Aline Moussard; Emmanuel Bigand; Isabelle Peretz; Sylvie Belleville
Strong links between music and motor functions suggest that music could represent an interesting aid for motor learning. The present study aims for the first time to test the potential of music to assist in the learning of sequences of gestures in normal and pathological aging. Participants with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and healthy older adults (controls) learned sequences of meaningless gestures that were either accompanied by music or a metronome. We also manipulated the learning proce...
Messier, Julie; Adamovich, Sergei; Jack, David; Hening, Wayne; Sage, Jacob; Poizner, Howard
Successful adaptation to novel sensorimotor contexts critically depends on efficient sensory processing and integration mechanisms, particularly those required to combine visual and proprioceptive inputs. If the basal ganglia are a critical part of specialized circuits that adapt motor behavior to new sensorimotor contexts, then patients who are suffering from basal ganglia dysfunction, as in Parkinson's disease should show sensorimotor learning impairments. However, this issue has been under-explored. We tested the ability of 8 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), off medication, ten healthy elderly subjects and ten healthy young adults to reach to a remembered 3D location presented in an immersive virtual environment. A multi-phase learning paradigm was used having four conditions: baseline, initial learning, reversal learning and aftereffect. In initial learning, the computer altered the position of a simulated arm endpoint used for movement feedback by shifting its apparent location diagonally, requiring thereby both horizontal and vertical compensations. This visual distortion forced subjects to learn new coordinations between what they saw in the virtual environment and the actual position of their limbs, which they had to derive from proprioceptive information (or efference copy). In reversal learning, the sign of the distortion was reversed. Both elderly subjects and PD patients showed learning phase-dependent difficulties. First, elderly controls were slower than young subjects when learning both dimensions of the initial biaxial discordance. However, their performance improved during reversal learning and as a result elderly and young controls showed similar adaptation rates during reversal learning. Second, in striking contrast to healthy elderly subjects, PD patients were more profoundly impaired during the reversal phase of learning. PD patients were able to learn the initial biaxial discordance but were on average slower than age-matched controls
Du, Heng; Guo, Lan; Zhang, Wensheng; Rydzewska, Monika; Yan, Shidu
Mitochondrial stress is one of the early features of Alzheimer disease (AD). Mitochondrial Aβ has been linked to mitochondrial toxicity. Our recent study demonstrated that cyclophilin D (CypD) mediated mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is an important mechanism for neuronal and synaptic stress induced by both Aβ and oxidative stress. In transgenic AD-type mice overexpressing mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Aβ (mAPP), CypD deficiency improves mitochondrial and synaptic function and learning/memory up to 12 months old. Here we provide evidence of the protective effects of CypD deficiency in aged AD mice (22-24 months). Cyp D deficient mAPP mice demonstrate less calcium-induced mitochondrial swelling, increased mitochondrial calcium uptake capacity, preserved mitochondrial respiratory function and improved spatial learning/memory even in old age (known to be the age for late stage AD pathology and synaptic dysfunction). These data demonstrate that abrogation of CypD results in persistent life-long protection against Aβ toxicity in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model, thereby suggesting that blockade of CypD may be of benefit for Alzheimer disease treatment.
Moussard, Aline; Bigand, Emmanuel; Belleville, Sylvie; Peretz, Isabelle
Strong links between music and motor functions suggest that music could represent an interesting aid for motor learning. The present study aims for the first time to test the potential of music to assist in the learning of sequences of gestures in normal and pathological aging. Participants with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and healthy older adults (controls) learned sequences of meaningless gestures that were either accompanied by music or a metronome. We also manipulated the learning procedure such that participants had to imitate the gestures to-be-memorized in synchrony with the experimenter or after the experimenter during encoding. Results show different patterns of performance for the two groups. Overall, musical accompaniment had no impact on the controls’ performance but improved those of AD participants. Conversely, synchronization of gestures during learning helped controls but seemed to interfere with retention in AD. We discuss these findings regarding their relevance for a better understanding of auditory–motor memory, and we propose recommendations to maximize the mnemonic effect of music for motor sequence learning for dementia care. PMID:24860476
Full Text Available Strong links between music and motor functions suggest that music could represent an interesting aid for motor learning. The present study aims for the first time to test the potential of music to assist in the learning of sequences of gestures in normal and pathological aging. Participants with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD and healthy older adults (Controls learned sequences of meaningless gestures that were either accompanied by music or a metronome. We also manipulated the learning procedure such that participants had to imitate the gestures to-be-memorized in synchrony with the experimenter or after the experimenter during encoding. Results show different patterns of performance for the two groups. Overall, musical accompaniment had no impact on the Controls' performance, but improved those of AD participants. Conversely, synchronization of gestures during learning helped Controls but seemed to interfere with retention in AD. We discuss these findings regarding their relevance for a better understanding of auditory-motor memory, and we propose recommendations to maximize the mnemonic effect of music for motor sequence learning for dementia care.
Moussard, Aline; Bigand, Emmanuel; Belleville, Sylvie; Peretz, Isabelle
Strong links between music and motor functions suggest that music could represent an interesting aid for motor learning. The present study aims for the first time to test the potential of music to assist in the learning of sequences of gestures in normal and pathological aging. Participants with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy older adults (controls) learned sequences of meaningless gestures that were either accompanied by music or a metronome. We also manipulated the learning procedure such that participants had to imitate the gestures to-be-memorized in synchrony with the experimenter or after the experimenter during encoding. Results show different patterns of performance for the two groups. Overall, musical accompaniment had no impact on the controls' performance but improved those of AD participants. Conversely, synchronization of gestures during learning helped controls but seemed to interfere with retention in AD. We discuss these findings regarding their relevance for a better understanding of auditory-motor memory, and we propose recommendations to maximize the mnemonic effect of music for motor sequence learning for dementia care. PMID:24860476
Pike, K E; Rowe, C C; Moss, S A; Savage, G
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), but up to 40% of cases do not develop AD. Examining a case's specific memory profile may help distinguish which MCI cases will progress to AD: An encoding profile is suggestive of incipient AD, whereas a retrieval profile suggests an alternative etiology. Paired associate learning (PAL) tasks are sensitive for preclinical and early detection of AD, but existing tasks do not enable memory profiling. We developed a novel PAL task enabling the differentiation of memory profiles in 19 people with AD, 17 people with amnestic MCI, and 33 normal elderly controls. Unexpectedly, the AD group demonstrated a retrieval profile for PAL using yes-no recognition, although an encoding profile was evident for forced-choice recognition and for the California Verbal Learning Test--Second Edition (Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 2000). There was considerable heterogeneity within the AD and MCI groups as well as intraindividual discordance for memory profiles. The findings challenge the clinical application of memory profiling in the differential diagnosis of AD, and, by extension, question its potential application in the assessment of MCI. PMID:18999345
... genetic terms used on this page. Learning About Crohn's Disease What is Crohn's disease? What are the symptoms ... disease Additional Resources for Crohn's Disease What is Crohn's disease? Crohn's disease, an idiopathic (of unknown cause), chronic ...
Specht, L.; Nissen, N.I.
modality, stage, and total tumour burden, whereas age had no prognostic significance. With regard to death from Hodgkin's disease only age and total tumour burden had independent significance. The significance of age would seem to stem from the fact that some older patients could not be given adequate...
Specht, L; Nissen, N I
506 unselected, previously untreated patients with Hodgkin's disease were treated at the Finsen Institute between 1969 and 1983. The prognostic significance of age, sex, stage, systemic symptoms, histologic subtype, number of involved nodal regions, total tumour burden (peripheral + intrathoracic...... modality, stage, and total tumour burden, whereas age had no prognostic significance. With regard to death from Hodgkin's disease only age and total tumour burden had independent significance. The significance of age would seem to stem from the fact that some older patients could not be given adequate...
... Mouse Models Of Huntington's Disease 1998 News Release Learning About Huntington's Disease What do we know about ... and treatment information. Hosted by the Dolan DNA Learning Center at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Huntington's Outreach ...
... suggest that these genes are also involved in early-onset Parkinson's disease (diagnosed before the age of 30) or ... LRRK2 causes Parkinson's Disease [interscience.wiley.com] Hereditary Early-Onset Parkinson's Disease Caused by Mutations in PINK1 [sciencemag.org] ...
Durham, Andy E
Aging horses may be at particular risk of endocrine disease. Two major equine endocrinopathies, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and equine metabolic syndrome, are commonly encountered in an aging population and may present with several recognizable signs, including laminitis. Investigation, treatment, and management of these diseases are discussed. Additionally, aging may be associated with development of rarer endocrinopathic problems, often associated with neoplasia, including diabetes mellitus and other confounders of glucose homeostasis, as well as thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal diseases. Brief details of the recognition and management of these conditions are presented. PMID:27449391
Scott F Gilbert
Cancer and ageing are often said to be diseases of development. During the past fifty years, the genetic components of cancer and ageing have been intensely investigated since development, itself, was seen to be an epiphenomenon of the genome. However, as we have learned more about the expression of the genome, we find that differences in expression can be as important as differences in alleles. It is easier to inactivate a gene by methylation than by mutation, and given that appropriate methylation is essential for normal development, one can immediately see that diseases would result as a consequence of inappropriate epigenetic methylation. While first proposed by Boris Vanyushin in 1973, recent studies have confirmed that inappropriate methylation not only causes diseases, and it also may be the critical factor in ageing and cancers.
Fulop, T; Larbi, A; Witkowski, J M; McElhaney, J; Loeb, M; Mitnitski, A; Pawelec, G
The concept of frailty as a medically distinct syndrome has evolved based on the clinical experience of geriatricians and is clinically well recognizable. Frailty is a nonspecific state of vulnerability, which reflects multisystem physiological change. These changes underlying frailty do not always achieve disease status, so some people, usually very elderly, are frail without a specific life threatening illness. Current thinking is that not only physical but also psychological, cognitive and social factors contribute to this syndrome and need to be taken into account in its definition and treatment. Together, these signs and symptoms seem to reflect a reduced functional reserve and consequent decrease in adaptation (resilience) to any sort of stressor and perhaps even in the absence of extrinsic stressors. The overall consequence is that frail elderly are at higher risk for accelerated physical and cognitive decline, disability and death. All these characteristics associated with frailty can easily be applied to the definition and characterization of the aging process per se and there is little consensus in the literature concerning the physiological/biological pathways associated with or determining frailty. It is probably true to say that a consensus view would implicate heightened chronic systemic inflammation as a major contributor to frailty. This review will focus on the relationship between aging, frailty and age-related diseases, and will highlight possible interventions to reduce the occurrence and effects of frailty in elderly people. PMID:20559726
Montgomery, K.S.; Simmons, R K; Edwards, G; Nicolle, M. M.; Gluck, M. A.; Myers, C.E.; Bizon, J. L.
Computational modeling predicts that the hippocampus plays an important role in the ability to apply previously learned information to novel problems and situations (referred to as the ability to generalize information or simply as ‘transfer learning’). These predictions have been tested in humans using a computer-based task on which individuals with hippocampal damage are able to learn a series of complex discriminations with two stimulus features (shape and color), but are impaired in their...
Vandenberghe, R; Tournoy, J.
Cognitive aging and clinically probable Alzheimer's disease can be discriminated by means of clinical and neuropsychological testing, and structural and functional imaging techniques. Research at the level of cognitive brain systems and at the molecular level provides exciting new insights into the relation between aging and neurodegeneration. The advances at the clinical and at the basic research levels are necessary if we wish to meet the formidable challenge that the increasing prevalence ...
Howard, James H.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Darlene V. Howard; Yankovich, Helen; Vaidya, Chandan J.
Three experiments investigated the aging of implicit spatial and spatiotemporal context learning in 2 tasks. In contextual cuing, people learn to use repeated spatial configurations to facilitate search for a target, whereas in higher order serial learning, they learn to use subtle sequence regularities to respond more quickly and accurately to a series of events. Results reveal a dissociation; overall contextual cuing is spared in healthy aging, whereas higher order sequence learning is impa...
Armanios, M.; Cabo, R. de; Mannick, J.; Partridge, L.; Deursen, J. van; Villeda, S.
Aging is a risk factor for several of the world's most prevalent diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, cardiovascular disease and metabolic disease. Although our understanding of the molecular pathways that contribute to the aging process and age-related disease is progressing thr
Rose, David; Dalton, Bridget
The digital age offers transformative opportunities for individualization of learning. First, modern imaging technologies have changed our understanding of learning and the sources and ranges of its diversity. Second, digital technologies make it possible to design learning environments that are responsive to individual differences. We draw on…
"Teaching and Learning in the Digital Age" is for all those interested in considering the impact of emerging digital technologies on teaching and learning. It explores the concept of a digital age and perspectives of knowledge, pedagogy and practice within a digital context. By examining teaching with digital technologies through new learning…
... Care Online Health Resources For Health Professionals Competency & Curricular Resources Genetics 101 Genomic Medicine and Health Care ... but often have a more slowly progressive disease process and the extent of brain involvement is quite ...
Peled, Shir; Schocken, Shimon
The ability to develop engaging simulations and constructive learning experiences using mobile devices is unprecedented, presenting a disruption in educational practices of historical proportions. In this paper we describe some of the unique virtues that mobile learning hold for early age mathematics education. In particular, we describe how…
Zhou, Wei; Yasuda, Takami; Yokoi, Shigeki
Many countries are considering lifelong learning, which is becoming an important education goal, and promoting lifelong learning in the information age. With the development of Information and Communications Technology (ICT), digital divides have become a major concern in the world. In this study, we focus on three dimensions of digital divides in…
Lassen, Aske Juul
How are the boundaries of disease and health, age, life and death negotiated through technology and active aging? The paper focuses on how disease and age are dealt with by active elderly at activity centres in the Copenhagen area. New health technologies lead to new expectations to the longevity...... a chronic (previously fatal) disease. The active elderly often stick to their image of themselves as active, youthful and energetic in spite of a chronic disease. Old age and disease is not what they identify with and seems to be conceived at an arms length. In the paper the author explores how health...
Examines the various stages of human development (as outlined by Erik Erikson and others) with their psychological stresses of recurring crises of identity and expectation and explores some of the implications for education's best serving human needs. Focuses on early childhood, late adolescence, middle age, and old age. (JT)
J.J.M. Hoozemans; A.J.M. Rozemuller; E.S. van Haastert; P. Eikelenboom; W.A. van Gool
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a prominent feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been proposed that aging has an effect on the function of inflammation in the brain, thereby contributing to the development of age-related diseases like AD. However, the age-dependent relationship between
Rizvi, Saliha; Raza, Syed Tasleem; Mahdi, Farzana
Telomeres are gene sequences present at chromosomal ends and are responsible for maintaining genome integrity. Telomere length is maximum at birth and decreases progressively with advancing age and thus is considered as a biomarker of chronological aging. This age associated decrease in the length of telomere is linked to various ageing associated diseases like diabetes, hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, cancer etc. and their associated complications. Telomere length is a result of combined effect of oxidative stress, inflammation and repeated cell replication on it, and thus forming an association between telomere length and chronological aging and related diseases. Thus, decrease in telomere length was found to be important in determining both, the variations in longevity and age-related diseases in an individual. Ongoing and progressive research in the field of telomere length dynamics has proved that aging and age-related diseases apart from having a synergistic effect on telomere length were also found to effect telomere length independently also. Here a short description about telomere length variations and its association with human aging and age-related diseases is reviewed.
Foster, Liam; Boxall, Kathy
Background: People (with and without learning disabilities) are living longer. Demographic ageing creates challenges and the leading policy response to these challenges is "active ageing". "Active" does not just refer to the ability to be physically and economically active, but also includes ongoing social and civic engagement…
Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages Past Issues / Winter ... weeks of a heart attack. For Women with Heart Disease: About 6 million American women have coronary heart ...
Armanios, Mary; de Cabo, Rafael; Mannick, Joan; Partridge, Linda; van Deursen, Jan; Villeda, Saul
Aging is a risk factor for several of the world's most prevalent diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, cardiovascular disease and metabolic disease. Although our understanding of the molecular pathways that contribute to the aging process and age-related disease is progressing through the use of model organisms, how to apply this knowledge in the clinic is less clear. In September, Nature Medicine, in collaboration with the Volkswagen Foundation, hosted a conference at the beautiful Herrenhausen Palace in Hannover, Germany with the goal of broadening our understanding of the aging process and its meaning as a 'risk factor' in disease. Here, several of the speakers at that conference answer questions posed by Nature Medicine. PMID:26646495
This volume contains papers presented at the conference on "Law and Learning in the Middle Ages" held at the Carlsberg Academy in Copenhagen in May 2005. Here, a group of European and American scholars give their contribution to the examination of the theological and legal schooling...
Reddy, P. Hemachandra
Mitochondria are key cytoplasmic organelles, responsible for generating cellular energy, regulating intracellular calcium levels, altering the reduction-oxidation potential of cells, and regulating cell death. Increasing evidence suggests that mitochondria play a central role in aging and in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Freidriech ataxia. Further, several lines of evidence suggest that mi...
Wang, Jiguang; Zhang, Shihua; Wang, Yong; Chen, Luonan; Zhang, Xiang-Sun
One of the challenging problems in biology and medicine is exploring the underlying mechanisms of genetic diseases. Recent studies suggest that the relationship between genetic diseases and the aging process is important in understanding the molecular mechanisms of complex diseases. Although some intricate associations have been investigated for a long time, the studies are still in their early stages. In this paper, we construct a human disease-aging network to study the relationship among aging genes and genetic disease genes. Specifically, we integrate human protein-protein interactions (PPIs), disease-gene associations, aging-gene associations, and physiological system-based genetic disease classification information in a single graph-theoretic framework and find that (1) human disease genes are much closer to aging genes than expected by chance; and (2) diseases can be categorized into two types according to their relationships with aging. Type I diseases have their genes significantly close to aging genes, while type II diseases do not. Furthermore, we examine the topological characters of the disease-aging network from a systems perspective. Theoretical results reveal that the genes of type I diseases are in a central position of a PPI network while type II are not; (3) more importantly, we define an asymmetric closeness based on the PPI network to describe relationships between diseases, and find that aging genes make a significant contribution to associations among diseases, especially among type I diseases. In conclusion, the network-based study provides not only evidence for the intricate relationship between the aging process and genetic diseases, but also biological implications for prying into the nature of human diseases.
Aging is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders and an increase in their risk factors, such as decreased concentrations of folate and increased concentrations of homocysteine. The association of folate and homocysteine with age-related disease and, most impo
Lamster, Ira B; Asadourian, Lynda; Del Carmen, Tessa; Friedman, Paula K
Aging is the physiologic change that occurs over time. In humans, this change occurs at different rates and are related to lifestyle, environment and genetics. It can be challenging to differentiate normal aging from disease. In the oral cavity, with increasing age the teeth demonstrate wearing of the enamel, chipping and fracture lines, and a darker color. The pulp chamber and canals are reduced in size as a result of the deposition of secondary dentin. Coronal or root caries, however, represent disease. A limited amount of periodontal attachment loss occurs in association with aging, usually manifesting as recession on the buccal surface of teeth. Severe periodontitis occurs in 10.5-12% of the population, with the peak incidence being observed at 35-40 years of age. Changes to the mucosal tissue that occur with age include reduced wound-healing capacity. However, environmental factors, such as smoking, dramatically increase the risk of mucosal pathology. Reduced salivary gland function is often seen in association with medication usage, as well as with disorders such as diabetes mellitus. Both medication use and chronic disorders are more common in older adults. Masticatory function is of particular importance for older adults. Maintenance of a nutritionally complete diet is important for avoiding sarcopenia and the frailty syndrome. Successful oral aging is associated with adequate function and comfort. A reduced, but functional, dentition of 20 teeth in occlusion has been proposed as a measure of successful oral aging. Healthy oral aging is important to healthy aging from both biological and social perspectives. PMID:27501493
Dennis F. Lawler
Full Text Available This third and final paper in this series considers ageing mechanisms across species, with emphasis on conserved metabolic pathways that relate to disease. The growth hormone (GH-insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1-insulin axis continues as an example of how critical pathways might relate to longevity and senescence. Aligning theory, research outcomes and clinical investigations at the levels of the cell, organism and population, is suggested as a means by which to consider the many complexities of the ageing process in an orderly fashion. A contentious debate revolves around whether ageing is purely a combined effect of stochastic events on residual programming relating to reproductive robustness, or whether ageing itself is programmed by natural selection. Emerging data indicate that the influence of genetic programming on specific late-life diseases, and even individual tissue pathologies, will probably need to be reconsidered in the light of newer theoretical possibilities. In particular, the evidence that late life and its diseases are objects of considerable investment of energy challenges theory that couples longevity with reproduction. Furthermore, the author suggests that ageing may have evolved at least partly as a means of niche preservation for contemporaries and for progeny.
Wang, Shengzheng; Tao, Dacheng; Yang, Jie
When estimating age, human experts can provide privileged information that encodes the facial attributes of aging, such as smoothness, face shape, face acne, wrinkles, and bags under-eyes. In automatic age estimation, privileged information is unavailable to test images. To overcome this problem, we hypothesize that asymmetric information can be explored and exploited to improve the generalizability of the trained model. Using the learning using privileged information (LUPI) framework, we tested this hypothesis by carefully defining relative attributes for support vector machine (SVM+) to improve the performance of age estimation. We term this specific setting as relative attribute SVM+ (raSVM+), in which the privileged information enables separation of outliers from inliers at the training stage and effectively manipulates slack variables and age determination errors during model training, and thus guides the trained predictor toward a generalizable solution. Experimentally, the superiority of raSVM+ was confirmed by comparing it with state-of-the-art algorithms on the face and gesture recognition research network (FG-NET) and craniofacial longitudinal morphological face aging databases. raSVM+ is a promising development that improves age estimation, with the mean absolute error reaching 4.07 on FG-NET. PMID:25850101
Children's English learning in China attracts more and more people's attention and is on the teidency of starting at an early age. Under the trend of "learning English from childhood", the author has explored the Criical Period Hypothesis and discussed the younger learners' dsadvantages and older learners'advantages when learning Englsh. and concludes that early-age English learning is not feasible.
Full Text Available The San Antonio Nathan Shock Center Conferences have attracted international speakers and participants since 1995. This annual conference, held in Bandera, Texas, USA, addresses a different topic in the biology of aging each year. The venue's intimate setting, relatively remote location, and common areas are ideal for a small conference (80–100 participants, where copious informal intellectual interchange supplements that of the formal sessions. The 2011 meeting, part of an annual series sponsored by the University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, TX, USA, and the Nathan Shock Center of Excellence in the Biology of Aging, addressed the causes of age-associated inflammation and its effect on age-associated diseases.
This paper discusses the relationship between ageing and learning, previous literature having confirmed that participation in continued learning in old age contributes to good health, satisfaction with life, independence and self-esteem. Realizing that learning is vital to active ageing, the Hong Kong government has implemented policies and…
Woodruff-Pak, D S
Eyeblink classical conditioning is a useful paradigm for the study of the neurobiology of learning, memory, and aging, which also has application in the differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases expressed in advancing age. Converging evidence from studies of eyeblink conditioning in neurological patients and brain imaging in normal adults document parallels in the neural substrates of this form of associative learning in humans and non-human mammals. Age differences in the short-delay procedure (400 ms CS-US interval) appear in middle age in humans and may be caused at least in part by cerebellar cortical changes such as loss of Purkinje cells. Whereas the hippocampus is not essential for conditioning in the delay procedure, disruption of hippocampal cholinergic neurotransmission impairs acquisition and slows the rate of learning. Alzheimer's disease (AD) profoundly disrupts the hippocampaL cholinergic system, and patients with AD consistently perform poorly in eyeblink conditioning. We hypothesize that disruption of hippocampal cholinergic pathways in AD in addition to age-associated Purkinje cell loss results in severely impaired eyeblink conditioning. The earliest pathology in AD occurs in entorhinal cortical input to hippocampus, and eyeblink conditioning may detect this early disruption before declarative learning and memory circuits become impaired. A case study is presented in which eyeblink conditioning detected impending dementia six years before changes on other screening tests indicated impairment. Because eyeblink conditioning is simple, non-threatening, and non-invasive, it may become a useful addition to test batteries designed to differentiate normal aging from mild cognitive impairment that progresses to AD and AD from other types of dementia.
Li-qiang HE; Jia-hong LU; Zhen-yu YUE
Autophagy is a cell self-digestion process via lysosomes that clears "cellular waste",including aberrantly modified proteins or protein aggregates and damaged organelles.Therefore,autophagy is considered a protein and organelle quality control mechanism that maintains normal cellular homeostasis.Dysfunctional autophagy has been observed in ageing tissues and several ageing-associated diseases.Lifespan of model organisms such as yeast,worms,flies,and mice can be extended through promoting autophagy,either by genetic manipulations such as over-expression of Sirtuin 1,or by administrations of rapamycin,resveratrol or spermidine.The evidence supports that autophagy may play an important role in delaying ageing or extending lifespan.In this review,we summarize the current knowledge about autophagy and its regulation,outline recent developments ie the genetic and pharmacological manipulations of autophagy that affects the lifespan,and discuss the role of autophagy in the ageing-related diseases.ow in Center for Neurodegenerative and Neuroimmunologic Diseases,Department of Neurology,University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School,Piscataway,NJ 08854,USA
Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.
Humans die from age-related diseases, which are deadly manifestations of the aging process. In order to extend life span, an anti-aging drug must delay age-related diseases. All together age-related diseases are the best biomarker of aging. Once a drug is used for treatment of any one chronic disease, its effect against other diseases (atherosclerosis, cancer, prostate enlargement, osteoporosis, insulin resistance, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, age-related macular degeneration) may be...
Adrianna Z Herskovits; Leonard Guarente
Sirtuin enzymes are a family of highly conserved protein deacetylases that depend on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) for their activity.There are seven sirtuins in mammals and these proteins have been linked with caloric restriction and aging by modulating energy metabolism,genomic stability and stress resistance.Sirtuin enzymes are potential therapeutic targets in a variety of human diseases including cancer,diabetes,inflammatory disorders and neurodegenerative disease.Modulation of sirtuin activity has been shown to impact the course of several aggregate-forming neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease,Parkinson's disease,Huntington's disease,amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy.Sirtuins can influence the progression of neurodegenerative disorders by modulating transcription factor activity and directly deacetylating proteotoxic species.Here,we describe sirtuin protein targets in several aggregate-forming neurodegenerative diseases and discuss the therapeutic potential of compounds that modulate sirtuin activity in these disorders.
Hoozemans Jeroen JM
Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation is a prominent feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD. It has been proposed that aging has an effect on the function of inflammation in the brain, thereby contributing to the development of age-related diseases like AD. However, the age-dependent relationship between inflammation and clinical phenotype of AD has never been investigated. Methods In this study we have analysed features of the neuroinflammatory response in clinically and pathologically confirmed AD and control cases in relation to age (range 52-97 years. The mid-temporal cortex of 19 controls and 19 AD cases was assessed for the occurrence of microglia and astrocytes by immunohistochemistry using antibodies directed against CD68 (KP1, HLA class II (CR3/43 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. Results By measuring the area density of immunoreactivity we found significantly more microglia and astrocytes in AD cases younger than 80 years compared to older AD patients. In addition, the presence of KP1, CR3/43 and GFAP decreases significantly with increasing age in AD. Conclusion Our data suggest that the association between neuroinflammation and AD is stronger in relatively young patients than in the oldest patients. This age-dependent relationship between inflammation and clinical phenotype of AD has implications for the interpretation of biomarkers and treatment of the disease.
Katherine R Gamble
Full Text Available Implicit sequence learning involves learning about dependencies in sequences of events without intent to learn or awareness of what has been learned. Sequence learning is related to striatal dopamine levels, striatal activation, and integrity of white matter connections. People with Parkinson’s disease (PD have degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons, leading to dopamine deficiency and therefore striatal deficits, and they have difficulties with sequencing, including complex language comprehension and postural stability. Most research on implicit sequence learning in PD has used motor-based tasks. However, because PD presents with motor deficits, it is difficult to assess whether learning itself is impaired in these tasks. The present study used an implicit sequence learning task with a reduced motor component, the Triplets Learning Task (TLT. People with PD and age- and education-matched healthy older adults completed three sessions (each consisting of 10 blocks of 50 trials of the TLT. Results revealed that the PD group was able to learn the sequence, however, when learning was examined using a Half Blocks analysis (Nemeth et al., 2013, which compared learning in the 1st 25/50 trials of all blocks to that in the 2nd 25/50 trials, the PD group showed significantly less learning than Controls in the 2nd Half Blocks, but not in the 1st. Nemeth et al. hypothesized that the 1st Half Blocks involve recall and reactivation of the sequence learned, thus reflecting hippocampal-dependent learning, while the 2nd Half Blocks involve proceduralized behavior of learned sequences, reflecting striatal-based learning. The present results suggest that the PD group had intact hippocampal-dependent implicit sequence learning, but impaired striatal-dependent learning. Thus, sequencing deficits in PD are likely due to striatal impairments, but other brain systems, such as the hippocampus, may be able to partially compensate for striatal decline to improve
Ebersole, Jeffrey L; Graves, Christina L; Gonzalez, Octavio A; Dawson, Dolph; Morford, Lorri A; Huja, Pinar Emecen; Hartsfield, James K; Huja, Sarandeep S; Pandruvada, Subramanya; Wallet, Shannon M
The increased prevalence and severity of periodontal disease have long been associated with aging, such that this oral condition affects the majority of the adult population over 50 years of age. Although the immune system is a critical component for maintaining health, aging can be characterized by quantitative and qualitative modifications of the immune system. This process, termed 'immunosenescence', is a progressive modification of the immune system that leads to greater susceptibility to infections, neoplasia and autoimmunity, presumably reflecting the prolonged antigenic stimulation and/or stress responses that occur across the lifespan. Interestingly, the global reduction in the host capability to respond effectively to these challenges is coupled with a progressive increase in the general proinflammatory status, termed 'inflammaging'. Consistent with the definition of immunosenescence, it has been suggested that the cumulative effect of prolonged exposure of the periodontium to microbial challenge is, at least in part, a contributor to the effects of aging on these tissues. Thus, it has also been hypothesized that alterations in the function of resident immune and nonimmune cells of the periodontium contribute to the expression of inflammaging in periodontal disease. Although the majority of aging research has focused on the adaptive immune response, it is becoming increasingly clear that the innate immune compartment is also highly affected by aging. Thus, the phenomenon of immunosenescence and inflammaging, expressed as age-associated changes within the periodontium, needs to be more fully understood in this era of precision and personalized medicine and dentistry. PMID:27501491
Marr, Celia M
Respiratory and cardiac diseases are common in older horses. Advancing age is a specific risk factor for cardiac murmurs and these are more likely in males and small horses. Airway inflammation is the most common respiratory diagnosis. Recurrent airway obstruction can lead to irreversible structural change and bronchiectasis; with chronic hypoxia, right heart dysfunction and failure can develop. Valvular heart disease most often affects the aortic and/or the mitral valve. Management of comorbidity is an essential element of the therapeutic approach to cardiac and respiratory disease in older equids.
Vernooij, Meike W.; Smits, Marion
The role of structural neuroimaging in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is becoming increasingly important. As a consequence, a basic understanding of what are normal brain changes in aging is key to be able to recognize what is abnormal. The first part of this article discusses normal vers
Balasubramanian, Priya; Longo, Valter D
Simple organisms including yeast and flies with mutations in the IGF-1 and Tor-S6K pathways are dwarfs, are highly protected from toxins, and survive up to 3 times longer. Similarly, dwarf mice with deficiencies in the growth hormone-IGF-I axis are also long lived and protected from diseases. We recently reported that humans with Growth Hormone Receptor Deficiency (GHRD) rarely develop cancer or diabetes. These findings are in agreement with the effect of defects in the Tor-S6K pathways in causing dwarfism and protection of DNA. Because protein restriction reduces both GHR-IGF-1 axis and Tor-S6K activity, we examined links between protein intake, disease, and mortality in over 6000 US subjects in the NHANES CDC database. Respondents aged 50-65 reporting a high protein intake displayed an increase in IGF-I levels, a 75% increased risk of overall mortality and a 3-4 fold increased risk of cancer mortality in agreement with findings in mouse experiments. These studies point to a conserved link between proteins and amino acids, GHR-IGF-1/insulin, Tor-S6k signaling, aging, and diseases. PMID:26883276
Haaland, K Y; Harrington, D L; O'Brien, S; Hermanowicz, N
Procedural learning deficits are common in Parkinson's disease (PD), but contradictory results have been reported in rotary pursuit learning. This article compared rotary pursuit learning in 2 nondemented PD groups and 2 normal control (NC) groups, using a between-subjects group design in which 3 rotation speeds were presented either randomly or in blocks. The pattern of learning differed between the randomized and the blocked conditions in the NC, but not in the PD groups. Learning was impaired in the PD group in the random condition only. Memory, visuospatial, or executive skills were not associated with the PD group's poorer learning in the randomized context. Results show that procedural learning deficits are not universal with basal ganglia abnormalities but rather depend on the specific cognitive requirements of the learning context. PMID:9110325
Okumura, Junko; Nishita, Yoshihiro; Kimura, Kazuko
The lessons from the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake and Chuuetsu Earthquake showed us how difficult it is to keep chronic disease management for survivors of such large-scale earthquakes, particularly for elderly people. To solve the problem, an ordinance for enforcement on exceptional practices was issued for the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law Article 49 Clause 1. The law allows selling prescription medicines for patients with chronic diseases who have difficulties to continue their medications due to a large-scale disaster. To make it work, the patient should demonstrate that he or she continuously received the medication by presenting either Medication Notebook or prescription book recorded by the pharmacist. However, the Separation Rate of Prescription and Dispensing in Japan is still low; in particular, that in Ishikawa prefecture, where the Noto Peninsula Earthquake (M 6.9) occurred on March 25, 20007, is very low. It means that few victims hold a Medication Notebook. In consideration of this situation, we conducted a questionnaire survey of elderly victims of the Noto Peninsula Earthquake with a key-informant-interview during the period from July through August, 2007. This study revealed that: 1) Only 16% (18/110) of respondents kept a Medication Notebook; 2) 75% (82/110) had chronic diseases and received medication regularly; 3) Of 81 who had chronic diseases, 42% (34/91) were dispensed at the same pharmacy always, (The rest received from either clinic or changing pharmacy according to clinic location); and 4) Diseases that the respondents had were hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and so on. Based on these results, we discuss the establishment of a pharmaceutical supply system that can effectively distribute appropriate medicines to patients under difficult situations following a large-scale disaster in Japan. PMID:18758141
Dmitry Valeryevich Artemyev
The paper considers the specific features of the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism in young and middle-aged patients. It is stressed that early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD) shows a number of the specific features of the mechanism responsible for the development, clinical picture, and course, as well as a response to antiparkinsonian agents, and prognosis. Indications for the use of different groups of antiparkinsonian drugs and the basic principles of management in young and middle-ag...
Petoumenos, Kathy; Worm, Signe W
In the developed world, HIV infection is now well managed with very effective and less toxic antiretroviral treatment. HIV-positive patients therefore are living longer, but are now faced by challenges associated with aging. Several non-AIDS associated morbidities are increased in this population......, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is suggested that CVD occurs earlier among HIV-positive patients compared with HIV-negative patients, and at a higher rate. Several factors have been proposed to contribute to this. First, the traditional CVD risk factors are highly prevalent in this population....... High rates of smoking, dyslipidaemia and a family history of CVD have been reported. This population is also aging, with estimates of more than 25% of HIV-positive patients in the developed world being over the age of 50. Antiretroviral treatment, both through its effect on lipids and through other...
Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a leading cause of dementia worldwide, associated with cognitive deficits and brain glucose metabolic alteration. However, the associations of glucose metabolic changes with cognitive dysfunction are less detailed. Here, we examined the brains of APP/presenilin 1 (PS1 transgenic (Tg mice aged 2, 3.5, 5 and 8 months using 18F-labed fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG microPET to assess age- and brain region-specific changes of glucose metabolism. FDG uptake was calculated as a relative standardized uptake value (SUVr. Morris water maze (MWM was used to evaluate learning and memory dysfunction. We showed a glucose utilization increase in multiple brain regions of Tg mice at 2 and 3.5 months but not at 5 and 8 months. Comparisons of SUVrs within brains showed higher glucose utilization than controls in the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and frontal cortex of Tg mice at 2 and 3.5 months but in the thalamus and striatum at 3.5, 5 and 8 months. By comparing SUVrs in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus, Tg mice were distinguished from controls at 2 and 3.5 months. In MWM, Tg mice aged 2 months shared a similar performance to the controls (prodromal-AD. By contrast, Tg mice failed training tests at 3.5 months but failed all MWM tests at 5 and 8 months, suggestive of partial or complete cognitive deficits (symptomatic-AD. Correlation analyses showed that hippocampal SUVrs were significantly correlated with MWM parameters in the symptomatic-AD stage. These data suggest that glucose metabolic disorder occurs before onset of AD signs in APP/PS1 mice with the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus affected first, and that regional FDG uptake increase can be an early biomarker for AD. Furthermore, hippocampal FDG uptake is a possible indicator for progression of Alzheimer’s cognition after cognitive decline, at least in animals.
Li, Xue-Yuan; Men, Wei-Wei; Zhu, Hua; Lei, Jian-Feng; Zuo, Fu-Xing; Wang, Zhan-Jing; Zhu, Zhao-Hui; Bao, Xin-Jie; Wang, Ren-Zhi
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a leading cause of dementia worldwide, associated with cognitive deficits and brain glucose metabolic alteration. However, the associations of glucose metabolic changes with cognitive dysfunction are less detailed. Here, we examined the brains of APP/presenilin 1 (PS1) transgenic (Tg) mice aged 2, 3.5, 5 and 8 months using 18F-labed fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) microPET to assess age- and brain region-specific changes of glucose metabolism. FDG uptake was calculated as a relative standardized uptake value (SUVr). Morris water maze (MWM) was used to evaluate learning and memory dysfunction. We showed a glucose utilization increase in multiple brain regions of Tg mice at 2 and 3.5 months but not at 5 and 8 months. Comparisons of SUVrs within brains showed higher glucose utilization than controls in the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and frontal cortex of Tg mice at 2 and 3.5 months but in the thalamus and striatum at 3.5, 5 and 8 months. By comparing SUVrs in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus, Tg mice were distinguished from controls at 2 and 3.5 months. In MWM, Tg mice aged 2 months shared a similar performance to the controls (prodromal-AD). By contrast, Tg mice failed training tests at 3.5 months but failed all MWM tests at 5 and 8 months, suggestive of partial or complete cognitive deficits (symptomatic-AD). Correlation analyses showed that hippocampal SUVrs were significantly correlated with MWM parameters in the symptomatic-AD stage. These data suggest that glucose metabolic disorder occurs before onset of AD signs in APP/PS1 mice with the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus affected first, and that regional FDG uptake increase can be an early biomarker for AD. Furthermore, hippocampal FDG uptake is a possible indicator for progression of Alzheimer’s cognition after cognitive decline, at least in animals. PMID:27763550
Dmitry Valeryevich Artemyev
Full Text Available The paper considers the specific features of the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism in young and middle-aged patients. It is stressed that early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD shows a number of the specific features of the mechanism responsible for the development, clinical picture, and course, as well as a response to antiparkinsonian agents, and prognosis. Indications for the use of different groups of antiparkinsonian drugs and the basic principles of management in young and middle-aged patients are discussed. Emphasis is laid on the key role of non-ergoline dopamine receptor agonists in the treatment of patients with PD. Approaches to correcting the non-motor symptoms of PD and current indications for neurosurgical treatment are considered.
Tam, Maureen; Chui, Ernest
This paper is about a quantitative study which has examined and elucidated the conceptualizations of ageing and learning by a group of elders in Hong Kong. In more specific terms, the study has investigated how this group of older people understood the meaning of successful ageing and elder learning in the context of their later lives. Based on…
Palmer, Shekeila D; Havelka, Jelena
Two experiments examined whether the age of acquisition (AoA) of a concept influences the speed at which native English speakers are able to name pictures using a newly acquired second language (L2) vocabulary. In Experiment 1, participants were taught L2 words associated with pictures. In Experiment 2 a second group of participants were taught the same words associated with L1 translations. Following training both groups performed a picture naming task in which they were asked to name pictures using the newly acquired words. Significant AoA effects were observed only in Experiment 1, in that participants were faster at naming pictures representing early acquired relative to late acquired concepts. The results suggest that the AoA of a concept can exert influence over processing which is independent of the AoA of the word form. The results also indicate that different training methods may lead to qualitative differences in the nature of the links formed between words and concepts during the earliest stages of second language learning. PMID:20817131
Leko, Melinda M.; Griffin, Cynthia C.
In a 1986 study published in the "Learning Disability Quarterly," Simmons and Kame'enui examined information found in popular periodicals about learning disabilities (LD) in an effort to understand what people learn about LD from these high-readership sources. After more than 20 years, advances in technology have brought significant changes to how…
Dijk, van Henk
Learning motor skills is fundamental to human life. One of the most critical variables affecting motor learning, aside from practice itself, is augmented feedback (performance-related information). Although there is abundance of research on how young adults use augmented feedback to learn motor skil
... 159530.html Fiber: The Rx for Disease-Free Aging Lots of this dietary nutrient can keep you ... a host of chronic diseases," she said. "Successful aging" was defined in the study as the continued ...
Hodes, Georgia E; Shors, Tracey J.
Acute stressful experience enhances subsequent learning in males and impairs learning in females. These sex differences emerge soon after puberty in adulthood. Whether these opposite effects of stress on learning extend into older age is unknown. To examine this, young adult (2–3 months) and middle aged (17–18 months) Fischer 344 rats of both sexes were exposed to an acute stress or of brief tail shocks and trained 24 h later with classical eyeblink conditioning using a trace paradigm. Wherea...
Grosso, G; Estruch, R
Current knowledge on the effects of nut consumption on human health has rapidly increased in recent years and it now appears that nuts may play a role in the prevention of chronic age-related diseases. Frequent nut consumption has been associated with better metabolic status, decreased body weight as well as lower body weight gain over time and thus reduce the risk of obesity. The effect of nuts on glucose metabolism, blood lipids, and blood pressure is still controversial. However, significant decreased cardiovascular risk has been reported in a number of observational and clinical intervention studies. Thus, findings from cohort studies show that increased nut consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality (especially that due to cardiovascular-related causes). Similarly, nut consumption has been also associated with reduced risk of certain cancers, such as colorectal, endometrial, and pancreatic neoplasms. Evidence regarding nut consumption and neurological or psychiatric disorders is scarce, but a number of studies suggest significant protective effects against depression, mild cognitive disorders and Alzheimer's disease. The underlying mechanisms appear to include antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, particularly related to their mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA, as well as vitamin and polyphenol content). MUFA have been demonstrated to improve pancreatic beta-cell function and regulation of postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity. PUFA may act on the central nervous system protecting neuronal and cell-signaling function and maintenance. The fiber and mineral content of nuts may also confer health benefits. Nuts therefore show promise as useful adjuvants to prevent, delay or ameliorate a number of chronic conditions in older people. Their association with decreased mortality suggests a potential in reducing disease burden, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and cognitive impairments.
Learning analytics (LA) has been applied to various learning environments, though it is quite new in the field of computer assisted language learning (CALL). This article attempts to examine the application of learning analytics in the upcoming big data age. It starts with an introduction and application of learning analytics in other fields, followed by a retrospective review of historical interaction between learning and media in CALL, and a penetrating analysis on why people would go to le...
van Praag, Henriette; Shubert, Tiffany; Zhao, Chunmei; GAGE, FRED H.
Aging causes changes in the hippocampus that may lead to cognitive decline in older adults. In young animals, exercise increases hippocampal neurogenesis and improves learning. We investigated whether voluntary wheel running would benefit mice that were sedentary until 19 months of age. Specifically, young and aged mice were housed with or without a running wheel and injected with bromodeoxyuridine or retrovirus to label newborn cells. After 1 month, learning was tested in the Morris water ma...
Ager, J.W.; Balooch, G.; Ritchie, R.O.
fracture resistance, whereas regulating the level of the cytokine TGF-beta can offer significant improvements in the stiffness, strength and toughness of bone, and as such may be considered as a therapeutic target to treat increased bone fragility induced by aging, drugs, and disease.
Hori, Shigeo; Cusack, Sandra
Lifelong learning is essential to participation in society, and presents important challenges for educational gerontology. This study compares Canadian and Japanese perspectives on (a) attitudes toward aging, (b) the learning needs of older adults, and (c) the role of centers of learning. Surveys were conducted of sample populations in two elder…
Full Text Available Ageing is often accompanied by a decline in learning and memory abilities across the animal kingdom. Understanding age-related changes in cognitive abilities is therefore a major goal of current research. The honey bee is emerging as a novel model organism for age-related changes in brain function, because learning and memory can easily be studied in bees under controlled laboratory conditions. In addition, genetically similar workers naturally display life expectancies from six weeks (summer bees to six months (winter bees. We studied whether in honey bees, extreme longevity leads to a decline in cognitive functions. Six-month-old winter bees were conditioned either to odours or to tactile stimuli. Afterwards, long-term memory and discrimination abilities were analysed. Winter bees were kept under different conditions (flight /no flight opportunity to test for effects of foraging activity on learning performance. Despite their extreme age, winter bees did not display an age-related decline in learning or discrimination abilities, but had a slightly impaired olfactory long-term memory. The opportunity to forage indoors led to a slight decrease in learning performance. This suggests that in honey bees, unlike in most other animals, age per se does not impair associative learning. Future research will show which mechanisms protect winter bees from age-related deficits in learning.
Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie
This paper reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants who either did or did not engage in organized learning. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the lived learning experiences and perspectives of these older people. Their experiences of…
Praag, Henriette van; Shubert, Tiffany; Zhao, Chunmei; Gage, Fred H.
Aging causes changes in the hippocampus that may lead to cognitive decline in older adults. In young animals, exercise increases hippocampal neurogenesis and improves learning. We investigated whether voluntary wheel running would benefit mice that were sedentary until 19 months of age. Specifically, young and aged mice were housed with or without a running wheel and injected with bromodeoxyuridine or retrovirus to label newborn cells. After 1 month, learning was tested in the Morris water maze. Aged runners showed faster acquisition and better retention of the maze than age-matched controls. The decline in neurogenesis in aged mice was reversed to 50% of young control levels by running. Moreover, fine morphology of new neurons did not differ between young and aged runners, indicating that the initial maturation of newborn neurons was not affected by aging. Thus, voluntary exercise ameliorates some of the deleterious morphological and behavioral consequences of aging. PMID:16177036
Aging is the most significant risk factor for a range of degenerative disease such as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders. While the cause of aging and its associated diseases is multifactorial, mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the aging process and the onset and progression of age-associated disorders. Recent studies indicate that maintenance of mitochondrial function is beneficial in the prevention or delay of age-associated diseases. A central molecule...
Ram Pande; Mayur Bagad; Vinay Dubey; Asit Ranjan Ghosh
In India food reflects the warmth, hospitality, status, symbol of wealth and aesthetics. The synergistic combination of pre and probiotics is known as synbiotics. Regular consumption of synbiotics in diets imparts health benefits like improved immune response, maintain intestinal integrity, decrease intestinal infections and down regulate the allergic response, influence digestion and gastric motility. Because of the changes in life styles due to globalization, unhealthy diets, lack of physical activity and exposure to tobacco smoke or harmful use of alcohol non communicable diseases are disproportionately affecting the 80% of low and middle income countries. This review covers the mechanism of probiotic action, use of probiotics in treatment and prevention of diseases of modern age, progress in delivery systems for the administration and finally some regulatory considerations. In conclusion, combined skills of the microbiologist, food technologist and clinician are necessary to sustain effect of probiotics. The role of probiotic organisms as alternative or complementary therapy in combating a large number of disorders can be achieved with balance and healthy life style as well as clean external environmental conditions. It is hoped that more detailed research will be conducted regarding the efficacy of probiotics so that clinically well documented and simplest formulation will be developed and can be regarded as effective for everyone. With validated results strong market will be formed and expanded in near future.
