WorldWideScience

Sample records for aging male focus

  1. Cost and Impact of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in South Africa: Focusing the Program on Specific Age Groups and Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripke, Katharine; Thambinayagam, Ananthy; Pillay, Yogan; Loykissoonlal, Dayanund; Bonnecwe, Collen; Barron, Peter; Kiwango, Eva; Castor, Delivette

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012, South Africa set a goal of circumcising 4.3 million men ages 15–49 by 2016. By the end of March 2014, 1.9 million men had received voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). In an effort to accelerate progress, South Africa undertook a modeling exercise to determine whether circumcising specific client age groups or geographic locations would be particularly impactful or cost-effective. Results will inform South Africa’s efforts to develop a national strategy and operational plan for VMMC. Methods and Findings The study team populated the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0) with HIV incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM), as well as national and provincial population and HIV prevalence estimates. We derived baseline circumcision rates from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The model showed that circumcising men ages 20–34 offers the most immediate impact on HIV incidence and requires the fewest circumcisions per HIV infection averted. The greatest impact over a 15-year period is achieved by circumcising men ages 15–24. When the model assumes a unit cost increase with client age, men ages 15–29 emerge as the most cost-effective group. When we assume a constant cost for all ages, the most cost-effective age range is 15–34 years. Geographically, the program is cost saving in all provinces; differences in the VMMC program’s cost-effectiveness across provinces were obscured by uncertainty in HIV incidence projections. Conclusion The VMMC program’s impact and cost-effectiveness vary by age-targeting strategy. A strategy focusing on men ages 15–34 will maximize program benefits. However, because clients older than 25 access VMMC services at low rates, South Africa could consider promoting demand among men ages 25–34, without denying services to those in other age groups. Uncertainty in the provincial estimates makes them

  2. Cost and Impact of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in South Africa: Focusing the Program on Specific Age Groups and Provinces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Kripke

    Full Text Available In 2012, South Africa set a goal of circumcising 4.3 million men ages 15-49 by 2016. By the end of March 2014, 1.9 million men had received voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC. In an effort to accelerate progress, South Africa undertook a modeling exercise to determine whether circumcising specific client age groups or geographic locations would be particularly impactful or cost-effective. Results will inform South Africa's efforts to develop a national strategy and operational plan for VMMC.The study team populated the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0 with HIV incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM, as well as national and provincial population and HIV prevalence estimates. We derived baseline circumcision rates from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The model showed that circumcising men ages 20-34 offers the most immediate impact on HIV incidence and requires the fewest circumcisions per HIV infection averted. The greatest impact over a 15-year period is achieved by circumcising men ages 15-24. When the model assumes a unit cost increase with client age, men ages 15-29 emerge as the most cost-effective group. When we assume a constant cost for all ages, the most cost-effective age range is 15-34 years. Geographically, the program is cost saving in all provinces; differences in the VMMC program's cost-effectiveness across provinces were obscured by uncertainty in HIV incidence projections.The VMMC program's impact and cost-effectiveness vary by age-targeting strategy. A strategy focusing on men ages 15-34 will maximize program benefits. However, because clients older than 25 access VMMC services at low rates, South Africa could consider promoting demand among men ages 25-34, without denying services to those in other age groups. Uncertainty in the provincial estimates makes them insufficient to support geographic targeting.

  3. Aging male syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valer Donca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging Male Syndrome is a medical condition through which men could pass between the ages of 35 and 65, when testosterone levelsin their body decline considerably. Androgen deficiency in the aging male has become a topic of increasing interest and debate throughout theworld. In contrast to female menopause, the process of aging in the male genital system is slow and highly variable between individuals. Thecharacteristic symptoms of Aging Male Syndrome include weakness, depression, fatigue and changes in body hair and skin, decreased sexualdesire, decreased lean body mass accompanied by increased visceral fat, decreased bone mineral density. Aging Male Syndrome is usually diagnosedby testing the blood for testosterone levels. The usual treatment method for Aging Male Syndrome includes testosterone injections,testosterone patches, testosterone gels and oral preparations.

  4. The Economic and Epidemiological Impact of Focusing Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention on Specific Age Groups and Regions in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Since its launch in 2010, the Tanzania National Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) Program has focused efforts on males ages 10–34 in 11 priority regions. Implementers have noted that over 70% of VMMC clients are between the ages of 10 and 19, raising questions about whether additional efforts would be required to recruit men age 20 and above. This analysis uses mathematical modeling to examine the economic and epidemiological consequences of scaling up VMMC among specific age groups and priority regions in Tanzania. Methods and Findings Analyses were conducted using the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), a compartmental model implemented in Microsoft Excel 2010. The model was populated with population, mortality, and HIV incidence and prevalence projections from external sources, including outputs from Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM). A separate DMPPT 2.0 model was created for each of the 11 priority regions. Tanzania can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising males ages 20–34. This strategy would also require the fewest VMMCs for each HIV infection averted. Circumcising men ages 10–24 will have the greatest impact on HIV incidence over a 15-year period. The most cost-effective approach (lowest cost per HIV infection averted) targets men ages 15–34. The model shows the VMMC program is cost saving in all 11 priority regions. VMMC program cost-effectiveness varies across regions due to differences in projected HIV incidence, with the most cost-effective programs in Njombe and Iringa. Conclusions The DMPPT 2.0 results reinforce Tanzania’s current VMMC strategy, providing newfound confidence in investing in circumcising adolescents. Tanzanian policy makers and program implementers will continue to focus scale-up of VMMC on men ages 10–34 years, seeking to maximize program impact and cost-effectiveness while acknowledging trends in demand among the younger and older age groups

  5. Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in Malawi: Modeling the Impact and Cost of Focusing the Program by Client Age and Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripke, Katharine; Chimbwandira, Frank; Mwandi, Zebedee; Matchere, Faustin; Schnure, Melissa; Reed, Jason; Castor, Delivette; Sgaier, Sema

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in priority countries with high HIV prevalence and low male circumcision (MC) prevalence. According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), an estimated 5.8 million males had undergone VMMC by the end of 2013. Implementation experience has raised questions about the need to refocus VMMC programs on specific subpopulations for the greatest epidemiological impact and programmatic effectiveness. As Malawi prepared its national operational plan for VMMC, it sought to examine the impacts of focusing on specific subpopulations by age and region. Methods We used the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Toolkit, Version 2.0, to study the impact of scaling up VMMC to different target populations of Malawi. National MC prevalence by age group from the 2010 Demographic and Health Survey was scaled according to the MC prevalence for each district and then halved, to adjust for over-reporting of circumcision. In-country stakeholders advised a VMMC unit cost of $100, based on implementation experience. We derived a cost of $451 per patient-year for antiretroviral therapy from costs collected as part of a strategic planning exercise previously conducted in- country by UNAIDS. Results Over a fifteen-year period, circumcising males ages 10–29 would avert 75% of HIV infections, and circumcising males ages 10–34 would avert 88% of infections, compared to the current strategy of circumcising males ages 15–49. The Ministry of Health’s South West and South East health zones had the lowest cost per HIV infection averted. Moreover, VMMC met WHO’s definition of cost-effectiveness (that is, the cost per disability-adjusted life-year [DALY] saved was less than three times the per capita gross domestic product) in all health zones except Central East. Comparing urban versus rural areas in the country, we found that circumcising men in urban

  6. Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in Malawi: Modeling the Impact and Cost of Focusing the Program by Client Age and Geography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Kripke

    Full Text Available In 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO recommended scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC in priority countries with high HIV prevalence and low male circumcision (MC prevalence. According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS, an estimated 5.8 million males had undergone VMMC by the end of 2013. Implementation experience has raised questions about the need to refocus VMMC programs on specific subpopulations for the greatest epidemiological impact and programmatic effectiveness. As Malawi prepared its national operational plan for VMMC, it sought to examine the impacts of focusing on specific subpopulations by age and region.We used the Decision Makers' Program Planning Toolkit, Version 2.0, to study the impact of scaling up VMMC to different target populations of Malawi. National MC prevalence by age group from the 2010 Demographic and Health Survey was scaled according to the MC prevalence for each district and then halved, to adjust for over-reporting of circumcision. In-country stakeholders advised a VMMC unit cost of $100, based on implementation experience. We derived a cost of $451 per patient-year for antiretroviral therapy from costs collected as part of a strategic planning exercise previously conducted in- country by UNAIDS.Over a fifteen-year period, circumcising males ages 10-29 would avert 75% of HIV infections, and circumcising males ages 10-34 would avert 88% of infections, compared to the current strategy of circumcising males ages 15-49. The Ministry of Health's South West and South East health zones had the lowest cost per HIV infection averted. Moreover, VMMC met WHO's definition of cost-effectiveness (that is, the cost per disability-adjusted life-year [DALY] saved was less than three times the per capita gross domestic product in all health zones except Central East. Comparing urban versus rural areas in the country, we found that circumcising men in urban areas would be both cost

  7. The aging male project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Saad

    2001-06-01

    alpha estradiol have been synthesized some of which show selectivity for the central nervous system. CNS effects have been demonstrated in female and male animals. Cardiovascular protection by estrogens has been shown in animal and human studies. Atherosclerotic plaque size was reduced after estrogen injections in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Phytoestrogen-fed monkeys had lower total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and higher HDL cholesterol. Apart from atherosclerotic lesions, coronary artery vascular reactivity was improved. Some of these experimental findings were confirmed in human studies in postmenopausal women with and without estrogen treatment. Whether all of the described estrogenic effects can be seen in men remains to be investigated. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 127-33Keywords : aging, andropause, testosterone, estrogens

  8. The aging male project

    OpenAIRE

    Farid Saad

    2001-01-01

    With an increasing life expectancy and a decreasing reproduction rate, the population structure changes. A Jenapharm R & D program investigates the endocrinology of aging men. In men, a decrease in production of sex steroids and other hormones with age can be observed. The typical patterns of daily rhythmicity become less distinct. This is part of a very complex picture in which not only isolated hormones are involved, but also the influence of hormones on each other. Many factors from th...

  9. Androgens and the ageing male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    Hypogonadal men share a variety of signs and symptoms such as decreased muscle mass, osteopoenia, increased fat mass, fatigue, decreased libido and cognitive dysfunctions. Controlled trials have demonstrated favourable effects of androgen substitution therapy on these signs and symptoms in men with...... severe primary or secondary hypogonadism. Thus, androgen substitution therapy is warranted in men with true hypogonadism at all ages. Symptoms experienced by otherwise healthy ageing males are non-specific and vague, although some may be similar to symptoms of hypogonadism. Therefore, the term...... have an andropause. As large placebo-controlled studies of androgen treatment in elderly males are lacking, proper risk assessment of adverse effects such as prostate cancer following testosterone treatment in elderly males is completely lacking. In the future, testosterone therapy may prove beneficial...

  10. Aging changes in the male reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004017.htm Aging changes in the male reproductive system To use ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aging changes in the male reproductive system may include ...

  11. Endocrinology of the aging male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunenfeld, B

    2006-04-01

    Despite enormous medical progress during the past few decades, the last years of life are still accompanied by increasing ill health and disability. The ability to maintain active and independent living for as long as possible is a crucial factor for ageing healthily and with dignity. The most important and drastic gender differences in aging are related to the reproductive organs. In distinction to the course of reproductive ageing in women, with the rapid decline in sex hormones expressed by the cessation of menses, men experience a slow and continuous decline. This decline in endocrine function involves: a decrease of testosterone, dehydro epiandrosterone (DHEA), oestrogens, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), IGF1, and melatonin. The decrease of sex hormones is concomitant with a temporary increase of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). In addition sex hormone binding globulins (SHBG) increase with age resulting in further lowering the concentrations of free biologically active androgens. These hormonal changes are directly or indirectly associated with changes in body constitution, fat distribution (visceral obesity), muscle weakness, osteopenia, osteoporosis, urinary incontinence, loss of cognitive functioning, reduction in well being, depression, as well as sexual dysfunction. The laboratory and clinical findings of partial endocrine deficiencies in the aging male will be described and discussed in detail. With the prolongation of life expectancy both women and men today live 1/3 of their life with endocrine deficiencies. Interventions such as hormone replacement therapy may alleviate the debilitating conditions of secondary partial endocrine deficiencies by preventing the preventable and delaying the inevitable. PMID:16582870

  12. Male Anorexia Nervosa: A New Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosscope-Happel, Cindy; Hutchins, David E.; Getz, Hildy G.; Hayes, Gerald L.

    2000-01-01

    Although anorexia nervosa affects over one million males yearly, it is often misdiagnosed or overlooked by mental health and medical practitioners. This article brings the problem to the forefront and outlines features that are unique to these males. Greater recognition of the disorder can lead to more accurate diagnoses and, subsequently, better…

  13. [Male aspect towards good aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Matti O

    2009-01-01

    Columnist "Kirsti" of Helsingin Sanomat newspaper divided middle age into three stages: early middle age (35-45 years), mid-middle age (45-55) and late middle age (55-65). Similarly, those at 65-75 are living juvenile old age, those at 75-85 midlife old age and those over 85, senescent old age. Classification of these ages according to the years of life does, however, not correspond with personal feelings. The intrinsic relation to life and death may provide a better definition of the stages of life. At the middle age we become aware of the limitation of life and begin to count the remaining years. PMID:19585910

  14. Relative age effect in junior tennis (male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Agricola

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The issues of the age effect (the theory of the age influence have been shown in sport sciences since the 1980s. The theory of age effect works on the assumption that athletes born in the beginning of a calendar year are, particularly in children’s and junior age, more successful than athletes born in the end of the year. This fact has been proved by a number of research studies, mainly in ice hockey, soccer, and tennis but also in other sports. OBJECTIVE: The submitted contribution is aimed at verifying of the age effect in junior tennis. The research objective was to find out the distribution of birth date frequencies in a population of tennis players’ in individual months, quarters, and half-years in the observed period 2007–2011 and to check the significance of differences. METHODS: The research was conducted on male tennis players aged 13–14 (N = 239, participants of the World Junior Tennis Finals. From the methodological point of view, it was an intentional selection. The birth dates of individual tennis players were taken from official materials of the ITF, the research data were processed using Microsoft Excel. The personal data were processed with the approval of players and the hosting organization (ITF. RESULTS: Testing of the hypothesis on the significance of differences in the distribution of frequencies between individual quarters (Q1–Q4 has proved statistically relevant differences between Q1 and Q3, Q1 and Q4, Q2 and Q3, and Q2 and Q4; a statistically relevant difference has been also found in the distribution of frequencies between the first and second half of the year. On the basis of the results of the presented research, the age effect in the studied population of junior male tennis players can be regarded as significant. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the analysis of the research data confirm the conclusions of similar studies in other sports and prove that in the population of elite junior players

  15. Age-dependent male mating investment in Drosophila pseudoobscura.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Dhole

    Full Text Available Male mating investment can strongly influence fitness gained from a mating. Yet, male mating investment often changes with age. Life history theory predicts that mating investment should increase with age, and males should become less discriminatory about their mate as they age. Understanding age-dependent changes in male behavior and their effects on fitness is important for understanding how selection acts in age-structured populations. Although the independent effects of male or female age have been studied in many species, how these interact to influence male mating investment and fitness is less well understood. We mated Drosophila pseudoobscura males of five different age classes (4-, 8-, 11-, 15-, 19-day old to either young (4-day or old (11-day females, and measured copulation duration and early post-mating fecundity. Along with their independent effects, we found a strong interaction between the effects of male and female ages on male mating investment and fitness from individual matings. Male mating investment increased with male age, but this increase was more prominent in matings with young females. Male D. pseudoobscura made smaller investments when mating with old females. The level of such discrimination based on female age, however, also changed with male age. Intermediate aged males were most discriminatory, while the youngest and the oldest males did not discriminate between females of different ages. We also found that larger male mating investments resulted in higher fitness payoffs. Our results show that male and female ages interact to form a complex pattern of age-specific male mating investment and fitness.

  16. Relative age effect in junior tennis (male)

    OpenAIRE

    Adrián Agricola; Jiří Zháněl; Ondřej Hubáček

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The issues of the age effect (the theory of the age influence) have been shown in sport sciences since the 1980s. The theory of age effect works on the assumption that athletes born in the beginning of a calendar year are, particularly in children’s and junior age, more successful than athletes born in the end of the year. This fact has been proved by a number of research studies, mainly in ice hockey, soccer, and tennis but also in other sports. OBJECTIVE: The submitted contribut...

  17. Pituitary-gonadal function in adolescent males born appropriate or small for gestational age with or without intrauterine growth restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Beck; Vielwerth, Signe; Larsen, Torben Kjeldgaard;

    2007-01-01

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is suggested to influence female pituitary-gonadal axis, but only a few studies have focused on male pituitary-gonadal function.......Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is suggested to influence female pituitary-gonadal axis, but only a few studies have focused on male pituitary-gonadal function....

  18. Sexual maturation and aging of adult male mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Jasrotia, P; Silva, E B; Zada, A; Franco, J C

    2012-08-01

    The physiological age of adult males of seven mealybug species was measured in relation to the elongation of the male pair of the waxy caudal filaments. These filaments begin to emerge after eclosion and reached their maximum length from 29.4-46.6 h. The studied males were divided into three age groups, expressed as percentages of the total waxy caudal filaments length. Attraction to a sex pheromone source was significantly higher in the oldest male group (maximum filaments growth) compared with youngest one. Only the oldest male group copulated successfully; few of the younger males tested displayed 'courtship' behavior towards conspecific virgin females. The calculated duration of the sexually active phase of the adult male life cycle varied among species ranging from 34.4 to 46.6 h. There were marked variations in the strength of attraction to a pheromone source according to time of day. There was a continuous decrease in sexual activity from morning to evening. Our findings reveal clear maturation periods for adult males of the seven studied species. The long immature phase of the adult male mealybug is probably also related to several physiological processes that are needed to complete male maturation. The most noticeable change is the elongation of the waxy caudal filaments. However, mating may be performed at any time ambient conditions are suitable. Whereas male mealybug flight towards a pheromone source is restricted to a few hours, the male may continue mating activity throughout its sexually active period.

  19. Male age and female mate choice in a synchronizing katydid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartbauer, M; Siegert, M E; Römer, H

    2015-08-01

    In acoustically communicating species, females often evaluate the frequency content, signal duration and the temporal signal pattern to gain information about the age of the signaller. This is different in the synchronizing bush cricket Mecopoda elongata where females select males on the basis of relative signal timing in duets. In a longitudinal approach, we recorded songs of M. elongata males produced 2 weeks (young male) and 9 weeks (old male) after their ultimate moult. Signal timing of both age categories was studied in acoustic interactions, and female preference was investigated in choice situations. Young male chirps were significantly shorter and contained less energy compared to "old chirps". In mixed-age duets younger males timed their chirps as leader significantly more often. Females preferred the young male chirp when broadcast as leader over the old male chirp, but choice was random when the old male chirp was leader. This choice asymmetry was abolished after reducing the duration of the "old chirp". Results were mirrored in response of a bilateral pair of auditory neurons, where the asymmetry in spike count and first-spike latency correlated with behaviour. We suggest that older males may compensate their disadvantage in a more complex chorus situation.

  20. Traditional male circumcision in Uganda: a qualitative focus group discussion analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Sabet Sarvestani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The growing body of evidence attesting to the effectiveness of clinical male circumcision in the prevention of HIV/AIDS transmission is prompting the majority of sub-Saharan African governments to move towards the adoption of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC. Even though it is recommended to consider collaboration with traditional male circumcision (TMC providers when planning for VMMC, there is limited knowledge available about the TMC landscape and traditional beliefs. METHODOLOGY AND MAIN FINDINGS: During 2010-11 over 25 focus group discussions (FGDs were held with clan leaders, traditional cutters, and their assistants to understand the practice of TMC in four ethnic groups in Uganda. Cultural significance and cost were among the primary reasons cited for preferring TMC over VMMC. Ethnic groups in western Uganda circumcised boys at younger ages and encountered lower rates of TMC related adverse events compared to ethnic groups in eastern Uganda. Cutting styles and post-cut care also differed among the four groups. The use of a single razor blade per candidate instead of the traditional knife was identified as an important and recent change. Participants in the focus groups expressed interest in learning about methods to reduce adverse events. CONCLUSION: This work reaffirmed the strong cultural significance of TMC within Ugandan ethnic groups. Outcomes suggest that there is an opportunity to evaluate the involvement of local communities that still perform TMC in the national VMMC roll-out plan by devising safer, more effective procedures through innovative approaches.

  1. Cannabis, Cocaine and the Wages of Prime Age Males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses a dataset collected among inhabitants of Amsterdam, to study whether wages of prime age male workers are affected by the use of cannabis and cocaine.The analysis shows that cocaine use and infrequent cannabis use do not affect wages.Frequent cannabis use has a negative wage effect.Th

  2. Rock Sparrow Song Reflects Male Age and Reproductive Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemeth, Erwin; Kempenaers, Bart; Matessi, Giuliano;

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of mating signals is closely linked to sexual selection. Acoustic ornaments are often used as secondary sexual traits that signal the quality of the signaller. Here we show that song performance reflects age and reproductive success in the rock sparrow (Petronia petronia). In an Alp......The evolution of mating signals is closely linked to sexual selection. Acoustic ornaments are often used as secondary sexual traits that signal the quality of the signaller. Here we show that song performance reflects age and reproductive success in the rock sparrow (Petronia petronia......). In an Alpine population in south-east France, we recorded the songs of males and assessed their genetic breeding success by microsatellite analysis. In addition to temporal and spectral song features, we also analysed for the first time whether the sound pressure level of bird song reflects reproductive...... nests. Older males could be distinguished from yearlings by singing at lower rate and higher amplitudes. Our findings suggest that song rate may be used as a signal of age and together with song pitch as a signal of reproductive success in this species. Alternatively, younger and less successful males...

  3. Age, task complexity, and sex as potential moderators of attentional focus effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kevin; Smith, Peter J K

    2013-08-01

    The study tested whether age, sex, or task complexity moderate the effect of attentional focus on motor learning. Children (24 boys, 24 girls) and adults (24 men, 24 women) were assigned to an internal or external attentional focus, and were timed while riding either a Double Pedalo with handles (simple task) or without handles (complex task) over a distance of 7 meters. A Double Pedalo is a four-wheeled device that involves standing on two connected platforms, and alternately pushing them forward to make it move. Participants completed 20 acquisition trials, followed by a 24-hour retention test. For the simpler task, no time differences due to attentional focus emerged. With the complex task, an external focus resulted in faster times in retention than an internal focus, but only for males. These findings suggest that attentional focus affects children and adults similarly, but task complexity and sex moderate these effects.

  4. Persuasion Tactics Used by College Age Females on College Age Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Erika J.; Pollard, Gloria D.; Williams, Christina M.

    This paper researched persuasive tactics used by college age females on college age males. Previous evidence indicates that nonverbal persuasion is more effective than verbal persuasion. The topics explored in previous research on persuasion consisted of physical attractiveness, indirect knowledge of influence, tactics used by children and college…

  5. Matrix ageing and vascular impacts: focus on elastin fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duca, Laurent; Blaise, Sébastien; Romier, Béatrice; Laffargue, Muriel; Gayral, Stéphanie; El Btaouri, Hassan; Kawecki, Charlotte; Guillot, Alexandre; Martiny, Laurent; Debelle, Laurent; Maurice, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide and represent a major problem of public health. Over the years, life expectancy has considerably increased throughout the world, and the prevalence of CVD is inevitably rising with the growing ageing of the population. The normal process of ageing is associated with progressive deterioration in structure and function of the vasculature, commonly called vascular ageing. At the vascular level, extracellular matrix (ECM) ageing leads to molecular alterations in long half-life proteins, such as elastin and collagen, and have critical effects on vascular diseases. This review highlights ECM alterations occurring during vascular ageing with a specific focus on elastin fragmentation and also the contribution of elastin-derived peptides (EDP) in age-related vascular complications. Moreover, current and new pharmacological strategies aiming at minimizing elastin degradation, EDP generation, and associated biological effects are discussed. These strategies may be of major relevance for preventing and/or delaying vascular ageing and its complications. PMID:27009176

  6. Modeling the Impact of Uganda's Safe Male Circumcision Program: Implications for Age and Regional Targeting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Kripke

    Full Text Available Uganda aims to provide safe male circumcision (SMC to 80% of men ages 15-49 by 2016. To date, only 2 million men have received SMC of the 4.2 million men required. In response to age and regional trends in SMC uptake, the country sought to re-examine its targets with respect to age and subnational region, to assess the program's progress, and to refine the implementation approach.The Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0, was used in conjunction with incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM to conduct this analysis. Population, births, deaths, and HIV incidence and prevalence were used to populate the model. Baseline male circumcision prevalence was derived from the 2011 AIDS Indicator Survey. Uganda can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising men ages 20-34. This group will also require the fewest circumcisions for each HIV infection averted. Focusing on men ages 10-19 will offer the greatest impact over a 15-year period, while focusing on men ages 15-34 offers the most cost-effective strategy over the same period. A regional analysis showed little variation in cost-effectiveness of scaling up SMC across eight regions. Scale-up is cost-saving in all regions. There is geographic variability in program progress, highlighting two regions with low baseline rates of circumcision where additional efforts will be needed.Focusing SMC efforts on specific age groups and regions may help to accelerate Uganda's SMC program progress. Policy makers in Uganda have already used model outputs in planning efforts, proposing males ages 10-34 as a priority group for SMC in the 2014 application to the Global Fund's new funding model. As scale-up continues, the country should also consider a greater effort to expand SMC in regions with low MC prevalence.

  7. Testosterone for the aging male; current evidence and recommended practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger D Stanworth

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Roger D Stanworth, T Hugh JonesCentre of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Barnsley Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Barnsley, South Yorkshire, United Kingdom; Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, United KingdomAbstract: An international consensus document was recently published and provides guidance on the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH in men. The diagnosis of LOH requires biochemical and clinical components. Controversy in defining the clinical syndrome continues due to the high prevalence of hypogonadal symptoms in the aging male population and the non-specific nature of these symptoms. Further controversy surrounds setting a lower limit of normal testosterone, the limitations of the commonly available total testosterone result in assessing some patients and the unavailability of reliable measures of bioavailable or free testosterone for general clinical use. As with any clinical intervention testosterone treatment should be judged on a balance of risk versus benefit. The traditional benefits of testosterone on sexual function, mood, strength and quality of life remain the primary goals of treatment but possible beneficial effects on other parameters such as bone density, obesity, insulin resistance and angina are emerging and will be reviewed. Potential concerns regarding the effects of testosterone on prostate disease, aggression and polycythaemia will also be addressed. The options available for treatment have increased in recent years with the availability of a number of testosterone preparations which can reliably produce physiological serum concentrations.Keywords: review, testosterone, male, aging

  8. Testosterone treatment in the aging male: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Nicole; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2012-03-19

    The definition of late onset hypogonadism in the aging male is controversially debated, and according to the latest literature consists of at least three especially sexual symptoms such as loss of morning erection, low sexual desire and erectile dysfunction as well as a total testosterone products for the aging male increased by over 170% in the previous five years. Furthermore, there is a lot of epidemiological data showing an inverse relationship between testosterone levels and obesity, insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, only few small randomised placebo-controlled studies have investigated the effect of testosterone replacement therapy on insulin resistance and HbA1c levels, with controversial results. Importantly, so far the long-term safety and efficacy of testosterone replacement therapy has not been established. Although until now no clear evidence has been found that testosterone replacement therapy has a causative role in prostate cancer or indeed in changes of the biology of the prostate, in a recent meta-analysis a 4-fold increased risk of prostate-associated event rates in testosterone treated elderly men sounds a note of caution. Also the risk for cardiovascular events is still not clear and caution is warranted especially in elderly men with cardiovascular disease and limited mobility. In summary, the actual available evidence of long-term risks and outcome of testosterone replacement therapy is still very limited and carefully designed placebo-controlled trials of testosterone administration to assess the risks and benefits of such a therapy are required. Until then, testosterone treatment in elderly men should be restricted to elderly men with clearly low testosterone levels in the presence of clinical symptoms, and the advantages and disadvantages need to be accurately weighted. A careful monitoring of potential side effects is necessary.

  9. Male brain ages faster: the age and gender dependence of subcortical volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, András; Szabó, Nikoletta; Tóth, Eszter; Csete, Gergő; Faragó, Péter; Kocsis, Krisztián; Must, Anita; Vécsei, László; Kincses, Zsigmond Tamás

    2016-09-01

    Effects of gender on grey matter (GM) volume differences in subcortical structures of the human brain have consistently been reported. Recent research evidence suggests that both gender and brain size influences volume distribution in subcortical areas independently. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of the interplay between brain size, gender and age contributing to volume differences of subcortical GM in the human brain. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 53 healthy males and 50 age-matched healthy females. Total GM volume was determined using voxel-based morphometry. We used model-based subcortical segmentation analysis to measure the volume of subcortical nuclei. Main effects of gender, brain volume and aging on subcortical structures were examined using multivariate analysis of variance. No significant difference was found in total brain volume between the two genders after correcting for total intracranial volume. Our analysis revealed significantly larger hippocampus volume for females. Additionally, GM volumes of the caudate nucleus, putamen and thalamus displayed a significant age-related decrease in males as compared to females. In contrast to this only the thalamic volume loss proved significant for females. Strikingly, GM volume decreases faster in males than in females emphasizing the interplay between aging and gender on subcortical structures. These findings might have important implications for the interpretation of the effects of unalterable factors (i.e. gender and age) in cross-sectional structural MRI studies. Furthermore, the volume distribution and changes of subcortical structures have been consistently related to several neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g. Parkinson's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, etc.). Understanding these changes might yield further insight in the course and prognosis of these disorders. PMID:26572143

  10. Diagnosis and prognosis of male infertility in mammal: the focusing of tyrosine phosphorylation and phosphotyrosine proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Woo-Sung; Rahman, Md Saidur; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2014-11-01

    Male infertility refers to the inability of a man to achieve a pregnancy in a fertile female. In more than one-third of cases, infertility arises due to the male factor. Therefore, developing strategies for the diagnosis and prognosis of male infertility is critical. Simultaneously, a satisfactory model for the cellular mechanisms that regulate normal sperm function must be established. In this regard, tyrosine phosphorylation is one of the most common mechanisms through which several signal transduction pathways are adjusted in spermatozoa. It regulates the various aspects of sperm function, for example, motility, hyperactivation, capacitation, the acrosome reaction, fertilization, and beyond. Several recent large-scale studies have identified the proteins that are phosphorylated in spermatozoa to acquire fertilization competence. However, most of these studies are basal and have not presented an overall mechanism through which tyrosine phosphorylation regulates male infertility. In this review, we focus of this mechanism, discussing most of the tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in spermatozoa that have been identified to date. We categorized tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in spermatozoa that regulate male infertility using MedScan Reader (v5.0) and Pathway Studio (v9.0).

  11. Age Targeting of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Programs Using the Decision Makers' Program Planning Toolkit (DMPPT 2.0.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Kripke

    Full Text Available Despite considerable efforts to scale up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC for HIV prevention in priority countries over the last five years, implementation has faced important challenges. Seeking to enhance the effect of VMMC programs for greatest and most immediate impact, the U. S. President's Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR supported the development and application of a model to inform national planning in five countries from 2013-2014.The Decision Makers' Program Planning Toolkit (DMPPT 2.0 is a simple compartmental model designed to analyze the effects of client age and geography on program impact and cost. The DMPPT 2.0 model was applied in Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, and Uganda to assess the impact and cost of scaling up age-targeted VMMC coverage. The lowest number of VMMCs per HIV infection averted would be produced by circumcising males ages 20-34 in Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda and males ages 15-34 in Swaziland. The most immediate impact on HIV incidence would be generated by circumcising males ages 20-34 in Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda and males ages 20-29 in Swaziland. The greatest reductions in HIV incidence over a 15-year period would be achieved by strategies focused on males ages 10-19 in Uganda, 15-24 in Malawi and South Africa, 10-24 in Tanzania, and 15-29 in Swaziland. In all countries, the lowest cost per HIV infection averted would be achieved by circumcising males ages 15-34, although in Uganda this cost is the same as that attained by circumcising 15- to 49-year-olds.The efficiency, immediacy of impact, magnitude of impact, and cost-effectiveness of VMMC scale-up are not uniform; there is important variation by age group of the males circumcised and countries should plan accordingly.

  12. Age Targeting of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Programs Using the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Toolkit (DMPPT) 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripke, Katharine; Opuni, Marjorie; Schnure, Melissa; Sgaier, Sema; Castor, Delivette; Reed, Jason; Stover, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite considerable efforts to scale up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention in priority countries over the last five years, implementation has faced important challenges. Seeking to enhance the effect of VMMC programs for greatest and most immediate impact, the U. S. President’s Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) supported the development and application of a model to inform national planning in five countries from 2013–2014. Methods and Findings The Decision Makers’ Program Planning Toolkit (DMPPT) 2.0 is a simple compartmental model designed to analyze the effects of client age and geography on program impact and cost. The DMPPT 2.0 model was applied in Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, and Uganda to assess the impact and cost of scaling up age-targeted VMMC coverage. The lowest number of VMMCs per HIV infection averted would be produced by circumcising males ages 20–34 in Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda and males ages 15–34 in Swaziland. The most immediate impact on HIV incidence would be generated by circumcising males ages 20–34 in Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda and males ages 20–29 in Swaziland. The greatest reductions in HIV incidence over a 15-year period would be achieved by strategies focused on males ages 10–19 in Uganda, 15–24 in Malawi and South Africa, 10–24 in Tanzania, and 15–29 in Swaziland. In all countries, the lowest cost per HIV infection averted would be achieved by circumcising males ages 15–34, although in Uganda this cost is the same as that attained by circumcising 15- to 49-year-olds. Conclusions The efficiency, immediacy of impact, magnitude of impact, and cost-effectiveness of VMMC scale-up are not uniform; there is important variation by age group of the males circumcised and countries should plan accordingly. PMID:27410966

  13. Focus Groups Reveal Differences in Career Experiences Between Male and Female Geoscientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oconnell, S.; Frey, C. D.; Holmes, M.

    2003-12-01

    We conducted twelve telephone focus groups of geoscientists to discover what motivates geoscientists to enter our field and stay in our field. There were separate male and female groups from six different professional categories: administrators, full and associate professors, non-tenure track personnel, assistant professors, post-docs and PhD candidates, Bachelor's and Master's candidates. A total of 96 geoscientists participated. Specifically, respondents were asked what initially brought them into the geosciences. Three dominant themes emerged: the subject matter itself, undergraduate experiences, and relationships. A total of 51 responses to this question related to the subject matter itself. Approximately 61 percent (31) of those responses were given by male focus group participants. Across all focus groups, participants brought up issues such as a general appreciation of the outdoors, weather, rocks, and dinosaurs. Following closely behind the general subject matter is undergraduate events. Fifty-one responses mentioned something about undergraduate experiences such as an introductory class, a laboratory experience, or field experiences. While both female and male participants discussed the role of interpersonal relationships in their decision to become a geoscientist, females were slightly more likely to bring up relevant relationships (26 times for females compared to 21 for males). These relationships varied in both groups from a parent or grandparents influence to camping trips with professors. When respondents were asked whether they had ever considered leaving the geosciences and under what circumstances, there was a striking difference between males and females: males were far less likely to have ever considered leaving. Younger males were more likely to consider leaving than older geoscientists. They feel challenged by the financial constraints of graduate school and the time constraints of academic vs. family life. Many females considered leaving at

  14. Effects of taurine on male reproduction in rats of different ages

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Jiancheng; Wu Gaofeng; Feng Ying; Lv Qiufeng; Lin Shumei; Hu Jianmin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background It has been demonstrated that taurine is one of the most abundant free amino acids in the male reproductive system, and can be biosynthesized by male reproductive organs. But the effect of taurine on male reproduction is poorly understood. Methods Taurine and β-alanine (taurine transport inhibitor) were offered in water to male rats of different ages. The effects of taurine on reproductive hormones, testis marker enzymes, antioxidative ability and sperm quality were invest...

  15. Relation of cigarette smoking in males of different ages to sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship of cigarette smoking, age, total testosterone free testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were examined by solid phase radioimmunoassay in 90 randomly chosen healthy males of different ages. The serum levels of these hormones were investigated for smokers compared with non-smokers, of the same ages in 3 groups (adolescent males, middle aged males, and old aged males). Results indicated that cigarette smokers showed increased serum levels of testosterone (60.0% higher, P> 0.05), free testosterone (51.0 higher, P > 0.005) in young adolescent males group, testosterone (27.8% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (21.3% higher, P > 0.001) in middle aged males group, and testosterone (21.0% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (16.8% higher, P > 0.4) in old ages males group. SHBG was calculated as a mean of free and total testosterone in each group. smokers showed higher mean values of SHBG than non-smokers. Age was positively associated with serum SHBG, it was found that SHBG increased by 17.2% from the youngest (> 18 years) to the oldest age (> 65 years)

  16. Online focus groups as an HIV prevention program for gay, bisexual, and queer adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; DuBois, L Zachary; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Prescott, Tonya L; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Seventy-five 14-18-year-old gay, bisexual, and queer (GBQ) males provided feedback about how their participation in national, online focus groups (FG) about GBQ sexual health related topics resulted in behavioral and attitudinal changes. Most sexually experienced youth agreed that their participation positively changed their views and behavioral intentions. Some said that being in the FG made them more comfortable talking about sex, their sexuality, and making safer choices such as negotiating condoms. Others indicated intentions to become more involved in the LGBT community. Sexually inexperienced FG participants similarly said that the FG discussion positively affected them-most commonly by reducing their sense of isolation as young GBQ men who were waiting to have sex. Many also thought that they would become more vocal advocates of abstinence and/or safe sex. Online FGs and facilitated discussion boards should be further explored as a low-cost HIV prevention program for GBQ youth.

  17. Online focus groups as an HIV prevention program for gay, bisexual, and queer adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; DuBois, L Zachary; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Prescott, Tonya L; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Seventy-five 14-18-year-old gay, bisexual, and queer (GBQ) males provided feedback about how their participation in national, online focus groups (FG) about GBQ sexual health related topics resulted in behavioral and attitudinal changes. Most sexually experienced youth agreed that their participation positively changed their views and behavioral intentions. Some said that being in the FG made them more comfortable talking about sex, their sexuality, and making safer choices such as negotiating condoms. Others indicated intentions to become more involved in the LGBT community. Sexually inexperienced FG participants similarly said that the FG discussion positively affected them-most commonly by reducing their sense of isolation as young GBQ men who were waiting to have sex. Many also thought that they would become more vocal advocates of abstinence and/or safe sex. Online FGs and facilitated discussion boards should be further explored as a low-cost HIV prevention program for GBQ youth. PMID:25490735

  18. Pathophysiology of cell phone radiation: oxidative stress and carcinogenesis with focus on male reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesari Kavindra K

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hazardous health effects stemming from exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW emitted from cell phones have been reported in the literature. However, the cellular target of RF-EMW is still controversial. This review identifies the plasma membrane as a target of RF-EMW. In addition, the effects of RF-EMW on plasma membrane structures (i.e. NADH oxidase, phosphatidylserine, ornithine decarboxylase and voltage-gated calcium channels are discussed. We explore the disturbance in reactive oxygen species (ROS metabolism caused by RF-EMW and delineate NADH oxidase mediated ROS formation as playing a central role in oxidative stress (OS due to cell phone radiation (with a focus on the male reproductive system. This review also addresses: 1 the controversial effects of RF-EMW on mammalian cells and sperm DNA as well as its effect on apoptosis, 2 epidemiological, in vivo animal and in vitro studies on the effect of RF-EMW on male reproductive system, and 3 finally, exposure assessment and dosimetry by computational biomodeling.

  19. Relationship-focused psychotherapies for eating disorders come of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio A

    2016-06-01

    This is a commentary on 3 case studies of relationship-focused therapies for eating disorders. The 3 approaches vary along a number of dimensions, but nevertheless share important similarities especially related to the role played by variables such as interpersonal problems and affect dysregulation. I briefly review research on interpersonal- and attachment-based models of eating disorders that provide the evidence-base for theories of therapy that are relationship-focused. The Interpersonal Psychotherapy case presented by Tanofsky-Kraff, Shomaker, Young, and Wilfley (2016) illustrates how a group context can facilitate change in key role disputes and role transitions in an adolescent at risk of developing an eating disorder later in her life. The Integrative-Dynamic Therapy case presented by Richards, Shingleton, Goldman, Siegel, and Thompson-Brenner (2016) is a novel sequential combination of cognitive-behavioral therapy followed by dynamic psychotherapy for a young adult with bulimia nervosa that likely reflects what most clinicians do in everyday practice. The Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy case presented by Lunn, Poulsen, and Daniel (2016) of a patient with severe personality pathology demonstrates how treatments for eating disorders sometimes must address complex attachment dysfunction, self-organization, and therapist countertransference in order to provide a useful therapeutic experience. Relationship-focused theories and therapies for eating disorders have come a long way over the past decades, thus providing therapists with a wider range of approaches that can be truly personalized to their clients. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27267506

  20. Modeling the Impact of Uganda’s Safe Male Circumcision Program: Implications for Age and Regional Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripke, Katharine; Vazzano, Andrea; Kirungi, William; Musinguzi, Joshua; Opio, Alex; Ssempebwa, Rhobbinah; Nakawunde, Susan; Kyobutungi, Sheila; Akao, Juliet N.; Magala, Fred; Mwidu, George; Castor, Delivette

    2016-01-01

    Background Uganda aims to provide safe male circumcision (SMC) to 80% of men ages 15–49 by 2016. To date, only 2 million men have received SMC of the 4.2 million men required. In response to age and regional trends in SMC uptake, the country sought to re-examine its targets with respect to age and subnational region, to assess the program’s progress, and to refine the implementation approach. Methods and Findings The Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), was used in conjunction with incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM) to conduct this analysis. Population, births, deaths, and HIV incidence and prevalence were used to populate the model. Baseline male circumcision prevalence was derived from the 2011 AIDS Indicator Survey. Uganda can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising men ages 20–34. This group will also require the fewest circumcisions for each HIV infection averted. Focusing on men ages 10–19 will offer the greatest impact over a 15-year period, while focusing on men ages 15–34 offers the most cost-effective strategy over the same period. A regional analysis showed little variation in cost-effectiveness of scaling up SMC across eight regions. Scale-up is cost-saving in all regions. There is geographic variability in program progress, highlighting two regions with low baseline rates of circumcision where additional efforts will be needed. Conclusion Focusing SMC efforts on specific age groups and regions may help to accelerate Uganda’s SMC program progress. Policy makers in Uganda have already used model outputs in planning efforts, proposing males ages 10–34 as a priority group for SMC in the 2014 application to the Global Fund’s new funding model. As scale-up continues, the country should also consider a greater effort to expand SMC in regions with low MC prevalence. PMID:27410234

  1. Drinking Over the Lifespan: Focus on College Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Jennifer E; Carey, Kate B

    2016-01-01

    Many college students drink heavily and experience myriad associated negative consequences. This review suggests that a developmental perspective can facilitate a better understanding of college drinking. Specifically, using an emerging adulthood framework that considers the ongoing role of parents and neurodevelopmental processes can provide insight into why students drink. Most college students drink and tend to drink more and more heavily than their non-college-attending peers. These drinking patterns are affected by environmental and temporal characteristics specific to the college environment, including residential campus living, the academic week, and the academic year. Additional psychosocial factors are of particular relevance to the drinking behavior of college-age people, and include exaggerated peer norms, the development and use of protective behavioral strategies, and mental health considerations. Understanding the unique interaction of person and environment is key to designing prevention/intervention efforts. PMID:27159817

  2. Effect of male age on sperm traits and sperm competition success in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, C; Marino, I A M; Boschetto, C; Pilastro, A

    2010-01-01

    Deleterious mutations can accumulate in the germline with age, decreasing the genetic quality of sperm and imposing a cost on female fitness. If these mutations also affect sperm competition ability or sperm production, then females will benefit from polyandry as it incites sperm competition and, consequently, minimizes the mutational load in the offspring. We tested this hypothesis in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a species characterized by polyandry and intense sperm competition, by investigating whether age affects post-copulatory male traits and sperm competition success. Females did not discriminate between old and young males in a mate choice experiment. While old males produced longer and slower sperm with larger reserves of strippable sperm, compared to young males, artificial insemination did not reveal any effect of age on sperm competition success. Altogether, these results do not support the hypothesis that polyandry evolved in response to costs associated with mating with old males in the guppy.

  3. Male chimpanzees' grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proctor, Darby P; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steve;

    2011-01-01

    , should show little or no preference when choosing mating partners (e.g. should mate indiscriminately). To determine if the preferences indicated by copulations appear in other contexts as well as how they interact, we examined how male chimpanzees' grooming patterns varied amongst females. We found...... that males' preferences were based on interactions among females' fertility status, age, and parity. First, grooming increased with increasing female parity. We further found an effect of the estrous cycle on grooming; when females were at the lowest point of their cycle, males preferentially groomed parous...... females at peak reproductive age, but during maximal tumescence, males preferred the oldest multiparous females. Nulliparous females received relatively little grooming regardless of age or fertility. Thus, male chimpanzees apparently chose grooming partners based on both female's experience and fertility...

  4. Body Image Concerns in College-Aged Male Physical Education Students: A Descriptive Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michele S.; Esco, Michael R.; Willifo, Hank

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine body image concerns in college-aged male physical education majors. Sixty volunteers completed validated body image instruments including two-dimensional figure drawings. In general, the sample reported that they preferred a larger, more muscular physique reflective of male images that currently abound the…

  5. Aging related changes in determinants of muscle force generating capacity: a comparison of muscle aging in men and male rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballak, Sam B; Degens, Hans; de Haan, Arnold; Jaspers, Richard T

    2014-03-01

    Human aging is associated with a progressive decline in skeletal muscle mass and force generating capacity, however the exact mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. Rodents models have often been used to enhance our understanding of mechanisms of age-related changes in human skeletal muscle. However, to what extent age-related alterations in determinants of muscle force generating capacity observed in rodents resemble those in humans has not been considered thoroughly. This review compares the effect of aging on muscle force generating determinants (muscle mass, fiber size, fiber number, fiber type distribution and muscle specific tension), in men and male rodents at similar relative age. It appears that muscle aging in male F344*BN rat resembles that in men most; 32-35-month-old rats exhibit similar signs of muscle weakness to those of 70-80-yr-old men, and the decline in 36-38-month-old rats is similar to that in men aged over 80 yrs. For male C57BL/6 mice, age-related decline in muscle force generating capacity seems to occur only at higher relative age than in men. We conclude that the effects on determinants of muscle force differ between species as well as within species, but qualitatively show the same pattern as that observed in men.

  6. Survey for late-onset hypogonadism among old and middle-aged males in Shanghai communities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Sun; Guo-Qing Liang; Xiang-Feng Chen; Ping Ping; Wen-Liang Yao; Shi-Jun Zhang; Bo Wang; Ying-Hao Sun; Zheng Li

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to investigate late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) in old and middle-aged males in Shanghai communities,using symptom score evaluation systems and measurements of sex hormone levels.One thousand cases of males aged 40-70 years were investigated.The aging male symptoms (AMS) scale and androgen deficiency in aging males (ADAM) questionnaire were used at the beginning of the investigation,followed by measurement of the sex hormone-related factors (total testosterone (TT),free testosterone (fT),sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and bioavailability of testosterone (Bio-T)).There were 977 valid questionnaires.The LOH-positive rates shown by AMS and ADAM were 59.88% and 84.65%,respectively; values increased with the age of the patients.There were 946 results related to sex hormone measurements,which showed the following results:TT was not related to aging (P>0.05); levels of SHBG increased with age; and fT and Bio-T decreased with age.There was a significant difference in fT between LOH-positive and LOH-negative patients,as shown by the ADAM.In summary,TT levels were not related to aging,even though SHBG did increase while fT and Bio-T decreased with aging.Clinically,the diagnosis of LOH cannot be based on serum TT level.

  7. Medical management of erectile dysfunction in aging males: is it too late to treat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction (ED is a common disorder among aging males. However, most aging males refuse to seek medical help and believe that ED is an irreversible event in the aging process. The purpose of this study was to describe the current medical management of ED in aging males and to examine whether it is too late to treat this disorder in these elderly men. From 2007 to 2008, 4507 patients diagnosed with ED were gathered from 46 centers in China; 4241 completed the study, 3837 of whom were treated with sildenafil. The 3837 patients were divided into five groups based on age (group A: 20-30 years; group B: 31-40 years; group C: 41-50 years; group D: 51-60 years; and group E: >60 years. After comparing pre- and posttreatment International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function domain (IIEF-EF questionnaires, Erection Hardness Scale (EHS, and IIEF Q13 ("How satisfied have you been with your overall sex life?", we discovered that the aging males had worse erectile function, erection hardness, and sexual satisfaction than the younger males (P < 0.001. After treatment, the improvement rates in the IIEF-EF, EHS, and IIEF Q13 scores were 107.0%, 83.1%, and 116.5%, respectively. The magnitude of these changes demonstrated significant differences among groups (P < 0.001. Accordingly, aging males are likely to benefit more from medical treatment. We propose that aging males should be informed that age is not a limiting factor for medical ED management, and it is never too late to treat.

  8. Age-Concordant and Age-Discordant Sexual Behavior Among Gay and Bisexual Male Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W.; Fernández, M. Isabel; Jamil, Omar B.

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that risks for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among adolescent females are higher for those with older male sexual partners. Yet, little empirical research has been conducted with male adolescents who engage in sexual activity with older men. In this article, we summarize in a number of ways the range of sexual activity reported by an ethnically diverse sample of 200 gay and bisexual male youth (15–22 years old) in Chicago and Miami. A general pattern of progression...

  9. Focus on opportunities as a mediator of the relationship between business owners' age and venture growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielnik, Michael M.; Zacher, Hannes; Frese, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Combining upper echelons and lifespan theories, we investigated the mediating effect of focus on opportunities on the negative relationship between business owners' age and venture growth. We also expected that mental health moderates the negative relationship between business owners' age and focus

  10. Evaluation of Effect of Oleuropein on Skin Wound Healing in Aged Male Balb/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Mehraein

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Olive oil and olive leaf extract are used for treatment of skin diseases and wounds in Iran. The main component of olive leaf extract is Oleuropein. This research is focused on the effects of Oleuropein on skin wound healing in aged male Balb/c mice. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, Oleuropein was provided by Razi Herbal Medicine Institute, Lorestan, Iran. Twenty four male Balb/c mice, 16 months of age, were divided equally into control and experimental groups. Under ether anesthesia, the hairs on the back of neck of all groups were shaved and a 1 cm long full-thickness incision was made. The incision was then left un-sutured. The experimental group received intradermal injections with a daily single dose of 50 mg/kg Oleuropein for a total period of 7 days. The control group received only distilled water. On days 3 and 7 after making the incision and injections, mice were sacrificed, and the skin around incision area was dissected and stained by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and Van Gieson’s methods for tissue analysis. In addition, western blot analysis was carried out to evaluate the level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF protein expression. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA. The t test was applied to assess the significance of changes between control and experimental groups. Results: Oleuropein not only reduced cell infiltration in the wound site on days 3 and 7 post incision, but also a significant increase in collagen fiber deposition and more advanced re- epithelialization were observed (p<0.05 in the experimental group as compared to the control group. The difference of hair follicles was not significant between the two groups at the same period of time. Furthermore, western blot analysis showed an increased in VEGF protein level from samples collected on days 3 and 7 post-incision of experimental group as compared to the control group (p<0.05. Conclusion

  11. Male chimpanzees' grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Darby P; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2011-10-01

    Copulation preferences in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, suggest that males prefer older females who have had previous offspring. However, this finding is counter to some behavioral models, which predict that chimpanzee males, as promiscuous breeders with minimal costs to mating, should show little or no preference when choosing mating partners (e.g. should mate indiscriminately). To determine if the preferences indicated by copulations appear in other contexts as well as how they interact, we examined how male chimpanzees' grooming patterns varied amongst females. We found that males' preferences were based on interactions among females' fertility status, age, and parity. First, grooming increased with increasing female parity. We further found an effect of the estrous cycle on grooming; when females were at the lowest point of their cycle, males preferentially groomed parous females at peak reproductive age, but during maximal tumescence, males preferred the oldest multiparous females. Nulliparous females received relatively little grooming regardless of age or fertility. Thus, male chimpanzees apparently chose grooming partners based on both female's experience and fertility, possibly indicating a two-pronged social investment strategy. Male selectivity seems to have evolved to effectively distribute costly social resources in a pattern which may increase their overall reproductive success.

  12. Canine length in wild male baboons: maturation, aging and social dominance rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbany, Jordi; Tung, Jenny; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2015-01-01

    Canines represent an essential component of the dentition for any heterodont mammal. In primates, like many other mammals, canines are frequently used as weapons. Hence, tooth size and wear may have significant implications for fighting ability, and consequently for social dominance rank, reproductive success, and fitness. We evaluated sources of variance in canine growth and length in a well-studied wild primate population because of the potential importance of canines for male reproductive success in many primates. Specifically, we measured maxillary canine length in 80 wild male baboons (aged 5.04-20.45 years) from the Amboseli ecosystem in southern Kenya, and examined its relationship with maturation, age, and social dominance rank. In our analysis of maturation, we compared food-enhanced baboons (those that fed part time at a refuse pit associated with a tourist lodge) with wild-feeding males, and found that food-enhanced males achieved long canines earlier than wild-feeding males. Among adult males, canine length decreased with age because of tooth wear. We found some evidence that, after controlling for age, longer canines were associated with higher adult dominance rank (accounting for 9% of the variance in rank), but only among relatively high-ranking males. This result supports the idea that social rank, and thus reproductive success and fitness, may depend in part on fighting ability mediated by canine size.

  13. Canine length in wild male baboons: maturation, aging and social dominance rank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Galbany

    Full Text Available Canines represent an essential component of the dentition for any heterodont mammal. In primates, like many other mammals, canines are frequently used as weapons. Hence, tooth size and wear may have significant implications for fighting ability, and consequently for social dominance rank, reproductive success, and fitness. We evaluated sources of variance in canine growth and length in a well-studied wild primate population because of the potential importance of canines for male reproductive success in many primates. Specifically, we measured maxillary canine length in 80 wild male baboons (aged 5.04-20.45 years from the Amboseli ecosystem in southern Kenya, and examined its relationship with maturation, age, and social dominance rank. In our analysis of maturation, we compared food-enhanced baboons (those that fed part time at a refuse pit associated with a tourist lodge with wild-feeding males, and found that food-enhanced males achieved long canines earlier than wild-feeding males. Among adult males, canine length decreased with age because of tooth wear. We found some evidence that, after controlling for age, longer canines were associated with higher adult dominance rank (accounting for 9% of the variance in rank, but only among relatively high-ranking males. This result supports the idea that social rank, and thus reproductive success and fitness, may depend in part on fighting ability mediated by canine size.

  14. Effects of Attentional Focus and Age on Suprapostural Task Performance and Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNevin, Nancy; Weir, Patricia; Quinn, Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Suprapostural task performance (manual tracking) and postural control (sway and frequency) were examined as a function of attentional focus, age, and tracking difficulty. Given the performance benefits often found under external focus conditions, it was hypothesized that external focus instructions would promote superior tracking and…

  15. Excess mortality among male unskilled and semi-skilled workers. A negative slope with age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, E; Jeune, B

    1983-01-01

    Mortality for male unskilled and semi-skilled workers in Denmark, Norway, and England and Wales is 40-50%--about the average for all men with equivalent economic status in the younger age groups, but declines towards the average at pensionable age. The negative slope of the graph for relative...

  16. A Mistaken Account of the Age-Crime Curve: Response to Males and Brown (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Steinberg, Laurence; Piquero, Alex R.

    2014-01-01

    The present article responds to Males and Brown's "Teenagers' High Arrest Rates: Features of Young Age or Youth Poverty?" which claims that the widely observed pattern of crime rates peaking in late adolescence or early adulthood is an artifact of age differences in poverty. We note that the authors' interpretation of…

  17. Male-to-Female Transgender Individuals Building Social Support and Capital From Within a Gender-Focused Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Rogério M; Melendez, Rita M; Spector, Anya Y

    2008-09-01

    The literature on male-to-female transgender (MTF) individuals lists myriad problems such individuals face in their day-to-day lives, including high rates of HIV/AIDS, addiction to drugs, violence, and lack of health care. These problems are exacerbated for ethnic and racial minority MTFs. Support available from their social networks can help MTFs alleviate these problems. This article explores how minority MTFs, specifically in an urban environment, develop supportive social networks defined by their gender and sexual identities. Using principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), 20 African American and Latina MTFs were recruited at a community-based health care clinic. Their ages ranged from 18 to 53. Data were coded and analyzed following standard procedure for content analysis. The qualitative interviews revealed that participants formed their gender and sexual identities over time, developed gender-focused social networks based in the clinic from which they receive services, and engaged in social capital building and political action. Implications for using CBPR in research with MTFs are discussed. PMID:20418965

  18. Age-specific forced polymorphism: implications of ontogenetic changes in morphology for male mating tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irschick, Duncan J; Lailvaux, Simon P

    2006-01-01

    Age-specific forced polymorphism is the presence of two or more distinct phenotypes (here we consider only males) that occur in separate sexually mature age groups (e.g., horns in older males but not younger males). The life-stage morph maturation hypothesis posits that all younger males that possess a particular structure can transform into older males with a different structure, most likely via the influence of hormones. The life-stage morph selection hypothesis posits that polymorphism is due to intense selection resulting in a highly nonrandom sample of younger males surviving to become older males, thus leading to different mean phenotypes in different age groups. We conducted an extensive review of literature from the past 20 years (1983-2003) for cases of age-specific forced polymorphism. Overall, we found only a few cases that fit our criteria of age-specific forced polymorphism, and we argue that most (e.g., orangutans, elephant seals) have likely arisen via the life-stage morph maturation mechanism, but we also present several examples (e.g., green anole lizards) that appear to be candidates for life-stage morph selection. However, none of the reviewed studies provided enough information (e.g., age of morphs, growth patterns of the morphological structure) to definitively invoke either of the two mechanisms. We suggest that age-specific forced polymorphism is more common than reflected in this review and that future studies should gather demographic and laboratory data that will directly compare the life-stage morph maturation and life-stage morph selection hypotheses. PMID:16380929

  19. Age of partners at first intercourse among Danish males and females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielandt, H; Boldsen, J; Jeune, B

    1989-01-01

    .8 years for both male and female. Generally the age difference between the partners at first intercourse was only a few years. However, the young women almost never reported their first sexual partner as younger than themselves. A cross-check was made of the information given by two homogeneous subsamples...... of the 47 young women and 80 young men who had their first sexual intercourse with a partner who was also a debutant. Self-reported age among the males differed significantly from the age of the first sexual partner as stated by the females in these subsamples. Therefore, there is bias in the reporting...

  20. The influence of age on the female/male ratio of treated incidence rates in depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderer Peter

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor data exist on the influence of psychosocial variables on the female/male ratio of depression because of the small number of cases and the resulting limited numbers of variables available for investigation. For this investigation a large number of first admitted depressed patients (N = 2599 was available which offered the unique opportunity to calculate age specific sex ratios for different marital and employment status categories. Methods Age and sex specific population based depression rates were calculated for first ever admissions for single year intervals. Moving averages with interpolated corrections for marginal values in the age distribution were employed. Results For the total group the female/male ratio of depression showed an inverted U-shape over the life-cycle. This pattern was influenced by the group of married persons, which showed a sex-ratio of 3:1 between the age of 30–50, but ratios of around 1:1 at younger and older ages. For not married persons the female/male ratio was already around 2:1 at the age of 18 and rose to 2.5:1 in mid-life and declined to 1 at around 55. The almost parallel decline of depression rates in employed men and women resulted in a female/male ratio of about 2:1 from age 18 to age 50 and became 1 after the age of 60. The female/male ratio among the not employed was about 1, in mid-life it became negative. Conclusions Our analyses show that the gender-gap in first admitted depressed patients is age dependent and that psychosocial factors modify the sex ratio.

  1. Age-related and Individual Variation in Male Piezodorus hybneri (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae Pheromones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Endo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Males of the Piezodorus hybneri stink bug produce a pheromone comprising β-sesquiphellandrene (Sesq, (R-15-hexadecanolide (R15, and methyl (Z-8-hexadecenoate (Z8. We collected airborne volatiles from individual P. hybneri males and analyzed them by GC-MS. Daily analysis from 1 to 16 days after adult emergence showed that pheromone emission started around 3 to 6 days after adult emergence and peaked (~1 μg/male/day on day 11. The proportion of Sesq tended to increase with age to about 80% on days 12 to 16. On the other hand, the proportion of R15 tended to decrease with age. The proportion of Z8 reached a maximum of about 34% on day 9 but otherwise remained below 20%. The total amount of pheromone emitted by individual males varied considerably: three males emitted more than 10 μg, whereas another three males emitted little or no pheromone and failed to survive by the end of the experiment. These results suggest that the amount of P. hybneri pheromone and its blend ratio could be affected by the male’s physical conditions, such as vitality and age.

