (winning or losing sets) in several variables of Complexes I (attack point and error reception) and II (serve and aces). Game-related statistics which discriminate performance in the sets index the serve, positive reception, and attack point. The predictors of performance at these ages when players are still learning could help coaches plan their training.

  16. A validation of the first genome-wide association study of calcaneus ultrasound parameters in the European Male Ageing Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Thang S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been associated with broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA and speed of sound (SOS as measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS at the calcaneus in the Framingham 100K genome-wide association study (GWAS but have not been validated in independent studies. The aim of this analysis was to determine if these SNPs are associated with QUS measurements assessed in a large independent population of European middle-aged and elderly men. The association between these SNPs and bone mineral density (BMD measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA was also tested. Methods Men aged 40-79 years (N = 2960 were recruited from population registers in seven European centres for participation in an observational study of male ageing, the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS. QUS at the calcaneus was measured in all subjects and blood was taken for genetic analysis. Lumbar spine (LS, femoral neck (FN and total hip (TH BMD were measured by DXA in a subsample of 620 men in two centres. SNPs associated with BUA or SOS in the Framingham study with p -4 were selected and genotyped using SEQUENOM technology. Linear regression was used to test for the association between SNPs and standardised (SD bone outcomes under an additive genetic model adjusting for centre. The same direction of effect and p Results Thirty-four of 38 selected SNPs were successfully genotyped in 2377 men. Suggestive evidence of replication was observed for a single SNP, rs3754032, which was associated with a higher SOS (β(SD = 0.07, p = 0.032 but not BUA (β(SD = 0.02, p = 0.505 and is located in the 3'UTR of WDR77 (WD repeat domain 77 also known as androgen receptor cofactor p44. A single SNP, rs238358, was associated with BMD at the LS (β(SD = -0.22, p = 0.014, FN (β(SD = -0.31,p = 0.001 and TH (β(SD = -0.36, p = 0.002 in a locus previously associated with LS BMD in large-scale GWAS, incorporating AKAP11 and RANKL

  17. Impact of specific training and competition on myocardial structure and function in different age ranges of male handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrebi, Brahim; Tkatchuk, Vladimir; Hlila, Nawel; Mouelhi, Emna; Belhani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Handball activity involves cardiac changes and demands a mixture of both eccentric and concentric remodeling within the heart. This study seeks to explore heart performance and cardiac remodeling likely to define cardiac parameters which influence specific performance in male handball players across different age ranges. Forty three players, with a regular training and competitive background in handball separated into three groups aged on average 11.78 ± 0.41 for youth players aka "schools", "elite juniors" 15.99 ± 0.81 and "elite adults" 24.46 ± 2.63 years, underwent echocardiography and ECG examinations. Incremental ergocycle and specific field (SFT) tests have also been conducted. With age and regular training and competition, myocardial remodeling in different age ranges exhibit significant differences in dilatation's parameters between "schools" and "juniors" players, such as the end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and the end-systolic diameter of the left ventricle (LVESD), the root of aorta (Ao) and left atrial (LA), while significant increase is observed between "juniors" and "adults" players in the interventricular septum (IVS), the posterior wall thicknesses (PWT) and LV mass index. ECG changes are also noted but NS differences were observed in studied parameters. For incremental maximal test, players demonstrate a significant increase in duration and total work between "schools" and "juniors" and, in total work only, between "juniors" and "seniors". The SFT shows improvement in performance which ranged between 26.17 ± 1.83 sec to 31.23 ± 2.34 sec respectively from "seniors" to "schools". The cross-sectional approach used to compare groups with prior hypothesis that there would be differences in exercise performance and cardiac parameters depending on duration of prior handball practice, leads to point out the early cardiac remodeling within the heart as adaptive change. Prevalence of cardiac chamber dilation with less hypertrophy remodeling was found

  18. The andropause and memory loss: is there a link between androgen decline and dementia in the aging male?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert S. Tan; Shou-Jin Pu

    2001-01-01

    Studies demonstrate a decline in androgens with age and this results in the andropause. The objective of this paper is to review the literature on hormonal changes that occur in the aging males and determine if there are associations between decreased testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and decreased cognitive function. Trials of androgen replacement and its impact on cognitive function will also be analyzed. Method of analysis will be by a thorough search of articles on MEDLINE, the Intemet and major abstract databases. Results of the author's own research in 302 men of the association of memory loss as a symptom in the andropause will be presented. In addition, the authors open trial of testosterone replacement in hypogonadic men with Alzheimer's disease will also be presented. The results of the author's trial will be compared with other investigators. High endogenous testosterone level predicted better performance on visual spatial tests in several studies, but not in all studies. Likewise, testosterone replacement in hypogonadic patients improved cognitive functions in some but not all studies. Testosterone has also been shown to improve cognitive function in eugonadal men. Several studies have shown that declines in DHEA may contribute to Alzheimer's disease and the results of double blind studies with DHEA replacement and its effect on cognition will also be presented. In summary, there is still no consensus that androgen replacement is beneficial in cognitive decline but this option may prove promising in some patients.

  19. Development of a short version of the Aging Males' Symptoms scale: Mokken scaling analysis and Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin-Pang; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Kun-Hao; Chu, Chun-Lin; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Chen, Ching-Yen

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a psychometrically sound short version of the 17-item Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scale using Mokken scale analysis (MSA) and Rasch analysis. We recruited a convenient sample of 1787 men (age: mean (SD) = 43.8 (11.5) years) who visited a men's health polyclinic in Taiwan and completed the AMS scale. The scale was first assessed using MSA. The remaining items were assessed using Rasch analysis. We used a stepwise approach to remove items with χ(2) item statistics and mean square values while monitoring unidimensionality. The item reduction process resulted in a 6-item version of the AMS scale (AMS-6). The AMS-6 scale included a 5-item psychosomatic subscale (original items 1, 4, 5, 8, and 9) and a 1-item sexual subscale (original item 16). Analyses confirmed that the 5-item psychosomatic subscale was a Rasch scale. The AMS-6 correlated well with the AMS scales: the 5-item psychosomatic subscale correlated with the AMS scale (r between 0.50 and 0.92); the 1-item sexual subscale correlated with the sexual subscale of the AMS scale (r = 0.81). A 6-item short form of the AMS scale had satisfactory measurement properties. This version may be useful for estimating psychosomatic and sexual symptoms as well as health-related quality of life with a minimal burden on respondents.

  20. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A New Metabolic Disease of the Aging Male and Its Correlation with Sexual Dysfunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Corona

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a well-recognized cluster of cardiovascular (CV risk factors including obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycaemia, closely associated with an increased risk of forthcoming cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Emerging evidence indicates that benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH and its related lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS represent other clinical conditions frequently observed in subjects with MetS. Several modifiable factors involved in MetS determinism, such as inadequate diet, lack of physical exercise, and smoking and drinking behaviours are emerging as main contributors to the development of BPH. The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the connection between MetS and BPH have not been completely clarified. MetS and its components, hypogonadism, and prostate inflammation probably play an important role in inducing BPH/LUTS. Although historically considered as a “normal” consequence of the aging process, BPH/LUTS should now be faced proactively, as a preventable disorder of the elderly. Type of diet and level of physical activity are now considered important factors affecting prostate health in the aging male. However, whether physical exercise, weight loss, and modifications of dietary habit can really alter the natural history of BPH/LUTS remains to be determined. Further research is advisable to better clarify these points.

  1. Whey peptides prevent chronic ultraviolet B radiation-induced skin aging in melanin-possessing male hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yoshiyuki; Sumiyoshi, Maho; Kobayashi, Toshiya

    2014-01-01

    Whey proteins or peptides exhibit various actions, including an antioxidant action, an anticancer action, and a protective action against childhood asthma and atopic syndrome. The effects of orally administered whey peptides (WPs) on chronic ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation-induced cutaneous changes, including changes in cutaneous thickness, elasticity, wrinkle formation, etc., have not been examined. In this study, we studied the preventive effects of WPs on cutaneous aging induced by chronic UVB irradiation in melanin-possessing male hairless mice (HRM). UVB (36-180 mJ/cm(2)) was irradiated to the dorsal area for 17 wk in HRM, and the measurements of cutaneous thickness and elasticity in UVB irradiated mice were performed every week. WPs (200 and 400 mg/kg, twice daily) were administered orally for 17 wk. WPs inhibited the increase in cutaneous thickness, wrinkle formation, and melanin granules and the reduction in cutaneous elasticity associated with photoaging. Furthermore, it has been reported that UVB irradiation-induced skin aging is closely associated with the increase in expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Ki-67-, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)-positive cells. WPs also prevented increases in the expression of MMP-2 and pro-MMP-9, VEGF, and Ki-67- and 8-OHdG-positive cells induced by chronic UVB irradiation. It was found that WPs prevent type IV collagen degradation, angiogenesis, proliferation, and DNA damage caused by UVB irradiation. Overall, these results demonstrate the considerable benefit of WPs for protection against solar UV-irradiated skin aging as a supplemental nutrient.

  2. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, a Rapid Method for Predicting the Age of Male and Female Wild-Type and Wolbachia Infected Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milali, Masabho P.; Henry, Michael; Wirtz, Robert A.; Hugo, Leon E.; Dowell, Floyd E.; Devine, Gregor J.

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the age distribution of mosquito populations is crucial for assessing their capacity to transmit disease and for evaluating the efficacy of available vector control programs. This study reports on the capacity of the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique to rapidly predict the ages of the principal dengue and Zika vector, Aedes aegypti. The age of wild-type males and females, and males and females infected with wMel and wMelPop strains of Wolbachia pipientis were characterized using this method. Calibrations were developed using spectra collected from their heads and thoraces using partial least squares (PLS) regression. A highly significant correlation was found between the true and predicted ages of mosquitoes. The coefficients of determination for wild-type females and males across all age groups were R2 = 0.84 and 0.78, respectively. The coefficients of determination for the age of wMel and wMelPop infected females were 0.71 and 0.80, respectively (Pfemale Ae. aegypti could be identified as female Ae. aegypti infected with wMel and wMelPop were differentiated into the two age groups with an accuracy of 83% (N = 284) and 78% (N = 229), respectively. Our results also indicate NIRS can distinguish between young and old male wild-type, wMel and wMelPop infected Ae. aegypti with accuracies of 87% (N = 253), 83% (N = 277) and 78% (N = 234), respectively. We have demonstrated the potential of NIRS as a predictor of the age of female and male wild-type and Wolbachia infected Ae. aegypti mosquitoes under laboratory conditions. After field validation, the tool has the potential to offer a cheap and rapid alternative for surveillance of dengue and Zika vector control programs. PMID:27768689

  3. Efficacy of various chiropractic treatments, age distribution and incidence of accident- and nonaccident-caused low back pain in male and female patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheladia, V L; Johnston, D A

    1986-12-01

    From a total pool of 1189 male and female patients with accident- (AC) and nonaccident- (NA) caused low back pain, 465 cases with completed therapy were studied for effectiveness of various chiropractic treatments. For those who completed therapy, the age distribution and incidence of this disorder were also studied. At the completion of the therapy, the response was evaluated as very good (pain-free, cured), better (very small degree of discomfort), relief (some reduction in pain) or no response to the treatment. The females with NA responded better than AC cases (p less than .001). However, male NA cases showed an increase in "no relief," but it was not significant (p = 0.052). The response of male AC cases was better than that of female AC cases (p less than 0.001). The cervical, thoracic, lumbar and ilium adjustment levels in female and male NA did not show any differences in response (p = 0.15, female; p = 0.46, male). The incidence of NA back pain disorders in both male and female was higher as compared to AC-caused back problems (p less than 0.001). The lower back pain problems did not show any age-specific association in either sex. Manipulative approaches in addition to nonmanipulative methods are superior to nonmanipulative measures alone, and females responded better to nonmanipulative care than did males.

  4. Impact of specific training and competition on myocardial structure and function in different age ranges of male handball players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Agrebi

    Full Text Available Handball activity involves cardiac changes and demands a mixture of both eccentric and concentric remodeling within the heart. This study seeks to explore heart performance and cardiac remodeling likely to define cardiac parameters which influence specific performance in male handball players across different age ranges. Forty three players, with a regular training and competitive background in handball separated into three groups aged on average 11.78 ± 0.41 for youth players aka "schools", "elite juniors" 15.99 ± 0.81 and "elite adults" 24.46 ± 2.63 years, underwent echocardiography and ECG examinations. Incremental ergocycle and specific field (SFT tests have also been conducted. With age and regular training and competition, myocardial remodeling in different age ranges exhibit significant differences in dilatation's parameters between "schools" and "juniors" players, such as the end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD and the end-systolic diameter of the left ventricle (LVESD, the root of aorta (Ao and left atrial (LA, while significant increase is observed between "juniors" and "adults" players in the interventricular septum (IVS, the posterior wall thicknesses (PWT and LV mass index. ECG changes are also noted but NS differences were observed in studied parameters. For incremental maximal test, players demonstrate a significant increase in duration and total work between "schools" and "juniors" and, in total work only, between "juniors" and "seniors". The SFT shows improvement in performance which ranged between 26.17 ± 1.83 sec to 31.23 ± 2.34 sec respectively from "seniors" to "schools". The cross-sectional approach used to compare groups with prior hypothesis that there would be differences in exercise performance and cardiac parameters depending on duration of prior handball practice, leads to point out the early cardiac remodeling within the heart as adaptive change. Prevalence of cardiac chamber dilation with less hypertrophy remodeling

  5. The rate of nonallelic homologous recombination in males is highly variable, correlated between monozygotic twins and independent of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline A L MacArthur

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR between highly similar duplicated sequences generates chromosomal deletions, duplications and inversions, which can cause diverse genetic disorders. Little is known about interindividual variation in NAHR rates and the factors that influence this. We estimated the rate of deletion at the CMT1A-REP NAHR hotspot in sperm DNA from 34 male donors, including 16 monozygotic (MZ co-twins (8 twin pairs aged 24 to 67 years old. The average NAHR rate was 3.5 × 10(-5 with a seven-fold variation across individuals. Despite good statistical power to detect even a subtle correlation, we observed no relationship between age of unrelated individuals and the rate of NAHR in their sperm, likely reflecting the meiotic-specific origin of these events. We then estimated the heritability of deletion rate by calculating the intraclass correlation (ICC within MZ co-twins, revealing a significant correlation between MZ co-twins (ICC = 0.784, p = 0.0039, with MZ co-twins being significantly more correlated than unrelated pairs. We showed that this heritability cannot be explained by variation in PRDM9, a known regulator of NAHR, or variation within the NAHR hotspot itself. We also did not detect any correlation between Body Mass Index (BMI, smoking status or alcohol intake and rate of NAHR. Our results suggest that other, as yet unidentified, genetic or environmental factors play a significant role in the regulation of NAHR and are responsible for the extensive variation in the population for the probability of fathering a child with a genomic disorder resulting from a pathogenic deletion.

  6. Electrically evoked and voluntary maximal isometric tension in relation to dynamic muscle performance in elderly male subjects, aged 69 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C T; White, M J; Young, K

    1983-01-01

    The dynamic performance and electrically evoked mechanical properties of elderly triceps surae muscle have been investigated in 9 men, aged 69 yr. Dynamic performance consisted of cycling on a force bicycle and a vertical jump off two feet from a force platform. The results showed that the time to peak tension (TPT) and half relaxation time (1/2 RT) were significantly greater (p less than 0.001) by 30 ms and 22 ms and the supramaximal twitch (Pt) and tetanic (20 Hz-P020) tensions and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) were less by 45 N (-33%), 708 N (-49%), and 899 N (-43%) in the elderly compared with young male control subjects. On the force platform, the height jumped (Ht), maximal force exerted (P), take-off velocity (VT), net impulse (NI) and peak power output (W) were less by 18.6 cm, 173 N, 0.9 ms-1, 52 Ns and 1120 w respectively. Similar differences of power, force and velocity were observed on the force bicycle. The reduction of W in the elderly was associated with the contractile characteristics of the leg muscle. The loss of contractile speed and capacity to to generate force in old people was reflected in their inability to develop power during the performance of a maximal vertical jump and cycling.

  7. Association of High Vitamin D Status with Low Circulating Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Independent of Thyroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged and Elderly Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A recent study has reported that high circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] is associated with low circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels, but only in younger individuals. The goal of the present study was to explore the relationship between vitamin D status and circulating TSH levels with thyroid autoimmunity and thyroid hormone levels taken into consideration in a population-based health survey of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods. A total of 1,424 Chinese adults, aged 41–78 years, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum levels of 25(OHD, TSH, thyroid hormones, and thyroid autoantibodies were measured. Results. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 94.29% in males and 97.22% in females, and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 55.61% in males and 69.64% in females. Vitamin D status was not associated with positive thyroid autoantibodies after controlling for age, gender, body mass index, and smoking status. Higher 25(OHD levels were associated with lower TSH levels after controlling for age, FT4 and FT3 levels, thyroid volume, the presence of thyroid nodule(s, and smoking status in males. Conclusion. High vitamin D status in middle-aged and elderly males was associated with low circulating TSH levels independent of thyroid hormone levels.

  8. Maintaining a focus on opportunities at work : The interplay between age, job complexity, and the use of selection, optimization, and compensation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Frese, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The concept of focus on opportunities describes how many new goals, options, and possibilities employees believe to have in their personal future at work. This study investigated the specific and shared effects of age, job complexity, and the use of successful aging strategies called selection, opti

  9. The effect of caffeine on working memory load-related brain activation in middle-aged males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Elissa B; de Groot, Renate H M; Evers, Elisabeth A T; Snel, Jan; Veerman, Enno C I; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; Jolles, Jelle; Veltman, Dick J

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine is commonly consumed in an effort to enhance cognitive performance. However, little is known about the usefulness of caffeine with regard to memory enhancement, with previous studies showing inconsistent effects on memory performance. We aimed to determine the effect of caffeine on working memory (WM) load-related activation during encoding, maintenance and retrieval phases of a WM maintenance task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 20 healthy, male, habitual caffeine consumers aged 40-61 years were administered 100 mg of caffeine in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design. Participants were scanned in a non-withdrawn state following a workday during which caffeinated products were consumed according to individual normal use (range = 145-595 mg). Acute caffeine administration was associated with increased load-related activation compared to placebo in the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during WM encoding, but decreased load-related activation in the left thalamus during WM maintenance. These findings are indicative of an effect of caffeine on the fronto-parietal network involved in the top-down cognitive control of WM processes during encoding and an effect on the prefrontal cortico-thalamic loop involved in the interaction between arousal and the top-down control of attention during maintenance. Therefore, the effects of caffeine on WM may be attributed to both a direct effect of caffeine on WM processes, as well as an indirect effect on WM via arousal modulation. Behavioural and fMRI results were more consistent with a detrimental effect of caffeine on WM at higher levels of WM load, than caffeine-related WM enhancement. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'.

  10. Age-related differences in the association between stereotypic behaviour and salivary cortisol in young males with an Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F; Agnew, Linda L; Andronicos, Nicholas M

    2015-12-01

    To identify if age influenced the relationship between one of the central symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and physiological stress, the association between stereotypic behaviour (SB) and stress-related cortisol concentrations was examined in a sample of 150 young males with an ASD. Parent-rated SB was significantly correlated with cortisol concentrations for boys aged 6 years to 12 years but not for adolescents aged 13 years to 18 years. This age-related difference in this association was not a function of cortisol concentrations but was related to differences in SB across these two age groups. IQ did not have a significant effect on this relationship, suggesting that age-related learning may have been a possible pathway for reduced SB during adolescence. The aspect of SB that was most powerfully related to cortisol was general repetitive behaviour rather than movements of specific body parts. Explanations of these findings are raised for further investigation.

  11. The Motive to Avoid Success and Its Effects on Performance in School-Age Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Nancy

    1975-01-01

    Males and females in grades 5-11 were asked to take a Thematic Apperception-like measure and to perform a series of tasks in competitive and non-competitive conditions. The results suggest that the motive to avoid success affects males and young females differently than it does older females. (JMB)

  12. Mating choice of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae): influence of male ageing on mating success; Escolha de parceiro para acasalamento em Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)(Diptera: Tephritidae): influencia do envelhecimento dos machos no sucesso de copula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Neto, Alberto M. da; Dias, Vanessa S.; Joachim-Bravo, Iara S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biologia Geral], e-mail: bio.alberto@gmail.com, e-mail: vanessasidias@hotmail.com, e-mail: ibravo@ufba.br

    2009-09-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of male ageing on male pheromone release and mating success of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The effects of male ageing on mating were evaluated on fi ve and 21 d-old males by assessing their mating success (males chosen by a female for copulation) and the amount of males releasing the sex pheromone. The mating success was evaluated by using several ratios of young to older males by increasing the number of older males:young males from 1:1 to 5:1. The mating success of the 1:1 ratio was also evaluated in fi eld cages. The evaluation of the mating success (in the 1:1 ratio) showed a clear preference of the females for young males. Sex pheromone emission was much more common on young than older males. Even in cases were older males were more abundant (ratios 2:1 and 3:1), females still chose the young males. However, females could not distinguish young from older males in ratios of 4:1 or 5:1. Our data indicate that the ageing of C. capitata males has a considerable negative effect on their reproductive success, especially if they are found in a proportion any lower than 3:1. (author)

  13. The Effect of Patient Age on Standardized Uptake Value-Hounsfield Unit Values of Male Genitourinery Structures In F-18 FDG PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Çavuşoğlu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Relation between patient age and Hounsfield Unit (HU,which is the linear attenuation coefficient, and Standardized Uptake Values (SUV which is the amount of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG uptake, measured in the areas of interest drawn to prostate, seminal vesicles and testicles in F-18 FDG Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT images was investigated. Material and Methods: Mean and maximum SUV and HU values were recorded from the areas of interest (min 12 mm in diameter which showed FDG uptake in prostate, seminal vesicles and testicles from F-18 FDG PET-CT images of 21 male patients under 40 years without genitourinary cancer. The effect of patient age to SUV and HU values was examined with Pearson correlation test using SPSS program. Results: There was a negative insignificant correlation between patient age and SUV and HU values for prostate. For seminal vesicles, correlation between patient age and SUV values and HUmax were positive but insignificant, while correlation with HUmean was significant (r=0.459, p=0.00. Correlation between patient age and SUVmax and SUVmean values were significant for testicles (r=0.506, p=0.002 and r=0.467, p=0.005, respectively but the correlation between patient age and HUmax and HUmean values was not significant. Conclusion: F-18 FDG uptake in testicles in males increases with age until 40, suggesting an increase in metabolic rate. The significant correlation between age and mean HU values is probably caused by thickening of the tissue without an increase in glucose metabolism in seminal vesicles. In prostate, the effect of patient age to SUV and HU values was not observed until the age 40. (MIRT 2011;20:104-107

  14. 3α-androstanediol, but not testosterone, attenuates age-related decrements in cognitive, anxiety, and depressive behavior of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A Frye

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Some hippocampally-influenced affective and/or cognitive processes decline with aging. The role of androgens in this process is of interest. Testosterone (T is aromatized to estrogen, and reduced to dihydrotestosterone (DHT, which is converted to 5α-androstane, 3α, 17α-diol (3α-diol. To determine the extent to which some age-related decline in hippocampally-influenced behaviors may be due to androgens, we examined the effects of variation in androgen levels due to age, gonadectomy, and androgen replacement on cognitive (inhibitory avoidance, Morris water maze and affective (defensive freezing, forced swim behavior among young (4-months, middle-aged (13-months, and aged (24-months male rats. Plasma and hippocampal levels of androgens were determined. In experiment 1, comparisons were made between 4-, 13-, and 24-month old rats that were intact or gonadectomized (GDX and administered a T-filled or empty silastic capsule. There was age-related decline in performance of the inhibitory avoidance, water maze, defensive freezing, and forced swim tasks, and hippocampal 3α-diol levels. Chronic, long-term (1-4 weeks T-replacement reversed the effects of GDX in 4- and 13-month old, but not 24-month old, rats in the inhibitory avoidance task. Experiments 2 and 3 assessed whether acute subcutaneous T or 3α-diol, respectively, could reverse age-associated decline in performance. 3α-diol, but not T, compared to vehicle, improved performance in the inhibitory avoidance, water maze, forced swim, and defensive freezing tasks, irrespective of age. Thus, age is associated with a decrease in 3α-diol production and 3α-diol administration reinstates cognitive and affective performance of aged male rats.

  15. Immunogenicity of the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in young children less than 4 years of age, with a focus on age and baseline antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugitani, Ayumi; Ito, Kazuya; Irie, Shin; Eto, Takashi; Ishibashi, Motoki; Ohfuji, Satoko; Fukushima, Wakaba; Maeda, Akiko; Hirota, Yoshio

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we assessed the effects of the prevaccination titer and age on the immunogenicity of a low dose of influenza vaccine in children less than 4 years of age. A total of 259 children received two vaccine doses (0.1 ml for 0-year-olds and 0.2 ml for children 1 year of age or older) 4 weeks apart during the 2005/2006 season. The hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers were measured before vaccination and 4 weeks after the first and second doses. The geometric mean titer, mean fold rise, seroresponse proportion (≥4-fold rise in titer), and seroprotection proportion (titer ≥1:40) were calculated for the prevaccination titer and age categories. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed using the seroresponse and seroprotection proportions as dependent variables and the prevaccination titer and age as explanatory variables. As for the seroresponse against the H1 antigen after the first dose, the adjusted odds ratios of the prevaccination titers (versus year-olds and 0.17 (0.08 to 0.34) for the 1-year-olds compared with the 2- to 3-year-olds (Ptrend < 0.001). Similar results were also obtained for the H3 and B strains. Significantly elevated odds ratios for seroprotection were observed with greater prevaccination titers and older ages for all strains. The prevaccination titer and age were independently associated with the antibody response in young children. The immune response was weaker in the younger children and those without preexisting immunity.

  16. Age of Response of Male Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) to ¿-ionol + Cade Oil Relative to Age of Sexual Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although males of the majority of Dacine fruit flies respond to either methyl eugenol or cuelure, B. latifrons shows little to no response to these lures. Instead, B. latifrons responds to '-ionol, with the response synergistically enhanced by the addition of cade oil. To further understand the ef...

  17. Traditional Values on Males in Victorian Age-A Case study of Oscar Wilde’s The Importance of Being Earnest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾思思

    2014-01-01

    In Victorian Age, many literary works recorded the social realities and traditional social value system, and Oscar Wil-de’s The Importance of Being Earnest is a good case in point. In this play, males are valued in terms of both birth condition and economic basis, which are two general standards from the traditional value system of the mainstream society. Oscar Wilde in this play satirizes the restrained and distorted traditional values and the hypocritical Victorian society. This paper will probe into how the social status and economic conditions determine males’fate in Victorian Age and on Oscar Wilde’s creation.

  18. Genetic linkage in the horse. II. Distribution of male recombination estimates and the influence of age, breed and sex on recombination frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, L; Sandberg, K

    1984-01-01

    In the present study an extensive amount of data, comprising more than 30,000 offspring in total, was analyzed to evaluate the influence of age and sex on the recombination frequency in the K-PGD segment of the equine linkage group (LG) I and the influence of age, breed and sex on recombination in the Al-Es segment of LG II. A highly significant sex difference is reported for both segments. Male and female recombination values in the K-PGD segment were estimated at 25.8 +/- 0.8 and 33.3 +/- 2.5%, respectively. Similarly, recombination was less frequent in the male (36.6 +/- 0.7%) than in the female (46.6 +/- 1.2%) in the Al-Es segment. Comparison of data from two Swedish horse breeds revealed no significant breed differences in either sex for recombination in the Al-Es segment. No evidence of an age effect was found in any segment or sex. The distribution of individual male recombination estimates was also investigated, and a significant heterogeneity among stallions was revealed in the K-PGD segment. The results are discussed in relation to previous studies on factors affecting recombination in mammals.

  19. Evaluation of Forest Dynamics Focusing on Various Minimum Harvesting Ages in Multi-Purpose Forest Management Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Mumcu Kucuker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Exploring the potential effects of various forest management strategies on the ability of forest ecosystems to sequester carbon and produce water has become of great concern among forest researchers. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of management strategies with different minimum harvesting ages on the amount and monetary worth of carbon, water and timber values. Area of study: The study was performed in the Yalnızçam planning unit located on the northeastern part of Turkey. Material and Methods: A forest management model with linear programming (LP was developed to determine the effects of various minimum harvesting ages. Twenty-four different management strategies were developed to maximize the economic Net Present Value (NPV of timber, water and carbon values in addition to their absolute quantities over time. Amount and NPV of forest values and ending inventory with different minimum harvesting ages were used as performance indicators to assess and thus understand forest dynamics. Main results: Amount and NPV of timber and carbon generally decreased with extended minimum harvesting ages. However, similar trends were not observed for water production values. The results pointed out that the performance of a management strategy depends highly on the development of a management strategy and the initial forest structure aside from the growth rate Research highlights: Minimum harvesting ages affect forest outputs under the same objectives and constraints. Performance of a management strategy highly depends on initial age class structure in addition to the contents of a management strategy.

  20. No Relative Age Effect in the Birth Dates of Award-Winning Athletes in Male Professional Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Paul R.; Williams, A. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Athletes born early within an annual youth age-group selection year are probably more likely to be selected for sports teams and talent development programs than those born later in that year. Overrepresentation of these relatively older athletes in youth and adult sport is known as the relative age effect (RAE). RAEs were found in these popular…

  1. AGE-INDEPENDENT, GREY-MATTER-LOCALIZED, BRAIN ENHANCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN MALE FISCHER 344 RATS,1,2

    Science.gov (United States)

    While studies showed that aging is accompanied by increased exposure of the brain to oxidative stress, others have not detected any age-correlated differences in levels of markers of oxidative stress. Use of conventional markers of oxidative damage in vivo, which may be formed ex...

  2. Age-related alterations in hypothalamic kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin neurons and in pulsatile LH release in female and male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimura, Yuyu; Iwata, Kinuyo; Ishigami, Akihito; Ozawa, Hitoshi

    2017-02-01

    Pulsatile secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinizing hormone (LH) decreases during aging. Kisspeptin (encoded by Kiss1) neurons in the arcuate nucleus coexpress neurokinin B (Tac3) and dynorphin (Pdyn) and are critical for regulating the GnRH/LH pulse. We therefore examined kisspeptin neurons by histochemistry and pulsatile LH release in rats aged 2-3 (Young), 12-13 (Young-Middle), 19-22 (Late-Middle), and 24-26 (Old) months. Total LH concentrations, sampled for 3 hours, decreased in both sexes with aging. In females, numbers of Tac3 and Pdyn neurons were significantly reduced in all aging rats, and numbers of Kiss1 neurons were significantly reduced in Late-Middle and Old rats. In males, numbers of all 3 neuron-types were significantly decreased in all aging rats. GnRH agonist induced LH release in all animals; however, the increased LH concentration in all aging rats was less than that in Young rats. These results suggest that expression of each gene in kisspeptin neurons may be controlled individually during aging, and that reduction of their expression or change in pituitary responsiveness may cause attenuated pulsatile LH secretion.

  3. The changes in age of peak swim speed for elite male and female Swiss freestyle swimmers between 1994 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the age and its changes across years of peak swimming performance from 50 to 1,500 m freestyle. Data of 70,059 Swiss freestyle swimmers (33,725 women and 36,334 men) aged 10-40 years and competing from 50 to 1,500 m were analysed. The association between age and swimming speed of the annual ten fastest swimmers was investigated using single and multi-level hierarchical regression analyses. For women, age of peak swimming speed increased in 50 m from 18.9 (s = 2.3) to 20.4 (s = 4.2) years but decreased in 1,500 m from 25.0 (s = 13.1) (1996) to 18.1 (s = 3.7) years. For 100-800 m, age remained at 19.1 (s = 1.1), 19.3 (s = 1.1), 18.7 (s = 1.5) and 18.5 (s = 1.3) years, respectively. For men, age of peak swimming speed decreased in 50 m from 23.0 (s = 4.0) to 23.0 (s = 3.5) but remained for 100-1,500 m at 22.5 (s = 1.4), 21.4 (s = 0.9), 20.3 (s = 0.9), 20.3 (s = 0.9) and 20.3 (s = 1.1) years, respectively. Age was positively associated with swimming speed for 50-800 m, but negatively for 1,500 m. In conclusion, the age of peak swimming speed was younger in women compared to men for 50-800 m freestyle. For women, age of peak swimming speed increased in 50 m but decreased in 1,500 m freestyle across years. For men, age of peak swimming speed decreased in 50 m freestyle.