Thannickal, Victor J.; Murthy, Mahadev; Balch, William E.; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Meiners, Silke; Eickelberg, Oliver; Selman, Moisés; Pardo, Annie; White, Eric S.; Levy, Bruce D.; Busse, Paula J; Tuder, Rubin M.; Veena B Antony; Sznajder, Jacob I.; Budinger, G. R. Scott
The aging of the population in the United States and throughout the developed world has increased morbidity and mortality attributable to lung disease, while the morbidity and mortality from other prevalent diseases has declined or remained stable. Recognizing the importance of aging in the development of lung disease, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) highlighted this topic as a core theme for the 2014 annual meeting. The relationship between aging and lung disease was discussed in several...
Fernando A Oliveira
Full Text Available A goal of many laboratories that study aging is to find a key cellular change(s that can be manipulated and restored to a young-like state, and thus, reverse the age-related cognitive deficits. We have chosen to focus our efforts on the alteration of intrinsic excitability (as reflected by the postburst afterhyperpolarization, AHP during the learning process in hippocampal pyramidal neurons. We have consistently found that the postburst AHP is significantly reduced in hippocampal pyramidal neurons from young adults that have successfully learned a hippocampus-dependent task. In the context of aging, the baseline intrinsic excitability of hippocampal neurons is decreased and therefore cognitive learning is impaired. In aging animals that are able to learn, neuron changes in excitability similar to those seen in young neurons during learning occur. Our challenge, then, is to understand how and why excitability changes occur in neurons from aging brains and cause age-associated learning impairments. After understanding the changes, we should be able to formulate strategies for reversing them, thus making old neurons function more as they did when they were young. Such a reversal should rescue the age-related cognitive deficits.
C. Thomas-Antérion; Laurent, B.; N. Foyatier-Michel; Laporte, S; Michel, D
We used perceptual motor tasks involving the learning of mouse control by looking at a Macintosh computer screen. We studied 90 control subjects aged between sixteen and seventy-five years. There was a significant time difference between the scales of age but improvement was the same for all subjects. We also studied 24 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We observed an influence of age and also of educational levels. The PD patients had difficulties of learning in all tests but they did ...
Reddy, P. Hemachandra; Reddy, Tejaswini P.
Mitochondria are cytoplasmic organelles responsible for life and death. Extensive evidence from animal models, postmortem brain studies of and clinical studies of aging and neurodegenerative diseases suggests that mitochondrial function is defective in aging and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Several lines of research suggest that mitochondrial abnormalities, including defects in oxidative ...
The purpose of the study was to investigate language learning strategies used by English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners at different educational levels and explored the influence of age on the use of language learning strategies. A total of 1,023 students participated in the study. Out of the participants, there were 250 primary students…
Lersten, Kenneth C.
This paper reviews psychological literature concerned with aging, and includes brief reviews of (a) motor skill work, (b) the phenomena of "slowing," (c) social psychological findings, (d) sensation and perception, and (e) selected learning characteristics. The following teaching and learning strategies were elicited from this study: (a)…
Zhu, Haidong; Belcher, Matthew; van der Harst, Pim
Aging is a biological process that affects most cells, organisms and species. Human aging is associated with increased susceptibility to a variety of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, neurological diseases and cancer. Despite the remarkable progress made during the
Bartsch, T; Wulff, P
The hippocampus has a pivotal role in learning and in the formation and consolidation of memory and is critically involved in the regulation of emotion, fear, anxiety, and stress. Studies of the hippocampus have been central to the study of memory in humans and in recent years, the regional specialization and organization of hippocampal functions have been elucidated in experimental models and in human neurological and psychiatric diseases. The hippocampus has long been considered a classic model for the study of neuroplasticity as many examples of synaptic plasticity such as long-term potentiation and -depression have been identified and demonstrated in hippocampal circuits. Neuroplasticity is the ability to adapt and reorganize the structure or function to internal or external stimuli and occurs at the cellular, population, network or behavioral level and is reflected in the cytological and network architecture as well as in intrinsic properties of hippocampal neurons and circuits. The high degree of hippocampal neuroplasticity might, however, be also negatively reflected in the pronounced vulnerability of the hippocampus to deleterious conditions such as ischemia, epilepsy, chronic stress, neurodegeneration and aging targeting hippocampal structure and function and leading to cognitive deficits. Considering this framework of plasticity and vulnerability, we here review basic principles of hippocampal anatomy and neuroplasticity on various levels as well as recent findings regarding the functional organization of the hippocampus in light of the regional vulnerability in Alzheimer's disease, ischemia, epilepsy, neuroinflammation and aging. PMID:26241337
There has been a shift in interest from ‘lifelong education’ to ‘lifelong learning’ in the Western world since the 1990s. This shift is closely related to strategies for securing the competitiveness of national economies. For this purpose one of the tools applied by educational policy makers has...... one particular area, however, where evidence based learning research might be thought to have a strong foothold: in the brain sciences. And certainly a rapidly growing interest in ‘educational neuroscience’ has emerged within the last 10 years. But is it possible to bridge the gap between ‘studying...... been to invoke ‘the golden standard(s)’ of evidence based research into the domain of learning. A number of problems with this approach are that the very conception of learning is broad, vague, ambiguous and does not in itself give us a normative handle which can help us with education. There might be...
As a result of the general improvement in living conditions in industrialised Western countries, people aged over 60 years usually reach the third age in good mental and physical condition. Contemporary society has thus had to endeavour to offer the new old not only social services but also pastimes, leisure, social, cultural and educational…
Full Text Available [Excerpt] We offer a different approach to delaying or preventing age-related diseases. To understand the necessity for a new approach we have plotted the mortality rates in Israelis in relation to specific age groups and diseases. With the common phenomenon of aging of Western populations it is of utmost importance to follow time-dependent and age-dependent mortality patterns to predict future needs of Western health systems. Age-specific, gender-specific, and cause-of-death-specific mortality rates were extracted from the statistical abstract of Israel1 and include data for the period of 1975–2010; these are presented in Figure 1, separately for men (A and women (B. Detailed age-specific causes of death data were available for the year 2009. Data presented were restricted to 5-year age groups starting at age 50, and for cause-specific mortality to the following age groups: 45–54, 55–64, 65–74, 75–84, and 85+. Causes of mortality were separated into malignant diseases, acute myocardial infarction, other ischemic heart diseases, other forms of heart diseases, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, diseases of kidney, infectious diseases, all external causes, signs/symptoms and ill-defined conditions, and all other diseases. Figure 1 is similar to the one posted on the National Institute of Aging website and similar to data across the industrial world. The striking feature of this graph is that aging is a major log scale risk for most diseases, including the major killers: heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s. For example, while aging is a 100-fold risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD according to Figure 1, hypercholesterolemia is known to carry only a three-fold risk for CVD. For each of the mentioned diseases, aging is a log risk greater than the most important known risk factor for that disease.
Xu, Pengjing; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Wang, Xiaoping; Dosher, Barbara; Zhou, Jiangning; Zhang, Daren; Zhou, Yifeng
To explore the relationship between category and perceptual learning, we examined both category and perceptual learning in patients with treated Wilson's disease (WD), whose basal ganglia, known to be important in category learning, were damaged by the disease. We measured their learning rate and accuracy in rule-based and information-integration category learning, and magnitudes of perceptual learning in a wide range of external noise conditions, and compared the results with those of normal...
Highlights: • International Generic Ageing Lessons Learned (IGALL) Programme was commenced to develop a practical guide for ageing management programmes. • Results of IGALL Phase 1 are publicly available on IAEA web sites. • 76 ageing management programmes and 27 time limited ageing analyses is provided. • More than 2000 consolidated line items in ageing management review tables was prepared. • The IGALL represents a common internationally agreed basis on what constitutes acceptable ageing management programme. - Abstract: This paper presents purpose and results of the IAEA International Generic Ageing Lessons Learned (IGALL) programme phase 1. The IGALL programme phase 1 (2010–2013) was successfully completed in September 2013. The IGALL safety report, which includes consolidated IGALL database information on 76 ageing management programmes, 27 time limited ageing analyses and more than 2000 consolidated line items in ageing management review tables was prepared for publication. The IGALL database was made publicly available in February 2014. The IGALL safety report represents a common internationally agreed basis on what constitutes acceptable ageing management programmes, as well as a knowledge base on ageing management for design of new plants, design reviews, safety reviews (such as periodic safety review), etc., and serves as a roadmap to available information on ageing management. The IAEA IGALL programme assures that information contained in the IGALL safety report will be kept updated and creates an international network for continuous discussion and development of AMPs and TLAAs as recommended tools to manage ageing
The role and functions of antioxidant micronutrients such as ascorbate (vitamin C), a-tocopherol (vitamin E) and carotenoids that are provided through the diet in aging and in the prevention of age-related diseases are discussed in the present work. In general, a healthy lifestyle involving regular exercise and avoidance of tobacco or alcohol abuse are the key to the prevention of several age-related diseases including cardiovascular diseases, dementia and cancer. A balanced and regular nutri...
Background: Growing numbers of people with learning disabilities are now living into older age. This study aims to examine the state of knowledge about their lives and the challenges that ageing has for both family carers and policymakers and practitioners. Materials and Methods: The article synthesises existing research in the fields of learning…
Schwab, Jessica F; Schuler, Kathryn D; Stillman, Chelsea M; Newport, Elissa L; Howard, James H; Howard, Darlene V
Language learners must place unfamiliar words into categories, often with few explicit indicators about when and how that word can be used grammatically. Reeder, Newport, and Aslin (2013) showed that college students can learn grammatical form classes from an artificial language by relying solely on distributional information (i.e., contextual cues in the input). Here, 2 experiments revealed that healthy older adults also show such statistical learning, though they are poorer than young at distinguishing grammatical from ungrammatical strings. This finding expands knowledge of which aspects of learning vary with aging, with potential implications for second language learning in late adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27294711
Farkas, E; Luiten, PGM
The aging of the central nervous system and the development of incapacitating neurological diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD) are generally associated with a wide range of histological and pathophysiological changes eventually leading to compromised cognitive status. Although the diverse trigger
McGovern, John P.
The author examines the problems of chronic respiratory disease in school-age children from a medical viewpoint, including recognition and diagnosis, commonly encountered diseases, their effect on participation in physical exercise, emotional factors, medication, and emergency care. (MB)
The ageing of society is one of the biggest policy challenges of this time. Growing life expectancy and low birth rates mean that, for the fist time in human history, most people, and certainly the more prosperous social groups, will be spending a third of their lives in "retirement". This has profound social, cultural and economic implications,…
Chang, Timothy S; Coen, Michael H.; La Rue, Asenath; Jonaitis, Erin; Koscik, Rebecca L.; Hermann, Bruce; Sager, Mark A.
Identification of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an essential first step in developing interventions to prevent or delay disease onset. In this study, we examine the hypothesis that deeper analyses of traditional cognitive tests may be useful in identifying subtle but potentially important learning and memory differences in asymptomatic populations that differ in risk for developing Alzheimer’s disease. Subjects included 879 asymptomatic higher-risk persons (middle-aged children of p...
Evron, Lotte; Ulrich, Anita; Tanggaard, Lene
-responsible citizens who are physically active and motivated to participate in falls prevention programmes; discourses of old age as disease on the other hand construct “fall patients” who accept being passive in the health care system. Older citizens who are not in need of treatment or less physically active...... information and investment in falls prevention programs, many still drop out or decline to participate in such programs. The study explores how discourses cross swords in the domain of falls prevention. We identify two main discourses in the field: Discourses of active aging opposed to discourses of old age...... as disease. In discourses of active aging falls are constructed as preventable and not necessarily related to old age; in discourses of old age as disease falls are constructed as a disease of old age. Specific agent positions are created within discourses. Discourses of active aging construct self...
Full Text Available Learning analytics (LA has been applied to various learning environments, though it is quite new in the field of computer assisted language learning (CALL. This article attempts to examine the application of learning analytics in the upcoming big data age. It starts with an introduction and application of learning analytics in other fields, followed by a retrospective review of historical interaction between learning and media in CALL, and a penetrating analysis on why people would go to learning analytics to increase the efficiency of foreign language education. As approved in previous research, new technology, including big data mining and analysis, would inevitably enhance the learning of foreign languages. Potential changes that learning analytics would bring to Chinese foreign language education and researches are also presented in the article.
Oeseburg, Hisko; de Boer, Rudolf A.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; van der Harst, Pim
Aging is a biological process that affects most cells, organisms and species. Telomeres have been postulated as a universal biological clock that shortens in parallel with aging in cells. Telomeres are located at the end of the chromosomes and consist of an evolutionary conserved repetitive nucleoti
Snowdon, David A.
Describes a woman who maintained high cognitive test scores until her death at 101 years of age despite anatomical evidence of Alzheimer's disease. The woman was part of a larger "Nun Study" in which 678 sisters donated their brains to teach others about the etiology of aging and Alzheimer's disease. Findings are discussed. (RJM)
Mapstone, Mark; Dickerson, Kathryn; Duffy, Charles J.
Similar manifestations of functional decline in ageing and Alzheimer's disease obscure differences in the underlying cognitive mechanisms of impairment. We sought to examine the contributions of top-down attentional and bottom-up perceptual factors to visual self-movement processing in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. We administered a novel…
Everitt, Arthur V; Hilmer, Sarah N; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Jamieson, Hamish A; Truswell, A Stewart; Sharma, Anita P; Mason, Rebecca S; Morris, Brian J; Le Couteur, David G
Reducing food intake in lower animals such as the rat decreases body weight, retards many aging processes, delays the onset of most diseases of old age, and prolongs life. A number of clinical trials of food restriction in healthy adult human subjects running over 2-15 years show significant reductions in body weight, blood cholesterol, blood glucose, and blood pressure, which are risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Lifestyle interventions that lower energy balance by reducing body weight such as physical exercise can also delay the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In general, clinical trials are suggesting that diets high in calories or fat along with overweight are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, some cancers, and dementia. There is a growing literature indicating that specific dietary constituents are able to influence the development of age-related diseases, including certain fats (trans fatty acids, saturated, and polyunsaturated fats) and cholesterol for cardiovascular disease, glycemic index and fiber for diabetes, fruits and vegetables for cardiovascular disease, and calcium and vitamin D for osteoporosis and bone fracture. In addition, there are dietary compounds from different functional foods, herbs, and neutraceuticals such as ginseng, nuts, grains, and polyphenols that may affect the development of age-related diseases. Long-term prospective clinical trials will be needed to confirm these diet-disease relationships. On the basis of current research, the best diet to delay age-related disease onset is one low in calories and saturated fat and high in wholegrain cereals, legumes, fruits and vegetables, and which maintains a lean body weight. Such a diet should become a key component of healthy aging, delaying age-related diseases and perhaps intervening in the aging process itself. Furthermore, there are studies suggesting that nutrition in childhood and
Cohen, P G
In males, aging, health and disease are processes that occur over physiologic time and involve a cascade of hormonal, biochemical and physiological changes that accompany the down-regulation of the hypothalamic-anterior pituitary-testicular axis. As aging progresses there are relative increases of body fat and decreases in muscle mass. The increased adipose tissue mass is associated with the production of a number of newly generated factors. These include aromatase, leptin, PAI-1, insulin resistance, and the dyslipidemias, all of which can lead to tissue damage. Fatty tissue becomes the focal point for study as it represents the intersection between energy storage and mobilization. The increase in adipose tissue is associated with an increase in the enzyme aromatase that converts testosterone to estradiol and leads to diminished testosterone levels that favor the preferential deposition of visceral fat. As the total body fat mass increases, hormone resistance develops for leptin and insulin. Increasing leptin fails to prevent weight gain and the hypogonadal-obesity cycle ensues causing further visceral obesity and insulin resistance. The progressive insulin resistance leads to a high triglyceride-low HDL pattern of dyslipidemia and increased cardiovascular risk. All of these factors eventually contribute to the CHAOS Complex: coronary disease, hypertension, adult-onset diabetes mellitus, obesity and/or stroke as permanent changes unfold. Other consequences of the chronic hypogonadal state include osteopenia, extreme fatigue, depression, insomnia, loss of aggressiveness and erectile dysfunction all of which develop over variable periods of time. PMID:11399122
Lisa B. Boyette
Full Text Available Preservation of adult stem cells pools is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis into old age. Exhaustion of adult stem cell pools as a result of deranged metabolic signaling, premature senescence as a response to oncogenic insults to the somatic genome, and other causes contribute to tissue degeneration with age. Both progeria, an extreme example of early-onset aging, and heritable longevity have provided avenues to study regulation of the aging program and its impact on adult stem cell compartments. In this review, we discuss recent findings concerning the effects of aging on stem cells, contributions of stem cells to age-related pathologies, examples of signaling pathways at work in these processes, and lessons about cellular aging gleaned from the development and refinement of cellular reprogramming technologies. We highlight emerging therapeutic approaches to manipulation of key signaling pathways corrupting or exhausting adult stem cells, as well as other approaches targeted at maintaining robust stem cell pools to extend not only lifespan but healthspan.
Full Text Available Aging is the most significant risk factor for a range of degenerative disease such as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders. While the cause of aging and its associated diseases is multifactorial, mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the aging process and the onset and progression of age-associated disorders. Recent studies indicate that maintenance of mitochondrial function is beneficial in the prevention or delay of age-associated diseases. A central molecule seems to be the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator α (PGC-1α, which is the key regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. Besides regulating mitochondrial function, PGC-1α targets several other cellular processes and thereby influences cell fate on multiple levels. This paper discusses how mitochondrial function and PGC-1α are affected in age-associated diseases and how modulation of PGC-1α might offer a therapeutic potential for age-related pathology.
Alexei Verkhratsky, Robert Zorec, Jose J RodrÃguez, Vladimir Parpura
Ageing of the brain is the major risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders that result in cognitive decline and senile dementia. Ageing astrocytes undergo complex and region specific remodelling which can reflect life-long adaptive plasticity. In neurodegeneration, astroglial cells are similarly a subject for morpho-functional changes hampering the homoeostasis, defence and regeneration of the central nervous system. Region-specific astroglial atrophy with the loss of function and astroglia...
Full Text Available To explore the relationship between category and perceptual learning, we examined both category and perceptual learning in patients with treated Wilson's disease (WD, whose basal ganglia, known to be important in category learning, were damaged by the disease. We measured their learning rate and accuracy in rule-based and information-integration category learning, and magnitudes of perceptual learning in a wide range of external noise conditions, and compared the results with those of normal controls. The WD subjects exhibited deficits in both forms of category learning and in perceptual learning in high external noise. However, their perceptual learning in low external noise was relatively spared. There was no significant correlation between the two forms of category learning, nor between perceptual learning in low external noise and either form of category learning. Perceptual learning in high external noise was, however, significantly correlated with information-integration but not with rule-based category learning. The results suggest that there may be a strong link between information-integration category learning and perceptual learning in high external noise. Damage to brain structures that are important for information-integration category learning may lead to poor perceptual learning in high external noise, yet spare perceptual learning in low external noise. Perceptual learning in high and low external noise conditions may involve separate neural substrates.
Delgoulet, Catherine; Marquié, Jean Claude
The effects of age and previous relevant experience on learning anxiety, strategies, and performance were studied in 43 workers aged 25 to 49 during a 1-week maintenance vocational training course. The results showed that increased age was associated with higher training-related anxiety as measured at the beginning of the course. However, no age difference could be found in the level of knowledge assessed after 3 days of training. This was confirmed by another problem-solving-type test that took place on the last day. Previous experience had no effect on anxiety, and it did enable us to predict higher scores for the first test but not for the second one. Analysis of behavior strategies revealed that older trainees consulted and annotated the course material more often than the younger ones during the learning process. The results are discussed in relation to those obtained in previous laboratory and field studies on the same subject. PMID:11928208
Staja Q. Booker
Full Text Available Background: The unprecedented global growth in older adults merits high-quality gerontological nursing care. As gerontological nursing grows in visibility in developed and developing countries, nurses must possess a broader worldview of ageing with knowledge of physiological, psychosocial, and cultural issues.Purpose: The purpose of this article is to: (1 highlight lessons learned on differences and similarities in ageing and care of older adults in the United States of America (USA and South Africa (SA; and (2 provide recommendations on how to advance gerontological nursingeducation in SA.Methods: A two-week international service-learning project was undertaken by visiting SA and learning about their nursing system and care of older adults. Service-learning is an innovative teaching-learning-service method that provided reflective and hands-on experience of gerontological nursing. This article provides a personal reflection of lessons learned about ageing and gerontological nursing during the service-learning project.Findings: Care of older adults in SA is in many ways different from and similar to that in the USA. Consequently global nurses should recognise those differences and provide culturally appropriate care. This service-learning experience also demonstrated the need for gerontological nursing education in SA. Based on this, recommendations on how to infuse and advance gerontological nursing education in SA are provided.Conclusion: Caring for older adults in a global context requires knowledge and understanding of cultures and their values and practices. With a growing population of diverse older adults, there is a need for incorporation
Christoffersen, Mette; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne
Association of common aging signs (i.e., male pattern baldness, hair graying, and facial wrinkles) as well as other age-related appearance factors (i.e., arcus corneae, xanthelasmata, and earlobe crease) with increased risk of ischemic heart disease was initially described in anecdotal reports from...... clinicians observing trends in the physical appearance of patients with ischemic heart disease. Following these early observations numerous epidemiological studies have reported these associations. Since the prevalences of both visible aging signs and ischemic heart disease have a strong correlation......, and are mostly speculative. As a consequence of inconsistent findings and lack of mechanistic explanations for the observed associations with ischemic heart disease, consensus on the clinical importance of these visible aging signs has been lacking. The aim of this review is for each of the visible aging signs...
Full Text Available The paper presents outcomes of a longitudinal study on learning motivation in children of early school age. The aim was to reveal the leading motives in first, second, third and fourth grades and to explore the dynamics of some learning motives in children over the whole period of elementary school. As it was found, the learning activity in the children was mostly motivated by social motives, among which the leading ones were the motives of selfdetermination and wellbeing. As for learning motives, over the course of all four years the children were for the most part motivated by the content of the learning activity, and not by its process. The dynamics of certain social motives of the learning activity varied across the sample, with some going through the periods of increase and decrease and others having a oneway dynamics. The study also revealed a decrease in the motivation rooted in the learning activity itself between the second and third year; at the same time, in the second, third and fourth years the children were more motivated by the content of the learning activity than by its process
Moyse, Evelyne; Bastin, Christine; Salmon, Eric; Brédart, Serge
A prerequisite for any function in social cognition is the perception and processing of social cues. Age estimation is a skill that is used in everyday life and is fundamental in social interactions. This study evaluated whether facial age estimation is impaired in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). The current age of faces is known to have an impact on age estimation, and therefore stimuli belonging to different age groups (young, middle-aged, and older adults' faces) were used. As expected, an impairment of age estimation from faces was observed in mild to moderate AD patients. However, the profile of impairment depended on the age of faces and stage of the disease. Mild AD patients presented difficulties mainly in assessing the age of middle-aged adults. In moderate disease stage, these difficulties also affected the age estimation of young adult faces. Interestingly, AD patients remained relatively good at estimating the age of older adults' faces, compared to healthy controls. PMID:25589725
Seval Doğruk Kaçar; Pınar Özuğuz; Şemsettin Karaca
Objective: The hair and scalp diseases in children are studied in a wide range. Various diseases were considered in the differential diagnosis according to the age of onset and clinical patterns. We aimed to retrospectively evaluate the frequency and main clinical features of hair and scalp diseases in patients admitted pediatric dermatology (PD) outpatient clinic. Methods: 159 patients with hair and scalp diseases which were distinguished among the records of 2641 patients under 18 years ...
Full Text Available The role and functions of antioxidant micronutrients such as ascorbate (vitamin C, a-tocopherol (vitamin E and carotenoids that are provided through the diet in aging and in the prevention of age-related diseases are discussed in the present work. In general, a healthy lifestyle involving regular exercise and avoidance of tobacco or alcohol abuse are the key to the prevention of several age-related diseases including cardiovascular diseases, dementia and cancer. A balanced and regular nutrition with at least five portions of fruit and vegetables per day is a critical constituent of such a healthy lifestyle.
Yates, Christine; Partridge, Helen; Bruce, Christine
Given identified synergies between information use and health status greater understanding is needed about how people use information to learn about their health. This paper presents the findings of preliminary research into health information literacy. Analysis of data from semi-structured interviews revealed six different ways ageing Australians…
Yang, Jialiang; Huang, Tao; Song, Won-Min; Petralia, Francesca; Mobbs, Charles V; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Yong; Schadt, Eric E; Zhu, Jun; Tu, Zhidong
Although our knowledge of aging has greatly expanded in the past decades, it remains elusive why and how aging contributes to the development of age-related diseases (ARDs). In particular, a global mechanistic understanding of the connections between aging and ARDs is yet to be established. We rely on a network modelling named "GeroNet" to study the connections between aging and more than a hundred diseases. By evaluating topological connections between aging genes and disease genes in over three thousand subnetworks corresponding to various biological processes, we show that aging has stronger connections with ARD genes compared to non-ARD genes in subnetworks corresponding to "response to decreased oxygen levels", "insulin signalling pathway", "cell cycle", etc. Based on subnetwork connectivity, we can correctly "predict" if a disease is age-related and prioritize the biological processes that are involved in connecting to multiple ARDs. Using Alzheimer's disease (AD) as an example, GeroNet identifies meaningful genes that may play key roles in connecting aging and ARDs. The top modules identified by GeroNet in AD significantly overlap with modules identified from a large scale AD brain gene expression experiment, supporting that GeroNet indeed reveals the underlying biological processes involved in the disease. PMID:27582315
Jung, Johannes; Buisman, Sonja; de Haan, Gerald
Hematopoietic stem cells were once considered identical. However, in the mid-1990s, it became apparent that stem cells from a person's early developmental phases are superior to those from adults, and aged stem cells are defective compared with young stem cells. It has since become clear that polycomb group proteins are important regulators of stem cell functioning. Polycomb group proteins are chromatin-associated proteins involved in writing or reading epigenetic histone modifications. Polycomb group proteins are involved in normal blood cell formation, in cancer, and possibly in aging. In this review, we describe how the different phases of hematopoietic stem cells-birth, maintenance, functional decline, derailment, and death-are continuous processes that may be controlled by polycomb group proteins. PMID:27235755
Pascual-Leone, A; Grafman, J; Clark, K; Stewart, M; Massaquoi, S; Lou, J S; Hallett, M
We compared procedural learning, translation of procedural knowledge into declarative knowledge, and use of declarative knowledge in age-matched normal volunteers (n = 30), patients with Parkinson's disease (n = 20), and patients with cerebellar degeneration (n = 15) by using a serial reaction time task. Patients with Parkinson's disease achieved procedural knowledge and used declarative knowledge of the task to improve performance, but they required a larger number of repetitions of the task to translate procedural knowledge into declarative knowledge. Patients with cerebellar degeneration did not show performance improvement due to procedural learning, failed to achieve declarative knowledge, and showed limited use of declarative knowledge of the task to improve their performance. Both basal ganglia and cerebellum are involved in procedural learning, but their roles are different. The normal influence of the basal ganglia on the prefrontal cortex may be required for timely access of information to and from the working memory buffer, while the cerebellum may index and order events in the time domain and be therefore essential for any cognitive functions involving sequences. PMID:8215247
Conti, Valeria; Russomanno, Giusy; Corbi, Graziamaria; Filippelli, Amelia
Sedentary lifestyle along with high blood pressure, abnormal values for blood lipids, smoking, and obesity are recognized risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and for many other chronic diseases, such as diabetes, osteoporosis, breast and colon cancer. Several studies conducted on large cohort of individuals have documented the protective effects of physical activity for both vascular and nonvascular syndromes. Exercise training is an integral part of cardiac rehabilitation, a complex therapeutic approach, effective both in young and elderly patients. Despite the number of evidences underling the benefits associated with physical fitness, the cardiac rehabilitation is still an underused medical resource. The molecular mechanism behind physical activity protective effect is presently unresolved, and further studies are also needed to establish the best protocol in terms of specificity, volume and duration of the training. PMID:23905056
Everitt, Arthur V.; Hilmer, Sarah N.; Jennie C. Brand-Miller; Jamieson, Hamish A; Truswell, A Stewart; Sharma, Anita P; Mason, Rebecca S.; Morris, Brian J.; Le Couteur, David G.
Reducing food intake in lower animals such as the rat decreases body weight, retards many aging processes, delays the onset of most diseases of old age, and prolongs life. A number of clinical trials of food restriction in healthy adult human subjects running over 2–15 years show significant reductions in body weight, blood cholesterol, blood glucose, and blood pressure, which are risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Lifestyle interventions that lower energ...
Omodei, Daniela; Fontana, Luigi
Life expectancy in the world has increased dramatically during the last century; the number of older adults is expected to rise while the number of youths will decline in the near future. This demographic shift has considerable public health and economic implications since aging is associated with the development of serious chronic diseases. Calorie restriction (CR) is the most effective nutritional intervention for slowing aging and preventing chronic disease in rodents. In non-human and hum...
Hietanen, M; Teräväinen, H
One hundred and eight noninstitutionalized patients with Parkinson's disease were studied to find out whether the age of disease onset affects patients' cognitive, memory and psychomotor performance. "Early onset" patients (whose disease began before 60 years of age) showed a wide spectrum of impairments in neuropsychological performance compared with age-matched normal subjects. However, only one (2%) of these patients was demented according to DSM III criteria. Dementia was more frequent in...
Roca, F; Grossin, N; Chassagne, P; Puisieux, F; Boulanger, E
Angiogenesis is generally a quiescent process which, however, may be modified by different physiological and pathological conditions. The "angiogenic paradox" has been described in diabetes because this disease impairs the angiogenic response in a manner that differs depending on the organs involved and disease evolution. Aging is also associated with pro- and antiangiogenic processes. Glycation, the post-translational modification of proteins, increases with aging and the progression of diabetes. The effect of glycation on angiogenesis depends on the type of glycated proteins and cells involved. This complex link could be responsible for the "angiogenic paradox" in aging and age-related disorders and diseases. Using diabetes as a model, the present work has attempted to review the age-related angiogenic paradox, in particular the effects of glycation on angiogenesis during aging.
Heidi N. Fridolfsson; Hemal H. Patel
It is estimated that the elderly (> 65 years of age) will increase from 13%-14% to 25% by 2035. If this trend continues, > 50% of the United States population and more than two billion people worldwide will be "aged" in the next 50 years. Aged individuals face formidable challenges to their health, as aging is associated with a myriad of diseases. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States with > 50% of mortality attributed to coronary artery disease and > 80% of these deaths occurring in those age 65 and older. Therefore, age is an important predictor of cardiovascular disease. The efficiency of youth is built upon cellular signaling scaffolds that provide tight and coordinated signaling. Lipid rafts are one such scaffold of which caveolae are a subset. In this review, we consider the importance of caveolae in common cardiovascular diseases of the aged and as potential therapeutic targets. We specifically address the role of caveolin in heart failure, myocardial ischemia, and pulmonary hypertension.
Rattan, Suresh I S
Aging of biological systems occurs in spite of numerous complex pathways of maintenance, repair and defense. There are no gerontogenes which have the specific evolutionary function to cause aging. Although aging is the common cause of all age-related diseases, aging in itself cannot be considered a disease. This understanding of aging as a process should transform our approach towards interventions from developing illusory anti-aging treatments to developing realistic and practical methods for maintaining health throughout the lifespan. The concept of homeodynamic space can be a useful one in order to identify a set of measurable, evidence-based and demonstratable parameters of health, robustness and resilience. Age-induced health problems, for which there are no other clear-cut causative agents, may be better tackled by focusing on health mechanisms and their maintenance, rather than only disease management and treatment. Continuing the disease-oriented research and treatment approaches, as opposed to health-oriented and preventive strategies, are economically, socially and psychologically unsustainable.
a disease. This understanding of aging as a process should transform our approach towards interventions from developing illusory anti-aging treatments to developing realistic and practical methods for maintaining health throughout the lifespan. The concept of homeodynamic space can be a useful one in order...
Nutritional epigenetics has emerged as a novel mechanism underlying gene–diet interactions, further elucidating the modulatory role of nutrition in aging and age-related disease development. Epigenetics is defined as a heritable modification to the DNA that regulates chromosome architecture and modu...
Full Text Available The aging process worsens the human body functions at multiple levels, thus causing its gradual decrease to resist stress, damage, and disease. Besides changes in gene expression and metabolic control, the aging rate has been associated with the production of high levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS and/or Reactive Nitrosative Species (RNS. Specific increases of ROS level have been demonstrated as potentially critical for induction and maintenance of cell senescence process. Causal connection between ROS, aging, age-related pathologies, and cell senescence is studied intensely. Senescent cells have been proposed as a target for interventions to delay the aging and its related diseases or to improve the diseases treatment. Therapeutic interventions towards senescent cells might allow restoring the health and curing the diseases that share basal processes, rather than curing each disease in separate and symptomatic way. Here, we review observations on ROS ability of inducing cell senescence through novel mechanisms that underpin aging processes. Particular emphasis is addressed to the novel mechanisms of ROS involvement in epigenetic regulation of cell senescence and aging, with the aim to individuate specific pathways, which might promote healthy lifespan and improve aging.
龙大宏; 冷水龙; 姚志彬
背景:神经生长因子(nerve growthfactor,NGF)能促进青年痴呆鼠的学习记忆能力的恢复,但老年痴呆鼠对NGF是否敏感?目的:探讨NGF对老年痴呆鼠学习记忆能力的影响.设计:以动物实验为依托,与对照组比较分析.地点和材料:实验在广州医学院解剖学教研室完成.材料:24个月龄雄性SD大鼠30只,NGF(人工脑脊液配制,3.0 g/L,军事医学院提供),人工脑脊液配制细胞色素C溶液.方法:切断老年SD大鼠左侧穹窿海马伞(fimbria-fomix,FF),侧脑室注射NGF,用Morris水迷宫和Y迷宫测试正常组、损伤组和治疗组大鼠的学习记忆能力.主要观察指标:Morris水迷宫行为测试中大鼠平台平均潜伏期的变化及撤除平台后3组大鼠120 s内在各象限游泳距离占总距离的百分比和跨过原平台位置数;Y迷宫检测中大鼠的学习和记忆能力的改变.结果:治疗组大鼠与损伤组相比较,治疗组平均逃避潜伏期缩短,原平台象限游泳距离和穿环次数增多,学会Y迷宫所需训练次数减少和正确反应次数增多,但未完全达到正常水平.结论:NGF能够改善老年FF损伤鼠学习记忆能力.%BACKGROUND: Nerve growth factor(NGF) has been shown to improve the ability of spatial learning and memory in young rats with fimbria-fornix(F-F) transection. But it is by far not known whether aged rats with F-F transection respond to NGF treatment in view of spatial learning and memory.OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of NGF on spatial learning and memory abilities in aged rats with unilateral F-F transection.SETTING and MATERIALS: A controlled animal experiment completed in the Anatomy Department of Guangzhou Medical College. Thirty male SD rats aged 24 months, NGF(3.0 g/L, resolved in artificial cerebrospinal fluid kindly presented by Academy of Military Medicine) and cytochrome C(Cyt C)(artificially confected by cerebrospinal fluid).infusion of NGF or Cyt C into the cerebroventricular space. One month
The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volumes 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This report consists of Volume 2, which consists of the GALL literature review tables for the NUMARC Industry Reports reviewed for the report
The main deliverable of the International Generic Ageing Lessons Learned for Nuclear Power Plants (IGALL) Extrabudgetary Programme (EBP), the IGALL Safety Report, provides an internationally recognized basis for an acceptable ageing management programme, as well as a knowledge base on ageing management to aid in the design of new power plants, design reviews, modifications and upgrades, and to serve as a source of information on ageing management. This publication is a summary of the national approaches taken by Member States participating in the IGALL programme. This information was collected during the first phase of the IGALL programme between 2010 and 2013, and explains different national practices in the area of ageing management and the preparation for long term operation
The hippocampal formation is a brain structure important for memory and emotion regulation. The hippocampal formation is susceptible to aging and age-related diseases, which is manifested as volume loss, visible on MRI scans. The hippocampal formation consists of several subfields with different cel
Childs, B.G.; Durik, M.; Baker, D.J.; Deursen, J.M.A. van
Cellular senescence, a process that imposes permanent proliferative arrest on cells in response to various stressors, has emerged as a potentially important contributor to aging and age-related disease, and it is an attractive target for therapeutic exploitation. A wealth of information about senesc
Grespi, Francesca; Melino, Gerry
P73 is a member of the p53 transcription factors family with a prominent role in neurobiology, affecting brain development as well as controlling neuronal survival. Accordingly, p73 has been identified as key player in many age-related neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, neuroAIDS and Niemann-Pick type C disease. Here we investigate possible correlations of p73 with Parkinson disease. Tyrosine hydroxylase is a crucial player in Parkinson disease being the enzyme necessary...
Seval Doğruk Kaçar
Full Text Available Objective: The hair and scalp diseases in children are studied in a wide range. Various diseases were considered in the differential diagnosis according to the age of onset and clinical patterns. We aimed to retrospectively evaluate the frequency and main clinical features of hair and scalp diseases in patients admitted pediatric dermatology (PD outpatient clinic. Methods: 159 patients with hair and scalp diseases which were distinguished among the records of 2641 patients under 18 years of age, who were admitted to PD outpatient clinic of Afyon Kocatepe University Hospital. The demographic and clinical data were recorded from the files and appropriate analyses were performed. Results: The mean age of patients (90 females and 69 males were 9.92±5.28 years (2 months-17 years. Seborrheic dermatitis, alopecia areata, tinea capitis, telogen effluvium and psoriasis were the most common diseases (26.4%, 19.5%, 13.2%, 11.9% and 11.9% respectively Hair loss was present in 47.8% of cases. Hair pull test and trichoscopy were the most common diagnostic methods in the analysis of hair loss whereas biopsy was the least common (72.3%, 40.9% and 5.0. Conclusion: Hair loss is important at all ages due to cosmetic concerns. Non-scarring acquired alopecias were the most common in pediatric age group.
This paper focuses on the effects of age on second language learning, specifically in foreign language settings. It begins by pointing out that the effects of learners' initial age of learning in foreign language learning settings are partially different from those in naturalistic language learning settings and, furthermore, that studies in the…
Full Text Available Age is the strongest risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD, yet the effects of age on rates of clinical decline and brain atrophy in AD have been largely unexplored. Here, we examined longitudinal rates of change as a function of baseline age for measures of clinical decline and structural MRI-based regional brain atrophy, in cohorts of AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and cognitively healthy (HC individuals aged 65 to 90 years (total n = 723. The effect of age was modeled using mixed effects linear regression. There was pronounced reduction in rates of clinical decline and atrophy with age for AD and MCI individuals, whereas HCs showed increased rates of clinical decline and atrophy with age. This resulted in convergence in rates of change for HCs and patients with advancing age for several measures. Baseline cerebrospinal fluid densities of AD-relevant proteins, Aβ(1-42, tau, and phospho-tau(181p (ptau, showed a similar pattern of convergence with advanced age across cohorts, particularly for ptau. In contrast, baseline clinical measures did not differ by age, indicating uniformity of clinical severity at baseline. These results imply that the phenotypic expression of AD is relatively mild in individuals older than approximately 85 years, and this may affect the ability to distinguish AD from normal aging in the very old. Our findings show that inclusion of older individuals in clinical trials will substantially reduce the power to detect disease-modifying therapeutic effects, leading to dramatic increases in required clinical trial sample sizes with age of study sample.
Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius
Thyroid autoimmune disease, a widespread phenomenon in female population, impairs thyroid function during pregnancy. Identifying cases, which will develop hypothyroidism during pregnancy, is crucial in the follow-up process. The study group comprised 108 females, with ages between 20-40 years; with known inactive autoimmune thyroid disease, before pregnancy that became pregnant in the study follow-up period. They were monitored by means of clinical, hormonal and immunological assays. Supplemental therapy with thyroid hormones was used, where needed. Maternal age and level of anti-thyroid antibodies were used to predict thyroid functional impairment.
Head, Elizabeth; Rofina, Jaime; Zicker, Steven
Decline in cognitive functions that accompany aging in dogs may have a biologic basis, and many of the disorders associated with aging in dogs may be mitigated through dietary modifications that incorporate specific nutraceuticals. Based on previous research and the results of laboratory and clinical studies, antioxidants may be one class of nutraceutical that provides benefits to aged dogs. Brains of aged dogs accumulate oxidative damage to proteins and lipids, which may lead to dysfunction of neuronal cells. The production of free radicals and lack of increase in compensatory antioxidant enzymes may lead to detrimental modifications to important macromolecules within neurons. Reducing oxidative damage through food ingredients rich in a broad spectrum of antioxidants significantly improves, or slows the decline of, learning and memory in aged dogs.
If the purpose of secondary schooling is to educate the upcoming generation to become active participants in society, evaluation of teaching and learning in the information-rich digital age should be underpinned by relevant theories and models. This article describes an evaluation tool developed using emerging ideas about knowledge creation and…
Full Text Available Cellular senescence is viewed as an irreversible cell-cycle arrest mechanism involving a complexity of biological progressive processes and the acquisition of diverse cellular phenotypes. Several cell-intrinsic and extrinsic causes (stresses may lead to diverse cellular signaling cascades that include oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA damage, excessive accumulation of misfolded proteins, impaired microRNA processing and inflammation. Here we review recent advances in the causes and consequences of brain cell ageing, including the senescence of endothelial cells at the central nervous system barriers, as well as of neurons and glial cells. We address what makes ageing an important risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cerebrovascular disease. In particular, we highlight the importance of defects in mitochondrial dynamics, in the cathepsin activity imbalance, in cell-cell communication, in the accumulation of misfolded and unfolded proteins and in the microRNA profiling as having potential impact on cellular ageing processes. Another important aspect is that the absence of specific senescence biomarkers has hampered the characterization of senescent cells in ageing and age-associated diseases. In accordance, the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP or secretome was shown to vary in distinct cell types and upon different stressors, and SASP heterogeneity is believed to create subsets of senenescent cells. In addition to secreted proteins, we then place extracellular vesicles (exosomes and ectosomes as important mediators of intercellular communication with pathophysiological roles in disease spreading, and as emerging targets for therapeutic intervention. We also discuss the application of engineered extracellular vesicles as vehicles for drug delivery. Finally, we summarize current knowledge on methods to rejuvenate senescent cells
George M. Weisz
Full Text Available Two paintings of older men by Rembrandt (1609–1669 are examined to demonstrate that historical attitudes toward diseases of old age and the ageing person’s response to illness can be investigated in paintings. The works selected are of different genres and date from different stages of Rembrandt’s own life, one from his youth and one from his old age. Both paintings show figures who have joint pathologies typically associated with the ageing process, the first involving the subject’s foot and the second involving the subject’s hand. Despite the sometimes painful nature of these conditions, the subjects are shown accommodating their illnesses while maintaining both their intellectual and social engagement and their emotional composure. Although the seventeenth century offered older people very little effective medical treatment in comparison with what is presently available, these paintings nevertheless present a view of illness as a subsidiary rather than a dominant feature of old age.
The article presents longitudinal data of the survey of 212 Šiauliai Petras Avižonis Visual Centre’s 6–7-year-old pre-school children’s motives to attend school. A brief theoretical analysis of significance of motives for learning in child’s development is displayed. Analysing research results, a positive experience on development of positive motives for school attendance in pre-school age children attending Šiauliai Petras Avižonis Visual Centre is rendered in a generalising way.
This presentation describes the development of Teaching and Learning in a Digital Age (TELEDA); a short course delivered through the teacher education portfolio which is informed by three of the aims of the UoL Digital Education Plan: ‘……promote the wider and more creative use of the VLE and other technologies for enhancing and enriching students’ education.’ Promote the use and reuse of OER Develop digital literacies of staff and students TELEDA repositions staff as students a...
Valcárcel-Ocete, Leire; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Iriondo, Mikel;
Age of onset (AO) of Huntington disease (HD) is mainly determined by the length of the CAG repeat expansion (CAGexp) in exon 1 of the HTT gene. Additional genetic variation has been suggested to contribute to AO, although the mechanism by which it could affect AO is presently unknown. The aim...