  2. Body Image Ideal among Males and Females: Sociocultural Influences and Focus on Different Body Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Jacqueline N; McCabe, Marita P

    2002-11-01

    Past research has obtained mixed findings in relation to gender differences and other factors that shape ideal body image. The current study was designed to investigate these differences further, using a digital body image program to assess body image individually. As expected, females desired a body that was smaller than their current size, whereas males were split between wanting a smaller and larger body. The perceived messages from peers and parents were consistent with the individual's ideal image. Gender differences were also found with ratings of attractiveness and effectiveness. Females rated messages from peers and parents as more important than did males. For both males and females, opposite sex peers were the most important influences, and parents the least important. PMID:22113409

  3. No Evidence for Significant Effect of Body Size and Age on Male Mating Success in the Spot-legged Treefrog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianping YU; Cheng CHEN; Long JIN; Li ZHAO; Wenbo LIAO

    2016-01-01

    In anurans, body size and age of individuals generally affect male mating success. To test whether body size and age have effects on male mating success in the foam-nesting treefrog Polypedates megacephalus, a species widely distributed in China, we analyzed differences in body size and age between mated and unmated males for three populations using a Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM). The results showed that mated males did not exhibit larger body size and older age than unmated males, suggesting that large and/or old male individuals did not have greater mating success than small and/or young males. Moreover, we also found a non-significant size-assortative mating pattern for all populations. Our findings suggest that body size and age of the foam-nesting treefrog do not affect male mating success.

  4. The Relative Age Effect and Physical Fitness Characteristics in German Male Tennis Players

    OpenAIRE

    Ulbricht, Alexander Christopher; Fernández-Fernández, Jaime; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the study were to test: 1) whether the relative age effect (RAE) was prevalent in young (U12-U18) German male tennis players; 2) the potential influence of age and/or skill level on RAE and 3) whether maturity, anthropometric and fitness measures vary according to birth date distribution in elite youth tennis players. For the present study the following male populations were analysed: Overall German population (n = 3.216.811), all players affiliated to the German Tennis Federation...

  5. Estradiol to aged female or male mice improves learning in inhibitory avoidance and water maze tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Frye, Cheryl A.; Rhodes, Madeline E; Dudek, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Although 17β-Estradiol (E2) improves cognitive performance of aged female mice, its mnemonic effects when administered post-training to aged male mice have not been examined. E2 (10 µg, SC) or oil vehicle was administered to intact, 24-month-old female or male congenic (primarily C57BL/6 background) mice immediately after training in the inhibitory avoidance or water maze tasks. Following behavioral testing, effects of 1 or 24 h of E2 exposure on hippocampal levels of E2 and brain-derived neu...

  6. Is Greulich–Pyle age estimation applicable for determining maturation in male Africans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan G. Morri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal age estimation as a means of assessing development and skeletal maturation in children and adolescents is of great importance for clinical and forensic purposes. The skeletal age of a test population is estimated by comparison with established standards, the most common standards being those in the Radiographic atlas of skeletal development of the hand and wristpublished by Greulich and Pyle in 1959. These standards are based on the assumption that skeletal maturity in male individuals is attained by the chronological age of 19 years. Although they have been widely tested, the applicability of these standards to contemporary populations has yet to be tested on a population of African biological origin living in South Africa. We therefore estimated the skeletal age of 131 male Africans aged between 13 and 21 years, using the Greulich–Pyle method which we applied to pre-existing hand–wrist radiographs. Estimated skeletal age was compared to the known chronological age for each radiograph. Skeletal age was on average approximately 6 months younger than chronological age. The Greulich–Pyle method underestimated skeletal age for approximately 74%of the sample and overestimated skeletal age for 26%of the sample. Skeletal maturity as characterised by complete epiphyseal fusion occurred approximately 2.1 years later than Greulich and Pyle’s estimate of 19 years. Thus skeletal maturation was still in progress in a large proportion of the 20- and 21-year-old individuals in our study. The Greulich–Pyle method showed high precision but low accuracy and was therefore not directly applicable to African male individuals. Formulation of skeletal age estimation standards specific to South African populations is therefore recommended.

  7. Trait compensation and sex-specific aging of performance in male and female professional basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lailvaux, Simon P; Wilson, Robbie; Kasumovic, Michael M

    2014-05-01

    Phenotypic traits are often influenced by dynamic resource allocation trade-offs which, when occurring over the course of individual lifespan, may manifest as trait aging. Although aging is studied for a variety of traits that are closely tied to reproduction or reproductive effort, the aging of multiple traits related to fitness in other ways are less well understood. We took advantage of almost 30 years of data on human whole-organism performance in the National Basketball Association (USA) to examine trends of aging in performance traits associated with scoring. Given that patterns of aging differ between sexes in other animal species, we also analyzed a smaller dataset on players in the Women's National Basketball Association to test for potential sex differences in the aging of comparable traits. We tested the hypothesis that age-related changes in a specific aspect of overall performance can be compensated for by elevated expression of another, related aspect. Our analyses suggest that the aging of performance traits used in basketball is generally characterized by senescence in males, whereas age-related changes in basketball performance are less evident in females. Our data also indicate a different rate of senescence of different performance traits associated with scoring over a male's lifetime.

  8. Working memory in middle-aged males: age-related brain activation changes and cognitive fatigue effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Elissa B; Evers, Elisabeth A T; de Groot, Renate H M; Backes, Walter H; Veltman, Dick J; Jolles, Jelle

    2014-02-01

    We examined the effects of aging and cognitive fatigue on working memory (WM) related brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Age-related differences were investigated in 13 young and 16 middle-aged male school teachers. Cognitive fatigue was induced by sustained performance on cognitively demanding tasks (compared to a control condition). Results showed a main effect of age on left dorsolateral prefrontal and superior parietal cortex activation during WM encoding; greater activation was evident in middle-aged than young adults regardless of WM load or fatigue condition. An interaction effect was found in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC); WM load-dependent activation was elevated in middle-aged compared to young in the control condition, but did not differ in the fatigue condition due to a reduction in activation in middle-aged in contrast to an increase in activation in the young group. These findings demonstrate age-related activation differences and differential effects of fatigue on activation in young and middle-aged adults.

  9. Infertility in the light of new scientific reports – focus on male factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Szkodziak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological data indicate that infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting one- fifth of couples trying to conceive worldwide (60–80 mln. According to the trends observed, the problem is predicted to increase by another two million cases annually. In Poland, infertility-related issues are found in about 19% of couples, including 4% with infertility and 15% with limited fertility. Inability to conceive occurs equally in men and women (50%, irrespective of the direct cause. Although it is generally thought that reproductive issues concern women, infertility affects men and women equally. This study is an attempted to systematize knowledge about the role of the male factor in infertility, particularly current knowledge concerning the environmental factors of infertility. For this purpose, the Medline and CINAHL databases and the Cochrane Library was searched for articles published in English during the last 10 years, using the following keywords: infertility, male factor, semen examination and environmental factor of infertility.

  10. Aging male symptoms: the relationship between physical activity and quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa de Carvalho Souza; Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the relationship between physical activity (PA) and the aging male symptoms of middle-aged men in the quality of life (QOL). Methodology: Cross-sectional study with a probabilistic samples of 416 men (40-59 years old), all residents in two cities in southern of Brazil. A questionnaire was used. The studied population was divided into two groups: with and without symptoms. The analyses were carried out in a descriptive and inferential approaches. Results: Ag...

  11. The Aging Male Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis: pulsatility and feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Keenan, Daniel M.; Liu, Peter Y.; Iranmanesh, Ali; Takahashi, Paul Y; Nehra, Ajay X.

    2008-01-01

    Aging results in insidious decremental changes in hypothalamic, pituitary and gonadal function. The foregoing three main anatomic loci of control are regulated by intermittent time-delayed signal exchange, principally via gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone/estradiol (Te/E2). A mathematical framework is required to embody these dynamics. The present review highlights integrative adaptations in the aging male hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, as ...

  12. Metabolic Effects of Chronic Heavy Physical Training on Male Age Group Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Garret P.; And Others

    This study attempts to appraise the effectiveness of chronic heavy exercise on 13 male swimmers from 10 to 17 years of age. The experimental group trained six days a week, often with more than one workout per day. During this period, the principles of interval training were employed in conjunction with high-intensity swimming. At the completion of…

  13. Coach Selections and the Relative Age Effect in Male Youth Ice Hockey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, David J.; Ste-Marie, Diane M.; Young, Bradley W.

    2013-01-01

    Relative age effects (RAEs; when relatively older children possess participation and performance advantages over relatively younger children) are frequent in male team sports. One possible explanation is that coaches select players based on physical attributes, which are more likely witnessed in relatively older athletes. Purpose: To determine if…

  14. The effect of age on the mating competitiveness of male Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and G. palpalis palpalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P. Abila

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of age on male Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, Newstead, and Glossina palpalis palpalis, Austin (Diptera: Glossinidae competiveness were investigated with a view to estimate optimal age for sterile male release. Sterile insect technique involves the mass production, sterilization and sequential release of males of the target species to out compete the wild male population. Mating between released sterile males and wild females produce inviable progeny and the population is reduced over several generations to unsustainable levels. It is vital that the released male are of high quality and are sexually competitive. Age is one parameter affecting the sexual competiveness of the male tsetse fly. The optimal release age was estimated by assessing sexual competitiveness of flies of different age categories, 1, 5, 8 and 13-days after adult eclosion. A walk-in field-cage was used in order to approximate as closely as possible the actual field scenario during sterile insect release programes. It was shown that 8 and 13-day old males mated significantly more frequently, i.e. were more competitive, in the presence of equal numbers of 1 and 5-day old males. The age of male tsetse flies significantly affected competitiveness in both species studied. The ability of G. f. fuscipes to inseminate was not age dependent, and insemination occurred in all females that mated regardless of male age. In G. p. palpalis, however, 1-day old males were least able to inseminate. Mating duration was not significantly affected by age in both species. Eight to thirteen day old males of the test species are here recommended as the optimal sterile male release age.

  15. Evaluation of age estimation technique: testing traits of the acetabulum to estimate age at death in adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calce, Stephanie E; Rogers, Tracy L

    2011-03-01

    This study evaluates the accuracy and precision of a skeletal age estimation method, using the acetabulum of 100 male ossa coxae from the Grant Collection (GRO) at the University of Toronto, Canada. Age at death was obtained using Bayesian inference and a computational application (IDADE2) that requires a reference population, close in geographic and temporal distribution to the target case, to calibrate age ranges from scores generated by the technique. The inaccuracy of this method is 8 years. The direction of bias indicates the acetabulum technique tends to underestimate age. The categories 46-65 and 76-90 years exhibit the smallest inaccuracy (0.2), suggesting that this method may be appropriate for individuals over 40 years. Eighty-three percent of age estimates were ±12 years of known age; 79% were ±10 years of known age; and 62% were ±5 years of known age. Identifying a suitable reference population is the most significant limitation of this technique for forensic applications.

  16. Understanding Age-Related Changes in Skeletal Muscle Metabolism: Differences Between Females and Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheller, Brandon J F; Riddle, Emily S; Lem, Melinda R; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E

    2016-07-17

    Skeletal muscle is the largest metabolic organ system in the human body. As such, metabolic dysfunction occurring in skeletal muscle impacts whole-body nutrient homeostasis. Macronutrient metabolism changes within the skeletal muscle with aging, and these changes are associated in part with age-related skeletal muscle remodeling. Moreover, age-related changes in skeletal muscle metabolism are affected differentially between males and females and are likely driven by changes in sex hormones. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors impact observed age-related changes and sex-related differences in skeletal muscle metabolism. Despite some support for sex-specific differences in skeletal muscle metabolism with aging, more research is necessary to identify underlying differences in mechanisms. Understanding sex-specific aging skeletal muscle will assist with the development of therapies to attenuate adverse metabolic and functional outcomes. PMID:27431365

  17. Circadian variation in salivary testosterone across age classes in Ache Amerindian males of Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bribiescas, Richard G; Hill, Kim R

    2010-01-01

    Testosterone levels exhibit a circadian rhythm in healthy men, with morning levels tending to be higher compared to evening titers. However, circadian rhythms wane with age. Although this has been described in males living within industrialized settings, age-related changes have not received similar attention in populations outside these contexts. Because many nonindustrialized populations, such as Ache Amerindians of Paraguay, exhibit testosterone levels that are lower than what is commonly reported in the clinical literature and lack age-associated variation in testosterone, it was hypothesized that Ache men would not show age-related variation in testosterone circadian rhythms. Diurnal rhythmicity in testosterone within and between Ache men in association with age (n = 52; age range, 18-64) was therefore examined. A significant negative association was evident between the ratio of morning and evening salivary testosterone and age (r = -0.28, P = 0.04). Men in their third decade of life exhibited significant diurnal variation (P = 0.0003), whereas older and younger age classes did not. Men between the ages of 30 and 39 also exhibited a higher AM:PM testosterone ratio compared to 40-49 and 50< year old men (P = 0.002, 0.006). Overall, declines in testosterone with aging may not be universal among human males, however, within-individual analyses of diurnal variation capture age-related contrasts in daily testosterone fluctuations. Circadian rhythmicity differs with age among the Ache and may be a common aspect of reproductive senescence among men regardless of ecological context.

  18. Peer influence on speeding behaviour among male drivers aged 18 and 28

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive research, preventive efforts and general improvements in road safety levels, the accident risk of young male drivers remains increased. Based on a standardized survey of a random sample of 2,018 male drivers at the age of 18 and 28, this study looked into attitudes and behaviours...... to maintain or justify individual speeding behaviour. It is suggested that preventive measures should take these different influences of peer pressure into account by using a peer-based approach for the 18-year-olds and a more individual approach for the 28-year-olds....... in both age groups. Other significant factors were: negative attitude towards speed limits, injunctive subjective norm, and the perceived risk of having an accident when speeding. In the older age group it was more common to drive faster than allowed and their speeding was largely in line...

  19. Form of the male and female corpus callosum internal organization at the mature age

    OpenAIRE

    Костиленко, Юрий Петрович; Боягина, Ольга Дмитриевна

    2016-01-01

    Aim: to study the special features of the male and female corpus callosum internal organization at the mature age.Materials and methods: the total preparations of the male and female corpus callosum (10 preparation of each sex) at 45–60 years old were used as the material. The given preparations were used to get from it the plate cuts in the two mutually perpendicular planes with 2 mm. thick. Then the received tissue plates of the corpus callosum underwent plastination in the epoxy. Then the ...

  20. Age effects on the social interaction test in early adulthood male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garau, A; Martí, M A; Sala, J; Balada, F

    2000-01-01

    The effects of age on active and passive social interaction were studied in Wistar rats using the social interaction test (S.I.T.). Individual behaviors such as ambulation, rearing, and defecation were also studied. Despite the widespread use of the S.I.T. in anxiety research, the effects of age on the S.I.T. have not been studied thoroughly. Male Wistar rats of 75, 135, and 180 days old were used. Our results showed age effects on active social contact, passive social contact, ambulation, rearing, and defecation. At 135 days old, animals presented the lowest scores on active social behavior and the highest scores on defecation. Moreover, exploratory behavior measured by ambulation and rearing decreased with age. These results suggest that age could be a relevant variable in the social interaction test.

  1. A mobile phone enabled health promotion program for middle-aged males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, H; Karunanithi, M; Duncan, M; Ireland, D; Noakes, M; Hooker, C

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic diseases among middle aged males outweigh their female counterparts in developed countries. To prevent this, delivery of health promotion programs targeting lifestyle modifications of physical activity and nutrition in middle-aged males has been essential, but often difficult. ManUp health promotion program was a recent initiative that uses current advances in information and communication technology (ICT) to reach the middle-aged males. One of the key components of the ICT approach was the development of smartphone application to enable middle-aged men to uptake the program with their own mobile phone. The smart phone application was aimed at providing varied level of challenges towards physical activity and healthy eating behavior, with interactive and motivational feedback SMS messages. The ManUp program was recently implemented and trialed in a randomized control trial in Gladstone and Rockhampton, Queens. This paper describes the components of the smart phone application integrated within the ManUp health promotion program. PMID:24109902

  2. Middle age has a significant impact on gene expression during skin wound healing in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Hagai; Lumenta, David Benjamin; Vierlinger, Klemens; Hofner, Manuela; Kitzinger, Hugo-Benito; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Nöhammer, Christa; Chilosi, Marco; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2016-08-01

    The vast majority of research on the impact of age on skin wound healing (WH) compares old animals to young ones. The middle age is often ignored in biogerontological research despite the fact that many functions that decline in an age-dependent manner have starting points in mid-life. With this in mind, we examined gene expression patterns during skin WH in late middle-aged versus young adult male mice, using the head and back punch models. The rationale behind this study was that the impact of age would first be detectable at the transcriptional level. We pinpointed several pathways which were over-activated in the middle-aged mice, both in the intact skin and during WH. Among them were various metabolic, immune-inflammatory and growth-promoting pathways. These transcriptional changes were much more pronounced in the head than in the back. In summary, the middle age has a significant impact on gene expression in intact and healing skin. It seems that the head punch model is more sensitive to the effect of age than the back model, and we suggest that it should be more widely applied in aging research on wound healing. PMID:27241672

  3. Peak expiratory flow rate; the effect of smoking on younger AND middle aged males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Satyanarayana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A total of 80 male subjects in age group of 20-50 years were selected for the purpose of the study. They were divided in two groups, smokers and non smokers. Each group subdivided into age groups of 20-35 and 36-50 yrs. The criteria for smoking was about 5-10 cigarettes per day since 6-12 months. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (P.E.F.R. was determined by using Wright’s peak flow meter. The results showed that in Non-Smoker of age group 20-35 years, (n= 30 the mean PEFR value was 535±50 L/min, whereas in age group 36-50 years, (n=15 the mean P.E.F.R value was 515±50 L/min. In Smokers of age group 20-35 years, (n=10 mean P.E.F.R. value was 374±128 L/min whereas in age group 36-50 years, (n=25 mean P.E.F.R. value was 357±86 L/min. This shows that in smokers P.E.F.R. value is lower compared to Non-smokers in both age groups and that P.E.F.R. is lower in the elder age group in comparison to younger age group. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 441-442

  4. Differential effects of relaxin deficiency on vascular aging in arteries of male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinic, Maria; Tare, Marianne; Conrad, Kirk P; Parry, Laura J

    2015-08-01

    Exogenous treatment with the naturally occurring peptide relaxin increases arterial compliance and reduces vascular stiffness. In contrast, relaxin deficiency reduces the passive compliance of small renal arteries through geometric and compositional vascular remodeling. The role of endogenous relaxin on passive mechanical wall properties in other vascular beds is unknown. Importantly, no studies have investigated the effects of aging in arteries of relaxin-deficient mice. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that mesenteric and femoral arteries stiffen with aging, and this is exacerbated with relaxin deficiency. Male wild-type (Rln (+/+)) and relaxin knockout (Rln (-/-)) mice were aged to 3, 6, 12, 18, and 23 months. Passive mechanical wall properties were assessed by pressure myography. In both genotypes, there was a significant increase in circumferential stiffening in mesenteric arteries with aging, whereas in the femoral artery, aging reduced volume compliance. This was associated with a reduced ability of the artery to lengthen with aging. The predominant phenotype observed in Rln (-/-) mice was reduced volume compliance in young mice in both mesenteric and femoral arteries. In summary, aging induces circumferential stiffening in mesenteric arteries and axial stiffening in femoral arteries. Passive mechanical wall properties of Rln (-/-) mouse arteries predominantly differ at younger ages compared with Rln (+/+) mice, suggesting that a lack of endogenous relaxin only has a minor effect on vascular aging.

  5. Low vitamin D and the risk of developing chronic widespread pain: results from the European male ageing study

    OpenAIRE

    McCabe, Paul S.; Pye, Stephen R.; Mc Beth, John; Lee, David M; Tajar, Abdelouahid; Bartfai, Gyorgy; Boonen, Steven; Bouillon, Roger; Casanueva, Felipe; Finn, Joseph D.; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T.; Kula, Krzysztof; Pendleton, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Background The association between low levels of vitamin D and the occurrence of chronic widespread pain (CWP) remains unclear. The aim of our analysis was to determine the relationship between low vitamin D levels and the risk of developing CWP in a population sample of middle age and elderly men. Methods Three thousand three hundred sixty nine men aged 40–79 were recruited from 8 European centres for a longitudinal study of male ageing, the European Male Ageing Study. At baseline participan...

  6. Finisher and performance trends in female and male mountain ultramarathoners by age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüst CA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Evelyn Eichenberger,1 Thomas Rosemann,1 Romuald Lepers31Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3French Institute of Health and Medical Research, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Burgundy, Dijon, FranceBackground: This study examined changes according to age group in the number of finishers and running times for athletes in female and male mountain ultramarathoners competing in the 78 km Swiss Alpine Marathon, the largest mountain ultramarathon in Europe and held in high alpine terrain.Methods: The association between age and performance was investigated using analysis of variance and both single and multilevel regression analyses.Results: Between 1998 and 2011, a total of 1,781 women and 12,198 men finished the Swiss Alpine Marathon. The number of female finishers increased (r2 = 0.64, P = 0.001, whereas the number of male finishers (r2 = 0.18, P = 0.15 showed no change. The annual top ten men became older and slower, whereas the annual top ten women became older but not slower. Regarding the number of finishers in the age groups, the number of female finishers decreased in the age group 18–24 years, whereas the number of finishers increased in the age groups 30–34, 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, and 70–74 years. In the age groups 25–29 and 35–39 years, the number of finishers showed no changes across the years. In the age group 70–74 years, the increase in number of finishers was linear. For all other age groups, the increase was exponential. For men, the number of finishers decreased in the age groups 18–24, 25–29, 30–34, and 35–39 years. In the age groups 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, 70–74, and 75–79 years, the number of finishers increased. In the age group 40–44 years, the increase was linear. For all other age groups, the

  7. Physiological responding to stress in middle-aged males enriched for longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Steffy W M; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen;

    2016-01-01

    Individuals enriched for familial longevity display a lower prevalence of age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular- and metabolic diseases. Since these diseases are associated with stress and increased cortisol levels, one of the underlying mechanisms that may contribute to healthy longevity...... and a lower peak level in physiological responding when confronted with an actual stressor, might already limit damage due to stress over a lifetime. Lower physiological responding may also contribute to the lower prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and other stress-related diseases in healthy longevity....... might be a more adaptive response to stress. To investigate this, male middle-aged offspring from long-lived families (n = 31) and male non-offspring (with no familial history of longevity) (n = 26) were randomly allocated to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control condition in an experimental design...

  8. Contribution of male sex, age, and obesity to mechanical instability of the upper airway during sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkness, Jason P.; Schwartz, Alan R.; Schneider, Hartmut; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Maly, Joseph J.; Laffan, Alison M.; McGinley, Brian M.; Magnuson, Thomas; Schweitzer, Michael; Smith, Philip L.; Patil, Susheel P.

    2008-01-01

    Male sex, obesity, and age are risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea, although the mechanisms by which these factors increase sleep apnea susceptibility are not entirely understood. This study examined the interrelationships between sleep apnea risk factors, upper airway mechanics, and sleep apnea susceptibility. In 164 (86 men, 78 women) participants with and without sleep apnea, upper airway pressure-flow relationships were characterized to determine their mechanical properties [pharynge...

  9. Health, fitness, physical activity, and morbidity of middle aged male factory workers. I.

    OpenAIRE

    Tuxworth, W.; Nevill, A M; White, C.; Jenkins, C

    1986-01-01

    A description of the fitness, physical activity of lifestyle, and some aspects of health status and attitudes in a population of male factory workers aged 35-60 is presented as the first part of a report on a study of morbidity in this population. A total of 1394 subjects were included, undergoing medical examination, fitness testing by bicycle ergometry, assessment of body fat, and interview questionnaire. The inter-relation of fitness, body composition, habitual exertion, health risk factor...

  10. Examination of P300 in Veteran Males: Aging, Physical Activity and Cognitive Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kutlu, Necip; Buyukyazi, Gurbuz; Kaptan, Gulten; Selcuki, Deniz; Artug, Rengin

    2014-01-01

    Aim: In the recent years, the effects of long term exercise on physiological systems have been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term physical exercise on cognitive processing in elderly male athletes. Materials and Methods: Master athletes who had been exercising regularly (EME), healthy sedentary elderly volunteers (HSE) and healthy sedentary middle-aged volunteers (HSMA) were included in the study. Indirect maximum oxygen uptake ca...

  11. Peak muscle mass in young men and sarcopenia in the ageing male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Nielsen, T L; Brixen, K;

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of sarcopenia increases with age. The diagnosis of sarcopenia relies in part on normative data on muscle mass, but these data are lacking. This study provides population-based reference data on muscle mass in young men, and these results may be used clinically for the diagnosis...... of sarcopenia in men. INTRODUCTION: The ageing population increases the prevalence of sarcopenia. Estimation of normative data on muscle mass in young men during the peak of anabolic hormones is necessary for the diagnosis of sarcopenia in ageing males. The purposes of this study were to provide population......-based reference data on lean body mass (LBM) in young men during the time of peak levels of GH/IGF-1 and testosterone and further to apply the reference data on a population-based sample of men aged 60-74 years to estimate the prevalence of sarcopenia. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, population-based single...

  12. Non-injurious neonatal hypoxia confers resistance to brain senescence in aged male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Martin

    Full Text Available Whereas brief acute or intermittent episodes of hypoxia have been shown to exert a protective role in the central nervous system and to stimulate neurogenesis, other studies suggest that early hypoxia may constitute a risk factor that influences the future development of mental disorders. We therefore investigated the effects of a neonatal "conditioning-like" hypoxia (100% N₂, 5 min on the brain and the cognitive outcomes of rats until 720 days of age (physiologic senescence. We confirmed that such a short hypoxia led to brain neurogenesis within the ensuing weeks, along with reduced apoptosis in the hippocampus involving activation of Erk1/2 and repression of p38 and death-associated protein (DAP kinase. At 21 days of age, increased thicknesses and cell densities were recorded in various subregions, with strong synapsin activation. During aging, previous exposure to neonatal hypoxia was associated with enhanced memory retrieval scores specifically in males, better preservation of their brain integrity than controls, reduced age-related apoptosis, larger hippocampal cell layers, and higher expression of glutamatergic and GABAergic markers. These changes were accompanied with a marked expression of synapsin proteins, mainly of their phosphorylated active forms which constitute major players of synapse function and plasticity, and with increases of their key regulators, i.e. Erk1/2, the transcription factor EGR-1/Zif-268 and Src kinase. Moreover, the significantly higher interactions between PSD-95 scaffolding protein and NMDA receptors measured in the hippocampus of 720-day-old male animals strengthen the conclusion of increased synaptic functional activity and plasticity associated with neonatal hypoxia. Thus, early non-injurious hypoxia may trigger beneficial long term effects conferring higher resistance to senescence in aged male rats, with a better preservation of cognitive functions.

  13. The effects of male age on sperm DNA damage in healthy non-smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, T; Eskenazi, B; Baumgartner, A; Marchetti, F; Young, S; Weldon, R; Anderson, D; Wyrobek, A

    2006-03-08

    The trend for men to have children at older ages raises concerns that advancing age may increase the production of genetically defective sperm, increasing the risks of transmitting germ-line mutations. We investigated the associations between male age and sperm DNA damage and the influence of several lifestyle factors in a healthy non-clinical group of 80 non-smokers (age: 22-80) with no known fertility problems using the sperm Comet analyses. The average percent of DNA that migrated out of the sperm nucleus under alkaline electrophoresis increased with age (0.18% per year, p=0.006); but there was no age association for damage measured under neutral conditions (p=0.7). Men who consumed >3 cups coffee per day had {approx}20% higher % tail DNA under neutral but not alkaline conditions compared to men who consumed no caffeine (p=0.005). Our findings indicate that (a) older men have increased sperm DNA damage associated with alkali-labile sites or single-strand DNA breaks, and (b) independent of age, men with substantial daily caffeine consumption have increased sperm DNA damage associated with double-strand DNA breaks. DNA damage in sperm can be converted to chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations after fertilization increasing the risks for developmental defects and genetic diseases among offspring.

  14. Caries Experience Differs between Females and Males across Age Groups in Northern Appalachia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Shaffer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex disparities in dental caries have been observed across many populations, with females typically exhibiting higher prevalence and more affected teeth. In this study we assessed the sex disparities in two Northern Appalachian populations from West Virginia (WV, N=1997 and Pennsylvania (PA, N=1080 by comparing caries indices between males and females across four phases of dental development: primary dentition in children aged 1–5 years, mixed dentition in children aged 6–11 years, permanent dentition in adolescents aged 12–17 years, and permanent dentition in adults aged 18–59 years. No significant sex differences were observed for children aged 1–5 years. Contrary to national and international trends, WV girls aged 6–11 years had 1.5 fewer affected teeth than boys (p<0.001. However, by ages 12–17, caries indices in the WV girls matched those in boys. In both WV and PA adults, women and men had similar total counts of affected teeth (i.e., DMFT, although women had more dental restorations (p<0.001 and men had more current decay (p<0.001. These results suggest that in some Appalachian populations, young girls benefit from protection against caries that is lost during adolescence and that adult women utilize dental health care to a greater degree than men.

  15. Age-specific fertility by educational level in the Finnish male cohort born 1940‒1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Nisén

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Education is positively associated with completed fertility rate (CFR among men in Nordic countries, but the age patterns of fertility by educational level are poorly documented. Moreover, it is not known what parities contribute to the higher CFR among more highly educated men. Objective: To describe men's fertility by age, parity, and education in Finland. Methods: The study is based on register data covering the male cohort born in 1940‒1950 (N=38,838. Education was measured at ages 30‒34 and classified as basic, lower secondary, upper secondary, and tertiary. Fertility was measured until ages 59‒69. We calculated completed and age-specific fertility rates, and decomposed the educational gradient in CFR into parity-specific contributions. Results: The more highly educated men had more children (CFR: basic 1.71 and tertiary 2.06, had them later (mean age at having the first child: basic 26.1 and tertiary 28.1, and had them within a shorter interval (interquartile range of age at having the first child: basic 5.8 and tertiary 5.2. The educational gradient in the cumulative fertility rate was negative at young ages but turned positive by the early thirties. High levels of childlessness among those with a basic education explained three-quarters of the CFR difference between the lowest and highest educational groups. Fertility at ages above 45 was low and did not widen the educational gradient in CFR. Conclusions: The fact that highly educated men have more children than their counterparts with less education is largely attributable to higher fertility levels at older ages and the lower probability of remaining childless. Variation in fertility timing and quantity is wider among men with a low level of education.

  16. A peer education program to promote the use of conflict resolution skills among at-risk school age males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, J D

    1994-01-01

    Violence is devastating the lives of children in America's major cities. The problem of violence is particularly acute among disadvantaged young urban males. This program focuses on violence prevention in school-age boys using creative educational techniques and community partnership. The goal of this school-based program is to decrease the incidence of violent episodes in the school by teaching conflict resolution skills. Conflict resolution skills are taught in the health education component of the school health program. Skills are taught using a peer education model supervised by the school health nurse and planned in partnership with a Violence Prevention Advisory Board. Peer education teams consisting of fifth and sixth grade boys are trained and serve as peer educators for the boys in grades K-4. The violence prevention peer education program stresses primary prevention and targets at-risk school age males. The proposal uses a model that promotes the development of student leadership skills and self esteem. The proposal suggests ways to promote school and community involvement using an advisory board made up of student, community, and school leaders. The peer education program is cost effective and demonstrates how existing resources can be used creatively within the school setting. PMID:8153266

  17. Male circumcision at different ages in Rwanda: a cost-effectiveness study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Binagwaho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence showing that male circumcision (MC reduces HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs. In Rwanda, where adult HIV prevalence is 3%, MC is not a traditional practice. The Rwanda National AIDS Commission modelled cost and effects of MC at different ages to inform policy and programmatic decisions in relation to introducing MC. This study was necessary because the MC debate in Southern Africa has focused primarily on MC for adults. Further, this is the first time, to our knowledge, that a cost-effectiveness study on MC has been carried out in a country where HIV prevalence is below 5%. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cost-effectiveness model was developed and applied to three hypothetical cohorts in Rwanda: newborns, adolescents, and adult men. Effectiveness was defined as the number of HIV infections averted, and was calculated as the product of the number of people susceptible to HIV infection in the cohort, the HIV incidence rate at different ages, and the protective effect of MC; discounted back to the year of circumcision and summed over the life expectancy of the circumcised person. Direct costs were based on interviews with experienced health care providers to determine inputs involved in the procedure (from consumables to staff time and related prices. Other costs included training, patient counselling, treatment of adverse events, and promotion campaigns, and they were adjusted for the averted lifetime cost of health care (antiretroviral therapy [ART], opportunistic infection [OI], laboratory tests. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed by varying the main inputs of the model, and thresholds were calculated at which each intervention is no longer cost-saving and at which an intervention costs more than one gross domestic product (GDP per capita per life-year gained. RESULTS: Neonatal MC is less expensive than adolescent and adult MC (US$15 instead of US$59 per procedure and is cost

  18. Optimizing a Male Reproductive Aging Mouse Model by d-Galactose Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hou Liao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The d-galactose (d-gal-injected animal model, which is typically established by administering consecutive subcutaneous d-gal injections to animals for approximately six or eight weeks, has been frequently used for aging research. In addition, this animal model has been demonstrated to accelerate aging in the brain, kidneys, liver and blood cells. However, studies on aging in male reproductive organs that have used this animal model remain few. Therefore, the current study aimed to optimize a model of male reproductive aging by administering d-gal injections to male mice and to determine the possible mechanism expediting senescence processes during spermatogenesis. In this study, C57Bl/6 mice were randomized into five groups (each containing 8–10 mice according to the daily intraperitoneal injection of vehicle control or 100 or 200 mg/kg dosages of d-gal for a period of six or eight weeks. First, mice subjected to d-gal injections for six or eight weeks demonstrated considerably decreased superoxide dismutase activity in the serum and testis lysates compared to those in the control group. The lipid peroxidation in testis also increased in the d-gal-injected groups. Furthermore, the d-gal-injected groups exhibited a decreased ratio of testis weight/body weight and sperm count compared to the control group. The percentages of both immotile sperm and abnormal sperm increased considerably in the d-gal-injected groups compared to those of the control group. To determine the genes influenced by the d-gal injection during murine spermatogenesis, a c-DNA microarray was conducted to compare testicular RNA samples between the treated groups and the control group. The d-gal-injected groups exhibited RNA transcripts of nine spermatogenesis-related genes (Cycl2, Hk1, Pltp, Utp3, Cabyr, Zpbp2, Speer2, Csnka2ip and Katnb1 that were up- or down-regulated by at least two-fold compared to the control group. Several of these genes are critical for forming sperm

  19. Effects of age, dysphoria, and emotion-focusing on autobiographical memory specificity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, Ronan E; Dalgleish, Tim; Drummond, Lyndsey E; Dritschel, Barbara; Astell, Arlene

    2006-04-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is strongly associated with depression in adults and appears to reflect a stable cognitive bias. However, it is not known whether this bias exists in children or what factors contribute to its development. We examined the roles of age, dysphoria, and a new variable, emotion-focusing (EF), on the production of specific autobiographical memory (AM) in children, using the standard Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986 ). Results show that older children are more specific than younger children, irrespective of cue valence. Dysphoria was linked to less specific retrieval of positive memories in children. A three-way interaction between age, valence, and dysphoria was also found, such that older dysphoric children demonstrated a difficulty in retrieving specific negative memories. In addition, emotion-focusing was associated with specific AM recall, especially to negative cues. Results are discussed with reference to the development of depressogenic biases.

  20. Effects of age, dysphoria, and emotion-focusing on autobiographical memory specificity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, Ronan E; Dalgleish, Tim; Drummond, Lyndsey E; Dritschel, Barbara; Astell, Arlene

    2006-04-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is strongly associated with depression in adults and appears to reflect a stable cognitive bias. However, it is not known whether this bias exists in children or what factors contribute to its development. We examined the roles of age, dysphoria, and a new variable, emotion-focusing (EF), on the production of specific autobiographical memory (AM) in children, using the standard Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986 ). Results show that older children are more specific than younger children, irrespective of cue valence. Dysphoria was linked to less specific retrieval of positive memories in children. A three-way interaction between age, valence, and dysphoria was also found, such that older dysphoric children demonstrated a difficulty in retrieving specific negative memories. In addition, emotion-focusing was associated with specific AM recall, especially to negative cues. Results are discussed with reference to the development of depressogenic biases. PMID:26529217

  1. Shift work aggravates metabolic syndrome development among early-middle-aged males with elevated ALT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Cheng Lin; Tun-Jen Hsiao; Pau-Chung Chen

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To examine whether shift work accelerates metabolic syndrome (MetS) development among early middle- aged males with elevated alanine aminotransferase (e-ALT).METHODS: A retrospective, observational followup study on MetS development at a 5-year interval was conducted using health examination data. Nine hundred and ninety six male employees not fulfilling MetS criteria at screening were enrolled. Age, MetScomponents,liver enzymes, serological markers for viral hepatitis, abdominal ultrasound, insulin resistance status, lifestyles, and workplace factors were analyzed.RESULTS: The prevalence of elevated serum ALT (> 40 U/L, e-ALT) at baseline was 19.1%. There were 381 (38.3%) workers with long-term exposures to daynight rotating shift work (RSW). 14.2% of subjects developed MetS during follow-up. After 5 years, the workers with e-ALT had significantly unfavorable changes in MetS-components, and higher rates of MetS development, vs subjects with normal baseline ALT levels. Workers with both baseline e-ALT and 5-year persistent RSW (pRSW) exposure had the highest rate of MetS development. Also, e-ALT-plus-pRSW workers had a significant increase in MetS-components at follow-up, compared with the other subgroups. After controlling for potential confounders, e-ALT-plus-pRSW workers posed a significant risk for MetS development (odds ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-5.3, vs workers without baseline e-ALT nor pRSW). CONCLUSION: We suggest that all early middleaged male employees with e-ALT should be evaluated and managed for MetS. Particularly in terms of job arrangements, impacts of long-term RSW on MetS development should be assessed for all male employees having baseline e-ALT.

  2. An aging management program focused on the full utilization of existing licenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Aging Management Enhancement Program has been developed to identify and mitigate the risk and uncertainties that unusual, accelerated, or previously unanticipated aging of Systems, Structures, and Components pose to the continued long term safe, economic, and reliable operation of nuclear facilities. This paper defines a process intended to enhance the understanding and control of the aging of systems, structures, and components (SSCs). The program is selective and proactive. It largely employs the experience and knowledge of personnel that have hands-on responsibility for engineering, maintaining, and operating the facility. The identification of SSCs and associated age related degradation mechanisms (ARDMs) that present future vulnerabilities to a plant allow focused actions to be implemented to remedy or abate the risk prior to the aging degradation adversely impacting plant operation. Selection of structures and components susceptible to accelerated aging degradation and appropriate remedial corrective and/or preventive actions are based on a recognized need to achieve a balance between plant safety, plant economics, and plant reliability. (author)

  3. Cross-sectional relationships of exercise and age to adiposity in60,617 male runners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.; Pate, Russell R.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in men whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 male runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1 percent), hip (47.1 percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Between 18 to 55 years old, the decline in BMI with weekly distance run (slope+-SE) was significantly greater in men 25-55 years old (slope+-:-0.036+-0.001 kg/m2 per km/wk) than in younger men (-0.020+-0.002 kg/m 2 per km/wk). Declines in waist circumference with running distance were also significantly greater in older than younger men (P<10-9 for trend),i.e., the slopes decreased progressively from -0.035+-0.004 cm per km/wk in 18-25 year old men to -0.097+-0.003 cm per km/wk in 50-55 year old men. Increases in BMI with age were greater for men who ran under 16km/wk than for longer distance runners. Waist circumference increased with age at all running levels, but the increase appeared to diminish by running further (0.259+-0.015 cm per year if running<8 km/wk and 0.154+-0.003 cm per year for>16 km/wk). In men over 50 years old, BMI declined -0.038+-0.001 kg/m2 per km/wk run when adjusted for age and declined -0.054+-0.003 kg/m2 (increased 0.021+-0.007 cm) per year of age when adjusted for running distance. Their waist circumference declined-0.096+-0.002 cm per km/wk run when adjusted for age and increased 0.021+-0.007 cm per year of age when adjusted for running distance. These cross-sectional data suggest that age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting mens adiposity, and support the proposition that vigorous physical activity must increase with age to prevent middle-age weight gain. We estimate that a man who ran 16 km/wk at age 25 would need to increase their weekly running distance by 65.7 km/wk by age 50 in order to maintain his same waist

  4. Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein Gene Ablation Enhances Age-Dependent Weight Gain in Male Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Gregory G.; Atshaves, Barbara P.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Payne, H. Ross; Mackie, John T.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2008-01-01

    Although studies performed in vitro and with transfected cells in culture suggest a role for liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) in regulating fatty acid oxidation and fat deposition, the physiological significance of this possibility is not completely clear. To begin to address this question, the effect of L-FABP gene ablation on phenotype of standard rodent chow-fed male mice was examined with increasing age up to 18 mo. While young (2-3 mo) L-FABP null mice displayed no visually obvi...

  5. The Therapeutic role of Magnesium in different depressive syndromes of the male population comprising of different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *N. Bano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic and fundamental role of Mg as being the second most abundant intercellular cation is established in various studies. It is identified as a divalent metal cofactor in over 300 enzymatic reactions involving energy metabolism and protein and nucleic acid synthesis. The biological function is identified in neuromuscular excitability. Mg ion regulates calcium ion flow in neuronal channels, helping to regulate neuronal Nitric Oxide production1. Mg deficiency causes NMDA coupled Calcium channels to be biased towards opening, causing neuronal injury & neurological dysfunction, which may appear to humans as major depression. The present study confirms a reduction in the symptoms of depression found in the male population comprising of different age group by Mg treatment. CSF Mg has been found low in treatment resistant suicidal depression. Brain Mg is also low in TRD using phosphorous nuclear magnetic resonance Spectroscopy2. A 2009 randomized clinical trial shows that Mg therapy was an effective as TCAs in depressed diabetics. Increase in brain Mg enhances both short term synaptic facilitation and long term potentiation and improves learning and memory function3 The present study is based on findings that male subjects diagnosed as depressed showed a marked reduction in behavioral and somatic features of the disease after administration of Magnesium supplement. Physiological and somatic anxiety was also alleviated in a certain age group which displayed recovery from Insomnia and agitation. Suicidal tendency was also negative in all age groups. This study focuses on the behavioral and somatic responses pertaining to brain biochemical changes induced by Magnesium therapy.

  6. Paternal age and general cognitive ability-a cross sectional study of Danish male conscripts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McGrath

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Offspring of older men have impaired cognitive ability as children, but it is unclear if this impairment persists into adulthood. The main objective of this study was to explore the association between paternal age at offspring birth and general cognitive ability as young adults. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study with prospectively collected data on obstetric factors and parental education. SETTING: Nationwide Danish sample. PARTICIPANTS: Male conscripts (n = 169,009. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: General cognitive ability as assessed by the Børge Priens test score, an intelligence test with components related to logical, verbal, numerical and spatial reasoning. RESULTS: We observed an inverse U-shaped association between paternal age and general cognitive ability (slightly lower test scores in the offspring of fathers aged less than 25 years and older than 40 years, compared with fathers aged 25 to 29 years. However, after adjustment for maternal age, parental education and birth order the shape of the association changed. Offspring of fathers younger than 20 still showed slightly lower cognitive ability (-1.11 (95% CI -1.68 to -0.54, but no significant impairments were identified in the men whose fathers were older than 29 years at the time of their birth (e.g. the mean difference in test score in the offspring of fathers aged 40 to 44 years were -0.03 [95% CI (-0.27 to 0.20] compared with fathers aged 25 to 29 years. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find that the offspring of older fathers had impaired cognitive ability as young adults. Whereas, we found a tendency that the offspring of teen fathers have lower cognitive ability. Thus, our results suggest that any potentially deleterious effects of older fathers on general cognitive ability as young adults may be counter-balanced by other potentially beneficial factors.

  7. Effects of Saikokaryukotsuboreito on Spermatogenesis and Fertility in Aging Male Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Zhi-Jun; Ji, Su-Yun; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Gao, Yong; Zhang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aspermia caused by exogenous testosterone limit its usage in late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) patients desiring fertility. Saikokaryukotsuboreito (SKRBT) is reported to improve serum testosterone and relieve LOH-related symptoms. However, it is unclear whether SKRBT affects fertility. We aimed to examine the effects of SKRBT on spermatogenesis and fertility in aging male mice. Methods: Thirty aging male mice were randomly assigned to three groups. Mice were orally administered with phosphate-buffer solution or SKRBT (300 mg/kg, daily) or received testosterone by subcutaneous injections (10 mg/kg, every 3 days). Thirty days later, each male mouse was mated with two female mice. All animals were sacrificed at the end of 90 days. Intratesticular testosterone (ITT) levels, quality of sperm, expression of synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SYCP3), and fertility were assayed. Results: In the SKRBT-treated group, ITT, quality of sperm, and expression of SYCP3 were all improved compared with the control group (ITT: 85.50 ± 12.31 ng/g vs. 74.10 ± 11.45 ng/g, P = 0.027; sperm number: [14.94 ± 4.63] × 106 cells/ml vs. [8.79 ± 4.38] × 106 cells/ml, P = 0.002; sperm motility: 43.16 ± 9.93% vs. 33.51 ± 6.98%, P = 0.015; the number of SYCP3-positive cells/tubule: 77.50 ± 11.01 ng/ml vs. 49.30 ± 8.73 ng/ml, P 0.05, respectively). In the testosterone-treated group, ITT, quality of sperm, and expression of SYCP3 were markedly lower than the control group (ITT: 59.00 ± 8.67, P = 0.005; sperm number: [4.34 ± 2.45] × 106 cells/ml, P = 0.018; sperm motility: 19.53 ± 7.69%, P = 0.001; the number of SYCP3-positive cells/tubule: 30.00 ± 11.28, P < 0.001; the percentage of SYCP3-positive tubules/section 71.98 ± 8.88%, P = 0.001; the expression of SYCP3 protein: 0.71 ± 0.09, P < 0.001), and fertility was also suppressed (P < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion: SKRBT had no adverse effect on fertility potential in aging male mice. PMID:26996482

  8. The Relative Age Effect and Physical Fitness Characteristics in German Male Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ulbricht, Jaime Fernandez-Fernandez, Alberto Mendez-Villanueva, Alexander Ferrauti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to test: 1 whether the relative age effect (RAE was prevalent in young (U12-U18 German male tennis players; 2 the potential influence of age and/or skill level on RAE and 3 whether maturity, anthropometric and fitness measures vary according to birth date distribution in elite youth tennis players. For the present study the following male populations were analysed: Overall German population (n = 3.216.811, all players affiliated to the German Tennis Federation (DTB (n = 120.851, players with DTB official ranking (n = 7165, regional (n = 381 and national (n = 57 squads (11-17 years old, as well as the top 50 German senior players were analyzed. RAEs were more prevalent at higher competitive levels with more players born in the first quarter of the year compared with the reference population for ranked (29.6%, regional (38.1% and national (42.1% players. No systematic differences were found in any of the maturity, anthropometric and fitness characteristics of the regional squad players born across different quarters. RAEs are present in the DTB competitive system and it was more pronounced at higher competitive levels. Compared with early born, late born players who were selected into elite squads did not differ in maturation, anthropometric and fitness characteristics.

  9. Effects of velvet antler polypeptide on sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in aging male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Zhi-Jun; Tang, Hong-Feng; Tuo, Ying; Xing, Wei-Jie; Ji, Su-Yun; Gao, Yong; Deng, Chun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four-month-old male C57BL/6 mice with low serum testosterone levels were used as a late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) animal model for examining the effects of velvet antler polypeptide (VAP) on sexual function and testosterone synthesis. These mice received VAP for 5 consecutive weeks by daily gavage at doses of 100, 200, or 300 mg kg−1 body weight per day (n = 10 mice per dose). Control animals (n = 10) received the same weight-based volume of vehicle. Sexual behavior and testosterone levels in serum and interstitial tissue of testis were measured after the last administration of VAP. Furthermore, to investigate the mechanisms of how VAP affects sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in vivo, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) in Leydig cells was also measured by immunofluorescence staining and quantitative real-time PCR. As a result, VAP produced a significant improvement in the sexual function of these aging male mice. Serum testosterone level and intratesticular testosterone (ITT) concentration also increased in the VAP-treated groups. The expression of StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD was also found to be enhanced in the VAP-treated groups compared with the control group. Our results suggested that VAP was effective in improving sexual function in aging male mice. The effect of velvet antler on sexual function was due to the increased expression of several rate-limiting enzymes of testosterone synthesis (StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD) and the following promotion of testosterone synthesis in vivo. PMID:26608944

  10. Evolution of male age-specific reproduction under differential risks and causes of death: males pay the cost of high female fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H-Y; Spagopoulou, F; Maklakov, A A

    2016-04-01

    Classic theories of ageing evolution predict that increased extrinsic mortality due to an environmental hazard selects for increased early reproduction, rapid ageing and short intrinsic lifespan. Conversely, emerging theory maintains that when ageing increases susceptibility to an environmental hazard, increased mortality due to this hazard can select against ageing in physiological condition and prolong intrinsic lifespan. However, evolution of slow ageing under high-condition-dependent mortality is expected to result from reallocation of resources to different traits and such reallocation may be hampered by sex-specific trade-offs. Because same life-history trait values often have different fitness consequences in males and females, sexually antagonistic selection can preserve genetic variance for lifespan and ageing. We previously showed that increased condition-dependent mortality caused by heat shock leads to evolution of long-life, decelerated late-life mortality in both sexes and increased female fecundity in the nematode, Caenorhabditis remanei. Here, we used these cryopreserved lines to show that males evolving under heat shock suffered from reduced early-life and net reproduction, while mortality rate had no effect. Our results suggest that heat-shock resistance and associated long-life trade-off with male, but not female, reproduction and therefore sexually antagonistic selection contributes to maintenance of genetic variation for lifespan and fitness in this population.

  11. Evolution of male age-specific reproduction under differential risks and causes of death: males pay the cost of high female fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H-Y; Spagopoulou, F; Maklakov, A A

    2016-04-01

    Classic theories of ageing evolution predict that increased extrinsic mortality due to an environmental hazard selects for increased early reproduction, rapid ageing and short intrinsic lifespan. Conversely, emerging theory maintains that when ageing increases susceptibility to an environmental hazard, increased mortality due to this hazard can select against ageing in physiological condition and prolong intrinsic lifespan. However, evolution of slow ageing under high-condition-dependent mortality is expected to result from reallocation of resources to different traits and such reallocation may be hampered by sex-specific trade-offs. Because same life-history trait values often have different fitness consequences in males and females, sexually antagonistic selection can preserve genetic variance for lifespan and ageing. We previously showed that increased condition-dependent mortality caused by heat shock leads to evolution of long-life, decelerated late-life mortality in both sexes and increased female fecundity in the nematode, Caenorhabditis remanei. Here, we used these cryopreserved lines to show that males evolving under heat shock suffered from reduced early-life and net reproduction, while mortality rate had no effect. Our results suggest that heat-shock resistance and associated long-life trade-off with male, but not female, reproduction and therefore sexually antagonistic selection contributes to maintenance of genetic variation for lifespan and fitness in this population. PMID:26801472

  12. Instrumentation and control aging management: A focus on electronic parts and boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    find the effects of aging on these parts. Eventually, operational failure rates can be calculated to detect less reliable parts; 2. aging tests and continuous monitoring (see previous part); 3. Visual inspections - Visual inspections of boards can be achieved inside the plant. The objective is to visually check the physical 'state' of the boards. The main observations are related to solder joints, corrosion or pollution of the boards, and mechanical shock effects on the boards or part packages. They may lead to corrective actions as well. Some actions undertaken after these diagnoses, leading to: 1. Preventive maintenance programs - They usually consist of preventive replacements of parts or refurbishment of boards. For instance, they are applied to electrolytic capacitors whose degradation mechanisms are roughly predictable; 2. Specific procedures to enhance the residual lives of the boards - Utilities may use some specific procedures related to electronic part aging. For instance, electronic cabinets and boards have to be protected from ESD in an appropriate manner. Conclusions - Even if the physical environment of I and C electronic systems is benign, some actions must be undertaken to control their aging mechanisms. Between the two extreme strategies of 'doing nothing' or 'preventively replacing everything', the sensible approach of monitoring specific parts seems to be a good compromise. It must be focused on 'aging sensitive' parts, and can consist of both aging tests and continuous monitoring of end-of-life indicators. By monitoring the aging, preventive maintenance should be optimized. (author)

  13. Life styles related to coronary artery disease in Saudi Males older than 12 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study highlighted life styles related to coronary artery disease risk factors among patients attending a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We conducted a cross-sectional study at a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period from 18/4/2006 to 13/6/2006. All adult male patients older than 12 years of age who attended one consultant primary care clinic were included in the study. All patients were interviewed by one consultant in family medicine during the study period. The patients were asked about dietary habits, physical activity and type of exercise, and smoking habits. Weight and height was taken for all patients by the nurse in the clinic and body mass index (BMI) were calculated for all patients. The total number of participants was 246 patients. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) version 11.5. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Of the 246 male adult patients, 45.4% always consumed vegetables and fruits in their diet, 21.5% exercised on a daily basis, 51.2% exercised sometimes and 26% did not exercise at all. The type of exercise practiced by active participants was walking (76.5%) and sports (22.9%). Sports included football, basketball, swimming and other sports club activity. Only 20.7% of the participants had an ideal body weight (BMI=30). 8.9% of the participants were current smokers. Overweight and obesity is a common health problem among male adult patients attending a primary care setting. Improved dietary habits (consumption of vegetables and fruits and minimization of fat and suits) encouraging exercise and walking and helping current smokers to quit smoking are essential steps towards improving life styles in the community. It is an important health plan priority to concentrate on improving life styles in the Saudi community, to prevent cardiovascular risk factors

  14. Pacing strategy in male elite and age group 100 km ultra-marathoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knechtle B

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Beat Knechtle,1,2 Thomas Rosemann,1 Matthias A Zingg,1 Michael Stiefel,1 Christoph A Rüst11Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, Zurich, 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, SwitzerlandAbstract: Pacing strategy has been investigated in elite 100 km and elite 161 km (100 mile ultra-marathoners, but not in age group ultra-marathoners. This study investigated changes in running speed over segments in male elite and age group 100 km ultra-marathoners with the assumption that running speed would decrease over segments with increasing age of the athlete. Running speed during segments in male elite and age group finishers for 5-year age groups (ie, 18–24 to 65–69 years in the 100 km Lauf Biel in Switzerland was investigated during the 2000–2009 period. Average running speed over segment time station (TS TS1–TS2 (56.1 km was compared with running speed Start–TS1 (38 km and Start–TS3 (76.7 km and running speed TS2–TS3 was compared with running speed Start–Finish. For the top ten athletes in each edition, running speed decreased from 2000 to 2009 for TS1–TS2 and TS2–TS3 (P<0.0001 but not in TS3–Finish (P>0.05. During TS1–TS2, athletes were running at 98.0%±2.1% of the running speed of Start–TS1. In TS2–TS3, they were running at 94.6%±3.4% of the running speed of TS1–TS2. In TS3–Finish, they were running at 95.5%±3.8% of running speed in TS2–TS3. For age group athletes, running speed decreased in TS1–TS2 and TS2–TS3. In TS3–Finish, running speed remained unchanged with the exception of the age group 40–44 years for which running speed increased. Running speed showed the largest decrease in the age group 18–24 years. To summarize, the top ten athletes in each edition maintained their running speed in the last segment (TS3–Finish although running speed decreased over the first two segments (TS1–TS2 and TS2–TS3. The best pacers were athletes in the age group 40–44 years, who were able to

  15. Reviewing reports of semen volume and male aging of last 33 years:From 1980 through 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pallav; Sengupta

    2015-01-01

    Since several decades numerous experimental and epidemiological experiments tend to establish that in humans the semen volume declines with progression of age. This literature review is intended to report the association between male age and semen volume. Review of English language-published research over the last 33 years, from January 1, 1980, up to December 31, 2013, has been conveniently constructed using MEDLINE database. Studies with inadequate numbers of subjects and case reports were excluded. Among the methodologically stronger studies, declines in semen volume of 3% - 22% were likely when comparing 30-year-old men to 50-year-old men. The report suggests that increased male age is associated with a decline in semen volume, i.e. there has been a genuine diminution in semen volume over the past 33 years. As male fertility is to some extent correlated with semen volume the results may reflect an overall reduction in male fertility.

  16. Developing a plasma focus research training system for the fusion energy age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 3 kJ UNU/ICTP Plasma Focus Facility is the most significant device associated with the AAAPT (Asian African Association for Plasma Training). In original and modified/upgraded form it has trained generations of plasma focus (PF) researchers internationally, producing many PhD theses and peer-reviewed papers. The Lee Model code was developed for the design of this PF. This code has evolved to cover all PF machines for design, interpretation and optimization, for derivation of radiation scaling laws; and to provide insights into yield scaling limitations, radiative collapse, speed-enhanced and current-stepped PF variants. As example of fresh perspectives derivable from this code, this paper presents new results on energy transfers of the axial and radial phases of generalized PF devices. As the world moves inexorably towards the Fusion Energy Age it becomes ever more important to train plasma fusion researchers. A recent workshop in Nepal shows that demand for such training continues. Even commercial project development consultants are showing interest. We propose that the AAAPT-proven research package be upgraded, by modernizing the small PF for extreme modes of operation, switchable from the typical strong-focus mode to a slow-mode which barely pinches, thus producing a larger, more uniform plasma stream with superior deposition properties. Such a small device would be cost-effective and easily duplicated, and have the versatility of a range of experiments from intense multi-radiation generation and target damage studies to superior advanced-materials deposition. The complementary code is used to reference experiments up to the largest existing machine. This is ideal for studying machine limitations and scaling laws and to suggest new experiments. Such a modernized versatile PF machine complemented by the universally versatile code would extend the utility of the PF experience; so that AAAPT continues to provide leadership in pulsed plasma research training in

  17. Brain Food for Alzheimer-Free Ageing: Focus on Herbal Medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hügel, Helmut M

    2015-01-01

    Healthy brain aging and the problems of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are a global concern. Beyond 60 years of age, most, if not everyone, will experience a decline in cognitive skills, memory capacity and changes in brain structure. Longevity eventually leads to an accumulation of amyloid plaques and/or tau tangles, including some vascular dementia damage. Therefore, lifestyle choices are paramount to leading either a brain-derived or a brain-deprived life. The focus of this review is to critically examine the evidence, impact, influence and mechanisms of natural products as chemopreventive agents which induce therapeutic outcomes that modulate the aggregation process of beta-amyloid (Aβ), providing measureable cognitive benefits in the aging process. Plants can be considered as chemical factories that manufacture huge numbers of diverse bioactive substances, many of which have the potential to provide substantial neuroprotective benefits. Medicinal herbs and health food supplements have been widely used in Asia since over 2,000 years. The phytochemicals utilized in traditional Chinese medicine have demonstrated safety profiles for human consumption. Many herbs with anti-amyloidogenic activity, including those containing polyphenolic constituents such as green tea, turmeric, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and Panax ginseng, are presented. Also covered in this review are extracts from kitchen spices including cinnamon, ginger, rosemary, sage, salvia herbs, Chinese celery and many others some of which are commonly used in herbal combinations and represent highly promising therapeutic natural compounds against AD. A number of clinical trials conducted on herbs to counter dementia and AD are discussed.

  18. Effect of castration age on weight and size of some bones in Piemontese male cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lazzaroni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of pre- and post-pubertal castration on bone weight and measurements has been studied in 3 groups of Piemontese male cattle (EC - early castrated, LC - late castrated, IM - intact reared in the same environmental conditions and slaughtered at about 18 month of age, at about 550 kg of l.w., and at the same commercial fattening degree. At side commercial dissection all separated bones were weighted, and on the main ones (scapula, humerus, radius, femur, and tibia linear measures were recorded and then some conformation ratios were calculated (weight/length, length/width, and length/circumference. Data were analysed by GLM ANCOVA procedure, correcting data on side weight to avoid bias due to differences in carcass weight. No differences were found in side bone weight (23.58 ± 2.61 kg, so as in single bone weight, measures and ratios.

