WorldWideScience

Sample records for aging learning disease

  1. Music as a mnemonic to learn gesture sequences in normal aging and Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Aline eMoussard; Emmanuel eBigand; Emmanuel eBigand; Isabelle ePeretz; Isabelle ePeretz; Isabelle ePeretz; Sylvie eBelleville; Sylvie eBelleville

    2014-01-01

    Strong links between music and motor functions suggest that music could represent an interesting aid for motor learning. The present study aims for the first time to test the potential of music to assist in the learning of sequences of gestures in normal and pathological aging. Participants with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy older adults (Controls) learned sequences of meaningless gestures that were either accompanied by music or a metronome. We also manipulated the learning proce...

  2. Music as a Mnemonic to Learn Gesture Sequences in Normal Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Moussard, Aline; Bigand, Emmanuel; Belleville, Sylvie; Peretz, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Strong links between music and motor functions suggest that music could represent an interesting aid for motor learning. The present study aims for the first time to test the potential of music to assist in the learning of sequences of gestures in normal and pathological aging. Participants with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and healthy older adults (controls) learned sequences of meaningless gestures that were either accompanied by music or a metronome. We also manipulated the learning proce...

  3. Music as a mnemonic to learn gesture sequences in normal aging and Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline eMoussard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Strong links between music and motor functions suggest that music could represent an interesting aid for motor learning. The present study aims for the first time to test the potential of music to assist in the learning of sequences of gestures in normal and pathological aging. Participants with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD and healthy older adults (Controls learned sequences of meaningless gestures that were either accompanied by music or a metronome. We also manipulated the learning procedure such that participants had to imitate the gestures to-be-memorized in synchrony with the experimenter or after the experimenter during encoding. Results show different patterns of performance for the two groups. Overall, musical accompaniment had no impact on the Controls' performance, but improved those of AD participants. Conversely, synchronization of gestures during learning helped Controls but seemed to interfere with retention in AD. We discuss these findings regarding their relevance for a better understanding of auditory-motor memory, and we propose recommendations to maximize the mnemonic effect of music for motor sequence learning for dementia care.

  4. Music as a Mnemonic to Learn Gesture Sequences in Normal Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussard, Aline; Bigand, Emmanuel; Belleville, Sylvie; Peretz, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Strong links between music and motor functions suggest that music could represent an interesting aid for motor learning. The present study aims for the first time to test the potential of music to assist in the learning of sequences of gestures in normal and pathological aging. Participants with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and healthy older adults (controls) learned sequences of meaningless gestures that were either accompanied by music or a metronome. We also manipulated the learning procedure such that participants had to imitate the gestures to-be-memorized in synchrony with the experimenter or after the experimenter during encoding. Results show different patterns of performance for the two groups. Overall, musical accompaniment had no impact on the controls’ performance but improved those of AD participants. Conversely, synchronization of gestures during learning helped controls but seemed to interfere with retention in AD. We discuss these findings regarding their relevance for a better understanding of auditory–motor memory, and we propose recommendations to maximize the mnemonic effect of music for motor sequence learning for dementia care. PMID:24860476

  5. Music as a mnemonic to learn gesture sequences in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussard, Aline; Bigand, Emmanuel; Belleville, Sylvie; Peretz, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Strong links between music and motor functions suggest that music could represent an interesting aid for motor learning. The present study aims for the first time to test the potential of music to assist in the learning of sequences of gestures in normal and pathological aging. Participants with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy older adults (controls) learned sequences of meaningless gestures that were either accompanied by music or a metronome. We also manipulated the learning procedure such that participants had to imitate the gestures to-be-memorized in synchrony with the experimenter or after the experimenter during encoding. Results show different patterns of performance for the two groups. Overall, musical accompaniment had no impact on the controls' performance but improved those of AD participants. Conversely, synchronization of gestures during learning helped controls but seemed to interfere with retention in AD. We discuss these findings regarding their relevance for a better understanding of auditory-motor memory, and we propose recommendations to maximize the mnemonic effect of music for motor sequence learning for dementia care.

  6. Deep Machine Learning Application to the Detection of Preclinical Neurodegenerative Diseases of Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew J. Summers

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence (AI deep learning protocols offer solutions to complex data processing and analysis. Increasingly these solutions are being applied in the healthcare field, most commonly in processing complex medical imaging data used for diagnosis. Current models apply AI to screening populations of patients for markers of disease and report detection accuracy rates exceeding those of human data screening. In this paper, we explore an alternate model for AI deployment, that of monitoring and analysing an individual’s level of function over time. In adopting this approach, we propose that AI may provide highly accurate and reliable detection of preclinical disease states associated with aging-related neurodegenerative diseases. One of the key challenges facing clinical detection of preclinical phases of diseases such as dementia is the high degree of inter-individual variability in aging-related changes to cognitive function. AI based monitoring of an individual over time offers the potential for the early detection of change in function for the individual, rather than relying on comparing the individual’s performance to population norms. We explore an approach to developing AI platforms for individual monitoring and preclinical disease detection and examine the potential benefits to the stakeholders in this technological development.

  7. Speech Motor Sequence Learning: Acquisition and Retention in Parkinson Disease and Normal Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Jason A.; Goberman, Alexander M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the current investigation was to examine speech motor sequence learning in neurologically healthy younger adults, neurologically healthy older adults, and individuals with Parkinson disease (PD) over a 2-day period. Method: A sequential nonword repetition task was used to examine learning over 2 days. Participants practiced a…

  8. The contribution of nocturnal sleep to the consolidation of motor skill learning in healthy ageing and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpening, Zoe; Naismith, Sharon; Melehan, Kerri; Gittins, Catherine; Bolitho, Sam; Lewis, Simon J G

    2013-08-01

    The benefits of sleep for the consolidation of procedural motor skills are less robust in older adults, although the precise reasons for this remain unclear. To date, even less is known about these processes in older adults with neurodegenerative diseases, particularly those which impact on motor functioning. While sleep disturbance and motor symptoms are frequent disabling features of Parkinson's disease, no known studies have directly probed sleep-dependent memory consolidation for motor skill learning in Parkinson's disease. Forty patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (age = 63.7 years ± 7.7; disease duration 4.1 years ± 4.4) completed a motor skill learning task pre- and post-sleep and were compared to 20 age- and sex-matched controls recruited from the community. Polysomnography was undertaken during the post-training night and measures of sleep architecture were derived. Parkinson's disease patients did not demonstrate any apparent deficits in within-session learning and overnight stabilization compared to controls, with both groups failing to demonstrate offline improvements in performance (i.e. memory consolidation). In controls, longer duration in slow wave sleep was associated with improved next-day session learning (P = 0.007). However, in Parkinson's disease, no relationships between sleep parameters and learning measures were found. Slow wave sleep microarchitecture and the use of dopaminergic medications may contribute to impaired sleep-dependent multi-session acquisition of motor skill learning in Parkinson's disease. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  9. Learning sung lyrics aids retention in normal ageing and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussard, Aline; Bigand, Emmanuel; Belleville, Sylvie; Peretz, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that presenting to-be-memorised lyrics in a singing mode, instead of a speaking mode, may facilitate learning and retention in normal adults. In this study, seven healthy older adults and eight participants with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) learned and memorised lyrics that were either sung or spoken. We measured the percentage of words recalled from these lyrics immediately and after 10 minutes. Moreover, in AD participants, we tested the effect of successive learning episodes for one spoken and one sung excerpt, as well as long-term retention after a four week delay. Sung conditions did not influence lyrics recall in immediate recall but increased delayed recall for both groups. In AD, learning slopes for sung and spoken lyrics did not show a significant difference across successive learning episodes. However, sung lyrics showed a slight advantage over spoken ones after a four week delay. These results suggest that singing may increase the load of initial learning but improve long-term retention of newly acquired verbal information. We further propose some recommendations on how to maximise these effects and make them relevant for therapeutic applications.

  10. Learning and Active Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie; Lovie-Kitchin, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Learning is an important aspect of aging productively. This paper describes results from 2645 respondents (aged from 50 to 74+ years) to a 165-variable postal survey in Australia. The focus is on learning and its relation to work; social, spiritual, and emotional status; health; vision; home; life events; and demographic details. Clustering…

  11. A Deep Learning Algorithm for Prediction of Age-Related Eye Disease Study Severity Scale for Age-Related Macular Degeneration from Color Fundus Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassmann, Felix; Mengelkamp, Judith; Brandl, Caroline; Harsch, Sebastian; Zimmermann, Martina E; Linkohr, Birgit; Peters, Annette; Heid, Iris M; Palm, Christoph; Weber, Bernhard H F

    2018-04-10

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common threat to vision. While classification of disease stages is critical to understanding disease risk and progression, several systems based on color fundus photographs are known. Most of these require in-depth and time-consuming analysis of fundus images. Herein, we present an automated computer-based classification algorithm. Algorithm development for AMD classification based on a large collection of color fundus images. Validation is performed on a cross-sectional, population-based study. We included 120 656 manually graded color fundus images from 3654 Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) participants. AREDS participants were >55 years of age, and non-AMD sight-threatening diseases were excluded at recruitment. In addition, performance of our algorithm was evaluated in 5555 fundus images from the population-based Kooperative Gesundheitsforschung in der Region Augsburg (KORA; Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg) study. We defined 13 classes (9 AREDS steps, 3 late AMD stages, and 1 for ungradable images) and trained several convolution deep learning architectures. An ensemble of network architectures improved prediction accuracy. An independent dataset was used to evaluate the performance of our algorithm in a population-based study. κ Statistics and accuracy to evaluate the concordance between predicted and expert human grader classification. A network ensemble of 6 different neural net architectures predicted the 13 classes in the AREDS test set with a quadratic weighted κ of 92% (95% confidence interval, 89%-92%) and an overall accuracy of 63.3%. In the independent KORA dataset, images wrongly classified as AMD were mainly the result of a macular reflex observed in young individuals. By restricting the KORA analysis to individuals >55 years of age and prior exclusion of other retinopathies, the weighted and unweighted κ increased to 50% and 63%, respectively. Importantly, the algorithm

  12. Hodgkin's disease and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L.; Nissen, N.I.

    1989-01-01

    506 unselected, previously untreated patients with Hodgkin's disease were treated at the Finsen Institute between 1969 and 1983. The prognostic significance of age, sex, stage, systemic symptoms, histologic subtype, number of involved nodal regions, total tumour burden (peripheral + intrathoracic...... modality, stage, and total tumour burden, whereas age had no prognostic significance. With regard to death from Hodgkin's disease only age and total tumour burden had independent significance. The significance of age would seem to stem from the fact that some older patients could not be given adequate...

  13. Hodgkin's disease and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L; Nissen, N I

    1989-01-01

    506 unselected, previously untreated patients with Hodgkin's disease were treated at the Finsen Institute between 1969 and 1983. The prognostic significance of age, sex, stage, systemic symptoms, histologic subtype, number of involved nodal regions, total tumour burden (peripheral + intrathoracic...... nodal tumour burden, intraabdominal nodal tumour burden, and number of involved extranodal sites), pretreatment ESR, lymphocytopenia, and treatment modality were examined in multivariate analyses. The only factors of independent prognostic significance for disease-free survival proved to be treatment...... modality, stage, and total tumour burden, whereas age had no prognostic significance. With regard to death from Hodgkin's disease only age and total tumour burden had independent significance. The significance of age would seem to stem from the fact that some older patients could not be given adequate...

  14. [Is aging a disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselov, V M

    2017-01-01

    Recently, among gerontologists and the community, adjoining them for scientific interests, an acute discussion has arisen about the need to recognize the aging as a disease. The author discusses the philosophical, deontological, nosological, pathophysiological, clinical and biological aspects of this issue.

  15. Learning about Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Learning About Parkinson's Disease Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research ...

  16. Learning about Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Learning About Huntington's Disease Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research ...

  17. Molecular Diagnostics of Ageing and Tackling Age-related Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, James A

    2017-01-01

    As average life expectancy increases there is a greater focus on health-span and, in particular, how to treat or prevent chronic age-associated diseases. Therapies which were able to control 'biological age' with the aim of postponing chronic and costly diseases of old age require an entirely new approach to drug development. Molecular technologies and machine-learning methods have already yielded diagnostics that help guide cancer treatment and cardiovascular procedures. Discovery of valid and clinically informative diagnostics of human biological age (combined with disease-specific biomarkers) has the potential to alter current drug-discovery strategies, aid clinical trial recruitment and maximize healthy ageing. I will review some basic principles that govern the development of 'ageing' diagnostics, how such assays could be used during the drug-discovery or development process. Important logistical and statistical considerations are illustrated by reviewing recent biomarker activity in the field of Alzheimer's disease, as dementia represents the most pressing of priorities for the pharmaceutical industry, as well as the chronic disease in humans most associated with age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Endocrine Disease in Aged Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Andy E

    2016-08-01

    Aging horses may be at particular risk of endocrine disease. Two major equine endocrinopathies, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and equine metabolic syndrome, are commonly encountered in an aging population and may present with several recognizable signs, including laminitis. Investigation, treatment, and management of these diseases are discussed. Additionally, aging may be associated with development of rarer endocrinopathic problems, often associated with neoplasia, including diabetes mellitus and other confounders of glucose homeostasis, as well as thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal diseases. Brief details of the recognition and management of these conditions are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Personalized Age Progression with Bi-Level Aging Dictionary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiangbo; Tang, Jinhui; Li, Zechao; Lai, Hanjiang; Zhang, Liyan; Yan, Shuicheng

    2018-04-01

    Age progression is defined as aesthetically re-rendering the aging face at any future age for an individual face. In this work, we aim to automatically render aging faces in a personalized way. Basically, for each age group, we learn an aging dictionary to reveal its aging characteristics (e.g., wrinkles), where the dictionary bases corresponding to the same index yet from two neighboring aging dictionaries form a particular aging pattern cross these two age groups, and a linear combination of all these patterns expresses a particular personalized aging process. Moreover, two factors are taken into consideration in the dictionary learning process. First, beyond the aging dictionaries, each person may have extra personalized facial characteristics, e.g., mole, which are invariant in the aging process. Second, it is challenging or even impossible to collect faces of all age groups for a particular person, yet much easier and more practical to get face pairs from neighboring age groups. To this end, we propose a novel Bi-level Dictionary Learning based Personalized Age Progression (BDL-PAP) method. Here, bi-level dictionary learning is formulated to learn the aging dictionaries based on face pairs from neighboring age groups. Extensive experiments well demonstrate the advantages of the proposed BDL-PAP over other state-of-the-arts in term of personalized age progression, as well as the performance gain for cross-age face verification by synthesizing aging faces.

  20. Arithmetic learning in advanced age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamarian, Laura; Scherfler, Christoph; Kremser, Christian; Pertl, Marie-Theres; Gizewski, Elke; Benke, Thomas; Delazer, Margarete

    2018-01-01

    Acquisition of numerical knowledge and understanding of numerical information are crucial for coping with the changing demands of our digital society. In this study, we assessed arithmetic learning in older and younger individuals in a training experiment including brain imaging. In particular, we assessed age-related effects of training intensity, prior arithmetic competence, and neuropsychological variables on the acquisition of new arithmetic knowledge and on the transfer to new, unknown problems. Effects were assessed immediately after training and after 3 months. Behavioural results showed higher training effects for younger individuals than for older individuals and significantly better performance after 90 problem repetitions than after 30 repetitions in both age groups. A correlation analysis indicated that older adults with lower memory and executive functions at baseline could profit more from intensive training. Similarly, training effects in the younger group were higher for those individuals who had lower arithmetic competence and executive functions prior to intervention. In younger adults, successful transfer was associated with higher executive functions. Memory and set-shifting emerged as significant predictors of training effects in the older group. For the younger group, prior arithmetic competence was a significant predictor of training effects, while cognitive flexibility was a predictor of transfer effects. After training, a subgroup of participants underwent an MRI assessment. A voxel-based morphometry analysis showed a significant interaction between training effects and grey matter volume of the right middle temporal gyrus extending to the angular gyrus for the younger group relative to the older group. The reverse contrast (older group vs. younger group) did not yield any significant results. These results suggest that improvements in arithmetic competence are supported by temporo-parietal areas in the right hemisphere in younger

  1. Teaching and Learning about Sexuality and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffl, Bernita M.; Kelly, James J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an experience in developing teaching and learning content on aging and sexuality. Suggestions for a course outline and experiential learning for students and a summary of findings, which has implications for educators in gerontology, are included. (Author)

  2. Oxidative stress, aging, and diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguori I

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ilaria Liguori,1 Gennaro Russo,1 Francesco Curcio,1 Giulia Bulli,1 Luisa Aran,1 David Della-Morte,2,3 Gaetano Gargiulo,4 Gianluca Testa,1,5 Francesco Cacciatore,1,6 Domenico Bonaduce,1 Pasquale Abete1 1Department of Translational Medical Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples, Italy; 2Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; 3San Raffaele Roma Open University, Rome, Italy; 4Division of Internal Medicine, AOU San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi di Aragona, Salerno, Italy; 5Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Molise, Campobasso, Italy; 6Azienda Ospedaliera dei Colli, Monaldi Hospital, Heart Transplantation Unit, Naples, Italy Abstract: Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS are produced by several endogenous and exogenous processes, and their negative effects are neutralized by antioxidant defenses. Oxidative stress occurs from the imbalance between RONS production and these antioxidant defenses. Aging is a process characterized by the progressive loss of tissue and organ function. The oxidative stress theory of aging is based on the hypothesis that age-associated functional losses are due to the accumulation of RONS-induced damages. At the same time, oxidative stress is involved in several age-related conditions (ie, cardiovascular diseases [CVDs], chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer, including sarcopenia and frailty. Different types of oxidative stress biomarkers have been identified and may provide important information about the efficacy of the treatment, guiding the selection of the most effective drugs/dose regimens for patients and, if particularly relevant from a pathophysiological point of view, acting on a specific therapeutic target. Given the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of many clinical conditions and aging, antioxidant therapy could positively affect the natural history of

  3. Motivational modes and learning in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerde, Karin; Braun, Erin Kendall; Higgins, E Tory; Shohamy, Daphna

    2015-08-01

    Learning and motivation are intrinsically related, and both have been linked to dopamine. Parkinson's disease results from a progressive loss of dopaminergic inputs to the striatum and leads to impairments in motivation and learning from feedback. However, the link between motivation and learning in Parkinson's disease is not well understood. To address this gap, we leverage a well-established psychological theory of motivation, regulatory mode theory, which distinguishes between two functionally independent motivational concerns in regulating behavior: a concern with having an effect by initiating and maintaining movement (Locomotion) and a concern with establishing what is correct by critically evaluating goal pursuit means and outcomes (Assessment). We examined Locomotion and Assessment in patients with Parkinson's disease and age-matched controls. Parkinson's disease patients demonstrated a selective decrease in Assessment motivation but no change in Locomotion motivation, suggesting that Parkinson's disease leads to a reduced tendency to evaluate and monitor outcomes. Moreover, weaker Assessment motivation was correlated with poorer performance on a feedback-based learning task previously shown to depend on the striatum. Together, these findings link a questionnaire-based personality inventory with performance on a well-characterized experimental task, advancing our understanding of how Parkinson's disease affects motivation with implications for well-being and treatment outcomes. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Learning to Live Well with Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foundation Celiac Disease Foundation Read More "Celiac Disease" Articles Celiac Disease Changes Everything / What is Celiac Disease? / Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment / Four Inches and Seven Pounds… / Learning to Live Well with Celiac Disease / Living Gluten- ...

  5. AGE GROUP CLASSIFICATION USING MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Arshdeep Singh Syal*1 & Abhinav Gupta2

    2017-01-01

    A human face provides a lot of information that allows another person to identify characteristics such as age, sex, etc. Therefore, the challenge is to develop an age group prediction system using the automatic learning method. The task of estimating the age group of the human from their frontal facial images is very captivating, but also challenging because of the pattern of personalized and non-linear aging that differs from one person to another. This paper examines the problem of predicti...

  6. People with Learning Disabilities and "Active Ageing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Liam; Boxall, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Background: People (with and without learning disabilities) are living longer. Demographic ageing creates challenges and the leading policy response to these challenges is "active ageing". "Active" does not just refer to the ability to be physically and economically active, but also includes ongoing social and civic engagement…

  7. Active Learning in Aging Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singelis, Theodore M.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the involvement of undergraduate students in research at the California State University (CSU), Chico funded through an Academic Research Enhancement Award (AREA) from the National Institute on Aging (NIA). CSU, Chico is a "teaching" university and has students with a variety of motivations and abilities. The…

  8. Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages Past Issues / Winter ... weeks of a heart attack. For Women with Heart Disease: About 6 million American women have coronary heart ...

  9. Parkinson's disease as a result of aging

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Manuel; Rodriguez-Sabate, Clara; Morales, Ingrid; Sanchez, Alberto; Sabate, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    It is generally considered that Parkinson's disease is induced by specific agents that degenerate a clearly defined population of dopaminergic neurons. Data commented in this review suggest that this assumption is not as clear as is often thought and that aging may be critical for Parkinson's disease. Neurons degenerating in Parkinson's disease also degenerate in normal aging, and the different agents involved in the etiology of this illness are also involved in aging. Senescence is a wider p...

  10. Law and Learning in the Middle Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains papers presented at the conference on "Law and Learning in the Middle Ages" held at the Carlsberg Academy in Copenhagen in May 2005. Here, a group of European and American scholars give their contribution to the examination of the theological and legal schooling...... that the 'creators' of the laws received at the major centres of learning in Europe, and address a number of important questions concerning the creation and development of legal professions and the dynamics between legal practice and theoretical, learned approaches to jurisprudence. Contributors to this volume...

  11. [Anti-ageing therapies in Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Abreu, Gara S; Brito Armas, José M; Castro Fuentes, Rafael

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly population. Currently, there are no effective treatments to prevent or delay the natural course of the disease. Numerous studies have provided information about the molecular processes underlying biological ageing and, perhaps more importantly, potential interventions to slow ageing and promote healthy longevity in laboratory model systems. The main issue addressed in this review is whether an intervention that has anti-ageing properties can alter the appearance and/or progression of Alzheimer's disease, a disease in which age is the biggest risk factor. Different anti-ageing interventions have been shown to prevent (and in some cases possibly restore) several parameters recognised as central symptoms to the development of Alzheimer's disease. In addition, they are taking the first steps towards translating these laboratory discoveries into clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Anti-amyloid beta protein antibody passage across the blood-brain barrier in the SAMP8 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease: an age-related selective uptake with reversal of learning impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William A; Farr, Susan A; Morley, John E; Wolf, Kathy M; Geylis, Valeria; Steinitz, Michael

    2007-08-01

    Amyloid beta protein (Abeta) levels are elevated in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. Anti-Abeta antibodies can reverse the histologic and cognitive impairments in mice which overexpress Abeta. Passive immunization appears safer than vaccination and treatment of patients will likely require human rather than xenogenic antibodies. Effective treatment will likely require antibody to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Unfortunately, antibodies typically cross the BBB very poorly and accumulate less well in brain than even albumin, a substance nearly totally excluded from the brain. We compared the ability of two anti-Abeta human monoclonal IgM antibodies, L11.3 and HyL5, to cross the BBB of young CD-1 mice to that of young and aged SAMP8 mice. The SAMP8 mouse has a spontaneous mutation that induces an age-related, Abeta-dependent cognitive deficit. There was preferential uptake of intravenously administered L11.3 in comparison to HyL5, albumin, and a control human monoclonal IgM (RF), especially by hippocampus and olfactory bulb in aged SAMP8 mice. Injection of L11.3 into the brains of aged SAMP8 mice reversed both learning and memory impairments in aged SAMP8 mice, whereas IgG and IgM controls were ineffective. Pharmacokinetic analysis predicted that an intravenous dose 1000 times higher than the brain injection dose would reverse cognitive impairments. This predicted intravenous dose reversed the impairment in learning, but not memory, in aged SAMP8 mice. In conclusion, an IgM antibody was produced that crosses the BBB to reverse cognitive impairment in a murine model of Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Interventions for age-related diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueira, Inês; Fernandes, Adelaide; Mladenovic Djordjevic, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Over 60% of people aged over 65 are affected by multiple morbidities, which are more difficult to treat, generate increased healthcare costs and lead to poor quality of life compared to individual diseases. With the number of older people steadily increasing this presents a societal challenge. Age...... is the major risk factor for age-related diseases and recent research developments have led to the proposal that pharmacological interventions targeting common mechanisms of ageing may be able to delay the onset of multimorbidity. Here we review the state of the knowledge of multimorbidity, appraise...... the available evidence supporting the role of mechanisms of ageing in the development of the most common age-related diseases and assess potential molecules that may successfully target those key mechanisms....

  14. Neuroglia in ageing and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhratsky, Alexei; Rodríguez, José J; Parpura, Vladimir

    2014-08-01

    The proper operation of the mammalian brain requires dynamic interactions between neurones and glial cells. Various types of glial cells are susceptible to morpho-functional changes in a variety of brain pathological states, including toxicity, neurodevelopmental, neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Morphological modifications include a change in the glial cell size and shape; the latter is evident by changes of the appearance and number of peripheral processes. The most blatant morphological change is associated with the alteration of the sheer number of neuroglia cells in the brain. Functionally, glial cells can undergo various metabolic and biochemical changes, the majority of which reflect upon homeostasis of neurotransmitters, in particular that of glutamate, as well as on defence mechanisms provided by neuroglia. Not only glial cells exhibit changes associated with the pathology of the brain but they also change with brain aging.

  15. Age and disease at an arms length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    How are the boundaries of disease and health, age, life and death negotiated through technology and active aging? The paper focuses on how disease and age are dealt with by active elderly at activity centres in the Copenhagen area. New health technologies lead to new expectations to the longevity...... of life. A new ethics is emerging, focused on longevity and spreading through healthcare policies and technologies . At activity centres active elderly talk about health in old age, share experiences with health technologies and reflect on longevity, while working out. Chronic diseases are common in old...... age, but this does not mean that you give up or accept decreased quality of life. Ends change as new means emerge . The technological and medical abilities change the reflexive longevity. One expects to live a long and healthy life. Thus, technology can be conceived as a world-changing mediation. What...

  16. Specialist report : Dry eye disease and aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilborg, M.M.A.; Kort, H.S.M.; Murphy, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    The common ocular pathologies relating to the aging eye, such as cataract, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, or macular degeneration, are all known to reduce visual functioning. Less wellknown is the effect of common, age-related dry eye disease (DED). The impact of DED on daily activities can be

  17. [Physiological ageing is not a disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmas, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Physiological ageing is a slow process which brings about natural changes in the functioning of the organism. These changes are to be distinguished from the effects of diseases. Nurses, who care for more and more elderly people due to the ageing of the population, must be able to distinguish between these changes to adjust their practice.

  18. Visual dysfunction, neurodegenerative diseases, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Gregory R; Owsley, Cynthia

    2003-08-01

    The four most common sight-threatening conditions in older adults in North America are cataract, ARM, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. Even in their moderate stages, these conditions cause visual sensory impairments and reductions in health-related quality of life, including difficulties in daily tasks and psychosocial problems. Many older adults are free from these conditions, yet still experience a variety of visual perceptual problems resulting from aging-related changes in the optics of the eye and degeneration of the visual neural pathways. These problems consist of impairments in visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color discrimination, temporal sensitivity, motion perception, peripheral visual field sensitivity, and visual processing speed. PD causes a progressive loss of dopaminergic cells predominantly in the retina and possibly in other areas of the visual system. This retinal dopamine deficiency produces selective spatial-temporal abnormalities in retinal ganglion cell function, probably arising from altered receptive field organization in the PD retina. The cortical degeneration characteristics of AD, including neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques, also are present in the visual cortical areas, especially in the visual association areas. The most prominent electrophysiologic change in AD is a delay in the P2 component of the flash VEP. Deficits in higher-order visual abilities typically are compromised in AD, including problems with visual attention, perceiving structure from motion, visual memory, visual learning, reading, and object and face perception. There have been reports of a visual variant of AD in which these types of visual problems are the initial and most prominent signs of the disease. Visual sensory impairments (e.g., contrast sensitivity or achromatopsia) also have been reported but are believed more reflective of cortical disturbances than of AD-associated optic neuropathy.

  19. Brain aging, Alzheimer's disease, and mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, Russell H.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between brain aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is contentious. One view holds AD results when brain aging surpasses a threshold. The other view postulates AD is not a consequence of brain aging. This review discusses this conundrum from the perspective of different investigative lines that have tried to address it, as well as from the perspective of the mitochondrion, an organelle that appears to play a role in both AD and brain aging. Specific issues addressed include the question of whether AD and brain aging should be conceptually lumped or split, the extent to which AD and brain aging potentially share common molecular mechanisms, whether beta amyloid should be primarily considered a marker of AD or simply brain aging, and the definition of AD itself. PMID:21920438

  20. Splicing regulatory factors, ageing and age-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Eva; Harries, Lorna W

    2017-07-01

    Alternative splicing is a co-transcriptional process, which allows for the production of multiple transcripts from a single gene and is emerging as an important control point for gene expression. Alternatively expressed isoforms often have antagonistic function and differential temporal or spatial expression patterns, yielding enormous plasticity and adaptability to cells and increasing their ability to respond to environmental challenge. The regulation of alternative splicing is critical for numerous cellular functions in both pathological and physiological conditions, and deregulated alternative splicing is a key feature of common chronic diseases. Isoform choice is controlled by a battery of splicing regulatory proteins, which include the serine arginine rich (SRSF) proteins and the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) classes of genes. These important splicing regulators have been implicated in age-related disease, and in the ageing process itself. This review will outline the important contribution of splicing regulator proteins to ageing and age-related disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Implicit sequence learning in people with Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine R Gamble

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Implicit sequence learning involves learning about dependencies in sequences of events without intent to learn or awareness of what has been learned. Sequence learning is related to striatal dopamine levels, striatal activation, and integrity of white matter connections. People with Parkinson’s disease (PD have degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons, leading to dopamine deficiency and therefore striatal deficits, and they have difficulties with sequencing, including complex language comprehension and postural stability. Most research on implicit sequence learning in PD has used motor-based tasks. However, because PD presents with motor deficits, it is difficult to assess whether learning itself is impaired in these tasks. The present study used an implicit sequence learning task with a reduced motor component, the Triplets Learning Task (TLT. People with PD and age- and education-matched healthy older adults completed three sessions (each consisting of 10 blocks of 50 trials of the TLT. Results revealed that the PD group was able to learn the sequence, however, when learning was examined using a Half Blocks analysis (Nemeth et al., 2013, which compared learning in the 1st 25/50 trials of all blocks to that in the 2nd 25/50 trials, the PD group showed significantly less learning than Controls in the 2nd Half Blocks, but not in the 1st. Nemeth et al. hypothesized that the 1st Half Blocks involve recall and reactivation of the sequence learned, thus reflecting hippocampal-dependent learning, while the 2nd Half Blocks involve proceduralized behavior of learned sequences, reflecting striatal-based learning. The present results suggest that the PD group had intact hippocampal-dependent implicit sequence learning, but impaired striatal-dependent learning. Thus, sequencing deficits in PD are likely due to striatal impairments, but other brain systems, such as the hippocampus, may be able to partially compensate for striatal decline to improve

  2. Increased brain-predicted aging in treated HIV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James H; Underwood, Jonathan; Caan, Matthan W A; De Francesco, Davide; van Zoest, Rosan A; Leech, Robert; Wit, Ferdinand W N M; Portegies, Peter; Geurtsen, Gert J; Schmand, Ben A; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; Franceschi, Claudio; Sabin, Caroline A; Majoie, Charles B L M; Winston, Alan; Reiss, Peter; Sharp, David J

    2017-04-04

    To establish whether HIV disease is associated with abnormal levels of age-related brain atrophy, by estimating apparent brain age using neuroimaging and exploring whether these estimates related to HIV status, age, cognitive performance, and HIV-related clinical parameters. A large sample of virologically suppressed HIV-positive adults (n = 162, age 45-82 years) and highly comparable HIV-negative controls (n = 105) were recruited as part of the Comorbidity in Relation to AIDS (COBRA) collaboration. Using T1-weighted MRI scans, a machine-learning model of healthy brain aging was defined in an independent cohort (n = 2,001, aged 18-90 years). Neuroimaging data from HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals were then used to estimate brain-predicted age; then brain-predicted age difference (brain-PAD = brain-predicted brain age - chronological age) scores were calculated. Neuropsychological and clinical assessments were also carried out. HIV-positive individuals had greater brain-PAD score (mean ± SD 2.15 ± 7.79 years) compared to HIV-negative individuals (-0.87 ± 8.40 years; b = 3.48, p brain-PAD score was associated with decreased performance in multiple cognitive domains (information processing speed, executive function, memory) and general cognitive performance across all participants. Brain-PAD score was not associated with age, duration of HIV infection, or other HIV-related measures. Increased apparent brain aging, predicted using neuroimaging, was observed in HIV-positive adults, despite effective viral suppression. Furthermore, the magnitude of increased apparent brain aging related to cognitive deficits. However, predicted brain age difference did not correlate with chronological age or duration of HIV infection, suggesting that HIV disease may accentuate rather than accelerate brain aging. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Active Ageing, Active Learning: Policy and Provision in Hong Kong

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    Tam, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between ageing and learning, previous literature having confirmed that participation in continued learning in old age contributes to good health, satisfaction with life, independence and self-esteem. Realizing that learning is vital to active ageing, the Hong Kong government has implemented policies and…

  4. Telomere in Aging and Age-Related Diseases

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    Anna Meiliana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The number of elderly population in the world keep increasing. In their advanced ages, many elderly face years of disability because of multiple chronic diseases, frailty, making them lost their independence. Consequently, this could have impacts on social and economic stability. A huge challenge has been sent for biomedical researchers to compress or at least eliminate this period of disability and increase the health span. CONTENT: Over the past decades, many studies of telomere biology have demonstrated that telomeres and telomere-associated proteins are implicated in human diseases. Accelerated telomere erosion was clearly correlated with a pack of metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Critically short telomeres or the unprotected end, are likely to form telomeric fusion, generating genomic instability, the cornerstone for carcinogenesis. Enlightening how telomeres involved in the mechanisms underlying the diseases’ pathogenesis was expected to uncover new molecular targets for any important diagnosis or therapeutic implications. SUMMARY: Telomere shortening was foreseen as an imporant mechanism to supress tumor by limiting cellular proliferative capacity by regulating senescence check point activation. Many human diseases and carcinogenesis are causally related to defective telomeres, asserting the importance of telomeres sustainment. Thus, telomere length assessment might serve as an important tool for clinical prognostic, diagnostic, monitoring and management. KEYWORDS: telomerase, cellular senescence, aging, cancer

  5. Aging: Learning to Live a Finite Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Jan

    2017-10-01

    Although biodemographic research informs us that life expectancies have risen impressively during the last century, this has not led to much interest in these new horizons of aging. The instrumentalist culture of late modern societies, including its health cure system, has clearly difficulties to relate to the elusive but inevitable limitations of finite life. Moreover, as most people can be expected to survive into old age, thinking about finitude is easily postponed and reserved for those who are "really old." Indeed, a meaningful and realistic understanding of aging needs to include a confrontation with the finitude of life. Instead of reducing aging to the opposite or continuation of vital adulthood, it should be seen as something with a potentially broad and deep significance: a process of learning to live a finite life. As a contribution to this cultural repositioning of aging, the article presents a philosophical exploration of finitude and finite life. Among the discussed topics are the Stoic and Epicurean ways of living with death but also the necessity to expand the meaning of "finitude" beyond mortality. Aging is foremost a process of living through changes that are largely beyond our control although they require active responding. Next, individualistic or existentialist interpretations are criticized because finite lives presuppose a social world in which they emerge and on which they depend. Unfortunately, aging, the most important experiential source of knowledge about what it is to live a finite life, is neglected by the same culture that needs its wisdom. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Neuroimaging Studies Illustrate the Commonalities Between Ageing and Brain Diseases.

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    Cole, James H

    2018-07-01

    The lack of specificity in neuroimaging studies of neurological and psychiatric diseases suggests that these different diseases have more in common than is generally considered. Potentially, features that are secondary effects of different pathological processes may share common neurobiological underpinnings. Intriguingly, many of these mechanisms are also observed in studies of normal (i.e., non-pathological) brain ageing. Different brain diseases may be causing premature or accelerated ageing to the brain, an idea that is supported by a line of "brain ageing" research that combines neuroimaging data with machine learning analysis. In reviewing this field, I conclude that such observations could have important implications, suggesting that we should shift experimental paradigm: away from characterizing the average case-control brain differences resulting from a disease toward methods that place individuals in their age-appropriate context. This will also lead naturally to clinical applications, whereby neuroimaging can contribute to a personalized-medicine approach to improve brain health. © 2018 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Kidney disease and aging: A reciprocal relation.

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    Kooman, Jeroen P; van der Sande, Frank M; Leunissen, Karel M L

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are overrepresented in elderly patients. This provides specific challenges for the treatment, as the start of dialysis in vulnerable elderly patients may be associated with a rapid decline in functional performance. However, prognosis in elderly patients with ESRD is quite variable and related to the presence of comorbidity and geriatric impairments. The decision to start dialysis in elderly patients should always be based on shared decision making, which may be aided by the use of prediction models which should however not be used to withhold dialysis treatment. The treatment of ESRD in elderly patients should be based on a multidimensional treatment plan with a role for active rehabilitation. Moreover, there also appears to be a reciprocal relationship between aging and CKD, as the presence of geriatric complications is also high in younger patients with ESRD. This has led to the hypothesis of a premature aging process associated with CKD, resulting in different phenotypes such as premature vascular aging, muscle wasting, bone disease, cognitive dysfunction and frailty. Prevention and treatment of this phenotype is based on optimal treatment of CKD, associated comorbidities, and lifestyle factors by established treatments. For the future, interventions, which are developed to combat the aging process in general, might also have relevance for the treatment of patients with CKD, but their role should always be investigated in adequately powered clinical trials, as results obtained in experimental trials may not be directly translatable to the clinical situation of elderly patients. In the meantime, physical exercise is a very important intervention, by improving both physical capacity and functional performance, as well as by a direct effect on the aging process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lessons Learned From a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Family-Based Intervention to Promote School Functioning for School-Age Children With Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Lauren C; Li, Yimei; Smith, Kelsey; Tarazi, Reem; Robinson, M Renee; Patterson, Chavis A; Smith-Whitley, Kim; Stuart, Marie; Barakat, Lamia P

    2015-01-01

    Tested a family-based group problem-solving intervention, "Families Taking Control," (FTC) to improve school functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQL) for children with sickle cell disease. Children and caregivers completed questionnaires assessing HRQL and school functioning and children completed performance-based measures of IQ and achievement at baseline and 6 months later. Families were randomized to the intervention (FTC, n = 42) or delayed intervention control (DIC, n = 41) group. FTC involved a full-day workshop followed by 3 booster calls. There were no differences between FTC completers (n = 24) and noncompleters (n = 18). FTC group (n = 24) and DIC group (n = 38) did not differ significantly on primary outcomes at follow-up: number of formal academic and disease-related accommodations, individualized education plan/504 service plan, school absences, school HRQL, or academic skills. Although families found FTC to be acceptable, there were no intervention effects. Challenges of the trial and implications for future research are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The study of nursing students’ learning initiative in the course reform of aged caring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wenjing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Analyzing the influence of nursing students’ learning initiative in the course reform of aged caring. Discuss the way of the aged care reform. Method: To reform the course of aged care in our school level 2013 88 nursing undergraduate. The specific content: learning aged care theory, learning Japanese care technology basic knowledge, adding Japanese and Taiwan’s nursing concepts to the traditional aged care teaching, performing sitcoms about old people’s disease and nursing way , reporting the plan of aged care by PowerPoint, organizing student volunteers to visit the nursing home and so on. The specific content lasted four months. Adopting the learning initiative (ALS scale developed by Zang Yuli and others after course reform. Measure the students’ learning initiative before and after the teaching. Result: Nursing student’s self-study ability was in the middle and lower level before the course reform(59.26±7.38; After the course reform, nursing student gain higher score than before learning on the three aspects contain “Learning motivation”,“Learning goals” and “Solid study”. The difference has statistically significant.(P<0.05.Conclusion: Through the aged care course reform, nursing students strengthen the study enthusiasm and initiative; enhance nursing student’s self-study ability. It is conducive to improve the learning interest of aged care course for nursing students.

  10. Age at onset and Parkinson disease phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Gennaro; Ferrara, Nicola; Brooks, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore clinical phenotype and characteristics of Parkinson disease (PD) at different ages at onset in recently diagnosed patients with untreated PD. Methods: We have analyzed baseline data from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative database. Four hundred twenty-two patients with a diagnosis of PD confirmed by DaTSCAN imaging were divided into 4 groups according to age at onset (onset younger than 50 years, 50–59 years, 60–69 years, and 70 years or older) and investigated for differences in side, type and localization of symptoms, occurrence/severity of motor and nonmotor features, nigrostriatal function, and CSF biomarkers. Results: Older age at onset was associated with a more severe motor and nonmotor phenotype, a greater dopaminergic dysfunction on DaTSCAN, and reduction of CSF α-synuclein and total tau. The most common presentation was the combination of 2 or 3 motor symptoms (bradykinesia, resting tremor, and rigidity) with rigidity being more common in the young-onset group. In about 80% of the patients with localized onset, the arm was the most affected part of the body, with no difference across subgroups. Conclusions: Although the presentation of PD symptoms is similar across age subgroups, the severity of motor and nonmotor features, the impairment of striatal binding, and the levels of CSF biomarkers increase with age at onset. The variability of imaging and nonimaging biomarkers in patients with PD at different ages could hamper the results of future clinical trials. PMID:26865518

  11. The Impact of Age on Using Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepasdar, Mansoreh; Soori, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    Since age plays an important role in learning a second or foreign language, the present study investigated how different students in different age groups used language learning strategies. The participants of this study were 94 Iranian EFL students from four educational levels and different age groups as, primary (10-12), guidance (13-15), high…

  12. Age- and Brain Region-Specific Changes of Glucose Metabolic Disorder, Learning, and Memory Dysfunction in Early Alzheimer’s Disease Assessed in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice Using 18F-FDG-PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Yuan Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a leading cause of dementia worldwide, associated with cognitive deficits and brain glucose metabolic alteration. However, the associations of glucose metabolic changes with cognitive dysfunction are less detailed. Here, we examined the brains of APP/presenilin 1 (PS1 transgenic (Tg mice aged 2, 3.5, 5 and 8 months using 18F-labed fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG microPET to assess age- and brain region-specific changes of glucose metabolism. FDG uptake was calculated as a relative standardized uptake value (SUVr. Morris water maze (MWM was used to evaluate learning and memory dysfunction. We showed a glucose utilization increase in multiple brain regions of Tg mice at 2 and 3.5 months but not at 5 and 8 months. Comparisons of SUVrs within brains showed higher glucose utilization than controls in the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and frontal cortex of Tg mice at 2 and 3.5 months but in the thalamus and striatum at 3.5, 5 and 8 months. By comparing SUVrs in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus, Tg mice were distinguished from controls at 2 and 3.5 months. In MWM, Tg mice aged 2 months shared a similar performance to the controls (prodromal-AD. By contrast, Tg mice failed training tests at 3.5 months but failed all MWM tests at 5 and 8 months, suggestive of partial or complete cognitive deficits (symptomatic-AD. Correlation analyses showed that hippocampal SUVrs were significantly correlated with MWM parameters in the symptomatic-AD stage. These data suggest that glucose metabolic disorder occurs before onset of AD signs in APP/PS1 mice with the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus affected first, and that regional FDG uptake increase can be an early biomarker for AD. Furthermore, hippocampal FDG uptake is a possible indicator for progression of Alzheimer’s cognition after cognitive decline, at least in animals.