Van Cauwenberghe, Caroline; Vandendriessche, Charysse; Libert, Claude; Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn E
Dietary interventions such as caloric restriction (CR) extend lifespan and health span. Recent data from animal and human studies indicate that CR slows down the aging process, benefits general health, and improves memory performance. Caloric restriction also retards and slows down the progression of different age-related diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. However, the specific molecular basis of these effects remains unclear. A better understanding of the pathways underlying these effects could pave the way to novel preventive or therapeutic strategies. In this review, we will discuss the mechanisms and effects of CR on aging and Alzheimer's disease. A potential alternative to CR as a lifestyle modification is the use of CR mimetics. These compounds mimic the biochemical and functional effects of CR without the need to reduce energy intake. We discuss the effect of two of the most investigated mimetics, resveratrol and rapamycin, on aging and their potential as Alzheimer's disease therapeutics. However, additional research will be needed to determine the safety, efficacy, and usability of CR and its mimetics before a general recommendation can be proposed to implement them. PMID:27240590
Claassen, Daniel O; Dobolyi, David G; Isaacs, David A; Roman, Olivia C; Herb, Joshua; Wylie, Scott A; Neimat, Joseph S; Donahue, Manus J; Hedera, Peter; Zald, David H; Landman, Bennett A; Bowman, Aaron B; Dawant, Benoit M; Rane, Swati
Advancing age and disease duration both contribute to cortical thinning in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the pathological interactions between them are poorly described. This study aims to distinguish patterns of cortical decline determined by advancing age and disease duration in PD. A convenience cohort of 177 consecutive PD patients, identified at the Vanderbilt University Movement Disorders Clinic as part of a clinical evaluation for Deep Brain Stimulation (age: M= 62.0, SD 9.3), completed a standardized clinical assessment, along with structural brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan. Age and gender matched controls (n=53) were obtained from the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and Progressive Parkinson's Marker Initiative (age: M= 63.4, SD 12.2). Estimated changes in cortical thickness were modeled with advancing age, disease duration, and their interaction. The best-fitting model, linear or curvilinear (2(nd), or 3(rd) order natural spline), was defined using the minimum Akaike Information Criterion, and illustrated on a 3-dimensional brain. Three curvilinear patterns of cortical thinning were identified: early decline, late decline, and early-stable-late. In contrast to healthy controls, the best-fit model for age related changes in PD is curvilinear (early decline), particularly in frontal and precuneus regions. With advancing disease duration, a curvilinear model depicts accelerating decline in the occipital cortex. A significant interaction between advancing age and disease duration is evident in frontal, motor, and posterior parietal areas. Study results support the hypothesis that advancing age and disease duration differentially affect regional cortical thickness and display regional dependent linear and curvilinear patterns of thinning. PMID:27330836
Full Text Available Abstract The process of maintaining life for the individual is a constant struggle to preserve his/her integrity. This can come at a price when immunity is involved, namely systemic inflammation. Inflammation is not per se a negative phenomenon: it is the response of the immune system to the invasion of viruses or bacteria and other pathogens. During evolution the human organism was set to live 40 or 50 years; today, however, the immune system must remain active for much a longer time. This very long activity leads to a chronic inflammation that slowly but inexorably damages one or several organs: this is a typical phenomenon linked to ageing and it is considered the major risk factor for age-related chronic diseases. Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes and even sarcopenia and cancer, just to mention a few – have an important inflammatory component, though disease progression seems also dependent on the genetic background of individuals. Emerging evidence suggests that pro-inflammatory genotypes are related to unsuccessful ageing, and, reciprocally, controlling inflammatory status may allow a better chance of successful ageing. In other words, age-related diseases are "the price we pay" for a life-long active immune system: this system has also the potential to harm us later, as its fine tuning becomes compromised. Our immune system has evolved to control pathogens, so pro-inflammatory responses are likely to be evolutionarily programmed to resist fatal infections with pathogens aggressively. Thus, inflammatory genotypes are an important and necessary part of the normal host responses to pathogens in early life, but the overproduction of inflammatory molecules might also cause immune-related inflammatory diseases and eventually death later. Therefore, low responder genotypes involved in regulation of innate defence mechanisms, might better control inflammatory responses and age-related disease development, resulting in an increased
Cellular damage and deregulated apoptotic cell death lead to functional impairment, and a main consequence of these events is aging. Cellular damage is initiated by different stress/risk factors such as oxidative stress, inflammation, and heavy metals. These stress/risk factors affect the cellular homeostasis by altering methylation status of several aging and Alzheimer's disease associated genes; these effects can be manifested immediately after exposure to stress and at later stages of life. However, when cellular damage exceeds certain threshold levels apoptosis is initiated. This review discusses the stress factors involved in cellular damage and the role and potential of TSPO-mediated cell death in aging as well as in Alzheimer's disease, which is also characterized by extensive cell death. Mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic death through the release of cytochrome c is regulated by TSPO, and increased expression of this protein is observed in both elderly people and in patients with Alzheimer's disease. TSPO forms and mediates opening of the mitochondrial membrane pore, mPTP and oxidizes cardiolipin, and these events lead to the leakage of apoptotic death mediators, such as cytochrome c, resulting in cell death. However, TSPO has many proposed functions and can also increase steroid synthesis, which leads to inhibition of inflammation and inhibition of the release of apoptotic factors, thereby decreasing cell damage and promoting cell survival. Thus, TSPO mediates apoptosis and decreases the cell damage, which in turn dictates the process of aging as well as the functionality of organs such as the brain. TSPO modulation with ligands in the Alzheimer's disease mouse model showed improvement in behavioral symptoms, and studies in Drosophila species showed increased cell survival and prolonged lifespan in flies after TSPO inhibition. These data suggest that since effects/signs of stress can manifest at any time, prevention through change in lifestyle and TSPO
Smits, Fenne Margreeth; Porcaro, Camillo; Cottone, Carlo; Cancelli, Andrea; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Tecchio, Franca
Brain activity is complex; a reflection of its structural and functional organization. Among other measures of complexity, the fractal dimension is emerging as being sensitive to neuronal damage secondary to neurological and psychiatric diseases. Here, we calculated Higuchi's fractal dimension (HFD) in resting-state eyes-closed electroencephalography (EEG) recordings from 41 healthy controls (age: 20-89 years) and 67 Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients (age: 50-88 years), to investigate whether HFD is sensitive to brain activity changes typical in healthy aging and in AD. Additionally, we considered whether AD-accelerating effects of the copper fraction not bound to ceruloplasmin (also called "free" copper) are reflected in HFD fluctuations. The HFD measure showed an inverted U-shaped relationship with age in healthy people (R2 = .575, p < .001). Onset of HFD decline appeared around the age of 60, and was most evident in central-parietal regions. In this region, HFD decreased with aging stronger in the right than in the left hemisphere (p = .006). AD patients demonstrated reduced HFD compared to age- and education-matched healthy controls, especially in temporal-occipital regions. This was associated with decreasing cognitive status as assessed by mini-mental state examination, and with higher levels of non-ceruloplasmin copper. Taken together, our findings show that resting-state EEG complexity increases from youth to maturity and declines in healthy, aging individuals. In AD, brain activity complexity is further reduced in correlation with cognitive impairment. In addition, elevated levels of non-ceruloplasmin copper appear to accelerate the reduction of neural activity complexity. Overall, HDF appears to be a proper indicator for monitoring EEG-derived brain activity complexity in healthy and pathological aging.
Smits, Fenne Margreeth; Porcaro, Camillo; Cottone, Carlo; Cancelli, Andrea; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Tecchio, Franca
Brain activity is complex; a reflection of its structural and functional organization. Among other measures of complexity, the fractal dimension is emerging as being sensitive to neuronal damage secondary to neurological and psychiatric diseases. Here, we calculated Higuchi's fractal dimension (HFD) in resting-state eyes-closed electroencephalography (EEG) recordings from 41 healthy controls (age: 20-89 years) and 67 Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients (age: 50-88 years), to investigate whether HFD is sensitive to brain activity changes typical in healthy aging and in AD. Additionally, we considered whether AD-accelerating effects of the copper fraction not bound to ceruloplasmin (also called "free" copper) are reflected in HFD fluctuations. The HFD measure showed an inverted U-shaped relationship with age in healthy people (R2 = .575, p < .001). Onset of HFD decline appeared around the age of 60, and was most evident in central-parietal regions. In this region, HFD decreased with aging stronger in the right than in the left hemisphere (p = .006). AD patients demonstrated reduced HFD compared to age- and education-matched healthy controls, especially in temporal-occipital regions. This was associated with decreasing cognitive status as assessed by mini-mental state examination, and with higher levels of non-ceruloplasmin copper. Taken together, our findings show that resting-state EEG complexity increases from youth to maturity and declines in healthy, aging individuals. In AD, brain activity complexity is further reduced in correlation with cognitive impairment. In addition, elevated levels of non-ceruloplasmin copper appear to accelerate the reduction of neural activity complexity. Overall, HDF appears to be a proper indicator for monitoring EEG-derived brain activity complexity in healthy and pathological aging. PMID:26872349
Fallon, Sean James; Hampshire, Adam; Barker, Roger A; Owen, Adrian M
Impaired attentional flexibility is considered to be one of the core cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the mechanisms that underlie this impairment are contested. Progress in resolving this dispute has also been hindered by the fact that cognitive deficits in PD are heterogeneous; therefore, it is unclear whether attentional impairments are only present in a subgroup of patients. Here, we demonstrate that what differentiates PD patients from age-matched controls is an inability to shift attention away from previously relevant information (perseveration) and an inability to shift attention towards previously irrelevant information (learned irrelevance). In contrast, there was no evidence that PD patients, compared to controls, were impaired in being able to appropriately attend to, or ignore, novel information. Furthermore, when patients were stratified according to their level of executive impairment, the executively impaired group showed a selective deficit in set formation compared to the unimpaired group, a behavioural pattern reminiscent of cortical dopamine depletion. Cumulatively, these results suggest that cognitive inflexibility in PD relates to a specific form of attentional dysfunction, in which learned attentional biases cannot be overcome. PMID:27318659
Paul David Chantler
Full Text Available Age is the dominant risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Understanding the coupling between the left ventricle (LV and arterial system, termed arterial-ventricular coupling (EA/ELV, provides important mechanistic insights into the complex cardiovascular system and its changes with aging in the absence and presence of disease. EA/ELV can be indexed by the ratio of effective arterial elastance (EA; a measure of the net arterial load exerted on the left ventricle to left ventricular end-systolic elastance (ELV; a load-independent measure of left ventricular chamber performance. At rest, in healthy individuals, EA/ELV is maintained within a narrow range, which allows the cardiovascular system to optimize energetic efficiency at the expense of mechanical efficacy. The age-associated alterations to arterial structure and function, including diameter, wall thickness, wall stiffness, and endothelial dysfunction, contribute to a gradual increase in resting EA with age. Remarkably there is a corresponding increase in resting ELV with age due to alterations to LV remodeling (loss in myocyte number, increased collagen and function. During dynamic exercise there is an acute mismatch between the arterial and ventricular systems due to a disproportionate increase in ELV (approximately 200% compared to EA (approximately 40%, to ensure that sufficient cardiac performance is achieved to meet the increased energetic requirements of the body. As a result EA/ELV decreases from an average of 0.58 to 0.34, and 0.52 to 0.27 in men and women, respectively. However, with advancing age the reduction in EA/ELV to acute maximal exercise is blunted, due to a blunted ELV. In this review, we provide an overview of the concept of EA/ELV, and examine the effects of age in the absence and presence of disease on EA/ELV and its functional consequences, and potential therapeutic interventions.
Stephan, Marianne A.; Meier, Beat; Zaugg, Sabine Weber; Kaelin-Lang, Alain
It is still unclear, whether patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are impaired in the incidental learning of different motor sequences in short succession, although such a deficit might greatly impact their daily life. The aim of this study was thus to clarify the relation between disease parameters of PD and incidental motor learning of two…
Jahanshahi, Marjan; Wilkinson, Leonora; Gahir, Harpreet; Dharminda, Angeline; Lagnado, David A.
In Parkinson's disease (PD), it is possible that tonic increase of dopamine associated with levodopa medication overshadows phasic release of dopamine, which is essential for learning. Thus while the motor symptoms of PD are improved with levodopa medication, learning would be disrupted. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of…
Johnston-Carey, Helen K; Pomatto, Laura C D; Davies, Kelvin J A
The Immunoproteasome has traditionally been viewed primarily for its role in peptide production for antigen presentation by the major histocompatibility complex, which is critical for immunity. However, recent research has shown that the Immunoproteasome is also very important for the clearance of oxidatively damaged proteins in homeostasis, and especially during stress and disease. The importance of the Immunoproteasome in protein degradation has become more evident as diseases characterized by protein aggregates have also been linked to deficiencies of the Immunoproteasome. Additionally, there are now diseases defined by mutations or polymorphisms within Immunoproteasome-specific subunit genes, further suggesting its crucial role in cytokine signaling and protein homeostasis (or "proteostasis"). The purpose of this review is to highlight our growing understanding of the importance of the Immunoproteasome in the management of protein quality control, and the detrimental impact of its dysregulation during disease and aging. PMID:27098648
Central to several current theories of the etiology of Parkinson's disease is the premise that the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system degenerates with normal aging. Much of the evidence for this assertion has come from postmortem neurochemical studies. We have used L-6-[18F] fluoro-Dopa and positron emission tomography in 26 healthy volunteers (age range, 27-76 years) to examine striatal and frontal cortical tracer uptake. Data have been analyzed by using a graphical approach to calculate an influx constant (Ki) for L-6-[18F]fluoro-Dopa uptake into the caudate, putamen, and medial frontal cortex of each subject. In the population studied, there was no decline in Ki with age for any of these structures. A series of physiological measurements made on the older subjects also showed few significant changes with age. The positron emission tomographic findings demonstrate preservation of nigrostriatal dopaminergic function in normal aging. The pathological process causing Parkinson's disease may operate closer to the time of presentation than has been suggested
Martin-Iguacel, R; Llibre, J M; Friis-Moller, N
With more effective and widespread antiretroviral treatment, the overall incidence of AIDS- or HIV-related death has decreased dramatically. Consequently, as patients are aging, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the HIV population....... The incidence of CVD overall in HIV is relatively low, but it is approximately 1.5-2-fold higher than that seen in age-matched HIV-uninfected individuals. Multiple factors are believed to explain this excess in risk such as overrepresentation of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (particularly smoking...
Zapata, Heidi J; Quagliarello, Vincent J
Advances in bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing allow for characterization of the human commensal bacterial community (microbiota) and its corresponding genome (microbiome). Surveys of healthy adults reveal that a signature composite of bacteria characterizes each unique body habitat (e.g., gut, skin, oral cavity, vagina). A myriad of clinical changes, including a basal proinflammatory state (inflamm-aging), that directly interface with the microbiota of older adults and enhance susceptibility to disease accompany aging. Studies in older adults demonstrate that the gut microbiota correlates with diet, location of residence (e.g., community dwelling, long-term care settings), and basal level of inflammation. Links exist between the microbiota and a variety of clinical problems plaguing older adults, including physical frailty, Clostridium difficile colitis, vulvovaginal atrophy, colorectal carcinoma, and atherosclerotic disease. Manipulation of the microbiota and microbiome of older adults holds promise as an innovative strategy to influence the development of comorbidities associated with aging.
Sung Young eKim
Full Text Available Oxidative stress is detrimental to life processes and is particularly responsible for aging and age-related diseases. Thus, most organisms are well equipped with a spectrum of biological defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. The major efficient antioxidative mechanism is the glutathione system, operating a redox cycling mechanism for glutathione utilization, which consists of glutathione and its peroxidase and reductase. However, this system is mainly effective for hydrophilic oxidants, while lipophilic oxidants require another scavenging system. Since many age-related pathological conditions are related to lipid peroxidation, especially in association with the aging process, the physiological role of the scavenging system for lipophilic oxidants should be considered. In this regard, the biliverdin to bilirubin conversion pathway, via biliverdin reductase, is suggested to be another major protective mechanism that scavenges lipophilic oxidants because of the lipophilic nature of bilirubin. The efficiency of this bilirubin system might be potentiated by operation of the intertwined bicyclic systems of the suggested redox metabolic cycle of biliverdin and bilirubin and the transcriptional control cycle of biliverdin reductase and heme oxygenase-1. In order to combat oxidative stress, both anti-oxidative systems, against hydrophilic and lipophilic oxidants, respectively, are required to work cooperatively. In this regard, the roles of the bilirubin system in aging and age-related diseases are reassessed in this review, and their interacting networks are evaluated.
C Sőti; Péter Csermely
Environmantal stress induces damage that activates an adaptive response in any organism. The cellular stress response is based on the induction of cytoprotective proteins, the so called stress or heat shock proteins. The stress response as well as stress proteins are ubiquitous, highly conserved mechanism, and genes, respectively, already present in prokaryotes. Chaperones protect the proteome against conformational damage, promoting the function of protein networks. Protein damage takes place during aging and in several degenerative diseases, and presents a threat to overload the cellular defense mechanisms. The preservation of a robust stress response and protein disposal is indispensable for health and longevity. This review summarizes the present knowledge of protein damage, turnover, and the stress response in aging and degenerative diseases.
Joaquin Hinojosa del Val
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in patients aged > 60 accounts for 10%-15% of cases of the disease. Diganostic methods are the same as for other age groups. Care has to be taken to distinguish an IBD colitis from other forms of colitis that can mimick clinically, endoscopically and even histologically the IBD entity. The clinical pattern in ulcerative colitis (UC) is proctitis and left-sided UC,while granulomatous colitis with an inflammatory pattern is more common in Crohn's disease (CD). The treatment options are those used in younger patients, but a series of considerations related to potential pharmacological interactions and side effects of the drugs must be taken into account. The safety profile of conventional immunomodulators and biological therapy is acceptable but more data are required on the safety of use of these drugs in the elderly population. Biological therapy has risen question on the possibility of increased side effects, however this needs to be confirmed. Adherence to performing all the test prior to biologic treatment administration is very important. The overall response to treatment is similar in the different patient age groups but elderly patients have fewer recurrences. The number of hospitalizations in patients > 65 years is greater than in younger group,accounting for 25% of all admissions for IBD. Mortality is similar in UC and slightly higher in CD, but significantly increased in hospitalized patients. Failure of medical treatment continues to be the most common indication for surgery in patients aged > 60 years. Age is not considered a contraindication for performing restorative proctocolectomy with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.However, incontinence evaluation should be taken into account an individualized options should be considered
Full Text Available Chaperones are central to the proteostasis network (PN and safeguard the proteome from misfolding, aggregation, and proteotoxicity. We categorized the human chaperome of 332 genes into network communities using function, localization, interactome, and expression data sets. During human brain aging, expression of 32% of the chaperome, corresponding to ATP-dependent chaperone machines, is repressed, whereas 19.5%, corresponding to ATP-independent chaperones and co-chaperones, are induced. These repression and induction clusters are enhanced in the brains of those with Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s, or Parkinson’s disease. Functional properties of the chaperome were assessed by perturbation in C. elegans and human cell models expressing Aβ, polyglutamine, and Huntingtin. Of 219 C. elegans orthologs, knockdown of 16 enhanced both Aβ and polyQ-associated toxicity. These correspond to 28 human orthologs, of which 52% and 41% are repressed, respectively, in brain aging and disease and 37.5% affected Huntingtin aggregation in human cells. These results identify a critical chaperome subnetwork that functions in aging and disease.
Rattan, Suresh Is
Aging is characterized by stochastic accumulation of molecular damage, progressive failure of maintenance and repair, and consequent onset of age-related diseases. Applying hormesis in aging research and therapy is based on the principle of stimulation of maintenance and repair pathways by repeated exposure to mild stress. Studies on the beneficial biological effects of repeated mild heat shock on human cells in culture, and other studies on the anti-aging and life-prolonging effects of proxidants, hypergravity, irradiation and ethanol on cells and organisms suggest that hormesis as an antiaging and gerontomodulatory approach has a promising future. Its clinical applications include prevention and treatment of diabetes, cataract, osteoporosis, dementia and some cancers.
-engineered organs) to restore the functions of damaged or defective tissues and organs and thus to "rejuvenate" the failing aging body. One of the most important sources for cellular medicine is embryonic and adult (somatic) stem cells (SSCs). One example of SCCs with enormous clinical potential is the mesenchymal......Aging is associated with a progressive failing of tissues and organs of the human body leading to a large number of age-related diseases. Regenerative medicine is an emerging clinical discipline that aims to employ cellular medicines (normal cells, ex vivo expanded cells, or tissue...... stem cells (MSCs) that are present in the bone marrow and are able to differentiate into cell types such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, endothelial cells, and probably also neuron-like cells. Because of the ease of their isolation and their extensive differentiation potential, MSCs are among the first...
Eichhoff, Gerhard; Busche, Marc A.; Garaschuk, Olga [Technical University of Munich, Institute of Neuroscience, Munich (Germany)
Over the last decade, in vivo calcium imaging became a powerful tool for studying brain function. With the use of two-photon microscopy and modern labelling techniques, it allows functional studies of individual living cells, their processes and their interactions within neuronal networks. In vivo calcium imaging is even more important for studying the aged brain, which is hard to investigate in situ due to the fragility of neuronal tissue. In this article, we give a brief overview of the techniques applicable to image aged rodent brain at cellular resolution. We use multicolor imaging to visualize specific cell types (neurons, astrocytes, microglia) as well as the autofluorescence of the ''aging pigment'' lipofuscin. Further, we illustrate an approach for simultaneous imaging of cortical cells and senile plaques in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. (orig.)
Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan
Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009-2014) with search terms "scurvy" "vitamin C deficiency" "ascorbic acid deficiency" "scurvy and children" "scurvy and pediatric age group". There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated. PMID:25983516
He, Yifan; Zhu, Jihong; Huang, Fang; Qin, Liu; Fan, Wenguo; He, Hongwen
The tooth belongs to the trigeminal sensory pathway. Dental damage has been associated with impairments in the central nervous system that may be mediated by injury to the trigeminal nerve. In the present study, we investigated the effects of damage to the inferior alveolar nerve, an important peripheral nerve in the trigeminal sensory pathway, on learning and memory behaviors and structural changes in related brain regions, in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Inferior alveolar nerve transection or sham surgery was performed in middle-aged (4-month-old) or elderly (7-month-old) senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice. When the middle-aged mice reached 8 months (middle-aged group 1) or 11 months (middle-aged group 2), and the elderly group reached 11 months, step-down passive avoidance and Y-maze tests of learning and memory were performed, and the cholinergic system was examined in the hippocampus (Nissl staining and acetylcholinesterase histochemistry) and basal forebrain (choline acetyltransferase immunohistochemistry). In the elderly group, animals that underwent nerve transection had fewer pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions, fewer cholinergic fibers in the CA1 and dentate gyrus, and fewer cholinergic neurons in the medial septal nucleus and vertical limb of the diagonal band, compared with sham-operated animals, as well as showing impairments in learning and memory. Conversely, no significant differences in histology or behavior were observed between middle-aged group 1 or group 2 transected mice and age-matched sham-operated mice. The present findings suggest that trigeminal nerve damage in old age, but not middle age, can induce degeneration of the septal-hippocampal cholinergic system and loss of hippocampal pyramidal neurons, and ultimately impair learning ability. Our results highlight the importance of active treatment of trigeminal nerve damage in elderly patients and those with Alzheimer's disease, and indicate that
Prunty, Jeremy J; Heise, Crystal D; Chaffin, David G
Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder in which inappropriate stimulation of the thyroid gland results in unregulated secretion of thyroid hormones resulting in hyperthyroidism. Graves' disease is the most common cause of autoimmune hyperthyroidism during pregnancy. Treatment options for Graves' disease include thioamide therapy, partial or total thyroidectomy, and radioactive iodine. In this article, we review guideline recommendations for Graves' disease treatment in women of reproductive age including the recent guideline from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Controversy regarding appropriate thioamide therapy before, during, and after pregnancy is reviewed. Surgical and radioactive iodine therapy considerations in this patient population are also reviewed. In patients who may find themselves pregnant during therapy or develop Graves' disease during their pregnancy, consideration should be given to the most appropriate treatment course for the mother and fetus. Thioamide therapy should be used with either propylthiouracil or methimazole at appropriate doses that target the upper range of normal to slightly hyperthyroid to avoid creating hypothyroidism in the fetus. Consideration should also be given to the adverse effects of thioamide, such as agranulocytosis and hepatotoxicity, with appropriate patient consultation regarding signs and symptoms. Individuals who wish to breastfeed their infants while taking thioamide should receive the lowest effective dose. Surgery should be reserved for extreme cases and limited to the second trimester, if possible. Radioactive iodine therapy may be used in nonpregnant individuals, with limited harm to future fertility. Radioactive iodine therapy should be withheld in pregnant women and those who are actively breastfeeding. Clinicians should keep abreast of developments in clinical trials and evidence-based recommendations regarding Graves' disease in reproductive-age women for any changes in evidence
Full Text Available Hyperhomocysteinemia is a widely recognized, although not yet entirely understood, risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Particularly, the complex relationships between age, hyperhomocysteinemia, predisposing genetic factors and peripheral vascular diseases have not been fully evaluated. Our contribution to this issue is a retrospective analysis of a large series of patients with peripheral arterial, venous and lymphatic disease, and of their blood relatives, with special reference to homocysteine plasma levels, age and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR polymorphisms. Serum homocysteine was measured in 477 patients (286 males, 191 females, age range 19-78 years with various vascular clinical conditions: postphlebitic syndrome (46 recurrent venous ulcers (78, arterial diseases (101 primary lymphoedema (87, secondary lymphoedema (161 and outlet thoracic syndrome (4, and in 50 normal controls. A MTHFR study for polymorphisms was carried on in the subjects with homocysteine values exceeding 15 mol/L. Serum homocysteine determination and MTHFR polymorphism studies were performed also in 1430 healthy blood related relatives (mainly siblings, descendents and sibling descendents of the subjects with hyperhomocysteinemia and MTHFR polymorphisms. We found MTHFR polymorphisms in 20% of controls and in 69.3%, 69.5% and 53.8% of hyperhomocysteinemic subjects with arterial diseases, postphlebitic syndrome and venous ulcers, respectively. As expected, the percentage of hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with secondary lymphoedema and with thoracic outlet syndrome did not show significant differences compared to the control group. A MTHFR polymorphism was found in 116 out of the 214 hyperhomocysteinemic patients, i.e., in the 54% of the overall patient population with hyperhomocysteinemia (214 patients. Interestingly 750 (52% out of the 1430 blood relatives of the 116 patients with hyperhomocysteinemia and MTHFR polymorphisms showed at least one
Full Text Available We used perceptual motor tasks involving the learning of mouse control by looking at a Macintosh computer screen. We studied 90 control subjects aged between sixteen and seventy-five years. There was a significant time difference between the scales of age but improvement was the same for all subjects. We also studied 24 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. We observed an influence of age and also of educational levels. The PD patients had difficulties of learning in all tests but they did not show differences in time when compared to the control group in the first learning session (Student's t-test. They learned two or four and a half times less well than the control group. In the first test, they had some difficulty in initiating the procedure and learned eight times less well than the control group. Performances seemed to be heterogeneous: patients with only tremor (seven and patients without treatment (five performed better than others but learned less. Success in procedural tasks for the PD group seemed to depend on the capacity to initiate the response and not on the development of an accurate strategy. Many questions still remain unanswered, and we have to study different kinds of implicit memory tasks to differentiate performance in control and basal ganglia groups.
Thomas-Antérion, C; Laurent, B; Foyatier-Michel, N; Laporte, S; Michel, D
We used perceptual motor tasks involving the learning of mouse control by looking at a Macintosh computer screen. We studied 90 control subjects aged between sixteen and seventy-five years. There was a significant time difference between the scales of age but improvement was the same for all subjects. We also studied 24 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We observed an influence of age and also of educational levels. The PD patients had difficulties of learning in all tests but they did not show differences in time when compared to the control group in the first learning session (Student's t-test). They learned two or four and a half times less well than the control group. In the first test, they had some difficulty in initiating the procedure and learned eight times less well than the control group. Performances seemed to be heterogeneous: patients with only tremor (seven) and patients without treatment (five) performed better than others but learned less. Success in procedural tasks for the PD group seemed to depend on the capacity to initiate the response and not on the development of an accurate strategy. Many questions still remain unanswered, and we have to study different kinds of implicit memory tasks to differentiate performance in control and basal ganglia groups. PMID:24487512
This podcast discusses prion diseases and the risk of exposure associated with some common activities. Created: 5/23/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 5/23/2011.
Natalia Casagrande Brabo
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of occurrence and to characterize the typology of dysfluencies in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD, including the variables age, gender, schooling, disease duration, score on the Hoehn and Yahr scale and cognitive status (score on Mini-Mental State Examination. A cross-sectional study of a sample comprising 60 adults matched for gender, age and schooling was conducted. Group I comprised 30 adults with idiopathic PD, and Group II comprised 30 healthy adults. For assessment of fluency of speech, subjects were asked to utter a narrative based on a sequence of drawings and a transcription of 200 fluent syllables was performed to identify speech dysfluencies. PD patients exhibited a higher overall number of dysfluencies in speech with a large number of atypical dysfluencies. Additionally, results showed an influence of the variables cognitive status, disease duration and age on occurrence of dysfluencies.
Johnson, Adiv A; Akman, Kemal; Calimport, Stuart R G; Wuttke, Daniel; Stolzing, Alexandra; de Magalhães, João Pedro
DNA methylation is a major control program that modulates gene expression in a plethora of organisms. Gene silencing through methylation occurs through the activity of DNA methyltransferases, enzymes that transfer a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to the carbon 5 position of cytosine. DNA methylation patterns are established by the de novo DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) DNMT3A and DNMT3B and are subsequently maintained by DNMT1. Aging and age-related diseases include defined changes in 5-methylcytosine content and are generally characterized by genome-wide hypomethylation and promoter-specific hypermethylation. These changes in the epigenetic landscape represent potential disease biomarkers and are thought to contribute to age-related pathologies, such as cancer, osteoarthritis, and neurodegeneration. Some diseases, such as a hereditary form of sensory neuropathy accompanied by dementia, are directly caused by methylomic changes. Epigenetic modifications, however, are reversible and are therefore a prime target for therapeutic intervention. Numerous drugs that specifically target DNMTs are being tested in ongoing clinical trials for a variety of cancers, and data from finished trials demonstrate that some, such as 5-azacytidine, may even be superior to standard care. DNMTs, demethylases, and associated partners are dynamically shaping the methylome and demonstrate great promise with regard to rejuvenation.
Longworth, Norman; Osborne, Michael
Learning Cities and Learning Regions are terms now in common use as a result of the growing importance of lifelong learning concepts to the economic, social and environmental future of people and places. Why "learning" regions? Why not intelligent, creative, clever, smart or knowledge regions? In truth, all of these can, and some do, also exist,…
Indo, Hiroko P; Yen, Hsiu-Chuan; Nakanishi, Ikuo; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichiro; Tamura, Masato; Nagano, Yumiko; Matsui, Hirofumi; Gusev, Oleg; Cornette, Richard; Okuda, Takashi; Minamiyama, Yukiko; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Suenaga, Shigeaki; Oki, Misato; Sato, Tsuyoshi; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Clair, Daret K St; Majima, Hideyuki J
Fridovich identified CuZnSOD in 1969 and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in 1973, and proposed "the Superoxide Theory," which postulates that superoxide (O2 (•-)) is the origin of most reactive oxygen species (ROS) and that it undergoes a chain reaction in a cell, playing a central role in the ROS producing system. Increased oxidative stress on an organism causes damage to cells, the smallest constituent unit of an organism, which can lead to the onset of a variety of chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurological diseases caused by abnormalities in biological defenses or increased intracellular reactive oxygen levels. Oxidative stress also plays a role in aging. Antioxidant systems, including non-enzyme low-molecular-weight antioxidants (such as, vitamins A, C and E, polyphenols, glutathione, and coenzyme Q10) and antioxidant enzymes, fight against oxidants in cells. Superoxide is considered to be a major factor in oxidant toxicity, and mitochondrial MnSOD enzymes constitute an essential defense against superoxide. Mitochondria are the major source of superoxide. The reaction of superoxide generated from mitochondria with nitric oxide is faster than SOD catalyzed reaction, and produces peroxynitrite. Thus, based on research conducted after Fridovich's seminal studies, we now propose a modified superoxide theory; i.e., superoxide is the origin of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) and, as such, causes various redox related diseases and aging.
Phillipson, Oliver T
The aging risk factor for Parkinson's disease is described in terms of specific disease markers including mitochondrial and gene dysfunctions relevant to energy metabolism. This review details evidence for the ability of nutritional agents to manage these aging risk factors. The combination of alpha lipoic acid, acetyl-l-carnitine, coenzyme Q10, and melatonin supports energy metabolism via carbohydrate and fatty acid utilization, assists electron transport and adenosine triphosphate synthesis, counters oxidative and nitrosative stress, and raises defenses against protein misfolding, inflammatory stimuli, iron, and other endogenous or xenobiotic toxins. These effects are supported by gene expression via the antioxidant response element (ARE; Keap/Nrf2 pathway), and by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 alpha (PGC-1 alpha), a transcription coactivator, which regulates gene expression for energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis, and maintains the structural integrity of mitochondria. The effectiveness and synergies of the combination against disease risks are discussed in relation to gene action, dopamine cell loss, and the accumulation and spread of pathology via misfolded alpha-synuclein. In addition there are potential synergies to support a neurorestorative role via glial derived neurotrophic factor expression.
Full Text Available Oxidative stress is generally considered an imbalance between pro- and antioxidants species, which often results into indiscriminate and global damage at the organismal level. Elderly people are more susceptible to oxidative stress and this depends, almost in part, from a decreased performance of their endogenous antioxidant system. As many studies reported an inverse correlation between systemic levels of antioxidants and several diseases, primarily cardiovascular diseases, but also diabetes and neurological disorders, antioxidant supplementation has been foreseen as an effective preventive and therapeutic intervention for aging-associated pathologies. However, the expectations of this therapeutic approach have often been partially disappointed by clinical trials. The interplay of both endogenous and exogenous antioxidants with the systemic redox system is very complex and represents an issue that is still under debate. In this review a selection of recent clinical studies concerning antioxidants supplementation and the evaluation of their influence in aging-related diseases is analyzed. The controversial outcomes of the antioxidants supplementation therapy that might partially depend, among others, from an underestimation of the patient specific metabolic demand and genetic background, are presented.
Mohanty, Sharada P.; Hughes, David P.; Salathé, Marcel
Crop diseases are a major threat to food security, but their rapid identification remains difficult in many parts of the world due to the lack of the necessary infrastructure. The combination of increasing global smartphone penetration and recent advances in computer vision made possible by deep learning has paved the way for smartphone-assisted disease diagnosis. Using a public dataset of 54,306 images of diseased and healthy plant leaves collected under controlled conditions, we train a deep convolutional neural network to identify 14 crop species and 26 diseases (or absence thereof). The trained model achieves an accuracy of 99.35% on a held-out test set, demonstrating the feasibility of this approach. Overall, the approach of training deep learning models on increasingly large and publicly available image datasets presents a clear path toward smartphone-assisted crop disease diagnosis on a massive global scale. PMID:27713752
Chen, Jia; Li, Cheng-Ren; Yang, Heng; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Tao; Jiao, Shu-Sheng; Wang, Yan-Jiang; Xu, Zhi-Qiang
Mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor has shown promotive effect on neural cells in rodents, including neural proliferation, differentiation, survival, and synaptic formation. Conversely, the precursor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF) has been emerging as a differing protein against its mature form, for its critical role in aging process and neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we investigated the role of proBDNF in neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of aged mice and examined the changes in mice learning and memory functions. The results showed that the newborn cells in the hippocampus revealed a significant decline in proBDNF-treated group compared with bovine serum albumin group, but an elevated level in anti-proBDNF group. During the maturation period, no significant change was observed in the proportions of phenotype of the newborn cells among the three groups. In water maze, proBDNF-treated mice had poorer scores in place navigation test and probe test, compared with those from any other group. Thus, we conclude that proBDNF attenuates neurogenesis in the hippocampus and induces the deficits in learning and memory functions of aged mice.
Escott-Price, V; International, Parkinson s. Disease Genomics Consortium; Nalls, M.A.; Morris, H R; Lubbe, S; Brice, A.; Gasser, T.; Heutink, P; Wood, N W; Hardy, J.; Singleton, A.B.; Williams, N.M.; IPDGC, consortium members
Objective We have investigated the polygenic architecture of Parkinson disease (PD) and have also explored the potential relationship between an individual's polygenic risk score and their disease age at onset. Methods This study used genotypic data from 4,294 cases and 10,340 controls obtained from the meta‐analysis of PD genome‐wide association studies. Polygenic score analysis was performed as previously described by the International Schizophrenia Consortium, testing whether the polygenic...
... and/or hearing loss, and, in some individuals, scoliosis (curvature of the spine). People with CMT disease ... MBBS, Associate Professor, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Loma Linda University Medical Center, about Charcot-Marie- ...
Ballesteros, Soledad; Reales, José M; Mayas, Julia
The present study investigated age invariance for naming pictures and whether implicit memory is spared in Alzheimer's disease (AD). During the study phase, young adults, AD patients, and older controls were shown outlines of familiar pictures. After a distracter task, implicit memory was assessed incidentally. The results showed similar visual priming for the three groups, although young adults responded faster than the two older groups. Moreover, the number of errors was smaller for studied than for non-studied pictures. This pattern of results was repeated across the three groups, although AD patients produced more errors than young adults and older controls, and there were no differences between these latter groups. These results confirmed previous visual and haptic findings showing unimpaired perceptual priming in normal aging and AD patients when implicit memory is assessed using identification tasks. These results are interpreted from a cognitive neuroscience perspective.
Witt, Karsten; Daniels, Christine; Daniel, Victoria; Schmitt-Eliassen, Julia; Volkmann, Jens; Deuschl, Günther
Implicit memory and learning mechanisms are composed of multiple processes and systems. Previous studies demonstrated a basal ganglia involvement in purely cognitive tasks that form stimulus response habits by reinforcement learning such as implicit classification learning. We will test the basal ganglia influence on two cognitive implicit tasks previously described by Berry and Broadbent, the sugar production task and the personal interaction task. Furthermore, we will investigate the relationship between certain aspects of an executive dysfunction and implicit learning. To this end, we have tested 22 Parkinsonian patients and 22 age-matched controls on two implicit cognitive tasks, in which participants learned to control a complex system. They interacted with the system by choosing an input value and obtaining an output that was related in a complex manner to the input. The objective was to reach and maintain a specific target value across trials (dynamic system learning). The two tasks followed the same underlying complex rule but had different surface appearances. Subsequently, participants performed an executive test battery including the Stroop test, verbal fluency and the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST). The results demonstrate intact implicit learning in patients, despite an executive dysfunction in the Parkinsonian group. They lead to the conclusion that the basal ganglia system affected in Parkinson's disease does not contribute to the implicit acquisition of a new cognitive skill. Furthermore, the Parkinsonian patients were able to reach a specific goal in an implicit learning context despite impaired goal directed behaviour in the WCST, a classic test of executive functions. These results demonstrate a functional independence of implicit cognitive skill learning and certain aspects of executive functions. PMID:16806313
van Weeren, Paul René; Back, Willem
Musculoskeletal disorders are the most prevalent health problem in aging horses. They are not life threatening, but are painful and an important welfare issue. Chronic joint disease (osteoarthritis) and chronic laminitis are the most prevalent. Treating osteoarthritis in the elderly horse is similar to treating performance horses, but aims at providing a stable situation with optimal comfort. Immediate medical treatment of flare-ups, long-term pain management, and adaptation of exercise and living conditions are the mainstays of treatment. Laminitis in the geriatric horse is related often to pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, which may be treated with additional pergolide. PMID:27449390
Wei Zhao; Han Wang
Nowadays, label distribution learning is among the state-of-the-art methodologies in facial age estimation. It takes the age of each facial image instance as a label distribution with a series of age labels rather than the single chronological age label that is commonly used. However, this methodology is deficient in its simple decision-making criterion: the final predicted age is only selected at the one with maximum description degree. In many cases, different age labels may have very simil...
I. van de Vijver; K.R. Ridderinkhof; S. de Wit
Feedback-based learning declines with age. Because older adults are generally biased toward positive information ("positivity effect"), learning from positive feedback may be less impaired than learning from negative outcomes. The literature documents mixed results, due possibly to variability betwe
Vijver, I. van de; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Wit, S. de
Feedback-based learning declines with age. Because older adults are generally biased toward positive information (“positivity effect”), learning from positive feedback may be less impaired than learning from negative outcomes. The literature documents mixed results, due possibly to variability betwe
As a third age PhD candidate with a passion for learning, I wanted to explore the learning of other rural third age women who live on the Lower Eyre Peninsula (LEP) of South Australia. This reflects the methodological stance of heuristic inquiry, which requires the researcher to have a passionate interest in the phenomena under investigation, and…
The aim of this study is to determine whether the approaches to learning and age are significantly correlated to grade point average (GPA) in early childhood education students. In addition, another purpose of this study is to determine whether approaches to learning and age predicted students' GPAs in the Early Childhood Education Department. The…
Feng, Pu; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong
The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50-100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature taste cells. Similar to other epithelial cells, taste cells turn over continuously, with an average life span of about 8-12 days. To maintain structural homeostasis in taste buds, new cells are generated to replace dying cells. Several recent studies using genetic lineage tracing methods have identified populations of progenitor/stem cells for taste buds, although contributions of these progenitor/stem cell populations to taste bud homeostasis have yet to be fully determined. Some regulatory factors of taste cell differentiation and degeneration have been identified, but our understanding of these aspects of taste bud homoeostasis remains limited. Many patients with various diseases develop taste disorders, including taste loss and taste distortion. Decline in taste function also occurs during aging. Recent studies suggest that disruption or alteration of taste bud homeostasis may contribute to taste dysfunction associated with disease and aging. PMID:24287552
Circular ribonucleic acids (circRNAs) are non-coding RNAs of approximately 100 nucleotides in length with thousands of members in mammalian cells. The presence of circRNAs is believed to be even greater than that of messenger RNAs. Identification of circRNAs occurred approximately 37 years ago with the subsequent demonstration that covalent bonds are necessary for the unique circular structure of these ribonucleic acids. However, present understanding of the complex biological role of circRNAs remains limited and requires further elucidation. CircRNAs may impact aging, multiple disorders, function as biomarkers, and are able to regulate gene expression by acting as effective microRNA (miRNA) sponges. New work suggests that circRNAs are vital for the modulation of cellular senescence and programmed cell death pathways such as apoptosis. These non-coding RNAs can control cell cycle progression, cellular proliferation, and cellular survival impacting disorders linked to aging, cardiovascular disease, and atherosclerosis through pathways that involve cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21), and mammalian forkhead transcription factors. In addition, circRNAs can oversee cellular metabolism and disorders such as diabetes mellitus through the regulation of insulin signaling as well as limit tumor progression through Wnt signaling and β-catenin pathways. Further understanding of the biology of circRNAs offers great promise for the targeting of novel strategies against a wide spectrum of disease entities. PMID:27642518
This paper revisits the Dutch disease by analyzing the general equilibrium effects of a resource shock on a dependent economy, both in a static and dynamic setting. The novel aspect of this study is to incorporate two features of the Dutch disease literature that have only been analyzed in isolation from each other: capital accumulation with absorption constraint and productivity growth induced by learning by doing. The conventional result of long-run exchange rate appreciation is maintained ...
Bannan, Brenda; Cook, John; Pachler, Norbert
The purpose of this paper is to begin to examine how the intersection of mobile learning and design research prompts the reconceptualization of research and design individually as well as their integration appropriate for current, complex learning environments. To fully conceptualize and reconceptualize design research in mobile learning, the…
Children are thought to learn second languages (L2s) using primarily implicit mechanisms, in contrast to adults, who primarily rely on explicit language learning. This difference is usually attributed to cognitive maturation, but adults also receive more explicit instruction than children, which may influence their learning strategies. This study…
Landrum, Timothy J.; McDuffie, Kimberly A.
The concept of learning styles has tremendous logical and intuitive appeal, and educators' desire to focus on learning styles is understandable. Recently, a growing emphasis on differentiated instruction may have further increased teachers' tendency to look at learning styles as an instructionally relevant variable when individualizing instruction…
In recent decades, many institutions of higher education have responded to community and student learning needs through the development of service-learning programs (Sapp & Crabtree, 2002). Community colleges have been noted as leaders in the establishment of service-learning programs. The purpose of this study was to better understand the…
Learning design research (LDR) is establishing itself as a separate and specialised field of educational research. Worldwide, technology-mediated learning experiences in higher and further education are on the increase. LDR investigates their success in providing effective outcomes-based and personalised learning experiences. This paper reports on…
Seligman, Benjamin J.; Cullen, Mark R.; Horwitz, Ralph I.
Background The World Health Organization's Global Burden of Disease (GBD) reports are an important tool for global health policy makers, however the accuracy of estimates for countries undergoing an epidemiologic transition is unclear. We attempted to validate the life table model used to generate estimates for all-cause mortality in developing countries. Methods and Results Data were obtained for males and females from the Human Mortality Database for all countries with available data every ten years from 1900 to 2000. These provided inputs for the GBD life table model and served as comparison observed data. Above age sixty model estimates of survival for both sexes differed substantially from those observed. Prior to the year 1960 for males and 1930 for females, estimated survival tended to be greater than observed; following 1960 for both males and females estimated survival tended to be less than observed. Viewing observed and estimated survival separately, observed survival past sixty increased over the years considered. For males, the increase was from a mean (sd) probability of 0.22 (0.06) to 0.46 (0.1). For females, the increase was from 0.26 (0.06) to 0.65 (0.08). By contrast, estimated survival past sixty decreased over the same period. Among males, estimated survival probability declined from 0.54 (0.2) to 0.09 (0.06). Among females, the decline was from 0.36 (0.12) to 0.15 (0.08). Conclusions These results show that the GBD mortality model did not accurately estimate survival at older ages as developed countries transitioned in the twentieth century and may be similarly flawed in developing countries now undergoing transition. Estimates of the size of older-age populations and their attributable disease burden should be reconsidered. PMID:21629652
Benjamin J Seligman
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization's Global Burden of Disease (GBD reports are an important tool for global health policy makers, however the accuracy of estimates for countries undergoing an epidemiologic transition is unclear. We attempted to validate the life table model used to generate estimates for all-cause mortality in developing countries. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data were obtained for males and females from the Human Mortality Database for all countries with available data every ten years from 1900 to 2000. These provided inputs for the GBD life table model and served as comparison observed data. Above age sixty model estimates of survival for both sexes differed substantially from those observed. Prior to the year 1960 for males and 1930 for females, estimated survival tended to be greater than observed; following 1960 for both males and females estimated survival tended to be less than observed. Viewing observed and estimated survival separately, observed survival past sixty increased over the years considered. For males, the increase was from a mean (sd probability of 0.22 (0.06 to 0.46 (0.1. For females, the increase was from 0.26 (0.06 to 0.65 (0.08. By contrast, estimated survival past sixty decreased over the same period. Among males, estimated survival probability declined from 0.54 (0.2 to 0.09 (0.06. Among females, the decline was from 0.36 (0.12 to 0.15 (0.08. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that the GBD mortality model did not accurately estimate survival at older ages as developed countries transitioned in the twentieth century and may be similarly flawed in developing countries now undergoing transition. Estimates of the size of older-age populations and their attributable disease burden should be reconsidered.
Matzel, Louis D.; Wass, Christopher; Kolata, Stefan; Light, Kenneth; Colas, Danielle C.
Learning impairments and the instability of memory are defining characteristics of cognitive aging. However, it is unclear if deficits in the expression of new memories reflect an accelerated decay of the target memory or a consequence of inefficient learning. Here, aged mice (19–21-mo old) exhibited acquisition deficits (relative to 3–5-mo old mice) on three learning tasks, although these deficits were overcome with additional training. When tested after a 30-d retention interval, the perfor...
Beauchamp, M. H.; Dagher, A.; Panisset, M.; Doyon, J.
While cognitive skill learning is normally acquired implicitly through frontostrial circuitry in healthy individuals, neuroimaging studies suggest that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) do so by activating alternate, intact brain areas associated with explicit memory processing. To further test this hypothesis, 10 patients with PD and 12…
Glasser, John; Feng, Zhilan; Moylan, Andrew; Del Valle, Sara; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos
Infectious diseases are controlled by reducing pathogen replication within or transmission between hosts. Models can reliably evaluate alternative strategies for curtailing transmission, but only if interpersonal mixing is represented realistically. Compartmental modelers commonly use convex combinations of contacts within and among groups of similarly aged individuals, respectively termed preferential and proportionate mixing. Recently published face-to-face conversation and time-use studies suggest that parents and children and co-workers also mix preferentially. As indirect effects arise from the off-diagonal elements of mixing matrices, these observations are exceedingly important. Accordingly, we refined the formula published by Jacquez et al.  to account for these newly-observed patterns and estimated age-specific fractions of contacts with each preferred group. As the ages of contemporaries need not be identical nor those of parents and children to differ by exactly the generation time, we also estimated the variances of the Gaussian distributions with which we replaced the Kronecker delta commonly used in theoretical studies. Our formulae reproduce observed patterns and can be used, given contacts, to estimate probabilities of infection on contact, infection rates, and reproduction numbers. As examples, we illustrate these calculations for influenza based on "attack rates" from a prospective household study during the 1957 pandemic and for varicella based on cumulative incidence estimated from a cross-sectional serological survey conducted from 1988-94, together with contact rates from the several face-to-face conversation and time-use studies. Susceptibility to infection on contact generally declines with age, but may be elevated among adolescents and adults with young children. PMID:22037144
Kelly L Brandstatt; Voss, Joel L.
Old age could impair memory by disrupting learning strategies used by younger individuals. We tested this possibility by manipulating the ability to use visual-exploration strategies during learning. Subjects controlled visual exploration during active learning, thus permitting the use of strategies, whereas strategies were limited during passive learning via predetermined exploration patterns. Performance on tests of object recognition and object-location recall was matched for younger and o...