  19. Out of the Closet and into the Trenches: Gay Male Baby Boomers, Aging, and HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Dana; Bartlam, Bernadette; Smith, Ruth D.

    2012-01-01

    Regardless of HIV status, all gay male Baby Boomers are aging in a context strongly shaped by HIV/AIDS. For this subcohort within the Baby Boom generation, the disproportionately high volume of AIDS deaths among gay men aged 25-44 years at the epidemic's peak (1987-1996) created a cohort effect, decimating their social networks and shaping their…

  20. The Relative Age Effect and Physical Fitness Characteristics in German Male Tennis Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Alexander; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the study were to test: 1) whether the relative age effect (RAE) was prevalent in young (U12-U18) German male tennis players; 2) the potential influence of age and/or skill level on RAE and 3) whether maturity, anthropometric and fitness measures vary according to birth date distribution in elite youth tennis players. For the present study the following male populations were analysed: Overall German population (n = 3.216.811), all players affiliated to the German Tennis Federation (DTB) (n = 120.851), players with DTB official ranking (n = 7165), regional (n = 381) and national (n = 57) squads (11-17 years old), as well as the top 50 German senior players were analyzed. RAEs were more prevalent at higher competitive levels with more players born in the first quarter of the year compared with the reference population for ranked (29.6%), regional (38.1%) and national (42.1%) players. No systematic differences were found in any of the maturity, anthropometric and fitness characteristics of the regional squad players born across different quarters. RAEs are present in the DTB competitive system and it was more pronounced at higher competitive levels. Compared with early born, late born players who were selected into elite squads did not differ in maturation, anthropometric and fitness characteristics. Key points RAEsexist in the selection of youth tennis players in Germany, a greater percentage of players analyzed was born in the 1st quarter compared to all licensed tennis players in the country, and more pronounced with an increased competition level in youth players. Players born later in the selection year and still selected in elite squads were likely to be similar across a range of physical fitness attributes compared with those born earlier in the year. The selection process should be reevaluated and changed to reduce the impact of RAEs on tennis players. PMID:26336351

  1. Physiological responding to stress in middle-aged males enriched for longevity: a social stress study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Steffy W M; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen; Westendorp, Rudi; Oei, Nicole Y L

    2016-01-01

    Individuals enriched for familial longevity display a lower prevalence of age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular- and metabolic diseases. Since these diseases are associated with stress and increased cortisol levels, one of the underlying mechanisms that may contribute to healthy longevity might be a more adaptive response to stress. To investigate this, male middle-aged offspring from long-lived families (n = 31) and male non-offspring (with no familial history of longevity) (n = 26) were randomly allocated to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control condition in an experimental design. Physiological (cortisol, blood pressure, heart rate) and subjective responses were measured during the entire procedure. The results showed that Offspring had lower overall cortisol levels compared to Non-offspring regardless of condition, and lower absolute cortisol output (AUCg) during stress compared to Non-Offspring, while the increase (AUCi) did not differ between groups. In addition, systolic blood pressure in Offspring was lower compared to Non-offspring during the entire procedure. At baseline, Offspring had significantly lower systolic blood pressure and reported less subjective stress than Non-offspring and showed a trend towards lower heart rate. Offspring from long-lived families might thus be less stressed prior to potentially stressful events and consequently show overall lower levels in physiological responses. Although attenuated physiological responding cannot be ruled out, lower starting points and a lower peak level in physiological responding when confronted with an actual stressor, might already limit damage due to stress over a lifetime. Lower physiological responding may also contribute to the lower prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and other stress-related diseases in healthy longevity.

  2. Effects of Saikokaryukotsuboreito on Spermatogenesis and Fertility in Aging Male Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Jun Zang; Su-Yun Ji; Ya-Nan Zhang; Yong Gao; Bin Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Background:Aspermia caused by exogenous testosterone limit its usage in late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) patients desiring fertility.Saikokaryukotsuboreito (SKRBT) is reported to improve serum testosterone and relieve LOH-related symptoms.However,it is unclear whether SKRBT affects fertility.We aimed to examine the effects of SKRBT on spermatogenesis and fertility in aging male mice.Methods:Thirty aging male mice were randomly assigned to three groups.Mice were orally administered with phosphate-buffer solution or SKRBT (300 mg/kg,daily) or received testosterone by subcutaneous injections (10 mg/kg,every 3 days).Thirty days later,each male mouse was mated with two female mice.All animals were sacrificed at the end of 90 days.Intratesticular testosterone (ITT) levels,quality of sperm,expression of synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SYCP3),and fertility were assayed.Results:In the SKRBT-treated group,ITT,quality of sperm,and expression of SYCP3 were all improved compared with the control group (ITT:85.50± 12.31 ng/gvs.74.10± 11.45 ng/g,P=0.027;sperm number:[14.94± 4.63] × 106 cells/ml vs.[8.79±4.38] × 106 cells/ml,P =0.002;sperm motility:43.16 ± 9.93% vs.33.51 ± 6.98%,P =0.015;the number of SYCP3-positive cells/tubule:77.50 ± 11.01 ng/ml vs.49.30 ± 8.73 ng/ml,P < 0.001;the expression of SYCP3 protein:1.23 ± 0.09 vs.0.84 ± 0.10,P < 0.001),but fertility was not significantly changed (P > 0.05,respectively).In the testosterone-treated group,ITT,quality of sperm,and expression of SYCP3 were markedly lower than the control group (ITT:59.00 ± 8.67,P =0.005;sperm number:[4.34 ± 2.45] × l06 cells/ml,P =0.018;sperm motility:19.53 ± 7.69%,P =0.001;the number of SYCP3-positive cells/tubule:30.00 ± 11.28,P < 0.001;the percentage of SYCP3-positive tubules/section 71.98 ± 8.88%,P =0.001;the expression of SYCP3 protein:0.71 ± 0.09,P < 0.001),and fertility was also suppressed (P < 0.05,respectively).Conclusion:SKRBT had no adverse effect on fertility

  3. Comparison of Morphometric Aspects of Light and Electron Microscopy of the Hypoglossal Nerve between Young and Aged Male Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Pourghasem; Yasser Asghari Vostacolaee; Nabiollah Soltanpour

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Age-related changes occur in many different systems of the body. Many elderly people show dysphagia and dysphonia. This research was conducted to evaluate quantitatively the morphometrical changes of the hypoglossal nerve resulting from the aging process in young and aged rats. Materials and Methods: Through an experimental study ten male wistar rats (4 months: 5 rats, 24 months: 5 rats) were selected randomly from a colony of wistars in the UWC. After a fixation process and prepar...

  4. Comparison of Physical Fitness Status between Middle-aged and Elderly Male Laborers According to Lifestyle Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, Mi-hyun; Shin, Joong-il; Yang, Dong-joo; Yang, Yeong-ae

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] We sought to examine the relationship between lifestyle behavior and physical fitness in middle-aged and elderly laborers. [Subjects] In total, 2,469 male laborers between 45 and 64 years of age residing in eight cities in South Korea were studied between January and December 2007. [Methods] Age, height, and weight were evaluated as general characteristics. Lifestyle behavior items included exercise, dietary habits, smoking, drinking, and sleeping hours. Physical fitness was assesse...

  5. Lipid and lipoprotein profiles among middle aged male smokers: a study from southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendiran Chinnasamy

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The objectives were to investigate into the relationship between lipid profile including Apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1 and Apolipoprotein-B (Apo-B and smokers and to relate them with smoking pack years. Materials and Methods A total of 274 active male smokers without any other illnesses and age matched male healthy control subjects (78 with similar socio-cultural background were assessed for clinical details, dietary habits, physical activities, smoking and alcohol consumption. Standard methods were adopted to check the lipid levels. The data were analyzed statistically. Results Their ages ranged from 40 to 59 years, systolic BP from 110 to 130 mmHg, and diastolic BP from 76 to 88 mmHg. All of them had similar pattern of diet (vegetarianism with occasional meat. None was on any medication influences lipid level. Their physical activity was moderate. Number of pack years varied from 10 to 14 (mild, 15 to 19 (moderate and 20 and above (heavy among 69, 90 and 115 cases, whose mean ages were 43, 44 and 49 respectively. The mean (+SD values in mg/dl of total cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TGL, Apo-B, low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and Apo-A1 in mg/dl among mild/ moderate/ heavy smokers and control subjects were 198 (30.6/ 224 (27.2/ 240 (24.3 and 160 (20.4; 164(42.6/ 199 (39.5/ 223(41.7 and 124 (31.6; 119 (24.9/ 121 (27/ 127 (28.3 and 116 (21.4; 94 (19.7/ 104 (21.8/ 120 (20.5 and 82 (17.6; 42 (5.9/ 39 (3.1/ 35(4.4 and 48 (5.3; and 120 (17/ 119 (21/ 115 (25 and 126 (19, respectively. In smokers, there was a rise in TC, TGL, LDL, Apo-B and fall in HDL and Apo-A; these changes were significant (P Conclusion Number of pack years was directly proportional to abnormal lipid profile. It is also concluded that changes in Apo-A1 and Apo-B were more significant when compared to HDL and LDL cholesterol among smokers. In the view of double risk for smokers (smoking and altered lipid profile

  6. First Asian ISSAM Meeting on the Aging Male, Kuala Lumpur Malaysia, 1 - 3 March 2001 - an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renate Leinmüller; Bruno Lunenfeld

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1 Aging in Asia- an avalanche starts to form With decreasing fertility rate and increasing life expectan cy, the world is aging- with highest rates in Asia. The socio economic, financial and medical consequences of the aging popu lation will be even more pro nounced due to the limited re sources of many Asian coun tries. During the First Asin ISSAM Meeting on the Aging Male distinguished speakers de picted the scenario in the various countries and proposed solutions of how to manage the aging pop ulations.

  7. Intensity-dependent effect of ageing on fatigue during intermittent contractions of the human calf muscle in males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Heather; Egana, Mikel; Green, Simon

    2015-09-01

    Ageing reduces fatigue during submaximal intermittent contractions, but the influence of intensity on this ageing effect in males and females is not clear. Younger males (n = 8; 23 ± 2 years), younger females (n = 8; 22 ± 1 years), older males (n = 8; 67 ± 5 years) and older females (n = 10; 64 ± 7 years) completed intermittent calf contractions at four submaximal intensities (30-70 %MVC) for up to 20 min. MVC was assessed during exercise at 30-60 s intervals and its linear rate of decline represented fatigue. Individual relationships between intensity and fatigue (%MVC min(-1)) were fitted to a biphasic function consisting of a linear and nonlinear component. There was no age × sex × intensity interaction for fatigue (3-way ANOVA, P = 0.46). However, there were significant interactive effects of age and sex on endurance at 70 %MVC, fatigue at 70 %MVC and the linear component of the intensity-fatigue relationship. Endurance was lower and fatigue and its linear component were greater (P < 0.05) in younger males compared with other groups, but not different between younger and older females. This suggests that there is an intensity-dependent effect of human ageing on fatigue during submaximal exercise that is specific to males. PMID:25911632

  8. Four-vessel occlusion model using aged male Wistar rats: a reliable model to resolve the discrepancy related to age in cerebral ischemia research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancer-Rodríguez, Jesús; Villarreal-Silva, Eliud Enrique; Salazar-Ybarra, Rodolfo Amador; Quiroga-García, Oscar; Rodríguez-Rocha, Humberto; García-García, Aracely; Morales-Avalos, Rodolfo; Morales-Gómez, Jesús Alberto; Quiroga-Garza, Alejandro; Saucedo-Cárdenas, Odila; Xu, Zao Cheng; Elizondo-Omaña, Rodrigo Enrique; Martínez-Ponce-de-León, Angel Raymundo; Guzmán-López, Santos

    2016-06-01

    Animal models of cerebral ischemia have typically been established and performed using young animals, even though cerebral ischemia (CI) affects primarily elderly patients. This situation represents a discrepancy that complicates the translation of novel therapeutic strategies for CI. Models of transient global CI using aged animals have demonstrated an apparent neuroprotective effect on CA1 hippocampal neurons; however, this effect is not completely understood. Our study used a model in which young (3-6 months) and aged (18-21 months) male Wistar rats were subjected to 15 min of transient global CI using the four-vessel occlusion (4 VO) model. We determined that the 4 VO model can be performed on aged rats with a slight increase in mortality rate. In aged rats, the morphological damage was completely established by the 4th day after reperfusion, displaying no difference from their younger counterparts. These results demonstrated the lack of a neuroprotective effect of aging on CA1 hippocampal neurons in aged male Wistar rats. This study determined and characterized the morphological damage to the CA1 area after 15 min of 4 VO in aged male Wistar rats, validating the use of this model in CI and aging research. PMID:25966656

  9. Socioeconomic factors and incidence of erectile dysfunction: findings of the longitudinal Massachussetts Male Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytaç, I A; Araujo, A B; Johannes, C B; Kleinman, K P; McKinlay, J B

    2000-09-01

    Despite the well-documented relationship of socioeconomic factors (SEF) to various health problems, the relationship of SEF to erectile dysfunction (ED) is not well understood. As such, the goals of this paper are: (1) to determine whether incident ED is more likely to occur among men with low SEF; and (2) to determine whether incident ED varies by SEF after taking into consideration other well-established ED risk factors that are also associated with SEF such as smoking, diabetes, and high blood pressure. We used data from 797 participants in the longitudinal population-based Massachusetts Male Aging Study (baseline 1987-1989, follow-up 1995-1997) who were free of ED at baseline and had complete data on ED and all risk factors. ED was determined by a self-administered questionnaire and its relationship to SEF was assessed using logistic regression. We first analyzed the age-adjusted relationship of education, income, and occupation to incidence of ED. The results show that men with low education (O.R. = 1.46, 95% C.I. = 1.02-2.08) or men in blue-collar occupations (O.R. = 1.68, 95% C.I. = 1.16-2.43) are significantly more likely to develop ED. For the multivariate model, due to multicollinearity among education, income, and occupation, we ran three separate models. After taking into consideration all the other risk factors--age, lifestyle and medical conditions--the effect of occupation remained significant. Men who worked in blue-collar occupations were one and a half times more likely to develop ED compared to men in white-collar occupations (O.R. = 1.55, 95% C.I. = 1.06-2.28).

  10. Brain Food for Alzheimer-Free Ageing: Focus on Herbal Medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hügel, Helmut M

    2015-01-01

    Healthy brain aging and the problems of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are a global concern. Beyond 60 years of age, most, if not everyone, will experience a decline in cognitive skills, memory capacity and changes in brain structure. Longevity eventually leads to an accumulation of amyloid plaques and/or tau tangles, including some vascular dementia damage. Therefore, lifestyle choices are paramount to leading either a brain-derived or a brain-deprived life. The focus of this review is to critically examine the evidence, impact, influence and mechanisms of natural products as chemopreventive agents which induce therapeutic outcomes that modulate the aggregation process of beta-amyloid (Aβ), providing measureable cognitive benefits in the aging process. Plants can be considered as chemical factories that manufacture huge numbers of diverse bioactive substances, many of which have the potential to provide substantial neuroprotective benefits. Medicinal herbs and health food supplements have been widely used in Asia since over 2,000 years. The phytochemicals utilized in traditional Chinese medicine have demonstrated safety profiles for human consumption. Many herbs with anti-amyloidogenic activity, including those containing polyphenolic constituents such as green tea, turmeric, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and Panax ginseng, are presented. Also covered in this review are extracts from kitchen spices including cinnamon, ginger, rosemary, sage, salvia herbs, Chinese celery and many others some of which are commonly used in herbal combinations and represent highly promising therapeutic natural compounds against AD. A number of clinical trials conducted on herbs to counter dementia and AD are discussed. PMID:26092628

  11. Age and isolation influence steroids release and chemical signaling in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Cavaggioni, Andrea; Redaelli, Marco; Da Dalt, Laura; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Gabai, Gianfranco

    2014-05-01

    Social interactions in mice involve olfactory signals, which convey information about the emitter. In turn, the mouse social and physiological status may modify the release of chemical cues. In this study, the influences of age and social isolation on the endocrine response and the release of chemical signals were investigated in male CD1 mice, allocated into four groups: Young Isolated (from weaning till 60days; N=6), Adult Isolated (till 180days; N=6), Young Grouped (6 mice/cage; till 60days; N=18), Adult Grouped (6 mice/cage; till 180days; N=18). Mice were transferred in a clean cage to observe the micturition pattern and then sacrificed. Body and organs weights, serum testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, corticosterone and the ratio Major Urinary Protein/creatinine were measured. Urinary volatile molecules potentially involved in pheromonal communication were identified. Androgen secretion was greater in isolated mice (P<0.05), suggesting a greater reactivity of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal axis. Grouped mice presented a higher degree of adrenal activity, and young mice showed a higher serum corticosterone (P<0.05) suggesting a greater stimulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis. The micturition pattern typical of dominant male, consisting in voiding numerous droplets, was observed in Young Isolated mice only, which showed a higher protein/creatinine ratio (P<0.05). Urinary 2-s-butyl-thiazoline was higher in both Young and Adult Isolated mice (P<0.005). Young Isolated mice showed the most prominent difference in both micturition pattern and potentially active substance emission, while long term isolation resulted in a less extreme phenotype; therefore social isolation had a higher impact on young mice hormone and pheromone release. PMID:24525008

  12. Surveys of serum reproductive hormone levels and the prevalence rates of late onset of hypogonadism in Chinese aging males

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Shan-jie; Li Xian-kun; Lu Wen-hong; Liang Xiao-wei; Yuan Dong; Li Hong; Gu Yi-qun; Zhang Bao-long; Ji Yu-dang; Wang Can-gang

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the change patterns of reproductive hormones in serum of aging males and the difference among male age brackets and the prevalence rates of late onset of hypogonadism (LOH) in males in Chinese middle and aging males.Methods:Subjects included 1,498 men aged 40 to 69 from a county,and the serum reproductive hormones of 434 subjects were measured and calculated.In addition,the prevalence rates of LOH were analyzed by cut-off point of total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (cFT),and screening scales (a questionnaire of androgen deficiency in the aging males (ADAM) and a scale of aging males' symptoms (AMS)).TT,cFT,bio-available testosterone (Bio-T),luteinizing hormone (LH),sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG),testosterone secretion index (TSI),free testosterone index (FTI),the positive rates of LOH screening,androgen deficiency rates and the clinical prevalence rates of LOH were measured or calculated.Results:The serum TT levels did not change significantly with male aging while serum LH and SHBG levels gradually increased,but cFT,Bio-T,TSI and FTI levels gradually decreased with male aging.There was very significant difference in other six parameters of reproductive hormones (P<0.01),except for serum TT among the four age brackets(P>0.05).There was no correlation between serum TT levels and aging,LH levels(P>0.05).However,there was significantly a positive correlation between serum LH,SHBG and age (P<0.01),while there were negative correlation between cFT,Bio-T,TSI,FTI and age,LH levels (P<0.01).Moreover,SHBG level was positively correlated with LH level (P<0.01).Utilizing the Questionnaire of ADAM and AMS to screen subjects aged 40 to 69 years,mean positive rates of LOH screening were 80.77% and 32.34% respectively.Mean androgen deficiency rates were 14.02% and 43.69%by using TT and cFT cut-off point.In addition,mean LOH clinical prevalence rates of subjects on positive questionnaire results were 37.85% and 15.42

  13. Atypical presentation of a middle age male with severe hypertriglyceridaemia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albahrani Ali I

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe hypertriglyceridaemia (HTG is uncommon but most prevalent in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and excess ethanol intake. Case presentation We describe a case of a middle age male (53 y presenting to the emergency room with acute atypical central chest pain and severe HTG in the absence of evidence of overt ischaemic heart disease (IHD. Admission ECG and EET (exercise tolerance test were negative for reversible ischaemic changes. His admission glucose was 12.2 mmol/l, triglycerides (TG were 103 mmol/l, total cholesterol 37 mmol/l. Cardiac Troponin T could not be measured on three occasions but CK MB mass was normal at 3 μg/l. The patient was started on Bezafibrate 400 mg OD, Simvastatin 20 mg nocte, Omacor (Omega-3 fish oil 1 gm bd and Metformin 500 mg tds. Four weeks after admission, lipid and liver profiles showed remarkable improvement, TG 2.9 mmol/l, Tchol 6.3 mmol/l and HDLc 1.5 mmol/l, ALAT and GGT were normal. Conclusion A case report of severe hypertriglyceridaemia with atypical presentation demonstrate the role of combined lipid modifying agents in lowering triglycerides and cholesterol as well as improving liver enzymes.

  14. Effect of castration age on weight and size of some muscles in Piemontese male cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Biagini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of pre- and post-pubertal castration on muscle weight and measurements has been studied in 3 groups of Piemontese male cattle (EC - early castrated, LC - late castrated, IM - intact reared in the same environmental conditions and slaughtered at about 18 month of age, at about 550 kg of l.w., and at the same commercial fattening degree. At side commercial dissection all separated muscles or meat cuts were weighted, and on the most regular ones (regular roll, shoulder clod – “copertina”, blade filet, strip loin, tenderloin, and eye round linear measures were recorded and then some conformation ratios (weight/length, length/width, and length/circumference were calculated. Data were analysed by GLM ANCOVA procedure, correcting data on side weight to avoid bias due to differences in carcass weight. Differences were found in meat weight, heavier in IM than in LC and EC (P<0.05, and fat weight, heavier in LC and EC than IM (P<0.01. Only the blade filet weight/length and length/circumference ratios were higher in EC than LC and IM (P<0.05 and in IM than EC (P<0.05 respectively, showing the poor effect of sexual neutralisation on weight and size of the considered muscles.

  15. Effects of Forest Bathing on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Parameters in Middle-Aged Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the effects of a forest bathing on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters. Nineteen middle-aged male subjects were selected after they provided informed consent. These subjects took day trips to a forest park in Agematsu, Nagano Prefecture, and to an urban area of Nagano Prefecture as control in August 2015. On both trips, they walked 2.6 km for 80 min each in the morning and afternoon on Saturdays. Blood and urine were sampled before and after each trip. Cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured during the trips. The Japanese version of the profile of mood states (POMS test was conducted before, during, and after the trips. Ambient temperature and humidity were monitored during the trips. The forest bathing program significantly reduced pulse rate and significantly increased the score for vigor and decreased the scores for depression, fatigue, anxiety, and confusion. Urinary adrenaline after forest bathing showed a tendency toward decrease. Urinary dopamine after forest bathing was significantly lower than that after urban area walking, suggesting the relaxing effect of the forest bathing. Serum adiponectin after the forest bathing was significantly greater than that after urban area walking.

  16. Keep on cruising: Changes in lifestyle and driving style among male drivers between the age of 18 and 23

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent improvements in general road safety levels, young male drivers in most western countries continue to be overrepresented in road traffic accidents. Lifestyle related motivational factors are a key element in the young male driver problem. Based on 379 posted questionnaires completed...... group still showed a similar life style at the age of 23. The study confirmed the importance of lifestyle related motivational factors for driving behaviour among young drivers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......Despite recent improvements in general road safety levels, young male drivers in most western countries continue to be overrepresented in road traffic accidents. Lifestyle related motivational factors are a key element in the young male driver problem. Based on 379 posted questionnaires completed...... by the same male drivers at the age of 18 and again at the age of 23, this study examined changes in the relationship between lifestyle and driving style over a 5 year period. A number of changes in car use, driving style and engagement in different leisure time activities were found. Cruising was...

  17. Modeling Developmental Changes in Functional Capacities and Soccer-Specific Skills in Male Players Aged 11-17 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente-dos-Santos, Joao; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J.; Simoes, Filipe; Figueiredo, Antonio J.; Leite, Neiva; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Malina, Robert M.; Sherar, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the contributions of age. growth, skeletal maturation, playing position and training to longitudinal changes in functional and skill performance in male youth soccer. Players were annually followed over 5 years (n = 83, 4.4 measurements per player). Composite scores for function

  18. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of 19 games…

  19. Effects of electrical stimulation or voluntary contraction for strengthening the quadriceps femoris muscles in an aged male population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggiano, E; Emrey, T; Shirley, S; Craik, R L

    1994-07-01

    Since musculoskeletal impairment increases with age, it is important to determine if exercise changes age-related muscle weakness. This study compared the training effects of electrical stimulation and voluntary isometric contraction, the traditional exercise, on the quadriceps femoris in males 65 years and older. Eighteen informed, nondisabled males, 72 +/- 4 years of age, participated in 12 training sessions over 4 weeks. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque was measured with a Cybex II dynamometer prior to and following training. An interclass correlation coefficient (3,1) of 0.982 demonstrated repeated reliable torque measurement. The electrical stimulation group trained at an average of 36% of pretest MVIC; the traditional exercise group trained at an average of 42% MVIC. Average (F = 14.06, p = 0.004) and peak (F = 14.32, p = 0.004) torque values were increased with both modes of training. Both methods of training using a low training load were effective in increasing torque in this older male sample. Electrical stimulation has the same potential as traditional exercise to provide improved strength for aged males. Future research should examine electrical stimulation in older persons with compromised ability to exercise using traditional methods. PMID:8081406

  20. The effect of caffeine on working memory load-­related brain activation in middle-­aged males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Elissa; De Groot, Renate; Evers, Lisbeth; Snel, Jan; Veerman, Enno; Ligtenberg, Antoon; Jolles, Jelle; Veltman, Dick

    2012-01-01

    Klaassen, E. B., De Groot, R. H. M., Evers, E. A. T., Snel, J., Veerman, E. C. I., Ligtenberg, A. J. M., Jolles, J., & Veltman, D. J. (2013). The effect of caffeine on working memory load-related brain activation in middle-aged male. Neuropharmacology, 64, 160-167. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2012.06.0

  1. Reproductive development of male goat kids reared with or without permanent contact with adult females until 10 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacuesta, L; Orihuela, A; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-01-01

    Adult male ruminants that were reared in contact with females display greater sexual behavior than those reared in single male groups. The aim of the experiment was to compare the reproductive development of prepubertal male kids reared with or without direct permanent contact with adult females until they were 10 months old. Seventeen Saanen male kids were maintained in two groups until 44 weeks of age: kids reared in permanent direct contact with four adult goats (group FEM, N = 8) and kids that remained isolated from females (group ISO, N = 9). All goats in the FEM group became pregnant approximately when bucks attained 28 weeks of age. Scrotal circumference and testosterone concentration were measured, and semen was obtained by electroejaculation to avoid female contact in the ISO group. Scrotal circumference was greater in FEM kids at 12 and 14 weeks of age (P < 0.0001) and testosterone when they were 20 and 22 weeks old (P < 0.0001). Testosterone concentration was greater in ISO kids from 28 to 44 weeks of age. All semen characteristics increased with age (P < 0.0001). Individual motility was greater in FEM kids than that in ISO kids at 15 and 17 weeks (P < 0.005); mass motility was greater in ISO than that in FEM kids at 32 weeks (P < 0.05); total number of spermatozoa/ejaculate was greater in ISO kids at 30, 32, and 40 weeks and in FEM kids at 43 weeks (P < 0.005); total number of motile spermatozoa was greater in ISO kids at 32 and 40 weeks, whereas at 43 weeks, it was greater in FEM kids (P < 0.005). It was concluded that permanent contact with adult goats had transient and short-time positive effects in male kids' reproductive traits during prepubertal development. However, positive effects stopped after goats used as stimulus became pregnant. PMID:25277528

  2. Do males evaluate female age for precopulatory mate guarding in the two-spotted spider mite?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oku, K.; Saito, Y.

    2014-01-01

    In the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), because only the first mating results in fertilisation, adult males guard quiescent deutonymph females, the stage immediately before adult emergence. Previous studies showed that T. urticae males prefer to guard older rather

  3. Engaging Focus Group Methodology: The 4-H Middle School-Aged Youth Learning and Leading Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Siri; Grant, Samantha; Nippolt, Pamela Larson

    2015-01-01

    With young people, discussing complex issues such as learning and leading in a focus group can be a challenge. To help prime youth for the discussion, we created a focus group approach that featured a fun, interactive activity. This article includes a description of the focus group activity, lessons learned, and suggestions for additional…

  4. Impact of female age and male infertility on ovarian reserve markers to predict outcome of assisted reproduction technology cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Kung-Chen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to assess the capability of ovarian reserve markers, including baseline FSH levels, baseline anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH levels, and antral follicle count (AFC, as predictors of live births during IVF cycles, especially for infertile couples with advanced maternal age and/or male factors. Methods A prospective cohort of 336 first IVF/ICSI cycles undergoing a long protocol with GnRH agonist was investigated. Patients with endocrine disorders or unilateral ovaries were excluded. Results Among the ovarian reserve tests, AMH and age had a greater area under the receiving operating characteristic curve than FSH in predicting live births. Furthermore, AMH and age were the sole predictive factors of live births for women greater than or equal to 35 years of age; while AMH was the major determinant of live births for infertile couples with absence of male factors by multivariate logistic regression analysis. However, all the studied ovarain reserve tests were not preditive of live births for women Conclusion The serum AMH levels were prognostic for pregnancy outcome for infertile couples with advanced female age or absence of male factors. The predictive capability of ovarian reserve tests is clearly influenced by the etiology of infertility.

  5. Oxidative Stress and Adipocyte Biology: Focus on the Role of AGEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Boyer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a major health problem that is usually associated with obesity, together with hyperglycemia and increased advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs formation. Elevated AGEs elicit severe downstream consequences via their binding to receptors of AGEs (RAGE. This includes oxidative stress and oxidative modifications of biological compounds together with heightened inflammation. For example, albumin (major circulating protein undergoes increased glycoxidation with diabetes and may represent an important biomarker for monitoring diabetic pathophysiology. Despite the central role of adipose tissue in many physiologic/pathologic processes, recognition of the effects of greater AGEs formation in this tissue is quite recent within the obesity/diabetes context. This review provides a brief background of AGEs formation and adipose tissue biology and thereafter discusses the impact of AGEs-adipocyte interactions in pathology progression. Novel data are included showing how AGEs (especially glycated albumin may be involved in hyperglycemia-induced oxidative damage in adipocytes and its potential links to diabetes progression.

  6. Efficacy of intrauterine insemination without ovarian hyperstimulation for male or cervical factor in women aged 40 or over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check, J H; Lurie, D; Peymer, M; Katsoff, D; Long, R

    2000-01-01

    The efficacy of intrauterine insemination (IUI) for male or cervical factor by age of female partner was determined in a retrospective analysis. Patients who underwent IUI therapy for cervical and/or male factor (n = 281) were classified by age at first IUI cycle: or =40 years (n = 49). The indication for IUI was cervical factor if a postcoital test failed to show sperm with good forward progression at time of mature follicle; male factor was diagnosed if the semen analysis demonstrated either low count, low motility, antisperm antibodies, or subnormal hypoosmotic swelling test. Intrauterine insemination was performed in either natural cycles or following ovarian stimulation for the treatment of anovulation or follicular maturation defects. Cumulative probability of ongoing pregnancy (viable at end of first trimester) following 3 cycles of IUI was evaluated. Cumulative probability of ongoing pregnancy following 3 cycles of IUI was 28.2% for the younger group and 0.0% for the older group. The age groups did not differ in terms of infertility history, use of ovarian stimulation, or baseline semen parameters. Thus, the treatment of male and/or cervical factor by IUI is ineffective for women > or =40 years. PMID:10864366

  7. Male-biased sex allocation in ageing parents; a longitudinal study in a long-lived seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedder, Oscar; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Benito, María M; Becker, Peter H

    2016-08-01

    Optimal sex allocation is frequency-dependent, but senescence may cause behaviour at old age to be suboptimal. We investigated whether sex allocation changes with parental age, using 16 years of data comprising more than 2500 molecularly sexed offspring of more than 600 known-age parents in common terns (Sterna hirundo), slightly sexually size-dimorphic seabirds. We decomposed parental age effects into within-individual change and sex allocation-associated selective (dis)appearance. Individual parents did not differ consistently in sex allocation, but offspring sex ratios at fledging changed from female- to male-biased as parents aged. Sex ratios at hatching were not related to parental age, suggesting sons to outperform daughters after hatching in broods of old parents. Our results call for the integration of sex allocation theory with theory on ageing and demography, as a change in sex allocation with age per se will cause the age structure of a population to affect the frequency-dependent benefits and the age-specific strength of selection on sex allocation. PMID:27484643

  8. Male-biased sex allocation in ageing parents; a longitudinal study in a long-lived seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedder, Oscar; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Benito, María M; Becker, Peter H

    2016-08-01

    Optimal sex allocation is frequency-dependent, but senescence may cause behaviour at old age to be suboptimal. We investigated whether sex allocation changes with parental age, using 16 years of data comprising more than 2500 molecularly sexed offspring of more than 600 known-age parents in common terns (Sterna hirundo), slightly sexually size-dimorphic seabirds. We decomposed parental age effects into within-individual change and sex allocation-associated selective (dis)appearance. Individual parents did not differ consistently in sex allocation, but offspring sex ratios at fledging changed from female- to male-biased as parents aged. Sex ratios at hatching were not related to parental age, suggesting sons to outperform daughters after hatching in broods of old parents. Our results call for the integration of sex allocation theory with theory on ageing and demography, as a change in sex allocation with age per se will cause the age structure of a population to affect the frequency-dependent benefits and the age-specific strength of selection on sex allocation.

  9. Childhood ADHD and conduct disorder as independent predictors of male alcohol dependence at age 40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Joachim; Penick, Elizabeth C; Nickel, Elizabeth J;

    2009-01-01

    The Danish Longitudinal Study on Alcoholism was designed to identify antecedent predictors of adult male alcoholism. The influence of premorbid behaviors consistent with childhood conduct disorder (CD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the development of alcohol misuse...

  10. LPS alters pattern of sickness behavior but does not affect glutathione level in aged male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrotek, Sylwia; Jędrzejewski, Tomasz; Nowakowska, Anna; Kozak, Wiesław

    2016-08-01

    Behavioral symptoms of sickness, such as fever and motor activity are a coordinated set of changes that develop during infection. The aim of study was to compare the sickness behaviour (SB) in healthy old and young rats treated with pyrogenic dose of endotoxin and to check their glutathione level. Before experimentation male Wistar rats were selected according to standard body mass, motor activity, and white blood cells count. Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E. coli was used to provoke SB. The level of liver glutathione, interleukin (IL) -6, deep body temperature (Tb) and motor activity were measured. Glutathione level in old and young rats did not differ significantly. In both young and old rats LPS administration provoked fever (the mean value of Tb was 38.06 ± 0.01 °C in old rats, and 38.19 ± 0.06 °C in young rats). LPS injection affected night-time activity in both groups (12 h averages were 1.56 ± 0.40 counts in old LPS-treated rats vs 2.74 ± 0.53 counts in not-treated old rats and 3.44 ± 0.60 counts for young LPS-treated vs 4.28 ± 0.57 counts for young not-treated rats). The injection of LPS provoked an elevation of plasma IL-6 concentration (from values below the lowest detectable standard in not-treated groups of animals to 6322.82 ± 537.00 pg/mL in old LPS-treated rats and 7415.62 ± 451.88 pg/mL in young LPS-treated rats). Based on these data, we conclude that good health of aged rats prevents decrease in the glutathione level. Old rats are still able to develop SB in response to pyrogenic dose of LPS, although its components have changed pattern compared to young animals. PMID:26829940

  11. The emerging role of Notch pathway in ageing: Focus on the related mechanisms in age-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balistreri, Carmela Rita; Madonna, Rosalinda; Melino, Gerry; Caruso, Calogero

    2016-08-01

    Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway, which is fundamental for the development of all tissues, organs and systems of human body. Recently, a considerable and still growing number of studies have highlighted the contribution of Notch signaling in various pathological processes of the adult life, such as age-related diseases. In particular, the Notch pathway has emerged as major player in the maintenance of tissue specific homeostasis, through the control of proliferation, migration, phenotypes and functions of tissue cells, as well as in the cross-talk between inflammatory cells and the innate immune system, and in onset of inflammatory age-related diseases. However, until now there is a confounding evidence about the related mechanisms. Here, we discuss mechanisms through which Notch signaling acts in a very complex network of pathways, where it seems to have the crucial role of hub. Thus, we stress the possibility to use Notch pathway, the related molecules and pathways constituting this network, both as innovative (predictive, diagnostic and prognostic) biomarkers and targets for personalised treatments for age-related diseases. PMID:27328278

  12. What Does Age Have to Do with Skills Proficiency? Adult Skills in Focus #3

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Adults tend to lose their information-processing skills as they age, especially if they do not use them. While older adults may compensate for this loss by developing other valuable skills, the importance of being proficient in information-processing skills in determining wages and employment does not diminish as workers age. Probably the most…

  13. Focus on opportunities as a mediator of the relationships between age, job complexity, and work performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Heusner, Sandra; Schmitz, Michael; Zwierzanska, Monika M.; Frese, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Focus on opportunities is a cognitive-motivational facet of occupational future time perspective that describes how many new goals, options, and possibilities individuals expect to have in their personal work-related futures. This study examined focus on opportunities as a mediator of the relationsh

  14. Males, but not females, lose tyrosine hydroxylase fibers in the medial prefrontal cortex and are impaired on a delayed alternation task during aging

    OpenAIRE

    Chisholm, Nioka C.; Kim, Taehyeon; Juraska, Janice M.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is particularly vulnerable to the effects of aging, and behaviors mediated by the PFC are impaired during aging in both humans and animals. In male rats, behavioral deficits have been correlated with a decrease in dopaminergic functioning. However, studies have found that anatomical changes associated with aging are sexually dimorphic, with males experiencing greater age-related loss than females. The present study investigated the effects of sex a...

  15. Effects of Aging and Anti-Aging Hormones on The Kidney, The Thyroid Functions and The Histology of The Testis of Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadia Ali Radwan; Samia Mohamed Sakr; Mohamed Salah Al-Shinnawy and Enas Saleh Abdel-Bakey

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of aging and anti-aging hormones on the kidney, the thyroid and the testis of aged male albino rats from the physiological and histological points of view. Material & Methods Thirty five male rats were used in the present study. They were allocated into five groups. The first group (5months old served as control group and the other remaining groups are (18 months old. The second group 1 ml/kg b.w. corn oil intramuscular injection through a period of two weeks .The third group received 2mg/kg b.w. of melatonin hormone orally daily for two weeks. The fourth group received 0.57 mg/kg b.w. of testosterone hormone via intramuscular injection through two weeks. The fifth group received the same dose of both hormones (Melatonin & Testosterone for two weeks. Some biochemical parameters of the kidney, the thyroid and histological structure of the testis were examined. Results The untreated aged group showed insignificant change in urea level with highly significant decrease in creatinine, T3 and T4 hormones levels. The melatonin treated group showed significant decrease in urea level with highly significant decrease in creatinine, T3 and T4 hormones. The testosterone treated group showed highly significant increase in urea, T3 and T4 hormones and highly significant decrease in creatinine level. Whereas, fifth group showed significant decrease in urea accompanied with a highly significant decrease in creatinine and highly significant increase in T3 with a significant increase in T4. The histological changes induced by aging and anti-aging hormones included intertubular haemorrhage, odematous areas present between the seminiferous tubules. The interstitial tissue was degenerated. The degenerated seminiferous tubules revealed maturation arrest in late-stage spermatides. Conclusion In conclusion, aging and anti-aging hormones administration into adult male rats exerts a clear effect on the kidney and

  16. Focus on the young ones”: Discourses on substance abuse and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selseng Lillian Bruland

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS – Previous research has shown that age categories play a vital part in the decision-making processes of counsellors in substance abuse services, yet very little is known about how the meanings of “age” and “substance abuse” are constructed and intertwined. This article aims to provide insights into the dynamic relationship between discourses on age and substance abuse. It explores the narratives of a group of counsellors on age and substance abuse, and looks at the subject positions this intersection produces.

  17. Influence of Physical Exercise and Food Restriction on the Biomechanical Properties of the Femur of Ageing Male Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Skalicky, Monika; Viidik, Andrus

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary running in wheels as well as food reduction increase the life spans of rats. Disparate parameters such as the collagen biomarker of ageing and the development of kidney pathologies are decreased by voluntary exercise. There are few reports on the influence of physical exercise...... and food restriction on the skeleton of male rats. Most investigations initiated rather short-term interventions in 4- to 5-week-old animals and thus studied more the influence of growth than the influence of ageing on the skeleton. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of physical exercise and food...... to SE group. This decrease was counteracted by physical exercise (RW and TM groups) as well as by food restriction (PW group). In contrast, the strength of the femoral mid-diaphysis did not differ between BL and SE groups. CONCLUSIONS: The distal metaphysis in the male rat femur is more prone...

  18. [Health in peril: repercussions of ageism on the psychological disengagement of male nurses aged 45 years and older].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagacé, Martine; Tougas, Francine; Laplante, Joelle; Neveu, Jean-François

    2008-01-01

    These two studies are designed to evaluate the reactions of male nurses aged 45 years and older toward ageism. The goal of the first study is to test the prestigious work domain model of psychological disengagement resulting from a previous study conducted among female nurses. This model has been confirmed through path analyses conducted on a sample of 236 male nurse technicians; by the same token, it has been shown to apply in the case of lower-status employees working in a prestigious field. In particular, the more a male nurse aged 45 and older experiences relative personal deprivation, the more he discredits feedback from his co-workers and superiors; such discrediting, in turn, leads to devaluation of the domain of work, which in turn lowers self-esteem. The goal of the second study is three-fold, namely: (a) testing the disengagement model among 419 male nurse clinicians; (b) extending this model through the addition of ageist communication as a variable triggering personal relative deprivation; and (c) constructing a scale of ageist communication. Path analyses have again confirmed that the way a domain is appreciated influences the negative impact that devaluation can produce on self-esteem, regardless of the gender or status of the employee working in that field. In addition, these results demonstrate the central role played by communication in the workplace as a vehicle of ageism and as a precursor of ageing employees' discomfort. The discussion covers the implications of ageing employees' reactions toward ageism as well as the consequences of depreciatory language and exclusionary communication practices in the workplace. PMID:19158044

  19. Changes in bronchial responsiveness to inhaled histamine over four years in middle aged male smokers and ex-smokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, T K; Taylor, R. G.; WATSON, A.; Joyce, H; Pride, N. B.

    1988-01-01

    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to inhaled histamine in smokers is associated with an accelerated annual decline in FEV1 and low baseline FEV1 values. The evolution of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and whether it precedes or follows the accelerated decline in FEV1 and reduction in FEV1 is unknown. Measurements of the provocative concentration of inhaled histamine required to reduce FEV1 by 20% (PC20) were repeated after a four year interval in 27 male smokers (mean age 59 years, smoking on aver...

  20. The Effect of Cues of Parental Investment on Attractiveness Ratings of Males: The Impact of Child Presence and Age

    OpenAIRE

    Went, Hannah

    2007-01-01

    According to evolutionary theories of mate choice, male parental investment is a desired characteristic of long term mates. Brase (2006) found that cues of a positive disposition towards parental investment increased males’ perceived attractiveness to females. Interacting with a child was taken to be a measure of males’ disposition towards parental investment. The present study sought to replicate and extend these findings by altering the age of the child involved. The results ...

  1. Modification of the Effect of Vitamin E Supplementation on the Mortality of Male Smokers by Age and Dietary Vitamin C

    OpenAIRE

    Hemilä, Harri; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2009-01-01

    The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study (1985–1993) recruited 29,133 Finnish male cigarette smokers, finding that vitamin E supplementation had no overall effect on mortality. The authors of this paper found that the effect of vitamin E on respiratory infections in ATBC Study participants was modified by age, smoking, and dietary vitamin C intake; therefore, they examined whether the effect of vitamin E supplementation on mortality is modified by the same variables....

  2. Age-related changes in the percentage of oleate in adipose tissue of male and female Fischer rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorling, E.B.; Hansen, Harald S.

    1995-01-01

    Fischer 344 rats showed sex difference in the percentage of oleate in lipids of the omental adipose tissue (Thorling, E.B. and Overvad, K. (1994) Nutr. Res. 14, 569-576). The development of this difference was studied with respect to time in rats maintained on laboratory chow, from the age of 3...... in the female than in the male rats, and this difference increased with age. The results of the present study suggest that these changes in percentage of oleate in adipose tissue lipids may partly have been caused by an effect of sex steroids on the delta-9-desaturase....

  3. Self-estimation of Body Fat is More Accurate in College-age Males Compared to Females

    OpenAIRE

    HANCOCK, HALLEY L.; Jung, Alan P.; Petrella, John K.

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of gender on the ability to accurately estimate one’s own body fat percentage. Fifty-five college-age males and 99 college-age females participated. Participants estimated their own body fat percent before having their body composition measured using a BOD POD. Participants also completed a modified Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS). Estimated body fat was significantly lower compared to measured body fat percent in females (26.8±5.6% vs. 30.2±7.0%...

  4. The contribution of attenuated selection in utero to small-for-gestational-age (SGA) among term African American male infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Julia M; Karasek, Deborah; Anderson, Elizabeth; Catalano, Ralph A

    2013-07-01

    Natural selection conserves mechanisms allowing women to spontaneously abort gestations least likely to yield fit offspring. Small gestational size has been proposed as an indicator of fitness observable by maternal biology. Previous research suggests that exposure to ambient stress in utero results in more "culling" of small fetuses and therefore lower rates of small-for-gestational-age (SGA). However, African American women persistently have higher rates of SGA than non-Hispanic white women, despite experiencing more ambient stress. This paper tests whether attenuation of the stress response among highly stressed African American women, as suggested by the weathering hypothesis, may help to explain this apparent inconsistency. We apply time-series modeling to over 2 million African American and non-Hispanic white male term births in California over the period of January 1989 through December 2010. We test for the parabolic (i.e., "U" shaped) relationship, implied by an attenuated stress response, between unusually strong labor market contraction and the rate of SGA among African American term male infants, and a linear relationship among non-Hispanic whites. We find the hypothesized parabolic relationship among term male African American infants. As expected, we find a linear relationship between unexpected layoffs and the rate of SGA among term male non-Hispanic whites. These results are robust to sensitivity analyses. These results may help to explain the high rates of SGA among term male African American infants, despite greater maternal exposure to ambient stress during pregnancy.

  5. A STUDY OF CHANGES IN PULMONARY FUNCTION WITH ADVANCING AGE AND THE EFFECT OF SMOKING IN MALES OF NORTH KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiny George

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As the life expectancy is rising virtually in all proportions throughout the world, awareness of the basic changes in respiratory physiology associated with aging and their clinical implication is important for clinicians. Similarly Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has emerged as a major health condition worldwide and cigarette smoking has been clearly documented as a risk factor for it. We made an attempt to assess the changes in the pulmonary function with age and also to assess the effect of smoking in males of 18-85 years from North Kerala . The pulmonary function tests were assessed on a computerized spirometer in 247 male subjects, outof which 127 were nonsmokers and 121 were smokers . The results showed a strong negative correlation between various age groups indicating a statistically significant decrease in all pulmonary function parameters as age increases(p<0.01. All the pulmonary function parameters were also significantly decreased in smokers when compared to nonsmokers of the same age groups (p<0.01. The percentage of smokers having airflow limitation (33.1% was more than 5 times that of the nonsmokers (5.6%. Thus by spirometry airflow limitation can be measured at an early stage so that subsequent morbidity can be minimized by life style changes and more targeted smoking cessation programmes.

  6. Barriers and motivators to voluntary medical male circumcision uptake among different age groups of men in Zimbabwe: results from a mixed methods study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Hatzold

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We conducted quantitative and qualitative studies to explore barriers and motivating factors to VMMC for HIV prevention, and to assess utilization of existing VMMC communication channels. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A population-based survey was conducted with 2350 respondents aged 15-49. Analysis consisted of descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis between circumcision and selected demographics. Logistic regression was used to determine predictors of male circumcision uptake compared to intention to circumcise. Focus group discussions (FGDs were held with men purposively selected to represent a range of ethnicities. 68% and 53% of female/male respondents, respectively, had heard about VMMC for HIV prevention, mostly through the radio (71%. Among male respondents, 11.3% reported being circumcised and 49% reported willingness to undergo VMMC. Factors which men reported motivated them to undergo VMMC included HIV/STI prevention (44%, improved hygiene (26%, enhanced sexual performance (6% and cervical cancer prevention for partner (6%. Factors that deterred men from undergoing VMMC included fear of pain (40%, not believing that they were at risk of HIV (18%, lack of partner support (6%. Additionally, there were differences in motivators and barriers by age. FGDs suggested additional barriers including fear of HIV testing, partner refusal, reluctance to abstain from sex and myths and misconceptions. CONCLUSIONS: VMMC demand-creation messages need to be specifically tailored for different ages and should emphasize non-HIV prevention benefits, such as improved hygiene and sexual appeal, and need to address men's fear of pain. Promoting VMMC among women is crucial as they appear to have considerable influence over men's decision to get circumcised.

  7. Transcriptome composition of the preoptic area in mid-age and escitalopram treatment in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Shogo; Soga, Tomoko; Wong, Dutt Way; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2016-05-27

    The decrease in serotonergic neurotransmission during aging can increase the risk of neuropsychiatric diseases such as depression in elderly population and decline the reproductive system. Therefore, it is important to understand the age-associated molecular mechanisms of brain aging. In this study, the effect of aging and chronic escitalopram (antidepressant) treatment to admit mice was investigated by comparing transcriptomes in the preoptic area (POA) which is a key nucleus for reproduction. In the mid-aged brain, the immune system-related genes were increased and hormone response-related genes were decreased. In the escitalopram treated brains, transcription-, granule cell proliferation- and vasoconstriction-related genes were increased and olfactory receptors were decreased. Since homeostasis and neuroprotection-related genes were altered in both of mid-age and escitalopram treatment, these genes could be important for serotonin related physiologies in the POA. PMID:27113202

  8. Are invertebrates relevant models in ageing research? Focus on the effects of rapamycin on TOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Cihan Suleyman; Hansen, Benni Winding; Vang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Ageing is the organisms increased susceptibility to death, which is linked to accumulated damage in the cells and tissues. Ageing is a complex process regulated by crosstalk of various pathways in the cells. Ageing is highly regulated by the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) pathway activity. TOR is an evolutionary conserved key protein kinase in the TOR pathway that regulates growth, proliferation and cell metabolism in response to nutrients, growth factors and stress. Comparing the ageing process in invertebrate model organisms with relatively short lifespan with mammals provides valuable information about the molecular mechanisms underlying the ageing process faster than mammal systems. Inhibition of the TOR pathway activity via either genetic manipulation or rapamycin increases lifespan profoundly in most invertebrate model organisms. This contribution will review the recent findings in invertebrates concerning the TOR pathway and effects of TOR inhibition by rapamycin on lifespan. Besides some contradictory results, the majority points out that rapamycin induces longevity. This suggests that administration of rapamycin in invertebrates is a promising tool for pursuing the scientific puzzle of lifespan prolongation.

  9. Proteomics/qPCR approach on estimating physical ages of wild male oriental fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male fruit flies reared in the laboratory in DKI-PBARC rearing facility in Hilo, Hawaii, were collected and whole insects were run through standard proteomic analysis. An odorant binding protein 99b (OBP) (Bdor0907381) located at molecular weight between 9226 dalton and PI 4.56 was identified throug...

  10. Age-group-specific associations between the severity of obstructive sleep apnea and relevant risk factors in male and female patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingqi Deng

    Full Text Available To seek accurate and credible correlation manner between gender, age, and obesity; and the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA in large-scale population.Totals of 1,975 male and 378 female OSA patients were sequentially recruited. Centralized covariant tendencies between age, body mass index (BMI, and waist hip ratio (WHR; and OSA severity, were explored in a gender-specific manner via multiple statistical analyses. The accuracies of observed correlations were further evaluated by adaptive multiple linear regression.All of age, BMI, WHR, smoking, drinking, and OSA severity differed between males and females. BMI and WHR were positively and (approximately linearly associated with OSA severity in both males and females. Restricted cubic spline analysis was more effective than was the Pearson correlation approach in correlating age with AHI, and provided age crossover points allowing further piecewise linear modeling for both males and females. Multiple linear regression showed that increasing age was associated with OSA exacerbation in males aged ≤ 40 years and in females aged 45-53 years. BMI, WHR, and diabetes were independently associated with OSA severity in males with age-group-specific pattern. In females, only BMI was associated with OSA severity at all ages.In male patients, BMI and WHR are prominent risk factors for OSA exacerbation. Age and diabetes are associated with OSA severity in males of particular ages. In females, BMI is also a prominent risk factor for severe OSA, and OSA severity increased with age in the range 45-53 years.

  11. Age-Group-Specific Associations between the Severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Relevant Risk Factors in Male and Female Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xingqi; Gu, Wei; Li, Yanyan; Liu, Mei; Li, Yan; Gao, Xiwen

    2014-01-01

    Aim To seek accurate and credible correlation manner between gender, age, and obesity; and the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in large-scale population. Methods Totals of 1,975 male and 378 female OSA patients were sequentially recruited. Centralized covariant tendencies between age, body mass index (BMI), and waist hip ratio (WHR); and OSA severity, were explored in a gender-specific manner via multiple statistical analyses. The accuracies of observed correlations were further evaluated by adaptive multiple linear regression. Results All of age, BMI, WHR, smoking, drinking, and OSA severity differed between males and females. BMI and WHR were positively and (approximately) linearly associated with OSA severity in both males and females. Restricted cubic spline analysis was more effective than was the Pearson correlation approach in correlating age with AHI, and provided age crossover points allowing further piecewise linear modeling for both males and females. Multiple linear regression showed that increasing age was associated with OSA exacerbation in males aged ≤40 years and in females aged 45–53 years. BMI, WHR, and diabetes were independently associated with OSA severity in males with age-group-specific pattern. In females, only BMI was associated with OSA severity at all ages. Conclusions In male patients, BMI and WHR are prominent risk factors for OSA exacerbation. Age and diabetes are associated with OSA severity in males of particular ages. In females, BMI is also a prominent risk factor for severe OSA, and OSA severity increased with age in the range 45–53 years. PMID:25211035

  12. Dynamics of chromosomal aberrations in male mice of various strains during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenfel'd, S V; Togo, E F; Mikheev, V S; Popovich, I G; Zabezhinskii, M A; Anisimov, V N

    2001-05-01

    We studied the incidence of chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells and primary spermatocytes in various mouse strains. Experiments were performed on SAMP mice (accelerated aging), control SAMR mice, and long-living CBA and SHR mice. Experiments revealed a positive correlation between the age and the incidence of mutations in their somatic cells and gametes. PMID:11550060

  13. Brain SERT Expression of Male Rats Is Reduced by Aging and Increased by Testosterone Restitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jaime Herrera-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In preclinical and clinical studies aging has been associated with a deteriorated response to antidepressant treatment. We hypothesize that such impairment is explained by an age-related decrease in brain serotonin transporter (SERT expression associated with low testosterone (T levels. The objectives of this study were to establish (1 if brain SERT expression is reduced by aging and (2 if the SERT expression in middle-aged rats is increased by T-restitution. Intact young rats (3–5 months and gonad-intact middle-aged rats with or without T-restitution were used. The identification of the brain SERT expression was done by immunofluorescence in prefrontal cortex, lateral septum, hippocampus, and raphe nuclei. An age-dependent reduction of SERT expression was observed in all brain regions examined, while T-restitution recovered the SERT expression only in the dorsal raphe of middle-aged rats. This last action seems relevant since dorsal raphe plays an important role in the antidepressant action of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. All data suggest that this mechanism accounts for the T-replacement usefulness to improve the response to antidepressants in the aged population.

  14. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%), colorectal (12.7%) and skin (12.7%). In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06–3.89). The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking

  15. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco, E-mail: luiz.baccaro@gmail.com [Department of Gynecology, State University of Campinas, Rua Alexander Fleming, 101, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, Campinas, São Paulo 13.083-881 (Brazil); Conde, Délio Marques [Breast Clinic, Hospital for Maternal and Child Healthcare, Goiânia, Goiás 74.125-120 (Brazil); Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Machado, Vanessa de Souza Santos; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes [Department of Gynecology, State University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo 13.083-881 (Brazil)

    2015-03-17

    The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%), colorectal (12.7%) and skin (12.7%). In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06–3.89). The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking.

  16. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Francisco Baccaro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%, colorectal (12.7% and skin (12.7%. In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06–3.89. The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking.

  17. Perceptions of mental workload in Dutch university employees of different ages: a focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.T.; Donders, N.C.G.M.; Velden, K. van der; Gulden, J.W.J. van der

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As academic workload seems to be increasing, many studies examined factors that contribute to the mental workload of academics. Age-related differences in work motives and intellectual ability may lead to differences in experienced workload and in the way employees experience work featur

  18. Proteolytic changes of myofibrillar proteins in Podolian meat during aging: focusing on tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, R; Della Malva, A; Albenzio, M

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between changes in postmortem degradation of myofibrillar proteins and tenderness development in 3 different muscles from 10 Podolian young bulls aged 1, 7, 14, and 21 d. Psoas major (PM), longissimus dorsi (LD), and semitendinosus muscle () were removed from each half carcass 24 h postmortem. Meat chemical composition, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), myofibril fragmentation index (MFI), total collagen content, and changes in myofibrillar proteins were estimated in triplicate at each aging time. A significant muscle effect was found on meat chemical composition. Semitendinosus muscle showed the lowest intramuscular fat percentage ( total collagen content ( image analyses results showed a significant increase of the total number of spots reaching the highest value in the LD muscle at 21 d of aging ( total variance. Data highlight that aging affects the meat tenderness and proteolysis with different intensities in each muscle. These results provide knowledge about the tenderness mechanism in different muscles from a rustic breed and could be useful for the development of muscle specific strategies for improving the quality and value in different commercial cuts. PMID:26020914

  19. Healthy aging diets other than the Mediterranean: a focus on the Okinawan diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Donald Craig; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Willcox, Bradley J

    2014-01-01

    The traditional diet in Okinawa is anchored by root vegetables (principally sweet potatoes), green and yellow vegetables, soybean-based foods, and medicinal plants. Marine foods, lean meats, fruit, medicinal garnishes and spices, tea, alcohol are also moderately consumed. Many characteristics of the traditional Okinawan diet are shared with other healthy dietary patterns, including the traditional Mediterranean diet, DASH diet, and Portfolio diet. All these dietary patterns are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, among other age-associated diseases. Overall, the important shared features of these healthy dietary patterns include: high intake of unrefined carbohydrates, moderate protein intake with emphasis on vegetables/legumes, fish, and lean meats as sources, and a healthy fat profile (higher in mono/polyunsaturated fats, lower in saturated fat; rich in omega-3). The healthy fat intake is likely one mechanism for reducing inflammation, optimizing cholesterol, and other risk factors. Additionally, the lower caloric density of plant-rich diets results in lower caloric intake with concomitant high intake of phytonutrients and antioxidants. Other shared features include low glycemic load, less inflammation and oxidative stress, and potential modulation of aging-related biological pathways. This may reduce risk for chronic age-associated diseases and promote healthy aging and longevity. PMID:24462788

  20. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco; Conde, Délio Marques; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; de Souza Santos Machado, Vanessa; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes

    2015-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%), colorectal (12.7%) and skin (12.7%). In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06-3.89). The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking.

  1. Factors influencing behavior of group-housed male rats in the social interaction test: focus on cohort removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kask, A; Nguyen, H P; Pabst, R; von Hörsten, S

    2001-10-01

    The rat social interaction (SI) test is used widely to measure anxiety-like behavior, yet the influence of various factors such as testing time, pre-experimental manipulations (transport stress), and testing of animals from the same cage (cohort removal, CR) on SI has not been systematically studied. We measured SI behavior of male triad-housed Wistar rats in a novel dimly lit arena (low light unfamiliar, LU) and found that SI time is higher in the beginning of the activity (dark) phase when compared with SI time in first half of the light phase. Furthermore, SI time is significantly increased by habituation of animals to the testing room during light phase, but this intervention has no effect in early dark phase when SI behavior is already maximal. Sequential removal of rats from the home cage led to the stress-like behavioral and physiological consequences. Rats removed in the last position had shorter SI time and higher body temperature. These data demonstrate that SI is higher during early dark vs. early light phase and confirm that CR has anxiogenic-like effects in rats. We conclude that the usage of sequentially removed group-housed rats in behavioral tests can be a source for considerable variation due to anxiety that develops in animals remaining in the cage. On the other hand, CR may be a useful method to study behavioral/neurochemical mechanisms of psychogenic stress in rats.

  2. Plant-derived alternative treatments for the aging male: facts and myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, Wolfgang; Jarry, Hubertus; Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana

    2010-06-01

    Soy- or red clover- derived products containing isoflavones have been amply studied in climacteric and postmenopausal women, and confusing contradicting results have been published. The beneficial effects on climacteric complaints, cholesterol and the development of osteoporosis are marginally at best and there are no uterine and mammary safety studies. In males, however, isoflavones may protect the prostate to make them less prone to develop cancer. Cell biological and animal experimental data support this notion. Clinical data about possible beneficial effects on cholesterol or in the bone are largely missing. Hence, soy or red clover products containing the mild estrogenic isoflavones with a slightly higher affinity to the estrogen receptor of the beta in comparison to the alpha subtype may prove to have some beneficial effects in males.