  13. Age- and Brain Region-Specific Changes of Glucose Metabolic Disorder, Learning, and Memory Dysfunction in Early Alzheimer's Disease Assessed in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice Using 18F-FDG-PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Yuan; Men, Wei-Wei; Zhu, Hua; Lei, Jian-Feng; Zuo, Fu-Xing; Wang, Zhan-Jing; Zhu, Zhao-Hui; Bao, Xin-Jie; Wang, Ren-Zhi

    2016-10-18

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a leading cause of dementia worldwide, associated with cognitive deficits and brain glucose metabolic alteration. However, the associations of glucose metabolic changes with cognitive dysfunction are less detailed. Here, we examined the brains of APP/presenilin 1 (PS1) transgenic (Tg) mice aged 2, 3.5, 5 and 8 months using 18 F-labed fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) microPET to assess age- and brain region-specific changes of glucose metabolism. FDG uptake was calculated as a relative standardized uptake value (SUVr). Morris water maze (MWM) was used to evaluate learning and memory dysfunction. We showed a glucose utilization increase in multiple brain regions of Tg mice at 2 and 3.5 months but not at 5 and 8 months. Comparisons of SUVrs within brains showed higher glucose utilization than controls in the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and frontal cortex of Tg mice at 2 and 3.5 months but in the thalamus and striatum at 3.5, 5 and 8 months. By comparing SUVrs in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus, Tg mice were distinguished from controls at 2 and 3.5 months. In MWM, Tg mice aged 2 months shared a similar performance to the controls (prodromal-AD). By contrast, Tg mice failed training tests at 3.5 months but failed all MWM tests at 5 and 8 months, suggestive of partial or complete cognitive deficits (symptomatic-AD). Correlation analyses showed that hippocampal SUVrs were significantly correlated with MWM parameters in the symptomatic-AD stage. These data suggest that glucose metabolic disorder occurs before onset of AD signs in APP/PS1 mice with the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus affected first, and that regional FDG uptake increase can be an early biomarker for AD. Furthermore, hippocampal FDG uptake is a possible indicator for progression of Alzheimer's cognition after cognitive decline, at least in animals.

  14. Astrocytes in physiological aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Arellano, J J; Parpura, V; Zorec, R; Verkhratsky, A

    2016-05-26

    Astrocytes are fundamental for homoeostasis, defence and regeneration of the central nervous system. Loss of astroglial function and astroglial reactivity contributes to the aging of the brain and to neurodegenerative diseases. Changes in astroglia in aging and neurodegeneration are highly heterogeneous and region-specific. In animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) astrocytes undergo degeneration and atrophy at the early stages of pathological progression, which possibly may alter the homeostatic reserve of the brain and contribute to early cognitive deficits. At later stages of AD reactive astrocytes are associated with neurite plaques, the feature commonly found in animal models and in human diseased tissue. In animal models of the AD reactive astrogliosis develops in some (e.g. in the hippocampus) but not in all regions of the brain. For instance, in entorhinal and prefrontal cortices astrocytes do not mount gliotic response to emerging β-amyloid deposits. These deficits in reactivity coincide with higher vulnerability of these regions to AD-type pathology. Astroglial morphology and function can be regulated through environmental stimulation and/or medication suggesting that astrocytes can be regarded as a target for therapies aimed at the prevention and cure of neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Sense of smell, physiological ageing and neurodegenerative diseases: II. Ageing and neurodegenerative diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusari, A; Molina, J A

    The sense of smell, which was once studied because of its biological and evolutionary significance, is today one of the centres of interest in research on normal and pathological ageing. The latest scientific developments point to an inversely proportional relationship between age and olfactory sensitivity. In certain neurodegenerative diseases this sensory decline is one of the first symptoms of the disorder and is correlated with the progression of the disease. In this work we are going to review the scientific knowledge on loss of sense of smell in ageing and in neurodegenerative diseases, with special attention given to Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. A survey of studies that have examined the olfactory deficits in ageing and in some neurodegenerative diseases offers conclusive results about the presence of these impairments in the early stages of these disorders and even among healthy elderly persons. Although a number of causes contribute to these sensory losses in physiological ageing, a common neurological foundation has been proposed for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Nevertheless, despite certain initial similarities, the olfactory deficits shown in these disorders seem to be qualitatively different.

  16. Motivational modes and learning in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Erin Kendall; Higgins, E. Tory; Shohamy, Daphna

    2015-01-01

    Learning and motivation are intrinsically related, and both have been linked to dopamine. Parkinson’s disease results from a progressive loss of dopaminergic inputs to the striatum and leads to impairments in motivation and learning from feedback. However, the link between motivation and learning in Parkinson’s disease is not well understood. To address this gap, we leverage a well-established psychological theory of motivation, regulatory mode theory, which distinguishes between two functionally independent motivational concerns in regulating behavior: a concern with having an effect by initiating and maintaining movement (Locomotion) and a concern with establishing what is correct by critically evaluating goal pursuit means and outcomes (Assessment). We examined Locomotion and Assessment in patients with Parkinson’s disease and age-matched controls. Parkinson’s disease patients demonstrated a selective decrease in Assessment motivation but no change in Locomotion motivation, suggesting that Parkinson’s disease leads to a reduced tendency to evaluate and monitor outcomes. Moreover, weaker Assessment motivation was correlated with poorer performance on a feedback-based learning task previously shown to depend on the striatum. Together, these findings link a questionnaire-based personality inventory with performance on a well-characterized experimental task, advancing our understanding of how Parkinson’s disease affects motivation with implications for well-being and treatment outcomes. PMID:25552569

  17. Aging mind and brain: Is implicit learning spared in healthy aging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H Howard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It is often held that although explicit learning declines in the course of normal aging, implicit learning is relatively preserved. Here we summarize research from our group which leads us to argue that some forms of implicit learning do decline with adult age. In particular, we propose that there are age-related declines in implicit learning of probabilistic sequential relationships that occur across the adult lifespan, and that they reflect, at least in part, age-related striatal dysfunction. We first review behavioral evidence supporting this age-related decline and then evidence from patient groups, genetics, and neuroimaging supporting this striatal dysfunction hypothesis.

  18. Learning disabilities in Darier's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodiuk-Gad, R; Lerner, M; Breznitz, Z; Cohen-Barak, E; Ziv, M; Shani-Adir, A; Amichai, B; Zlotogorski, A; Shalev, S; Rozenman, D

    2014-03-01

    Neuropsychiatric features and intellectual difficulties have been reported in studies of Darier's disease. Learning disabilities have never been reported or evaluated systematically in these patients. To assess the prevalence of learning disabilities in 76 patients with Darier's disease, and cognitive functioning in 19 of them. The data were collected by two methods: a questionnaire, as part of a larger study on the clinical characteristics of 76 patients; and neuropsychological measures for the assessment of learning disabilities in 19 of them. Thirty-one of the 76 patients reported learning disabilities (41%) and 56 (74%) reported a family history of learning disabilities. Significant differences were found between the 19 patients evaluated on cognitive tasks and a control group of 42 skilled learners on subtraction and multiplication tasks. Six (32%) of the 19 were identified as having reading difficulties and five (26%) exhibited low performance on the Concentration Performance Test. All patients had general cognitive ability in the average range. Findings suggest an association between Darier's disease and learning disabilities, a heretofore unreported association, pointing to the need to obtain personal and family history of such disabilities in order to refer cases of clinical concern for further study. © 2013 The Authors Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  19. Age of acquisition effects in vocabulary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Shekeila D; Havelka, Jelena

    2010-11-01

    Two experiments examined whether the age of acquisition (AoA) of a concept influences the speed at which native English speakers are able to name pictures using a newly acquired second language (L2) vocabulary. In Experiment 1, participants were taught L2 words associated with pictures. In Experiment 2 a second group of participants were taught the same words associated with L1 translations. Following training both groups performed a picture naming task in which they were asked to name pictures using the newly acquired words. Significant AoA effects were observed only in Experiment 1, in that participants were faster at naming pictures representing early acquired relative to late acquired concepts. The results suggest that the AoA of a concept can exert influence over processing which is independent of the AoA of the word form. The results also indicate that different training methods may lead to qualitative differences in the nature of the links formed between words and concepts during the earliest stages of second language learning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Common diseases as determinants of menopausal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingmei; Eriksson, Mikael; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A

    2016-12-01

    Can the diagnosis of common diseases before menopause influence age at natural menopause (ANM) onset? Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and depression were observed to delay menopause. It has been observed that women who undergo early menopause experience a higher burden of health problems related to metabolic syndromes, heart disease and depression, but whether ANM can be influenced by common adult diseases has not been studied extensively. All women attending mammography screening or clinical mammography at four hospitals in Sweden were invited to participate in the Karolinska Mammography Project for Risk Prediction of Breast Cancer (KARMA) study. Between January 2011 and March 2013, 70 877 women were recruited. Information from the baseline questionnaire filled out upon enrollment was used in this cross-sectional analysis on predictors of ANM onset. We limited our analyses to 61 936 women with complete data on ANM and covariates and a follow-up time (from birth to menopause or censoring) of at least 35 years. Premenopausal diagnoses of depression, anorexia, bulimia, PCOS, ovarian cyst, heart failure, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, stroke, preeclampsia, diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia were examined as time-dependent variables in multivariable Cox regression analyses, adjusting for reproductive factors (age at menarche, menstrual cycle regularity in adult life, number of children and premenopausal oral contraceptive use) and risk factors of common diseases (education, physical activity at 18 years and information at the time of questionnaire including BMI, ever smoking and alcohol consumption). Women with PCOS and depression were independently associated with later menopause (hazard ratio (95% CI): 0.44 (0.28-0.71) and 0.95 (0.91-1.00), respectively), compared to women with no such histories. The associations remained significant in a subset of women who had never received gynecological surgery or hormone treatment (n = 32313, 0.21 (0

  1. Ageing, Loss, and Learning: Hong Kong and Australian Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Pike, Lucinda; Tam, Maureen; Buys, Laurie

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the discussion of loss and its relationship to learning is based on the analysis of interview data from 39 older adults in Hong Kong and 40 in Australia. The focus of the research was on ageing and learning. The phenomenon of life changes, specifically losses, and their relationship to learning was frequently mentioned, and this…

  2. Motor skill learning, retention, and control deficits in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Katharina Pendt

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease, which affects the basal ganglia, is known to lead to various impairments of motor control. Since the basal ganglia have also been shown to be involved in learning processes, motor learning has frequently been investigated in this group of patients. However, results are still inconsistent, mainly due to skill levels and time scales of testing. To bridge across the time scale problem, the present study examined de novo skill learning over a long series of practice sessions that comprised early and late learning stages as well as retention. 19 non-demented, medicated, mild to moderate patients with Parkinson's disease and 19 healthy age and gender matched participants practiced a novel throwing task over five days in a virtual environment where timing of release was a critical element. Six patients and seven control participants came to an additional long-term retention testing after seven to nine months. Changes in task performance were analyzed by a method that differentiates between three components of motor learning prominent in different stages of learning: Tolerance, Noise and Covariation. In addition, kinematic analysis related the influence of skill levels as affected by the specific motor control deficits in Parkinson patients to the process of learning. As a result, patients showed similar learning in early and late stages compared to the control subjects. Differences occurred in short-term retention tests; patients' performance constantly decreased after breaks arising from poorer release timing. However, patients were able to overcome the initial timing problems within the course of each practice session and could further improve their throwing performance. Thus, results demonstrate the intact ability to learn a novel motor skill in non-demented, medicated patients with Parkinson's disease and indicate confounding effects of motor control deficits on retention performance.

  3. Band 3 in aging and neurological disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, M M

    1991-01-01

    Senescent cell antigen appears on old cells and marks them for death by initiating the binding of IgG autoantibody and subsequent removal by phagocytes in mammals and other vertebrates. We have created a synthetic aging antigen that blocks binding of IgG to senescent cells in vitro. Synthetic senescent cell antigen might be effective in preventing cellular destruction in vivo in certain diseases, and can be used to manipulate cellular life span in situ. Senescent cell antigen is generated by the modification of an important structural and transport membrane molecule, protein band 3. Band 3 is present in cellular, nuclear, Golgi, and mitochondrial membranes as well as in cell membranes. Band 3 proteins in nucleated cells participate in cell surface patching and capping. Band 3 maintains acid-base balance by mediating the exchange of anions (e.g., chloride, bicarbonate), and is the binding site for glycolytic enzymes. It is responsible for CO2 exchange in all tissues and organs. Thus, it is the most heavily used anion transport system in the body. Band 3 is a major transmembrane structural protein which attaches the plasma membrane to the internal cell cytoskeleton by binding to band 2.1 (ankyrin). Oxidation generates senescent cell antigen in situ. Band 3 is present in the central nervous system, and differences have been described in band 3 between young and aging brain tissue. One autosomal recessive neurological disease, choreoacanthocytosis, is associated with band 3 abnormalities. The 150 residues of the carboxyl terminus segment of band 3 appear to be altered. In brains from Alzheimer's disease patients, antibodies to aged band 3 label the amyloid core of classical plaques and the microglial cells located in the middle of the plaque in tissue sections, and an abnormal band 3 in immunoblots. Band 3 protein(s) in mammalian brain performs the same functions as that of erythroid band 3. These functions is anion transport, ankyrin binding, and generation of

  4. Adult Learners' Preferred Methods of Learning Preventative Heart Disease Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the preferred method of learning about heart disease by adult learners. This research study also investigated if there was a statistically significant difference between race/ethnicity, age, and gender of adult learners and their preferred method of learning preventative heart disease care. This…

  5. Ageing and Learning: What Do They Mean to Elders Themselves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Maureen; Chui, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    This paper is about a quantitative study which has examined and elucidated the conceptualizations of ageing and learning by a group of elders in Hong Kong. In more specific terms, the study has investigated how this group of older people understood the meaning of successful ageing and elder learning in the context of their later lives. Based on…

  6. Static Posturography in Aging and Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guntram W. Ickenstein

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In clinical practise, evaluation of postural control is based on the neurological examination, including Romberg’s test, examination of gait and performance of pull test as part of the Unified Parkinson´s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS. The goal of our study was to identify posturographic parameters since quantitative technical methods for the measurement of postural control are not established in clinical routine yet. Methods: In this cross-sectional study design we examined patients with Parkinson's disease (Hoehn & Yahr <3; PD n=12 on a static posturographic platform (eyes open and eyes closed, performing a standard Romberg’s test during neurological examination and compared the results with an age-matched control group (healthy adult control; HAC n=10 and a healthy young control (HYC n=21.Results: In the platform Romberg’s test with open eyes, the patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD showed a significantly greater mean sway (PD: 14.98 vs. HAC: 8.77 [mm], p<0.003 vs. HYC 7.80 [mm], greater mean radius (PD: 28.31 vs. HAC: 16.36 [mm], p<0.008 vs. HYC: 14.19 [mm] and greater marked area (PD: 2.38 vs. HAC: 0.88 [cm2], p<0.016 vs. HYC: 0.78 [cm2] compared to the healthy adult control (HAC. The Romberg’s test with closed eyes revealed a significantly greater mean sway (PD: 13.83 vs. HAC: 10.12 [mm], p<0.033 vs. HYC: 5.82 [mm] and greater mean radius (PD: 25.03 vs. HAC: 18.15 [mm], p<0.045 vs. HYC: 9.11 [mm] compared to both groups.Conclusions: The platform Romberg test with closed eyes detected significant differences in elderly people and patients with Parkinson's disease, which could be objectively quantified with static posturography testing. Age alone showed significant changes, only detectable with closed eyes. Therefore balance testing with a new computerized approach could help to identify balance problems in a geriatric assessment in clinical routine, especially with the parameters marked area and mean sway.

  7. Fracture, aging and disease in bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ager, J.W.; Balooch, G.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2006-02-01

    fracture resistance, whereas regulating the level of the cytokine TGF-beta can offer significant improvements in the stiffness, strength and toughness of bone, and as such may be considered as a therapeutic target to treat increased bone fragility induced by aging, drugs, and disease.

  8. Learning Choices, Older Australians and Active Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants who either did or did not engage in organized learning. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the lived learning experiences and perspectives of these older people. Their experiences of…

  9. Lycopene Deficiency in Ageing and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petyaev, Ivan M.

    2016-01-01

    Lycopene is a hydrocarbon phytochemical belonging to the tetraterpene carotenoid family and is found in red fruit and vegetables. Eleven conjugated double bonds predetermine the antioxidant properties of lycopene and its ability to scavenge lipid peroxyl radicals, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide. Lycopene has a low bioavailability rate and appears in the blood circulation incorporated into chylomicrons and other apo-B containing lipoproteins. The recent body of evidence suggests that plasma concentration of lycopene is not only a function of intestinal absorption rate but also lycopene breakdown via enzymatic and oxidative pathways in blood and tissues. Oxidative stress and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide may represent a major cause of lycopene depletion in ageing, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been shown recently that low carotenoid levels, and especially decreased serum lycopene levels, are strongly predictive of all-cause mortality and poor outcomes of cardiovascular disease. However, there is a poor statistical association between dietary and serum lycopene levels which occurs due to limited bioavailability of lycopene from dietary sources. Hence, it is very unlikely that nutritional intervention alone could be instrumental in the correction of lycopene and carotenoid deficiency. Therefore, new nutraceutical formulations of carotenoids with enhanced bioavailability are urgently needed. PMID:26881023

  10. Shared molecular and cellular mechanisms of premature ageing and ageing-associated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubben, Nard; Misteli, Tom

    2017-10-01

    Ageing is the predominant risk factor for many common diseases. Human premature ageing diseases are powerful model systems to identify and characterize cellular mechanisms that underpin physiological ageing. Their study also leads to a better understanding of the causes, drivers and potential therapeutic strategies of common diseases associated with ageing, including neurological disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Using the rare premature ageing disorder Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome as a paradigm, we discuss here the shared mechanisms between premature ageing and ageing-associated diseases, including defects in genetic, epigenetic and metabolic pathways; mitochondrial and protein homeostasis; cell cycle; and stem cell-regenerative capacity.

  11. Third-Age Education in Canada and Japan: Attitudes toward Aging and Participation in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Shigeo; Cusack, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Lifelong learning is essential to participation in society, and presents important challenges for educational gerontology. This study compares Canadian and Japanese perspectives on (a) attitudes toward aging, (b) the learning needs of older adults, and (c) the role of centers of learning. Surveys were conducted of sample populations in two elder…

  12. The Development of Associate Learning in School Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Brian T.; Pietrzak, Robert H.; Snyder, Peter J.; Thomas, Elizabeth; Mayes, Linda C.; Maruff, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Associate learning is fundamental to the acquisition of knowledge and plays a critical role in the everyday functioning of the developing child, though the developmental course is still unclear. This study investigated the development of visual associate learning in 125 school age children using the Continuous Paired Associate Learning task. As hypothesized, younger children made more errors than older children across all memory loads and evidenced decreased learning efficiency as memory load increased. Results suggest that age-related differences in performance largely reflect continued development of executive function in the context of relatively developed memory processes. PMID:25014755

  13. The development of associate learning in school age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T Harel

    Full Text Available Associate learning is fundamental to the acquisition of knowledge and plays a critical role in the everyday functioning of the developing child, though the developmental course is still unclear. This study investigated the development of visual associate learning in 125 school age children using the Continuous Paired Associate Learning task. As hypothesized, younger children made more errors than older children across all memory loads and evidenced decreased learning efficiency as memory load increased. Results suggest that age-related differences in performance largely reflect continued development of executive function in the context of relatively developed memory processes.

  14. Learning at old age: a study on winter bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Behrends

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ageing is often accompanied by a decline in learning and memory abilities across the animal kingdom. Understanding age-related changes in cognitive abilities is therefore a major goal of current research. The honey bee is emerging as a novel model organism for age-related changes in brain function, because learning and memory can easily be studied in bees under controlled laboratory conditions. In addition, genetically similar workers naturally display life expectancies from six weeks (summer bees to six months (winter bees. We studied whether in honey bees, extreme longevity leads to a decline in cognitive functions. Six-month-old winter bees were conditioned either to odours or to tactile stimuli. Afterwards, long-term memory and discrimination abilities were analysed. Winter bees were kept under different conditions (flight /no flight opportunity to test for effects of foraging activity on learning performance. Despite their extreme age, winter bees did not display an age-related decline in learning or discrimination abilities, but had a slightly impaired olfactory long-term memory. The opportunity to forage indoors led to a slight decrease in learning performance. This suggests that in honey bees, unlike in most other animals, age per se does not impair associative learning. Future research will show which mechanisms protect winter bees from age-related deficits in learning.

  15. Ageing, Learning and Health: Making Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestheneos, Elizabeth; Withnall, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The health of ageing populations is a real concern across the world so that the concept of active ageing has been advocated as a framework for appropriate educational policies and programmes to support people as they grow older. The other elements discussed here are health and healthy life expectancy (HLE) acknowledging that as people age, they…

  16. Historical survey of new concepts of lifelong learning during aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parlić-Božović Jasna Lj.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning and education gradually occupy an important place in human life. Therefore, continuing socio-political and economic changes, rapid scientific and technological development, the expansion of knowledge, formed the phenomenon of the learning society. Its theoretical basis can be found in the concept of learning in the course of a lifetime, example: permanent learning and education in the aging process. On the other hand, the rapid changes taking place in the world, seeking to know the day is increasing. In the center of a thriving economy and a developed society are knowledge and ability, and education and learning become the instrument that. key socio-economic progress. Nevertheless, shorter working hours and longer life expectancy retirement also increases the amount of time available for other activities. In all areas, there are more opportunities for learning outside the school, and qualifications, in the traditional sense of getting out in front of new trends competence and adaptability. Adults who are constantly in the process of aging, the process of continuing education and learning are significantly different quality in relation to children, therefore it is necessary and a different approach to the children, and a different approach to teaching adults in the era of change, due to life and work experience, educational level, psychological and physical characteristics but also because of their social status. This paper will be an attempt, which will show the theoretical analysis of many aspects of learning, types, shapes, possibilities and limits of learning, the basic needs of adults in the aging process, as well as provide answers to the question why a grown man in the aging process learns who the person in the learning process and learning how to function in a process of aging.

  17. Effects of aging on strategic-based visuomotor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso Uresti-Cabrera, Luis; Vaca-Palomares, Israel; Diaz, Rosalinda; Beltran-Parrazal, Luis; Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan

    2015-08-27

    There are different kinds of visuomotor learnings. One of the most studied is error-based learning where the information about the sign and magnitude of the error is used to update the motor commands. However, there are other instances where subjects show visuomotor learning even if the use of error sign and magnitude information is precluded. In those instances subjects could be using strategic instead of procedural adaptation mechanisms. Here, we present the results of the effect of aging on visuomotor strategic learning under a reversed error feedback condition, and its contrast with procedural visuomotor learning within the same participants. A number of measures were obtained from a task consisting of throwing clay balls to a target before, during and after wearing lateral displacing or reversing prisms. The displacing prism results show an age dependent decrease on the learning rate that corroborates previous findings. The reversing prism results also show significant adaptation impairment in the aged population. However, decreased reversing learning in the older group was the result of an increase in the number of subjects that could not adapt to the reversing prism, and not on a reduction of the learning capacity of all the individuals of the group. These results suggest a significant deleterious effect of aging on visuomotor strategic learning implementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Lifelong learning in an age of measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    There has been a shift in interest from ‘lifelong education’ to ‘lifelong learning’ in the Western world since the 1990s. This shift is closely related to strategies for securing the competitiveness of national economies. For this purpose one of the tools applied by educational policy makers has...... been to invoke ‘the golden standard(s)’ of evidence based research into the domain of learning. A number of problems with this approach are that the very conception of learning is broad, vague, ambiguous and does not in itself give us a normative handle which can help us with education. There might...... be one particular area, however, where evidence based learning research might be thought to have a strong foothold: in the brain sciences. And certainly a rapidly growing interest in ‘educational neuroscience’ has emerged within the last 10 years. But is it possible to bridge the gap between ‘studying...

  19. Learning radiological appearances of diseases: Does comparison help?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Ellen M.; de Bruin, Anique B H; Robben, Simon C. F.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    Comparison learning is a promising approach for learning complex real-life visual tasks. When medical students study radiological appearances of diseases, comparison of images showing diseases with images showing no abnormalities could help them learn to discriminate relevant, disease-related

  20. Conditioning and learning in relation to disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, T A; Guy, W

    1985-12-01

    Of the two generally recognized processes through which learning occurs--imprinting and conditioning--only the latter with its two paradigms, classical and operant, has both practical and heuristic implications for disease. From the classical conditioning experiments of Pavlov's laboratory over 100 years ago to the later work in operant conditioning by Skinner and others in the past four decades has evolved much of the basis of modern learning theory and its applications to disease in the form of behavior therapy. Variants of behavior therapy have been employed in the treatment of wide variety of medical and psychiatric illnesses. Recent developments in the study of brain function and biochemistry have led to renewed interest in the conditioning paradigm and its value as tool in these areas of research.

  1. Age Learning Factors Affecting Pilot Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbert, Brison

    This document, intended for pilot education and flight safety specialists, consists chiefly of a review of the literature on physiological factors that affect pilot education and an examination of environmental factors that should be scrutinized in order to improve the effectiveness of aviation learning facilities. The physiological factors…

  2. Some Psychological Aspects of Aging: Implications for Teaching and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lersten, Kenneth C.

    This paper reviews psychological literature concerned with aging, and includes brief reviews of (a) motor skill work, (b) the phenomena of "slowing," (c) social psychological findings, (d) sensation and perception, and (e) selected learning characteristics. The following teaching and learning strategies were elicited from this study: (a)…

  3. Factors for Successful E-Learning: Does Age Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Julie; Becker, Karen; Newton, Cameron

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors affecting employees' overall acceptance, satisfaction and future use of e-learning, specifically exploring the impact that age has on the intended future use of e-learning relative to the other potential predictors. Design/Methodology/Approach: The project developed an online survey and…

  4. Age and time effects on implicit and explicit learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verneau, M.; Kamp, J. van der; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; Looze, M.P. de

    2014-01-01

    Study Context: It has been proposed that effects of aging are more pronounced for explicit than for implicit motor learning. The authors evaluated this claim by comparing the efficacy of explicit and implicit learning of a movement sequence in young and older adults, and by testing the resilience

  5. Age and Time Effects on Implicit and Explicit Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verneau, M.M.N.; van der Kamp, J.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; de Looze, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Study Context: It has been proposed that effects of aging are more pronounced for explicit than for implicit motor learning. The authors evaluated this claim by comparing the efficacy of explicit and implicit learning of a movement sequence in young and older adults, and by testing the resilience

  6. E-Learning and the Third Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentin, Guglielmo

    2004-01-01

    As a result of the general improvement in living conditions in industrialised Western countries, people aged over 60 years usually reach the third age in good mental and physical condition. Contemporary society has thus had to endeavour to offer the new old not only social services but also pastimes, leisure, social, cultural and educational…

  7. A review of supervised machine learning applied to ageing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabris, Fabio; Magalhães, João Pedro de; Freitas, Alex A

    2017-04-01

    Broadly speaking, supervised machine learning is the computational task of learning correlations between variables in annotated data (the training set), and using this information to create a predictive model capable of inferring annotations for new data, whose annotations are not known. Ageing is a complex process that affects nearly all animal species. This process can be studied at several levels of abstraction, in different organisms and with different objectives in mind. Not surprisingly, the diversity of the supervised machine learning algorithms applied to answer biological questions reflects the complexities of the underlying ageing processes being studied. Many works using supervised machine learning to study the ageing process have been recently published, so it is timely to review these works, to discuss their main findings and weaknesses. In summary, the main findings of the reviewed papers are: the link between specific types of DNA repair and ageing; ageing-related proteins tend to be highly connected and seem to play a central role in molecular pathways; ageing/longevity is linked with autophagy and apoptosis, nutrient receptor genes, and copper and iron ion transport. Additionally, several biomarkers of ageing were found by machine learning. Despite some interesting machine learning results, we also identified a weakness of current works on this topic: only one of the reviewed papers has corroborated the computational results of machine learning algorithms through wet-lab experiments. In conclusion, supervised machine learning has contributed to advance our knowledge and has provided novel insights on ageing, yet future work should have a greater emphasis in validating the predictions.

  8. Implicit motor sequence learning in schizophrenia and in old age: reduced performance only in the third session

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelis, Claudia; de Picker, Livia J.; de Boer, Peter; Dumont, Glenn; Coppens, Violette; Morsel, Anne; Janssens, Luc; Timmers, Maarten; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.; Morrens, Manuel; Hulstijn, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    Although there still is conflicting evidence whether schizophrenia is a neurodegenerative disease, cognitive changes in schizophrenia resemble those observed during normal aging. In contrast to extensively demonstrated deficits in explicit learning, it remains unclear whether implicit sequence

  9. Age-related declines of stability in visual perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Hung; Shibata, Kazuhisa; Andersen, George J; Sasaki, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeo

    2014-12-15

    One of the biggest questions in learning is how a system can resolve the plasticity and stability dilemma. Specifically, the learning system needs to have not only a high capability of learning new items (plasticity) but also a high stability to retain important items or processing in the system by preventing unimportant or irrelevant information from being learned. This dilemma should hold true for visual perceptual learning (VPL), which is defined as a long-term increase in performance on a visual task as a result of visual experience. Although it is well known that aging influences learning, the effect of aging on the stability and plasticity of the visual system is unclear. To address the question, we asked older and younger adults to perform a task while a task-irrelevant feature was merely exposed. We found that older individuals learned the task-irrelevant features that younger individuals did not learn, both the features that were sufficiently strong for younger individuals to suppress and the features that were too weak for younger individuals to learn. At the same time, there was no plasticity reduction in older individuals within the task tested. These results suggest that the older visual system is less stable to unimportant information than the younger visual system. A learning problem with older individuals may be due to a decrease in stability rather than a decrease in plasticity, at least in VPL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Healthy aging and disease : role for telomere biology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Haidong; Belcher, Matthew; van der Harst, Pim

    Aging is a biological process that affects most cells, organisms and species. Human aging is associated with increased susceptibility to a variety of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, neurological diseases and cancer. Despite the remarkable progress made during the

  11. Age Features Of Peptic And Duodenal Ulcer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е.А. Islamova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcer disease is one of the most widespread diseases. 6-10 % of adult population in Russia suffer from it. Demographic processes in the Russian Federation determine the increase of patients' number aged over 60 with peptic ulcer disease. It counts 10-35 % of all patients with this disease. The modern views on pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease, including factor of Helicobacter pylori, in patients of different age groups have been highlighted in the article. Pathogenetic features and clinical morphological manifestations of peptic ulcer disease in young and aged patients have been considered

  12. How older people with learning disabilities perceive ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Robert

    2010-07-01

    This article discusses the author's use of reflexivity in trying to gain a better understanding of ageing in older people with learning disabilities. In the general population ageing is viewed in rather negative terms and as a significant life transition. However, for some older people with learning disabilities this transition may go unnoticed because of their past negative life experiences and lack of opportunities. Reflexivity has the potential to provide nurses with greater understanding of the personal perspectives of older people with learning disabilities.

  13. Aging and the statistical learning of grammatical form classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Jessica F; Schuler, Kathryn D; Stillman, Chelsea M; Newport, Elissa L; Howard, James H; Howard, Darlene V

    2016-08-01

    Language learners must place unfamiliar words into categories, often with few explicit indicators about when and how that word can be used grammatically. Reeder, Newport, and Aslin (2013) showed that college students can learn grammatical form classes from an artificial language by relying solely on distributional information (i.e., contextual cues in the input). Here, 2 experiments revealed that healthy older adults also show such statistical learning, though they are poorer than young at distinguishing grammatical from ungrammatical strings. This finding expands knowledge of which aspects of learning vary with aging, with potential implications for second language learning in late adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Aging Is Not a Disease: Distinguishing Age-Related Macular Degeneration from Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardeljan, Daniel; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease of the outer retina, characterized most significantly by atrophy of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium accompanied with or without choroidal neovascularization. Development of AMD has been recognized as contingent on environmental and genetic risk factors, the strongest being advanced age. In this review, we highlight pathogenic changes that destabilize ocular homeostasis and promote AMD development. With normal aging, photoreceptors are steadily lost, Bruch's membrane thickens, the choroid thins, and hard drusen may form in the periphery. In AMD, many of these changes are exacerbated in addition to the development of disease-specific factors such as soft macular drusen. Para-inflammation, which can be thought of as an intermediate between basal and robust levels of inflammation, develops within the retina in an attempt to maintain ocular homeostasis, reflected by increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 coupled with shifts in macrophage plasticity from the pro-inflammatory M1 to the anti-inflammatory M2 polarization. In AMD, imbalances in the M1 and M2 populations together with activation of retinal microglia are observed and potentially contribute to tissue degeneration. Nonetheless, the retina persists in a state of chronic inflammation and increased expression of certain cytokines and inflammasomes is observed. Since not everyone develops AMD, the vital question to ask is how the body establishes a balance between normal age-related changes and the pathological phenotypes in AMD. PMID:23933169

  15. Fully Automated Deep Learning System for Bone Age Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunkwang; Tajmir, Shahein; Lee, Jenny; Zissen, Maurice; Yeshiwas, Bethel Ayele; Alkasab, Tarik K; Choy, Garry; Do, Synho

    2017-08-01

    Skeletal maturity progresses through discrete phases, a fact that is used routinely in pediatrics where bone age assessments (BAAs) are compared to chronological age in the evaluation of endocrine and metabolic disorders. While central to many disease evaluations, little has changed to improve the tedious process since its introduction in 1950. In this study, we propose a fully automated deep learning pipeline to segment a region of interest, standardize and preprocess input radiographs, and perform BAA. Our models use an ImageNet pretrained, fine-tuned convolutional neural network (CNN) to achieve 57.32 and 61.40% accuracies for the female and male cohorts on our held-out test images. Female test radiographs were assigned a BAA within 1 year 90.39% and within 2 years 98.11% of the time. Male test radiographs were assigned 94.18% within 1 year and 99.00% within 2 years. Using the input occlusion method, attention maps were created which reveal what features the trained model uses to perform BAA. These correspond to what human experts look at when manually performing BAA. Finally, the fully automated BAA system was deployed in the clinical environment as a decision supporting system for more accurate and efficient BAAs at much faster interpretation time (<2 s) than the conventional method.

  16. The Rationale for Delaying Aging and the Prevention of Age-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Barzilai

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available [Excerpt] We offer a different approach to delaying or preventing age-related diseases. To understand the necessity for a new approach we have plotted the mortality rates in Israelis in relation to specific age groups and diseases. With the common phenomenon of aging of Western populations it is of utmost importance to follow time-dependent and age-dependent mortality patterns to predict future needs of Western health systems. Age-specific, gender-specific, and cause-of-death-specific mortality rates were extracted from the statistical abstract of Israel1 and include data for the period of 1975–2010; these are presented in Figure 1, separately for men (A and women (B. Detailed age-specific causes of death data were available for the year 2009. Data presented were restricted to 5-year age groups starting at age 50, and for cause-specific mortality to the following age groups: 45–54, 55–64, 65–74, 75–84, and 85+. Causes of mortality were separated into malignant diseases, acute myocardial infarction, other ischemic heart diseases, other forms of heart diseases, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, diseases of kidney, infectious diseases, all external causes, signs/symptoms and ill-defined conditions, and all other diseases. Figure 1 is similar to the one posted on the National Institute of Aging website and similar to data across the industrial world. The striking feature of this graph is that aging is a major log scale risk for most diseases, including the major killers: heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s. For example, while aging is a 100-fold risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD according to Figure 1, hypercholesterolemia is known to carry only a three-fold risk for CVD. For each of the mentioned diseases, aging is a log risk greater than the most important known risk factor for that disease.

  17. Quantitative Machine Learning Analysis of Brain MRI Morphology throughout Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Lior; Long, Joe

    2016-01-01

    While cognition is clearly affected by aging, it is unclear whether the process of brain aging is driven solely by accumulation of environmental damage, or involves biological pathways. We applied quantitative image analysis to profile the alteration of brain tissues during aging. A dataset of 463 brain MRI images taken from a cohort of 416 subjects was analyzed using a large set of low-level numerical image content descriptors computed from the entire brain MRI images. The correlation between the numerical image content descriptors and the age was computed, and the alterations of the brain tissues during aging were quantified and profiled using machine learning. The comprehensive set of global image content descriptors provides high Pearson correlation of ~0.9822 with the chronological age, indicating that the machine learning analysis of global features is sensitive to the age of the subjects. Profiling of the predicted age shows several periods of mild changes, separated by shorter periods of more rapid alterations. The periods with the most rapid changes were around the age of 55, and around the age of 65. The results show that the process of brain aging of is not linear, and exhibit short periods of rapid aging separated by periods of milder change. These results are in agreement with patterns observed in cognitive decline, mental health status, and general human aging, suggesting that brain aging might not be driven solely by accumulation of environmental damage. Code and data used in the experiments are publicly available.

  18. NNDSS - Table II. Invasive Pneumococcal Diseases, Age <5

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Invasive Pneumococcal Diseases, Age <5 - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during...

  19. NNDSS - Table II. Invasive Pneumococcal Diseases, All Ages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Invasive Pneumococcal Diseases, All Ages - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  20. NNDSS - Table II. Invasive pneumococcal disease, all ages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Invasive pneumococcal disease, all ages - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  1. NNDSS - Table II. Invasive pneumococcal disease, age <5

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Invasive pneumococcal disease, age <5 - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  2. Ageing and People with Learning Disabilities: In Search of Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background: Growing numbers of people with learning disabilities are now living into older age. This study aims to examine the state of knowledge about their lives and the challenges that ageing has for both family carers and policymakers and practitioners. Materials and Methods: The article synthesises existing research in the fields of learning…

  3. Learning to Cope with an Ageing Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The ageing of society is one of the biggest policy challenges of this time. Growing life expectancy and low birth rates mean that, for the fist time in human history, most people, and certainly the more prosperous social groups, will be spending a third of their lives in "retirement". This has profound social, cultural and economic…

  4. Polymerase Gamma Disease through the Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneto, Russell P.; Naviaux, Robert K.

    2010-01-01

    The most common group of mitochondrial disease is due to mutations within the mitochondrial DNA polymerase, polymerase gamma 1 ("POLG"). This gene product is responsible for replication and repair of the small mitochondrial DNA genome. The structure-function relationship of this gene product produces a wide variety of diseases that at times, seems…

  5. Predicting brain age with deep learning from raw imaging data results in a reliable and heritable biomarker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, James H.; Poudel, Rudra P. K.; Tsagkrasoulis, Dimosthenis; Caan, Matthan W. A.; Steves, Claire; Spector, Tim D.; Montana, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning analysis of neuroimaging data can accurately predict chronological age in healthy people. Deviations from healthy brain ageing have been associated with cognitive impairment and disease. Here we sought to further establish the credentials of 'brain-predicted age' as a biomarker of

  6. Learning Analytics: The next frontier for computer assisted language learning in big data age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Qinglan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning analytics (LA has been applied to various learning environments, though it is quite new in the field of computer assisted language learning (CALL. This article attempts to examine the application of learning analytics in the upcoming big data age. It starts with an introduction and application of learning analytics in other fields, followed by a retrospective review of historical interaction between learning and media in CALL, and a penetrating analysis on why people would go to learning analytics to increase the efficiency of foreign language education. As approved in previous research, new technology, including big data mining and analysis, would inevitably enhance the learning of foreign languages. Potential changes that learning analytics would bring to Chinese foreign language education and researches are also presented in the article.

  7. Telomere biology in healthy aging and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeseburg, Hisko; de Boer, Rudolf A.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; van der Harst, Pim

    Aging is a biological process that affects most cells, organisms and species. Telomeres have been postulated as a universal biological clock that shortens in parallel with aging in cells. Telomeres are located at the end of the chromosomes and consist of an evolutionary conserved repetitive

  8. Liver diseases and aging : friends or foes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheedfar, Fareeba; Di Biase, Stefano; Koonen, Debby; Vinciguerra, Manlio

    2013-01-01

    The liver is the only internal human organ capable of natural regeneration of lost tissue, as little as 25% of a liver can regenerate into a whole liver. The process of aging predisposes to hepatic functional and structural impairment and metabolic risk. Therefore, understanding how aging could

  9. The effect of normal aging and age-related macular degeneration on perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astle, Andrew T; Blighe, Alan J; Webb, Ben S; McGraw, Paul V

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether perceptual learning could be used to improve peripheral word identification speed. The relationship between the magnitude of learning and age was established in normal participants to determine whether perceptual learning effects are age invariant. We then investigated whether training could lead to improvements in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Twenty-eight participants with normal vision and five participants with AMD trained on a word identification task. They were required to identify three-letter words, presented 10° from fixation. To standardize crowding across each of the letters that made up the word, words were flanked laterally by randomly chosen letters. Word identification performance was measured psychophysically using a staircase procedure. Significant improvements in peripheral word identification speed were demonstrated following training (71% ± 18%). Initial task performance was correlated with age, with older participants having poorer performance. However, older adults learned more rapidly such that, following training, they reached the same level of performance as their younger counterparts. As a function of number of trials completed, patients with AMD learned at an equivalent rate as age-matched participants with normal vision. Improvements in word identification speed were maintained at least 6 months after training. We have demonstrated that temporal aspects of word recognition can be improved in peripheral vision with training across a range of ages and these learned improvements are relatively enduring. However, training targeted at other bottlenecks to peripheral reading ability, such as visual crowding, may need to be incorporated to optimize this approach.

  10. [Decline in renal function in old age : Part of physiological aging versus age-related disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, F; Brinkkötter, P T

    2016-08-01

    The incidence and prevalence of chronic renal disease (CKD) in elderly patients are continuously increasing worldwide. Loss of renal function is not only considered to be part of the aging process itself but also reflects the multimorbidity of many geriatric patients. Calculating the glomerular filtration rate using specific algorithms validated for the elderly population and measuring the amount of proteinuria allow an estimation of renal function in elderly patients with high accuracy. Chronic renal failure has many clinical consequences and not only results in a delayed excretion of toxins cleared by the kidneys but also affects hematogenesis, water and electrolyte balance as well as mineral bone metabolism. Furthermore, CKD directly leads to and aggravates geriatric syndromes and in particular the onset of frailty. Therapeutic strategies to halt progression of CKD not only comprise treatment of the underlying disease but also efficient blood pressure and diabetic control and the avoidance of nephrotoxic medications.

  11. Adult Stem Cells and Diseases of Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa B. Boyette

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of adult stem cells pools is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis into old age. Exhaustion of adult stem cell pools as a result of deranged metabolic signaling, premature senescence as a response to oncogenic insults to the somatic genome, and other causes contribute to tissue degeneration with age. Both progeria, an extreme example of early-onset aging, and heritable longevity have provided avenues to study regulation of the aging program and its impact on adult stem cell compartments. In this review, we discuss recent findings concerning the effects of aging on stem cells, contributions of stem cells to age-related pathologies, examples of signaling pathways at work in these processes, and lessons about cellular aging gleaned from the development and refinement of cellular reprogramming technologies. We highlight emerging therapeutic approaches to manipulation of key signaling pathways corrupting or exhausting adult stem cells, as well as other approaches targeted at maintaining robust stem cell pools to extend not only lifespan but healthspan.

  12. Redefining meaningful age groups in the context of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geifman, Nophar; Cohen, Raphael; Rubin, Eitan

    2013-12-01

    Age is an important factor when considering phenotypic changes in health and disease. Currently, the use of age information in medicine is somewhat simplistic, with ages commonly being grouped into a small number of crude ranges reflecting the major stages of development and aging, such as childhood or adolescence. Here, we investigate the possibility of redefining age groups using the recently developed Age-Phenome Knowledge-base (APK) that holds over 35,000 literature-derived entries describing relationships between age and phenotype. Clustering of APK data suggests 13 new, partially overlapping, age groups. The diseases that define these groups suggest that the proposed divisions are biologically meaningful. We further show that the number of different age ranges that should be considered depends on the type of disease being evaluated. This finding was further strengthened by similar results obtained from clinical blood measurement data. The grouping of diseases that share a similar pattern of disease-related reports directly mirrors, in some cases, medical knowledge of disease-age relationships. In other cases, our results may be used to generate new and reasonable hypotheses regarding links between diseases.