Alberto Tommasini; Tarcisio Not; Alessandro Ventura
From the time of Gee's landmark writings, the recent history of celiac disease (CD) can be divided into manyages, each driven by a diagnostic advance and a deeperknowledge of disease pathogenesis. At the same time,these advances were paralleled by the identification of new clinical patterns associated with CD and by a continuous redefinition of the prevalence of the diseasein population. In the beginning, CD was considered a chronic indigestion, even if the causative food was notknown; later, the disease was proven to depend on anintolerance to wheat gliadin, leading to typical mucosalchanges in the gut and to a malabsorption syndrome. This knowledge led to curing the disease with a gluten-free diet. After the identification of antibodies to gluten(AGA) in the serum of patients and the identification of gluten-specific lymphocytes in the mucosa, CD was described as an immune disorder, resembling a chronic "gluten infection". The use of serological testing for AGA allowed identification of the higher prevalence of this disorder, revealing atypical patterns of presenta-tion. More recently, the characterization of autoantibod-ies to endomysium and to transglutaminase shifted the attention to a complex autoimmune pathogenesis and to the increased risk of developing autoimmune disor-ders in untreated CD. New diagnostic assays, based on molecular technologies, will introduce new changes, with the promise of better defining the spectrum of gluten reactivity and the real burden of gluten related-disorders in the population. Herein, we describe the different periods of CD experience, and further devel-opments for the next celiac age will be proposed.
Full Text Available The present behavioral study readdresses the question of habit learning in Parkinson's disease. Patients were early onset, non-demented, dopa-responsive, candidates for surgical treatment, similar to those we found earlier as suffering greater dopamine depletion in the putamen than in the caudate nucleus. The task was the same conditional associative learning task as that used previously in monkeys and healthy humans to unveil the striatum involvement in habit learning. Sixteen patients and 20 age- and education-matched healthy control subjects learned sets of 3 visuo-motor associations between complex patterns and joystick displacements during two testing sessions separated by a few hours. We distinguished errors preceding versus following the first correct response to compare patients' performance during the earliest phase of learning dominated by goal-directed actions with that observed later on, when responses start to become habitual. The disease significantly retarded both learning phases, especially in patients under sixty years of age. However, only the late phase deficit was disease severity-dependent and persisted on the second testing session. These findings provide the first corroboration in Parkinson patients of two ideas well-established in the animal literature. The first is the idea that associating visual stimuli to motor acts is a form of habit learning that engages the striatum. It is confirmed here by the global impairment in visuo-motor learning induced by Parkinson's disease. The second idea is that goal-directed behaviors are predominantly caudate-dependent whereas habitual responses are primarily putamen-dependent. At the advanced Parkinson's disease stages tested here, dopamine depletion is greater in the putamen than in the caudate nucleus. Accordingly, the late phase of learning corresponding to the emergence of habitual responses was more vulnerable to the disease than the early phase dominated by goal
Head, Elizabeth; Murphey, Heather L; Dowling, Amy L S; McCarty, Katie L; Bethel, Samuel R; Nitz, Jonathan A; Pleiss, Melanie; Vanrooyen, Jenna; Grossheim, Mike; Smiley, Jeffery R; Murphy, M Paul; Beckett, Tina L; Pagani, Dieter; Bresch, Frederick; Hendrix, Curt
Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves multiple pathological processes in the brain, including increased inflammation and oxidative damage, as well as the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques. We hypothesized that a combinatorial therapeutic approach to target these multiple pathways may provide cognitive and neuropathological benefits for AD patients. To test this hypothesis, we used a canine model of human aging and AD. Aged dogs naturally develop learning and memory impairments, human-type Aβ deposits, and oxidative damage in the brain. Thus, 9 aged beagles (98-115 months) were treated with a medical food cocktail containing (1) an extract of turmeric containing 95% curcuminoids; (2) an extract of green tea containing 50% epigallocatechingallate; (3) N-acetyl cysteine; (4) R-alpha lipoic acid; and (5) an extract of black pepper containing 95% piperine. Nine similarly aged dogs served as placebo-treated controls. After 3 months of treatment, 13 dogs completed a variable distance landmark task used as a measure of spatial attention. As compared to placebo-treated animals, dogs receiving the medical food cocktail had significantly lower error scores (t11 = 4.3, p = 0.001) and were more accurate across all distances (F(1,9) = 20.7, p = 0.001), suggesting an overall improvement in spatial attention. Measures of visual discrimination learning, executive function and spatial memory, and levels of brain and cerebrospinal fluid Aβ were unaffected by the cocktail. Our results indicate that this medical food cocktail may be beneficial for improving spatial attention and motivation deficits associated with impaired cognition in aging and AD. PMID:22886019
Full Text Available Using the remarkable overlap between brain circuits affected in Parkinson’s disease (PD and those underlying motor sequence learning, we may improve the effectiveness of motor rehabilitation interventions by identifying motor learning facilitators in PD. For instance, additional sensory stimulation and task cueing enhanced motor learning in people with PD, whereas exercising using musical rhythms or console computer games improved gait and balance, and reduced some motor symptoms, in addition to increasing task enjoyment. Yet, despite these advances, important knowledge gaps remain. Most studies investigating motor learning in PD used laboratory-specific tasks and equipment, with little resemblance to real life situations. Thus, it is unknown whether similar results could be achieved in more ecological setups and whether individual’s task engagement could further improve motor learning capacity. Moreover, the role of social interaction in motor skill learning process has not yet been investigated in PD and the role of mind-set and self-regulatory mechanisms have been sporadically examined. Here we review evidence suggesting that these psychosocial factors may be important modulators of motor learning in PD. We propose their incorporation in future research, given that it could lead to development of improved non-pharmacological interventions aimed to preserve or restore motor function in PD.
Noble, Danial W A; Byrne, Richard William; Martin J Whiting
Funding: Australian Funding Council Evidence of social learning, whereby the actions of an animal facilitate the acquisition of new information by another, is taxonomically biased towards mammals, especially primates, and birds. However, social learning need not be limited to group-living animals because species with less interaction can still benefit from learning about potential predators, food sources, rivals and mates. We trained male skinks (Eulamprus quoyii), a mostly solitary lizard...
Kuntsevich, Viktoriya; Bushell, William C; Theise, Neil D
Mechanisms underlying the modulating effects of yogic cognitive-behavioral practices (eg, meditation, yoga asanas, pranayama breathing, caloric restriction) on human physiology can be classified into 4 transduction pathways: humoral factors, nervous system activity, cell trafficking, and bioelectromagnetism. Here we give examples of these transduction pathways and how, through them, yogic practices might optimize health, delay aging, and ameliorate chronic illness and stress from disability. We also recognize that most studies of these mechanisms remain embedded in a reductionist paradigm, investigating small numbers of elements of only 1 or 2 pathways. Moreover, often, subjects are not long-term practitioners, but recently trained. The models generated from such data are, in turn, often limited, top-down, without the explanatory power to describe beneficial effects of long-term practice or to provide foundations for comparing one practice to another. More flexible and useful models require a systems-biology approach to gathering and analysis of data. Such a paradigm is needed to fully appreciate the deeper mechanisms underlying the ability of yogic practice to optimize health, delay aging, and speed efficient recovery from injury or disease. In this regard, 3 different, not necessarily competing, hypotheses are presented to guide design of future investigations, namely, that yogic practices may: (1) promote restoration of physiologic setpoints to normal after derangements secondary to disease or injury, (2) promote homeostatic negative feedback loops over nonhomeostatic positive feedback loops in molecular and cellular interactions, and (3) quench abnormal "noise" in cellular and molecular signaling networks arising from environmental or internal stresses.
Hammer, Anne Sofie; Andersen, Thomas Holmen; Eriksen, Thomas;
animals (age &GE; 19 mo). Severe periodontal disease (defined by more than 50% bone loss related to one or more teeth) was not detected in mink aged 7 mo, but affected 15.3% of mink aged 19 mo and 39.6% of mink aged 31 mo. The positive relationship between age and periodontal disease was statistically...... in the mink was related to and possibly caused by destructive periodontal disease. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of periodontal disease between the 2 genotypes and age was found to be the only statistical predictor of poor production results (P < 0.01) in blue mink....
Yifan He; Jihong Zhu; Fang Huang; Liu Qin; Wenguo Fan; Hongwen He
The tooth belongs to the trigeminal sensory pathway. Dental damage has been associated with impairments in the central nervous system that may be mediated by injury to the trigeminal nerve. In the present study, we investigated the effects of damage to the inferior alveolar nerve, an important peripheral nerve in the trigeminal sensory pathway, on learning and memory be-haviors and structural changes in related brain regions, in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Inferior alveolar nerve transection or sham surgery was performed in middle-aged (4-month-old) or elderly (7-month-old) senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice. When the middle-aged mice reached 8 months (middle-aged group 1) or 11 months (middle-aged group 2), and the elderly group reached 11 months, step-down passive avoidance and Y-maze tests of learn-ing and memory were performed, and the cholinergic system was examined in the hippocampus (Nissl staining and acetylcholinesterase histochemistry) and basal forebrain (choline acetyltrans-ferase immunohistochemistry). In the elderly group, animals that underwent nerve transection had fewer pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions, fewer cholinergic ifbers in the CA1 and dentate gyrus, and fewer cholinergic neurons in the medial septal nucleus and vertical limb of the diagonal band, compared with sham-operated animals, as well as showing impairments in learning and memory. Conversely, no signiifcant differences in histology or be-havior were observed between middle-aged group 1 or group 2 transected mice and age-matched sham-operated mice. The present ifndings suggest that trigeminal nerve damage in old age, but not middle age, can induce degeneration of the septal-hippocampal cholinergic system and loss of hippocampal pyramidal neurons, and ultimately impair learning ability. Our results highlight the importance of active treatment of trigeminal nerve damage in elderly patients and those with Alzheimer’s disease, and
Tereshina, E V
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a number of certain criteria reflecting abnormalities in lipid and glucose metabolism. These abnormalities are considered to be a reason for atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes mellitus type 2. The prevalence of CVD among those with diabetes is 3-5 folds higher than without diabetes. MS demonstrates ethnic and gender variants, its frequency depends on the lifestyle and age. Attention to MS has been attracted in the last decades induced by the obesity epidemic in US. The adipose tissue and high triglyceride blood levels have been regarded as hallmark of MS. It has appeared that metabolic ways of cholesterol, fat and glucose were tightly connected and united in a system of energy expenditure and reproduction. The high prevalence of MS, heart attacks and diabetes in the elderly population makes the evidence of age to be an independent risk factor of the development of metabolic abnormalities. But this problem is still out of the field of interest in gerontology. There exist a number of unsolved questions concerning the function of visceral adipose tissue, the role of free fatty acids in the insulin resistance, mechanisms of inflammation in the old age and so on that can be an object of gerontology. So, a program of advanced researches in this field is discussed. PMID:19827683
Full Text Available Brain senescence and neurodegeneration occur with a mitochondrial dysfunction characterized by impaired electron transfer and by oxidative damage. Brain mitochondria of old animals show decreased rates of electron transfer in complexes I and IV, decreased membrane potential, increased content of the oxidation products of phospholipids and proteins and increased size and fragility. This impairment, with complex I inactivation and oxidative damage, is named “complex I syndrome” and is recognized as characteristic of mammalian brain aging and of neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondrial dysfunction is more marked in brain areas as rat hippocampus and frontal cortex, in human cortex in Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, and in substantia nigra in Parkinson’s disease. The molecular mechanisms involved in complex I inactivation include the synergistic inactivations produced by ONOO- mediated reactions, by reactions with free radical intermediates of lipid peroxidation and by amine-aldehyde adduction reactions. The accumulation of oxidation products prompts the idea of antioxidant therapies. High doses of vitamin E produce a significant protection of complex I activity and mitochondrial function in rats and mice, and with improvement of neurological functions and increased median life span in mice. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, as the Skulachev cations covalently attached to vitamin E, ubiquinone and PBN and the SS tetrapeptides, are negatively charged and accumulate in mitochondria where they exert their antioxidant effects. Activation of the cellular mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis is another potential therapeutic strategy, since the process generates organelles devoid of oxidation products and with full enzymatic activity and capacity for ATP production.
This study explores the long-term effects of starting age and the effects of input in an instructed language learning setting. First, with respect to the effects of starting age, the findings suggest that in the long term and after similar amounts of input, starting age is not a predictor of language outcomes. Second, the study examines the…
This paper draws upon a small-scale investigation to shed light on the perceptions of successful ageing by a group of senior adults in Hong Kong. It also identifies attributes that are associated with ageing well and examines the extent to which education or learning is perceived as important in the ageing process. To this end, the research has…
Becker, Karen; Fleming, Julie; Keijsers, Wilhelmina
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide description and analysis of how a traditional industry is currently using e-learning, and to identify how the potential of e-learning can be realised whilst acknowledging the technological divide between younger and older workers. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory qualitative methodology…
Cultural services and tourism are among the United Kingdom's fastest growing sectors in terms of employment and consumer demand. Cultural services and tourism bring the following elements to lifelong learning: active rather than passive learning; a means of interpreting the world around us; exposure to cultures other than one's own; confidence and…
Jacklin, Susan M.
This study examines the learning of a gross motor coincidence timing task by children with learning difficulties, compared with that by children of average intelligence of an equivalent chronological age and mental age. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)
Huh, Seonghoo; Baek, Soo-Ji; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Whitcomb, Daniel J.; Jo, Jihoon; Choi, Seong-Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Man-Seok; Lee, Kun Ho; Kim, Byeong C.
Mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have been developed to study the pathophysiology of amyloid β protein (Aβ) toxicity, which is thought to cause severe clinical symptoms such as memory impairment in AD patients. However, inconsistencies exist between studies using these animal models, specifically in terms of the effects on synaptic plasticity, a major cellular model of learning and memory. Whereas some studies find impairments in plasticity in these models, others do not. We show that long-term potentiation (LTP), in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices from this mouse, is impared at Tg2576 adult 6–7 months old. However, LTP is inducible again in slices taken from Tg2576 aged 14–19 months old. In the aged Tg2576, we found that the percentage of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons in hippocampal CA1-3 region is significantly decreased, and LTP inhibition or reversal mediated by NRG1/ErbB signaling, which requires ErbB4 receptors in PV interneurons, is impaired. Inhibition of ErbB receptor kinase in adult Tg2576 restores LTP but impairs depotentiation as shown in aged Tg2576. Our study suggests that hippocampal LTP reemerges in aged Tg2576. However, this reemerged LTP is an insuppressible form due to impaired NRG1/ErbB signaling, possibly through the loss of PV interneurons. PMID:27377368
Full Text Available Abstract The present article examines several lines of converging evidence suggesting that the slow and insidious brain changes that accumulate over the lifespan, resulting in both natural cognitive aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD, represent a metabolism reduction program. A number of such adaptive programs are known to accompany aging and are thought to have decreased energy requirements for ancestral hunter-gatherers in their 30s, 40s and 50s. Foraging ability in modern hunter-gatherers declines rapidly, more than a decade before the average terminal age of 55 years. Given this, the human brain would have been a tremendous metabolic liability that must have been advantageously tempered by the early cellular and molecular changes of AD which begin to accumulate in all humans during early adulthood. Before the recent lengthening of life span, individuals in the ancestral environment died well before this metabolism reduction program resulted in clinical AD, thus there was never any selective pressure to keep adaptive changes from progressing to a maladaptive extent. Aging foragers may not have needed the same cognitive capacities as their younger counterparts because of the benefits of accumulated learning and life experience. It is known that during both childhood and adulthood metabolic rate in the brain decreases linearly with age. This trend is thought to reflect the fact that children have more to learn. AD "pathology" may be a natural continuation of this trend. It is characterized by decreasing cerebral metabolism, selective elimination of synapses and reliance on accumulating knowledge (especially implicit and procedural over raw brain power (working memory. Over decades of subsistence, the behaviors of aging foragers became routinized, their motor movements automated and their expertise ingrained to a point where they no longer necessitated the first-rate working memory they possessed when younger and learning actively. Alzheimer
Andrew T Kempsell
Full Text Available The physiological and molecular mechanisms of age-related memory loss are complicated by the complexity of vertebrate nervous systems. This study takes advantage of a simple neural model to investigate nervous system aging, focusing on changes in learning and memory in the form of behavioral sensitization in vivo and synaptic facilitation in vitro. The effect of aging on the tail withdrawal reflex (TWR was studied in Aplysia californica at maturity and late in the annual lifecycle. We found that short-term sensitization in TWR was absent in aged Aplysia. This implied that the neuronal machinery governing nonassociative learning was compromised during aging. Synaptic plasticity in the form of short-term facilitation between tail sensory and motor neurons decreased during aging whether the sensitizing stimulus was tail shock or the heterosynaptic modulator serotonin (5-HT. Together, these results suggest that the cellular mechanisms governing behavioral sensitization are compromised during aging, thereby nearly eliminating sensitization in aged Aplysia.
This report introduces connected learning, a promising educational approach supported by the MacArthur Foundation and the Digital Learning Media (DLM) initiative that schools and out-of-school sites are adopting to enhance student learning and outcomes by connecting their education to their interests. Connected learning uses digital media to…
Spatial cognitive decline is a known hallmark for age-related deterioration in learning and memory, as neurobiological changes occur in the hippocampus with advancing age. Sexually dimorphic spatial abilities have also been consistently demonstrated in humans and other mammalian studies. Despite their extended lifespan and adaptations to aging, little is known about avian age-related cognition and physiology. In this experiment, we used zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to investigate the e...
Christoffersen, Mette; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Schnohr, Peter;
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is 1 of the most common age-related diseases, and also 1 of the most common causes of death in the general population. We tested the hypothesis that visible age-related signs associate with risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD), myocardial infarction (MI), and de...
Hadithi, M. al; Cazemier, M.; Meijer, G. A.; Bloemena, E.; Felt-Bersma, R.J.F.; Mulder, C. J. J.; Meuwissen, S G M; Pena, A S; Bodegraven, van, A.A.
AIM: To describe the characteristics of Dutch patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) first diagnosed above 60 years of age-a disease also known as old-age colitis (OAC) and to highlight a condition that has a similar appearance to IBD, namely segmental colitis associated with diverticular disease (SCAD).
D'Aquila, Patrizia; Bellizzi, Dina; Passarino, Giuseppe
The rate/quality of human aging and the development/progression of diseases depend on a complex interplay among genetics, epigenetics and environment. In this scenario, mitochondrial function (or dysfunction) and mitochondrial DNA have emerged as major players. This is mainly due to their crucial role in energetic balance, in modulating epigenetic programs and in influencing cell stress response. Moreover, it is also emerging the existence of epigenetic changes in mitochondrial DNA and of non coding mitochondrial RNAs which, together with the nuclear ones, play regulatory roles in numerous human phenotypes. In this review we will provide an overview on "mitochondrial epigenetics" state of the art, by summarizing the involvement of mitochondrial function and of mitochondria-nucleus communication in regulating nuclear epigenome, as well as the key aspects of the epigenetic marks related to mitochondrial DNA. Despite the limited data available in the literature to date, mainly due to the novelty of the topic, the intriguing interplay of the mitochondrial epigenetic changes in both physiological and pathological conditions will also be presented.
Galasko, D; Kwo-on-Yuen, P F; Klauber, M R; Thal, L J
To determine the potential value of abnormal neurological findings as markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their relationship to the stage of AD, we compared standardized neurological examinations in 135 community-dwelling patients with AD and 91 nondemented elderly individuals. After correcting for differences in age and education between the two groups, we found that rigidity, stooped posture, graphesthesia, neglect of simultaneous tactile stimuli (face-hand test), and snout, grasp, and glabella reflexes were present significantly more often in patients with AD than in control subjects. These findings increased in prevalence in patients with AD according to the severity of dementia. However, in a multivariate logistic regression model only the grasp reflex, graphesthesia, and the face-hand test were statistically significantly associated with the degree of cognitive impairment. Although abnormal neurological findings occur regularly in AD, they are too infrequent early in the course of AD to serve as diagnostic markers. Prospective studies are needed to determine whether patients with the early onset of extrapyramidal or other findings form a distinct subgroup of AD.
Maddox, W. Todd; Pacheco, Jennifer; Reeves, Maia; Zhu, Bo; Schnyer, David M.
The basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex play critical roles in category learning. Both regions evidence age-related structural and functional declines. The current study examined rule-based and information-integration category learning in a group of older and younger adults. Rule-based learning is thought to involve explicit, frontally mediated processes, whereas information-integration is thought to involve implicit, striatally mediated processes. As a group, older adults showed rule-based a...
Melita Puklek Levpušček
Full Text Available In the study we compared learning motivation, perception of learning self-efficacy and use of cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies in different age groups of adolescents. The aim of the study was also to find out if there are any differences in the perception of teachers' behaviour in classroom related to adolescents' age. We assumed that school represents an important microsystem, which influences the establishment of adolescent's learning self-regulation. Six groups of adolescents between age 13 and 18 (N=593 took part in the study. Adolescents filled in the questionnaire of motivational beliefs and self-regulated learning and the scales of teachers' behaviour. The results showed higher learning self-efficacy in younger than older adolescents, less use of learning strategies in older than younger male adolescents, lower perception of teachers' support in older than younger female adolescents and less teachers' tolerance for autonomous decision making in classroom in older than younger adolescent groups. The adolescents of different age who perceived more opportunities for autonomy in class work showed more intrinsic interest for learning.
Newberry, Gayle; Martin, Carol; Robbins, Lorna
Background: Not enough is currently known about how people with learning disabilities experience and understand the ageing process. This is particularly important as the population of older people with learning disabilities is growing due to increased life expectancy. This article draws on the first author's doctoral research study, which aimed to…
Lifelong learning programs for older adults are expanding in university communities, given the growing emphasis on successful aging in our society. This dissertation consists of two articles that examine data from ethnographic research in a southeastern lifelong learning institute associated with a state university. Data include observations over…
Luna, Alberto D.
Given the paucity of research on factors associated with motivation in learning disabled college students, the present study investigated the motivation levels in college students with learning disabilities. The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) has been validated cross-nationally and across all educational age groups of students having various…
Wong, Ruth M. H.
Numerous studies have been carried out to investigate motivation; however, limited research has been done to evaluate how age differences have an impact on the second language learning pattern. This study, therefore, investigated how gender differences place impact on a group of Chinese immigrant students' motivation to learn English. It is hoped…
This article is about education and learning for the "retired". In using this term, it is recognised that any such definitions and given age bands cover a wide range of situations and learning needs. Such diversity should closely inform the educational agenda for older adults, and as it is a life phase defined by challenge and change…
Horowitz, Beverly P.; Wong, Stephanie Dapice; Dechello, Karen
Americans are living longer, and the meaning of age has changed, particularly for Boomers and seniors. These demographic changes have economic and social ramifications with implications for health care, including rehabilitation services, and health science education. Service learning is an experiential learning pedagogy that integrates traditional…
Reigeluth, Charles M.; Watson, William R.; Watson, Sunkyung Lee; Dutta, Pratima; Chen, Zengguan; Powell, Nathan D. P.
This article presents a detailed description of the powerful and necessary role which technology can play in the information-age paradigm of education described in the four articles comprising this series. This article calls for a learning management system (LMS), a comprehensive and integrated application of technology to the learning process,…
Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong
Some past studies find that older students have more confidence in using technology for learning than younger students but some other studies find the opposite result. However, it is found that there are a few researches studying on the age difference in the perception of using technology for learning in Hong Kong. Therefore, the aim of the study…
Blokh, David; Stambler, Ilia
The heterogeneity of parameters is a ubiquitous biological phenomenon, with critical implications for biological systems functioning in normal and diseased states. We developed a method to estimate the level of objects set heterogeneity with reference to particular parameters and applied it to type II diabetes and heart disease, as examples of age-related systemic dysfunctions. The Friedman test was used to establish the existence of heterogeneity. The Newman-Keuls multiple comparison method was used to determine clusters. The normalized Shannon entropy was used to provide the quantitative evaluation of heterogeneity. There was obtained an estimate for the heterogeneity of the diagnostic parameters in healthy subjects, as well as in heart disease and type II diabetes patients, which was strongly related to their age. With aging, as with the diseases, the level of heterogeneity (entropy) was reduced, indicating a formal analogy between these phenomena. The similarity of the patterns in aging and disease suggested a kind of "early aging" of the diseased subjects, or alternatively a "disease-like" aging process, with reference to these particular parameters. The proposed method and its validation on the chronic age-related disease samples may support a way toward a formal mathematical relation between aging and chronic diseases and a formal definition of aging and disease, as determined by particular heterogeneity (entropy) changes. PMID:25110613
Olojo Oludare Jethro
Full Text Available E-learning presents an entirely new learning environment for students, thus requiring a different skill set to be successful (Romiszowski, 2004. Critical thinking, research, and evaluation skills are growing in importance as students have increasing volumes of information from a variety of sources to sort through (New Media Consortium, 2007. Also, particularly in courses that are entirely electronic, students are much more independent than in the traditional setting. This requires that they be highly motivated and committed to learning (Huynh et al., 2003, with less social interaction with peers or an instructor. Students in online courses tend to do as well as those in classrooms, but there is higher incidence of withdrawal or incomplete grades (Zhang, Zhou and Briggs, 2006. E-learning can be viewed as computer assisted learning, and as pedagogy for student-centered and collaborative learning. Early developments in e-learning focused on computer assisted learning, where part or all of the learning content is delivered digitally. More recently the pedagogical dimension of e-learning has become prominent. E-learning comprises all forms of electronically supported learning and teaching. The information and communication systems, whether networked learning or not, serve as specific media to implement the learning process.
Löwe, Luise Christine; Gaser, Christian; Franke, Katja
In our aging society, diseases in the elderly come more and more into focus. An important issue in research is Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) with their causes, diagnosis, treatment, and disease prediction. We applied the Brain Age Gap Estimation (BrainAGE) method to examine the impact of the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype on structural brain aging, utilizing longitudinal magnetic resonance image (MRI) data of 405 subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. We tested for differences in neuroanatomical aging between carrier and non-carrier of APOE ε4 within the diagnostic groups and for longitudinal changes in individual brain aging during about three years follow-up. We further examined whether a combination of BrainAGE and APOE status could improve prediction accuracy of conversion to AD in MCI patients. The influence of the APOE status on conversion from MCI to AD was analyzed within all allelic subgroups as well as for ε4 carriers and non-carriers. The BrainAGE scores differed significantly between normal controls, stable MCI (sMCI) and progressive MCI (pMCI) as well as AD patients. Differences in BrainAGE changing rates over time were observed for APOE ε4 carrier status as well as in the pMCI and AD groups. At baseline and during follow-up, BrainAGE scores correlated significantly with neuropsychological test scores in APOE ε4 carriers and non-carriers, especially in pMCI and AD patients. Prediction of conversion was most accurate using the BrainAGE score as compared to neuropsychological test scores, even when the patient's APOE status was unknown. For assessing the individual risk of coming down with AD as well as predicting conversion from MCI to AD, the BrainAGE method proves to be a useful and accurate tool even if the information of the patient's APOE status is missing. PMID:27410431
Shoemark, Deborah K; Allen, Shelley J
This review, gathered from diverse sources, shows how our microbiome influences health and ultimately how well we age. Evidence linking oral bacteria to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is discussed in the context of aging, drawing together data from epidemiological, experimental, genetic, and environmental studies. Immunosenescence results in increased bacterial load as cell-mediated and humoral immune responses wane. The innate immune system gradually takes over; contributing to the rise in circulating proinflammatory cytokines such as TNFα. Maintaining the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) against a backdrop of increasing bacterial load is important. Aging may favor the proliferation of anaerobes in the mouth eliciting a robust TNFα response from the oral epithelium. Prolonged exposure to high levels of circulating TNFα compromises the integrity of the BBB. Sensitive techniques now detect the "asymptomatic" presence of bacteria in areas previously thought to be sterile, providing new insights into the wider distribution of components of the microbiome. These "immune-tolerated" bacteria may slowly multiply elsewhere until they elicit a chronic inflammatory response; some are now considered causal in instances of atherosclerosis and back pain. Inflammatory processes have long been associated with AD. We propose for a subset of AD patients, aging favors the overgrowth of oral anaerobes established earlier in life provoking a pro-inflammatory innate response that weakens the BBB allowing bacteria to spread and quietly influence the pathogenesis of AD. Finally, we suggest that human polymorphisms considered alongside components of the microbiome may provide new avenues of research for the prevention and treatment of disease.
Hafford-Letchfield, Trish; Lavender, Peter
Learning for the Fourth Age (L4A) is a social enterprise which recruits, trains, places and matches volunteers (‘learning mentors’) to older people living in care settings or domiciliary settings. Older people and volunteers form partnerships which develop around a focus for learning and areas of interest identified by the older person. L4A promotes the value of education as a tool for increasing wellbeing in later life and its vision is to improve quality of life through mental, social and...
Full Text Available Abstract We describe the inflammation pathway from Cholesterol to Aging. Interleukin 6 mediated inflammation is implicated in age-related disorders including Atherosclerosis, Peripheral Vascular Disease, Coronary Artery Disease, Osteoporosis, Type 2 Diabetes, Dementia and Alzheimer's disease and some forms of Arthritis and Cancer. Statins and Bisphosphonates inhibit Interleukin 6 mediated inflammation indirectly through regulation of endogenous cholesterol synthesis and isoprenoid depletion. Polyphenolic compounds found in plants, fruits and vegetables inhibit Interleukin 6 mediated inflammation by direct inhibition of the signal transduction pathway. Therapeutic targets for the control of all the above diseases should include inhibition of Interleukin-6 mediated inflammation.
Wilcken, D E; Wilcken, B
The sulfur-containing amino acid, homocysteine, is formed from the essential amino acid methionine, and a number of B vitamins are involved in methionine metabolism. Pyridoxine, vitamin B6, is a cofactor for cystathionine beta synthase, which mediates the transformation of homocysteine to cystathionine, the initial step in the transsulfuration pathway and the urinary excretion of sulfur. In a normal diet there is conservation of the carbon skeleton, and about 50% of the homocysteine formed is remethylated to methionine via steps that require folic acid and vitamin B12. A deficiency of any of these three vitamins leads to modest homocyst(e)ine elevation, as does diminished renal function, both of which are common in the elderly. It is also established that homocyst(e)ine elevation of this order is associated with increased cardiovascular risk but is also associated with most established risk factors, although it is thought to be an independent contributor. In the inborn error of metabolism homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta synthase deficiency there is greatly increased circulating homocyst(e)ine and a clear association with precocious vascular disease. In about 50% of these patients there is a vascular event before the age of 30 years. The homocysteine-induced adverse vascular changes appear to result from endothelial and smooth muscle cell effects and increased thrombogenesis. We have documented a highly significant reduction in the occurrence of vascular events during 539 patient years of treatment in 32 patients with cystathionine beta synthase deficiency (mean age 30 years, range 9-66 years) by aggressive homocyst(e)ine lowering with pyridoxine, folic acid, and B12 (p = 0.0001). The 15 pyridoxine nonresponsive patients also received oral betaine. Although a cause and effect relationship is postulated for the increased cardiovascular risk associated with mild homocysteine elevation, a common cause of this elevation is the methylenetetrahydrofolate
Tompkins, Catherine J; Weinreich, Donna M
This paper describes one outcome of a collaborative teaching and learning partnership between two Universities via a Web-based environment. A description and evaluation of a semester-long project combining students from two different universities is examined. A total of 22 students participated as members of six different virtual health-care teams. Each team was charged with (1) creating a team contract; (2) completing an electronic patient medical record; and (3) a patient care plan. Students posted to discussion threads regularly using learning objects developed by faculty for Virtual AGE (vAGE-Active Gerontology Education). The successes and lessons learned for both students and faculty are discussed. PMID:18032303
Everyone is living through a period of considerable demographic change, which is predicted to continue and escalate. People are living longer and, generally, healthier lives, and the lifelong learning system in the UK needs to catch-up with this new reality. There is a need for a much more flexible approach that offers choice and opportunities to…
Debin Huang; Zehua Hu; Zhaofen Yu
Eleutheroside B or E, the main component of Acanthopanax, can relieve fatigue, enhance memory, and improve human cognition. Numerous studies have confirmed that high doses of acetylcholine significantly attenuate clinical symptoms and delay the progression of Alzheimer's disease. The present study replicated a rat model of aging induced by injecting quinolinic acid into the hippocampal CA1 region. These rats were intraperitoneally injected with low, medium and high doses of eleutheroside B or E (50, 100, 200 mg/kg), and rats injected with Huperzine A or PBS were used as controls. At 4 weeks after administration, behavioral tests showed that the escape latencies and errors in searching for the platform in a Morris water maze were dose-dependently reduced in rats treated with medium and high-dose eleutheroside B or E. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the number of surviving hippocampal neurons was greater and pathological injury was milder in three eleutheroside B or E groups compared with model group. Hippocampal homogenates showed enhanced cholinesterase activity, and dose-dependent increases in acetylcholine content and decreases in choline content following eleutheroside B or E treatment, similar to those seen in the Huperzine A group. These findings indicate that eleutheroside B or E improves learning and memory in aged rats. These effects of eleutheroside B or E may be mediated by activation of cholinesterase or enhanced reuse of choline to accelerate the synthesis of acetylcholine in hippocampal neurons.
Harel, Itamar; Benayoun, Bérénice A; Machado, Ben; Singh, Param Priya; Hu, Chi-Kuo; Pech, Matthew F.; Valenzano, Dario R.; Zhang, Elisa; Sharp, Sabrina C.; Steven E Artandi; Brunet, Anne
Aging is a complex process that affects multiple organs. Modeling aging and age-related diseases in the lab is challenging because classical vertebrate models have relatively long lifespans. Here we develop the first platform for rapid exploration of age-dependent traits and diseases in vertebrates, using the naturally short-lived African turquoise killifish. We provide an integrative genomic and genome-editing toolkit in this organism using our de novo-assembled genome and the CRISPR/Cas9 te...
Westendorp Rudi GJ
Full Text Available Abstract Background Is this person ill or just old? This question reflects the pondering mind of a doctor while interpreting the complaints of an elderly person who seeks his help. Many doctors think that ageing is a non-disease. Accordingly, various attempts have been undertaken to separate pathological ageing from normal ageing. However, the existence of a normal ageing process distinct from the pathological processes causing disease later in life can be questioned. Discussion Ageing is the accumulation of damage to somatic cells, leading to cellular dysfunction, and culminates in organ dysfunction and an increased vulnerability to death. Analogously, chronic diseases initiate early in life and their development is slow before they become clinically apparent and culminate in disability or death. The definition of disease is also subject to current opinions and scientific understanding and usually, it is an act of individual creativity when physical changes are recognised as symptoms of a new disease. New diseases, however, are only rarely really new. Most new diseases have gone undiagnosed because their signs and symptoms escaped recognition or were interpreted otherwise. Many physical changes in the elderly that are not yet recognised as a disease are thus ascribed to normal ageing. Therefore, the distinction between normal ageing and disease late in life seems in large part arbitrary. Summary We think that normal ageing cannot be separated from pathological processes causing disease later in life, and we propose that the distinction is avoided.
This publication provides a common internationally agreed basis on what constitutes an acceptable ageing management programme, as well as a knowledge base on ageing management for the design of new plants, design and safety reviews, and aims to serve as a roadmap to available information on ageing management. It addresses ageing management of passive and active structures and components for water moderated reactors that can have an impact, directly or indirectly, on the safe operation of the plant and that are susceptible to ageing degradation. The information provided is relevant for plants under normal operation, for plants considering long term operation, as well as for new plants including new designs. It underlines that ageing management should be implemented from the start of operation of nuclear power plants and that adequate provisions to facilitate effective ageing management should be made during the plant design, construction commissioning, operation, and decommissioning
Stoter, Arjan J. R.; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Kamsma, Yvo P. T.; Mulder, Theo
Motor imagery and action-based rehearsal were compared during motor sequence-learning by young adults (M = 25 yr., SD = 3) and aged adults (M = 63 yr., SD = 7). General accuracy of aged adults was lower than that of young adults (F-1,F-28 = 7.37, p = .01) even though working-memory capacity was equi
Verneau, M.; Kamp, J. van der; Savelsbergh, G,J.; Looze, M.P. de
We assessed the effects of aging in the transfer of motor learning in a sequential manual assembly task that is representative for real working conditions. On two different days, young (18-30years) and middle-aged adults (50-65years) practiced to build two products that consisted of the same six com
This article presents the Elder Academy (EA) Network as the policy and practice in promoting active ageing through elder learning in Hong Kong. First, the article examines how the change in demographics and the prevalent trend of an ageing population have propelled the government in Hong Kong to tackle issues and challenges brought about by an…
Petzold, Anne; Psotta, Laura; Brigadski, Tanja; Endres, Thomas; Lessmann, Volkmar
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a crucial mediator of neural plasticity and, consequently, of memory formation. In hippocampus-dependent learning tasks BDNF also seems to play an essential role. However, there are conflicting results concerning the spatial learning ability of aging BDNF(+/-) mice in the Morris water maze paradigm. To evaluate the effect of chronic BDNF deficiency in the hippocampus on spatial learning throughout life, we conducted a comprehensive study to test differently aged BDNF(+/-) mice and their wild type littermates in the Morris water maze and to subsequently quantify their hippocampal BDNF protein levels as well as expression levels of TrkB receptors. We observed an age-dependent learning deficit in BDNF(+/-) animals, starting at seven months of age, despite stable hippocampal BDNF protein expression and continual decline of TrkB receptor expression throughout aging. Furthermore, we detected a positive correlation between hippocampal BDNF protein levels and learning performance during the probe trial in animals that showed a good learning performance during the long-term memory test.
Lee, Cynthia; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Ip, Tiffany
Computer technology provides spaces and locales for language learning. However, learning style preference and demographic variables may affect the effectiveness of technology use for a desired goal. Adapting Reid's pioneering Perceptual Learning Style Preference Questionnaire (PLSPQ), this study investigated the relations of university students'…
Voetsch, Karen; Sequeira, Sonia; Chavez, Amy Holmes
In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provided funding and technical assistance to all states and territories to implement the Coordinated Chronic Disease Program, marking the first time that all state health departments had federal resources to coordinate chronic disease prevention and control programs. This article describes lessons learned from this initiative and identifies key elements of a coordinated approach. We analyzed 80 programmatic documents from 21 states and conducted semistructured interviews with 7 chronic disease directors. Six overarching themes emerged: 1) focused agenda, 2) identification of functions, 3) comprehensive planning, 4) collaborative leadership and expertise, 5) managed resources, and 6) relationship building. These elements supported 4 essential activities: 1) evidence-based interventions, 2) strategic use of staff, 3) consistent communication, and 4) strong program infrastructure. On the basis of these elements and activities, we propose a conceptual model that frames overarching concepts, skills, and strategies needed to coordinate state chronic disease prevention and control programs. PMID:27032986
Holtbernd, Florian; Tang, Chris C.; Feigin, Andrew; Dhawan, Vijay; Ghilardi, Maria Felice; Paulsen, Jane S.; Guttman, Mark; Eidelberg, David
Neurocognitive decline, including deficits in motor learning, occurs in the presymptomatic phase of Huntington’s disease (HD) and precedes the onset of motor symptoms. Findings from recent neuroimaging studies have linked these deficits to alterations in fronto-striatal and fronto-parietal brain networks. However, little is known about the temporal dynamics of these networks when subjects approach phenoconversion. Here, 10 subjects with presymptomatic HD were scanned with 15O-labeled water at baseline and again 1.5 years later while performing a motor sequence learning task and a kinematically matched control task. Spatial covariance analysis was utilized to characterize patterns of change in learning-related neural activation occurring over time in these individuals. Pattern expression was compared to corresponding values in 10 age-matched healthy control subjects. Spatial covariance analysis revealed significant longitudinal changes in the expression of a specific learning-related activation pattern characterized by increasing activity in the right orbitofrontal cortex, with concurrent reductions in the right medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate regions, the left insula, left precuneus, and left cerebellum. Changes in the expression of this pattern over time correlated with baseline measurements of disease burden and learning performance. The network changes were accompanied by modest improvement in learning performance that took place concurrently in the gene carriers. The presence of increased network activity in the setting of stable task performance is consistent with a discrete compensatory mechanism. The findings suggest that this effect is most pronounced in the late presymptomatic phase of HD, as subjects approach clinical onset. PMID:27192167
Barton, Matthias; Husmann, Marc; Meyer, Matthias R
Aging is considered the most important nonmodifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death after age 28 years. Because of demographic changes the world population is expected to increase to 9 billion by the year 2050 and up to 12 billion by 2100, with several-fold increases among those 65 years of age and older. Healthy aging and prevention of aging-related diseases and associated health costs have become part of political agendas of governments around the world. Atherosclerotic vascular burden increases with age; accordingly, patients with progeria (premature aging) syndromes die from myocardial infarctions or stroke as teenagers or young adults. The incidence and prevalence of arterial hypertension also increases with age. Arterial hypertension-like diabetes and chronic renal failure-shares numerous pathologies and underlying mechanisms with the vascular aging process. In this article, we review how arterial hypertension resembles premature vascular aging, including the mechanisms by which arterial hypertension (as well as other risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, or chronic renal failure) accelerates the vascular aging process. We will also address the importance of cardiovascular risk factor control-including antihypertensive therapy-as a powerful intervention to interfere with premature vascular aging to reduce the age-associated prevalence of diseases such as myocardial infarction, heart failure, hypertensive nephropathy, and vascular dementia due to cerebrovascular disease. Finally, we will discuss the implementation of endothelial therapy, which aims at active patient participation to improve primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:27118295
Jaime M. Ross
Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction and impairment of the ubiquitin proteasome system have been described as two hallmarks of the ageing process. Additionally, both systems have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of many age-related diseases, particularly neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Interestingly, these two systems are closely interconnected, with the ubiquitin proteasome system maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis by regulating organelle dynamics, the proteome, and mitophagy, and mitochondrial dysfunction impairing cellular protein homeostasis by oxidative damage. Here, we review the current literature and argue that the interplay of the two systems should be considered in order to better understand the cellular dysfunction observed in ageing and age-related diseases. Such an approach may provide valuable insights into molecular mechanisms underlying the ageing process, and further discovery of treatments to counteract ageing and its associated diseases. Furthermore, we provide a hypothetical model for the heterogeneity described among individuals during ageing.
Lin, Cecilia I. C.; Tang, Wen-hui; Kuo, Feng-Yang
The group of middle-aged and elderly women represents the lowest usage rate of information and communication technology (ICT) in Taiwan. This article reports how a social intervention program, the Taiwan Women Up (TWU) program, has helped such group to successfully learn ICT skills with the support of members of nonprofit organizations. The study…
Luis A. Uresti-Cabrera
Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of age-related cognitive changes in a visuomotor learning task that depends on strategic control and contrast it with the effect in a task principally depending on visuomotor recalibration. Methods. Participants performed a ball throwing task while donning either a reversing dove prism or a displacement wedge prism, which mainly depend on strategic control or visuomotor recalibration, respectively. Visuomotor performance was then analysed in relation to rule acquisition and reversal, recognition memory, visual memory, spatial planning, and spatial working memory with tasks from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB. Results. The results confirmed previous works showing a detrimental effect of age on visuomotor learning. The analyses of the cognitive changes observed across age showed that both strategic control and visuomotor recalibration had significant negative correlations only with the number of errors in the spatial working memory task. However, when the effect of aging was controlled, the only significant correlation remaining was between the reversal adaptation magnitude and spatial working memory. Discussion. These results suggest that spatial working memory decline across aging could contribute to age-dependent deterioration in both visuomotor learning processes. However, spatial working memory integrity seems to affect strategic learning decline even after controlling for aging.
... COMMISSION Interim Staff Guidance on Changes to the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report Revision 2... Learned (GALL) Report,'' and the NRC staff's aging management review procedure and acceptance criteria... learned and to address emergent issues not covered in license renewal guidance documents. In this way,...
Creina S Stockley
Creina S StockleyThe Australian Wine Research Institute, Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Population aging is associated with the increased incidence cancer and of degenerative diseases. Population aging is occurring on a global scale, with faster aging projected for the coming decades than has occurred in the past. Globally, the population aged 60 years and over is projected to nearly triple by 2050, while the population aged 80 years and over is projected to experience a more t...
Norris, Cathleen A.; Soloway, Elliot
Speeding past the Steve Jobs Post-PC Era into the Age of Mobilism, the authors foresee how, by 2015, each and every student in America's K-12 classrooms will be using their own mobile computing device, with those devices engendering the most disruptive transformation in education in 150 years. Classrooms will move from today's "I Teach"…
O'Brien, Timothy J; Wadley, Virginia; Nicholas, Anthony P.; Stover, Natividad P.; Watts, Ray; Griffith, H. Randall
Deficits in learning, memory, and executive functions are common cognitive sequelae of Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the pattern of deficits within these populations is distinct. Hierarchical regression was used to investigate the contribution of two measures with executive function properties (Verbal Fluency and CLOX) on list-learning performance (CVLT-II total words learned) in a sample of 25 PDD patients and 25 matched AD patients. Executive...
Nancy J. Roizen
Full Text Available We report three cases of asymptomatic celiac disease identified in children with Down syndrome after being screened at around twenty-four months of age. These cases raise the question as to what age is screening for celiac disease indicated in a child with Down syndrome and no symptoms.
Tolstrup, Janne S; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht;
Objectives. We investigated associations of smoking and coronary heart disease (CHD) by age. Methods. Data came from the Pooling Project on Diet and Coronary Heart Disease (8 prospective studies, 1974-1996; n = 192 067 women and 74 720 men, aged 40-89 years). Results. During follow-up, 4326 cases...
Chinta, S J; Lieu, C A; Demaria, M; Laberge, R-M; Campisi, J; Andersen, J K
Exposure to environmental toxins is associated with a variety of age-related diseases including cancer and neurodegeneration. For example, in Parkinson's disease (PD), chronic environmental exposure to certain toxins has been linked to the age-related development of neuropathology. Neuronal damage i
Epidemiological data indicate that consuming diets that deliver sugar to the blood rapidly (called high glycemic index, GI) is associated with enhanced risk for age-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cataract and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). These debilities...
Seyyid Ahmed Medjahed
Full Text Available The urinary system is the organ system responsible for the production, storage and elimination of urine. This system includes kidneys, bladder, ureters and urethra. It represents the major system which filters the blood and any imbalance of this organ can increases the rate of being infected with diseases. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of different variants of Support Vector Machines and k-Nearest Neighbor with different distances and try to achieve a satisfactory rate of diagnosis (infected or non-infected urinary system. We consider both diseases that affect the urinary system: inflammation of urinary bladder and nephritis of renal pelvis origin. Our experimentation will be conducted on the database ―Acute Inflammations Data Set‖ obtained from UCI Machine Learning Repository. We use the following measures to evaluate the results: classification accuracy rate, classification time, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values.
Cuddy, Lola L; Sikka, Ritu; Vanstone, Ashley
In striking contrast to the difficulties with new learning and episodic memories in aging and especially in Alzheimer's disease (AD), musical long-term memories appear to be largely preserved. Evidence for spared musical memories in aging and AD is reviewed here. New data involve the development of a Musical Engagement Questionnaire especially designed for use with AD patients. The questionnaire assesses behavioral responses to music and is answered by the care partner. Current results show that, despite cognitive loss, persons with mild to moderate AD preserve musical engagement and music seeking. Familiar music evokes personal autobiographical memories for healthy younger and older adults as well and for those with mild to moderate AD. It is argued that music is a prime candidate for being a stimulus for cognitive stimulation because musical memories and associated emotions may be readily evoked; that is, they are strong and do not need to be repaired. Working with and through music as a resource may enhance social and communication functions. PMID:25773638
Cuddy, Lola L; Sikka, Ritu; Vanstone, Ashley
In striking contrast to the difficulties with new learning and episodic memories in aging and especially in Alzheimer's disease (AD), musical long-term memories appear to be largely preserved. Evidence for spared musical memories in aging and AD is reviewed here. New data involve the development of a Musical Engagement Questionnaire especially designed for use with AD patients. The questionnaire assesses behavioral responses to music and is answered by the care partner. Current results show that, despite cognitive loss, persons with mild to moderate AD preserve musical engagement and music seeking. Familiar music evokes personal autobiographical memories for healthy younger and older adults as well and for those with mild to moderate AD. It is argued that music is a prime candidate for being a stimulus for cognitive stimulation because musical memories and associated emotions may be readily evoked; that is, they are strong and do not need to be repaired. Working with and through music as a resource may enhance social and communication functions.