  4. Evaluation of variation in the lipid profile and risk for coronary artery disease in healthy male individuals with respect to age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Abraham

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is one of the commonest causes of death affecting both sexes worldwide. It is the leading cause of mortality in developed countries. The measurement of lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins has long been recognized as necessary for the diagnosis and clinical management of disorders of lipoprotein metabolism. On the basis of this, the present study was performed to compare the serum lipid profile in males of different age groups. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted after the institutional ethical clearance. The male subjects between the ages of 20-59 were included in the study. Blood was collected from the subjects after an overnight fast of 12 hours who were also advised to refrain from non-vegetarian food for 3 days. Estimation of serum total cholesterol was done by using the cholesterol kit which uses modified Allain's method for estimating serum cholesterol. Serum triglyceride was estimated using the triglyceride kit which is based on GPO-POD method. Estimation of serum HDL cholesterol was done using cholesterol kit which uses modified Allain's method. Serum LDL cholesterol level was calculated using the Friedewald's formula, LDL cholesterol = Total cholesterol - (HDL-C + TG/5. Estimation of fasting blood sugar was done using GOD-POD method. The lipid levels with risk for CAD were performed based on Framingham heart study. Statistical analysis was done by unpaired t-test for group wise comparison and P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The lipid levels on comparison in 2 successive age groups of males, that is 20-29 and 30-39 years; and 30-39 and 40-49years; 40-49 and 50-59 years, it was found that the mean values of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C and the ratio of TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C are increased while HDL-C is decreased in the older age group. Conclusion: From the present study it is understood that as age advances total cholesterol

  5. Soybean isoflavones alter parvalbumin in hippocampus of mid-aged normal female, ovariectomized female, and normal male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In Koo HWANG; Moo Ho WON; Yoon-bok LEE; Ki-yeon YOO; Tae-cheon KANG; Soon Sung LIM; Sang Moo KIM; Heon-soo SOHN; Woo-jung KIM; Hyun Kyung SHIN

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the long-term effect of soybean isoflavones on changes in parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus in normal female, ovariectomized (OVX) female and normal male rats. Methods: Ten-month-old rats were assigned to one of 9 groups (n=7 in each group) based on body weight using arandomized complete-block design. The groups were: control diet-treated females,OVX females, and males; 0.3 g/kg isoflavone-treated females, OVX females, and males; and 1.2 g/kg isoflavone-treated females, OVX females, and males. The PV immunostaining was conducted by using the standard avidin-biotin complex method. Results: PV immunoreactivity and the number of PV-immunoreactive neurons in all the groups after isoflavone treatment were significantly changed in the hippocampal CA1 region and in the dentate gyrus, but not in the hippocampal CA2/3 region. PV immunoreactivity and the number of PV-immunoreactive neurons in the control diet OVX females were similar to those in the control diet, and were greater than those in the control diet normal females. PV immunoreactivity and the number of PV-immunoreactive neurons in all the isoflavone-treated groups decreased dose-dependently after isoflavone treatment. Conclusion: Long-term administration of isoflavones may induce a reduction of PV in interneurons in the hippocampal CA1 region and in the dentate gyrus. The reduction of PV in these regions suggests that the long-term administration of isoflavones may cause a change in calcium homeostasis in the hippocampal CA1 region and in the dentate gyrus.

  6. Topical retinoids in skin ageing: a focused update with reference to sun-induced epidermal vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, Olivier; Saurat, Jean-Hilaire

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A is an important constituent of the epidermis, where it plays a crucial role in epidermal turnover. A deficiency of epidermal vitamin A may be the consequence of nutritional vitamin A deficiency, exposure to sunlight or any UV source, oxidative stress or chronological ageing. As a consequence, any treatment aiming at increasing epidermal vitamin A would exert a protective effect against these deleterious conditions. Retinoids may counteract some deleterious actions of UV radiation by physical and biological mechanisms. Topical natural retinoic acid precursors such as retinaldehyde or retinol are less irritant than acidic retinoids and may prevent epidermal vitamin A deficiency due to nutritional deficiency, exposure to sunlight or any condition leading to free radical production. Retinoids may be combined with other compounds with complementary actions against ageing, nutritional deficiency and cancer, such as antioxidants, to potentiate their beneficial effects in the skin.

  7. Depression-like behavior of aged male and female mice is ameliorated with administration of testosterone or its metabolites

    OpenAIRE

    Frye, Cheryl A.; Walf, Alicia A.

    2009-01-01

    There may be a role of age-related decline in androgen production and/or its metabolism for late-onset depression disorders of men and women. Thus, the antidepressant-like effects of testosterone (T) and its metabolites are of interest. Given that these androgens have disparate mechanisms of action, it is important to begin to characterize and compare their effects in an aged animal model. We hypothesized that there would be sex differences in depression behavior of aged mice and that androge...

  8. The determination of male adult age at death by central and posterior coxal analysis--a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougé-Maillart, Clotilde; Telmon, Norbert; Rissech, Carme; Malgosa, Assumption; Rougé, Daniel

    2004-03-01

    In forensic anthropological analysis, the pelvis is of particular interest as it is often a comparatively well-preserved part of the skeleton. This study in age determination uses the acetabulum, the central element of the pelvis, as a complement to the examination of the auricular surface. The test sample consisted of 30 individuals. First, the authors studied the auricular surface using the Lovejoy criteria. Second, they isolated four criteria based on chronological changes in the acetabulum. Third, they conducted an evaluation of each of these variables. The study examines the correlation between these criteria and the age of the individuals. A significant correlation was found between the acetabular criteria and age, and between the acetabular criteria and the Lovejoy criteria of the auricular surface. For forensic purposes, the acetabulum is an effective predictor in the determination of age. This newly proposed method explores the same criteria of ageing as the Lovejoy method. The combination of the two methods produces relatively consistent results in the estimation of age.

  9. [Fragility and experiencing limits as a chance for development in old age--the meaning of the particular experiences of the aging body for identification and development as focused on the very old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum-Lehmann, Susanne

    2008-06-01

    The main focus of this article is the meaning of particular experiences of the aging body for identity and development with respect to very old age. This experience of embodiment results from a dynamic development between unpleasant experiences of physical aging, positive bodily experiences of the pleasure of living, and reflections on this direct engagement with the aging body. The interaction of those three dimensions requires a constant rebalancing, which, in view of the frail body, becomes increasingly demanding. Beyond one's own experiences with aging through direct engagement with the body, established social relationships give room for an individual's physical nature and support the maintenance of identity and development. People who look after and care for old aged people have to recognize their own embodiment and have to acknowledge their aging body. This applies not only to contact with old aged people, but also requests that the potential for developing one's own identity be recognised. The inclusion of the body in the discourse on the aging process demands a mindset change in social gerontology and for the individual it means to submit oneself to the ethics of embodied existence.

  10. The Protective Effect of Aged Garlic Extract on Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug-Induced Gastric Inflammations in Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehan Moustafa Badr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural products have long gained wide acceptance among the public and scientific community in the gastrointestinal ulcerative field. The present study explore the potential effects of aged garlic extract (AGE on indomethacin-(IN- induced gastric inflammation in male rats. Animals were divided into six groups (n=8 control group, IN-induced gastric inflammation group via oral single dose (30 mg/kg to fasted rats two AGE orally administered groups (100 and 200 mg/kg for 30 consecutive days two AGE orally administered groups to rats pretreated with IN at the same aforementioned doses. The results declared the more potent effect of the higher AGE dose (200 mg/kg as compared to that of the 100 mg/kg dose in the gastroprotective effects reflected by significant gastric mucosal healing of damage and reduction in the total microbial induced due to indomethacin administration. In addition to the significant effect to normalize the significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA, myeloperoxidase (MPO, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α values, and the significant decrease in the total glutathione (tGSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT values induced by indomethacin. The results support AGE antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial potency reflected by the healing of the gastric tissue damage induced by indomethacin.

  11. Clinical and differential utility of VEGF inhibitors in wet age-related macular degeneration: focus on aflibercept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart MW

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael W StewartCollege of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USAAbstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD has become a major public health problem and a leading cause of blindness in industrialized nations. AMD results from the ageing eye's inability to metabolize and dispose completely of photoreceptor outer segments and other waste products. As a result, lipids, particularly apolipoproteins, accumulate within Bruch's membrane, leading to chronic ischemia and inflammation. The subsequent upregulation of inflammatory cytokines and growth factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, induces the growth of neovascular membranes from the choriocapillaris into the subretinal or subretinal pigment epithelium spaces. To counter this, intravitreally administered drugs (pegaptanib, bevacizumab, ranibizumab that specifically target VEGF have become the standard treatment for exudative AMD. Aflibercept, a recently approved fusion protein, binds to all isoforms of both VEGF-A and placental growth factor with high affinity. Phase III trials showed that monthly or every other month injections of aflibercept prevent vision loss (fewer than 15 letters in 95% of patients. Additionally, aflibercept injections every 4 or 8 weeks produce average vision gains of 6.9 letters to 10.9 letters, comparable with those achieved with monthly ranibizumab. After one year of regularly administered aflibercept injections, patients required an average of only 4.2 injections during the second year. Aflibercept promises to decrease the injection frequency required for many patients and appears to serve as an effective “salvage” therapy for patients who respond poorly to other anti-VEGF drugs.Keywords: age-related macular degeneration, choroidal neovascularization, vascular endothelial growth factor, aflibercept, ranibizumab, bevacizumab, VEGF trap

  12. Long-Run Labor Market Effects of Japanese American Internment during World War II on Working-Age Male Internees

    OpenAIRE

    Aimee Chin

    2005-01-01

    In 1942, all Japanese were evacuated from the West Coast and incarcerated in internment camps. To investigate the long-run economic consequences of this historic episode, I exploit the fact that Hawaiian Japanese were not subject to mass internment. I find that the labor market withdrawal induced by the internment reduced the annual earnings of males by as much as 9%13% 25 years afterward. This is consistent with the predictions of an economic model that equates the labor market withdrawal in...

  13. Increased subsequent risk of erectile dysfunction among middle and old age males with chronic osteomyelitis: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H-Y; Chao, C-H; Lin, C-L; Tseng, C-H; Kao, C-H

    2016-07-01

    Chronic inflammation may cause endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, resulting in subsequent erectile dysfunction (ED). We examined the relationship between chronic osteomyelitis, which is a chronic inflammatory disease, and ED. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database. After excluding patients <40 years of age, 677 male patients newly diagnosed with chronic osteomyelitis (COM) from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2011 were identified for the study. The non-osteomyelitis comparison cohort consisted of 2706 male participants. The incidence of ED was 2.66-fold higher in the COM cohort than in the non-osteomyelitis cohort (4.01 vs 1.51 per 10 000 person-years). After adjusting for age and comorbidities of coronary heart disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, depression, stroke, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, the patients with COM had a 2.82-fold risk of ED (95% confidence interval=1.44-5.56). The incidence of ED increased with that of comorbidities in both cohorts. The highest hazard ratio was in patients between 40 and 59 years of age who had COM. Our data showed, for the first time, that COM is a possible risk factor for the development of ED.

  14. The impact of estradiol and 1,25(OH)2D3 on metabolic syndrome in middle-aged Taiwanese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai-Hung; Huang, Shu-Pin; Huang, Chun-Nung; Lee, Yung-Chin; Chu, Chih-Sheng; Chang, Chu-Fen; Lai, Wen-Ter; Liu, Chia-Chu

    2013-01-01

    In addition to adipocytokines, estradiol (E2) and vitamin D have been reported to affect insulin sensitivity, glucose homeostasis and body weight. However, studies about the impact of E2 and vitamin D on metabolic syndrome (MetS) are still limited. The aim of this study is to clarify the roles of circulating E2 and vitamin D on the risk of MetS in middle-aged Taiwanese males. A total of 655 male volunteers, including 243 subjects with MetS (mean age: 56.7±5.8 years) and 412 normal controls (mean age: 55.1±3.6 years), were evaluated. Subjects with MetS had significantly lower circulating E2, 1,25(OH)2D3, and adiponectin, and higher leptin than those without MetS (P2D3 were significantly associated with 4 individual components of MetS; more than adiponectin and leptin that were only associated with 3 individual components. In multivariate regression analysis, E2 (beta = -0.216, P2D3 (beta = 0.067, P = 0.045) were still significant predictors of MetS independent of adiponectin and leptin. Further large studies are needed to confirm our preliminary results and elucidate the possible mechanism.

  15. Effect of exogenous administration of melatonin and growth hormone on pro-antioxidant functions of the liver in aging male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireev, R A; Tresguerres, A C F; Castillo, C; Salazar, V; Ariznavarreta, C; Vara, E; Tresguerres, J A F

    2007-01-01

    Aging is accompanied by changes in the morphology and physiology of organs and tissues, such as the liver. This process might be due to the accumulation of oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Hepatocytes are very rich in mitochondria and have a high respiratory rate, so they are exposed to large amounts of ROS and permanent oxidative stress. Twenty-four male Wistar rats of 22 months of age were divided into three groups. One group remained untreated and acted as the control group. The second was treated with growth hormone (GH) (2 mg/kg/d sc) and the third was submitted to treatment wit 1 mg/kg/d of melatonin in the drinking water. A group of 2-months-old male rats was used as young controls. After 10 wk of treatment the rats were killed by decapitation, and the liver was dissected and homogenized. Mitochondrial, cytosolic and microsomal fractions were obtained and cytochrome C, glutathione peroxidase, s-transferase and nitric oxide (NO) were measured. Aging induced a significant increase in mitochondrial nitric oxide. An increase in cytochrome C in the cytosolic fraction and a reduction in the mitochondrial fraction with age was also observed. Both GH and melatonin treatments significantly reduced the enhanced measures and increased the reduced values. A reduction in glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase was found in old control rats when compared with the group of young animals. Treatment for 2.5 months of old rats with GH and melatonin were able to increase the enzymes reaching values similar to those found in young animals. In conclusion, GH and melatonin treatment seems to have beneficial effects against age-induced damage in the liver.

  16. Attitudes of Iranian Male University Students Toward Sport and Exercise with Reference to Age, Educational Level, and Field of Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsafian Hamidreza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to discover the attitudes of Iranian male university students toward sport and exercise. This study is based on the same research as another published paper regarding the attitudes of Iranian female students toward sport and exercise. Participants (N = 821 were selected from different educational levels and fields of study from among 12 public universities. Data were collected by a modified and developed version of Kenyon's scale (1968, which measures the attitudes of people toward physical activity. For the analysis of the data, independent sample t-test and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA were employed (p < 0.05. The results indicated that the attitudes of the respondents can be identified as fitness (3.96 ± 1.02, catharsis (3.84 ± 0.80, social (3.82 ± 1.10, aesthetic (3.03 ± 1.14, vertigo (2.15 ± 1.16, and ascetic (2.07 ± 0.79. Furthermore, it was found that various demographic and social characteristics affected participants' attitudes toward sport and exercise (p < 0.05. Based on the results, it was concluded that the sport programs should be organized around students' dominant attitudes toward regular activities. In addition, planning and organizing sport programs with regard to the wide attitudinal differences between male and female students could be a big step toward improving students' participation rate in sporting activities at Iranian universities.

  17. Musculoskeletal Extremity Injuries in School-aged Children with special focus on overuse injuries, seasonal variation and body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Eva

    Ph.d. afhandlingen “Musculoskeletal Extremity Injuries in School-aged Children” er en undersøgelse af forekomsten af skader i arme og ben relateret til fysisk aktivitet. Baggrunden for studiet er, at på trods af de mange gavnlige effekter af at børn er fysisk aktive, så kan ’bivirkningen’ være...... risikoen var højest ved sportsdeltagelse i fritiden (1.57 per 1000 deltagelse i sport). Mest udtalt var risikoen i boldsports grene (især fodbold og håndbold) og til springgymnastik. Resultaterne har tilføjet en bredere indsigt i skadesbilledet i en gruppe af 6-12 årige skolebørn. De generelle fund fra...

  18. Age dependent differences in the regulation of hippocampal steroid hormones and receptor genes: relations to motivation and cognition in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K; Korz, V

    2013-02-01

    Estrogen and estrogenic functions are age-dependently involved in the modulation of learning, memory and mood in female humans and animals. However, the investigation of estrogenic effects in males has been largely neglected. Therefore, we investigated the hippocampal gene expression of estrogen receptors α and β (ERα, β) in 8-week-old, 12-week-old and 24-week-old male rats. To control for possible interactions between the expression of the estrogen receptor genes and other learning-related steroid receptors, androgen receptors (AR), corticosterone-binding glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) were also measured. Furthermore, the concentrations of the ligands 17β-estradiol, testosterone and corticosterone were measured. The spatial training was conducted in a hole-board. The 8-week-old rats exhibited higher levels of general activity and exploration during the training and performed best with respect to spatial learning and memory, whereas no difference was found between the 12-week-old and 24-week-old rats. The trained 8-week-old rats exhibited increased gene expression of ERα compared with the untrained rats in this age group as well as the trained 12-week-old and 24-week-old rats. The concentrations of estradiol and testosterone, however, were generally higher in the 24-week-old rats than in the 8-week-old and 12-week-old rats. The ERα mRNA concentrations correlated positively with behavior that indicate general learning motivation. These results suggest a specific role of ERα in the age-related differences in motivation and subsequent success in the task. Thus, estrogen and estrogenic functions may play a more prominent role in young male behavior and development than has been previously assumed.

  19. Effects of paternal phenotype and environmental variability on age and size at maturity in a male dimorphic mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Smallegange

    2011-01-01

    Investigating how the environment affects age and size at maturity of individuals is crucial to understanding how changes in the environment affect population dynamics through the biology of a species. Paternal phenotype, maternal, and offspring environment may crucially influence these traits, but

  20. Central Nervous System Medications and Falls Risk in Older Men: The Study On Male Osteoporosis and Aging (SOMA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masud, Tahir; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Ryg, Jesper;

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: drugs acting on the central nervous system (CNS) increase falls risk. Most data on CNS drugs and falls are in women/mixed-sex populations. This study assessed the relationship between CNS drugs and falls in men aged 60–75 years. Methods: a questionnaire was sent to randomly selected...

  1. Estimation of age-at-death for adult males using the acetabulum, applied to four Western European populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissech, Carme; Estabrook, George F; Cunha, Eugenia; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2007-07-01

    Methods to estimate adult age from observations of skeletal elements are not very accurate and motivate the development of better methods. In this article, we test recently published method based on the acetabulum and Bayesian inference, developed using Coimbra collection (Portugal). In this study, to evaluate its utility in other populations, this methodology was applied to 394 specimens from four different documented Western European collections. Four strategies of analysis to estimate age were outlined: (a) each series separately; (b) on Lisbon collection, taken as a reference Coimbra collection; (c) on Barcelona collection, taken as a reference both Portuguese collections; and (d) on London collection taken as reference the three Iberian collections combined. Results indicate that estimates are accurate (83-100%). As might be expected, the least accurate estimates were obtained when the most distant collection was used as a reference. Observations of the fused acetabulum can be used to make accurate estimates of age for adults of any age, with less accurate estimates when a more distant reference collection is used.

  2. Toluene effects on the motor activity of adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent male Brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have...

  3. Male and Female Delinquency Trajectories from Pre through Middle Adolescence and Their Continuation in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsheer, Johannes A.; van Dijkum, C.

    2005-01-01

    This study of male and female adolescent delinquency trajectories focuses on the prediction of late adolescence delinquency, based on earlier delinquency and social support. In this 3-wave longitudinal survey, 270 Dutch adolescents (113 males and 157 females) ages 12 to 14, were followed for a period of 6 years. For males, the level of delinquent…

  4. The changes in the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis of streptozotocin-treated male rats depend from age at diabetes onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitton, I; Bestetti, G E; Rossi, G L

    1987-01-01

    The influence of age at diabetes onset and of capillary microangiopathy on the severity and evolution of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal changes was studied morphologically and morphometrically in male rats 4 and 8 months after streptozotocin injection. At each time period we studied 2 groups of rats, one made diabetic before (age 1 month), the other after puberty (age 3 months), and compared them with corresponding controls. The size of hypothalamic axons, numerical density and size of pituitary gonadotrophs, size of testicular tubules, and basement membrane thickness of retinal capillaries were measured. Major differences were found at 8 months. Changes of pituitary glands (i.e. small and numerous gonadotrophs) and testes (i.e. small tubular size) were more important in pre- than in postpubertal diabetic rats. This was a consequence of the aggravating prepubertal diabetes between 4 and 8 months. On the contrary, these changes partially regressed in postpubertal diabetic animals. Pituitary and testicular changes were correlated. Other lesions, such as swollen axonal processes in the hypothalamus, increased thickness of seminiferous epithelium and of capillary basement membranes, though very evident in diabetics, were independent from age at induction. Neither microangiopathy nor glycemia were correlated with any other change which confirmed their secondary role in diabetic neuroendocrine disorders. Thus, two types of diabetic disorders of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis could be distinguished: 1) those with irreversible effects on immature yet partially reversible effects on mature structures; and 2) those independent from age at induction.

  5. Effect of chronic ethanol (EtOH) and aging on drug metabolism in F-344 male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galinsky, R.E.; Johnson, D.H.; Kimura, R.E.; Franklin, M.R. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (USA))

    1989-02-09

    The effects of chronic ethanol on in vitro and in vivo drug metabolism were examined in 6 and 25 month old male Fischer 344 rats. Animals were divided into three diet groups: (1) Diet containing EtOH, (2) pair-fed controls and (3) rat chow ad lib. Rats in groups 1 and 2 were fed 3 times daily for six weeks via permanent gastrostomy and received EtOH at doses of 5-8 g/kg/day in the first 3 weeks and 12 g/kg/day for the last 3 weeks. Total caloric intake was 90-120 kcal/kg/day. After 6 weeks, the pharmacokinetics of i.v. acetaminophen (A), 30 mg/kg, were examined to probe in vivo drug conjugation. There was no effects of EtOH on the total CL of A in young or old rats. The fraction of the dose recovered in the urine as A-glucuronide and the partial clearance to A-glucuronide was increased by EtOH. There was no effect on the rate of A-sulfate formation. EtOH increased the renal clearance of A but not of A-sulfate or A-glucuronide. In vitro, EtOH increased hepatic cytochrome P-450 concentration and p-nitroanisole demethylase activity, especially in old rats where values returned to those seen in untreated young males. Erythromycin and ethylmorphine demethylase and p-nitrophenol hydroxylase activities were not increased by the EtOH treatment. EtOH increased UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity towards 1-naphthol, but not towards morphine, estrone, or testosterone. EtOH had no effect on the cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene) and phenol sulfotransferase (p-nitrophenol) activities.

  6. Age-specific survival of male golden-cheeked warblers on the Fort Hood Military Reservation, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Adam; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.; Hatfield, Jeffrey S.; Weckerly, Floyd W.

    2014-01-01

    Population models are essential components of large-scale conservation and management plans for the federally endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia; hereafter GCWA). However, existing models are based on vital rate estimates calculated using relatively small data sets that are now more than a decade old. We estimated more current, precise adult and juvenile apparent survival (Φ) probabilities and their associated variances for male GCWAs. In addition to providing estimates for use in population modeling, we tested hypotheses about spatial and temporal variation in Φ. We assessed whether a linear trend in Φ or a change in the overall mean Φ corresponded to an observed increase in GCWA abundance during 1992-2000 and if Φ varied among study plots. To accomplish these objectives, we analyzed long-term GCWA capture-resight data from 1992 through 2011, collected across seven study plots on the Fort Hood Military Reservation using a Cormack-Jolly-Seber model structure within program MARK. We also estimated Φ process and sampling variances using a variance-components approach. Our results did not provide evidence of site-specific variation in adult Φ on the installation. Because of a lack of data, we could not assess whether juvenile Φ varied spatially. We did not detect a strong temporal association between GCWA abundance and Φ. Mean estimates of Φ for adult and juvenile male GCWAs for all years analyzed were 0.47 with a process variance of 0.0120 and a sampling variance of 0.0113 and 0.28 with a process variance of 0.0076 and a sampling variance of 0.0149, respectively. Although juvenile Φ did not differ greatly from previous estimates, our adult Φ estimate suggests previous GCWA population models were overly optimistic with respect to adult survival. These updated Φ probabilities and their associated variances will be incorporated into new population models to assist with GCWA conservation decision making.

  7. Searching Physical Fitness Norms by Eurofit Tests of Male Students in The Age Group of 12-14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgehan BAYDİL

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to make adetermination about the case, by searching Eurofit tests and physicalfitness norms of boy students in the age group of 12-14 at Kastamonu Region, and to make a contribution to literature. The investigation was mode on the age group of 12-14 years old, volunteered 63 boy students who are studying at Gazipaa Primary Education School and Merkez Primary Education School that were chosen at random, in Kastamonu. Height and weight, measure of subcutan fat flamingo balance test, test of touching to discs, flexibility, long jump by pausing, strenght shuttle test, 10x5 m runnig test, vertical jumping test by pausing and 20 m shuttle run test, were applied to these students.

  8. Testosterone replacement alters the cell size in visceral fat but not in subcutaneous fat in hypogonadal aged male rats as a late-onset hypogonadism animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhamed A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Amr Abdelhamed,1,2 Shin-ichi Hisasue,1 Masato Shirai,3 Kazuhito Matsushita,1 Yoshiaki Wakumoto,1 Akira Tsujimura,1 Taiji Tsukamoto,4 Shigeo Horie1 1Department of Urology, Juntendo University, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Andrology, Sohag University, Graduate School of Medicine, Sohag, Egypt; 3Department of Urology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Urayasu, Japan; 4Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Japan Background: Patients with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH benefit from testosterone replacement by improvement in the parameters of the metabolic syndrome, but fat cell morphology in these patients is still unclear. This study aims to determine the effect of testosterone replacement on the morphology of fat cells in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and on erectile function in hypogonadal aged male rats as a model of LOH. Methods: Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 20–22 months were randomly allocated to two groups, ie, aged male controls (control group, n=5 and aged males treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT group, n=5. Testosterone enanthate 25 mg was injected subcutaneously every 2 weeks for 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the intracavernous pressure (ICP and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP ratio was assessed. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue specimens were collected and analyzed using Image-J software. Results: Body weight at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after TRT was 800.0±35.4 g, 767.5±46.3 g, and 780±40.4 g, respectively (not statistically significant. The ICP/MAP ratio was 0.341±0.015 in the TRT group and 0.274±0.049 in the control group (not statistically significant. The median subcutaneous fat cell size was 4.85×103 (range 0.85–12.53×103 µm2 in the control group and 4.93×103 (range 6.42–19.7×103 µm2 in the TRT group (not statistically significant. In contrast, median visceral fat cell size was significantly

  9. Ageing and Chronic Administration of Serotonin-Selective Reuptake Inhibitor Citalopram Upregulate Sirt4 Gene Expression in the Preoptic Area of Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong eDutt Way

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunction and cognitive deficits are markers of the ageing process. Mammalian sirtuins (SIRT, encoded by sirt 1-7 genes, are known as ageing molecules which are sensitive to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT. Whether the 5-HT system regulates SIRT in the preoptic area (POA, which could affect reproduction and cognition has not been examined. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the effects of citalopram (CIT, 10mg/kg for 4 weeks, wk, a potent selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor and ageing on SIRT expression in the POA of male mice using real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry. Age-related increases of sirt1, sirt4, sirt5, and sirt7 mRNA levels were observed in the POA of 52 wk old mice. Furthermore, 4 wk of chronic CIT treatment started at 8 wk of age also increased sirt2 and sirt4 mRNA expression in the POA. Moreover, the number of SIRT4 immuno-reactive neurons increased with ageing in the medial septum area (12 wk = 1.00±0.15 vs 36 wk = 1.68±0.14 vs 52 wk = 1.54±0.11, p<0.05. In contrast, the number of sirt4-immunopositive cells did not show a statistically significant change with CIT treatment, suggesting that the increase in sirt4 mRNA levels may occur in cells in which sirt4 is already being expressed. Taken together, these studies suggest that CIT treatment and the process of ageing utilize the serotonergic system to up-regulate SIRT4 in the POA as a common pathway to deregulate social cognitive and reproductive functions.

  10. Effects of ageing and experimental diabetes on insulin-degrading enzyme expression in male rat tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochkina, Ekaterina G; Plesneva, Svetlana A; Vasilev, Dmitrii S; Zhuravin, Igor A; Turner, Anthony J; Nalivaeva, Natalia N

    2015-08-01

    Due to an increasing life expectancy in developing countries, cases of type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the elderly are growing exponentially. Despite a causative link between diabetes and AD, general molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of these disorders are still far from being understood. One of the factors leading to cell death and cognitive impairment characteristic of AD is accumulation in the brain of toxic aggregates of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). In the normally functioning brain Aβ catabolism is regulated by a cohort of proteolytic enzymes including insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) and their deficit with ageing can result in Aβ accumulation and increased risk of AD. The aim of this study was a comparative analysis of IDE expression in the brain structures involved in AD, as well as in peripheral organs (the liver and kidney) of rats, during natural ageing and after experimentally-induced diabetes. It was found that ageing is accompanied by a significant decrease of IDE mRNA and protein content in the liver (by 32 and 81%) and brain structures (in the cortex by 58 and 47% and in the striatum by 53 and 68%, respectively). In diabetic animals, IDE protein level was increased in the liver (by 36%) and in the striatum (by 42%) while in the brain cortex and hippocampus it was 20-30% lower than in control animals. No significant IDE protein changes were observed in the kidney of diabetic rats. These data testify that ageing and diabetes are accompanied by a deficit of IDE in the brain structures where accumulation of Aβ was reported in AD patients, which might be one of the factors predisposing to development of the sporadic form of AD in the elderly, and especially in diabetics.

  11. Decline of seminal parameters in middle-aged males is associated with lower urinary tract symptoms, prostate enlargement and bladder outlet obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristo Ausmees

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose We aimed to compare the associations between semen quality, associated reproductive indicators and the main prostate-related parameters in middle-aged men. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study on 422 middle-aged men who underwent the screening for prostate health. Their reproductive function, semen quality and prostate-related pathologies were investigated. Results Significant associations between semen quality and prostate-related parameters could be seen. Total sperm count and sperm density decreased along with the increase of the I-PSS score and total prostate volume. Also, the related lower urinary tract characteristics showed a negative correlation with main semen parameters for all investigated subjects. No significant differences in age, testicular size, and hormonal parameters were found between the subjects with or without lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate enlargement. Conclusions Our study suggests that altered seminal parameters in middle-aged men are associated with LUTS, prostate enlargement and/or bladder outlet obstruction. Although the assessments of prostate and lower urinary tract symptoms may not replace the semen parameters evaluating the male reproductive status, there is a need for further and more detailed investigations about the pathways behind these associations as well as possible related conditions.