  3. Early Menarche is Associated With Preference for Masculine Male Faces and Younger Preferred Age to Have a First Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlota Batres

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available One developmental factor that is associated with variation in reproductive strategy is pubertal timing. For instance, women who experience earlier menarche have their first pregnancy earlier and prefer more masculinized male voices. Early menarche may also lead to preferences for masculine faces, but no study has shown such a link. We therefore investigated the relationships between pubertal timing, reproductive plans, sexual attitudes and behaviors, and masculinity preferences in nulliparous women aged 18–30 from the United Kingdom (N = 10,793. We found that women who experienced earlier menarche reported a younger preferred age to have a first child and showed stronger masculinity preferences. This provides evidence that women experiencing early menarche not only have children earlier but notably plan to have children earlier. Additionally, our findings provide evidence that age of menarche influences partner selection, which is instrumental for the implementation of reproductive strategies.

  4. Ambiguous response of lung lamellar bodies to sauna-like heat stress in two age groups of adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heino, M E

    1980-06-01

    Two groups of adult male rats, aged 2.5 and 5 months, were exposed daily for 12 min to 65 degrees C for five successive periods a week for 6 weeks. Both age groups, and in particular the young one, repeatedly suffered from exhausting heat stress. Lung specimens from cardiac lobes were prepared for light- and electron-microscopy. A significnat increase was noted in the lung lamellar body number in the old test rats, on comparison with old ones employed as controls (p < 0.05). The young group was unresponsive. Consequently, stress induced by increased sympathetic activity is not always a direct stimulus, as had been thought earlier. It seems, at least where heat stress is concerned, that it is the age, weight, and systemic reactions which exercise a great influence upon lamellar body production, and may even overrule the role of sympathetic activity. PMID:7417113

  5. Female CREBαδ- deficient mice show earlier age-related cognitive deficits than males

    OpenAIRE

    Hebda-Bauer, Elaine K.; Luo, Jie; Watson, Stanley J.; Akil, Huda

    2007-01-01

    Age-related changes in the hippocampus increase vulnerability to impaired learning and memory. Our goal is to understand how a genetic vulnerability to cognitive impairment can be modified by aging and sex. Mice with a mutation in the cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein gene (CREBαδ- deficient mice) have a mild cognitive impairment and show test condition-dependent learning and memory deficits. We tested 3 ages of CREBαδ- deficient and wild-type (WT) mice in 2 Morris water maze (MWM)...

  6. Toward an animal model of extinction-induced despair: focus on aging and physiological indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Joseph P; Schulz, Daniela; Topic, Bianca

    2009-08-01

    Behaviors that are under the control of positive or negative reinforcers undergo extinction when the anticipated reward/reinforcer is withheld. Despair, an important symptom of environmentally determined depression in humans, can be generated by extinction, or the failure of expected reward to accrue. Although well known to clinicians dealing with depressive patients, an animal model has not been available for extinction-induced depression. We have made a beginning towards validating such a model, based on the extinction of negatively reinforced behavior in the rat, i.e., upon removal of the possibility to escape onto a safety platform in the water maze. As a marker for despair, we employed behavioral immobility, i.e., the cessation of swimming in the attempt to find safety from the water, presumably, a type of learned helplessness. This measure was sensitive to antidepressants and correlated with neurotransmitter contents, neurotrophins and hypothalamus-pituitary adrenal axis markers in selected sites of the brain. Given that some cases of depression in the elderly may be biologically distinct from others and from early-onset depression, and since particularly the aged are prone to experience extinction-induced despair, we compared aged (ca. 24 months old) animals with adults in most of our studies. We found a number of distinct differences in behavioral and biological measures, indicative of differences in propensity to, as well as response to, extinction-induced despair between aged and adults. Our results add to the body of evidence for differences in the neurobiological substrates of depressive disorders between aged and adults, with the implication for the requirement of different treatment strategies in these two populations. PMID:19350220

  7. Determination of the standard values of the hand bone mineral density values in males according to ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule Temiztürk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study we purposed to determine standardvalues of hand Bone Mineral Density (BMD accordingto ages by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXAin males who applied to our hospital, evaluate associationof hand BMD with lumbar and femur BMD and searchusefulness of hand BMD measurement by DXA.Methods: Totally, 239 male included, whose ages differbetween 27 to 87 years, had no disease associatedwith bone density were included. The cases, betweenthe ages 20 to 70 separated to age groups, comprisedof 5 years. Cases, whose age is 70 and older, included inthe same group. Average of dominant and nondominanthand BMD values of the chosen cases were computedaccording to age groups comprised of 5 years and theassociation with values of L2-L4 and femur neck BMD issearched separately.Results: There is significant association between dominanthand BMD scores with L2-L4 and femur neck BMDscores. Also there is significant association between nondominanthand BMD scores with L2-L4 and femur neckBMD scores. Also there is asignificant association betweenscores of hand BMD with hand grip strenght.Conclusion: In this study there is significant associationbetween BMD scores of dominant and nondominanthand with BMD scores of L2-L4 and femur neck in all agegroups. Rheumatological diseases, reflex sympatheticdystrophy, tendon and nerve lacerations of hand and forearm,fractures of upper extremity and hemiplegy, that cancauses local osteoporosis in the hand, measurement ofhand BMD can be done by DXA.Key words: Bone mineral density, dual energy X ray absorptiometry,osteoporosis

  8. Molecular Genetics of Aging in the Postgenomic Era: A Focus on Sirtuins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The way to study genetics has notably progressed in the last decades. Their origins date back to the study of hereditary features, followed by the discovery of genes and chromosomes up to the knowledge of DNA structure. This last event leads the development of recombinant DNA technology and the massive and automated sequencing, which allowed later to determine the anatomy of genomes. All of these discoveries have pushed the evolution of biomedicine towards the genomic and postgenomic eras, in which the use of reverse genetics prevails over the basic or direct one. Furthermore, it emerges the molecular genetics, the functional genomics and the diverse omic technologies that together pretend to understand in an integrative way the function of all of the genome components and its products. biogerontology, discipline that studies the biological mechanisms of aging, is one of the fields that has developed notoriously in the last 15 years and reflects the scientific advances of the postgenomic era. Currently, there have been identified several gerontogenes and molecular pathways that modify and regulate age-related processes and diseases. Among these genes are the sirtuins, an evolutionarily preserved family of genes, which codify for proteins with NAD+ dependent deacetylase activity and that play an important role on aging. Here we review different reverse genetics approaches that have been used in order to identify some of the functions of these genes in mammals.

  9. Prediction of mortality at age 40 in Danish males at high and low risk for alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, J; Penick, E C; L Mortensen, E;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This prospective high-risk study examined the influence of father's alcoholism and other archival-generated measures on premature death. METHOD: Sons of alcoholic fathers (n = 223) and sons of non-alcoholic fathers (n = 106) have been studied from birth to age 40. Archival predictors o...... at age 40. Death was associated with developmental immaturities and treatment for a psychiatric and/or substance abuse problem....

  10. Age at immigration and crime. Findings for male immigrants in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Synøve Nygaard Andersen; Torbjørn Skardhamar

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have identified an "immigrant paradox" in crime in which crime rates are highest among immigrants who are young when they arrive in the host country, even though social capital and integration in the labour market and social networks favour the young. We use Norwegian registry data to estimate the probability of committing at least one crime in any year after the year of immigration, and we include interaction terms between age and age at immigration to explore the troublesom...

  11. Accelerated structural decrements in the aging female rhesus macaque lung compared with males

    OpenAIRE

    Herring, Matt J.; Avdalovic, Mark V.; Quesenberry, Cheryl L.; Putney, Lei F.; Tyler, Nancy K.; Ventimiglia, Frank F.; St. George, Judith A.; Hyde, Dallas M.

    2012-01-01

    Aging is associated with morphometric changes in the lung that lead to decreased lung function. The nonhuman primate lung has been shown to have similar architectural, morphological, and developmental patterns to that of humans. We hypothesized that the lungs of rhesus monkeys age in a pattern similar to human lungs. Thirty-four rhesus monkeys from the California National Primate Research Center were euthanized, necropsied, and the whole lungs sampled. Stereological analysis was performed to ...

  12. Symptoms and lung function decline in a middle-aged cohort of males and females in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramson MJ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Abramson,1 Sonia Kaushik,1 Geza P Benke,1 Brigitte M Borg,2 Catherine L Smith,1 Shyamali C Dharmage,3 Bruce R Thompson21Department of Epidemiology & Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health & Preventive Medicine, Monash University, 2Department of Allergy, Immunology & Respiratory Medicine, The Alfred Hospital, 3Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, AustraliaBackground: The European Community Respiratory Health Survey is a major international study designed to assess lung health in adults. This Australian follow-up investigated changes in symptoms between sexes and the roles of asthma, smoking, age, sex, height, and change in body mass index (ΔBMI on lung function decline (LFD, which is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.Methods: LFD was measured as the rate of decline over time in FEV1 (mL/year (ΔFEV1 and FVC (ΔFVC between 1993 and 2013. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and LFD, separately for males and females. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess sex differences and changes in respiratory symptoms over time.Results: In Melbourne, 318 subjects (53.8% females participated. The prevalence of most respiratory symptoms had either remained relatively stable over 20 years or decreased (significantly so for wheeze. The exception was shortness of breath after activity, which had increased. Among the 262 subjects who completed spirometry, current smoking declined from 20.2% to 7.3%. Overall mean (± standard deviation FEV1 declined by 23.1 (±17.1 and FVC by 22.9 (±20.2 mL/year. Predictors of ΔFEV1 in males were age, maternal smoking, and baseline FEV1; and in females they were age, ΔBMI, baseline FEV1, and pack-years in current smokers. Decline in FVC was predicted by baseline FVC, age, and ΔBMI in both sexes; however, baseline FVC predicted

  13. Pragmatic inferences and self-relevant judgments: The moderating role of age, prevention, focus, and need for cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Puente-Diaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three studies examined the influence of type of scale on self-relevant judgments and the moderating role of age, prevention, focus, and need for cognition. Participants were randomly assigned to a bipolar or a unipolar scale condition in all three studies. Results from study 1 with a representative sample of the adult population of Mexico showed that participants evaluated themselves more positively on a bipolar than a unipolar scale. Age did not moderate this relationship. Results from studies 2 and 3 also showed a significant influence of type of scale on self-relevant judgments. Prevention, focus and need for cognition did not moderate the relationship between type of scale and self-relevant judgments. The theoretical and applied implications of our results were discussed.

  14. Inverse Correlation between Adiponectin and the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-aged Japanese Male Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyazaki,Motonobu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite a close association between adiponectin and both hypertension and type 2 diabetes, the relationship between adiponectin and metabolic syndrome has not yet been well-investigated. To examine and evaluate the association between serum adiponectin levels and metabolic syndrome based on Japanese diagnostic criteria, we analyzed adiponectin and anthropometric parameters in 869 male employees aged 40-59 who belonged to a health insurance society in Fukuoka Prefecture and who underwent annual health check-ups from August 2006 to July 2007. Two hundred and thirty-two of the 869 subjects (26.7% were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. The serum adiponectin levels were significantly higher in the non-metabolic syndrome group. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, the subjects in the top quartile of serum adiponectin (adjusted odds ratio:0.36;95% confidence interval:0.21-0.63 and the second (adjusted odds ratio:0.51;95% confidence interval:0.31-0.84 quartile had a significantly decreased risk for metabolic syndrome in comparison to the bottom quartile. The dose-response relationship between serum adiponectin levels and metabolic syndrome was significant (p for trend 0.0001 after adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status, and drinking status. The current findings suggest that hypoadiponectinemia is inversely correlated with the risk of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged Japanese male workers.

  15. Persistent depression is a significant risk factor for the development of arteriosclerosis in middle-aged Japanese male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hiroki; Fujii, Satoshi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Depression often coexists with hypertension and various cardiovascular diseases. However, the relationship between depression and the development of arteriosclerosis has not been fully established. We assessed depression and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in 828 middle-aged Japanese male subjects at baseline and during 3 years of follow-up. Depression was assessed using Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression questionnaires, and the study subjects were divided into the following three groups: persistent depression, transient depression and no depression. The number (%) of subjects with persistent, transient and no depression were 104 (12.6), 76 (9.2) and 648 (78.2), respectively. Blood pressure and baPWV did not differ among the three groups at baseline. The changes in the baPWV values (⊿baPWV) correlated significantly and positively with age, body mass index, baseline systolic blood pressure and persistent depression (r = 0.32, P arteriosclerosis in middle-aged Japanese male subjects.

  16. Clinical Features and Polysomnographic Findings in Greek Male Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: Differences Regarding the Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efremidis George

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background-Aim. Although sleep disturbance is a common complaint among patients of all ages, research suggests that older adults are particularly vulnerable. The aim of this retrospective study was to elucidate the influence of age on clinical characteristics and polysomnographic findings of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS between elderly and younger male patients in a Greek population. Methods. 697 male patients with OSAS were examined from December 2001 to August 2011. All subjects underwent an attended overnight polysomnography (PSG. They were divided into two groups: young and middle-aged (<65 years old and elderly (≥65 years old. We evaluated the severity of OSAS, based on apnea-hypopnea index (AHI, and the duration of apnea-hypopnea events, the duration of hypoxemia during total sleep time (TST and during REM and NREM sleep, and the oxygen saturation in REM and in NREM sleep. Results. PSG studies showed that elderly group had significant higher duration of apnea-hypopnea events, longer hypoxemia in TST and in NREM sleep, as well as lower oxygen saturation in REM and NREM sleep than the younger group. Otherwise, significant correlation between BMI and neck circumference with AHI was observed in both groups. Conclusions. The higher percentages of hypoxemia during sleep and longer duration of apnea-hypopnea events that were observed in the elderly group might be explained by increased propensity for pharyngeal collapse and increased deposition of parapharyngeal fat, which are associated with aging. Another factor that could explain these findings might be a decreased partial arterial pressure of oxygen (PaO2 due to age-related changes in the respiratory system.

  17. Childhood ADHD and conduct disorder as independent predictors of male alcohol dependence at age 40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    in their teens (n = 238), later as adults at age 30 (n = 241), and more recently at age 40 (n = 202). At 19-year/20-year follow-ups, an ADHD scale was derived from teacher ratings and a CD scale was derived from a social worker interview. At 30-year and 40-year follow-ups, a psychiatrist used structured...... interviews and criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised, to quantify lifetime alcoholism severity and to diagnose alcohol-use disorder. Of the original subjects, 110 had complete data for the two childhood measures and the adult alcoholism outcomes...

  18. Are the determinants of vertebral endplate changes and severe disc degeneration in the lumbar spine the same? A magnetic resonance imaging study in middle-aged male workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korpelainen Raija

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modic changes are bone marrow lesions visible in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and they are assumed to be associated with symptomatic intervertebral disc disease, especially changes located at L5-S1. Only limited information exists about the determinants of Modic changes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the determinants of vertebral endplate (Modic changes, and whether they are similar for Modic changes and severe disc degeneration focusing on L5-S1 level. Methods 228 middle-aged male workers (159 train engineers and 69 sedentary factory workers from northern Finland underwent sagittal T1- and T2-weighted MRI. Modic changes and disc degeneration were analyzed from the scans. The participants responded to a questionnaire including items of occupational history and lifestyle factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations between selected determinants (age, lifetime exercise, weight-related factors, fat percentage, smoking, alcohol use, lifetime whole-body vibration and Modic type I and II changes, and severe disc degeneration (= grade V on Pfirrmann's classification. Results The prevalences of the Modic changes and severe disc degeneration were similar in the occupational groups. Age was significantly associated with all degenerative changes. In the age-adjusted analyses, only weight-related determinants (BMI, waist circumference were associated with type II changes. Exposure to whole-body vibration, besides age, was the only significant determinant for severe disc degeneration. In the multivariate model, BMI was associated with type II changes at L5-S1 (OR 2.75 per one SD = 3 unit increment in BMI, and vibration exposure with severe disc degeneration at L5-S1 (OR 1.08 per one SD = 11-year increment in vibration exposure. Conclusion Besides age, weight-related factors seem important in the pathogenesis of Modic changes, whereas whole-body vibration was the only significant determinant

  19. Rapid-onset hyponatremia induced by duloxetine in a middle-aged male with depression and somatic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Seok; Lee, Hae Woo; Lee, Jun Young; Jung, Hee Yeon

    2012-03-01

    Duloxetine is a relatively balanced selective serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor. We report a case of hyponatremia induced by duloxetine developed rapidly after starting the medication in a middle-aged male with multiple somatic symptoms and depression. Two days after discontinuation of duloxetine and management with hypertonic saline as well as fluid restriction, the serum sodium level normalized. The patient had two risk factors for developing hyponatremia, such as severe body weight loss and pneumonia. Therefore, when treating patients with depression and somatic symptoms, especially with risk factors for developing hyponatremia, close monitoring for clinical and laboratory evidence of hyponatremia may be essential. PMID:22396690

  20. Chemical versus dual energy x-ray absorptiometry for detecting age-associated body compositional changes in male rats☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feely, Rebecca. S.; Larkin, Lisa M.; Halter, Jeffrey B.; Dengel, Donald R.

    2009-01-01

    Aging is associated with increases in body mass and fat mass (FM), whereas fat-free mass (FFM) either decreases or remains unchanged. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) accurately detects age-associated changes in male Fischer 344 × Brown–Norway rats ages 8, 18, and 28 months. Eviscerated animal carcasses were first examined via the Lunar DPX-IQ DXA (small animal software version 1.0; HiRes (0.6 × 1.2 mm) medium mode). Eviscerated carcasses were then weighed, autoclaved, homogenized, and fat isolated from aliquots of homogenate via methanol/chloroform extraction. In both chemical (CHEM) and DXA analysis, carcass mass (CM), FM, and % fat were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in the 18 and 28 versus 8-month-old rats. CHEM showed greater FFM in the 18 versus 8 months-old rats but not the 28 months-old animals. DXA was unable to detect the age-associated changes in FFM. Regression analysis showed a strong correlation between CHEM and DXA methods for CM (r = 0.98, P < 0.0001) and FM (r = 0.97, P < 0.0001), but less strong for FFM (r = 0.59, P = 0.0002). In conclusion, compared to CHEM, DXA consistently overestimated CM and FM across the age groups by 9% and 77%, respectively, and underestimated FFM by 5%. PMID:10832061

  1. Influence of age on measured anatomical and physiological interpupillary distance (far and near), and near heterophoria, in Arab males

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAnazi, Saud A; AlAnazi, Mana A; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effects of age and near phoria on interpupillary distance measured at far (FIPD) and near (NIPD) using the Viktorin’s and pupillometer (PD-5) methods. Methods Interpupillary distance (IPD) by Viktorin’s method and the corneal reflex pupillometer (PD-5) method, as well as near heterophoria by the Saladin near point card, were each obtained on 133 randomly selected normal subjects aged 20–67 years. Comparison within and between techniques, influence of age on IPD, and near heterophoria were assessed. Results The mean FIPD varied significantly from the NIPD (P 0.05) for FIPD, and −3.1 mm and 2.9 mm (P > 0.05) for NIPD. Both IPDs varied significantly across age groups (P 0.04; P < 0.03, both techniques). Conclusion The difference between FIPD and NIPD (about 4.4 mm in Arab males) was observed independent of the technique used. The Viktorin’s and the PD-5 methods of IPD assessment resulted in similar values, and therefore, could be interchangeably used. However, caution is advised in cases of high power refractive corrections as the difference could vary from −4 mm to +3 mm (FIPD) and −3 mm to +3 mm (NIPD). Both IPDs have demonstrated an increase until the patients are in their early 40s, and a slight decrease has been observed thereafter. Age and NIPD were significantly associated with heterophoria in our subjects. PMID:23620654

  2. Age-related skeletal dynamics and decrease in bone strength in DNA repair deficient male trichothiodystrophy mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Nicolaije

    Full Text Available Accumulation of DNA damage caused by oxidative stress is thought to be one of the main contributors of human tissue aging. Trichothiodystrophy (TTD mice have a mutation in the Ercc2 DNA repair gene, resulting in accumulation of DNA damage and several features of segmental accelerated aging. We used male TTD mice to study the impact of DNA repair on bone metabolism with age. Analysis of bone parameters, measured by micro-computed tomography, displayed an earlier decrease in trabecular and cortical bone as well as a loss of periosteal apposition and a reduction in bone strength in TTD mice with age compared to wild type mice. Ex vivo analysis of bone marrow differentiation potential showed an accelerated reduction in the number of osteogenic and osteoprogenitor cells with unaltered differentiation capacity. Adipocyte differentiation was normal. Early in life, osteoclast number tended to be increased while at 78 weeks it was significantly lower in TTD mice. Our findings reveal the importance of genome stability and proper DNA repair for skeletal homeostasis with age and support the idea that accumulation of damage interferes with normal skeletal maintenance, causing reduction in the number of osteoblast precursors that are required for normal bone remodeling leading to a loss of bone structure and strength.

  3. Quantitative SPET 99Tcm-DMSA uptake by the kidneys: age-related decline in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groshar, D; Gorenberg, M; Osamah, H

    1998-09-01

    To evaluate if 99Tcm-dimercaptosuccinic acid (99Tcm-DMSA) uptake by the kidneys is related to age and creatinine clearance in males with normal renal function, quantitative single photon emission tomography (SPET) of DMSA uptake by the kidneys was performed in 18 volunteers aged 20-79 years. The quantitative uptake of DMSA in the right kidney was 13.9 +/- 2.9% and in the left kidney 14.2 +/- 3.0%. There was no statistically significant difference between left and right kidney uptake (t = 1.2, N.S.). Global kidney uptake (right + left) was 28.1 +/- 5.9%. There was a statistically significant age-related decline in global DMSA uptake. The estimated DMSA uptake (%) was given by -0.27 x age + 42 (r = -0.87, P DMSA uptake (r = 0.87, y = 2.8x + 28.3, P DMSA uptake by the kidneys are age-dependent.

  4. Influence of Perceived Height, Masculinity, and Age on Each Other and on Perceptions of Dominance in Male Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batres, Carlota; Re, Daniel E; Perrett, David I

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have examined the individual effects of facial cues to height, masculinity, and age on interpersonal interactions and partner preferences. We know much less about the influence of these traits on each other. We, therefore, examined how facial cues to height, masculinity, and age influence perceptions of each other and found significant overlap. This suggests that studies investigating the effects of one of these traits in isolation may need to account for the influence of the other two traits. Additionally, there is inconsistent evidence on how each of these three facial traits affects dominance. We, therefore, investigated how varying such traits influences perceptions of dominance in male faces. We found that increases in perceived height, masculinity, and age (up to 35 years) all increased facial dominance. Our results may reflect perceptual generalizations from sex differences as men are on average taller, more dominant, and age faster than women. Furthermore, we found that the influences of height and age on perceptions of dominance are mediated by masculinity. These results give us a better understanding of the facial characteristics that convey the appearance of dominance, a trait that is linked to a wealth of real-world outcomes.

  5. Age effect of deafening on stereotyped song maintenance in adult male bengalese finches Lonchura striata domestica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingyu SUN; Rui WANG; Shuli SHAO; Shaoju ZENG; Mingxue ZUO

    2009-01-01

    Birdsong is a complex learned vocal behavior that relies on auditory experience for development. However, it appears that among different species of close-ended songbirds, there are some variations in the necessity of auditory feedback for maintaining stereotyped aduh song. In zebra finches, the deterioration of adult songs following deafness depends on the birds' age. It is unknown whether this age effect is a general ride in other avian species as well. Therefore, we chose Bengalese finches, whose songs show more complexity and have much heavier dependency on auditory feedback than that of zebra finches, to compare the degree of song degradation after heating loss in old (over 18 months old) and young adult birds (5-6 months old). We found that beth syllable sequence and syllable phonology were much leas severely affected by deafening in old adults than that in young ones. Moreover, young adults almost lost their capability to sing trills over 6 months following deafening, while old birds continued to sing plenty of trills and trilled syllables after the same period of deafening. Our results suggest that age plays an important role in affecting the dependency of adult song maintenance on auditory feedback in Bengalese finches. Furthermore, the age dependency may be a general phenomenon in different species of close-ended songbirds.

  6. Physiological responding to stress in middle-aged males enriched for longevity: a social stress study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.W.M. Jansen; D. van Heemst; J. van der Grond; R. Westendorp; N.Y.L. Oei

    2015-01-01

    Individuals enriched for familial longevity display a lower prevalence of age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular- and metabolic diseases. Since these diseases are associated with stress and increased cortisol levels, one of the underlying mechanisms that may contribute to healthy longevity mig

  7. Early birds are sexy: male age, dawn song and extrapair paternity in blue tits, Cyanistes (formerly Parus) caeruleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poesel, Angelika; Kunc, H.P.; Foerster, K.;

    2006-01-01

    Sexual selection theory predicts that signals reflecting the relative quality of individuals should be used in mate choice. Females could base their choice of copulation partners on male secondary sexual traits that honestly signal male age, as predicted by the age-based indicator mechanism...... extrapair paternity. Our findings suggest that the onset of dawn song can provide a simple mechanism for females to assess the relative quality of their mate and of neighbouring males. We propose that females use the onset of singing as a cue for their choice of extrapair partners....... SY males. This difference in the onset of dawn singing was due to age-related changes in individual performance rather than differential survival of individuals with varying expression of the trait. Males that began to sing earlier at dawn had more mating partners, and were more likely to gain...

  8. Age-related changes in metabolism and disposition of salicylic acid (SAL) in male Fischer 344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SAL-induced nephrotoxicity has been reported to be greater in older rats. To examine age- and dose-related changes in disposition and metabolism, SAL was administered po at 5, 50 and 500 mg/kg to male Fischer 344 rats aged 3, 12, and 25 mo. At 5 mg 14C-SAL/kg, urinary excretion was complete by 24hr in 3 and 25 mo rats, but not until 48 hours in 12 mo rats. No age-related differences were observed in the percentage of administered 14C-SAL excreted as oxidative metabolites, unmetabolized SAL, or salicyl ester glucuronide. 25 mo rats excreted significantly less of a total dose of 14C-SAL as the ether glucuronide, while a significant age-related increase was noted in the percentage excreted as salicyluric acid (SUA). At 50 mg 14C-SAL/kg, urinary elimination shifted towards zero-order kinetics and excretion was not complete until 48 hr in all age groups. The percentage of an administered dose of 14C-SAL found in urine as oxidative metabolites and SAL ester glucuronide increased significantly in all age groups, while the percentage excreted as SUA decreased. In addition, 12 and 25 month rats excreted a significantly greater percentage of the total dose as 2,3 and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid than 3 mo rats at ≥ 50 mg 14C-SAL/kg. These results indicate that increased production of oxidative metabolites in older rats at higher doses of SAL may be responsible in part for the age-related increase in acute SAL nephrotoxicity

  9. Relationships among emotion regulation and symptoms during trauma-focused CBT for school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornback, Kristin; Muller, Robert T

    2015-12-01

    This study examined improvement in emotion regulation throughout Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) and the degree to which improvement in emotion regulation predicted improvement in symptoms. Traumatized children, 7-12 years (69.9% female), received TF-CBT. Data from 4 time periods were used: pre-assessment (n=107), pre-treatment (n=78), post-treatment (n=58), and 6-month follow-up (n=44). Questionnaires measured emotion regulation in the form of inhibition and dysregulation (Children's Emotion Management Scales) and lability/negativity and emotion regulation skill (Emotion Regulation Checklist), as well as child-reported (Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children) and parent-reported (Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children) posttraumatic stress, and internalizing and externalizing problems (Child Behaviuor Checklist). To the extent that children's dysregulation and lability/negativity improved, their parents reported fewer symptoms following therapy. Improvements in inhibition best predicted improvements in child-reported posttraumatic stress (PTS) during clinical services, but change in dysregulation and lability/negativity best predicted improvement in child-reported PTS symptoms at 6-month follow-up. Moreover, statistically significant improvements of small effect size were found following therapy, for inhibition, dysregulation, and lability/negativity, but not emotion regulation skill. These findings suggest that emotion regulation is a worthy target of intervention and that improvements in emotion regulation can be made. Suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:26470906

  10. Age-Related Physical Changes Interfere With Judgments of Male Sexual Orientation From Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tskhay, Konstantin O; Krendl, Anne C; Rule, Nicholas O

    2016-09-01

    Although studies have shown that sexual orientation can be judged from faces, this research has not considered how age-related differences in perceivers or targets affect such judgments. In the current work, we evaluated whether accuracy differed among young adults (YA) and older adults (OA) for young and old men's faces by recruiting a sample of YA and OA in the lab, a community sample of sexual minority men, and a sample of online participants. We found that OA and YA judged sexual orientation with similar accuracy. Perceptions of gender atypicality mediated the difference in judging older and younger targets' sexual orientation. Although participants used positive affect to correctly discern sexual orientation regardless of target age, perceptions of masculinity were valid only for judgments of YA. PMID:27340151

  11. beta. -adrenergic receptor-mediated hepatic glycogenolysis is increased in aged male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, P.A.; Graham, S.M.; Arinze, I.J.

    1986-03-05

    The effect of age on catecholamine-stimulated glycogenolysis was studied in isolated hepatocytes prepared from 3, 12, and 24 month-old rats. Glucose release was stimulated by epinephrine and norepinephrine, this was inhibited by phentolamine and prazosin. Isoproterenol (ISO) stimulated glycogenolysis only in cells from 24 month-old rats, this was blocked by propranolol. In liver plasma membranes, binding of (/sup 3/H)yohimbine (100-130 fmol/mg protein) did not change with age, whereas (/sup 3/H)prazosin binding decreased from 870 fmol/mg at 3 months to 435 fmol/mg at 12 months, but subsequently rose to 656 fmol/mg at 24 months. (/sup 125/I)Cyanopindolol binding increased from 8 fmol/mg at 3 months to 19 fmol/mg at 24 months. The proportion of ..beta..-receptors in the high affinity state increased from 28% at 3 months to 42% at 24 months. ISO stimulated adenylate cyclase at 24 months but not at 3 months. Basal, fluoride-, GTP-, and Gpp(NH)p-stimulated activities were 1.4- to 2.4-fold greater at 24 months than at 3 months. These results suggest an age-related increase in the sensitivity of adenylate cyclase to ..beta..-receptor stimulation.

  12. Decreased response inhibition in middle-aged male patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakura Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was performed to examine whether patients with type 2 diabetes have cognitive deficits associated with the prefrontal cortex (PFC. Methods Twenty-seven middle-aged patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and 27 healthy controls underwent physical measurements and neuropsychological tasks. Response inhibition, reward prediction, and executive function were assessed by the Go/NoGo task, the reversal and extinction tasks, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. To examine the interactions of being overweight with diabetes on cognitive performance, performance data were analysed by two-way ANCOVA with diabetes and overweight as factors and age as a covariate. Results Patients with type 2 diabetes showed significantly decreased response inhibition in the Go/NoGo task (discriminability index: P = 0.001. There was an interaction of being overweight with diabetes on reaction time in the Go trials of the Go/NoGo task (P = 0.009. Being overweight was related to retained responses to the presentiment of reward in the extinction task (P = 0.029. The four groups showed normal cognitive performance in the WCST. Conclusions Our results showed that middle-aged, newly diagnosed and medication-free patients with type 2 diabetes have a particular neuropsychological deficit in inhibitory control of impulsive response, which is an independent effect of diabetes apart from being overweight.

  13. Effect of smoking on active male smokers across various age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav,

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The most common form of smoking in the world is cigarette smoking, which is one of the leading causes of lung cancer, blood pressure, emphysema9, bronchitis, heart attack etc5… In the present study, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used for analysis of saliva sample for the detection of markers for smokers. The analysis included 7 individuals. The samples were classified as 2 samples from smokers of group 10-25, 2 samples from smokers of group 25-40, 1 sample from smokers of group 40-60 and 2 samples from smokers ofgroup 60 & above. Several interesting peaks have been identified as markers for smokers from saliva sample. Many peaks were significantly altered in absorption level of different age groups. The peaks at 754 cm-1, 1644 cm-1, 2136 cm-1, 3408 cm-1 were altered differently in different age groups as compared to non-smokers. Our study indicates that a stable marker was possible for active smokers by analysing the spectral graph obtained from the FTIR technique2. These parameters could be used for developing a spectral method of detection of active smokers along with predicting their duration of smoking by studying the effect of smoking in the different age groups.

  14. The influence of exercises under isokinetic conditions on heart rate in males aged between 40 and 51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czamara, Andrzej; Krzemińska, Aleksandra; Szuba, Lukasz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate changes in heart rate (HR) values in response to the exercise under isokinetic conditions, with defined protocol using three different angular velocities and 2 minute break. The subjects were divided into two groups. The first group contained 18 males aged between 40 and 50, and the second group contained 20 males who were 20-30 years old. The heart rate was monitored before, during and after the strength moment measurement under isokinetic conditions of extensors and flexors of knee joint. The strength moment was measured with an angular velocity of 180 °/s, 120°/s and 60 °/s. The number of repetitions of extension and flexion of the knee joint was 10 for the angular velocity of 180 °/s, 8 for the angular velocity of 120 °/s and 5 for the angular velocity of 60 °/s. The break between each series of repetitions took 2 minutes. The peak torques for extensors and flexors of both lower extremities were measured. The peak torque and heart rate values increased with a decrease in the preset angular velocity and were lower in the second group. The results were within the norm accepted for submaximal heart rate index in both age groups.

  15. Physiological and Psychological Effects of Forest Therapy on Middle-Aged Males with High-Normal Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Ochiai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Time spent walking and relaxing in a forest environment (“forest bathing” or “forest therapy” has well demonstrated anti-stress effects in healthy adults, but benefits for ill or at-risk populations have not been reported. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of forest therapy (relaxation and stress management activity in the forest on middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure. Blood pressure and several physiological and psychological indices of stress were measured the day before and approximately 2 h following forest therapy. Both pre- and post-treatment measures were conducted at the same time of day to avoid circadian influences. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP, urinary adrenaline, and serum cortisol were all significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy (p < 0.05. Subjects reported feeling significantly more “relaxed” and “natural” according to the Semantic Differential (SD method. Profile of Mood State (POMS negative mood subscale scores for “tension-anxiety,” “confusion,” and “anger-hostility,” as well as the Total Mood Disturbance (TMD score were significantly lower following forest therapy. These results highlight that forest is a promising treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure into the optimal range and possibly prevent progression to clinical hypertension in middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure.

  16. Life styles related to coronary artery disease in Saudi males older than 12 years of age life styles related to coronary artery disease in Saudi males older than 12 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study highlighted life styles related to coronary artery disease risk factors among patients attending a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study at a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period from 18/4/2006 to 13/6/2006. All adult male patients older than 12 years of age who attended one consultant primary care clinic were included in the study. All patients were interviewed by one consultant in family medicine during the study period. The patients were asked about dietary habits, physical activity and type of exercise, and smoking habits. Weight and height was taken for all patients by the nurse in the clinic and body mass index (BMI) was calculated for all patients. The total numbers of participants were 246 patients. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) version 11.5. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of the 246 male adult patients, 45.4% always consumed vegetables and fruits in their diet, 21.5% exercised on a daily bases, 51.2% exercised sometimes, and 26% did not exercise at all. The type of exercise practiced by active participants was walking (76.5%) and sports (22.9%). Sports included football, basketball, swimming, and other sport club activity. Only 20.7% of the participants had an ideal body weight (BMI<25), 37.4% were overweight (BMI 25 to <30), while 37.7% of the participants were obese (BMI ? 30). 8.9% of the participants were current smokers. Conclusion and recommendation: Overweight and obesity is a common health problem among male adult patients attending a primary care setting. Improved dietary habits (consumption of vegetables and fruits, and minimization of fat and sweets), encouraging exercise and walking, and helping current smokers to quit smoking are essential steps towards improving life styles in the

  17. Specific absorbed fractions of energy at various ages from internal photon sources: 7, Adult male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific absorbed fractions (PHI's) in various organs of the body (target organs) from sources of monoenergetic photons in various other organs (source organs) are tabulated. In this volume PHI-values are tabulated for an adult male (70-kg Reference Man). These PHI-values can be used in calculating the photon component of the dose-equivalent rate in a given target organ from a given radionuclide that is present in a given source organ. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recognizes that the endosteal, or bone surface, cells are the tissue at risk for bone cancer. We have applied the dosimetry methods developed for beta-emitting radionuclides deposited in bone to follow the transport of secondary electrons that were freed by photon interactions through the microscopic structure of the skeleton. With these methods we can estimate PHI in the endosteal cells and can better estimate PHI in the active marrow; the latter is overestimated with other methods at photon energies below 200 keV. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  18. Accelerated aging of reproductive capacity in male rat offspring of protein-restricted mothers is associated with increased testicular and sperm oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-González, Guadalupe L.; Reyes-Castro, Luis A.; Vega, Claudia C; Boeck, Lourdes; Ibáñez, Carlos; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Larrea, Fernando; Zambrano, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Maternal protein restriction (MPR) in pregnancy causes life course organ dysfunction, but few studies link the developmental origins of disease hypothesis to early aging. Suboptimal developmental nutrition increases oxidative stress (OS) and male infertility, damaging sperm function. We hypothesized that MPR in pregnancy accelerates age-related changes in testicular and sperm function related to both maternal diet and increased testicular OS in rat offspring. We studied male rats whose pregna...

  19. Influence of age on measured anatomical and physiological interpupillary distance (far and near, and near heterophoria, in Arab males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanazi SA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Saud A AlAnazi, Mana A AlAnazi, Uchechukwu L Osuagwu Corneal Research Chair, Department of Optometry and Vision Science, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Purpose: To compare the effects of age and near phoria on interpupillary distance measured at far (FIPD and near (NIPD using the Viktorin's and pupillometer (PD-5 methods. Methods: Interpupillary distance (IPD by Viktorin's method and the corneal reflex pupillometer (PD-5 method, as well as near heterophoria by the Saladin near point card, were each obtained on 133 randomly selected normal subjects aged 20–67 years. Comparison within and between techniques, influence of age on IPD, and near heterophoria were assessed. Results: The mean FIPD varied significantly from the NIPD (P 0.05 for FIPD, and -3.1 mm and 2.9 mm (P > 0.05 for NIPD. Both IPDs varied significantly across age groups (P 0.04; P < 0.03, both techniques. Conclusion: The difference between FIPD and NIPD (about 4.4 mm in Arab males was observed independent of the technique used. The Viktorin's and the PD-5 methods of IPD assessment resulted in similar values, and therefore, could be interchangeably used. However, caution is advised in cases of high power refractive corrections as the difference could vary from -4 mm to +3 mm (FIPD and -3 mm to +3 mm (NIPD. Both IPDs have demonstrated an increase until the patients are in their early 40s, and a slight decrease has been observed thereafter. Age and NIPD were significantly associated with heterophoria in our subjects. Keywords: phoria, interpupillary distance, Viktorin's method, pupillometer, Saladin near point card, age

  20. Effect of fetal hypothyroidism on tolerance to ischemia-reperfusion injury in aged male rats: Role of nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeddi, Sajad; Zaman, Jalal; Ghasemi, Asghar

    2016-05-01

    Aging is associated with increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease. Thyroid hormone deficiency during fetal life decreases myocardial tolerance to ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in later life. The long-term effects of fetal hypothyroidism (FH) on response to IR injury in aged rats have not been well documented. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the effect of FH on tolerance to IR injury in young and aged male rats and to determine contribution of iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase), Bax, and Bcl-2. Pregnant female rats were divided into two groups: The FH group received water containing 0.025% 6-propyl-2-thiouracil during gestation and the controls consumed tap water. Isolated perfused hearts from young (3 months) and aged (12 months) rats were subjected to IR. Hemodynamic parameters, infarct size, and heart NOx (nitrite+nitrate) levels were measured; in addition, mRNA expression of iNOS, Bax, and Bcl-2 and their protein levels in heart were measured. Recovery of post-ischemic LVDP and ±dp/dt were lower and infarct sizes were higher than controls in aged FH rats (68.38 ± 6.7% vs. 50.5 ± 1.7%; P Bcl-2 was lower in both the young (350 and 240% for iNOS and Bax, respectively and 51% for Bcl-2) and aged rats (504 and 567% for iNOS and Bax, respectively and 67% for Bcl-2). Compared to controls, in FH rats protein levels of iNOS (37% for young and 45% for aged rats) and Bax (94% for young and 118% for aged rats) were higher while for Bcl-2 (36% for young and 62% for aged rats) were lower. After IR, in FH rats, aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor, decreased mRNA expression of iNOS and Bax and increased expression of Bcl-2 in both young (65% and 58% for iNOS and Bax, respectively and 152% for Bcl-2) and aged rats (76% and 64% for iNOS and Bax, respectively and 222% for Bcl-2). In addition, in the heart of FH rats, aminoguanidine decreased protein levels of iNOS (47% for young and 60% for aged rats) and Bax (57% for young and 80% for

  1. Age differences in fear retention and extinction in male Sprague-Dawley rats: effects of ethanol challenge during conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadwater, Margaret; Spear, Linda P

    2013-09-01

    Pavlovian fear conditioning is an ideal model to investigate how learning and memory are influenced by alcohol use during adolescence because the neural mechanisms involved have been studied extensively. In Exp 1, adolescent and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were non-injected or injected with saline, 1 or 1.5 g/kg ethanol intraperitoneally 10 min prior to tone or context conditioning. Twenty-four hours later, animals were tested for tone or context retention and extinction, with examination of extinction retention conducted 24h thereafter. In Exp 2, a context extinction session was inserted between the tone conditioning and the tone fear retention/extinction days to reduce pre-CS baseline freezing levels at test. Basal levels of acquisition, fear retention, extinction, and extinction retention after tone conditioning were similar between adolescent and adult rats. In contrast adolescents showed faster context extinction than adults, while again not differing from adults during context acquisition, retention or extinction retention. In terms of ethanol effects, adolescents were less sensitive to ethanol-induced context retention deficits than adults. No age differences emerged in terms of tone fear retention, with ethanol disrupting tone fear retention at both ages in Exp 1, but at neither age in Exp 2, a difference seemingly due to group differences in pre-CS freezing during tone testing in Exp 1, but not Exp 2. These results suggest that age differences in the acute effects of ethanol on cognitive function are task-specific, and provide further evidence for age differences cognitive functioning in a task thought to be hippocampally related.

  2. Biochemical Alterations during the Obese-Aging Process in Female and Male Monosodium Glutamate (MSG-Treated Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René J. Hernández-Bautista

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, from children to the elderly, has increased in the world at an alarming rate over the past three decades, implying long-term detrimental consequences for individual’s health. Obesity and aging are known to be risk factors for metabolic disorder development, insulin resistance and inflammation, but their relationship is not fully understood. Prevention and appropriate therapies for metabolic disorders and physical disabilities in older adults have become a major public health challenge. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate inflammation markers, biochemical parameters and glucose homeostasis during the obese-aging process, to understand the relationship between obesity and health span during the lifetime. In order to do this, the monosodium glutamate (MSG obesity mice model was used, and data were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 months in both female and male mice. Our results showed that obesity was a major factor contributing to premature alterations in MSG-treated mice metabolism; however, at older ages, obesity effects were attenuated and MSG-mice became more similar to normal mice. At a younger age (four months old, the Lee index, triglycerides, total cholesterol, TNF-α and transaminases levels increased; while adiponectin decreased and glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity levels were remarkably altered. However, from 16 months old-on, the Lee index and TNF-α levels diminished significantly, while adiponectin increased, and glucose and insulin homeostasis was recovered. In summary, MSG-treated obese mice showed metabolic changes and differential susceptibility by gender throughout life and during the aging process. Understanding metabolic differences between genders during the lifespan will allow the discovery of specific preventive treatment strategies for chronic diseases and functional decline.

  3. Comparison of Morphometric Aspects of Light and Electron Microscopy of the Hypoglossal Nerve between Young and Aged Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Pourghasem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Age-related changes occur in many different systems of the body. Many elderlypeople show dysphagia and dysphonia. This research was conducted to evaluatequantitatively the morphometrical changes of the hypoglossal nerve resulting from theaging process in young and aged rats.Materials and Methods: Through an experimental study ten male wistar rats (4 months: 5rats, 24 months: 5 rats were selected randomly from a colony of wistars in the UWC. Aftera fixation process and preparation of samples of the cervical portion of the hypoglossalnerve of these rats, light and electron microscopic imaging were performed. These imageswere evaluated according to the numbers and size of myelinated nerve fibers, nucleoli ofSchwann cells, myelin sheath thickness, axon diameter, and g ratio. All data were analyzedby Mann-Whitney, a non-parametric statistical test.Results: In light microscope, numbers of myelinated nerve fibers, the mean entire nerveperimeters, the mean entire nerve areas and the mean entire nerve diameters in youngand aged rats’ were not significantly different between the two groups.In electron microscope, numbers of myelinated axons, numbers of Schwann cell nucleoliand the mean g ratios of myelinated axon to Schwann cell in young and aged rats werenot significantly different. The myelinated fiber diameters, the myelin sheath thicknesses,myelinated axon diameters and the mean g ratio of axon diameter to myelinated fiberdiameter in young and aged fibers were significantly differentConclusion: The mean g ratio of myelinated nerve fibers of peripheral nerves stabilizes atthe level of 0.6 after maturation and persists without major change during adulthood. Thisratio of axon diameter to fiber diameter (0.6 is optimum for normal conduction velocity ofneural impulses. Our study indicated that the g ratio of myelinated nerve fiber of the hypoglossalnerve decreased prominently in aged rats and can be a cause of impairment innerve function in

  4. Modulating testosterone pathway: a new strategy to tackle male skin aging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard P

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Philippe Bernard1, Thomas Scior2, Quoc Tuan Do11Greenpharma SAS, Orléans, France; 2Pharmacy Department, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla, MexicoAbstract: In men, the level of testosterone decreases with age. At the skin level, the result is observed as a decrease in density and in a lower elasticity. Identifying compounds that are able to increase the level of testosterone appears to be an attractive strategy to develop new antiaging bioactive ingredients for men. Reverse pharmacognosy was successfully applied to identify new natural compounds able to modulate testosterone levels. Among several in silico hits, honokiol was retained as a candidate as it has the greatest potential to become an active ingredient. This result was then validated in vitro on aromatase and 5-alpha-reductase type 1 and 2, which are two types of enzymes implicated in the degradation of free testosterone. Indeed, honokiol was identified as an inhibitor of aromatase, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 of about 50 µM. In addition, honokiol was shown to be an inhibitor of 5-alpha-reductase type 1, with an IC50 of about 75 µM. Taken together, these data indicate that honokiol modulates testosterone levels, and its structure has the potential to serve as a lead for future designs of highly selective inhibitors of 5-alpha-reductase type 1.Keywords: reverse pharmacognosy, honokiol, testosterone, man cosmetics, dermopharmacy

  5. Androgen-mediated development of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors in rats: dependence on animal age during interval of androgen replacement in castrated males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When male Long-Evans rats at age 8 weeks were radiation treated (40 microCi Na131I), thyroid follicular adenomas and carcinomas were observed at age 24 months with a high incidence of 94%. Castration of males prior to irradiation significantly reduced this tumor incidence to 60%. When testosterone (T) was replaced in castrated, irradiated male rats, differentially increased incidences of thyroid tumors occurred. Immediate (age 2-6 mo) or early (age 6-12 mo) T replacement at approximate physiologic levels led to thyroid follicular tumor incidences of 100 and 82%, respectively, whereas intermediate (12-18 mo) or late (18-24 mo) T treatment led to only 70 and 73% incidences, respectively. Continuous T replacement (2-24 mo) in castrated irradiated male rats raised thyroid tumor incidence to 100%. Since elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is a reported requisite for development of radiation-associated thyroid tumors, the effects of T on serum TSH levels were examined. Mean serum TSH values in all irradiated animal groups were significantly elevated above age-matched nonirradiated animals at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Serum TSH levels were higher in continuous T-replaced irradiated castrates than in intact, irradiated males, whereas such intact male TSH levels were greater than those for irradiated castrates without T treatment. Interval T replacement in castrated male rats was associated with increased serum TSH levels during the treatment interval and with lowered TSH levels after discontinuation of T treatment, particularly in irradiated rats. However, when irradiated, castrated males received late T replacement (age 18-24 mo), there was no elevation of TSH at the end of the treatment interval. An indirect effect of T via early stimulation of TSH may be partly responsible for the high incidence of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors in rats

  6. A validation of the first genome-wide association study of calcaneus ultrasound parameters in the European Male Ageing Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Thang S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been associated with broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA and speed of sound (SOS as measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS at the calcaneus in the Framingham 100K genome-wide association study (GWAS but have not been validated in independent studies. The aim of this analysis was to determine if these SNPs are associated with QUS measurements assessed in a large independent population of European middle-aged and elderly men. The association between these SNPs and bone mineral density (BMD measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA was also tested. Methods Men aged 40-79 years (N = 2960 were recruited from population registers in seven European centres for participation in an observational study of male ageing, the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS. QUS at the calcaneus was measured in all subjects and blood was taken for genetic analysis. Lumbar spine (LS, femoral neck (FN and total hip (TH BMD were measured by DXA in a subsample of 620 men in two centres. SNPs associated with BUA or SOS in the Framingham study with p -4 were selected and genotyped using SEQUENOM technology. Linear regression was used to test for the association between SNPs and standardised (SD bone outcomes under an additive genetic model adjusting for centre. The same direction of effect and p Results Thirty-four of 38 selected SNPs were successfully genotyped in 2377 men. Suggestive evidence of replication was observed for a single SNP, rs3754032, which was associated with a higher SOS (β(SD = 0.07, p = 0.032 but not BUA (β(SD = 0.02, p = 0.505 and is located in the 3'UTR of WDR77 (WD repeat domain 77 also known as androgen receptor cofactor p44. A single SNP, rs238358, was associated with BMD at the LS (β(SD = -0.22, p = 0.014, FN (β(SD = -0.31,p = 0.001 and TH (β(SD = -0.36, p = 0.002 in a locus previously associated with LS BMD in large-scale GWAS, incorporating AKAP11 and RANKL

  7. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A New Metabolic Disease of the Aging Male and Its Correlation with Sexual Dysfunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Corona

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a well-recognized cluster of cardiovascular (CV risk factors including obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycaemia, closely associated with an increased risk of forthcoming cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Emerging evidence indicates that benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH and its related lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS represent other clinical conditions frequently observed in subjects with MetS. Several modifiable factors involved in MetS determinism, such as inadequate diet, lack of physical exercise, and smoking and drinking behaviours are emerging as main contributors to the development of BPH. The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the connection between MetS and BPH have not been completely clarified. MetS and its components, hypogonadism, and prostate inflammation probably play an important role in inducing BPH/LUTS. Although historically considered as a “normal” consequence of the aging process, BPH/LUTS should now be faced proactively, as a preventable disorder of the elderly. Type of diet and level of physical activity are now considered important factors affecting prostate health in the aging male. However, whether physical exercise, weight loss, and modifications of dietary habit can really alter the natural history of BPH/LUTS remains to be determined. Further research is advisable to better clarify these points.

  8. The andropause and memory loss: is there a link between androgen decline and dementia in the aging male?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert S. Tan; Shou-Jin Pu

    2001-01-01

    Studies demonstrate a decline in androgens with age and this results in the andropause. The objective of this paper is to review the literature on hormonal changes that occur in the aging males and determine if there are associations between decreased testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and decreased cognitive function. Trials of androgen replacement and its impact on cognitive function will also be analyzed. Method of analysis will be by a thorough search of articles on MEDLINE, the Intemet and major abstract databases. Results of the author's own research in 302 men of the association of memory loss as a symptom in the andropause will be presented. In addition, the authors open trial of testosterone replacement in hypogonadic men with Alzheimer's disease will also be presented. The results of the author's trial will be compared with other investigators. High endogenous testosterone level predicted better performance on visual spatial tests in several studies, but not in all studies. Likewise, testosterone replacement in hypogonadic patients improved cognitive functions in some but not all studies. Testosterone has also been shown to improve cognitive function in eugonadal men. Several studies have shown that declines in DHEA may contribute to Alzheimer's disease and the results of double blind studies with DHEA replacement and its effect on cognition will also be presented. In summary, there is still no consensus that androgen replacement is beneficial in cognitive decline but this option may prove promising in some patients.

  9. Development of a short version of the Aging Males' Symptoms scale: Mokken scaling analysis and Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin-Pang; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Kun-Hao; Chu, Chun-Lin; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Chen, Ching-Yen

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a psychometrically sound short version of the 17-item Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scale using Mokken scale analysis (MSA) and Rasch analysis. We recruited a convenient sample of 1787 men (age: mean (SD) = 43.8 (11.5) years) who visited a men's health polyclinic in Taiwan and completed the AMS scale. The scale was first assessed using MSA. The remaining items were assessed using Rasch analysis. We used a stepwise approach to remove items with χ(2) item statistics and mean square values while monitoring unidimensionality. The item reduction process resulted in a 6-item version of the AMS scale (AMS-6). The AMS-6 scale included a 5-item psychosomatic subscale (original items 1, 4, 5, 8, and 9) and a 1-item sexual subscale (original item 16). Analyses confirmed that the 5-item psychosomatic subscale was a Rasch scale. The AMS-6 correlated well with the AMS scales: the 5-item psychosomatic subscale correlated with the AMS scale (r between 0.50 and 0.92); the 1-item sexual subscale correlated with the sexual subscale of the AMS scale (r = 0.81). A 6-item short form of the AMS scale had satisfactory measurement properties. This version may be useful for estimating psychosomatic and sexual symptoms as well as health-related quality of life with a minimal burden on respondents.

  10. Whey peptides prevent chronic ultraviolet B radiation-induced skin aging in melanin-possessing male hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yoshiyuki; Sumiyoshi, Maho; Kobayashi, Toshiya

    2014-01-01

    Whey proteins or peptides exhibit various actions, including an antioxidant action, an anticancer action, and a protective action against childhood asthma and atopic syndrome. The effects of orally administered whey peptides (WPs) on chronic ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation-induced cutaneous changes, including changes in cutaneous thickness, elasticity, wrinkle formation, etc., have not been examined. In this study, we studied the preventive effects of WPs on cutaneous aging induced by chronic UVB irradiation in melanin-possessing male hairless mice (HRM). UVB (36-180 mJ/cm(2)) was irradiated to the dorsal area for 17 wk in HRM, and the measurements of cutaneous thickness and elasticity in UVB irradiated mice were performed every week. WPs (200 and 400 mg/kg, twice daily) were administered orally for 17 wk. WPs inhibited the increase in cutaneous thickness, wrinkle formation, and melanin granules and the reduction in cutaneous elasticity associated with photoaging. Furthermore, it has been reported that UVB irradiation-induced skin aging is closely associated with the increase in expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Ki-67-, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)-positive cells. WPs also prevented increases in the expression of MMP-2 and pro-MMP-9, VEGF, and Ki-67- and 8-OHdG-positive cells induced by chronic UVB irradiation. It was found that WPs prevent type IV collagen degradation, angiogenesis, proliferation, and DNA damage caused by UVB irradiation. Overall, these results demonstrate the considerable benefit of WPs for protection against solar UV-irradiated skin aging as a supplemental nutrient.

  11. The rate of nonallelic homologous recombination in males is highly variable, correlated between monozygotic twins and independent of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline A L MacArthur

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR between highly similar duplicated sequences generates chromosomal deletions, duplications and inversions, which can cause diverse genetic disorders. Little is known about interindividual variation in NAHR rates and the factors that influence this. We estimated the rate of deletion at the CMT1A-REP NAHR hotspot in sperm DNA from 34 male donors, including 16 monozygotic (MZ co-twins (8 twin pairs aged 24 to 67 years old. The average NAHR rate was 3.5 × 10(-5 with a seven-fold variation across individuals. Despite good statistical power to detect even a subtle correlation, we observed no relationship between age of unrelated individuals and the rate of NAHR in their sperm, likely reflecting the meiotic-specific origin of these events. We then estimated the heritability of deletion rate by calculating the intraclass correlation (ICC within MZ co-twins, revealing a significant correlation between MZ co-twins (ICC = 0.784, p = 0.0039, with MZ co-twins being significantly more correlated than unrelated pairs. We showed that this heritability cannot be explained by variation in PRDM9, a known regulator of NAHR, or variation within the NAHR hotspot itself. We also did not detect any correlation between Body Mass Index (BMI, smoking status or alcohol intake and rate of NAHR. Our results suggest that other, as yet unidentified, genetic or environmental factors play a significant role in the regulation of NAHR and are responsible for the extensive variation in the population for the probability of fathering a child with a genomic disorder resulting from a pathogenic deletion.

  12. Association of High Vitamin D Status with Low Circulating Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Independent of Thyroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged and Elderly Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A recent study has reported that high circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] is associated with low circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels, but only in younger individuals. The goal of the present study was to explore the relationship between vitamin D status and circulating TSH levels with thyroid autoimmunity and thyroid hormone levels taken into consideration in a population-based health survey of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods. A total of 1,424 Chinese adults, aged 41–78 years, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum levels of 25(OHD, TSH, thyroid hormones, and thyroid autoantibodies were measured. Results. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 94.29% in males and 97.22% in females, and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 55.61% in males and 69.64% in females. Vitamin D status was not associated with positive thyroid autoantibodies after controlling for age, gender, body mass index, and smoking status. Higher 25(OHD levels were associated with lower TSH levels after controlling for age, FT4 and FT3 levels, thyroid volume, the presence of thyroid nodule(s, and smoking status in males. Conclusion. High vitamin D status in middle-aged and elderly males was associated with low circulating TSH levels independent of thyroid hormone levels.

  13. Electrically evoked and voluntary maximal isometric tension in relation to dynamic muscle performance in elderly male subjects, aged 69 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C T; White, M J; Young, K

    1983-01-01

    The dynamic performance and electrically evoked mechanical properties of elderly triceps surae muscle have been investigated in 9 men, aged 69 yr. Dynamic performance consisted of cycling on a force bicycle and a vertical jump off two feet from a force platform. The results showed that the time to peak tension (TPT) and half relaxation time (1/2 RT) were significantly greater (p less than 0.001) by 30 ms and 22 ms and the supramaximal twitch (Pt) and tetanic (20 Hz-P020) tensions and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) were less by 45 N (-33%), 708 N (-49%), and 899 N (-43%) in the elderly compared with young male control subjects. On the force platform, the height jumped (Ht), maximal force exerted (P), take-off velocity (VT), net impulse (NI) and peak power output (W) were less by 18.6 cm, 173 N, 0.9 ms-1, 52 Ns and 1120 w respectively. Similar differences of power, force and velocity were observed on the force bicycle. The reduction of W in the elderly was associated with the contractile characteristics of the leg muscle. The loss of contractile speed and capacity to to generate force in old people was reflected in their inability to develop power during the performance of a maximal vertical jump and cycling.

  14. Maintaining a focus on opportunities at work : The interplay between age, job complexity, and the use of selection, optimization, and compensation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Frese, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The concept of focus on opportunities describes how many new goals, options, and possibilities employees believe to have in their personal future at work. This study investigated the specific and shared effects of age, job complexity, and the use of successful aging strategies called selection, opti

  15. Age-Group-Specific Associations between the Severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Relevant Risk Factors in Male and Female Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Xingqi Deng; Wei Gu; Yanyan Li; Mei Liu; Yan Li; Xiwen Gao

    2014-01-01

    Aim To seek accurate and credible correlation manner between gender, age, and obesity; and the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in large-scale population. Methods Totals of 1,975 male and 378 female OSA patients were sequentially recruited. Centralized covariant tendencies between age, body mass index (BMI), and waist hip ratio (WHR); and OSA severity, were explored in a gender-specific manner via multiple statistical analyses. The accuracies of observed correlations were further eva...