Shaun K Morris
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the causes of death in children in India after age five years. The objective of this study is to provide the first ever direct national and sub-national estimates of infectious disease mortality in Indian children aged 5 to 14 years. METHODS: A verbal autopsy based assessment of 3 855 deaths is children aged 5 to 14 years from a nationally representative survey of deaths occurring in 2001-03 in 1.1 million homes in India. RESULTS: Infectious diseases accounted for 58% of all deaths among children aged 5 to 14 years. About 18% of deaths were due to diarrheal diseases, 10% due to pneumonia, 8% due to central nervous system infections, 4% due to measles, and 12% due to other infectious diseases. Nationally, in 2005 about 59 000 and 34 000 children aged 5 to 14 years died from diarrheal diseases and pneumonia, corresponding to mortality of 24.1 and 13.9 per 100 000 respectively. Mortality was nearly 50% higher in girls than in boys for both diarrheal diseases and pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 60% of all deaths in this age group are due to infectious diseases and nearly half of these deaths are due to diarrheal diseases and pneumonia. Mortality in this age group from infectious diseases, and diarrhea in particular, is much higher than previously estimated.
Kostíc, V S; Filipović, S R; Lecić, D; Momcilović, D; Sokić, D; Sternić, N
In a consecutive series of 169 outpatients with Parkinson's disease the frequency of depression was compared in two groups: those who developed Parkinson's disease before the age of 50, and those who developed the disease after 50. Major depression was found in 36% of patients with early onset and in 16% of patients with late onset Parkinson's disease. This significant difference disappeared when both groups were matched for duration of Parkinson's disease. A stepwise regression analysis in b...
Juckett, David A.
The average human lifespan has increased throughout the last century due to the mitigation of many infectious diseases. More people now die of age-related diseases than ever before, but these diseases have been resistant to elimination. Progress has been made in treatments and preventative measures to delay the onsets of these diseases, but most cancers and vascular diseases are still with us and they kill about the same fraction of the population year after year. For example, US Caucasian fe...
C. O'Callaghan; A.A. Moustafa; S. de Wit; J.M. Shine; T.W. Robbins; S.J.G. Lewis; M. Hornberger
Discrimination learning deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been well-established. Using both behavioral patient studies and computational approaches, these deficits have typically been attributed to dopamine imbalance across the basal ganglia. However, this explanation of impaired learning in
Chang, Li-Hung; Yotsumoto, Yuko; Salat, David H.; Andersen, George J.; Watanabe, Takeo; Sasaki, Yuka
While normal aging is known to reduce cortical structures globally, the effects of aging on local structures and functions of early visual cortex are less understood. Here, using standard retinotopic mapping and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphological analyses, we investigated whether aging affects areal size of the early visual cortex, which were retinotopically localized, and whether those morphological measures were associated with individual performance on visual perceptual learning. First, significant age-associated reduction was found in the areal size of V1, V2, and V3. Second, individual ability of visual perceptual learning was significantly correlated with areal size of V3 in older adults. These results demonstrate that aging changes local structures of the early visual cortex and the degree of change may be associated with individual visual plasticity. PMID:25277041
Full Text Available It has been well documented that aging is associated with declines in a variety of cognitive functions. A growing body of research shows that the age-related cognitive declines are reversible through cognitive training programs, suggesting maintained cognitive plasticity of the aging brain. Retest learning represents a basic form of cognitive plasticity. It has been consistently demonstrated for adults in young-old and old-old ages. Accumulated research indicates that retest learning is effective, robust, endurable and could occur at a more conceptual level beyond item-specific memorization. Recent studies also demonstrate promisingly broader transfer effects from retest practice of activities involving complex executive functioning to other untrained tasks. The results shed light on the development of self-guided mental exercise programs to improve cognitive performance and efficiency of the aging brain. The relevant studies were reviewed, and the findings were discussed in light of their limitations, implications, and future directions.
Alexei A Podtelezhnikov
Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a complex neurodegenerative disorder that diverges from the process of normal brain aging by unknown mechanisms. We analyzed the global structure of age- and disease-dependent gene expression patterns in three regions from more than 600 brains. Gene expression variation could be almost completely explained by four transcriptional biomarkers that we named BioAge (biological age, Alz (Alzheimer, Inflame (inflammation, and NdStress (neurodegenerative stress. BioAge captures the first principal component of variation and includes genes statistically associated with neuronal loss, glial activation, and lipid metabolism. Normally BioAge increases with chronological age, but in AD it is prematurely expressed as if some of the subjects were 140 years old. A component of BioAge, Lipa, contains the AD risk factor APOE and reflects an apparent early disturbance in lipid metabolism. The rate of biological aging in AD patients, which cannot be explained by BioAge, is associated instead with NdStress, which includes genes related to protein folding and metabolism. Inflame, comprised of inflammatory cytokines and microglial genes, is broadly activated and appears early in the disease process. In contrast, the disease-specific biomarker Alz was selectively present only in the affected areas of the AD brain, appears later in pathogenesis, and is enriched in genes associated with the signaling and cell adhesion changes during the epithelial to mesenchymal (EMT transition. Together these biomarkers provide detailed description of the aging process and its contribution to Alzheimer's disease progression.
Amedeo Lonardo; Paola Loria; Silvia Lombardini; Federica Scaglioni; Stefano Ballestri; Anna Maria Verrone; Marco Bertolotti; Lucia Carulli; Dorval Ganazzi; Nicola Carulli
AIM: To evaluate carotid intima-media thickening (IMT)and plaques, gallstone disease (GD) and fatty liver (FL)as a function of age.METHODS: In 449 subjects, FL and carotid disease were assessed ultrasonographically. In a subgroup of 65/449 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), carotid disease, GD and associated factors were determined.RESULTS: FL of unspecified etiology was more common in younger and GD in older individuals. FL subjects had an increased prevalence of IMT and a decreased prevalence of plaques and manifested carotid disease earlier. Plaques were more common in subjects with GD.Age was an independent predictor of carotid disease outcome and FL was a protective factor for plaques. In NAFLD, there was an inverse correlation between body weight and age and the latter independently predicted carotid findings.CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular risk in patients with FL and NAFLD needs to be assessed as a function of age and body weight.
Wallis, Lisa J; Virányi, Zsófia; Müller, Corsin A; Serisier, Samuel; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike
In laboratory dogs, aging leads to a decline in various cognitive domains such as learning, memory and behavioural flexibility. However, much less is known about aging in pet dogs, i.e. dogs that are exposed to different home environments by their caregivers. We used tasks on a touchscreen apparatus to detect differences in various cognitive functions across pet Border Collies aged from 5 months to 13 years. Ninety-five dogs were divided into five age groups and tested in four tasks: (1) underwater photo versus drawing discrimination, (2) clip art picture discrimination, (3) inferential reasoning by exclusion and (4) a memory test with a retention interval of 6 months. The tasks were designed to test three cognitive abilities: visual discrimination learning, logical reasoning and memory. The total number of sessions to reach criterion and the number of correction trials needed in the two discrimination tasks were compared across age groups. The results showed that both measures increased linearly with age, with dogs aged over 13 years displaying slower learning and reduced flexibility in comparison to younger dogs. Inferential reasoning ability increased with age, but less than 10 % of dogs showed patterns of choice consistent with inference by exclusion. No age effect was found in the long-term memory test. In conclusion, the discrimination learning tests used are suitable to detect cognitive aging in pet dogs, which can serve as a basis for comparison to help diagnose cognition-related problems and as a tool to assist with the development of treatments to delay cognitive decline.
Full Text Available Inbred mice provide a unique tool to study aging populations because of the genetic homogeneity within an inbred strain, their short life span, and the tools for analysis which are available. A large-scale longitudinal and cross-sectional aging study was conducted on 30 inbred strains to determine, using histopathology, the type and diversity of diseases mice develop as they age. These data provide tools that when linked with modern in silico genetic mapping tools, can begin to unravel the complex genetics of many of the common chronic diseases associated with aging in humans and other mammals. In addition, novel disease models were discovered in some strains, such as rhabdomyosarcoma in old A/J mice, to diseases affecting many but not all strains including pseudoxanthoma elasticum, pulmonary adenoma, alopecia areata, and many others. This extensive data set is now available online and provides a useful tool to help better understand strain-specific background diseases that can complicate interpretation of genetically engineered mice and other manipulatable mouse studies that utilize these strains.
Fristrup, Tine; Grut, Sara
In this article, we develop a framework that demonstrates how older adults need to develop diverse capabilities in relation to their educational life course through engagements in Nordic museums, archives and street art activities. We discuss how European museums have taken up UNESCO’s approach...... to lifelong learning as a way to conceptualise activities for older adults’ in museums, as we emphasise an approach to adult education for active ageing articulated as ‘lifelong learning for active ageing’. To illustrate this framing, we outline a number of activities taken from publications, cultural sites...... and conferences in which we have been involved over the last decade in the context of the Nordic Centre of Heritage Learning and Creativity in Östersund, Sweden. We argue that lifelong learning for active ageing in cultural heritage institutions can contribute to the development of older adults’ civic...
Serjeant, G; A Singhal; Hambleton, I.
AIMS—(1) To investigate the distribution of age at menarche in a representative sample of 99 patients with homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease, 69 with sickle cell haemoglobin C (SC) disease, and 100 controls with a normal haemoglobin (AA) genotype followed in a cohort study from birth. (2) To explore the determinants of the age at menarche. METHODS—Children ascertained in a newborn screening programme were followed prospectively from birth to age 18-26.5 years with regular ...
Ratner Marcia H.; Farb David H.; Ozer Josef; Feldman Robert G.; Durso Raymon
An earlier age at onset of Parkinson’s disease (PD) has been reported to be associated with occupational exposures to manganese and hydrocarbon solvents suggesting that exposure to neurotoxic chemicals may hasten the progression of idiopathic PD. In this study the role of occupational exposure to metals and pesticides in the progression of idiopathic PD was assessed by looking at age at disease onset. The effects of heritable genetic risk factors, which may also influence age at onset, was mi...
Discover how to transform your professional development and become a truly connected educator with user-generated learning! This book shows educators how to enhance their professional learning using practical tools, strategies, and online resources. With beginner-friendly, real-world examples and simple steps to get started, the author shows how…
Full Text Available Age related macular degeneration (AMD is retinal degenerative disorder which starts with the progression of age. Metabolism plays important role in initiation of ageing related diseases. The cholesterol metabolism components and their oxidized products like 7-ketocholesterol have been shown impact on RPE cells degeneration. These molecules can initiate the mitochondrial apoptotic process and also influenced the complements factors and expression of angiogenic proteins like VEGF etc. In this review we have suggested that AMD is ageing disorder not developmental which has been substantiated with disrupted cholesterol metabolism as described in several age related degenerative diseases.
van der Geest, Kornelis Stephan Mario
Aging of the immune system may contribute to the development of aging-associated autoimmune diseases, such as giant cell arteritis, polymyalgia rheumatica and rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this thesis was to identify aging-dependent changes of the adaptive immune system that promote autoimmunity
Huber, Jessica E.; Darling, Meghan; Francis, Elaine J.; Zhang, Dabao
Purpose: The present study examines the impact of typical aging and Parkinson's disease (PD) on the relationship among breath pausing, syntax, and punctuation. Method: Thirty young adults, 25 typically aging older adults, and 15 individuals with PD participated. Fifteen participants were age- and sex-matched to the individuals with PD.…
Mayhew, Stephen D.; Kourtzi, Zoe
Recognizing objects in cluttered scenes is vital for successful interactions in our complex environments. Learning is known to play a key role in facilitating performance in a wide range of perceptual skills not only in young but also older adults. However, the neural mechanisms that support our ability to improve visual form recognition with training in older age remain largely unknown. Here, we combine behavioral and fMRI measurements to identify the brain circuits involved in the learning ...
Ono, Hiromi; Sanders, James
=Sources of differentials in out-of-school learning time between children in first marriage biological parent families and children in six nontraditional family types are identified. Analyses of time diaries reveal that children in four of the six nontraditional family types spend fewer minutes learning than do children in first marriage biological parent families. In all four cases, however, the differentials are explained by the presence of siblings age 18+, lower levels of family income, o...
Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan
Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphy...
Stazi, A V; Mantovani, A
In the past coeliac disease, or intolerance to gluten, has been considered a rare disease in infancy, whose most important signs were chronic diarrhea with malabsorption and reduced growth. However, besides this classical form, there are a number of other clinical and subclinical forms which may appear even in the adult life and without any overt intestinal sign. The alterations may affect, e.g., the liver, thyroid, skin and the female and male reproductive system. The overall prevalence of the different forms of coeliac disease in Western Europe is at least 1:300. The aim of the present paper is to describe and evaluate the effects of coeliac disease on female reproduction. Such effects include delayed menarche, amenorrhea, infertility and early menopause. Epidemiological studies show that besides reduced fertility, affected women are at higher risk of reproductive problems such as pregnancy loss, low birthweight of offspring and reduced duration of breastfeeding. There are no adequate studies to evidentiate a possible increase of birth defects; nevertheless, coeliac disease induces malabsorption, with deficiencies of nutritional factors essential to prenatal development such as iron, folic acid and vitamin K. The mechanisms underlying the reproductive alterations are still awaiting clarification; however, an interaction among specific nutritional deficiencies, endocrine imbalances and immune disturbances is suspected. As for the other effects associated to the coeliac disease, the possible prevention or treatment of the reproductive effects is only the lifelong maintenance of a gluten-free diet. PMID:11048475
Christine E. Moran
Full Text Available American students typically attend kindergarten at the chronological age (CA of five and currently with the implementation of Common Core State Standards, there are expectations that children learn how to read in order to meet these academic standards, despite whether or not they are developmentally ready. This mixed methods study examined age and environmental factors that relate to reading with 83 children from the ages of 4–6½ years. The relationship between developmental age (DA via the Gesell Developmental Observation-Revised and early literacy learning via Marie’s Clay observational tool, Concepts About Print (CAP, were explored. The purpose of the study was to highlight the need for better alignment of educational policies and practices as they relate to child development and to promote more effective synthesis between discoveries in the field of neuroscience about how children learn and what is known about child DAs and stages. The findings revealed a statistically significant relationship between a child’s DA and early literacy learning as measured by the CAP. The descriptive statistics revealed that the DA of the children in this study was younger than their CA. Furthermore, a child’s DA was found to be the strongest predictor of early literacy learning.
Dickerson, Kelly; Gerhardstein, Peter; Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel
Imitation plays a critical role in social and cognitive development, but the social learning mechanisms contributing to the development of imitation are not well understood. We developed a new imitation task designed to examine social learning mechanisms across the early childhood period. The new task involves assembly of abstract-shaped puzzle pieces in an arbitrary sequence on a magnet board. Additionally, we introduce a new scoring system that extends traditional goal-directed imitation scoring to include measures of both children's success at copying gestures (sliding the puzzle pieces) and goals (connecting the puzzle pieces). In Experiment 1, we demonstrated an age-invariant baseline from 1.5 to 3.5 years of age, accompanied by age-related changes in success at copying goals and gestures from a live demonstrator. In Experiment 2, we applied our new task to learning following a video demonstration. Imitation performance in the video demonstration group lagged behind that of the live demonstration group, showing a protracted video deficit effect. Across both experiments, children were more likely to copy gestures at earlier ages, suggesting mimicry, and only later copy both goals and gestures, suggesting imitation. Taken together, the findings suggest that different social learning strategies may predominate in imitation learning dependent upon the degree of object affordance, task novelty, and task complexity. PMID:22786801
Noohi, Fatemeh; Boyden, Nate B; Kwak, Youngbin; Humfleet, Jennifer; Müller, Martijn L T M; Bohnen, Nicolaas I; Seidler, Rachael D
The interactive association of age and dopaminergic polymorphisms on cognitive function has been studied extensively. However, there is limited research on whether age interacts with the association between genetic polymorphisms and motor learning. We examined a group of young and older adults' performance in three motor tasks: explicit sequence learning, visuomotor adaptation, and grooved pegboard. We assessed whether individuals' motor learning and performance were associated with their age and genotypes. We selected three genetic polymorphisms: Catechol-O-Methyl Transferase (COMT val158met) and Dopamine D2 Receptor (DRD2 G>T), which are involved with dopaminergic regulation, and Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF val66met) that modulates neuroplasticity and has been shown to interact with dopaminergic genes. Although the underlying mechanisms of the function of these three genotypes are different, the high performance alleles of each have been linked to better learning and performance. We created a composite polygene score based on the Number of High Performance Alleles (NHPA) that each individual carried. We found several associations between genetic profile, motor performance, and sensorimotor adaptation. More importantly, we found that this association varies with age, task type, and engagement of implicit versus explicit learning processes. PMID:26926580
McNealy, Kristin; Mazziotta, John C; Dapretto, Mirella
Very little is known about the neural underpinnings of language learning across the lifespan and how these might be modified by maturational and experiential factors. Building on behavioral research highlighting the importance of early word segmentation (i.e. the detection of word boundaries in continuous speech) for subsequent language learning, here we characterize developmental changes in brain activity as this process occurs online, using data collected in a mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal design. One hundred and fifty-six participants, ranging from age 5 to adulthood, underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while listening to three novel streams of continuous speech, which contained either strong statistical regularities, strong statistical regularities and speech cues, or weak statistical regularities providing minimal cues to word boundaries. All age groups displayed significant signal increases over time in temporal cortices for the streams with high statistical regularities; however, we observed a significant right-to-left shift in the laterality of these learning-related increases with age. Interestingly, only the 5- to 10-year-old children displayed significant signal increases for the stream with low statistical regularities, suggesting an age-related decrease in sensitivity to more subtle statistical cues. Further, in a sample of 78 10-year-olds, we examined the impact of proficiency in a second language and level of pubertal development on learning-related signal increases, showing that the brain regions involved in language learning are influenced by both experiential and maturational factors. PMID:22010887
McNealy, Kristin; Mazziotta, John C; Dapretto, Mirella
Very little is known about the neural underpinnings of language learning across the lifespan and how these might be modified by maturational and experiential factors. Building on behavioral research highlighting the importance of early word segmentation (i.e. the detection of word boundaries in continuous speech) for subsequent language learning, here we characterize developmental changes in brain activity as this process occurs online, using data collected in a mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal design. One hundred and fifty-six participants, ranging from age 5 to adulthood, underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while listening to three novel streams of continuous speech, which contained either strong statistical regularities, strong statistical regularities and speech cues, or weak statistical regularities providing minimal cues to word boundaries. All age groups displayed significant signal increases over time in temporal cortices for the streams with high statistical regularities; however, we observed a significant right-to-left shift in the laterality of these learning-related increases with age. Interestingly, only the 5- to 10-year-old children displayed significant signal increases for the stream with low statistical regularities, suggesting an age-related decrease in sensitivity to more subtle statistical cues. Further, in a sample of 78 10-year-olds, we examined the impact of proficiency in a second language and level of pubertal development on learning-related signal increases, showing that the brain regions involved in language learning are influenced by both experiential and maturational factors.
Cohen, Adrienne L; Pitman Brown, Pamela; Morales, Justin P
In courses where topics are sensitive or even considered taboo for discussion, it can be difficult to assess students' deeper learning. In addition, incorporating a wide variety of students' values and beliefs, designing instructional strategies and including varied assessments adds to the difficulty. Journal entries or response notebooks can highlight reflection upon others' viewpoints, class readings, and additional materials. These are useful across all educational levels in deep learning and comprehension strategies assessments. Journaling meshes with transformative learning constructs, allowing for critical self-reflection essential to transformation. Qualitative analysis of journals in a death and dying class reveals three transformative themes: awareness of others, questioning, and comfort. Students' journal entries demonstrate transformative learning via communication with others through increased knowledge/exposure to others' experiences and comparing/contrasting others' personal beliefs with their own. Using transformative learning within gerontology and geriatrics education, as well as other disciplined aging-related courses is discussed. PMID:25386895
Okuniewski Jan E.
Full Text Available The research investigates the German language learning motivations of Polish secondary school students and university students. Questionnaire data were collected from 247 students (126 from secondary school and 121 from university. The aim of this research was to examine the relationships among language attitudes, instrumental, cultural interest, integrative, L2 self and motivated learning. The results show the existence of age and gender difference in variables under consideration. Relationships were found between age and gender to the motivational attitudes: older and female students had a more integrative attitude than younger and mail students and experienced more intensive motivation.
Satya Sundar SETHY
ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to discuss the nature and status of distance education in the age of globalization, i.e. how best it fits for the present educational scenario. In this connection, we will discuss how Blended Learning (hence after, BL) is one among the other learning strategies mostly helpful for the learners. Keeping this view in mind, this paper is divided into three sections. The first section aims to discuss the nature of distance education in the age of globalization. Th...
Garrett, Clayton W.
This study investigated the relationship between students' age, achievement, evaluation of the instructors and the match-mismatch of students' and instructors' learning styles. Seventeen (17) business instructors and 302 business students comprised the population. The students were selected as an intact group enrolled in the participating faculty members' class. The relationship between age and learning style mismatch and evaluation and age and learning style mismatch an...
Full Text Available The molecular and cellular mechanisms of the age-associated increase in the incidence of acute myeloid leukemia (AML remain poorly understood. Multiple studies support that the bone marrow (BM microenvironment has an important influence on leukemia progression. Given that the BM niche itself undergoes extensive functional changes during lifetime, we hypothesized that one mechanism for the age-associated increase in leukemia incidence might be that an aged niche promotes leukemia progression. The most frequent genetic alteration in AML is the t(8;21 translocation, resulting in the expression of the AML1-ETO fusion protein. Expression of the fusion protein in hematopoietic cells results in mice in a myeloproliferative disorder. Testing the role of the age of the niche on leukemia progression, we performed both transplantation and in vitro co-culture experiments. Aged animals transplanted with AML1-ETO positive HSCs presented with a significant increase in the frequency of AML-ETO positive early progenitor cells in BM as well as an increased immature myeloid cell load in blood compared to young recipients. These findings suggest that an aged BM microenvironment allows a relative better expansion of pre-leukemic stem and immature myeloid cells and thus imply that the aged microenvironment plays a role in the elevated incidence of age-associated leukemia.
Díaz-López, M Del Pilar; López-Liria, Remedios; Aguilar-Parra, José M; Padilla-Góngora, David
The purpose of this study is to describe the creation and implementation of an ICT education program for the elderly in various Active Participation Centers in Almería (Spain), assessing its impact on quality of life. From a randomized sample of 200 individuals over the age of 55. Results reveal a high degree of participant satisfaction (76.6 %), as well as improvements in quality of life as compared to the control group after the 3 month program health factor: p = 0.004; leisure and activity factor: p = 0.001; Satisfaction with Life Factor: p education in different locations and across the lifespan. PMID:27386254
Rapp, P R; Kansky, M T; Eichenbaum, H
Young and aged rhesus monkeys were tested on 2 versions of a transitive inference task measuring learning and memory for hierarchical relationships. Animals initially acquired 4 object discrimination problems arranged such that the relationship between the stimuli followed the hierarchy A > B > C > D > E. The second version of the task was similar but involved a series of 7 objects. Learning and memory for the hierarchical relationships were evaluated during probe trials in which novel pairs of nonadjacent items (e.g., B and D) were presented for a response. Standard task accuracy measures failed to distinguish young and aged subjects at any point in training. In contrast, response latency effects that are indicative of relational information processing in young monkeys were entirely absent in aged subjects. The findings highlight the value of a relational memory framework for establishing a detailed neuropsychological account of cognitive aging in the monkey.
Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais
The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by…
Sara Sepe; Chiara Milanese; Sylvia Gabriels; Derks, Kasper W.J.; Cesar Payan-Gomez; Wilfred F.J. van IJcken; Yvonne M.A. Rijksen; Alex L. Nigg; Sandra Moreno; Silvia Cerri; Fabio Blandini; Hoeijmakers, Jan H.J.; Pier G. Mastroberardino
The underlying relation between Parkinson’s disease (PD) etiopathology and its major risk factor, aging, is largely unknown. In light of the causative link between genome stability and aging, we investigate a possible nexus between DNA damage accumulation, aging, and PD by assessing aging-related DNA repair pathways in laboratory animal models and humans. We demonstrate that dermal fibroblasts from PD patients display flawed nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity and that Ercc1 mutant mice...
Sepe, Sara; Milanese, Chiara; Gabriels, Sylvia; Derks, Kasper W.J.; Payan-Gomez, Cesar; Wilfred F.J. van IJcken; Yvonne M.A. Rijksen; Nigg, Alex L.; Moreno, Sandra; Cerri, Silvia; Blandini, Fabio; Hoeijmakers, Jan H.J.; Mastroberardino, Pier G.
Summary The underlying relation between Parkinson’s disease (PD) etiopathology and its major risk factor, aging, is largely unknown. In light of the causative link between genome stability and aging, we investigate a possible nexus between DNA damage accumulation, aging, and PD by assessing aging-related DNA repair pathways in laboratory animal models and humans. We demonstrate that dermal fibroblasts from PD patients display flawed nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity and that Ercc1 mut...
Alice Estevo Dias
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Speech disorders are common manifestations of Parkinson´s disease. Objective To compare speech articulation in patients according to age at onset of the disease. Methods Fifty patients was divided into two groups: Group I consisted of 30 patients with age at onset between 40 and 55 years; Group II consisted of 20 patients with age at onset after 65 years. All patients were evaluated based on the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale scores, Hoehn and Yahr scale and speech evaluation by perceptual and acoustical analysis. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding neurological involvement and speech characteristics. Correlation analysis indicated differences in speech articulation in relation to staging and axial scores of rigidity and bradykinesia for middle and late-onset. Conclusions Impairment of speech articulation did not correlate with age at onset of disease, but was positively related with disease duration and higher scores in both groups.
The aim of this study was to assess if the chest radiograph appearance at seven days of age could be used to predict chronic lung disease. 60 preterm infants who were ventilated and/or had supplementary oxygen at seven days of age and had a chest radiograph performed at that postnatal age, were prospectively recruited. These chest radiographs were scored according to lung volume, presence of opacification, haziness, interstitial changes and cystic elements. 28 infants subsequently developed chronic lung disease; their median chest radiograph score was 5.5 which was significantly higher than that of the non-chronic lung disease infants. A chest radiograph score of 4 had a 71% sensitivity and 88% specificity in predicting chronic lung disease. It is concluded that chest radiograph appearance at seven days of age is a sensitive and specific predictor of chronic lung disease and thus could be used to indicate the need for preventive therapy. 22 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab
Olojo Oludare Jethro; Adewumi Moradeke Grace; Ajisola Kolawole Thomas
E-learning presents an entirely new learning environment for students, thus requiring a different skill set to be successful (Romiszowski, 2004). Critical thinking, research, and evaluation skills are growing in importance as students have increasing volumes of information from a variety of sources to sort through (New Media Consortium, 2007). Also, particularly in courses that are entirely electronic, students are much more independent than in the traditional setting. This requires that they...
Taler, Vanessa; Chertkow, Howard; Saumier, Daniel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects, healthy elderly, and young adults interpreted a series of novel noun-noun expressions composed of familiar object words. Subjects interpreted each item by selecting one of three possible definitions: a definition in which the referents of each noun were associated together in a particular context (e.g., rabbit…
Panouillères, Muriel T N; Tofaris, George K; Brown, Peter; Jenkinson, Ned
Procedural learning is a form of memory where people implicitly acquire a skill through repeated practice. People with Parkinson's disease (PD) have been found to acquire motor adaptation, a form of motor procedural learning, similarly to healthy older adults but they have deficits in long-term retention. A similar pattern of normal learning on initial exposure with a deficit in retention seen on subsequent days has also been seen in mirror-reading, a form of non-motor procedural learning. It is a well-studied fact that disrupting sleep will impair the consolidation of procedural memories. Given the prevalence of sleep disturbances in PD, the lack of retention on following days seen in these studies could simply be a side effect of this well-known symptom of PD. Because of this, we wondered whether people with PD would present with deficits in the short-term retention of a non-motor procedural learning task, when the test of retention was done the same day as the initial exposure. The aim of the present study was then to investigate acquisition and retention in the immediate short term of cognitive procedural learning using the mirror-reading task in people with PD. This task involved two conditions: one where triads of mirror-inverted words were always new that allowed assessing the learning of mirror-reading skill and another one where some of the triads were presented repeatedly during the experiment that allowed assessing the word-specific learning. People with PD both ON and OFF their normal medication were compared to healthy older adults and young adults. Participants were re-tested 50 minutes break after initial exposure to probe for short-term retention. The results of this study show that all groups of participants acquired and retained the two skills (mirror-reading and word-specific) similarly. These results suggest that neither healthy ageing nor the degeneration within the basal ganglia that occurs in PD does affect the mechanisms that underpin the
Muriel T N Panouillères
Full Text Available Procedural learning is a form of memory where people implicitly acquire a skill through repeated practice. People with Parkinson's disease (PD have been found to acquire motor adaptation, a form of motor procedural learning, similarly to healthy older adults but they have deficits in long-term retention. A similar pattern of normal learning on initial exposure with a deficit in retention seen on subsequent days has also been seen in mirror-reading, a form of non-motor procedural learning. It is a well-studied fact that disrupting sleep will impair the consolidation of procedural memories. Given the prevalence of sleep disturbances in PD, the lack of retention on following days seen in these studies could simply be a side effect of this well-known symptom of PD. Because of this, we wondered whether people with PD would present with deficits in the short-term retention of a non-motor procedural learning task, when the test of retention was done the same day as the initial exposure. The aim of the present study was then to investigate acquisition and retention in the immediate short term of cognitive procedural learning using the mirror-reading task in people with PD. This task involved two conditions: one where triads of mirror-inverted words were always new that allowed assessing the learning of mirror-reading skill and another one where some of the triads were presented repeatedly during the experiment that allowed assessing the word-specific learning. People with PD both ON and OFF their normal medication were compared to healthy older adults and young adults. Participants were re-tested 50 minutes break after initial exposure to probe for short-term retention. The results of this study show that all groups of participants acquired and retained the two skills (mirror-reading and word-specific similarly. These results suggest that neither healthy ageing nor the degeneration within the basal ganglia that occurs in PD does affect the mechanisms
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the concomitant systemic diseases with postmenopausal osteoporosis and to investigate the points to be considered in treatment approach of patients with osteoporosis. Materials and Methods: The study included 110 female patients admitted to our clinic and followed up after postmenopausal osteoporosis diagnosis. Besides the demographic data; the concomitant diseases of the patients such as hypertension, hypo-hyperthyroidism, diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer’s disease, malignancy, osteoarthritis, gastrointestinal system diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD- asthma and depression were also recorded. Results: The mean age of the patients included in our study was 65.9±9.8 years. When the concomitant systemic diseases were examined; 40 patients had hypertension, 32 patients had osteoarthritis, 24 patients had gastrointestinal tract problems, 22 patients had thyroid disease, 21 patients had depression, 15 patients had hyperlipidemia, 12 patients had diabetes mellitus, 10 patients had COPD - asthma, 7 patients had cardiac diseases, 5 patients had malignancy and 2 patients had Alzheimer disease. Conclusion: Osteoporosis is a common disease in the geriatric population. As a chronic disease with an increasing incidence with aging; it can cause many health problems, prevalently pathological bone fractures, in our country and all over the world. Constitutively, prophylaxis of osteoporosis should be the first step. Because systemic diseases with increasing incidence with aging may affect the severity of osteoporosis and impair the treatment; it is important for both clinicians and the society to have sufficient information about osteoporosis.
Cai, Hao-Bin; Wu, Guang-Liang; Huang, Cen-Han; Huang, Zhong-Shi; Chen, Yun-Bo; Wang, Qi
With the average life span of humans on the rise, aging in the world has drawn considerable attentions. The monoamine neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors in brain areas are involved in learning and memory processes and are an essential part of normal synaptic neurotransmission and plasticity. In the present study, the effect of Zhuang Jing Decoction (ZJD) on the learning and memory ability in aging rats was examined in vivo using Morris water maze. Furthermore, the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors in brain were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. These data showed that oral administration with ZJD at the dose of 30 g·kg(-1) exerted an improved effect on learning and memory ability in aging rats. The results revealed that ZJD could effectively adjust the monoamine neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors, restore the balance of the level of monoamine neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors in brain, and finally attenuate the degeneration of learning and memory ability. These findings suggested that ZJD might be a potential agent as cognitive-enhancing drug in improving learning and memory ability. It may exert through regulating the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors in brain, which demonstrated that ZJD had certain antiaging effects. PMID:26649780
Jin, Kunlin; Simpkins, James W.; Ji, Xunming; Leis, Miriam; Stambler, Ilia
Due to the aging of the global population and the derivative increase in aging-related non-communicable diseases and their economic burden, there is an urgent need to promote research on aging and aging-related diseases as a way to improve healthy and productive longevity for the elderly population. To accomplish this goal, we advocate the following policies: 1) Increasing funding for research and development specifically directed to ameliorate degenerative aging processes and to extend healt...
Marc Brehme; Cindy Voisine; Thomas Rolland; Shinichiro Wachi; James H. Soper; Yitan Zhu; Kai Orton; Adriana Villella; Dan Garza; Marc Vidal; Hui Ge; Richard I. Morimoto
Chaperones are central to the proteostasis network (PN) and safeguard the proteome from misfolding, aggregation, and proteotoxicity. We categorized the human chaperome of 332 genes into network communities using function, localization, interactome, and expression data sets. During human brain aging, expression of 32% of the chaperome, corresponding to ATP-dependent chaperone machines, is repressed, whereas 19.5%, corresponding to ATP-independent chaperones and co-chaperones, are induced. Thes...
Full Text Available A total of 300 patients from first day of life to 17 years of age were analysed for pattern of skin disorders. School going children formed majority (41.3% of cases followed by preschool children (32%. Infections formed the commonest disorder (31 % followed by eczemas (24%, papulosquamous disorders (12%, infestation (8.6% and urticaria (5.3% while vitiligo, acne vulgaris, alopecia areata and genodermatoses were seen in 2.7% cases each.
Successful aging and lifelong learning are value-laden concepts that are culturally determined. To this effect, people with different value systems and cultural backgrounds may perceive and understand these two concepts differently, resulting in different definitions and conceptualizations by people in diverse cultural contexts. There have been…
Poupart, Annick; Trudeau, Natacha; Sutton, Ann
The use of augmentative and alternative communication systems based on graphic symbols requires children to learn to combine symbols to convey utterances. The current study investigated how children without disabilities aged 4 to 6 years (n = 74) performed on a simple sentence (subject-verb and subject-verb-object) transposition task (i.e., spoken…
This study analysed the gradual emergence of the teaching/learning process by examining theory of mind (ToM) acquisition and age effects in the preschool period. We observed five dyads performing a jigsaw task drawn from a previous study. Three stages were identified. In the first one, the teacher focuses on the execution of her/his own task…
Fontán-Lozano, Angela; Romero-Granados, Rocío; del-Pozo-Martín, Yaiza; Suárez-Pereira, Irene; Delgado-García, José María; Penninger, Josef M; Carrión, Angel Manuel
Memory deficits in aging affect millions of people and are often disturbing to those concerned. Dissection of the molecular control of learning and memory is paramount to understand and possibly enhance cognitive functions. Old-age memory loss also has been recently linked to altered Ca(2+) homeostasis. We have previously identified DREAM (downstream regulatory element antagonistic modulator), a member of the neuronal Ca(2+) sensor superfamily of EF-hand proteins, with specific roles in different cell compartments. In the nucleus, DREAM is a Ca(2+)-dependent transcriptional repressor, binding to specific DNA signatures, or interacting with nucleoproteins regulating their transcriptional properties. Also, we and others have shown that dream mutant (dream(-/-)) mice exhibit marked analgesia. Here we report that dream(-/-) mice exhibit markedly enhanced learning and synaptic plasticity related to improved cognition. Mechanistically, DREAM functions as a negative regulator of the key memory factor CREB in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, and loss of DREAM facilitates CREB-dependent transcription during learning. Intriguingly, 18-month-old dream(-/-) mice display learning and memory capacities similar to young mice. Moreover, loss of DREAM protects from brain degeneration in aging. These data identify the Ca(2+)-regulated "pain gene" DREAM as a novel key regulator of memory and brain aging. PMID:19110430
Weiler, Julia A.; Bellebaum, Christian; Daum, Irene
Reward-based associative learning is mediated by a distributed network of brain regions that are dependent on the dopaminergic system. Age-related changes in key regions of this system, the striatum and the prefrontal cortex, may adversely affect the ability to use reward information for the guidance of behavior. The present study investigated the…
Wark, Stuart; Canon-Vanry, Miranda; Ryan, Peta; Hussain, Rafat; Knox, Marie; Edwards, Meaghan; Parmenter, Marie; Parmenter, Trevor; Janicki, Matthew; Leggatt-Cook, Chez
Background: Access to support services in rural areas is known to be problematic both in Australia, and in other countries around the world, but the majority of research on the population of people ageing with learning disability has so far focussed on metropolitan residents. The authors report about select aspects of the lived experience of older…
DeKeyser, Robert M.
The effect of age of acquisition on ultimate attainment in second language learning has been a controversial topic for years. After providing a very brief overview of the ideas that are at the core of the controversy, I discuss the two main reasons why these issues are so controversial: conceptual misunderstandings and methodological difficulties.…
Juckett, David A
The average human lifespan has increased throughout the last century due to the mitigation of many infectious diseases. More people now die of age-related diseases than ever before, but these diseases have been resistant to elimination. Progress has been made in treatments and preventative measures to delay the onsets of these diseases, but most cancers and vascular diseases are still with us and they kill about the same fraction of the population year after year. For example, US Caucasian female deaths from breast plus genital cancers have remained a fairly constant approximately 7% of the age-related disease deaths from 1938 to 1998 and have been consistently approximately 2-fold greater than female colon plus rectal cancer deaths over that span. This type of stability pattern pervades the age-related diseases and suggests that intrinsic properties within populations determine these fractions. Recognizing this pattern and deciphering its origin will be necessary for the complete understanding of these major causes of death. It would appear that more than the random processes of aging drive this effect. The question is how to meaningfully approach this problem. This commentary discusses the epidemiological and aging perspectives and their current limitations in providing an explanation. The age of bioinformatics offers hope, but only if creative systems approaches are forthcoming. PMID:19904627
Zhong, Jimmy Y; Moffat, Scott D
Previous studies have showed that spatial memory declines with age but have not clarified the relevance of different landmark cues for specifying heading directions among different age groups. This study examined differences between younger, middle-aged and older adults in route learning and memory tasks after they navigated a virtual maze that contained: (a) critical landmarks that were located at decision points (i.e., intersections) and (b) non-critical landmarks that were located at non-decision points (i.e., the sides of the route). Participants were given a recognition memory test for critical and non-critical landmarks and also given a landmark-direction associative learning task. Compared to younger adults, older adults committed more navigation errors during route learning and were poorer at associating the correct heading directions with both critical and non-critical landmarks. Notably, older adults exhibited a landmark-direction associative memory deficit at decision points; this was the first finding to show that an associative memory deficit exist among older adults in a navigational context for landmarks that are pertinent for reaching a goal, and suggest that older adults may expend more cognitive resources on the encoding of landmark/object features than on the binding of landmark and directional information. This study is also the first to show that older adults did not have a tendency to process non-critical landmarks, which were regarded as distractors/irrelevant cues for specifying the directions to reach the goal, to an equivalent or larger extent than younger adults. We explain this finding in view of the low number of non-critical cues in our virtual maze (relative to a real-world urban environment) that might not have evoked older adults' usual tendency toward processing or encoding distractors. We explain the age differences in navigational and cognitive performance with regards to functional and structural changes in the hippocampus and
Cunnane, SC; NUGENT, S; Roy, M.; Courchesne-Loyer, A; Croteau, E; Tremblay, S.; Castellano, A.; Pifferi, F.; Bocti, C; Paquet, N; Begdouri, H; Bentourkia, M; Turcotte, E; M. Allard; Barberger-Gateau, P
Lower brain glucose metabolism is present before the onset of clinically-measurable cognitive decline in two groups of people at risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) - carriers of apoE4, and in those with a maternal family history of AD. Supported by emerging evidence from in vitro and animal studies, these reports suggest that brain hypometabolism may precede and contribute to the neuropathological cascade leading cognitive decline in AD. The reason for brain hypometabolism is unclear but may in...
Romuladus E. Azuine, DrPH, RN
Full Text Available WITH over 4,500 deaths and counting, and new cases identified in two developed countries that are struggling and faltering in their handling of the epidemic, the 2014 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD epidemic is unlike any of its kind ever encountered. The ability of some poor, resource-limited, developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa to efficiently handle the epidemic within their shores provides some lessons learned for the global health community. Among others, the 2014 EVD epidemic teaches us that it is time to put the “P” back in public and population health around the world. The global health community must support a sustainable strategy to mitigate Ebola virus and other epidemics both within and outside their shores, even after the cameras are gone. Ebola virus must not be called the disease of the poor and developing world.
1.Theoretical Background 1.1 Age and second language acquisition Age issue has been one of the most controversial questions in second language acquisition since the birth of Critical Period Hypothesis ( CPH).Actually,the notion of critical period was firstly offered by Penfield & Robert ( 1959 ) by claiming that “for the purposes of learning languages,the human brain becomes progressively stiff and rigid after the age of nine” (Penfield and Roberts 1959,p.236 ) and that ”when languages are taken up for the first time in the second decade of life,it is difficult to achieve a good result because it is unphysiological” ( Penfield and Roberts 1959,p.255).Definitely,they insisted on that it is a causal relationship between age and language proficiency,it is a conceptualization of maturational constraints that is associated with an all - or - nothing - effect and abrupt onsets and offsets of the period,among other things.( Hylstenstam & Ambrahamson,2001 ).Later,Lenneberg( 1967) postulated Critical Period Hypothesis,which states that there is a neurological based critical period,”from roughly two years of age to puberty”,beyond which completely mastery of a language,first or second,is no longer possible.That's because the end of critical period was marked by “ termination of a state of organizational plasticity linked with lateralization of function” (p.176).
Pace-Schott, Edward F; Spencer, Rebecca M C
Improvements in motor sequence learning come about via goal-based learning of the sequence of visual stimuli and muscle-based learning of the sequence of movement responses. In young adults, consolidation of goal-based learning is observed after intervals of sleep but not following wake, whereas consolidation of muscle-based learning is greater following intervals with wake compared to sleep. While the benefit of sleep on motor sequence learning has been shown to decline with age, how sleep contributes to consolidation of goal-based vs. muscle-based learning in older adults (OA) has not been disentangled. We trained young (n = 62) and older (n = 50) adults on a motor sequence learning task and re-tested learning following 12 h intervals containing overnight sleep or daytime wake. To probe consolidation of goal-based learning of the sequence, half of the participants were re-tested in a configuration in which the stimulus sequence was the same but, due to a shift in stimulus-response mapping, the movement response sequence differed. To probe consolidation of muscle-based learning, the remaining participants were tested in a configuration in which the stimulus sequence was novel, but now the sequence of movements used for responding was unchanged. In young adults, there was a significant condition (goal-based vs. muscle-based learning) by interval (sleep vs. wake) interaction, F(1,58) = 6.58, p = 0.013: goal-based learning tended to be greater following sleep compared to wake, t(29) = 1.47, p = 0.072. Conversely, muscle-based learning was greater following wake than sleep, t(29) = 2.11, p = 0.021. Unlike young adults, this interaction was not significant in OA, F(1,46) = 0.04, p = 0.84, nor was there a main effect of interval, F(1,46) = 1.14, p = 0.29. Thus, OA do not preferentially consolidate sequence learning over wake or sleep.
Giuseppe Coppotelli; Ross, Jaime M.
The past decade has witnessed an explosion of knowledge regarding how mitochondrial dysfunction may translate into ageing and disease phenotypes, as well as how it is modulated by genetic and lifestyle factors.[...
Mandal, Indrajit; Sairam, N.
This article presents an enhanced prediction accuracy of diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) to prevent the delay and misdiagnosis of patients using the proposed robust inference system. New machine-learning methods are proposed and performance comparisons are based on specificity, sensitivity, accuracy and other measurable parameters. The robust methods of treating Parkinson's disease (PD) includes sparse multinomial logistic regression, rotation forest ensemble with support vector machines and principal components analysis, artificial neural networks, boosting methods. A new ensemble method comprising of the Bayesian network optimised by Tabu search algorithm as classifier and Haar wavelets as projection filter is used for relevant feature selection and ranking. The highest accuracy obtained by linear logistic regression and sparse multinomial logistic regression is 100% and sensitivity, specificity of 0.983 and 0.996, respectively. All the experiments are conducted over 95% and 99% confidence levels and establish the results with corrected t-tests. This work shows a high degree of advancement in software reliability and quality of the computer-aided diagnosis system and experimentally shows best results with supportive statistical inference.
O. M. Drapkina
Full Text Available Efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiology is so high that in many countries omega-3 fatty acids are included into the treatment protocols for patients with cardiovascular diseases. This therapeutic class slows down oxidative stress and chronic inflammation processes, thereby providing a significant contribution to the complex treatment of hypertension. Besides, omega-3 fatty acids slow down the aging process and prevent the development of age-related diseases affecting the rate of telomere shortening.
Weaver, Connie M.; Barnes, Stephen; Wyss, J. Michael; Kim, Helen; Morré, Dorothy M.; Morré, D. James; Simon, James E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Janle, Elsa M; Ferruzzi, Mario G.
The Purdue-UAB Botanicals Research Center for Age Related Disease uses multidisciplinary and innovative technologies to investigate the bioavailability of bioactive polyphenolic constituents from botanicals and their relationship to human health. Many age-related diseases are associated with oxidative stress and tissue damage. One of the research goals of the Purdue-UAB Center is to investigate the bioavailability of bioactive natural compounds from a complex botanical mixture to the organ af...
Mohamed Saber Numan
Full Text Available Atmospheric pollution-induced cellular oxidative stress is probably one of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in most of the common autophagy-mediated aging diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Alzheimer’s, disease, as well as Paget’s disease of bone with or without frontotemporal dementia and inclusion body myopathy. Oxidative stress has serious damaging effects on the cellular contents: DNA, RNA, cellular proteins, and cellular organelles. Autophagy has a pivotal role in recycling these damaged non-functional organelles and misfolded or unfolded proteins. In this paper, we highlight, through a narrative review of the literature, that when autophagy processes are impaired during aging, in presence of cumulative air pollution-induced cellular oxidative stress and due to a direct effect on air pollutant, autophagy-mediated aging diseases may occur.