  12. Sentir-se pai: a vivência masculina sob o olhar de gênero Fatherhood: the male experience from a gender focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waglânia de Mendonça Faustino e Freitas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O pouco envolvimento de parceiros com filhos(as desde a gestação é freqüentemente relatado por mulheres grávidas e puérperas que resultam em tensões e conflitos. Frente a essa realidade, foi realizado um estudo com o objetivo de compreender a emergência do sentimento de paternidade em homens que a vivenciam. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida sob abordagem qualitativa e enfoque teórico de gênero. O universo empírico do estudo foi constituído por dez homens, contactados em ambulatório de puericultura, sendo os dados produzidos por meio de entrevista semi-estruturada. Os depoimentos dos sujeitos do estudo foram analisados pela técnica de análise do discurso, cujo princípio básico é reconhecer no texto seus níveis mais abstratos, identificados por temas que, organizados em blocos de significação, permitem a construção de categorias empíricas. A posição social dos sujeitos do estudo frente ao momento em que se sentiram pais revela que o modelo em que homens assumem-se como pais pela função de provedor convive com o modelo do homem que busca ser um "novo pai", cujo vínculo afetivo com o(a filho(a se inicia na gestação, representando ruptura com a paternidade tradicional.Pregnant and postpartum women frequently complain about the limited involvement of their partners with their children, beginning in pregnancy. The current study thus aimed to understand men's feelings towards fatherhood during this period of their lives. The research adopted a qualitative approach and a gender-theory focus. The universe included men whose children were being treated at a pediatric outpatient clinic, and data were collected through semi-structured home interviews. Subjects' testimony was analyzed using discourse analysis, the basic principle of which is to recognize the most abstract levels of the text, identified by themes organized in blocks of meaning and allowing the construction of empirical categories. Study subjects' social position

  13. Vitamin E supplementation and pneumonia risk in males who initiated smoking at an early age: effect modification by body weight and dietary vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaprio Jaakko

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We had found a 14% higher incidence of pneumonia with vitamin E supplementation in a subgroup of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC Study cohort: participants who had initiated smoking by the age of 20 years. In this study, we explored the modification of vitamin E effect by body weight, because the same dose could lead to a greater effect in participants with low body weight. Methods The ATBC Study recruited males aged 50–69 years who smoked at least 5 cigarettes per day at the baseline; it was conducted in southwestern Finland in 1985–1993. The current study was restricted to 21,657 ATBC Study participants who initiated smoking by the age of 20 years; the median follow-up time was 6.0 years. The hospital-diagnosed pneumonia cases were retrieved from the national hospital discharge register (701 cases. Results Vitamin E supplementation had no effect on the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight in a range from 70 to 89 kg (n = 12,495, risk ratio (RR = 0.99 (95% CI: 0.81 to 1.22. Vitamin E increased the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight less than 60 kg (n = 1054, RR = 1.61 (1.03 to 2.53, and in participants with body weight over 100 kg (n = 1328, RR = 2.34 (1.07 to 5.08. The harm of vitamin E supplementation was restricted to participants with dietary vitamin C intake above the median. Conclusion Vitamin E supplementation may cause harmful effects on health in certain groups of male smokers. The dose of vitamin E used in the ATBC Study, 50 mg/day, is substantially smaller than conventional vitamin E doses that are considered safe. Our findings should increase caution towards taking vitamin E supplements. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342992.

  14. Effect of a combined treatment with growth hormone and melatonin in the cardiological aging on male SAMP8 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Katherine; Vara, Elena; García, Cruz; Kireev, Roman; Cuesta, Sara; Escames, Germaine; Tresguerres, J A F

    2011-08-01

    The effect of a chronic combined treatment with growth hormone (GH) plus melatonin (Mel) on different age-related processes in cytosolic and nuclear fractions of hearts from SAMP8 mice (2 and 10 months) has been investigated. The parameters studied have been messenger RNA expressions of IL-1, IL-10, NFkBp50, NFkBp52, TNFα, eNOS, iNOS, HO-1, HO-2, BAD, BAX, and Bcl2 and protein expressions of iNOS, eNOS, TNFα, IL-1, IL-10, NFkBp50, NFKbp52, and caspase activity (3 and 9). Our results supported the existence of a proapoptotic and oxidative status together with inflammatory processes in the heart of old mice, with increases of inflammatory cytokines, caspase activity, HO-1, BAX, NFkBp50, and NFkBp52 and decreases of eNOS and Bcl2. Also, we were able to observe the translocation of NFkB to nuclei. The combined treatment was able to partially reduce the incidence of these deleterious changes, showing differences with the separated treatments with GH and Mel as were investigated in previous articles from our group.

  15. Understanding, comprehensibility and acceptance of an evidence-based consumer information brochure on fall prevention in old age: a focus group study

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    Meyer Gabriele

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based patient and consumer information (EBPI is an indispensable component of the patients' decision making process in health care. Prevention of accidental falls in the elderly has gained a lot of public interest during preceding years. Several consumer information brochures on fall prevention have been published; however, none fulfilled the criteria of an EBPI. Little is known about the reception of EBPI by seniors. Therefore we aimed to evaluate a recently developed EBPI brochure on fall prevention with regard to seniors' acceptance and comprehensibility in focus groups and to explore whether the participants' judgements differed depending on the educational background of the study participants. Methods Seven focus groups were conducted with 40 seniors, aged 60 years or older living independently in a community. Participants were recruited by two gatekeepers. A discussion guide was used and seniors were asked to judge the EBPI brochure on fall prevention using a Likert scale 1-6. The focus group discussions were tape recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using content analysis. Results The participants generally accepted the EBPI brochure on fall prevention. Several participants expressed a need for more practical advice. The comprehensibility of the brochure was influenced positively by brief chapter summaries. Participants dismissed the statistical illustrations such as confidence intervals or a Fagan nomogram and only half of them agreed with the meta-information presented in the first chapter. The detailed information about fall prevalence was criticised by some seniors. The use of a case story was well tolerated by the majority of participants. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the recently developed EBPI brochure on fall prevention in old age was generally well accepted by seniors, but some statistical descriptions were difficult for them to understand. The brochure has to be updated. However, not

  16. Comparison of ground-based and space flight energy expenditure and water turnover in middle-aged healthy male US astronauts

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    Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.; Schoeller, D. A.; Davis-Street, J.; Socki, R. A.; Gibson, E. K.

    1997-01-01

    Energy requirements during space flight are poorly defined because they depend on metabolic-balance studies, food disappearance, and dietary records. Water turnover has been estimated by balance methods only. The purpose of this study was to determine energy requirements and water turnover for short-term space flights (8-14 d). Subjects were 13 male astronauts aged 36-51 y with normal body mass indexes (BMIs). Total energy expenditure (TEE) was determined during both a ground-based period and space flight and compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) calculations of energy requirements and dietary intake. TEE was not different for the ground-based and the space-flight periods (12.40 +/- 2.83 and 11.70 +/- 1.89 MJ/d, respectively), and the WHO calculation using the moderate activity correction was a good predictor of TEE during space flight. During the ground-based period, energy intake and TEE did not differ, but during space flight energy intake was significantly lower than TEE; body weight was also less at landing than before flight. Water turnover was lower during space flight than during the ground-based period (2.7 +/- 0.6 compared with 3.8 +/- 0.5 L/d), probably because of lower fluid intakes and perspiration loss during flight. This study confirmed that the WHO calculation can be used for male crew members' energy requirements during short space flights.

  17. Comparative analysis of the 1-mile run test evaluation formulae: Assessment of aerobic capacity in male law enforcement officers aged 20–23 years

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    Gürhan Kayihan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare values of aerobic performance in the 1-mile run test (1-MRT using different formulae. Material and Methods: Aerobic capacities of 351 male volunteers working for the Turkish National Police within the age range of 20-23 years were evaluated by the 1-MRT and the 20-metre shuttle run (20-MST. VO2max values were estimated by the prediction equations developed by George et al. (1993, Cureton et al. (1995 and Kline et al. (1987 for the 1-MRT and by Leger and Lambert (1982 for the 20-MST. Results: The difference between the results of the different formulae was significant (p = 0.000. The correlation coefficient between the estimated VO2max using Cureton's equation, George's equation, Kline's equation and the 20-MST were 0.691 (p < 0.001, 0.486 (p < 0.001 and 0.608 (p < 0.001, respectively. The highest correlation coefficient was between the VO2max estimated by the 20-MST and Cureton's equation. Similarly, the highest correlation coefficient (r = -0.779 was between the 1-mile run time and the VO2max estimated by Cureton's equation. Conclusions: When analysing more vigorous exercise than sub-maximal exercise, we suggest that Cureton's equation be used to predict the VO2max from 1-mile run/walk performance in large numbers of healthy individuals with high VO2max. This research compares the use of 3 different formulae to estimate VO2max from 1-mile run/ walk performance in male law enforcement officers aged 20-23 years for the first time and reports the most accurate formula to use when evaluating aerobic capacities of large numbers of healthy individuals.

  18. A high-salt diet further impairs age-associated declines in cognitive, behavioral, and cardiovascular functions in male Fischer brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Gaurav; Asghar, Mohammad; Patki, Gaurav; Bohat, Ritu; Jafri, Faizan; Allam, Farida; Dao, An T; Mowrey, Christopher; Alkadhi, Karim; Salim, Samina

    2013-09-01

    Aging-associated declines in cognitive, emotional, and cardiovascular function are well known. Environmental stress triggers critical changes in the brain, further compromising cardiovascular and behavioral health during aging. Excessive dietary salt intake is one such stressor. Here, we tested the effect of high salt (HS) on anxiety, learning-memory function, and blood pressure (BP) in male Fischer brown Norway (FBN) rats. Adult (A; 2 mo) and old (O; 20 mo) male rats were fed normal-salt (NS; 0.4% NaCl) or HS (8% NaCl) diets for 4 wk after being implanted with telemeter probes for conscious BP measurement. Thereafter, tests to assess anxiety-like behavior and learning-memory were conducted. The rats were then killed, and samples of plasma, urine, and brain tissue were collected. We found that systolic BP was higher in O-NS (117 ± 1.2 mm Hg) than in A-NS (105 ± 0.8 mm Hg) rats (P < 0.05). Furthermore, BP was higher in O-HS (124 ± 1.4 mm Hg) than in O-NS (117 ± 1.2 mm Hg) rats (P < 0.05). Moreover, anxiety-like behavior (light-dark and open-field tests) was not different between A-NS and O-NS rats but was greater in O-HS rats than in A-NS, O-NS, or A-HS rats (P < 0.05). Short-term memory (radial arm water maze test) was similar in A-NS and O-NS rats but was significantly impaired in O-HS rats compared with A-NS, O-NS, or A-HS rats (P < 0.05). Furthermore, oxidative stress variables (in plasma, urine, and brain) as well as corticosterone (plasma) were greater in O-HS rats when compared with A-NS, O-NS, or A-HS rats (P < 0.05). The antioxidant enzyme glyoxalase-1 expression was selectively reduced in the hippocampus and amygdala of O-HS rats compared with A-NS, O-NS, or A-HS rats (P < 0.05), whereas other antioxidant enzymes, glutathione reductase 1, manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD), and Cu/Zn SOD remained unchanged. We suggest that salt-sensitive hypertension and behavioral derangement are associated with a redox imbalance in the brain of aged FBN rats.

  19. Association of socio-economic and demographic factors with physical activity of males and females aged 20–69 years

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    Elżbieta Biernat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Objective[/b]. To assess the physical activity of working residents of Warsaw aged 20–69 years, as well as to identify the socio-demographic factors associated with their levels of physical activity. [b]Materials and method[/b]. The study involved 2,544 working residents of Warsaw aged 20–69 years. The short version of the IPAQ was applied and four physical activity levels (insufficient, sufficient, augmented, high were distinguished. The relationships between physical activity and gender, age, BMI, education, economic and martial status as well as participation in recreation were determined. [b]Results[/b]. High levels of physical activity were reached by 8% of respondents, 22% achieved augmented level, 32% were sufficiently and 32% insufficiently active. Out of 2544 studied subjects, 6% declared complete sedentariness. Females were, as compared to males, more frequently (p<0.05 insufficiently active (35.9 vs. 31.9%. In obese and overweight subjects insufficient physical activity predominated (42.9 and 36.2%, respectively and was significantly more frequent than in subjects with normal BMI (31.0%. Moreover, the subjects living in partner relationships were significantly (p<0.05 more frequently insufficiently active than those staying single (36.3 vs. 30.3%. Respondents who declared regular participation in leisure activities were less frequently insufficiently active (20.0% and more frequently met the criteria of sufficient (37.6%, augmented (28.0% or high (14.4% level of physical activity. No significant effects were found with respect to education of respondents. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Prophylactic schedules associated with the improvement of physical activity level should be addressed particularly to females, people taking up recreation occasionally or to those not involved in recreation at all, living in partner relationships, youngest (21–30 years, in obese and overweight and in the lowest economic category.

  20. Signal transduction, receptors, mediators and genes: younger than ever - the 13th meeting of the Signal Transduction Society focused on aging and immunology

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    Klotz Lars-Oliver

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 13th meeting of the Signal Transduction Society was held in Weimar, from October 28 to 30, 2009. Special focus of the 2009 conference was "Aging and Senescence", which was co-organized by the SFB 728 "Environmentally-Induced Aging Processes" of the University of Düsseldorf and the study group 'Signal Transduction' of the German Society for Cell Biology (DGZ. In addition, several other areas of signal transduction research were covered and supported by different consortia associated with the Signal Transduction Society including the long-term associated study groups of the German Society for Immunology and the Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and for instance the SFB/Transregio 52 "Transcriptional Programming of Individual T Cell Subsets" located in Würzburg, Mainz and Berlin. The different research areas that were introduced by outstanding keynote speakers attracted more than 250 scientists, showing the timeliness and relevance of the interdisciplinary concept and exchange of knowledge during the three days of the scientific program. This report gives an overview of the presentations of the conference.

  1. Can they recover? An assessment of adult adjustment problems among males in the abstainer, recovery, life-course persistent, and adolescence-limited pathways followed up to age 56 in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Wesley G; Rocque, Michael; Fox, Bryanna Hahn; Piquero, Alex R; Farrington, David P

    2016-05-01

    Much research has examined Moffitt's developmental taxonomy, focusing almost exclusively on the distinction between life-course persistent and adolescence-limited offenders. Of interest, a handful of studies have identified a group of individuals whose early childhood years were marked by extensive antisocial behavior but who seemed to recover and desist (at least from severe offending) in adolescence and early adulthood. We use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development to examine the adult adjustment outcomes of different groups of offenders, including a recoveries group, in late middle adulthood, offering the most comprehensive investigation of this particular group to date. Findings indicate that abstainers comprise the largest group of males followed by adolescence-limited offenders, recoveries, and life-course persistent offenders. Furthermore, the results reveal that a host of adult adjustment problems measured at ages 32 and 48 in a number of life-course domains are differentially distributed across these four offender groups. In addition, the recoveries and life-course persistent offenders often show the greatest number of adult adjustment problems relative to the adolescence-limited offenders and abstainers.

  2. Computing an optimal time window of audiovisual integration in focused attention tasks: illustrated by studies on effect of age and prior knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonius, Hans; Diederich, Adele

    2011-07-01

    The concept of a "time window of integration" holds that information from different sensory modalities must not be perceived too far apart in time in order to be integrated into a multisensory perceptual event. Empirical estimates of window width differ widely, however, ranging from 40 to 600 ms depending on context and experimental paradigm. Searching for theoretical derivation of window width, Colonius and Diederich (Front Integr Neurosci 2010) developed a decision-theoretic framework using a decision rule that is based on the prior probability of a common source, the likelihood of temporal disparities between the unimodal signals, and the payoff for making right or wrong decisions. Here, this framework is extended to the focused attention task where subjects are asked to respond to signals from a target modality only. Evoking the framework of the time-window-of-integration (TWIN) model, an explicit expression for optimal window width is obtained. The approach is probed on two published focused attention studies. The first is a saccadic reaction time study assessing the efficiency with which multisensory integration varies as a function of aging. Although the window widths for young and older adults differ by nearly 200 ms, presumably due to their different peripheral processing speeds, neither of them deviates significantly from the optimal values. In the second study, head saccadic reactions times to a perfectly aligned audiovisual stimulus pair had been shown to depend on the prior probability of spatial alignment. Intriguingly, they reflected the magnitude of the time-window widths predicted by our decision-theoretic framework, i.e., a larger time window is associated with a higher prior probability.

  3. Association of Body Mass Index with Risk of Lung Cancer: Evidence from a Middle-Aged male Cohort in Shanghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EnjuLiu; XueliWang; JianminYuan; YutangGao

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and lung cancer risk among men in urban Shanghai, China. METHODS Between January 1,1986 and September 30,1989, a total of 18,244 male residents of urban Shanghai were recruited in the prospective cohort study. The eligible study subjects were those aged 45 to 64 years and without history of cancer. Through July 10th, 2003 (17 years follow-up), 467 new cases of lung cancer were identified in the cohort. Cox regression models were used to estimate the adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (Cls). RESULTS The risk of lung cancer decreased with increasing in BMI. After adjustment for some potential confounding factors, a relative risk of 0.6 (highest versus lowest quintile of BMI) was observed (P-trend =0.01). Stratified by smoking status, an inverse association of body mass index with lung cancer risk still existed among current smokers. There were too few cases of lung cancer to draw a valid result among men who never smoked. The results also showed that the association of BMI with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma was more apparent than with other histological subtypes. CONCLUSION An inverse association of BMI with lung cancer risk may exist among men in Shanghai.

  4. The Examination of the State-Trait Anxiety Levels of the Male Football Players at the Age of 13-15 in Terms of Different Variables

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    E. Olcay KARABULUT

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is a screening model research that aims to examine the state-trait anxiety levels of the male football players at the age of 13-15 in terms. The participants of the study include 61 volunteer footballers chosen randomly among the 80 footballers in Nike Premier Cup U-15 Turkey Championship held in Kırşehir in 2008. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory by Spielberger et al. (1970 is utilized to measure the footballers' anxiety levels. Its translation into Turkish and validity and reliability studies on it were implemented by Öner and Le Compte (1983. In the analysis of the data, their arithmetic mean, standard deviations, frequency (f levels and percentage (% values are calculated. As a result of these calculations, Mann Whitney U and Krusukal Wallis analyses are applied for the nonparametric groups and the significance level of all the data is found. As a result, at the end of the study, it is found that the participants have high anxiety levels, that the sport year and the fathers' perceived house management attitude variables cause no significant difference in state-trait anxiety levels of the footballers and that the fathers' high education levels affect the participants' anxiety levels negatively.

  5. Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Decrease Interferon Gamma Production through an Age-Dependent Histone Modification in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

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    Hong-Ren Yu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14–21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF, and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF. The rats were sacrificed and adaptive immune function was evaluated. Compared to the vehicle, the DHF group had lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ production by splenocytes at postnatal day 120. Decreases in H3K9 acetylation and H3K36me3 levels at the IFN-γ promoter correlated with decreased IFN-γ production. The impaired IFN-γ production and aberrant site-specific histone modification at the IFN-γ promoter by prenatal dexamethasone treatment plus a postnatal HF diet resulted in resilience at postnatal day 180. Prenatal dexamethasone and a postnatal HF diet decreased IFN-γ production through a site-specific and an age-dependent histone modification. These findings suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to GC and a postnatal environment exert effects on fetal immunity programming.

  6. Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Decrease Interferon Gamma Production through an Age-Dependent Histone Modification in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Hung, Pi-Lien; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC) disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF) diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14–21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF), and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF). The rats were sacrificed and adaptive immune function was evaluated. Compared to the vehicle, the DHF group had lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by splenocytes at postnatal day 120. Decreases in H3K9 acetylation and H3K36me3 levels at the IFN-γ promoter correlated with decreased IFN-γ production. The impaired IFN-γ production and aberrant site-specific histone modification at the IFN-γ promoter by prenatal dexamethasone treatment plus a postnatal HF diet resulted in resilience at postnatal day 180. Prenatal dexamethasone and a postnatal HF diet decreased IFN-γ production through a site-specific and an age-dependent histone modification. These findings suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to GC and a postnatal environment exert effects on fetal immunity programming. PMID:27669212

  7. The quality of life impact of peripheral versus central vision loss with a focus on glaucoma versus age-related macular degeneration

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    Keith Evans

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Keith Evans1, Simon K Law2, John Walt3, Patricia Buchholz4, Jan Hansen31Global Health Outcomes, Wolters Kluwer Health, Chester, United Kingdom; 2Jules Stein Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Global Health Outcomes Strategy and Research, Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA, USA; 4Health Economics, Pricing, and Reimbursement, Allergan GmbH, Ettlingen, GermanyPurpose: It is well accepted that conditions that cause central vision loss (CVL have a negative impact on functional ability and quality of life (QoL, but the impact of diseases that cause peripheral vision loss (PVL is less well understood. Focusing on glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration (ARMD, the effects of CVL and PVL on QoL were compared. Methods: A systematic literature review of publications reporting QoL in patients with CVL or PVL identified 87 publications using four generic (Short-Form Health Survey-36 and -12, EuroQoL EQ-5D and Sickness Impact Profile and five vision-specific (National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-51, -39, and -25, Impact of Vision Impairment and Visual Function-14 QoL instruments; 33 and 15 publications reported QoL in ARMD and glaucoma, respectively.Results: QoL was impaired to a similar extent by diseases associated with PVL and CVL, but different domains were affected. In contrast to ARMD, mental aspects appeared to be affected more than physical aspects in patients with glaucoma.Conclusions: The differential impact upon QoL might be a function of the pathology of the diseases, for example potential for blindness and better ability to perform physical tasks due to retention of central vision may explain these observations in glaucoma.Keywords: vision loss, quality of life, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic macular edema, cataracts

  8. 聚焦解决模式在男性不育症患者微创取精术中的应用%Application of Solution Focused Approach for Male Infertile Patients Undergoing Microtraumatic Sperm Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘蔚明; 邓妙玲; 马胜利

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨聚焦解决模式在男性不育症患者微创取精术中的应用效果。方法以聚焦解决模式为依据,制订干预措施,并应用于65例男性不育微创取精术患者中。干预8~10次,持续3个月,采用自尊心和性关系问卷(泽藻造枣-藻泽贼藻藻皂葬灶凿则藻造葬-贼蚤燥灶泽澡蚤责择怎藻泽贼蚤燥灶灶葬蚤则藻,杂耘A砸)和生活定向测验(蕴韵栽-砸)评估患者的心理及行为状况。结果干预后患者的杂耘A砸得分比干预前明显提高,比较差异有统计学意义(孕<0.01);干预后符合悲观倾向的由58例下降到17例,符合乐观倾向的由7例上升至48例,干预前后生活定向测验(蕴韵栽-砸)得分差异有统计学意义(孕<0.01)。结论以聚焦解决模式为基础的护理干预,能为男性不育微创取精术患者提供有效的心理护理和行为指导。%Objective To explore the effect of application of solution focused approach for male infertile patients who underwent microtraumatic sperm extraction. Methods We carried out intervention plans on the basis of solution focused approach and applied these plans in 65 male patients with infertility who underwent microtraumatic sperm extraction. These patients received intervention eight to ten times in three months, and then their psychological and behavioural conditions were assessed by SEAR and LOT-R. Results After the intervention, the patients' SEAR scores were significantly higher than those before the intervention (P <0.01);the number of patients with pessimism declined from 58 to 17, while the number of patients with optimism increased from 7 to 48. The differences in the scores of LOT-R before and after the intervention had statistic significance (P<0.01). Conclusions The nursing intervention based on solution focused approach can provide male patients with infertility who underwent microtraumatic sperm extraction with effective psychological nursing and

  9. Patterns of ectoparasitism in North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus: Sex-biases, seasonality, age, and effects on male body condition

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    Jesse E.H. Patterson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within many species, males are often more heavily parasitised than females. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, including immunocompetence handicaps, sexual size dimorphism and behavioural differences. Here we set out to test the latter two hypotheses and make inferences about the former by assessing patterns of ectoparasitism across various life-history stages in a population of North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus. We also conducted an ectoparasite removal experiment to investigate the effects of ectoparasites on male body condition. We found that males were more intensely parasitized than females, but only during the mating period. There was no difference in ectoparasite intensity between male and female juveniles at birth or at emergence, suggesting that ectoparasites do not exploit male red squirrels for longer-range natal dispersal. Male red squirrels in our population were slightly heavier than females, however we did not find any evidence that this dimorphism drives male-biased ectoparasitism. Finally, we could not detect an effect of ectoparasite removal on male body mass. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that ectoparasites exploit their male hosts for transmission and that male red squirrels are important for the transmission dynamics of ectoparasites in this population; however, the mechanisms (i.e., immunocompetence, testosterone are not known.

  10. Decline in male circumcision in South Korea

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    Kim DaiSik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the changing circumcision rate in South Korea in the last decade and to propose underlying causes for this change, in the context of the present fluctuating world-wide trends in circumcision. Methods From 2009 to 2011, 3,296 South Korean males (or their parents aged 0–64 years were asked about their circumcision status, their age at circumcision, and their information level regarding circumcision. We employed non-probability sampling considering the sensitive questions on the study theme. Results Currently the age-standardized circumcision rate for South Korean males aged 14–29 is found to be 75.8%. In an earlier study performed in 2002, the rate for the same age group was 86.3%. Of particular interest, males aged 14–16 show a circumcision rate of 56.4%, while the same age group 10 years ago displayed a much higher percentage, at 88.4%. In addition, the extraordinarily high circumcision rate of 95.2% found 10 years ago for the 17–19 age group is now reduced to 74.4%. Interestingly, of the circumcised males, the percentage circumcised in the last decade was only 25.2%; i.e., the majority of the currently circumcised males had undergone the operation prior to 2002, indicating that the actual change in the last decade is far greater. Consistent with this conjecture, the 2002 survey showed that the majority of circumcised males (75.7% had undergone the operation in the decade prior to that point. Focusing on the flagship age group of 14–16, this drop suggests that, considering the population structure of Korean males, approximately one million fewer circumcision operations have been performed in the last decade relative to the case of non-decline. This decline is strongly correlated with the information available through internet, newspapers, lectures, books, and television: within the circumcised population, both the patients and their parents had less prior knowledge regarding circumcision, other than

  11. Protein source and nutrient density in the diets of male broilers from 8 to 21 d of age: Effects on small intestine morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Peebles, E D; Morgan, T W; Harkess, R L; Zhai, W

    2015-01-01

    In a companion study, high amino acid (AA) or apparent metabolizable energy (AME) densities in the diets of broilers from 8 to 21 d of age were found to improve feed conversion. A total of 1,120 male Ross×Ross 708 chicks were randomly allocated to 80 pens (8 treatments, 10 replications per treatment, 14 chicks per pen). A 2×2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the interaction among the protein source (high distillers dried grains with solubles diet [hDDGS] or high meat and bone meal diet [hMBM]), AA density (moderate or high), and AME density (2,998 or 3,100 kcal/kg) of diets on small intestine morphology. Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum samples from 2 chicks per pen were collected and measured individually at 21 d. Jejunum sections were processed for histological analysis. Chicks fed hDDGS diets exhibited longer small intestines than did chicks fed hMBM diets. Particularly, when chicks were fed high AA density diets, jejuna were longer in groups fed hDDGS diets than groups fed hMBM diets. Dietary treatments did not affect jejunum villus height, width, area, crypt depth, villus to crypt ratio, goblet cell size, or cell density. In birds fed diets containing a moderate AA and a high AME density, jejunum muscle layers of chicks fed hDDGS diets were thicker than those fed hMBM diets. Chicks exhibited a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) and a higher BW gain when their crypts were shorter. In conclusion, an hDDGS diet may facilitate small intestine longitudinal growth in broilers, which may subsequently improve dietary nutrient absorption. In addition, broiler chicks with shallow intestinal crypts exhibited better growth performance.

  12. Preliminary Study on Treatment of Partial Androgen Deficiency in Aging Males with Jingui Shenqi Pill (金匮肾气丸)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Wen-jun; HE Xiao-zhou; JIANG Jian-pin; CAI Wen-yuan; XIE Si-jie

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the efficacy and safety of Jingui Shengqi Pill (金匮肾气丸, JSP) in treating partial androgen deficiency in aging males (PADAM), and to explore the new approach in improving the quality of life in PADAM patients. Methods: Forty patients with PADAM were treated with JSP, the efficacy was evaluated with international index of erectile function (IIEF) scoring, PADAM questionnaire scoring,hormone, prostatic specific antigen (PSA), etc., and the data before treatment were compared with those after treatment in the same group. Results: After 3 months of treatment, PADAM scoring and IIEF scoring were all significantly improved. Symptoms regarding physical ability, vasomotion, and psychical and mental condition all got improved more markedly than symptoms regarding sexual hypofunction. The serum level of testosterone was 3.85±0.36 before treatment and 5.02±0.83 after treatmnet (P<0.05); luteinizing hormone of 7.33±2.14 and 4.84±1.43 ( P<0.01), follicule-stimulating hormone of 10.22±4.48 and 6.47±3.28 (P<0.01), respectively. The level of PSA failed to change significantly ( 1.94 ± 0.55 and 2.06±0.47, P>0.05).Conclusion: JSP is effective and safe in treating PADAM, the mechanism of it is different from supplementing extrinsic androgen. It may have produced the effect by means of favorably regulating the condition of sex hormone to improve the balance of pituitary-sex gland axis, so it has more extensive clinical application.

  13. The Associations of Novel Vitamin D3 Metabolic Gene CYP27A1 Polymorphism, Adiponectin/Leptin Ratio, and Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged Taiwanese Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Hung Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS confers increased risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Both vitamin D3 and adipocytokines (especially adiponectin and leptin have a great impact on CVD and MetS. In vitamin D3 metabolism, the vitamin D3 25-hydroxylase (CYP27A1 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1 are two key enzymes. This study aimed to examine the influence of vitamin D3 CYP27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on adipocytokines and MetS. Cross-sectional data and DNA samples were collected from male volunteers (n=649, age: 55.7 ± 4.7 years. Two tagging SNPs, CYP27A1 rs4674344 and CYP27B1 rs10877012, were selected from the HapMap project. MetS was significantly associated with the CYP27A1 rs4674344 SNP (P=0.04 and the ratio of adiponectin/leptin (A/L ratio was most correlated to the CYP27A1 rs4674344 SNP, appearing to be significantly lower in T-carriers than in AA subjects (3.7 ± 4.0 versus 5.1 ± 6.0, P=0.001 and significantly negatively associated after adjustment. For each MetS component associated with the CYP27A1 rs4674344 SNP, the A/L ratios were significantly negative in preclinical stage (condition not meeting the individual criteria, except the blood pressure. In conclusion, CYP27A1 rs4674344 SNP, A/L ratio, and MetS are significantly associated and T-carriers might have a higher risk of developing MetS due to low A/L ratios in the preclinical stage.

  14. The effects of periodized concurrent and aerobic training on oxidative stress parameters, endothelial function and immune response in sedentary male individuals of middle age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaun, Maximiliano Isoppo; Dipp, Thiago; Rossato, Juliane da Silva; Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Pinto, Ronei; Rech, Anderson; Plentz, Rodrigo Della Méa; Homem de Bittencourt, Paulo I; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro

    2011-10-01

    The vascular endothelium plays a key role in arterial wall homeostasis by preventing atherosclerotic plaque formation. A primary causal factor of endothelial dysfunction is the reactive oxygen species. Aerobic exercise is ascribed as an important adjuvant therapy in endothelium-dependent cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the effects of concurrent (aerobic + strength) training on that. For a comparison of the effects of aerobic and concurrent physical training on endothelial function, oxidative stress parameters and the immunoinflammatory activity of monocytes/macrophages, 20 adult male volunteers of middle age were divided into a concurrent training (CT) programme group and an aerobic training group. The glutathione disulphide to glutathione ratio (GSSG/GSH) and plasma lipoperoxide (LPO) levels, as well as flow-mediated dilation (FMD), monocyte/macrophage functional activity (zymosan phagocytosis), body lipid profiles, aerobic capacity (maximal oxygen uptake) and strength parameters (one-repetition maximum test), were measured before and after the exercise training programmes. The CT exhibited reduced acute effects of exercise on the GSSG/GSH ratio, plasma LPO levels and zymosan phagocytosis. The CT also displayed improved lipid profiles, glycaemic control, maximal oxygen uptake and one-repetition maximum test values. In both the aerobic training and the CT, training improved the acute responses to exercise, as inferred from a decrease in the GSSG/GSH ratios. The aerobic sessions did not alter basal levels of plasma LPO or macrophage phagocytic activity but improved FMD values as well as lipid profiles and glycaemic control. In summary, both training programmes improve systemic redox status and antioxidant defences. However, the aerobic training was more efficient in improving FMD in the individuals studied.