  13. NAD+ Deficits in Age-Related Diseases and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Amanda; Djouder, Nabil

    2017-08-01

    The phenomenon of aging has gained widespread attention in recent times. Although significant advances have been made to better understand aging and its related pathologies including cancer, there is not yet a clear mechanism explaining why diseases and cancer are inherent parts of the aging process. Finding a unifying equation that could bridge aging and its related diseases would allow therapeutic development and solve an immense human health problem to live longer and better. In this review, we discuss NAD + reduction as the central mechanism that may connect aging to its related pathologies and cancer. NAD + boosters would ensure and ameliorate health quality during aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Aging is not a disease: implications for intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattan, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Aging of biological systems occurs in spite of numerous complex pathways of maintenance, repair and defense. There are no gerontogenes which have the specific evolutionary function to cause aging. Although aging is the common cause of all age-related diseases, aging in itself cannot be considered...... a disease. This understanding of aging as a process should transform our approach towards interventions from developing illusory anti-aging treatments to developing realistic and practical methods for maintaining health throughout the lifespan. The concept of homeodynamic space can be a useful one in order...... to identify a set of measurable, evidence-based and demonstratable parameters of health, robustness and resilience. Age-induced health problems, for which there are no other clear-cut causative agents, may be better tackled by focusing on health mechanisms and their maintenance, rather than only disease...

  15. Aging and Alzheimer's Disease: Lessons from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a woman who maintained high cognitive test scores until her death at 101 years of age despite anatomical evidence of Alzheimer's disease. The woman was part of a larger "Nun Study" in which 678 sisters donated their brains to teach others about the etiology of aging and Alzheimer's disease. Findings are discussed. (RJM)

  16. Discursive constructions of falls prevention : Discourses of active aging versus old age as disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evron, Lotte; Ulrich, Anita; Tanggaard, Lene

    2012-01-01

    information and investment in falls prevention programs, many still drop out or decline to participate in such programs. The study explores how discourses cross swords in the domain of falls prevention. We identify two main discourses in the field: Discourses of active aging opposed to discourses of old age...... as disease. In discourses of active aging falls are constructed as preventable and not necessarily related to old age; in discourses of old age as disease falls are constructed as a disease of old age. Specific agent positions are created within discourses. Discourses of active aging construct self......-responsible citizens who are physically active and motivated to participate in falls prevention programmes; discourses of old age as disease on the other hand construct “fall patients” who accept being passive in the health care system. Older citizens who are not in need of treatment or less physically active...

  17. HIV infection, aging and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petoumenos, Kathy; Worm, Signe W

    2011-01-01

    , including cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is suggested that CVD occurs earlier among HIV-positive patients compared with HIV-negative patients, and at a higher rate. Several factors have been proposed to contribute to this. First, the traditional CVD risk factors are highly prevalent in this population...

  18. Hematopoiesis during development, aging, and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, Johannes; Buisman, Sonja; de Haan, Gerald

    Hematopoietic stem cells were once considered identical. However, in the mid-1990s, it became apparent that stem cells from a person's early developmental phases are superior to those from adults, and aged stem cells are defective compared with young stem cells. It has since become clear that

  19. Lessons learned about ageing and gerontological nursing in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staja Q. Booker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The unprecedented global growth in older adults merits high-quality gerontological nursing care. As gerontological nursing grows in visibility in developed and developing countries, nurses must possess a broader worldview of ageing with knowledge of physiological, psychosocial, and cultural issues. Purpose: The purpose of this article is to: (1 highlight lessons learned on differences and similarities in ageing and care of older adults in the United States of America (USA and South Africa (SA; and (2 provide recommendations on how to advance gerontological nursingeducation in SA. Methods: A two-week international service-learning project was undertaken by visiting SA and learning about their nursing system and care of older adults. Service-learning is an innovative teaching-learning-service method that provided reflective and hands-on experience of gerontological nursing. This article provides a personal reflection of lessons learned about ageing and gerontological nursing during the service-learning project. Findings: Care of older adults in SA is in many ways different from and similar to that in the USA. Consequently global nurses should recognise those differences and provide culturally appropriate care. This service-learning experience also demonstrated the need for gerontological nursing education in SA. Based on this, recommendations on how to infuse and advance gerontological nursing education in SA are provided. Conclusion: Caring for older adults in a global context requires knowledge and understanding of cultures and their values and practices. With a growing population of diverse older adults, there is a need for incorporation

  20. Ageing and the border between health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNee, William; Rabinovich, Roberto A; Choudhury, Gourab

    2014-11-01

    Ageing is associated with a progressive degeneration of the tissues, which has a negative impact on the structure and function of vital organs and is among the most important known risk factors for most chronic diseases. Since the proportion of the world's population aged >60 years will double in the next four decades, this will be accompanied by an increased incidence of chronic age-related diseases that will place a huge burden on healthcare resources. There is increasing evidence that many chronic inflammatory diseases represent an acceleration of the ageing process. Chronic pulmonary diseases represents an important component of the increasingly prevalent multiple chronic debilitating diseases, which are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the elderly. The lungs age and it has been suggested that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a condition of accelerated lung ageing and that ageing may provide a mechanistic link between COPD and many of its extrapulmonary effects and comorbidities. In this article we will describe the physiological changes and mechanisms of ageing, with particular focus on the pulmonary effects of ageing and how these may be relevant to the development of COPD and its major extrapulmonary manifestations. ©ERS 2014.

  1. Increased brain-predicted aging in treated HIV disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, James H; Underwood, Jonathan; Caan, Matthan W A; De Francesco, Davide; van Zoest, Rosan A; Leech, Robert; Wit, Ferdinand W N M; Portegies, Peter; Geurtsen, Gert J; Schmand, Ben A; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; Franceschi, Claudio; Sabin, Caroline A; Majoie, Charles B L M; Winston, Alan; Reiss, Peter; Sharp, David J; Kalsbeek, A.

    OBJECTIVE: To establish whether HIV disease is associated with abnormal levels of age-related brain atrophy, by estimating apparent brain age using neuroimaging and exploring whether these estimates related to HIV status, age, cognitive performance, and HIV-related clinical parameters. METHODS: A

  2. Increased brain-predicted aging in treated HIV disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, James H.; Underwood, Jonathan; Caan, Matthan W. A.; de Francesco, Davide; van Zoest, Rosan A.; Leech, Robert; Wit, Ferdinand W. N. M.; Portegies, Peter; Geurtsen, Gert J.; Schmand, Ben A.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Franceschi, Claudio; Sabin, Caroline A.; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.; Winston, Alan; Reiss, Peter; Sharp, David J.; Schouten, J.; Kooij, K. W.; Elsenga, B. C.; Janssen, F. R.; Heidenrijk, M.; Schrijver, J. H. N.; Zikkenheiner, W.; van der Valk, M.; Henderiks, A.; Kootstra, N. A.; Harskamp-Holwerda, A. M.; Maurer, I.; Ruiz, M. M. Mangas; Booiman, T.; Girigorie, A. F.; Villaudy, J.; Frankin, E.; Pasternak, A.; Berkhout, B.; van der Kuyl, T.; Stege, J. A. ter; Twennaar, M. Klein; Su, T.; Siteur-van Rijnstra, E.; Weijer, K.; Bisschop, P. H. L. T.; Kalsbeek, A.; Wezel, M.; Visser, I.; Ruhé , H. G.; Tembo, L.; Stott, M.; Prins, M. [= Maria

    2017-01-01

    To establish whether HIV disease is associated with abnormal levels of age-related brain atrophy, by estimating apparent brain age using neuroimaging and exploring whether these estimates related to HIV status, age, cognitive performance, and HIV-related clinical parameters. A large sample of

  3. Renal microvascular disease in an aging population: a reversible process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrakul, Narisa; Futrakul, Prasit

    2008-01-01

    Renal microvascular disease and tubulointerstitial fibrosis are usually demonstrated in aging in humans and animals. It has recently been proposed that renal microvascular disease is the crucial determinant of tubulointerstitial disease or fibrosis. Enhanced circulating endothelial cell loss is a biomarker that reflects glomerular endothelial injury or renal microvascular disease, and fractional excretion of magnesium (FE Mg) is a sensitive biomarker that reflects an early stage of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In aging in humans, both of these biomarkers are abnormally elevated. In addition, a glomerular endothelial dysfunction determined by altered hemodynamics associated with peritubular capillary flow reduction is substantiated. A correction of such hemodynamic alteration with vasodilators can effectively improve renal perfusion and restore renal function. Thus, anti-aging therapy can reverse the renal microvascular disease and dysfunction associated with the aging process.

  4. The application of information theory for the research of aging and aging-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokh, David; Stambler, Ilia

    2017-10-01

    This article reviews the application of information-theoretical analysis, employing measures of entropy and mutual information, for the study of aging and aging-related diseases. The research of aging and aging-related diseases is particularly suitable for the application of information theory methods, as aging processes and related diseases are multi-parametric, with continuous parameters coexisting alongside discrete parameters, and with the relations between the parameters being as a rule non-linear. Information theory provides unique analytical capabilities for the solution of such problems, with unique advantages over common linear biostatistics. Among the age-related diseases, information theory has been used in the study of neurodegenerative diseases (particularly using EEG time series for diagnosis and prediction), cancer (particularly for establishing individual and combined cancer biomarkers), diabetes (mainly utilizing mutual information to characterize the diseased and aging states), and heart disease (mainly for the analysis of heart rate variability). Few works have employed information theory for the analysis of general aging processes and frailty, as underlying determinants and possible early preclinical diagnostic measures for aging-related diseases. Generally, the use of information-theoretical analysis permits not only establishing the (non-linear) correlations between diagnostic or therapeutic parameters of interest, but may also provide a theoretical insight into the nature of aging and related diseases by establishing the measures of variability, adaptation, regulation or homeostasis, within a system of interest. It may be hoped that the increased use of such measures in research may considerably increase diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and the fundamental theoretical mathematical understanding of aging and disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Educating Parents on Developmentally Age-Appropriate Learning in Preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mitzi C.

    This practicum paper reports on a project undertaken to enhance the knowledge of age-appropriate learning for parents of 3-year-old preschoolers. The project implemented a variety of techniques and strategies to improve parent knowledge, including parent education classes, a monthly newsletter for parents that addressed current research on…

  6. Aging Memory Is "Not" a Limiting Factor for Lifelong Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalovic, Dejan; Gvozdenovic, Vasilije

    2015-01-01

    Efficient memory is one of the necessary cognitive potentials required for virtually every form of lifelong learning. In this contribution we first briefly review and summarize state of the art of knowledge on memory and related cognitive functions in normal aging. Then we critically discuss a relatively short inventory of clinical, psychometric,…

  7. Facial attractiveness judgements reflect learning of parental age characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrett, David I; Penton-Voak, Ian S; Little, Anthony C; Tiddeman, Bernard P; Burt, D Michael; Schmidt, Natalie; Oxley, Roz; Kinloch, Nicholas; Barrett, Louise

    2002-05-07

    Mate preferences are shaped by infant experience of parental characteristics in a wide variety of species. Similar processes in humans may lead to physical similarity between parents and mates, yet this possibility has received little attention. The age of parents is one salient physical characteristic that offspring may attend to. The current study used computer-graphic faces to examine how preferences for age in faces were influenced by parental age. We found that women born to 'old' parents (over 30) were less impressed by youth, and more attracted to age cues in male faces than women with 'young' parents (under 30). For men, preferences for female faces were influenced by their mother's age and not their father's age, but only for long-term relationships. These data indicate that judgements of facial attractiveness in humans reflect the learning of parental characteristics.

  8. Dengvaxia sensitizes seronegatives to vaccine enhanced disease regardless of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Scott B

    2017-11-07

    During a large scale clinical efficacy trial of the Sanofipasteur live-attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine (Dengvaxia), features of hospitalized disease accompanying dengue infections in placebo recipients were closely similar to those in vaccinated children. However, the age specific hospitalization curves for these two populations differed. The curve for children vaccinated at ages 2-16 years closely resembled the 1981 age specific hospitalization rate curve for Cuban children infected with DENV 2 who were sensitized by a prior DENV 1 infection. The corresponding age specific hospitalization curve for placebos experiencing heterotypic secondary dengue infections peaked at age, 9-11 years. These differing epidemiological features support the conclusion that antibody dependent enhanced (ADE) dengue disease occurred in seronegatives who were sensitized by vaccine. As hospitalizations continue to occur in all age groups Dengvaxia consumers should be warned that sensitized vaccinated seronegatives will experience enhanced dengue disease into the forseeable future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection of breast diseases in various age groups among women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vapnik, T.N.

    1981-01-01

    A comprehensive study among women in various age groups provided data on the detection of dyshormonal and tumorous diseases of the breast which are necessary for organizing preventive measures and identifying groups for screening. Data on the distribution of breast pathology in various age groups are presented. The highest percentage of pathology is marked in women aged 31 to 40, with focal lesions 4 times as many as in the previous age group [ru

  10. Alzheimer's Disease: Aging, Insomnia and Epigenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzong Yuan Wu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common form of dementia. Severe memory loss, confusion, and impaired cognitive abilities characterize AD. It was only a century after Alzheimer's discovery that scientists were able to shed light on the mystery of its cause, but AD has also become a globally important health issue and the treatment of AD is a challenge for modern medicine. At present, there are five drugs approved in the United States for the treatment of AD, namely, donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, and tacrine (which are all cholinesterase inhibitors; and memantine (which is a glutamate receptor antagonist. However, these drugs show only modest effects on AD patients. Thus, new investigations are necessary for pharmacological development in AD. This brief review focuses on new studies that demonstrate the link between epigenetics and AD, and explores the possibility that insomnia may be one factor that effects AD.

  11. Peculiarities of roentgenosemiotics of ulcerous disease in different age groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshenko, Yu.T.; Reztsova, N.S.

    1984-01-01

    Roentgenomorphological and functional signs of stomach and duodenum ulcer disease was studied in different age groups in 382 patients that were subjected to a complex of clinico-laboratory and roentgenological examinations. It is concluded that in different age groups ulcerous disease of stomach and duodenum is characterized by a considerable peculiarities of roengenomorphologic characters. In some age groups disclosed are characteristic symptomocomplexes of roentgenofunctional shifts typical of ulcers of different localisations. It is shown that there is a regular relation between the type of functional shifts, age of a patient and location of ulcers

  12. Uncovering the Mechanisms Responsible for Why Language Learning May Promote Healthy Cognitive Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Antoniou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the great challenges facing humankind in the 21st century is preserving healthy brain function in our aging population. Individuals over 60 are the fastest growing age group in the world, and by 2050, it is estimated that the number of people over the age of 60 will triple. The typical aging process involves cognitive decline related to brain atrophy, especially in frontal brain areas and regions that subserve declarative memory, loss of synaptic connections, and the emergence of neuropathological symptoms associated with dementia. The disease-state of this age-related cognitive decline is Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, which may cause older adults to lose their independence and rely on others to live safely, burdening family members and health care systems in the process. However, there are two lines of research that offer hope to those seeking to promote healthy cognitive aging. First, it has been observed that lifestyle variables such as cognitive leisure activities can moderate the risk of Alzheimer’s disease, which has led to the development of plasticity-based interventions for older adults designed to protect against the adverse effects of cognitive decline. Second, there is evidence that lifelong bilingualism acts as a safeguard in preserving healthy brain function, possibly delaying the incidence of dementia by several years. In previous work, we have suggested that foreign language learning programs aimed at older populations are an optimal solution for building cognitive reserve because language learning engages an extensive brain network that is known to overlap with the regions negatively affected by the aging process. Here, we will outline potential future lines of research that may uncover the mechanism responsible for the emergence of language learning related brain advantages, such as language typology, bi- vs. multi-lingualism, age of acquisition, and the elements that are likely to result in the largest

  13. Uncovering the Mechanisms Responsible for Why Language Learning May Promote Healthy Cognitive Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Mark; Wright, Sarah M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the great challenges facing humankind in the 21st century is preserving healthy brain function in our aging population. Individuals over 60 are the fastest growing age group in the world, and by 2050, it is estimated that the number of people over the age of 60 will triple. The typical aging process involves cognitive decline related to brain atrophy, especially in frontal brain areas and regions that subserve declarative memory, loss of synaptic connections, and the emergence of neuropathological symptoms associated with dementia. The disease-state of this age-related cognitive decline is Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, which may cause older adults to lose their independence and rely on others to live safely, burdening family members and health care systems in the process. However, there are two lines of research that offer hope to those seeking to promote healthy cognitive aging. First, it has been observed that lifestyle variables such as cognitive leisure activities can moderate the risk of Alzheimer’s disease, which has led to the development of plasticity-based interventions for older adults designed to protect against the adverse effects of cognitive decline. Second, there is evidence that lifelong bilingualism acts as a safeguard in preserving healthy brain function, possibly delaying the incidence of dementia by several years. In previous work, we have suggested that foreign language learning programs aimed at older populations are an optimal solution for building cognitive reserve because language learning engages an extensive brain network that is known to overlap with the regions negatively affected by the aging process. Here, we will outline potential future lines of research that may uncover the mechanism responsible for the emergence of language learning related brain advantages, such as language typology, bi- vs. multi-lingualism, age of acquisition, and the elements that are likely to result in the largest gains. PMID:29326636

  14. Third Age Learning: Adapting the Idea to a Thailand Context of Lifelong Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratana-Ubol, Archanya; Richards, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    The concept of the university of the third age (U3A) is well established overseas and a key international focus for emerging global networks of senior citizen (i.e. seniors) lifelong learning. However it is yet to become so in Thailand although it too is in the process of becoming an ageing society. Moreover, this is despite the extent to which…

  15. Independent effects of age and levodopa on reversal learning in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Andrew; Seergobin, Ken N; MacDonald, Penny A

    2018-05-18

    The dopamine overdose hypothesis has provided an important theoretical framework for understanding cognition in Parkinson's disease. It posits that effects of dopaminergic therapy on cognition in Parkinson's disease depend on baseline dopamine levels in brain regions that support different functions. Although functions performed by more severely dopamine-depleted brain regions improve with medication, those associated with less dopamine deficient areas are actually worsened. It is presumed that medication-related worsening of cognition owes to dopamine overdose. We investigated whether age-related changes in baseline dopamine levels would modulate effects of dopaminergic therapy on reward learning in healthy volunteers. In a double-blind, crossover design, healthy younger and older adults completed a probabilistic reversal learning task after treatment with 100/25 mg of levodopa/carbidopa versus placebo. Older adults learned more poorly than younger adults at baseline, being more likely to shift responses after misleading punishment. Levodopa worsened stimulus-reward learning relative to placebo to the same extent in both groups, irrespective of differences in baseline performance and expected dopamine levels. When order effects were eliminated, levodopa induced response shifts after reward more often than placebo. Our results reveal independent deleterious effects of age group and exogenous dopamine on reward learning, suggesting a more complex scenario than predicted by the dopamine overdose hypothesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Potential importance of B cells in aging and aging-associated neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biragyn, Arya; Aliseychik, Maria; Rogaev, Evgeny

    2017-04-01

    Our understanding of B cells as merely antibody producers is slowly changing. Alone or in concert with antibody, they control outcomes of seemingly different diseases such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, and multiple sclerosis. While their role in activation of effector immune cells is beneficial in cancer but bad in autoimmune diseases, their immunosuppressive and regulatory subsets (Bregs) inhibit autoimmune and anticancer responses. These pathogenic and suppressive functions are not static and appear to be regulated by the nature and strength of inflammation. Although aging increases inflammation and changes the composition and function of B cells, surprisingly, little is known whether the change affects aging-associated neurodegenerative disease, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, by analyzing B cells in cancer and autoimmune and neuroinflammatory diseases, we elucidate their potential importance in AD and other aging-associated neuroinflammatory diseases.

  17. Impact of Chronic Diseases on Work Ability in Ageing Firefighters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plat, Marie-Christine J.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2012-01-01

    Impact of Chronic Diseases on Work Ability in Ageing Firefighters: Marie-Christine J PLAT, et al. Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Coronel Institute of Occupational Health, The Netherlands-Objectives: The aim of this study was to study the impact of chronic diseases on

  18. Protein stress and stress proteins: implications in aging and disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu Sudhan

    2007-04-02

    Apr 2, 2007 ... age-related disease by DAF-16 and heat-shock factor; Science. 300 1142–1145. Macario A J and Conway de Macario E 2005 Sick chaperones, cellular stress, and disease; N. Engl. J. Med. 353 1489–1501. Massey A C, Kaushik S, Sovak G, Kiffin R and Cuervo A M 2006. Consequences of the selective ...

  19. The Managers’ Experiential Learning of Program Planning in Active Ageing Learning Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ting Yeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Planning older adult learning programs is really a complex work. Program planners go through different learning stages and accumulate experiences to be able to undertake the task alone. This study aimed to explore the experiential learning process of older adult learning program planners who work in the Active Ageing Learning Centers (AALCs. Semi-structure interviews were conducted with seven program planners. The findings of this study were identified as follows. 1 Before being a program planner, the participants’ knowledge results from grasping and transforming experience gained from their family, their daily lives and past learning experiences; 2 after being a program planner, the participants’ experiential learning focused on leadership, training in the institute, professional development, as well as involvement in organizations for elderly people; and 3 the participants’ experiential learning outcomes in the older adult learning program planning include: their ability to reflect on the appropriateness and fulfillment of program planning, to apply theoretical knowledge and professional background in the field, and to make plans for future learning and business strategies.

  20. Nutritional Considerations for Healthy Aging and Reduction in Age-Related Chronic Disease12

    OpenAIRE

    Shlisky, Julie; Bloom, David E; Beaudreault, Amy R; Tucker, Katherine L; Keller, Heather H; Freund-Levi, Yvonne; Fielding, Roger A; Cheng, Feon W; Jensen, Gordon L; Wu, Dayong; Meydani, Simin N

    2017-01-01

    A projected doubling in the global population of people aged ≥60 y by the year 2050 has major health and economic implications, especially in developing regions. Burdens of unhealthy aging associated with chronic noncommunicable and other age-related diseases may be largely preventable with lifestyle modification, including diet. However, as adults age they become at risk of “nutritional frailty,” which can compromise their ability to meet nutritional requirements at a time when specific nutr...

  1. Visible aging signs as risk markers for ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Association of common aging signs (i.e., male pattern baldness, hair graying, and facial wrinkles) as well as other age-related appearance factors (i.e., arcus corneae, xanthelasmata, and earlobe crease) with increased risk of ischemic heart disease was initially described in anecdotal reports from...

  2. Nutritional influences on epigenetics and age-related disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional epigenetics has emerged as a novel mechanism underlying gene–diet interactions, further elucidating the modulatory role of nutrition in aging and age-related disease development. Epigenetics is defined as a heritable modification to the DNA that regulates chromosome architecture and modu...

  3. Functional aging impairs the role of feedback in motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Cao, Chunmei; Yan, Jin H

    2013-10-01

    Optimal motor skill acquisition frequently requires augmented feedback or knowledge of results (KR). However, the effect of functional declines on the benefits of KR remains to be determined. The objective of this research was to examine how cognitive and motor deficits of older adults influence the use of KR for motor skill learning. A total of 57 older adults (mean 73.1 years; SD 4.2) received both cognitive and eye-hand coordination assessments, whereas 55 young controls (mean 25.8 years; SD 3.8) took only the eye-hand coordination test. All young and older participants learned a time-constrained arm movement through KR in three pre-KR and post-KR intervals. In the subsequent no-KR skill retests, absolute and variable time errors were not significantly reduced for the older learners who had KR during skill practice, especially for those with cognitive and motor dysfunctions. The finding suggests that KR results in no measureable improvement for older adults with cognitive and motor functional deficiencies. More importantly, for the older adults, longer post-KR intervals showed greater detrimental effects on feedback-based motor learning than shorter pauses after KR delivery. The findings support the hypothesis about the effects of cognitive and motor deficits on KR in motor skill learning of older adults. The dynamics of cognitive and motor aging, external feedback and internal control mechanisms collectively explain the deterioration in the sensory-motor learning of older adults. The theoretical implications and practical relevance of functional aging for motor skill learning are discussed. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Learning cooking skills at different ages: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Fiona; Spence, Michelle; Hollywood, Lynsey; McGowan, Laura; Surgenor, Dawn; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Caraher, Martin; Raats, Monique; Dean, Moira

    2016-11-14

    Cooking skills are increasingly included in strategies to prevent and reduce chronic diet-related diseases and obesity. While cooking interventions target all age groups (Child, Teen and Adult), the optimal age for learning these skills on: 1) skills retention, 2) cooking practices, 3) cooking attitudes, 4) diet quality and 5) health is unknown. Similarly, although the source of learning cooking skills has been previously studied, the differences in learning from these different sources has not been considered. This research investigated the associations of the age and source of learning with the aforementioned five factors. A nationally representative (Northern/Republic of Ireland) cross-sectional survey was undertaken with 1049 adults aged between 20-60 years. The survey included both measures developed and tested by the researchers as well as validated measures of cooking (e.g. chopping) and food skills (e.g. budgeting), cooking practices (e.g. food safety), cooking attitudes, diet quality and health. Respondents also stated when they learnt the majority of their skills and their sources of learning. The data was analysed using ANOVAs with post-hoc analysis and Chi 2 crosstabs with a significance level of 0.05. Results showed that child (skills, cooking practices, cooking attitudes, diet quality (with the exception of fibre intake where adult learners were higher) and health. Mother was the primary source of learning and those who learnt only from this source had significantly better outcomes on 12 of the 23 measures. This research highlights the importance of learning cooking skills at an early age for skill retention, confidence, cooking practices, cooking attitude and diet quality. Mother remained the primary source of learning, however, as there is a reported deskilling of domestic cooks, mothers may no longer have the ability to teach cooking skills to the next generation. A focus on alternative sources including practical cooking skills education starting

  5. Using Supervised Deep Learning for Human Age Estimation Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnyh, K. A.; Polovinkin, A. N.

    2017-05-01

    Automatic facial age estimation is a challenging task upcoming in recent years. In this paper, we propose using the supervised deep learning features to improve an accuracy of the existing age estimation algorithms. There are many approaches solving the problem, an active appearance model and the bio-inspired features are two of them which showed the best accuracy. For experiments we chose popular publicly available FG-NET database, which contains 1002 images with a broad variety of light, pose, and expression. LOPO (leave-one-person-out) method was used to estimate the accuracy. Experiments demonstrated that adding supervised deep learning features has improved accuracy for some basic models. For example, adding the features to an active appearance model gave the 4% gain (the error decreased from 4.59 to 4.41).

  6. Chlorinative stress in age-related diseases: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciaro, Marco; Di Salvo, Eleonora; Pace, Elisabetta; Ventura-Spagnolo, Elvira; Navarra, Michele; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2017-01-01

    Aging is an agglomerate of biological long-lasting processes that result being inevitable. Main actors in this scenario are both long-term inflammation and oxidative stress. It has been proved that oxidative stress induce alteration in proteins and this fact itself is critically important in the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to diseases typical of aging. Among reactive species, chlorine ones such as hypochlorous acid (HOCl) are cytotoxic oxidants produced by activated neutrophils during chronic inflammation processes. HOCl can also cause damages by reacting with biological molecules. HOCl is generated by myeloperoxidase (MPO) and augmented serum levels of MPO have been described in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions in cardiovascular patients and has been implicated in many inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative conditions, and some cancers. Due to these data, we decided to conduct an up-to-date review evaluating chlorinative stress effects on every age-related disease linked; potential anti-oxidant countermeasures were also assessed. Results obtained associated HOCl generation to the aging processes and confirmed its connection with diseases like neurodegenerative and cardiovascular pathologies, atherosclerosis and cancer; chlorination was mainly linked to diseases where molecular (protein) alteration constitute the major suspected cause: i.e. inflammation, tissue lesions, DNA damages, apoptosis and oxidative stress itself. According data collected, a healthy lifestyle together with some dietary suggestion and/or the administration of nutracetical antioxidant integrators could balance the effects of chlorinative stress and, in some cases, slow down or prevent the onset of age-releated diseases.

  7. ROS, Cell Senescence, and Novel Molecular Mechanisms in Aging and Age-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaola Davalli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aging process worsens the human body functions at multiple levels, thus causing its gradual decrease to resist stress, damage, and disease. Besides changes in gene expression and metabolic control, the aging rate has been associated with the production of high levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS and/or Reactive Nitrosative Species (RNS. Specific increases of ROS level have been demonstrated as potentially critical for induction and maintenance of cell senescence process. Causal connection between ROS, aging, age-related pathologies, and cell senescence is studied intensely. Senescent cells have been proposed as a target for interventions to delay the aging and its related diseases or to improve the diseases treatment. Therapeutic interventions towards senescent cells might allow restoring the health and curing the diseases that share basal processes, rather than curing each disease in separate and symptomatic way. Here, we review observations on ROS ability of inducing cell senescence through novel mechanisms that underpin aging processes. Particular emphasis is addressed to the novel mechanisms of ROS involvement in epigenetic regulation of cell senescence and aging, with the aim to individuate specific pathways, which might promote healthy lifespan and improve aging.

  8. NAD+ biosynthesis, aging, and disease [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Johnson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ biosynthesis and its regulation have recently been attracting markedly increasing interest. Aging is marked by a systemic decrease in NAD+ across multiple tissues. The dysfunction of NAD+ biosynthesis plays a critical role in the pathophysiologies of multiple diseases, including age-associated metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and mental disorders. As downstream effectors, NAD+-dependent enzymes, such as sirtuins, are involved in the progression of such disorders. These recent studies implicate NAD+ biosynthesis as a potential target for preventing and treating age-associated diseases. Indeed, new studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of supplementing NAD+ intermediates, such as nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinamide riboside, providing a proof of concept for the development of an effective anti-aging intervention.

  9. Association of age-related macular degeneration and reticular macular disease with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Neelesh; Smith, R Theodore

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of adult blindness in the developed world. Thus, major endeavors to understand the risk factors and pathogenesis of this disease have been undertaken. Reticular macular disease is a proposed subtype of age-related macular degeneration correlating histologically with subretinal drusenoid deposits located between the retinal pigment epithelium and the inner segment ellipsoid zone. Reticular lesions are more prevalent in females and in older age groups and are associated with a higher mortality rate. Risk factors for developing age-related macular degeneration include hypertension, smoking, and angina. Several genes related to increased risk for age-related macular degeneration and reticular macular disease are also associated with cardiovascular disease. Better understanding of the clinical and genetic risk factors for age-related macular degeneration and reticular macular disease has led to the hypothesis that these eye diseases are systemic. A systemic origin may help to explain why reticular disease is diagnosed more frequently in females as males suffer cardiovascular mortality at an earlier age, before the age of diagnosis of reticular macular disease and age-related macular degeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Appendix B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volumes 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This report consists of Volume 2, which consists of the GALL literature review tables for the NUMARC Industry Reports reviewed for the report

  11. Nutritional Considerations for Healthy Aging and Reduction in Age-Related Chronic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlisky, Julie; Bloom, David E; Beaudreault, Amy R; Tucker, Katherine L; Keller, Heather H; Freund-Levi, Yvonne; Fielding, Roger A; Cheng, Feon W; Jensen, Gordon L; Wu, Dayong; Meydani, Simin N

    2017-01-01

    A projected doubling in the global population of people aged ≥60 y by the year 2050 has major health and economic implications, especially in developing regions. Burdens of unhealthy aging associated with chronic noncommunicable and other age-related diseases may be largely preventable with lifestyle modification, including diet. However, as adults age they become at risk of "nutritional frailty," which can compromise their ability to meet nutritional requirements at a time when specific nutrient needs may be high. This review highlights the role of nutrition science in promoting healthy aging and in improving the prognosis in cases of age-related diseases. It serves to identify key knowledge gaps and implementation challenges to support adequate nutrition for healthy aging, including applicability of metrics used in body-composition and diet adequacy for older adults and mechanisms to reduce nutritional frailty and to promote diet resilience. This review also discusses management recommendations for several leading chronic conditions common in aging populations, including cognitive decline and dementia, sarcopenia, and compromised immunity to infectious disease. The role of health systems in incorporating nutrition care routinely for those aged ≥60 y and living independently and current actions to address nutritional status before hospitalization and the development of disease are discussed. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Nutritional Considerations for Healthy Aging and Reduction in Age-Related Chronic Disease12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlisky, Julie; Bloom, David E; Beaudreault, Amy R; Tucker, Katherine L; Keller, Heather H; Freund-Levi, Yvonne; Fielding, Roger A; Cheng, Feon W; Jensen, Gordon L; Wu, Dayong; Meydani, Simin N

    2017-01-01

    A projected doubling in the global population of people aged ≥60 y by the year 2050 has major health and economic implications, especially in developing regions. Burdens of unhealthy aging associated with chronic noncommunicable and other age-related diseases may be largely preventable with lifestyle modification, including diet. However, as adults age they become at risk of “nutritional frailty,” which can compromise their ability to meet nutritional requirements at a time when specific nutrient needs may be high. This review highlights the role of nutrition science in promoting healthy aging and in improving the prognosis in cases of age-related diseases. It serves to identify key knowledge gaps and implementation challenges to support adequate nutrition for healthy aging, including applicability of metrics used in body-composition and diet adequacy for older adults and mechanisms to reduce nutritional frailty and to promote diet resilience. This review also discusses management recommendations for several leading chronic conditions common in aging populations, including cognitive decline and dementia, sarcopenia, and compromised immunity to infectious disease. The role of health systems in incorporating nutrition care routinely for those aged ≥60 y and living independently and current actions to address nutritional status before hospitalization and the development of disease are discussed. PMID:28096124

  13. Mitochondria, Cybrids, Aging, and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, Russell H.; Koppel, Scott; Weidling, Ian; Hayley, Clay; Ji, Yan; Wilkins, Heather M.

    2018-01-01

    Mitochondrial and bioenergetic function change with advancing age and may drive aging phenotypes. Mitochondrial and bioenergetic changes are also documented in various age-related neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In some instances AD mitochondrial and bioenergetic changes are reminiscent of those observed with advancing age, but are greater in magnitude. Mitochondrial and bioenergetic dysfunction could, therefore, link neurodegeneration to brain aging. Interestingly, mitochondrial defects in AD patients are not brain-limited, and mitochondrial function can be linked to classic AD histologic changes including amyloid precursor protein processing to beta amyloid. Also, transferring mitochondria from AD subjects to cell lines depleted of endogenous mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) creates cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) cell lines that recapitulate specific biochemical, molecular, and histologic AD features. Such findings have led to the formulation of a “mitochondrial cascade hypothesis” that places mitochondrial dysfunction at the apex of the AD pathology pyramid. Data pertinent to this premise are reviewed. PMID:28253988

  14. Mouse models of ageing and their relevance to disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõks, Sulev; Dogan, Soner; Tuna, Bilge Guvenc; González-Navarro, Herminia; Potter, Paul; Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn E

    2016-12-01

    Ageing is a process that gradually increases the organism's vulnerability to death. It affects different biological pathways, and the underlying cellular mechanisms are complex. In view of the growing disease burden of ageing populations, increasing efforts are being invested in understanding the pathways and mechanisms of ageing. We review some mouse models commonly used in studies on ageing, highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the different strategies, and discuss their relevance to disease susceptibility. In addition to addressing the genetics and phenotypic analysis of mice, we discuss examples of models of delayed or accelerated ageing and their modulation by caloric restriction. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of vitamin K in chronic aging diseases: inflammation, cardiovascular disease and osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin K is an enzyme cofactor required for the carboxylation of vitamin K dependent proteins, several of which have been implicated in diseases of aging. Inflammation is recognized as a crucial component of many chronic aging diseases, and evidence suggests vitamin K has an anti-inflammatory actio...

  16. Energy metabolism and inflammation in brain aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fei; Sancheti, Harsh; Patil, Ishan; Cadenas, Enrique

    2016-11-01

    The high energy demand of the brain renders it sensitive to changes in energy fuel supply and mitochondrial function. Deficits in glucose availability and mitochondrial function are well-known hallmarks of brain aging and are particularly accentuated in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. As important cellular sources of H 2 O 2 , mitochondrial dysfunction is usually associated with altered redox status. Bioenergetic deficits and chronic oxidative stress are both major contributors to cognitive decline associated with brain aging and Alzheimer's disease. Neuroinflammatory changes, including microglial activation and production of inflammatory cytokines, are observed in neurodegenerative diseases and normal aging. The bioenergetic hypothesis advocates for sequential events from metabolic deficits to propagation of neuronal dysfunction, to aging, and to neurodegeneration, while the inflammatory hypothesis supports microglia activation as the driving force for neuroinflammation. Nevertheless, growing evidence suggests that these diverse mechanisms have redox dysregulation as a common denominator and connector. An independent view of the mechanisms underlying brain aging and neurodegeneration is being replaced by one that entails multiple mechanisms coordinating and interacting with each other. This review focuses on the alterations in energy metabolism and inflammatory responses and their connection via redox regulation in normal brain aging and Alzheimer's disease. Interaction of these systems is reviewed based on basic research and clinical studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Aging-associated renal disease in mice is fructokinase dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos A; Ishimoto, Takuji; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Milagres, Tamara; Hernando, Ana Andres; Jensen, Thomas; Miyazaki, Makoto; Doke, Tomohito; Hayasaki, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Marumaya, Shoichi; Long, David A; Garcia, Gabriela E; Kuwabara, Masanari; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura G; Kang, Duk-Hee; Johnson, Richard J

    2016-10-01

    Aging-associated kidney disease is usually considered a degenerative process associated with aging. Recently, it has been shown that animals can produce fructose endogenously, and that this can be a mechanism for causing kidney damage in diabetic nephropathy and in association with recurrent dehydration. We therefore hypothesized that low-level metabolism of endogenous fructose might play a role in aging-associated kidney disease. Wild-type and fructokinase knockout mice were fed a normal diet for 2 yr that had minimal (renal injury was amplified by provision of high-salt diet for 3 wk, as noted by the presence of glomerular hypertrophy, mesangial matrix expansion, and alpha smooth muscle actin expression, and with segmental thrombi. Fructokinase knockout mice were protected from renal injury both at baseline and after high salt intake (3 wk) compared with wild-type mice. This was associated with higher levels of active (phosphorylated serine 1177) endothelial nitric oxide synthase in their kidneys. These studies suggest that aging-associated renal disease might be due to activation of specific metabolic pathways that could theoretically be targeted therapeutically, and raise the hypothesis that aging-associated renal injury may represent a disease process as opposed to normal age-related degeneration.

  18. Impaired learning of punishments in Parkinson's disease with and without impulse control disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leplow, Bernd; Sepke, Maria; Schönfeld, Robby; Pohl, Johannes; Oelsner, Henriette; Latzko, Lea; Ebersbach, Georg

    2017-02-01

    To document specific learning mechanisms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) with and without impulse control disorder (ICD). Thirty-two PD patients receiving dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) were investigated. Sixteen were diagnosed with ICD (ICD + ) and 16 PD patients matched for levodopa equivalence dosage, and DRT duration and severity of disease did not show impulsive behavior (non-ICD). Short-term learning of inhibitory control was assessed by an experimental procedure which was intended to mimic everyday life. Correct inhibition especially, had to be learned without reward (passive avoidance), and the failure to inhibit a response was punished (punishment learning). Results were compared to 16 healthy controls (HC) matched for age and sex. In ICD + patients within-session learning of non-rewarded inhibition was at chance levels. Whereas healthy controls rapidly developed behavioral inhibition, non-ICD patients were also significantly impaired compared to HC, but gradually developed some degree of control. Both patient groups showed significantly decreased learning if the failure to withhold a response was punished. PD patients receiving DRT show impaired ability to acquire both punishment learning and passive avoidance learning, irrespective of whether or not ICD was developed. In ICD + PD patients, behavioral inhibition is nearly absent. Results demonstrate that by means of subtle learning paradigms it is possible to identify PD-DRT patients who show subtle alterations of punishment learning. This may be a behavioral measure for the identification of PD patients who are prone to develop ICD if DRT is continued.

  19. Perceptions of competence: age moderates views of healthy aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jane M; Williams, Helen L; Thomas, Kevin D; Blair, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Older adults have more complex and differentiated views of aging than do younger adults, but less is known about age-related perceptions of Alzheimer's disease. This study investigated age-related perceptions of competence of an older adult labeled as "in good health" (healthy) or "has Alzheimer's disease" (AD), using a person-perception paradigm. It was predicted that older adults would provide more differentiated assessments of the two targets than would younger adults. Younger (n=86; 18-36 years) and older (n=66; 61-95 years) adults rated activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and memory abilities of a female target aged 75 years, described as healthy or with AD. Data on anxiety about aging, knowledge of and experience with aging and AD, knowledge of memory aging, and positive and negative biases toward aging and AD were also collected. Older adults perceived the healthy target as more capable of cognitively effortful activities (e.g., managing finances) and as possessing better memory abilities than the AD target. As predicted, these differences were greater than differences between targets perceived by younger adults. The interaction effect remained significant after statistically controlling for relevant variables, including education and gender. Additionally, exploratory analyses revealed that older adults held less positively biased views of AD than younger adults, but negatively biased views were equivalent between age groups. The results demonstrate that mere labels of "healthy" and "Alzheimer's disease" produce significant and subtle age differences in perceived competencies of older adults, and that biases towards AD vary by age group and valence. Our findings extend the person-perception paradigm to an integrative analysis of aging and AD, are consistent with models of adult development, and complement current research and theory on stereotypes of aging. Future directions for research

  20. Motor Sequence Learning Performance in Parkinson's Disease Patients Depends on the Stage of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Marianne A.; Meier, Beat; Zaugg, Sabine Weber; Kaelin-Lang, Alain

    2011-01-01

    It is still unclear, whether patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are impaired in the incidental learning of different motor sequences in short succession, although such a deficit might greatly impact their daily life. The aim of this study was thus to clarify the relation between disease parameters of PD and incidental motor learning of two…

  1. Age impact on autoimmune thyroid disease in females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid autoimmune disease, a widespread phenomenon in female population, impairs thyroid function during pregnancy. Identifying cases, which will develop hypothyroidism during pregnancy, is crucial in the follow-up process. The study group comprised 108 females, with ages between 20-40 years; with known inactive autoimmune thyroid disease, before pregnancy that became pregnant in the study follow-up period. They were monitored by means of clinical, hormonal and immunological assays. Supplemental therapy with thyroid hormones was used, where needed. Maternal age and level of anti-thyroid antibodies were used to predict thyroid functional impairment.