  16. The relative age effect in the Spanish elite male handball EL EFECTO RELATIVO DE LA EDAD EN EL BALONMANO DE ÉLITE MASCULINO EN ESPAÑA [The relative age effect in the Spanish elite male handball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rivilla-García

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The birth in different quarters of the year involved differences regarding maturational development in handball players, which may influence the selection, development and consolidation in the elite in handball. This study sought to investigate the relative age effect in elite male handball players in Spain. To do this, data of birth and specific position of 586 players were analyzed, who participe in the League ASOBAL in seasons between 2003-04 and 2008-09. Comparisons and differences were studied by 2 tests and Z.Analysis of results revealed a higher percentage of players born in the first quarter, significant differences were confirmed in spanish players. Specifically, the highest percentages of players born in the first months of the year were the specific positions of the first offensive line and the goalkeeper.In conclusion, the results seem to confirm a relative effect of age on the players analyzed. The nationality and specific positions have a significant relationship with this.Keys words:  RAE, professional, birth date, detection, selection, talent.El nacimiento en diferentes trimestres del año conlleva diferencias entre los jugadores respecto al desarrollo madurativo, las cuales pueden influir en la selección, desarrollo y consolidación en el alto nivel en balonmano. El presente estudio pretendió analizar el efecto relativo de la edad en el balonmano de élite masculino en España. Para ello, fueron analizados los datos de nacimiento y puesto específico de los 586 jugadores participantes en la Liga ASOBAL en las temporadas comprendidas entre 2003-04 y 2008-09, realizándose comparaciones y estudiándose las diferencias mediante pruebas 2 y Z.  El análisis de resultados reveló la existencia de un mayor porcentaje de jugadores nacidos en el primer trimestre del año, constatándose diferencias significativas en función de la nacionalidad. Concretamente, se encontraron porcentajes muy elevados de jugadores nacidos en los

  17. The effect of caffeine on working memory load-related brain activation in middle-aged males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Elissa B; de Groot, Renate H M; Evers, Elisabeth A T; Snel, Jan; Veerman, Enno C I; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; Jolles, Jelle; Veltman, Dick J

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine is commonly consumed in an effort to enhance cognitive performance. However, little is known about the usefulness of caffeine with regard to memory enhancement, with previous studies showing inconsistent effects on memory performance. We aimed to determine the effect of caffeine on working memory (WM) load-related activation during encoding, maintenance and retrieval phases of a WM maintenance task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 20 healthy, male, habitual caffeine consumers aged 40-61 years were administered 100 mg of caffeine in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design. Participants were scanned in a non-withdrawn state following a workday during which caffeinated products were consumed according to individual normal use (range = 145-595 mg). Acute caffeine administration was associated with increased load-related activation compared to placebo in the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during WM encoding, but decreased load-related activation in the left thalamus during WM maintenance. These findings are indicative of an effect of caffeine on the fronto-parietal network involved in the top-down cognitive control of WM processes during encoding and an effect on the prefrontal cortico-thalamic loop involved in the interaction between arousal and the top-down control of attention during maintenance. Therefore, the effects of caffeine on WM may be attributed to both a direct effect of caffeine on WM processes, as well as an indirect effect on WM via arousal modulation. Behavioural and fMRI results were more consistent with a detrimental effect of caffeine on WM at higher levels of WM load, than caffeine-related WM enhancement. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'.

  18. Predicting Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Intentions of College-Aged Males: An Examination of Parents' and Son's Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Mira L.; Kam, Jennifer A.; Krieger, Janice L.; Roberto, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine male students' and their parents' human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine communication in relation to males' willingness to discuss the vaccine with their health care provider and the likelihood of being vaccinated. Participants: Dyads (n = 111) of students and parents. Methods: Participants completed a HPV vaccine survey based…

  19. 3α-androstanediol, but not testosterone, attenuates age-related decrements in cognitive, anxiety, and depressive behavior of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A Frye

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Some hippocampally-influenced affective and/or cognitive processes decline with aging. The role of androgens in this process is of interest. Testosterone (T is aromatized to estrogen, and reduced to dihydrotestosterone (DHT, which is converted to 5α-androstane, 3α, 17α-diol (3α-diol. To determine the extent to which some age-related decline in hippocampally-influenced behaviors may be due to androgens, we examined the effects of variation in androgen levels due to age, gonadectomy, and androgen replacement on cognitive (inhibitory avoidance, Morris water maze and affective (defensive freezing, forced swim behavior among young (4-months, middle-aged (13-months, and aged (24-months male rats. Plasma and hippocampal levels of androgens were determined. In experiment 1, comparisons were made between 4-, 13-, and 24-month old rats that were intact or gonadectomized (GDX and administered a T-filled or empty silastic capsule. There was age-related decline in performance of the inhibitory avoidance, water maze, defensive freezing, and forced swim tasks, and hippocampal 3α-diol levels. Chronic, long-term (1-4 weeks T-replacement reversed the effects of GDX in 4- and 13-month old, but not 24-month old, rats in the inhibitory avoidance task. Experiments 2 and 3 assessed whether acute subcutaneous T or 3α-diol, respectively, could reverse age-associated decline in performance. 3α-diol, but not T, compared to vehicle, improved performance in the inhibitory avoidance, water maze, forced swim, and defensive freezing tasks, irrespective of age. Thus, age is associated with a decrease in 3α-diol production and 3α-diol administration reinstates cognitive and affective performance of aged male rats.

  20. The Effect of Patient Age on Standardized Uptake Value-Hounsfield Unit Values of Male Genitourinery Structures In F-18 FDG PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Çavuşoğlu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Relation between patient age and Hounsfield Unit (HU,which is the linear attenuation coefficient, and Standardized Uptake Values (SUV which is the amount of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG uptake, measured in the areas of interest drawn to prostate, seminal vesicles and testicles in F-18 FDG Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT images was investigated. Material and Methods: Mean and maximum SUV and HU values were recorded from the areas of interest (min 12 mm in diameter which showed FDG uptake in prostate, seminal vesicles and testicles from F-18 FDG PET-CT images of 21 male patients under 40 years without genitourinary cancer. The effect of patient age to SUV and HU values was examined with Pearson correlation test using SPSS program. Results: There was a negative insignificant correlation between patient age and SUV and HU values for prostate. For seminal vesicles, correlation between patient age and SUV values and HUmax were positive but insignificant, while correlation with HUmean was significant (r=0.459, p=0.00. Correlation between patient age and SUVmax and SUVmean values were significant for testicles (r=0.506, p=0.002 and r=0.467, p=0.005, respectively but the correlation between patient age and HUmax and HUmean values was not significant. Conclusion: F-18 FDG uptake in testicles in males increases with age until 40, suggesting an increase in metabolic rate. The significant correlation between age and mean HU values is probably caused by thickening of the tissue without an increase in glucose metabolism in seminal vesicles. In prostate, the effect of patient age to SUV and HU values was not observed until the age 40. (MIRT 2011;20:104-107

  1. Life history of female preferences for male faces: a comparison of pubescent girls, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Although scientific interest in facial attractiveness has developed substantially in recent years, few studies have contributed to our understanding of the ontogeny of facial preferences. In this study, attractiveness of 30 male faces was evaluated by four female groups: girls at puberty, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women. The main findings are as follows: (1) Preference for sexy-looking faces was strongest in young, nonpregnant women. (2) Biologically more mature girls displayed more adultlike preferences. (3) The intragroup consistency for postmenopausal women was relatively low. (4) In terms of the preference pattern, pregnant women were more similar to perimenopausal women than they were to their nonpregnant peers. (5) Preference for youthful appearance decreased with the age of the women. I argue that the life history of female preferences for male faces is, to a large extent, hormone-driven and underpinned by a set of evolutionary adaptations. PMID:22388946

  2. Age-specific patterns of factors related to fatal motor vehicle traffic crashes: focus on young and elderly drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Fraser, S; Lindsay, J; Clarke, K; Mao, Y

    1998-09-01

    This population-based study examines patterns of fatal motor vehicle traffic crashes (MVTCs) by age group (16-24, 25-64, 65+) among Canadian drivers. The Canadian Traffic Accident Information Databank (TRAID) provided information about fata MVTCs between 1984 and 1993. Distribution of risk factors was compared by age group. Crude odds ratios and 95% CIs were calculated for both young and elderly drivers compared with middle-aged drivers. The middle-age group was selected as reference population since it demonstrates the lowest risk of fatality. Compared to the middle-aged group, young drivers demonstrated excess risk for (1) risk-taking behaviours and conditions, specifically alcohol and illicit drug use, speeding, non use of seat belts, fatigue and falling asleep, and inexperience; (2) crashes during the summer, during weekends and at night; and (3) single-vehicle collisions and on performing overtaking manoeuvres. Excess risk among elderly drivers was noted for (1) medical and physical conditions, inattention and inexperience; (2) driver actions, for example, improper turning, failure to yield right-to-way; (3) occurrence on weekdays and during the day; and (4) collisions at intersection and vehicle--vehicle sideswipes. The results show notable differences in risk factors by age group and confirm the need for preventive efforts that incorporate age-specific strategies. PMID:9807923

  3. Late-onset intermittent fasting dietary restriction as a potential intervention to retard age-associated brain function impairments in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Rumani; Lakhanpal, Dinesh; Kumar, Sushil; Sharma, Sandeep; Kataria, Hardeep; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2011-01-01

    Lifelong dietary restriction (DR) is known to have many potential beneficial effects on brain function as well as delaying the onset of neurological diseases. In the present investigation, the effect of late-onset short-term intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) regimen was studied on motor coordination and cognitive ability of ageing male rats. These animals were further used to estimate protein carbonyl content and mitochondrial complex I–IV activity in different regions of brain...

  4. The Effect of Testosterone on Cognition in Aging Male%睾酮对老年男性认知功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解恒革; 王鲁宁

    2006-01-01

    @@ 目前研究结果显示,男性在衰老过程中也会因雄性激素水平下降而出现一系列性腺机能减退的症状,称为中老年男子部分性雄激素缺乏综合征(partial androgen deficiency in aging male,PADAM).

  5. Social Factors Influencing Russian Male Alcohol Use over the Life Course: A Qualitative Study Investigating Age Based Social Norms, Masculinity, and Workplace Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Keenan

    Full Text Available The massive fluctuations occurring in Russian alcohol-related mortality since the mid-1980s cannot be seen outside of the context of great social and economic change. There is a dearth of qualitative studies about Russian male drinking and especially needed are those that address social processes and individual changes in drinking. Conducted as part of a longitudinal study on men's alcohol consumption in Izhevsk, this qualitative study uses 25 semi-structured biographical interviews with men aged 33-60 years to explore life course variation in drinking. The dominant pattern was decreasing binge and frequent drinking as men reached middle age which was precipitated by family building, reductions in drinking with work colleagues, and health concerns. A minority of men described chaotic drinking histories with periods of abstinence and heavy drinking. The results highlight the importance of the blue-collar work environment for conditioning male heavy drinking in young adulthood through a variety of social, normative and structural mechanisms. Post-Soviet changes had a structural influence on the propensity for workplace drinking but the important social function of male drinking sessions remained. Bonding with workmates through heavy drinking was seen as an unavoidable and essential part of young men's social life. With age peer pressure to drink decreased and the need to perform the role of responsible breadwinner put different behavioural demands on men. For some resisting social pressure to drink became an important site of self-determination and a mark of masculine maturity. Over the lifetime the place where masculine identity was asserted shifted from the workplace to the home, which commonly resulted in a reduction in drinking. We contribute to existing theories of Russian male drinking by showing that the performance of age-related social roles influences Russian men's drinking patterns, drinking contexts and their attitudes. Further

  6. Social Factors Influencing Russian Male Alcohol Use over the Life Course: A Qualitative Study Investigating Age Based Social Norms, Masculinity, and Workplace Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Katherine; Saburova, Lyudmila; Bobrova, Natalia; Elbourne, Diana; Ashwin, Sarah; Leon, David A

    2015-01-01

    The massive fluctuations occurring in Russian alcohol-related mortality since the mid-1980s cannot be seen outside of the context of great social and economic change. There is a dearth of qualitative studies about Russian male drinking and especially needed are those that address social processes and individual changes in drinking. Conducted as part of a longitudinal study on men's alcohol consumption in Izhevsk, this qualitative study uses 25 semi-structured biographical interviews with men aged 33-60 years to explore life course variation in drinking. The dominant pattern was decreasing binge and frequent drinking as men reached middle age which was precipitated by family building, reductions in drinking with work colleagues, and health concerns. A minority of men described chaotic drinking histories with periods of abstinence and heavy drinking. The results highlight the importance of the blue-collar work environment for conditioning male heavy drinking in young adulthood through a variety of social, normative and structural mechanisms. Post-Soviet changes had a structural influence on the propensity for workplace drinking but the important social function of male drinking sessions remained. Bonding with workmates through heavy drinking was seen as an unavoidable and essential part of young men's social life. With age peer pressure to drink decreased and the need to perform the role of responsible breadwinner put different behavioural demands on men. For some resisting social pressure to drink became an important site of self-determination and a mark of masculine maturity. Over the lifetime the place where masculine identity was asserted shifted from the workplace to the home, which commonly resulted in a reduction in drinking. We contribute to existing theories of Russian male drinking by showing that the performance of age-related social roles influences Russian men's drinking patterns, drinking contexts and their attitudes. Further research should be

  7. Social Factors Influencing Russian Male Alcohol Use over the Life Course: A Qualitative Study Investigating Age Based Social Norms, Masculinity, and Workplace Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Katherine; Saburova, Lyudmila; Bobrova, Natalia; Elbourne, Diana; Ashwin, Sarah; Leon, David A

    2015-01-01

    The massive fluctuations occurring in Russian alcohol-related mortality since the mid-1980s cannot be seen outside of the context of great social and economic change. There is a dearth of qualitative studies about Russian male drinking and especially needed are those that address social processes and individual changes in drinking. Conducted as part of a longitudinal study on men's alcohol consumption in Izhevsk, this qualitative study uses 25 semi-structured biographical interviews with men aged 33-60 years to explore life course variation in drinking. The dominant pattern was decreasing binge and frequent drinking as men reached middle age which was precipitated by family building, reductions in drinking with work colleagues, and health concerns. A minority of men described chaotic drinking histories with periods of abstinence and heavy drinking. The results highlight the importance of the blue-collar work environment for conditioning male heavy drinking in young adulthood through a variety of social, normative and structural mechanisms. Post-Soviet changes had a structural influence on the propensity for workplace drinking but the important social function of male drinking sessions remained. Bonding with workmates through heavy drinking was seen as an unavoidable and essential part of young men's social life. With age peer pressure to drink decreased and the need to perform the role of responsible breadwinner put different behavioural demands on men. For some resisting social pressure to drink became an important site of self-determination and a mark of masculine maturity. Over the lifetime the place where masculine identity was asserted shifted from the workplace to the home, which commonly resulted in a reduction in drinking. We contribute to existing theories of Russian male drinking by showing that the performance of age-related social roles influences Russian men's drinking patterns, drinking contexts and their attitudes. Further research should be

  8. Marital history from age 15 to 40 years and subsequent 10-year mortality: a longitudinal study of Danish males born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Osler, Merete

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aims of the present study are to analyse the association between marital status at age 24, 29, 34, and 39 years and subsequent mortality in a cohort of men born in 1953 (sensitive period); to study the impact of number of years married, number of years divorced/widowed, and number...... a strong protective effect of being married compared with never being married or divorced/widowed at every age. The association increased in strength with increasing age. Number of years divorced was associated with increased mortality risk in a dose-dependent manner at age 34 and 39 years. One or more...... and cumulated marital periods, especially cumulated periods divorced/widowed are strong independent predictors of mortality among younger males....

  9. Traditional Values on Males in Victorian Age-A Case study of Oscar Wilde’s The Importance of Being Earnest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾思思

    2014-01-01

    In Victorian Age, many literary works recorded the social realities and traditional social value system, and Oscar Wil-de’s The Importance of Being Earnest is a good case in point. In this play, males are valued in terms of both birth condition and economic basis, which are two general standards from the traditional value system of the mainstream society. Oscar Wilde in this play satirizes the restrained and distorted traditional values and the hypocritical Victorian society. This paper will probe into how the social status and economic conditions determine males’fate in Victorian Age and on Oscar Wilde’s creation.

  10. The Influence of the Age, the Years of Training, and the BMI on the Average Muscle Power in Male and Female Rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogus, Mate; Fric, Vlasta Orsić; Atalić, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the age, the body mass index (BMI), and the years of training on the average muscle power in male and female rowers. The analysis of the testing results of the members of the Rowing club Iktus from Osijek in Croatia was performed. Results were obtained during the regular yearly testing on the rowing ergometer for the rowing season of 2009. Members of the Rowing club Iktus were divided into two subgroups according to their sex. The obtained results were analysed in accordance with the age, the BMI, and the years of training independently for the each of the two subgroups. The results have showed that the average muscle power is independent of all the three parameters in the male rowers, while it is dependent on the age and the years of training in the female rowers. It seems that the BMI does not play any role at all in the average muscle power. As a conclusion, it could be stated that while one can suggest to female rowers to improve their performance with prolonged training, there is a need for a further research in order to formulate a suitable advice for male rowers. PMID:26987157

  11. Immunogenicity of the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in young children less than 4 years of age, with a focus on age and baseline antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugitani, Ayumi; Ito, Kazuya; Irie, Shin; Eto, Takashi; Ishibashi, Motoki; Ohfuji, Satoko; Fukushima, Wakaba; Maeda, Akiko; Hirota, Yoshio

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we assessed the effects of the prevaccination titer and age on the immunogenicity of a low dose of influenza vaccine in children less than 4 years of age. A total of 259 children received two vaccine doses (0.1 ml for 0-year-olds and 0.2 ml for children 1 year of age or older) 4 weeks apart during the 2005/2006 season. The hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers were measured before vaccination and 4 weeks after the first and second doses. The geometric mean titer, mean fold rise, seroresponse proportion (≥4-fold rise in titer), and seroprotection proportion (titer ≥1:40) were calculated for the prevaccination titer and age categories. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed using the seroresponse and seroprotection proportions as dependent variables and the prevaccination titer and age as explanatory variables. As for the seroresponse against the H1 antigen after the first dose, the adjusted odds ratios of the prevaccination titers (versus year-olds and 0.17 (0.08 to 0.34) for the 1-year-olds compared with the 2- to 3-year-olds (Ptrend < 0.001). Similar results were also obtained for the H3 and B strains. Significantly elevated odds ratios for seroprotection were observed with greater prevaccination titers and older ages for all strains. The prevaccination titer and age were independently associated with the antibody response in young children. The immune response was weaker in the younger children and those without preexisting immunity.

  12. Assessment of association of smoking with bone mineral density (BMD) and fragility fractures in a cohort of pakistani males ages <= 50 years and postmenopausal females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: The study aimed to determine the association between smoking, bone mineral density (BMD), and fragility fractures in a cohort of Pakistani males aged > 50 years and postmenopausal females. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional survey carried out at Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM), Rawalpindi from Jan 2010 to Jan 2011. Through non-probability purposive sampling, we included male patients of age > 50 years and postmenopausal women. All subjects were submitted to dual energy X-Ray absorptiometery at lumbar spine (L2 > L4) and at both femoral by Hologic Discovery-A machine . The lowest BMD was noted and expressed in the form of T-score.Using SPSS V 20, descriptive statistics were calculated for the various variables. Independent samples t-test was used to determine the significance of difference between mean T-score in between smokers and non-smokers. Association between smoking and the risk of fracture was carried out using Fisher exact test. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Out of a total of 328 patients, 142 (43.3%) were male (mean age 64 ± 8, range: 50 - 82 years) and 186 (56.7%) were female (mean age 61 ± 8, range: 43 - 92 years). Sixteen (8.6%) females and 52 (36.6%) males were smokers. In males, the mean T-score was -1.6 ± 1.3 in non-smokers and -1.9 ± 1.2 in smokers (p=0.17). Two of the non-smokers and nine of the smokers had a fracture. (p=0.002). In females, the mean T-score was -2.9 ± 1.9 in smokers and -2.3 ± 1.4 in non-smokers (p=0.23). Twelve of the non-smokers and 15 smokers had a fracture. (p<0.001) Conclusion: Smoking was significantly associated with increased percentage of fragility fractures but not with a reduction in BMD in our sample of postmenopausal women and men of age > 50 years. (author)

  13. Evaluation of Forest Dynamics Focusing on Various Minimum Harvesting Ages in Multi-Purpose Forest Management Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Mumcu Kucuker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Exploring the potential effects of various forest management strategies on the ability of forest ecosystems to sequester carbon and produce water has become of great concern among forest researchers. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of management strategies with different minimum harvesting ages on the amount and monetary worth of carbon, water and timber values. Area of study: The study was performed in the Yalnızçam planning unit located on the northeastern part of Turkey. Material and Methods: A forest management model with linear programming (LP was developed to determine the effects of various minimum harvesting ages. Twenty-four different management strategies were developed to maximize the economic Net Present Value (NPV of timber, water and carbon values in addition to their absolute quantities over time. Amount and NPV of forest values and ending inventory with different minimum harvesting ages were used as performance indicators to assess and thus understand forest dynamics. Main results: Amount and NPV of timber and carbon generally decreased with extended minimum harvesting ages. However, similar trends were not observed for water production values. The results pointed out that the performance of a management strategy depends highly on the development of a management strategy and the initial forest structure aside from the growth rate Research highlights: Minimum harvesting ages affect forest outputs under the same objectives and constraints. Performance of a management strategy highly depends on initial age class structure in addition to the contents of a management strategy.

  14. The impact of cafeteria diet feeding on physiology and anxiety-related behaviour in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, Wiebke; Klaus, Susanne; Fink, Heidrun; Langley-Evans, Simon C; Voigt, Jörg-Peter

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging experimental evidence that hyper-energetic diets not only cause obesity but also impact on behaviour in rodents. A hyper-energetic comfort diet/cafeteria diet (CD) fed during early development programmes anxiety-related behaviour in adult age, but little is known how an obesogenic CD impacts on behaviour when fed at a later age. To this end we fed CD to Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes at either 6 weeks or 12 months old, for a period of 6 weeks. Anxiety-related behaviour was assessed in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the open field (OF). A glucose tolerance test was performed and metabolic indices, body weight and fat were measured. CD-fed young adult females, but not males, had a higher energy intake, due to an overconsumption of carbohydrates and fats. Only in adult CD-fed rats of both sexes did this overconsumption led to increased weight gain. Protein intake was reduced in all CD groups. Fat mass (subcutaneous, perirenal, gonadal) increased in most CD groups, whereas brown fat increased only in adults. Triacylglycerol, free fatty acid and total cholesterol concentrations increased predominantly in adult CD-fed rats. Glucose tolerance was only impaired in adult males. CD-fed adult males showed fewer entries into the aversive open arms and groomed more on the EPM, whereas adult females spent more time on these arms. In the OF, CD-fed females of both ages visited the inner zone more frequently and travelled a longer distance. The behavioural data suggests anxiolysis in CD-fed females and signs of increased anxiety in adult males. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that feeding CD leads to both obesity and behavioural changes in rats. Overall, these effects were more pronounced in older rats, with the behavioural effects being particularly gender dependent.

  15. No Relative Age Effect in the Birth Dates of Award-Winning Athletes in Male Professional Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Paul R.; Williams, A. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Athletes born early within an annual youth age-group selection year are probably more likely to be selected for sports teams and talent development programs than those born later in that year. Overrepresentation of these relatively older athletes in youth and adult sport is known as the relative age effect (RAE). RAEs were found in these popular…

  16. Adult but Not Aged C57BL/6 Male Mice Are Capable of Using Geometry for Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Melitta; Morellini, Fabio; Fellini, Laetitia

    2006-01-01

    Geometry, e.g., the shape of the environment, can be used by numerous animal species to orientate, but data concerning the mouse are lacking. We addressed the question of whether mice are capable of using geometry for navigating. To test whether aging could affect searching strategies, we compared adult (3- to 5-mo old) and aged (20- to 21-mo old)…

  17. The changes in age of peak swim speed for elite male and female Swiss freestyle swimmers between 1994 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the age and its changes across years of peak swimming performance from 50 to 1,500 m freestyle. Data of 70,059 Swiss freestyle swimmers (33,725 women and 36,334 men) aged 10-40 years and competing from 50 to 1,500 m were analysed. The association between age and swimming speed of the annual ten fastest swimmers was investigated using single and multi-level hierarchical regression analyses. For women, age of peak swimming speed increased in 50 m from 18.9 (s = 2.3) to 20.4 (s = 4.2) years but decreased in 1,500 m from 25.0 (s = 13.1) (1996) to 18.1 (s = 3.7) years. For 100-800 m, age remained at 19.1 (s = 1.1), 19.3 (s = 1.1), 18.7 (s = 1.5) and 18.5 (s = 1.3) years, respectively. For men, age of peak swimming speed decreased in 50 m from 23.0 (s = 4.0) to 23.0 (s = 3.5) but remained for 100-1,500 m at 22.5 (s = 1.4), 21.4 (s = 0.9), 20.3 (s = 0.9), 20.3 (s = 0.9) and 20.3 (s = 1.1) years, respectively. Age was positively associated with swimming speed for 50-800 m, but negatively for 1,500 m. In conclusion, the age of peak swimming speed was younger in women compared to men for 50-800 m freestyle. For women, age of peak swimming speed increased in 50 m but decreased in 1,500 m freestyle across years. For men, age of peak swimming speed decreased in 50 m freestyle.

  18. Evaluation of variation in the lipid profile and risk for coronary artery disease in healthy male individuals with respect to age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Abraham

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is one of the commonest causes of death affecting both sexes worldwide. It is the leading cause of mortality in developed countries. The measurement of lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins has long been recognized as necessary for the diagnosis and clinical management of disorders of lipoprotein metabolism. On the basis of this, the present study was performed to compare the serum lipid profile in males of different age groups. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted after the institutional ethical clearance. The male subjects between the ages of 20-59 were included in the study. Blood was collected from the subjects after an overnight fast of 12 hours who were also advised to refrain from non-vegetarian food for 3 days. Estimation of serum total cholesterol was done by using the cholesterol kit which uses modified Allain's method for estimating serum cholesterol. Serum triglyceride was estimated using the triglyceride kit which is based on GPO-POD method. Estimation of serum HDL cholesterol was done using cholesterol kit which uses modified Allain's method. Serum LDL cholesterol level was calculated using the Friedewald's formula, LDL cholesterol = Total cholesterol - (HDL-C + TG/5. Estimation of fasting blood sugar was done using GOD-POD method. The lipid levels with risk for CAD were performed based on Framingham heart study. Statistical analysis was done by unpaired t-test for group wise comparison and P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The lipid levels on comparison in 2 successive age groups of males, that is 20-29 and 30-39 years; and 30-39 and 40-49years; 40-49 and 50-59 years, it was found that the mean values of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C and the ratio of TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C are increased while HDL-C is decreased in the older age group. Conclusion: From the present study it is understood that as age advances total cholesterol

  19. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Males Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for males aged 15-44 years was 10% lower in 2014 (156.6 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (174.1). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates for three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 17.1 to 12.8; 25% decline), heart disease (20.1 to 17.0; 15% decline), and homicide (15.7 to 13.8; 12% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: suicide (20.1 to 22.5; 12% increase), and unintentional injuries (from 48.7 to 51.0; 5% increase). PMID:27513718

  20. Soybean isoflavones alter parvalbumin in hippocampus of mid-aged normal female, ovariectomized female, and normal male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In Koo HWANG; Moo Ho WON; Yoon-bok LEE; Ki-yeon YOO; Tae-cheon KANG; Soon Sung LIM; Sang Moo KIM; Heon-soo SOHN; Woo-jung KIM; Hyun Kyung SHIN

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the long-term effect of soybean isoflavones on changes in parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus in normal female, ovariectomized (OVX) female and normal male rats. Methods: Ten-month-old rats were assigned to one of 9 groups (n=7 in each group) based on body weight using arandomized complete-block design. The groups were: control diet-treated females,OVX females, and males; 0.3 g/kg isoflavone-treated females, OVX females, and males; and 1.2 g/kg isoflavone-treated females, OVX females, and males. The PV immunostaining was conducted by using the standard avidin-biotin complex method. Results: PV immunoreactivity and the number of PV-immunoreactive neurons in all the groups after isoflavone treatment were significantly changed in the hippocampal CA1 region and in the dentate gyrus, but not in the hippocampal CA2/3 region. PV immunoreactivity and the number of PV-immunoreactive neurons in the control diet OVX females were similar to those in the control diet, and were greater than those in the control diet normal females. PV immunoreactivity and the number of PV-immunoreactive neurons in all the isoflavone-treated groups decreased dose-dependently after isoflavone treatment. Conclusion: Long-term administration of isoflavones may induce a reduction of PV in interneurons in the hippocampal CA1 region and in the dentate gyrus. The reduction of PV in these regions suggests that the long-term administration of isoflavones may cause a change in calcium homeostasis in the hippocampal CA1 region and in the dentate gyrus.

  1. Cigarette smoking and male sex are independent and age concomitant risk factors for the development of ocular sarcoidosis in a new orleans sarcoidosis population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janot, Adam C.; Huscher, Dörte; Walker, McCall; Grewal, Harmanjot K.; Yu, Mary; Lammi, Matthew R.; Saketkoo, Lesley Ann

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sarcoidosis is a multi-organ system granulomatous disease of unknown origin with an incidence of 1–40/100,000. Though pulmonary manifestations are predominant, ocular sarcoidosis (OS) affects 25–50% of patients with sarcoidosis and can lead to blindness. Methods A retrospective, single-center chart review of sarcoidosis cases investigated variables associated with the development of OS. Inclusion criteria were biopsy-proven sarcoidosis, disease duration greater than 1 year, documented smoking status on chart review and documentation of sarcoid-related eye disease. Multivariate analysis identified independent risk factors for OS. Results Of 269 charts reviewed, 109 patients met inclusion criteria. The OS group had a significantly higher proportion of smokers (71.4%) than without OS (42.0%, p=0.027) with no difference (p=0.61) in median number of pack years. Male sex was significantly higher in the OS group (57.1% versus 26.1%, p=0.009). Median duration of sarcoidosis was higher in the OS group (10 versus 4 years, p=0.031). Multivariate regression identified tobacco exposure (OR=5.25, p=0.007, 95% CI 1.58–17.41), male sex (OR=7.48, p=0.002, 95% CI 2.15–26.01), and age (OR=1.114, p=0.002, 95% CI 1.04–1.19) as concomitant risk factors for the development of OS. Conclusion To date, there are few dedicated investigations of risk factors for OS, especially smoking. This investigation identified male sex, age, and tobacco exposure as independent risk factors for OS. Though disease duration did not withstand regression analysis in this moderately sized group, age at chart review suggests screening for OS should not remit but rather intensify in aging patients with sarcoidosis. PMID:26278693

  2. Depression-like behavior of aged male and female mice is ameliorated with administration of testosterone or its metabolites

    OpenAIRE

    Frye, Cheryl A.; Walf, Alicia A.

    2009-01-01

    There may be a role of age-related decline in androgen production and/or its metabolism for late-onset depression disorders of men and women. Thus, the antidepressant-like effects of testosterone (T) and its metabolites are of interest. Given that these androgens have disparate mechanisms of action, it is important to begin to characterize and compare their effects in an aged animal model. We hypothesized that there would be sex differences in depression behavior of aged mice and that androge...

  3. Development and Validation of an Older Occupant Finite Element Model of a Mid-Sized Male for Investigation of Age-related Injury Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoell, Samantha L; Weaver, Ashley A; Urban, Jillian E; Jones, Derek A; Stitzel, Joel D; Hwang, Eunjoo; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D; Hu, Jingwen

    2015-11-01

    The aging population is a growing concern as the increased fragility and frailty of the elderly results in an elevated incidence of injury as well as an increased risk of mortality and morbidity. To assess elderly injury risk, age-specific computational models can be developed to directly calculate biomechanical metrics for injury. The first objective was to develop an older occupant Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) average male model (M50) representative of a 65 year old (YO) and to perform regional validation tests to investigate predicted fractures and injury severity with age. Development of the GHBMC M50 65 YO model involved implementing geometric, cortical thickness, and material property changes with age. Regional validation tests included a chest impact, a lateral impact, a shoulder impact, a thoracoabdominal impact, an abdominal bar impact, a pelvic impact, and a lateral sled test. The second objective was to investigate age-related injury risks by performing a frontal US NCAP simulation test with the GHBMC M50 65 YO and the GHBMC M50 v4.2 models. Simulation results were compared to the GHBMC M50 v4.2 to evaluate the effect of age on occupant response and risk for head injury, neck injury, thoracic injury, and lower extremity injury. Overall, the GHBMC M50 65 YO model predicted higher probabilities of AIS 3+ injury for the head and thorax. PMID:26660751

  4. The determination of male adult age at death by central and posterior coxal analysis--a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougé-Maillart, Clotilde; Telmon, Norbert; Rissech, Carme; Malgosa, Assumption; Rougé, Daniel

    2004-03-01

    In forensic anthropological analysis, the pelvis is of particular interest as it is often a comparatively well-preserved part of the skeleton. This study in age determination uses the acetabulum, the central element of the pelvis, as a complement to the examination of the auricular surface. The test sample consisted of 30 individuals. First, the authors studied the auricular surface using the Lovejoy criteria. Second, they isolated four criteria based on chronological changes in the acetabulum. Third, they conducted an evaluation of each of these variables. The study examines the correlation between these criteria and the age of the individuals. A significant correlation was found between the acetabular criteria and age, and between the acetabular criteria and the Lovejoy criteria of the auricular surface. For forensic purposes, the acetabulum is an effective predictor in the determination of age. This newly proposed method explores the same criteria of ageing as the Lovejoy method. The combination of the two methods produces relatively consistent results in the estimation of age.

  5. Middle age onset short-term intermittent fasting dietary restriction prevents brain function impairments in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rumani; Manchanda, Shaffi; Kaur, Taranjeet; Kumar, Sushil; Lakhanpal, Dinesh; Lakhman, Sukhwinder S; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2015-12-01

    Intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) is recently reported to be an effective intervention to retard age associated disease load and to promote healthy aging. Since sustaining long term caloric restriction regimen is not practically feasible in humans, so use of alternate approach such as late onset short term IF-DR regimen which is reported to trigger similar biological pathways is gaining scientific interest. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of IF-DR regimen implemented for 12 weeks in middle age rats on their motor coordination skills and protein and DNA damage in different brain regions. Further, the effect of IF-DR regimen was also studied on expression of energy regulators, cell survival pathways and synaptic plasticity marker proteins. Our data demonstrate that there was an improvement in motor coordination and learning response with decline in protein oxidative damage and recovery in expression of energy regulating neuropeptides. We further observed significant downregulation in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cytochrome c (Cyt c) levels and moderate upregulation of mortalin and synaptophysin expression. The present data may provide an insight on how a modest level of short term IF-DR, imposed in middle age, can slow down or prevent the age-associated impairment of brain functions and promote healthy aging by involving multiple regulatory pathways aimed at maintaining energy homeostasis. PMID:26318578

  6. Age-related pharmacokinetic changes of acetaminophen, antipyrine, diazepam, diphenhydramine, and ofloxacin in male cynomolgus monkeys and beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyanagi, Takashi; Yamaura, Yoshiyuki; Yano, Koji; Kim, Soonih; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen (marker of gastric emptying), antipyrine (marker of hepatic metabolic activity and total body water), diazepam (lipophilic and highly distributed), diphenhydramine (hepatic blood flow-limited and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein bound) and ofloxacin (renally eliminated) were evaluated in cynomolgus monkeys (3-18 years old) and beagle dogs (2-11 years old) as models in elderly persons. 2. Gastric pH fluctuated with aging in monkeys and dogs. The concentration of alpha-1 acid glycoprotein appeared to be increased by aging. There were no age-related differences in the absorption rates of the drugs under the conditions used in the study. Total body fat increased and water decreased in monkeys, but these parameters did not change in dogs. 3. Hepatic blood flow decreased in both species, but a significant decrease of hepatic clearance was only seen in monkeys. Renal clearance decreased significantly with age in monkeys and showed a tendency to decrease in dogs. 4. Age-related alterations of physiological parameters in monkeys are in agreement with clinical observations in humans, except for the lack of a change in the plasma albumin concentration. Therefore, this study suggests that monkey might be a suitable animal model for prediction of age-related changes in pharmacokinetics in humans. PMID:24650193

  7. [Fragility and experiencing limits as a chance for development in old age--the meaning of the particular experiences of the aging body for identification and development as focused on the very old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum-Lehmann, Susanne

    2008-06-01

    The main focus of this article is the meaning of particular experiences of the aging body for identity and development with respect to very old age. This experience of embodiment results from a dynamic development between unpleasant experiences of physical aging, positive bodily experiences of the pleasure of living, and reflections on this direct engagement with the aging body. The interaction of those three dimensions requires a constant rebalancing, which, in view of the frail body, becomes increasingly demanding. Beyond one's own experiences with aging through direct engagement with the body, established social relationships give room for an individual's physical nature and support the maintenance of identity and development. People who look after and care for old aged people have to recognize their own embodiment and have to acknowledge their aging body. This applies not only to contact with old aged people, but also requests that the potential for developing one's own identity be recognised. The inclusion of the body in the discourse on the aging process demands a mindset change in social gerontology and for the individual it means to submit oneself to the ethics of embodied existence.

  8. Prenatal exposure to dexamethasone in the mouse alters cardiac growth patterns and increases pulse pressure in aged male offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee O'Sullivan

    Full Text Available Exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids during development can result in later cardiovascular and renal disease in sheep and rats. Although prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is associated with impaired renal development, less is known about effects on the developing heart. This study aimed to examine the effects of a short-term exposure to dexamethasone (60 hours from embryonic day 12.5 on the developing mouse heart, and cardiovascular function in adult male offspring. Dexamethasone (DEX exposed fetuses were growth restricted compared to saline treated controls (SAL at E14.5, but there was no difference between groups at E17.5. Heart weights of the DEX fetuses also tended to be smaller at E14.5, but not different at E17.5. Cardiac AT1aR, Bax, and IGF-1 mRNA expression was significantly increased by DEX compared to SAL at E17.5. In 12-month-old offspring DEX exposure caused an increase in basal blood pressure of ~3 mmHg. In addition, DEX exposed mice had a widened pulse pressure compared to SAL. DEX exposed males at 12 months had an approximate 25% reduction in nephron number compared to SAL, but no difference in cardiomyocyte number. Exposure to DEX in utero appears to adversely impact on nephrogenesis and heart growth but is not associated with a cardiomyocyte deficit in male mice in adulthood, possibly due to compensatory growth of the myocardium following the initial insult. However, the widened pulse pressure may be indicative of altered vascular compliance.

  9. [FEATURES OF CONSTITUTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF YOUNG MALES AGED OF 17-20 YEARS, NATIVES OF THE BAIKAL REGION WITH REGARD TO THEIR FUNCTIONAL GROUPS OF HEALTH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokoltsev, M M

    2016-01-01

    The study of somatotypes of the constitution is an important point in planning of the improvements of measures among the population in various regions of Russia. The purpose of the work was to reveal features of age dynamics of somatotypes of the constitution in students of youthful age of the Baikal Region by means of somatotyping according to scheme by Nikityuk B. A. and Kozlova A.I (1990) with taking into account their functional group of health. There were examined 1286 Slavic young males, natives of the Irkutsk region, aged of 17-20 years, from them, according to data of the medical examination 996 were referred to the 1st (main) and 290--to the 2nd (preparatory) functional group of health for physical exercises. There were established significant differences in somatotypes of the constitution in young men of the 1st and 2nd functional groups of health. In both functional groups there is noted a significant amount of young males with transitional somatotypes that testifies to incompleteness of growth processes of their organism. The obtained results of a somatotyping are used in the educational process for a training individualization on physical culture of students of IRGTU, and also in construction of independent physical--improving programs. PMID:27430074

  10. Evaluation of Forest Dynamics Focusing on Various Minimum Harvesting Ages in Multi-Purpose Forest Management Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Derya Mumcu Kucuker; Emin Zeki Baskent

    2015-01-01

    Aim of study: Exploring the potential effects of various forest management strategies on the ability of forest ecosystems to sequester carbon and produce water has become of great concern among forest researchers. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of management strategies with different minimum harvesting ages on the amount and monetary worth of carbon, water and timber values. Area of study: The study was performed in the Yalnızçam planning unit located on the no...

  11. Age dependent differences in the regulation of hippocampal steroid hormones and receptor genes: relations to motivation and cognition in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K; Korz, V

    2013-02-01

    Estrogen and estrogenic functions are age-dependently involved in the modulation of learning, memory and mood in female humans and animals. However, the investigation of estrogenic effects in males has been largely neglected. Therefore, we investigated the hippocampal gene expression of estrogen receptors α and β (ERα, β) in 8-week-old, 12-week-old and 24-week-old male rats. To control for possible interactions between the expression of the estrogen receptor genes and other learning-related steroid receptors, androgen receptors (AR), corticosterone-binding glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) were also measured. Furthermore, the concentrations of the ligands 17β-estradiol, testosterone and corticosterone were measured. The spatial training was conducted in a hole-board. The 8-week-old rats exhibited higher levels of general activity and exploration during the training and performed best with respect to spatial learning and memory, whereas no difference was found between the 12-week-old and 24-week-old rats. The trained 8-week-old rats exhibited increased gene expression of ERα compared with the untrained rats in this age group as well as the trained 12-week-old and 24-week-old rats. The concentrations of estradiol and testosterone, however, were generally higher in the 24-week-old rats than in the 8-week-old and 12-week-old rats. The ERα mRNA concentrations correlated positively with behavior that indicate general learning motivation. These results suggest a specific role of ERα in the age-related differences in motivation and subsequent success in the task. Thus, estrogen and estrogenic functions may play a more prominent role in young male behavior and development than has been previously assumed.

  12. Attitudes of Iranian Male University Students Toward Sport and Exercise with Reference to Age, Educational Level, and Field of Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsafian Hamidreza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to discover the attitudes of Iranian male university students toward sport and exercise. This study is based on the same research as another published paper regarding the attitudes of Iranian female students toward sport and exercise. Participants (N = 821 were selected from different educational levels and fields of study from among 12 public universities. Data were collected by a modified and developed version of Kenyon's scale (1968, which measures the attitudes of people toward physical activity. For the analysis of the data, independent sample t-test and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA were employed (p < 0.05. The results indicated that the attitudes of the respondents can be identified as fitness (3.96 ± 1.02, catharsis (3.84 ± 0.80, social (3.82 ± 1.10, aesthetic (3.03 ± 1.14, vertigo (2.15 ± 1.16, and ascetic (2.07 ± 0.79. Furthermore, it was found that various demographic and social characteristics affected participants' attitudes toward sport and exercise (p < 0.05. Based on the results, it was concluded that the sport programs should be organized around students' dominant attitudes toward regular activities. In addition, planning and organizing sport programs with regard to the wide attitudinal differences between male and female students could be a big step toward improving students' participation rate in sporting activities at Iranian universities.

  13. Age estimation on the stricture of pulp cavity of the mandibular first premolar by 3D micro-focus X-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To know the effect of aging on pulp cavity volumes, 40 mandibular first premolars obtained from 21-75 years old persons and stored in authors' laboratory were subjected to 3D micro-focus X-CT (SMX-130CT-SV, Shimadzu Works) to determine the volume, and ratios to the root canal pulp volume of the crown (C), cervical 1/3 (R1), central (R2) and apical 1/3 (R3) pulp volumes were calculated. In all ages examined, the ratios were in the order of R1>R2>C>R3, and were decreased by aging with exception for R1. Changes in R1 were significant in thirties to fifties and in R2, in twenties to thirties. Multiple regression analysis for age estimation gave the multiple correlation coefficient of 0.82 and coefficient of determination of 0.67, and the item that the partial correlation coefficient was significantly high was R1 (RPVR1) alone. Regression analysis using RPVR1 as a variable gave the multiple correlation coefficient of 0.81 between actual and estimated ages and estimated error (within ±6 years) by the regression was 42.5%. The method was thus found usefully applied for age estimation in forensic judgment. (S.I.)

  14. Central Nervous System Medications and Falls Risk in Older Men: The Study On Male Osteoporosis and Aging (SOMA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masud, Tahir; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Ryg, Jesper;

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: drugs acting on the central nervous system (CNS) increase falls risk. Most data on CNS drugs and falls are in women/mixed-sex populations. This study assessed the relationship between CNS drugs and falls in men aged 60–75 years. Methods: a questionnaire was sent to randomly selected...

  15. Estimation of age-at-death for adult males using the acetabulum, applied to four Western European populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissech, Carme; Estabrook, George F; Cunha, Eugenia; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2007-07-01

    Methods to estimate adult age from observations of skeletal elements are not very accurate and motivate the development of better methods. In this article, we test recently published method based on the acetabulum and Bayesian inference, developed using Coimbra collection (Portugal). In this study, to evaluate its utility in other populations, this methodology was applied to 394 specimens from four different documented Western European collections. Four strategies of analysis to estimate age were outlined: (a) each series separately; (b) on Lisbon collection, taken as a reference Coimbra collection; (c) on Barcelona collection, taken as a reference both Portuguese collections; and (d) on London collection taken as reference the three Iberian collections combined. Results indicate that estimates are accurate (83-100%). As might be expected, the least accurate estimates were obtained when the most distant collection was used as a reference. Observations of the fused acetabulum can be used to make accurate estimates of age for adults of any age, with less accurate estimates when a more distant reference collection is used.

  16. Individual- and area-level effects on mortality risk in Germany, both East and West, among male Germans aged 65+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kibele, E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study investigates whether mortality inequalities based on individual- and area-level deprivation exist at older ages in Germany, and whether there are differences between eastern and western Germany. Methods Data on population and death counts according to the individual-level socio

  17. Effects of paternal phenotype and environmental variability on age and size at maturity in a male dimorphic mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Smallegange

    2011-01-01

    Investigating how the environment affects age and size at maturity of individuals is crucial to understanding how changes in the environment affect population dynamics through the biology of a species. Paternal phenotype, maternal, and offspring environment may crucially influence these traits, but

  18. Toluene effects on the motor activity of adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent male Brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have...

  19. Age of peak performance in elite male and female Ironman triathletes competing in Ironman Switzerland, a qualifier for the Ironman world championship, Ironman Hawaii, from 1995 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüst CA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Patrizia Knechtle,2 Thomas Rosemann,1 Romuald Lepers31Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3INSERM U1093, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Burgundy, Dijon, FranceBackground: The age of peak performance in elite endurance athletes has been investigated for elite marathoners, but not for elite Ironman triathletes. The aim of this study was to analyze the age of peak performance in swimming (3.8 km, cycling (180 km, running (42 km, and overall race time for elite female and male Ironman triathletes competing in Ironman Switzerland, a qualifier for the Ironman world championship, known as the Ironman Hawaii.Methods: The age of the annual top ten overall swimmers, cyclists, runners, and annual overall finishers for both male and female elite triathletes and their corresponding split and overall race times at the Ironman Switzerland were analyzed between 1995 and 2011.Results: The mean age of the elite Ironman triathletes was 33 ± 3 years for men and 34 ± 4 years for women. For women, the age of peak performance was not significantly different between the three disciplines (P > 0.05, while for men, the best swimmers (29 ± 3 years were significantly (P < 0.05 younger than the best runners (35 ± 5 years. During the study period, the age of peak performance remained unchanged for men at 31 ± 3 years (P > 0.05, but increased for women from 30 ± 4 years in 1995 to 36 ± 5 years in 2011 (P < 0.01.Conclusion: Although both women and men improved their overall race times during the 1995–2011 period, the age of peak performance was similar between women and men in the three disciplines and in overall race time. Future studies need to examine the change in age of peak performance across years in the Ironman Hawaii world championship event.Keywords: gender difference, swimming, cycling, running

  20. Effect of chronic ethanol (EtOH) and aging on drug metabolism in F-344 male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galinsky, R.E.; Johnson, D.H.; Kimura, R.E.; Franklin, M.R. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (USA))

    1989-02-09

    The effects of chronic ethanol on in vitro and in vivo drug metabolism were examined in 6 and 25 month old male Fischer 344 rats. Animals were divided into three diet groups: (1) Diet containing EtOH, (2) pair-fed controls and (3) rat chow ad lib. Rats in groups 1 and 2 were fed 3 times daily for six weeks via permanent gastrostomy and received EtOH at doses of 5-8 g/kg/day in the first 3 weeks and 12 g/kg/day for the last 3 weeks. Total caloric intake was 90-120 kcal/kg/day. After 6 weeks, the pharmacokinetics of i.v. acetaminophen (A), 30 mg/kg, were examined to probe in vivo drug conjugation. There was no effects of EtOH on the total CL of A in young or old rats. The fraction of the dose recovered in the urine as A-glucuronide and the partial clearance to A-glucuronide was increased by EtOH. There was no effect on the rate of A-sulfate formation. EtOH increased the renal clearance of A but not of A-sulfate or A-glucuronide. In vitro, EtOH increased hepatic cytochrome P-450 concentration and p-nitroanisole demethylase activity, especially in old rats where values returned to those seen in untreated young males. Erythromycin and ethylmorphine demethylase and p-nitrophenol hydroxylase activities were not increased by the EtOH treatment. EtOH increased UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity towards 1-naphthol, but not towards morphine, estrone, or testosterone. EtOH had no effect on the cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene) and phenol sulfotransferase (p-nitrophenol) activities.

  1. Glycemic Control and Mortality in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Dialysis Focusing on the Effects of Age and Dialysis Type: A Prospective Cohort Study in Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji In Park

    Full Text Available Active glycemic control has been proven to delay the onset and slow the progression of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy in diabetic patients, but the optimal level is obscure in end-stage renal disease. In this study, we evaluated the effect of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c on mortality of diabetic patients on dialysis, focusing on age and dialysis type.Of 3,302 patients enrolled in the prospective cohort for end-stage renal disease in Korea between August 2008 and October 2013, 1,239 diabetic patients who had been diagnosed with diabetes or having HbA1c≥6.5% at the time of enrollment were analyzed. Age was categorized as <55, 55-64 and ≥65 years old. Age, sex, modified Charlson comorbidity index, hemoglobin, primary renal disease, body mass index, and dialysis duration were adjusted.A total of 873 patients received hemodialysis (HD and 366 underwent peritoneal dialysis (PD. During the mean follow-up of 19.1 months, 141 patients died. Patients with poor glucose control (HbA1c≥8% showed worse survival than patients with HbA1c<8% (hazard ratio [HR], 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48-3.29; P<0.001. Subgroup analysis divided by age revealed that HbA1c≥8% was a predictor of mortality in age <55 (HR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.78-10.41; P = 0.001 and age 55-64 groups (HR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.56-7.05; P = 0.002, but not in age ≥65 group. Combining dialysis type and age, poor glucose control negatively affected survival only in age < 55 group among HD patients, but it was significant in age < 55 and age 55-64 groups in PD patients. Deaths from infection were more prevalent in the PD group, and poor glucose control tended to correlate with more deaths from infection in PD patients (P = 0.050.In this study, the effect of glycemic control differed according to age and dialysis type in diabetic patients. Thus, the target of glycemic control should be customized; further observational studies may strengthen the clinical relevance.

  2. Testosterone replacement alters the cell size in visceral fat but not in subcutaneous fat in hypogonadal aged male rats as a late-onset hypogonadism animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhamed A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Amr Abdelhamed,1,2 Shin-ichi Hisasue,1 Masato Shirai,3 Kazuhito Matsushita,1 Yoshiaki Wakumoto,1 Akira Tsujimura,1 Taiji Tsukamoto,4 Shigeo Horie1 1Department of Urology, Juntendo University, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Andrology, Sohag University, Graduate School of Medicine, Sohag, Egypt; 3Department of Urology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Urayasu, Japan; 4Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Japan Background: Patients with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH benefit from testosterone replacement by improvement in the parameters of the metabolic syndrome, but fat cell morphology in these patients is still unclear. This study aims to determine the effect of testosterone replacement on the morphology of fat cells in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and on erectile function in hypogonadal aged male rats as a model of LOH. Methods: Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 20–22 months were randomly allocated to two groups, ie, aged male controls (control group, n=5 and aged males treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT group, n=5. Testosterone enanthate 25 mg was injected subcutaneously every 2 weeks for 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the intracavernous pressure (ICP and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP ratio was assessed. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue specimens were collected and analyzed using Image-J software. Results: Body weight at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after TRT was 800.0±35.4 g, 767.5±46.3 g, and 780±40.4 g, respectively (not statistically significant. The ICP/MAP ratio was 0.341±0.015 in the TRT group and 0.274±0.049 in the control group (not statistically significant. The median subcutaneous fat cell size was 4.85×103 (range 0.85–12.53×103 µm2 in the control group and 4.93×103 (range 6.42–19.7×103 µm2 in the TRT group (not statistically significant. In contrast, median visceral fat cell size was significantly

  3. Ageing and Chronic Administration of Serotonin-Selective Reuptake Inhibitor Citalopram Upregulate Sirt4 Gene Expression in the Preoptic Area of Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong eDutt Way

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunction and cognitive deficits are markers of the ageing process. Mammalian sirtuins (SIRT, encoded by sirt 1-7 genes, are known as ageing molecules which are sensitive to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT. Whether the 5-HT system regulates SIRT in the preoptic area (POA, which could affect reproduction and cognition has not been examined. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the effects of citalopram (CIT, 10mg/kg for 4 weeks, wk, a potent selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor and ageing on SIRT expression in the POA of male mice using real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry. Age-related increases of sirt1, sirt4, sirt5, and sirt7 mRNA levels were observed in the POA of 52 wk old mice. Furthermore, 4 wk of chronic CIT treatment started at 8 wk of age also increased sirt2 and sirt4 mRNA expression in the POA. Moreover, the number of SIRT4 immuno-reactive neurons increased with ageing in the medial septum area (12 wk = 1.00±0.15 vs 36 wk = 1.68±0.14 vs 52 wk = 1.54±0.11, p<0.05. In contrast, the number of sirt4-immunopositive cells did not show a statistically significant change with CIT treatment, suggesting that the increase in sirt4 mRNA levels may occur in cells in which sirt4 is already being expressed. Taken together, these studies suggest that CIT treatment and the process of ageing utilize the serotonergic system to up-regulate SIRT4 in the POA as a common pathway to deregulate social cognitive and reproductive functions.

  4. Epiphyseal union at the innominate and lower limb in a modern Portuguese skeletal sample, and age estimation in adolescent and young adult male and female skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Hugo F V

    2008-02-01

    This study documents the timing of epiphyseal union at the innominate, femur, tibia, and fibula in a sample of modern Portuguese skeletons. The sample was taken from the Lisbon documented skeletal collection and it is comprised of 57 females and 49 males between the ages of 9 and 25. Individuals are mostly representative of the middle-to-low socioeconomic segment of the early 20th century Lisbon population. A total of 18 anatomical locations were examined for epiphyseal union using a three-stage scheme: 1) no union; 2) partial union; and 3) completed union, all traces of fusion having disappeared. Results show that females are ahead of males by 1-2 years and provide similar age ranges for the stages of union than previous studies. Some variations between studies can be explained by methodological differences between dry bone and radiographic observations. However, a review of the literature indicates that socioeconomic status of a given population seems to be of decisive importance to the rate of ossification and most of the differences in skeletal maturation across studies and populations can probably be ascribed to different levels of social and economic development of the societies in which the individuals lived. Although the effects of socioeconomic status in skeletal maturation are greater during childhood than in adolescence, as to make the timing of epiphyseal union a reliable estimate of age at death, they are not negligible and age estimates should take into account the likely socioeconomic status of the individual, whose remains are under examination. PMID:18044694

  5. Searching Physical Fitness Norms by Eurofit Tests of Male Students in The Age Group of 12-14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgehan BAYDİL

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to make adetermination about the case, by searching Eurofit tests and physicalfitness norms of boy students in the age group of 12-14 at Kastamonu Region, and to make a contribution to literature. The investigation was mode on the age group of 12-14 years old, volunteered 63 boy students who are studying at Gazipaa Primary Education School and Merkez Primary Education School that were chosen at random, in Kastamonu. Height and weight, measure of subcutan fat flamingo balance test, test of touching to discs, flexibility, long jump by pausing, strenght shuttle test, 10x5 m runnig test, vertical jumping test by pausing and 20 m shuttle run test, were applied to these students.

  6. Effects of ageing and experimental diabetes on insulin-degrading enzyme expression in male rat tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochkina, Ekaterina G; Plesneva, Svetlana A; Vasilev, Dmitrii S; Zhuravin, Igor A; Turner, Anthony J; Nalivaeva, Natalia N

    2015-08-01

    Due to an increasing life expectancy in developing countries, cases of type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the elderly are growing exponentially. Despite a causative link between diabetes and AD, general molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of these disorders are still far from being understood. One of the factors leading to cell death and cognitive impairment characteristic of AD is accumulation in the brain of toxic aggregates of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). In the normally functioning brain Aβ catabolism is regulated by a cohort of proteolytic enzymes including insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) and their deficit with ageing can result in Aβ accumulation and increased risk of AD. The aim of this study was a comparative analysis of IDE expression in the brain structures involved in AD, as well as in peripheral organs (the liver and kidney) of rats, during natural ageing and after experimentally-induced diabetes. It was found that ageing is accompanied by a significant decrease of IDE mRNA and protein content in the liver (by 32 and 81%) and brain structures (in the cortex by 58 and 47% and in the striatum by 53 and 68%, respectively). In diabetic animals, IDE protein level was increased in the liver (by 36%) and in the striatum (by 42%) while in the brain cortex and hippocampus it was 20-30% lower than in control animals. No significant IDE protein changes were observed in the kidney of diabetic rats. These data testify that ageing and diabetes are accompanied by a deficit of IDE in the brain structures where accumulation of Aβ was reported in AD patients, which might be one of the factors predisposing to development of the sporadic form of AD in the elderly, and especially in diabetics.

  7. Circulating Osteocalcin Level Is Not Associated With Incident Type 2 Diabetes in Middle-Aged Male Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, You-Cheol; Jee, Jae-Hwan; Jeong, In-Kyung; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Lee, Moon-Kyu

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Recent human studies suggested that serum osteocalcin is associated with the cross-talk between bone and energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine whether serum osteocalcin level is independently associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A retrospective cohort study was performed of 1,229 nondiabetic men, aged 25–60 years, who were recruited from the Health Promotion Center, Samsung Medical Center, between January 1997 and Decemb...

  8. Musculoskeletal Extremity Injuries in School-aged Children with special focus on overuse injuries, seasonal variation and body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Eva

    Ph.d. afhandlingen “Musculoskeletal Extremity Injuries in School-aged Children” er en undersøgelse af forekomsten af skader i arme og ben relateret til fysisk aktivitet. Baggrunden for studiet er, at på trods af de mange gavnlige effekter af at børn er fysisk aktive, så kan ’bivirkningen’ være...... at undersøge en bredt sammensat gruppe af skolebørn med en metode, der tillod at alle skadestyper blev indfanget, var at kortlægge det generelle skadesbillede blandt børn. I alt 1259 skolebørn i alderen 6 til 12 år deltog i en ugentlig registrering af skader i arme og ben i perioden november 2008 til juli 2011....... Denne registrering blev foretaget vha. ugentlige SMS spørgsmål til forældrene og undersøgelse af børnene ved fysioterapeuter, kiropraktorer og læge tilknyttet studiet. Skader diagnosticeret i andre kliniske sammenhænge (f.eks. skadestue) blev indsamlet i samme periode for at opnå en komplet...

  9. Cardiac high-energy phosphate metabolism alters with age as studied in 196 healthy males with the help of 31-phosphorus 2-dimensional chemical shift imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Esterhammer

    Full Text Available Recently published studies have elucidated alterations of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism during ageing. The intention of the present study was to evaluate the impact of ageing on cardiac high-energy phosphate metabolism and cardiac function in healthy humans. 31-phosphorus 2-dimensional chemical shift imaging (31P 2D CSI and echocardiography were performed in 196 healthy male volunteers divided into groups of 20 to 40 years (I, n = 43, 40 to 60 years (II, n = 123 and >60 years (III, n = 27 of age. Left ventricular PCr/β-ATP ratio, myocardial mass (MM, ejection fraction and E/A ratio were assessed. Mean PCr/β-ATP ratios were significantly different among the three groups of volunteers (I, 2.10 ± 0.37; II, 1.77 ± 0.37; III, 1.45 ± 0.28; all p<0.001. PCr/β-ATP ratios were inversely related to age (r(2  =  -0.25; p<0.001 with a decrease from 2.65 by 0.02 per year of ageing. PCr/β-ATP ratios further correlated with MM (r =  -0.371; p<0.001 and E/A ratios (r = 0.213; p<0.02. Moreover, E/A ratios (r =  -0.502, p<0.001, MM (r = 0.304, p<0.001, glucose-levels (r = 0.157, p<0.05 and systolic blood pressure (r = 0.224, p<0.005 showed significant correlations with age. The ejection fraction did not significantly differ between the groups. This study shows that cardiac PCr/β-ATP ratios decrease moderately with age indicating an impairment of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism due to age. Furthermore, MM increases, and E/A ratio decreases with age. Both correlate with left-ventricular PCr/β-ATP ratios. The findings of the present study confirm numerous experimental studies showing an impairment of cardiac mitochondrial function with age.