  15. Comparison of some physical and physiological characteristics of the male sedentaries, male handball players and male wrestlers whose ages were between 13 and 1513- 15 yaş arasındaki güreşçiler hentbolcular ve sedanterlerin bazı fiziksel ve fizyolojik parametrelerinin karşılaştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Alıcı

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at the comparison of some physical and physiological characteristics of the male sedentaries, male handball players and male wrestlers whose ages were between 13 and 15.77 male individuals (sedentaries=26, handball players=26 and wrestler=25 participated voluntarily. Height, weight and BMI values of the subjects were measured and tests for right and left hand grip strengths, leg and back strength, 20m sprint test, 30 sec sit-up, push-up, sit-reach (flexibility, respiratory function (FVC, VC, FEV1, PEF and counter movement jump (anaerobic power  were performed.As a result; it was found out that those who did sports in adolescent period had higher physical and physiological parameters than sedentaries. ÖzetBu çalışmanın amacı, 13-15 yaş erkek sedanter, hentbolcu ve güreşçilerin bazı fiziksel ve fizyolojik özelliklerinin karşılaştırılmasıdır.Araştırmaya 77 erkek sporcu ve öğrenci (sedanter=26, hentbolcu=26 ve güreşçi=25 gönüllü olarak katılmıştır. Çalışmaya katılan deneklerin boy, vücut ağırlığı, beden kitle indeksi (BKİ ölçülmüş ve sağ ve sol el-pençe kuvvetleri, sırt-bacak kuvveti, 20 m. sürat, 30 sn. mekik, 30 sn. şınav, otur-uzan (esneklik, solunum fonksiyon (FVC, VC, FEV1, PEF değerleri ve dikey sıçrama (anaerobik güç testleri uygulanmıştır.Sonuç olarak; adölesan dönemdeki spor yapan bireylerin fiziksel ve fizyolojik parametrelerinin aynı yaştaki sedanter bireylerden daha yüksek olduğu tespit edilmiştir.

  16. Male Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Esenyel

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis in men is now recognized as an increasingly important public health issue. About 30 % of hip fractures and 20 % of vertebral fractures occur in men. In the present study, we examined 19 men who did not have major risk factors that might affect bone mass. Parathormone(PTH, osteocalcin (marker of bone formation, OC and deoxypyridinoline (marker of bone resorption, DPD were measured. The bone mineral density (BMD measurements in 16 men were performed by dual-energy X-ray absorbtiometry (DXA from lumbar spine (L2-4, and left hip. Bone density at each site was categorized as osteoporosis or osteopenia according to World Health Organization (WHO criteria. In 19 patients with a mean age of 69 years, PTH levels were in the normal range except one patient. OC levels were elevated in %42.1 and DPD levels were elevated in 74 % of patients. L2-4 T score was osteoporotic (25% in 4 patients and osteopenic (25% in 4 patients. Femur Ward’s T score was osteoporotic (37.5% in 7 patients and osteopenic (37.5% in 7 patients. Osteoporosis is a significant problem in older men. Increased awareness for the risk factors of male osteoporosis is an important issue. Early diagnosis and treatment would help to reduce morbidity and mortality resulting from osteoporotic fractures.

  17. PRIMARY PREVENTION OF MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN MIDDLE-AGED MALES (15-YEAR FOLLOW-UP: CLINICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF THE PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Kalinina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate incidence rate of first myocardial infarction (MI with different outcomes and factors, it is influenced by, depending on the intensity of preventive measures in a population of middle-aged men during 15-year follow-up; to evaluate economic efficiency of primary medical prevention.Material and methods. Two populations of middle-aged men with a total of 6656 males (3488 men the group of active prevention and 3168 the group of comparison were followed up over 15 years.Results. The group of active prevention revealed 22.1% reduced MI incidence rate during 5-year follow-up as compared to the second group, fatal MI incidence rate was 42.4% lower, p<0.05. Mortality rate in new cases of MI was 35.8% in the group of active prevention and 48.5% at routine treatment (p<0.05. The group of active prevention continued to have 17.9% reduced MI incidence rate during the 10-year follow-up as compared to the group of routine management (p>0.05, while patients with clinical signs of ischemic heart disease (IHD and no history of previous MI kept significant distinctions in first MI incidence rate (41% less in the first group, p<0.05. First MI incidence for the 10-year period was the least at risk factors (RF absence and twice higher even at single RF presence. Combination of RF caused 4-5 fold increase in risk for MI. Life status of 81.3% of the enrolled men (5410 of 6656 followed over 15 years was received along with the monitoring of prognosis.Such indices as “life years saved” (LYS and “quality-adjusted life years saved” (QALYS for 1000 persons in the active prevention group were 53 and 51 years, respectively during the 5-year follow-up, 147 and 143 years – during the 10-year follow-up. In the long-term actual expenses for 1 LYS were 3.4-fold less than annual gross domestic product (GDP value, at that charges for primary prevention – 4-fold less, which has been for the first time demonstrated using factual data and not mathematic

  18. PRIMARY PREVENTION OF MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN MIDDLE-AGED MALES (15-YEAR FOLLOW-UP: CLINICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF THE PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Kalinina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate incidence rate of first myocardial infarction (MI with different outcomes and factors, it is influenced by, depending on the intensity of preventive measures in a population of middle-aged men during 15-year follow-up; to evaluate economic efficiency of primary medical prevention.Material and methods. Two populations of middle-aged men with a total of 6656 males (3488 men the group of active prevention and 3168 the group of comparison were followed up over 15 years.Results. The group of active prevention revealed 22.1% reduced MI incidence rate during 5-year follow-up as compared to the second group, fatal MI incidence rate was 42.4% lower, p<0.05. Mortality rate in new cases of MI was 35.8% in the group of active prevention and 48.5% at routine treatment (p<0.05. The group of active prevention continued to have 17.9% reduced MI incidence rate during the 10-year follow-up as compared to the group of routine management (p>0.05, while patients with clinical signs of ischemic heart disease (IHD and no history of previous MI kept significant distinctions in first MI incidence rate (41% less in the first group, p<0.05. First MI incidence for the 10-year period was the least at risk factors (RF absence and twice higher even at single RF presence. Combination of RF caused 4-5 fold increase in risk for MI. Life status of 81.3% of the enrolled men (5410 of 6656 followed over 15 years was received along with the monitoring of prognosis.Such indices as “life years saved” (LYS and “quality-adjusted life years saved” (QALYS for 1000 persons in the active prevention group were 53 and 51 years, respectively during the 5-year follow-up, 147 and 143 years – during the 10-year follow-up. In the long-term actual expenses for 1 LYS were 3.4-fold less than annual gross domestic product (GDP value, at that charges for primary prevention – 4-fold less, which has been for the first time demonstrated using factual data and not mathematic

  19. Fetal life malnutrition was not reflected in the relative abundances of adiponectin and leptin mRNAs in adipose tissue in male mink kits at 9.5 weeks of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Connie F.; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2016-01-01

    the effect of fetal life malnutrition in male mink on the gene expression of leptin and adiponectin in different adipose tissue sites. Results: Thirty-two male mink, strict carnivore species, exposed to low (FL) or adequate (FA) protein provision the last 16.3 ± 1.8 days of fetal life and randomly assigned......Background: Malnutrition in fetal life and during suckling have in some animal studies resulted in adaptive changes related to the fat and glucose metabolism, which in the long term might predispose the offspring for metabolic disorders such as obesity later in life. The objective was to study.......5 weeks of age. Relative abundances of leptin and adiponectin mRNAs were different between adipose tissue sites and were significantly higher in subcutaneous than in perirenal and mesenteric tissues. Conclusion:Fetal life protein malnutrition in male mink, did not result in adaptive changes in the gene...

  20. Secrets and Secrecy in Calderón's Comedies and in Spanish Golden Age Culture. Outline of a New Research Focus in Calderonian Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfram Aichinger; Simon Kroll

    2013-01-01

    The public enactment of secrecy is part of the Spanish Golden Age culture. This article presents a research project, which pursues three objectives: 
A study of secrecy as a core characteristic of Spanish Golden Age culture, on the basis of historiographical studies, sources and cultural theories of secrecy.
 A study of Calderonian comedies of secrecy in the context of Golden Age theatre.
 A case study of the comedy El secreto a voces, including a critical edition that also explores the aesth...

  1. Use of the SF-36 quality of life scale to assess the effect of pelvic floor muscle exercise on aging males who received transurethral prostate surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou CP

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chen-Pang Hou,1,* Tzu-Yu Chen,2,* Chia-Chi Chang,3 Yu-Hsiang Lin,1 Phei-Lang Chang,1 Chien-Lun Chen,1 Yu-Chao Hsu,1 Ke-Hung Tsui1 1Department of Urology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linko, Chang Gung University, Taiwan, Republic of China; 2Department of Nursing, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Republic of China; 3College of Nursing, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: We used the Short Form (SF-36® Health Survey scale to assess the effect of pelvic floor muscle exercise (PFE on aging males who received transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P. Methods: From April 2010 to December 2010, a total of 66 patients who underwent TUR-P were enrolled in this study. They were randomized into two groups (with 33 patients in each group – an experimental group who performed postoperative PFE every day and a control groups. Data, including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS, uroflowmetry study, and the SF-36 quality of life measure, were collected before the operation, and at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the operation. We analyzed the differences between the two groups with respect to their IPSS scores, maximal urinary flow rate, residual urine amount, and life quality. Results: A total of 61 patients (experimental group: 32 patients, and control group: 29 patients completed this study. We found that at 12 weeks postop, patients who performed PFE every day had a better maximal urinary flow rate (16.41 ± 6.20 vs 12.41 ± 7.28 mL/min (P = 0.026 compared with patients in the control group. The experimental group had a much greater decrease in IPSS score (P < 0.001. As for the SF-36 scale, the experimental group had higher scores than did the control group on both the physiological domain (54.86 vs 49.86 (P = 0.029 and the psychological domain (61.88 vs 52.69 (P = 0.005. However, there were no significant differences with respect to the postvoiding residual

  2. ATTRACTION OF MALE SUMMERFORM PEAR PSYLLA TO VOLATILES FROM FEMALE PSYLLA: EFFECTS OF FEMALE AGE, MATING STATUS, AND PRESENCE OF HOST PLANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a pest of pears throughout North America and western Europe. Previous studies in our laboratory showed that males of the overwintering form (winterform morphotype) were attracted to volatiles from pear shoots infested with post-d...

  3. Secrets and Secrecy in Calderón's Comedies and in Spanish Golden Age Culture. Outline of a New Research Focus in Calderonian Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Aichinger

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The public enactment of secrecy is part of the Spanish Golden Age culture. This article presents a research project, which pursues three objectives: 
A study of secrecy as a core characteristic of Spanish Golden Age culture, on the basis of historiographical studies, sources and cultural theories of secrecy.
 A study of Calderonian comedies of secrecy in the context of Golden Age theatre.
 A case study of the comedy El secreto a voces, including a critical edition that also explores the aesthetics of secrecy and the history of early staging in Madrid and Vienna.
 With this threefold approach we aim at a deeper understanding of both Calderón’s originality and of the secret patterns of Baroque culture.

  4. Near-infrared spectroscopy, a rapid method for predicting the age of male and female wild-type and Wolbachia infected Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimating the age distribution of mosquito populations is crucial for assessing their capacity to transmit disease and for evaluating the efficacy of available vector control programs. This study reports on the capacity of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique to rapidly predict the ages of t...

  5. Dietary Patterns in Relation to Cardiovascular Disease Incidence and Risk Markers in a Middle-Aged British Male Population: Data from the Caerphilly Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, Elly; Markey, Oonagh; Geleijnse, Johanna; Givens, David; Lovegrove, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Dietary behaviour is an important modifiable factor in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. The study aimed to identify dietary patterns (DPs) and explore their association with CVD incidence and risk markers. A follow-up of 1838 middle-aged men, aged 47–67 years recruited into the Caerphilly Pr

  6. Combination of Human Leukocyte Antigen and Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Genetic Background Influences the Onset Age of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Male Patients with Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Pan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate whether killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR and human leukocyte antigen (HLA genetic background could influence the onset age of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, one hundred and seventy-one males with HBV-related HCC were enrolled. The presence of 12 loci of KIR was detected individually. HLA-A, -B, and -C loci were genotyped with high resolution by a routine sequence-based typing method. The effect of each KIR locus, HLA ligand, and HLA-KIR combination was examined individually by Kaplan-Meier (KM analysis. Multivariate Cox hazard regression model was also applied. We identified C1C1-KIR2DS2/2DL2 as an independent risk factor for earlier onset age of HCC (median onset age was 44 for C1C1-KIR2DS2/2DL2 positive patients compared to 50 for negative patients, P=0.04 for KM analysis; HR = 1.70, P=0.004 for multivariate Cox model. We conclude that KIR and HLA genetic background can influence the onset age of HCC in male patients with HBV infection. This study may be useful to improve the current HCC surveillance program in HBV-infected patients. Our findings also suggest an important role of natural killer cells (or other KIR-expressing cells in the progress of HBV-related HCC development.

  7. Socioeconomic in enequalities in health in Europe : studies of middle-aged and older populations with a special focus on the role of smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Huisman (Martijn)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in health among middle-aged and older men and women within Europe, and to contribute to the explanation of these inequalities. The contribution of smoking to socioeconomic inequalities in health was es

  8. Serum YKL-40 and uterine artery Doppler – a prospective cohort study, with focus on preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gybel-Brask, Dorte; Høgdall, Estrid; Johansen, Julia

    2014-01-01

    .0002), primiparity (p = 0.0003), and hypertension (p = 0.015). Serum YKL-40 increased from 12 to 20 weeks and decreased from 20-25 and 25-32 weeks of gestation. No association was found between preeclampsia and serum YKL-40. Small-for-gestational-age at birth was significantly associated with a 5.4% increase...

  9. Age estimates for the buckwheat family Polygonaceae based on sequence data calibrated by fossils and with a focus on the amphi-Pacific Muehlenbeckia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja M Schuster

    Full Text Available The buckwheat family Polygonaceae is a diverse group of plants and is a good model for investigating biogeography, breeding systems, coevolution with symbionts such as ants and fungi, functional trait evolution, hybridization, invasiveness, morphological plasticity, pollen morphology and wood anatomy. The main goal of this study was to obtain age estimates for Polygonaceae by calibrating a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis, using a relaxed molecular clock with fossil data. Based on the age estimates, we also develop hypotheses about the historical biogeography of the Southern Hemisphere group Muehlenbeckia. We are interested in addressing whether vicariance or dispersal could account for the diversification of Muehlenbeckia, which has a "Gondwanan" distribution. Eighty-one species of Polygonaceae were analysed with MrBayes to infer species relationships. One nuclear (nrITS and three chloroplast markers (the trnL-trnF spacer region, matK and ndhF genes were used. The molecular data were also analysed with Beast to estimate divergence times. Seven calibration points including fossil pollen and a leaf fossil of Muehlenbeckia were used to infer node ages. Results of the Beast analyses indicate an age of 110.9 (exponential/lognormal priors/118.7 (uniform priors million years (Myr with an uncertainty interval of (90.7-125.0 Myr for the stem age of Polygonaceae. This age is older than previously thought (Maastrichtian, approximately 65.5-70.6 Myr. The estimated divergence time for Muehlenbeckia is 41.0/41.6 (39.6-47.8 Myr and its crown clade is 20.5/22.3 (14.2-33.5 Myr old. Because the breakup of Gondwana occurred from 95-30 Myr ago, diversification of Muehlenbeckia is best explained by oceanic long-distance and maybe stepping-stone dispersal rather than vicariance. This study is the first to give age estimates for clades of Polygonaceae and functions as a jumping-off point for future studies on the historical biogeography of the family.

  10. Ion focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Baird, Zane; Peng, Wen-Ping

    2017-01-17

    The invention generally relates to apparatuses for focusing ions at or above ambient pressure and methods of use thereof. In certain embodiments, the invention provides an apparatus for focusing ions that includes an electrode having a cavity, at least one inlet within the electrode configured to operatively couple with an ionization source, such that discharge generated by the ionization source is injected into the cavity of the electrode, and an outlet. The cavity in the electrode is shaped such that upon application of voltage to the electrode, ions within the cavity are focused and directed to the outlet, which is positioned such that a proximal end of the outlet receives the focused ions and a distal end of the outlet is open to ambient pressure.

  11. Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the urethra. Chromosome defects. Inherited disorders such as Klinefelter's syndrome — in which a male is born with ... or major abdominal or pelvic surgery Having a history of undescended testicles Being born with a fertility ...

  12. [Evaluation of gonadotropic and gonadal secretions in primary abnormalities of the gonads and male pseudohermaphrodism before and after the age of puberty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, J C; Garnier, P E; Chaussain, J L; Roger, M; Scholler, R; Toublanc, J E; Canlorbe, P

    1976-04-01

    Blood levels of gonadotropins (FSH and LH) and gonadal steroids (testosterone or estradiol) have been evaluated in 72 children and adolescents with primary gonadal defects (45 agonadal patients, 7 with asymetrical gonadal dysgenesis, 9 with Klinefelter syndrome, 4 with partial testicular dysgenesis and 7 with partial ovarian dysgenesis) and in 17 cases of male pseudohermaphrodism. A LH-RH test has been performed in most cases, and a testicular stimulation test with chorionic gonadotropin in patients with testicular tissue. Agonadal subjects had increased blood and pituitary releasable gonadotropins: very high in infants and young children, much less from 7 to 11 years, a high spurt being observed at 12 years. This diphasic pattern relates to the varying sensitivity of hypothalamic receptors and suggests that adrenal steroids may restrain gonadotropic secretion at 7-8 years. As a diagnostic tool, the increase of gonadotropins may be missing in the 7-11 years group. In the 1-12 years patients with partially defective gonads, blood and pituitary releasable gonadotropins and blood steroids are usually normal, but testosterone response to chorionic gonadotropin may be already blunted. From 13 years the gonadotropic secretion is usually increased, even when testosterone secretion and reserve are within normal range. Most male pseudohermaphrodites showed normal gonadotropic and testicular secretions. But four patients had highly increased responses to LH-RH, suggesting a defect of testicular secretion or of receptors, and demonstrating some heterogeneity in the male pseudohermaphrodism group.

  13. Cytogenetic of Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfiye Ozpak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Infertility by definition, is not to get pregnant within one year of regular sexual relationship without protection, affects 15-20% of reproductive age couples. Approximately 30% of infertility cases are male originated. Male infertility is caused by endocrine-related genetic defects affecting urogenital system function. These defects adversely affect subsequent spermatogenesis, sexual function, fertility, early embryonic stage of sexual maturation. Autosomal and gonosomal, numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities and related syndromes rank at the top causes of male infertility. Similar chromosome abnormalities are detected in male infertility and as the rate of these abnormalities increase, it was found to reduce sperm count especially in azospermic and oligozoospermic men. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(4.000: 230-245

  14. Focus on Pivotal Role of Dietary Intake (Diet and Supplement and Blood Levels of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols in Obtaining Successful Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Rondanelli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous specific age-related morbidities have been correlated with low intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. We performed a review in order to evaluate the extant evidence regarding: (1 the association between intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols and age-related pathologies (osteoporosis, sarcopenia and cognitive impairment; and (2 the optimum diet therapy or supplementation with tocopherols and tocotrienols for the treatment of these abnormalities. This review included 51 eligible studies. The recent literature underlines that, given the detrimental effect of low intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols on bone, muscle mass, and cognitive function, a change in the lifestyle must be the cornerstone in the prevention of these specific age-related pathologies related to vitamin E-deficient status. The optimum diet therapy in the elderly for avoiding vitamin E deficiency and its negative correlates, such as high inflammation and oxidation, must aim at achieving specific nutritional goals. These goals must be reached through: accession of the elderly subjects to specific personalized dietary programs aimed at achieving and/or maintaining body weight (avoid malnutrition; increase their intake of food rich in vitamin E, such as derivatives of oily seeds (in particular wheat germ oil, olive oil, hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and cereals rich in vitamin E (such as specific rice cultivar rich in tocotrienols or take vitamin E supplements. In this case, vitamin E can be correctly used in a personalized way either for the outcome from the pathology or to achieve healthy aging and longevity without any adverse effects.

  15. Exercise performance and cardiovascular health variables in 70-year-old male soccer players compared to endurance-trained, strength-trained and untrained age-matched men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Petersen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim was to investigate performance variables and indicators of cardiovascular health profile in elderly soccer players (SP, n = 11) compared to endurance-trained (ET, n = 8), strength-trained (ST, n = 7) and untrained (UT, n = 7) age-matched men. The 33 men aged 65-85 years underwent...

  16. Biocomplexity and Fractality in the Search of Biomarkers of Aging and Pathology: Focus on Mitochondrial DNA and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaia, Annamaria; Maponi, Pierluigi; Di Stefano, Giuseppina; Casoli, Tiziana

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) represents one major health concern for our growing elderly population. It accounts for increasing impairment of cognitive capacity followed by loss of executive function in late stage. AD pathogenesis is multifaceted and difficult to pinpoint, and understanding AD etiology will be critical to effectively diagnose and treat the disease. An interesting hypothesis concerning AD development postulates a cause-effect relationship between accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations and neurodegenerative changes associated with this pathology. Here we propose a computerized method for an easy and fast mtDNA mutations-based characterization of AD. The method has been built taking into account the complexity of living being and fractal properties of many anatomic and physiologic structures, including mtDNA. Dealing with mtDNA mutations as gaps in the nucleotide sequence, fractal lacunarity appears a suitable tool to differentiate between aging and AD. Therefore, Chaos Game Representation method has been used to display DNA fractal properties after adapting the algorithm to visualize also heteroplasmic mutations. Parameter β from our fractal lacunarity method, based on hyperbola model function, has been measured to quantitatively characterize AD on the basis of mtDNA mutations. Results from this pilot study to develop the method show that fractal lacunarity parameter β of mtDNA is statistically different in AD patients when compared to age-matched controls. Fractal lacunarity analysis represents a useful tool to analyze mtDNA mutations. Lacunarity parameter β is able to characterize individual mutation profile of mitochondrial genome and appears a promising index to discriminate between AD and aging. PMID:28197358

  17. Without 'Focus'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Sevi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that a notion of 'focus', more or less as conceived of in Jackendoff (1972, must be incorporated into our theory of grammar, as a means of accounting for certain observed correlations between prosodic facts and semantic/pragmatic facts. In this paper, we put forth the somewhat radical idea that the time has come to give up this customary view, and eliminate 'focus' from our theory of grammar. We argue that such a move is both economical and fruitful.Research over the years has revealed that the correlations between prosody, 'focus', and the alleged semantic/pragmatic effects of focus are much less clear and systematic than we may have initially hoped. First we argue that this state of affairs detracts significantly from the utility of our notion of 'focus', to the point of calling into question the very motivation for including it in the grammar. Then we look at some of the central data, and show how they might be analyzed without recourse to a notion of 'focus'. We concentrate on (i the effect of pitch accent placement on discourse congruence, and (ii the choice of 'associate' for the so-called 'focus sensitive' adverb only. We argue that our focus-free approach to the data improves empirical coverage, and begins to reveal patterns that have previously been obscured by preconceptions about 'focus'.ReferencesBeaver, D. & Clark, B. 2008. Sense and Sensitivity: How Focus Determines Meaning. Blackwell.Beaver, D., Clark, B., Flemming, E., Jaeger, T. F. & Wolters, M. 2007. ‘When semantics meets phonetics: Acoustical studies of second occurrence focus’. Language 83.2: 245–76.http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/lan.2007.0053Beckman, M. & Hirschberg, J. 1994. ‘The ToBI Annotation Conventions’. Ms.,http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~julia/files/conv.pdf.Bolinger, D. 1972. ‘Accent is predictable (if you are a mind-reader’. Language 48.3: 633–44.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/412039Büring, D. 2006. ‘Focus projection and default

  18. Exercise performance and cardiovascular health variables in 70-year-old male soccer players compared to endurance-trained, strength-trained and untrained age-matched men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Jesper L; Petersen, Jesper; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Bangsbo, Jens; Saltin, Bengt; Krustrup, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to investigate performance variables and indicators of cardiovascular health profile in elderly soccer players (SP, n = 11) compared to endurance-trained (ET, n = 8), strength-trained (ST, n = 7) and untrained (UT, n = 7) age-matched men. The 33 men aged 65-85 years underwent a testing protocol including measurements of cycle performance, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and body composition, and muscle fibre types and capillarisation were determined from m. vastus lateralis biopsy. In SP, time to exhaustion was longer (16.3 ± 2.0 min; P exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile are markedly better for lifelong trained SP than for age-matched UT controls. Incremental exercise capacity and muscle aerobic capacity of SP are also superior to lifelong ST athletes and comparable to endurance athletes.

  19. ST-segment deviation during 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and exercise stress test in healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Sørum, C

    1999-01-01

    discovered ST-segment deviation in asymptomatic healthy persons. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence of ST-segment deviation was studied in a population of 63 clinically healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age, with the use of 24-hour Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing. The subjects were...... recruited from the Copenhagen City Heart Study and were without cardiovascular risk factors, chronic diseases, or medication and without cardiovascular events during 5 to 12 years before and 3 to 5 years after admission. The specificity, that is, the probability of displaying a negative test result...

  20. Effectiveness of a website and mobile phone based physical activity and nutrition intervention for middle-aged males: Trial protocol and baseline findings of the ManUp Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Mitch J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared to females, males experience higher rates of chronic disease and mortality, yet few health promotion initiatives are specifically aimed at men. Therefore, the aim of the ManUp Study is to examine the effectiveness of an IT-based intervention to increase the physical activity and nutrition behaviour and literacy in middle-aged males (aged 35–54 years. Method/Design The study design was a two-arm randomised controlled trial, having an IT-based (applying website and mobile phones and a print-based intervention arm, to deliver intervention materials and to promote self-monitoring of physical activity and nutrition behaviours. Participants (n = 317 were randomised on a 2:1 ratio in favour of the IT-based intervention arm. Both intervention arms completed assessments at baseline, 3, and 9 months. All participants completed self-report assessments of physical activity, sitting time, nutrition behaviours, physical activity and nutrition literacy, perceived health status and socio-demographic characteristics. A randomly selected sub-sample in the IT-based (n = 61 and print-based (n = 30 intervention arms completed objective measures of height, weight, waist circumference, and physical activity as measured by accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X. The average age of participants in the IT-based and print-based intervention arm was 44.2 and 43.8 years respectively. The majority of participants were employed in professional occupations (IT-based 57.6%, Print-based 54.2% and were overweight or obese (IT-based 90.8%, Print-based 87.3%. At baseline a lower proportion of participants in the IT-based (70.2% group agreed that 30 minutes of physical activity each day is enough to improve health compared to the print-based (82.3% group (p = .026. The IT-based group consumed a significantly lower number of serves of red meat in the previous week, compared to the print-based group (p = .017. No other significant

  1. Effects of Father Absence on Sex-Typed Behaviors in Male Children: Reason for the Absence and Age of Onset of the Absence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santrock, John W.

    1977-01-01

    The relation of (1) reason for father's absence (whether by death or by divorce) and (2) age of onset of father absence to teacher ratings and doll play interview scores of masculinity-feminity, aggression and dependency-independence were examined. (MS)

  2. Preschool-Age Male Psychiatric Patients with Specific Developmental Disorders and Those Without: Do They Differ in Behavior Problems and Treatment Outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achtergarde, Sandra; Becke, Johanna; Beyer, Thomas; Postert, Christian; Romer, Georg; Müller, Jörg Michael

    2014-01-01

    Specific developmental disorders of speech, language, and motor function in children are associated with a wide range of mental health problems. We examined whether preschool-age psychiatric patients with specific developmental disorders and those without differed in the severity of emotional and behavior problems. In addition, we examined whether…

  3. The effects of sustained cognitive task performance on subsequent resting state functional connectivity in healthy young and middle-aged male schoolteachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, E.A.T.; Klaassen, E.B.; Rombouts, S.A.; Backes, W.H.; Jolles, J.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed that functional connectivity (FC) within resting state (RS) networks is modulated by previous experience. In this study the effects of sustained cognitive performance on subsequent RS FC were investigated in healthy young (25-30 years; n=15) and middle-aged (50-60 years; n=14

  4. Educating Black Males with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Shawn Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Much of the scholarship on Black males in the educational literature focuses on the achievement gap; their underrepresentation in gifted and advanced placement programs; their overrepresentation in special education programs and their high rates of school suspensions and expulsions. Although overrepresented in special education, Black males with…

  5. No association of maternal gestational weight gain with offspring blood pressure and hypertension at age 18 years in male sibling-pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheers Andersson, Elina; Tynelius, Per; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with birth weight, obesity, and possibly blood pressure (BP) and hypertension in the offspring. These associations may however be confounded by genetic and/or shared environmental factors. In contrast to previous studies based on non......-siblings and self-reported data, we investigated whether GWG is associated with offspring BP and hypertension, in a register-based cohort of full brothers while controlling for fixed shared effects. METHODS: By using Swedish nation-wide record-linkage data, we identified women with at least two male children (full...... brothers) born 1982-1989. Their BP was obtained from the mandatory military conscription induction tests. We adopted linear and Poisson regression models with robust variance, using generalized estimating equations to analyze associations between GWG and BP, as well as with hypertension, within and between...

  6. MODELING FOR DEMOGRAPHIC AND REGIONAL PREVALENCE AND TRENDS OF SMOKING IN THAI MALES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Apiradee; McNeil, Don

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to describe using national survey data the demographic and regional prevalence and trends of smoking in Thai males during the past 25 years. Data from eight national surveys conducted by the National Statistics Office from 1986 to 2011 were used to examine the prevalence of smoking. Males aged 15 and older were included in this study. Logistic regression was used to model smoking patterns, according to year of survey, age group, urbanization, and Public Health Area (PHA). The prevalence of smoking among males aged 15 years and older in 2011 was 38.4%. Sharply increasing smoking prevalence was found in the 15-24 years-old age group in all surveys. Before survey year 1999, the prevalence of smoking started to level off near retirement age, and subsequently, it leveled off after 40 years of age. The prevalence of smoking in all age groups decreased after 1986 except in the 15-19 years-old age group. Higher prevalence of smoking was found in rural areas. Males from the Northeast and the lower South regions had the highest prevalence. More effective anti-smoking policies should focus on males aged below 25 years to reduce the increasing prevalence of smoking in this group.

  7. ‘Place’ as conceptual centre: a methodological focus on the bodily relations, movements and expressions of children up to three years of age in kindergarten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Hognestad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show how attention on ‘place’ can be productive in methodology concerning the bodily relations, movements and expressions of children up to three years of age who are enrolled in kindergarten. While research that has adopted a hermeneutic and phenomenological approach has contributed to important knowledge concerning young children, we propose re-thinking methodology that takes children’s bodily relations, movements and expressions into concern. Using ‘place’ as a lens, we show how power relations are interrupted and allow for alternative ways for the researcher to relate to data. Inspired by Somerville (2010, elements of place are situated at the centre of the research analysis. The three key elements of place that are put to work are as follows: our relationship to place is constituted in stories and other representations; place learning is local and embodied; and place is a contact zone for cultural contact. The paper is part of a research project which explores how place can be more explicit in educational practices to strengthen kindergarten as a learning arena. We seek to explore how place relations work and what they have the possibility of producing in the analyzing process.