  2. Infectious disease burden and cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Berrett, Andrew; Brown, Bruce L; Hedges, Dawson W

    2016-02-01

    Prior research has suggested an association between exposure to infectious disease and neurocognitive function in humans. While most of these studies have explored individual viral, bacterial, and even parasitic sources of infection, few have considered the potential neurocognitive burden associated with multiple infections. In this study, we utilized publically available data from a large dataset produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that included measures of neurocognitive function, sociodemographic variables, and serum antibody data for several infectious diseases. Specifically, immunoglobulin G antibodies for toxocariasis, toxoplasmosis, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cytomegalovirus, and herpes 1 and 2 were available in 5662 subjects. We calculated an overall index of infectious-disease burden to determine if an aggregate measure of exposure to infectious disease would be associated with neurocognitive function in adults aged 20-59 years. The index predicted processing speed and learning and memory but not reaction time after controlling for age, sex, race-ethnicity, immigration status, education, and the poverty-to-income ratio. Interactions between the infectious-disease index and some sociodemographic variables were also associated with neurocognitive function. In summary, an index aggregating exposure to several infectious diseases was associated with neurocognitive function in young- to middle-aged adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Connective tissue diseases, multimorbidity and the ageing lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolo, Paolo; Cordier, Jean-François; Cottin, Vincent

    2016-05-01

    Connective tissue diseases encompass a wide range of heterogeneous disorders characterised by immune-mediated chronic inflammation often leading to tissue damage, collagen deposition and possible loss of function of the target organ. Lung involvement is a common complication of connective tissue diseases. Depending on the underlying disease, various thoracic compartments can be involved but interstitial lung disease is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. Interstitial lung disease, pulmonary hypertension or both are found most commonly in systemic sclerosis. In the elderly, the prevalence of connective tissue diseases continues to rise due to both longer life expectancy and more effective and better-tolerated treatments. In the geriatric population, connective tissue diseases are almost invariably accompanied by age-related comorbidities, and disease- and treatment-related complications, which contribute to the significant morbidity and mortality associated with these conditions, and complicate treatment decision-making. Connective tissue diseases in the elderly represent a growing concern for healthcare providers and an increasing burden of global health resources worldwide. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of the immune functions in the elderly and evidence-based guidelines specifically designed for this patient population are instrumental to improving the management of connective tissue diseases in elderly patients. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  4. Machine Learning for Quantification of Small Vessel Disease Imaging Biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghafoorian, M.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to developing fully automated methods for quantification of small vessel disease imaging bio-markers, namely WMHs and lacunes, using vari- ous machine learning/deep learning and computer vision techniques. The rest of the thesis is organized as follows: Chapter 2 describes

  5. Learning Style Preferences of Elderly Coronary Artery Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theis, Saundra L.; Merritt, Sharon L.

    1992-01-01

    The Patient Learning Styles Questionnaire derived from Canfield and administered to 134 elderly coronary artery disease patients revealed the following order of learning preferences: structure, iconics, listening, direct experience, reading, achievement, affiliation, and eminence. Level of education significantly influenced preferred learning…

  6. Medication Impairs Probabilistic Classification Learning in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshahi, Marjan; Wilkinson, Leonora; Gahir, Harpreet; Dharminda, Angeline; Lagnado, David A.

    2010-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), it is possible that tonic increase of dopamine associated with levodopa medication overshadows phasic release of dopamine, which is essential for learning. Thus while the motor symptoms of PD are improved with levodopa medication, learning would be disrupted. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of…

  7. Diagnosing Coronary Heart Disease using Ensemble Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen H. Miao; Julia H. Miao; George J. Miao

    2016-01-01

    Globally, heart disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women. One in every four people is afflicted with and dies of heart disease. Early and accurate diagnoses of heart disease thus are crucial in improving the chances of long-term survival for patients and saving millions of lives. In this research, an advanced ensemble machine learning technology, utilizing an adaptive Boosting algorithm, is developed for accurate coronary heart disease diagnosis and outcome predictions. Th...

  8. Emerging role of autophagy in kidney function, diseases and aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Tobias B.; Edelstein, Charles L.; Hartleben, Björn; Inoki, Ken; Jiang, Man; Koya, Daisuke; Kume, Shinji; Lieberthal, Wilfred; Pallet, Nicolas; Quiroga, Alejandro; Ravichandran, Kameswaran; Susztak, Katalin; Yoshida, Sei; Dong, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved process that degrades cellular long-lived proteins and organelles. Accumulating evidence indicates that autophagy plays a critical role in kidney maintenance, diseases and aging. Ischemic, toxic, immunological, and oxidative insults can cause an induction of autophagy in renal epithelial cells modifying the course of various kidney diseases. This review summarizes recent insights on the role of autophagy in kidney physiology and diseases alluding to possible novel intervention strategies for treating specific kidney disorders by modifying autophagy. PMID:22692002

  9. Oxidative stress, aging, and central nervous system disease in the canine model of human brain aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Elizabeth; Rofina, Jaime; Zicker, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Decline in cognitive functions that accompany aging in dogs may have a biologic basis, and many of the disorders associated with aging in dogs may be mitigated through dietary modifications that incorporate specific nutraceuticals. Based on previous research and the results of laboratory and clinical studies, antioxidants may be one class of nutraceutical that provides benefits to aged dogs. Brains of aged dogs accumulate oxidative damage to proteins and lipids, which may lead to dysfunction of neuronal cells. The production of free radicals and lack of increase in compensatory antioxidant enzymes may lead to detrimental modifications to important macromolecules within neurons. Reducing oxidative damage through food ingredients rich in a broad spectrum of antioxidants significantly improves, or slows the decline of, learning and memory in aged dogs.

  10. Cell ageing: a flourishing field for neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Brites

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellular senescence is viewed as an irreversible cell-cycle arrest mechanism involving a complexity of biological progressive processes and the acquisition of diverse cellular phenotypes. Several cell-intrinsic and extrinsic causes (stresses may lead to diverse cellular signaling cascades that include oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA damage, excessive accumulation of misfolded proteins, impaired microRNA processing and inflammation. Here we review recent advances in the causes and consequences of brain cell ageing, including the senescence of endothelial cells at the central nervous system barriers, as well as of neurons and glial cells. We address what makes ageing an important risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cerebrovascular disease. In particular, we highlight the importance of defects in mitochondrial dynamics, in the cathepsin activity imbalance, in cell-cell communication, in the accumulation of misfolded and unfolded proteins and in the microRNA profiling as having potential impact on cellular ageing processes. Another important aspect is that the absence of specific senescence biomarkers has hampered the characterization of senescent cells in ageing and age-associated diseases. In accordance, the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP or secretome was shown to vary in distinct cell types and upon different stressors, and SASP heterogeneity is believed to create subsets of senenescent cells. In addition to secreted proteins, we then place extracellular vesicles (exosomes and ectosomes as important mediators of intercellular communication with pathophysiological roles in disease spreading, and as emerging targets for therapeutic intervention. We also discuss the application of engineered extracellular vesicles as vehicles for drug delivery. Finally, we summarize current knowledge on methods to rejuvenate senescent cells

  11. Age-related changes in contextual associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Trinh T; Pirogovsky, Eva; Gilbert, Paul E

    2008-01-01

    The hippocampus plays a critical role in processing contextual information. Although age-related changes in the hippocampus are well documented in humans, nonhuman primates, and rodents, few studies have examined contextual learning deficits in old rats. The present study investigated age-related differences in contextual associative learning in young (6 mo) and old (24 mo) rats using olfactory stimuli. Stimuli consisted of common odors mixed in sand and placed in clear plastic cups. Testing was conducted in two boxes that represented two different contexts (Context 1 and Context 2). The contexts varied based on environmental features of the box such as color (black vs. white), visual cues on the walls of the box, and flooring texture. Each rat was simultaneously presented with two cups, one filled with Odor A and one filled with Odor B in each context. In Context 1, the rat received a food reward for digging in the cup containing Odor A, but did not receive a food reward for digging in the cup containing Odor B. In Context 2, the rat was rewarded for digging in the cup containing Odor B, but did receive a reward for digging in the cup containing Odor A. Therefore, the rat learned to associate Context 1 with Odor A and Context 2 with Odor B. The rat was tested for eight days using the same odor problem throughout all days of testing. The results showed no significant difference between young and old rats on the first two days of testing; however, young rats significantly outperformed old rats on Day 3. Young rats continued to maintain superior performance compared to old rats on Days 4-8. The results suggest that aging results in functional impairments in brain regions that support memory for associations between specific cues and their respective context.

  12. Astrocytes in development, aging and disease: starring GFAP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middeldorp, J.

    2010-01-01

    We show in this thesis that different subtypes of astrocytes comprise specialized GFAP-IF networks, that change during development, aging and Alzheimer’s disease. The novel functions that have emerged for the IF network suggest these changes can play an important part in the specialized function of

  13. Sirtuins and renal diseases: relationship with aging and diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, Munehiro; Kume, Shinji; Takeda-Watanabe, Ai; Kanasaki, Keizo; Koya, Daisuke

    2013-02-01

    Sirtuins are members of the Sir2 (silent information regulator 2) family, a group of class III deacetylases. Mammals have seven different sirtuins, SIRT1-SIRT7. Among them, SIRT1, SIRT3 and SIRT6 are induced by calorie restriction conditions and are considered anti-aging molecules. SIRT1 has been the most extensively studied. SIRT1 deacetylates target proteins using the coenzyme NAD+ and is therefore linked to cellular energy metabolism and the redox state through multiple signalling and survival pathways. SIRT1 deficiency under various stress conditions, such as metabolic or oxidative stress or hypoxia, is implicated in the pathophysiologies of age-related diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders and renal diseases. In the kidneys, SIRT1 may inhibit renal cell apoptosis, inflammation and fibrosis, and may regulate lipid metabolism, autophagy, blood pressure and sodium balance. Therefore the activation of SIRT1 in the kidney may be a new therapeutic target to increase resistance to many causal factors in the development of renal diseases, including diabetic nephropathy. In addition, SIRT3 and SIRT6 are implicated in age-related disorders or longevity. In the present review, we discuss the protective functions of sirtuins and the association of sirtuins with the pathophysiology of renal diseases, including diabetic nephropathy.

  14. The Continuum of Aging and Age-Related Diseases: Common Mechanisms but Different Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Franceschi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Geroscience, the new interdisciplinary field that aims to understand the relationship between aging and chronic age-related diseases (ARDs and geriatric syndromes (GSs, is based on epidemiological evidence and experimental data that aging is the major risk factor for such pathologies and assumes that aging and ARDs/GSs share a common set of basic biological mechanisms. A consequence is that the primary target of medicine is to combat aging instead of any single ARD/GSs one by one, as favored by the fragmentation into hundreds of specialties and sub-specialties. If the same molecular and cellular mechanisms underpin both aging and ARDs/GSs, a major question emerges: which is the difference, if any, between aging and ARDs/GSs? The hypothesis that ARDs and GSs such as frailty can be conceptualized as accelerated aging will be discussed by analyzing in particular frailty, sarcopenia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer and Parkinson as well as Down syndrome as an example of progeroid syndrome. According to this integrated view, aging and ARDs/GSs become part of a continuum where precise boundaries do not exist and the two extremes are represented by centenarians, who largely avoided or postponed most ARDs/GSs and are characterized by decelerated aging, and patients who suffered one or more severe ARDs in their 60s, 70s, and 80s and show signs of accelerated aging, respectively. In between these two extremes, there is a continuum of intermediate trajectories representing a sort of gray area. Thus, clinically different, classical ARDs/GSs are, indeed, the result of peculiar combinations of alterations regarding the same, limited set of basic mechanisms shared with the aging process. Whether an individual will follow a trajectory of accelerated or decelerated aging will depend on his/her genetic background interacting lifelong with environmental and lifestyle factors. If ARDs and GSs are

  15. Genome and Epigenome Editing in Mechanistic Studies of Human Aging and Aging-Related Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Cia-Hin; Suh, Yousin

    2017-01-01

    The recent advent of genome and epigenome editing technologies has provided a new paradigm in which the landscape of the human genome and epigenome can be precisely manipulated in their native context. Genome and epigenome editing technologies can be applied to many aspects of aging research and offer the potential to develop novel therapeutics against age-related diseases. Here, we discuss the latest technological advances in the CRISPR-based genome and epigenome editing toolbox, and provide insight into how these synthetic biology tools could facilitate aging research by establishing in vitro cell and in vivo animal models to dissect genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying aging and age-related diseases. We discuss recent developments in the field with the aims to precisely modulate gene expression and dynamic epigenetic landscapes in a spatial and temporal manner in cellular and animal models, by complementing the CRISPR-based editing capability with conditional genetic manipulation tools including chemically inducible expression systems, optogenetics, logic gate genetic circuits, tissue-specific promoters, and the serotype-specific adeno-associated virus. We also discuss how the combined use of genome and epigenome editing tools permits investigators to uncover novel molecular pathways involved in the pathophysiology and etiology conferred by risk variants associated with aging and aging-related disease. A better understanding of the genetic and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms underlying human aging and age-related disease will significantly contribute to the developments of new therapeutic interventions for extending health span and life span, ultimately improving the quality of life in the elderly populations. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. The Impact of Aging on Cardio and Cerebrovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Izzo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of evidences report that aging represents the major risk factor for the development of cardio and cerebrovascular diseases. Understanding Aging from a genetic, biochemical and physiological point of view could be helpful to design a better medical approach and to elaborate the best therapeutic strategy to adopt, without neglecting all the risk factors associated with advanced age. Of course, the better way should always be understanding risk-to-benefit ratio, maintenance of independence and reduction of symptoms. Although improvements in treatment of cardiovascular diseases in the elderly population have increased the survival rate, several studies are needed to understand the best management option to improve therapeutic outcomes. The aim of this review is to give a 360° panorama on what goes on in the fragile ecosystem of elderly, why it happens and what we can do, right now, with the tools at our disposal to slow down aging, until new discoveries on aging, cardio and cerebrovascular diseases are at hand.

  17. Skill learning in patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease: a prospective pilot-study of waltz-lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösler, Alexander; Seifritz, Erich; Kräuchi, Kurt; Spoerl, David; Brokuslaus, Ilona; Proserpi, Sara-Maria; Gendre, Annekäthi; Savaskan, Egemen; Hofmann, Marc

    2002-12-01

    The authors report the effect of a 12-day prospective, blinded dance-learning trial in 5 patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 5 age-matched depressed patients. Patients with AD showed a significant effect in procedural learning whereas depressed patients did not. These findings suggest potential implications for therapeutic interventions in patients with moderate AD. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The AGE-RAGE Axis: Implications for Age-Associated Arterial Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Senatus

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of advanced glycation leads to the generation and accumulation of an heterogeneous class of molecules called advanced glycation endproducts, or AGEs. AGEs are produced to accelerated degrees in disorders such as diabetes, renal failure, inflammation, neurodegeneration, and in aging. Further, AGEs are present in foods and in tobacco products. Hence, through both endogenous production and exogenous consumption, AGEs perturb vascular homeostasis by a number of means; in the first case, AGEs can cause cross-linking of long-lived molecules in the basement membranes such as collagens, thereby leading to “vascular stiffening” and processes that lead to hyperpermeability and loss of structural integrity. Second, AGEs interaction with their major cell surface signal transduction receptor for AGE or RAGE sets off a cascade of events leading to modulation of gene expression and loss of vascular and tissue homeostasis, processes that contribute to cardiovascular disease. In addition, it has been shown that an enzyme, which plays key roles in the detoxification of pre-AGE species, glyoxalase 1 (GLO1, is reduced in aged and diabetic tissues. In the diabetic kidney devoid of Ager (gene encoding RAGE, higher levels of Glo1 mRNA and GLO1 protein and activity were observed, suggesting that in conditions of high AGE accumulation, natural defenses may be mitigated, at least in part through RAGE. AGEs are a marker of arterial aging and may be detected by both biochemical means, as well as measurement of “skin autofluorescence.” In this review, we will detail the pathobiology of the AGE-RAGE axis and the consequences of its activation in the vasculature and conclude with potential avenues for therapeutic interruption of the AGE-RAGE ligand-RAGE pathways as means to forestall the deleterious consequences of AGE accumulation and signaling via RAGE.

  19. The efficiency of multimedia learning into old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gerven, Pascal W M; Paas, Fred; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen J G; Hendriks, Maaike; Schmidt, Henk G

    2003-12-01

    On the basis of a multimodal model of working memory, cognitive load theory predicts that a multimedia-based instructional format leads to a better acquisition of complex subject matter than a purely visual instructional format. This study investigated the extent to which age and instructional format had an impact on training efficiency among both young and old adults. It was hypothesised that studying worked examples that are presented as a narrated animation (multimedia condition) is a more efficient means of complex skill training than studying visually presented worked examples (unimodal condition) and solving conventional problems. Furthermore, it was hypothesised that multimedia-based worked examples are especially helpful for elderly learners, who have to deal with a general decline of working-memory resources, because they address both mode-specific working-memory stores. The sample consisted of 60 young (mean age = 15.98 years) and 60 old adults (mean age = 64.48 years). Participants of both age groups were trained in either a conventional, a unimodal, or a multimedia condition. Subsequently, they had to solve a series of test problems. Dependent variables were perceived cognitive load during the training, performance on the test, and efficiency in terms of the ratio between these two variables. Results showed that for both age groups multimedia-based worked examples were more efficient than the other training formats in that less cognitive load led to at least an equal performance level. Although no difference in the beneficial effect of multimedia learning was found between the age groups, multimedia-based instructions seem promising for the elderly.

  20. Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation in Aging and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D. Hernández-Camacho

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q (CoQ is an essential component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and an antioxidant in plasma membranes and lipoproteins. It is endogenously produced in all cells by a highly regulated pathway that involves a mitochondrial multiprotein complex. Defects in either the structural and/or regulatory components of CoQ complex or in non-CoQ biosynthetic mitochondrial proteins can result in a decrease in CoQ concentration and/or an increase in oxidative stress. Besides CoQ10 deficiency syndrome and aging, there are chronic diseases in which lower levels of CoQ10 are detected in tissues and organs providing the hypothesis that CoQ10 supplementation could alleviate aging symptoms and/or retard the onset of these diseases. Here, we review the current knowledge of CoQ10 biosynthesis and primary CoQ10 deficiency syndrome, and have collected published results from clinical trials based on CoQ10 supplementation. There is evidence that supplementation positively affects mitochondrial deficiency syndrome and the symptoms of aging based mainly on improvements in bioenergetics. Cardiovascular disease and inflammation are alleviated by the antioxidant effect of CoQ10. There is a need for further studies and clinical trials involving a greater number of participants undergoing longer treatments in order to assess the benefits of CoQ10 treatment in metabolic syndrome and diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, kidney diseases, and human fertility.

  1. Automated detection of age-related macular degeneration in OCT images using multiple instance learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weiwei; Liu, Xiaoming; Yang, Zhou

    2017-07-01

    Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a kind of macular disease which mostly occurs in old people,and it may cause decreased vision or even lead to permanent blindness. Drusen is an important clinical indicator for AMD which can help doctor diagnose disease and decide the strategy of treatment. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is widely used in the diagnosis of ophthalmic diseases, include AMD. In this paper, we propose a classification method based on Multiple Instance Learning (MIL) to detect AMD. Drusen can exist in a few slices of OCT images, and MIL is utilized in our method. We divided the method into two phases: training phase and testing phase. We train the initial features and clustered to create a codebook, and employ the trained classifier in the test set. Experiment results show that our method achieved high accuracy and effectiveness.

  2. Prion Disease: Learn the Facts. Avoid Exposure.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-23

    This podcast discusses prion diseases and the risk of exposure associated with some common activities.  Created: 5/23/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/23/2011.

  3. Genetic mouse models of brain ageing and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilkei-Gorzo, Andras

    2014-05-01

    Progression of brain ageing is influenced by a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Analysis of genetically modified animals with uniform genetic backgrounds in a standardised, controlled environment enables the dissection of critical determinants of brain ageing on a molecular level. Human and animal studies suggest that increased load of damaged macromolecules, efficacy of DNA maintenance, mitochondrial activity, and cellular stress defences are critical determinants of brain ageing. Surprisingly, mouse lines with genetic impairment of anti-oxidative capacity generally did not show enhanced cognitive ageing but rather an increased sensitivity to oxidative challenge. Mouse lines with impaired mitochondrial activity had critically short life spans or severe and rapidly progressing neurodegeneration. Strains with impaired clearance in damaged macromolecules or defects in the regulation of cellular stress defences showed alterations in the onset and progression of cognitive decline. Importantly, reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling generally increased life span but impaired cognitive functions revealing a complex interaction between ageing of the brain and of the body. Brain ageing is accompanied by an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Transgenic mouse models expressing high levels of mutant human amyloid precursor protein showed a number of symptoms and pathophysiological processes typical for early phase of Alzheimer's disease. Generally, therapeutic strategies effective against Alzheimer's disease in humans were also active in the Tg2576, APP23, APP/PS1 and 5xFAD lines, but a large number of false positive findings were also reported. The 3xtg AD model likely has the highest face and construct validity but further studies are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in an Aging HIV Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Iguacel, R; Llibre, J M; Friis-Moller, N

    2015-01-01

    With more effective and widespread antiretroviral treatment, the overall incidence of AIDS- or HIV-related death has decreased dramatically. Consequently, as patients are aging, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the HIV population....... The incidence of CVD overall in HIV is relatively low, but it is approximately 1.5-2-fold higher than that seen in age-matched HIV-uninfected individuals. Multiple factors are believed to explain this excess in risk such as overrepresentation of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (particularly smoking...

  5. Circulating Heat Shock Protein 70 in Health, Aging and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demanet Christian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat shock proteins (Hsp are ubiquitously synthesised in virtually all species and it is hypothesised that they might have beneficial health effects. Recent studies have identified circulating Hsp as an important mediator in inflammation - the effects of low-grade inflammation in the aging process are overwhelming. While much is known about intracellular Hsp70, scant data exist on circulating Hsp70 in the aging context. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of age and disease on circulating Hsp70 and, in particular, to evaluate the association between circulating Hsp70 and inflammatory parameters. Results Serum Hsp70, Interleukin (IL -10, IL-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF alpha concentrations were determined in 90 hospitalised geriatric patients (aged 83 ± 6 years and in 200 community-dwelling control subjects (100 elderly, aged 74 ± 5 years, and 100 young, aged 23 ± 3 years. In the community-dwelling elderly, serum Hsp70 and IL-10 concentrations were significantly lower and IL-6 was significantly higher when compared to healthy young control subjects. Elderly patients presenting inflammation (CRP serum levels ≥5 mg/L showed significantly (p = 0.007 higher Hsp70 values; and Hsp70 correlated positively (p Conclusions The present data provide new evidence that serum concentration of Hsp70 decreases with age in a normal population. Our study also shows that higher levels of Hsp70 are associated with inflammation and frailty in elderly patients.

  6. The lysosomal storage disease continuum with ageing-related neurodegenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Evans, Emyr; Haslett, Luke J

    2016-12-01

    Lysosomal storage diseases and diseases of ageing share many features both at the physiological level and with respect to the mechanisms that underlie disease pathogenesis. Although the exact pathophysiology is not exactly the same, it is astounding how many similar pathways are altered in all of these diseases. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the shared disease mechanisms, outlining the similarities and differences and how genetics, insight into rare diseases and functional research has changed our perspective on the causes underlying common diseases of ageing. The lysosome should no longer be considered as just the stomach of the cell or as a suicide bag, it has an emerging role in cellular signalling, nutrient sensing and recycling. The lysosome is of fundamental importance in the pathophysiology of diseases of ageing and by comparing against the LSDs we not only identify common pathways but also therapeutic targets so that ultimately more effective treatments can be developed for all neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Slower Dynamics and Aged Mitochondria in Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargini, Ricardo; García, Esther; Perry, George

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer's disease corresponds to 95% of cases whose origin is multifactorial and elusive. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a major feature of Alzheimer's pathology, which might be one of the early events that trigger downstream principal events. Here, we show that multiple genes that control mitochondrial homeostasis, including fission and fusion, are downregulated in Alzheimer's patients. Additionally, we demonstrate that some of these dysregulations, such as diminished DLP1 levels and its mitochondrial localization, as well as reduced STOML2 and MFN2 fusion protein levels, take place in fibroblasts from sporadic Alzheimer's disease patients. The analysis of mitochondrial network disruption using CCCP indicates that the patients' fibroblasts exhibit slower dynamics and mitochondrial membrane potential recovery. These defects lead to strong accumulation of aged mitochondria in Alzheimer's fibroblasts. Accordingly, the analysis of autophagy and mitophagy involved genes in the patients demonstrates a downregulation indicating that the recycling mechanism of these aged mitochondria might be impaired. Our data reinforce the idea that mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the key early events of the disease intimately related with aging. PMID:29201274

  8. Graves' Disease Pharmacotherapy in Women of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunty, Jeremy J; Heise, Crystal D; Chaffin, David G

    2016-01-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder in which inappropriate stimulation of the thyroid gland results in unregulated secretion of thyroid hormones resulting in hyperthyroidism. Graves' disease is the most common cause of autoimmune hyperthyroidism during pregnancy. Treatment options for Graves' disease include thioamide therapy, partial or total thyroidectomy, and radioactive iodine. In this article, we review guideline recommendations for Graves' disease treatment in women of reproductive age including the recent guideline from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Controversy regarding appropriate thioamide therapy before, during, and after pregnancy is reviewed. Surgical and radioactive iodine therapy considerations in this patient population are also reviewed. In patients who may find themselves pregnant during therapy or develop Graves' disease during their pregnancy, consideration should be given to the most appropriate treatment course for the mother and fetus. Thioamide therapy should be used with either propylthiouracil or methimazole at appropriate doses that target the upper range of normal to slightly hyperthyroid to avoid creating hypothyroidism in the fetus. Consideration should also be given to the adverse effects of thioamide, such as agranulocytosis and hepatotoxicity, with appropriate patient consultation regarding signs and symptoms. Individuals who wish to breastfeed their infants while taking thioamide should receive the lowest effective dose. Surgery should be reserved for extreme cases and limited to the second trimester, if possible. Radioactive iodine therapy may be used in nonpregnant individuals, with limited harm to future fertility. Radioactive iodine therapy should be withheld in pregnant women and those who are actively breastfeeding. Clinicians should keep abreast of developments in clinical trials and evidence-based recommendations regarding Graves' disease in reproductive-age women for any changes in evidence

  9. Bioactive Nutrients and Nutrigenomics in Age-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Rescigno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased life expectancy and the expansion of the elderly population are stimulating research into aging. Aging may be viewed as a multifactorial process that results from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors, which include lifestyle. Human molecular processes are influenced by physiological pathways as well as exogenous factors, which include the diet. Dietary components have substantive effects on metabolic health; for instance, bioactive molecules capable of selectively modulating specific metabolic pathways affect the development/progression of cardiovascular and neoplastic disease. As bioactive nutrients are increasingly identified, their clinical and molecular chemopreventive effects are being characterized and systematic analyses encompassing the “omics” technologies (transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being conducted to explore their action. The evolving field of molecular pathological epidemiology has unique strength to investigate the effects of dietary and lifestyle exposure on clinical outcomes. The mounting body of knowledge regarding diet-related health status and disease risk is expected to lead in the near future to the development of improved diagnostic procedures and therapeutic strategies targeting processes relevant to nutrition. The state of the art of aging and nutrigenomics research and the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of bioactive nutrients on the main aging-related disorders are reviewed herein.

  10. Bone quality changes associated with aging and disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskey, Adele L; Imbert, Laurianne

    2017-12-01

    Bone quality encompasses all the characteristics of bone that, in addition to density, contribute to its resistance to fracture. In this review, we consider changes in architecture, porosity, and composition, including collagen structure, mineral composition, and crystal size. These factors all are known to vary with tissue and animal ages, and health status. Bone morphology and presence of microcracks, which also contribute to bone quality, will not be discussed in this review. Correlations with mechanical performance for collagen cross-linking, crystallinity, and carbonate content are contrasted with mineral content. Age-dependent changes in humans and rodents are discussed in relation to rodent models of disease. Examples are osteoporosis, osteomalacia, osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), and osteopetrosis in both humans and animal models. Each of these conditions, along with aging, is associated with increased fracture risk for distinct reasons. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Stem cells: Potential therapy for age-related diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha

    2006-01-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive failing of tissues and organs of the human body leading to a large number of age-related diseases. Regenerative medicine is an emerging clinical discipline that aims to employ cellular medicines (normal cells, ex vivo expanded cells, or tissue......-engineered organs) to restore the functions of damaged or defective tissues and organs and thus to "rejuvenate" the failing aging body. One of the most important sources for cellular medicine is embryonic and adult (somatic) stem cells (SSCs). One example of SCCs with enormous clinical potential is the mesenchymal...... and organs in tissue-engineering protocols. However, several challenges confront the use of these cells in the clinic, ranging from biological challenges (e.g., how to isolate a homogenous populations of the cells with specific criteria from the bone marrow and how to expand them ex vivo without affecting...

  12. In vivo calcium imaging of the aging and diseased brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhoff, Gerhard; Busche, Marc A.; Garaschuk, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade, in vivo calcium imaging became a powerful tool for studying brain function. With the use of two-photon microscopy and modern labelling techniques, it allows functional studies of individual living cells, their processes and their interactions within neuronal networks. In vivo calcium imaging is even more important for studying the aged brain, which is hard to investigate in situ due to the fragility of neuronal tissue. In this article, we give a brief overview of the techniques applicable to image aged rodent brain at cellular resolution. We use multicolor imaging to visualize specific cell types (neurons, astrocytes, microglia) as well as the autofluorescence of the ''aging pigment'' lipofuscin. Further, we illustrate an approach for simultaneous imaging of cortical cells and senile plaques in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. (orig.)

  13. Exploring Genetic Factors Involved in Huntington Disease Age of Onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valcárcel-Ocete, Leire; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Iriondo, Mikel

    2015-01-01

    age (motor AO or mAO). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed between genetic variation within 20 candidate genes and eAO or mAO, using DNA and clinical information of 253 HD patients from REGISTRY project. Gene expression analyses were carried out by RT-qPCR with an independent sample......Age of onset (AO) of Huntington disease (HD) is mainly determined by the length of the CAG repeat expansion (CAGexp) in exon 1 of the HTT gene. Additional genetic variation has been suggested to contribute to AO, although the mechanism by which it could affect AO is presently unknown. The aim...... of this study is to explore the contribution of candidate genetic factors to HD AO in order to gain insight into the pathogenic mechanisms underlying this disorder. For that purpose, two AO definitions were used: the earliest age with unequivocal signs of HD (earliest AO or eAO), and the first motor symptoms...

  14. Tooth loss might not alter molecular pathogenesis in an aged transgenic Alzheimer's disease model mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oue, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Yasunari; Koretake, Katsunori; Okada, Shinsuke; Doi, Kazuya; Jung, Cha-Gyun; Michikawa, Makoto; Akagawa, Yasumasa

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have reported that tooth loss is a risk factor of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the association between tooth loss and cognition and the impact of tooth loss on the molecular pathogenesis of AD remain elusive. In this study, we tested the effect of tooth loss on learning and memory and on the molecular pathogenesis of AD in an aged AD model mice. We divided 14-month-old amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice, an AD model mouse line, into upper molar extracted group (experimental) and molar intact group (control). At 18 months old, we analysed not only the changes of amyloid-beta (Aβ), pyramidal cells in the brain but also the learning and memory ability with step-through passive avoidance test. The amount of Aβ and the number of pyramidal cells in the hippocampus were not significantly different between the experimental and control group. Similarly, the difference of learning and memory ability could not be distinguished between the groups. Neither molecular pathogenesis of AD nor associated learning and memory were aggravated by tooth loss in these mice. The limited results of this study which used the aged mice may help the dental profession to plan and explain treatments to patients with AD, which must be designed while taking into account the severity of the AD symptoms. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Six Ages towards a Learning Region--A Retrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longworth, Norman; Osborne, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Learning Cities and Learning Regions are terms now in common use as a result of the growing importance of lifelong learning concepts to the economic, social and environmental future of people and places. Why "learning" regions? Why not intelligent, creative, clever, smart or knowledge regions? In truth, all of these can, and some do,…

  16. Hirschsprung’s Disease in Patients of Advanced Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Vrints

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Hirschsprung’s disease is a congenital motility disorder that is easily overlooked as a cause of chronic refractory constipation in adults. We present a case of Hirschsprung’s disease in a patient 70 years of age with a history of long-standing constipation, chronic use of laxatives, and recurrent episodes of colonic obstruction. Presumptive preoperative diagnosis was chronic ischemic sigmoid stenosis or intermittent sigmoid volvulus before Hirschsprung’s disease was suspected based on intraoperative colonoscopy and surgical findings. The diagnosis was confirmed by the absence of intrinsic ganglion cells on histopathologic examination of the surgical specimen and the absence of the rectoanal inhibitory reflex on postoperative manometry. A conservative surgical approach that limited the resection to the grossly diseased rectum successfully restored normal defecation despite the anastomosis being performed on the distal aganglionic rectum. This approach, which avoids extensive rectal dissection, may be suitable for older or frail patients. Heightened awareness of Hirschsprung’s disease is necessary to ensure its prompt recognition in the elderly.

  17. Procedural Memory: Computer Learning in Control Subjects and in Parkinson’s Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Thomas-Antérion

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available We used perceptual motor tasks involving the learning of mouse control by looking at a Macintosh computer screen. We studied 90 control subjects aged between sixteen and seventy-five years. There was a significant time difference between the scales of age but improvement was the same for all subjects. We also studied 24 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. We observed an influence of age and also of educational levels. The PD patients had difficulties of learning in all tests but they did not show differences in time when compared to the control group in the first learning session (Student's t-test. They learned two or four and a half times less well than the control group. In the first test, they had some difficulty in initiating the procedure and learned eight times less well than the control group. Performances seemed to be heterogeneous: patients with only tremor (seven and patients without treatment (five performed better than others but learned less. Success in procedural tasks for the PD group seemed to depend on the capacity to initiate the response and not on the development of an accurate strategy. Many questions still remain unanswered, and we have to study different kinds of implicit memory tasks to differentiate performance in control and basal ganglia groups.

  18. SIGNIFICANCE OF EARLY-AGE LEARNING OF MATHEMATICAL SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sead Rešić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is a fact that only hereditary, i.e. genetic factors are not sufficient for development of a child’s brain; on the contrary, a child needs external stimuli expressed through touch, speech, images, which lead to the conclusion that immediate and extended surroundings shape the brain, meaning that the external stimuli, stronger or weaker, mutually connect the brain cells and neurons. Questions regarding the development of mathematical manner of thinking are mostly based on the natural process of learning, however, this paper deals with deeper set of problems, which are not only difficult to resolve but possibly there is no resolution. Namely, a question is posed what is the appropriate age when a child is ready and able to solve certain mathematical problems or notice mathematical principles, that is, whether they are actually exist clearly defined age boundaries based on which a conclusion could be made about the time and individual is ready to solve mathematical problems of a concrete difficulty level or to notice mathematical laws.

  19. Quantitative identification of senescent cells in aging and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biran, Anat; Zada, Lior; Abou Karam, Paula; Vadai, Ezra; Roitman, Lior; Ovadya, Yossi; Porat, Ziv; Krizhanovsky, Valery

    2017-08-01

    Senescent cells are present in premalignant lesions and sites of tissue damage and accumulate in tissues with age. In vivo identification, quantification and characterization of senescent cells are challenging tasks that limit our understanding of the role of senescent cells in diseases and aging. Here, we present a new way to precisely quantify and identify senescent cells in tissues on a single-cell basis. The method combines a senescence-associated beta-galactosidase assay with staining of molecular markers for cellular senescence and of cellular identity. By utilizing technology that combines flow cytometry with high-content image analysis, we were able to quantify senescent cells in tumors, fibrotic tissues, and tissues of aged mice. Our approach also yielded the finding that senescent cells in tissues of aged mice are larger than nonsenescent cells. Thus, this method provides a basis for quantitative assessment of senescent cells and it offers proof of principle for combination of different markers of senescence. It paves the way for screening of senescent cells for identification of new senescence biomarkers, genes that bypass senescence or senolytic compounds that eliminate senescent cells, thus enabling a deeper understanding of the senescent state in vivo. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Patients with Parkinson's disease learn to control complex systems-an indication for intact implicit cognitive skill learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Karsten; Daniels, Christine; Daniel, Victoria; Schmitt-Eliassen, Julia; Volkmann, Jens; Deuschl, Günther

    2006-01-01

    Implicit memory and learning mechanisms are composed of multiple processes and systems. Previous studies demonstrated a basal ganglia involvement in purely cognitive tasks that form stimulus response habits by reinforcement learning such as implicit classification learning. We will test the basal ganglia influence on two cognitive implicit tasks previously described by Berry and Broadbent, the sugar production task and the personal interaction task. Furthermore, we will investigate the relationship between certain aspects of an executive dysfunction and implicit learning. To this end, we have tested 22 Parkinsonian patients and 22 age-matched controls on two implicit cognitive tasks, in which participants learned to control a complex system. They interacted with the system by choosing an input value and obtaining an output that was related in a complex manner to the input. The objective was to reach and maintain a specific target value across trials (dynamic system learning). The two tasks followed the same underlying complex rule but had different surface appearances. Subsequently, participants performed an executive test battery including the Stroop test, verbal fluency and the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST). The results demonstrate intact implicit learning in patients, despite an executive dysfunction in the Parkinsonian group. They lead to the conclusion that the basal ganglia system affected in Parkinson's disease does not contribute to the implicit acquisition of a new cognitive skill. Furthermore, the Parkinsonian patients were able to reach a specific goal in an implicit learning context despite impaired goal directed behaviour in the WCST, a classic test of executive functions. These results demonstrate a functional independence of implicit cognitive skill learning and certain aspects of executive functions.

  1. Fluency in Parkinson?s disease: disease duration, cognitive status and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Casagrande Brabo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of occurrence and to characterize the typology of dysfluencies in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD, including the variables age, gender, schooling, disease duration, score on the Hoehn and Yahr scale and cognitive status (score on Mini-Mental State Examination. A cross-sectional study of a sample comprising 60 adults matched for gender, age and schooling was conducted. Group I comprised 30 adults with idiopathic PD, and Group II comprised 30 healthy adults. For assessment of fluency of speech, subjects were asked to utter a narrative based on a sequence of drawings and a transcription of 200 fluent syllables was performed to identify speech dysfluencies. PD patients exhibited a higher overall number of dysfluencies in speech with a large number of atypical dysfluencies. Additionally, results showed an influence of the variables cognitive status, disease duration and age on occurrence of dysfluencies.

  2. Optic nerve head biomechanics in aging and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, J Crawford

    2015-04-01

    This nontechnical review is focused upon educating the reader on optic nerve head biomechanics in both aging and disease along two main themes: what is known about how mechanical forces and the resulting deformations are distributed in the posterior pole and ONH (biomechanics) and what is known about how the living system responds to those deformations (mechanobiology). We focus on how ONH responds to IOP elevations as a structural system, insofar as the acute mechanical response of the lamina cribrosa is confounded with the responses of the peripapillary sclera, prelaminar neural tissues, and retrolaminar optic nerve. We discuss the biomechanical basis for IOP-driven changes in connective tissues, blood flow, and cellular responses. We use glaucoma as the primary framework to present the important aspects of ONH biomechanics in aging and disease, as ONH biomechanics, aging, and the posterior pole extracellular matrix (ECM) are thought to be centrally involved in glaucoma susceptibility, onset and progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inflammation and premature aging in advanced chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooman, Jeroen P; Dekker, Marijke J; Usvyat, Len A; Kotanko, Peter; van der Sande, Frank M; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Shiels, Paul G; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Systemic inflammation in end-stage renal disease is an established risk factor for mortality and a catalyst for other complications, which are related to a premature aging phenotype, including muscle wasting, vascular calcification, and other forms of premature vascular disease, depression, osteoporosis, and frailty. Uremic inflammation is also mechanistically related to mechanisms involved in the aging process, such as telomere shortening, mitochondrial dysfunction, and altered nutrient sensing, which can have a direct effect on cellular and tissue function. In addition to uremia-specific causes, such as abnormalities in the phosphate-Klotho axis, there are remarkable similarities between the pathophysiology of uremic inflammation and so-called "inflammaging" in the general population. Potentially relevant, but still somewhat unexplored in this respect, are abnormal or misplaced protein structures, as well as abnormalities in tissue homeostasis, which evoke danger signals through damage-associated molecular patterns, as well as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. Systemic inflammation, in combination with the loss of kidney function, can impair the resilience of the body to external and internal stressors by reduced functional and structural tissue reserves, and by impairing normal organ crosstalk, thus providing an explanation for the greatly increased risk of homeostatic breakdown in this population. In this review, the relationship between uremic inflammation and a premature aging phenotype, as well as potential causes and consequences, are discussed. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Complex and differential glial responses in Alzheimer's disease and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, José J; Butt, Arthur M; Gardenal, Emanuela; Parpura, Vladimir; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2016-01-01

    Glial cells and their association with neurones are fundamental for brain function. The emergence of complex neurone-glial networks assures rapid information transfer, creating a sophisticated circuitry where both types of neural cells work in concert, serving different activities. All glial cells, represented by astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia and NG2-glia, are essential for brain homeostasis and defence. Thus, glia are key not only for normal central nervous system (CNS) function, but also to its dysfunction, being directly associated with all forms of neuropathological processes. Therefore, the progression and outcome of neurological and neurodegenerative diseases depend on glial reactions. In this review, we provide a concise account of recent data obtained from both human material and animal models demonstrating the pathological involvement of glia in neurodegenerative processes, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as physiological ageing.

  5. Effects of normal aging and Alzheimer's disease on emotional memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Brierley, Barbara; Medford, Nick; Growdon, John H; Corkin, Suzanne

    2002-06-01

    Recall is typically better for emotional than for neutral stimuli. This enhancement is believed to rely on limbic regions. Memory is also better for neutral stimuli embedded in an emotional context. The neural substrate supporting this effect has not been thoroughly investigated but may include frontal lobe, as well as limbic circuits. Alzheimer's disease (AD) results in atrophy of limbic structures, whereas normal aging relatively spares limbic regions but affects prefrontal areas. The authors hypothesized that AD would reduce all enhancement effects, whereas aging would disproportionately affect enhancement based on emotional context. The results confirmed the authors' hypotheses: Young and older adults, but not AD patients, showed better memory for emotional versus neutral pictures and words. Older adults and AD patients showed no benefit from emotional context, whereas young adults remembered more items embedded in an emotional versus neutral context.

  6. Reconceptualizing Design Research in the Age of Mobile Learning

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    Bannan, Brenda; Cook, John; Pachler, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to begin to examine how the intersection of mobile learning and design research prompts the reconceptualization of research and design individually as well as their integration appropriate for current, complex learning environments. To fully conceptualize and reconceptualize design research in mobile learning, the…

  7. Learning in the Digital Age: Control or Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Galen, Jane

    2013-01-01

    In October 2011, 200 state school officers and legislators gathered at a hotel in San Francisco to learn how to "revolutionize" learning by "personalizing" instruction. The occasion was former Florida Gov. Jeb Bush's second annual National Summit on Education Reform. The topic was digital learning. The vision of digitally managed curriculum and…

  8. Retirement age and the age of onset of Alzheimer's disease: results from the ICTUS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Grotz

    Full Text Available To test whether deferred retirement is associated with delayed onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD, and, if so, to determine whether retirement age still predicts the age at onset of AD when two potential biases are considered.The study sample was gathered from the Impact of Cholinergic Treatment Use/Data Sharing Alzheimer cohort (ICTUS/DSA, a European study of 1,380 AD patients. Information regarding retirement age, onset of symptoms and covariates was collected at baseline whereas age at diagnosis was gathered from the patient's medical record prior to study entry. Linear mixed models, adjusted for gender, education, occupation, center, country, household income, depression and cardiovascular risk factors were conducted on 815 patients.(1 The global analyses (n = 815 revealed that later age at retirement was associated with later age at diagnosis (β = 0.31, p < 0.0001; (2 once the selection bias was considered (n = 637, results showed that this association was weaker but remained significant (β = 0.15, p = 0.004; (3 once the bias of the reverse causality (i.e., the possibility that subjects may have left the workforce due to prior cognitive impairment was considered (n = 447, the effect was no longer significant (β = 0.06, p = 0.18.The present study supports that there is an association between retirement age and age at onset of AD. However, the strength of this association appears to be overestimated due to the selection bias. Moreover, the causality issue remains unresolved. Further prospective investigations are mandatory in order to correctly address this question.