  10. Cardiac high-energy phosphate metabolism alters with age as studied in 196 healthy males with the help of 31-phosphorus 2-dimensional chemical shift imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterhammer, Regina; Klug, Gert; Wolf, Christian; Mayr, Agnes; Reinstadler, Sebastian; Feistritzer, Hans-Josef; Metzler, Bernhard; Schocke, Michael F H

    2014-01-01

    Recently published studies have elucidated alterations of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism during ageing. The intention of the present study was to evaluate the impact of ageing on cardiac high-energy phosphate metabolism and cardiac function in healthy humans. 31-phosphorus 2-dimensional chemical shift imaging (31P 2D CSI) and echocardiography were performed in 196 healthy male volunteers divided into groups of 20 to 40 years (I, n = 43), 40 to 60 years (II, n = 123) and >60 years (III, n = 27) of age. Left ventricular PCr/β-ATP ratio, myocardial mass (MM), ejection fraction and E/A ratio were assessed. Mean PCr/β-ATP ratios were significantly different among the three groups of volunteers (I, 2.10 ± 0.37; II, 1.77 ± 0.37; III, 1.45 ± 0.28; all p<0.001). PCr/β-ATP ratios were inversely related to age (r(2)  =  -0.25; p<0.001) with a decrease from 2.65 by 0.02 per year of ageing. PCr/β-ATP ratios further correlated with MM (r =  -0.371; p<0.001) and E/A ratios (r = 0.213; p<0.02). Moreover, E/A ratios (r =  -0.502, p<0.001), MM (r = 0.304, p<0.001), glucose-levels (r = 0.157, p<0.05) and systolic blood pressure (r = 0.224, p<0.005) showed significant correlations with age. The ejection fraction did not significantly differ between the groups. This study shows that cardiac PCr/β-ATP ratios decrease moderately with age indicating an impairment of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism due to age. Furthermore, MM increases, and E/A ratio decreases with age. Both correlate with left-ventricular PCr/β-ATP ratios. The findings of the present study confirm numerous experimental studies showing an impairment of cardiac mitochondrial function with age. PMID:24940736

  11. Late presentation of congenital urachal sinus in a middle aged male complicated by an umbilical abscess: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewal Arunkumar Mistry

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Urachus or the median umbilical ligament is a fibrous strand connecting umbilicus to bladder, representing embryologic remnant of cloaca and allantois. Urachal anomalies are infrequent in adult population. Moreover they have a different course in adults than pediatric age group in which they are more common, frequently involute and have a benign course. These remnants are prone to infection and development of malignancy. A proper diagnostic workup by clinical and imaging tools is required. We present a case report of a urachal sinus complicated with abscess in an adult with brief review of the literature.

  12. The correlation between emotional distress and aging males’ symptoms at a psychiatric outpatient clinic: sexual dysfunction as a distinguishing characteristic between andropause and anxiety/depression in aging men

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ching Yen

    2013-01-01

    Ching-Yen Chen,1,4,5 Chin-Pang Lee,1,4 Yu Chen,2,4,5 Jun-Ran Jiang,3,4,5 Chun-Lin Chu,1,4,5 Chun-Liang Chen3,4,5 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Urology, 3Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 4Men’s Health Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Taiwan; 5School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan Background: Andropause and psychiatric disorders are associated with various symptoms in aging males and are part of the differential diagnosis of ...

  13. Vitamin E supplementation and pneumonia risk in males who initiated smoking at an early age: effect modification by body weight and dietary vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaprio Jaakko

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We had found a 14% higher incidence of pneumonia with vitamin E supplementation in a subgroup of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC Study cohort: participants who had initiated smoking by the age of 20 years. In this study, we explored the modification of vitamin E effect by body weight, because the same dose could lead to a greater effect in participants with low body weight. Methods The ATBC Study recruited males aged 50–69 years who smoked at least 5 cigarettes per day at the baseline; it was conducted in southwestern Finland in 1985–1993. The current study was restricted to 21,657 ATBC Study participants who initiated smoking by the age of 20 years; the median follow-up time was 6.0 years. The hospital-diagnosed pneumonia cases were retrieved from the national hospital discharge register (701 cases. Results Vitamin E supplementation had no effect on the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight in a range from 70 to 89 kg (n = 12,495, risk ratio (RR = 0.99 (95% CI: 0.81 to 1.22. Vitamin E increased the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight less than 60 kg (n = 1054, RR = 1.61 (1.03 to 2.53, and in participants with body weight over 100 kg (n = 1328, RR = 2.34 (1.07 to 5.08. The harm of vitamin E supplementation was restricted to participants with dietary vitamin C intake above the median. Conclusion Vitamin E supplementation may cause harmful effects on health in certain groups of male smokers. The dose of vitamin E used in the ATBC Study, 50 mg/day, is substantially smaller than conventional vitamin E doses that are considered safe. Our findings should increase caution towards taking vitamin E supplements. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342992.

  14. White blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, as predictors of hidden bacterial infections in febrile children 1-18 months of age without focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To study the relationship between White Blood Cell (WBC), Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) in febrile children 1-18 months of age as predictor of bacterial infection, so as to improve our predictability of bacterial infections in emergency room to decrease unnecessary admissions and antibiotic use. Methods: Retrospective review was performed on febrile patients 1-18 months of age that were admitted to hospital between August 2002 and March 2003 on the presumptive diagnosis of fever without focus, Complete septic work up was done for all patients according to local hospital protocol including Complete blood count (CBC), blood culture, urine culture, Chest X-Ray (CXR) and lumbar puncture, Patients who had history of antibiotics use within 48 hours of admission were excluded from the study, History, physical examination, laboratory and radiology data were reviewed. Data about the age, sex, temperature, presence or absence of focal bacterial infection, WBC, ANC, CXR report and body fluid culture results were collected and analyzed. Results: Thirty-four patients were reviewed in this study, Eight patients (23.5%) had bacterial infection: classified as group (2 patchy pneumonia, 3 Urinary tract infection (UTI), 2 meningitis, 1 Occult bacteremia (OB) and 26 patients (76.5%) had no evidence of bacterial infection, classified as group 2, No significant difference was found between the two groups in respect to age, sex, temperature and WBC P>0.05, while there was a significant difference between the two groups in respect to the ANC P = 0.02, also ANC had better sensitivity (78%) and specificity (89%) than WBC (sensitivity 77%, specificity 62%). Conclusion: ANC is a good predictive test for determining bacterial infection in young febrile children without focus, However there is need for other more reliable rapid cost effective measures in dealing with young febrile children at emergency department. (author)

  15. Higher testosterone levels are associated with increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men with cardiovascular disease: results from the Massachusetts Male Aging Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephanie T.Page; Beth A.Mohr; Carol L.Link; Amy B.O' Donnell; William J.Bremner; John B.McKinlay

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To study the relationship between circulating androgens (total testosterone [TT], free testosterone [fT] and dihydrotestosterone [DHT]) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in men with and without cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: Cross-sectional analyses included 1 661 baseline samples from the Massachusetts Male Aging Study (MMAS), a population-based cohort of men ages 40-70 years. Serum hormones were measured by radioimmunoassay and HDL-C was determined following precipitation of the lower density lipoproteins. CVD was determined by self-report. Analyses were performed using multiple linear regression. Results: TT and HDL-C were positively correlated in the entire sample (r = 0.11, P = 0.0001). After adjusting for confounders, we found this relationship was mostly limited to the 209 men with CVD. Among men with CVD, TT (P = 0.0004), fT (P = 0.0172)and DHT (P = 0.0128) were all positively correlated with HDL-C, whereas in men without CVD only TT correlatedwith HDL-C (P = 0.0099). Conclusion: Our results suggest that if androgens contribute to CVD in middle-aged men, the effect is not related to a suppressive effect of endogenous T on HDL-C.

  16. COMPARISON OF LUNG FUNCTIONS IN SMOKERS, PASSIVE SMOKERS AND SMOKING QUITTERS IN HARYANVI MALES OF VARIOUS AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan Bihari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is a clear relationship between the amount of cigarette smoked and mortality. Ironically there is also an increased incidence of cigarette smoking in women all over the world with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion in pregnant women. Although exposure is small as compared with that experienced by mainstream smokers, non - smoking passive smokers, who are in the same room may show pulmonary deposition of smoke particles as well as increased blood levels of nicotine and carboxyhaemoglobin, which became dangerous for infant and children. Smoking cessation is usually associate with improvement of lung functions, that can returns to normal over a period of time. AIMS: To compare the efficiency of lung function in active smokers, passive smokers and after cessation of smoking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 200 subjects with various age groups ranging from less than 20 years upto 60 years, selected from the relative and attendants of patients attending the outpatient department and indoor wards. They were divided into study and control group. Their lung func tions were tested by spirometry with the help of Medispiror. The results obtained were analyzed statistically. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: the statistical analysis was done by using the formulas of two tail t test. RESULT: There is a highly significant (p0.05. CONCLUSION: All the pulmonary functions get worse because of smoking and even passive smoking, which can come back to normal (as in non - smoker after cessation of smoking, whic h is a true fact for both the genders.

  17. Pilot Study on the Effect of Botanical Medicine (Tribulus terrestris) on Serum Testosterone Level and Erectile Function in Aging Males With Partial Androgen Deficiency (PADAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roaiah, Mohamed Farid; El Khayat, Yasser Ibrahim; GamalEl Din, Sameh Fayek; Abd El Salam, Mohamed Ahmed

    2016-05-18

    This study was conducted on 30 consecutive male patients presenting to Kasr-Al Ainy Andrology outpatient clinic complaining of manifestations of partial androgen deficiency in aging males (PADAM). In this study (750 mg/day) of Tribulus terrestris in 3 divided doses, each of 250 mg, as an endogenous testosterone enhancer had been tried for a duration of 3 months and the evaluation of its effect had been monitored for each patient concerning its effect on serum testosterone (total and free) and luteinizing hormone (LH), as well as its impact on erectile function, which was evaluated by the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire for those patients. Results showed a statistically significant difference in the level of testosterone (total and free) and IIEF-5, but no statistically significant difference in the level of LH before and after treatment. Also, the study showed statistically significant correlation between testosterone (total and free) and IIEF-5, but no statistically significant correlation between the level of LH and the IIEF-5 before and after treatment. PMID:25849625

  18. Comparative analysis of the 1-mile run test evaluation formulae: Assessment of aerobic capacity in male law enforcement officers aged 20–23 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürhan Kayihan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare values of aerobic performance in the 1-mile run test (1-MRT using different formulae. Material and Methods: Aerobic capacities of 351 male volunteers working for the Turkish National Police within the age range of 20-23 years were evaluated by the 1-MRT and the 20-metre shuttle run (20-MST. VO2max values were estimated by the prediction equations developed by George et al. (1993, Cureton et al. (1995 and Kline et al. (1987 for the 1-MRT and by Leger and Lambert (1982 for the 20-MST. Results: The difference between the results of the different formulae was significant (p = 0.000. The correlation coefficient between the estimated VO2max using Cureton's equation, George's equation, Kline's equation and the 20-MST were 0.691 (p < 0.001, 0.486 (p < 0.001 and 0.608 (p < 0.001, respectively. The highest correlation coefficient was between the VO2max estimated by the 20-MST and Cureton's equation. Similarly, the highest correlation coefficient (r = -0.779 was between the 1-mile run time and the VO2max estimated by Cureton's equation. Conclusions: When analysing more vigorous exercise than sub-maximal exercise, we suggest that Cureton's equation be used to predict the VO2max from 1-mile run/walk performance in large numbers of healthy individuals with high VO2max. This research compares the use of 3 different formulae to estimate VO2max from 1-mile run/ walk performance in male law enforcement officers aged 20-23 years for the first time and reports the most accurate formula to use when evaluating aerobic capacities of large numbers of healthy individuals.

  19. Understanding, comprehensibility and acceptance of an evidence-based consumer information brochure on fall prevention in old age: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Gabriele

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based patient and consumer information (EBPI is an indispensable component of the patients' decision making process in health care. Prevention of accidental falls in the elderly has gained a lot of public interest during preceding years. Several consumer information brochures on fall prevention have been published; however, none fulfilled the criteria of an EBPI. Little is known about the reception of EBPI by seniors. Therefore we aimed to evaluate a recently developed EBPI brochure on fall prevention with regard to seniors' acceptance and comprehensibility in focus groups and to explore whether the participants' judgements differed depending on the educational background of the study participants. Methods Seven focus groups were conducted with 40 seniors, aged 60 years or older living independently in a community. Participants were recruited by two gatekeepers. A discussion guide was used and seniors were asked to judge the EBPI brochure on fall prevention using a Likert scale 1-6. The focus group discussions were tape recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using content analysis. Results The participants generally accepted the EBPI brochure on fall prevention. Several participants expressed a need for more practical advice. The comprehensibility of the brochure was influenced positively by brief chapter summaries. Participants dismissed the statistical illustrations such as confidence intervals or a Fagan nomogram and only half of them agreed with the meta-information presented in the first chapter. The detailed information about fall prevalence was criticised by some seniors. The use of a case story was well tolerated by the majority of participants. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the recently developed EBPI brochure on fall prevention in old age was generally well accepted by seniors, but some statistical descriptions were difficult for them to understand. The brochure has to be updated. However, not

  20. Physiological Age Structure and Leishmania spp. Detection in Phlebotomus (Larroussius orientalis (Parrot, 1936 (Diptera: Psychodidae at an Endemic Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araya Gebresilassie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL caused by Leishmania donovani is endemic in northern Ethiopia, where P. orientalis is the most important presumed vector. This study was designed to determine the physiological age structure and the occurrence of Leishmania infection in the vector of VL in Tahtay Adiyabo district, northern Ethiopia. Sand flies were collected using CDC light traps from peridomestic and agricultural fields between May 2011 and April 2012 and P. orientalis females were dissected for age determination and detection of Leishmania promastigotes. Sand flies were also analyzed for L. donovani detection using molecular methods. Of 1,282 P. orientalis examined for abdominal stages and age characterization, 66.2%, 28.2%, 4.1%, and 1.6% were unfed, freshly fed, half-gravid, and gravid. Parous rate in unfed females was 34.1% and 35.4% in peridomestic and agricultural fields, respectively. Out of 921 P. orientalis females dissected, one specimen (0.1% was found naturally infected with promastigotes. Five pools (25 females of unfed P. orientalis were also found with DNA of Leishmania spp. In particular, a single P. orientalis was positive for L. donovani (0.5%. Based on this and other evidences (abundance, human blood feeding, and xenodiagnostic studies, P. orientalis is the principal vector of VL in this endemic focus.

  1. 平凉市中老年男性性功能调查报告%Prevalence of aging male sexual dysfunction in Pingliang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓峰; 任江玲; 胡黎明; 许克新

    2011-01-01

    目的 调查平凉市中老年男性性欲低下、勃起功能障碍(erectile dysfunction,ED)、射精障碍的患病情况.方法 采用分层多阶段整群不等比例随机抽样方法,选择城区6个居委会和郊区20个行政村1539名年龄≥50岁男性作为调查对象,分别记录国际勃起功能问卷(IIEF-5)评分及男性性功能问卷(O'Leafy 1995)评分,应用χ2检验分析调查数据.结果 符合标准的调查对象1 230人,年龄50~89(62.5±9.6)岁.平均IIEF-5(9.4±8.6)分.以IIEF-5评分0~21分诊断为ED,总ED患病率92.27%,性欲低下57.96%,射精障碍36.91%.各年龄组间(10岁/组)ED、性欲低下、射精障碍患病率差异有统计学意义(P<0.0001),各年龄组间不同程度ED患病率差异有统计学意义(P<0.0001).结论 随年龄增加ED、性欲低下、射精障碍的患病率逐渐增加,ED患病率最高.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of aging male sexual dysfunction in Pingliang City, Gansu Province.MethodS A cross-sectional study was performed in 6 urban communities and 20 villages in the suburbs of Jingning County,with 1539 males aged over 50 enrolled. The International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) and Brief Male Scxual Function Inventory foi Urology (O' Leary 1995) were recorded and analyzed. Results 1230 subjects were included in the survey, average age (62. 5± 9. 6) years, ranging 50~89. The mean score of IIEF-5 was 9. 4± 8. 6. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) , defined as IIEF-5 between 0~21, was 92. 27% . The incidence of reduction of sexual desire and defective ejaculation was 57 . 96 % and 36 . 91% , respectively. There was positive correlation between the prevalence of ED. reduction of sexual desire, defective ejaculation and age. Conclusions The incidence of ED, reduction of sexual desire and defective ejaculation are positively correlated with age. And ED ranks the first among these sexual dysfunctions.

  2. Increased subsequent risk of erectile dysfunction among middle and old age males with chronic osteomyelitis: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H-Y; Chao, C-H; Lin, C-L; Tseng, C-H; Kao, C-H

    2016-07-01

    Chronic inflammation may cause endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, resulting in subsequent erectile dysfunction (ED). We examined the relationship between chronic osteomyelitis, which is a chronic inflammatory disease, and ED. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database. After excluding patients osteomyelitis (COM) from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2011 were identified for the study. The non-osteomyelitis comparison cohort consisted of 2706 male participants. The incidence of ED was 2.66-fold higher in the COM cohort than in the non-osteomyelitis cohort (4.01 vs 1.51 per 10 000 person-years). After adjusting for age and comorbidities of coronary heart disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, depression, stroke, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, the patients with COM had a 2.82-fold risk of ED (95% confidence interval=1.44-5.56). The incidence of ED increased with that of comorbidities in both cohorts. The highest hazard ratio was in patients between 40 and 59 years of age who had COM. Our data showed, for the first time, that COM is a possible risk factor for the development of ED. PMID:27169492

  3. Association of socio-economic and demographic factors with physical activity of males and females aged 20–69 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Biernat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Objective[/b]. To assess the physical activity of working residents of Warsaw aged 20–69 years, as well as to identify the socio-demographic factors associated with their levels of physical activity. [b]Materials and method[/b]. The study involved 2,544 working residents of Warsaw aged 20–69 years. The short version of the IPAQ was applied and four physical activity levels (insufficient, sufficient, augmented, high were distinguished. The relationships between physical activity and gender, age, BMI, education, economic and martial status as well as participation in recreation were determined. [b]Results[/b]. High levels of physical activity were reached by 8% of respondents, 22% achieved augmented level, 32% were sufficiently and 32% insufficiently active. Out of 2544 studied subjects, 6% declared complete sedentariness. Females were, as compared to males, more frequently (p<0.05 insufficiently active (35.9 vs. 31.9%. In obese and overweight subjects insufficient physical activity predominated (42.9 and 36.2%, respectively and was significantly more frequent than in subjects with normal BMI (31.0%. Moreover, the subjects living in partner relationships were significantly (p<0.05 more frequently insufficiently active than those staying single (36.3 vs. 30.3%. Respondents who declared regular participation in leisure activities were less frequently insufficiently active (20.0% and more frequently met the criteria of sufficient (37.6%, augmented (28.0% or high (14.4% level of physical activity. No significant effects were found with respect to education of respondents. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Prophylactic schedules associated with the improvement of physical activity level should be addressed particularly to females, people taking up recreation occasionally or to those not involved in recreation at all, living in partner relationships, youngest (21–30 years, in obese and overweight and in the lowest economic category.

  4. Age and haplotype variations within FADS1 interact and associate with alterations in fatty acid composition in human male cortical brain tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Freemantle

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Fatty acids (FA play an integral role in brain function and alterations have been implicated in a variety of complex neurological disorders. Several recent genomic studies have highlighted genetic variability in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS1/2/3 gene cluster as an important contributor to FA alterations in serum lipids as well as measures of FA desaturase index estimated by ratios of relevant FAs. The contribution to alterations of FAs within the brain by local synthesis is still a matter of debate. Thus, the impact of genetic variants in FADS genes on gene expression and brain FA levels is an important avenue to investigate. METHODS: Analyses were performed on brain tissue from prefrontal cortex Brodmann area 47 (BA47 of 61 male subjects of French Canadian ancestry ranging in age from young adulthood to middle age (18-58 years old, with the exception of one teenager (15 years old. Haplotype tagging SNPs were selected using the publicly available HapMap genotyping dataset in conjunction with Haploview. DNA sequencing was performed by the Sanger method and gene expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. FAs in brain tissue were analysed by gas chromatography. Variants in the FADS1 gene region were sequenced and analyzed for their influence on both FADS gene expression and FAs in brain tissue. RESULTS: Our results suggest an association of the minor haplotype with alteration in estimated fatty acid desaturase activity. Analysis of the impact of DNA variants on expression and alternative transcripts of FADS1 and FADS2, however, showed no differences. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between haplotype and age on certain brain FA levels. DISCUSSION: This study suggests that genetic variability in the FADS genes cluster, previously shown to be implicated in alterations in peripheral FA levels, may also affect FA composition in brain tissue, but not likely by local synthesis.

  5. Focus on focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery and impact of the principle of strong focusing was celebrated at a history Symposium at Stanford on 25 July in the course of the 1985 US Summer School on Particle Accelerators. Burt Richter, Stanford Linac Director, who introduced all the speakers with well chosen reminders about their various contributions related to the theme of the symposium, remarked that it was an appropriate time to be lauding the great contributions of accelerator physicists following the Nobel Prize award to Simon van der Meer for outstanding achievements in accelerator physics

  6. Dyadic, Partner, and Social Network Influences on Intimate Partner Violence among Male-Male Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Stephenson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite a recent focus on intimate partner violence (IPV among men who have sex with men (MSM, the male-male couple is largely absent from the IPV literature. Specifically, research on dyadic factors shaping IPV in male-male couples is lacking.Methods: We took a subsample of 403 gay/bisexual men with main partners from a 2011 survey of approximately 1,000 gay and bisexual men from Atlanta. Logistic regression models of recent (,12 month experience and perpetration of physical and sexual IPV examined dyadic factors, including racial differences, age differences, and social network characteristics of couples as key covariates shaping the reporting of IPV.Results: Findings indicate that men were more likely to report perpetration of physical violence if they were a different race to their main partner, whereas main partner age was associated with decreased reporting of physical violence. Having social networks that contained more gay friends was associated with significant reductions in the reporting of IPV, whereas having social networks comprised of sex partners or closeted gay friends was associated with increased reporting of IPV victimization and perpetration.Conclusion: The results point to several unique factors shaping the reporting of IPV within male-male couples and highlight the need for intervention efforts and prevention programs that focus on male couples, a group largely absent from both research and prevention efforts. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:316–323.

  7. Androgens and the ageing male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    Hypogonadal men share a variety of signs and symptoms such as decreased muscle mass, osteopoenia, increased fat mass, fatigue, decreased libido and cognitive dysfunctions. Controlled trials have demonstrated favourable effects of androgen substitution therapy on these signs and symptoms in men...

  8. Signal transduction, receptors, mediators and genes: younger than ever - the 13th meeting of the Signal Transduction Society focused on aging and immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klotz Lars-Oliver

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 13th meeting of the Signal Transduction Society was held in Weimar, from October 28 to 30, 2009. Special focus of the 2009 conference was "Aging and Senescence", which was co-organized by the SFB 728 "Environmentally-Induced Aging Processes" of the University of Düsseldorf and the study group 'Signal Transduction' of the German Society for Cell Biology (DGZ. In addition, several other areas of signal transduction research were covered and supported by different consortia associated with the Signal Transduction Society including the long-term associated study groups of the German Society for Immunology and the Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and for instance the SFB/Transregio 52 "Transcriptional Programming of Individual T Cell Subsets" located in Würzburg, Mainz and Berlin. The different research areas that were introduced by outstanding keynote speakers attracted more than 250 scientists, showing the timeliness and relevance of the interdisciplinary concept and exchange of knowledge during the three days of the scientific program. This report gives an overview of the presentations of the conference.

  9. PULMONARY FUNCTION TEST IN RELATION TO ABDOMINAL OBESITY IN ADULT MALES IN AGE GROUP OF 18 - 21 YEARS IN AND AROUND RAICHUR CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Impaired respiratory function is associated with morbidity and mortality. Poor respiratory function predicts overall mortality , as well as death due to cancer , pulmonary disease , cardiovascular disease and stroke. Obesity is also associated with morbidity and mortality. It is global health hazard and has been linked to numerous metabolic complications such as dyslipidemia , type II diabetes and cardio vascular diseases and is negatively associated to the pulm onary function. The mechanism for this association is still debated and the best marker of adiposity in relation to dynamic pulmonary function is still not clear. Therefore the purpose of the study is to determine pulmonary test in relation to abdominal ob esity in adult males. Aims and OBJECTIVE: To determine the predictability of Body mass index (BMI , Waist - hip ratio (WHR , and Body fat percentage for pulmonary functions in adult males with and without excess body weight. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Study consists of 100 males in age group of 18 - 21 years with body mass index (BMI 18 . 5 to 29 . 9 kg/m2 , physically healthy , without any symptoms. Their height , weight , body mass index (BMI and waist to hip ratio (WHR were measured The percentage of body fat w as estimated by measuring skin fold thickness at four sites (4SFT - biceps , triceps , subscapular and suprailiac with the help of Harpenden’s calliper. The pulmonary functions were assessed using Power lab 8/30 series with dual bio Amp/stimulator , manufactur ed by AD instruments , Australia. All data was presented as a mean ± SD for each of the parameter. The two groups were compared by applying unpaired ‘t’ test and P value of less than 0 . 05 was considered as significant. Correlation of ventilatory lung functi on tests with body fat percentage was done by using Pearson’s correlation coefficient test . RESULTS: body fat % showed negative correlation with expiratory reserve volume (ERV , forced vital

  10. Can they recover? An assessment of adult adjustment problems among males in the abstainer, recovery, life-course persistent, and adolescence-limited pathways followed up to age 56 in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Wesley G; Rocque, Michael; Fox, Bryanna Hahn; Piquero, Alex R; Farrington, David P

    2016-05-01

    Much research has examined Moffitt's developmental taxonomy, focusing almost exclusively on the distinction between life-course persistent and adolescence-limited offenders. Of interest, a handful of studies have identified a group of individuals whose early childhood years were marked by extensive antisocial behavior but who seemed to recover and desist (at least from severe offending) in adolescence and early adulthood. We use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development to examine the adult adjustment outcomes of different groups of offenders, including a recoveries group, in late middle adulthood, offering the most comprehensive investigation of this particular group to date. Findings indicate that abstainers comprise the largest group of males followed by adolescence-limited offenders, recoveries, and life-course persistent offenders. Furthermore, the results reveal that a host of adult adjustment problems measured at ages 32 and 48 in a number of life-course domains are differentially distributed across these four offender groups. In addition, the recoveries and life-course persistent offenders often show the greatest number of adult adjustment problems relative to the adolescence-limited offenders and abstainers.

  11. Association of Body Mass Index with Risk of Lung Cancer: Evidence from a Middle-Aged male Cohort in Shanghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EnjuLiu; XueliWang; JianminYuan; YutangGao

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and lung cancer risk among men in urban Shanghai, China. METHODS Between January 1,1986 and September 30,1989, a total of 18,244 male residents of urban Shanghai were recruited in the prospective cohort study. The eligible study subjects were those aged 45 to 64 years and without history of cancer. Through July 10th, 2003 (17 years follow-up), 467 new cases of lung cancer were identified in the cohort. Cox regression models were used to estimate the adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (Cls). RESULTS The risk of lung cancer decreased with increasing in BMI. After adjustment for some potential confounding factors, a relative risk of 0.6 (highest versus lowest quintile of BMI) was observed (P-trend =0.01). Stratified by smoking status, an inverse association of body mass index with lung cancer risk still existed among current smokers. There were too few cases of lung cancer to draw a valid result among men who never smoked. The results also showed that the association of BMI with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma was more apparent than with other histological subtypes. CONCLUSION An inverse association of BMI with lung cancer risk may exist among men in Shanghai.

  12. Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Decrease Interferon Gamma Production through an Age-Dependent Histone Modification in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Hung, Pi-Lien; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC) disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF) diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14-21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF), and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF). The rats were sacrificed and adaptive immune function was evaluated. Compared to the vehicle, the DHF group had lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by splenocytes at postnatal day 120. Decreases in H3K9 acetylation and H3K36me3 levels at the IFN-γ promoter correlated with decreased IFN-γ production. The impaired IFN-γ production and aberrant site-specific histone modification at the IFN-γ promoter by prenatal dexamethasone treatment plus a postnatal HF diet resulted in resilience at postnatal day 180. Prenatal dexamethasone and a postnatal HF diet decreased IFN-γ production through a site-specific and an age-dependent histone modification. These findings suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to GC and a postnatal environment exert effects on fetal immunity programming. PMID:27669212

  13. The Examination of the State-Trait Anxiety Levels of the Male Football Players at the Age of 13-15 in Terms of Different Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Olcay KARABULUT

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is a screening model research that aims to examine the state-trait anxiety levels of the male football players at the age of 13-15 in terms. The participants of the study include 61 volunteer footballers chosen randomly among the 80 footballers in Nike Premier Cup U-15 Turkey Championship held in Kırşehir in 2008. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory by Spielberger et al. (1970 is utilized to measure the footballers' anxiety levels. Its translation into Turkish and validity and reliability studies on it were implemented by Öner and Le Compte (1983. In the analysis of the data, their arithmetic mean, standard deviations, frequency (f levels and percentage (% values are calculated. As a result of these calculations, Mann Whitney U and Krusukal Wallis analyses are applied for the nonparametric groups and the significance level of all the data is found. As a result, at the end of the study, it is found that the participants have high anxiety levels, that the sport year and the fathers' perceived house management attitude variables cause no significant difference in state-trait anxiety levels of the footballers and that the fathers' high education levels affect the participants' anxiety levels negatively.

  14. Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Decrease Interferon Gamma Production through an Age-Dependent Histone Modification in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Hung, Pi-Lien; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC) disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF) diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14–21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF), and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF). The rats were sacrificed and adaptive immune function was evaluated. Compared to the vehicle, the DHF group had lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by splenocytes at postnatal day 120. Decreases in H3K9 acetylation and H3K36me3 levels at the IFN-γ promoter correlated with decreased IFN-γ production. The impaired IFN-γ production and aberrant site-specific histone modification at the IFN-γ promoter by prenatal dexamethasone treatment plus a postnatal HF diet resulted in resilience at postnatal day 180. Prenatal dexamethasone and a postnatal HF diet decreased IFN-γ production through a site-specific and an age-dependent histone modification. These findings suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to GC and a postnatal environment exert effects on fetal immunity programming. PMID:27669212

  15. The quality of life impact of peripheral versus central vision loss with a focus on glaucoma versus age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Evans

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Keith Evans1, Simon K Law2, John Walt3, Patricia Buchholz4, Jan Hansen31Global Health Outcomes, Wolters Kluwer Health, Chester, United Kingdom; 2Jules Stein Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Global Health Outcomes Strategy and Research, Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA, USA; 4Health Economics, Pricing, and Reimbursement, Allergan GmbH, Ettlingen, GermanyPurpose: It is well accepted that conditions that cause central vision loss (CVL have a negative impact on functional ability and quality of life (QoL, but the impact of diseases that cause peripheral vision loss (PVL is less well understood. Focusing on glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration (ARMD, the effects of CVL and PVL on QoL were compared. Methods: A systematic literature review of publications reporting QoL in patients with CVL or PVL identified 87 publications using four generic (Short-Form Health Survey-36 and -12, EuroQoL EQ-5D and Sickness Impact Profile and five vision-specific (National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-51, -39, and -25, Impact of Vision Impairment and Visual Function-14 QoL instruments; 33 and 15 publications reported QoL in ARMD and glaucoma, respectively.Results: QoL was impaired to a similar extent by diseases associated with PVL and CVL, but different domains were affected. In contrast to ARMD, mental aspects appeared to be affected more than physical aspects in patients with glaucoma.Conclusions: The differential impact upon QoL might be a function of the pathology of the diseases, for example potential for blindness and better ability to perform physical tasks due to retention of central vision may explain these observations in glaucoma.Keywords: vision loss, quality of life, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic macular edema, cataracts

  16. Decline in male circumcision in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim DaiSik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the changing circumcision rate in South Korea in the last decade and to propose underlying causes for this change, in the context of the present fluctuating world-wide trends in circumcision. Methods From 2009 to 2011, 3,296 South Korean males (or their parents aged 0–64 years were asked about their circumcision status, their age at circumcision, and their information level regarding circumcision. We employed non-probability sampling considering the sensitive questions on the study theme. Results Currently the age-standardized circumcision rate for South Korean males aged 14–29 is found to be 75.8%. In an earlier study performed in 2002, the rate for the same age group was 86.3%. Of particular interest, males aged 14–16 show a circumcision rate of 56.4%, while the same age group 10 years ago displayed a much higher percentage, at 88.4%. In addition, the extraordinarily high circumcision rate of 95.2% found 10 years ago for the 17–19 age group is now reduced to 74.4%. Interestingly, of the circumcised males, the percentage circumcised in the last decade was only 25.2%; i.e., the majority of the currently circumcised males had undergone the operation prior to 2002, indicating that the actual change in the last decade is far greater. Consistent with this conjecture, the 2002 survey showed that the majority of circumcised males (75.7% had undergone the operation in the decade prior to that point. Focusing on the flagship age group of 14–16, this drop suggests that, considering the population structure of Korean males, approximately one million fewer circumcision operations have been performed in the last decade relative to the case of non-decline. This decline is strongly correlated with the information available through internet, newspapers, lectures, books, and television: within the circumcised population, both the patients and their parents had less prior knowledge regarding circumcision, other than

  17. Age- and tactic-related paternity success in male African elephants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Barner; Okello, J. B. A.; Wittemyer, G.;

    2008-01-01

    structure of a population and should be considered when developing conservation strategies for threatened species. The behavior and genetic structure of species with large reproductive skew may be disproportionately impacted by anthropogenic actions affecting reproductively dominant individuals. Our results...... on age- and tactic-specific paternity success in male African elephants are the first from a free-ranging population and demonstrate that paternity success increases dramatically with age, with the small number of older bulls in the competitive state of musth being the most successful sires. However......, nonmusth males sired 20% of genotyped calves, and 60% of mature bulls (>20 years old) were estimated to have sired offspring during the 5-year study period. The 3 most successful males sired less than 20% of the genotyped offspring. Hence, contrary to prediction from behavior and life-history traits...

  18. Protein source and nutrient density in the diets of male broilers from 8 to 21 d of age: Effects on small intestine morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Peebles, E D; Morgan, T W; Harkess, R L; Zhai, W

    2015-01-01

    In a companion study, high amino acid (AA) or apparent metabolizable energy (AME) densities in the diets of broilers from 8 to 21 d of age were found to improve feed conversion. A total of 1,120 male Ross×Ross 708 chicks were randomly allocated to 80 pens (8 treatments, 10 replications per treatment, 14 chicks per pen). A 2×2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the interaction among the protein source (high distillers dried grains with solubles diet [hDDGS] or high meat and bone meal diet [hMBM]), AA density (moderate or high), and AME density (2,998 or 3,100 kcal/kg) of diets on small intestine morphology. Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum samples from 2 chicks per pen were collected and measured individually at 21 d. Jejunum sections were processed for histological analysis. Chicks fed hDDGS diets exhibited longer small intestines than did chicks fed hMBM diets. Particularly, when chicks were fed high AA density diets, jejuna were longer in groups fed hDDGS diets than groups fed hMBM diets. Dietary treatments did not affect jejunum villus height, width, area, crypt depth, villus to crypt ratio, goblet cell size, or cell density. In birds fed diets containing a moderate AA and a high AME density, jejunum muscle layers of chicks fed hDDGS diets were thicker than those fed hMBM diets. Chicks exhibited a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) and a higher BW gain when their crypts were shorter. In conclusion, an hDDGS diet may facilitate small intestine longitudinal growth in broilers, which may subsequently improve dietary nutrient absorption. In addition, broiler chicks with shallow intestinal crypts exhibited better growth performance.

  19. Preliminary Study on Treatment of Partial Androgen Deficiency in Aging Males with Jingui Shenqi Pill (金匮肾气丸)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Wen-jun; HE Xiao-zhou; JIANG Jian-pin; CAI Wen-yuan; XIE Si-jie

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the efficacy and safety of Jingui Shengqi Pill (金匮肾气丸, JSP) in treating partial androgen deficiency in aging males (PADAM), and to explore the new approach in improving the quality of life in PADAM patients. Methods: Forty patients with PADAM were treated with JSP, the efficacy was evaluated with international index of erectile function (IIEF) scoring, PADAM questionnaire scoring,hormone, prostatic specific antigen (PSA), etc., and the data before treatment were compared with those after treatment in the same group. Results: After 3 months of treatment, PADAM scoring and IIEF scoring were all significantly improved. Symptoms regarding physical ability, vasomotion, and psychical and mental condition all got improved more markedly than symptoms regarding sexual hypofunction. The serum level of testosterone was 3.85±0.36 before treatment and 5.02±0.83 after treatmnet (P<0.05); luteinizing hormone of 7.33±2.14 and 4.84±1.43 ( P<0.01), follicule-stimulating hormone of 10.22±4.48 and 6.47±3.28 (P<0.01), respectively. The level of PSA failed to change significantly ( 1.94 ± 0.55 and 2.06±0.47, P>0.05).Conclusion: JSP is effective and safe in treating PADAM, the mechanism of it is different from supplementing extrinsic androgen. It may have produced the effect by means of favorably regulating the condition of sex hormone to improve the balance of pituitary-sex gland axis, so it has more extensive clinical application.

  20. Comparison of some physical and physiological characteristics of the male sedentaries, male handball players and male wrestlers whose ages were between 13 and 1513- 15 yaş arasındaki güreşçiler hentbolcular ve sedanterlerin bazı fiziksel ve fizyolojik parametrelerinin karşılaştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Alıcı

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at the comparison of some physical and physiological characteristics of the male sedentaries, male handball players and male wrestlers whose ages were between 13 and 15.77 male individuals (sedentaries=26, handball players=26 and wrestler=25 participated voluntarily. Height, weight and BMI values of the subjects were measured and tests for right and left hand grip strengths, leg and back strength, 20m sprint test, 30 sec sit-up, push-up, sit-reach (flexibility, respiratory function (FVC, VC, FEV1, PEF and counter movement jump (anaerobic power  were performed.As a result; it was found out that those who did sports in adolescent period had higher physical and physiological parameters than sedentaries. ÖzetBu çalışmanın amacı, 13-15 yaş erkek sedanter, hentbolcu ve güreşçilerin bazı fiziksel ve fizyolojik özelliklerinin karşılaştırılmasıdır.Araştırmaya 77 erkek sporcu ve öğrenci (sedanter=26, hentbolcu=26 ve güreşçi=25 gönüllü olarak katılmıştır. Çalışmaya katılan deneklerin boy, vücut ağırlığı, beden kitle indeksi (BKİ ölçülmüş ve sağ ve sol el-pençe kuvvetleri, sırt-bacak kuvveti, 20 m. sürat, 30 sn. mekik, 30 sn. şınav, otur-uzan (esneklik, solunum fonksiyon (FVC, VC, FEV1, PEF değerleri ve dikey sıçrama (anaerobik güç testleri uygulanmıştır.Sonuç olarak; adölesan dönemdeki spor yapan bireylerin fiziksel ve fizyolojik parametrelerinin aynı yaştaki sedanter bireylerden daha yüksek olduğu tespit edilmiştir.

  1. The Effect of Age Correction on Multivariate Classification in Alzheimer's Disease, with a Focus on the Characteristics of Incorrectly and Correctly Classified Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falahati, Farshad; Ferreira, Daniel; Soininen, Hilkka; Mecocci, Patrizia; Vellas, Bruno; Tsolaki, Magda; Kłoszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Eriksdotter, Maria; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Simmons, Andrew; Westman, Eric

    2016-03-01

    The similarity of atrophy patterns in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in normal aging suggests age as a confounding factor in multivariate models that use structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. To study the effect and compare different age correction approaches on AD diagnosis and prediction of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) progression as well as investigate the characteristics of correctly and incorrectly classified subjects. Data from two multi-center cohorts were included in the study [AD = 297, MCI = 445, controls (CTL) = 340]. 34 cortical thickness and 21 subcortical volumetric measures were extracted from MRI. The age correction approaches involved: using age as a covariate to MRI-derived measures and linear detrending of age-related changes based on CTL measures. Orthogonal projections to latent structures was used to discriminate between AD and CTL subjects, and to predict MCI progression to AD, up to 36-months follow-up. Both age correction approaches improved models' quality in terms of goodness of fit and goodness of prediction, as well as classification and prediction accuracies. The observed age associations in classification and prediction results were effectively eliminated after age correction. A detailed analysis of correctly and incorrectly classified subjects highlighted age associations in other factors: ApoE genotype, global cognitive impairment and gender. The two methods for age correction gave similar results and show that age can partially masks the influence of other aspects such as cognitive impairment, ApoE-e4 genotype and gender. Age-related brain atrophy may have a more important association with these factors than previously believed. PMID:26440606

  2. Use of the SF-36 quality of life scale to assess the effect of pelvic floor muscle exercise on aging males who received transurethral prostate surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou CP

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chen-Pang Hou,1,* Tzu-Yu Chen,2,* Chia-Chi Chang,3 Yu-Hsiang Lin,1 Phei-Lang Chang,1 Chien-Lun Chen,1 Yu-Chao Hsu,1 Ke-Hung Tsui1 1Department of Urology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linko, Chang Gung University, Taiwan, Republic of China; 2Department of Nursing, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Republic of China; 3College of Nursing, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: We used the Short Form (SF-36® Health Survey scale to assess the effect of pelvic floor muscle exercise (PFE on aging males who received transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P. Methods: From April 2010 to December 2010, a total of 66 patients who underwent TUR-P were enrolled in this study. They were randomized into two groups (with 33 patients in each group – an experimental group who performed postoperative PFE every day and a control groups. Data, including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS, uroflowmetry study, and the SF-36 quality of life measure, were collected before the operation, and at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the operation. We analyzed the differences between the two groups with respect to their IPSS scores, maximal urinary flow rate, residual urine amount, and life quality. Results: A total of 61 patients (experimental group: 32 patients, and control group: 29 patients completed this study. We found that at 12 weeks postop, patients who performed PFE every day had a better maximal urinary flow rate (16.41 ± 6.20 vs 12.41 ± 7.28 mL/min (P = 0.026 compared with patients in the control group. The experimental group had a much greater decrease in IPSS score (P < 0.001. As for the SF-36 scale, the experimental group had higher scores than did the control group on both the physiological domain (54.86 vs 49.86 (P = 0.029 and the psychological domain (61.88 vs 52.69 (P = 0.005. However, there were no significant differences with respect to the postvoiding residual

  3. Serum YKL-40 and uterine artery Doppler – a prospective cohort study, with focus on preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gybel-Brask, Dorte; Høgdall, Estrid; Johansen, Julia;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test if serum YKL-40 is increased in women developing preeclampsia or small-for-gestational age fetuses. We also assessed the association between uterine artery pulsatility index, notching and serum YKL-40 levels. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A primary referral unit......-week fetal growth examinations. Uterine artery Doppler was assessed and outcome was registered from medical records. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Preeclampsia, hypertension, small-for-gestational age. RESULTS: Serum YKL-40 was associated with increasing maternal age (p ....0002), primiparity (p = 0.0003), and hypertension (p = 0.015). Serum YKL-40 increased from 12 to 20 weeks and decreased from 20-25 and 25-32 weeks of gestation. No association was found between preeclampsia and serum YKL-40. Small-for-gestational-age at birth was significantly associated with a 5.4% increase...

  4. Age Differences in Behavioral Responses of Male Giant Pandas to Chemosensory Stimulation%雄性大熊猫对化学信息行为反应的年龄差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田红; 魏荣平; 张贵权; 孙儒泳; 刘定震

    2007-01-01

    Chemical communication plays an important role in survival and reproductive success in mammalian species. In the present study, we examined the ontogenetic pattern of behavioral responses of male giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) to urine odors of conspecific individuals. Our data showed that exposure to the urine of adult females induced a significant increase in sniffing and environmental sniffing/licking behaviors, but a decrease in biting behavior, in males. Males of different ages displayed specific behaviors to female urine odors. Adult males spent more time licking than juvenile and sub-adult males. Further, sub-adult and adult males displayed high levels of environmental sniffing/licking, which was absent in the juvenile males. Juvenile males displayed scent rubbing behavior significantly more frequently than sub-adult and adult males, and also spent more time showing biting behavior than sub-adult males. Finally, juvenile and sub-adult males showed no difference in response to female and male urine odors. Together, these data suggest that chemosensory cues from conspecific urines induce age-specific responses in male giant pandas.%化学通讯对哺乳动物的生存和繁殖起着重要作用.研究了雄性大熊猫(Ailuropoda melanoleuca)对同伴个体尿液气味行为反应的发育模式. 结果显示,在成年雌性个体的尿液气味刺激下,雄性个体表现显著多的嗅闻行为和嗅闻/舔舐环境行为,但是嘶咬气味刺激物的行为明显减少.在雌性个体的尿液气味刺激下,不同年龄段的雄性个体行为表现不同,成年雄性个体表现较亚成年和幼年个体显著多的舔舐行为.此外,成年个体和亚成年个体均表现较多的嗅闻/舔舐环境行为,而幼年个体则无该行为表现.幼年个体较成年和亚成年个体表现显著多的气味涂抹行为,而且嘶咬气味刺激物的时间较亚成年个体显著多.幼年个体和亚成年个体对雌性和雄性个体尿液气味

  5. Keeping It Frat: Exploring the Interaction among Fraternity Membership, Disinhibition, and Hypermasculinity on Sexually Aggressive Attitudes in College-Aged Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corprew, Charles S., III.; Mitchell, Avery D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines correlates that contribute to sexually aggressive attitudes toward women. Using a sample that includes 217 college males from 3 southern universities, the study evaluates the relationship between college men's hypermasculine and sexually aggressive attitudes, as well as how fraternity membership and disinhibition moderate…

  6. Combination of Human Leukocyte Antigen and Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Genetic Background Influences the Onset Age of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Male Patients with Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Pan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate whether killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR and human leukocyte antigen (HLA genetic background could influence the onset age of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, one hundred and seventy-one males with HBV-related HCC were enrolled. The presence of 12 loci of KIR was detected individually. HLA-A, -B, and -C loci were genotyped with high resolution by a routine sequence-based typing method. The effect of each KIR locus, HLA ligand, and HLA-KIR combination was examined individually by Kaplan-Meier (KM analysis. Multivariate Cox hazard regression model was also applied. We identified C1C1-KIR2DS2/2DL2 as an independent risk factor for earlier onset age of HCC (median onset age was 44 for C1C1-KIR2DS2/2DL2 positive patients compared to 50 for negative patients, P=0.04 for KM analysis; HR = 1.70, P=0.004 for multivariate Cox model. We conclude that KIR and HLA genetic background can influence the onset age of HCC in male patients with HBV infection. This study may be useful to improve the current HCC surveillance program in HBV-infected patients. Our findings also suggest an important role of natural killer cells (or other KIR-expressing cells in the progress of HBV-related HCC development.

  7. Socioeconomic in enequalities in health in Europe : studies of middle-aged and older populations with a special focus on the role of smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Huisman (Martijn)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in health among middle-aged and older men and women within Europe, and to contribute to the explanation of these inequalities. The contribution of smoking to socioeconomic inequalities in health was es

  8. Age estimates for the buckwheat family Polygonaceae based on sequence data calibrated by fossils and with a focus on the amphi-Pacific Muehlenbeckia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja M Schuster

    Full Text Available The buckwheat family Polygonaceae is a diverse group of plants and is a good model for investigating biogeography, breeding systems, coevolution with symbionts such as ants and fungi, functional trait evolution, hybridization, invasiveness, morphological plasticity, pollen morphology and wood anatomy. The main goal of this study was to obtain age estimates for Polygonaceae by calibrating a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis, using a relaxed molecular clock with fossil data. Based on the age estimates, we also develop hypotheses about the historical biogeography of the Southern Hemisphere group Muehlenbeckia. We are interested in addressing whether vicariance or dispersal could account for the diversification of Muehlenbeckia, which has a "Gondwanan" distribution. Eighty-one species of Polygonaceae were analysed with MrBayes to infer species relationships. One nuclear (nrITS and three chloroplast markers (the trnL-trnF spacer region, matK and ndhF genes were used. The molecular data were also analysed with Beast to estimate divergence times. Seven calibration points including fossil pollen and a leaf fossil of Muehlenbeckia were used to infer node ages. Results of the Beast analyses indicate an age of 110.9 (exponential/lognormal priors/118.7 (uniform priors million years (Myr with an uncertainty interval of (90.7-125.0 Myr for the stem age of Polygonaceae. This age is older than previously thought (Maastrichtian, approximately 65.5-70.6 Myr. The estimated divergence time for Muehlenbeckia is 41.0/41.6 (39.6-47.8 Myr and its crown clade is 20.5/22.3 (14.2-33.5 Myr old. Because the breakup of Gondwana occurred from 95-30 Myr ago, diversification of Muehlenbeckia is best explained by oceanic long-distance and maybe stepping-stone dispersal rather than vicariance. This study is the first to give age estimates for clades of Polygonaceae and functions as a jumping-off point for future studies on the historical biogeography of the family.

  9. Condoms - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contained in a male's semen reach a woman's vagina, pregnancy may occur. Condoms work by preventing sperm ... coming in contact with the inside of the vagina. If condoms are used correctly every time intercourse ...

  10. Cytogenetic of Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfiye Ozpak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Infertility by definition, is not to get pregnant within one year of regular sexual relationship without protection, affects 15-20% of reproductive age couples. Approximately 30% of infertility cases are male originated. Male infertility is caused by endocrine-related genetic defects affecting urogenital system function. These defects adversely affect subsequent spermatogenesis, sexual function, fertility, early embryonic stage of sexual maturation. Autosomal and gonosomal, numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities and related syndromes rank at the top causes of male infertility. Similar chromosome abnormalities are detected in male infertility and as the rate of these abnormalities increase, it was found to reduce sperm count especially in azospermic and oligozoospermic men. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(4.000: 230-245

  11. Changes in Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) throughout the Life Span: A Population-Based Study of 1027 Healthy Males from Birth (Cord Blood) to the Age of 69 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglæde, Lise; Sørensen, K; Boas, M.;

    2010-01-01

    Context: Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), which is secreted by immature Sertoli cells, triggers the involution of the fetal Mullerian ducts. AMH is a testis-specific marker used for diagnosis in infants with ambiguous genitalia or bilateral cryptorchidism. Aim: The aim of the study was to describe...... the ontogeny of AMH secretion through life in healthy males. Setting:This was a population-based study of healthy volunteers. Participants: Participants included 1027 healthy males from birth (cord blood) to 69 yr. A subgroup was followed up longitudinally through the infantile minipuberty [(in cord blood......, and at 3 and 12 months), n = 55] and another group through puberty [(biannual measurements), n = 83]. Main Outcome Measures: Serum AMH was determined by a sensitive immunoassay. Serum testosterone, LH, and FSH were measured, and pubertal staging was performed in boys aged 6 to 20 yr (n = 616). Results...

  12. Proteomic analysis of age dependent nitration of rat cardiac proteins by solution isoelectric focusing coupled to nano-HPLC tandem mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Sung Jung; Gokulrangan, Giridharan; Schöneich, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Protein nitration occurs as a result of oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Therefore, protein nitration serves as a hallmark for protein oxidation in vivo. We have previously reported on age dependent protein nitration in cardiac tissue of Fisher 344 BN-F1 rats analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis; however, only one specific nitration site was identified (Kanski et al., 2005a). In the present report, we used solution phase isoelec...

  13. Focus on Pivotal Role of Dietary Intake (Diet and Supplement and Blood Levels of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols in Obtaining Successful Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Rondanelli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous specific age-related morbidities have been correlated with low intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. We performed a review in order to evaluate the extant evidence regarding: (1 the association between intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols and age-related pathologies (osteoporosis, sarcopenia and cognitive impairment; and (2 the optimum diet therapy or supplementation with tocopherols and tocotrienols for the treatment of these abnormalities. This review included 51 eligible studies. The recent literature underlines that, given the detrimental effect of low intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols on bone, muscle mass, and cognitive function, a change in the lifestyle must be the cornerstone in the prevention of these specific age-related pathologies related to vitamin E-deficient status. The optimum diet therapy in the elderly for avoiding vitamin E deficiency and its negative correlates, such as high inflammation and oxidation, must aim at achieving specific nutritional goals. These goals must be reached through: accession of the elderly subjects to specific personalized dietary programs aimed at achieving and/or maintaining body weight (avoid malnutrition; increase their intake of food rich in vitamin E, such as derivatives of oily seeds (in particular wheat germ oil, olive oil, hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and cereals rich in vitamin E (such as specific rice cultivar rich in tocotrienols or take vitamin E supplements. In this case, vitamin E can be correctly used in a personalized way either for the outcome from the pathology or to achieve healthy aging and longevity without any adverse effects.

  14. 论我国男女应否同龄退休问题%On the System of Male and Female Retirement Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓峰

    2011-01-01

    男女退休不同年龄的政策在我国已有经年,当下,此种差异引发了社会各界激烈争论。随着社会变迁此制度已难适应社会需要,应当适度提高男女退休年龄,实行自愿选择的弹性退休制度,并辅以工作能力测评机制。%Different age policy on retirement age for men and women in China has been years now,and this difference led to intense community debate.With the social changes this system has been difficult to adapt to social needs.Men and women should have an appropriate increase in the retirement age,have a voluntary choice and flexible retirement system,and been supplemented the work capacity assessment mechanisms.

  15. The prevalence of couple infertility in the United States from a male perspective: evidence from a nationally representative sample

    OpenAIRE

    Louis, Jean Fredo; Thoma, Marie E.; Sørensen, Ditte Nørbo; McLain, Alexander C.; King, Rosalind B.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Keiding, Niels; Buck Louis, Germaine M.

    2013-01-01

    Infertility is a couple based fecundity impairment, though population level research is largely based upon information reported by female partners. Of the few studies focusing on male partners, most focus on the utilization of infertility services rather than efforts to estimate the prevalence and determinants of infertility as reported by male partners. Data from a nationally-representative sample of men aged 15–44 years who participated in the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) we...

  16. Effectiveness of a website and mobile phone based physical activity and nutrition intervention for middle-aged males: Trial protocol and baseline findings of the ManUp Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Mitch J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared to females, males experience higher rates of chronic disease and mortality, yet few health promotion initiatives are specifically aimed at men. Therefore, the aim of the ManUp Study is to examine the effectiveness of an IT-based intervention to increase the physical activity and nutrition behaviour and literacy in middle-aged males (aged 35–54 years. Method/Design The study design was a two-arm randomised controlled trial, having an IT-based (applying website and mobile phones and a print-based intervention arm, to deliver intervention materials and to promote self-monitoring of physical activity and nutrition behaviours. Participants (n = 317 were randomised on a 2:1 ratio in favour of the IT-based intervention arm. Both intervention arms completed assessments at baseline, 3, and 9 months. All participants completed self-report assessments of physical activity, sitting time, nutrition behaviours, physical activity and nutrition literacy, perceived health status and socio-demographic characteristics. A randomly selected sub-sample in the IT-based (n = 61 and print-based (n = 30 intervention arms completed objective measures of height, weight, waist circumference, and physical activity as measured by accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X. The average age of participants in the IT-based and print-based intervention arm was 44.2 and 43.8 years respectively. The majority of participants were employed in professional occupations (IT-based 57.6%, Print-based 54.2% and were overweight or obese (IT-based 90.8%, Print-based 87.3%. At baseline a lower proportion of participants in the IT-based (70.2% group agreed that 30 minutes of physical activity each day is enough to improve health compared to the print-based (82.3% group (p = .026. The IT-based group consumed a significantly lower number of serves of red meat in the previous week, compared to the print-based group (p = .017. No other significant

  17. The effects of sustained cognitive task performance on subsequent resting state functional connectivity in healthy young and middle-aged male schoolteachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, E.A.T.; Klaassen, E.B.; Rombouts, S.A.; Backes, W.H.; Jolles, J.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed that functional connectivity (FC) within resting state (RS) networks is modulated by previous experience. In this study the effects of sustained cognitive performance on subsequent RS FC were investigated in healthy young (25-30 years; n=15) and middle-aged (50-60 years; n=14

  18. Effects of Father Absence on Sex-Typed Behaviors in Male Children: Reason for the Absence and Age of Onset of the Absence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santrock, John W.

    1977-01-01

    The relation of (1) reason for father's absence (whether by death or by divorce) and (2) age of onset of father absence to teacher ratings and doll play interview scores of masculinity-feminity, aggression and dependency-independence were examined. (MS)

  19. MODELING FOR DEMOGRAPHIC AND REGIONAL PREVALENCE AND TRENDS OF SMOKING IN THAI MALES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Apiradee; McNeil, Don

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to describe using national survey data the demographic and regional prevalence and trends of smoking in Thai males during the past 25 years. Data from eight national surveys conducted by the National Statistics Office from 1986 to 2011 were used to examine the prevalence of smoking. Males aged 15 and older were included in this study. Logistic regression was used to model smoking patterns, according to year of survey, age group, urbanization, and Public Health Area (PHA). The prevalence of smoking among males aged 15 years and older in 2011 was 38.4%. Sharply increasing smoking prevalence was found in the 15-24 years-old age group in all surveys. Before survey year 1999, the prevalence of smoking started to level off near retirement age, and subsequently, it leveled off after 40 years of age. The prevalence of smoking in all age groups decreased after 1986 except in the 15-19 years-old age group. Higher prevalence of smoking was found in rural areas. Males from the Northeast and the lower South regions had the highest prevalence. More effective anti-smoking policies should focus on males aged below 25 years to reduce the increasing prevalence of smoking in this group.

  20. Focus: Digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Technology has been an all-important and defining element within the arts throughout the 20th century, and it has fundamentally changed the ways in which we produce and consume music. With this Focus we investigate the latest developments in the digital domain – and their pervasiveness and rapid...... technology affects our habits of consumption. Risto Holopainen presents a notion of autonomous instruments and automated composition that, in the end, cannot escape the human while Jøren Rudi reflects on aesthetic elements and artistic approaches to sound in computer games. This focus is edited by Sanne...

  1. No association of maternal gestational weight gain with offspring blood pressure and hypertension at age 18 years in male sibling-pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheers Andersson, Elina; Tynelius, Per; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with birth weight, obesity, and possibly blood pressure (BP) and hypertension in the offspring. These associations may however be confounded by genetic and/or shared environmental factors. In contrast to previous studies based on non......-siblings and self-reported data, we investigated whether GWG is associated with offspring BP and hypertension, in a register-based cohort of full brothers while controlling for fixed shared effects. METHODS: By using Swedish nation-wide record-linkage data, we identified women with at least two male children (full...... brothers) born 1982-1989. Their BP was obtained from the mandatory military conscription induction tests. We adopted linear and Poisson regression models with robust variance, using generalized estimating equations to analyze associations between GWG and BP, as well as with hypertension, within and between...

  2. Educating Black Males with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Shawn Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Much of the scholarship on Black males in the educational literature focuses on the achievement gap; their underrepresentation in gifted and advanced placement programs; their overrepresentation in special education programs and their high rates of school suspensions and expulsions. Although overrepresented in special education, Black males with…

  3. Without 'Focus'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Sevi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that a notion of 'focus', more or less as conceived of in Jackendoff (1972, must be incorporated into our theory of grammar, as a means of accounting for certain observed correlations between prosodic facts and semantic/pragmatic facts. In this paper, we put forth the somewhat radical idea that the time has come to give up this customary view, and eliminate 'focus' from our theory of grammar. We argue that such a move is both economical and fruitful.Research over the years has revealed that the correlations between prosody, 'focus', and the alleged semantic/pragmatic effects of focus are much less clear and systematic than we may have initially hoped. First we argue that this state of affairs detracts significantly from the utility of our notion of 'focus', to the point of calling into question the very motivation for including it in the grammar. Then we look at some of the central data, and show how they might be analyzed without recourse to a notion of 'focus'. We concentrate on (i the effect of pitch accent placement on discourse congruence, and (ii the choice of 'associate' for the so-called 'focus sensitive' adverb only. We argue that our focus-free approach to the data improves empirical coverage, and begins to reveal patterns that have previously been obscured by preconceptions about 'focus'.ReferencesBeaver, D. & Clark, B. 2008. Sense and Sensitivity: How Focus Determines Meaning. Blackwell.Beaver, D., Clark, B., Flemming, E., Jaeger, T. F. & Wolters, M. 2007. ‘When semantics meets phonetics: Acoustical studies of second occurrence focus’. Language 83.2: 245–76.http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/lan.2007.0053Beckman, M. & Hirschberg, J. 1994. ‘The ToBI Annotation Conventions’. Ms.,http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~julia/files/conv.pdf.Bolinger, D. 1972. ‘Accent is predictable (if you are a mind-reader’. Language 48.3: 633–44.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/412039Büring, D. 2006. ‘Focus projection and default

  4. Exercise performance and cardiovascular health variables in 70-year-old male soccer players compared to endurance-trained, strength-trained and untrained age-matched men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Petersen, Jesper;

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim was to investigate performance variables and indicators of cardiovascular health profile in elderly soccer players (SP, n = 11) compared to endurance-trained (ET, n = 8), strength-trained (ST, n = 7) and untrained (UT, n = 7) age-matched men. The 33 men aged 65-85 years underwent...... a testing protocol including measurements of cycle performance, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and body composition, and muscle fibre types and capillarisation were determined from m. vastus lateralis biopsy. In SP, time to exhaustion was longer (16.3 ± 2.0 min; P ...