  8. Cognitive ability in late adolescence and disability pension in middle age: follow-up of a national cohort of Swedish males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörberg, Alma; Lundin, Andreas; Allebeck, Peter; Melin, Bo; Falkstedt, Daniel; Hemmingsson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Low cognitive ability in late adolescence has previously been shown to be associated with disability pension (DP) in young adulthood. However, most DP's are granted later in working life, and the mechanisms of the association are not fully understood. We aimed to investigate the association between cognitive ability in late adolescence and DP at ages 40-59, and investigate the role of individual and socioeconomic factors. Information on cognitive ability, health status, personality aspects and health behaviours at age 18-20 was obtained from the 1969-70 conscription cohort, comprising 49,321 Swedish men. Data on DP's 1991-2008 was obtained from the Longitudinal Database of Education, Income and Employment. Information on socioeconomic and work-related factors in childhood and adulthood was obtained from national sociodemographic databases. Hazard ratios for DP during follow-up were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models. We found a graded relationship between cognitive ability in late adolescence and DP in middle age. One step decrease on the nine-point stanine scale of cognitive ability was associated with a crude hazard ratio of 1.26 (95% CI 1.24-1.27). Socioeconomic and work-related circumstances in adulthood explained much of the association, but factors measured already in late adolescence also showed importance. The findings suggest an accumulation of risks over the life course. Although attenuated, the graded relationship remained after adjusting for all factors.

  9. Poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth induces an accelerated aging phenotype and oxidative stress in skeletal muscle of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane L. Tarry-Adkins

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ‘Developmental programming’, which occurs as a consequence of suboptimal in utero and early environments, can be associated with metabolic dysfunction in later life, including an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and predisposition of older men to sarcopenia. However, the molecular mechanisms underpinning these associations are poorly understood. Many conditions associated with developmental programming are also known to be associated with the aging process. We therefore utilized our well-established rat model of low birth weight and accelerated postnatal catch-up growth (termed ‘recuperated’ in this study to establish the effects of suboptimal maternal nutrition on age-associated factors in skeletal muscle. We demonstrated accelerated telomere shortening (a robust marker of cellular aging as evidenced by a reduced frequency of long telomeres (48.5-8.6 kb and an increased frequency of short telomeres (4.2-1.3 kb in vastus lateralis muscle from aged recuperated offspring compared to controls. This was associated with increased protein expression of the DNA-damage-repair marker 8-oxoguanine-glycosylase (OGG1 in recuperated offspring. Recuperated animals also demonstrated an oxidative stress phenotype, with decreased citrate synthase activity, increased electron-transport-complex activities of complex I, complex II-III and complex IV (all markers of functional mitochondria, and increased xanthine oxidase (XO, p67phox and nuclear-factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB. Recuperated offspring also demonstrated increased antioxidant defense capacity, with increased protein expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, catalase and heme oxygenase-1 (HO1, all of which are known targets of NF-κB and can be upregulated as a consequence of oxidative stress. Recuperated offspring also had a pro-inflammatory phenotype, as evidenced by

  10. Poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth induces an accelerated aging phenotype and oxidative stress in skeletal muscle of male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S.; Chen, Jian Hua; Hargreaves, Iain P.; Neergheen, Viruna; Aiken, Catherine E.; Ozanne, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ‘Developmental programming’, which occurs as a consequence of suboptimal in utero and early environments, can be associated with metabolic dysfunction in later life, including an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and predisposition of older men to sarcopenia. However, the molecular mechanisms underpinning these associations are poorly understood. Many conditions associated with developmental programming are also known to be associated with the aging process. We therefore utilized our well-established rat model of low birth weight and accelerated postnatal catch-up growth (termed ‘recuperated’) in this study to establish the effects of suboptimal maternal nutrition on age-associated factors in skeletal muscle. We demonstrated accelerated telomere shortening (a robust marker of cellular aging) as evidenced by a reduced frequency of long telomeres (48.5-8.6 kb) and an increased frequency of short telomeres (4.2-1.3 kb) in vastus lateralis muscle from aged recuperated offspring compared to controls. This was associated with increased protein expression of the DNA-damage-repair marker 8-oxoguanine-glycosylase (OGG1) in recuperated offspring. Recuperated animals also demonstrated an oxidative stress phenotype, with decreased citrate synthase activity, increased electron-transport-complex activities of complex I, complex II-III and complex IV (all markers of functional mitochondria), and increased xanthine oxidase (XO), p67phox and nuclear-factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB). Recuperated offspring also demonstrated increased antioxidant defense capacity, with increased protein expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), catalase and heme oxygenase-1 (HO1), all of which are known targets of NF-κB and can be upregulated as a consequence of oxidative stress. Recuperated offspring also had a pro-inflammatory phenotype, as evidenced by

  11. Focus: Digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Technology has been an all-important and defining element within the arts throughout the 20th century, and it has fundamentally changed the ways in which we produce and consume music. With this Focus we investigate the latest developments in the digital domain – and their pervasiveness and rapid...... production and reception of contemporary music and sound art. With ‘Digital’ we present four composers' very different answers to how technology impact their work. To Juliana Hodkinson it has become an integral part of her sonic writing. Rudiger Meyer analyses the relationships between art and design and how...

  12. Male-male pheromone signalling in a lekking Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widemo, Fredrik; Johansson, Björn G

    2006-03-22

    Interest in sex pheromones has mainly been focused on mate finding, while relatively little attention has been given to the role of sex pheromones in mate choice and almost none to competition over mates. Here, we study male response to male pheromones in the lekking Drosophila grimshawi, where males deposit long-lasting pheromone streaks that attract males and females to the leks and influence mate assessment. We used two stocks of flies and both stocks adjusted their pheromone depositing behaviour in response to experimental manipulation, strongly indicating male ability to distinguish between competitors from qualitative differences in pheromone streaks alone. This is the first example of an insect distinguishing between individual odour signatures. Pheromone signalling influenced competition over mates, as males adjusted their investment in pheromone deposition in response to foreign pheromone streaks. Both sexes adapt their behaviour according to information from olfactory cues in D. grimshawi, but the relative benefits from male-female, as compared to male-male signalling, remain unknown. It seems likely that the pheromone signalling system originally evolved for attracting females to leks. The transition to a signalling system for conveying information about individuals may well, however, at least in part have been driven by benefits from male-male signalling.

  13. Focus on young men in pregnancy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    The Mexican American Community Services Agency's (MACSA) male involvement program aims to delay early sexual activities among young boys, educate young males on personal sexual responsibility, prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and unplanned pregnancies, and promote fatherhood responsibility. 40% of the population in the project area, Santa Clara County, belong to ethnic minorities. The program's target population is divided into three age ranges: 10-14, 15-19, and 20-24 year olds. Boys in the 10-14 year old range are accessed through programs at middle schools, community centers and MACSA centers. The 15-19 year age group are reached through the juvenile probation department, its own youth center, community health fairs and service organizations, and local high schools. Young men aged 20-24 years are channeled through adult education classes, incarceration facilities, trade and special training schools, community centers and other MACSA programs. MACSA programs "Be Proud, Be Responsible" and "Independent Thinking Skills" are presented to young men who are prone to gang activity and drug use. Part of the program offered at Elmwood Correctional Facility focuses on issues aside from pregnancy prevention and encourages young men to plan for their future through sessions on earning high school equivalency certification, on anger management, and on substance abuse.

  14. The protective effects of long-term oral administration of marine collagen hydrolysate from chum salmon on collagen matrix homeostasis in the chronological aged skin of Sprague-Dawley male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiang; Pei, Xinrong; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Wang, Nan; Wang, Junbo; Li, Yong

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the long-term effects of marine collagen hydrolysate (MCH) from Chum Salmon skin on the aberrant collagen matrix homeostasis in chronological aged skin, Sprague-Dawley male rats of 4-wk-old were orally administrated with MCH at the diet concentrations of 2.25% and 4.5% for 24 mo. Histological and biochemical analysis revealed that MCH had the potential to inhibit the collagen loss and collagen fragmentation in chronological aged skin. Based on immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis, collagen type I and III protein expression levels in MCH-treated groups significantly increased as compared with the aged control group. Furthermore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis showed MCH was able to increase the expressions of procollagen type I and III mRNA (COL1A2 and COL3A1) through activating Smad signaling pathway with up-regulated TGF-βRII (TβRII) expression level. Meanwhile, MCH was shown to inhibit the age-related increased collagen degradation through attenuating MMP-1 expression and increasing tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, MCH could alleviate the oxidative stress in chronological aged skin, which was revealed from the data of superoxide dismutase activity and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level in skin homogenates. Therefore, MCH was demonstrated to have the protective effects on chronological skin aging due to the influence on collagen matrix homeostasis. And the antioxidative property of MCH might play an important role in the process.

  15. Available phosphorus levels in diets supplemented with phytase for male broilers aged 22 to 42 days kept in a high-temperature environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarciso Tizziani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of reduction of the available phosphorus (avP in diets supplemented with 500 FTU/kg phytase on performance, carcass characteristics, and bone mineralization of broilers aged 22 to 42 days kept in a high-temperature environment. A total of 336 Cobb broilers with an average initial weight of 0.883±0.005 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments - a positive control (0.354 and 0.309% avP without addition of bacterial phytase for the phases of 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days, respectively, and another five diets with inclusion of phytase (500 FTU and reduction of the level of avP (0.354, 0.294, 0.233, 0.173, and 0.112%; and 0.309, 0.258, 0.207, 0.156, and 0.106% for the phases of 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days, respectively - eight replicates, and seven birds per cage. The experimental diets were formulated to meet all nutritional requirements, except for avP and calcium. Birds were kept in climatic chambers at a temperature of 32.2±0.4 °C and air humidity of 65.3±5.9%. Phytase acted by making the phytate P available in diets with reduction in the levels of avP, keeping feed intake, weight gain, feed:gain, and carcass characteristics unchanged. Treatments affected ash and calcium deposition and the Ca:P ratio in the bone; the group fed the diets with 0.112 and 0.106%, from 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days of age, respectively, obtained the lowest values, although the phosphorus deposition in the bone was not affected. Diets supplemented with 500 FTU of phytase, with available phosphorus reduced to 0.173 and 0.156%, and a fixed Ca:avP ratio of 2.1:1, meet the requirements of broilers aged 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days, respectively, reared in a high-temperature environment.

  16. Male Gender Role Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Daig, Isolde

    2010-01-01

    Background: Men have a higher alcohol and cigarette consumption than women, they use more drugs, they have twice as high a suicide rate and only a minority of men attend on preventive medical checkups. Hypotheses: The central questions of the present study pertained to the identification of dysfunctional aspects of a male self concept and the possible correlations with risk behaviour of men in different age stages. One possible explanation for this high risk behaviour may be higher mascul...

  17. Changes in prevalence of obesity and high waist circumference over four years across European regions: the European male ageing study (EMAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Thang S; Correa, Elon; Lean, Michael E J; Lee, David M; O'Neill, Terrence W; Bartfai, György; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Kula, Krzysztof; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Rutter, Martin K; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Wu, Frederick C W; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2017-02-01

    Diversity in lifestyles and socioeconomic status among European populations, and recent socio-political and economic changes in transitional countries, may affect changes in adiposity. We aimed to determine whether change in the prevalence of obesity varies between the socio-politically transitional North-East European (Łódź, Poland; Szeged, Hungary; Tartu, Estonia), and the non-transitional Mediterranean (Santiago de Compostela, Spain; Florence, Italy) and North-West European (Leuven, Belgium; Malmö, Sweden; Manchester, UK) cities. This prospective observational cohort survey was performed between 2003 and 2005 at baseline and followed up between 2008 and 2010 of 3369 community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years. Main outcome measures in the present paper included waist circumference, body mass index and mid-upper arm muscle area. Baseline prevalence of waist circumference ≥ 102 cm and body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2), respectively, were 39.0, 29.5 % in North-East European cities, 32.4, 21.9 % in Mediterranean cities, and 30.0, 20.1 % in North-West European cities. After median 4.3 years, men living in cities from transitional countries had mean gains in waist circumference (1.1 cm) and body mass index (0.2 kg/m(2)), which were greater than men in cities from non-transitional countries (P = 0.005). North-East European cities had greater gains in waist circumference (1.5 cm) than in Mediterranean cities (P waist circumference ≥ 102 cm had increased by 13.1 % in North-East European cities, 5.8 % in the Mediterranean cities, 10.0 % in North-West European cities. Odds ratios (95 % confidence intervals), adjusted for lifestyle factors, for developing waist circumference ≥ 102 cm, compared with men from Mediterranean cities, were 2.3 (1.5-3.5) in North-East European cities and 1.6 (1.1-2.4) in North-West European cities, and 1.6 (1.2-2.1) in men living in cities from transitional, compared with cities from non

  18. Young and intense: FoxP2 immunoreactivity in Area X varies with age, song stereotypy, and singing in male zebra finches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kirk Thompson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available FOXP2 is a transcription factor functionally relevant for learned vocalizations in humans and songbirds. In songbirds, FoxP2 mRNA expression in the medium spiny neurons of the basal ganglia song nucleus Area X is developmentally regulated and varies with singing conditions in different social contexts. How individual neurons in Area X change FoxP2 expression across development and in social contexts is not known, however. Here we address this critical gap in our understanding of FoxP2 as a link between neuronal networks and behavior. We used a statistically unbiased analysis of FoxP2-immunoreactivity (IR on a neuron-by-neuron basis and found a bimodal distribution of FoxP2-IR neurons in Area X: weakly-stained and intensely-stained. The density of intensely-stained FoxP2-IR neurons was 10 times higher in juveniles than in adults, exponentially decreased with age, and was negatively correlated with adult song stability. Three-week old neurons labeled with BrdU were more than five times as likely to be intensely-stained than weakly-stained. The density of FoxP2-IR putative migratory neurons with fusiform-shaped nuclei substantially decreased as birds aged. The density of intensely-stained FoxP2-IR neurons was not affected by singing whereas the density of weakly-stained FoxP2-IR neurons was. Together, these data indicate that young Area X medium spiny neurons express FoxP2 at high levels and decrease expression as they become integrated into existing neural circuits. Once integrated, levels of FoxP2 expression correlate with singing behavior. Together, these findings raise the possibility that FoxP2 levels may orchestrate song learning and song stereotypy in adults by a common mechanism.

  19. Dietary Patterns in Relation to Cardiovascular Disease Incidence and Risk Markers in a Middle-Aged British Male Population: Data from the Caerphilly Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Elly; Markey, Oonagh; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Givens, David Ian; Lovegrove, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    Dietary behaviour is an important modifiable factor in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. The study aimed to identify dietary patterns (DPs) and explore their association with CVD incidence and risk markers. A follow-up of 1838 middle-aged men, aged 47–67 years recruited into the Caerphilly Prospective Cohort Study at phase 2 (1984–1988) was undertaken. Principal component analysis identified three DPs at baseline, which explained 24.8% of the total variance of food intake. DP1, characterised by higher intakes of white bread, butter, lard, chips and sugar-sweetened beverages and lower intake of wholegrain bread, was associated with higher CVD (HR 1.35: 95% CI: 1.10, 1.67) and stroke (HR 1.77; 95% CI: 1.18, 2.63) incidence. DP3, characterised by higher intakes of sweet puddings and biscuits, wholegrain breakfast cereals and dairy (excluding cheese and butter) and lower alcohol intake, was associated with lower CVD (HR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.93), coronary heart disease (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.90) and stroke (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.99) incidence and a beneficial CVD profile at baseline, while DP1 with an unfavourable profile, showed no clear associations after 12 years follow-up. Dietary pattern 2 (DP2), characterised by higher intake of pulses, fish, poultry, processed/red meat, rice, pasta and vegetables, was not associated with the aforementioned outcomes. These data may provide insight for development of public health initiatives focussing on feasible changes in dietary habits. PMID:28106791

  20. Dietary Patterns in Relation to Cardiovascular Disease Incidence and Risk Markers in a Middle-Aged British Male Population: Data from the Caerphilly Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elly Mertens

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary behaviour is an important modifiable factor in cardiovascular disease (CVD prevention. The study aimed to identify dietary patterns (DPs and explore their association with CVD incidence and risk markers. A follow-up of 1838 middle-aged men, aged 47–67 years recruited into the Caerphilly Prospective Cohort Study at phase 2 (1984–1988 was undertaken. Principal component analysis identified three DPs at baseline, which explained 24.8% of the total variance of food intake. DP1, characterised by higher intakes of white bread, butter, lard, chips and sugar-sweetened beverages and lower intake of wholegrain bread, was associated with higher CVD (HR 1.35: 95% CI: 1.10, 1.67 and stroke (HR 1.77; 95% CI: 1.18, 2.63 incidence. DP3, characterised by higher intakes of sweet puddings and biscuits, wholegrain breakfast cereals and dairy (excluding cheese and butter and lower alcohol intake, was associated with lower CVD (HR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.93, coronary heart disease (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.90 and stroke (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.99 incidence and a beneficial CVD profile at baseline, while DP1 with an unfavourable profile, showed no clear associations after 12 years follow-up. Dietary pattern 2 (DP2, characterised by higher intake of pulses, fish, poultry, processed/red meat, rice, pasta and vegetables, was not associated with the aforementioned outcomes. These data may provide insight for development of public health initiatives focussing on feasible changes in dietary habits.

  1. Dermatoglyphic pattern in male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontakke, B R; Talhar, S; Ingole, I V; Shende, M R; Pal, A K; Bhattacharaya, T

    2013-06-01

    Dermatoglyphics in infertile male patients were studied and compared with that of age matched controls to see whether any specific dermatoglyphic pattern exists in infertile male patients. Infertile male patients with abnormal semen profile were referred to Cytogenetic Laboratory for karyotyping. We selected twenty-four infertile male patients with abnormal semen profile. Out of twenty-four infertile male patients, nineteen were with normal Karyotype and five patients were with abnormal Karyotype. Loop was the commonest pattern observed in the infertile male patients. All these fingertip and palmar dermatoglyphic findings were compared with that of result on finger and palmar dermatoglyphics of equal number of age matched controls. Statistical evaluation was done with software "EPI- info, version-6.04 d". Infertile males had reduced number of loops as compared to that of controls which was statistically significant. Total whorls were increased in infertile male patients as compared to that of controls which was statistically insignificant. Percentage of true palmar pattern in I 3 and I 4 areas was reduced in infertile male patients as compared to that of controls which was statistically insignificant.

  2. Depression and PTSD in Survivors of Male Violence: Research and Training Initiatives to Facilitate Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Mary P.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Yuan, Nicole P.; Herrera, Veronica M.; Lichter, Erika L.

    2003-01-01

    Male violence is an enduring feature of women's lives from childhood through old age. The review covers child sexual abuse, rape, and partner violence with emphasis on the prevalence of violence, its mental health consequences, the course of recovery, and mediators and moderators of traumatic impact. The primary focus is depression and…

  3. Age- and tactic-related paternity success in male African elephants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Barner; Okello, J. B. A.; Wittemyer, G.

    2008-01-01

    , reproduction was not heavily skewed compared with many other mammalian systems with a similar breeding system. Nevertheless, these results indicate that trophy hunting and ivory poaching, both of which target older bulls, may have substantial behavioral and genetic effects on elephant populations. In addition......Information on age- and tactic-related paternity success is essential for understanding the lifetime reproductive strategy of males and constitutes an important component of the fitness trade-offs that shape the life-history traits of a species. The degree of reproductive skew impacts the genetic...... structure of a population and should be considered when developing conservation strategies for threatened species. The behavior and genetic structure of species with large reproductive skew may be disproportionately impacted by anthropogenic actions affecting reproductively dominant individuals. Our results...

  4. The Effect of Pine Pollen on Male Aging Rats Gonad Axis Secretory Function%松花粉对雄性衰老大鼠性腺轴分泌功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛嗣云; 韩广明; 刘红艳; 温力; 张艳青; 张晓华; 高晓兰

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨松花粉预防用药对雄性衰老大鼠性腺轴分泌功能的影响.方法:选用8周龄雄性SD大鼠60只,体重180~220g,随机分为正常对照组、模型组、松花粉预防中(Pz)、低(Pd)剂量组,每组15只.除正常组外其余各组大鼠均采用D-半乳糖连续腹腔注射建立亚急性衰老大鼠模型,预防组在腹腔注射D-半乳糖的同时灌胃松花粉,用药50 d.检测各组血清胰岛素样生长因子-1(IGF-1)、黄体生成素(LH)、促卵泡激素(FSH)、睾酮(T)及下丘脑促性腺激素释放激素(GnRH)的含量.结果:模型组大鼠血清中LH、FSH及下丘脑中GnRH含量明显升高,IGF-1、睾酮含量明显下降,与正常组比较差异有显著性(P<0.05);松花粉中、低剂量组均能不同程度降低大鼠血清LH、FSH及下丘脑中GnRH含量,提高IGF-1、睾酮浓度,与模型组比较,差异显著(P<0.05).结论:松花粉可以预防雄性衰老大鼠性腺轴分泌功能紊乱,对雄性衰老大鼠性腺轴有较为明显的保护作用.%Objective: To approach the effect of pine pollen preventive medication on the secretion function of gonad axis in male aging rats. Method: Sixty rats of 8 weeks old male SD rats (weight: 180-220g)were randomly divided into 4 groups, 15 rats in each: the normal control group , the aging model group,the pine pollen middle dosage preventive group, the pine pollen low dosage preventive group. Except the normal control group, the rats of rest groups were all made by injecting D-gal into abdominal cavity continually. At the same time, the preventive group was made by intragastric administration pine pollen for 60 days. To detect the contents of IGF-1 ,LH,FSH,T in the blood and GnRH in the hypothalamus. Result: The contents of LH,FSH and GnRH in model group were obviously increased, and the content of IGF-1 and T in the model group were obviously decreased, compared with the normal group there was significant deviation(P<0.05);the pine pollen middle

  5. ST-segment deviation during 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and exercise stress test in healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Sørum, C

    1999-01-01

    or descending ST-segment depression of >/=0.15 mV during Holter monitoring or at the exercise test, respectively. Furthermore, the specificity was 0.95 when a horizontal or downsloping ST-segment depression of 0.1 mV was displayed in both the Holter and exercise electrocardiographic recording system......BACKGROUND: Although ST-segment deviation has been evaluated and used during many years both on continuous electrocardiographic Holter monitoring and during exercise stress testing, considerable controversy still remains concerning the prevalence and diagnostic significance of fortuitously...... discovered ST-segment deviation in asymptomatic healthy persons. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence of ST-segment deviation was studied in a population of 63 clinically healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age, with the use of 24-hour Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing. The subjects were...

  6. 北京市城区与郊区中老年男性性功能的现状调查%Sexual function of middle-aged and older males in Beijing: Urban versus suburban area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冬泉; 孙文学; 马然

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and compare the prevalence of erectile dysfunction, hyposexuality and ejaculation disorder among middle-aged and older males in the urban and suburban areas of Beijing. Methods: Using the random sampling method, we selected 1 656 men aged ≥50 years from 15 communities in Beijing. We recorded their scores on the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) and Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory for Urology (O Leary 1995) , and analyzed the obtained data using SPSS 17.0. Results: Totally, 1 644 of the subjects were qualified for the study, 1 244 from the urban area and the other 400 from the suburbs. The median scores on IIEF-5, sexual desire and ejaculation were 5, 2 and 4 in the urban males as compared with 13, 2 and 5 in the suburban men, with statistically significant differences between the two groups (P <0.01). The IIEF-5 score was significantly correlated with age, diabetes, cardiocerebrovascular diseases, drinking and administration of 5α-reductase inhibitor in both the urban and suburban groups (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The sexual function of the middle-aged and older males is better in the suburbs than in the urban area of Beijing. The main reasons might be the lower incidences of diabetes and cardiocerebrovascular diseases, moderate drinking and less use of 5a-reductase inhibitor among the suburban men.%目的:调查并比较北京市城区与郊区中老年男性勃起功能障碍(ED)、性欲低下和射精障碍的患病情况. 方法:采用分层多阶段整群不等比例随机抽样方法选择北京市15个社区1 656例年龄≥50岁男性作为调查对象,分别记录国际勃起功能问卷(IIEF-5)评分及男性性功能问卷(0(L)eary 1995),应用SPSS 17.0对结果进行统计学分析. 结果:符合标准的调查对象共1 644例,城区1 244例,郊区400例.IIEF-5评分、性欲评分和射精评分的中值,城区为5、2和4,郊区为13、2和5,城区与郊区间相比

  7. Influence of Age and Adding Boron on the Sex Hormone in Serum of Male Young Ostrich%年龄和添加硼对雄性雏鸵鸟血清性激素水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    位兰; 李健; 司丽芳; 刘宁; 彭克美

    2013-01-01

    本研究以不同发育阶段的雄性雏鸵鸟(Struthio camelus)为试验动物,在其饮水中添加不同剂量的硼,采用放射免疫分析法(radioimmunoassay,RIA)检测不同硼水平和不同发育阶段雏鸵鸟血清中卵泡刺激素(follicle stimulating hormone,FSH)、黄体生成素(luteinizing hormone,LH)、睾酮(testosterone,T)、雌二醇(estradiol,E2)的含量,旨在探明硼对雏鸵鸟血清性激素水平的影响.研究结果表明,雄性雏鸵鸟血清FSH和E2含量均随硼添加量的增加而增加;LH和T的含量随硼添加量的变化表现出一定的相关性,且均表现为低硼水平其含量升高,中硼和高硼水平其含量降低;LH和T的含量随年龄增大而增加,E2逐渐减小,而FSH则先升高后下降.该结果提示,硼对鸵鸟内分泌与生殖具有一定的调节作用,且年龄对雏鸵鸟血清性激素水平有一定影响.%Taking different age of male young struthio camelus as its experimental animal, this research added different doses of boron into its drinking water, and adopted the method of radioimmunoassay (RIA) to detect the contents of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), and estradiol (E2) in serum under different levels of boron and at different age. It aimed to explore the influence of boron on the levels of serum hormone of young struthio camelus. The results indicated that the contents of FSH and E2 of male struthio camelus increase with that of boron, with the change of the boron doses the contents of LH and T showed a certain relevancy, their contents rised with low boron while reduced with medium and high boron, the contents of LH and T rised with the age increasing and E2 gradually reducing, while FSH firstly increased then reduced. The results demonstrated that boron had a certain function in regulating Struthio camelus' endocrine and reproduction, and age exerted certain influence on Struthio camelus'serum sex hormone.

  8. Cause Analysis on Unmarried Aged Males in Rural China%贫困地区农村大龄青年未婚失婚影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊

    2012-01-01

    Using forced bachelors survey data collected from mountain villages of northern Hebei province in 2010, this paper describes and makes a comparison between forced bachelors and married males on education, health, skills, occupation, migration, income and etc. It shows that male forced bachelors have significantly lower education level, health, occupation skills and income level than married male. Under the restriction of population sex structure and mate selection rules, the factors such as area economic development level, family economic conditions while the males were in marriageable ages and low individuals' personal capital play a key role in determining their failure in marriage market.%人口出生性别失衡和婚姻挤压背景下,贫困地区农村男性的大龄未婚问题突出。对冀西北贫困地区农村的专项调查发现。大龄未婚男性仅在所从事职业方面与已婚男性没有明显差别,而在教育、健康、技能、收入、住房、沟通能力等方面均明显劣于已婚男性;个体素质和经济条件较差的男性更可能处于大龄未婚状态,尤其是适婚年龄时的家庭经济条件对征婚的影响尤为显著。总体来看。在性别结构、择偶梯度和婚姻流动性别差异等条件约束下。地区经济发展水平、男性适婚年龄时的家庭经济条件及个体人力资本的全面劣势是农村大龄未婚男性在婚姻市场上竞争失利的决定因素。

  9. Clinical features of elderly male and female chronic heart failure patients at different ages%不同性别和年龄段老年慢性心力衰竭患者的临床特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡坚; 邱元芝; 彭乐; 魏群; 尹绢; 陈发秀

    2014-01-01

    signicantly higher in 60-69 and 70-79 years old male patients than in 60-69 and 70-79 years old female patients . The incidence of pneumonia and hypertension increased with increasing age (P<0 .05 ,P<0 .01) . The incidence of left heart failure was significantly higher while that of right heart failure was sig-nificantly lower in 60-69 and 70-79 years old male patients than in 60-69 and 70-79 years old female patients (P<0 .01) .The mortality increased with increasing age in both male and female patients (P<0.05 ,P<0 .01) ,especially in ≥80 years old female patients (P<0 .01) .Conclusion The incidence of hypertension ,coronary and pulmonary heart disease ,pneumonia increases while that of rheumatic heart disease and cardiomyopathy decreases with increasing age in elderly CHF patients .However ,the mortality of hospitalized elderly CHF patients inceases with increas-ing age .

  10. Experiencing Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmée Hanna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the qualitative research literature that exists in relation to men’s experiences of male infertility. Since men have often been marginalized in the realm of reproduction, including academic research on infertility, it is important to focus on any qualitative research that gives voices to male perspectives and concerns. Given the distress documented by studies of infertile women, we focus in particular on the emotive responses and lived experiences of men in relation to infertility. In this article then, we present an analysis of the core themes across 19 qualitative articles, which include “infertility as crisis”; “emoting infertility- men as “being strong”’ “infertility as a source of stigma”; and the “desire for fatherhood.” In light of these insights, we identify key areas for future research and development including men’s emotional responses to infertility, how men seek support for infertility, the intersection between masculinity and infertility, the relationship between the desire to father and infertility, and the outcomes of infertility for men in terms of other aspects of their lives. We suggest that such research would facilitate making the experiences of men more central within our understandings of infertility within a field that has primarily been female focused.

  11. Effects of testosterone replacement therapy on glycometabolism and lipid metabolism in aged male patients%睾酮补充治疗对中老年男性糖脂代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕; 康冬梅; 朱翔; 沈国栋; 沈干; 宋青青

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察睾酮(T)补充治疗对中老年男性糖脂代谢的影响.方法 收集睾酮水平低下的中老年男性对照组(C组)42例,非肥胖治疗组(A组)31例和肥胖治疗组(B组)35例,观察1年,检测治疗前后睾酮及糖脂代谢变化.结果 治疗前3组睾酮及代谢指标无明显差异,1年后,A、B组随着睾酮增加,三酰甘油(TG)、空腹胰岛素(FIns)、胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR)水平降低,高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL)升高,C组实验前后指标无明显差异;B组较A组更早出现TG水平差异,且HOMA-IR较A组下降趋势更明显.结论 睾酮补充治疗可改善糖脂代谢,为中老年男性带来心血管方面的获益.%Objective To invesligale the effects of testosterone(T) replacement therapy(TRT) on glycome-labolism and lipids metabolism in aged male patients. Methods 108 cases aged male with testosterone deficiency were selected, 42 cases were served as control( group C) , 66 cases( including 35 fat patients as group B and the last 31 patients as group A) were treated with T( Andriol, 40mg bid for the first time) . The levels of T, fasting blood glu-cose( FBG) , fasting insulin( FIns) , total cholestero(TC) , high density lipoprotein cholestero(HDL) , low density lip-oprotein cholestero (LDL) and triglyceride(TG) were measured at baseline, the 1ST, 6th and 12th month. Results The levels of T and metabolic levels were similar at baseline in 3 groups. With the significant increase in the level of T, HDL increased and the level of TG, FIns, HOMA-IR decreased significantly after 12 months of TRT( P <0. 05) , while there were no significant disparity in group C. There were significantly decreased in the level of TG and more significantly decreased in HOMA-IR in group B than group A in early stage. Conclusion TRT may improve glycometabolism and lipids metabolism and benefits for cardiovascular health of aged men.