  9. Psychosocial modulators of motor learning in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra eZemankova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Using the remarkable overlap between brain circuits affected in Parkinson’s disease (PD and those underlying motor sequence learning, we may improve the effectiveness of motor rehabilitation interventions by identifying motor learning facilitators in PD. For instance, additional sensory stimulation and task cueing enhanced motor learning in people with PD, whereas exercising using musical rhythms or console computer games improved gait and balance, and reduced some motor symptoms, in addition to increasing task enjoyment. Yet, despite these advances, important knowledge gaps remain. Most studies investigating motor learning in PD used laboratory-specific tasks and equipment, with little resemblance to real life situations. Thus, it is unknown whether similar results could be achieved in more ecological setups and whether individual’s task engagement could further improve motor learning capacity. Moreover, the role of social interaction in motor skill learning process has not yet been investigated in PD and the role of mind-set and self-regulatory mechanisms have been sporadically examined. Here we review evidence suggesting that these psychosocial factors may be important modulators of motor learning in PD. We propose their incorporation in future research, given that it could lead to development of improved non-pharmacological interventions aimed to preserve or restore motor function in PD.

  10. Glaucoma and Alzheimer Disease: A Single Age-Related Neurodegenerative Disease of the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancino, Raffaele; Martucci, Alessio; Cesareo, Massimo; Giannini, Clarissa; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana; Bagetta, Giacinto; Nucci, Carlo

    2017-12-06

    Open Angle Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness worldwide. Elevated intraocular pressure is considered an important risk factor for glaucoma, however a subset of patients experience disease progression even in presence of normal intraocular pressure values. This implies that risk factors other than intraocular pressure are involved in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. A possible relationship between glaucoma and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer Disease has been suggested. In this regard, we have recently described a high prevalence of alterations typical of glaucoma, using Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph-3 (HRT-3), in a group of patients with Alzheimer Disease. Interestingly, these alterations were not associated with elevated intraocular pressure or abnormal Central Corneal Thickness values. Alzheimer Disease is the most common form of dementia associated with progressive deterioration of memory and cognition. Complaints related to vision are common among Alzheimer Disease patients. Features common to both diseases, including risk factors and pathophysiological mechanisms, gleaned from the recent literature do suggest that Alzheimer Disease and glaucoma can be considered age-related neurodegenerative diseases that may co-exist in the elderly. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Lipidomics of human brain aging and Alzheimer's disease pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudí, Alba; Cabré, Rosanna; Jové, Mariona; Ayala, Victoria; Gonzalo, Hugo; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Ferrer, Isidre; Pamplona, Reinald

    2015-01-01

    Lipids stimulated and favored the evolution of the brain. Adult human brain contains a large amount of lipids, and the largest diversity of lipid classes and lipid molecular species. Lipidomics is defined as "the full characterization of lipid molecular species and of their biological roles with respect to expression of proteins involved in lipid metabolism and function, including gene regulation." Therefore, the study of brain lipidomics can help to unravel the diversity and to disclose the specificity of these lipid traits and its alterations in neural (neurons and glial) cells, groups of neural cells, brain, and fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and plasma, thus helping to uncover potential biomarkers of human brain aging and Alzheimer disease. This review will discuss the lipid composition of the adult human brain. We first consider a brief approach to lipid definition, classification, and tools for analysis from the new point of view that has emerged with lipidomics, and then turn to the lipid profiles in human brain and how lipids affect brain function. Finally, we focus on the current status of lipidomics findings in human brain aging and Alzheimer's disease pathology. Neurolipidomics will increase knowledge about physiological and pathological functions of brain cells and will place the concept of selective neuronal vulnerability in a lipid context. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Taste bud homeostasis in health, disease, and aging.

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    Feng, Pu; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50-100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature taste cells. Similar to other epithelial cells, taste cells turn over continuously, with an average life span of about 8-12 days. To maintain structural homeostasis in taste buds, new cells are generated to replace dying cells. Several recent studies using genetic lineage tracing methods have identified populations of progenitor/stem cells for taste buds, although contributions of these progenitor/stem cell populations to taste bud homeostasis have yet to be fully determined. Some regulatory factors of taste cell differentiation and degeneration have been identified, but our understanding of these aspects of taste bud homoeostasis remains limited. Many patients with various diseases develop taste disorders, including taste loss and taste distortion. Decline in taste function also occurs during aging. Recent studies suggest that disruption or alteration of taste bud homeostasis may contribute to taste dysfunction associated with disease and aging.

  13. Taste Bud Homeostasis in Health, Disease, and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50–100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature taste cells. Similar to other epithelial cells, taste cells turn over continuously, with an average life span of about 8–12 days. To maintain structural homeostasis in taste buds, new cells are generated to replace dying cells. Several recent studies using genetic lineage tracing methods have identified populations of progenitor/stem cells for taste buds, although contributions of these progenitor/stem cell populations to taste bud homeostasis have yet to be fully determined. Some regulatory factors of taste cell differentiation and degeneration have been identified, but our understanding of these aspects of taste bud homoeostasis remains limited. Many patients with various diseases develop taste disorders, including taste loss and taste distortion. Decline in taste function also occurs during aging. Recent studies suggest that disruption or alteration of taste bud homeostasis may contribute to taste dysfunction associated with disease and aging. PMID:24287552

  14. Dermatological disease in the older age group: a cross-sectional study in aged care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Maneka S; Kerse, Ngaire; Vandal, Alain C; Jarrett, Paul

    2015-12-23

    To estimate the prevalence of dermatological disease in aged care facilities, and the relationship between cognitive or physical disability and significant disease. 2 large aged care facilities in Auckland, New Zealand, each providing low and high level care. All 161 residents of the facilities were invited to participate. The only exclusion criterion was inability to obtain consent from the individual or designated guardian. 88 participants were recruited-66 females (75%), 22 males (25%) with average age 87.1 years (SD 5.5 years). Primary--presence of significant skin disease (defined as that which in the opinion of the investigators needed treatment or was identified as a patient concern) diagnosed clinically on full dermatological examination by a dermatologist or dermatology trainee. Secondary--functional and cognitive status (Rehabilitation Complexity Scale and Abbreviated Mental Test Score). 81.8% were found to have at least one significant condition. The most common disorders were onychomycosis 42 (47.7%), basal cell carcinoma 13 (14.8%), asteototic eczema 11 (12.5%) and squamous cell carcinoma in situ 9 (10.2%). Other findings were invasive squamous cell carcinoma 7 (8%), bullous pemphigoid 2 (2.3%), melanoma 2 (2.3%), lichen sclerosus 2 (2.3%) and carcinoma of the breast 1 (1.1%). Inflammatory disease was more common in those with little physical disability compared with those with serious physical disability (OR 3.69; 95% CI 1.1 to 12.6, p=0.04). No significant association was found between skin disease and cognitive impairment. A high rate of dermatological disease was found. Findings ranged from frequent but not life-threatening conditions (eg, onychomycosis), to those associated with a significant morbidity (eg, eczema, lichen sclerosus and bullous pemphigoid), to potentially life-threatening (eg, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma and breast cancer). Those with less significant physical impairment were found to be at greater risk of inflammatory

  15. The microbiota and microbiome in aging: potential implications in health and age-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Heidi J; Quagliarello, Vincent J

    2015-04-01

    Advances in bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing allow for characterization of the human commensal bacterial community (microbiota) and its corresponding genome (microbiome). Surveys of healthy adults reveal that a signature composite of bacteria characterizes each unique body habitat (e.g., gut, skin, oral cavity, vagina). A myriad of clinical changes, including a basal proinflammatory state (inflamm-aging), that directly interface with the microbiota of older adults and enhance susceptibility to disease accompany aging. Studies in older adults demonstrate that the gut microbiota correlates with diet, location of residence (e.g., community dwelling, long-term care settings), and basal level of inflammation. Links exist between the microbiota and a variety of clinical problems plaguing older adults, including physical frailty, Clostridium difficile colitis, vulvovaginal atrophy, colorectal carcinoma, and atherosclerotic disease. Manipulation of the microbiota and microbiome of older adults holds promise as an innovative strategy to influence the development of comorbidities associated with aging. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. Overlap between age-at-onset and disease-progression determinants in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, N Ahmad; van der Burg, Jorien M M; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Landwehrmeyer, G Bernhard

    2018-05-09

    A fundamental but still unresolved issue regarding Huntington disease (HD) pathogenesis is whether the factors that determine age at onset are the same as those that govern disease progression. Because elucidation of this issue is crucial for the development as well as optimal timing of administration of novel disease-modifying therapies, we aimed to assess the extent of overlap between age-at-onset and disease-progression determinants in HD. Using observational data from Enroll-HD, the largest cohort of patients with HD worldwide, in this study we present, validate, and apply an intuitive method based on linear mixed-effect models to quantify the variability in the rate of disease progression in HD. A total of 3,411 patients with HD met inclusion criteria. We found that (1) about two-thirds of the rate of functional, motor, and cognitive progression in HD is determined by the same factors that also determine age at onset, with CAG repeat-dependent mechanisms having by far the largest effect; (2) although expanded HTT CAG repeat size had a large influence on average body weight, the rate of weight loss was largely independent of factors that determine age at onset in HD; and (3) about one-third of the factors that determine the rate of functional, motor, and cognitive progression are different from those that govern age at onset and need further elucidation. Our findings imply that targeting of CAG repeat-dependent mechanisms, for example through gene-silencing approaches, is likely to affect the rate of functional, motor, and cognitive impairment, but not weight loss, in manifest HD mutation carriers. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Learn with the Classics: Using Music To Study Smart at Any Age.

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    Andersen, Ole; Marsh, Marcy; Harvey, Arthur

    This book, accompanied by a musical CD-ROM, provides information on how to enhance learning through music at any age. Sections include: (1) "Let Music Prime Your Brain For Learning," which teaches how important it is to prime the brain for learning through music; (2) "Study Smart," which demonstrates highly effective studying techniques devised by…

  18. Interindividual Differences in Learning Performance: The Effects of Age, Intelligence, and Strategic Task Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliegel, Matthias; Altgassen, Mareike

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated fluid and crystallized intelligence as well as strategic task approaches as potential sources of age-related differences in adult learning performance. Therefore, 45 young and 45 old adults were asked to learn pictured objects. Overall, young participants outperformed old participants in this learning test. However,…

  19. Prototype learning and dissociable categorization systems in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, William C; Festa, Elena K; Ott, Brian R; Landy, Kelly M; Salmon, David P

    2013-08-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that prototype learning may be mediated by at least two dissociable memory systems depending on the mode of acquisition, with A/Not-A prototype learning dependent upon a perceptual representation system located within posterior visual cortex and A/B prototype learning dependent upon a declarative memory system associated with medial temporal and frontal regions. The degree to which patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) can acquire new categorical information may therefore critically depend upon the mode of acquisition. The present study examined A/Not-A and A/B prototype learning in AD patients using procedures that allowed direct comparison of learning across tasks. Despite impaired explicit recall of category features in all tasks, patients showed differential patterns of category acquisition across tasks. First, AD patients demonstrated impaired prototype induction along with intact exemplar classification under incidental A/Not-A conditions, suggesting that the loss of functional connectivity within visual cortical areas disrupted the integration processes supporting prototype induction within the perceptual representation system. Second, AD patients demonstrated intact prototype induction but impaired exemplar classification during A/B learning under observational conditions, suggesting that this form of prototype learning is dependent on a declarative memory system that is disrupted in AD. Third, the surprisingly intact classification of both prototypes and exemplars during A/B learning under trial-and-error feedback conditions suggests that AD patients shifted control from their deficient declarative memory system to a feedback-dependent procedural memory system when training conditions allowed. Taken together, these findings serve to not only increase our understanding of category learning in AD, but to also provide new insights into the ways in which different memory systems interact to support the acquisition of

  20. The effect of cognitive aging on implicit sequence learning and dual tasking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen eVandenbossche

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of attentional demands on sequence-specific learning by means of the serial reaction time (SRT task (Nissen & Bullemer, 1987 in young (age 18-25 and aged (age 55-75 adults. Participants had to respond as fast as possible to a stimulus presented in one of four horizontal locations by pressing a key corresponding to the spatial position of the stimulus. During the training phase sequential blocks were accompanied by (1 no secondary task (single, (2 a secondary tone counting task (dual tone, or (3 a secondary shape counting task (dual shape. Both secondary tasks were administered to investigate whether low and high interference tasks interact with implicit learning and age. The testing phase, under baseline single condition, was implemented to assess differences in sequence-specific learning between young and aged adults. Results indicate that (1 aged subjects show less sequence learning compared to young adults, (2 young participants show similar implicit learning effects under both single and dual task conditions when we account for explicit awareness, and (3 aged adults demonstrate reduced learning when the primary task is accompanied with a secondary task, even when explicit awareness is included as a covariate in the analysis. These findings point to implicit learning deficits under dual task conditions that can be related to cognitive aging, demonstrating the need for sufficient cognitive resources while performing a sequence learning task.

  1. The Role of Age and Occupational Future Time Perspective in Workers' Motivation to Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochoian, Nané; Raemdonck, Isabel; Frenay, Mariane; Zacher, Hannes

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to better understand the relationship between employees' chronological age and their motivation to learn, by adopting a lifespan perspective. Based on socioemotional selectivity theory, we suggest that occupational future time perspective mediates the relationship between age and motivation to learn. In accordance with…

  2. The Learning Projects of Rural Third Age Women: Enriching a Valuable Community Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Glenna

    2011-01-01

    As a third age PhD candidate with a passion for learning, I wanted to explore the learning of other rural third age women who live on the Lower Eyre Peninsula (LEP) of South Australia. This reflects the methodological stance of heuristic inquiry, which requires the researcher to have a passionate interest in the phenomena under investigation, and…

  3. Advanced Parkinson’s disease effect on goal-directed and habitual processes involved in visuomotor associative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadila eHadj-Bouziane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present behavioral study readdresses the question of habit learning in Parkinson's disease. Patients were early onset, non-demented, dopa-responsive, candidates for surgical treatment, similar to those we found earlier as suffering greater dopamine depletion in the putamen than in the caudate nucleus. The task was the same conditional associative learning task as that used previously in monkeys and healthy humans to unveil the striatum involvement in habit learning. Sixteen patients and 20 age- and education-matched healthy control subjects learned sets of 3 visuo-motor associations between complex patterns and joystick displacements during two testing sessions separated by a few hours. We distinguished errors preceding versus following the first correct response to compare patients' performance during the earliest phase of learning dominated by goal-directed actions with that observed later on, when responses start to become habitual. The disease significantly retarded both learning phases, especially in patients under sixty years of age. However, only the late phase deficit was disease severity-dependent and persisted on the second testing session. These findings provide the first corroboration in Parkinson patients of two ideas well-established in the animal literature. The first is the idea that associating visual stimuli to motor acts is a form of habit learning that engages the striatum. It is confirmed here by the global impairment in visuo-motor learning induced by Parkinson's disease. The second idea is that goal-directed behaviors are predominantly caudate-dependent whereas habitual responses are primarily putamen-dependent. At the advanced Parkinson's disease stages tested here, dopamine depletion is greater in the putamen than in the caudate nucleus. Accordingly, the late phase of learning corresponding to the emergence of habitual responses was more vulnerable to the disease than the early phase dominated by goal

  4. Hypoxia-Inducible Histone Lysine Demethylases: Impact on the Aging Process and Age-Related Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is an environmental stress at high altitude and underground conditions but it is also present in many chronic age-related diseases, where blood flow into tissues is impaired. The oxygen-sensing system stimulates gene expression protecting tissues against hypoxic insults. Hypoxia stabilizes the expression of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1α (HIF-1α), which controls the expression of hundreds of survival genes related to e.g. enhanced energy metabolism and autophagy. Moreover, many stress-related signaling mechanisms, such as oxidative stress and energy metabolic disturbances, as well as the signaling cascades via ceramide, mTOR, NF-κB, and TGF-β pathways, can also induce the expression of HIF-1α protein to facilitate cell survival in normoxia. Hypoxia is linked to prominent epigenetic changes in chromatin landscape. Screening studies have indicated that the stabilization of HIF-1α increases the expression of distinct histone lysine demethylases (KDM). HIF-1α stimulates the expression of KDM3A, KDM4B, KDM4C, and KDM6B, which enhance gene transcription by demethylating H3K9 and H3K27 sites (repressive epigenetic marks). In addition, HIF-1α induces the expression of KDM2B and KDM5B, which repress transcription by demethylating H3K4me2,3 sites (activating marks). Hypoxia-inducible KDMs support locally the gene transcription induced by HIF-1α, although they can also control genome-wide chromatin landscape, especially KDMs which demethylate H3K9 and H3K27 sites. These epigenetic marks have important role in the control of heterochromatin segments and 3D folding of chromosomes, as well as the genetic loci regulating cell type commitment, proliferation, and cellular senescence, e.g. the INK4 box. A chronic stimulation of HIF-1α can provoke tissue fibrosis and cellular senescence, which both are increasingly present with aging and age-related diseases. We will review the regulation of HIF-1α-dependent induction of KDMs and clarify their role in

  5. Correlates of individual, and age-related, differences in short-term learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Davis, Hasker P; Salthouse, Timothy A; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2007-07-01

    Latent growth models were applied to data on multitrial verbal and spatial learning tasks from two independent studies. Although significant individual differences in both initial level of performance and subsequent learning were found in both tasks, age differences were found only in mean initial level, and not in mean learning. In neither task was fluid or crystallized intelligence associated with learning. Although there were moderate correlations among the level parameters across the verbal and spatial tasks, the learning parameters were not significantly correlated with one another across task modalities. These results are inconsistent with the existence of a general (e.g., material-independent) learning ability.

  6. Positivity effect in healthy aging in observational but not active feedback-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellebaum, Christian; Rustemeier, Martina; Daum, Irene

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of healthy aging on the bias to learn from positive or negative performance feedback in observational and active feedback learning. In active learning, a previous study had already shown a negative learning bias in healthy seniors older than 75 years, while no bias was found for younger seniors. However, healthy aging is accompanied by a 'positivity effect', a tendency to primarily attend to stimuli with positive valence. Based on recent findings of dissociable neural mechanisms in active and observational feedback learning, the positivity effect was hypothesized to influence older participants' observational feedback learning in particular. In two separate experiments, groups of young (mean age 27) and older participants (mean age 60 years) completed an observational or active learning task designed to differentially assess positive and negative learning. Older but not younger observational learners showed a significant bias to learn better from positive than negative feedback. In accordance with previous findings, no bias was found for active learning. This pattern of results is discussed in terms of differences in the neural underpinnings of active and observational learning from performance feedback.

  7. Recent machine learning advancements in sensor-based mobility analysis: Deep learning for Parkinson's disease assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskofier, Bjoern M; Lee, Sunghoon I; Daneault, Jean-Francois; Golabchi, Fatemeh N; Ferreira-Carvalho, Gabriela; Vergara-Diaz, Gloria; Sapienza, Stefano; Costante, Gianluca; Klucken, Jochen; Kautz, Thomas; Bonato, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    The development of wearable sensors has opened the door for long-term assessment of movement disorders. However, there is still a need for developing methods suitable to monitor motor symptoms in and outside the clinic. The purpose of this paper was to investigate deep learning as a method for this monitoring. Deep learning recently broke records in speech and image classification, but it has not been fully investigated as a potential approach to analyze wearable sensor data. We collected data from ten patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease using inertial measurement units. Several motor tasks were expert-labeled and used for classification. We specifically focused on the detection of bradykinesia. For this, we compared standard machine learning pipelines with deep learning based on convolutional neural networks. Our results showed that deep learning outperformed other state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms by at least 4.6 % in terms of classification rate. We contribute a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of deep learning for sensor-based movement assessment and conclude that deep learning is a promising method for this field.

  8. Vitamin K, osteoporosis and degenerative diseases of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Cees; Theuwissen, Elke

    2011-03-01

    The function of vitamin K is to serve as a co-factor during the post-translational carboxylation of glutamate (Glu) residues into γ-carboxyglutamate (Gla) residues. The vital importance of the Gla-proteins essential for normal haemostasis is well recognized. During recent years, new Gla-containing proteins have been discovered and the vitamin K-dependent carboxylation is also essential for their function. It seems, however, that our dietary vitamin K intake is too low to support the carboxylation of at least some of these Gla-proteins. According to the triage theory, long-term vitamin K inadequacy is an independent, but modifiable risk factor for the development of degenerative diseases of ageing including osteoporosis and atherosclerosis.

  9. Culture and Tourism in the Learning Age: A Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Cultural services and tourism are among the United Kingdom's fastest growing sectors in terms of employment and consumer demand. Cultural services and tourism bring the following elements to lifelong learning: active rather than passive learning; a means of interpreting the world around us; exposure to cultures other than one's own; confidence and…

  10. Learned Helplessness: A Theory for the Age of Personal Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher; And Others

    Experiences with uncontrollable events may lead to the expectation that future events will elude control, resulting in disruptions in motivation, emotion, and learning. This text explores this phenomenon, termed learned helplessness, tracking it from its discovery to its entrenchment in the psychological canon. The volume summarizes and integrates…

  11. Blended Learning of Programming in the Internet Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djenic, S.; Krneta, R.; Mitic, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced variant of learning programming by the use of the Internet and multimedia. It describes the development of a blended learning environment, which, in addition to classroom (face-to-face) lessons, introduces lessons delivered over the Internet: the use of multimedia teaching material with completely dynamic…

  12. Strategic Decision-Making Learning from Label Distributions: An Approach for Facial Age Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Han

    2016-06-28

    Nowadays, label distribution learning is among the state-of-the-art methodologies in facial age estimation. It takes the age of each facial image instance as a label distribution with a series of age labels rather than the single chronological age label that is commonly used. However, this methodology is deficient in its simple decision-making criterion: the final predicted age is only selected at the one with maximum description degree. In many cases, different age labels may have very similar description degrees. Consequently, blindly deciding the estimated age by virtue of the highest description degree would miss or neglect other valuable age labels that may contribute a lot to the final predicted age. In this paper, we propose a strategic decision-making label distribution learning algorithm (SDM-LDL) with a series of strategies specialized for different types of age label distribution. Experimental results from the most popular aging face database, FG-NET, show the superiority and validity of all the proposed strategic decision-making learning algorithms over the existing label distribution learning and other single-label learning algorithms for facial age estimation. The inner properties of SDM-LDL are further explored with more advantages.

  13. Interaction between age and perceptual similarity in olfactory discrimination learning in F344 rats: relationships with spatial learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Wendy M.; Gaynor, Leslie S.; Burke, Sara N.; Setlow, Barry; Smith, David W.; Bizon, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that aging is associated with a reduced ability to distinguish perceptually similar stimuli in one’s environment. As the ability to accurately perceive and encode sensory information is foundational for explicit memory, understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of discrimination impairments that emerge with advancing age could help elucidate the mechanisms of mnemonic decline. To this end, there is a need for preclinical approaches that robustly and reliably model age-associated perceptual discrimination deficits. Taking advantage of rodents’ exceptional olfactory abilities, the present study applied rigorous psychophysical techniques to the evaluation of discrimination learning in young and aged F344 rats. Aging did not influence odor detection thresholds or the ability to discriminate between perceptually distinct odorants. In contrast, aged rats were disproportionately impaired relative to young on problems that required discriminations between perceptually similar olfactory stimuli. Importantly, these disproportionate impairments in discrimination learning did not simply reflect a global learning impairment in aged rats, as they performed other types of difficult discriminations on par with young rats. Among aged rats, discrimination deficits were strongly associated with spatial learning deficits. These findings reveal a new, sensitive behavioral approach for elucidating the neural mechanisms of cognitive decline associated with normal aging. PMID:28259065

  14. PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING IN THE DIGITAL AGE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte

    Problem-based and project-organized learning (PBL) was originally developed to facilitate collaboration between physically present students; however, due to digitalization, collaboration, dialogues, and other PBL activities should take place online as well. With a theoretical point of departure...... from Dewey and a methodological point of departure from netnography, this study focused on a blended learning module at Aalborg University, where teaching is based on PBL. A primary research question was investigated: “How can IT support collaborative learning among learner communities in a PBL Master......’s program at Aalborg University?” The ways teachers and groups of students could benefit from utilizing IT as a platform for learning were examined. Netnography was the chosen methodology, and the data consisted of the course materials, the reflections, and the dialogues available online. The study showed...

  15. The aging brain in patients with manifest arterial disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, P.H. van der

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major health problem worldwide. Accumulating evidence suggests that cardiovascular disease and a high cardiovascular risk play an important role in the etiology of cognitive decline and dementia. As intermediates in this relation between cardiovascular disease and

  16. Headmasters: Microglial regulation of learning and memory in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Weinhard

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are mononuclear phagocytes that reside throughout the lifetime of the animal in the central nervous system (CNS. Originating from the yolk sac, microglial progenitors infiltrate the developing brain anlage even before the formation of the neural network. Mature microglial cells persist by slow rates of self-renewal that vary across brain regions. Eminent studies in the recent decade have highlighted a role for steady state microglia in neurogenesis, synaptic pruning, and formation and maintenance of connectivity within the CNS, which are critical to learning and memory functions. Activity- and learning-dependent synaptic remodeling by microglia has been described in various contexts. Molecular pathways, including signaling through fractalkine CX3CL1 and its receptor CX3CR1, transforming growth factor-beta, classical complement system, colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor, adaptor protein DAP12, and brain-derived neurotropic factor, have been proposed to be important mediators of synaptic plasticity regulated by microglia. Reactive, dysfunctional, or aged microglia are thought to impact learning and memory, and are implicated in human neurodegenerative disorders in which dementia is a hallmark. These disorders include Nasu-Hakola disease, hereditary diffuse leukoencephaly with spheroids, Alzheimer’s disease, frontotemporal dementia, and Parkinson’s disease. Focusing on microglia, here we discuss the potential detrimental effects and risks presented by microglia-specific genetic variants, the environmental factors that target microglia, and microglial aging that likely lead to progressive memory loss in neurodegenerative diseases. Finally, we consider some caveats of the animal model systems that to date have advanced our understanding of microglial regulation of learning and memory.

  17. Aging and a genetic KIBRA polymorphism interactively affect feedback- and observation-based probabilistic classification learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Nicolas W; Petok, Jessica R; Meeter, Martijn; Schjeide, Brit-Maren M; Schröder, Julia; Bertram, Lars; Gluck, Mark A; Li, Shu-Chen

    2018-01-01

    Probabilistic category learning involves complex interactions between the hippocampus and striatum that may depend on whether acquisition occurs via feedback or observation. Little is known about how healthy aging affects these processes. We tested whether age-related behavioral differences in probabilistic category learning from feedback or observation depend on a genetic factor known to influence individual differences in hippocampal function, the KIBRA gene (single nucleotide polymorphism rs17070145). Results showed comparable age-related performance impairments in observational as well as feedback-based learning. Moreover, genetic analyses indicated an age-related interactive effect of KIBRA on learning: among older adults, the beneficial T-allele was positively associated with learning from feedback, but negatively with learning from observation. In younger adults, no effects of KIBRA were found. Our results add behavioral genetic evidence to emerging data showing age-related differences in how neural resources relate to memory functions, namely that hippocampal and striatal contributions to probabilistic category learning may vary with age. Our findings highlight the effects genetic factors can have on differential age-related decline of different memory functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ageing and spatial reversal learning in humans: findings from a virtual water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, R; Foreman, N; Leplow, B

    2014-08-15

    Deterioration in spatial memory with normal ageing is well accepted. Animal research has shown spatial reversal learning to be most vulnerable to pathological changes in the brain, but this has never been tested in humans. We studied ninety participants (52% females, 20-80 yrs) in a virtual water maze with a reversal learning procedure. Neuropsychological functioning, mood and personality were assessed to control moderator effects. For data analysis, participants were subdivided post hoc into groups aged 20-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-64 and 65-80 yrs. Initial spatial learning occurred in all age groups but 65-80-yrs-olds never reached the level of younger participants. When tested for delayed recall of spatial memory, younger people frequented the target area but those over 65 yrs did not. In spatial reversal learning, age groups over 45 yrs were deficient and the 65-80-yrs-olds showed no evidence of reversal. Spatial measures were associated with neuropsychological functioning. Extraversion and measures of depression moderated the age effect on the learning index with older introverted and non-depressed individuals showing better results. Measures of anxiety moderated the age effect on reversal learning with older people having higher anxiety scores showing a preserved reversal learning capability. Results confirmed age to be a major factor in spatial tasks but further showed neuropsychological functioning, psycho-affective determinants and personality traits to be significant predictors of individual differences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Age-dependent loss of cholinergic neurons in learning and memory-related brain regions and impaired learning in SAMP8 mice with trigeminal nerve damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yifan He; Jihong Zhu; Fang Huang; Liu Qin; Wenguo Fan; Hongwen He

    2014-01-01

    The tooth belongs to the trigeminal sensory pathway. Dental damage has been associated with impairments in the central nervous system that may be mediated by injury to the trigeminal nerve. In the present study, we investigated the effects of damage to the inferior alveolar nerve, an important peripheral nerve in the trigeminal sensory pathway, on learning and memory be-haviors and structural changes in related brain regions, in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Inferior alveolar nerve transection or sham surgery was performed in middle-aged (4-month-old) or elderly (7-month-old) senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice. When the middle-aged mice reached 8 months (middle-aged group 1) or 11 months (middle-aged group 2), and the elderly group reached 11 months, step-down passive avoidance and Y-maze tests of learn-ing and memory were performed, and the cholinergic system was examined in the hippocampus (Nissl staining and acetylcholinesterase histochemistry) and basal forebrain (choline acetyltrans-ferase immunohistochemistry). In the elderly group, animals that underwent nerve transection had fewer pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions, fewer cholinergic ifbers in the CA1 and dentate gyrus, and fewer cholinergic neurons in the medial septal nucleus and vertical limb of the diagonal band, compared with sham-operated animals, as well as showing impairments in learning and memory. Conversely, no signiifcant differences in histology or be-havior were observed between middle-aged group 1 or group 2 transected mice and age-matched sham-operated mice. The present ifndings suggest that trigeminal nerve damage in old age, but not middle age, can induce degeneration of the septal-hippocampal cholinergic system and loss of hippocampal pyramidal neurons, and ultimately impair learning ability. Our results highlight the importance of active treatment of trigeminal nerve damage in elderly patients and those with Alzheimer’s disease, and

  20. Alzheimer's disease and natural cognitive aging may represent adaptive metabolism reduction programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reser Jared

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present article examines several lines of converging evidence suggesting that the slow and insidious brain changes that accumulate over the lifespan, resulting in both natural cognitive aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD, represent a metabolism reduction program. A number of such adaptive programs are known to accompany aging and are thought to have decreased energy requirements for ancestral hunter-gatherers in their 30s, 40s and 50s. Foraging ability in modern hunter-gatherers declines rapidly, more than a decade before the average terminal age of 55 years. Given this, the human brain would have been a tremendous metabolic liability that must have been advantageously tempered by the early cellular and molecular changes of AD which begin to accumulate in all humans during early adulthood. Before the recent lengthening of life span, individuals in the ancestral environment died well before this metabolism reduction program resulted in clinical AD, thus there was never any selective pressure to keep adaptive changes from progressing to a maladaptive extent. Aging foragers may not have needed the same cognitive capacities as their younger counterparts because of the benefits of accumulated learning and life experience. It is known that during both childhood and adulthood metabolic rate in the brain decreases linearly with age. This trend is thought to reflect the fact that children have more to learn. AD "pathology" may be a natural continuation of this trend. It is characterized by decreasing cerebral metabolism, selective elimination of synapses and reliance on accumulating knowledge (especially implicit and procedural over raw brain power (working memory. Over decades of subsistence, the behaviors of aging foragers became routinized, their motor movements automated and their expertise ingrained to a point where they no longer necessitated the first-rate working memory they possessed when younger and learning actively. Alzheimer

  1. Alzheimer's disease and natural cognitive aging may represent adaptive metabolism reduction programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reser, Jared Edward

    2009-02-28

    The present article examines several lines of converging evidence suggesting that the slow and insidious brain changes that accumulate over the lifespan, resulting in both natural cognitive aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD), represent a metabolism reduction program. A number of such adaptive programs are known to accompany aging and are thought to have decreased energy requirements for ancestral hunter-gatherers in their 30s, 40s and 50s. Foraging ability in modern hunter-gatherers declines rapidly, more than a decade before the average terminal age of 55 years. Given this, the human brain would have been a tremendous metabolic liability that must have been advantageously tempered by the early cellular and molecular changes of AD which begin to accumulate in all humans during early adulthood. Before the recent lengthening of life span, individuals in the ancestral environment died well before this metabolism reduction program resulted in clinical AD, thus there was never any selective pressure to keep adaptive changes from progressing to a maladaptive extent.Aging foragers may not have needed the same cognitive capacities as their younger counterparts because of the benefits of accumulated learning and life experience. It is known that during both childhood and adulthood metabolic rate in the brain decreases linearly with age. This trend is thought to reflect the fact that children have more to learn. AD "pathology" may be a natural continuation of this trend. It is characterized by decreasing cerebral metabolism, selective elimination of synapses and reliance on accumulating knowledge (especially implicit and procedural) over raw brain power (working memory). Over decades of subsistence, the behaviors of aging foragers became routinized, their motor movements automated and their expertise ingrained to a point where they no longer necessitated the first-rate working memory they possessed when younger and learning actively. Alzheimer changes selectively and

  2. Alzheimer's Disease: Lessons Learned from Amyloidocentric Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejitno, Andreas; Tjan, Anastasia; Purwata, Thomas Eko

    2015-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most debilitating neurodegenerative diseases and is predicted to affect 1 in 85 people by 2050. Despite much effort to discover a therapeutic strategy to prevent progression or to cure AD, to date no effective disease-modifying agent is available that can prevent, halt, or reverse the cognitive and functional decline of patients with AD. Several underlying etiologies to this failure are proposed. First, accumulating evidence from past trials suggests a preventive as opposed to therapeutic paradigm, and the precise temporal and mechanistic relationship of β-amyloid (Aβ) and tau protein should be elucidated to confirm this hypothesis. Second, we are in urgent need of revised diagnostic criteria to support future trials. Third, various technical and methodological improvements are required, based on the lessons learned from previous failed trials.

  3. Perceptions of Successful Ageing and Implications for Late-Life Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws upon a small-scale investigation to shed light on the perceptions of successful ageing by a group of senior adults in Hong Kong. It also identifies attributes that are associated with ageing well and examines the extent to which education or learning is perceived as important in the ageing process. To this end, the research has…

  4. Glycomics and glycoproteomics focused on aging and age-related diseases--Glycans as a potential biomarker for physiological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yuri; Endo, Tamao

    2016-08-01

    Since glycosylation depends on glycosyltransferases, glycosidases, and sugar nucleotide donors, it is susceptible to the changes associated with physiological and pathological conditions. Therefore, alterations in glycan structures may be good targets and biomarkers for monitoring health conditions. Since human aging and longevity are affected by genetic and environmental factors such as diseases, lifestyle, and social factors, a scale that reflects various environmental factors is required in the study of human aging and longevity. We herein focus on glycosylation changes elucidated by glycomic and glycoproteomic studies on aging, longevity, and age-related diseases including cognitive impairment, diabetes mellitus, and frailty. We also consider the potential of glycan structures as biomarkers and/or targets for monitoring physiological and pathophysiological changes. Glycan structures are altered in age-related diseases. These glycans and glycoproteins may be involved in the pathophysiology of these diseases and, thus, be useful diagnostic markers. Age-dependent changes in N-glycans have been reported previously in cohort studies, and characteristic N-glycans in extreme longevity have been proposed. These findings may lead to a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying aging as well as the factors influencing longevity. Alterations in glycosylation may be good targets and biomarkers for monitoring health conditions, and be applicable to studies on age-related diseases and healthy aging. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Glycans in personalised medicine" Guest Editor: Professor Gordan Lauc. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Connectivism: A knowledge learning theory for the digital age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, John Gerard Scott

    2016-10-01

    The emergence of the internet, particularly Web 2.0 has provided access to the views and opinions of a wide range of individuals opening up opportunities for new forms of communication and knowledge formation. Previous ways of navigating and filtering available information are likely to prove ineffective in these new contexts. Connectivism is one of the most prominent of the network learning theories which have been developed for e-learning environments. It is beginning to be recognized by medical educators. This article aims to examine connectivism and its potential application. The conceptual framework and application of connectivism are presented along with an outline of the main criticisms. Its potential application in medical education is then considered. While connectivism provides a useful lens through which teaching and learning using digital technologies can be better understood and managed, further development and testing is required. There is unlikely to be a single theory that will explain learning in technological enabled networks. Educators have an important role to play in online network learning.

  6. Histone methylation and aging: Lessons learned from model systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Brenna S.; Dang, Weiwei

    2014-01-01

    Aging induces myriad cellular and, ultimately, physiological changes that cause a decline in an organism's functional capabilities. Although the aging process and pathways that regulate it have been extensively studied, only in the last decade have we begun to appreciate that dynamic histone methylation may contribute to this process. In this review, we discuss recent work implicating histone methylation in aging. Loss of certain histone methyltransferases and demethylases changes lifespan in invertebrates, and alterations in histone methylation in aged organisms regulate lifespan and aging phenotypes, including oxidative stress-induced hormesis in yeast, insulin signaling in Caenorhabiditis elegans and mammals, and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype in mammals. In all cases where histone methylation has been shown to impact aging and aging phenotypes, it does so by regulating transcription, suggesting that this is a major mechanism of its action in this context. Histone methylation additionally regulates or is regulated by other cellular pathways that contribute to or combat aging. Given the numerous processes that regulate aging and histone methylation, and are in turn regulated by them, the role of histone methylation in aging is almost certainly underappreciated. PMID:24859460

  7. A Customizable Model for Chronic Disease Coordination: Lessons Learned From the Coordinated Chronic Disease Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voetsch, Karen; Sequeira, Sonia; Chavez, Amy Holmes

    2016-03-31

    In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provided funding and technical assistance to all states and territories to implement the Coordinated Chronic Disease Program, marking the first time that all state health departments had federal resources to coordinate chronic disease prevention and control programs. This article describes lessons learned from this initiative and identifies key elements of a coordinated approach. We analyzed 80 programmatic documents from 21 states and conducted semistructured interviews with 7 chronic disease directors. Six overarching themes emerged: 1) focused agenda, 2) identification of functions, 3) comprehensive planning, 4) collaborative leadership and expertise, 5) managed resources, and 6) relationship building. These elements supported 4 essential activities: 1) evidence-based interventions, 2) strategic use of staff, 3) consistent communication, and 4) strong program infrastructure. On the basis of these elements and activities, we propose a conceptual model that frames overarching concepts, skills, and strategies needed to coordinate state chronic disease prevention and control programs.

  8. Age-Dependence and Aging-Dependence: Neuronal Loss and Lifespan in a C. elegans Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfeld, Javier; Fontana, Walter

    2017-12-23

    It is often assumed, but not established, that the major neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, are not just age-dependent (their incidence changes with time) but actually aging-dependent (their incidence is coupled to the process that determines lifespan). To determine a dependence on the aging process requires the joint probability distribution of disease onset and lifespan. For human Parkinson's disease, such a joint distribution is not available, because the disease cuts lifespan short. To acquire a joint distribution, we resorted to an established C. elegans model of Parkinson's disease in which the loss of dopaminergic neurons is not fatal. We find that lifespan is not correlated with the loss of individual neurons. Therefore, neuronal loss is age-dependent and aging-independent. We also find that a lifespan-extending intervention into insulin/IGF1 signaling accelerates the loss of specific dopaminergic neurons, while leaving death and neuronal loss times uncorrelated. This suggests that distinct and compartmentalized instances of the same genetically encoded insulin/IGF1 signaling machinery act independently to control neurodegeneration and lifespan in C. elegans . Although the human context might well be different, our study calls attention to the need to maintain a rigorous distinction between age-dependence and aging-dependence.

  9. Research Synthesis Methods in an Age of Globalized Risks: Lessons from the Global Burden of Foodborne Disease Expert Elicitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Angulo, Fred; Bin Hamzah, Wan Mansor

    2016-01-01

    We live in an age that increasingly calls for national or regional management of global risks. This article discusses the contributions that expert elicitation can bring to efforts to manage global risks and identifies challenges faced in conducting expert elicitation at this scale. In doing so...... it draws on lessons learned from conducting an expert elicitation as part of the World Health Organizations (WHO) initiative to estimate the global burden of foodborne disease; a study commissioned by the Foodborne Disease Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG). Expert elicitation is designed to fill gaps...

  10. Strategic value-directed learning and memory in Alzheimer's disease and behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephanie; Irish, Muireann; Savage, Greg; Hodges, John R; Piguet, Olivier; Hornberger, Michael

    2018-02-12

    In healthy adults, the ability to prioritize learning of highly valued information is supported by executive functions and enhances subsequent memory retrieval for this information. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), marked deficits are evident in learning and memory, presenting in the context of executive dysfunction. It is unclear whether these patients show a typical memory bias for higher valued stimuli. We administered a value-directed word-list learning task to AD (n = 10) and bvFTD (n = 21) patients and age-matched healthy controls (n = 22). Each word was assigned a low, medium or high point value, and participants were instructed to maximize the number of points earned across three learning trials. Participants' memory for the words was assessed on a delayed recall trial, followed by a recognition test for the words and corresponding point values. Relative to controls, both patient groups showed poorer overall learning, delayed recall and recognition. Despite these impairments, patients with AD preferentially recalled high-value words on learning trials and showed significant value-directed enhancement of recognition memory for the words and points. Conversely, bvFTD patients did not prioritize recall of high-value words during learning trials, and this reduced selectivity was related to inhibitory dysfunction. Nonetheless, bvFTD patients showed value-directed enhancement of recognition memory for the point values, suggesting a mismatch between memory of high-value information and the ability to apply this in a motivationally salient context. Our findings demonstrate that value-directed enhancement of memory may persist to some degree in patients with dementia, despite pronounced deficits in learning and memory. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Manifold regularized multitask feature learning for multimodality disease classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Biao; Zhang, Daoqiang; Cheng, Bo; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-02-01

    Multimodality based methods have shown great advantages in classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its prodromal stage, that is, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Recently, multitask feature selection methods are typically used for joint selection of common features across multiple modalities. However, one disadvantage of existing multimodality based methods is that they ignore the useful data distribution information in each modality, which is essential for subsequent classification. Accordingly, in this paper we propose a manifold regularized multitask feature learning method to preserve both the intrinsic relatedness among multiple modalities of data and the data distribution information in each modality. Specifically, we denote the feature learning on each modality as a single task, and use group-sparsity regularizer to capture the intrinsic relatedness among multiple tasks (i.e., modalities) and jointly select the common features from multiple tasks. Furthermore, we introduce a new manifold-based Laplacian regularizer to preserve the data distribution information from each task. Finally, we use the multikernel support vector machine method to fuse multimodality data for eventual classification. Conversely, we also extend our method to the semisupervised setting, where only partial data are labeled. We evaluate our method using the baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) data of subjects from AD neuroimaging initiative database. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method can not only achieve improved classification performance, but also help to discover the disease-related brain regions useful for disease diagnosis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Designing an Educator Toolkit for the Mobile Learning Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Kevin; Kearney, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Mobile technologies have been described as 'boundary' objects which enable teachers and learners to transcend many of the barriers such as rigid schedules and spaces which have hitherto characterised traditional forms of education. However, educators need to better understand how to design learning scenarios which genuinely exploit the unique…

  13. Adaptive Learning in Psychology: Wayfinding in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziuban, Charles D.; Moskal, Patsy D.; Cassisi, Jeffrey; Fawcett, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a pilot study investigating the use of the Realizeit adaptive learning platform to deliver a fully online General Psychology course across two semesters. Through mutual cooperation, UCF and vendor (CCKF) researchers examined students' affective, behavioral, and cognitive reactions to the system. Student survey…

  14. Learning to Manage Change in the Third Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocent, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    Everyone is living through a period of considerable demographic change, which is predicted to continue and escalate. People are living longer and, generally, healthier lives, and the lifelong learning system in the UK needs to catch-up with this new reality. There is a need for a much more flexible approach that offers choice and opportunities to…

  15. Disease duration and age influence CARD15 expression in Crohn’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Poniewierka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the susceptibility genes in Crohn’s disease (CD is CARD15. Our study examined the relationship between peripheral CARD15 expression and phenotype and duration of CD, treatment methods and inflammatory indices. Sixty patients with CD and 30 healthy volunteers as controls were enrolled in the study. Total RNA was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs with E.Z.N.A. Total RNA Kit (Omega Bio-tek then quantitative real-time PCR was performed on the ABI Prism 7900 HT Real-Time PCR System. CARD15 gene expression in PBMCs in CD was significantly higher than in the control group. The highest level of gene expression was found in CD patients in the fourth decade of life. The mRNA level of the CARD15 gene was higher in patients with disease duration between 12 and 60 months. A positive correlation was found between erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and gene expression level. Gene expression increased with increasing level of C-reactive protein and ESR, but it was not statistically significant. CARD15 expression significantly decreased in CD patients treated with anti-TNFα agents compared to azathioprine or steroid treatment groups. Expression of the CARD15 gene in Crohn›s disease is higher than in healthy individuals. Disease duration and age of patients seem to be the most important factors influencing CARD15 expression.