Hubert, Valérie; Beaunieux, Hélène; Chételat, Gaël; Platel, Hervé; Landeau, Brigitte; Viader, Fausto; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis
Cognitive procedural learning occurs in three qualitatively different phases (cognitive, associative, and autonomous). At the beginning of this process, numerous cognitive functions are involved, subtended by distinct brain structures such as the prefrontal and parietal cortex and the cerebellum. As the learning progresses, these cognitive components are gradually replaced by psychomotor abilities, reflected by the increasing involvement of the cerebellum, thalamus, and occipital regions. In elderly subjects, although cognitive studies have revealed a learning effect, performance levels differ during the acquisition of a procedure. The effects of age on the learning of a cognitive procedure have not yet been examined using functional imaging. The aim of this study was therefore to characterize the cerebral substrates involved in the learning of a cognitive procedure, comparing a group of older subjects with young controls. For this purpose, we performed a positron emission tomography activation study using the Tower of Toronto task. A direct comparison of the two groups revealed the involvement of a similar network of brain regions at the beginning of learning (cognitive phase). However, the engagement of frontal and cingulate regions persisted in the older group as learning continued, whereas it ceased in the younger controls. We assume that this additional activation in the older group during the associative and autonomous phases reflected compensatory processes and the fact that some older subjects failed to fully automate the procedure. PMID:18537110
Jeffrey A. Blair
Full Text Available Accumulating studies affirm the effects of age-related endocrine dysfunction on cognitive decline and increasing risk of neurodegenerative diseases. It is well known that estrogen can be protective for cognitive function, and more recently testosterone and luteinizing hormone have also been shown to modulate learning and memory. Understanding the mechanisms underlying hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis associated cognitive dysfunction is crucial for therapeutic advancement. Here, we emphasize that reproductive hormones are influential in maintaining neuronal health and enhancing signaling cascades that lead to cognitive impairment. We summarize and critically evaluate age-related changes in the endocrine system, their implications in the development of Alzheimer’s disease, and the therapeutic potential of endocrine modulation in the prevention of age-related cognitive decline.
Wu, Y; Dong, G; Xiao, W; Xiao, E; Miao, F; Syverson, A; Missaghian, N; Vafa, R; Cabrera-Ortega, A A; Rossa, C; Graves, D T
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease induced by a biofilm that forms on the tooth surface. Increased periodontal disease is associated with aging. We investigated the effect of aging on challenge by oral pathogens, examining the host response, colonization, and osteoclast numbers in aged versus young mice. We also compared the results with mice with lineage-specific deletion of the transcription factor FOXO1, which reduces dendritic cell (DC) function. Periodontitis was induced by oral inoculation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum in young (4 to 5 mo) and aged (14 to 15 mo) mice. Aged mice as well as mice with reduced DC function had decreased numbers of DCs in lymph nodes, indicative of a diminished host response. In vitro studies suggest that reduced DC numbers in lymph nodes of aged mice may involve the effect of advanced glycation end products on DC migration. Surprisingly, aged mice but not mice with genetically altered DC function had greater production of antibody to P. gingivalis, greater IL-12 expression, and more plasma cells in lymph nodes following oral inoculation as compared with young mice. The greater adaptive immune response in aged versus young mice was linked to enhanced levels of P. gingivalis and reduced bacterial diversity. Thus, reduced bacterial diversity in aged mice may contribute to increased P. gingivalis colonization following inoculation and increased periodontal disease susceptibility, reflected by higher TNF levels and osteoclast numbers in the periodontium of aged versus young mice. PMID:26762510
Hald, Tine; Angulo, Fred; Bin Hamzah, Wan Mansor;
We live in an age that increasingly calls for national or regional management of global risks. This article discusses the contributions that expert elicitation can bring to efforts to manage global risks and identifies challenges faced in conducting expert elicitation at this scale. In doing so it...... draws on lessons learned from conducting an expert elicitation as part of the World Health Organizations (WHO) initiative to estimate the global burden of foodborne disease; a study commissioned by the Foodborne Disease Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG). Expert elicitation is designed to fill gaps in...... data and research using structured, transparent methods. Such gaps are a significant challenge for global risk modeling. Experience with the WHO FERG expert elicitation shows that it is feasible to conduct an expert elicitation at a global scale, but that challenges do arise, including: defining an...
The recent editorial in this journal by Bull et al. ("Connecting Informal and Formal Learning Experiences in the Age of Participatory Media" Vol 8, Iss 2) discussed the challenges of bridging formal learning practices and informal learning opportunities within the context of today's Web-enhanced world. In this commentary, Christine…
Peng, Yan; Huang, Sha; Cheng, Biao; Nie, Xiaohu; Enhe, Jirigala; Feng, Changjiang; Fu, Xiaobing
The great evolutionary biologist Theodosius Dobzhansky once said: "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution". Aging is a complex biological phenomenon and the factors governing the process of aging and age-related diseases are only beginning to be understood, oxidative stress, telomere shortening in DNA components and genetic changes were shown to be the mainly regulating mechanisms during the recent decades. Although a considerable amount of both animal and clinical data that demonstrate the extensive and safe use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is available, the precise summarization and identification of MSCs in age-related diseases remains a challenge. Along this line, this review discussed several typical age-related diseases for which MSCs have been proved to confer protection and put forward a hypothesis for the association among MSCs and age-related diseases from an evolutionary perspective. Above all, we hope further and more research efforts could be aroused to elucidate the role and mechanisms that MSCs involved in the age-related diseases.
Cuetos, Fernando; Herrera, Elena; Ellis, Andrew W.
Studies of word production in patients with Alzheimer's disease have identified the age of acquisition of words as an important predictor of retention or loss, with early acquired words remaining accessible for longer than later acquired words. If, as proposed by current theories, effects of age of acquisition reflect the involvement of semantic…
Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Dyerberg, Jørn;
In a 16-year follow-up study (ending in 1998) of 3,686 Danish men and women aged 30–71 years at recruitment, the association between energy intake from dietary fat and the risk of coronary heart disease was evaluated while assessing the possible modifying role of gender and age. In the models used...
Lee, J-M; Ramos, E M; Lee, J-H;
Age at onset of diagnostic motor manifestations in Huntington disease (HD) is strongly correlated with an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat. The length of the normal CAG repeat allele has been reported also to influence age at onset, in interaction with the expanded allele. Due to profound...
Nørremølle, A; Budtz-Jørgensen, E; Fenger, K;
Huntington disease (HD) is caused by an expanded CAG repeat sequence in the HD gene. Although the age at onset is correlated to the CAG repeat length, this correlation only explains approximately half of the variation in onset age. Less variation between siblings indicates that the variation is...
Klein, Denise; Mok, Kelvin; Chen, Jen-Kai; Watkins, Kate E
We examined the effects of learning a second language (L2) on brain structure. Cortical thickness was measured in the MRI datasets of 22 monolinguals and 66 bilinguals. Some bilingual subjects had learned both languages simultaneously (0-3 years) while some had learned their L2 after achieving proficiency in their first language during either early (4-7 years) or late childhood (8-13 years). Later acquisition of L2 was associated with significantly thicker cortex in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and thinner cortex in the right IFG. These effects were seen in the group comparisons of monolinguals, simultaneous bilinguals and early and late bilinguals. Within the bilingual group, significant correlations between age of acquisition of L2 and cortical thickness were seen in the same regions: cortical thickness correlated with age of acquisition positively in the left IFG and negatively in the right IFG. Interestingly, the monolinguals and simultaneous bilinguals did not differ in cortical thickness in any region. Our results show that learning a second language after gaining proficiency in the first language modifies brain structure in an age-dependent manner whereas simultaneous acquisition of two languages has no additional effect on brain development. PMID:23819901
Klein, Denise; Mok, Kelvin; Chen, Jen-Kai; Watkins, Kate E
We examined the effects of learning a second language (L2) on brain structure. Cortical thickness was measured in the MRI datasets of 22 monolinguals and 66 bilinguals. Some bilingual subjects had learned both languages simultaneously (0-3 years) while some had learned their L2 after achieving proficiency in their first language during either early (4-7 years) or late childhood (8-13 years). Later acquisition of L2 was associated with significantly thicker cortex in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and thinner cortex in the right IFG. These effects were seen in the group comparisons of monolinguals, simultaneous bilinguals and early and late bilinguals. Within the bilingual group, significant correlations between age of acquisition of L2 and cortical thickness were seen in the same regions: cortical thickness correlated with age of acquisition positively in the left IFG and negatively in the right IFG. Interestingly, the monolinguals and simultaneous bilinguals did not differ in cortical thickness in any region. Our results show that learning a second language after gaining proficiency in the first language modifies brain structure in an age-dependent manner whereas simultaneous acquisition of two languages has no additional effect on brain development.
Backhaus, W; Kempe, S; Hummel, F C
There is extensive evidence for positive effects of sleep on motor learning in young individuals; however, the effects of sleep on motor learning in people with stroke and in healthy older individuals are not well understood. The aim of this systematic review was to quantify the association between sleep and procedural memory performance - a marker for motor learning - in healthy older people and people with stroke. After searches in PubMed, Medline and Embase fourteen studies, including 44 subjects after stroke and 339 healthy older participants were included. Overall, sleep was found to enhance motor performance in people after stroke in comparison to an equivalent time of wakefulness. In addition, although evidence is limited, sleep only enhanced motor performance in people after stroke and not in age-matched healthy older adults. In older adults the effect of a sleep intervention did - in general - not differ from equivalent periods of wakefulness. Tasks with whole hand or whole body movements could show significant changes. The results suggest a delayed retention effect after longer breaks including sleep, hinting towards a changed learning strategy as a result of aging. Current evidence for sleep dependent learning in people after stroke is promising, however sparse.
Wenz, Tina; Rossi, Susana G.; Rotundo, Richard L.; Spiegelman, Bruce M.; Moraes, Carlos T.
Aging is a major risk factor for metabolic disease and loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, a condition known as sarcopenia. Both conditions present a major health burden to the elderly population. Here, we analyzed the effect of mildly increased PGC-1α expression in skeletal muscle during aging. We found that transgenic MCK-PGC-1α animals had preserved mitochondrial function, neuromuscular junctions, and muscle integrity during aging. Increased PGC-1α levels in skeletal muscle prevente...
Abstract Objectives: First, to assess memory and executive ability in healthy older adults, relative to young controls, in order to determine the pattern of normal age-related decline. Second, to compare this healthy ageing profile with the pathological ageing profile of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. Methods: A between-subjects quasi-experimental design was used to explore performance on a comprehensive range of memory, executive and dual-tasking (DT) measures in 14 PD patien...
ERTUNÇ, Vedat; Dane, Şenol; ÇOLAK, Ali; Karakuzu, Ali; Mete, Emin; Şenol, Mustafa
Between 1992 and 1995, 57 cases of herpes zoster were investigated according to sex, age, predilection of site, seasonal variation and complications or associated diseases. In sex and age distribution, males were more than females, and the patients were commonly affected after the age of 40. No seasonal variations were observed. Complications noted in 8 cases were herpes zoster ophtalmicus in 3 patients, Ramsay Hunt's syndrome in 2 patients, and postherpetic neuralgia in 3 patients. U...
Full Text Available Few studies have examined the risk factors of serious psychological distress (SPD and behavioral factors for heart disease separately stratified as young (18–44 years, middle aged (45–64 years, and elderly (65 years or older. A total of 3,540 adults with heart disease and 37,703 controls were selected from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey. Data were weighted to be representative and adjusted for potential undercoverage and nonresponse biases. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations of the factors with heart disease at different ages. The prevalence of SPD was 8% in cases and 4% in controls, respectively. For young adults, SPD and higher federal poverty level (FPL were associated with an increased risk of heart disease while for middle-aged adults, SPD, past smoking, lack of physical activity, obesity, male, and unemployment were associated with an increased risk of heart disease. In addition, SPD, past smoking, lack of physical activity, obesity, male, unemployment, White, and lower FPL were associated with an increased risk of heart disease in elderly. Our findings indicate that risk factors for heart disease vary across all ages. Intervention strategies that target risk reduction of heart disease may be tailored accordingly.
Full Text Available Endothelial microparticles (EMPs are complex vesicular structures that originate from plasma membranes of activated or apoptotic endothelial cells. EMPs play a significant role in vascular function by altering the processes of inflammation, coagulation, and angiogenesis, and they are key players in the pathogenesis of several vascular diseases. Circulating EMPs are increased in many age-related vascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, cerebral ischemia, and congestive heart failure. Their elevation in plasma has been considered as both a biomarker and bioactive effector of vascular damage and a target for vascular diseases. This review focuses on the pleiotropic roles of EMPs and the mechanisms that trigger their formation, particularly the involvement of decreased estrogen levels, thrombin, and PAI-1 as major factors that induce EMPs in age-related vascular diseases.
Full text: Central nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) mediate excitatory neurotransmission and contribute to a variety of brain functions including learning and memory. Post mortem studies in patients with Alzheimer's disease have revealed losses of nAChR from the neocortex and hippocampal formation with ligand binding studies showing a reduction of over 50% compared to normal elderly brains in the temporal cortex and hippocampus (Sabbagh 1998). This is consistent with the loss of cholinergic neurones that has been well documented in this condition. Nicotinic AChR are predominantly located presynaptically on the cholinergic neurones. Consequently the ability to image and quantify these receptors may provide a measure of cholinergic loss and therefore a test for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and for monitoring therapy designed' to preserve cholinergic neurones. Aging is known to effect nAChR (Hellstrom-Lindahl 2000) so this variable must be quantified and incorporated into analysis of the scans. Nicotinic receptors also have important modulatory effects on glutamate, dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline release and profound receptor loss has been documented in Parkinson's disease and Diffuse Lewy Body disease in addition to AD. Abnormalities in the alpha 7 subtype have been reported in schizophrenia. Imaging studies of nAChR have been hampered by the lack of a suitable tracer for in-vivo imaging. Nicotine itself labelled with carbon-11 for PET imaging has been used but has been shown to reflect regional cerebral blood flow not nAChR due to high nonspecific binding (Nyback et al, 1994). Potent nAChR ligands such as Epibatidine have been very useful for in-vitro studies but are too toxic for routine human use due to strong activation of nAChR including those in the sympathetic ganglia (A3B4 subtype). Recently, the Abbott Laboratories developed A85380 (3-[2(S)-2- azetidinylmethoxyl]pyridine) an azetidine derivative of the 3-pyridyl ethers that has
Balistreri, Carmela Rita; Madonna, Rosalinda; Melino, Gerry; Caruso, Calogero
Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway, which is fundamental for the development of all tissues, organs and systems of human body. Recently, a considerable and still growing number of studies have highlighted the contribution of Notch signaling in various pathological processes of the adult life, such as age-related diseases. In particular, the Notch pathway has emerged as major player in the maintenance of tissue specific homeostasis, through the control of proliferation, migration, phenotypes and functions of tissue cells, as well as in the cross-talk between inflammatory cells and the innate immune system, and in onset of inflammatory age-related diseases. However, until now there is a confounding evidence about the related mechanisms. Here, we discuss mechanisms through which Notch signaling acts in a very complex network of pathways, where it seems to have the crucial role of hub. Thus, we stress the possibility to use Notch pathway, the related molecules and pathways constituting this network, both as innovative (predictive, diagnostic and prognostic) biomarkers and targets for personalised treatments for age-related diseases. PMID:27328278
Ma. Lourdes Ruda Santolaria
The study explores child representations on the identity and origin of disease according to age, educational level and socioeconomic status. Ninety children were assessed using the Child Disease Representations Interview (CDRI) inspired in seven cards graphically representing the usual treatment of children with cancer. Results show that the same element of reality can be conceptualized in multiple ways and that smaller children tend to appeal to non-serious diseases whereas older children r...
Chauvel, Guillaume; Maquestiaux, François; Hartley, Alan A; Joubert, Sven; Didierjean, André; Masters, Rich S W
Can motor learning be equivalent in younger and older adults? To address this question, 48 younger (M = 23.5 years) and 48 older (M = 65.0 years) participants learned to perform a golf-putting task in two different motor learning situations: one that resulted in infrequent errors or one that resulted in frequent errors. The results demonstrated that infrequent-error learning predominantly relied on nondeclarative, automatic memory processes whereas frequent-error learning predominantly relied on declarative, effortful memory processes: After learning, infrequent-error learners verbalized fewer strategies than frequent-error learners; at transfer, a concurrent, attention-demanding secondary task (tone counting) left motor performance of infrequent-error learners unaffected but impaired that of frequent-error learners. The results showed age-equivalent motor performance in infrequent-error learning but age deficits in frequent-error learning. Motor performance of frequent-error learners required more attention with age, as evidenced by an age deficit on the attention-demanding secondary task. The disappearance of age effects when nondeclarative, automatic memory processes predominated suggests that these processes are preserved with age and are available even early in motor learning. PMID:21736434
Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the hypothesis that deficits in learning, memory, and other cognitive functions are associated with the ε4 allele of the Apolipoprotein E (APOE gene in a non-demented sample with memory complaints recruited from a population with a high prevalence of this allele. Methods The study group comprised 70 consecutively referred patients aged 50–75 seeking assessment due to memory complaints. They were screened for dementia, for neurological and psychiatric disease, and for cerebral infarction using Magnet Resonance Imaging (MRI. Participants were classified as non-demented based on clinical evaluation and results on cognitive tests. Results APOE ε4 carriers (56% of the sample showed poorer performance than non-carriers on the Mini Mental State Examination, a number of measures of verbal memory function from the California Verbal Learning Test, and visual recall. In 46% of the participants, psychometric criteria for amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI were satisfied. Conclusion Findings may be partly explained by a significant number of participants being in a preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease. The observed deficits in learning performance and the lack of significant age modulation of the genetic association suggest a more general genetic effect. The findings are consistent with known neurobiological function of APOE ε4, including both increased risk of neurodegenerative disease and reduced synaptic integrity in older age.
Saft, C.; Andrich, J; Brune, N; Gencik, M; Kraus, P; Przuntek, H; Epplen, J
Objective: The ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene has been defined as a critical factor for early onset neurodegeneration in Pick's, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's disease. Unexpectedly, the ε4 allele appeared to delay the age of onset in Huntington's disease (HD) patients. Furthermore, sex specific effects were reported on earlier age of onset due to the ApoE ε2ε3 genotype in males with HD. The age of onset of HD is known to be negatively correlated with increasing lengths of pathog...
Lassen, Aske Juul
good for their quality of life, health, functionality and the economy (Sundhedsstyrelsen 2008, EC 2006, WHO 2002). At the same time active aging is inscribed into a general health care focus, which individualizes the responsibility for health and disease. This requires subjects ready to self-care, by...... paying attention to the signals of the body and leading healthy lives (Rose 2001). However, active aging seems to contain an ambiguity in this aspect, as the practice of active aging is often a way for elderly to keep diseases at arm’s length, and not a way to sense the possible abnormalities in the body...
Reviews of information about age related macular degeneration (AMD), cataract, and glaucoma make it apparent that while each eye tissue has its own characteristic metabolism, structure and function, there are common perturbations to homeostasis that are associated with age-related dysfunction. The c...
Cassandra A Adduri
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD develop visuospatial difficulties that affect their ability to mentally rotate objects. Surprisingly, the existing literature has generally ignored the impact of this mental rotation deficit on the ability of AD patients to recognize faces from different angles. Instead, the devastating loss of the ability to recognize friends and family members in AD has primarily been attributed to memory loss and agnosia in later stages of the disorder. The impact of AD on areas of the brain important for mental rotation should not be overlooked by face processing investigations -- even in early stages of the disorder. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study investigated the sensitivity of face processing in AD, young controls and older non-neurological controls to two changes of the stimuli -- a rotation in depth and an inversion. The control groups showed a systematic effect of depth rotation, with errors increasing with the angle of rotation, and with inversion. The majority of the AD group was not impaired when faces were presented upright and no transformation in depth was required, and were most accurate when all faces were presented in frontal views, but accuracy was severely impaired with any rotation or inversion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that with the onset of AD, mental rotation difficulties arise that affect the ability to recognize faces presented at different angles. The finding that a frontal view is "preferred" by these patients provides a valuable communication strategy for health care workers.
Estrada, C; Fernández-Gómez, F J; López, D; Gonzalez-Cuello, A; Tunez, I; Toledo, F; Blin, O; Bordet, R; Richardson, J C; Fernandez-Villalba, E; Herrero, M T
The benefits of neuromodulatory procedures as a possible therapeutic application for cognitive rehabilitation have increased with the progress made in non-invasive modes of brain stimulation in aged-related disorders. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive method used to examine multiple facets of the human brain and to ameliorate the impairment in cognition caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study was designed to evaluate how a chronic TMS treatment could improve learning and memory functions after sleep deprivation (SD) in old Octodon degus. SD was executed by gently handling to keep the animals awake throughout the night. Thirty young and twenty-four old O. degus females were divided in six groups (control, acute and chronic TMS treatment). Behavioral tests included; Radial Arm Maze (RAM), Barnes Maze (BM) and Novel Object Recognition (NOR). Although learning and memory functions improved in young animals with only one session of TMS treatment, a significant improvement in cognitive performance was seen in old animals after 4 and 7days of TMS, depending on the task that was performed. No side effects were observed following, which showed therapeutic potential for improving age-related cognitive performance. PMID:26463507
Gorlé, Nina; Van Cauwenberghe, Caroline; Libert, Claude; Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn E
Life expectancy has increased in most developed countries, which has led to an increase in the proportion of elderly people in the world's population. However, this increase in life expectancy is not accompanied by a lengthening of the health span since aging is characterized with progressive deterioration in cellular and organ functions. The brain is particularly vulnerable to disease, and this is reflected in the onset of age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Research shows that dysfunction of two barriers in the central nervous system (CNS), the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCSFB), plays an important role in the progression of these neurodegenerative diseases. The BBB is formed by the endothelial cells of the blood capillaries, whereas the BCSFB is formed by the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus (CP), both of which are affected during aging. Here, we give an overview of how these barriers undergo changes during aging and in Alzheimer's disease, thereby disturbing brain homeostasis. Studying these changes is needed in order to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of aging at the brain barriers, which might lead to the development of new therapies to lengthen the health span (including mental health) and reduce the chances of developing Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27143113
Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS individuals present increased risk for Alzheimer disease (AD neuropathology and AD-type dementia. Here, we investigated the use of green tea extracts containing (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, as co-adjuvant to enhance the effects of environmental enrichment (EE in Ts65Dn mice, a segmental trisomy model of DS that partially mimics DS/AD pathology, at the age of initiation of cognitive decline. Classical repeated measures ANOVA showed that combined EE-EGCG treatment was more efficient than EE or EGCG alone to improve specific spatial learning related variables. Using principal component analysis (PCA we found that several spatial learning parameters contributed similarly to a first PC and explained a large proportion of the variance among groups, thus representing a composite learning measure. This PC1 revealed that EGCG or EE alone had no significant effect. However, combined EE-EGCG significantly ameliorated learning alterations of middle age Ts65Dn mice. Interestingly, PCA revealed an increased variability along learning sessions with good and poor learners in Ts65Dn, and this stratification did not disappear upon treatments. Our results suggest that combining EE and EGCG represents a viable therapeutic approach for amelioration of age-related cognitive decline in DS, although its efficacy may vary across individuals.
Messinis, Lambros; Nasios, Grigorios; Mougias, Antonios; Politis, Antonis; Zampakis, Petros; Tsiamaki, Eirini; Malefaki, Sonia; Gourzis, Phillipos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis
Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a widely used neuropsychological test to assess episodic memory. In the present study we sought to establish normative and discriminative validity data for the RAVLT in the elderly population using previously adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. We administered the test to 258 cognitively healthy elderly participants, aged 60-89 years, and two patient groups (192 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI, and 65 with Alzheimer's disease, AD). From the statistical analyses, we found that age and education contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT, whereas the influence of gender was not significant. Younger elderly participants with higher education outperformed the older elderly with lower education levels. Moreover, both clinical groups performed significantly worse on most RAVLT trials and composite measures than matched cognitively healthy controls. Furthermore, the AD group performed more poorly than the aMCI group on most RAVLT variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to examine the utility of the RAVLT trials to discriminate cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients. Area under the curve (AUC), an index of effect size, showed that most of the RAVLT measures (individual and composite) included in this study adequately differentiated between the performance of healthy elders and aMCI/AD patients. We also provide cutoff scores in discriminating cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients, based on the sensitivity and specificity of the prescribed scores. Moreover, we present age- and education-specific normative data for individual and composite scores for the Greek adapted RAVLT in elderly subjects aged between 60 and 89 years for use in clinical and research settings.
Matthews, Elizabeth A.; Linardakis, John M.; Disterhoft, John F.
Normal aging is usually accompanied by increased difficulty learning new information. One contributor to aging-related cognitive decline is decreased intrinsic excitability in aged neurons, leading to more difficulty processing inputs and remodeling synapses to store new memories. Two measures of excitability known to be altered by learning are the slow afterhyperpolarization (sAHP) following a burst of action potentials and the fast AHP (fAHP) following individual action potentials. Using ra...
Danese, Andrea; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Harrington, HonaLee; Milne, Barry J.; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Pariante, Carmine M.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom
Objective To understand why children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences are at elevated risk for age-related disease, such as cardiovascular disease, by testing whether adverse childhood experiences predict enduring abnormalities in stress-sensitive biological systems, namely, the nervous, immune, and endocrine/metabolic systems. Design A 32-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting New Zealand. Participants A total of 1037 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Main Exposures During their first decade of life, study members were assessed for exposure to 3 adverse psychosocial experiences: socioeconomic disadvantage, maltreatment, and social isolation. Main Outcome Measures At age 32 years, study members were assessed for the presence of 3 age-related-disease risks: major depression, high inflammation levels (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level >3 mg/L), and the clustering of metabolic risk biomarkers (overweight, high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high glycated hemoglobin, and low maximum oxygen consumption levels. Results Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences were at elevated risk of depression, high inflammation levels, and clustering of metabolic risk markers. Children who had experienced socioeconomic disadvantage (incidence rate ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–2.62), maltreatment (1.81; 1.38–2.38), or social isolation (1.87; 1.38–2.51) had elevated age-related-disease risks in adulthood. The effects of adverse childhood experiences on age-related-disease risks in adulthood were nonredundant, cumulative, and independent of the influence of established developmental and concurrent risk factors. Conclusions Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences have enduring emotional, immune, and metabolic abnormalities that contribute to explaining their elevated risk for age-related disease. The
Horvath, Steve; Langfelder, Peter; Kwak, Seung; Aaronson, Jeff; Rosinski, Jim; Vogt, Thomas F; Eszes, Marika; Faull, Richard L M; Curtis, Maurice A; Waldvogel, Henry J; Choi, Oi-Wa; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V; Coppola, Giovanni; Yang, X William
Age of Huntington's disease (HD) motoric onset is strongly related to the number of CAG trinucleotide repeats in the huntingtin gene, suggesting that biological tissue age plays an important role in disease etiology. Recently, a DNA methylation based biomarker of tissue age has been advanced as an epigenetic aging clock. We sought to inquire if HD is associated with an accelerated epigenetic age. DNA methylation data was generated for 475 brain samples from various brain regions of 26 HD cases and 39 controls. Overall, brain regions from HD cases exhibit a significant epigenetic age acceleration effect (p=0.0012). A multivariate model analysis suggests that HD status increases biological age by 3.2 years. Accelerated epigenetic age can be observed in specific brain regions (frontal lobe, parietal lobe, and cingulate gyrus). After excluding controls, we observe a negative correlation (r=-0.41, p=5.5×10-8) between HD gene CAG repeat length and the epigenetic age of HD brain samples. Using correlation network analysis, we identify 11 co-methylation modules with a significant association with HD status across 3 broad cortical regions. In conclusion, HD is associated with an accelerated epigenetic age of specific brain regions and more broadly with substantial changes in brain methylation levels. PMID:27479945
The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volumes 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This document is Volume 1, consisting of the executive summary, summary and observations, and an appendix listing the GALL literature review tables
Kaza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U. [and others
The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volume s 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This document is Volume 1, consisting of the executive summary, summary and observations, and an appendix listing the GALL literature review tables.
Conti, Simon L; Eisenberg, Michael L
As couples are increasingly delaying parenthood, the effect of the aging men and women on reproductive outcomes has been an area of increased interest. Advanced paternal age has been shown to independently affect the entire spectrum of male fertility as assessed by reductions in sperm quality and fertilization (both assisted and unassisted). Moreover, epidemiological data suggest that paternal age can lead to higher rates of adverse birth outcomes and congenital anomalies. Mounting evidence also suggests increased risk of specific pediatric and adult disease states ranging from cancer to behavioral traits. While disease states associated with advancing paternal age have been well described, consensus recommendations for neonatal screening have not been as widely implemented as have been with advanced maternal age. PMID:26975491
Simon L Conti
Full Text Available As couples are increasingly delaying parenthood, the effect of the aging men and women on reproductive outcomes has been an area of increased interest. Advanced paternal age has been shown to independently affect the entire spectrum of male fertility as assessed by reductions in sperm quality and fertilization (both assisted and unassisted. Moreover, epidemiological data suggest that paternal age can lead to higher rates of adverse birth outcomes and congenital anomalies. Mounting evidence also suggests increased risk of specific pediatric and adult disease states ranging from cancer to behavioral traits. While disease states associated with advancing paternal age have been well described, consensus recommendations for neonatal screening have not been as widely implemented as have been with advanced maternal age.
Conti, Simon L; Eisenberg, Michael L
As couples are increasingly delaying parenthood, the effect of the aging men and women on reproductive outcomes has been an area of increased interest. Advanced paternal age has been shown to independently affect the entire spectrum of male fertility as assessed by reductions in sperm quality and fertilization (both assisted and unassisted). Moreover, epidemiological data suggest that paternal age can lead to higher rates of adverse birth outcomes and congenital anomalies. Mounting evidence also suggests increased risk of specific pediatric and adult disease states ranging from cancer to behavioral traits. While disease states associated with advancing paternal age have been well described, consensus recommendations for neonatal screening have not been as widely implemented as have been with advanced maternal age.
Creina S Stockley
Full Text Available Creina S StockleyThe Australian Wine Research Institute, Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Population aging is associated with the increased incidence cancer and of degenerative diseases. Population aging is occurring on a global scale, with faster aging projected for the coming decades than has occurred in the past. Globally, the population aged 60 years and over is projected to nearly triple by 2050, while the population aged 80 years and over is projected to experience a more than fivefold increase. Increased numbers of older individuals may have implications for associated expenditure on income support, housing and health services, although a healthy, independent older population can also form a valued social resource, for example in providing care for others, sharing skills and knowledge, and engaging in volunteer activities. Simple dietary measures such as moderate wine consumption to supplement a healthy exercise and nutrition routine, or as an adjunct to prescription medicines when appropriate, are thus needed to maintain an aging population. The role of wine in cancer and the degenerative diseases of aging is thus discussed.Keywords: population aging, wine, degenerative disease, cancer
Chu, Regina Ju-chun
Gender and age differences in the effects of e-learning, including students' satisfaction and Internet self-efficacy, have been supported in prior research. What is less understood is how these differences are shaped, especially for higher aged adults. This article examines the utility of family support (tangible and emotional) and Internet…
Tsui, David; van der Kooy, Derek
We utilized olfactory-mediated chemotaxis in Caenorhabditis elegans to examine the effect of aging on information processing and animal behavior. Wild-type (N2) young adults (day 4) initially approach and eventually avoid a point source of benzaldehyde. Aged adult animals (day 7) showed a stronger initial approach and a delayed avoidance to benzaldehyde compared with young adults. This delayed avoidance is due to an increased attraction rather than a decreased avoidance to benzaldehyde because (1) aged odr-3 mutants that are defective in odor attraction showed no delayed benzaldehyde avoidance, and (2) the delay in avoidance was also observed with another attractant diacetyl, but not the repellent octanol. Interestingly, the stronger expression of attractive behavior was only observed at benzaldehyde concentrations of 1% or higher. When worms were grown on nonbacterial growth media instead of Escherichia coli, thus removing the contingency between odors released from the food and the food itself, the increase in attraction to benzaldehyde disappeared. The increased attraction recovered after reinitiating the odor-food contingency by returning animals to E. coli food or supplementing axenic media with benzaldehyde. Moreover, serotonin-deficient mutants showed a deficit in the age-enhanced attraction. These results suggest that the increased attraction to benzaldehyde in aged worms is (1) serotonin mediated, (2) specific to high concentration of odorants, and (3) dependent on a learned association of odor metabolites with the presence of food. We propose that associative learning may selectively modify pathways at or downstream from a low-affinity olfactory receptor.
Bates, Anthony William
The book examines the underlying principles that guide effective teaching in an age when all of us, and in particular the students we are teaching, are using technology. A framework for making decisions about your teaching is provided, while understanding that every subject is different, and every instructor has something unique and special to bring to their teaching.The book enables teachers and instructors to help students develop the knowledge and skills they will need in a digital age: not so much the IT skills, but the thinking and attitudes to learning that will bring them success.
With the recent move toward competency-based gerontology education, incorporating humanities and arts will be necessary for accreditation. This article describes the pedagogical approaches and lessons learned during 5 years of development and implementation of an asynchronous online course in Aging and the Arts. Fifty graduate and undergraduate students participated in the course over five semesters. Discipline diversity increased subsequent to designation as a fine arts general education course. Students expressed appreciation for multimedia resources, an initial fear of creating a wiki, and online redundancy was reduced through increased community engagement that also augmented application in real-world settings. The visual nature of arts and aging lends itself to a compelling and interactive online course experience that can be adapted to synchronous, hybrid, and face-to-face formats. Opportunities for community engaged learning will increase as art programs for older adults become more prevalent. PMID:27050643
Horvath, Steve; Ritz, Beate R.
It has been a long standing hypothesis that blood tissue of PD Parkinson's disease (PD) patients may exhibit signs of accelerated aging. Here we use DNA methylation based biomarkers of aging (“epigenetic clock”) to assess the aging rate of blood in two ethnically distinct case-control data sets. Using n=508 Caucasian and n=84 Hispanic blood samples, we assess a) the intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration of blood (IEAA), which is independent of blood cell counts, and b) the extrinsic epigeneti...
Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio
At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001-2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9-10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school. PMID:27445952
The problem with e-texts are related to the way texts are displayed on a screen, with multiple and different aspects that affect legibility, making readers prefer to read a paper format rather than e-resources. This research describes the factors that affect the legibility of online texts aimed at obtaining a better understanding of the usability of electronic Arabic texts for learning purposes within the field of electronic reading; mainly reading Arabic texts for students aged 9 to 13. This...
Full Text Available The ability to update associative memory is an important aspect of episodic memory and a critical skill for social adaptation. Previous research with younger adults suggests that emotional arousal alters brain mechanisms underlying memory updating; however, it is unclear whether this applies to older adults. Given that the ability to update associative information declines with age, it is important to understand how emotion modulates the brain processes underlying memory updating in older adults. The current study investigated this question using reversal learning tasks, where younger and older participants (age ranges 19-35 and 61-78 respectively learn a stimulus–outcome association and then update their response when contingencies change. We found that younger and older adults showed similar patterns of activation in the frontopolar OFC and the amygdala during emotional reversal learning. In contrast, when reversal learning did not involve emotion, older adults showed greater parietal cortex activity than did younger adults. Thus, younger and older adults show more similarities in brain activity during memory updating involving emotional stimuli than during memory updating not involving emotional stimuli.
Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A; Tolstrup, Janne S; Jakobsen, Marianne U;
BACKGROUND: -Light to moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. This protective effect of alcohol, however, may be confined to middle-aged or older individuals. Coronary heart disease incidence is low in men ... of age; for this reason, study cohorts rarely have the power to investigate the effects of alcohol on coronary heart disease risk in younger adults. This study examined whether the beneficial effect of alcohol on coronary heart disease depends on age. Methods and Results-In this pooled analysis of 8...... and risk of coronary heart disease was observed in all age groups; hazard ratios among moderately drinking men (5.0 to 29.9 g/d) 39 to 50, 50 to 59, and >/=60 years of age were 0.58 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36 to 0.93), 0.72 (95% CI, 0.60 to 0.86), and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.97) compared...
Frolkis, Alexandra D; de Bruyn, Jennifer; Jette, Nathalie; Lowerison, Mark; Engbers, Jordan; Ghali, William; Lewis, James D; Vallerand, Isabelle; Patten, Scott; Eksteen, Bertus; Barnabe, Cheryl; Panaccione, Remo; Ghosh, Subrata; Wiebe, Samuel; Kaplan, Gilaad G
Objectives: We assessed the association of smoking at diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on the need for an intestinal resection. Methods: The Health Improvement Network was used to identify an inception cohort of Crohn's disease (n=1519) and ulcerative colitis (n=3600) patients from 1999–2009. Poisson regression explored temporal trends for the proportion of newly diagnosed IBD patients who never smoked before their diagnosis and the risk of surgery within 3 years of diagnosis. Cox proportional hazard models assessed the association between smoking and surgery, and effect modification was explored for age at diagnosis. Results: The rate of never smokers increased by 3% per year for newly diagnosed Crohn's disease patients (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02–1.05), but not for ulcerative colitis. The rate of surgery decreased among Crohn's disease patients aged 17–40 years (IRR 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93–0.98), but not for ulcerative colitis. Smoking at diagnosis increased the risk of surgery for Crohn's disease patients diagnosed after the age of 40 (hazard ratio (HR) 2.99; 95% CI: 1.52–5.92), but not for those diagnosed before age 40. Ulcerative colitis patients diagnosed between the ages of 17 and 40 years and who quit smoking before their diagnosis were more likely to undergo a colectomy (ex-smoker vs. never smoker: HR 1.66; 95% CI: 1.04–2.66). The age-specific findings were consistent across sensitivity analyses for Crohn's disease, but not ulcerative colitis. Conclusions: In this study, the association of smoking and surgical resection was dependent on the age at diagnosis of IBD. PMID:27101004
Deak, Ferenc; Freeman, Willard M; Ungvari, Zoltan; Csiszar, Anna; Sonntag, William E
As the population of the Western world is aging, there is increasing awareness of age-related impairments in cognitive function and a rising interest in finding novel approaches to preserve cerebral health. A special collection of articles in The Journals of Gerontology: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences brings together information of different aspects of brain aging, from latest developments in the field of neurodegenerative disorders to cerebral microvascular mechanisms of cognitive decline. It is emphasized that although the cellular changes that occur within aging neurons have been widely studied, more research is required as new signaling pathways are discovered that can potentially protect cells. New avenues for research targeting cellular senescence, epigenetics, and endocrine mechanisms of brain aging are also discussed. Based on the current literature it is clear that understanding brain aging and reducing risk for neurological disease with age requires searching for mechanisms and treatment options beyond the age-related changes in neuronal function. Thus, comprehensive approaches need to be developed that address the multiple, interrelated mechanisms of brain aging. Attention is brought to the importance of maintenance of cerebromicrovascular health, restoring neuroendocrine balance, and the pressing need for funding more innovative research into the interactions of neuronal, neuroendocrine, inflammatory and microvascular mechanisms of cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26590911
Lisa M D Archibald
Full Text Available Dyscalculia, dyslexia, and specific language impairment (SLI are relatively specific developmental learning disabilities in math, reading, and oral language, respectively, that occur in the context of average intellectual capacity and adequate environmental opportunities. Past research has been dominated by studies focused on single impairments despite the widespread recognition that overlapping and comorbid deficits are common. The present study took an epidemiological approach to study the learning profiles of a large school age sample in language, reading, and math. Both general learning profiles reflecting good or poor performance across measures and specific learning profiles involving either weak language, weak reading, weak math, or weak math and reading were observed. These latter four profiles characterized 70% of children with some evidence of a learning disability. Low scores in phonological short-term memory characterized clusters with a language-based weakness whereas low or variable phonological awareness was associated with the reading (but not language-based weaknesses. The low math only group did not show these phonological deficits. These findings may suggest different etiologies for language-based deficits in language, reading, and math, reading-related impairments in reading and math, and isolated math disabilities.
Igor L. Shlykov, PhD¹, ScD¹
Full Text Available Background: Aging is associated with an increased hypercoagulable state. Degenerative diseases of the large joints are also accompanied by increased coagulation activity. We investigated the effect of age on the hemostatic function in patients with osteoarthritis. Material and Methods: The study included 192 patients with osteoarthritis admitted to the clinic for primary hip or knee arthroplasty. The patients were categorized into 5 age groups: the age group under 40 years, the 41–to-50 -year age group, the 51–to-60-year age group, the 61-to-70- year age group, and the age group over 70 years. The general blood clotting tests, platelet number, fibrinogen, antithrombin, protein C, TAT, D-dimer, vonWillebrand factor (vWF, PAI-1, ß-thromboglobulin were determined. Results: Among patients with osteoarthritis, the antithrombin III level significantly decreased by the age of 50; however, above the age of 60 there was a distinct decrease in platelet count, and over the age of 70 the activity of the extrinsic coagulation pathway and the plasminogen level dropped significantly. TAT and D-dimer levels were elevated in most of the patients. Conclusion: The decrease in platelet count coupled with the activity of the extrinsic coagulation pathway in elderly osteoarthritic patients may increase blood loss during total arthroplasty; also, the drop in the anticoagulant and fibrinolytic potential may play a negative role in strengthening the prothrombotic state during the postoperative period.
Nayana A Shah
Full Text Available Introduction: Among endocrine disorders commonly encountered in pediatric age group, thyroid diseases are more frequent. Congenital hypothyroidism is one of the major problems in this age with worldwide incidence of 1:3000-4000 live birth and in India it is 1:2500-2800. Objectives: The aim of this study is to know the prevalence of thyroid diseases in newborn and children by hormonal evaluation. Methodology: We have studied 50 children suspected of having signs and symptoms of thyroid diseases. Hormonal evaluation was done by the estimation of serum TSH, T3 and T4. Results: Out of total 50 children, 16 were detected with abnormal hormone level and diagnosed having thyroid diseases. Out of 16 affected children, 4 had congenital hypothyroidism (25%, 6 had subclinical or acquired hypothyroidism (37.5%, 3 had autoimmune thyroiditis (18.75% and 3 had goiter with graves disease (18.75%. Conclusion: Congenital hypothyroidism is one of the major preventable thyroid disease if diagnosed early. Other thyroid diseases commonly seen in pediatric age are subclinical hypothyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis, goiter and rarely hyperthyroidism. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(4.000: 367-370
Low, Gail; Ross, Carolyn; Stickland, Michael; Wilson, Donna; Wong, Eric
Among pulmonary rehabilitation attendees, we explored their tendency to downplay versus acknowledge physical and psychosocial health limitations, and the subsequent impact either strategy had on how they perceive their own aging process. Participants (N = 87) were 44 to 82 years of age, and diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire measured their health limitations. The Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire captured their perspectives of aging. Participants downplayed their symptoms and psychosocial impact, and remained most positive about psychosocial loss and carefully reserved about psychological growth. Acknowledged activity impairment had negative consequences, however, for their perspectives of physical change. These findings signify a balanced identity and perspective of aging that supports the Identity Process Theory. We encourage nurses and other practitioners, and researchers in pulmonary rehabilitation setting, to use this theory to better understand how people with COPD adapt to aging.
Manuel J. Amador-Patarroyo
Full Text Available The age at onset refers to the time period at which an individual experiences the first symptoms of a disease. In autoimmune diseases (ADs, these symptoms can be subtle but are very relevant for diagnosis. They can appear during childhood, adulthood or late in life and may vary depending on the age at onset. Variables like mortality and morbidity and the role of genes will be reviewed with a focus on the major autoimmune disorders, namely, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, multiple sclerosis (MS, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D, Sjögren's syndrome, and autoimmune thyroiditis (AITD. Early age at onset is a worst prognostic factor for some ADs (i.e., SLE and T1D, while for others it does not have a significant influence on the course of disease (i.e., SS or no unanimous consensus exists (i.e., RA and MS.
Shukitt-Hale, B.; Casadesus, G.; Carey, A.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.
Previous studies have shown that radiation exposure, particularly to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles), produces deficits in spatial learning and memory. These adverse behavioral effects are similar to those seen in aged animals. It is possible that these shared effects may be produced by the same mechanism; oxidative stress damage to the central nervous system caused by an increased release of reactive oxygen species is likely responsible for the deficits seen in aging and following irradiation. Both aged and irradiated rats display cognitive impairment in tests of spatial learning and memory such as the Morris water maze and the radial arm maze. These rats have decrements in the ability to build spatial representations of the environment and they utilize non-spatial strategies to solve tasks. Furthermore, they show a lack of spatial preference, due to a decline in the ability to process or retain place (position of a goal with reference to a "map" provided by the configuration of numerous cues in the environment) information. These declines in spatial memory occur in measures dependent on both reference and working memory, and in the flexibility to reset mental images. These results show that irradiation with high-energy particles produces age-like decrements in cognitive behavior that may impair the ability of astronauts to perform critical tasks during long-term space travel beyond the magnetosphere. Supported by NASA Grants NAG9-1190 and NAG9-1529
Polidori, M Cristina; Scholtes, Marlies
Several years after the first publication of the definition of oxidative stress by Helmut Sies, this topic is still focus of a large body of attention and research in the field of aging, neurodegeneration and disease prevention. The conduction of clinical and epidemiological research without a solid biochemical rationale has led to largely frustrating results without being able to disprove the oxidative stress hypothesis. The present work is dedicated to Helmut Sies and describes the successful scientific approach to bench-to-bedside (-to-behavior) oxidative stress clinical research. PMID:27095215
Singh, Gitanjali M; Danaei, Goodarz; Farzadfar, Farshad;
The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex are not availa......The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex...
K.S. Rock; Wood, D. A.; Keeling, M.J.
The biology and behaviour of biting insects is a vitally important aspect in the spread of vector-borne diseases. This paper aims to determine, through the use of mathematical models, what effect incorporating vector senescence and realistic feeding patterns has on disease. A novel model is developed to enable the effects of age- and bite-structure to be examined in detail. This original PDE framework extends previous age-structured models into a further dimension to give a new insight into t...
Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun
Abstract Early menarche is strongly associated with adulthood obesity; however, the relationship between age at menarche and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Korean women remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the association between early menarche and risk factors for developing CVD during adulthood using a nationwide population database. In total, 12,336 women (weighted n = 17,483,406; weighted age, 45.7 years) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examinatio...
Atkins, J. L.
Obesity and poor quality diet are major interrelated risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality, which are well established in middle-aged populations. However, there is controversy on the effects of obesity on CVD and mortality in the elderly. Since body composition changes with age (visceral fat increases and muscle mass decreases) it may be important to also account for muscle mass in the elderly. However, few studies have examined the combined effects of adiposity and sar...
Zahodne, Laura B.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Anna MacKay-Brandt; Yaakov Stern
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the temporal ordering of cognitive and functional declines separately in older adults with or without Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN AND SETTING: A community-based longitudinal study of aging and dementia in Northern Manhattan (Washington Heights/Hamilton Heights Inwood Columbia Aging Project) and a multicenter, clinic-based longitudinal study of prevalent AD at Columbia University Medical Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, an...
Thang, Oanh H.D.; Serné, Erik H; Grooteman, Muriel P.C.; Smulders, Yvo M.; ter Wee, Piet M.; Tangelder, Geert-Jan; Nubé, Menso J.
Background Increasing age and advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) are both associated with an attenuated vasodilator response of the skin microcirculation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of aging on microvascular reactivity in patients with advanced CKD. Methods Acetylcholine (ACh)-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-mediated endothelium-independent vasodilation were assessed by iontophoresis combined with laser Doppler flowmetry. Mic...
Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio
At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001-2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school.
Suksuphew, Sarawut; Noisa, Parinya
Progressively loss of neural and glial cells is the key event that leads to nervous system dysfunctions and diseases. Several neurodegenerative diseases, for instance Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease, are associated to aging and suggested to be a consequence of deficiency of neural stem cell pool in the affected brain regions. Endogenous neural stem cells exist throughout life and are found in specific niches of human brain. These neural stem cells are responsible for the regeneration of new neurons to restore, in the normal circumstance, the functions of the brain. Endogenous neural stem cells can be isolated, propagated, and, notably, differentiated to most cell types of the brain. On the other hand, other types of stem cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells can also serve as a source for neural stem cell production, that hold a great promise for regeneration of the brain. The replacement of neural stem cells, either endogenous or stem cell-derived neural stem cells, into impaired brain is highly expected as a possible therapeutic mean for neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, clinical features and current routinely treatments of age-related neurodegenerative diseases are documented. Noteworthy, we presented the promising evidence of neural stem cells and their derivatives in curing such diseases, together with the remaining challenges to achieve the best outcome for patients.