  12. The correlation study of mandibular second molar root growth and bone age in male teenagers%青少年男性下颌第二磨牙根生长与骨龄相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英; 钟雅静; 李书琴; 黄兰; 冯刚; 戴红卫

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between cervical bone age and male juvenile mandibular second molar (Msm) root growth ,and to provide evidence for the development of bone and teeth in patients with orthodontic treatment . Methods The CBCT and lateral cephalometric radiographs of 114 cases of 9 .5 to 15 .5 years old children in Chongqing city and ad‐olescents cervical vertebral bone and MSM root length were measured ,using statistical analysis to explore the relationship between cervical vertebral bone ,tooth root length change of age and Msm .Results By Pearson correlation analysis ,Msm root length chan‐ges and cervical vertebral bone were positively correlated(r= 0 .737 ,P< 0 .01) .Msm root length changes showed a positive correla‐tion with age(r= 0 .681 ,P< 0 .01) .Msm root length changes was positively related with dental age(r = 0 .795 ,P< 0 .01) .Conclu‐sion The root growth of the mandibular second molar was highly correlated with cervical vertebral bone in male children .When the growth and development of patients were judged by orthodontic treatment ,we can adopt the mandibular second molar root length forecast growth level of male adolescents .%目的:探讨青少年男性颈椎骨龄与下颌第二磨牙(Msm)根生长之间的关系,为正畸治疗评价患者骨骼和牙齿发育情况提供依据。方法通过 CBCT 和头颅定位侧位片对重庆市114例9.5~15.5岁儿童和青少年的颈椎骨龄和 Msm 根长度进行测量,运用统计学分析方法探讨颈椎骨龄、牙龄和 Msm 根长度变化之间的关系。结果通过 Pearson 相关性分析,冠根比与颈椎龄呈正相关(r=0.737,P<0.01),冠根长/冠宽与年龄呈正相关(r =0.681,P<0.01),冠根比与牙龄呈正相关(r =0.795,P<0.01)。结论青少年男性下颌第二磨牙根生长与颈椎骨龄呈正相关。正畸治疗中判断患者的生长发育情况时,可参考采用测量下颌第二

  13. [Clinical characteristics of male osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Mika; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2016-07-01

    As men are less likely than women to develop osteoporosis, male osteoporosis remains poorly understood. However, elderly men have a clearly reduced bone mineral density and increased risk for fractures. In Japan, one in four patients with osteoporosis is male. Male osteoporosis is associated with not only reduction in androgen, but also estrogen, and differs from postmenopausal osteoporosis in that decreased bone formation is involved and that age-related changes in cortical bone structure and perforation of the trabeculae of cancellous bone are unlikely to occur. The proportion of secondary osteoporosis is higher for men than women;therefore, differential diagnosis is important in the diagnosis of male osteoporosis. In addition, it is recommended that bone mineral density be measured at the femoral neck or total hip in men. Men have a worse prognosis following fractures than women, and management of male osteoporosis is highly important for extending healthy life expectancy.

  14. 贵州省少数民族未婚男性青少年首次遗精及自慰状况调查%Survey on spermarcheal age and masturbation among minority male adolescent in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱江; 钟春琍; 陆卫群; 周强; 任静妮

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解少数民族未婚男性青少年首次遗精年龄及性自慰情况,并分析其影响因素.方法:在贵州省镇宁县、三都县、玉屏县和务川县,采用分层整群抽样的方法随机选取苗族、布依族、水族、仡佬族、侗族14 ~28岁未婚男性青少年各50名,进行问卷调查,运用SPSS11.5统计软件进行分析.结果:首次遗精年龄呈正态分布,P50=15岁,呈年代前移态势,城市年龄小于农村.40.8%男青年表示有自慰,不同民族间发生自慰的比例有统计学差异,民族、户籍和生殖健康知识来源影响自慰后的感受.结论:社会经济、文化传统通过人们的生活方式而影响着性生理和性活动的发生发展.为提高少数民族生殖健康水平,结合各民族民俗文化,开展尊重关心青少年性发育和性权力的生殖健康教育刻不容缓.%Objective: To explore the status and influencing factors of the spermarcheal age and masturbation among minority male adolescent. Methods: A total of 250 Miao, Buyi, Shui, Celao and Dong unmarried male adolescent at 14 -28 years of age in Zhenning, Sandu, Yupan and Wuchuan County of Guizhou Province were recruited by stratified cluster random sampling and interviewed with the questionnaires closed. The data were analyzed by SPSS. Results: The median spermarcheal age of the respondects was 15, which was more than the national average age. A downward secular trend in spermarcheal age was found. And the spermarcheal age of the respondents living in urban areas was less than those living in rural areas. About 40. 8% of the respondents reported masturbation. The ratios of masturbation were significantly different among nations. Ethnic, registered permanent residence and awareness of reproductive health could impact the feelings of masturbation. Conclusion: Social economy and ethnic culture are important factors which affect developments of sexual physiology and sexual psychology by deciding life style. In

  15. [Male contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, A

    1984-04-01

    Among the reasons why male hormonal contraception has lagged behind female methods are the necessity of preserving virility, the fact that spermatogenesis is a continuous process, the need to control secondary effects and toxicity, and the requirement that modes of administration be acceptable to both partners. Among currently available reversible mehtods, withdrawal is undoubtedly the most ancient. It is still widespread but cannot be recommended because of its limited effectiveness. The condom is used by about 10% of couples worldwide as a principal or temporary method, but its inter-ference with sensation has limited its acceptance. Condoms are nevertheless highly effective when used with a spermicide. Various androgens are currently under investigation. High doses of testosterone can induce azoospermia without affecting libido but their side effects may be serious. The use of combinations of steroids permits doses to be reduced and offers promise for the future. The combination of oral medroxyprogesterone acetate and percutaneous testosterone is one of the better approaches; the combination is effective and nontoxic but has the disadvantage of percutaneous administration. Gossypol, a pigment extracted from the cotton plant, has been used as a contraceptive in China with a reported efficacy of 99.89%, recovery of fertility within 3 months, and no effect on future fertility. However, its toxicity appears to be significant in the animal and its reversibility is uncertain. A search is on for analogs which would preserve the contraceptive effects while eliminating toxic effects. Several gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs under investigation for their interference with spermatogenesis have given promising results. Several chemicals tested for contraceptive effects have had unacceptably high toxicity. Chinese investigators have reported good results with various physical methods of interfering with sperm production, but their reversibility and innocuity

  16. Synergistic effect of high-intensity focused ultrasound and low-fluence Q-switched Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of the aging neck and décolletage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jae-Hui; Choi, Young-Jun; Lim, Jae Yun; Min, Joon Hong; Kim, Won-Serk

    2017-01-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is regarded as an effective skin-lifting device; however, literature regarding treatment of the aging neck and décolletage with HIFU is scarce. Our study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of combination with HIFU and low-fluence Q-switched Nd:YAG (LQSNY) laser on the aging neck and décolletage. Nineteen women were assessed. HIFU at two visits and LQSNY laser at six visits were used to irradiate the neck and chest. At week 16, improvements were rated using the Dedo classification, Fabi/Bolton Chest Wrinkle Scale (FBCWS), and Global Aesthetic Improvement Scales (GAIS). Erythema and melanin indices (EMIs) and cervicomental angle were measured. Subject GAIS and satisfaction were evaluated at follow-up visits. At week 16, neck sagging and chest rhytides were improved on Dedo classification and FBCWS, respectively. Pigmentation and rhytides of the neck and chest were rated as improved in 30 % or more of the subjects by physician GAIS and in approximately 80 % of the subjects by subject GAIS. The above differences seemed to be attributable to the initial expectation level and mild severity pertaining to dress custom in Korea. Eighty-four percent of subjects were satisfied with treatment outcomes. EMIs were decreased on the chest. The combination of HIFU and LQSNY is an effective treatment option to mitigate rhytides and pigmentation of the neck and décolletage.

  17. Seeking help from everyone and no-one: Conceptualising the online help-seeking process among adolescent males

    OpenAIRE

    Best, Paul; Gil-Rodriguez, Elena; Manktelow, Roger; Taylor, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Online help-seeking is an emerging trend within the 21st century. Yet despite some movement towards developing online services, little is known about how young people locate, access and receive support online. This study aims to conceptualise the process of online help-seeking among adolescent males. Modified photo-elicitation techniques were employed within eight semi-structured focus group sessions with adolescent males aged 14 – 15 years (n= 56) across seven schools in Northern Ireland. Th...

  18. Long-term dietary supplementation with a yang-invigorating Chinese herbal formula increases lifespan and mitigates age-associated declines in mitochondrial antioxidant status and functional ability of various tissues in male and female C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kam Ming; Chiu, Po Yee; Leung, Hoi Yan; Siu, Ada Hoi Ling; Chen, Na; Leong, Eriol Pou Kwan; Poon, Michel K T

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether Vigconic 28 (VI-28), a Yang-invigorating Chinese herbal formula, could affect survival of aging animals, male and female C57BL/6J mice were given a VI-28-supplemented diet (0.05 and 0.5%, wt/wt) starting at 36 weeks of age, until death. VI-28 dietary supplementation at 0.05% significantly increased median lifespans of both male and female mice as compared to controls. Survival enhancement was associated with protection against age-associated impairments in mitochondrial antioxidant status and functional ability in various tissues. In conclusion, VI-28 could retard the aging process in mice, probably by mitigating age-associated declines in mitochondrial antioxidant status and functional ability in tissues.

  19. Prevalence of sexual dysfunction in old and middle-aged males in Pingliang area%平凉市中老年男性性功能调查报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓峰; 任江玲; 胡黎明; 许克新

    2011-01-01

    目的:调查并评价平凉市部分中老年男性性欲低下、勃起功能障碍(ED)、射精障碍的患病情况.方法:采用分层多阶段整群不等比例随机抽样方法,选择城区6个居委会和郊区20个行政村1 539例年龄≥50岁男性作为调查对象,分别记录国际勃起功能问卷(IIEF-5)评分及男性性功能问卷(O'Leary 1995)评分,分析调查数据.以IIEF-5评分0~21分诊断为ED,性欲评分≤2分诊断为性欲低下,射精评分≤2分诊断为射精障碍.结果:符合标准的调查对象1 230例,年龄50~89(62.5±9.6)岁,分为50~59岁、60~69岁、70~79岁、≥80岁4组.IIEF-5评分0~25(9.4±8.6)分,性欲评分0~8(2.3±2.1)分,射精评分0~8(3.6±3.0)分.ED、性欲低下、射精障碍的患病率分别为92.27%、57.96%、36.91%.各年龄组间(10岁/组)ED、性欲低下、射精障碍患病率差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),各年龄组间不同程度ED患病率差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:随年龄增加ED、性欲低下、射精障碍的患病率逐渐增加,ED患病率最高.%Objective: To investigate the prevalence of hyposexuality, erectile dysfunction (ED) and defective ejaculation (DE) in the old and middle-aged males in Pingliang area. Methods: This investigation included 1 539 men aged ≥50 years from 6 urban districts and 20 villages in the suburbs of Pingliang City, Gansu Province. We recorded and analyzed their scores on IIEF-5 and Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory for Urology ( OLeary 1995 ). Results: A total of 1 230 subjects met the investigation criteria.They averaged 62.5 ± 9.6 years of age ( range 50 - 89 years), and were divided into four age groups: 50 - 59, 60 - 69, 70 - 79 and ≥80 years. The mean scores on IIEF-5 were 0 - 25 (9.4 ± 8.6 ), sexual desire 0 - 8 ( 2.3 ± 2.1 ), and ejaculation 0 - 8 ( 3.6 ±3.0). Hypesexuality, ED and DE were defined as sexual desire score ≤2, IIEF-5 score = 0 -21, and ejaculation score ≤2, respectively. Based on

  20. Abdominal color ultrasonography results of 1635 middle-aged and elderly male patients%1635例男性中老年腹部彩超检查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐贤华; 薛雅琴; 赵涛; 肖欣荣; 彭华生; 王万华; 何晓英; 孙梅芹; 陈娟; 钟景烨; 许婷媛; 梁国君

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze abdominal color ultrasonograghy results of 1635 middle - aged and elderly male patients received physical examination in 2010, and to discuss the incidence of abdominal diseases among them. Methods The incidence of different abdominal diseases in these middle - aged and elderly patients was investigated. Results Total abdominal disease detection rate was 93.4% ,in which patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia accounted for the highest distribution,followed by liver cysts,renal cysts,fatty liver,cholecystolithiasis and gallbladder polyps. Conclusion Abdominal color ultrasonography is a noninvasive and simple method to detect common diseases of abdominal important organs. It is suitable for routine physical examinations.%目的 对2010年进行年度体检的1635例中老年人腹部彩超检查结果进行分析,探讨该群体的发病规律.方法 统计2010年体检的1635例不同年龄段的中老年人腹部彩超检查中各疾病的发病率.结果 疾病总检出率93.4%,病例分布以前列腺增生最高,其余依次是肝囊肿、肾囊肿、脂肪肝、胆囊结石、胆囊息肉.结论 腹部彩超检查是一种无创性,操作简单,能检查出腹部重要脏器的常见疾病,适合常规体检.

  1. XYY male and hematologic malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguma, N; Shigeta, C; Kamada, N

    1996-09-01

    Two cases of XYY male with refractory anemia with excess of blasts are reported, and previous reported XYY males with hematologic malignancy are reviewed. Altogether 26 cases were collected for analysis: acute myeloid leukemia (10), acute lymphocytic leukemia (seven), acute leukemia (two), chronic myelocytic leukemia (three), myelodysplastic syndrome (three), and essential thrombocythemia (one). The age at the time of diagnosis ranged in age from 7.5 to 81 years. In three of six XYY/XY mosaicism cases, XYY clone was associated with malignancy. However, in two cases XYY clone was not involved. The evidence presented here suggests that the event of an XYY male with hematologic malignancy is incidental rather than a genetic etiology.

  2. [Conservative treatment in male urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner-Hermanns, R; Anding, R

    2014-03-01

    Prevalence, pathophysiology, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches of urinary incontinence are well studied in women; however, studies on male urinary incontinence focus on incontinence following surgery of the bladder or prostate, predominantly incontinence after radical prostatectomy. Aging men suffer from incontinence, most frequently urge incontinence (overactive bladder, OAB), nearly as often as women do.The domain of conservative therapy of urinary stress incontinence in men is pelvic floor training. It remains unclear whether biofeedback procedures, electrostimulation therapy, or magnetic stimulation therapy can enhance pelvic floor training. There are data suggesting that an off-label therapy with Duloxetin®, a selective serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SSNRI), improves urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy. Antimuscarinic agents in combination with bladder training have been proven as safe and effective treatment in men with OAB. Data, however, suggest that men with OAB are far less frequently treated than women.

  3. Predictors of success in emotionally focused marital therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S M; Talitman, E

    1997-04-01

    This study examined client variables expected to predict success in emotionally focused marital therapy (EFT), now the second most validated form of marital therapy after the behavioral approaches. The relationship of attachment quality, level of emotional self-disclosure, level of interpersonal trust, and traditionality to the therapy outcome variables, marital adjustment, intimacy, and therapist ratings of improvement, was examined. These variables were chosen for their relevance to the theory and practice of EFT and to intimate relationships in general. Overall, therapeutic alliance predicted successful outcome; the task dimension of the alliance in particular predicted couples' satisfaction. More specifically, one dimension of female partners' trust, their faith in their partner, predicted couples' satisfaction at follow-up. Females' faith also significantly predicted males' level of intimacy at follow-up. Males who were most likely to be nondistressed at termination indicated higher levels of proximity seeking on an attachment measure at intake, and older males and males whose partners had higher levels of faith in them were more likely to be nondistressed at follow-up. Traditionality was not found to be significantly related to outcome. Couples who made the most gains at follow-up also indicated lower initial marital satisfaction and included males who indicated lower levels of use of attachment figure on the attachment measure at intake. Males who made the largest gains at termination were older and were rated as less expressive by their partner on self-disclosure measures at intake. Age was the only variable significantly related to males' gains in satisfaction at follow-up. Implications for the practice of marital therapy and future research are delineated.

  4. AGE Percent Males by Broad Age Groups BGs 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  5. AGE Percent Males by Broad Age Groups CTs 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  6. AGE Percent Males by 5 Yr Age Groups CTs 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  7. AGE Males by 5 Yr Age Groups CTs 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  8. AGE Males by 5 Yr Age Groups BGs 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  9. AGE Percent Males by Broad Age Groups NMSD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. AGE Males by 5 Yr Age Groups NMHD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. AGE Males by 5 Yr Age Groups NMSD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. AGE Percent Males by Broad Age Groups NMHD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. AGE Percent Males by 5 Yr Age Groups NMSD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. AGE Percent Males by 5 Yr Age Groups COS 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  15. AGE Percent Males by 5 Yr Age Groups NMHD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. AGE Percent Males by Broad Age Groups COS 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  17. Comparison of male and female lower limb segment inertial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challis, John H; Winter, Samantha L; Kuperavage, Adam J

    2012-10-11

    Many studies have examined human segmental inertial parameters, but these studies have focused more on male rather than female data. The purpose of this study was to determine the lower limb segmental inertial parameters for a large sample (n>1500) of both males and females. The participants in this study were those measured as part of a survey of the anthropometry of US army personnel. The sample comprised 1774 males (mean height 1.756±0.079 m, mean mass of 78.49±0.11 kg, and mean age of 27.21±6.81 years), and 2208 females (mean height 1.629±0.072 m, mean mass of 62.01±0.08 kg, and mean age of 26.18±5.70 years). Anthropometric measurements were used to determine the inertial properties of the lower limb segments by modeling them as series of geometric solids. An analysis of variance revealed that the normalized inertial parameters for each of the segments were statistically significantly different (p>0.001) between the two groups. The time for each segment to swing through the range of motion of the swing phase of gait, produced shorter swing times for the male segments. The differences between the segmental inertial properties for the sexes have implications for how these parameters are customized to experimental subjects.

  18. Estereótipos de gênero e sexismo ambivalente em adolescentes masculinos de 12 a 16 anos Ambivalent sexism and gender stereotyping in male adolescents aged 12 to 16 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Mesquita Filho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A discriminação e a violência contra o gênero feminino associam-se a representações distorcidas da mulher. Este trabalho tem o objetivo de mensurar a existência de preconceitos nas manifestações dos estereótipos de gênero e sexismo ambivalente, em adolescentes masculinos de 12 a 16 anos. Em um estudo transversal, aplicaram-se três questionários (sociodemográfico, Gender stereotyping, Inventário do Sexismo Ambivalente a 787 estudantes de 11 escolas públicas. Nos resultados, detectou-se a presença de estereótipos de gênero. Houve diferença significante entre alunos de escolas estaduais e municipais e também nos alunos que estudavam em bairros de poder aquisitivo elevado em relação aos demais. O sexismo, também presente, apresentou-se significantemente mais benévolo que hostil. O escore para o componente benévolo variou conforme a escola cursada. O hostil não foi influenciado pelas variáveis estudadas. Os achados corroboram a existência de estereótipos de gênero e sexismo ambivalente nos adolescentes masculinos e a necessidade de desenvolvimento de ações e políticas para sua erradicação.Discrimination and violence against the female gender are associated with distorted representation of women. This paper aims at measuring the existence of prejudice in the manifestations of ambivalent sexism and gender stereotypes in male adolescents aged 12 to 16 years. Three questionnaires (socio-demographic, Gender stereotyping, Ambivalent Sexism Inventory were applied to 787 students of 11 public schools in a cross-sectional study. The results pointed out to the presence of gender stereotypes. There was a significant difference between students of state and city schools and also between those who studied in neighborhoods presenting a higher economic status in comparison to the others. Sexism presented itself significantly more benevolent than hostile. The score to the benevolent component varied according to the attended

  19. TFR for males in Denmark: Calculation and tempo-correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Nordfalk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of trends and tempo corrections of fertility have focused on female rather than male fertility; one reason being that the necessary detailed data are more widely available for mothers than for fathers. Objective: The objective is to present a demographic overview of the fertility trends of Danish men and women from 1980 to 2010. We review the differences in male and female fertility and perform separate tempo corrections for fathers and mothers. Methods: The material for this study consisted of basic data on male and female fertility. The data included all children born in the period, specified by birth year of the child and age and parity of the mother and father, respectively. We used standard demographic measurements of fertility, primarily the total fertility rate (TFR and the tempo-corrections as proposed by Bongaarts and Feeney (1998. Results: The female fertility rates were generally higher than those for males, but the TFRs of both Danish men and women generally increased over the period. The unadjusted and the adjusted fertility rates had similar patterns for men and women. A negative tempo-effect was more evident for women than for men, and a vanishing effect for men at the end of the period was not similarly observed for women. Conclusions: We have exemplified tempo corrections for male as well as female fertility, and have discussed specific problems in this context. Our study indicates that the postponement of childbearing is about to end for Danish men.

  20. Male pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...

  1. 饮酒对中年男性2型糖尿病患者骨密度的影响%Effect of alcohol drinking on bone mineral density in middle-aged males with diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁; 刘惠苗; 陈志花; 周慧敏; 张萌萌; 董天; 赵媛媛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of alcohol drinking on bone mineral density ( BMD) in middle-aged males with type 2 diabetes.Methods Ninety middle-aged males with type 2 diabetes were selected and divided into 2 groups, alcohol drinkers (n=45) and non-alcohol drinkers (n=45).In alcohol drinking group, they were divided to 3 levels, little amount ( 100 g/d), according to their alcohol consumption.And according to the alcohol drinking time, they were divided to 20years levels.BMD of the femoral neck, the greater trochanter, and the lumbar spine was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.The relationship between the different alcohol consumption, the different alcohol drinking time, and BMD of the different sites was analyzed.Results Compared to non-alcohol drinking group, BMD of the femoral neck, the greater trochanter, and the lumbar spine was significantly lower than that in alcohol drinking group with alcohol consumption 50-100 g/d and >100 g/d, and with alcohol drinking period 10-20 years and >20 years (P50 g/d and alcohol drinking period >10 years were negatively correlated with BMD of the femoral neck, the greater trochanter, and the lumbar spine (P50 g/d and alcohol drinking period >10 years, decreases significantly.The incidence of osteoporosis increases.%目的:探讨饮酒对中年男性2型糖尿病患者骨密度的影响。方法选取中年男性2型糖尿病患者90例,分为不饮酒组及饮酒组,各45例。饮酒组根据日饮酒量分为3个等级:少量饮酒(<50 g/d);S中等量饮酒(50~100 g/d);大量饮酒(>100 g/d)。按饮酒年限分为3级(<10年、10~20年、>20年)。测定各组股骨颈、大转子及腰椎骨密度,分析日饮酒量及饮酒年限与不同部位骨密度的相关性。结果与不饮酒组相比,摄入酒精50~100 g/d、>100 g/d组和饮酒10~20年、>20年受试者的股骨颈、大转子、腰椎骨密度显著降低(P<0.01

  2. 男性年龄对常规体外受精-胚胎移植结局的影响%Influence of male age on the outcome of conventional IVF-ET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乜照燕; 吴海峰; 张娜; 郭丽娜; 赵素英; 甄秀丽; 吕翠婷

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of male age on the outcome of conventional IVF-ET. Methods; Based on male age, 170 couples undergoing conventional IVF-ET were divided into three groups; 0.05 ). The men of the 3:40 yr group showed a significantly lower percentage of grade a + b sperm ([40.97 ± 11,91 ] % ) than those of the 0.05) , while the abortion rate was markedly increased in the ≥40 yr group as compared with the 0.05). Conclusion: Increasing male age is related with decreasing percentages of progressively motile sperm and morphologically normal sperm, but not obviously with the rates of fertilization, good quality embryo, implantation, pregnancy and abortion.%目的:研究男性年龄对体外受精-胚胎移植(IVF-ET)治疗结局的影响.方法:按男方年龄将2008至2010年接受常规IVF-ET的夫妇170对分为3组,年龄<35岁组60例、35~39岁组77例,≥40岁组33例,观察男方年龄对IVF的受精率、卵裂率、优质胚胎率、着床率、妊娠率及流产率的影响.结果:3组精液量[(3.10±1.22) mlvs (2.84±1.05) ml vs (2.80±0.79) ml]、精子浓度[(54.23±26.07)×106/ml vs( 60.27±24.80)×106/ml vs(60.21±27.42)×106/ml]、活动率[(53.93±13.25)% vs(56.10±16.58)% vs(51.82±15.45)%]相比均无显著性差异(P>0.05),≥40岁组的(a+b)级精子的百分率[(40.97±11.91)%]低于< 35岁组[(48.47±11.78)%]和35 ~ 39岁组[(46.84±13.51)%],结果有显著性差异(P<0.05),≥40岁组精子正常形态[(11.76±5.97)%]与<35岁组[(15.25±6.94)%]相比,结果有显著性差异(P<0.05).男方年龄≥40岁组的受精率(81.52%)、卵裂率(82.61%)、优质胚胎率(52.33%)、植入率(18.06%)、妊娠率(33.33%)与男方年龄<35岁组(分别为83.18%、82.68%、56.99%、22.40%、40.00%)和35 ~39岁组(分别为78.78%、80.66%、55.01%、21.74%、38.96%)比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).男方年龄≥40岁组患者的流产率(36.36

  3. Non-smoking male adolescents' reactions to cigarette warnings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K Pepper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA is working to introduce new graphic warning labels for cigarette packages, the first change in cigarette warnings in more than 25 years. We sought to examine whether warnings discouraged participants from wanting to smoke and altered perceived likelihood of harms among adolescent males and whether these warning effects varied by age. METHODS: A national sample of 386 non-smoking American males ages 11-17 participated in an online experiment during fall 2010. We randomly assigned participants to view warnings using a 2 × 2 between-subjects design. The warnings described a harm of smoking (addiction or lung cancer using text only or text plus an image used on European cigarette package warnings. Analyses tested whether age moderated the warnings' impact on risk perceptions and smoking motivations. RESULTS: The warnings discouraged most adolescents from wanting to smoke, but lung cancer warnings discouraged them more than addiction warnings did (60% vs. 34% were "very much" discouraged, p<.001. Including an image had no effect on discouragement. The warnings affected several beliefs about the harms from smoking, and age moderated these effects. Adolescents said addiction was easier to imagine and more likely to happen to them than lung cancer. They also believed that their true likelihood of experiencing any harm was lower than what an expert would say. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that warnings focusing on lung cancer, rather than addiction, are more likely to discourage wanting to smoke among adolescent males and enhance their ability to imagine the harmful consequences of smoking. Including images on warnings had little effect on non-smoking male adolescents' discouragement or beliefs, though additional research on the effects of pictorial warnings for this at-risk population is needed as the FDA moves forward with developing new graphic labels.

  4. Looking at the Male Librarian Stereotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Thad E.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of library profession stereotypes focuses on academic male librarians. Topics include the position of the early academic librarians and the environment in which they worked; the beginnings of reference service; women in academic libraries; men in a feminized profession; and current images of male librarians in motion pictures and…

  5. Why do Adolescent Girls Idolize Male Celebrities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Yuna; Kasser, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Girls often idolize male celebrities, but this phenomenon has been studied little. The authors therefore assessed celebrity idolization among 142 junior high school girls and found that girls who strongly idolized a male celebrity had more experience dating, reported secure and preoccupied attachments to same-age boys, and were rated higher in…

  6. Investigation on indicators of bone metabolism in middle-aged male patients with metabolic syndrome%中年男性代谢综合征患者骨代谢指标变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐正和

    2013-01-01

    ,并引发骨质疏松、骨量减少.其骨代谢异常与胰岛素抵抗相关.%Objective To investigate the influence of metabolic syndrome (MS) on bone metabolism in middle-aged male patients with MS by measuring indicators of bone metabolism.Methods Among people who underwent physical examination from October 2010 to May 2013,110 middle-aged male patients with MS were selected and enrolled in MS group and 36 middle-aged men without MS were selected and enrolled in non-MS group.In MS group,27 patients with osteoporosis were enrolled in MS with osteoporosis group and 36 patients with decreased bone mass were enrolled in MS with decreased bone mass group.In each group:body mass index (BMI) and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated;systolic blood pressure (SBP),diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and waist circumference was measured;blood biochemical indicators including fasting plasma glucose (FPG),2 h postprandial plasma glucose (2 h PG),fasting insulin (FINS),total cholesterol (TC),triglyceride (TG),low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density hpoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was tested; bone metabolic indicators including serum calcium,phosphate,alkaline phosphatase,25-hydroxy vitamin D [25-(OH)D3],procollagen type Ⅰ amino-terminal prcpeptide (PINP),parathyroid hormone (PTH),osteocalcin and urinary C-terminal telopeptide of type Ⅰ collagen (U-CTX),urine calcium,urine creatinine (Cr) were tested;bone mineral density(BMD) of lumber spine was tested too.Subjects above were compared among the four groups.The correlation of BMD with other bone metabolic indicators and HOMA-IR was also investigated in MS with osteoporosis group.Results The incidence of abnormal bone metabolism in MS group was 57.3% (63/110),while in non-MS group was 11.1% (4/36),and there was significant difference between two groups (x2 =6.55,P < 0.01).Compared with non-MS group,MS group,MS with osteoporosis group and MS with decreased bone

  7. 90岁以上老年男性血尿酸水平及多因素分析%Study on the hyperuricemia and its influencing factors in elderly male people aged 90 years and above

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程永静; 牛素平; 张春媚; 徐华; 赖蓓; 刘爱华; 高明; 黄慈波

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解高龄老年男性高尿酸血症的发病率及临床特点,探讨其相关影响因素.方法 选择2007年在我院进行常规体检的90岁以上老年男性100例为研究对象,比较不同血尿酸水平人群临床及生化指标,对影响高尿酸水平的诸多因素进行Logistic回归分析. 结果 90岁以上老年男性血尿酸增高的比例为20%,痛风性关节炎的发生率为1%.尿酸增高组血尿素及肌酐水平分别为(10.985±4.29)mmol/L和(125.2±25.9)μmol/L,均明显高于尿酸正常组[(6.87±1.86)mmol/L和(93.4±19.8)μmol/L] (t=-4.460和t=4.279,均为P<0.05).并存高血压、高三酰甘油血症、应用利尿剂的比率高于尿酸正常组(X2=4.762、9.219、4.080,均为P<0.05).Logistic回归分析显示,血尿酸与血肌酐相关性最为明显(OR=1.969),其次为空腹血糖(OR=1.310)和血尿素(OR=1.161),与胆固醇(OR=0.802)呈负相关. 结论 90岁以上老年人高尿酸血症患病率较高,急性痛风性关节炎发病率低;主要危险因素是肾功能下降、高血糖及利尿剂的应用.%Objective To explore the prevalence and clinical features of hyperuricemia and its influencing factors in elderly male people aged 90 years and above. Methods One hundred elderly male people aged 90 years and above who underwent routine health examination in our hospital in 2007 were selected in the study. Serum uric acid level was examined by uricase-peroxidase method, and all patients were divided into hyperuricemia group and control group according to the serum uric acid level. Clinical and biochemical indications were compared between the two groups, and logistic regression was used to analyze the influencing factors of hyperuricemia in elderly people. Results The serum uric acid level was increased in 20% of the elderly people, and the prevalence of gouty arthritis was 1%. The levels of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine were higher in hyperuricemia group than in control group[(10. 98±4.29) mmol

  8. Population aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of population aging in China, the most densely populated country in the world. Statistics indicate that by the end of 1998, 83.75 million out of the 1.248 billion Chinese people will be over 65 years old. According to the UN standards, China will soon become an aging society. The aging population poses several challenges to the country with the greatest challenge being the increasing social responsibility to care for the aged. With the undeveloped legislative framework to protect the interests of the aged and the serious drawbacks in the pension system to cater only to the income part and not the service part of the aged, China is not yet ready for the advent of aging. Violation of the rights of senior citizens is still very rampant despite enactment of the law on Protection of the Rights of the Elderly in 1996. Moreover, China is not economically ready to become an aging society. China faces this challenge by adopting a three-pronged approach to solve the problem namely: family support, establishment of nursing homes, and creating a social security framework that addresses the needs of the society suited to the Chinese condition. It is believed that with the growing economy of the country and the rising income of its people, a comprehensive social security net will be created to take care of the aged.