  16. Intergenerational service learning: to promote active aging, and occupational therapy gerontology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Beverly P; Wong, Stephanie Dapice; Dechello, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Americans are living longer, and the meaning of age has changed, particularly for Boomers and seniors. These demographic changes have economic and social ramifications with implications for health care, including rehabilitation services, and health science education. Service learning is an experiential learning pedagogy that integrates traditional higher education with structured active learning experiences. This article reports on one intergenerational service learning program spanning 3 years. It was designed to facilitate community dialogue on fall prevention and active aging, and to provide intergenerational educational community-based experiences in occupational therapy professional education. The program additionally sought to promote students' understanding of aging and issues related to aging in place, students' professional development and civic engagement, and to encourage students to consider pursuing a career in occupational therapy gerontology practice.

  17. Teaching Diversity and Aging through Active Learning Strategies: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Stephen B.; Mehrotra, Chandra M.

    Covering 10 topical areas, this annotated bibliography offers a guide to journal articles, book chapters, monographs, and books useful for teaching diversity and aging through active learning. Active learning experiences may help expand students' awareness of elements of their own diversity, broaden their world view, and enhance their culturally…

  18. Intergenerational Service Learning: To Promote Active Aging, and Occupational Therapy Gerontology Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Beverly P.; Wong, Stephanie Dapice; Dechello, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Americans are living longer, and the meaning of age has changed, particularly for Boomers and seniors. These demographic changes have economic and social ramifications with implications for health care, including rehabilitation services, and health science education. Service learning is an experiential learning pedagogy that integrates traditional…

  19. Predicting the Motivation in College-Aged Learning Disabled Students Based on the Academic Motivation Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Alberto D.

    2013-01-01

    Given the paucity of research on factors associated with motivation in learning disabled college students, the present study investigated the motivation levels in college students with learning disabilities. The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) has been validated cross-nationally and across all educational age groups of students having various…

  20. Students' Age Difference of Confidence in Using Technology for Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2012-01-01

    Some past studies find that older students have more confidence in using technology for learning than younger students but some other studies find the opposite result. However, it is found that there are a few researches studying on the age difference in the perception of using technology for learning in Hong Kong. Therefore, the aim of the study…

  1. Lifelong Learning and Healthy Ageing : The Significance of Music as an Agent of Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, Rineke; Bisschop Boele, Evert

    2016-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview on the Healthy Ageing research portfolio of the research group Lifelong Learning in Music (Hanze University of Applied Sciences Groningen, the Netherlands). Lifelong learning enables musicians to respond to the continuously changing context in which they are working

  2. How Do People with Learning Disabilities Experience and Make Sense of the Ageing Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Gayle; Martin, Carol; Robbins, Lorna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Not enough is currently known about how people with learning disabilities experience and understand the ageing process. This is particularly important as the population of older people with learning disabilities is growing due to increased life expectancy. This article draws on the first author's doctoral research study, which aimed to…

  3. How teacher education institutions cope with challenges of teaching and learning in the digital age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.; Schols, M.; Bottema, J.; van Bergen, H.; van der Stap, N.; Tomson, A.; Nieweg, M.; Doornenbal, J.W.; Bakker, B.; Smits, A.; Thompson, A.; Searson, M.; Ochoa, M.

    2014-01-01

    The assumption underlying the symposium is that teacher education institutions have a dual challenge. At the one hand they need to prepare pre-service students for teaching and facilitating learning in the digital age, including the use of technology in teaching and learning. At the other hand

  4. Use of Computer Technology for English Language Learning: Do Learning Styles, Gender, and Age Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cynthia; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Ip, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Computer technology provides spaces and locales for language learning. However, learning style preference and demographic variables may affect the effectiveness of technology use for a desired goal. Adapting Reid's pioneering Perceptual Learning Style Preference Questionnaire (PLSPQ), this study investigated the relations of university students'…

  5. Resting-state Functional Connectivity is an Age-dependent Predictor of Motor Learning Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Alison; Wens, Vincent; Op de Beeck, Marc; Leproult, Rachel; De Tiège, Xavier; Peigneux, Philippe

    2017-10-01

    This magnetoencephalography study investigates how ageing modulates the relationship between pre-learning resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) and subsequent learning. Neuromagnetic resting-state activity was recorded 5 min before motor sequence learning in 14 young (19-30 years) and 14 old (66-70 years) participants. We used a seed-based beta-band power envelope correlation approach to estimate rsFC maps, with the seed located in the right primary sensorimotor cortex. In each age group, the relation between individual rsFC and learning performance was investigated using Pearson's correlation analyses. Our results show that rsFC is predictive of subsequent motor sequence learning but involves different cross-network interactions in the two age groups. In young adults, decreased coupling between the sensorimotor network and the cortico-striato-cerebellar network is associated with better motor learning, whereas a similar relation is found in old adults between the sensorimotor, the dorsal-attentional and the DMNs. Additionally, age-related correlational differences were found in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, known to subtend attentional and controlled processes. These findings suggest that motor skill learning depends-in an age-dependent manner-on subtle interactions between resting-state networks subtending motor activity on the one hand, and controlled and attentional processes on the other hand. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Aging in Sensory and Motor Neurons Results in Learning Failure in Aplysia californica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T Kempsell

    Full Text Available The physiological and molecular mechanisms of age-related memory loss are complicated by the complexity of vertebrate nervous systems. This study takes advantage of a simple neural model to investigate nervous system aging, focusing on changes in learning and memory in the form of behavioral sensitization in vivo and synaptic facilitation in vitro. The effect of aging on the tail withdrawal reflex (TWR was studied in Aplysia californica at maturity and late in the annual lifecycle. We found that short-term sensitization in TWR was absent in aged Aplysia. This implied that the neuronal machinery governing nonassociative learning was compromised during aging. Synaptic plasticity in the form of short-term facilitation between tail sensory and motor neurons decreased during aging whether the sensitizing stimulus was tail shock or the heterosynaptic modulator serotonin (5-HT. Together, these results suggest that the cellular mechanisms governing behavioral sensitization are compromised during aging, thereby nearly eliminating sensitization in aged Aplysia.

  7. Episodic memory deficits slow down the dynamics of cognitive procedural learning in normal ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaunieux, Hélène; Hubert, Valérie; Pitel, Anne Lise; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive procedural learning is characterized by three phases, each involving distinct processes. Considering the implication of the episodic memory in the first cognitive stage, the impairment of this memory system might be responsible for a slowing down of the cognitive procedural learning dynamics in the course of aging. Performances of massed cognitive procedural learning were evaluated in older and younger participants using the Tower of Toronto task. Nonverbal intelligence and psychomotor abilities were used to analyze procedural dynamics, while episodic memory and working memory were assessed to measure their respective contributions to learning strategies. This experiment showed that older participants did not spontaneously invoke episodic memory and presented a slowdown in the cognitive procedural learning associated with a late involvement of working memory. These findings suggest that the slowdown in the cognitive procedural learning may be linked with the implementation of different learning strategies less involving episodic memory in older subjects. PMID:18654928

  8. Neuroanatomical and cognitive mediators of age-related differences in perceptual priming and learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Kristen M.; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Head, Denise; Gunning-Dixon, Faith; Raz, Naftali

    2009-01-01

    Our objectives were to assess age differences in perceptual repetition priming and perceptual skill learning, and to determine whether they are mediated by cognitive resources and regional cerebral volume differences. Fragmented picture identification paradigm allows the study of both priming and learning within the same task. We presented this task to 169 adults (ages 18–80), assessed working memory and fluid intelligence, and measured brain volumes of regions that were deemed relevant to th...

  9. Aging leads to altered microglial function that reduces brain resiliency increasing vulnerability to neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, Paula C; Flowers, Antwoine; Grimmig, Bethany

    2017-08-01

    Aging is the primary risk factor for many neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, understanding the basic biological changes that take place with aging that lead to the brain being less resilient to disease progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease or insults to the brain such as stroke or traumatic brain injuries. Clearly this will not cure the disease per se, yet increasing the ability of the brain to respond to injury could improve long term outcomes. The focus of this review is examining changes in microglia with age and possible therapeutic interventions involving the use of polyphenol rich dietary supplements. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. A Deep Learning Approach to Neuroanatomical Characterisation of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambastha, Abhinit Kumar; Leong, Tze-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurological degenerative disorder that leads to progressive mental deterioration. This work introduces a computational approach to improve our understanding of the progression of AD. We use ensemble learning methods and deep neural networks to identify salient structural correlations among brain regions that degenerate together in AD; this provides an understanding of how AD progresses in the brain. The proposed technique has a classification accuracy of 81.79% for AD against healthy subjects using a single modality imaging dataset.

  11. Differences in postural tremor dynamics with age and neurological disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Steven; Newell, Karl M; Kavanagh, Justin J

    2017-06-01

    The overlap of dominant tremor frequencies and similarly amplified tremor observed for Parkinson's disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET) means differentiating between these pathologies is often difficult. As tremor exhibits non-linear properties, employing both linear and non-linear analyses may help distinguish between the tremor dynamics of aging, PD and ET. This study was designed to examine postural tremor in healthy older adults, PD and ET using standard linear and non-linear metrics. Hand and finger postural tremor was recorded in 15 healthy older adults (64 ± 6 years), 15 older individuals with PD (63 ± 6 years), and 10 persons with ET (68 ± 7 years). Linear measures of amplitude, frequency, and between-limb coupling (coherence) were performed. Non-linear measures of regularity (ApEn) and coupling (Cross-ApEn) were also used. Additionally, receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed for those measures that were significantly different between all groups. The results revealed that the linear measures only showed significant differences between the healthy adults and ET/PD persons, but no differences between the two neurological groups. Coherence showed higher bilateral coupling for ET but no differences in inter-limb coupling between PD and healthy subjects. However, ApEn values for finger tremor revealed significant differences between all groups, with tremor for ET persons being more regular (lower ApEn) overall. Similarly, Cross-ApEn results also showed differences between all groups, with ET persons showing strongest inter-limb coupling followed by PD and elderly. Overall, our findings point to the diagnostic potential for non-linear measures of coupling and tremor structure as biomarkers for discriminating between ET, PD and healthy persons.

  12. Alzheimer's disease and age-related memory decline (preclinical).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Alvin V; Callahan, Patrick M; Hall, Brandon; Webster, Scott J

    2011-08-01

    An unfortunate result of the rapid rise in geriatric populations worldwide is the increasing prevalence of age-related cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is a devastating neurodegenerative illness that is characterized by a profound impairment of cognitive function, marked physical disability, and an enormous economic burden on the afflicted individual, caregivers, and society in general. The rise in elderly populations is also resulting in an increase in individuals with related (potentially treatable) conditions such as "Mild Cognitive Impairment" (MCI) which is characterized by a less severe (but abnormal) level of cognitive impairment and a high-risk for developing dementia. Even in the absence of a diagnosable disorder of cognition (e.g., AD and MCI), the perception of increased forgetfulness and declining mental function is a clear source of apprehension in the elderly. This is a valid concern given that even a modest impairment of cognitive function is likely to be associated with significant disability in a rapidly evolving, technology-based society. Unfortunately, the currently available therapies designed to improve cognition (i.e., for AD and other forms of dementia) are limited by modest efficacy and adverse side effects, and their effects on cognitive function are not sustained over time. Accordingly, it is incumbent on the scientific community to develop safer and more effective therapies that improve and/or sustain cognitive function in the elderly allowing them to remain mentally active and productive for as long as possible. As diagnostic criteria for memory disorders evolve, the demand for pro-cognitive therapeutic agents is likely to surpass AD and dementia to include MCI and potentially even less severe forms of memory decline. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the contemporary therapeutic targets and preclinical pharmacologic approaches (with representative drug examples) designed to enhance memory

  13. Arterial Ventricular Uncoupling with Age and Disease and Recoupling with Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantler, Paul D

    2017-01-01

    The deterioration in arterial and cardiac function with aging impairs arterial ventricular coupling, an important determinant of cardiovascular performance. However, exercise training improves arterial ventricular coupling especially during exercise during the age and disease process. This review examines the concept of arterial-ventricular coupling, and how age, and disease uncouples but exercise training recouples the heart and arterial system. PMID:28072585

  14. Age-related impairments in active learning and strategic visual exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstatt, Kelly L; Voss, Joel L

    2014-01-01

    Old age could impair memory by disrupting learning strategies used by younger individuals. We tested this possibility by manipulating the ability to use visual-exploration strategies during learning. Subjects controlled visual exploration during active learning, thus permitting the use of strategies, whereas strategies were limited during passive learning via predetermined exploration patterns. Performance on tests of object recognition and object-location recall was matched for younger and older subjects for objects studied passively, when learning strategies were restricted. Active learning improved object recognition similarly for younger and older subjects. However, active learning improved object-location recall for younger subjects, but not older subjects. Exploration patterns were used to identify a learning strategy involving repeat viewing. Older subjects used this strategy less frequently and it provided less memory benefit compared to younger subjects. In previous experiments, we linked hippocampal-prefrontal co-activation to improvements in object-location recall from active learning and to the exploration strategy. Collectively, these findings suggest that age-related memory problems result partly from impaired strategies during learning, potentially due to reduced hippocampal-prefrontal co-engagement.

  15. Age-related impairments in active learning and strategic visual exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L Brandstatt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Old age could impair memory by disrupting learning strategies used by younger individuals. We tested this possibility by manipulating the ability to use visual-exploration strategies during learning. Subjects controlled visual exploration during active learning, thus permitting the use of strategies, whereas strategies were limited during passive learning via predetermined exploration patterns. Performance on tests of object recognition and object-location recall was matched for younger and older subjects for objects studied passively, when learning strategies were restricted. Active learning improved object recognition similarly for younger and older subjects. However, active learning improved object-location recall for younger subjects, but not older subjects. Exploration patterns were used to identify a learning strategy involving repeat viewing. Older subjects used this strategy less frequently and it provided less memory benefit compared to younger subjects. In previous experiments, we linked hippocampal-prefrontal co-activation to improvements in object-location recall from active learning and to the exploration strategy. Collectively, these findings suggest that age-related memory problems result partly from impaired strategies during learning, potentially due to reduced hippocampal-prefrontal co-engagement.

  16. Differential Disease Progression in Atrophic Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Late-Onset Stargardt Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Moritz; Lambertus, Stanley; Mauschitz, Matthias M; Bax, Nathalie M; Kersten, Eveline; Lüning, Anna; Nadal, Jennifer; Schmitz-Valckenberg, Steffen; Schmid, Matthias; Holz, Frank G; Hoyng, Carel B; Fleckenstein, Monika

    2017-02-01

    To compare the disease course of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy secondary to age-related macula degeneratio (AMD) and late-onset Stargardt disease (STGD1). Patients were examined longitudinally by fundus autofluorescence, near-infrared reflectance imaging, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Areas of RPE atrophy were quantified using semi-automated software, and the status of the fovea was evaluated based on autofluorescence and near-infrared reflectance images. Mixed-effects models were used to compare atrophy progression rates. BCVA loss and loss of foveal integrity were analyzed using Turnbull's estimator. A total of 151 patients (226 eyes) with RPE atrophy secondary to AMD and 38 patients (66 eyes) with RPE atrophy secondary to late-onset STGD1 were examined for a median time of 2.3 years (interquartile range, 2.7). Mean baseline age was 74.2 years (SD, 7.6) in AMD and 63.4 (SD, 9.9) in late-onset STGD1 (P = 1.1 × 10-7). Square root atrophy progression was significantly faster in AMD when compared with late-onset STGD1 (0.28 mm/year [SE, 0.01] vs. 0.23 [SE, 0.03]; P = 0.030). In late-onset STGD1, the median survival of the fovea was significantly longer when compared with eyes with AMD (8.60 vs. 3.35 years; P = 0.005) with a trend to a later BCVA loss of ≥3 lines (5.97 vs. 4.37 years; P = 0.382). These natural history data indicate differential disease progression in AMD versus late-onset STGD1. The results underline the relevance of refined phenotyping in elderly patients presenting with RPE atrophy in regard to prognosis and design of interventional trials.

  17. The Interleukin-6 inflammation pathway from cholesterol to aging – Role of statins, bisphosphonates and plant polyphenols in aging and age-related diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omoigui Sota

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We describe the inflammation pathway from Cholesterol to Aging. Interleukin 6 mediated inflammation is implicated in age-related disorders including Atherosclerosis, Peripheral Vascular Disease, Coronary Artery Disease, Osteoporosis, Type 2 Diabetes, Dementia and Alzheimer's disease and some forms of Arthritis and Cancer. Statins and Bisphosphonates inhibit Interleukin 6 mediated inflammation indirectly through regulation of endogenous cholesterol synthesis and isoprenoid depletion. Polyphenolic compounds found in plants, fruits and vegetables inhibit Interleukin 6 mediated inflammation by direct inhibition of the signal transduction pathway. Therapeutic targets for the control of all the above diseases should include inhibition of Interleukin-6 mediated inflammation.

  18. Fronto-striatal grey matter contributions to discrimination learning in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Callaghan, C.; Moustafa, A.A.; de Wit, S.; Shine, J.M.; Robbins, T.W.; Lewis, S.J.G.; Hornberger, M.

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination learning deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been well-established. Using both behavioral patient studies and computational approaches, these deficits have typically been attributed to dopamine imbalance across the basal ganglia. However, this explanation of impaired learning in

  19. Effects of aging and dopamine genotypes on the emergence of explicit memory during sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Nicolas W; Frensch, Peter A; Schjeide, Brit-Maren M; Schröder, Julia; Bertram, Lars; Li, Shu-Chen

    2013-11-01

    The striatum and medial temporal lobe play important roles in implicit and explicit memory, respectively. Furthermore, recent studies have linked striatal dopamine modulation to both implicit as well as explicit sequence learning and suggested a potential role of the striatum in the emergence of explicit memory during sequence learning. With respect to aging, previous findings indicated that implicit memory is less impaired than explicit memory in older adults and that genetic effects on cognition are magnified by aging. To understand the links between these findings, we investigated effects of aging and genotypes relevant for striatal dopamine on the implicit and explicit components of sequence learning. Reaction time (RT) and error data from 80 younger (20-30 years) and 70 older adults (60-71 years) during a serial reaction time task showed that age differences in learning-related reduction of RTs emerged gradually over the course of learning. Verbal recall and measures derived from the process-dissociation procedure revealed that younger adults acquired more explicit memory about the sequence than older adults, potentially causing age differences in RT gains in later stages of learning. Of specific interest, polymorphisms of the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein (DARPP-32, rs907094) and dopamine transporter (DAT, VNTR) genes showed interactive effects on overall RTs and verbal recall of the sequence in older but not in younger adults. Together our findings show that variations in genotypes relevant for dopamine functions are associated more with aging-related impairments in the explicit than the implicit component of sequence learning, providing support for theories emphasizing the role of dopaminergic modulation in cognitive aging and the magnification of genetic effects in human aging. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Age-related changes in consolidation of perceptual and muscle-based learning of motor skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. C. Spencer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in motor sequence learning come about via goal-based learning of the sequence of visual stimuli and muscle-based learning of the sequence of movement responses. In young adults, consolidation of goal-based learning is observed after intervals of sleep but not following wake, whereas consolidation of muscle-based learning is greater following intervals with wake compared to sleep. While the benefit of sleep on motor sequence learning has been shown to decline with age, how sleep contributes to consolidation of goal-based versus muscle-based learning in older adults has not been disentangled. We trained young (n=62 and older (n=50 adults on a motor sequence learning task and re-tested learning following 12 hr intervals containing overnight sleep or daytime wake. To probe consolidation of goal-based learning of the sequence, half of the participants were re-tested in a configuration in which the stimulus sequence was the same but, due to a shift in stimulus-response mapping, the movement response sequence differed. To probe consolidation of muscle-based learning, the remaining participants were tested in a configuration in which the stimulus sequence was novel, but now the sequence of movements used for responding was unchanged. In young adults, there was a significant condition (goal-based v. muscle-based learning by interval (sleep v. wake interaction, F(1,58=6.58, p=.013: Goal-based learning tended to be greater following sleep compared to wake, t(29=1.47, p=.072. Conversely, muscle-based learning was greater following wake than sleep, t(29=2.11, p=.021. Unlike young adults, this interaction was not significant in older adults, F(1,46=.04, p=.84, nor was there a main effect of interval, F(1,46=1.14, p=.29. Thus, older adults do not preferentially consolidate sequence learning over wake or sleep.

  1. Successful aging theory and the patient with chronic renal disease: application in the clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Candy; Toutman, Meredith Flood

    2011-01-01

    As life expectancies increase, nurses will care for more individuals with chronic conditions, one of which is chronic renal disease. Increasing diversity and complexity of older adult healthcare needs signals a need to reconceptualize perceptions of successful aging. By emphasizing health promotion and adaptation, successful aging is possible for those with chronic renal disease. This article provides an overview of theory-based strategies for fostering successful aging in the patient with chronic renal disease.

  2. The Role of Age and Executive Function in Auditory Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reetzke, Rachel; Maddox, W. Todd; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2015-01-01

    Auditory categorization is a natural and adaptive process that allows for the organization of high-dimensional, continuous acoustic information into discrete representations. Studies in the visual domain have identified a rule-based learning system that learns and reasons via a hypothesis-testing process that requires working memory and executive attention. The rule-based learning system in vision shows a protracted development, reflecting the influence of maturing prefrontal function on visual categorization. The aim of the current study is two-fold: (a) to examine the developmental trajectory of rule-based auditory category learning from childhood through adolescence, into early adulthood; and (b) to examine the extent to which individual differences in rule-based category learning relate to individual differences in executive function. Sixty participants with normal hearing, 20 children (age range, 7–12), 21 adolescents (age range, 13–19), and 19 young adults (age range, 20–23), learned to categorize novel dynamic ripple sounds using trial-by-trial feedback. The spectrotemporally modulated ripple sounds are considered the auditory equivalent of the well-studied Gabor patches in the visual domain. Results revealed that auditory categorization accuracy improved with age, with young adults outperforming children and adolescents. Computational modeling analyses indicated that the use of the task-optimal strategy (i.e. a conjunctive rule-based learning strategy) improved with age. Notably, individual differences in executive flexibility significantly predicted auditory category learning success. The current findings demonstrate a protracted development of rule-based auditory categorization. The results further suggest that executive flexibility coupled with perceptual processes play important roles in successful rule-based auditory category learning. PMID:26491987

  3. Ill or just old? Towards a conceptual framework of the relation between ageing and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westendorp Rudi GJ

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Is this person ill or just old? This question reflects the pondering mind of a doctor while interpreting the complaints of an elderly person who seeks his help. Many doctors think that ageing is a non-disease. Accordingly, various attempts have been undertaken to separate pathological ageing from normal ageing. However, the existence of a normal ageing process distinct from the pathological processes causing disease later in life can be questioned. Discussion Ageing is the accumulation of damage to somatic cells, leading to cellular dysfunction, and culminates in organ dysfunction and an increased vulnerability to death. Analogously, chronic diseases initiate early in life and their development is slow before they become clinically apparent and culminate in disability or death. The definition of disease is also subject to current opinions and scientific understanding and usually, it is an act of individual creativity when physical changes are recognised as symptoms of a new disease. New diseases, however, are only rarely really new. Most new diseases have gone undiagnosed because their signs and symptoms escaped recognition or were interpreted otherwise. Many physical changes in the elderly that are not yet recognised as a disease are thus ascribed to normal ageing. Therefore, the distinction between normal ageing and disease late in life seems in large part arbitrary. Summary We think that normal ageing cannot be separated from pathological processes causing disease later in life, and we propose that the distinction is avoided.

  4. Maternal periodontal disease in early pregnancy and risk for a small-for-gestational-age infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggess, Kim A; Beck, James D; Murtha, Amy P; Moss, Kevin; Offenbacher, Steven

    2006-05-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether periodontal disease is associated with delivery of a small-for-gestational-age infant. In a prospective study of oral health, periodontal disease was categorized as health, mild, or moderate/severe on the basis of clinical criteria. Small for gestational age was defined as birth weight less than the 10th percentile for gestational age. A risk ratio (95th percentile confidence interval) for a small-for-gestational-age infant among women with moderate or severe periodontal disease was calculated. Sixty-seven of 1017 women (6.6%) delivered a small-for-gestational-age infant, and 143 (14.3%) had moderate or severe periodontal disease. The small-for-gestational-age rate was higher among women with moderate or severe periodontal disease, compared with those with health or mild disease (13.8% versus 3.2% versus 6.5%, P periodontal disease was associated with a small-for-gestational-age infant, a risk ratio of 2.3 (1.1 to 4.7), adjusted for age, smoking, drugs, marital and insurance status, and pre-eclampsia. Moderate or severe periodontal disease early in pregnancy is associated with delivery of a small-for-gestational-age infant. Understanding the mechanism of periodontal disease-associated adverse pregnancy outcomes could lead to interventions to improve fetal growth.

  5. Mechanisms and consequences of oxidative stress in lung disease: therapeutic implications for an aging populace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Louise

    2018-04-01

    The rapid expansion of the elderly population has led to the recent epidemic of age-related diseases, including increased incidence and mortality of chronic and acute lung diseases. Numerous studies have implicated aging and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various pulmonary diseases; however, despite recent advances in these fields, the specific contributions of aging and oxidative stress remain elusive. This review will discuss the consequences of aging on lung morphology and physiology, and how redox imbalance with aging contributes to lung disease susceptibility. Here, we focus on three lung diseases for which aging is a significant risk factor: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Preclinical and clinical development for redox- and senescence-altering therapeutic strategies are discussed, as well as scientific advancements that may direct current and future therapeutic development. A deeper understanding of how aging impacts normal lung function, redox balance, and injury-repair processes will inspire the development of new therapies to prevent and/or reverse age-associated pulmonary diseases, and ultimately increase health span and longevity. This review is intended to encourage basic, clinical, and translational research that will bridge knowledge gaps at the intersection of aging, oxidative stress, and lung disease to fuel the development of more effective therapeutic strategies for lung diseases that disproportionately afflict the elderly.

  6. A pilot project of an online cross-age tutoring program: crescent school virtual learning (vLearning).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Ronald

    2016-11-01

    Traditional classroom teaching is the standard of education. However, there may be some students who feel uncomfortable approaching their teachers and may feel more at ease if they ask for assistance from their peers. There are two types of student-to-student tutoring methods that are supplements to classroom learning: peer tutoring between same-age students and cross-age tutoring between different-age children. Cross-age tutoring programs in which the tutor is 2-3 years older than the tutee have been reported to be more effective than those between same-age students in promoting student responsibility, empowerment and academic performance. A pilot online cross-age tutoring program was launched in September 2014 at Crescent School. A new website was designed, created and implemented with the permission and regular monitoring of the Student Services faculty for the online program - Crescent School Virtual Learning (vLearning). The program was well received and will undergo evaluation in the future.

  7. A Model of Active Ageing through Elder Learning: The Elder Academy Network in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the Elder Academy (EA) Network as the policy and practice in promoting active ageing through elder learning in Hong Kong. First, the article examines how the change in demographics and the prevalent trend of an ageing population have propelled the government in Hong Kong to tackle issues and challenges brought about by an…

  8. Rehearsal strategies during motor-sequence learning in old age : Execution vs motor imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoter, Arjan J. R.; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Kamsma, Yvo P. T.; Mulder, Theo

    Motor imagery and action-based rehearsal were compared during motor sequence-learning by young adults (M = 25 yr., SD = 3) and aged adults (M = 63 yr., SD = 7). General accuracy of aged adults was lower than that of young adults (F-1,F-28 = 7.37, p = .01) even though working-memory capacity was

  9. Proactive and retroactive transfer of middle age adults in a sequential motor learning task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verneau, M.; Kamp, J. van der; Savelsbergh, G,J.; Looze, M.P. de

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the effects of aging in the transfer of motor learning in a sequential manual assembly task that is representative for real working conditions. On two different days, young (18-30years) and middle-aged adults (50-65years) practiced to build two products that consisted of the same six

  10. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  11. Effects of Aging and Adult Development Education and Service Learning on Attitude, Anxiety, and Occupational Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Stefanie S.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a semester-long aging and adult development course that included an intergenerational, service-learning component on attitudes toward older adult men and women, aging anxiety, and interest in occupations that serve older adults among individuals training for careers in healthcare and social services. It also…

  12. Working Memory Deficits in ADHD: The Contribution of Age, Learning/Language Difficulties, and Task Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowerby, Paula; Seal, Simon; Tripp, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To further define the nature of working memory (WM) impairments in children with combined-type ADHD. Method: A total of 40 Children with ADHD and an age and gender-matched control group (n = 40) completed two measures of visuo-spatial WM and two measures of verbal WM. The effects of age and learning/language difficulties on performance…

  13. The involvement of BDNF, NGF and GDNF in aging and Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Budni, Josiane; Bellettini-Santos, Tatiani; Mina, Francielle; Garcez, Michelle Lima; Zugno, Alexandra Ioppi

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a normal physiological process accompanied by cognitive decline. This aging process has been the primary risk factor for development of aging-related diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Cognitive deficit is related to alterations of neurotrophic factors level such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). These strong relationship between aging and AD is important to investigate the time which they...

  14. Stressors of School-age Children With Allergic Diseases: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iio, Misa; Hamaguchi, Mana; Nagata, Mayumi; Yoshida, Koichi

    2018-05-08

    Most studies of stress in children with chronic diseases have been geared toward parents and caregivers have not considered allergic diseases together. This study aimed to identify the stressors associated with allergic diseases in Japanese school-age children. Stressors associated with allergic diseases of 11 school-age children (seven boys and four girls; age range: 9-12 years) were investigated using semi-structured interviews. In the qualitative thematic analysis of stressors about allergic diseases, two themes: allergic disease-specific stressors and common stressors in chronic diseases, and 12 categories were identified. A thematic map was applied to four domains of stressor: physiological factors, psychological factors, social factors, and environmental factors. The results showed that school-age children with allergic diseases have a variety of stressors. Future studies should aim to develop an allergic disease-specific stress management program with school-age children. In children with allergic diseases, not only is stress management in daily life important, but also stress management for disease-specific matters to control the symptoms and maintain mental health. Stress management should be supported for school-age children with allergic diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of age and peripheral vascular disease as risk factors for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Among the 120 diabetic participants, peripheral vascular disease (PVD) was detected only in those aged 50 years and above and all the three diagnostic methods detected PVD increasingly with advancing age. Clinical criteria detected PVD in 4.7% of those aged 50-59 years and 26.3% of those aged .70years.

  16. Learning and Schooling in the Age of Mobilism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Cathleen A.; Soloway, Elliot

    2011-01-01

    Speeding past the Steve Jobs Post-PC Era into the Age of Mobilism, the authors foresee how, by 2015, each and every student in America's K-12 classrooms will be using their own mobile computing device, with those devices engendering the most disruptive transformation in education in 150 years. Classrooms will move from today's "I Teach"…

  17. An uneven-aged management strategy: lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark T. Smith; John D. Exline

    2002-01-01

    Use of an ecosystem approach at a landscape scale to program and guide accomplishments of multi-resource and social objectives has been discussed between researchers and natural resource managers for many years. Presently, great interest exists in the applicability of uneven-aged management practices for such an approach in conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada of...

  18. Is parental age related to the risk of Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); W. Schulte (Wim); T.A. Tanja (Teun); R. Haaxma (Rob); A.J. Lameris; R.J. Saan; A. Hofman (Albert)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractAdvanced maternal and paternal age were investigated as putative risk factors for AD in 198 clinically diagnosed Alzheimer patients and in 198 randomly selected healthy controls. No significant differences in average age of fathers and of mothers at birth of the subject were observed.

  19. Constructivism and Learning in the Age of Social Media: Changing Minds and Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Dawn E.

    2015-01-01

    Social media provide new means and opportunities for learning that are consistent with major tenets of both social and cognitive constructivism, and extend the process of learning and meaning construction to more diverse communities and universally accessible shared activities that are jointly and concurrently engaged in by both peers and experts.

  20. A middle aged man with Caroli's disease: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Sarker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Caroli's disease (CD is a rare congenital abnormality characterized by non-obstructive dilatation of intra hepatic bile ducts, which may be complicated by stone formation, recurrent cholangitis, biliary abscess and higher risk for biliary malignancy. We report a 37-year-old man with recurrent bouts of upper abdominal pain, high grade pyrexia, mild icterus with normal liver function tests who was diagnosed as a case of Caroli's disease. The laboratory studies confirmed Caroli' s disease with a SOL in liver suggestive of liver abscess and the patient received broad spectrum antibiotics with anaerobic and amoebicidal coverage. With 14 days course of antibiotics, he gradually recovered from his symptoms.

  1. Correlations of memory and learning with vision in aged patients before and after a cataract operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerström, R

    1992-12-01

    The connection between memory and learning with vision was investigated by studying 100 cataract operation patients, aged 71 to 76 years, 25 of them being men and 75 women. The cataract operation restored sufficient acuity of vision for reading (minimum E-test value 0.40) to 79% of the subjects. Short-term memory was studied with series of numbers, homogenic and heterogenic inhibition, and long sentences. Learning was tested with paired-associate learning and word learning. Psychological symptoms were measured on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and personality on the Mini-Mult MMPI. Memory and learning improved significantly when vision was normalized after the cataract operation. Poor memory and learning scores correlated with monocular vision before the operation and with defects in the field of vision, due to glaucoma and exceeding 20%, postsurgery. Monocular vision and defects in the visual field caused a continuous sense of abnormalness, which impaired old people's ability to concentrate on tasks of memory and learning. Cerebrovascular disturbances, beginning dementia, and moderate psychological symptoms obstructed memory and learning on both test rounds. Depression was the most important psychological symptom contributing to poor memory and learning scores after the cataract operation. The memory and learning defects mainly reflected disturbances in memorizing.

  2. Cardiovascular Disease in Ageing: An Overview on Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm as an Emerging Inflammatory Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogera Pisano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Medial degeneration associated with thoracic aortic aneurysm and acute aortic dissection was originally described by Erdheim as a noninflammatory lesion related to the loss of smooth muscle cells and elastic fibre fragmentation in the media. Recent evidences propose the strong role of a chronic immune/inflammatory process in aneurysm evocation and progression. The coexistence of inflammatory cells with markers of apoptotic vascular cell death in the media of ascending aorta with aneurysms and type A dissections raises the possibility that activated T cells and macrophages may contribute to the elimination of smooth muscle cells and degradation of the matrix. On the other hand, several inflammatory pathways (including TGF-β, TLR-4 interferon-γ, chemokines, and interferon-γ seem to be involved in the medial degeneration related to aged and dilated aorta. This is an overview on thoracic aortic aneurysm as an emerging inflammatory disease.

  3. Impaired insulin signaling and spatial learning in middle-aged rats: The role of PTP1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuga, Gabriel Keine; Muñoz, Vitor Rosetto; Gaspar, Rafael Calais; Nakandakari, Susana Castelo Branco Ramos; da Silva, Adelino Sanchez Ramos; Botezelli, José Diego; Leme, José Alexandre Curiacos de Almeida; Gomes, Ricardo José; de Moura, Leandro Pereira; Cintra, Dennys Esper; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete; Pauli, José Rodrigo

    2018-04-01

    The insulin and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) signaling in the hippocampus promotes synaptic plasticity and memory formation. On the other hand, aging is related to the cognitive decline and is the main risk factor for Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is related to several deleterious processes in neurons and emerges as a promising target for new therapies. In this context, our study aims to investigate the age-related changes in PTP1B content, insulin signaling, β-amyloid content, and Tau phosphorylation in the hippocampus of middle-aged rats. Young (3 months) and middle-aged (17 months) Wistar rats were submitted to Morris-water maze (MWM) test, insulin tolerance test, and molecular analysis in the hippocampus. Aging resulted in increased body weight, and insulin resistance and decreases learning process in MWM. Interestingly, the middle-aged rats have higher levels of PTP-1B, lower phosphorylation of IRS-1, Akt, GSK3β, mTOR, and TrkB. Also, the aging process increased Tau phosphorylation and β-amyloid content in the hippocampus region. In summary, this study provides new evidence that aging-related PTP1B increasing, contributing to insulin resistance and the onset of the AD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Knowledge of Zika virus disease among reproductive-age women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GC Michael

    disease but became a global public health emergency when strong associations were ... net, one of the benefits of focused antenatal care. To our knowledge ..... when most people are still outdoors.8 In our study a majority of the participants.

  5. Middle-aged heterozygous carriers of Wilson's disease do not ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    957 Warsaw, Poland. 2Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, 00–325 Warsaw, Poland. Introduction. Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disor- der of copper (Cu) metabolism (OMIM ...

  6. Onset of mortality increase with age and age trajectories of mortality from all diseases in the four Nordic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolejs J

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Josef Dolejs,1 Petra Marešová2 1Department of Informatics and Quantitative Methods, 2Department of Economics, Faculty of Informatics and Management, University of Hradec Králové, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic Background: The answer to the question “At what age does aging begin?” is tightly related to the question “Where is the onset of mortality increase with age?” Age affects mortality rates from all diseases differently than it affects mortality rates from nonbiological causes. Mortality increase with age in adult populations has been modeled by many authors, and little attention has been given to mortality decrease with age after birth.Materials and methods: Nonbiological causes are excluded, and the category “all diseases” is studied. It is analyzed in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden during the period 1994–2011, and all possible models are screened. Age trajectories of mortality are analyzed separately: before the age category where mortality reaches its minimal value and after the age category.Results: Resulting age trajectories from all diseases showed a strong minimum, which was hidden in total mortality. The inverse proportion between mortality and age fitted in 54 of 58 cases before mortality minimum. The Gompertz model with two parameters fitted as mortality increased with age in 17 of 58 cases after mortality minimum, and the Gompertz model with a small positive quadratic term fitted data in the remaining 41 cases. The mean age where mortality reached minimal value was 8 (95% confidence interval 7.05–8.95 years. The figures depict an age where the human population has a minimal risk of death from biological causes.Conclusion: Inverse proportion and the Gompertz model fitted data on both sides of the mortality minimum, and three parameters determined the shape of the age–mortality trajectory. Life expectancy should be determined by the two standard Gompertz parameters and also by the single parameter in

  7. Consumption of polyphenol plants may slow aging and associated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Utku; Seremet, Sila; Lamping, Jeffrey W; Adams, Jerome M; Liu, Deede Y; Swerdlow, Russell H; Aires, Daniel J

    2013-01-01

    Slowing aging is a widely shared goal. Plant-derived polyphenols, which are found in commonly consumed food plants such as tea, cocoa, blueberry and grape, have been proposed to have many health benefits, including slowing aging. In-vivo studies have demonstrated the lifespan-extending ability of six polyphenol-containing plants. These include five widely consumed foods (tea, blueberry, cocoa, apple, pomegranate) and a flower commonly used as a folk medicine (betony). These and multiple other plant polyphenols have been shown to have beneficial effects on aging-associated changes across a variety of organisms from worm and fly to rodent and human.

  8. The Effect of Spatial Working Memory Deterioration on Strategic Visuomotor Learning across Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Uresti-Cabrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of age-related cognitive changes in a visuomotor learning task that depends on strategic control and contrast it with the effect in a task principally depending on visuomotor recalibration. Methods. Participants performed a ball throwing task while donning either a reversing dove prism or a displacement wedge prism, which mainly depend on strategic control or visuomotor recalibration, respectively. Visuomotor performance was then analysed in relation to rule acquisition and reversal, recognition memory, visual memory, spatial planning, and spatial working memory with tasks from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB. Results. The results confirmed previous works showing a detrimental effect of age on visuomotor learning. The analyses of the cognitive changes observed across age showed that both strategic control and visuomotor recalibration had significant negative correlations only with the number of errors in the spatial working memory task. However, when the effect of aging was controlled, the only significant correlation remaining was between the reversal adaptation magnitude and spatial working memory. Discussion. These results suggest that spatial working memory decline across aging could contribute to age-dependent deterioration in both visuomotor learning processes. However, spatial working memory integrity seems to affect strategic learning decline even after controlling for aging.

  9. The Effect of Spatial Working Memory Deterioration on Strategic Visuomotor Learning across Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uresti-Cabrera, Luis A; Diaz, Rosalinda; Vaca-Palomares, Israel; Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of age-related cognitive changes in a visuomotor learning task that depends on strategic control and contrast it with the effect in a task principally depending on visuomotor recalibration. Participants performed a ball throwing task while donning either a reversing dove prism or a displacement wedge prism, which mainly depend on strategic control or visuomotor recalibration, respectively. Visuomotor performance was then analysed in relation to rule acquisition and reversal, recognition memory, visual memory, spatial planning, and spatial working memory with tasks from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). The results confirmed previous works showing a detrimental effect of age on visuomotor learning. The analyses of the cognitive changes observed across age showed that both strategic control and visuomotor recalibration had significant negative correlations only with the number of errors in the spatial working memory task. However, when the effect of aging was controlled, the only significant correlation remaining was between the reversal adaptation magnitude and spatial working memory. These results suggest that spatial working memory decline across aging could contribute to age-dependent deterioration in both visuomotor learning processes. However, spatial working memory integrity seems to affect strategic learning decline even after controlling for aging.

  10. Fast But Fleeting: Adaptive Motor Learning Processes Associated with Aging and Cognitive Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewartha, Kevin M.; Garcia, Angeles; Wolpert, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Motor learning has been shown to depend on multiple interacting learning processes. For example, learning to adapt when moving grasped objects with novel dynamics involves a fast process that adapts and decays quickly—and that has been linked to explicit memory—and a slower process that adapts and decays more gradually. Each process is characterized by a learning rate that controls how strongly motor memory is updated based on experienced errors and a retention factor determining the movement-to-movement decay in motor memory. Here we examined whether fast and slow motor learning processes involved in learning novel dynamics differ between younger and older adults. In addition, we investigated how age-related decline in explicit memory performance influences learning and retention parameters. Although the groups adapted equally well, they did so with markedly different underlying processes. Whereas the groups had similar fast processes, they had different slow processes. Specifically, the older adults exhibited decreased retention in their slow process compared with younger adults. Within the older group, who exhibited considerable variation in explicit memory performance, we found that poor explicit memory was associated with reduced retention in the fast process, as well as the slow process. These findings suggest that explicit memory resources are a determining factor in impairments in the both the fast and slow processes for motor learning but that aging effects on the slow process are independent of explicit memory declines. PMID:25274819

  11. Fast but fleeting: adaptive motor learning processes associated with aging and cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewartha, Kevin M; Garcia, Angeles; Wolpert, Daniel M; Flanagan, J Randall

    2014-10-01

    Motor learning has been shown to depend on multiple interacting learning processes. For example, learning to adapt when moving grasped objects with novel dynamics involves a fast process that adapts and decays quickly-and that has been linked to explicit memory-and a slower process that adapts and decays more gradually. Each process is characterized by a learning rate that controls how strongly motor memory is updated based on experienced errors and a retention factor determining the movement-to-movement decay in motor memory. Here we examined whether fast and slow motor learning processes involved in learning novel dynamics differ between younger and older adults. In addition, we investigated how age-related decline in explicit memory performance influences learning and retention parameters. Although the groups adapted equally well, they did so with markedly different underlying processes. Whereas the groups had similar fast processes, they had different slow processes. Specifically, the older adults exhibited decreased retention in their slow process compared with younger adults. Within the older group, who exhibited considerable variation in explicit memory performance, we found that poor explicit memory was associated with reduced retention in the fast process, as well as the slow process. These findings suggest that explicit memory resources are a determining factor in impairments in the both the fast and slow processes for motor learning but that aging effects on the slow process are independent of explicit memory declines. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3413411-11$15.00/0.