Bowler, J.; Munoz, D.; Merskey, H.; HACHINSKI, V.
OBJECTIVES—To assess the role of cerebrovascular disease, sex, education, occupation, year of birth, leukoaraiosis, congophilic angiopathy, family history, and other demographic factors on the reported age of onset and rate of progression of Alzheimer's disease. METHODS—Analysis of data from the University of Western Ontario Dementia Study, a prospective longitudinal study of dementia patients with clinical and 6 monthly psychometric follow up to postmortem based in a univer...
Santiago; Vivas; Luis; Vaquero; Laura; Rodríguez-Martín; Alberto; Caminero
Celiac disease may appear both in early childhood andin elderly subjects. Current knowledge of the disease has revealed some differences associated to the age of presentation. Furthermore, monitoring and prognosis of celiac subjects can vary depending on the pediatric or adult stage. The main objective of this review is to provide guidance for the adult diagnostic and follow-up processes, which must be tailored specifically for adults and be different from pediatric patients.
Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD, the most common form of dementia, shares many aspects of abnormal brain aging. We present a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-based biomarker that predicts the individual progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI to AD on the basis of pathological brain aging patterns. By employing kernel regression methods, the expression of normal brain-aging patterns forms the basis to estimate the brain age of a given new subject. If the estimated age is higher than the chronological age, a positive brain age gap estimation (BrainAGE score indicates accelerated atrophy and is considered a risk factor for conversion to AD. Here, the BrainAGE framework was applied to predict the individual brain ages of 195 subjects with MCI at baseline, of which a total of 133 developed AD during 36 months of follow-up (corresponding to a pre-test probability of 68%. The ability of the BrainAGE framework to correctly identify MCI-converters was compared with the performance of commonly used cognitive scales, hippocampus volume, and state-of-the-art biomarkers derived from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. With accuracy rates of up to 81%, BrainAGE outperformed all cognitive scales and CSF biomarkers in predicting conversion of MCI to AD within 3 years of follow-up. Each additional year in the BrainAGE score was associated with a 10% greater risk of developing AD (hazard rate: 1.10 [CI: 1.07-1.13]. Furthermore, the post-test probability was increased to 90% when using baseline BrainAGE scores to predict conversion to AD. The presented framework allows an accurate prediction even with multicenter data. Its fast and fully automated nature facilitates the integration into the clinical workflow. It can be exploited as a tool for screening as well as for monitoring treatment options.
Lauren P. Klosinski
Full Text Available White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical.
Klosinski, Lauren P; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N; Harrington, Michael G; Christensen, Trace A; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz
White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical. PMID:26844268
Nole M. Hiebert; Seergobin, Ken N.; Vo, Andrew; Ganjavi, Hooman; MacDonald, Penny A
Objective The aim was to examine the effect of dopaminergic medication on stimulus-response learning versus performing decisions based on learning. Method To see the effect of dopaminergic therapy on stimulus-response learning and response selection, participants with Parkinson’s disease (PD) were either tested on and/or off their prescribed dose of dopaminergic therapy during different testing days. Forty participants with PD and 34 healthy controls completed the experiment on consecutive da...
Fadila Hadj-Bouziane; Isabelle Benatru; Andrea Brovelli; Hélène Klinger; Stéphane Thobois
The present behavioral study readdresses the question of habit learning in Parkinson's disease. Patients were early onset, non-demented, dopa-responsive, candidates for surgical treatment, similar to those we found earlier as suffering greater dopamine depletion in the putamen than in the caudate nucleus. The task was the same conditional associative learning task as that used previously in monkeys and healthy humans to unveil the striatum involvement in habit learning. Sixteen patients and 2...
Li, Ruijie; Liu, Karen P. Y.
The aim of this article was to review the evidence of errorless learning on learning outcomes in patients with early-stage Alzheimer's disease. A computer-aided literature search from 1999 to 2011 was carried out using MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO and PsycArticles. Keywords included…
Holly, Deirdre; Sharp, John
People with learning disabilities are at increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Research suggests this may be due to inequalities in health status and inequities in the way health services respond to need. Little is known about the most effective way to improve health outcomes for people with learning disabilities. A previously developed…
Xiaojuan Dan; King, Bradley R.; Julien Doyon; Piu Chan
Previous research investigating motor sequence learning (MSL) and consolidation in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) has predominantly included heterogeneous participant samples with early and advanced disease stages; thus, little is known about the onset of potential behavioral impairments. We employed a multisession MSL paradigm to investigate whether behavioral deficits in learning and consolidation appear immediately after or prior to the detection of clinical symptoms in the tested ...
Li, Jian-Liang; Hayden, Michael R.; Almqvist, Elisabeth W.; Brinkman, Ryan R; Durr, Alexandra; Dodé, Catherine; Morrison, Patrick J.; Suchowersky, Oksana; Ross, Christopher A.; Margolis, Russell L.; Rosenblatt, Adam; Gómez-Tortosa, Estrella; Cabrero, David Mayo; Novelletto, Andrea; Frontali, Marina
Huntington disease (HD) is caused by the expansion of a CAG repeat within the coding region of a novel gene on 4p16.3. Although the variation in age at onset is partly explained by the size of the expanded repeat, the unexplained variation in age at onset is strongly heritable (h2=0.56), which suggests that other genes modify the age at onset of HD. To identify these modifier loci, we performed a 10-cM density genomewide scan in 629 affected sibling pairs (295 pedigrees and 695 individuals), ...
Sepe, Sara; Milanese, Chiara; Gabriels, Sylvia; Derks, Kasper W J; Payan-Gomez, Cesar; van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Rijksen, Yvonne M A; Nigg, Alex L; Moreno, Sandra; Cerri, Silvia; Blandini, Fabio; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Mastroberardino, Pier G
The underlying relation between Parkinson's disease (PD) etiopathology and its major risk factor, aging, is largely unknown. In light of the causative link between genome stability and aging, we investigate a possible nexus between DNA damage accumulation, aging, and PD by assessing aging-related DNA repair pathways in laboratory animal models and humans. We demonstrate that dermal fibroblasts from PD patients display flawed nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity and that Ercc1 mutant mice with mildly compromised NER exhibit typical PD-like pathological alterations, including decreased striatal dopaminergic innervation, increased phospho-synuclein levels, and defects in mitochondrial respiration. Ercc1 mouse mutants are also more sensitive to the prototypical PD toxin MPTP, and their transcriptomic landscape shares important similarities with that of PD patients. Our results demonstrate that specific defects in DNA repair impact the dopaminergic system and are associated with human PD pathology and might therefore constitute an age-related risk factor for PD. PMID:27210754
Hayashi, Christine A.; Fisher-Adams, Grace
This study surveys graduates of a west-coast university regarding their perception of how well their graduate degree programs prepared them to meet the challenge of leading for learning in the digital age, particularly in the areas of visionary leadership, student learning, organizational management, working with diverse families, ethics, and the…
Tones, Megan; Pillay, Hitendra; Kelly, Kathy
More recently, lifespan development psychology models of adaptive development have been applied to the workforce to investigate ageing worker and lifespan issues. The current study uses the Learning and Development Survey (LDS) to investigate employee selection and engagement of learning and development goals and opportunities and constraints for…
Li, Hongdong; Guo, Zheng; Guo, You; Li, Mengyao; Yan, Haidan; Cheng, Jun; Wang, Chenguang; Hong, Guini
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common aging-related neurodegenerative illness. Recently, many studies have tried to identify AD- or aging-related DNA methylation (DNAm) biomarkers from peripheral whole blood (PWB). However, the origin of PWB biomarkers is still controversial. In this study, by analyzing 2565 DNAm profiles for PWB and brain tissue, we showed that aging-related DNAm CpGs (Age-CpGs) and AD-related DNAm CpGs (AD-CpGs) observable in PWB both mainly reflected DNAm alterations intrinsic in leukocyte subtypes rather than methylation differences introduced by the increased ratio of myeloid to lymphoid cells during aging or AD progression. The PWB Age-CpGs and AD-CpGs significantly overlapped 107 sites (P-value = 2.61×10−12) and 97 had significantly concordant methylation alterations in AD and aging (P-value nervous system development, neuron differentiation and neurogenesis. More than 60.8% of these 97 concordant sites were found to be significantly correlated with age in normal peripheral CD4+ T cells and CD14+ monocytes as well as in four brain regions, and 44 sites were also significantly differentially methylated in different regions of AD brain tissue. Taken together, the PWB DNAm alterations related to both aging and AD could be exploited for identification of AD biomarkers. PMID:26943045
David C Geary
Full Text Available Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and other stressors. As a result, the dynamics of competition and choice can, in theory, be used to generate predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species, including humans. These dynamics and associated vulnerabilities are reviewed for nonhuman species, focusing on traits that are compromised by exposure to parasites. Using the same approach, sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities to parasitic disease are illustrated for children's and adolescent's physical growth and fitness. Suggestions are then provided for widening the assessment of human vulnerabilities to include age-appropriate measures of behavioral (e.g., children's play and cognitive (e.g., language fluency traits. These are traits that are likely to be compromised by infection in age- and sex-specific ways. Inclusion of these types of measures in studies of neglected tropic diseases has the potential to provide a more nuanced understanding of how these diseases undermine human wellbeing and may provide a useful means to study the efficacy of associated treatments.
Meinds, Rob J.; Kuiper, Ge-Ann; Parry, Kevin; Timmer, Albertus; Groen, Henk; Heineman, Erik; Broens, Paul M. A.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hirschsprung's disease (HD) is a rare birth defect of the distal colon. Analysis of rectal suction biopsy (RSB) is considered to be the most reliable method for its diagnosis in infants. However, the diagnostic accuracy of RSB analysis could be affected by the patient's age, possi
Voytek, Bradley; Robert T Knight
Perception, cognition, and social interaction depend upon coordinated neural activity. This coordination operates within noisy, overlapping, and distributed neural networks operating at multiple timescales. These networks are built upon a structural scaffolding with intrinsic neuroplasticity that changes with development, aging, disease, and personal experience. In this paper we begin from the perspective that successful interregional communication relies upon the transient synchronization be...
No previous study of Alzheimer's disease has, to our knowledge, assessed the effect of both age at dementia onset and gender on cerebral glucose metabolic patterns. To this end, we used positron emission tomography (fludeoxyglucose F 18 method) to study 24 patients with clinical diagnoses of probable Alzheimer's disease. Comparisons of the 13 patients with early-onset dementia (less than 65 years of age) with the 11 patients with late-onset dementia (greater than 65 years of age) revealed significantly lower left parietal metabolic ratios (left posterior parietal region divided by the hemispheric average) in the early-onset group. The metabolic ratio of posterior parietal cortex divided by the relatively disease-stable average of caudate and thalamus also separated patients with early-onset dementia from those with late-onset dementia, but not men from women. Further comparisons between sexes showed that, in all brain regions studied, the 9 postmenopausal women had higher nonweighted mean metabolic rates than the 15 men from the same age group, with hemispheric sex differences of 9% on the right and 7% on the left. These results demonstrate decreased parietal ratios in early-onset dementia of Alzheimer's disease, independent of a gender effect
Koopman, Carla; Bots, Michiel L.; Van Dis, Ineke; Vaartjes, Ilonca
Background Shifts in the burden of coronary heart disease (CHD) from an acute to chronic illness have important public health consequences. Objective To assess age-sex-specific time trends in rates and characteristics of acute and chronic forms of CHD hospital admissions in the Netherlands. Methods
Full Text Available Some facts about D-amino acids, their diffusion in human’s and animal’s organisms, metabolism, identification methods, involving in ageing and pathogenesis of some neurodegenerative diseases are show in this review. Also there is discussing the role of amino acid molecular asymmetry (D and L enantiomers ratio as a fundamental asymmetry of living matter.
W.C.W.R. Zijlmans; A.A.M.W. van Kempen; M.J. Serlie; H.P. Sauerwein
This review describes the occurrence of hypoglycemia in young children as a common and serious complication that needs to be avoided because of the high risk of brain damage and mortality. Young age, fasting, and severe infectious disease are considered important risk factors. The limited data on th
Ruban, T N; Jacob, B; Pope, J E; Keystone, E C; Bombardier, C; Kuriya, B
This study aims to compare characteristics between late-onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and young-onset RA and determine the association between age at disease onset and disease severity. We cross-sectionally studied 971 patients at the time of entry into the Ontario Best Practices Research Initiative, a registry of RA patients followed up in routine care. We restricted patients to ≤5 years of disease duration. Late-onset RA was defined as an onset ≥60 years of age and young-onset RA <60 years. Group differences were compared, and multivariate linear regression models were used to test the influence of age at onset on Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR), Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI), and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores. The swollen joint count (6.2 vs. 5.3), acute phase reactants (C-reactive protein (CRP) 17.4 vs. 11.8 mg/L, ESR 30.6 vs. 21.5 mm/h), and comorbidity burden were higher in late-onset RA compared to young-onset RA (p < 0.01). Mean DAS28-ESR (4.6 vs. 4.3) and HAQ (1.2 vs. 1.1) scores were higher in late-onset RA patients (p < 0.05). Late-onset RA patients received more initial disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) monotherapy and corticosteroids in comparison to greater DMARD/biologic combination therapy in young-onset RA patients (p < 0.05). Adjusted multivariate analyses showed that late-onset RA was independently associated with higher mean DAS28-ESR and HAQ scores, but not CDAI. Late-onset RA patients have greater disease activity that may contribute to disability early in the disease course. Despite this, initial treatment consists of less combination DMARD and biologic use in late-onset RA patients. This may have implications for future response to therapy and development of joint damage, disability, and comorbidities in this group.
Although it is well known that explicit memory is affected by the deleterious changes in brain with aging, but effect of aging in implicit memory such as probabilistic category learning (PCL) is not clear. To identify the effect of aging on the neural interaction for successful PCL, we investigated the neural substrates of PCL and the age-related changes of the neural network between these brain regions. 23 young (age, 252 y; 11 males) and 14 elderly (673 y; 7 males) healthy subjects underwent FDG PET during a resting state and 150-trial weather prediction (WP) task. Correlations between the WP hit rates and regional glucose metabolism were assessed using SPM2 (Pdiff(37) = 142.47, P<0.005), Systematic comparisons of each path revealed that frontal crosscallosal and the frontal to parahippocampal connection were most responsible for the model differences (P<0.05). For the successful PCL, the elderly recruits the basal ganglia implicit memory system but MTL recruitment differs from the young. The inadequate MTL correlation pattern in the elderly is may be caused by the changes of the neural pathway related with explicit memory. These neural changes can explain the decreased performance of PCL in elderly subjects
Potter, Paul K; Bowl, Michael R; Jeyarajan, Prashanthini; Wisby, Laura; Blease, Andrew; Goldsworthy, Michelle E; Simon, Michelle M; Greenaway, Simon; Michel, Vincent; Barnard, Alun; Aguilar, Carlos; Agnew, Thomas; Banks, Gareth; Blake, Andrew; Chessum, Lauren; Dorning, Joanne; Falcone, Sara; Goosey, Laurence; Harris, Shelley; Haynes, Andy; Heise, Ines; Hillier, Rosie; Hough, Tertius; Hoslin, Angela; Hutchison, Marie; King, Ruairidh; Kumar, Saumya; Lad, Heena V; Law, Gemma; MacLaren, Robert E; Morse, Susan; Nicol, Thomas; Parker, Andrew; Pickford, Karen; Sethi, Siddharth; Starbuck, Becky; Stelma, Femke; Cheeseman, Michael; Cross, Sally H; Foster, Russell G; Jackson, Ian J; Peirson, Stuart N; Thakker, Rajesh V; Vincent, Tonia; Scudamore, Cheryl; Wells, Sara; El-Amraoui, Aziz; Petit, Christine; Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham; Nolan, Patrick M; Cox, Roger; Mallon, Anne-Marie; Brown, Steve D M
Determining the genetic bases of age-related disease remains a major challenge requiring a spectrum of approaches from human and clinical genetics to the utilization of model organism studies. Here we report a large-scale genetic screen in mice employing a phenotype-driven discovery platform to identify mutations resulting in age-related disease, both late-onset and progressive. We have utilized N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis to generate pedigrees of mutagenized mice that were subject to recurrent screens for mutant phenotypes as the mice aged. In total, we identify 105 distinct mutant lines from 157 pedigrees analysed, out of which 27 are late-onset phenotypes across a range of physiological systems. Using whole-genome sequencing we uncover the underlying genes for 44 of these mutant phenotypes, including 12 late-onset phenotypes. These genes reveal a number of novel pathways involved with age-related disease. We illustrate our findings by the recovery and characterization of a novel mouse model of age-related hearing loss.
... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria that are spread through the air from person to person. If not treated properly, TB disease can be fatal. People infected with TB bacteria ...
Brianne Alyssia Kent
Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a global epidemic. Unfortunately, we are still without effective treatments or a cure for this disease, which is having devastating consequences for patients, their families, and societies around the world. Until effective treatments are developed, promoting overall health may hold potential for delaying the onset or preventing neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. In particular, chronobiological concepts may provide a useful framework for identifying the earliest signs of age-related disease as well as inexpensive and noninvasive methods for promoting health. It is well reported that AD is associated with disrupted circadian functioning to a greater extent than normal aging. However, it is unclear if the central circadian clock (i.e., the suprachiasmatic nucleus is dysfunctioning, or whether the synchrony between the central and peripheral clocks that control behaviour and metabolic processes are becoming uncoupled. Desynchrony of rhythms can negatively affect health, increasing morbidity and mortality in both animal models and humans. If the uncoupling of rhythms is contributing to AD progression or exacerbating symptoms, then it may be possible to draw from the food-entrainment literature to identify mechanisms for re-synchronizing rhythms to improve overall health and reduce the severity of symptoms. The following review will briefly summarize the circadian system, its potential role in AD, and propose using a feeding-related neuropeptide, such as ghrelin, to synchronize uncoupled rhythms. Synchronizing rhythms may be an inexpensive way to promote healthy aging and delay the onset of neurodegenerative disease such as AD.
Full Text Available Background: The spectrum of heart diseases among pediatric age group may be different between communitiesand, in this connection there is no documented report from Iran.Patients and Methods: We studied cardiac problems among Iranian pediatric age group referred to the pediatriccardiology and cardiac surgery out-patient clinic, in a tertiary center for possibility of heart disease.Results: Of 2341 patients, aged from 1 day to 16 years referred, during 2001 and 2003, to the above center, 1817(77.6% patients had cardiac diseases. The most common reason for referrals was abnormal heart sounds onroutine physical examination (49%. Congenital heart diseases (CHD were the most frequent cardiac problems(76.1%, followed by mitral valve prolaps (8.3% and rheumatic cardiac involvement including sub-clinical findings(7.9%. Other significant disturbances were associated chromosomal abnormalities, genetic disorders, andelectrical and conduction problems.Conclusion: Although rheumatic carditis has very low incidence compared with congenital heart diseases (nearly1/10, it is still a significant problem in this region and a planning for its better prevention is essential.
Arthur Oscar Schelp
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine correlations between age and metabolic disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD patients. METHODS: This observational cross-sectional study included brief tests for dementia and the Mattis test. Signals of metabolic syndrome were evaluated. RESULTS: There was no significant effect from the presence of hypertension (OR=2.36 for patients under 65 years old and OR=0.64 for patients over 65, diabetes or hypercholesterolemia regarding occurrences of dementia associated with PD (24% of the patients. The study demonstrated that each year of age increased the estimated risk of dementia in PD patients by 9% (OR=1.09; 95%CI: 1.01-1.17. CONCLUSION: There was no evidence to correlate the presence of metabolic syndrome with the risk of dementia that was associated with PD. The study confirmed that dementia in PD is age dependent and not related to disease duration.
Dorra Hmida-Ben Brahim
Full Text Available Huntington’s disease (HD is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder. The causative mutation is an expansion of more than 36 CAG repeats in the first exon of IT15 gene. Many studies have shown that the IT15 interacts with several modifier genes to regulate the age at onset (AO of HD. Our study aims to investigate the implication of CAG expansion and 9 modifiers in the age at onset variance of 15 HD Tunisian patients and to establish the correlation between these modifiers genes and the AO of this disease. Despite the small number of studied patients, this report consists of the first North African study in Huntington disease patients. Our results approve a specific effect of modifiers genes in each population.
Zhuang Jian-Jun; Ning Xin-Bao; Yang Xiao-Dong; Hou Feng-Zhen; Huo Cheng-Yu
In this paper the decrease in the Hurst exponent of human gait with aging and neurodegenerative diseases was observed by using an improved rescaled range (R/S) analysis method. It indicates that the long-range correlations of gait rhythm from young healthy people are stronger than those from the healthy elderly and the diseased.The result further implies that fractal dynamics in human gait will be altered due to weakening or impairment of neural control on locomotion resulting from aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Due to analysing short-term data sequences rather than long datasets required by most nonlinear methods, the algorithm has the characteristics of simplicity and sensitivity, most importantly, fast calculation as well as powerful anti-noise capacities. These findings have implications for modelling locomotor control and also for quantifying gait dynamics in varying physiologic and pathologic states.
Zhuang, Jian-Jun; Ning, Xin-Bao; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Hou, Feng-Zhen; Huo, Cheng-Yu
In this paper the decrease in the Hurst exponent of human gait with aging and neurodegenerative diseases was observed by using an improved rescaled range (R/S) analysis method. It indicates that the long-range correlations of gait rhythm from young healthy people are stronger than those from the healthy elderly and the diseased. The result further implies that fractal dynamics in human gait will be altered due to weakening or impairment of neural control on locomotion resulting from aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Due to analysing short-term data sequences rather than long datasets required by most nonlinear methods, the algorithm has the characteristics of simplicity and sensitivity, most importantly, fast calculation as well as powerful anti-noise capacities. These findings have implications for modelling locomotor control and also for quantifying gait dynamics in varying physiologic and pathologic states.
Cornelis Kees Mulder
Full Text Available Introduction: with time-place learning (TPL, animals link an event with the spatial location and the time of day. The what-where-when TPL components make the task putatively episodic-like in nature. Animals use an internal sense of time to master TPL, which is circadian system based. Finding indications for a role of the hippocampus and (early aging-sensitivity in TPL would strengthen the episodic-like memory nature of the paradigm. Methods: previously, we used C57Bl/6 mice for our TPL research. Here, we used CD1 mice which are less hippocampal-driven and age faster compared to C57Bl/6 mice. To demonstrate the low degree of hippocampal-driven performance in CD1 mice, a cross maze was used. The spontaneous alternation test was used to score spatial working memory in CD1 mice at four different age categories (young (3-6 months, middle-aged (7-11 months, aged (12-18 months and old (>19 months. TPL performance of middle-aged and aged CD1 mice was tested in a setup with either two or three time points per day (2-arm or 3-arm TPL task. Immunostainings was applied on brains of young and middle-aged C57Bl/6 mice that had successfully mastered the 3-arm TPL task. Results: in contrast to C57Bl/6 mice, middle-aged and aged CD1 mice were less hippocampus-driven and failed to master the 3-arm TPL task. They could, however, master the 2-arm TPL task primarily via an ordinal (non-circadian timing system. c-Fos, CRY2, vasopressin (AVP, and pCREB were investigated. We found no differences at the level of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN; circadian master clock, whereas CRY2 expression was increased in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. The most pronounced difference between TPL trained and control mice was found in c-Fos expression in the paraventricular thalamic nucleus, a circadian system relay station. Conclusions: These results further indicate a key role of CRY proteins in TPL and confirm the limited role of the SCN in TPL. Based on the poor TPL performance of
Full Text Available Contemporary teaching and learning implies that pupils encounter curricular content in the form of multimodal representations such as film, museum visits, PowerPoint presentations, roleplay and digital games. Spoken language is no longer the only mode for knowledge representation and meaning-making. This means a new demand for teaching (and assessment, since the school tradition is heavily based on verbal language and assessments of verbal representations. In this article, we will present an analysis of the use of resources and different media in classroom work about the Middle Ages, and discuss the need for the development of assessment tools.
B. Schmand; P. Eikelenboom; W.A. van Gool
OBJECTIVES: To examine the influence of age on the value of four techniques for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n=179), individuals with AD (n
Rasmussen, Line D; May, Margaret T; Kronborg, Gitte;
, and were living in Denmark at the time of study inclusion. Data for study outcomes were obtained from the Danish National Hospital Registry and the Danish National Registry of Causes of Death and were cardiovascular diseases (myocardial infarction and stroke), cancers (virus associated, smoking related......, and other), severe neurocognitive disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease, and osteoporotic fractures. We calculated excess and age-standardised incidence rates and adjusted incidence rate ratios of outcomes for time after HIV diagnosis, highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation...... of cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and severe neurocognitive disease did not increase substantially with time after HIV diagnosis or ART initiation. Except for chronic kidney diseases, the age-standardised and relative risks of age-related diseases did not increase with calendar time. INTERPRETATIONS: Severe age...
Cottone, Carlo; Cancelli, Andrea; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Tecchio, Franca
Brain activity is complex; a reflection of its structural and functional organization. Among other measures of complexity, the fractal dimension is emerging as being sensitive to neuronal damage secondary to neurological and psychiatric diseases. Here, we calculated Higuchi’s fractal dimension (HFD) in resting-state eyes-closed electroencephalography (EEG) recordings from 41 healthy controls (age: 20–89 years) and 67 Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) patients (age: 50–88 years), to investigate whether HFD is sensitive to brain activity changes typical in healthy aging and in AD. Additionally, we considered whether AD-accelerating effects of the copper fraction not bound to ceruloplasmin (also called “free” copper) are reflected in HFD fluctuations. The HFD measure showed an inverted U-shaped relationship with age in healthy people (R2 = .575, p < .001). Onset of HFD decline appeared around the age of 60, and was most evident in central-parietal regions. In this region, HFD decreased with aging stronger in the right than in the left hemisphere (p = .006). AD patients demonstrated reduced HFD compared to age- and education-matched healthy controls, especially in temporal-occipital regions. This was associated with decreasing cognitive status as assessed by mini-mental state examination, and with higher levels of non-ceruloplasmin copper. Taken together, our findings show that resting-state EEG complexity increases from youth to maturity and declines in healthy, aging individuals. In AD, brain activity complexity is further reduced in correlation with cognitive impairment. In addition, elevated levels of non-ceruloplasmin copper appear to accelerate the reduction of neural activity complexity. Overall, HDF appears to be a proper indicator for monitoring EEG-derived brain activity complexity in healthy and pathological aging. PMID:26872349
Bruce N. Ames
Full Text Available I review three of our research efforts which suggest that optimizing micronutrient intake will in turn optimize metabolism, resulting in decreased DNA damage and less cancer as well as other degenerative diseases of aging. (1 Research on delay of the mitochondrial decay of aging, including release of mutagenic oxidants, by supplementing rats with lipoic acid and acetyl carnitine. (2 The triage theory, which posits that modest micronutrient deficiencies (common in much of the population accelerate molecular aging, including DNA damage, mitochondrial decay, and supportive evidence for the theory, including an in-depth analysis of vitamin K that suggests the importance of achieving optimal micronutrient intake for longevity. (3 The finding that decreased enzyme binding constants (increased Km for coenzymes (or substrates can result from protein deformation and loss of function due to an age-related decline in membrane fluidity, or to polymorphisms or mutation. The loss of enzyme function can be compensated by a high dietary intake of any of the B vitamins, which increases the level of the vitamin-derived coenzyme. This dietary remediation illustrates the importance of understanding the effects of age and polymorphisms on optimal micronutrient requirements. Optimizing micronutrient intake could have a major effect on the prevention of cancer and other degenerative diseases of aging.
Petoumenos, K; Reiss, P; Ryom, L;
equations. METHODS: We analysed three endpoints: myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CHD: MI or invasive coronary procedure) and CVD (CHD or stroke). We fitted a number of parametric age effects, adjusting for known risk factors and antiretroviral therapy (ART) use. The best-fitting age...... rates per 1000 person-years increased from 2.29, 3.11 and 3.65 in those aged 40-45 years to 6.53, 11.91 and 15.89 in those aged 60-65 years, respectively. The best-fitting models included inverse age for MI and age + age(2) for CHD and CVD. In D:A:D there was a slowly accelerating increased risk of CHD...... and CVD per year older, which appeared to be only modest yet was consistently raised compared with the risk in the general population. The relative risk of MI with age was not different between D:A:D and the general population. CONCLUSIONS: We found only limited evidence of accelerating increased risk...
Horvath, Steve; Ritz, Beate R
It has been a long standing hypothesis that blood tissue of PD Parkinson's disease (PD) patients may exhibit signs of accelerated aging. Here we use DNA methylation based biomarkers of aging ("epigenetic clock") to assess the aging rate of blood in two ethnically distinct case-control data sets. Using n=508 Caucasian and n=84 Hispanic blood samples, we assess a) the intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration of blood (IEAA), which is independent of blood cell counts, and b) the extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration rate of blood (EEAA) which is associated with age dependent changes in blood cell counts. Blood of PD subjects exhibits increased age acceleration according to both IEAA (p=0.019) and EEAA (p=6.1 x 10(-3)). We find striking differences in imputed blood cell counts between PD cases and controls. Compared to control subjects, PD subjects contains more granulocytes (p=1.0 x 10(-9) in Caucasians, p=0.00066 in Hispanics) but fewer T helper cells (p=1.4 x 10(-6) in Caucasians, p=0.0024 in Hispanics) and fewer B cells (p=1.6 x 10(-5) in Caucasians, p=4.5 x 10(-5) in Hispanics). Overall, this study shows that the epigenetic age of the immune system is significantly increased in PD patients and that granulocytes play a significant role. PMID:26655927
Vandenbossche, Jochen; Deroost, Natacha; Soetens, Eric; Kerckhofs, Eric
We investigated the influence of the level of cognitive functioning on sequence-specific learning in Parkinson's disease (PD). This was done by examining the relationship between the scales for outcomes in Parkinson's disease-cognition [SCOPA-COG, Marinus, J., Visser, M., Verwey, N. A., Verhey, F. R. J., Middelkoop, H. A. M.,Stiggelbout, A., et…
Cools, R.; Lewis, S.J.; Clark, L.; Barker, R.A.; Robbins, T.W.
Evidence indicates that dopaminergic medication in Parkinson's disease may impair certain aspects of cognitive function, such as reversal learning. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in patients with mild Parkinson's disease to investigate the neural site at which L-DOPA acts during rever
Full Text Available Our aim is to investigate the recent liver biopsy findings of autoimmune liver diseases at a university hospital located in an urban area of Japan. The study included 259 patients (mean age 56.8 ± 12.5; male/female, 46/213 who underwent a liver biopsy for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC or autoimmune hepatitis (AIH. We analyzed their liver biopsy findings according to age and gender. Among 127 PBC patients, Scheuer stages 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 42, 54, 18, and 13, respectively. Among 101 AIH patients, fibrosis stages F1, F2, F3, and F4 were 37, 32, 19, and 13, respectively, and inflammatory activity grades A1, A2, and A3 were 22, 25, and 54, respectively. Among PBC aged ≥65 years, Scheuer stages 1–3 and 4 patients were 27 and 6, respectively. The proportion of Scheuer stage 4 patients in PBC aged ≥65 years tended to be higher than that in PBC aged <65 years (p = 0.0659. Of interest, the proportion of AIH patients with moderate or severe activity (A2 or A3 in males was higher than in females (p = 0.0311. From the point of view of fibrosis stage or inflammatory activity grade of the liver, the proportion of AIH patients aged ≥65 years was similar to that aged <65 years. Although we identified six older cirrhotic patients with AIH, three of them were male. The progression of fibrosis and inflammatory activity of the liver should be noted when we treat older patients suffering from autoimmune liver diseases. Liver biopsy plays an important role in obtaining accurate information on autoimmune liver diseases in older patients.
Luo, Hongbo; Han, Guangchun; Wang, Jiajia; Zeng, Fan; Li, Yuanming; Shao, Shaoju; Song, Fuhai; Bai, Zhouxian; Peng, Xing; Wang, Yan-Jiang; Shi, Xiangqun; Lei, Hongxing
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are the two most dominant forms of dementia in elderly people. Due to the large overlap between AD and VaD in clinical observations, great controversies exist regarding the distinction and connection between these two types of senile dementia. Here for the first time, we resort to the gene expression pattern of the peripheral blood to compare AD and VaD objectively. In our previous work, we have demonstrated that the dysregulation of gene expression in AD is unique among the examined diseases including neurological diseases, cancer, and metabolic diseases. In this study, we found that the dysregulation of gene expression in AD and VaD is quite similar to each other at both functional and gene levels. Interestingly, the dysregulation started at the early stages of the diseases, namely mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). We have also shown that this signature is distinctive from that of peripheral vascular diseases. Comparison with aging studies revealed that the most profound change in AD and VaD, namely ribosome, is consistent with the accelerated aging scenario. This study may have implications to the common mechanism between AD and VaD. PMID:26099307
Bonilla-Chacin, Maria Eugenia; Vásquez, Luis T. Marcano
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the main cause of death and disability in Central America. However, communicable diseases and maternal and child conditions remain important causes of death and disability as well as injuries. With the aging of the population and improvements in the control of infectious diseases, the share of NCDs in the total burden of disease is likely to increase. H...
Konczak, Jürgen; Sciutti, Alessandra; Avanzino, Laura; Squeri, Valentina; Gori, Monica; Masia, Lorenzo; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Sandini, Giulio
This study investigated how Parkinson's disease alters haptic perception and the underlying mechanisms of somatosensory and sensorimotor integration. Changes in haptic sensitivity and acuity (the abilities to detect and to discriminate between haptic stimuli) due to Parkinson's disease were systematically quantified and contrasted to the performance of healthy older and young adults. Using a robotic force environment, virtual contours of various curvatures were presented. Participants explored these contours with their hands and indicated verbally whether they could detect or discriminate between two contours. To understand what aspects of sensory or sensorimotor integration are altered by ageing and disease, we manipulated the sensorimotor aspect of the task: the robot either guided the hand along the contour or the participant actively moved the hand. Active exploration relies on multimodal sensory and sensorimotor integration, while passive guidance only requires sensory integration of proprioceptive and tactile information. The main findings of the study are as follows: first, a decline in haptic precision can already be observed in adults before the age of 70 years. Parkinson's disease may lead to an additional decrease in haptic sensitivity well beyond the levels typically seen in middle-aged and older adults. Second, the haptic deficit in Parkinson's disease is general in nature. It becomes manifest as a decrease in sensitivity and acuity (i.e. a smaller perceivable range and a diminished ability to discriminate between two perceivable haptic stimuli). Third, thresholds during both active and passive exploration are elevated, but not significantly different from each other. That is, active exploration did not enhance the haptic deficit when compared to passive hand motion. This implies that Parkinson's disease affects early stages of somatosensory integration that ultimately have an impact on processes of sensorimotor integration. Our results suggest that
Muhammed Hadithi; Marcel Cazemier; Gerrit A Meijer; Elisabeth Bloemena; Richel J Felt-Bersma; Chris J Mulder; Stephan GM Meuwissen; Amado Salvador Pe(n)a; Adriaan A van Bodegraven
AIM:To describe the characteristics of Dutch patients with chronic.inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) first diagnosed above 60 years of age-a disease also known as old-age colitis (OAC) and to highlight a condition that has a similar appearance to IBD,namely segmental colitis associated with diverticular disease (SCAD).METHODS:A retrospective longitudinal survey of patient demographic and clinical characteristics,disease characteristics,diagnostic methods,management and course of disease was performed.The median follow-up period was 10 years.RESULTS:Of a total of 1100 IBD patients attending the Department of Gastroenterology,59 (5%) [median age 82 years (range 64-101);25 male (42%)] were identified.These patients were diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (n = 37,61%),Crohn's disease (n = 14,24%),and indeterminate colitis (n = 8,15%).Remission was induced in 40 (68%) patients within a median interval of 6 mo (range 1-21) and immunosuppressive therapy was well tolerated.Histological evaluation based on many biopsy samples and the course of the disease led to other diagnosis,namely SCAD instead of IBD in five (8%) patients.CONCLUSION:OAC is not an infrequent problem for the gastroenterologist,and should be considered in the evaluation of older patients with clinical features suggestive of IBD.Extra awareness and extensive biopsy sampling are required in order to avoid an erroneous diagnosis purely based on histological mimicry of changes seen in SCAD,when diagnosing IBD in the presence of diverticulosis coll.
Social participation is an important strategy in promoting successful aging. Although participating in volunteering has been proven to benefit older adults' health and well-being, we often ignore its role as a process of learning while helping others. The purpose of this study was to use the self-defined successful aging concept of seniors to…
Roberts, John; Eady, Sandra
This study, based in a small rural school, explores the opportunities provided by collaborative learning with a mixed aged class of 7-11 year olds (Year 3-Year 6). This paper specifically focuses on those children aged 7-8 years (Year 3) and how they worked on improving the quality of their writing through optional and directed collaborative group…
Hullinger, Rikki; Burger, Corinna
The Morris water maze (MWM) behavioral paradigm is commonly used to measure spatial learning and memory in rodents. It is widely accepted that performance in the MWM declines with age. However, young rats ubiquitously perform very well on established versions of the water maze, suggesting that more challenging tasks may be required to reveal subtle differences in young animals. Therefore, we have used a one-day water maze and novel object recognition to test whether more sensitive paradigms of memory in young animals could identify subtle cognitive impairments early in life that might become accentuated later with senescence. We have found that these two tasks reliably separate young rats into inferior and superior learners, are highly correlated, and that performance on these tasks early in life is predictive of performance at 12 months of age. Furthermore, we have found that repeated training in this task selectively improves the performance of inferior learners, suggesting that behavioral training from an early age may provide a buffer against age-related cognitive decline. PMID:26283528
Full Text Available Until 2030 the ulcer mortality will have a growing trend as estimated by the World Health Organization. Detection of countries and population groups with high risks for the ulcer mortality is possible using forecast method. The authors made a forecast of mortality rate from complicated ulcer disease in males and females and their age groups (15-24, 25-34, 35-54, 55-74, over 75, 15 - over 75 in our country. The study included data of the World Health Organization Database from 1991 to 2012. The work analyzed absolute all-Ukrainian numbers of persons of both genders died from the ulcer causes (К25-К27 coded by the 10th International Diseases Classification. The relative mortality per 100 000 of alive persons of the same age was calculated de novo. The analysis of distribution laws and their estimation presents a trend of growth of the relative mortality. A remarkable increase of deaths from the ulcer disease is observed in males and females of the age after 55 years old. After the age of 75 years this trend is more expressed.
Donna M. Wilcock
Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS is the most genetic cause of mental retardation and is caused by the triplication of chromosome 21. In addition to the disabilities caused early in life, DS is also noted as causing Alzheimer's-disease-like pathological changes in the brain, leading to 50–70% of DS patients showing dementia by 60–70 years of age. Inflammation is a complex process that has a key role to play in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. There is relatively little understood about inflammation in the DS brain and how the genetics of DS may alter this inflammatory response and change the course of disease in the DS brain. The goal of this review is to highlight our current understanding of inflammation in Alzheimer's disease and predict how inflammation may affect the pathology of the DS brain based on this information and the known genetic changes that occur due to triplication of chromosome 21.
Refolo, Lorenzo M; Snyder, Heather; Liggins, Charlene; Ryan, Laurie; Silverberg, Nina; Petanceska, Suzana; Carrillo, Maria C
Alzheimer's disease is recognized as a public health crisis worldwide. As public and private funding agencies around the world enhance and expand their support of Alzheimer's disease research, there is an urgent need to coordinate funding strategies and leverage resources to maximize the impact on public health and avoid duplication of effort and inefficiency. Such coordination requires a comprehensive assessment of the current landscape of Alzheimer's disease research in the United States and internationally. To this end, the National Institute on Aging at the National Institutes of Health and the Alzheimer's Association developed the Common Alzheimer's Disease Research Ontology (CADRO) as a dynamic portfolio analysis tool that can be used by funding agencies worldwide for strategic planning and coordination.
Ma. Lourdes Ruda Santolaria
Full Text Available The study explores child representations on the identity and origin of disease according to age, educational level and socioeconomic status. Ninety children were assessed using the Child Disease Representations Interview (CDRI inspired in seven cards graphically representing the usual treatment of children with cancer. Results show that the same element of reality can be conceptualized in multiple ways and that smaller children tend to appeal to non-serious diseases whereas older children refer to more serious ones. Children represent the disease consistently with what child development literature has depicted. Within the lower socioeconomic level, there is a delay in the access to certain concepts, which is rectified at later stages.
Full Text Available Designing curricula and teaching styles for students entering university is complicated by the diversity of student backgrounds and prior learning styles. We examined a range of factors that might influence success in the first course at university to try to identify those that were most important. Data were obtained for a first year Biology course at a large Australian university. Factors having a significant impact on final marks included student age, whether the students were local or international, time since high school and the learning strategy adopted. Taking a gap year or a longer break after high school was found to be detrimental to performance. Students taking Biology in their first semester performed better than those who did the course in their second or a later semester. International students attained higher grades than local students. Shallow or reproducing learning styles appeared to be as effective to grade achievement as strategies that led to a measurably deeper understanding of the subject matter.
Yumei Jiang; Xiang Shen; Xiaoping Wang; Wenjie Li
In the present study, we compared explicit memory performance, using the Wechsler Memory Scale, and implicit memory performance, using the Nissen software version of the serial reaction time task, in patients with Wilson's disease to normal controls. The Wilson's disease patients exhibited deficits in explicit memory tasks, such as figure recall and understanding memory. Moreover, the Wilson's disease patients exhibited deficits in implicit memory tasks, including significantly prolonged response times. These findings indicate that Wilson's disease patients have explicit and implicit partial memory impairments.
Attali, Eve; Dalla Barba, Gianfranco
Normal aging is characterized by deficits that cross multiple cognitive domains including episodic memory and attention. Compared to young adults (YA), older adults (OA) not only show reduction in true memories, but also an increase in false memories. In this study we aim to elucidate how the production of confabulation is influenced by encoding and retrieval processes. We hypothesized that in OA, compared to YA, over-learned information interferes with the recall of specific, unique past episodes and this interference should be more prominent when a concurrent task perturbs the encoding of the episodes to be recalled. We tested this hypothesis using an experimental paradigm in which a group of OA and a group of YA had to recall three different types of story: a previously unknown story, a well-known fairy tale (Snow White), and a modified well-known fairy tale (Little Red Riding Hood is not eaten by the wolf), in three different experimental conditions: (1) free encoding and free retrieval; (2) Divided attention (DA) at encoding and free retrieval; and (3) free encoding and DA at retrieval. Results showed that OA produced significantly more confabulations than YA, particularly, in the recall of the modified fairy tale. Moreover, DA at encoding markedly increased the number of confabulations, whereas DA at retrieval had no effect on confabulation. Our findings reveal the implications of two phenomena in the production of confabulation in normal aging: the effect of poor encoding and the interference of strongly represented, over-learned information in episodic memory recall.
Full Text Available Introduction: Speech recognition in adverse listening conditions becomes more difficult as we age, particularly for individuals with age-related hearing loss (ARHL. Whether these difficulties can be eased with training remains debated, because it is not clear whether the outcomes are sufficiently general to be of use outside of the training context. The aim of the current study was to compare training-induced learning and generalization between normal-hearing older adults and those with ARHL.Methods: 56 listeners (60-72 y/o, 35 participants with ARHL and 21 normal hearing adults participated in the study. The study design was a cross over design with three groups (immediate-training, delayed-training and no-training group. Trained participants received 13 sessions of home-based auditory training over the course of 4 weeks. Three adverse listening conditions were targeted: (1 Speech-in-noise (2 time compressed speech and (3 competing speakers, and the outcomes of training were compared between normal and ARHL groups. Pre- and post-test sessions were completed by all participants. Outcome measures included tests on all of the trained conditions as well as on a series of untrained conditions designed to assess the transfer of learning to other speech and non-speech conditions. Results: Significant improvements on all trained conditions were observed in both ARHL and normal-hearing groups over the course of training. Normal hearing participants learned more than participants with ARHL in the speech-in-noise condition, but showed similar patterns of learning in the other conditions. Greater pre- to post-test changes were observed in trained than in untrained listeners on all trained conditions. In addition, the ability of trained listeners from the ARHL group to discriminate minimally different pseudowords in noise also improved with training. Conclusions: ARHL did not preclude auditory perceptual learning but there was little generalization to
孙云; 邓杨梅; 王德俊; 沈春锋; 刘晓梅; 张洪泉
To observe the effects of Cistanche desertica polysaccharides (CDP) on the learning and memory functions and cerebral ultrastructure in experimental aging mice. Methods: CDP was administrated intragastrically 50 or 100 mg/kg per day for 64 successive days to experimental aging model mice induced by D-galactose, then the learning and memory functions of mice were estimated by step-down test and Y-maze test; organelles of brain tissue and cerebral ultrastructure were observed by transmission electron microscope and physical strength was determined by swimming test. Results: CDP could obviously enhance the learning and memory functions (P＜0.01) and prolong the swimming time (P＜0.05), decrease the number of lipofuscin and slow down the degeneration of mitochondria in neurons(P＜0.05), and improve the degeneration of cerebral ultra-structure in aging mice. Conclusion: CDP could improve the impaired physiological function and alleviate cerebral morphological change in experimental aging mice.
Sally Hill Jones
Full Text Available This mixed methods study examined the effects of service learning in an undergraduate gerontology course on student learning outcomes. Eleven of thirteen students chose to provide companionship and practical help to community-dwelling older adults and link course assignments to this experience. Participating students were mostly female and social work majors or minors, of various races and ethnicities, and of traditional and nontraditional ages. Self-ratings using the Geriatric Social Work Competency Scale showed significant skill improvements for students from pretest to posttest. Analysis of student journals indicated improvement in interaction skills, knowledge of aging processes, dismantling of stereotypes, awareness of issues affecting healthy aging, valuing older adults, and cultural competence. Career plans were positively affected for most students. Letters offering advice to their 70-year old selves appeared to impact students’ plans for self-care. Service-learning is recommended to increase students’ gerontology competencies and attitudes toward aging in others and themselves.
Bonda, David J; Manjila, Sunil; Mehndiratta, Prachi; Khan, Fahd; Miller, Benjamin R; Onwuzulike, Kaine; Puoti, Gianfranco; Cohen, Mark L; Schonberger, Lawrence B; Cali, Ignazio
The human prion diseases, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, have captivated our imaginations since their discovery in the Fore linguistic group in Papua New Guinea in the 1950s. The mysterious and poorly understood "infectious protein" has become somewhat of a household name in many regions across the globe. From bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly identified as mad cow disease, to endocannibalism, media outlets have capitalized on these devastatingly fatal neurological conditions. Interestingly, since their discovery, there have been more than 492 incidents of iatrogenic transmission of prion diseases, largely resulting from prion-contaminated growth hormone and dura mater grafts. Although fewer than 9 cases of probable iatrogenic neurosurgical cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) have been reported worldwide, the likelihood of some missed cases and the potential for prion transmission by neurosurgery create considerable concern. Laboratory studies indicate that standard decontamination and sterilization procedures may be insufficient to completely remove infectivity from prion-contaminated instruments. In this unfortunate event, the instruments may transmit the prion disease to others. Much caution therefore should be taken in the absence of strong evidence against the presence of a prion disease in a neurosurgical patient. While the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO) have devised risk assessment and decontamination protocols for the prevention of iatrogenic transmission of the prion diseases, incidents of possible exposure to prions have unfortunately occurred in the United States. In this article, the authors outline the historical discoveries that led from kuru to the identification and isolation of the pathological prion proteins in addition to providing a brief description of human prion diseases and iatrogenic forms of CJD, a brief history of prion disease nosocomial transmission
Kimiya Sadri; Hassan Mohommadzadeh; Mostafa Khani
Age may limit the effect of contextual interference, but the accurate effect of age on contextual interference is not completely identified. Therefore, the purpose of the study was the effect of contextual interference practice orders on acquisition and learning of badminton skills of 45 female students aged from 10 to 12. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the three groups of blocked, random, and systematically increasing contextual interference. They trained three skills of badmi...