  5. Poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth induces an accelerated aging phenotype and oxidative stress in skeletal muscle of male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S.; Chen, Jian Hua; Hargreaves, Iain P.; Neergheen, Viruna; Aiken, Catherine E.; Ozanne, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ‘Developmental programming’, which occurs as a consequence of suboptimal in utero and early environments, can be associated with metabolic dysfunction in later life, including an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and predisposition of older men to sarcopenia. However, the molecular mechanisms underpinning these associations are poorly understood. Many conditions associated with developmental programming are also known to be associated with the aging process. We therefore utilized our well-established rat model of low birth weight and accelerated postnatal catch-up growth (termed ‘recuperated’) in this study to establish the effects of suboptimal maternal nutrition on age-associated factors in skeletal muscle. We demonstrated accelerated telomere shortening (a robust marker of cellular aging) as evidenced by a reduced frequency of long telomeres (48.5-8.6 kb) and an increased frequency of short telomeres (4.2-1.3 kb) in vastus lateralis muscle from aged recuperated offspring compared to controls. This was associated with increased protein expression of the DNA-damage-repair marker 8-oxoguanine-glycosylase (OGG1) in recuperated offspring. Recuperated animals also demonstrated an oxidative stress phenotype, with decreased citrate synthase activity, increased electron-transport-complex activities of complex I, complex II-III and complex IV (all markers of functional mitochondria), and increased xanthine oxidase (XO), p67phox and nuclear-factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB). Recuperated offspring also demonstrated increased antioxidant defense capacity, with increased protein expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), catalase and heme oxygenase-1 (HO1), all of which are known targets of NF-κB and can be upregulated as a consequence of oxidative stress. Recuperated offspring also had a pro-inflammatory phenotype, as evidenced by

  6. Arterial Ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Park, Sung-Ha

    2013-01-01

    Arterial ageing is characterized by age associated degeneration and sclerosis of the media layer of the large arteries. However, besides ageing, clinical conditions, which enhance oxidative stress and inflammation act to accelerate the degree of arterial ageing. In this review, we summarized the pathophysiology and contributing factors that accelerate arterial ageing. Among them, we focused on hypertension, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vascular inflammation which are modifiabl...

  7. Privacy as Personality Right: Why the ECtHR’s Focus on Ulterior Interests Might Prove Indispensable in the Age of “Big Data”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart van der Sloot

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Article 8 ECHR was adopted as a classic negative right, which provides the citizen protection from unlawful and arbitrary interference by the state with his private and family life, home and communication. The ECtHR, however, has gradually broadened its scope so that the right to privacy encroaches upon other provisions embodied in the Convention, includes rights and freedoms explicitly left out of the ECHR by the drafters of the Convention and functions as the main pillar on which the Court has built its practice of opening up the Convention for new rights and freedoms. Consequently, Article 8 ECHR has been transformed from a classic privacy right to a personality right, providing protection to the personal development of individuals. Apart from its theoretical significance, this shift might prove indispensable in the age of Big Data, as personality rights protect a different type of interest, which is far more easy to substantiate in the new technological paradigm than those associated with the right to privacy.

  8. ‘Place’ as conceptual centre: a methodological focus on the bodily relations, movements and expressions of children up to three years of age in kindergarten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Hognestad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show how attention on ‘place’ can be productive in methodology concerning the bodily relations, movements and expressions of children up to three years of age who are enrolled in kindergarten. While research that has adopted a hermeneutic and phenomenological approach has contributed to important knowledge concerning young children, we propose re-thinking methodology that takes children’s bodily relations, movements and expressions into concern. Using ‘place’ as a lens, we show how power relations are interrupted and allow for alternative ways for the researcher to relate to data. Inspired by Somerville (2010, elements of place are situated at the centre of the research analysis. The three key elements of place that are put to work are as follows: our relationship to place is constituted in stories and other representations; place learning is local and embodied; and place is a contact zone for cultural contact. The paper is part of a research project which explores how place can be more explicit in educational practices to strengthen kindergarten as a learning arena. We seek to explore how place relations work and what they have the possibility of producing in the analyzing process.

  9. Tsunami focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, M. C.; Titov, V. V.; Moore, C. W.; Aydin, B.; Kanoglu, U.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2010-12-01

    Tsunamis are long waves generated by impulsive disturbances of the seafloor or coastal topography caused by earthquakes, submarine/subaerial mass failures. They evolve substantially through three dimensional - 2 spatial+1 temporal - spreading as the initial surface deformation propagates. This is referred to as its directivity and focusing. A directivity function was first defined by Ben-Menahem (1961, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 51, 401-435) using the source length and the rupture velocity. Okal (2003, Pure Appl. Geophys. 160, 2189-2221) discussed the details of the analysis of Ben-Menahem (1961) and demonstrated the distinct difference between the directivity patterns of landslide and earthquake generated tsunamis. Marchuk and Titov (1989, Proc. IUGG/IOC International Tsunami Symposium, July 31 - August 3, 1989, Novosibirsk, USSR. p.11-17) described the process of tsunami focusing for a rectangular initial deformation combining positive and negative surface displacements. They showed the existence of a focusing point where abnormal tsunami wave height can be registered. Here, first, we describe and quantify numerically tsunami focusing processes for a combined positive and negative - N-wave type - strip source representing the 17 July 1998 Papua New Guinea and 17 July 2006 Java events. Specifically, considering field observations and tsunami focusing, we propose a source mechanism for the 17 July 2006 Java event. Then, we introduce a new analytical solution for a strip source propagating over a flat bottom using the linear shallow-water wave equation. The analytical solution of Carrier and Yeh (2005, Computer Modeling In Engineering & Sciences, 10(2), 113-121) appears to have two drawbacks. One, the solution involves singular complete elliptic integral of the first kind which results in a self-similar approximate solution for the far-field at large times. Two, only the propagation of Gaussian shaped finite-crest wave profiles can be modeled. Our solution is not only

  10. Monitoring by Parents and Hypothesized Male-Female Differences in Evidence from a Nationally Representative Cohort Re-sampled from Age 12 to 17 Years: An Exploratory Study Using a "Mutoscope" Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedall, Ryan B; Anthony, James C

    2015-07-01

    The link between adept parental monitoring (PM) and later positive behavioral and health outcomes already has motivated intervention trials, but questions remain about which specific facets and mechanisms of PM make a difference. Our current research questions concern fundamental male-female differences in PM facets as manifest in a US cohort, re-sampled each year at age 12 through 17 years during an interval from 2004 to 2009. We hypothesized emergence, by mid-adolescence, of a specific male-female difference in a "limit time with friends" (LTF) facet of adept PM, with overall PM levels held constant. The data, arranged using a "mutoscope" approach, are from six successive nationally representative independent cross-sectional sample surveys of the cohort, with each adolescent measured only once, via a multi-item PM module nested within the larger survey. Estimates and tests of male-female differences are from a "multiple indicators, multiple causes" latent structure model appropriate for complex survey data. In evidence consistent with the advance hypothesis and with PM level held constant via the model, the LTF facet generally was more relaxed for boys as compared to girls, in a difference that emerged by mid-adolescence, possibly due to greater LTF constraints for girls at mid-adolescence. This research adds to the knowledge base about male-female similarities and differences in facets of PM. As a specific PM facet, LTF might function as a mechanism suitable for deliberate intervention and as a possible specific target in "micro-trials" of new prevention research. We acknowledge limitations such as omitted variables, including social media effects, not measured in this investigation's national surveys, but of potential importance in future research on peer influence as might have more distal parenting determinants. PMID:25429727

  11. Analysis of the relationship between the blood concentration of several metals, macro- and micronutrients and endocrine disorders associated with male aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Iwona; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta I; Dołęgowska, Barbara; Safranow, Krzysztof; Kuczyńska, Magdalena; Laszczyńska, Maria

    2016-06-01

    Beyond 30 years of age, men experience a decline in the production of testosterone, yet only a few develop late-onset hypogonadism. This study was designed to determine the relationship between blood concentrations of metals, macro- and micronutrients and age-related testosterone deficiency and associated hormonal changes in aging men. The research involved 313 men aged 50-75 years. We used ELISA to determine the concentrations of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), estradiol (E2), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). We calculated free androgen index (FAI). With the use of emission spectrometry in inductively coupled argon plasma, we determined the whole-blood concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As) and tungsten (W), as well as serum concentrations of magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn) and molybdenum (Mo). The study showed no relationship between TT and FT and the concentrations of metals. Men with TT deficiency had significantly lower concentrations of Mg and Fe and increased Mn. Men with FT deficiency had higher W and Cr levels and lower Fe. Assessing the correlation between the concentrations of hormones, SHBG and FAI, and the concentration of metals and macro- and microelements in the blood of the men, we found positive correlations between the concentrations of TT-Mg, TT-Fe, TT-Mo, FT-Fe, E2-As, SHBG-Mn, FAI-W, FAI-As, FAI-Zn and FAI-Ca, and negative correlations between the concentrations of TT-Mn, FT-Cd, FT-Cr, E2-Hg, E2-Cr, SHBG-W, SHBG-As, SHBG-Zn, SHBG-Ca, FAI-Pb and FAI-Mn. Positive correlations between As and E2 and between As and FAI may suggest a lack of association between this metal and hypogonadism in people not exposed to excess As levels. Our research indicates a positive relationship between the concentrations of Mg, Fe and Zn and endocrine system in aging men, in contrast to Mn and

  12. Male-male pheromone signalling in a lekking Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widemo, Fredrik; Johansson, Björn G

    2006-03-22

    Interest in sex pheromones has mainly been focused on mate finding, while relatively little attention has been given to the role of sex pheromones in mate choice and almost none to competition over mates. Here, we study male response to male pheromones in the lekking Drosophila grimshawi, where males deposit long-lasting pheromone streaks that attract males and females to the leks and influence mate assessment. We used two stocks of flies and both stocks adjusted their pheromone depositing behaviour in response to experimental manipulation, strongly indicating male ability to distinguish between competitors from qualitative differences in pheromone streaks alone. This is the first example of an insect distinguishing between individual odour signatures. Pheromone signalling influenced competition over mates, as males adjusted their investment in pheromone deposition in response to foreign pheromone streaks. Both sexes adapt their behaviour according to information from olfactory cues in D. grimshawi, but the relative benefits from male-female, as compared to male-male signalling, remain unknown. It seems likely that the pheromone signalling system originally evolved for attracting females to leks. The transition to a signalling system for conveying information about individuals may well, however, at least in part have been driven by benefits from male-male signalling.

  13. The Practice of Scottish Urologists in the Assessment and Management of Fracture Risk in the Ageing Male being Treated for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wee Sing Ngu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to ascertain the practice of urologists in Scotland in the assessment and prevention of fracture risk in males starting castration-type therapy for prostate cancer. A questionnaire survey was sent to all practicing consultant urologists in Scotland. A majority of urologists, 25 (64.1%, did not consider the state of their patients' bone mineral density (BMD before commencing castration-type therapy. The rest used various methods to assess BMD, including clinical impression alone, plain bone radiographs, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Various methods were used in the prophylaxis and treatment of osteoporosis, including avoidance of castration type therapy and the use of bisphosphonates and bicalutamide along with castration-type therapy. This study has shown that there is no consensus as to the assessment and management of fracture risk in patients with prostate cancer commencing or on established castration-type therapy. The situation needs to be addressed with some consensus guidance.

  14. Specific absorbed fractions of energy at various ages from internal photon sources: 5, Fifteen-year-old male and adult female

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific absorbed fractions (PHI's) in various organs of the body (target organs) from sources of monoenergetic photons in various other organs (source organs) are tabulated. In this volume PHI-values are tabulated for a fifteen-year-old male or an adult female (55 to 58 kg). These PHI-values can be used in calculating the photon component of the dose-equivalent rate in a given target organ from a given radionuclide that is present in a given source organ. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recognizes that the endosteal, or bone surface, cells are the tissue at risk for bone cancer. We have applied the dosimetry methods developed for beta-emitting radionuclides deposited in bone to follow the transport of secondary electrons that were freed by photon interactions through the microscopic structure of the skeleton. With these methods we can estimate PHI in the endosteal cells and can better estimate PHI in the active marrow; the latter is overestimated with other methods of Snyder et al. at photon energies below 200 keV. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Histomorphological and histomorphometrical investigations of early bone damage following incorporation of optimal carcinogenic doses of 239-plutonium in male rats of different age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is early damage to bone at small carcinogenic amounts of the nuclide, including heavy defects of bone structure and bone marrow osteoporotic features of trabecular bone and only histomorphometrically detectable changes in bone metabolism. The dependence of radiation dose to skeleton and the spacial distribution of the nuclide on age and growth of the experimental animals is demonstrated and correlated to the histological findings. It is also shown that growth and metabolism parameters of bone influence the decorporation performance of the chelating agent Zn-DTPA. (orig.)

  16. Focus on young men in pregnancy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    The Mexican American Community Services Agency's (MACSA) male involvement program aims to delay early sexual activities among young boys, educate young males on personal sexual responsibility, prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and unplanned pregnancies, and promote fatherhood responsibility. 40% of the population in the project area, Santa Clara County, belong to ethnic minorities. The program's target population is divided into three age ranges: 10-14, 15-19, and 20-24 year olds. Boys in the 10-14 year old range are accessed through programs at middle schools, community centers and MACSA centers. The 15-19 year age group are reached through the juvenile probation department, its own youth center, community health fairs and service organizations, and local high schools. Young men aged 20-24 years are channeled through adult education classes, incarceration facilities, trade and special training schools, community centers and other MACSA programs. MACSA programs "Be Proud, Be Responsible" and "Independent Thinking Skills" are presented to young men who are prone to gang activity and drug use. Part of the program offered at Elmwood Correctional Facility focuses on issues aside from pregnancy prevention and encourages young men to plan for their future through sessions on earning high school equivalency certification, on anger management, and on substance abuse.

  17. Managing stress: the influence of gender, age and emotion regulation on coping among university students in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Nicole M.; Shyngle K. Balogun; Oratile, Kutlo N.

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the influence of gender, age and emotion regulation on coping strategies among university students in Botswana. Sixty-four males and 64 females, ranging in age from 18 to 29 years completed the Difficulty in Emotion Regulation Scale and the Coping Strategy Inventory. Female students used wishful thinking and problem-focused disengagement more than male students; however, there were no other significant gender differences in coping strategies. Older students were more lik...

  18. Available phosphorus levels in diets supplemented with phytase for male broilers aged 22 to 42 days kept in a high-temperature environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarciso Tizziani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of reduction of the available phosphorus (avP in diets supplemented with 500 FTU/kg phytase on performance, carcass characteristics, and bone mineralization of broilers aged 22 to 42 days kept in a high-temperature environment. A total of 336 Cobb broilers with an average initial weight of 0.883±0.005 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments - a positive control (0.354 and 0.309% avP without addition of bacterial phytase for the phases of 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days, respectively, and another five diets with inclusion of phytase (500 FTU and reduction of the level of avP (0.354, 0.294, 0.233, 0.173, and 0.112%; and 0.309, 0.258, 0.207, 0.156, and 0.106% for the phases of 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days, respectively - eight replicates, and seven birds per cage. The experimental diets were formulated to meet all nutritional requirements, except for avP and calcium. Birds were kept in climatic chambers at a temperature of 32.2±0.4 °C and air humidity of 65.3±5.9%. Phytase acted by making the phytate P available in diets with reduction in the levels of avP, keeping feed intake, weight gain, feed:gain, and carcass characteristics unchanged. Treatments affected ash and calcium deposition and the Ca:P ratio in the bone; the group fed the diets with 0.112 and 0.106%, from 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days of age, respectively, obtained the lowest values, although the phosphorus deposition in the bone was not affected. Diets supplemented with 500 FTU of phytase, with available phosphorus reduced to 0.173 and 0.156%, and a fixed Ca:avP ratio of 2.1:1, meet the requirements of broilers aged 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days, respectively, reared in a high-temperature environment.

  19. Art Educational Practices: Fostering Self-Control and Improving Focus for Students Coping with Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This action research study served to help students suffering from anxiety or anxiety related issues by using Art as a means of improving focus and fostering self control. The student participants in this study were a group of 25 sophomore and junior high school students, both male and female, ranging between the ages of 15-17. The participants…

  20. Young and intense: FoxP2 immunoreactivity in Area X varies with age, song stereotypy, and singing in male zebra finches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kirk Thompson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available FOXP2 is a transcription factor functionally relevant for learned vocalizations in humans and songbirds. In songbirds, FoxP2 mRNA expression in the medium spiny neurons of the basal ganglia song nucleus Area X is developmentally regulated and varies with singing conditions in different social contexts. How individual neurons in Area X change FoxP2 expression across development and in social contexts is not known, however. Here we address this critical gap in our understanding of FoxP2 as a link between neuronal networks and behavior. We used a statistically unbiased analysis of FoxP2-immunoreactivity (IR on a neuron-by-neuron basis and found a bimodal distribution of FoxP2-IR neurons in Area X: weakly-stained and intensely-stained. The density of intensely-stained FoxP2-IR neurons was 10 times higher in juveniles than in adults, exponentially decreased with age, and was negatively correlated with adult song stability. Three-week old neurons labeled with BrdU were more than five times as likely to be intensely-stained than weakly-stained. The density of FoxP2-IR putative migratory neurons with fusiform-shaped nuclei substantially decreased as birds aged. The density of intensely-stained FoxP2-IR neurons was not affected by singing whereas the density of weakly-stained FoxP2-IR neurons was. Together, these data indicate that young Area X medium spiny neurons express FoxP2 at high levels and decrease expression as they become integrated into existing neural circuits. Once integrated, levels of FoxP2 expression correlate with singing behavior. Together, these findings raise the possibility that FoxP2 levels may orchestrate song learning and song stereotypy in adults by a common mechanism.

  1. "Every male in there is your competition": young men's perceptions regarding the role of the drinking setting in male-to-male barroom aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn; Tremblay, Paul F

    2009-01-01

    The present paper explores young men's perceptions regarding the influence of the bar setting on male-to-male barroom aggression. Focus group interviews were conducted with 27 young men aged 18-25 in London, Ontario, Canada. Participants were given a description of a typical incident of aggression between men in bars and asked to discuss why the incident happened. The following themes pertaining to the role of the setting were identified: (1) sexual competition and male rivalry; (2) heightened concerns with image and social pressure to fight; (3) anonymity and taking on a different identity; (4) provocation and negative stimuli; (5) bar staff behavior; (6) acceptance and expectation of aggression; (7) high level of drunkenness; and (8) thrill, excitement, high energy level, and uncertainty of what might happen. These findings are discussed within a situational/crime prevention framework and prevention implications are highlighted. PMID:19938926

  2. Early Intervention Practices and Communication Intervention Strategies for Young Males with Fragile X Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirrett, Penny L.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Price, Johanna

    2003-01-01

    A study involving 51 speech-language pathologists serving 41 males (ages 2-9) with fragile X syndrome, found the majority reported the boys exhibit a visually based, experiential or holistic learning preference. Speech goals focused on slowing rate and increasing precision for verbal children and using assistive technology for nonverbal children.…

  3. Depression and PTSD in Survivors of Male Violence: Research and Training Initiatives to Facilitate Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Mary P.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Yuan, Nicole P.; Herrera, Veronica M.; Lichter, Erika L.

    2003-01-01

    Male violence is an enduring feature of women's lives from childhood through old age. The review covers child sexual abuse, rape, and partner violence with emphasis on the prevalence of violence, its mental health consequences, the course of recovery, and mediators and moderators of traumatic impact. The primary focus is depression and…

  4. ST-segment deviation during 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and exercise stress test in healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Sørum, C;

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although ST-segment deviation has been evaluated and used during many years both on continuous electrocardiographic Holter monitoring and during exercise stress testing, considerable controversy still remains concerning the prevalence and diagnostic significance of fortuitously...... discovered ST-segment deviation in asymptomatic healthy persons. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence of ST-segment deviation was studied in a population of 63 clinically healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age, with the use of 24-hour Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing. The subjects were...... in healthy subjects without disease, was 1.0 when using as criterion for significant ST-segment deviation a horizontal or descending ST-segment depression of >0.20 mV or ST-segment elevation >/=0.15 mV during Holter monitoring, and acceptable, for example, 0.95, when using as criterion a horizontal...

  5. ST-segment deviation during 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and exercise stress test in healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Sørum, C;

    1999-01-01

    recruited from the Copenhagen City Heart Study and were without cardiovascular risk factors, chronic diseases, or medication and without cardiovascular events during 5 to 12 years before and 3 to 5 years after admission. The specificity, that is, the probability of displaying a negative test result......BACKGROUND: Although ST-segment deviation has been evaluated and used during many years both on continuous electrocardiographic Holter monitoring and during exercise stress testing, considerable controversy still remains concerning the prevalence and diagnostic significance of fortuitously...... discovered ST-segment deviation in asymptomatic healthy persons. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence of ST-segment deviation was studied in a population of 63 clinically healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age, with the use of 24-hour Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing. The subjects were...

  6. Cause Analysis on Unmarried Aged Males in Rural China%贫困地区农村大龄青年未婚失婚影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊

    2012-01-01

    Using forced bachelors survey data collected from mountain villages of northern Hebei province in 2010, this paper describes and makes a comparison between forced bachelors and married males on education, health, skills, occupation, migration, income and etc. It shows that male forced bachelors have significantly lower education level, health, occupation skills and income level than married male. Under the restriction of population sex structure and mate selection rules, the factors such as area economic development level, family economic conditions while the males were in marriageable ages and low individuals' personal capital play a key role in determining their failure in marriage market.%人口出生性别失衡和婚姻挤压背景下,贫困地区农村男性的大龄未婚问题突出。对冀西北贫困地区农村的专项调查发现。大龄未婚男性仅在所从事职业方面与已婚男性没有明显差别,而在教育、健康、技能、收入、住房、沟通能力等方面均明显劣于已婚男性;个体素质和经济条件较差的男性更可能处于大龄未婚状态,尤其是适婚年龄时的家庭经济条件对征婚的影响尤为显著。总体来看。在性别结构、择偶梯度和婚姻流动性别差异等条件约束下。地区经济发展水平、男性适婚年龄时的家庭经济条件及个体人力资本的全面劣势是农村大龄未婚男性在婚姻市场上竞争失利的决定因素。

  7. Clinical features of elderly male and female chronic heart failure patients at different ages%不同性别和年龄段老年慢性心力衰竭患者的临床特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡坚; 邱元芝; 彭乐; 魏群; 尹绢; 陈发秀

    2014-01-01

    signicantly higher in 60-69 and 70-79 years old male patients than in 60-69 and 70-79 years old female patients . The incidence of pneumonia and hypertension increased with increasing age (P<0 .05 ,P<0 .01) . The incidence of left heart failure was significantly higher while that of right heart failure was sig-nificantly lower in 60-69 and 70-79 years old male patients than in 60-69 and 70-79 years old female patients (P<0 .01) .The mortality increased with increasing age in both male and female patients (P<0.05 ,P<0 .01) ,especially in ≥80 years old female patients (P<0 .01) .Conclusion The incidence of hypertension ,coronary and pulmonary heart disease ,pneumonia increases while that of rheumatic heart disease and cardiomyopathy decreases with increasing age in elderly CHF patients .However ,the mortality of hospitalized elderly CHF patients inceases with increas-ing age .

  8. Male breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottini, Laura; Palli, Domenico; Rizzo, Sergio; Federico, Mario; Bazan, Viviana; Russo, Antonio

    2010-02-01

    Male breast cancer (MaleBC) is a rare disease, accounting for development; low-penetrance gene mutations (i.e. CHEK-2) are more common but involve a lower risk increase. About 90% of all male breast tumors have proved to be invasive ductal carcinomas, expressing high levels of hormone receptors with evident therapeutic returns. The most common clinical sign of BC onset in men is a painless palpable retroareolar lump, which should be evaluated by means of mammography, ultrasonography and core biopsy or fine needle aspiration (FNA). To date, there are no published data from prospective randomized trials supporting a specific therapeutic approach in MaleBC. Tumor size together with the number of axillary nodes involved are the main prognostic factors and should guide the treatment choice. Locoregional approaches include surgery and radiotherapy (RT), depending upon the initial clinical presentation. When systemic treatment (adjuvant, neoadjuvant and metastatic) is delivered, the choice between hormonal and or chemotherapy (CT) should depend upon the clinical and biological features, according to the FBC management guidelines. However great caution is required because of high rates of age-related comorbidities. PMID:19427229

  9. 贵州省少数民族未婚男性青少年首次遗精及自慰状况调查%Survey on spermarcheal age and masturbation among minority male adolescent in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱江; 钟春琍; 陆卫群; 周强; 任静妮

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解少数民族未婚男性青少年首次遗精年龄及性自慰情况,并分析其影响因素.方法:在贵州省镇宁县、三都县、玉屏县和务川县,采用分层整群抽样的方法随机选取苗族、布依族、水族、仡佬族、侗族14 ~28岁未婚男性青少年各50名,进行问卷调查,运用SPSS11.5统计软件进行分析.结果:首次遗精年龄呈正态分布,P50=15岁,呈年代前移态势,城市年龄小于农村.40.8%男青年表示有自慰,不同民族间发生自慰的比例有统计学差异,民族、户籍和生殖健康知识来源影响自慰后的感受.结论:社会经济、文化传统通过人们的生活方式而影响着性生理和性活动的发生发展.为提高少数民族生殖健康水平,结合各民族民俗文化,开展尊重关心青少年性发育和性权力的生殖健康教育刻不容缓.%Objective: To explore the status and influencing factors of the spermarcheal age and masturbation among minority male adolescent. Methods: A total of 250 Miao, Buyi, Shui, Celao and Dong unmarried male adolescent at 14 -28 years of age in Zhenning, Sandu, Yupan and Wuchuan County of Guizhou Province were recruited by stratified cluster random sampling and interviewed with the questionnaires closed. The data were analyzed by SPSS. Results: The median spermarcheal age of the respondects was 15, which was more than the national average age. A downward secular trend in spermarcheal age was found. And the spermarcheal age of the respondents living in urban areas was less than those living in rural areas. About 40. 8% of the respondents reported masturbation. The ratios of masturbation were significantly different among nations. Ethnic, registered permanent residence and awareness of reproductive health could impact the feelings of masturbation. Conclusion: Social economy and ethnic culture are important factors which affect developments of sexual physiology and sexual psychology by deciding life style. In

  10. [Clinical characteristics of male osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Mika; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2016-07-01

    As men are less likely than women to develop osteoporosis, male osteoporosis remains poorly understood. However, elderly men have a clearly reduced bone mineral density and increased risk for fractures. In Japan, one in four patients with osteoporosis is male. Male osteoporosis is associated with not only reduction in androgen, but also estrogen, and differs from postmenopausal osteoporosis in that decreased bone formation is involved and that age-related changes in cortical bone structure and perforation of the trabeculae of cancellous bone are unlikely to occur. The proportion of secondary osteoporosis is higher for men than women;therefore, differential diagnosis is important in the diagnosis of male osteoporosis. In addition, it is recommended that bone mineral density be measured at the femoral neck or total hip in men. Men have a worse prognosis following fractures than women, and management of male osteoporosis is highly important for extending healthy life expectancy. PMID:27346307

  11. MINERAL NUTRIENTS AND MALE FERTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Tvrdá

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Semen is a complex mixture containing a variety of organic and inorganic compounds. While the production and functions of semen are well understood, studies focused on the macro- and micronutrients necessary for male fertility are constantly appearing with new information. Chemical elements play a crucial role in male reproduction, as an unbalance in their amounts may lead to defective spermatogenesis, reduced libido, and consequently, male fertility impairment. Dietary and feeding supplementation has the ability to increase male reproductive performance which is why the effects of minerals in diet cannot be ignored. This review will provide recent information to a better understanding of the positive as well as negative roles of selected macro- and micronutrients on male fertility.

  12. The POWER campaign for promotion of female and male condoms: audience research and campaign development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Sheana Salyers; Cohen, Jennifer; Ortiz, Charlene; Evans, Tom

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we conducted and content analyzed 12 focus groups with women aged 15-25 living in inner city Denver as a process of audience research to develop a male and female condom promotion campaign. We recruited 89 women from school and community sites in central Denver neighborhoods to discuss their knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding both male and female condoms, then solicited opinions about how to increase knowledge about and familiarity with female condoms, increase positive attitudes toward both male and female condoms, and how to increase access to and use of both male and female condoms. Opinions on these topics drove the development of a targeted media campaign promoting condom use in this population. We report here on the general findings from focus groups and provide details about the campaign the participants helped to develop. PMID:12375772

  13. Qualidade da carne de novilhos terminados em confinamento e abatidos aos 16 ou 26 meses de idade Meat quality of non-castrate or castrated males feedlot finished and slaughtered at 16 or 26 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Kuss

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as características sensoriais da carne de novilhos não-castrados ou castrados terminados em confinamento e abatidos aos 16 (superjovens ou 26 (jovens meses de idade. A dieta com relação volumoso:concentrado de 50:50 continha 11,8% de proteína bruta e 2,83 Mcal de energia digestível/kg de matéria seca. A maior amplitude do pH final da carne foi observada nos novilhos jovens e a menor, nos superjovens. A carne dos animais não-castrados, independentemente da idade de abate, foi mais escura, mais grosseira e com menor grau de marmorização em comparação à dos castrados. A carne dos animais castrados teve maior perda de líquidos durante o processo de descongelamento em relação à dos não-castrados (8,55 vs 4,99%. Ocorreu interação entre categoria e sexo do animal para perda de líquido durante a cocção, palatabilidade e suculência. Novilhos jovens não-castrados apresentaram maior quebra à cocção, carne menos palatável e menos suculenta em relação aos jovens castrados e aos superjovens castrados e não-castrados. A redução da idade de abate de 26 para 16 meses de idade, independentemente da condição sexual, melhora a maciez da carne avaliada pelo painel de degustadores.It was evaluated in this work the sensorial characteristics of the meat of non-castrate or castrated males feedlot finished and slaughtered at 16 (young steers or 26 (steers months old. The diet with 50 roughage: 50concentrate contained 11.8% of crude protein and 2.83 Mcal of digestible energy/kg of dry matter. The highest amplitude of the final pH of the meat was noted on the steers, and the lowest on the young steers. The meat of the non-castrate males, regardless to the age at slaughter, was darker, coarser and showed lower marbling degree than the meat of the castrated animals. Thawing loss was higher for the meat of the castrated animals(8.55 vs 4.99%. There was interaction among categories and sex for cooking loss, palatability and

  14. Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Male Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Male Reproductive System Print A ... reproductive systems. continue What Is the Male Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  15. [Male contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, A

    1984-04-01

    Among the reasons why male hormonal contraception has lagged behind female methods are the necessity of preserving virility, the fact that spermatogenesis is a continuous process, the need to control secondary effects and toxicity, and the requirement that modes of administration be acceptable to both partners. Among currently available reversible mehtods, withdrawal is undoubtedly the most ancient. It is still widespread but cannot be recommended because of its limited effectiveness. The condom is used by about 10% of couples worldwide as a principal or temporary method, but its inter-ference with sensation has limited its acceptance. Condoms are nevertheless highly effective when used with a spermicide. Various androgens are currently under investigation. High doses of testosterone can induce azoospermia without affecting libido but their side effects may be serious. The use of combinations of steroids permits doses to be reduced and offers promise for the future. The combination of oral medroxyprogesterone acetate and percutaneous testosterone is one of the better approaches; the combination is effective and nontoxic but has the disadvantage of percutaneous administration. Gossypol, a pigment extracted from the cotton plant, has been used as a contraceptive in China with a reported efficacy of 99.89%, recovery of fertility within 3 months, and no effect on future fertility. However, its toxicity appears to be significant in the animal and its reversibility is uncertain. A search is on for analogs which would preserve the contraceptive effects while eliminating toxic effects. Several gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs under investigation for their interference with spermatogenesis have given promising results. Several chemicals tested for contraceptive effects have had unacceptably high toxicity. Chinese investigators have reported good results with various physical methods of interfering with sperm production, but their reversibility and innocuity

  16. TFR for males in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordfalk, Francisca; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Keiding, Niels

    2015-01-01

    fertility trends of Danish men and women from 1980 to 2010. We review the differences in male and female fertility and perform separate tempo corrections for fathers and mothers. Methods: The material for this study consisted of basic data on male and female fertility. The data included all children born in......Background: Studies of trends and tempo corrections of fertility have focused on female rather than male fertility; one reason being that the necessary detailed data are more widely available for mothers than for fathers. Objective: The objective is to present a demographic overview of the...... effect for men at the end of the period was not similarly observed for women. Conclusions: We have exemplified tempo corrections for male as well as female fertility, and have discussed specific problems in this context. Our study indicates that the postponement of childbearing is about to end for Danish...

  17. AGE Males by 5 Yr Age Groups BGs 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  18. AGE Percent Males by 5 Yr Age Groups NMSD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. AGE Males by 5 Yr Age Groups NMSD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. AGE Percent Males by Broad Age Groups NMSD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. AGE Percent Males by 5 Yr Age Groups NMHD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. AGE Percent Males by Broad Age Groups NMHD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. AGE Males by 5 Yr Age Groups NMHD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. [Conservative treatment in male urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner-Hermanns, R; Anding, R

    2014-03-01

    Prevalence, pathophysiology, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches of urinary incontinence are well studied in women; however, studies on male urinary incontinence focus on incontinence following surgery of the bladder or prostate, predominantly incontinence after radical prostatectomy. Aging men suffer from incontinence, most frequently urge incontinence (overactive bladder, OAB), nearly as often as women do.The domain of conservative therapy of urinary stress incontinence in men is pelvic floor training. It remains unclear whether biofeedback procedures, electrostimulation therapy, or magnetic stimulation therapy can enhance pelvic floor training. There are data suggesting that an off-label therapy with Duloxetin®, a selective serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SSNRI), improves urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy. Antimuscarinic agents in combination with bladder training have been proven as safe and effective treatment in men with OAB. Data, however, suggest that men with OAB are far less frequently treated than women.

  5. Comparison of male and female lower limb segment inertial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challis, John H; Winter, Samantha L; Kuperavage, Adam J

    2012-10-11

    Many studies have examined human segmental inertial parameters, but these studies have focused more on male rather than female data. The purpose of this study was to determine the lower limb segmental inertial parameters for a large sample (n>1500) of both males and females. The participants in this study were those measured as part of a survey of the anthropometry of US army personnel. The sample comprised 1774 males (mean height 1.756±0.079 m, mean mass of 78.49±0.11 kg, and mean age of 27.21±6.81 years), and 2208 females (mean height 1.629±0.072 m, mean mass of 62.01±0.08 kg, and mean age of 26.18±5.70 years). Anthropometric measurements were used to determine the inertial properties of the lower limb segments by modeling them as series of geometric solids. An analysis of variance revealed that the normalized inertial parameters for each of the segments were statistically significantly different (p>0.001) between the two groups. The time for each segment to swing through the range of motion of the swing phase of gait, produced shorter swing times for the male segments. The differences between the segmental inertial properties for the sexes have implications for how these parameters are customized to experimental subjects.

  6. Men's Experiences of Living With Osteoporosis: Focus Group Interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorthe; Brixen, Kim; Huniche, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporotic fractures in men are an increasing public health problem. Male osteoporosis is often a low-prioritized issue, however. To examine men's experiences with osteoporosis and how they handle osteoporosis in their everyday lives, the authors collected data from four focus groups with a total...... of 16 men aged 51 to 82 years diagnosed with osteoporosis. Critical psychology was used as a theoretical framework for the data analysis, which aimed to elicit information about the men's daily lives. The men handled osteoporosis in different ways using different strategies. The authors found patterns...

  7. 论互联网时代装备制造企业应关注的10个问题%Concerning the age of the Internet Equipment Manufacturing Enterprises Should Focus on 10 Questions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙柏林

    2015-01-01

    This article from the enterprise leaders must have the ability to "Internet thinking" and "Internet +" enterprise development mode and decision-making mode change, make the organization decentralization, virtualization, make manufacturing enterprise service, make the cloud of manufacturing resources, make a design more personalised, make the enterprise business model and management ideas change, will become the new norm for enterprise competition, industry competition, to the enterprise information security has brought new challenges and problems such as "Internet+" age equipment manufacturing enterprises should focus on 10 questions, comprehensively discusses the Internet age, equipment manufacturing enterprise development.%本文从企业领导者必须具备“互联网思维”能力,“互联网+”使企业发展方式与决策方式发生变化,使组织分散化、虚拟化,使制造企业服务化,使制造资源云化,使设计更加定制个性化,使企业业务模式和经营思路变化,将成为企业竞争、产业竞争的新常态,给企业信息安全带来了新挑战及存在问题等“互联网+”时代装备制造企业应关注的10个问题出发,全面论述了互联网时代,装备制造企业发展之路。

  8. Estereótipos de gênero e sexismo ambivalente em adolescentes masculinos de 12 a 16 anos Ambivalent sexism and gender stereotyping in male adolescents aged 12 to 16 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Mesquita Filho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A discriminação e a violência contra o gênero feminino associam-se a representações distorcidas da mulher. Este trabalho tem o objetivo de mensurar a existência de preconceitos nas manifestações dos estereótipos de gênero e sexismo ambivalente, em adolescentes masculinos de 12 a 16 anos. Em um estudo transversal, aplicaram-se três questionários (sociodemográfico, Gender stereotyping, Inventário do Sexismo Ambivalente a 787 estudantes de 11 escolas públicas. Nos resultados, detectou-se a presença de estereótipos de gênero. Houve diferença significante entre alunos de escolas estaduais e municipais e também nos alunos que estudavam em bairros de poder aquisitivo elevado em relação aos demais. O sexismo, também presente, apresentou-se significantemente mais benévolo que hostil. O escore para o componente benévolo variou conforme a escola cursada. O hostil não foi influenciado pelas variáveis estudadas. Os achados corroboram a existência de estereótipos de gênero e sexismo ambivalente nos adolescentes masculinos e a necessidade de desenvolvimento de ações e políticas para sua erradicação.Discrimination and violence against the female gender are associated with distorted representation of women. This paper aims at measuring the existence of prejudice in the manifestations of ambivalent sexism and gender stereotypes in male adolescents aged 12 to 16 years. Three questionnaires (socio-demographic, Gender stereotyping, Ambivalent Sexism Inventory were applied to 787 students of 11 public schools in a cross-sectional study. The results pointed out to the presence of gender stereotypes. There was a significant difference between students of state and city schools and also between those who studied in neighborhoods presenting a higher economic status in comparison to the others. Sexism presented itself significantly more benevolent than hostile. The score to the benevolent component varied according to the attended

  9. Predictors of success in emotionally focused marital therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S M; Talitman, E

    1997-04-01

    This study examined client variables expected to predict success in emotionally focused marital therapy (EFT), now the second most validated form of marital therapy after the behavioral approaches. The relationship of attachment quality, level of emotional self-disclosure, level of interpersonal trust, and traditionality to the therapy outcome variables, marital adjustment, intimacy, and therapist ratings of improvement, was examined. These variables were chosen for their relevance to the theory and practice of EFT and to intimate relationships in general. Overall, therapeutic alliance predicted successful outcome; the task dimension of the alliance in particular predicted couples' satisfaction. More specifically, one dimension of female partners' trust, their faith in their partner, predicted couples' satisfaction at follow-up. Females' faith also significantly predicted males' level of intimacy at follow-up. Males who were most likely to be nondistressed at termination indicated higher levels of proximity seeking on an attachment measure at intake, and older males and males whose partners had higher levels of faith in them were more likely to be nondistressed at follow-up. Traditionality was not found to be significantly related to outcome. Couples who made the most gains at follow-up also indicated lower initial marital satisfaction and included males who indicated lower levels of use of attachment figure on the attachment measure at intake. Males who made the largest gains at termination were older and were rated as less expressive by their partner on self-disclosure measures at intake. Age was the only variable significantly related to males' gains in satisfaction at follow-up. Implications for the practice of marital therapy and future research are delineated.

  10. TFR for males in Denmark: Calculation and tempo-correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Nordfalk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of trends and tempo corrections of fertility have focused on female rather than male fertility; one reason being that the necessary detailed data are more widely available for mothers than for fathers. Objective: The objective is to present a demographic overview of the fertility trends of Danish men and women from 1980 to 2010. We review the differences in male and female fertility and perform separate tempo corrections for fathers and mothers. Methods: The material for this study consisted of basic data on male and female fertility. The data included all children born in the period, specified by birth year of the child and age and parity of the mother and father, respectively. We used standard demographic measurements of fertility, primarily the total fertility rate (TFR and the tempo-corrections as proposed by Bongaarts and Feeney (1998. Results: The female fertility rates were generally higher than those for males, but the TFRs of both Danish men and women generally increased over the period. The unadjusted and the adjusted fertility rates had similar patterns for men and women. A negative tempo-effect was more evident for women than for men, and a vanishing effect for men at the end of the period was not similarly observed for women. Conclusions: We have exemplified tempo corrections for male as well as female fertility, and have discussed specific problems in this context. Our study indicates that the postponement of childbearing is about to end for Danish men.

  11. 饮酒对中年男性2型糖尿病患者骨密度的影响%Effect of alcohol drinking on bone mineral density in middle-aged males with diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁; 刘惠苗; 陈志花; 周慧敏; 张萌萌; 董天; 赵媛媛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of alcohol drinking on bone mineral density ( BMD) in middle-aged males with type 2 diabetes.Methods Ninety middle-aged males with type 2 diabetes were selected and divided into 2 groups, alcohol drinkers (n=45) and non-alcohol drinkers (n=45).In alcohol drinking group, they were divided to 3 levels, little amount ( 100 g/d), according to their alcohol consumption.And according to the alcohol drinking time, they were divided to 20years levels.BMD of the femoral neck, the greater trochanter, and the lumbar spine was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.The relationship between the different alcohol consumption, the different alcohol drinking time, and BMD of the different sites was analyzed.Results Compared to non-alcohol drinking group, BMD of the femoral neck, the greater trochanter, and the lumbar spine was significantly lower than that in alcohol drinking group with alcohol consumption 50-100 g/d and >100 g/d, and with alcohol drinking period 10-20 years and >20 years (P50 g/d and alcohol drinking period >10 years were negatively correlated with BMD of the femoral neck, the greater trochanter, and the lumbar spine (P50 g/d and alcohol drinking period >10 years, decreases significantly.The incidence of osteoporosis increases.%目的:探讨饮酒对中年男性2型糖尿病患者骨密度的影响。方法选取中年男性2型糖尿病患者90例,分为不饮酒组及饮酒组,各45例。饮酒组根据日饮酒量分为3个等级:少量饮酒(<50 g/d);S中等量饮酒(50~100 g/d);大量饮酒(>100 g/d)。按饮酒年限分为3级(<10年、10~20年、>20年)。测定各组股骨颈、大转子及腰椎骨密度,分析日饮酒量及饮酒年限与不同部位骨密度的相关性。结果与不饮酒组相比,摄入酒精50~100 g/d、>100 g/d组和饮酒10~20年、>20年受试者的股骨颈、大转子、腰椎骨密度显著降低(P<0.01

  12. Changes in Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) throughout the Life Span: A Population-Based Study of 1027 Healthy Males from Birth (Cord Blood) to the Age of 69 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglæde, Lise; Sørensen, K; Boas, M.;

    2010-01-01

    the ontogeny of AMH secretion through life in healthy males. Setting:This was a population-based study of healthy volunteers. Participants: Participants included 1027 healthy males from birth (cord blood) to 69 yr. A subgroup was followed up longitudinally through the infantile minipuberty [(in cord blood...

  13. Vocal communication between male Xenopus laevis

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias, Martha L.; Barnard, Candace; O’Hagan, Robert; Horng, Sam H.; Rand, Masha; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on the role of male–male vocal communication in the reproductive repertoire of the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. Six male and two female call types were recorded from native ponds in the environs of Cape Town, South Africa. These include all call types previously recorded in the laboratory as well as one previously unidentified male call: chirping. The amount of calling and the number of call types increased as the breeding season progressed. Laboratory recordi...

  14. Why do Adolescent Girls Idolize Male Celebrities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Yuna; Kasser, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Girls often idolize male celebrities, but this phenomenon has been studied little. The authors therefore assessed celebrity idolization among 142 junior high school girls and found that girls who strongly idolized a male celebrity had more experience dating, reported secure and preoccupied attachments to same-age boys, and were rated higher in…

  15. Looking at the Male Librarian Stereotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Thad E.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of library profession stereotypes focuses on academic male librarians. Topics include the position of the early academic librarians and the environment in which they worked; the beginnings of reference service; women in academic libraries; men in a feminized profession; and current images of male librarians in motion pictures and…

  16. Bilateral male breast cancer with male potential hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurokawa Yasushi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male breast cancer is a comparatively rare disease, and simultaneous bilateral male breast cancer is considered to be an extremely rare event. Risk factors are said to be genetic factors and hormonal abnormalities due to obesity or testicular diseases. Case presentation The patient was a 47-year-old Japanese male. His family had no history of female breast cancer. This patient also had hypospadias and hormonal examination indicated the presence of primary testicular potential hypogonadism, and these hormonal abnormalities seemed to be present since childhood or the fetal period. The bilateral breast cancer developed in this man at a comparatively young age, and histopathological studies of multiple sections showed that there was almost no normal epithelial cell in the ducts, while the ducts were almost completely filled with breast cancer cells. Conclusion It is thought that male breast cancer is caused by an imbalance between estrogen and testosterone. We cannot rule out the possibility that the breast cancer developed due to the effect of the slight elevation of estrogen over a long period of time, but the actual causative factors in this patient were unable to be definitively identified. In the future, we hope to further elucidate the causes of male breast cancer.

  17. High and low contraceptive use amongst young male offenders: a qualitative interview study

    OpenAIRE

    Buston, Katie; Parkes, Alison; Wight, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Objectives There are high rates of fatherhood and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among young incarcerated men. Here we focus on a sample of men incarcerated in a Scottish Young Offender Institution, analysing their accounts of their contraceptive use. Those who report low or no use of contraception are compared with those who report high use. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 40 young male offenders, aged 16–21 years. Participants were purposively sampled using answers from a...

  18. A Meta-Analysis of Risky Sexual Behaviour among Male Youth in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifru Berhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between risky sexual behaviour and level of education and economic status in male youth. Previous tests of the association of risky sexual behaviour with levels of education and economic status have yielded inconsistent results. Using data from 26 countries, from both within and outside Africa, we performed a meta-analysis with a specific focus on male youths’ risky sexual behaviour. We applied a random effects analytic model and calculated a pooled odds ratio. Out of 19,148 males aged 15–24 years who reported having sexual intercourse in the 12 months preceding the survey, 75% engaged in higher-risk sex. The proportion of higher-risk sex among male youth aged 15–19 years was nearly 90% in 21 of the 26 countries. The pooled odds ratio showed a statistically significant association of higher-risk sex with male youth younger than 20 years, living in urban centers, well educated, and of a high economic status. The overall proportion of condom use during youths’ most recent higher-risk sexual encounter was 40% and 51% among 15–19-year-olds and 20–24-year-olds, respectively. Our findings suggest that male youth’s socioeconomic status is directly related to the likelihood that they practice higher-risk sex. The relationship between income and sexual behaviour should be explored further.

  19. Effects of rosiglitazone sodium on EPCs of middle-aged diabetes of male%罗格列酮钠对中年男性糖尿病患者外周血内皮祖细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭莉; 霍亚南; 邓颖; 胡国柱

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察罗格列酮钠对中年男性糖尿病患者血管内皮祖细胞(EPCs)数量和功能的影响.方法 本实验纳入血糖控制良好( HbA1c<7%)的30例中年男性糖尿病患者.体内实验:将上述患者随机分成罗格列酮钠组和常规治疗组.所有患者在用药前后均采集空腹静脉血,分离并培养EPCs,采用流式技术、免疫荧光双染法、MTT比色法、30 min贴壁方法、改良型Boyden小室法对EPCs进行计数、鉴定、增殖、黏附和迁移等功能检测.体外实验:随机抽取上述患者20例,提取其空腹静脉血单个核细胞,培养6d后收集贴壁细胞,将收集到的每份贴壁细胞各分成药物干预组和对照组,用上述方法观察体外药物干预对EPCs数量和功能的影响.结果 罗格列酮钠组用药后较用药前,CD34+/CD133+、vWF+细胞数量增加,细胞增殖、黏附、迁移功能增强(P<0.05或<0.01);较常规治疗组用药后,CD34+/CD133+、CD133+/KDR+、vWF+细胞数量增加,增殖、黏附、迁移功能增强(P<0.01).药物干预组EPCs增殖、黏附、迁移功能较对照组增强(P<0.01).结论 罗格列酮能增加糖尿病患者EPCs数量,并能改善其增殖、黏附和迁移功能,且此作用独立于降糖、降压作用之外.%Objective To explore the effects of rosiglitazone sodium on the EPCs' numbers and function of middle aged diabetes of male in vivo and in vitro. Methods A total of 33 middle-aged diabetes patients of male with good blood glucose control ( HbA1c <7% ) were randomly divided into rosiglitazone sodium group and conventional therapy group. The limosis vein blood of all the patients was collected. EPCs were separated and cultured. Using flow cytometry for identifying surface markers of EPCs, immunofluorescence double staining for identification, MTT assay for EPCs proliferation, adhe sion test for determinating adhering capacity of EPCs, Boyden chamber for evaluating migration of EPCs. Then 20 patients were

  20. Cancer mortality in male hairdressers.

    OpenAIRE

    Alderson, M

    1980-01-01

    Although hair dyes have been shown to be highly mutagenic the literature on possible human cancer risk is confused. A variety of studies using different methods in different countries have provided a range of positive and negative findings. In the present study the observed and expected mortality among a sample of hairdressers identified in the 1961 census was examined and followed until 1978; attention was focused on five malignancies reported to have increased in male hairdressers in the ot...

  1. Focus groups reveal consumer ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    According to qualitative research, Salvadoreans are ambivalent about the use of contraceptives. Since complete responsibility for management of the CSM project was accepted by the Association Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), the agency which operates the contraceptive social marketing project in El Salvador, in November 1980, the need for decisions in such areas as product price increases, introduction of new condom brands, promotion of the vaginal foaming tablet, and assessment of product sales performance had arisen. The ICSMP funded market research, completed during 1983, was intended to provide the data on which such decisions by ADS could be based. The qualitative research involved 8 focus groups, comprised of men and women, aged 18-45, contraceptive users and nonusers, from the middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the city of San Salvador and other suburban areas. In each group a moderator led discussion of family planning and probed respondents for specific attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding the use of contraceptives. To assess attitudes at a more emotional level, moderators asked respondents to "draw" their ideas on certain issues. A marked discrepancy was revealed between respondents' intellectual responses to the issues raised in group discussion, as opposed to their feelings expressed in the drawings. Intellectually, participants responded very positively to family planning practice, but when they were asked to draw their perceptions, ambivalent feelings emerged. Drawings of both the user and the nonuser convey primarily negative aspects for either choice. The user is tense and moody toward her children; the nonuser loses her attractiveness and "dies." Figures also show drawings of some of the attitudes of single and married male participants. 1 drawing shows an incomplete and a complete circle, symbolizing a sterilized man (incomplete) and a nonsterilized man (complete). Another picture depicts a chained man who has lost his freedom

  2. Male Psychopaths and Their Criminal Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Robert D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined criminal histories of male psychopaths and nonpsychopaths, exploring time in prison and conviction rates for five-year periods between ages of 16 and 45. Criminal activities of nonpsychopaths were relatively constant over years; activities of psychopaths remained high until around age 40, then declined dramatically. Results are consistent…

  3. [Male urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, TA de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2008-01-01

    *Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment o

  4. Prevalence of reproductive morbidity amongst males in an urban slum of north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppal Y

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of reproductive morbidity among males in India have chiefly focused on prevalence of Reproductive Tract Infections/Sexually Transmitted Infections (RTIs/STIs among males attending Sexually Transmitted Disease clinics, blood donors and other selected population groups, with only few focused on the magnitude and the type of reproductive morbidity amongst Indian males at community level. Objective: To estimate prevalence of reproductive morbidity including (RTIs/STIs among males in the age group of 20-50 years residing in an urban slum of Delhi. Methods: Out of 268 males in the targeted age group, selected by systematic random sampling, residing in an urban sum of Delhi, 260 males were subjected to clinical examination and laboratory investigations for diagnosis of reproductive morbidity. Laboratory investigations were done for diagnosis of Hepatitis B and C, Syphilis, Gonorrhoea, Non gonococcal urethritis and urinary tract infection. Results: A total of 90 (33.6% of 268 study subjects reported one or more perceived symptoms of reproductive tract / sexual morbidity in last six months. Overall reproductive morbidity based on clinical and laboratory diagnosis was present in 76 (29.2% study subjects and of this sexually acquired morbidity accounted for 21.2% cases. Hepatitis B was most common (10.3% reproductive morbidity followed by Urinary Tract Infection (5.0%, scabies (3.5% and congenital anomalies (3.5%. Conclusion: High prevalence of reproductive morbidity (29.2% amongst males in an urban slum highlights the need for more studies in different settings. There is a need for developing interventions in terms of early diagnosis and treatment and prevention.

  5. "Never Really Had a Good Education You Know, Until I Came in Here": Educational Life Histories of Young Adult Male Prisoner Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Jane; Maunsell, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the educational life histories of nine prisoner learners aged between 18 and 21 years which were collated as part of doctoral work which sought to access the life histories of adult male prisoners who were attending a prison school while incarcerated in prison. The nine life histories of the young men were collated not only…

  6. 我国11~12岁优秀男子体操运动员力量素质的评价与诊断%The evaluation and diagnosis of the strength capacities of excellent juvenile male gymnasts aged 11 and 12 in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂应军; 吕万刚

    2014-01-01

    By applying methods such as Delphi method, Radar analysis, Pareto analysis and target challenge model, and by building an evaluation index system, the authors carried out real-time evaluation and current condition diagnosis on the strength capacities of excellent juvenile male gymnasts aged 11 and 12 in China, and revealed the following findings:1) bent upper arm push proping strength as well as upper limb and torso specific strength are advantageous strength capacities of the male gymnasts in the 11-year old and 12-year old groups;in practical training, the gymnasts in the two age groups should strengthen the training of their weaknesses such as upper limb slow pulling strength, and the gymnasts in the 11-year old group should also enhance their waist and abdomen strength training quality; 2) in terms of training content arrangement, the gymnasts in the 11-year old and 12-year old groups should respectively pay attention to the training of upper limb pulling, quick bending and stretching and push propping strength, as well as up-per limb supporting, push propping and quick pulling strength;3) at the next stage, the gymnasts in the 11-year old group should mainly focus on enhancing their torso strength and lower limb explosive strength training quality, while the gymnasts in the 12-year old group should further strengthen their lower limb explosive strength training.%运用特尔菲法、雷达分析、帕雷托分析和目标挑战模型等方法,通过构建评价指标体系,对我国11~12岁优秀男子体操运动员力量素质进行实时评价与现状诊断。结果表明:1)上肢屈臂推撑力量和上肢与躯干专项力量分别是11岁组和12岁组男子体操运动员力量素质的优势环节;实践训练中两个年龄组应加强上肢慢用性拉引力量等薄弱环节的训练,11岁组还应提高腰腹力量的训练质量;2)训练内容安排方面,11岁组和12岁组应分别注重上肢拉引、快速屈伸与推撑力量

  7. Age management

    OpenAIRE

    Kratochvilová, Markéta

    2014-01-01

    The Bachelor‘s thesis focuses on Age Management and its areas of influence. This term is most often discussed in connection with a problem which is currently common for all European Union countries – the ageing of society. In the near future, the structure of society is very likely to be altered drastically as a consequence of this phenomenon and due to the severity of the effects, it is necessary to begin addressing this problem. The first part of the thesis concerns itself with processing d...

  8. Lisina digestível e zinco orgânico para frangos de corte machos na fase de 22 a 42 dias de idade Digestible lysine and zinc chelate for male broilers from 22 to 42 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messias Alves da Trindade Neto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos dietéticos de lisina digestível e zinco quelato para frangos de corte machos entre 22 e 42 dias de idade foram avaliados em dois ensaios experimentais. Adotou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial 5 × 2, com cinco níveis de lisina (0,841; 0,876; 0,997; 1,022 e 1,030% e dois de zinco (43 e 243 ppm. No primeiro ensaio, utilizaram-se 900 aves com peso médio inicial de 957,4 g distribuídas em parcelas experimentais de 30 aves e três repetições e, no segundo ensaio, 180 frangos com peso médio inicial de 866,22 g, divididos em parcelas de três aves e seis repetições. As características avaliadas foram desempenho, rendimento de cortes e composição corporal (1º ensaio, balanço de nitrogênio e digestibilidade aparente das dietas (2º ensaio. Houve interação entre os níveis de lisina e zinco para o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar, a matéria seca ingerida e o balanço energético. Os rendimentos de peito, coxa e sobrecoxa tiveram aumentos lineares em resposta ao acréscimo no nível de lisina digestível na dieta. O melhor desempenho foi obtido com o nível de 0,997% de lisina digestível (ou 1,134% lisina total e de 43 ppm de zinco. Para maior rendimento dos cortes, o nível de lisina digestível recomendável deve ser no mínimo 1,002% (ou 1,139% de lisina total, independentemente dos níveis de zinco quelato. A maior inclusão de zinco em dietas para frangos de corte dos 22 aos 42 dias de idade não melhora a utilização da lisina na dieta e aumenta a deposição de gordura corporal.The dietary effects of digestible lysine and chelate zinc for male broiler chickens from 22 to 42 days of age were evaluated in two experimental assays. A complete randomized block experimental design in a 5 × 2 factorial, with five lysine levels (0.841, 0.876, 0.997, 1.022 and 1.030% and two levels of zinc (43 and 243 ppm was used. In the first assay, it was used 900 birds with initial average weight 957.4 g

  9. Age determination of raccoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, G.A.; Sanderson, G.C.; Rogers, J.P.

    1970-01-01

    Age criteria, based on 61 skulls and eye lenses from 103 known-age captives, are described for separating raccoons (Procyon lotor) into eight age-classes as follows: young-of-the-year, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-7, > 7 years. Criteria studied were eye lens nitrogen, cranial suture closure, tooth wear and incisor cementum layers. Lens nitrogen increased rapidly up to 12 months of age, but at much reduced rate thereafter. Total lens nitrogen was useful only in separating young-of-the-year from adults. The closure sequence for five cranial sutures accurately divided the total known-age sample of males into seven groups, and the adults into five groups. The tooth wear criteria divided the known-age sample into five relative age groups, but aging of individuals by this method was inaccurate. Histological sectioning of known-age teeth was the best method of observing layering in the cementum tissue. The technique of basing estimation of age on cementum ring counts, although subjective, was accurate for aging individuals through their fourth year but tended to underestimate the age of animals over 4 years old. However, suture closure or tooth wear can be used to identify males over 4 years old. In field studies, technical difficulties limit the utility of age estimation by cementum layers. Maximum root thickness of the lower canine was accurate in determining the sex of individuals from 5 months to ,at least 48 months of age.

  10. Male fertility in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chotirmall, S H

    2011-04-05

    Infertility rates among males with cystic fibrosis (CF) approximate 97%. No information is currently available within Ireland determining an understanding of fertility issues and the best methods of information provision to this specialized group. This study aimed to determine understanding and preferred approaches to information provision on fertility issues to Irish CF males. A Descriptive Study utilizing prospective coded questionnaires was mailed to a male CF cohort (n=50). Sections included demographics, fertility knowledge & investigation. Response rate was 16\\/50 (32%). All were aware that CF affected their fertility. More than two-thirds (n=11) were able to provide explanations whilst only one-third (n=5) provided the correct explanation. Significant numbers stated thoughts of marriage and a future family. Half have discussed fertility with a healthcare professional (HCP). Mean age of discussion was 21.9 years. One third preferred an earlier discussion. The commonest first source for information was written material which was also the preferred source. Three-quarters requested further information preferring again, written material. Significant gaps in sex education of Irish CF males exist. Discussion should be initiated by HCPs and centre-directed written material devised to address deficiencies.