  12. Mitochondrial and Ubiquitin Proteasome System Dysfunction in Ageing and Disease: Two Sides of the Same Coin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime M. Ross

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction and impairment of the ubiquitin proteasome system have been described as two hallmarks of the ageing process. Additionally, both systems have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of many age-related diseases, particularly neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Interestingly, these two systems are closely interconnected, with the ubiquitin proteasome system maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis by regulating organelle dynamics, the proteome, and mitophagy, and mitochondrial dysfunction impairing cellular protein homeostasis by oxidative damage. Here, we review the current literature and argue that the interplay of the two systems should be considered in order to better understand the cellular dysfunction observed in ageing and age-related diseases. Such an approach may provide valuable insights into molecular mechanisms underlying the ageing process, and further discovery of treatments to counteract ageing and its associated diseases. Furthermore, we provide a hypothetical model for the heterogeneity described among individuals during ageing.

  13. Preservation of musical memory and engagement in healthy aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Lola L; Sikka, Ritu; Vanstone, Ashley

    2015-03-01

    In striking contrast to the difficulties with new learning and episodic memories in aging and especially in Alzheimer's disease (AD), musical long-term memories appear to be largely preserved. Evidence for spared musical memories in aging and AD is reviewed here. New data involve the development of a Musical Engagement Questionnaire especially designed for use with AD patients. The questionnaire assesses behavioral responses to music and is answered by the care partner. Current results show that, despite cognitive loss, persons with mild to moderate AD preserve musical engagement and music seeking. Familiar music evokes personal autobiographical memories for healthy younger and older adults as well and for those with mild to moderate AD. It is argued that music is a prime candidate for being a stimulus for cognitive stimulation because musical memories and associated emotions may be readily evoked; that is, they are strong and do not need to be repaired. Working with and through music as a resource may enhance social and communication functions. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. Learning to predict is spared in mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rosalind; Bentham, Peter; Kourtzi, Zoe

    2015-10-01

    Learning the statistics of the environment is critical for predicting upcoming events. However, little is known about how we translate previous knowledge about scene regularities to sensory predictions. Here, we ask whether patients with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (MCI-AD) that are known to have spared implicit but impaired explicit recognition memory are able to learn temporal regularities and predict upcoming events. We tested the ability of MCI-AD patients and age-matched controls to predict the orientation of a test stimulus following exposure to sequences of leftwards or rightwards oriented gratings. Our results demonstrate that exposure to temporal sequences without feedback facilitates the ability to predict an upcoming stimulus in both MCI-AD patients and controls. Further, we show that executive cognitive control may account for individual variability in predictive learning. That is, we observed significant positive correlations of performance in attentional and working memory tasks with post-training performance in the prediction task. Taken together, these results suggest a mediating role of circuits involved in cognitive control (i.e. frontal circuits) that may support the ability for predictive learning in MCI-AD.

  15. Association between socioeconomic status, learned helplessness, and disease outcome in patients with inflammatory polyarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, E M; Verstappen, S M M; Symmons, D P M

    2012-08-01

    Independent investigations have shown that socioeconomic status (SES) and learned helplessness (LH) are associated with poor disease outcome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our aim was to investigate the cross-sectional relationship between SES, LH, and disease outcome in patients with recent-onset inflammatory polyarthritis (IP), the broader group of conditions of which RA is the major constituent. SES was measured using the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2007 for 553 patients consecutively recruited to the Norfolk Arthritis Register. Patients also completed the Rheumatology Attitudes Index, a measure of LH. SES and LH were investigated as predictors of disease outcome (functional disability [Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ)] and disease activity [Disease Activity Score in 28 joints]) in a regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, and symptom duration. The role of LH in the relationship between SES and disease outcome was then investigated. Compared to patients of the highest SES, those of the lowest SES had a significantly worse outcome (median difference in HAQ score 0.42; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.08, 0.75). Compared to patients with normal LH, patients with low LH had a significantly better outcome and patients with high LH had a significantly worse outcome (median difference in HAQ score 1.12; 95% CI 0.82, 1.41). There was a significant likelihood that LH mediated the association between SES and disease outcome (P = 0.04). LH is robustly associated with cross-sectional disease outcome in patients with IP, and appears to mediate the relationship between SES and disease outcome. As LH is potentially modifiable, these findings have potential clinical implications. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  16. Lifelong learning for active ageing in nordic museums; archives and street art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine; Grut, Sara

    2016-01-01

    to lifelong learning as a way to conceptualise activities for older adults’ in museums, as we emphasise an approach to adult education for active ageing articulated as ‘lifelong learning for active ageing’. To illustrate this framing, we outline a number of activities taken from publications, cultural sites...... and conferences in which we have been involved over the last decade in the context of the Nordic Centre of Heritage Learning and Creativity in Östersund, Sweden. We argue that lifelong learning for active ageing in cultural heritage institutions can contribute to the development of older adults’ civic......In this article, we develop a framework that demonstrates how older adults need to develop diverse capabilities in relation to their educational life course through engagements in Nordic museums, archives and street art activities. We discuss how European museums have taken up UNESCO’s approach...

  17. Asymptomatic Celiac Disease in Children with Trisomy 21 at 26 Months of Age or Less

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Roizen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We report three cases of asymptomatic celiac disease identified in children with Down syndrome after being screened at around twenty-four months of age.  These cases raise the question as to what age is screening for celiac disease indicated in a child with Down syndrome and no symptoms.

  18. Diarrhea, pneumonia, and infectious disease mortality in children aged 5 to 14 years in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun K Morris

    Full Text Available Little is known about the causes of death in children in India after age five years. The objective of this study is to provide the first ever direct national and sub-national estimates of infectious disease mortality in Indian children aged 5 to 14 years.A verbal autopsy based assessment of 3 855 deaths is children aged 5 to 14 years from a nationally representative survey of deaths occurring in 2001-03 in 1.1 million homes in India.Infectious diseases accounted for 58% of all deaths among children aged 5 to 14 years. About 18% of deaths were due to diarrheal diseases, 10% due to pneumonia, 8% due to central nervous system infections, 4% due to measles, and 12% due to other infectious diseases. Nationally, in 2005 about 59 000 and 34 000 children aged 5 to 14 years died from diarrheal diseases and pneumonia, corresponding to mortality of 24.1 and 13.9 per 100 000 respectively. Mortality was nearly 50% higher in girls than in boys for both diarrheal diseases and pneumonia.Approximately 60% of all deaths in this age group are due to infectious diseases and nearly half of these deaths are due to diarrheal diseases and pneumonia. Mortality in this age group from infectious diseases, and diarrhea in particular, is much higher than previously estimated.

  19. Sunda Language Reservation in Cianjur on The Age to Learn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wati Kurniawati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to gain an understanding of Sundanese language reservation in Kota Cianjur at the compulsory school age. The observations focused on the domains of Sundanese use that included the family and education sphere. The problem in this research is how the reservation of Sundanese language is viewed from the point of choice of language with the domain of its use? In this research used qualitative approach with ethnography method. The ethnographic research procedure in this study is 1 define sub focus, 2 observation and interview, 3 collect data, 4 make notes, 5, analyze data, and 6 make ethnographic reports. The research findings show that the form of speech is a statement, a question, a greeting, a thank-you note, a formula phrase, a solicitation, a request to do something, an apology, an order, and an agreement. Based on the Sundanese language reservation category in Cinajur city at the compulsory education age in the family realm is maintained (85--100%. The participants of Sundanese speech have a positive loyalty and attitude towards the language. Meanwhile, the education sphere is less maintained (51-74%. In the realm of education, there can be a shift in language because it is poorly maintained and the said participants have no balance in lending languages.

  20. [Gynecological and obstetrical management of rheumatic diseases in reproductive age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Franco; Stracquadanio, Mariagrazia; Privitera, Agata; Ciotta, Lilliana; DE Luca, Francesco

    2018-04-01

    The gynecologist's role in the management of rheumatic patients is complex: it includes the prevention of damage caused by drugs, the counseling about contraception to avoid pregnancy while taking teratogen drugs, the scheduling of pregnancy during the quiescent phase of the specific disease, the replacement of teratogen drugs and a competent management of the pregnancy. The task is carried out as part of a multidisciplinary team with a focus on the differential diagnosis between specific complications of pregnancy and the complications of the rheumatic disease. This is the right way to allow a conscious reproduction, with reduced risks and acceptable maternal-fetal outcomes, to this kind of patients considered at high risk.

  1. Aging and Parkinson's disease: Different sides of the same coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Timothy J; Kanaan, Nicholas M; Kordower, Jeffrey H

    2017-07-01

    Despite abundant epidemiological evidence in support of aging as the primary risk factor for PD, biological correlates of a connection have been elusive. In this article, we address the following question: does aging represent biology accurately characterized as pre-PD? We present evidence from our work on midbrain dopamine neurons of aging nonhuman primates that demonstrates that markers of known correlates of dopamine neuron degeneration in PD, including impaired proteasome/lysosome function, oxidative/nitrative damage, and inflammation, all increase with advancing age and are exaggerated in the ventral tier substantia nigra dopamine neurons most vulnerable to degeneration in PD. Our findings support the view that aging-related changes in the dopamine system approach the biological threshold for parkinsonism, actively producing a vulnerable pre-parkinsonian state. © 2017 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  2. The mouse as a model for understanding chronic diseases of aging: the histopathologic basis of aging in inbred mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harrison

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Inbred mice provide a unique tool to study aging populations because of the genetic homogeneity within an inbred strain, their short life span, and the tools for analysis which are available. A large-scale longitudinal and cross-sectional aging study was conducted on 30 inbred strains to determine, using histopathology, the type and diversity of diseases mice develop as they age. These data provide tools that when linked with modern in silico genetic mapping tools, can begin to unravel the complex genetics of many of the common chronic diseases associated with aging in humans and other mammals. In addition, novel disease models were discovered in some strains, such as rhabdomyosarcoma in old A/J mice, to diseases affecting many but not all strains including pseudoxanthoma elasticum, pulmonary adenoma, alopecia areata, and many others. This extensive data set is now available online and provides a useful tool to help better understand strain-specific background diseases that can complicate interpretation of genetically engineered mice and other manipulatable mouse studies that utilize these strains.

  3. Reduction in the retinotopic early visual cortex with normal aging and magnitude of perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Hung; Yotsumoto, Yuko; Salat, David H; Andersen, George J; Watanabe, Takeo; Sasaki, Yuka

    2015-01-01

    Although normal aging is known to reduce cortical structures globally, the effects of aging on local structures and functions of early visual cortex are less understood. Here, using standard retinotopic mapping and magnetic resonance imaging morphologic analyses, we investigated whether aging affects areal size of the early visual cortex, which were retinotopically localized, and whether those morphologic measures were associated with individual performance on visual perceptual learning. First, significant age-associated reduction was found in the areal size of V1, V2, and V3. Second, individual ability of visual perceptual learning was significantly correlated with areal size of V3 in older adults. These results demonstrate that aging changes local structures of the early visual cortex, and the degree of change may be associated with individual visual plasticity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Insulin signaling and dietary restriction differentially influence the decline of learning and memory with age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Kauffman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Of all the age-related declines, memory loss is one of the most devastating. While conditions that increase longevity have been identified, the effects of these longevity-promoting factors on learning and memory are unknown. Here we show that the C. elegans Insulin/IGF-1 receptor mutant daf-2 improves memory performance early in adulthood and maintains learning ability better with age but, surprisingly, demonstrates no extension in long-term memory with age. By contrast, eat-2 mutants, a model of Dietary Restriction (DR, exhibit impaired long-term memory in young adulthood but maintain this level of memory longer with age. We find that crh-1, the C. elegans homolog of the CREB transcription factor, is required for long-term associative memory, but not for learning or short-term memory. The expression of crh-1 declines with age and differs in the longevity mutants, and CREB expression and activity correlate with memory performance. Our results suggest that specific longevity treatments have acute and long-term effects on cognitive functions that decline with age through their regulation of rate-limiting genes required for learning and memory.

  5. Taste learning and memory: a window to the study of brain aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando eGámiz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Taste learning exhibits advantages for research on memory brain systems and its reorganization along the life. A review of the effects of aging on taste memory abilities offers a complex picture showing preserved, impaired and enhanced functions. Some of the age-related changes in taste memory seem to be associated with an altered temporal processing. Longer taste-illness delays can be introduced for acquisition of conditioned taste aversions and the modulation of taste learning by the temporal context is absent in naïve aged rats. Evidence is presented suggesting that hippocampal-dependent taste memory can be reactivated by previous learning experiences in old rats. As long as temporary hipocampal inactivation might represent a better model than permanent damage of the aged hippocampus, reversion inactivation of the dorsal Hippocampus by tetrotodoxin (TTX has been applied in aged rats. Results are reported indicating the need of taking into account the interactions between the previous experiences and acute brain intervention when applying taste learning and memory tasks at advanced ages.

  6. Lifelong learning in active ageing discourse: its conserving effect on wellbeing, health and vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narushima, Miya; Liu, Jian; Diestelkamp, Naomi

    2018-04-01

    The Active Ageing Framework has been adapted as a global strategy in ageing policies, practices and research over the last decade. Lifelong learning, however, has not been fully integrated into this discourse. Using survey data provided by 416 adults (aged 60 years and above) enrolled in non-formal general-interest courses in a public continuing education programme in Canada, this study examined the association between older adults' duration of participation in the courses and their level of psychological wellbeing, while taking their age, gender, self-rated health and vulnerability level into consideration. An analytical framework was developed based on the literature of old-age vulnerabilities and the benefits of lifelong learning. Two logistic regression and trend analyses were conducted. The results indicate that older adults' participation is independently and positively associated with their psychological wellbeing, even among those typically classified as 'vulnerable'. This result provides additional evidence that suggests the continuous participation in non-formal lifelong learning may help sustain older adults' psychological wellbeing. It provides older learners, even those who are most vulnerable, with a compensatory strategy to strengthen their reserve capacities, allowing them to be autonomous and fulfilled in their everyday life. The result of this study highlights the value of the strategic and unequivocal promotion of community-based non-formal lifelong learning opportunities for developing inclusive, equitable and caring active ageing societies.

  7. Applying Deep Learning in Medical Images: The Case of Bone Age Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang Hyung; Kim, Kwang Gi

    2018-01-01

    A diagnostic need often arises to estimate bone age from X-ray images of the hand of a subject during the growth period. Together with measured physical height, such information may be used as indicators for the height growth prognosis of the subject. We present a way to apply the deep learning technique to medical image analysis using hand bone age estimation as an example. Age estimation was formulated as a regression problem with hand X-ray images as input and estimated age as output. A set of hand X-ray images was used to form a training set with which a regression model was trained. An image preprocessing procedure is described which reduces image variations across data instances that are unrelated to age-wise variation. The use of Caffe, a deep learning tool is demonstrated. A rather simple deep learning network was adopted and trained for tutorial purpose. A test set distinct from the training set was formed to assess the validity of the approach. The measured mean absolute difference value was 18.9 months, and the concordance correlation coefficient was 0.78. It is shown that the proposed deep learning-based neural network can be used to estimate a subject's age from hand X-ray images, which eliminates the need for tedious atlas look-ups in clinical environments and should improve the time and cost efficiency of the estimation process.

  8. Student journals: a means of assessing transformative learning in aging related courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adrienne L; Pitman Brown, Pamela; Morales, Justin P

    2015-01-01

    In courses where topics are sensitive or even considered taboo for discussion, it can be difficult to assess students' deeper learning. In addition, incorporating a wide variety of students' values and beliefs, designing instructional strategies and including varied assessments adds to the difficulty. Journal entries or response notebooks can highlight reflection upon others' viewpoints, class readings, and additional materials. These are useful across all educational levels in deep learning and comprehension strategies assessments. Journaling meshes with transformative learning constructs, allowing for critical self-reflection essential to transformation. Qualitative analysis of journals in a death and dying class reveals three transformative themes: awareness of others, questioning, and comfort. Students' journal entries demonstrate transformative learning via communication with others through increased knowledge/exposure to others' experiences and comparing/contrasting others' personal beliefs with their own. Using transformative learning within gerontology and geriatrics education, as well as other disciplined aging-related courses is discussed.

  9. Learning and memory in mice with neuropathic pain: impact of old age and progranulin deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris eAlbuquerque

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Persistent neuropathic pain is a frequent consequence of peripheral nerve injuries, particularly in the elderly. Using the IntelliCage we studied if a sciatic nerve injury obstructed learning and memory in young and aged mice, each in wild type and progranulin deficient mice, which develop premature signs of brain aging and are more susceptible to nerve injury evoked nociceptive hypersensitivity and hence allow to assess a potential mutual aggravation of pain and old age. Both young and aged mice developed long-term nerve injury-evoked hyperalgesia and allodynia but, in both genotypes, only aged mice with neuropathic pain showed high error rates in place avoidance acquisition tasks. Once learnt however, aged mice with neuropathic pain maintained the aversive memory longer, i.e. the extinction was significantly slowed. In addition, nerve injury in progranulin deficient mice impaired the learning of spatial sequences of awarded places, particularly in aged mice, whereas easy place preference learning was not affected by nerve injury or progranulin deficiency. The sequencing task required a discrimination of clockwise and anti-clockwise sequences and spatial flexibility to re-learn a novel sequence. The loss of spatial flexibility did not occur in sham operated mice, i.e. was a consequence of nerve injury and suggests that neuropathic pain accelerates manifestations of old age and progranulin deficiency. Neuropathic pain at old age, irrespective of the genotype, resulted in a long maintenance of aversive memory suggesting a negative alliance and possibly mutual aggravation of chronic neuropathic pain and aversive memory at old age.

  10. Intact Acquisition and Short-Term Retention of Non-Motor Procedural Learning in Parkinson's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel T N Panouillères

    Full Text Available Procedural learning is a form of memory where people implicitly acquire a skill through repeated practice. People with Parkinson's disease (PD have been found to acquire motor adaptation, a form of motor procedural learning, similarly to healthy older adults but they have deficits in long-term retention. A similar pattern of normal learning on initial exposure with a deficit in retention seen on subsequent days has also been seen in mirror-reading, a form of non-motor procedural learning. It is a well-studied fact that disrupting sleep will impair the consolidation of procedural memories. Given the prevalence of sleep disturbances in PD, the lack of retention on following days seen in these studies could simply be a side effect of this well-known symptom of PD. Because of this, we wondered whether people with PD would present with deficits in the short-term retention of a non-motor procedural learning task, when the test of retention was done the same day as the initial exposure. The aim of the present study was then to investigate acquisition and retention in the immediate short term of cognitive procedural learning using the mirror-reading task in people with PD. This task involved two conditions: one where triads of mirror-inverted words were always new that allowed assessing the learning of mirror-reading skill and another one where some of the triads were presented repeatedly during the experiment that allowed assessing the word-specific learning. People with PD both ON and OFF their normal medication were compared to healthy older adults and young adults. Participants were re-tested 50 minutes break after initial exposure to probe for short-term retention. The results of this study show that all groups of participants acquired and retained the two skills (mirror-reading and word-specific similarly. These results suggest that neither healthy ageing nor the degeneration within the basal ganglia that occurs in PD does affect the mechanisms

  11. Students' perceptions of a community-based service-learning project related to aging in place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Claudia E; Sheehan, Nancy W

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a service-learning project that was designed to help undergraduate health professions students understand the complexities related to aging in place. The service-learning project also incorporated a research component to expose the students to the research process. Students' reflections regarding the benefits that they derived from the experience suggest that they value learning about older adults through one-on-one interactions more than they value the opportunity to participate in the research project. Implications for undergraduate health professional education are discussed.

  12. Molecular insights into the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and its relationship to normal aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei A Podtelezhnikov

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a complex neurodegenerative disorder that diverges from the process of normal brain aging by unknown mechanisms. We analyzed the global structure of age- and disease-dependent gene expression patterns in three regions from more than 600 brains. Gene expression variation could be almost completely explained by four transcriptional biomarkers that we named BioAge (biological age, Alz (Alzheimer, Inflame (inflammation, and NdStress (neurodegenerative stress. BioAge captures the first principal component of variation and includes genes statistically associated with neuronal loss, glial activation, and lipid metabolism. Normally BioAge increases with chronological age, but in AD it is prematurely expressed as if some of the subjects were 140 years old. A component of BioAge, Lipa, contains the AD risk factor APOE and reflects an apparent early disturbance in lipid metabolism. The rate of biological aging in AD patients, which cannot be explained by BioAge, is associated instead with NdStress, which includes genes related to protein folding and metabolism. Inflame, comprised of inflammatory cytokines and microglial genes, is broadly activated and appears early in the disease process. In contrast, the disease-specific biomarker Alz was selectively present only in the affected areas of the AD brain, appears later in pathogenesis, and is enriched in genes associated with the signaling and cell adhesion changes during the epithelial to mesenchymal (EMT transition. Together these biomarkers provide detailed description of the aging process and its contribution to Alzheimer's disease progression.

  13. Age-dependent and coordinated shift in performance between implicit and explicit skill learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezso eNemeth

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported recently that while general sequence learning across ages conforms to the typical inverted-U shape pattern, with best performance in early adulthood, surprisingly, the basic ability of picking up in an implicit manner triplets that occur with high vs. low probability in the sequence is best before 12 years of age and it significantly weakens afterwards. Based on these findings, it has been hypothesized that the cognitively controlled processes coming online at around 12 are useful for more targeted explicit learning at the cost of becoming relatively less sensitive to raw probabilities of events. To test this hypothesis, we collected data in a sequence learning task using probabilistic sequences in five age groups from 11 to 39 years of age (N=288, replicating the original implicit learning paradigm in an explicit task setting where subjects were guided to find repeating sequences. We found that in contrast to the implicit results, performance with the high- vs. low-probability triplets was at the same level in all age groups when subjects sought patterns in the sequence explicitly. Importantly, measurements of explicit knowledge about the identity of the sequences revealed a significant increase in ability to explicitly access the true sequences exactly around the age where the earlier study found the significant drop in ability to learn implicitly raw probabilities. These findings support the conjecture that the gradually increasing involvement of more complex internal models optimizes our skill learning abilities by compensating for the performance loss due to down-weighting the raw probabilities of the sensory input, while expanding our ability to acquire more sophisticated skills.

  14. Age-dependent and coordinated shift in performance between implicit and explicit skill learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Dezso; Janacsek, Karolina; Fiser, József

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported recently that while general sequence learning across ages conforms to the typical inverted-U shape pattern, with best performance in early adulthood, surprisingly, the basic ability of picking up in an implicit manner triplets that occur with high vs. low probability in the sequence is best before 12 years of age and it significantly weakens afterwards. Based on these findings, it has been hypothesized that the cognitively controlled processes coming online at around 12 are useful for more targeted explicit learning at the cost of becoming relatively less sensitive to raw probabilities of events. To test this hypothesis, we collected data in a sequence learning task using probabilistic sequences in five age groups from 11 to 39 years of age (N = 288), replicating the original implicit learning paradigm in an explicit task setting where subjects were guided to find repeating sequences. We found that in contrast to the implicit results, performance with the high- vs. low-probability triplets was at the same level in all age groups when subjects sought patterns in the sequence explicitly. Importantly, measurements of explicit knowledge about the identity of the sequences revealed a significant increase in ability to explicitly access the true sequences exactly around the age where the earlier study found the significant drop in ability to learn implicitly raw probabilities. These findings support the conjecture that the gradually increasing involvement of more complex internal models optimizes our skill learning abilities by compensating for the performance loss due to down-weighting the raw probabilities of the sensory input, while expanding our ability to acquire more sophisticated skills.

  15. Age-related changes in learning across early childhood: a new imitation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Kelly; Gerhardstein, Peter; Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel

    2013-11-01

    Imitation plays a critical role in social and cognitive development, but the social learning mechanisms contributing to the development of imitation are not well understood. We developed a new imitation task designed to examine social learning mechanisms across the early childhood period. The new task involves assembly of abstract-shaped puzzle pieces in an arbitrary sequence on a magnet board. Additionally, we introduce a new scoring system that extends traditional goal-directed imitation scoring to include measures of both children's success at copying gestures (sliding the puzzle pieces) and goals (connecting the puzzle pieces). In Experiment 1, we demonstrated an age-invariant baseline from 1.5 to 3.5 years of age, accompanied by age-related changes in success at copying goals and gestures from a live demonstrator. In Experiment 2, we applied our new task to learning following a video demonstration. Imitation performance in the video demonstration group lagged behind that of the live demonstration group, showing a protracted video deficit effect. Across both experiments, children were more likely to copy gestures at earlier ages, suggesting mimicry, and only later copy both goals and gestures, suggesting imitation. Taken together, the findings suggest that different social learning strategies may predominate in imitation learning dependent upon the degree of object affordance, task novelty, and task complexity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Chronological age and its impact on associative learning proficiency and brain structure in middle adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwadkar, Vaibhav A; Bellani, Marcella; Ahmed, Rizwan; Dusi, Nicola; Rambaldelli, Gianluca; Perlini, Cinzia; Marinelli, Veronica; Ramaseshan, Karthik; Ruggeri, Mirella; Bambilla, Paolo

    2016-01-15

    The rate of biological change in middle-adulthood is relatively under-studied. Here, we used behavioral testing in conjunction with structural magnetic resonance imaging to examine the effects of chronological age on associative learning proficiency and on brain regions that previous functional MRI studies have closely related to the domain of associative learning. Participants (n=66) completed a previously established associative learning paradigm, and consented to be scanned using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Age-related effects were investigated both across sub-groups in the sample (younger vs. older) and across the entire sample (using regression approaches). Chronological age had substantial effects on learning proficiency (independent of IQ and Education Level), with older adults showing a decrement compared to younger adults. In addition, decreases in estimated gray matter volume were observed in multiple brain regions including the hippocampus and the dorsal prefrontal cortex, both of which are strongly implicated in associative learning. The results suggest that middle adulthood may be a more dynamic period of life-span change than previously believed. The conjunctive application of narrowly focused tasks, with conjointly acquired structural MRI data may allow us to enrich the search for, and the interpretation of, age-related changes in cross-sectional samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Automated age-related macular degeneration classification in OCT using unsupervised feature learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venhuizen, Freerk G.; van Ginneken, Bram; Bloemen, Bart; van Grinsven, Mark J. J. P.; Philipsen, Rick; Hoyng, Carel; Theelen, Thomas; Sánchez, Clara I.

    2015-03-01

    Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a common eye disorder with high prevalence in elderly people. The disease mainly affects the central part of the retina, and could ultimately lead to permanent vision loss. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is becoming the standard imaging modality in diagnosis of AMD and the assessment of its progression. However, the evaluation of the obtained volumetric scan is time consuming, expensive and the signs of early AMD are easy to miss. In this paper we propose a classification method to automatically distinguish AMD patients from healthy subjects with high accuracy. The method is based on an unsupervised feature learning approach, and processes the complete image without the need for an accurate pre-segmentation of the retina. The method can be divided in two steps: an unsupervised clustering stage that extracts a set of small descriptive image patches from the training data, and a supervised training stage that uses these patches to create a patch occurrence histogram for every image on which a random forest classifier is trained. Experiments using 384 volume scans show that the proposed method is capable of identifying AMD patients with high accuracy, obtaining an area under the Receiver Operating Curve of 0:984. Our method allows for a quick and reliable assessment of the presence of AMD pathology in OCT volume scans without the need for accurate layer segmentation algorithms.

  18. Learning Science in Small Multi-Age Groups: The Role of Age Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by…

  19. DISTANCE EDUCATION IN THE AGE OF GLOBALIZATION: An Overwhelming Desire towards Blended Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Satya Sundar SETHY

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to discuss the nature and status of distance education in the age of globalization, i.e. how best it fits for the present educational scenario. In this connection, we will discuss how Blended Learning (hence after, BL) is one among the other learning strategies mostly helpful for the learners. Keeping this view in mind, this paper is divided into three sections. The first section aims to discuss the nature of distance education in the age of globalization. Th...

  20. Why AMD is a disease of ageing and not of development: mechanisms and insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal eSharma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Age related macular degeneration (AMD is retinal degenerative disorder which starts with the progression of age. Metabolism plays important role in initiation of ageing related diseases. The cholesterol metabolism components and their oxidized products like 7-ketocholesterol have been shown impact on RPE cells degeneration. These molecules can initiate the mitochondrial apoptotic process and also influenced the complements factors and expression of angiogenic proteins like VEGF etc. In this review we have suggested that AMD is ageing disorder not developmental which has been substantiated with disrupted cholesterol metabolism as described in several age related degenerative diseases.

  1. Transcriptomic alterations during ageing reflect the shift from cancer to degenerative diseases in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramillo Irizar, Peer; Schäuble, Sascha; Esser, Daniela; Groth, Marco; Frahm, Christiane; Priebe, Steffen; Baumgart, Mario; Hartmann, Nils; Marthandan, Shiva; Menzel, Uwe; Müller, Julia; Schmidt, Silvio; Ast, Volker; Caliebe, Amke; König, Rainer; Krawczak, Michael; Ristow, Michael; Schuster, Stefan; Cellerino, Alessandro; Diekmann, Stephan; Englert, Christoph; Hemmerich, Peter; Sühnel, Jürgen; Guthke, Reinhard; Witte, Otto W; Platzer, Matthias; Ruppin, Eytan; Kaleta, Christoph

    2018-01-30

    Disease epidemiology during ageing shows a transition from cancer to degenerative chronic disorders as dominant contributors to mortality in the old. Nevertheless, it has remained unclear to what extent molecular signatures of ageing reflect this phenomenon. Here we report on the identification of a conserved transcriptomic signature of ageing based on gene expression data from four vertebrate species across four tissues. We find that ageing-associated transcriptomic changes follow trajectories similar to the transcriptional alterations observed in degenerative ageing diseases but are in opposite direction to the transcriptomic alterations observed in cancer. We confirm the existence of a similar antagonism on the genomic level, where a majority of shared risk alleles which increase the risk of cancer decrease the risk of chronic degenerative disorders and vice versa. These results reveal a fundamental trade-off between cancer and degenerative ageing diseases that sheds light on the pronounced shift in their epidemiology during ageing.

  2. The Prevalence of Age-Related Eye Diseases and Visual Impairment in Aging: Current Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E. K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To examine prevalence of five age-related eye conditions (age-related cataract, AMD, open-angle glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy [DR], and visual impairment) in the United States. Methods. Review of published scientific articles and unpublished research findings. Results. Cataract, AMD, open-angle glaucoma, DR, and visual impairment prevalences are high in four different studies of these conditions, especially in people over 75 years of age. There are disparities among racial/ethnic groups with higher age-specific prevalence of DR, open-angle glaucoma, and visual impairment in Hispanics and blacks compared with whites, higher prevalence of age-related cataract in whites compared with blacks, and higher prevalence of late AMD in whites compared with Hispanics and blacks. The estimates are based on old data and do not reflect recent changes in the distribution of age and race/ethnicity in the United States population. There are no epidemiologic estimates of prevalence for many visually-impairing conditions. Conclusions. Ongoing prevalence surveys designed to provide reliable estimates of visual impairment, AMD, age-related cataract, open-angle glaucoma, and DR are needed. It is important to collect objective data on these and other conditions that affect vision and quality of life in order to plan for health care needs and identify areas for further research. PMID:24335069

  3. The epigenetic landscape of age-related diseases: the geroscience perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensous, Noémie; Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Pirazzini, Chiara; Marasco, Elena; Giuliani, Cristina; Ravaioli, Francesco; Mengozzi, Giacomo; Bertarelli, Claudia; Palmas, Maria Giustina; Franceschi, Claudio; Garagnani, Paolo

    2017-08-01

    In this review, we summarize current knowledge regarding the epigenetics of age-related diseases, focusing on those studies that have described DNA methylation landscape in cardio-vascular diseases, musculoskeletal function and frailty. We stress the importance of adopting the conceptual framework of "geroscience", which starts from the observation that advanced age is the major risk factor for several of these pathologies and aims at identifying the mechanistic links between aging and age-related diseases. DNA methylation undergoes a profound remodeling during aging, which includes global hypomethylation of the genome, hypermethylation at specific loci and an increase in inter-individual variation and in stochastic changes of DNA methylation values. These epigenetic modifications can be an important contributor to the development of age-related diseases, but our understanding on the complex relationship between the epigenetic signatures of aging and age-related disease is still poor. The most relevant results in this field come from the use of the so called "epigenetics clocks" in cohorts of subjects affected by age-related diseases. We report these studies in final section of this review.

  4. Senescence of the adaptive immune system in health and aging-associated autoimmune disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, Kornelis Stephan Mario

    2015-01-01

    Aging of the immune system may contribute to the development of aging-associated autoimmune diseases, such as giant cell arteritis, polymyalgia rheumatica and rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this thesis was to identify aging-dependent changes of the adaptive immune system that promote autoimmunity

  5. Impact of Typical Aging and Parkinson's Disease on the Relationship among Breath Pausing, Syntax, and Punctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Jessica E.; Darling, Meghan; Francis, Elaine J.; Zhang, Dabao

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examines the impact of typical aging and Parkinson's disease (PD) on the relationship among breath pausing, syntax, and punctuation. Method: Thirty young adults, 25 typically aging older adults, and 15 individuals with PD participated. Fifteen participants were age- and sex-matched to the individuals with PD.…

  6. E-Learning Model in Chronic Kidney Disease Management: a Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahimi, Hamid; Zolfaghari, Mitra; Abolhassani, Farid; Rahimi Foroushani, Abass; Mohammadi, Aeen; Rajaee, Farahnaz

    2017-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a challenging health problem. The present study examined impact of self-care education through e-learning on improving kidney function among individuals with CKD. The studied population consisted of CKD patients receiving care at 10 centers for treating noncommunicable diseases in Tehran. Three centers were randomly selected and 39 patients with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, minimum education of grade 9, minimum of 2 years of referrals, and computer literacy of the individual or a first-degree relative were included in the study, while 92 patients were assigned into the control group. Changes in GFR were compared after 6 months following an e-learning program for the patients in the intervention group. The mean change in GFR was 7.5 ± 8.9 mL/min/1.73 m2 for the intervention group after the e-learning intervention, while this was -2.3 ± 8.5 mL/min/1.73 m2. The two groups were also significantly different in terms of age, marital status, education level, mean arterial pressure, and serum high-density lipoprotein level, and therefore, multivariable comparison of GFR was made incorporating these factor into the analysis and showed a significant improvement of GFR in the intervention group. According to the results of this study, effects of the e-learning educational intervention on improvement in kidney function and CKD treatment were established.

  7. Neural plasticity underlying visual perceptual learning in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Jyoti; Rolle, Camarin; Gazzaley, Adam

    2015-07-01

    Healthy aging is associated with a decline in basic perceptual abilities, as well as higher-level cognitive functions such as working memory. In a recent perceptual training study using moving sweeps of Gabor stimuli, Berry et al. (2010) observed that older adults significantly improved discrimination abilities on the most challenging perceptual tasks that presented paired sweeps at rapid rates of 5 and 10 Hz. Berry et al. further showed that this perceptual training engendered transfer-of-benefit to an untrained working memory task. Here, we investigated the neural underpinnings of the improvements in these perceptual tasks, as assessed by event-related potential (ERP) recordings. Early visual ERP components time-locked to stimulus onset were compared pre- and post-training, as well as relative to a no-contact control group. The visual N1 and N2 components were significantly enhanced after training, and the N1 change correlated with improvements in perceptual discrimination on the task. Further, the change observed for the N1 and N2 was associated with the rapidity of the perceptual challenge; the visual N1 (120-150 ms) was enhanced post-training for 10 Hz sweep pairs, while the N2 (240-280 ms) was enhanced for the 5 Hz sweep pairs. We speculate that these observed post-training neural enhancements reflect improvements by older adults in the allocation of attention that is required to accurately dissociate perceptually overlapping stimuli when presented in rapid sequence. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Memory Å. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A 2-d classification of diseases based on age-specific death rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2018-02-01

    Age specific mortality curves exhibit an age tc (about 10 years) which plays a crucial role in that the mortality curve decreases hyperbolically in the age interval A before tc and increases exponentially in the interval B following tc. For those familiar with reliability theory, region A is called the "burn in" phase and B is the "wear out" phase. Using the exponents of the hyperbolic and exponential phases, we introduce a new 2 dimensional map of diseases. This permits the classification of diseases into three broad classes: AS1, AS2 and S. Class AS1 includes all diseases arising from congenital malformations which dominate infant and child mortality; class AS2 includes degenerative diseases such as dementia and Alzheimer's which dominate old age mortality. In class S, which includes most infectious and metabolic diseases, the exponents from both aging phases contribute to positions on the map. Cancer is one of these mixed cases but is closer to class AS2 than AS1. A second line classification is needed to resolve S cases and to this end we introduce a 3rd dimension, namely (calendar) time. Using historical data we show that in their response to treatment (particularly vaccination), S diseases fall into three sub-classes. (i) Class E diseases (e.g. measles or meningococcal disease) which have been almost eliminated at all ages (ii) class C diseases (e.g. tuberculosis) which can be cured but whose cure becomes less effective at old age. (iii) Class U diseases for which radical cures are still unknown. Regarding the future, the fact that the wear-out process of numerous diseases already starts around the age of 25 means that a major extension of the human lifespan beyond 120 certainly also requires to uncover the secret of the "elixir of eternal youth" which has driven timeless human efforts and still seems unlikely in the foreseeable future.

  9. Relationship Between Age, Experience, and Student Preference for Types of Learning Activities in Online Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. Simonds

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two researchers explored student learning preferences in online courses. They used the scholarship of teaching and learning process as a research model, and embedded a web-based survey and online focus groups in the online courses they were teaching. After collecting data, the researchers conducted multiple logistic regression analyses to test their hypothesis that a relationship existed between some student factors and student preferences for types of online learning activities. The results of the data analysis revealed a statistically significant relationship between student age and student preference for certain types of online learning activities. Older students in the study indicated a much stronger preference for videos of the professor lecturing, while younger students tended to prefer more interactive learning strategies. Focus group comments from the older students provide insights into some of the reasons why they found watching video lectures to be helpful for their learning, and comments from younger students illustrate how they learn best in online courses. The researchers offer suggestions for online instructors based on the findings of this study, and they explain why online instructors may find the scholarship of teaching and learning research process especially helpful for both teaching and research efforts.

  10. Pattern of skin diseases in paediatric age group and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayal S

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 300 patients from first day of life to 17 years of age were analysed for pattern of skin disorders. School going children formed majority (41.3% of cases followed by preschool children (32%. Infections formed the commonest disorder (31 % followed by eczemas (24%, papulosquamous disorders (12%, infestation (8.6% and urticaria (5.3% while vitiligo, acne vulgaris, alopecia areata and genodermatoses were seen in 2.7% cases each.

  11. Age by Disease Biological Interactions: Implications for Late-Life Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon eMcKinney

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Onset of depressive symptoms after the age of 65, or late-life depression (LLD, is common and poses a significant burden on affected individuals, caretakers and society. Evidence suggests a unique biological basis for LLD, but current hypotheses do not account for its pathophysiological complexity. Here we propose a novel etiological framework for LLD, the age-by-disease biological interaction hypothesis, based on the observations that the subset of genes that undergoes lifelong progressive changes in expression is restricted to a specific set of biological processes, and that a disproportionate number of these age-dependent genes have been previously and similarly implicated in neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression. The age-by-disease biological interaction hypothesis posits that age-dependent biological processes (i are pushed in LLD-promoting directions by changes in gene expression naturally occurring during brain aging, which (ii directly contribute to pathophysiological mechanisms of LLD, and (iii that individual variability in rates of age-dependent changes determines risk or resiliency to develop age-related disorders, including LLD. We review observations supporting this hypothesis, including consistent and specific age-dependent changes in brain gene expression, and their overlap with neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disease pathways. We then review preliminary reports supporting the genetic component of this hypothesis. Other potential biological mediators of age-dependent gene changes are proposed. We speculate that studies examining the relative contribution of these mechanisms to age-dependent changes and related disease mechanisms will not only provide critical information on the biology of normal aging of the human brain, but will inform our understanding our age-dependent diseases, in time fostering the development of new interventions for prevention and treatment of age-dependent diseases

  12. Dietary compound score and risk of age-related macular degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: Because foods provide many nutrients, which may interact with each other to modify risk for multifactorial diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), we sought to develop a composite scoring system to summarize the combined effect of multiple dietary nutrients on AMD risk. Th...

  13. Out of sight, out of mind: Categorization learning and normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Sabrina; Minda, John P; Lech, Robert K; Suchan, Boris

    2016-10-01

    The present combined EEG and eye tracking study examined the process of categorization learning at different age ranges and aimed to investigate to which degree categorization learning is mediated by visual attention and perceptual strategies. Seventeen young subjects and ten elderly subjects had to perform a visual categorization task with two abstract categories. Each category consisted of prototypical stimuli and an exception. The categorization of prototypical stimuli was learned very early during the experiment, while the learning of exceptions was delayed. The categorization of exceptions was accompanied by higher P150, P250 and P300 amplitudes. In contrast to younger subjects, elderly subjects had problems in the categorization of exceptions, but showed an intact categorization performance for prototypical stimuli. Moreover, elderly subjects showed higher fixation rates for important stimulus features and higher P150 amplitudes, which were positively correlated with the categorization performances. These results indicate that elderly subjects compensate for cognitive decline through enhanced perceptual and attentional processing of individual stimulus features. Additionally, a computational approach has been applied and showed a transition away from purely abstraction-based learning to an exemplar-based learning in the middle block for both groups. However, the calculated models provide a better fit for younger subjects than for elderly subjects. The current study demonstrates that human categorization learning is based on early abstraction-based processing followed by an exemplar-memorization stage. This strategy combination facilitates the learning of real world categories with a nuanced category structure. In addition, the present study suggests that categorization learning is affected by normal aging and modulated by perceptual processing and visual attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Therapeutic Intervention of Learning and Memory Decays by Salidroside Stimulation of Neurogenesis in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huijuan; Pei, Lei; Shu, Xiaogang; Yang, Xin; Yan, Tianhua; Wu, Yan; Wei, Na; Yan, Honglin; Wang, Shan; Yao, Chengye; Liu, Dan; Tian, Qing; Wang, Lin; Lu, Youming

    2016-03-01

    Cognition in all mammals including human beings declines during aging. The cellular events responsible for this decay involve a reduction of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Here, we show that treatment with a nature product from a traditional Chinese medicine, namely salidroside restores the capacity of the dentate gyrus to generate new neurons and intercepts learning and memory decays in mice during aging. We uncover that new neurons in aging mice have functional features of an adult granule neuron by forming excitatory synapses with their putative targeting neurons. Genetic inhibition of synaptic transmission from new neurons abolishes the therapeutic effects of salidroside in behavioral tests. We also identify that salidroside targets CREB transcription for the survival of new neurons in the dentate gyrus of old mice. Thus, salidroside is therapeutically effective against learning and memory decays via stimulation of CREB-dependent functional neurogenesis in aging.