  9. Focus groups reveal consumer ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    According to qualitative research, Salvadoreans are ambivalent about the use of contraceptives. Since complete responsibility for management of the CSM project was accepted by the Association Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), the agency which operates the contraceptive social marketing project in El Salvador, in November 1980, the need for decisions in such areas as product price increases, introduction of new condom brands, promotion of the vaginal foaming tablet, and assessment of product sales performance had arisen. The ICSMP funded market research, completed during 1983, was intended to provide the data on which such decisions by ADS could be based. The qualitative research involved 8 focus groups, comprised of men and women, aged 18-45, contraceptive users and nonusers, from the middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the city of San Salvador and other suburban areas. In each group a moderator led discussion of family planning and probed respondents for specific attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding the use of contraceptives. To assess attitudes at a more emotional level, moderators asked respondents to "draw" their ideas on certain issues. A marked discrepancy was revealed between respondents' intellectual responses to the issues raised in group discussion, as opposed to their feelings expressed in the drawings. Intellectually, participants responded very positively to family planning practice, but when they were asked to draw their perceptions, ambivalent feelings emerged. Drawings of both the user and the nonuser convey primarily negative aspects for either choice. The user is tense and moody toward her children; the nonuser loses her attractiveness and "dies." Figures also show drawings of some of the attitudes of single and married male participants. 1 drawing shows an incomplete and a complete circle, symbolizing a sterilized man (incomplete) and a nonsterilized man (complete). Another picture depicts a chained man who has lost his freedom

  10. A Meta-Analysis of Risky Sexual Behaviour among Male Youth in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifru Berhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between risky sexual behaviour and level of education and economic status in male youth. Previous tests of the association of risky sexual behaviour with levels of education and economic status have yielded inconsistent results. Using data from 26 countries, from both within and outside Africa, we performed a meta-analysis with a specific focus on male youths’ risky sexual behaviour. We applied a random effects analytic model and calculated a pooled odds ratio. Out of 19,148 males aged 15–24 years who reported having sexual intercourse in the 12 months preceding the survey, 75% engaged in higher-risk sex. The proportion of higher-risk sex among male youth aged 15–19 years was nearly 90% in 21 of the 26 countries. The pooled odds ratio showed a statistically significant association of higher-risk sex with male youth younger than 20 years, living in urban centers, well educated, and of a high economic status. The overall proportion of condom use during youths’ most recent higher-risk sexual encounter was 40% and 51% among 15–19-year-olds and 20–24-year-olds, respectively. Our findings suggest that male youth’s socioeconomic status is directly related to the likelihood that they practice higher-risk sex. The relationship between income and sexual behaviour should be explored further.

  11. Reported Male Circumcision Practices in a Muslim-Majority Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftikhar, Sundus

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Male circumcision is a recommended practice in Muslim tradition. It is important to ensure that this procedure is performed as safely as possible in these communities. Methods. Five hundred adult men and women with at least one male child less than 18 years were interviewed in Karachi, Pakistan, regarding details of their child's circumcision. The survey focused on actual and perceived delays in circumcision and perceptions about appropriate age and reasons and benefits and complications of the procedure. Circumcisions done after two months of age were defined as delayed. Results. Religious requirement was the primary reason for circumcision in 92.6% of children. However, 89.6% of respondents were of the opinion that circumcision had medical benefits as well. Half of the children (54.1%) had delayed circumcision (range 2.5 months to 13 years), even though 81.2% of parents were of the opinion that circumcisions should be done within 60 days of birth. Facility-delivered babies had less delay in circumcisions (49.1%) as compared to home-delivered babies (60.5%). Conclusion. Understanding the perceptions and practices around male circumcision can help guide national strategies for designing and implementing safe circumcision programs in Muslim-majority settings, with the potential to benefit an annual birth cohort of 20–25 million boys worldwide. PMID:28194416

  12. [Male urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, TA de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2008-01-01

    *Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment o

  13. Male pattern baldness (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  14. Acceptability of neonatal male circumcision in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Emily; Stringer, Elizabeth; Mugisa, Bridget; Temba, Salome; Bowa, Kasonde; Linyama, David

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal male circumcision (NMC) is being scaled up in Zambia and elsewhere in Southern Africa as a long-term HIV prevention strategy. We conducted 12 focus group discussions with 129 parents and grandparents in Lusaka, recruited from two sites providing free NMC services and information about NMC, to explore the acceptability of circumcising newborn boys. Most participants recognized the benefits of circumcision for HIV prevention, and the advantages of circumcising their children and grandchildren at a young age. Fear of negative outcomes, concerns about pain, and issues around cultural identity may challenge NMC uptake. To effectively promote the service, the upper age limit for NMC must be emphasized, and fathers must be targeted by messaging campaigns.

  15. Prevalence of reproductive morbidity amongst males in an urban slum of north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppal Y

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of reproductive morbidity among males in India have chiefly focused on prevalence of Reproductive Tract Infections/Sexually Transmitted Infections (RTIs/STIs among males attending Sexually Transmitted Disease clinics, blood donors and other selected population groups, with only few focused on the magnitude and the type of reproductive morbidity amongst Indian males at community level. Objective: To estimate prevalence of reproductive morbidity including (RTIs/STIs among males in the age group of 20-50 years residing in an urban slum of Delhi. Methods: Out of 268 males in the targeted age group, selected by systematic random sampling, residing in an urban sum of Delhi, 260 males were subjected to clinical examination and laboratory investigations for diagnosis of reproductive morbidity. Laboratory investigations were done for diagnosis of Hepatitis B and C, Syphilis, Gonorrhoea, Non gonococcal urethritis and urinary tract infection. Results: A total of 90 (33.6% of 268 study subjects reported one or more perceived symptoms of reproductive tract / sexual morbidity in last six months. Overall reproductive morbidity based on clinical and laboratory diagnosis was present in 76 (29.2% study subjects and of this sexually acquired morbidity accounted for 21.2% cases. Hepatitis B was most common (10.3% reproductive morbidity followed by Urinary Tract Infection (5.0%, scabies (3.5% and congenital anomalies (3.5%. Conclusion: High prevalence of reproductive morbidity (29.2% amongst males in an urban slum highlights the need for more studies in different settings. There is a need for developing interventions in terms of early diagnosis and treatment and prevention.

  16. Sperm competition games: A general model for precopulatory male-male competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parker, G.A.; Lessells, C.M.; Simmons, L.W.

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive males face a trade-off between expenditure on precopulatory male–male competition—increasing the number of females that they secure as mates—and sperm competition—increasing their fertilization success with those females. Previous sperm allocation models have focused on scramble competi

  17. 我国11~12岁优秀男子体操运动员力量素质的评价与诊断%The evaluation and diagnosis of the strength capacities of excellent juvenile male gymnasts aged 11 and 12 in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂应军; 吕万刚

    2014-01-01

    By applying methods such as Delphi method, Radar analysis, Pareto analysis and target challenge model, and by building an evaluation index system, the authors carried out real-time evaluation and current condition diagnosis on the strength capacities of excellent juvenile male gymnasts aged 11 and 12 in China, and revealed the following findings:1) bent upper arm push proping strength as well as upper limb and torso specific strength are advantageous strength capacities of the male gymnasts in the 11-year old and 12-year old groups;in practical training, the gymnasts in the two age groups should strengthen the training of their weaknesses such as upper limb slow pulling strength, and the gymnasts in the 11-year old group should also enhance their waist and abdomen strength training quality; 2) in terms of training content arrangement, the gymnasts in the 11-year old and 12-year old groups should respectively pay attention to the training of upper limb pulling, quick bending and stretching and push propping strength, as well as up-per limb supporting, push propping and quick pulling strength;3) at the next stage, the gymnasts in the 11-year old group should mainly focus on enhancing their torso strength and lower limb explosive strength training quality, while the gymnasts in the 12-year old group should further strengthen their lower limb explosive strength training.%运用特尔菲法、雷达分析、帕雷托分析和目标挑战模型等方法,通过构建评价指标体系,对我国11~12岁优秀男子体操运动员力量素质进行实时评价与现状诊断。结果表明:1)上肢屈臂推撑力量和上肢与躯干专项力量分别是11岁组和12岁组男子体操运动员力量素质的优势环节;实践训练中两个年龄组应加强上肢慢用性拉引力量等薄弱环节的训练,11岁组还应提高腰腹力量的训练质量;2)训练内容安排方面,11岁组和12岁组应分别注重上肢拉引、快速屈伸与推撑力量

  18. Angiogenesis in male breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthan Rani

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male breast cancer is a rare but aggressive and devastating disease. This disease presents at a later stage and in a more advanced fashion than its female counterpart. The immunophenotype also appears to be distinct when compared to female breast cancer. Angiogenesis plays a permissive role in the development of a solid tumor and provides an avenue for nutrient exchange and waste removal. Recent scrutiny of angiogenesis in female breast cancer has shown it to be of significant prognostic value. It was hypothesized that this holds true in invasive ductal carcinoma of the male breast. In the context of male breast cancer, we investigated the relationship of survival and other clinico-pathological variables to the microvascular density of the tumor tissue. Methods Seventy-five cases of primary male breast cancer were identified using the records of the Saskatchewan Cancer Agency over a period of 26 years. Forty-seven cases of invasive ductal carcinoma of the male breast had formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks that were suitable for this study. All cases were reviewed. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for the angiogenic markers (cluster designations 31 (CD31, 34 (CD34 and 105 (CD105, von Willebrand factor (VWF, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Microvascular density (MVD was determined using average, centre, and highest microvessel counts (AMC, CMC, and HMC, respectively. Statistical analyses compared differences in the distribution of survival times and times to relapse between levels of MVD, tumor size, node status and age at diagnosis. In addition, MVD values were compared within each marker, between each marker, and were also compared to clinico-pathological data. Results Advanced age and tumor size were related to shorter survival times. There were no statistically significant differences in distributions of survival times and times to relapse between levels of MVD variables. There was no

  19. Lisina digestível e zinco orgânico para frangos de corte machos na fase de 22 a 42 dias de idade Digestible lysine and zinc chelate for male broilers from 22 to 42 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messias Alves da Trindade Neto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos dietéticos de lisina digestível e zinco quelato para frangos de corte machos entre 22 e 42 dias de idade foram avaliados em dois ensaios experimentais. Adotou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial 5 × 2, com cinco níveis de lisina (0,841; 0,876; 0,997; 1,022 e 1,030% e dois de zinco (43 e 243 ppm. No primeiro ensaio, utilizaram-se 900 aves com peso médio inicial de 957,4 g distribuídas em parcelas experimentais de 30 aves e três repetições e, no segundo ensaio, 180 frangos com peso médio inicial de 866,22 g, divididos em parcelas de três aves e seis repetições. As características avaliadas foram desempenho, rendimento de cortes e composição corporal (1º ensaio, balanço de nitrogênio e digestibilidade aparente das dietas (2º ensaio. Houve interação entre os níveis de lisina e zinco para o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar, a matéria seca ingerida e o balanço energético. Os rendimentos de peito, coxa e sobrecoxa tiveram aumentos lineares em resposta ao acréscimo no nível de lisina digestível na dieta. O melhor desempenho foi obtido com o nível de 0,997% de lisina digestível (ou 1,134% lisina total e de 43 ppm de zinco. Para maior rendimento dos cortes, o nível de lisina digestível recomendável deve ser no mínimo 1,002% (ou 1,139% de lisina total, independentemente dos níveis de zinco quelato. A maior inclusão de zinco em dietas para frangos de corte dos 22 aos 42 dias de idade não melhora a utilização da lisina na dieta e aumenta a deposição de gordura corporal.The dietary effects of digestible lysine and chelate zinc for male broiler chickens from 22 to 42 days of age were evaluated in two experimental assays. A complete randomized block experimental design in a 5 × 2 factorial, with five lysine levels (0.841, 0.876, 0.997, 1.022 and 1.030% and two levels of zinc (43 and 243 ppm was used. In the first assay, it was used 900 birds with initial average weight 957.4 g

  20. Novel concepts in male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro C. Esteves

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Extraordinary advances have been achieved in the field of male infertility in the last decades. There are new concepts in sperm physiology and several modern tools for the assessment of spermatogenesis kinetics in vivo. New tests using molecular biology and DNA damage assays allow the clinician to correctly diagnose men so far classified as having idiopathic male infertility. In the field of treatment, microsurgery has increased success rates either for reconstruction of the reproductive tract or the retrieval of spermatozoa for assisted conception. Emerging evidence suggests that life-style and environmental conditions are of utmost importance in male fertility and subfertility. This review discusses several concepts that have changed over the last years, such as the duration of the spermatogenic cycle in humans, Y-chromosome infertility, the reproductive potential of non-mosaic Klinefelter syndrome men, the impact of paternal age and sperm DNA in male infertility, the role of antioxidants in the treatment of infertile men, the predictive factors and techniques for sperm retrieval in non-obstructive azoospermia, and the microsurgical treatment of clinical varicoceles. Whenever possible, levels of evidence are provided as suggested by the Oxford Center of Evidence-based Medicine.

  1. Male fertility in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chotirmall, S H

    2011-04-05

    Infertility rates among males with cystic fibrosis (CF) approximate 97%. No information is currently available within Ireland determining an understanding of fertility issues and the best methods of information provision to this specialized group. This study aimed to determine understanding and preferred approaches to information provision on fertility issues to Irish CF males. A Descriptive Study utilizing prospective coded questionnaires was mailed to a male CF cohort (n=50). Sections included demographics, fertility knowledge & investigation. Response rate was 16\\/50 (32%). All were aware that CF affected their fertility. More than two-thirds (n=11) were able to provide explanations whilst only one-third (n=5) provided the correct explanation. Significant numbers stated thoughts of marriage and a future family. Half have discussed fertility with a healthcare professional (HCP). Mean age of discussion was 21.9 years. One third preferred an earlier discussion. The commonest first source for information was written material which was also the preferred source. Three-quarters requested further information preferring again, written material. Significant gaps in sex education of Irish CF males exist. Discussion should be initiated by HCPs and centre-directed written material devised to address deficiencies.

  2. Age determination of raccoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, G.A.; Sanderson, G.C.; Rogers, J.P.

    1970-01-01

    Age criteria, based on 61 skulls and eye lenses from 103 known-age captives, are described for separating raccoons (Procyon lotor) into eight age-classes as follows: young-of-the-year, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-7, > 7 years. Criteria studied were eye lens nitrogen, cranial suture closure, tooth wear and incisor cementum layers. Lens nitrogen increased rapidly up to 12 months of age, but at much reduced rate thereafter. Total lens nitrogen was useful only in separating young-of-the-year from adults. The closure sequence for five cranial sutures accurately divided the total known-age sample of males into seven groups, and the adults into five groups. The tooth wear criteria divided the known-age sample into five relative age groups, but aging of individuals by this method was inaccurate. Histological sectioning of known-age teeth was the best method of observing layering in the cementum tissue. The technique of basing estimation of age on cementum ring counts, although subjective, was accurate for aging individuals through their fourth year but tended to underestimate the age of animals over 4 years old. However, suture closure or tooth wear can be used to identify males over 4 years old. In field studies, technical difficulties limit the utility of age estimation by cementum layers. Maximum root thickness of the lower canine was accurate in determining the sex of individuals from 5 months to ,at least 48 months of age.

  3. The influence of life history milestones and association networks on crop-raiding behavior in male African elephants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick I Chiyo

    Full Text Available Factors that influence learning and the spread of behavior in wild animal populations are important for understanding species responses to changing environments and for species conservation. In populations of wildlife species that come into conflict with humans by raiding cultivated crops, simple models of exposure of individual animals to crops do not entirely explain the prevalence of crop raiding behavior. We investigated the influence of life history milestones using age and association patterns on the probability of being a crop raider among wild free ranging male African elephants; we focused on males because female elephants are not known to raid crops in our study population. We examined several features of an elephant association network; network density, community structure and association based on age similarity since they are known to influence the spread of behaviors in a population. We found that older males were more likely to be raiders than younger males, that males were more likely to be raiders when their closest associates were also raiders, and that males were more likely to be raiders when their second closest associates were raiders older than them. The male association network had sparse associations, a tendency for individuals similar in age and raiding status to associate, and a strong community structure. However, raiders were randomly distributed between communities. These features of the elephant association network may limit the spread of raiding behavior and likely determine the prevalence of raiding behavior in elephant populations. Our results suggest that social learning has a major influence on the acquisition of raiding behavior in younger males whereas life history factors are important drivers of raiding behavior in older males. Further, both life-history and network patterns may influence the acquisition and spread of complex behaviors in animal populations and provide insight on managing human

  4. The influence of life history milestones and association networks on crop-raiding behavior in male African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiyo, Patrick I; Moss, Cynthia J; Alberts, Susan C

    2012-01-01

    Factors that influence learning and the spread of behavior in wild animal populations are important for understanding species responses to changing environments and for species conservation. In populations of wildlife species that come into conflict with humans by raiding cultivated crops, simple models of exposure of individual animals to crops do not entirely explain the prevalence of crop raiding behavior. We investigated the influence of life history milestones using age and association patterns on the probability of being a crop raider among wild free ranging male African elephants; we focused on males because female elephants are not known to raid crops in our study population. We examined several features of an elephant association network; network density, community structure and association based on age similarity since they are known to influence the spread of behaviors in a population. We found that older males were more likely to be raiders than younger males, that males were more likely to be raiders when their closest associates were also raiders, and that males were more likely to be raiders when their second closest associates were raiders older than them. The male association network had sparse associations, a tendency for individuals similar in age and raiding status to associate, and a strong community structure. However, raiders were randomly distributed between communities. These features of the elephant association network may limit the spread of raiding behavior and likely determine the prevalence of raiding behavior in elephant populations. Our results suggest that social learning has a major influence on the acquisition of raiding behavior in younger males whereas life history factors are important drivers of raiding behavior in older males. Further, both life-history and network patterns may influence the acquisition and spread of complex behaviors in animal populations and provide insight on managing human-wildlife conflict.

  5. Adolescent Males in Dance: A Closer Look at Their Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zihao

    2011-01-01

    The pronounced gender imbalance in dance has been the norm for some time. Some studies focus on established male dancers and others focus on aspects of physical education in dance. However, studies about adolescent male dance students (nonprofessional dancers in any form) who take dance classes in a high school setting are almost nonexistent.…

  6. Male mutation bias and possible long-term effects of human activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Samuel; Wedekind, Claus

    2010-10-01

    The ability of a population to adapt to changing environments depends critically on the amount and kind of genetic variability it possesses. Mutations are an important source of new genetic variability and may lead to new adaptations, especially if the population size is large. Mutation rates are extremely variable between and within species, and males usually have higher mutation rates as a result of elevated rates of male germ cell division. This male bias affects the overall mutation rate. We examined the factors that influence male mutation bias, and focused on the effects of classical life-history parameters, such as the average age at reproduction and elevated rates of sperm production in response to sexual selection and sperm competition. We argue that human-induced changes in age at reproduction or in sexual selection will affect male mutation biases and hence overall mutation rates. Depending on the effective population size, these changes are likely to influence the long-term persistence of a population.

  7. Selective androgen receptor modulators for the treatment of late onset male hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coss, Christopher C; Jones, Amanda; Hancock, Michael L; Steiner, Mitchell S; Dalton, James T

    2014-01-01

    Several testosterone preparations are used in the treatment of hypogonadism in the ageing male. These therapies differ in their convenience, flexibility, regional availability and expense but share their pharmacokinetic basis of approval and dearth of long-term safety data. The brevity and relatively reduced cost of pharmacokinetic based registration trials provides little commercial incentive to develop improved novel therapies for the treatment of late onset male hypogonadism. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) have been shown to provide anabolic benefit in the absence of androgenic effects on prostate, hair and skin. Current clinical development for SARMs is focused on acute muscle wasting conditions with defi ned clinical endpoints of physical function and lean body mass. Similar regulatory clarity concerning clinical deficits in men with hypogonadism is required before the beneficial pharmacology and desirable pharmacokinetics of SARMs can be employed in the treatment of late onset male hypogonadism.

  8. Selective androgen receptor modulators for the treatment of late onset male hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C Coss

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several testosterone preparations are used in the treatment of hypogonadism in the ageing male. These therapies differ in their convenience, flexibility, regional availability and expense but share their pharmacokinetic basis of approval and dearth of long-term safety data. The brevity and relatively reduced cost of pharmacokinetic based registration trials provides little commercial incentive to develop improved novel therapies for the treatment of late onset male hypogonadism. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs have been shown to provide anabolic benefit in the absence of androgenic effects on prostate, hair and skin. Current clinical development for SARMs is focused on acute muscle wasting conditions with defi ned clinical endpoints of physical function and lean body mass. Similar regulatory clarity concerning clinical deficits in men with hypogonadism is required before the beneficial pharmacology and desirable pharmacokinetics of SARMs can be employed in the treatment of late onset male hypogonadism.

  9. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  10. Rozbor morfologie nohy u chlapců a dívek ve věku Infans 2 a Juvenis Analysis of morphology of foot in Moravian male and female students in the age Infans 2 and Juvenis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Peštuková

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available U 106 studentů a 162 studentek z Gymnázia ve Šternberku a Střední integrované školy v Ostravě ve věku 12–18 let byl sledován morfologický typ nohy, index nohy pro hodnocení podélné klenby nožní, vyosení palce a malíku, úhel paty a stav svalstva dolních končetin. U chlapců i dívek byla nalezena výrazně vyšší frekvence výskytu nohy egyptské (71,69 % a 70,99 %. Noha kvadratická se vyskytovala u chlapců ve velmi nízkém procentu (2,83 % s určitou individuální asymetrií, u dívek nalezena nebyla. Diagnostika plochonoží metodou Chippauxe–Šmiřáka poskytla velmi příznivé výsledky (4,94–10,38 % výskytu ploché nohy, metoda podle Szritera–Godunova naopak nález podstatně horší (38,2–43,21 % výskytu ploché nohy. S nulovým stavem vyosení palce jsme se setkali u necelé čtvrtiny souborů. U souboru chlapců byla četnost projevu valgozity a varozity palce téměř vyrovnána, věcně převažovalo varózní postavení palce vpravo. U souboru dívek dominovalo signifikantně valgózní postavení. Průměrné hodnoty se pohybovaly v rozmezí 4 až 7 stupňů. Průměrná hodnota úhlu malíku, charakterizující vbočený malík, byla vysoká (17,73 až 21,90 stupně. Průměrný úhel paty byl diagnostikován v rozmezí 15 až 18 stupňů. Při hodnocení vztahů mezi zkrácením svalů dolní končetiny a poruchami funkčního stavu klenby nožní (pouze u mužů jsme nalezli potvrzení statistické významnosti závislosti u vyosení paty a zkrácení m. triceps surae sin. a signifikantní závislost mezi úhlem paty a zkrácením flexorů kolen sin. Morphological foot type, foot index for longitudinal foot vault, misalignment of the big and little toes, heel angle and lower limb muscles condition were monitored in 106 male students and 162 female students from the Gymnasium school in Šternberk and the Integrated secondary school in Ostrava ranging in age from 12 to 18 years. A considerably

  11. Physical activity and sedentary time: male perceptions in a university work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Emma S; Kolt, Gregory S; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Guagliano, Justin M

    2014-03-01

    Promoting physical activity and reducing sedentary time in males can be challenging, and interventions tailored specifically for males are limited. Understanding male perceptions of physical activity and sedentary behavior is important to inform development of relevant interventions, especially for males working in an office setting. As part of a larger intervention study to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary time, male university employees aged 35 to 64 years were invited to partake in focus groups to discuss benefits, motivators, and barriers related to physical activity and sedentary time. Five semistructured focus group sessions, ranging from 50 to 70 minutes in duration, were conducted on two campuses at an Australian university. A total of 15 participants (9 academic/faculty staff and 6 professional staff), with a mean (± SD) age of 46.1 (±8.0) years took part in the study. Health and family were commonly discussed motivators for physical activity, whereas time constraints and work commitments were major barriers to physical activity participation. Sedentary time was a perceived "by-product" of participants' university employment, as a substantial proportion of their days were spent sitting, primarily at a computer. Participants believed that physical activity should be recognized as a legitimate activity at work, embedded within the university culture and endorsed using a top-down approach. It is important to encourage breaks in sedentary time and recognize physical activity as a legitimate health-promoting activity that is supported and encouraged during working hours. These findings can be used as a platform from which to develop targeted strategies to promote physical activity in male university employees.

  12. Changes in geometrical and biomechanical properties of immature male and female rat tibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernicke, Ronald F.; Hou, Jack C.-H.; Vailas, Arthur C.; Nishimoto, Mitchell; Patel, Sanjay

    1990-01-01

    The differences in the geometry and mechanical properties of immature male and female rat tibiae were detailed in order to provide comparative data for spaceflight, exercise, or disease experiments that use immature rats as an animal model. The experiment focuses on the particularly rapid period of growth that occurs in the Sprague-Dawley rat between 40 and 60 d of age. Tibial length and middiaphysical cross-sectional data were analyzed for eight different groups of rats according to age and sex, and tibial mechanical properties were obtained via three-point bending tests to failure. Results indicate that, during the 15 d period of rapid growth, changes in rat tibial geometry are more important than changes in bone material properties for influencing the mechanical properties of the tibia. Male tibiae changed primarily in structural properties, while in the female rats major changes in mechanical properties of the tibia were only attributable to changes in the structural properties of the bone.

  13. Efficacy of Child-Focused and Parent-Focused Interventions in a Child Anxiety Prevention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ellin; Bogels, Susan Maria; Voncken, Jannie Marisol

    2011-01-01

    This study examined anxiety development in median- (n = 74) and high-anxious children (n = 183) aged 8-13, the effect of parent- and child-focused preventive interventions on child/parental anxiety, and the effect of parental anxiety on child anxiety. High-anxious children were randomized into a parent-focused (n = 69), child-focused (n = 58) or…

  14. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  15. Men's Experiences of Living With Osteoporosis: Focus Group Interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorthe; Brixen, Kim; Huniche, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    that resonated with the social construction of hegemonic masculinity as displayed through the men's fear of weakness and endurance through physical activity, as well as identity construction through active decision making in relation to health. Understanding and implementation of these issues is necessary......Osteoporotic fractures in men are an increasing public health problem. Male osteoporosis is often a low-prioritized issue, however. To examine men's experiences with osteoporosis and how they handle osteoporosis in their everyday lives, the authors collected data from four focus groups with a total...... of 16 men aged 51 to 82 years diagnosed with osteoporosis. Critical psychology was used as a theoretical framework for the data analysis, which aimed to elicit information about the men's daily lives. The men handled osteoporosis in different ways using different strategies. The authors found patterns...

  16. Male skin care: shaving and moisturization needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblong, John E

    2012-01-01

    Historically, most cosmetic and medical cosmetic research has been focused on the female consumer. Advancements in the development of grooming instruments as well as changing consumer habits and attitudes toward male cosmetic skin care needs support the need to develop a deeper understanding of male skin biology and how that can be used to improve the quality of life relative to societal interactions. Male skin biology has been found to have unique properties that are distinct from females and have a significant impact on the way males groom and maintain their overall appearance. Research to date has found that male skin has a different response profile to such environmental insults as UV, heat, and stress that is based not on just differences in cosmetic or dermatological product usage but also on underlying biological differences. These differences are discussed with the implications to a broader understanding of male facial skin care needs that spans from daily grooming practices to overall health status that impacts higher incidence rate of skin cancer among males. This highlights that male skin care has a holistic need to ensure proper grooming and sunscreen moisturizer usage.

  17. Are Social Representations of Positive Ageing Really Effective? The ageing process through the eyes of elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Soares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focused on the experiences of ageing from the perspective of elderly people. Our main aims were to explore their perceptions and representations about the ageing experience and to analyse if their conceptions are closer to positive social representations of active ageing or to ageist social assumptions. Thirty-five females (mean age of 80 years and seven males (mean age of 73 years participated in this study, recruited in a network of institutions run by the city council of Setubal. Data collection was conducted with structured interviews and the obtained transcriptions were submitted to qualitative thematic analysis. With this analytic approach it was possible to identify dominant themes in participants’ discourses. Results show that elderly perceive and represent the process of ageing according to a binary perspective, displaying both positive and negative dimensions. Even if the ageing experience is described according to a positive perspective, it is also anchored on ageist social constructions. Thus the positive social representations of ageing expressed through active ageing discourses are still not fully assimilated and integrated on people’s self-perceptions and identities.

  18. Chromosomal disorders and male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary L Harton; Helen G Tempest

    2012-01-01

    infertility in humans is surprisingly common occurring in approximately 15% of the population wishing to start a family.Despite this,the molecular and genetic factors underlying the cause of infertility remain largely undiscovered.Nevertheless,more and more genetic factors associated with infertility are being identified.This review will focus on our current understanding of the chromosomal basis of male infertility specifically:chromosomal aneuploidy,structural and numerical karyotype abnormalities and Y chromosomal microdeletions.Chromosomal aneuploidy is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and developmental disabilities in humans.Aneuploidy is predominantly maternal in origin,but concerns have been raised regarding the safety of intracytoplasmic sperm injection as infertile men have significantly higher levels of sperm aneuploidy compared to their fertile counterparts.Males with numerical or structural karyotype abnormalities are also at an increased risk of producing aneuploid sperm.Our current understanding of how sperm aneuploidy translates to embryo aneuploidy will be reviewed,as well as the application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in such cases.Clinical recommendations where possible will be made,as well as discussion of the use of emerging array technology in PGD and its potential applications in male infertility.

  19. Language and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Susan; Anagnopoulos, Cheryl

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the effects of aging on language usage focusing on three areas of exploration: (1) changes in language in relation to changes in other cognitive abilities, (2) the linguistic consequences of normal aging versus those of dementia and aphasia, and (3) age-group differences in patterns of conversational interaction. (67 references) (GLR)

  20. Predictors of male microchimerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2012-01-01

    confounding and reverse causation. To address the issue of confounding, we conducted an analysis of predictors of male microchimerism in 272 female participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Buffy coat DNA was tested for Y chromosome presence as a marker of male microchimerism. First, we used...... logistic regression and thereafter random forest modeling to evaluate the ability of a range of reproductive, lifestyle, hospital or clinic visit history, and other variables to predict whether women tested positive for male microchimerism. We found some indication that current use of contraceptive pills...

  1. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman RH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald H Silverman1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University Medical Center, 2F.L. Lizzi Center for Biomedical Engineering, Riverside Research, New York, NY, USA Abstract: The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via cilio-destruction, tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities. Keywords: ophthalmic ultrasound, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, ultrafast imaging, Doppler imaging 

  2. FOCUS: Sustainable Mathematics Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, Selina V.; Acee, Taylor W.; Gerber, Lindsey N.

    2014-01-01

    The FOCUS (Fundamentals of Conceptual Understanding and Success) Co-Requisite Model Intervention (FOCUS Intervention) for College Algebra was developed as part of the Developmental Education Demonstration Projects (DEDP) in Texas. The program was designed to use multiple services, courses, and best practices to support student completion of a…

  3. Racial microstressors, racial self-concept, and depressive symptoms among male African Americans during the transition to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Steven M; Yu, Tianyi; Allen, Kimberly A; Brody, Gene H

    2015-04-01

    Racial discrimination is a pervasive stressor that can undermine mental health among African American youth and young adults. Several studies identify links between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms; however, this research base does not focus on male African American youth who experience significant racism-related stress during the transition to young adulthood. Moreover, few prospective studies consider significant confounding variables that affect exposure to and perception of discriminatory treatment. In response to this need, we examined the effect of exposure to racial discrimination from ages 16 to 18 on depressive symptoms among male African Americans at age 20. Racial self-concept, one's sense of positivity about one's race, was examined as a mediator and self-control as a moderator. Hypotheses were tested with 222 participants, age 16 at baseline and age 20 at the endpoint. Participants provided self-report data at five time points. Exposure to racial discrimination from ages 16 to 18 predicted depressive symptoms at age 20, net of confounding influences. Racial self-concept mediated this effect. Self-control moderated the influence of discrimination on racial self-concept. This study underscores the salience of racial discrimination in the development of depressive symptoms among African American male youth and the clinical utility of interventions targeting racial pride and self-control.