  11. The influence of life history milestones and association networks on crop-raiding behavior in male African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiyo, Patrick I; Moss, Cynthia J; Alberts, Susan C

    2012-01-01

    Factors that influence learning and the spread of behavior in wild animal populations are important for understanding species responses to changing environments and for species conservation. In populations of wildlife species that come into conflict with humans by raiding cultivated crops, simple models of exposure of individual animals to crops do not entirely explain the prevalence of crop raiding behavior. We investigated the influence of life history milestones using age and association patterns on the probability of being a crop raider among wild free ranging male African elephants; we focused on males because female elephants are not known to raid crops in our study population. We examined several features of an elephant association network; network density, community structure and association based on age similarity since they are known to influence the spread of behaviors in a population. We found that older males were more likely to be raiders than younger males, that males were more likely to be raiders when their closest associates were also raiders, and that males were more likely to be raiders when their second closest associates were raiders older than them. The male association network had sparse associations, a tendency for individuals similar in age and raiding status to associate, and a strong community structure. However, raiders were randomly distributed between communities. These features of the elephant association network may limit the spread of raiding behavior and likely determine the prevalence of raiding behavior in elephant populations. Our results suggest that social learning has a major influence on the acquisition of raiding behavior in younger males whereas life history factors are important drivers of raiding behavior in older males. Further, both life-history and network patterns may influence the acquisition and spread of complex behaviors in animal populations and provide insight on managing human-wildlife conflict. PMID:22347468

  12. The influence of life history milestones and association networks on crop-raiding behavior in male African elephants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick I Chiyo

    Full Text Available Factors that influence learning and the spread of behavior in wild animal populations are important for understanding species responses to changing environments and for species conservation. In populations of wildlife species that come into conflict with humans by raiding cultivated crops, simple models of exposure of individual animals to crops do not entirely explain the prevalence of crop raiding behavior. We investigated the influence of life history milestones using age and association patterns on the probability of being a crop raider among wild free ranging male African elephants; we focused on males because female elephants are not known to raid crops in our study population. We examined several features of an elephant association network; network density, community structure and association based on age similarity since they are known to influence the spread of behaviors in a population. We found that older males were more likely to be raiders than younger males, that males were more likely to be raiders when their closest associates were also raiders, and that males were more likely to be raiders when their second closest associates were raiders older than them. The male association network had sparse associations, a tendency for individuals similar in age and raiding status to associate, and a strong community structure. However, raiders were randomly distributed between communities. These features of the elephant association network may limit the spread of raiding behavior and likely determine the prevalence of raiding behavior in elephant populations. Our results suggest that social learning has a major influence on the acquisition of raiding behavior in younger males whereas life history factors are important drivers of raiding behavior in older males. Further, both life-history and network patterns may influence the acquisition and spread of complex behaviors in animal populations and provide insight on managing human

  13. Gender and Age Differences among Teen Drivers in Fatal Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedler, David I; Bowman, Stephen M; Baker, Susan P

    2012-01-01

    To identify age and gender differences among teen drivers in fatal crashes, we analyzed FARS data for 14,026crashes during 2007-2009. Compared with female teenagers, crashes of male teenagers were significantly more likely to involve BACs of 0.08% or more (21% vs. 12%), speeding (38% vs. 25%), reckless driving (17% vs. 14%), night driving (41% vs. 36%) and felony crashes (hit-and-run, homicide, or manslaughter) (8% vs. 6%) (all χ(2) p<0.001). Conversely, crashes of female teenagers were more likely to involve right angle ("t-bone") crashes (23% vs. 17%). Some crash characteristics associated with males and known to play a major role in crash causation also are more common in the youngest teenagers; for example, crashes of drivers age 15 or 16 were more likely than crashes of older teens to involve speeding or reckless driving. Crashes of drivers with BACs of 0.08% or higher increased with age in both genders. Some age effects differed by gender: for example, the proportion of crashes of female teens that involved speeding dropped from 38% to 22% between ages 15 and 19, while for males about 38% of crashes at each age involved speeding. The gender and age differences observed in teen drivers suggest opportunities for targeted driver training - for example, simulator training modules specifically tailored for male or female teenagers. Technology-based tools could also be developed to help parents to focus on the reckless driving tendencies of their sons. Insurance companies should consider ways to incentivize young males to drive more responsibly. PMID:23169121

  14. Determinants of exercise peak arterial blood pressure, circulatory power, and exercise cardiac power in a population based sample of Finnish male and female aged 30 to 47 years: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hulkkonen, Janne; Aatola, Heikki; Pälve, Kristiina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Viikari, Jorma SA; Raitakari, Olli T.; Kähönen, Mika

    2014-01-01

    Background Novel parameters derived from peak maximal oxygen uptake (VO2) and exercise arterial blood pressure, such as peak circulatory power (CP) and exercise cardiac power (ECP), can be used in the risk assessment of cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, the determinants of these factors are poorly characterized in the general population. Methods We assessed peak arterial blood pressure, CP and ECP with standardized cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) on 281 female and 257 male part...

  15. Adolescent Males in Dance: A Closer Look at Their Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zihao

    2011-01-01

    The pronounced gender imbalance in dance has been the norm for some time. Some studies focus on established male dancers and others focus on aspects of physical education in dance. However, studies about adolescent male dance students (nonprofessional dancers in any form) who take dance classes in a high school setting are almost nonexistent.…

  16. Neuromuscular Risk Factors for Knee and Ankle Ligament Injuries in Male Youth Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Paul J; Oliver, Jon L; De Ste Croix, Mark B A; Myer, Gregory D; Lloyd, Rhodri S

    2016-08-01

    Injuries reported in male youth soccer players most commonly occur in the lower extremities, and include a high proportion of ligament sprains at the ankle and knee with a lower proportion of overuse injuries. There is currently a paucity of available literature that examines age- and sex-specific injury risk factors for such injuries within youth soccer players. Epidemiological data have reported movements that lead to non-contact ligament injury include running, twisting and turning, over-reaching and landing. Altered neuromuscular control during these actions has been suggested as a key mechanism in females and adult populations; however, data available in male soccer players is sparse. The focus of this article is to review the available literature and elucidate prevalent risk factors pertaining to male youth soccer players which may contribute to their relative risk of injury. PMID:26856339

  17. Selective androgen receptor modulators for the treatment of late onset male hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coss, Christopher C; Jones, Amanda; Hancock, Michael L; Steiner, Mitchell S; Dalton, James T

    2014-01-01

    Several testosterone preparations are used in the treatment of hypogonadism in the ageing male. These therapies differ in their convenience, flexibility, regional availability and expense but share their pharmacokinetic basis of approval and dearth of long-term safety data. The brevity and relatively reduced cost of pharmacokinetic based registration trials provides little commercial incentive to develop improved novel therapies for the treatment of late onset male hypogonadism. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) have been shown to provide anabolic benefit in the absence of androgenic effects on prostate, hair and skin. Current clinical development for SARMs is focused on acute muscle wasting conditions with defi ned clinical endpoints of physical function and lean body mass. Similar regulatory clarity concerning clinical deficits in men with hypogonadism is required before the beneficial pharmacology and desirable pharmacokinetics of SARMs can be employed in the treatment of late onset male hypogonadism.

  18. Selective androgen receptor modulators for the treatment of late onset male hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C Coss

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several testosterone preparations are used in the treatment of hypogonadism in the ageing male. These therapies differ in their convenience, flexibility, regional availability and expense but share their pharmacokinetic basis of approval and dearth of long-term safety data. The brevity and relatively reduced cost of pharmacokinetic based registration trials provides little commercial incentive to develop improved novel therapies for the treatment of late onset male hypogonadism. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs have been shown to provide anabolic benefit in the absence of androgenic effects on prostate, hair and skin. Current clinical development for SARMs is focused on acute muscle wasting conditions with defi ned clinical endpoints of physical function and lean body mass. Similar regulatory clarity concerning clinical deficits in men with hypogonadism is required before the beneficial pharmacology and desirable pharmacokinetics of SARMs can be employed in the treatment of late onset male hypogonadism.

  19. Predictors of male microchimerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo;

    2012-01-01

    logistic regression and thereafter random forest modeling to evaluate the ability of a range of reproductive, lifestyle, hospital or clinic visit history, and other variables to predict whether women tested positive for male microchimerism. We found some indication that current use of contraceptive pills...... confounding and reverse causation. To address the issue of confounding, we conducted an analysis of predictors of male microchimerism in 272 female participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Buffy coat DNA was tested for Y chromosome presence as a marker of male microchimerism. First, we used...... and hormone replacement therapy reduced the odds of testing positive for male microchimerism. However, prediction of male microchimerism presence was poor based on the available variables. Studies of the possible role of male microchimerism in maternal health and disease are therefore unlikely to be heavily...

  20. Rozbor morfologie nohy u chlapců a dívek ve věku Infans 2 a Juvenis Analysis of morphology of foot in Moravian male and female students in the age Infans 2 and Juvenis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Peštuková

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available U 106 studentů a 162 studentek z Gymnázia ve Šternberku a Střední integrované školy v Ostravě ve věku 12–18 let byl sledován morfologický typ nohy, index nohy pro hodnocení podélné klenby nožní, vyosení palce a malíku, úhel paty a stav svalstva dolních končetin. U chlapců i dívek byla nalezena výrazně vyšší frekvence výskytu nohy egyptské (71,69 % a 70,99 %. Noha kvadratická se vyskytovala u chlapců ve velmi nízkém procentu (2,83 % s určitou individuální asymetrií, u dívek nalezena nebyla. Diagnostika plochonoží metodou Chippauxe–Šmiřáka poskytla velmi příznivé výsledky (4,94–10,38 % výskytu ploché nohy, metoda podle Szritera–Godunova naopak nález podstatně horší (38,2–43,21 % výskytu ploché nohy. S nulovým stavem vyosení palce jsme se setkali u necelé čtvrtiny souborů. U souboru chlapců byla četnost projevu valgozity a varozity palce téměř vyrovnána, věcně převažovalo varózní postavení palce vpravo. U souboru dívek dominovalo signifikantně valgózní postavení. Průměrné hodnoty se pohybovaly v rozmezí 4 až 7 stupňů. Průměrná hodnota úhlu malíku, charakterizující vbočený malík, byla vysoká (17,73 až 21,90 stupně. Průměrný úhel paty byl diagnostikován v rozmezí 15 až 18 stupňů. Při hodnocení vztahů mezi zkrácením svalů dolní končetiny a poruchami funkčního stavu klenby nožní (pouze u mužů jsme nalezli potvrzení statistické významnosti závislosti u vyosení paty a zkrácení m. triceps surae sin. a signifikantní závislost mezi úhlem paty a zkrácením flexorů kolen sin. Morphological foot type, foot index for longitudinal foot vault, misalignment of the big and little toes, heel angle and lower limb muscles condition were monitored in 106 male students and 162 female students from the Gymnasium school in Šternberk and the Integrated secondary school in Ostrava ranging in age from 12 to 18 years. A considerably

  1. Gestational age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal age - gestational age; Gestation; Neonatal gestational age; Newborn gestational age ... Gestational age can be determined before or after birth. Before birth, your health care provider will use ...

  2. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  3. Male mate choice in hermit crabs: prudence by inferior males and simple preference by superior males

    OpenAIRE

    Wada, Satoshi; Arashiro, Yuusei; Takeshita, Fumio; Shibata, Yasutoki

    2011-01-01

    In species with both male-male competition and male mate choice, inferior males may make different mate choice decisions from superior males. Males of the intertidal hermit crab, Pagurus middendorffii, are known to conduct precopulatory guarding and to adjust the threshold for guarding according to social parameters, such as encounter rate with females, competitor size, and sex ratio. Larger males are stronger in male--male competition during guarding in this species. We here tested whether m...

  4. 46,XX Male Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Uçan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 46, XX male syndrome – testicular disorder of sexual differentiation (DSD is a rare condition characterized by a spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from ambiguous to normal male genitalia. These cases are diagnosed more easily in childhood. In adults, the diagnosis can be difficult due to the current normal gender development. Here, we report hormonal, molecular and cytogenetic results in an adult male patient with primary hypogonadism who was diagnosed with 46, XX male syndrome in our clinic. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 46-8

  5. Physical activity and sedentary time: male perceptions in a university work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Emma S; Kolt, Gregory S; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Guagliano, Justin M

    2014-03-01

    Promoting physical activity and reducing sedentary time in males can be challenging, and interventions tailored specifically for males are limited. Understanding male perceptions of physical activity and sedentary behavior is important to inform development of relevant interventions, especially for males working in an office setting. As part of a larger intervention study to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary time, male university employees aged 35 to 64 years were invited to partake in focus groups to discuss benefits, motivators, and barriers related to physical activity and sedentary time. Five semistructured focus group sessions, ranging from 50 to 70 minutes in duration, were conducted on two campuses at an Australian university. A total of 15 participants (9 academic/faculty staff and 6 professional staff), with a mean (± SD) age of 46.1 (±8.0) years took part in the study. Health and family were commonly discussed motivators for physical activity, whereas time constraints and work commitments were major barriers to physical activity participation. Sedentary time was a perceived "by-product" of participants' university employment, as a substantial proportion of their days were spent sitting, primarily at a computer. Participants believed that physical activity should be recognized as a legitimate activity at work, embedded within the university culture and endorsed using a top-down approach. It is important to encourage breaks in sedentary time and recognize physical activity as a legitimate health-promoting activity that is supported and encouraged during working hours. These findings can be used as a platform from which to develop targeted strategies to promote physical activity in male university employees.

  6. A cross-cultural study investigating body features associated with male adolescents' body dissatisfaction in Australia, China, and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, David; Hucker, Alice; Waterhouse, Monique; binti Mamat, Norul Hidayah; Xu, Xiaoyan; Cochrane, Jamie; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated how dissatisfaction with particular aspects of the body was associated with overall body dissatisfaction among male adolescents in Western and Asian cultures. One hundred and six Malaysian Malays, 55 Malaysian Chinese, 195 Chinese from China, and 45 non-Asian Australians aged 12 to 19 years completed a questionnaire assessing dissatisfaction with their overall body and dissatisfaction with varying aspects of their body. Dissatisfaction with the face, height, and hair was positively correlated with overall body dissatisfaction among Malaysian Malays after body mass index, age and dissatisfaction with body areas typically included in measures (weight/shape, upper, middle, and lower body, and muscles) had been controlled for. Dissatisfaction with the face was positively correlated with overall body dissatisfaction among Malaysian Chinese. These findings demonstrate the differences in body focus for males from different cultures and the importance of using assessment measures that address all possible areas of body focus. PMID:24707036

  7. Male Involvement in Family Planning: Challenges and Way Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademola Adelekan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Public health officials have advocated the involvement of men as a strategy for addressing the dismal performance of family planning (FP programmes. This study was therefore designed to explore the challenges and determine way forward to male involvement in FP in Olorunda Local Government Area, Osogbo, Nigeria. This cross-sectional study involved the use of a four-stage sampling technique to select 500 married men and interviewed them using semistructured questionnaire. In addition, four focus group discussions (FGDs were also conducted. Mean age of respondents was 28.5 ± 10.3 years. Some (37.9% of the respondents’ spouse had ever used FP and out of which 19.0% were currently using FP. Only 4.8% of the respondents had ever been involved in FP. Identified barriers to male involvement included the perception that FP is woman’s activity and was not their custom to participate in FP programme. More than half of the FGD discussants were of the view that men should provide their wives with transport fare and other resources they may need for FP. The majority of the respondents had never been involved in family planning with their wives. Community sensitization programmes aimed at improving male involvement in FP should be provided by government and nongovernmental agencies.

  8. Focus Intonation in Bengali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md. Kamrul

    2015-01-01

    This work attempts to investigate the role of prosody in the syntax of focus in Bangla. The aim of this study is to show the intonation pattern of Bangla in emphasis and focus. In order to do that, the author has looked at the pattern of focus without-i/o as well as with the same. Do they really pose any different focus intonation pattern from…

  9. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  10. Female Survival Advantage Relates to Male Inferiority Rather Than Female Superiority: A Hypothesis Based on the Impact of Age and Stroke Severity on 1-Week to 1-Year Case Fatality in 40,155 Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, T.S.; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is generally believed that differences in age, stroke characteristics, and cardiovascular risk factors account for observed sex-specific differences in stroke survival. Objectives: We aimed to study female stroke survival advantage before and after the average age of menopause......, and whether female survival advantage applies only to patients for whom stroke is the most likely cause of death. Methods: The Danish National Indicator Project, a registry designed to list all hospitalized stroke patients in Denmark beginning in March 2001, had 40,155 registered patients as of February 2007...... until death or censoring. Case fatality (stratified by 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 1 year) in men and women was correlated with age and stroke severity. Adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors was performed by means of multivariate regression analysis. Results: A total of 20,854 (51.9%) men and 19...

  11. Male skin care: shaving and moisturization needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblong, John E

    2012-01-01

    Historically, most cosmetic and medical cosmetic research has been focused on the female consumer. Advancements in the development of grooming instruments as well as changing consumer habits and attitudes toward male cosmetic skin care needs support the need to develop a deeper understanding of male skin biology and how that can be used to improve the quality of life relative to societal interactions. Male skin biology has been found to have unique properties that are distinct from females and have a significant impact on the way males groom and maintain their overall appearance. Research to date has found that male skin has a different response profile to such environmental insults as UV, heat, and stress that is based not on just differences in cosmetic or dermatological product usage but also on underlying biological differences. These differences are discussed with the implications to a broader understanding of male facial skin care needs that spans from daily grooming practices to overall health status that impacts higher incidence rate of skin cancer among males. This highlights that male skin care has a holistic need to ensure proper grooming and sunscreen moisturizer usage. PMID:22913441

  12. Male skin care: shaving and moisturization needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblong, John E

    2012-01-01

    Historically, most cosmetic and medical cosmetic research has been focused on the female consumer. Advancements in the development of grooming instruments as well as changing consumer habits and attitudes toward male cosmetic skin care needs support the need to develop a deeper understanding of male skin biology and how that can be used to improve the quality of life relative to societal interactions. Male skin biology has been found to have unique properties that are distinct from females and have a significant impact on the way males groom and maintain their overall appearance. Research to date has found that male skin has a different response profile to such environmental insults as UV, heat, and stress that is based not on just differences in cosmetic or dermatological product usage but also on underlying biological differences. These differences are discussed with the implications to a broader understanding of male facial skin care needs that spans from daily grooming practices to overall health status that impacts higher incidence rate of skin cancer among males. This highlights that male skin care has a holistic need to ensure proper grooming and sunscreen moisturizer usage.

  13. A mixed-methods study of condom use and decision making among adolescent gay and bisexual males

    OpenAIRE

    MUSTANSKI, BRIAN; DuBois, L. Zachary; Prescott, Tonya L.; Ybarra, Michele L.

    2014-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men have the highest rates of new HIV infections in the U.S., but they have been understudied relative to other populations. As a formative step for the development of a text messaging HIV prevention intervention, this mixed methods study aimed to understand how adolescent gay and bisexual males (AGBM) make decisions about condom use and factors that may differ based on age, sexual experience, and rural versus urban residency. Four online, asynchronous focus groups...

  14. Normative references of heart rate variability and salivary alpha-amylase in a healthy young male population

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi Hiromitsu; Park Bum-Jin; Miyazaki Yoshifumi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aimed to present normative reference values of heart rate variability and salivary alpha-amylase in a healthy young male population with a particular focus on their distribution and reproducibility. Methods The short-term heart rate variability of 417 young healthy Japanese men was studied. Furthermore, salivary alpha-amylase was measured in 430 men. The average age of the subjects were 21.9 years with standard deviation of 1.6 years. Interindividual variations ...

  15. Language and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Susan; Anagnopoulos, Cheryl

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the effects of aging on language usage focusing on three areas of exploration: (1) changes in language in relation to changes in other cognitive abilities, (2) the linguistic consequences of normal aging versus those of dementia and aphasia, and (3) age-group differences in patterns of conversational interaction. (67 references) (GLR)

  16. Efficacy of Child-Focused and Parent-Focused Interventions in a Child Anxiety Prevention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ellin; Bogels, Susan Maria; Voncken, Jannie Marisol

    2011-01-01

    This study examined anxiety development in median- (n = 74) and high-anxious children (n = 183) aged 8-13, the effect of parent- and child-focused preventive interventions on child/parental anxiety, and the effect of parental anxiety on child anxiety. High-anxious children were randomized into a parent-focused (n = 69), child-focused (n = 58) or…

  17. Chromosomal disorders and male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary L Harton; Helen G Tempest

    2012-01-01

    infertility in humans is surprisingly common occurring in approximately 15% of the population wishing to start a family.Despite this,the molecular and genetic factors underlying the cause of infertility remain largely undiscovered.Nevertheless,more and more genetic factors associated with infertility are being identified.This review will focus on our current understanding of the chromosomal basis of male infertility specifically:chromosomal aneuploidy,structural and numerical karyotype abnormalities and Y chromosomal microdeletions.Chromosomal aneuploidy is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and developmental disabilities in humans.Aneuploidy is predominantly maternal in origin,but concerns have been raised regarding the safety of intracytoplasmic sperm injection as infertile men have significantly higher levels of sperm aneuploidy compared to their fertile counterparts.Males with numerical or structural karyotype abnormalities are also at an increased risk of producing aneuploid sperm.Our current understanding of how sperm aneuploidy translates to embryo aneuploidy will be reviewed,as well as the application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in such cases.Clinical recommendations where possible will be made,as well as discussion of the use of emerging array technology in PGD and its potential applications in male infertility.

  18. Racial microstressors, racial self-concept, and depressive symptoms among male African Americans during the transition to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Steven M; Yu, Tianyi; Allen, Kimberly A; Brody, Gene H

    2015-04-01

    Racial discrimination is a pervasive stressor that can undermine mental health among African American youth and young adults. Several studies identify links between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms; however, this research base does not focus on male African American youth who experience significant racism-related stress during the transition to young adulthood. Moreover, few prospective studies consider significant confounding variables that affect exposure to and perception of discriminatory treatment. In response to this need, we examined the effect of exposure to racial discrimination from ages 16 to 18 on depressive symptoms among male African Americans at age 20. Racial self-concept, one's sense of positivity about one's race, was examined as a mediator and self-control as a moderator. Hypotheses were tested with 222 participants, age 16 at baseline and age 20 at the endpoint. Participants provided self-report data at five time points. Exposure to racial discrimination from ages 16 to 18 predicted depressive symptoms at age 20, net of confounding influences. Racial self-concept mediated this effect. Self-control moderated the influence of discrimination on racial self-concept. This study underscores the salience of racial discrimination in the development of depressive symptoms among African American male youth and the clinical utility of interventions targeting racial pride and self-control.

  19. Hidden Unemployment and Older Male Workers

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Martin

    2004-01-01

    A number of policy reforms have recently been announced by the Commonwealth government to encourage greater labour force participation by older people in the context of an ageing society. These policy reforms are generally supply side in orientation such as the removal of the Mature Age Allowance, or restrictions to the Disability Support Pension. In this paper it is argued that these pensions have historically been used to accommodate otherwise unemployed older male workers. A number of meth...

  20. Genitive focus in Supyire

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Robert,

    2006-01-01

    Supyire has two distinct genitive constructions, one consisting of juxtaposed nouns, and the other marked with a particle. This study demonstrates that the marked genitive correlates significantly in natural discourse with contrastive focus as operationally defined in Myhill and Xing (1996). The method used avoids the vicious circularity of many discourse-based studies of focus. Contrastive focus, rather than being "coded", is a pragmatic construal which is dependent on other elements in the ...

  1. Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone Differentially Improve Cognition in Aged Female Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benice, Ted S.; Raber, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Compared with age-matched male mice, female mice experience a more severe age-related cognitive decline (ACD). Since androgens are less abundant in aged female mice compared with aged male mice, androgen supplementation may enhance cognition in aged female mice. To test this, we assessed behavioral performance on a variety of tasks in 22- to…

  2. Male Pattern Alopecia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baldness (alopecia), or androgenetic alopecia, is the patterned balding of a man. Although the condition may affect ... dihydrotestosterone – play a role in this form of balding. Who's At Risk Male pattern baldness affects many ...

  3. Breast enlargement in males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gynecomastia; Breast enlargement in a male ... The condition may occur in one or both breasts. It begins as a small lump beneath the nipple, which may be tender. One breast may be larger than the other. Enlarged breasts ...

  4. Causes of Male Infertility

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Smoking Cessation Links to Professional Societies and Organizations Home › Causes of Male Infertility Dr. Roger Lobo of ... Find a Health Care Provider Back to Top Home | About Us | Reproductive Health Topics | News & Publications | Resources ...

  5. Males and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  6. Male pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baldness. Medicines that treat male pattern baldness include: Minoxidil (Rogaine), a solution that is applied directly to ... slows hair loss. It works slightly better than minoxidil. Hair loss returns when you stop using this ...

  7. Causes of Male Infertility

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Roger Lobo of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine covers causes of male infertility. "Understanding Infertility - The ... videos produced for the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Looking for Additional Information? Visit our provider site ...

  8. Self catheterization - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000143.htm Self catheterization - male To use the sharing features on ... Read More Urinary incontinence Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Multiple sclerosis - discharge Stroke - discharge Urinary catheters - ...

  9. Alcohol references on undergraduate males' Facebook profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Katie G; Moreno, Megan A

    2011-09-01

    Perceived peer alcohol use is a predictor of consumption in college males; frequent references to alcohol on Facebook may encourage alcohol consumption. Content analysis of college males' Facebook profiles identified references to alcohol. The average age of 225 identified profiles was 19.9 years. Alcohol references were present on 85.3% of the profiles; the prevalence of alcohol was similar across each undergraduate grade. The average number of alcohol references per profile was 8.5 but increased with undergraduate year (p = .003; confidence interval = 1.5, 7.5). Students who were of legal drinking age referenced alcohol 4.5 times more than underage students, and an increase in number of Facebook friends was associated with an increase in displayed alcohol references (p Facebook is widely used in the college population; widespread alcohol displays on Facebook may influence social norms and cause increases in male college students' alcohol use.

  10. Alcohol references on undergraduate males' Facebook profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Katie G; Moreno, Megan A

    2011-09-01

    Perceived peer alcohol use is a predictor of consumption in college males; frequent references to alcohol on Facebook may encourage alcohol consumption. Content analysis of college males' Facebook profiles identified references to alcohol. The average age of 225 identified profiles was 19.9 years. Alcohol references were present on 85.3% of the profiles; the prevalence of alcohol was similar across each undergraduate grade. The average number of alcohol references per profile was 8.5 but increased with undergraduate year (p = .003; confidence interval = 1.5, 7.5). Students who were of legal drinking age referenced alcohol 4.5 times more than underage students, and an increase in number of Facebook friends was associated with an increase in displayed alcohol references (p Facebook is widely used in the college population; widespread alcohol displays on Facebook may influence social norms and cause increases in male college students' alcohol use. PMID:21406490

  11. 46, XX male sex reversal syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-HongLi; Tian-HuaHuang; Xue-WuJiang; Qing-DongXie

    2004-01-01

    46, XX male sex reversal syndrome is a rare anomaly with the characteristics of discordant chromosomal and gonadal sex. Since 1988, 5 children, aged 2-7 years,with normal height and body weight, were admitted to this hospital with hypospadias and chordee (1 perineal, 2 penoscrotal and 1 penile curvature with short urethra

  12. Male mating biology

    OpenAIRE

    Howell Paul I; Knols Bart GJ

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. Previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (SIT) projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious phenotypes...

  13. Thyroid and male reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  14. Toxicity of Field-Aged Permethrin-Loaded Attracticides on Choristoneura rosaceana (HARRIS and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Adult Males and Females Toxicidad de Atracticidas en Base a Permetrina Envejecidos en Campo, sobre Machos y Hembras Adultas de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Curkovic

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Lethal and sub lethal effects were evaluated in the laboratory on Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott males exposed to an attracticide loaded with permethrin and aged in the field. The effect of pairing conspecific females with previously intoxicated males was also evaluated. In both species a significantly greater mortality of male moths (≥ 95% was observed 24 h after exposure to t he attracticide formulation. Likewise, high levels of knock down (≥ 75% were observed in males of both species 1 h after attracticide exposure. In females, knock down was ≥ 2.5% and mortality ≥ 3.3% after pairing with intoxicated males. Leg autotomy in males was at least 73% in C. rosaceana and ≥ 41% in P. pyrusana, 24 h after attracticide exposure; whereas it was only ≥ 10% among females of both species after pairing with intoxicated males. Moths exposed to an attracticide blank (permethrin-free showed significantly lower effects in all parameters (0-3.3%. Fecundity and fertility were also significantly affected after pairing females with intoxicated males. There was no significant decrease in mortality, leg autotomy, and fecundity associated with age of the attracticide. Results suggest a high potential for the use of attracticides against these two tortricid species.Los efectos letales y subletales sobre machos de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott expuestos a un atracticida basado en permetrina, envejecido en condiciones de campo, fueron evaluados en laboratorio. También se evaluó el efecto de emparejar hembras conespecíficas con machos previamente intoxicados. En ambas especies se observó mortalidad de machos significativamente mayor (≥ 95% 24 h post exposición al atracticida. Asimismo, altos niveles de “volteo” de individuos (≥ 75% se observaron en machos de ambas especies 1 h post exposición al atracticida. En hembras, el nivel de “volteo” fue ≥ 2,5% y la mortalidad ≥ 3

  15. Unexplained Male infertility: diagnosis and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Hamada

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Unexplained male infertility is a diagnosis reserved for men in whom routine semen analyses results are within normal values and physical as well as endocrine abnormalities were ruled out. In addition to erectile problems and coital factors, immunologic causes and sperm dysfunction may contribute to such condition. New etiologies of unexplained male infertility include low level leukocytospermia and mitochondrial DNA polymerase gene polymorphism. Contemporary andrology may reveal cellular and sub-cellular sperm dysfunctions which may explain subfertility in such cases, thus aiding the clinician to direct the further work-up, diagnosis and counseling of the infertile male. The objective of this article is to highlight the concept of unexplained male infertility and focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of this condition in the era of modern andrology and assisted reproductive techniques. Extensive literature review was performed using the search engines: Pubmed, Science-direct, Ovid and Scopus.

  16. Bodily integrity and male and female circumcision.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, W.J.M.; Hoffer, C.; Wils, J.-P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the ambiguous notion of bodily integrity, focusing on male and female circumcision. In the empirical part of the study we describe and analyse the various meanings that are given to the notion of bodily integrity by people in their daily lives. In the philosophical part we distin

  17. The evolution and significance of male mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward, Dominic A; Chapman, Tracey

    2011-12-01

    The distinct reproductive roles of males and females, which for many years were characterised in terms of competitive males and choosy females, have remained a central focus of sexual selection since Darwin's time. Increasing evidence now shows that males can be choosy too, even in apparently unexpected situations, such as under polygyny or in the absence of male parental care. Here, we provide a synthesis of the theory on male mate choice and examine the factors that promote or constrain its evolution. We also discuss the evolutionary significance of male mate choice and the contrasts in male versus female mate choice. We conclude that mate choice by males is potentially widespread and has a distinct role in how mating systems evolve.

  18. GENÉTICA MOLECULAR Y BIOGERONTOLOGÍA EN LA ERA POSGENÓMICA:: UN ENFOQUE EN LAS SIRTUINAS Molecular Genetics of Aging in the Postgenomic Era:: A Focus on Sirtuins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHADAY MICHÁN

    and automated sequencing, which allowed later to determine the anatomy of genomes. All of these discoveries have pushed the evolution of biomedicine towards the genomic and postgenomic eras, in which the use of reverse genetics prevails over the basic or direct one. Furthermore, it emerges the molecular genetics, the functional genomics and the diverse -omics- technologies that together pretend to understand, in an integrative way, the function of all of the genome components and its products. Biogerontology, discipline that studies the biological mechanisms of aging, is one of the fields that has developed notoriously in the last 15 years and reflects the scientific advances of the postgenomic era. Currently, there have been identified several gerontogenes and molecular pathways that modify and regulate age-related processes and diseases. Among these genes are the sirtuins, an evolutionarily preserved family of genes, which codify for proteins with NAD+ dependent deacetylase activity and that play an important role on aging. In this work, we review different reverse genetics approaches that have been used in order to identify some of the functions of these genes in mammals.

  19. Differences in Nuclear DNA Between Male-Sterile and Male-Fertile Lines of Sorghum bicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Chang-fa; SUN Chun-yun; GUO Xiao-cai; NIU Tian-tang; ZHANG Fu-yao

    2003-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (cms) is determined by nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions. Up tonow, most studies are focused on the comparison of cytoplasmic DNAs of male-sterile lines and male-fertilelines, and analysis of nuclear DNA has not been documented yet. In order to find out the possible difference innuclear genome of male-sterile line A1 Tx623 and corresponding male-fertile line Tx623 of sorghum, randomamplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) approach was used to analyze their cytoplasmic and nuclear genomes.Total DNAs of them were amplified at first to screen primers, which were able to generate reproducible bandsspecific to male-sterile line or male-fertile line. Then the selected primers were used to amplify their mitochon-drial DNA (mtDNA) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA). The origins of all the polymorphic fragments were ana-lyzed. After ruling out those amplified from cytoplasmic DNA, seventeen polymorphic fragments were deter-mined to be amplified from nuclear DNA. These fragments originated from nuclear DNA indicate that diffe-rences in sequence exist between the nuclear DNA of male-sterile line and male-fertile line of sorghum, whichdo not agree with the traditional standpoint that they have identical nucleus.

  20. Microfabricated particle focusing device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravula, Surendra K.; Arrington, Christian L.; Sigman, Jennifer K.; Branch, Darren W.; Brener, Igal; Clem, Paul G.; James, Conrad D.; Hill, Martyn; Boltryk, Rosemary June

    2013-04-23

    A microfabricated particle focusing device comprises an acoustic portion to preconcentrate particles over large spatial dimensions into particle streams and a dielectrophoretic portion for finer particle focusing into single-file columns. The device can be used for high throughput assays for which it is necessary to isolate and investigate small bundles of particles and single particles.

  1. A cross-sectional study on consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among male non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients between ages of 20 and 40 in Shanghai%上海地区20~40岁男性非酒精性脂肪性肝病人群含糖饮料消耗的横断面调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱筱丽; 胡义扬; 冯琴

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨过量饮用含糖饮料与非酒精性脂肪性肝病(NAFLD)的可能关系。方法采用随机抽样方法,选取经上海中医药大学附属曙光医院体检部 B 超确诊、20~40岁的92例 NAFLD 男性患者及73名健康男性进行问卷调查,收集体质量、BMI、腰围、饮料消费品种及每周饮料消耗量等资料;并对照各种常见饮料的营养成分表,计算每周通过饮料摄入的碳水化合物总量,进行组间比较分析。结果20~40岁 NAFLD 男性患者人群含糖饮料消耗量较健康人群均显著升高(P <0.01),NAFLD 平均每日通过饮料摄入碳水化合物19.03 g,显著高于健康男性的11.57 g;NAFLD 男性患者最喜爱的含糖饮料前三位依次为碳酸饮料类、茶饮料及凉茶类、果汁及果汁饮料类。结论过多的含糖饮料摄入可能是导致NAFLD 的重要危险因素。%Objective To investigate consumption differences of sugar-sweetened beverages between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)male patients and healthy males,and provide a scientific basis for carrying out targeted health education and guiding the rational consumption of beverages.Methods Using random method,92 male NAFLD patients (20 to 40 years old)diagnosed by ultrasound in Shanghai Shuguang hospital examination department and 73 healthy males of the same age were enrolled to do questionnaire about body weight,BMI and waist size,consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages,and so on.Total intake of carbohydrate per week from sugar-sweetened beverages was calculated and compared between two groups.Results Sugar-sweetened beverages consumption of male NAFLD patients was significant higher than that of healthy males (P <0.01 ).Average daily carbohydrate intake from sugar-sweetened beverages of NAFLD patients was 19.03g,which was higher than health people's 11 .57 g.The top three sugar-sweetened beverages of male NAFLD patients'favorite were carbonated beverages

  2. Sertoli cell as a model in male reproductive toxicology: Advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Mariana M S; Moreira, Ana C; Sousa, Mário; Mathur, Premendu P; Oliveira, Pedro F; Alves, Marco G

    2015-08-01

    Pressure towards population aging in the demographic pyramid is not only due to sociological/personal choices but also due to subfertility or infertility. There are several chemicals and mixtures that impair male fertility. While experimental animal models are crucial to identify compounds that affect male fertility, it is essential to use reliable in vitro models to determine cellular targets and intracellular pathways that mediate chemical toxicity in the male reproductive system. In this review, we focused on the somatic Sertoli cell (SC) that, within the testis, is a major target for hormonal signaling and provides physical and nutritional support to developing germ cells. The different outcomes possible in each type of study: in vivo versus in vitro (either in primary or immortalized cell cultures) are analyzed. Herein, we intend to clarify the unique features that render SCs as excellent candidates for a robust in vitro model to study the deleterious effects of chemicals on male reproductive health. The sensitivity of SCs to toxicants/pharmaceuticals is discussed and, based on the literature reviewed we propose the in vitro study of SC physiology as a model to disclose deleterious effects of substances to male fertility. PMID:25693974

  3. Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  4. Absorption driven focus shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, N.; Wolf, S.; Maerten, O.; Dudek, K.; Ballach, S.; Kramer, R.

    2016-03-01

    Modern high brilliance near infrared lasers have seen a tremendous growth in applications throughout the world. Increased productivity has been achieved by higher laser power and increased brilliance of lasers. Positive impacts on the performance and costs of parts are opposed to threats on process stability and quality, namely shift of focus position over time. A high initial process quality will be reduced by contamination of optics, eventually leading to a focus shift or even destruction of the optics. Focus analysis at full power of multi-kilowatt high brilliance lasers is a very demanding task because of high power densities in the spot and the high power load on optical elements. With the newly developed high power projection optics, the High-Power Micro-Spot Monitor High Brilliance (HP-MSM-HB) is able to measure focus diameter as low as 20 μm at power levels up to 10 kW at very low internal focus shift. A main driving factor behind thermally induced focus shift is the absorption level of the optical element. A newly developed measuring system is designed to determine the relative absorption level in reference to a gold standard. Test results presented show a direct correlation between absorption levels and focus shift. The ability to determine the absorption level of optical elements as well as their performance at full processing power before they are put to use, enables a high level of quality assurance for optics manufacturers and processing head manufacturers alike.

  5. Erectile Dysfunction in the Older Adult Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mola, Joanna R

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) in the older adult male is a significant problem affecting more than 75% of men over 70 years of age in the United States. Older men have an increased likelihood of developing ED due to chronic disease, comorbid conditions, and age-related changes. Research has demonstrated that while the prevalence and severity of ED increases with age, sexual desire often remains unchanged. This article discusses the clinical picture of ED, including relevant pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and evaluation and treatment options. PMID:26197627

  6. Male-male homosexology: seven short discourses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, John

    2004-09-01

    Homosexology is that branch of the science of sexology that deals with same sex relationships. It is subdivided into ideation, imagery, and praxis. Praxeology is the science of praxis. There are two doctrines by which homosexuality is defined: elective and developmental. Elective is like joining a political party and is more likely bisexual than exclusively homosexual. Complete developmental homosexuality is a state of being and is characteristically immutable. Both types of homosexuality are determined multivariately and sequentially, not univariately. Male and female mammals are phylogenically programmed to be reciprocal, not identical, in the praxeology of their courtship and mating. In primate, notably human, evolution, the eyes have taken over from the nose as organs of erotic arousal, but the molecular biology of how this happens in individual development, gay, straight or ambivalent, remains to be ascertained. The different personal histories of homosexual development also remain to be ascertained and cataloged. PMID:15506674

  7. New focused crawling algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Guiyang; Li Jianhua; Ma Yinghua; Li Shenghong; Song Juping

    2005-01-01

    Focused carawling is a new research approach of search engine. It restricts information retrieval and provides search service in specific topic area. Focused crawling search algorithm is a key technique of focused crawler which directly affects the search quality. This paper first introduces several traditional topic-specific crawling algorithms, then an inverse link based topic-specific crawling algorithm is put forward. Comparison experiment proves that this algorithm has a good performance in recall, obviously better than traditional Breadth-First and Shark-Search algorithms. The experiment also proves that this algorithm has a good precision.

  8. AGE Males by Broad Age Groups and Median Age NMSD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. AGE Males by Broad Age Groups and Median Age NMHD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. Dental age estimation based on third molar eruption in First Nation people of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeling, A; Olze, A; Pynn, B R; Kraul, V; Schulz, R; Heinecke, A; Pfeiffer, H

    2010-12-01

    Forensic age estimation of living subjects has become an increasing focus of interest in modern society. One main criterion for dental age estimation in the relevant age group is the evaluation of third molar eruption. The importance of ethnic variation in dental development requires population specific data for dental age evaluation. In the present study, we determined the stages of third molar eruption in 347 female and 258 male First Nations people of Canada aged 11 to 29 years based on radiological evidence from 605 conventional orthopantomograms. The results presented here provide data on the age of alveolar, gingival, and complete eruption of the third molars in the occlusal plane that can be used for forensic estimation of the minimum and most probable ages of investigated individuals.

  11. Tobacco and Alcohol in Relation to Male Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Michael B; Guénel, Pascal; Gapstur, Susan M;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The etiology of male breast cancer is poorly understood, partly due to its relative rarity. Although tobacco and alcohol exposures are known carcinogens, their association with male breast cancer risk remains ill-defined. METHODS: The Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project consortium...... then combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Cigarette smoking status, smoking pack-years, duration, intensity, and age at initiation were not associated with male breast cancer risk. Relations with cigar and pipe smoking, tobacco chewing, and snuff use were also null. Recent alcohol consumption.......04-1.77). Specific alcoholic beverage types were not associated with male breast cancer. Relations were not altered when stratified by age or body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: In this analysis of the Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project, we found little evidence that tobacco and alcohol exposures were associated with risk...

  12. Passive focus sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Kai; Knop, Karl

    1995-05-01

    A focus-sensor module that could take the place of the visual-image control for professional large-format cameras was fabricated. In addition, a passive focus-sensing method was shown to work at arbitrary locations and orientations in the recording plane of large-format professional cameras. A focus resolution of better than 0.1 mm and a range of measurement of +/- 5 mm at the image side were obtained at a minimum level of illuminance and with an aperture f/5.6 of the imaging lens. In the current method, three out of four images that arose from various sections of the camera's objective lens were applied for triangulation. The demonstrated approach was based on a linear photodiode array and employed one-dimensional image information for focus sensing.

  13. Focus on Compression Stockings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapy may be recommended as part of a treatment plan. There are several situations when compression may be helpful, including: tired legs, varicose veins, chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), lymphedema, or deep vein thrombosis (DVT). This brochure focuses ...

  14. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  15. Final focus nomenclature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-08-08

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number. (LEW)

  16. High harmonics focusing undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Hairetdinov, A.H.; Smirnov, A.V.; Khlebnikov, A.S. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    It was shown in our previous work that there exist a possibility to enhance significantly the {open_quote}natural{close_quote} focusing properties of the hybrid undulator. Here we analyze the actual undulator configurations which could provide such field structure. Numerical simulations using 2D code PANDIRA were carried out and the enhanced focusing properties of the undulator were demonstrated. The obtained results provide the solution for the beam transport in a very long (short wavelength) undulator schemes.

  17. Electron beam focusing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  18. A tortoiseshell male cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. S.; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Almstrup, Kristian;

    2014-01-01

    Tortoiseshell coat color is normally restricted to female cats due to X-linkage of the gene that encodes the orange coat color. Tortoiseshell male cats do, however, occur at a low frequency among tortoiseshell cats because of chromosome aberrations similar to the Klinefelter syndrome in man...... tissue from a tortoiseshell male cat referred to us. Chromosome analysis using RBA-banding consistently revealed a 39,XXY karyotype. Histological examinations of testis biopsies from this cat showed degeneration of the tubules, hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue, and complete loss of germ cells....... Immunostaining using anti-vimentin and anti-VASA (DDX4) showed that only Sertoli cells and no germ cells were observed in the testicular tubules. As no sign of spermatogenesis was detected, we conclude that this is a classic case of a sterile, male tortoiseshell cat with a 39,XXY chromosome complement. © 2013 S...

  19. Human African trypanosomiasis in endemic focus of Abraka, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Clement Isaac; Igho Benjamin Igbinosa; Duncan Ogheneocovo Umukoro; Dafe Palmer Aitaikuru

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigated the prevalence of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) , a neglected tropical disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiens in an endemic focus of Nigeria, as it relates to age, sex and occupational differences. Methods:A total of 474 human subjects were screened using card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis kit. Positive samples were further investigated for parasite positivity in blood/serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Results:Of the 474 screened, 44(9.3%) were seropositive with seroprevalence of 22(9.6%) in Urhouka, 14(9.5%) in Umeghe and 8(7.9%) for Ugonu. The number of seropositives, observed for weakly, moderately and strongly positives for the three communities were 4, 7 and 11 in Urhouka, 4, 5 and 5 in Umeghe and 3, 2 and 3 in Ugonu respectively. Among the 16 volunteers with detected parasite in their blood , 4 of them were weakly positive, 5 of them were moderately positive and 7 of them strongly positive. 4 volunteers from Urhouka community were found parasites in their CSF and they were all strongly positive. The difference between the seroprevalence of males and females was not statistically significant (OR=1.14, 95%CI=0.37-3.4, P>0.05). The prevalence difference between age group 21-30 years old and the youngest and oldest age groups was statistically significant (OR=3.5, 95% CI=1.08-12.57, P0.05). It was observed that farmers had significantly higher prevalence of HAT infection as well as greater risk of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection than inhabitants with other occupations (OR=3.25, 95%CI=0.99-11.79, P<0.05). Conclusions:Human activities such as farming and visits to the river have been identified as major risk factors to HAT. Also the breakdown of HAT control program has been advanced for the rise in HAT in Abraka, an endemic focus in Nigeria.

  20. Plutonium focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  1. 衰老雄性大鼠雄激素缺乏与睾丸间质细胞中Perilipin基因表达间关系的研究%Down-regulated Expression of Perilipin in Leydig Cells of Aging Male Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何华; 李玉华; 刘媛媛; 袁伟; 李润生

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨Perilipin基因差异表达与雄激素缺乏之间的关系.方法 采用D-半乳糖注射的方法建立大鼠亚急性衰老雄激素缺乏动物模型,检测血清总睾酮(TT)、超氧化物岐化酶(SOD)、丙二醛(MDA)水平判断造模成功,采用Percoll非连续密度梯度离心法分离睾丸间质细胞(Leydig),原代培养72h后提取大鼠Leydig细胞总RNA,基因芯片筛选差异表达基因,最后半定量RT-PCR验证芯片结果.结果 与对照组比较,模型组(低剂量组和高剂量组)血清TT浓度、SOD活力下降,MDA含量升高,差异有统计学意义;基因芯片结果显示,脂类代谢途径与雄激素缺乏最为相关,差异表达基因分别为Perilipin,Fabp4,Mgll;半定量RT-PCR结果发现,Perilipin基因及其两个亚型表达显著下调.结论 在RNA水平Perilipin基因表达与雄激素缺乏可能有关.%Objective To evaluate the relationship of Perilipin expression with reduced androgen synthesis in aging male rats. Methods The three-month old rats were injected every day with D-galactose (300 mg/kg) for two months to establish the model of aging rat. The levels of total testosterone (TT), superoxitase dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum were used as the criterion to evaluate the quality of the animal model. For measurement of differentially-expressed genes, the Leydig cells was separated by Percoll discontinuous density gradient centrifugation, cultured for three day and then used for preparation of total RNA. Gene expression profile in the aging Leydig cells was studied in by cDNA microarray technique plus validation of screened genes by RT-PCR. Results In D-galactose-injected rats, the serum levels of MDA and SOD were significantly higher than those of the control rats. However, the serum level of TT was significantly lower in the rats injected with D-galactose than that of the control rats. Expression of hundreds of genes changed in the Leydig cells of aging rats, compared to that

  2. Male infertility microsurgical training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akanksha Mehta; Philip S Li

    2013-01-01

    Microsurgical training is imperative for urologists and clinical andrologists specializing in male infertility.Success in male infertility microsurgery is heavily dependent on the surgeon's microsurgical skills.Laboratory-based practice to enhance microsurgical skills improves the surgeon's confidence,and reduces stress and operating time,benefiting both the patient and the surgeon.This review provides guidelines for setting up a microsurgical laboratory to develop and enhance microsurgical skills using synthetic and animal models.The role of emerging techniques,such as robotic-assisted microsurgery,is also discussed.

  3. Male Choice in the Stream-Anadromous Stickleback Complex

    OpenAIRE

    McKinnon, Jeffrey S; Nick Hamele; Nicole Frey; Jennifer Chou; Leia McAleavey; Jess Greene; Windi Paulson

    2012-01-01

    Studies of mating preferences and pre-mating reproductive isolation have often focused on females, but the potential importance of male preferences is increasingly appreciated. We investigated male behavior in the context of reproductive isolation between divergent anadromous and stream-resident populations of threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, using size-manipulated females of both ecotypes. Specifically, we asked if male courtship preferences are present, and if they are based ...

  4. LANDING PATTERN SCREENING OF RECREATIONAL MALE AND FEMALE ATHLETES

    OpenAIRE

    Yaşar; Özgür; Alper

    2014-01-01

    Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) is a useful, quick, reliable, valid and responsive instrument for determination of landing movement errors of male and female athletes. This study focused to investigate the landing pattern of recreational male and female athletes, using the Landing Error Scoring System. The study included 241 volunteer recreational athletes (101 females, 140 males). Jump-landings were recorded by two camcorders from sagittal and frontal planes. These records were replayed ...

  5. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasmonics FOCUS ON PLASMONICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey; García-Vidal, Francisco

    2008-10-01

    Plasmonics is an emerging field in optics dealing with the so-called surface plasmons whose extraordinary properties are being both analyzed from a fundamental point of view and exploited for numerous technological applications. Surface plasmons associated with surface electron density oscillations decorating metal-dielectric interfaces were discovered by Rufus Ritchie in the 1950s. Since the seventies, the subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic fields as well as their enhancement inherent to the surface plasmon excitation has been widely used for spectroscopic purposes. Recent advances in nano-fabrication, characterization and modelling techniques have allowed unique properties of these surface electromagnetic modes to be explored with respect to subwavelength field localization and waveguiding, opening the path to truly nanoscale plasmonic optical devices. This area of investigation also has interesting links with research on photonic band gap materials and the field of optical metamaterials. Nowadays, plasmonics can be seen as a mature interdisciplinary area of research in which scientists coming from different backgrounds (chemistry, physics, optics and engineering) strive to discover and exploit new and exciting phenomena associated with surface plasmons. The already made and forthcoming discoveries will have impacts in many fields of science and technology, including not only photonics and materials science but also computation, biology and medicine, among others. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is intended to cover all the aforementioned capabilities of surface plasmons by presenting a current overview of state-of-the-art advances achieved by the leading groups in this field of research. The below list of articles represents the first contributions to the collection and further additions will appear soon. Focus on Plasmonics Contents Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes Reuben M Bakker, Vladimir P Drachev

  6. Red-cockaded woodpecker male/female foraging differences in young forest stands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is an endangered species endemic to pine (Pinus spp.) forests of the southeastern United States. I examined Red-cockaded Woodpecker foraging behavior to learn if there were male/female differences at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The study was conducted in largely young forest stands (,50 years of age) in contrast to earlier foraging behavior studies that focused on more mature forest. The Redcockaded Woodpecker at the Savannah River site is intensively managed including monitoring, translocation, and installation of artificial cavity inserts for roosting and nesting. Over a 3-year period, 6,407 foraging observations covering seven woodpecker family groups were recorded during all seasons of the year and all times of day. The most striking differences occurred in foraging method (males usually scaled [45% of observations] and females mostly probed [47%]),substrate used (females had a stronger preference [93%] for the trunk than males [79%]), and foraging height from the ground (mean 6 SE foraging height was higher for males [11.1 6 0.5 m] than females [9.8 6 0.5 m]). Niche overlap between males and females was lowest for substrate (85.6%) and foraging height (87.8%), and highest for tree species (99.0%), tree condition (98.3%), and tree height (96.4%). Both males and females preferred to forage in older, large pine trees. The habitat available at the Savannah River Site was considerably younger than at most other locations, but the pattern of male/female habitat partitioning observed was similar to that documented elsewhere within the range attesting to the species’ ability to adjust behaviorally.

  7. Predictors of Sexual Aggression among Male Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Lenberg, Kathryn L.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a longitudinal examination of predictors of sexual aggression among male juvenile offenders. Four hundred and four adolescent males between the ages of 14 and 17 years were recruited from juvenile probation offices to take part in a prospective study of substance use and sexual risk. At baseline,…

  8. Adolescent Male-to-Female Transgender Voice and Communication Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Adrienne; Helenius, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current research to describe and evaluate effectiveness of voice and communication therapy for male-to-female transgender people is limited to adults. This paper provides rationale, procedures, and outcomes from voice and communication therapy for a male-to-female transgender adolescent 15 years of age. Treatment addressed vocal hygiene, breath…

  9. Sexual function in male patients with obstructive sleep apnoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marian; Kristensen, Ellids; Berg, Søren;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate general and functional aspects of sexuality in male patients with a confirmed diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and compare the results with normative data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated 308 male patients (age 30-69) admitted to a sleep...

  10. REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT IN MALE DEER MICE EXPOSED TO AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) were reared in a long photoperiod and housed individually from 3 weeks of age until they were killed 2, 4, or 6 weeks later. Males that were exposed to aggressive females for 2 min, three times per week, were of normal body weight a...

  11. Micro- and Macrosystem Predictors of High School Male Suicidal Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Cross, Cathy; Cooper, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among young people ages 15 to 19 years, with male adolescents four times more likely to die than their female peers. This study used Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model to examine micro- and macrosystems as predictors of suicidal behaviors through responses by male adolescents (N = 9,910) to a statewide…

  12. Spatial filters for focusing ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gori, Paola

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally focusing is done by taking out one sample in the received signal from each transducer element and then sum these signals. This method does not take into account the temporal or spatial spread of the received signal from a point scatterer and does not make an optimal focus of the data......, but the approach always yields point spread functions better or equal to a traditional dynamically focused image. Finally, the process was applied to in-vivo clinical images of the liver and right kidney from a 28 years old male. The data was obtained with a single element transducer focused at 100 mm...... for beamforming the received RF signals from the individual transducer elements. The matched filter is applied on RF signals from individual transducer elements, thus properly taking into account the spatial spread of the received signal. The method can be applied to any transducer and can also be used...

  13. Male Teachers Talk about Gender Violence: "Zulu Men Demand Respect"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia; de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    In South Africa, the centrality of gender-based violence in the spread of HIV/AIDS has led to many educational efforts to address it. The particular social values that male teachers hold around gender-based violence have been less examined. By focusing on African male teachers' understandings of gender-based violence, this paper highlights the…

  14. Male mating biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howell Paul I

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. Previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (SIT projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious phenotypes during colonisation and long-term mass rearing. Careful selection of mating characteristics must be combined with intensive field trials to ensure phenotypic characters are not antagonistic to longevity, dispersal, or mating behaviours in released males. Success has been achieved, even when colonised vectors were less competitive, due in part to extensive field trials to ensure mating compatibility and effective dispersal. The study of male mating biology in other dipterans has improved the success of operational SIT programmes. Contributing factors include inter-sexual selection, pheromone based attraction, the ability to detect alterations in local mating behaviours, and the effects of long-term colonisation on mating competitiveness. Although great strides have been made in other SIT programmes, this knowledge may not be germane to anophelines, and this has led to a recent increase in research in this area.

  15. Empowering Young Black Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafele, Baruti K.

    2012-01-01

    Of all the challenges we face in education today, the author can think of none greater than the challenge of motivating, educating, and empowering black male learners. The fact that this group of students is in crisis is evident on multiple levels, starting with graduation rates. According to the Schott Foundation (2008), the U.S. high school…

  16. Lycopene and male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Damayanthi Durairajanayagam; Ashok Agarwal; Chloe Ong; Pallavi Prashast

    2014-01-01

    Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inlficted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneifcial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility-lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4-8 mg of lycopene daily for 3-12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility.

  17. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  18. Burden among male Alzheimer's caregivers: effects of distinct coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Jennifer R; Wilks, Scott E; Lovelace, Lauren L; Chen, Zibei; Spivey, Christina A

    2015-05-01

    Focusing on the understudied, increasing population of male Alzheimer's disease (AD) caregivers, the purpose of this study was to identify their likelihood of utilizing 3 coping strategies (task focused, emotion focused, and avoidance focused) and to examine the effects of each coping strategy on caregiving burden. Data were collected from 138 male AD caregivers in southern United States, including geographically proportional representation of African Americans in the sample. Stepwise regression revealed effects of each coping strategy on caregiving burden, controlling for demographics. The sample reported high burden. Task focused was the highest reported coping strategy. Yet, regression models indicated no significant effect of task-focused coping on burden outcomes. Emotion-focused and avoidance-focused coping each showed significant proportional effects on burden. Implications suggest that emotion- and avoidance-focused coping among male AD caregivers may be maladaptive, that is, reinforcing burden. Male AD caregivers may benefit from more task-focused coping, such as planning and active problem solving. PMID:25267930

  19. 老年男性冠心病患者阿司匹林抵抗风险预测模型的建立%Establishing a predictive model for aspirin resistance in aging male with coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝卫军; 曹剑; 高凌根; 李建华; 邓新立; 孙玉发; 范利

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨阿司匹林抵抗能增加冠心病患者的不良预后风险,建立有效的阿司匹林抵抗风险预测模型,指导临床抗血小板治疗. 方法 纳入接受口服阿司匹林(>75 mg)大于2个月的稳定性冠心病老年男性患者938例,收集详细的临床资料.通过Logistic回归分析建立阿司匹林抵抗的预测模型和风险评分,通过Hosmer-Lemeshow(H-L)检验和受试者工作特征(ROC)曲线下面积分别验证模型预测的符合程度和鉴别效度. 结果 本研究预测模型纳入7项危险因素,各项评分方法分别为肌酐>110μmol/L计1分;空腹血糖>7.0 mmol/L计1分;血脂代谢异常计1分;冠状动脉病变累及血管支数为2支计2分,3支及以上计4分;体质指数20~25 kg/m2计2分,> 25 kg/m2计4分;经皮冠状动脉介入治疗计2分;吸烟计3分.H-L检验P≥0.05且受试者工作特征(ROC)曲线下面积>0.70. 结论 量化阿司匹林抵抗的危险因素,建立有效的阿司匹林抵抗风险预测模型,为冠心病患者抗血小板治疗提供重要参考.%Objective To quantify the risk factors for aspirin resistance so as to increase the prognosis for risk of coronary heart disease,and to establish a predictive model for aspirin resistance in order to guide the clinical anti-platelet therapy.Methods A total of 938 elderly male patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD) receiving oral aspirin therapy (>75 mg/d) over 2 months were included in this study.Their clinical data were collected.Logistic regression analysis was performed to establish a predictive model and risk score for aspirin resistance.Hosmer Lemeshow (H-L) test and an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (the area under the ROC curve) were performed to test the calibration and discrimination of the model.Results Seven risk factors were included in the predictive model,including serum creatinine (>110 μmol/L:score of 1),fasting blood glucose (>7.0 mmol/L:score of 1

  20. Affecting Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Korea: Focused on Different Exposure Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li Yuan; Cheong, Hae Kwan; Lee, Eun Whan; Kang, Kyeong Jin; Park, Jae Hyun

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) not only can cause serious illness, but is also an economic and social burden. Contextual and individual factors of non-smoker exposure to SHS depend on location. However, studies focusing on this subject are lacking. In this study, we described and compared the factors related to SHS exposure according to location in Korea. Regarding individual factors related to SHS exposure, a common individual variable model and location-specific variable model was used to evaluate SHS exposure at home/work/public locations based on sex. In common individual variables, such as age, and smoking status showed different relationships with SHS exposure in different locations. Among home-related variables, housing type and family with a single father and unmarried children showed the strongest positive relationships with SHS exposure in both males and females. In the workplace, service and sales workers, blue-collar workers, and manual laborers showed the strongest positive association with SHS exposure in males and females. For multilevel analysis in public places, only SHS exposure in females was positively related with cancer screening rate. Exposure to SHS in public places showed a positive relationship with drinking rate and single-parent family in males and females. The problem of SHS embodies social policies and interactions between individuals and social contextual factors. Policy makers should consider the contextual factors of specific locations and regional and individual context, along with differences between males and females, to develop effective strategies for reducing SHS exposure. PMID:27510378