Dorra Hmida-Ben Brahim; Marwa Chourabi; Sana Ben Amor; Imed Harrabi; Saoussen Trabelsi; Marwa Haddaji-Mastouri; Moez Gribaa; Sihem Sassi; Fatma Ezzahra Gahbiche; Turkia Lamouchi; Soumaya Mougou-Zereli; Sofiane Ben Ammou; Ali Saad
Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder. The causative mutation is an expansion of more than 36 CAG repeats in the first exon of IT15 gene. Many studies have shown that the IT15 interacts with several modifier genes to regulate the age at onset (AO) of HD. Our study aims to investigate the implication of CAG expansion and 9 modifiers in the age at onset variance of 15 HD Tunisian patients and to establish the correlation between these modifiers genes and ...
Karamohamed, S; Latourelle, J C; Racette, B A; Perlmutter, J S; Wooten, G F; Lew, M; Klein, C; Shill, H; Golbe, L I; Mark, M H; Guttman, M; Nicholson, G; Wilk, J B; Saint-Hilaire, M; DeStefano, A L; Prakash, R; Tobin, S; Williamson, J; Suchowersky, O; Labell, N; Growdon, B N J; Singer, C; Watts, R; Goldwurm, S; Pezzoli, G; Baker, K B; Giroux, M L; Pramstaller, P P; Burn, D J; Chinnery, P; Sherman, S; Vieregge, P; Litvan, I; Gusella, J F; Myers, R H; Parsian, A
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) stimulates neuronal growth and protects nigral dopamine neurons in animal models of Parkinson disease (PD). Therefore, BDNF is a candidate gene for PD. The authors investigated five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 597 cases of familial PD. Homozygosity for the rare allele of the functional BDNF G196A (Val66Met) variant was associated with a 5.3-year older onset age (p = 0.0001). These findings suggest that BDNF may influence PD onset age. PMID:16344533
Daniel F Gudbjartsson
Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a worldwide public health problem that is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. To search for sequence variants that associate with CKD, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS that included a total of 3,203 Icelandic cases and 38,782 controls. We observed an association between CKD and a variant with 80% population frequency, rs4293393-T, positioned next to the UMOD gene (GeneID: 7369 on chromosome 16p12 (OR = 1.25, P = 4.1x10(-10. This gene encodes uromodulin (Tamm-Horsfall protein, the most abundant protein in mammalian urine. The variant also associates significantly with serum creatinine concentration (SCr in Icelandic subjects (N = 24,635, P = 1.3 x 10(-23 but not in a smaller set of healthy Dutch controls (N = 1,819, P = 0.39. Our findings validate the association between the UMOD variant and both CKD and SCr recently discovered in a large GWAS. In the Icelandic dataset, we demonstrate that the effect on SCr increases substantially with both age (P = 3.0 x 10(-17 and number of comorbid diseases (P = 0.008. The association with CKD is also stronger in the older age groups. These results suggest that the UMOD variant may influence the adaptation of the kidney to age-related risk factors of kidney disease such as hypertension and diabetes. The variant also associates with serum urea (P = 1.0 x 10(-6, uric acid (P = 0.0064, and suggestively with gout. In contrast to CKD, the UMOD variant confers protection against kidney stones when studied in 3,617 Icelandic and Dutch kidney stone cases and 43,201 controls (OR = 0.88, P = 5.7 x 10(-5.
Matsuo, Hirotaka; TOMIYAMA, Hiroyuki; Satake, Wataru; Chiba, Toshinori; Onoue, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Yusuke; Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Shimizu, Seiko; Sakiyama, Masayuki; Funayama, Manabu; Nishioka, Kenya; SHIMIZU, TORU; Kaida, Kenichi; Kamakura, Keiko; Toda, Tatsushi
Uric acid (urate) has been suggested to play a protective role in Parkinson's disease onset through its antioxidant activity. Dysfunction of ABCG2, a high-capacity urate exporter, is a major cause for early-onset gout based on hyperuricemia. In this study, the effects of a dysfunctional ABCG2 variant (Q141K, rs2231142) were analyzed on the ages at onset of gout patients (N = 507) and Parkinson's disease patients (N = 1015). The Q141K variant hastened the gout onset (P = 0.0027), but significa...
Wilcock, Donna M
Down syndrome (DS) is the most genetic cause of mental retardation and is caused by the triplication of chromosome 21. In addition to the disabilities caused early in life, DS is also noted as causing Alzheimer's-disease-like pathological changes in the brain, leading to 50–70% of DS patients showing dementia by 60–70 years of age. Inflammation is a complex process that has a key role to play in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. There is relatively little understood about inflammation ...
... COMMISSION Changes to the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report Revision 2 AMP XI.M41, ``Buried and... program in NUREG-1801, Revision 2, ``Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report,'' and the NRC staff's... and lessons learned and to address emergent issues not covered in license renewal guidance...
Full Text Available William K Bosu Department of Epidemics and Disease Control, West African Health Organisation, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Abstract: About three-quarters of global deaths from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs occur in developing countries. Nearly a third of these deaths occur before the age of 60 years. These deaths are projected to increase, fueled by such factors as urbanization, nutrition transition, lifestyle changes, and aging. Despite this burden, there is a paucity of research on NCDs, due to the higher priority given to infectious disease research. Less than 10% of research on cardiovascular diseases comes from developing countries. This paper assesses what lessons from operational research on infectious diseases could be applied to NCDs. The lessons are drawn from the priority setting for research, integration of research into programs and routine service delivery, the use of routine data, rapid-assessment survey methods, modeling, chemoprophylaxis, and the translational process of findings into policy and practice. With the lines between infectious diseases and NCDs becoming blurred, it is justifiable to integrate the programs for the two disease groups wherever possible, eg, screening for diabetes in tuberculosis. Applying these lessons will require increased political will, research capacity, ownership, use of local expertise, and research funding. Keywords: infectious diseases, noncommunicable diseases, operational research, developing countries, integration
Markowitz, James; Kugathasan, Subra; Dubinsky, Marla; Mei, Ling; Crandall, Wallace; LeLeiko, Neal; Oliva-Hemker, Maria; Rosh, Joel; Evans, Jonathan; Mack, David; Otley, Anthony; Pfefferkorn, Marian; Bahar, Ron; Vasiliauskas, Eric; Wahbeh, Ghassan; Silber, Gary; Quiros, J. Antonio; Wrobel, Iwona; Nebel, Justin; Landers, Carol; Picornell, Yoanna; Targan, Stephan; Lerer, Trudy; Hyams, Jeffrey
Crohn disease (CD) is often associated with antibodies to microbial antigens. Differences in immune response may offer clues to the pathogenesis of the disease. AIM To examine the influence of age at diagnosis on serologic response in children with CD. METHODS Data were drawn from 3 North American multicenter pediatric IBD research consortia. At or shortly after diagnosis, pANCA, ASCA IgA, ASCA IgG, anti-ompC and anti-CBir1 were assayed. Results were compared as a function of age at CD diagnosis (0–7 years vs 8–15 years). RESULTS 705 children (79 <8 yr of age at diagnosis, 626 ≥8yr) were studied. Small bowel CD was less frequent in the younger group (48.7% vs 72.6%; p<0.0001) while colonic involvement was comparable (91.0% vs 86.5%). ASCA IgA and IgG were seen in <20% of those 0–7 yr compared to nearly 40% of those 8–15 yr (p<0.001), while anti-CBir1 was more frequent in the younger children (66% vs 54%, p<0.05). Anti-CBir1 detected a significant number of children in both age groups who otherwise were serologically negative. Both age at diagnosis and site of CD involvement were independently associated with expression of ASCA and anti-CBir1. CONCLUSIONS Compared to children 8–15 yr of age at diagnosis, those 0–7 yr are more likely to express anti-CBir1 but only half as likely to express ASCA. These age-associated differences in antimicrobial seropositivity suggest that there may be different, and as yet unrecognized, genetic, immunologic and/or microbial factors leading to CD in the youngest children. PMID:19107777
Lee, J.-M.; Ramos, E.M.; Lee, J.-H.; Gillis, T.; Mysore, J.S.; Hayden, M.R.; Warby, S.C.; Morrison, P.; Nance, M.; Ross, C.A.; Margolis, R.L.; Squitieri, F.; Orobello, S.; Di Donato, S.; Gomez-Tortosa, E.; Ayuso, C.; Suchowersky, O.; Trent, R.J.A.; McCusker, E.; Novelletto, A.; Frontali, M.; Jones, R.; Ashizawa, T.; Frank, S.; Saint-Hilaire, M.H.; Hersch, S.M.; Rosas, H.D.; Lucente, D.; Harrison, M.B.; Zanko, A.; Abramson, R.K.; Marder, K.; Sequeiros, J.; Paulsen, J.S.; Landwehrmeyer, G.B.; Myers, R.H.; MacDonald, M.E.; Durr, Alexandra; Rosenblatt, Adam; Frati, Luigi; Perlman, Susan; Conneally, Patrick M.; Klimek, Mary Lou; Diggin, Melissa; Hadzi, Tiffany; Duckett, Ayana; Ahmed, Anwar; Allen, Paul; Ames, David; Anderson, Christine; Anderson, Karla; Anderson, Karen; Andrews, Thomasin; Ashburner, John; Axelson, Eric; Aylward, Elizabeth; Barker, Roger A.; Barth, Katrin; Barton, Stacey; Baynes, Kathleen; Bea, Alexandra; Beall, Erik; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Beglinger, Leigh J.; Biglan, Kevin; Bjork, Kristine; Blanchard, Steve; Bockholt, Jeremy; Bommu, Sudharshan Reddy; Brossman, Bradley; Burrows, Maggie; Calhoun, Vince; Carlozzi, Noelle; Chesire, Amy; Chiu, Edmond; Chua, Phyllis; Connell, R.J.; Connor, Carmela; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Craufurd, David; Cross, Stephen; Cysique, Lucette; Santos, Rachelle Dar; Davis, Jennifer; Decolongon, Joji; DiPietro, Anna; Doucette, Nicholas; Downing, Nancy; Dudler, Ann; Dunn, Steve; Ecker, Daniel; Epping, Eric A.; Erickson, Diane; Erwin, Cheryl; Evans, Ken; Factor, Stewart A.; Farias, Sarah; Fatas, Marta; Fiedorowicz, Jess; Fullam, Ruth; Furtado, Sarah; Garde, Monica Bascunana; Gehl, Carissa; Geschwind, Michael D.; Goh, Anita; Gooblar, Jon; Goodman, Anna; Griffith, Jane; Groves, Mark; Guttman, Mark; Hamilton, Joanne; Harrington, Deborah; Harris, Greg; Heaton, Robert K.; Helmer, Karl; Henneberry, Machelle; Hershey, Tamara; Herwig, Kelly; Howard, Elizabeth; Hunter, Christine; Jankovic, Joseph; Johnson, Hans; Johnson, Arik; Jones, Kathy; Juhl, Andrew; Kim, Eun Young; Kimble, Mycah; King, Pamela; Klimek, Mary Lou; Klöppel, Stefan; Koenig, Katherine; Komiti, Angela; Kumar, Rajeev; Langbehn, Douglas; Leavitt, Blair; Leserman, Anne; Lim, Kelvin; Lipe, Hillary; Lowe, Mark; Magnotta, Vincent A.; Mallonee, William M.; Mans, Nicole; Marietta, Jacquie; Marshall, Frederick; Martin, Wayne; Mason, Sarah; Matheson, Kirsty; Matson, Wayne; Mazzoni, Pietro; McDowell, William; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Miller, Michael; Mills, James; Miracle, Dawn; Montross, Kelsey; Moore, David; Mori, Sasumu; Moser, David J.; Moskowitz, Carol; Newman, Emily; Nopoulos, Peg; Novak, Marianne; O'Rourke, Justin; Oakes, David; Ondo, William; Orth, Michael; Panegyres, Peter; Pease, Karen; Perlman, Susan; Perlmutter, Joel; Peterson, Asa; Phillips, Michael; Pierson, Ron; Potkin, Steve; Preston, Joy; Quaid, Kimberly; Radtke, Dawn; Rae, Daniela; Rao, Stephen; Raymond, Lynn; Reading, Sarah; Ready, Rebecca; Reece, Christine; Reilmann, Ralf; Reynolds, Norm; Richardson, Kylie; Rickards, Hugh; Ro, Eunyoe; Robinson, Robert; Rodnitzky, Robert; Rogers, Ben; Rosenblatt, Adam; Rosser, Elisabeth; Rosser, Anne; Price, Kathy; Price, Kathy; Ryan, Pat; Salmon, David; Samii, Ali; Schumacher, Jamy; Schumacher, Jessica; Sendon, Jose Luis Lópenz; Shear, Paula; Sheinberg, Alanna; Shpritz, Barnett; Siedlecki, Karen; Simpson, Sheila A.; Singer, Adam; Smith, Jim; Smith, Megan; Smith, Glenn; Snyder, Pete; Song, Allen; Sran, Satwinder; Stephan, Klaas; Stober, Janice; Sü?muth, Sigurd; Suter, Greg; Tabrizi, Sarah; Tempkin, Terry; Testa, Claudia; Thompson, Sean; Thomsen, Teri; Thumma, Kelli; Toga, Arthur; Trautmann, Sonja; Tremont, Geoff; Turner, Jessica; Uc, Ergun; Vaccarino, Anthony; van Duijn, Eric; Van Walsem, Marleen; Vik, Stacie; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; Vuletich, Elizabeth; Warner, Tom; Wasserman, Paula; Wassink, Thomas; Waterman, Elijah; Weaver, Kurt; Weir, David; Welsh, Claire; Werling-Witkoske, Chris; Wesson, Melissa; Westervelt, Holly; Weydt, Patrick; Wheelock, Vicki; Williams, Kent; Williams, Janet; Wodarski, Mary; Wojcieszek, Joanne; Wood, Jessica; Wood-Siverio, Cathy; Wu, Shuhua; Yastrubetskaya, Olga; de Yebenes, Justo Garcia; Zhao, Yong Qiang; Zimbelman, Janice; Zschiegner, Roland; Aaserud, Olaf; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Andrews, Thomasin; Andrich, Jurgin; Antczak, Jakub; Arran, Natalie; Artiga, Maria J. Saiz; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine; Banaszkiewicz, Krysztof; di Poggio, Monica Bandettini; Bandmann, Oliver; Barbera, Miguel A.; Barker, Roger A.; Barrero, Francisco; Barth, Katrin; Bas, Jordi; Beister, Antoine; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Bertini, Elisabetta; Biunno, Ida; Bjørgo, Kathrine; Bjørnevoll, Inga; Bohlen, Stefan; Bonelli, Raphael M.; Bos, Reineke; Bourne, Colin; Bradbury, Alyson; Brockie, Peter; Brown, Felicity; Bruno, Stefania; Bryl, Anna; Buck, Andrea; Burg, Sabrina; Burgunder, Jean-Marc; Burns, Peter; Burrows, Liz; Busquets, Nuria; Busse, Monica; Calopa, Matilde; Carruesco, Gemma T.; Casado, Ana Gonzalez; Catena, Judit López; Chu, Carol; Ciesielska, Anna; Clapton, Jackie; Clayton, Carole; Clenaghan, Catherine; Coelho, Miguel; Connemann, Julia; Craufurd, David; Crooks, Jenny; Cubillo, Patricia Trigo; Cubo, Esther; Curtis, Adrienne; De Michele, Giuseppe; De Nicola, A.; de Souza, Jenny; de Weert, A. Marit; de Yébenes, Justo Garcia; Dekker, M.; Descals, A. Martínez; Di Maio, Luigi; Di Pietro, Anna; Dipple, Heather; Dose, Matthias; Dumas, Eve M.; Dunnett, Stephen; Ecker, Daniel; Elifani, F.; Ellison-Rose, Lynda; Elorza, Marina D.; Eschenbach, Carolin; Evans, Carole; Fairtlough, Helen; Fannemel, Madelein; Fasano, Alfonso; Fenollar, Maria; Ferrandes, Giovanna; Ferreira, Jaoquim J.; Fillingham, Kay; Finisterra, Ana Maria; Fisher, K.; Fletcher, Amy; Foster, Jillian; Foustanos, Isabella; Frech, Fernando A.; Fullam, Robert; Fullham, Ruth; Gago, Miguel; García, RocioGarcía-Ramos; García, Socorro S.; Garrett, Carolina; Gellera, Cinzia; Gill, Paul; Ginestroni, Andrea; Golding, Charlotte; Goodman, Anna; Gørvell, Per; Grant, Janet; Griguoli, A.; Gross, Diana; Guedes, Leonor; BascuñanaGuerra, Monica; Guerra, Maria Rosalia; Guerrero, Rosa; Guia, Dolores B.; Guidubaldi, Arianna; Hallam, Caroline; Hamer, Stephanie; Hammer, Kathrin; Handley, Olivia J.; Harding, Alison; Hasholt, Lis; Hedge, Reikha; Heiberg, Arvid; Heinicke, Walburgis; Held, Christine; Hernanz, Laura Casas; Herranhof, Briggitte; Herrera, Carmen Durán; Hidding, Ute; Hiivola, Heli; Hill, Susan; Hjermind, Lena. E.; Hobson, Emma; Hoffmann, Rainer; Holl, Anna Hödl; Howard, Liz; Hunt, Sarah; Huson, Susan; Ialongo, Tamara; Idiago, Jesus Miguel R.; Illmann, Torsten; Jachinska, Katarzyna; Jacopini, Gioia; Jakobsen, Oda; Jamieson, Stuart; Jamrozik, Zygmunt; Janik, Piotr; Johns, Nicola; Jones, Lesley; Jones, Una; Jurgens, Caroline K.; Kaelin, Alain; Kalbarczyk, Anna; Kershaw, Ann; Khalil, Hanan; Kieni, Janina; Klimberg, Aneta; Koivisto, Susana P.; Koppers, Kerstin; Kosinski, Christoph Michael; Krawczyk, Malgorzata; Kremer, Berry; Krysa, Wioletta; Kwiecinski, Hubert; Lahiri, Nayana; Lambeck, Johann; Lange, Herwig; Laver, Fiona; Leenders, K.L.; Levey, Jamie; Leythaeuser, Gabriele; Lezius, Franziska; Llesoy, Joan Roig; Löhle, Matthias; López, Cristobal Diez-Aja; Lorenza, Fortuna; Loria, Giovanna; Magnet, Markus; Mandich, Paola; Marchese, Roberta; Marcinkowski, Jerzy; Mariotti, Caterina; Mariscal, Natividad; Markova, Ivana; Marquard, Ralf; Martikainen, Kirsti; Martínez, Isabel Haro; Martínez-Descals, Asuncion; Martino, T.; Mason, Sarah; McKenzie, Sue; Mechi, Claudia; Mendes, Tiago; Mestre, Tiago; Middleton, Julia; Milkereit, Eva; Miller, Joanne; Miller, Julie; Minster, Sara; Möller, Jens Carsten; Monza, Daniela; Morales, Blas; Moreau, Laura V.; Moreno, Jose L. López-Sendón; Münchau, Alexander; Murch, Ann; Nielsen, Jørgen E.; Niess, Anke; Nørremølle, Anne; Novak, Marianne; O'Donovan, Kristy; Orth, Michael; Otti, Daniela; Owen, Michael; Padieu, Helene; Paganini, Marco; Painold, Annamaria; Päivärinta, Markku; Partington-Jones, Lucy; Paterski, Laurent; Paterson, Nicole; Patino, Dawn; Patton, Michael; Peinemann, Alexander; Peppa, Nadia; Perea, Maria Fuensanta Noguera; Peterson, Maria; Piacentini, Silvia; Piano, Carla; Càrdenas, Regina Pons i; Prehn, Christian; Price, Kathleen; Probst, Daniela; Quarrell, Oliver; Quiroga, Purificacion Pin; Raab, Tina; Rakowicz, Maryla; Raman, Ashok; Raymond, Lucy; Reilmann, Ralf; Reinante, Gema; Reisinger, Karin; Retterstol, Lars; Ribaï, Pascale; Riballo, Antonio V.; Ribas, Guillermo G.; Richter, Sven; Rickards, Hugh; Rinaldi, Carlo; Rissling, Ida; Ritchie, Stuart; Rivera, Susana Vázquez; Robert, Misericordia Floriach; Roca, Elvira; Romano, Silvia; Romoli, Anna Maria; Roos, Raymond A.C.; Røren, Niini; Rose, Sarah; Rosser, Elisabeth; Rosser, Anne; Rossi, Fabiana; Rothery, Jean; Rudzinska, Monika; Ruíz, Pedro J. García; Ruíz, Belan Garzon; Russo, Cinzia Valeria; Ryglewicz, Danuta; Saft, Carston; Salvatore, Elena; Sánchez, Vicenta; Sando, Sigrid Botne; Šašinková, Pavla; Sass, Christian; Scheibl, Monika; Schiefer, Johannes; Schlangen, Christiane; Schmidt, Simone; Schöggl, Helmut; Schrenk, Caroline; Schüpbach, Michael; Schuierer, Michele; Sebastián, Ana Rojo; Selimbegovic-Turkovic, Amina; Sempolowicz, Justyna; Silva, Mark; Sitek, Emilia; Slawek, Jaroslaw; Snowden, Julie; Soleti, Francesco; Soliveri, Paola; Sollom, Andrea; Soltan, Witold; Sorbi, Sandro; Sorensen, Sven Asger; Spadaro, Maria; Städtler, Michael; Stamm, Christiane; Steiner, Tanja; Stokholm, Jette; Stokke, Bodil; Stopford, Cheryl; Storch, Alexander; Straßburger, Katrin; Stubbe, Lars; Sulek, Anna; Szczudlik, Andrzej; Tabrizi, Sarah; Taylor, Rachel; Terol, Santiago Duran-Sindreu; Thomas, Gareth; Thompson, Jennifer; Thomson, Aileen; Tidswell, Katherine; Torres, Maria M. Antequera; Toscano, Jean; Townhill, Jenny; Trautmann, Sonja; Tucci, Tecla; Tuuha, Katri; Uhrova, Tereza; Valadas, Anabela; van Hout, Monique S.E.; van Oostrom, J.C.H.; van Vugt, Jeroen P.P.; vanm, Walsem Marleen R.; Vandenberghe, Wim; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; Vergara, Mar Ruiz; Verstappen, C.C.P.; Verstraelen, Nichola; Viladrich, Celia Mareca; Villanueva, Clara; Wahlström, Jan; Warner, Thomas; Wehus, Raghild; Weindl, Adolf; Werner, Cornelius J.; Westmoreland, Leann; Weydt, Patrick; Wiedemann, Alexandra; Wild, Edward; Wild, Sue; Witjes-Ané, Marie-Noelle; Witkowski, Grzegorz; Wójcik, Magdalena; Wolz, Martin; Wolz, Annett; Wright, Jan; Yardumian, Pam; Yates, Shona; Yudina, Elizaveta; Zaremba, Jacek; Zaugg, Sabine W.; Zdzienicka, Elzbieta; Zielonka, Daniel; Zielonka, Euginiusz; Zinzi, Paola; Zittel, Simone; Zucker, Birgrit; Adams, John; Agarwal, Pinky; Antonijevic, Irina; Beck, Christopher; Chiu, Edmond; Churchyard, Andrew; Colcher, Amy; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Dorsey, Ray; Drazinic, Carolyn; Dubinsky, Richard; Duff, Kevin; Factor, Stewart; Foroud, Tatiana; Furtado, Sarah; Giuliano, Joe; Greenamyre, Timothy; Higgins, Don; Jankovic, Joseph; Jennings, Dana; Kang, Un Jung; Kostyk, Sandra; Kumar, Rajeev; Leavitt, Blair; LeDoux, Mark; Mallonee, William; Marshall, Frederick; Mohlo, Eric; Morgan, John; Oakes, David; Panegyres, Peter; Panisset, Michel; Perlman, Susan; Perlmutter, Joel; Quaid, Kimberly; Raymond, Lynn; Revilla, Fredy; Robertson, Suzanne; Robottom, Bradley; Sanchez-Ramos, Juan; Scott, Burton; Shannon, Kathleen; Shoulson, Ira; Singer, Carlos; Tabbal, Samer; Testa, Claudia; van, Kammen Dan; Vetter, Louise; Walker, Francis; Warner, John; Weiner, illiam; Wheelock, Vicki; Yastrubetskaya, Olga; Barton, Stacey; Broyles, Janice; Clouse, Ronda; Coleman, Allison; Davis, Robert; Decolongon, Joji; DeLaRosa, Jeanene; Deuel, Lisa; Dietrich, Susan; Dubinsky, Hilary; Eaton, Ken; Erickson, Diane; Fitzpatrick, Mary Jane; Frucht, Steven; Gartner, Maureen; Goldstein, Jody; Griffith, Jane; Hickey, Charlyne; Hunt, Victoria; Jaglin, Jeana; Klimek, Mary Lou; Lindsay, Pat; Louis, Elan; Loy, Clemet; Lucarelli, Nancy; Malarick, Keith; Martin, Amanda; McInnis, Robert; Moskowitz, Carol; Muratori, Lisa; Nucifora, Frederick; O'Neill, Christine; Palao, Alicia; Peavy, Guerry; Quesada, Monica; Schmidt, Amy; Segro, Vicki; Sperin, Elaine; Suter, Greg; Tanev, Kalo; Tempkin, Teresa; Thiede, Curtis; Wasserman, Paula; Welsh, Claire; Wesson, Melissa; Zauber, Elizabeth
Objective: Age at onset of diagnostic motor manifestations in Huntington disease (HD) is strongly correlated with an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat. The length of the normal CAG repeat allele has been reported also to influence age at onset, in interaction with the expanded allele. Due to profound implications for disease mechanism and modification, we tested whether the normal allele, interaction between the expanded and normal alleles, or presence of a second expanded allele affects age at onset of HD motor signs. Methods: We modeled natural log-transformed age at onset as a function of CAG repeat lengths of expanded and normal alleles and their interaction by linear regression. Results: An apparently significant effect of interaction on age at motor onset among 4,068 subjects was dependent on a single outlier data point. A rigorous statistical analysis with a well-behaved dataset that conformed to the fundamental assumptions of linear regression (e.g., constant variance and normally distributed error) revealed significance only for the expanded CAG repeat, with no effect of the normal CAG repeat. Ten subjects with 2 expanded alleles showed an age at motor onset consistent with the length of the larger expanded allele. Conclusions: Normal allele CAG length, interaction between expanded and normal alleles, and presence of a second expanded allele do not influence age at onset of motor manifestations, indicating that the rate of HD pathogenesis leading to motor diagnosis is determined by a completely dominant action of the longest expanded allele and as yet unidentified genetic or environmental factors. Neurology® 2012;78:690–695 PMID:22323755
Background: Recent information suggests that the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) supplement, enhanced intake of omega-3 fatty acids, and diminishing dietary glycemic index (dGI) are protective against advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: Dietary information was collected a...
London, Gerard; Covic, Adrian; Goldsmith, David; Wiecek, Andrzej; Suleymanlar, Gultekin; Ortiz, Alberto; Massy, Ziad; Lindholm, Bengt; Martinez-Castelao, Alberto; Fliser, Danilo; Agarwal, Rajiv; Jager, Kitty J.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Blankestijn, Peter J.; Zoccali, Carmine
Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). All epidemiological studies have clearly shown that accelerated arterial and cardiac aging is characteristic of these populations. Arterial premat
HARDY, R.; Lawlor, D A; Black, S.; Mishra, G D; Kuh, D.
Objective: To assess the associations between parental age at birth of first child and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in men and women. To investigate whether the associations are explained by childhood predictors of age at parenthood or adult lifestyle factors related to child rearing. Methods: Data from 2540 men and women, with CHD risk factors measured at age 53 years, from a birth cohort study of individuals born in Britain in 1946 (Medical Research Council National Survey of H...
Motivation is always a dominatant factor in second language learning and teaching. Dornyei once suggested his model of learners’ motivation, which is, language learning attitudes and the Ideal L2 self. Certainly, this could bring some research interests to other researchers. In this paper, the author reviews a research carried among the Hungarians, where the research focus is clearly given on the relationship between age and motivation to test Dornyei’ s theory and offer a new way to promote learner’s motivation in second language learning.
Youssef, J; Badr, M
Despite rising interest in the health problems of the elderly, information on senescence-related alterations in essential metabolic pathways and their responses to various chemicals is scarce. Although peroxisomal pathways are involved in a multitude of cellular functions, little attention has been given to the potential relationship between senescence of these organelles and the process of aging and disease. Although the prevailing experimental evidence points to a decline in liver peroxisom...
FIORE, A. E.; Levine, O S; Elliott, J A; Facklam, R R; Butler, J.C.
To estimate the effectiveness of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, we serotyped isolates submitted to the Pneumococcal Sentinel Surveillance System from 1984 to 1996 from 48 vaccinated and 125 unvaccinated children 2 to 5 years of age. Effectiveness against invasive disease caused by serotypes included in the vaccine was 63%. Effectiveness against serotypes in the polysaccharide vaccine but not in a proposed seven-valent protein conjugate vaccine was 94%.
Marzetti, Emanuele; Csiszar, Anna; Dutta, Debapriya; Balagopal, Gauthami; Calvani, Riccardo; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan
Advanced age is associated with a disproportionate prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Intrinsic alterations in the heart and the vasculature occurring over the life course render the cardiovascular system more vulnerable to various stressors in late life, ultimately favoring the development of CVD. Several lines of evidence indicate mitochondrial dysfunction as a major contributor to cardiovascular senescence. Besides being less bioenergetically efficient, damaged mitochondria also p...
Marius Vital; Harkema, Jack R; Mike Rizzo; James Tiedje; Christina Brandenberger
The gut microbiota plays an important role in the development of asthma. With advanced age the microbiome and the immune system are changing and, currently, little is known about how these two factors contribute to the development of allergic asthma in the elderly. In this study we investigated the associations between the intestinal microbiome and allergic airway disease in young and old mice that were sensitized and challenged with house dust mite (HDM). After challenge, the animals were sa...
Chiu, Catherine; Miller, Miles C; Monahan, Renée; Osgood, Doreen P; Stopa, Edward G; Silverberg, Gerald D
P-glycoprotein (P-gp), part of the blood-brain barrier, limits drug access to the brain and is the target for therapies designed to improve drug penetration. P-gp also extrudes brain amyloid-beta (Aβ). Accumulation of Aβ is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ accumulates in normal aging and in AD primarily due to decreased Aβ clearance. This is a preliminary report on the relative protein and messenger RNA expression of P-gp in human brains, ages 20-100 years, including AD subjects. In these preliminary studies, cortical endothelial P-gp expression decreased in AD compared with controls (p P-gp expression in human aging are similar to aging rats. Microvessel P-gp messenger RNA remained unchanged with aging and AD. Aβ plaques were found in 42.8% of normal subjects (54.5% of those older than 50 years). A qualitative analysis showed that P-gp expression is lower than the group mean in subjects older than 75 years but increased if younger. Decreased P-gp expression may be related to Aβ plaques in aging and AD. Downregulating P-gp to allow pharmaceuticals into the central nervous system may increase Aβ accumulation.
Full Text Available Telomeres, the protective ends of linear chromosomes, shorten throughout an individual’s lifetime. Telomere shortening is a hallmark of molecular aging and is associated with premature appearance of diseases associated with aging. Here, we discuss the role of telomere shortening as a direct cause for aging and age-related diseases. In particular, we draw attention to the fact that telomere length influences longevity. Furthermore, we discuss intrinsic and environmental factors that can impact on human telomere erosion. Finally, we highlight recent advances in telomerase-based therapeutic strategies for the treatment of diseases associated with extremely short telomeres owing to mutations in telomerase, as well as age-related diseases, and ultimately aging itself.
Full Text Available Abstract Huntington's disease (HD is one of the most common autosomal dominant inherited, neurodegenerative disorders. It is characterized by progressive motor, emotional and cognitive dysfunction. In addition metabolic abnormalities such as wasting and altered energy expenditure are increasingly recognized as clinical hallmarks of the disease. HD is caused by an unstable CAG repeat expansion in the HD gene (HTT, localized on chromosome 4p16.3. The number of CAG repeats in the HD gene is the main predictor of disease-onset, but the remaining variation is strongly heritable. Transcriptional dysregulation, mitochondrial dysfunction and enhanced oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis. Recent studies suggest that PGC-1α, a transcriptional master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism, is defective in HD. A genome wide search for modifier genes of HD age-of-onset had suggested linkage at chromosomal region 4p16-4p15, near the locus of PPARGC1A, the gene coding for PGC-1α. We now present data of 2-loci PPARGC1A block 2 haplotypes, showing an effect upon age-at-onset in 447 unrelated HD patients after statistical consideration of CAG repeat lengths in both HTT alleles. Block 1 haplotypes were not associated with the age-at-onset. Homozygosity for the 'protective' block 2 haplotype was associated with a significant delay in disease onset. To our knowledge this is the first study to show clinically relevant effects of the PGC-1α system on the course of Huntington's disease in humans.
Liu, Yu-Ying; Li, Shuang; Li, Fuxin; Song, Le; Rehg, James M.
The Continuous-Time Hidden Markov Model (CT-HMM) is an attractive approach to modeling disease progression due to its ability to describe noisy observations arriving irregularly in time. However, the lack of an efficient parameter learning algorithm for CT-HMM restricts its use to very small models or requires unrealistic constraints on the state transitions. In this paper, we present the first complete characterization of efficient EM-based learning methods for CT-HMM models. We demonstrate ...
Using data on young English learners (EL) who enroll in the New York City public school system, I examine how long it takes students to become minimally proficient in English and how the time to proficiency differs for students by their age of school entry. Specifically, I follow four recent entry cohorts of ELs ages 5-10 and use discrete-time survival analysis to model the rate at which different age groups acquire proficiency. I find that approximately half of the students become proficient within three years after school entry and that younger students learn more quickly than older students. Age of entry differences are robust to controls for observed differences between age of entry groups in their economic and demographic characteristics, their disabilities, and the schools they attend. The results lend support to the theory that older students face developmental barriers to learning new languages quickly.
Moro, Maria Luisa; Collins, Matthew J; Cappellini, Enrico
event in AD (Alzheimer's disease) synaptic dysfunctions. Structural alterations introduced by site-specific modifications linked to protein aging may affect Abeta production, polymerization and clearance, and therefore play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of sporadic and genetic forms of AD. Early......Biomolecules can experience aging processes that limit their long-term functionality in organisms. Typical markers of protein aging are spontaneous chemical modifications, such as AAR (amino acid racemization) and AAI (amino acid isomerization), mainly involving aspartate and asparagine residues....... Since these modifications may affect folding and turnover, they reduce protein functionality over time and may be linked to pathological conditions. The present mini-review describes evidence of AAR and AAI involvement in the misfolding and brain accumulation of Abeta (amyloid beta-peptide), a central...
La Fata, Giorgio; Weber, Peter; Mohajeri, M Hasan
Vitamin E is an important antioxidant that primarily protects cells from damage associated with oxidative stress caused by free radicals. The brain is highly susceptible to oxidative stress, which increases during ageing and is considered a major contributor to neurodegeneration. High plasma vitamin E levels were repeatedly associated with better cognitive performance. Due to its antioxidant properties, the ability of vitamin E to prevent or delay cognitive decline has been tested in clinical trials in both ageing population and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The difficulty in performing precise and uniform human studies is mostly responsible for the inconsistent outcomes reported in the literature. Therefore, the benefit of vitamin E as a treatment for neurodegenerative disorders is still under debate. In this review, we focus on those studies that mostly have contributed to clarifying the exclusive function of vitamin E in relation to brain ageing and AD. PMID:25460513
Giorgio La Fata
Full Text Available Vitamin E is an important antioxidant that primarily protects cells from damage associated with oxidative stress caused by free radicals. The brain is highly susceptible to oxidative stress, which increases during ageing and is considered a major contributor to neurodegeneration. High plasma vitamin E levels were repeatedly associated with better cognitive performance. Due to its antioxidant properties, the ability of vitamin E to prevent or delay cognitive decline has been tested in clinical trials in both ageing population and Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients. The difficulty in performing precise and uniform human studies is mostly responsible for the inconsistent outcomes reported in the literature. Therefore, the benefit of vitamin E as a treatment for neurodegenerative disorders is still under debate. In this review, we focus on those studies that mostly have contributed to clarifying the exclusive function of vitamin E in relation to brain ageing and AD.
Acute inflammation is a highly regulated defense mechanism of immune system possessing two well-balanced and biologically opposing arms termed apoptosis ('Yin') and wound healing ('Yang') processes. Unresolved or chronic inflammation (oxidative stress) is perhaps the loss of balance between 'Yin' and 'Yang' that would induce co-expression of exaggerated or 'mismatched' apoptotic and wound healing factors in the microenvironment of tissues ('immune meltdown'). Unresolved inflammation could initiate the genesis of many age-associated chronic illnesses such as autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases or tumors/cancers. In this perspective 'birds' eye' view of major interrelated co-morbidity risk factors that participate in biological shifts of growth-arresting ('tumoricidal') or growth-promoting ('tumorigenic') properties of immune cells and the genesis of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer will be discussed. Persistent inflammation is perhaps a common denominator in the genesis of nearly all age-associated health problems or cancer. Future challenging opportunities for diagnosis, prevention, and/or therapy of chronic illnesses will require an integrated understanding and identification of developmental phases of inflammation-induced immune dysfunction and age-associated hormonal and physiological readjustments of organ systems. Designing suitable cohort studies to establish the oxido-redox status of adults may prove to be an effective strategy in assessing individual's health toward developing personal medicine for healthy aging.
Xia Hong; Zhen-xin Zhang; Hui Li; Jie hao Zhao; Jue-bin Huang; ling Wei
Objective: Wc conducted a population based case-control study to evaluate the effect of estrogen associated variables in Alzhcimer′s disease. Methods: A total of 2995 female residents aged 55 years or older was drawn-by means of stratified multistage cluster sampling in urban and rural areas of Beijing. Wc collected gynecological data of 2995 females. Cases were females Alzheimer′s disease ascertained by DSM-Ⅳ criteria and NINCDS-ADRDA critcria. Controls were female residents whose MMSE scores upper than 50 percentage. Odds Ratio were calculated from Logistic models. Results: By a Logistic stepwise multiple regression model, we found that the risk of dementia in women increased with increasing age (OR per year, 1.21, 95%CI, 1.16 -1.27). The risk decreased with increased duration with menstrual cycles (OR per year, 0.8L, 95%CI, 0.68 to 0.97). The risk decreased with increased age of menopause (OR per year, 0.97, 95%CI, 0.91 to 1.04). The risk decreased in women ever suffered from uterine, ovary, or breast tumor (OR, 0.30, 95%C1:0.04- 2.28). Conclusion: The risk of AD decreased with increased duration of menstrual cycles and increased age of menopause and in wome ever suffered fiom uterine. ovary or breast tumor. These findings offers additional support for a protective influence of estrogen i AD.
Bianchi, A-J; Guépet-Sordet, H; Manckoundia, P
Olfaction is a complex sensory system, and increasing interest is being shown in the link between olfaction and cognition, notably in the elderly. In this literature review, we revisit the specific neurophysiological features of the olfactory system and odorants that lead to a durable olfactory memory and an emotional memory, for which the implicit component produces subconscious olfactory conditioning. Olfaction is known to affect cognitive abilities and mood. We also consider the impairment of olfactory function due to ageing and to neurodegenerative diseases, in particular Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, through anatomopathological changes in the peripheral and central olfactory structures. The high frequency of these olfactory disorders as well as their early occurrence in Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease are in favour of their clinical detection in subjects suffering from these two neurodegenerative diseases. Finally, we analyse the impact of olfactory stimulation on cognitive performance and attention. Current observational data from studies in elderly patients with Alzheimer-type dementia are limited to multiple sensory stimulation methods, such as the Snoezelen method, and aromatherapy. These therapies have shown benefits for dementia-related mood and behaviour disorders in the short term, with few side effects. Since olfactory chemosensory stimulation may be beneficial, it may be proposed in patients with dementia, especially Alzheimer-type dementia, as a complementary or even alternative therapy to existing medical strategies. PMID:25304170
Bianchi, A-J; Guépet-Sordet, H; Manckoundia, P
Olfaction is a complex sensory system, and increasing interest is being shown in the link between olfaction and cognition, notably in the elderly. In this literature review, we revisit the specific neurophysiological features of the olfactory system and odorants that lead to a durable olfactory memory and an emotional memory, for which the implicit component produces subconscious olfactory conditioning. Olfaction is known to affect cognitive abilities and mood. We also consider the impairment of olfactory function due to ageing and to neurodegenerative diseases, in particular Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, through anatomopathological changes in the peripheral and central olfactory structures. The high frequency of these olfactory disorders as well as their early occurrence in Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease are in favour of their clinical detection in subjects suffering from these two neurodegenerative diseases. Finally, we analyse the impact of olfactory stimulation on cognitive performance and attention. Current observational data from studies in elderly patients with Alzheimer-type dementia are limited to multiple sensory stimulation methods, such as the Snoezelen method, and aromatherapy. These therapies have shown benefits for dementia-related mood and behaviour disorders in the short term, with few side effects. Since olfactory chemosensory stimulation may be beneficial, it may be proposed in patients with dementia, especially Alzheimer-type dementia, as a complementary or even alternative therapy to existing medical strategies.
Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to assess visual acuity, refractive status, and eye proptosis in children and young adults with Graves’ disease. Material and Methods. We have done investigations of visual acuity, refraction, and eye proptosis in 16 children, 14 teenagers, and 49 adults with Graves’ disease at Eye Clinic of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences Medical Academy. Data were compared with 14 children, 14 teenagers, and 35 adults of similar age without the same diseases (control group. Results. In the present study we observed a significant decrease of visual acuity in teenagers (0.73±0.18, P=0.001 and adults (0.7±0.16, P=0.001 with Graves’ disease. Myopia was ascertained more frequent in teenagers (42.8 percent and adults (44.9 percent with Graves’ disease. In our study exophthalmometer values were higher in children (15.94±1.98 mm, P=0.003, teenagers (17.28±2.99 mm, P=0.01, and adults (18.05±2.91 mm, P=0.001 in comparison with the controls. Conclusions. The data we have found suggest that Graves’ disease in children, teenagers, and adults has influence on vision acuity, refraction, and eye proptosis.
Vaidya, Dhananjay; Becker, Diane M.; Bittner, Vera; Mathias, Rasika A.; Ouyang, Pamela
Objectives To use changes in heart disease mortality rates with age to investigate the plausibility of attributing women’s lower heart disease mortality than men to the protective effects of premenopausal sex hormones. Design Modelling study of longitudinal mortality data with models assuming (i) a linear association between mortality rates and age (absolute mortality) or (ii) a logarithmic association (proportional mortality). We fitted models to age and sex specific mortality rates in the c...
Masahide Hamaguchi; Takao Kojima; Akihiro Ohbora; Noriyuki Takeda; Michiaki Fukui; Takahiro Kato
AIM: To clarify the relationship between age, menopause, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in women.METHODS: We conducted a follow-up study on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by using abdominal ultrasonography, and investigated the relationship of age and menopause with the development of NAFLD in women. We followed 1829 women and 2572 men (response rate, 86%) selected in 2001 to represent the non-institutionalized adult population of Gifu, Japan. Data collected included self-reported medical history, lifestyle factors, and menopausal status. The postmenopausal state was defined as beginning 1 year after the cessation of menses. We diagnosed NAFLD with the aid of abdominal ultrasonography by using diagnostic criteria described previously.RESULTS: The prevalence of NAFLD in women increases with age, but does not alter with age in men. Furthermore, the prevalence of NAFLD in premenopausal women (6%) was lower than that in men (24%) and in postmenopausal women (15%). The associations of the postmenopausal state and hormone replacement therapy with NAFLD were statistically significant in a univariate logistic regression model. At the follow-up examination, 67 women (5%) were newly diagnosed with NAFLD. The incidence of NAFLD was 3.5% (28/802) in premenopausal women, 7.5% (4/53) in menopausal women, 6.1% (24/392) in postmenopausal women, and 5.3% (11/206) in women receiving hormone replacement therapy. The weight gain in premenopausal women was equal to that in postmenopausal women. Metabolic syndrome and weight gain were independent risk factors for NAFLD in pre- and postmenopausal women, but age was an independent risk factor in premenopausal women only.CONCLUSION: Aging is a risk factor for NAFLD in premenopausal women, independent of weight gain or influence of metabolic syndrome.
Wang, J; Dickson, D W; Trojanowski, J Q; Lee, V M
The abundance and solubility of Abeta peptides are critical determinants of amyloidosis in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hence, we compared levels of total soluble, insoluble, and total Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 in AD brains with those in age-matched normal and pathologic aging brains using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Since the measurement of Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 depends critically on the specificity of the monoclonal antibodies used in the sandwich ELISA, we first demonstrated that each assay is specific for Abeta1-40 or Abeta1-42 and the levels of these peptides are not affected by the amyloid precursor protein in the brain extracts. Thus, this sandwich ELISA enabled us to show that the average levels of total cortical soluble and insoluble Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 were highest in AD, lowest in normal aging, and intermediate in pathologic aging. Remarkably, the average levels of insoluble Abeta1-40 were increased 20-fold while the average levels of insoluble Abeta1-42 were increased only 2-fold in the AD brains compared to pathologic aging brains. Further, the soluble pools of Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 were the largest fractions of total Abeta in the normal brain (i.e., 50 and 23%, respectively), but they were the smallest in the AD brain (i.e., 2.7 and 0.7%, respectively) and intermediate (i.e., 8 and 0.8%, respectively) in pathologic aging brains. Thus, our data suggest that pathologic aging is a transition state between normal aging and AD. More importantly, our findings imply that a progressive shift of brain Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 from soluble to insoluble pools and a profound increase in the levels of insoluble Abeta1-40 plays mechanistic roles in the onset and/or progression of AD.
Cykowski, Matthew D; Takei, Hidehiro; Van Eldik, Linda J; Schmitt, Frederick A; Jicha, Gregory A; Powell, Suzanne Z; Nelson, Peter T
Transactivating responsive sequence (TAR) DNA-binding protein 43-kDa (TDP-43) pathology has been described in various brain diseases, but the full anatomical distribution and clinical and biological implications of that pathology are incompletely characterized. Here, we describe TDP-43 neuropathology in the basal forebrain, hypothalamus, and adjacent nuclei in 98 individuals (mean age, 86 years; median final mini-mental state examination score, 27). On examination blinded to clinical and pathologic diagnoses, we identified TDP-43 pathology that most frequently involved the ventromedial basal forebrain in 19 individuals (19.4%). As expected, many of these brains had comorbid pathologies including those of Alzheimer disease (AD), Lewy body disease (LBD), and/or hippocampal sclerosis of aging (HS-Aging). The basal forebrain TDP-43 pathology was strongly associated with comorbid HS-Aging (odds ratio = 6.8, p = 0.001), whereas there was no significant association between basal forebrain TDP-43 pathology and either AD or LBD neuropathology. In this sample, there were some cases with apparent preclinical TDP-43 pathology in the basal forebrain that may indicate that this is an early affected area in HS-Aging. We conclude that TDP-43 pathology in the basal forebrain is strongly associated with HS-Aging. These results raise questions about a specific pathogenetic relationship between basal forebrain TDP-43 and non-HS-Aging comorbid diseases (AD and LBD).