  4. Planar-Focusing Cathodes

    CERN Document Server

    Lewellen, J W

    2005-01-01

    Conventional pi-mode rf photoinjectors typically use magnetic solenoids for emittance compensation. This provides independent focusing strength, but can complicate rf power feed placement, introduce asymmetries (due to coil crossovers), and greatly increase the cost of the photoinjector. Cathode-region focusing can also provide for a form of emittance compensation. Typically this method strongly couples focusing strength to the field gradient on the cathode, however, and also requires altering the longitudinal position of the cathode to change the focusing. We propose a new method for achieving cathode-region variable-strength focusing for emittance compensation. The new method reduces the coupling to the gradient on the cathode, and does not require a change in the longitudinal position of the cathode. Expected performance for an S-band system is similar to conventional solenoid-based designs. This paper presents the results of rf cavity and beam dynamics simulations of the new design.

  5. Oxidative stress & male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makker, Kartikeya; Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh

    2009-04-01

    The male factor is considered a major contributory factor to infertility. Apart from the conventional causes for male infertility such as varicocoele, cryptorchidism, infections, obstructive lesions, cystic fibrosis, trauma, and tumours, a new and important cause has been identified: oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is a result of the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants in the body. It is a powerful mechanism that can lead to sperm damage, deformity and eventually, male infertility. This review discusses the physiological need for ROS and their role in normal sperm function. It also highlights the mechanism of production and the pathophysiology of ROS in relation to the male reproductive system and enumerate the benefits of incorporating antioxidants in clinical and experimental settings.

  6. Males and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  7. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer include exposure to radiation, a family history of breast cancer, and having high estrogen levels, which can happen with diseases like cirrhosis or Klinefelter's syndrome. Treatment for male breast cancer is usually ...

  8. Changes in Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) throughout the Life Span: A Population-Based Study of 1027 Healthy Males from Birth (Cord Blood) to the Age of 69 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglæde, Lise; Sørensen, K; Boas, M.;

    2010-01-01

    Context: Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), which is secreted by immature Sertoli cells, triggers the involution of the fetal Mullerian ducts. AMH is a testis-specific marker used for diagnosis in infants with ambiguous genitalia or bilateral cryptorchidism. Aim: The aim of the study was to describe......, and at 3 and 12 months), n = 55] and another group through puberty [(biannual measurements), n = 83]. Main Outcome Measures: Serum AMH was determined by a sensitive immunoassay. Serum testosterone, LH, and FSH were measured, and pubertal staging was performed in boys aged 6 to 20 yr (n = 616). Results......: Serum AMH was above the detection limit in all samples with a marked variation according to age and pubertal status. The median AMH level in cord blood was 148 pmol/liter and increased significantly to the highest observed levels at 3 months (P

  9. Changes in Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) throughout the Life Span: A Population-Based Study of 1027 Healthy Males from Birth (Cord Blood) to the Age of 69 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglæde, Lise; Sørensen, K; Boas, Malene;

    2010-01-01

    Context: Anti-Mu¨ llerian hormone (AMH), which is secreted by immature Sertoli cells, triggers the involution of the fetalMu¨ llerian ducts.AMHis a testis-specific marker used for diagnosis in infants with ambiguous genitalia or bilateral cryptorchidism. Aim: The aim of the study was to describe......, and at 3 and 12 months), n 55] and another group through puberty [(biannual measurements), n 83]. Main Outcome Measures: Serum AMH was determined by a sensitive immunoassay. Serum testosterone, LH, and FSH were measured, and pubertal staging was performed in boys aged 6 to 20 yr (n 616). Results: Serum......AMHwas above the detection limit in all samples with a marked variation according to age and pubertal status. The median AMH level in cord blood was 148 pmol/liter and increased significantly to the highest observed levels at 3 months (P 0.0001). AMH declined at 12 months (P 0.0001) and remained...

  10. Female Survival Advantage Relates to Male Inferiority Rather Than Female Superiority: A Hypothesis Based on the Impact of Age and Stroke Severity on 1-Week to 1-Year Case Fatality in 40,155 Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, T.S.; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is generally believed that differences in age, stroke characteristics, and cardiovascular risk factors account for observed sex-specific differences in stroke survival. Objectives: We aimed to study female stroke survival advantage before and after the average age of menopause......, and whether female survival advantage applies only to patients for whom stroke is the most likely cause of death. Methods: The Danish National Indicator Project, a registry designed to list all hospitalized stroke patients in Denmark beginning in March 2001, had 40,155 registered patients as of February 2007....... All registered patients had undergone evaluation including stroke severity (as measured by the Scandinavian Stroke Scale [SSS], using a total score of 0-58, in which lower scores indicate more severe strokes), computed tomography, and cardiovascular risk factors. Patients were followed from admission...

  11. Thyroid and male reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  12. Dysgenetic male pseudohermaphroditism

    OpenAIRE

    Proença, E; Freitas, S.; Fonseca, M.; Figueiredo, S; Rodrigues, C.

    2001-01-01

    Acta Med Port. 2001 Sep-Dec;14(5-6):511-4. [Dysgenetic male pseudohermaphroditism] [Article in Portuguese] Proença E, Freitas S, Fonseca M, Figueiredo S, Rodrigues C. Serviço de Cirurgia Pediátrica, Hospital Maria Pia, Porto. Abstract Dysgenetic male pseudohermaphroditism is the result of a defect of testis development that encompasses a large clinical heterogeneity. It is characterized by bilateral dysgenetic testis, absence of mullerian regression, ambiguous genitalia and/...

  13. Male Osteoporosis in Our Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seher Kocaoğlu

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Male osteoporosis is encountered as an important problem in clinical medicine in the recent years. Our purpose was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD of vertebrae (L2-L4 and femur (neck and Wards distributed according to age groups in males who applied to physical therapy and rehabilitation and osteoporosis units. Age, height, weight of the patients were measured. Patients with diseases causing secondary osteoporosis were excluded. Lomber vertebral and femoral scores of 110 patients between ages of 22-87 were measured with Lunar DPX 6956 (DEXA. They were classified as normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic based on WHO criteria. Rate of osteopenia and osteoporosis on the basis of lomber t scores were 55.6% and 11.1% in patients between 20-29 years, 40% and 10% in patients between 30-39 years, 18.2% and 27.3% in patients between 40-49 years, 26.3% and 36.8% in patients between 50-59 years, 40.9% and 27.3% in patients 60-69 years, 33.3% and 23.3% in patients 70-79 years, 14.3% and 14.3% in patients between 80-89 years respectively. Rate of osteopenia and osteoporosis on the basis of femur t scores were 11.1% and 11.1% in patients between 20-29 years, 30% and 10% in patients between 30-39 years, 36.4% and 18.2% in patients between 40-49 years, 63.2% and 15.8% in patients between 50-59 years, 54.5% and 31.8% in patients between 60-69 years, 46.9% and 25% in patients between 70-79 years, 28.6% and 28.6% in patients between 80-89 years. As a conclusion of our study we want to draw attention to age at which a decrease in the bone mineral density of male patients starts, and we suggest that neccessary precautions must be taken.

  14. Bodily integrity and male and female circumcision.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, W.J.M.; Hoffer, C.; Wils, J.-P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the ambiguous notion of bodily integrity, focusing on male and female circumcision. In the empirical part of the study we describe and analyse the various meanings that are given to the notion of bodily integrity by people in their daily lives. In the philosophical part we distin

  15. GENÉTICA MOLECULAR Y BIOGERONTOLOGÍA EN LA ERA POSGENÓMICA:: UN ENFOQUE EN LAS SIRTUINAS Molecular Genetics of Aging in the Postgenomic Era:: A Focus on Sirtuins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHADAY MICHÁN

    and automated sequencing, which allowed later to determine the anatomy of genomes. All of these discoveries have pushed the evolution of biomedicine towards the genomic and postgenomic eras, in which the use of reverse genetics prevails over the basic or direct one. Furthermore, it emerges the molecular genetics, the functional genomics and the diverse -omics- technologies that together pretend to understand, in an integrative way, the function of all of the genome components and its products. Biogerontology, discipline that studies the biological mechanisms of aging, is one of the fields that has developed notoriously in the last 15 years and reflects the scientific advances of the postgenomic era. Currently, there have been identified several gerontogenes and molecular pathways that modify and regulate age-related processes and diseases. Among these genes are the sirtuins, an evolutionarily preserved family of genes, which codify for proteins with NAD+ dependent deacetylase activity and that play an important role on aging. In this work, we review different reverse genetics approaches that have been used in order to identify some of the functions of these genes in mammals.

  16. Low testosterone correlates with delayed development in male orangutans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Emery Thompson

    Full Text Available Male orangutans (Pongo spp. display an unusual characteristic for mammals in that some adult males advance quickly to full secondary sexual development while others can remain in an adolescent-like form for a decade or more past the age of sexual maturity. Remarkably little is understood about how and why differences in developmental timing occur. While fully-developed males are known to produce higher androgen levels than arrested males, the longer-term role of steroid hormones in male life history variation has not been examined. We examined variation in testosterone and cortisol production among 18 fully-developed ("flanged" male orangutans in U.S. captive facilities. Our study revealed that while testosterone levels did not vary significantly according to current age, housing condition, and species origin, males that had undergone precocious development had higher testosterone levels than males that had experienced developmental arrest. While androgen variation had previously been viewed as a state-dependent characteristic of male developmental status, our study reveals that differences in the physiology of early and late developing males are detectable long past the developmental transition and may instead be trait-level characteristics associated with a male's life history strategy. Further studies are needed to determine how early in life differences in testosterone levels emerge and what consequences this variation may have for male behavioral strategies.

  17. Alcohol references on undergraduate males' Facebook profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Katie G; Moreno, Megan A

    2011-09-01

    Perceived peer alcohol use is a predictor of consumption in college males; frequent references to alcohol on Facebook may encourage alcohol consumption. Content analysis of college males' Facebook profiles identified references to alcohol. The average age of 225 identified profiles was 19.9 years. Alcohol references were present on 85.3% of the profiles; the prevalence of alcohol was similar across each undergraduate grade. The average number of alcohol references per profile was 8.5 but increased with undergraduate year (p = .003; confidence interval = 1.5, 7.5). Students who were of legal drinking age referenced alcohol 4.5 times more than underage students, and an increase in number of Facebook friends was associated with an increase in displayed alcohol references (p < .001; confidence interval = 0.009, 0.02). Facebook is widely used in the college population; widespread alcohol displays on Facebook may influence social norms and cause increases in male college students' alcohol use.

  18. New focused crawling algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Guiyang; Li Jianhua; Ma Yinghua; Li Shenghong; Song Juping

    2005-01-01

    Focused carawling is a new research approach of search engine. It restricts information retrieval and provides search service in specific topic area. Focused crawling search algorithm is a key technique of focused crawler which directly affects the search quality. This paper first introduces several traditional topic-specific crawling algorithms, then an inverse link based topic-specific crawling algorithm is put forward. Comparison experiment proves that this algorithm has a good performance in recall, obviously better than traditional Breadth-First and Shark-Search algorithms. The experiment also proves that this algorithm has a good precision.

  19. The evolution and significance of male mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward, Dominic A; Chapman, Tracey

    2011-12-01

    The distinct reproductive roles of males and females, which for many years were characterised in terms of competitive males and choosy females, have remained a central focus of sexual selection since Darwin's time. Increasing evidence now shows that males can be choosy too, even in apparently unexpected situations, such as under polygyny or in the absence of male parental care. Here, we provide a synthesis of the theory on male mate choice and examine the factors that promote or constrain its evolution. We also discuss the evolutionary significance of male mate choice and the contrasts in male versus female mate choice. We conclude that mate choice by males is potentially widespread and has a distinct role in how mating systems evolve.

  20. 血浆睾酮水平变化对中老年男性高血压患者颈动脉内中膜厚度的影响%Effect of plasma endogenous testosterone level in aged male with hypertension on carotid artery intima thickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾朋颖; 康冬梅; 周剑; 朱文静; 王卫东; 夏媛

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨血浆睾酮水平与中老年男性原发性高血压患者颈动脉粥样硬化程度的相关性.方法 65例中老年男性患者分为正常对照组(n=20)和原发性高血压组(n=45),后者又分为无斑块组(n=20)和有斑块组(n=25),分析各组血浆睾酮水平的变化与颈动脉硬化的相关性.结果 原发性高血压组血浆睾酮水平明显低于正常对照组(P<0.05),随着睾酮水平的下降,颈动脉内中膜厚度升高,动脉硬化的程度不断加重,但与斑块的发生无相关性.结论 中老年男性高血压患者血浆睾酮水平下降加速颈动脉粥样硬化程度,雄激素补充治疗可能为降低中老年男性动脉粥样硬化的发生提供新的方法.%To investigate whether plasma testosterone ( T ) level in aged male with essential hypertension is related with carotid artery atherosclerosis. Methods 65 cases aged male were divided into two groups:20 cases as normal control group and 45 patients with essential hypertension, which were divided into 20 patients without plaques and 25 cases with plaques group, analyzed whether the changes in sex hormone levels in each group was associated with carotid atherosclerosis. Results Plasma T level in 45 patients was significantly lower than that in the control group, with the decline of the T levels, carotid artery intima thickness ( IMT ) increased and so did the extent of atherosclerosis, but little to the occurrence of plaque. Conclusion The decreased endogenous andro-gen levels in the aged male with hypertension accelerate the degree of carotid atherosclerosis, the male hormone replacement therapy may provide new approach in reducing atherosclerosis.

  1. Differences in Nuclear DNA Between Male-Sterile and Male-Fertile Lines of Sorghum bicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Chang-fa; SUN Chun-yun; GUO Xiao-cai; NIU Tian-tang; ZHANG Fu-yao

    2003-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (cms) is determined by nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions. Up tonow, most studies are focused on the comparison of cytoplasmic DNAs of male-sterile lines and male-fertilelines, and analysis of nuclear DNA has not been documented yet. In order to find out the possible difference innuclear genome of male-sterile line A1 Tx623 and corresponding male-fertile line Tx623 of sorghum, randomamplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) approach was used to analyze their cytoplasmic and nuclear genomes.Total DNAs of them were amplified at first to screen primers, which were able to generate reproducible bandsspecific to male-sterile line or male-fertile line. Then the selected primers were used to amplify their mitochon-drial DNA (mtDNA) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA). The origins of all the polymorphic fragments were ana-lyzed. After ruling out those amplified from cytoplasmic DNA, seventeen polymorphic fragments were deter-mined to be amplified from nuclear DNA. These fragments originated from nuclear DNA indicate that diffe-rences in sequence exist between the nuclear DNA of male-sterile line and male-fertile line of sorghum, whichdo not agree with the traditional standpoint that they have identical nucleus.

  2. Male circumcision does not result in inferior perceived male sexual function - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Düring, Signe; Frimodt-Møller, Cai

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The debate on non-medical male circumcision has gaining momentum during the past few years. The objective of this systematic review was to determine if circumcision, medical indication or age at circumcision had an impact on perceived sexual function in males. METHODS: Systematic...... searches were performed in MEDLINE and Embase. The included studies compared long-term sexual function in circumcised and non-circumcised males, before and after circumcision, or compared different ages at circumcision. The quality of the studies was assessed according to the level of evidence (Grade A......-D). RESULTS: Database and hand searches yielded 3,677 records. Inclusion criteria were fulfilled in 38 studies including two randomised trials. Overall, the only identified differences in sexual function in circumcised males were decreased premature ejaculation and increased penile sensitivity (Grade A...

  3. Toxicity of Field-Aged Permethrin-Loaded Attracticides on Choristoneura rosaceana (HARRIS and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Adult Males and Females Toxicidad de Atracticidas en Base a Permetrina Envejecidos en Campo, sobre Machos y Hembras Adultas de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Curkovic

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Lethal and sub lethal effects were evaluated in the laboratory on Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott males exposed to an attracticide loaded with permethrin and aged in the field. The effect of pairing conspecific females with previously intoxicated males was also evaluated. In both species a significantly greater mortality of male moths (≥ 95% was observed 24 h after exposure to t he attracticide formulation. Likewise, high levels of knock down (≥ 75% were observed in males of both species 1 h after attracticide exposure. In females, knock down was ≥ 2.5% and mortality ≥ 3.3% after pairing with intoxicated males. Leg autotomy in males was at least 73% in C. rosaceana and ≥ 41% in P. pyrusana, 24 h after attracticide exposure; whereas it was only ≥ 10% among females of both species after pairing with intoxicated males. Moths exposed to an attracticide blank (permethrin-free showed significantly lower effects in all parameters (0-3.3%. Fecundity and fertility were also significantly affected after pairing females with intoxicated males. There was no significant decrease in mortality, leg autotomy, and fecundity associated with age of the attracticide. Results suggest a high potential for the use of attracticides against these two tortricid species.Los efectos letales y subletales sobre machos de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott expuestos a un atracticida basado en permetrina, envejecido en condiciones de campo, fueron evaluados en laboratorio. También se evaluó el efecto de emparejar hembras conespecíficas con machos previamente intoxicados. En ambas especies se observó mortalidad de machos significativamente mayor (≥ 95% 24 h post exposición al atracticida. Asimismo, altos niveles de “volteo” de individuos (≥ 75% se observaron en machos de ambas especies 1 h post exposición al atracticida. En hembras, el nivel de “volteo” fue ≥ 2,5% y la mortalidad ≥ 3

  4. Repeated Bout Effect Was More Expressed in Young Adult Males Than in Elderly Males and Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius Gorianovas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated possible differences using the same stretch-shortening exercise (SSE protocol on generally accepted monitoring markers (dependent variables: changes in creatine kinase, muscle soreness, and voluntary and electrically evoked torque in males across three lifespan stages (childhood versus adulthood versus old age. The protocol consisted of 100 intermittent (30 s interval between jumps drop jumps to determine the repeated bout effect (RBE (first and second bouts performed at a 2-week interval. The results showed that indirect symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage after SSE were more expressed in adult males than in boys and elderly males, suggesting that the muscles of boys and elderly males are more resistant to exercise-induced damage than those of adult males. RBE was more pronounced in adult males than in boys and elderly males, suggesting that the muscles of boys and elderly males are less adaptive to exercise-induced muscle damage than those of adult males.

  5. Final focus test beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration.

  6. Final focus nomenclature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-08-08

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number. (LEW)

  7. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  8. High harmonics focusing undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Hairetdinov, A.H.; Smirnov, A.V.; Khlebnikov, A.S. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    It was shown in our previous work that there exist a possibility to enhance significantly the {open_quote}natural{close_quote} focusing properties of the hybrid undulator. Here we analyze the actual undulator configurations which could provide such field structure. Numerical simulations using 2D code PANDIRA were carried out and the enhanced focusing properties of the undulator were demonstrated. The obtained results provide the solution for the beam transport in a very long (short wavelength) undulator schemes.

  9. CLIC Final Focus Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Tomás, R; Schulte, Daniel; Zimmermann, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The CLIC final focus system has been designed based on the local compensation scheme proposed by P. Raimondi and A. Seryi. However, there exist important chromatic aberrations that deteriorate the performance of the system. This paper studies the optimization of the final focus based on the computation of the higher orders of the map using MAD-X and PTC. The use of octupole tail folding to reduce the size of the halo in the locations with aperture limitations is also discussed.

  10. Electron beam focusing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  11. Age of first sexual intercourse of male partners of unmarried maidens involved in abortion and the effect factors%未婚流产少女男伴首次性行为的年龄及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马亚婷; 余小鸣; 张运平; 宫露霞; 高素红; 王嘉

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解北京和济南两地未婚流产少女男伴首次性行为的年龄及其影响因素.方法:采用自编结构式问卷对北京和济南两地共467名未婚流产少女的男性伴侣进行调查.结果:未婚流产少女的男性伴侣首次发生性行为的平均年龄为(20.25±2.72)岁,首次性行为的前两位原因依次为"好奇,想知道性交感受"(43.0%),"生理需要"(32.3%).单因素分析结果表明,首次性行为年龄(≤18岁组和>18岁组)与性态度、首次接触描写性行为的书刊/录像/网站的年龄、被迫性行为、紧急避孕、吸烟、饮酒、暴力冲突等13个因素有关(P<0.05).多元因素分析结果提示,接触描写性行为书刊/录像/网站的年龄过早和过去1年与家人发生冲突的次数多是过早发生性行为的危险因素.结论:未婚流产少女男伴首次性行为的年龄较早,过早发生性行为的男伴健康危险行为和不安全性行为的发生率较高.%Objective: To understand the age of first sexual intercourse of male partners of unmarried maidens involved in abortion and the effect factors in Beijing and Ji'nan.Methods: A self-designed structural questionnaire was used to survey the male partners of 467 unmarried maidens involved in abortion.Results: The average age of first sexual intercourse of male partners of unmarried maidens involved in abortion was (20.25 ± 2.72) years.The first two reasons of first sexual intercourse were “curiosity, eager to know the experience of sexual intercourse” (43.0%) and “physiological need” (32.3% ).Single factor analysis showed that the ages of first sexual intercourse ( ≤ 18 -year group and > 18 -year group) was related to 13 factors, such as sexual attitude, the age of contacting the books/videos/websites describing sexual intercourse for the first time, enforced sexual intercourse, emergent contraception, smoking, drinking and violent confrontations (P <0.05 ).Multivariate analysis showed

  12. Plutonium focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  13. Sexualities on the Move: A Comparison of the Work Experiences of Gay Male Educators Teaching Overseas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizzi, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper expands on the extant research on gay male educators by comparing two research projects on such educators who taught in international settings. One study focused on five gay, male, adult educators who relocated to Canada from countries in the Global South and the second study focused on eight gay, male, adult educators who relocated to…

  14. A cross-sectional study on consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among male non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients between ages of 20 and 40 in Shanghai%上海地区20~40岁男性非酒精性脂肪性肝病人群含糖饮料消耗的横断面调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱筱丽; 胡义扬; 冯琴

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨过量饮用含糖饮料与非酒精性脂肪性肝病(NAFLD)的可能关系。方法采用随机抽样方法,选取经上海中医药大学附属曙光医院体检部 B 超确诊、20~40岁的92例 NAFLD 男性患者及73名健康男性进行问卷调查,收集体质量、BMI、腰围、饮料消费品种及每周饮料消耗量等资料;并对照各种常见饮料的营养成分表,计算每周通过饮料摄入的碳水化合物总量,进行组间比较分析。结果20~40岁 NAFLD 男性患者人群含糖饮料消耗量较健康人群均显著升高(P <0.01),NAFLD 平均每日通过饮料摄入碳水化合物19.03 g,显著高于健康男性的11.57 g;NAFLD 男性患者最喜爱的含糖饮料前三位依次为碳酸饮料类、茶饮料及凉茶类、果汁及果汁饮料类。结论过多的含糖饮料摄入可能是导致NAFLD 的重要危险因素。%Objective To investigate consumption differences of sugar-sweetened beverages between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)male patients and healthy males,and provide a scientific basis for carrying out targeted health education and guiding the rational consumption of beverages.Methods Using random method,92 male NAFLD patients (20 to 40 years old)diagnosed by ultrasound in Shanghai Shuguang hospital examination department and 73 healthy males of the same age were enrolled to do questionnaire about body weight,BMI and waist size,consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages,and so on.Total intake of carbohydrate per week from sugar-sweetened beverages was calculated and compared between two groups.Results Sugar-sweetened beverages consumption of male NAFLD patients was significant higher than that of healthy males (P <0.01 ).Average daily carbohydrate intake from sugar-sweetened beverages of NAFLD patients was 19.03g,which was higher than health people's 11 .57 g.The top three sugar-sweetened beverages of male NAFLD patients'favorite were carbonated beverages

  15. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasmonics FOCUS ON PLASMONICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey; García-Vidal, Francisco

    2008-10-01

    Plasmonics is an emerging field in optics dealing with the so-called surface plasmons whose extraordinary properties are being both analyzed from a fundamental point of view and exploited for numerous technological applications. Surface plasmons associated with surface electron density oscillations decorating metal-dielectric interfaces were discovered by Rufus Ritchie in the 1950s. Since the seventies, the subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic fields as well as their enhancement inherent to the surface plasmon excitation has been widely used for spectroscopic purposes. Recent advances in nano-fabrication, characterization and modelling techniques have allowed unique properties of these surface electromagnetic modes to be explored with respect to subwavelength field localization and waveguiding, opening the path to truly nanoscale plasmonic optical devices. This area of investigation also has interesting links with research on photonic band gap materials and the field of optical metamaterials. Nowadays, plasmonics can be seen as a mature interdisciplinary area of research in which scientists coming from different backgrounds (chemistry, physics, optics and engineering) strive to discover and exploit new and exciting phenomena associated with surface plasmons. The already made and forthcoming discoveries will have impacts in many fields of science and technology, including not only photonics and materials science but also computation, biology and medicine, among others. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is intended to cover all the aforementioned capabilities of surface plasmons by presenting a current overview of state-of-the-art advances achieved by the leading groups in this field of research. The below list of articles represents the first contributions to the collection and further additions will appear soon. Focus on Plasmonics Contents Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes Reuben M Bakker, Vladimir P Drachev

  16. Human African trypanosomiasis in endemic focus of Abraka, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Clement Isaac; Igho Benjamin Igbinosa; Duncan Ogheneocovo Umukoro; Dafe Palmer Aitaikuru

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigated the prevalence of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) , a neglected tropical disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiens in an endemic focus of Nigeria, as it relates to age, sex and occupational differences. Methods:A total of 474 human subjects were screened using card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis kit. Positive samples were further investigated for parasite positivity in blood/serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Results:Of the 474 screened, 44(9.3%) were seropositive with seroprevalence of 22(9.6%) in Urhouka, 14(9.5%) in Umeghe and 8(7.9%) for Ugonu. The number of seropositives, observed for weakly, moderately and strongly positives for the three communities were 4, 7 and 11 in Urhouka, 4, 5 and 5 in Umeghe and 3, 2 and 3 in Ugonu respectively. Among the 16 volunteers with detected parasite in their blood , 4 of them were weakly positive, 5 of them were moderately positive and 7 of them strongly positive. 4 volunteers from Urhouka community were found parasites in their CSF and they were all strongly positive. The difference between the seroprevalence of males and females was not statistically significant (OR=1.14, 95%CI=0.37-3.4, P>0.05). The prevalence difference between age group 21-30 years old and the youngest and oldest age groups was statistically significant (OR=3.5, 95% CI=1.08-12.57, P0.05). It was observed that farmers had significantly higher prevalence of HAT infection as well as greater risk of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection than inhabitants with other occupations (OR=3.25, 95%CI=0.99-11.79, P<0.05). Conclusions:Human activities such as farming and visits to the river have been identified as major risk factors to HAT. Also the breakdown of HAT control program has been advanced for the rise in HAT in Abraka, an endemic focus in Nigeria.

  17. AGE Males by Broad Age Groups and Median Age NMHD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. AGE Males by Broad Age Groups and Median Age NMSD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. AGE Males by Broad Age Groups and Median Age COS 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  20. Age differences on Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, P E; Stoner, S B

    1980-06-01

    Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices was administered to 150 subjects (75 males, 75 females) ranging in age from 20 to 86 yr. Subjects were placed into one of three age groups: adult (M age = 27.04 yr.), middle-age (M age = 53.36 yr.), old (M age = 73.78 yr.), with 25 males and 25 females in each age group. Significant differences between age groups on the matrices were obtained after partialing out the effects of educational level, while sex of subject was not significant.

  1. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  2. Doing focus group research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Laura Bang

    2014-01-01

    , not as something that pre-exists or goes beyond the situated interaction. This article, however, challenges not only the first, but also the second position and suggests that it is, after all, possible to do committedly ethnomethodological studies of focus group data that demonstrate how members of a focus group......Scholars of ethnomethodologically informed discourse studies are often sceptical of the use of interview data such as focus group data. Some scholars quite simply reject interview data with reference to a general preference for so-called naturally occurring data. Other scholars acknowledge...... of interview interaction, but inadequate as data for studying phenomena that go beyond the phenomenon of interview interaction. Neither of these more and less sceptical positions are, on the face of it, surprising due to the ethnomethodological commitment to study social order as accomplished in situ...

  3. Focusing Vacuum Fluctuations, 2

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, L H

    2002-01-01

    The quantization of the scalar and electromagnetic fields in the presence of a parabolic mirror is further developed in the context of a geometric optics approximation. We calculate the mean squared scalar and electric fields near the focal line of a parabolic cylindrical mirror. These quantities are found to grow as inverse powers of the distance from the focus. We give a combination of analytic and numerical results for the mean squared fields. In particular, we find that the mean squared electric field can be either negative or positive, depending upon the choice of parameters. The case of a negative mean squared electric field corresponds to a repulsive Van der Waals force on an atom near the focus, and to a region of negative energy density. Similarly, a positive value corresponds to an attractive force and a possibility of atom trapping in the vicinity of the focus.

  4. Male infertility microsurgical training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akanksha Mehta; Philip S Li

    2013-01-01

    Microsurgical training is imperative for urologists and clinical andrologists specializing in male infertility.Success in male infertility microsurgery is heavily dependent on the surgeon's microsurgical skills.Laboratory-based practice to enhance microsurgical skills improves the surgeon's confidence,and reduces stress and operating time,benefiting both the patient and the surgeon.This review provides guidelines for setting up a microsurgical laboratory to develop and enhance microsurgical skills using synthetic and animal models.The role of emerging techniques,such as robotic-assisted microsurgery,is also discussed.

  5. Gestational age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal age - gestational age; Gestation; Neonatal gestational age; Newborn gestational age ... Gestational age can be determined before or after birth. Before birth, your health care provider will use ultrasound to ...

  6. Mitochondria, maternal inheritance, and asymmetric fitness: why males die younger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jonci N; Gemmell, Neil J

    2013-02-01

    Mitochondrial function is achieved through the cooperative interaction of two genomes: one nuclear (nuDNA) and the other mitochondrial (mtDNA). The unusual transmission of mtDNA, predominantly maternal without recombination is predicted to affect the fitness of male offspring. Recent research suggests the strong sexual dimorphism in aging is one such fitness consequence. The uniparental inheritance of mtDNA results in a selection asymmetry; mutations that affect only males will not respond to natural selection, imposing a male-specific mitochondrial mutation load. Prior work has implicated this male-specific mutation load in disease and infertility, but new data from fruit flies suggests a prominent role for mtDNA in aging; across many taxa males almost invariably live shorter lives than females. Here we discuss this new work and identify some areas of future research that might now be encouraged to explore what may be the underpinning cause of the strong sexual dimorphism in aging.

  7. The focus factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Frandsen, Tove Faber

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. We present a new bibliometric indicator to measure journal specialisation over time, named the focus factor. This new indicator is based on bibliographic coupling and counts the percentage of re-citations given in subsequent years. Method. The applicability of the new indicator....... To validate re-citations as caused by specialisation, other possible causes were measured and correlated (obsolescence, journal self-citations and number of references). Results. The results indicate that the focus factor is capable of distinguishing between general and specialised journals and thus...

  8. [Focused musculoskeletal sonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Rudolf

    2015-09-16

    Even in emergent situations, focused musculoskeletal sonography must not be overlooked. It has a place in traumatology no less valuable than its place in internal medicine. It can be used to identify traumatic joint effusions, occult fractures and fissures, joint inflammation, muscle and tendon rupture; it can differentiate soft tissue swelling, locate a foreign body, or identify the location of fractures. Focused ultrasound should be performed by the attending physician directly at the patient’s bedside, in order to answer these specific questions.