  15. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.C.; Beebe, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    The hypothesis that ionizing radiation accelerates natural aging has been under investigation at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission since 1959. Postmortem observations of morphologic and chemical changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, clinical laboratory tests, tissue changes, morbidity, and mortality have all been examined by ABCC investigators interested in this hypothesis. These studies have been beset with conceptual difficulties centered on the definition and measurement of aging. An empirical approach early led to the calculation of an index of physiologic age as a linear combination of age-related tests of various organ systems. Most studies have been negative but have not involved the large numbers that might be required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Mortality, however, has been examined on the basis of a large sample and over the period 1950-1972 had provided no support for the hypothesis of radiation-accelerated aging. Ionizing radiation dose, of course shorten human life, but its life-shortening effect appears to be the result of specific radiation-induced disease, especially neoplasms. The hypothesis is now much less attractive than it was 10-20 years ago but still has some value in stimulating research on aging. The experience of the A-bomb survivors provides an unusual opportunity for a definitive test of the hypothesis. (auth.)

  16. Speech disorders did not correlate with age at onset of Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Estevo Dias

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Speech disorders are common manifestations of Parkinson´s disease. Objective To compare speech articulation in patients according to age at onset of the disease. Methods Fifty patients was divided into two groups: Group I consisted of 30 patients with age at onset between 40 and 55 years; Group II consisted of 20 patients with age at onset after 65 years. All patients were evaluated based on the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale scores, Hoehn and Yahr scale and speech evaluation by perceptual and acoustical analysis. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding neurological involvement and speech characteristics. Correlation analysis indicated differences in speech articulation in relation to staging and axial scores of rigidity and bradykinesia for middle and late-onset. Conclusions Impairment of speech articulation did not correlate with age at onset of disease, but was positively related with disease duration and higher scores in both groups.

  17. Physical Activity and Telomere Biology: Exploring the Link with Aging-Related Disease Prevention

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    Andrew T. Ludlow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of several age-related diseases as well as with increased longevity in both rodents and humans. Though these associations are well established, evidence of the molecular and cellular factors associated with reduced disease risk and increased longevity resulting from physical activity is sparse. A long-standing hypothesis of aging is the telomere hypothesis: as a cell divides, telomeres shorten resulting eventually in replicative senescence and an aged phenotype. Several reports have recently associated telomeres and telomere-related proteins to diseases associated with physical inactivity and aging including cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Interestingly several reports have also shown that longer telomeres are associated with higher physical activity levels, indicating a potential mechanistic link between physical activity, reduced age-related disease risk, and longevity. The primary purpose of this review is to discuss the potential importance of physical activity in telomere biology in the context of inactivity- and age-related diseases. A secondary purpose is to explore potential mechanisms and important avenues for future research in the field of telomeres and diseases associated with physical inactivity and aging.

  18. Classifying aging as a disease in the context of ICD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhavoronkov, Alex; Bhullar, Bhupinder

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a complex continuous multifactorial process leading to loss of function and crystalizing into the many age-related diseases. Here, we explore the arguments for classifying aging as a disease in the context of the upcoming World Health Organization's 11th International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11), expected to be finalized in 2018. We hypothesize that classifying aging as a disease with a "non-garbage" set of codes will result in new approaches and business models for addressing aging as a treatable condition, which will lead to both economic and healthcare benefits for all stakeholders. Actionable classification of aging as a disease may lead to more efficient allocation of resources by enabling funding bodies and other stakeholders to use quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and healthy-years equivalent (HYE) as metrics when evaluating both research and clinical programs. We propose forming a Task Force to interface the WHO in order to develop a multidisciplinary framework for classifying aging as a disease with multiple disease codes facilitating for therapeutic interventions and preventative strategies.

  19. Aging and extrapulmonary effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudorache E

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Emanuela Tudorache,1 Ariadna Petronela Fildan,2 Mirela Frandes,3 Elena Dantes,4 Doina Ecaterina Tofolean2 1Department of Pulmonology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Victor Babeş”, Timişoara, 2Faculty of Medicine, Internal Medicine Discipline, Medical Clinical Disciplines I, “Ovidius” University of Constanta, Constanţa, 3Department of Functional Sciences, “Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timişoara, 4Faculty of Medicine, Pneumophtisiology Department, Medical Clinical Disciplines II, “Ovidius” University Constanta, Constanţa, Romania Introduction: People with COPD have a decline in functional status, but little is known about the rate of decline and factors that contribute. Of particular concern is the decline in cognitive and functional performance. Decrease in cognitive and functional performance will finally lead to decreased health status, sedentary life style and premature frailty. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare functional performance and cognitive status in patients with COPD of different ages and to examine the changes in extrapulmonary effects. Patients and methods: This study included 62 patients with COPD risk class D who were divided into two groups (<70 years, N=30 and >70 years, N=32. Patients first completed the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, which is a 30-point test that assesses different cognitive domains, while isometric knee extension (IKE was measured using a digital handheld dynamometer, and functional exercise level was assessed using the 6-minute walking distance (6MWD test. Results: The patients’ older age (age higher than 70 years was associated with a significantly lower body mass index (BMI, 27.50 vs 24.24 kg/m2; P=0.020, higher vital capacity parameters, forced vital capacity (FVC, 2.74 vs 2.82 L; P=0.799, FVC (% (73.00 vs 66.50, P=132, forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1, 0.93 vs 1.13 L; P=0.001 and FEV1 (% (28.50 vs 30.50, P=0.605. In

  20. Aberrant learning in Parkinson's disease: A neurocomputational study on bradykinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursino, Mauro; Baston, Chiara

    2018-05-22

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive decline in motor functions, such as bradykinesia, caused by the pathological denervation of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons within the basal ganglia (BG). It is acknowledged that dopamine (DA) directly affects the modulatory role of BG towards the cortex. However, a growing body of literature is suggesting that DA-induced aberrant synaptic plasticity could play a role in the core symptoms of PD, thus recalling for a "reconceptualization" of the pathophysiology. The aim of this work was to investigate DA-driven aberrant learning as a concurrent cause of bradykinesia, using a comprehensive, biologically inspired neurocomputational model of action selection in the BG. The model includes the three main pathways operating in the BG circuitry, that is the direct, indirect and hyperdirect pathways, and use a two-term Hebb rule to train synapses in the striatum, based on previous history of rewards and punishments. Levodopa pharmacodynamics is also incorporated. Through model simulations of the Alternate Finger Tapping motor task, we assessed the role of aberrant learning on bradykinesia. The results show that training under drug medication (levodopa) provides not only immediate but also delayed benefit lasting in time. Conversely, if performed in conditions of vanishing levodopa efficacy, training may result in dysfunctional corticostriatal synaptic plasticity, further worsening motor performances in PD subjects. This suggests that bradykinesia may result from the concurrent effects of low DA levels and dysfunctional plasticity and that training can be exploited in medicated subjects to improve levodopa treatment. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Widespread recent increases in county-level heart disease mortality across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Adam S; Ritchey, Matthew D; Hannan, Judy; Kramer, Michael R; Casper, Michele

    2017-12-01

    Recent national trends show decelerating declines in heart disease mortality, especially among younger adults. National trends may mask variation by geography and age. We examined recent county-level trends in heart disease mortality by age group. Using a Bayesian statistical model and National Vital Statistics Systems data, we estimated overall rates and percent change in heart disease mortality from 2010 through 2015 for four age groups (35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 years) in 3098 US counties. Nationally, heart disease mortality declined in every age group except ages 55-64 years. County-level trends by age group showed geographically widespread increases, with 52.3%, 58.5%, 69.1%, and 42.0% of counties experiencing increases with median percent changes of 0.6%, 2.2%, 4.6%, and -1.5% for ages 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 years, respectively. Increases were more likely in counties with initially high heart disease mortality and outside large metropolitan areas. Recent national trends have masked local increases in heart disease mortality. These increases, especially among adults younger than age 65 years, represent challenges to communities across the country. Reversing these trends may require intensification of primary and secondary prevention-focusing policies, strategies, and interventions on younger populations, especially those living in less urban counties. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Incidence Rate of Concomitant Systemic Diseases in the Aging Population with Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Sayılır

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the concomitant systemic diseases with postmenopausal osteoporosis and to investigate the points to be considered in treatment approach of patients with osteoporosis. Materials and Methods: The study included 110 female patients admitted to our clinic and followed up after postmenopausal osteoporosis diagnosis. Besides the demographic data; the concomitant diseases of the patients such as hypertension, hypo-hyperthyroidism, diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer’s disease, malignancy, osteoarthritis, gastrointestinal system diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD- asthma and depression were also recorded. Results: The mean age of the patients included in our study was 65.9±9.8 years. When the concomitant systemic diseases were examined; 40 patients had hypertension, 32 patients had osteoarthritis, 24 patients had gastrointestinal tract problems, 22 patients had thyroid disease, 21 patients had depression, 15 patients had hyperlipidemia, 12 patients had diabetes mellitus, 10 patients had COPD - asthma, 7 patients had cardiac diseases, 5 patients had malignancy and 2 patients had Alzheimer disease. Conclusion: Osteoporosis is a common disease in the geriatric population. As a chronic disease with an increasing incidence with aging; it can cause many health problems, prevalently pathological bone fractures, in our country and all over the world. Constitutively, prophylaxis of osteoporosis should be the first step. Because systemic diseases with increasing incidence with aging may affect the severity of osteoporosis and impair the treatment; it is important for both clinicians and the society to have sufficient information about osteoporosis.

  3. Focus of Attention in Children's Motor Learning: Examining the Role of Age and Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocken, J E A; Kal, E C; van der Kamp, J

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the relative effectiveness of different attentional focus instructions on motor learning in primary school children. In addition, we explored whether the effect of attentional focus on motor learning was influenced by children's age and verbal working memory capacity. Novice 8-9-year old children (n = 30) and 11-12-year-old children (n = 30) practiced a golf putting task. For each age group, half the participants received instructions to focus (internally) on the swing of their arm, while the other half was instructed to focus (externally) on the swing of the club. Children's verbal working memory capacity was assessed with the Automated Working Memory Assessment. Consistent with many reports on adult's motor learning, children in the external groups demonstrated greater improvements in putting accuracy than children who practiced with an internal focus. This effect was similar across age groups. Verbal working memory capacity was not found to be predictive of motor learning, neither for children in the internal focus groups nor for children in the external focus groups. In conclusion, primary school children's motor learning is enhanced by external focus instructions compared to internal focus instructions. The purported modulatory roles of children's working memory, attentional capacity, or focus preferences require further investigation.

  4. [Advantages and Application Prospects of Deep Learning in Image Recognition and Bone Age Assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, T H; Wan, L; Liu, T A; Wang, M W; Chen, T; Wang, Y H

    2017-12-01

    Deep learning and neural network models have been new research directions and hot issues in the fields of machine learning and artificial intelligence in recent years. Deep learning has made a breakthrough in the applications of image and speech recognitions, and also has been extensively used in the fields of face recognition and information retrieval because of its special superiority. Bone X-ray images express different variations in black-white-gray gradations, which have image features of black and white contrasts and level differences. Based on these advantages of deep learning in image recognition, we combine it with the research of bone age assessment to provide basic datum for constructing a forensic automatic system of bone age assessment. This paper reviews the basic concept and network architectures of deep learning, and describes its recent research progress on image recognition in different research fields at home and abroad, and explores its advantages and application prospects in bone age assessment. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  5. Successive and discrete spaced conditioning in active avoidance learning in young and aged zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng; Kajiwara, Riki; Tonoki, Ayako; Itoh, Motoyuki

    2018-05-01

    We designed an automated device to study active avoidance learning abilities of zebrafish. Open source tools were used for the device control, statistical computing, and graphic outputs of data. Using the system, we developed active avoidance tests to examine the effects of trial spacing and aging on learning. Seven-month-old fish showed stronger avoidance behavior as measured by color preference index with discrete spaced training as compared to successive spaced training. Fifteen-month-old fish showed a similar trend, but with reduced cognitive abilities compared with 7-month-old fish. Further, in 7-month-old fish, an increase in learning ability during trials was observed with discrete, but not successive, spaced training. In contrast, 15-month-old fish did not show increase in learning ability during trials. Therefore, these data suggest that discrete spacing is more effective for learning than successive spacing, with the zebrafish active avoidance paradigm, and that the time course analysis of active avoidance using discrete spaced training is useful to detect age-related learning impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yamada, Michiko

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis that exposure to ionizing radiation accelerates the aging process has been actively investigated at ABCC-RERF since 1958, when longitudinal cohort studies of the Adult Health Study (AHS) and the Life Span Study (LSS) were initiated. In their 1975 overall review of aging studies related to the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, Finch and Beebe concluded that while most studies had shown no correlation between aging and radiation exposure, they had not involved the large numbers of subjects required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Extending LSS mortality data up to 1978 did not alter the earlier conclusion that any observed life-shortening was associated primarily with cancer induction rather than with any nonspecific cause. The results of aging studies conducted during the intervening 15 years using data from the same populations are reviewed in the present paper. Using clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory techniques, a broad spectrum of aging parameters have been studied, such as postmortem morphological changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, laboratory tests, tissue changes, and morbidity. With respect to the aging process, the overall results have not been consistent and are generally thought to show no relation to radiation exposure. Although some preliminary results suggest a possible radiation-induced increase in atherosclerotic diseases and acceleration of aging in the T-cell-related immune system, further study is necessary to confirm these findings. In the future, applying the latest gerontological study techniques to data collected from subjects exposed 45 years ago to A-bomb radiation at relatively young ages will present a new body of data relevant to the study of late radiation effects. (author) 103 refs

  7. Gait disorder as a predictor of spatial learning and memory impairment in aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate whether gait dysfunction is a predictor of severe spatial learning and memory impairment in aged mice. Methods A total of 100 12-month-old male mice that had no obvious abnormal motor ability and whose Morris water maze performances were not significantly different from those of two-month-old male mice were selected for the study. The selected aged mice were then divided into abnormal or normal gait groups according to the results from the quantitative gait assessment. Gaits of aged mice were defined as abnormal when the values of quantitative gait parameters were two standard deviations (SD lower or higher than those of 2-month-old male mice. Gait parameters included stride length, variability of stride length, base of support, cadence, and average speed. After nine months, mice exhibiting severe spatial learning and memory impairment were separated from mice with mild or no cognitive dysfunction. The rate of severe spatial learning and memory impairment in the abnormal and normal gait groups was tested by a chi-square test and the correlation between gait dysfunction and decline in cognitive function was tested using a diagnostic test. Results The 12-month-old aged mice were divided into a normal gait group (n = 75 and an abnormal gait group (n = 25. Nine months later, three mice in the normal gait group and two mice in the abnormal gait group had died. The remaining mice were subjected to the Morris water maze again, and 17 out of 23 mice in the abnormal gait group had developed severe spatial learning and memory impairment, including six with stride length deficits, 15 with coefficient of variation (CV in stride length, two with base of support (BOS deficits, five with cadence dysfunction, and six with average speed deficits. In contrast, only 15 out of 72 mice in the normal gait group developed severe spatial learning and memory impairment. The rate of severe spatial learning and memory impairment was

  8. Enhancement of learning capacity and cholinergic synaptic function by carnitine in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, S; Tadenuma, T; Tanaka, Y; Fukui, F; Kobayashi, S; Ohashi, Y; Kawabata, T

    2001-10-15

    The effects of a carnitine derivative, acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR), on the cognitive and cholinergic activities of aging rats were examined. Rats were given ALCAR (100 mg/kg) per os for 3 months and were subjected to the Hebb-Williams tasks and a new maze task, AKON-1, to assess their learning capacity. The learning capacity of the ALCAR-treated group was superior to that of the control. Cholinergic activities were determined with synaptosomes isolated from the cortices. The high-affinity choline uptake by synaptosomes, acetylcholine synthesis in synaptosomes, and acetylcholine release from synaptosomes on membrane depolarization were all enhanced in the ALCAR group. This study indicates that chronic administration of ALCAR increases cholinergic synaptic transmission and consequently enhances learning capacity as a cognitive function in aging rats. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Glial hemichannels and their involvement in aging and neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Juan A; von Bernhardi, Rommy; Giaume, Christian; Sáez, Juan C

    2012-01-26

    During the last two decades, it became increasingly evident that glial cells accomplish a more important role in brain function than previously thought. Glial cells express pannexins and connexins, which are member subunits of two protein families that form membrane channels termed hemichannels. These channels communicate intra- and extracellular compartments and allow the release of autocrine/paracrine signaling molecules [e.g., adenosine triphosphate (ATP), glutamate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and prostaglandin E2] to the extracellular milieu, as well as the uptake of small molecules (e.g., glucose). An increasing body of evidence has situated glial hemichannels as potential regulators of the beginning and maintenance of homeostatic imbalances observed in diverse brain diseases. Here, we review and discuss the current evidence about the possible role of glial hemichannels on neurodegenerative diseases. A subthreshold pathological threatening condition leads to microglial activation, which keeps active defense and restores the normal function of the central nervous system. However, if the stimulus is deleterious, microglial cells and the endothelium become overactivated, both releasing bioactive molecules (e.g., glutamate, cytokines, prostaglandins, and ATP), which increase the activity of glial hemichannels, reducing the astroglial neuroprotective functions, and further reducing neuronal viability. Because ATP and glutamate are released via glial hemichannels in neurodegenerative conditions, it is expected that they contribute to neurotoxicity. More importantly, toxic molecules released via glial hemichannels could increase the Ca2+ entry in neurons also via neuronal hemichannels, leading to neuronal death. Therefore, blockade of hemichannels expressed by glial cells and/or neurons during neuroinflammation might prevent neurodegeneration.

  10. The Influence of Learning Context and Age on the Use of L2 Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Lidia; Serrano, Raquel; Llanes, Àngels

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the effects of foreign language learning context (three-month study-abroad; versus "at-home" instruction) and age (10-11-year-old children versus university students) on the development of effective foreign language communication strategies (CS) in monologue production. Participants (N = 95) were all Spanish/Catalan…

  11. Effects of age and content of augmented feedback on learning an isometric force-production task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Henk; Mulder, Theo; Hermens, Hermie J.

    2007-01-01

    This study addressed the interaction between age and the informational content of feedback on learning an isometric force-production task. Healthy men and women (30 young adults: 20 to 35 years; 30 older adults: 55 to 70 years) were randomly assigned to a certain type of feedback: knowledge of

  12. Learned Helplessness and Psychological Adjustment: Effects of Age, Gender and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valas, Harald

    2001-01-01

    Studied the relationships among academic achievement, learned helplessness, and psychological adjustment (self-esteem and depression), controlled for gender and age, for 1,580 students with data collected in grades 3 and 4, 6 and 7, and 8 and 9. Results show that academic achievement is directly and indirectly related to the pattern of…

  13. Rule-based category learning in children: the role of age and executive functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahel Rabi

    Full Text Available Rule-based category learning was examined in 4-11 year-olds and adults. Participants were asked to learn a set of novel perceptual categories in a classification learning task. Categorization performance improved with age, with younger children showing the strongest rule-based deficit relative to older children and adults. Model-based analyses provided insight regarding the type of strategy being used to solve the categorization task, demonstrating that the use of the task appropriate strategy increased with age. When children and adults who identified the correct categorization rule were compared, the performance deficit was no longer evident. Executive functions were also measured. While both working memory and inhibitory control were related to rule-based categorization and improved with age, working memory specifically was found to marginally mediate the age-related improvements in categorization. When analyses focused only on the sample of children, results showed that working memory ability and inhibitory control were associated with categorization performance and strategy use. The current findings track changes in categorization performance across childhood, demonstrating at which points performance begins to mature and resemble that of adults. Additionally, findings highlight the potential role that working memory and inhibitory control may play in rule-based category learning.

  14. Construction of Graphic Symbol Sequences by Preschool-Aged Children: Learning, Training, and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupart, Annick; Trudeau, Natacha; Sutton, Ann

    2013-01-01

    The use of augmentative and alternative communication systems based on graphic symbols requires children to learn to combine symbols to convey utterances. The current study investigated how children without disabilities aged 4 to 6 years (n = 74) performed on a simple sentence (subject-verb and subject-verb-object) transposition task (i.e., spoken…

  15. Learning-based encoding with soft assignment for age estimation under unconstrained imaging conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alnajar, F.; Shan, C.; Gevers, T.; Geusebroek, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose to adopt a learning-based encoding method for age estimation under unconstrained imaging conditions. A similar approach [Cao et al., 2010] is applied to face recognition in real-life face images. However, the feature vectors are encoded in hard manner i.e. each feature

  16. The Emergence of the Teaching/Learning Process in Preschoolers: Theory of Mind and Age Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalah, Leila

    2011-01-01

    This study analysed the gradual emergence of the teaching/learning process by examining theory of mind (ToM) acquisition and age effects in the preschool period. We observed five dyads performing a jigsaw task drawn from a previous study. Three stages were identified. In the first one, the teacher focuses on the execution of her/his own task…

  17. Age Effects in Second Language Learning: Stepping Stones toward Better Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKeyser, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of age of acquisition on ultimate attainment in second language learning has been a controversial topic for years. After providing a very brief overview of the ideas that are at the core of the controversy, I discuss the two main reasons why these issues are so controversial: conceptual misunderstandings and methodological difficulties.…

  18. A Systematic Investigation into Aging Related Genes in Brain and Their Relationship with Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Guofeng; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Mei, Hongkang

    2016-01-01

    Aging, as a complex biological process, is accompanied by the accumulation of functional loses at different levels, which makes age to be the biggest risk factor to many neurological diseases. Even following decades of investigation, the process of aging is still far from being fully understood, especially at a systematic level. In this study, we identified aging related genes in brain by collecting the ones with sustained and consistent gene expression or DNA methylation changes in the aging process. Functional analysis with Gene Ontology to these genes suggested transcriptional regulators to be the most affected genes in the aging process. Transcription regulation analysis found some transcription factors, especially Specificity Protein 1 (SP1), to play important roles in regulating aging related gene expression. Module-based functional analysis indicated these genes to be associated with many well-known aging related pathways, supporting the validity of our approach to select aging related genes. Finally, we investigated the roles of aging related genes on Alzheimer's Disease (AD). We found that aging and AD related genes both involved some common pathways, which provided a possible explanation why aging made the brain more vulnerable to Alzheimer's Disease.

  19. Chronic disease and independence in old age: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, Pauline J.

    2006-01-01

    This report uses case study methodology to examine the issue of long-term care of the elderly in the United Kingdom, including where that care should take place. The report will examine the difficulties inherent in maintaining independent living for the elderly (in particular the danger and cost of falls). The case study presented is that of an elderly female patient who had suffered from chronic rheumatoid arthritis for over 10 years. She was admitted to hospital several times from December 2003 to January 2004. The discussion of her case is set in the context of the sociology of ageing; long-term care of the elderly and the UK National Service Frameworks, of which standard six relates to falls in the elderly. The report will also consider the problems in deciding whether it is necessary to terminate independent living for an individual

  20. The effects of age, rank and neophobia on social learning in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Konstanze; Farmer, Kate; Heinze, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    Social learning is said to meet the demands of complex environments in which individuals compete over resources and cooperate to share resources. Horses (Equus caballus) were thought to lack social learning skills because they feed on homogenously distributed resources with few reasons for conflict. However, the horse's social environment is complex, which raises the possibility that its capacity for social transfer of feeding behaviour has been underestimated. We conducted a social learning experiment using 30 socially kept horses of different ages. Five horses, one from each group, were chosen as demonstrators, and the remaining 25 horses were designated observers. Observers from each group were allowed to watch their group demonstrator opening a feeding apparatus. We found that young, low-ranking and more exploratory horses learned by observing older members of their own group, and the older the horse, the more slowly it appeared to learn. Social learning may be an adaptive specialisation to the social environment. Older animals may avoid the potential costs of acquiring complex and potentially disadvantageous feeding behaviours from younger group members. We argue that horses show social learning in the context of their social ecology and that research procedures must take such contexts into account. Misconceptions about the horse's sociality may have hampered earlier studies.

  1. Classifying Aging as a Disease in the context of ICD-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eZhavoronkov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a complex continuous multifactorial process leading to loss of function and crystalizing into the many age-related diseases. Here, we explore the arguments for classifying aging as a disease in the context of the upcoming World Health Organization’s 11th International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11, expected to be finalized in 2018. We hypothesize that classifying aging as a disease will result in new approaches and business models for addressing aging as a treatable condition, which will lead to both economic and healthcare benefits for all stakeholders. Classification of aging as a disease may lead to more efficient allocation of resources by enabling funding bodies and other stakeholders to use quality-adjusted life years (QALYs and healthy-years equivalent (HYE as metrics when evaluating both research and clinical programs. We propose forming a Task Force to interface the WHO in order to develop a multidisciplinary framework for classifying aging as a disease.

  2. Accelerated Vascular Aging as a Paradigm for Hypertensive Vascular Disease: Prevention and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Matthias; Husmann, Marc; Meyer, Matthias R

    2016-05-01

    Aging is considered the most important nonmodifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death after age 28 years. Because of demographic changes the world population is expected to increase to 9 billion by the year 2050 and up to 12 billion by 2100, with several-fold increases among those 65 years of age and older. Healthy aging and prevention of aging-related diseases and associated health costs have become part of political agendas of governments around the world. Atherosclerotic vascular burden increases with age; accordingly, patients with progeria (premature aging) syndromes die from myocardial infarctions or stroke as teenagers or young adults. The incidence and prevalence of arterial hypertension also increases with age. Arterial hypertension-like diabetes and chronic renal failure-shares numerous pathologies and underlying mechanisms with the vascular aging process. In this article, we review how arterial hypertension resembles premature vascular aging, including the mechanisms by which arterial hypertension (as well as other risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, or chronic renal failure) accelerates the vascular aging process. We will also address the importance of cardiovascular risk factor control-including antihypertensive therapy-as a powerful intervention to interfere with premature vascular aging to reduce the age-associated prevalence of diseases such as myocardial infarction, heart failure, hypertensive nephropathy, and vascular dementia due to cerebrovascular disease. Finally, we will discuss the implementation of endothelial therapy, which aims at active patient participation to improve primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Automated Assessment for Bone Age of Left Wrist Joint in Uyghur Teenagers by Deep Learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, T H; Huo, Z; Liu, T A; Wang, F; Wan, L; Wang, M W; Chen, T; Wang, Y H

    2018-02-01

    To realize the automated bone age assessment by applying deep learning to digital radiography (DR) image recognition of left wrist joint in Uyghur teenagers, and explore its practical application value in forensic medicine bone age assessment. The X-ray films of left wrist joint after pretreatment, which were taken from 245 male and 227 female Uyghur nationality teenagers in Uygur Autonomous Region aged from 13.0 to 19.0 years old, were chosen as subjects. And AlexNet was as a regression model of image recognition. From the total samples above, 60% of male and female DR images of left wrist joint were selected as net train set, and 10% of samples were selected as validation set. As test set, the rest 30% were used to obtain the image recognition accuracy with an error range in ±1.0 and ±0.7 age respectively, compared to the real age. The modelling results of deep learning algorithm showed that when the error range was in ±1.0 and ±0.7 age respectively, the accuracy of the net train set was 81.4% and 75.6% in male, and 80.5% and 74.8% in female, respectively. When the error range was in ±1.0 and ±0.7 age respectively, the accuracy of the test set was 79.5% and 71.2% in male, and 79.4% and 66.2% in female, respectively. The combination of bone age research on teenagers' left wrist joint and deep learning, which has high accuracy and good feasibility, can be the research basis of bone age automatic assessment system for the rest joints of body. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  4. Aging and Network Properties: Stability Over Time and Links with Learning during Working Memory Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru D. Iordan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that healthy aging affects the configuration of large-scale functional brain networks. This includes reducing network modularity and local efficiency. However, the stability of these effects over time and their potential role in learning remain poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to further clarify previously reported age effects on “resting-state” networks, to test their reliability over time, and to assess their relation to subsequent learning during training. Resting-state fMRI data from 23 young (YA and 20 older adults (OA were acquired in 2 sessions 2 weeks apart. Graph-theoretic analyses identified both consistencies in network structure and differences in module composition between YA and OA, suggesting topological changes and less stability of functional network configuration with aging. Brain-wide, OA showed lower modularity and local efficiency compared to YA, consistent with the idea of age-related functional dedifferentiation, and these effects were replicable over time. At the level of individual networks, OA consistently showed greater participation and lower local efficiency and within-network connectivity in the cingulo-opercular network, as well as lower intra-network connectivity in the default-mode network and greater participation of the somato-sensorimotor network, suggesting age-related differential effects at the level of specialized brain modules. Finally, brain-wide network properties showed associations, albeit limited, with learning rates, as assessed with 10 days of computerized working memory training administered after the resting-state sessions, suggesting that baseline network configuration may influence subsequent learning outcomes. Identification of neural mechanisms associated with learning-induced plasticity is important for further clarifying whether and how such changes predict the magnitude and maintenance of training gains, as well as the extent and limits of

  5. Active-learning implementation in an advanced elective course on infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Levita; Patel, Shreya; Veltri, Keith

    2012-06-18

    To describe the development, implementation, and assessment of an advanced elective course on infectious diseases using active-learning strategies. Pedagogy for active learning was incorporated by means of mini-lecture, journal club, and debate with follow-up discussion. Forty-eight students were enrolled in this 4-week elective course, in which 30% of course time was allocated for active-learning exercises. All activities were fundamentally designed as a stepwise approach in complementing each active-learning exercise. Achievement of the course learning objectives was assessed using a 5-point Likert scale survey instrument. Students' awareness of the significance of antimicrobial resistance was improved (p ≤ 0.05). Students' ability to critically evaluate the infectious-disease literature and its application in informed clinical judgments was also enhanced through these active-learning exercises (p ≤ 0.05). Students agreed that active learning should be part of the pharmacy curriculum and that active-learning exercises improved their critical-thinking, literature-evaluation, and self-learning skills. An elective course using active-learning strategies allowed students to combine information gained from the evaluation of infectious-disease literature, critical thinking, and informed clinical judgment. This blended approach ultimately resulted in an increased knowledge and awareness of infectious diseases.

  6. Mental rotation of faces in healthy aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra A Adduri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD develop visuospatial difficulties that affect their ability to mentally rotate objects. Surprisingly, the existing literature has generally ignored the impact of this mental rotation deficit on the ability of AD patients to recognize faces from different angles. Instead, the devastating loss of the ability to recognize friends and family members in AD has primarily been attributed to memory loss and agnosia in later stages of the disorder. The impact of AD on areas of the brain important for mental rotation should not be overlooked by face processing investigations -- even in early stages of the disorder. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study investigated the sensitivity of face processing in AD, young controls and older non-neurological controls to two changes of the stimuli -- a rotation in depth and an inversion. The control groups showed a systematic effect of depth rotation, with errors increasing with the angle of rotation, and with inversion. The majority of the AD group was not impaired when faces were presented upright and no transformation in depth was required, and were most accurate when all faces were presented in frontal views, but accuracy was severely impaired with any rotation or inversion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that with the onset of AD, mental rotation difficulties arise that affect the ability to recognize faces presented at different angles. The finding that a frontal view is "preferred" by these patients provides a valuable communication strategy for health care workers.

  7. Therapeutic Potential and Recent Advances of Curcumin in the Treatment of Aging-Associated Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish Sundar Dhilip Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a low molecular weight, lipophilic, major yellow natural polyphenolic, and the most well-known plant-derived compound, is extracted from the rhizomes of the turmeric (Curcuma longa plant. Curcumin has been demonstrated as an effective therapeutic agent in traditional medicine for the treatment and prevention of different diseases. It has also shown a wide range of biological and pharmacological effects in drug delivery, and has actively been used for the treatment of aging-associated diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, ocular diseases, osteoporosis, diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney diseases, chronic inflammation and infection. The functional application and therapeutic potential of curcumin in the treatment of aging-associated diseases is well documented in the literature. This review article focuses mainly on the potential role of plant-derived natural compounds such as curcumin, their mechanism of action and recent advances in the treatment of aging-associated diseases. Moreover, the review briefly recaps on the recent progress made in the preparation of nanocurcumins and their therapeutic potential in clinical research for the treatment of aging-associated diseases.

  8. Therapeutic Potential and Recent Advances of Curcumin in the Treatment of Aging-Associated Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar Dhilip Kumar, Sathish; Houreld, Nicolette Nadene; Abrahamse, Heidi

    2018-04-05

    Curcumin, a low molecular weight, lipophilic, major yellow natural polyphenolic, and the most well-known plant-derived compound, is extracted from the rhizomes of the turmeric ( Curcuma longa ) plant. Curcumin has been demonstrated as an effective therapeutic agent in traditional medicine for the treatment and prevention of different diseases. It has also shown a wide range of biological and pharmacological effects in drug delivery, and has actively been used for the treatment of aging-associated diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, ocular diseases, osteoporosis, diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney diseases, chronic inflammation and infection. The functional application and therapeutic potential of curcumin in the treatment of aging-associated diseases is well documented in the literature. This review article focuses mainly on the potential role of plant-derived natural compounds such as curcumin, their mechanism of action and recent advances in the treatment of aging-associated diseases. Moreover, the review briefly recaps on the recent progress made in the preparation of nanocurcumins and their therapeutic potential in clinical research for the treatment of aging-associated diseases.

  9. Mandibuloacral dysplasia: A premature ageing disease with aspects of physiological ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenni, Vittoria; D'Apice, Maria Rosaria; Garagnani, Paolo; Columbaro, Marta; Novelli, Giuseppe; Franceschi, Claudio; Lattanzi, Giovanna

    2018-03-01

    Mandibuloacral dysplasia (MAD) is a rare genetic condition characterized by bone abnormalities including localized osteolysis and generalized osteoporosis, skin pigmentation, lipodystrophic signs and mildly accelerated ageing. The molecular defects associated with MAD are mutations in LMNA or ZMPSTE24 (FACE1) gene, causing type A or type B MAD, respectively. Downstream of LMNA or ZMPSTE24 mutations, the lamin A precursor, prelamin A, is accumulated in cells and affects chromatin dynamics and stress response. A new form of mandibuloacral dysplasia has been recently associated with mutations in POLD1 gene, encoding DNA polymerase delta, a major player in DNA replication. Of note, involvement of prelamin A in chromatin dynamics and recruitment of DNA repair factors has been also determined under physiological conditions, at the border between stress response and cellular senescence. Here, we review current knowledge on MAD clinical and pathogenetic aspects and highlight aspects typical of physiological ageing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of sensorimotor exercise on swallowing outcomes relative to age and age-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kays, Stephanie; Robbins, JoAnne

    2006-11-01

    Parallel to the growing number of adults over age 65 years and the increasing use of exercise in geriatric medicine to improve function and decrease fall risk, recent advances in the treatment of geriatric dysphagia have focused on rehabilitating swallowing function with active exercise. Specific changes in central neural pathways as well as peripheral end organs (muscles) that occur with natural aging may predispose older adults to an increased risk for dysphagia when faced with chronic medical conditions. Research to date primarily has focused on the utility of nonswallow motor exercises to increase muscle strength and range of motion in oropharyngeal structures. Future directions in the field of dysphagia rehabilitation demand evidence-based investigations into the ability of exercise to affect neural plasticity, representing long-lasting alterations in neural organization.

  11. The National Institute on Aging Genetics of Alzheimer’s Disease Data Storage Site (NIAGADS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Institute on Aging Genetics of Alzheimer's Disease Data Storage Site (NIAGADS) is a national genetics data repository facilitating access to genotypic...

  12. Alcohol Intake and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A; Tolstrup, Janne S; Jakobsen, Marianne U

    2010-01-01

    prospective studies from North America and Europe including 192 067 women and 74 919 men free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancers at baseline, average daily alcohol intake was assessed at baseline with a food frequency or diet history questionnaire. An inverse association between alcohol......BACKGROUND: -Light to moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. This protective effect of alcohol, however, may be confined to middle-aged or older individuals. Coronary heart disease incidence is low in men ... of age; for this reason, study cohorts rarely have the power to investigate the effects of alcohol on coronary heart disease risk in younger adults. This study examined whether the beneficial effect of alcohol on coronary heart disease depends on age. Methods and Results-In this pooled analysis of 8...

  13. CT attenuation in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.S.; Pearlson, G.D.; Goldfinger, A.D.; Tune, L.E.; Heyler, G.

    1986-01-01

    113 screened normal volunteers aged 18-85 and 50 elderly demented individuals meeting NINCDS/ADRDA criteria for probable senile dementia of the Alzheimer type, (SDAT), received a non-contrast x-CT head scan on a single 512x512 matrix Siemens Somatom DR3 Scanner. Scanning parameters (KV,MA) were kept constant, and the authors used a specially designed head holder to ensure a uniform scanning angle. Standard 8mm thick cuts, at zero degrees to the supra-orbito-meatal line, were taken through the entire brain. A ''phantom'' consisting of plastics of several different attenuation values was scanned before each patient as a reference to correct for any numerical drift in the scanner. Both patients and controls were scanned during the same sessions to eliminate possible systematic bias, and a single CT technologist carried out all scanning. Numerical CT data were collected on magnetic tape for analysis on a specially designed image processing system. Software was used to read CT density data from the 512x512 matrix scanner output tapes and to transfer the resulting image in standardized format to hard disk on the processing system. This system consists of a PDP-11-34 computer, linked to a Gould DeAnza IP-5000 image processors, hard disk system and tape drive. Once transferred to disk, images were rated blindly to subject identity or diagnosis by another 2 separate raters using a computer-linked cursor, and digitizer tablet. These numerical attenuation data from various anatomically defined regions of interest, (ROI's), were then corrected for head size using a regression model

  14. Connecting Informal and Formal Learning Experiences in the Age of Participatory Media: Commentary on Bull et al. (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhow, Christine

    2008-01-01

    The recent editorial in this journal by Bull et al. ("Connecting Informal and Formal Learning Experiences in the Age of Participatory Media" Vol 8, Iss 2) discussed the challenges of bridging formal learning practices and informal learning opportunities within the context of today's Web-enhanced world. In this commentary, Christine…

  15. Learning to Teach in the Digital Age: New Materialities and Maker Paradigms in Schools. New Literacies and Digital Epistemologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Sean

    2016-01-01

    "Learning to Teach in the Digital Age" tells the story of a group of K-12 teachers as they began to connect with digital making and learning pedagogies. Guiding questions at the heart of this qualitative case study asked how teaching practices engaged with and responded to the maker movement and digital making and learning tools and…

  16. Cognitive Decline in Neuronal Aging and Alzheimer's Disease: Role of NMDA Receptors and Associated Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Avila

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Molecular changes associated with neuronal aging lead to a decrease in cognitive capacity. Here we discuss these alterations at the level of brain regions, brain cells, and brain membrane and cytoskeletal proteins with an special focus in NMDA molecular changes through aging and its effect in cognitive decline and Alzheimer disease. Here, we propose that some neurodegenerative disorders, like Alzheimer's disease (AD, are characterized by an increase and acceleration of some of these changes.

  17. OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS AND AGE-RELATED DISEASES: REALITIES AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Drapkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiology is so high that in many countries omega-3 fatty acids are included into the treatment protocols for patients with cardiovascular diseases. This therapeutic class slows down oxidative stress and chronic inflammation processes, thereby providing a significant contribution to the complex treatment of hypertension. Besides, omega-3 fatty acids slow down the aging process and prevent the development of age-related diseases affecting the rate of telomere shortening.

  18. Physical Activity and Telomere Biology: Exploring the Link with Aging-Related Disease Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew T. Ludlow; Stephen M. Roth

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of several age-related diseases as well as with increased longevity in both rodents and humans. Though these associations are well established, evidence of the molecular and cellular factors associated with reduced disease risk and increased longevity resulting from physical activity is sparse. A long-standing hypothesis of aging is the telomere hypothesis: as a cell divides, telomeres shorten resulting eventually in replicative senescence and...

  19. Analysis of a general age-dependent vaccination model for a vertically transmitted disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Doma, M.

    1995-05-01

    A SIR epidemic model of a general age-dependent vaccination for a vertically as well as horizontally transmitted disease is investigated when the total population is time dependent, and fertility, mortality and removal rates depend on age. We establish the existence and the uniqueness of the solution and obtain the asymptotic behaviour for the solution. For the steady state solution a critical vaccination coverage which will eventually eradicate the disease is determined. (author). 18 refs

  20. Environmental impoverishment and aging alter object recognition, spatial learning, and dentate gyrus astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Daniel G; Foro, César A R; Rego, Carla M D; Gloria, David A; de Oliveira, Fabio R R; Paes, Juliana M P; de Sousa, Aline A; Tokuhashi, Tatyana P; Trindade, Lucas S; Turiel, Maíra C P; Vasconcelos, Erick G R; Torres, João B; Cunnigham, Colm; Perry, Victor H; Vasconcelos, Pedro F da Costa; Diniz, Cristovam W P

    2010-08-01

    Environmental and age-related effects on learning and memory were analysed and compared with changes observed in astrocyte laminar distribution in the dentate gyrus. Aged (20 months) and young (6 months) adult female albino Swiss mice were housed from weaning either in impoverished conditions or in enriched conditions, and tested for episodic-like and water maze spatial memories. After these behavioral tests, brain hippocampal sections were immunolabeled for glial fibrillary acid protein to identify astrocytes. The effects of environmental enrichment on episodic-like memory were not dependent on age, and may protect water maze spatial learning and memory from declines induced by aging or impoverished environment. In the dentate gyrus, the number of astrocytes increased with both aging and enriched environment in the molecular layer, increased only with aging in the polymorphic layer, and was unchanged in the granular layer. We suggest that long-term experience-induced glial plasticity by enriched environment may represent at least part of the circuitry groundwork for improvements in behavioral performance in the aged mice brain.

  1. Learning Disabilities in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children and Neurodevelopmental Profiles at Preschool Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001-2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (learning disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9-10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school.

  2. Glycated Lysine Residues: A Marker for Non-Enzymatic Protein Glycation in Age-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem A. Ansari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonenzymatic glycosylation or glycation of macromolecules, especially proteins leading to their oxidation, play an important role in diseases. Glycation of proteins primarily results in the formation of an early stage and stable Amadori-lysine product which undergo further irreversible chemical reactions to form advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs. This review focuses these products in lysine rich proteins such as collagen and human serum albumin for their role in aging and age-related diseases. Antigenic characteristics of glycated lysine residues in proteins together with the presence of serum autoantibodies to the glycated lysine products and lysine-rich proteins in diabetes and arthritis patients indicates that these modified lysine residues may be a novel biomarker for protein glycation in aging and age-related diseases.

  3. DISTANCE EDUCATION IN THE AGE OF GLOBALIZATION: An Overwhelming Desire towards Blended Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Sundar SETHY

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to discuss the nature and status of distance education in the age of globalization, i.e. how best it fits for the present educational scenario. In this connection, we will discuss how Blended Learning (hence after, BL is one among the other learning strategies mostly helpful for the learners. Keeping this view in mind, this paper is divided into three sections. The first section aims to discuss the nature of distance education in the age of globalization. The second section devotes a discussion on why we need blended learning in ODL system and in which way it plays a vital role for maximizing the benefit of the learners, tutors, and the institutions. The third section explains the pros and cons of blended learning to evaluate how successfully it can be implemented in the ODL system. The paper concludes with an established view that blended learning is a globalized approach to the distance education.

  4. Automatic Image-Based Plant Disease Severity Estimation Using Deep Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic and accurate estimation of disease severity is essential for food security, disease management, and yield loss prediction. Deep learning, the latest breakthrough in computer vision, is promising for fine-grained disease severity classification, as the method avoids the labor-intensive feature engineering and threshold-based segmentation. Using the apple black rot images in the PlantVillage dataset, which are further annotated by botanists with four severity stages as ground truth, a series of deep convolutional neural networks are trained to diagnose the severity of the disease. The performances of shallow networks trained from scratch and deep models fine-tuned by transfer learning are evaluated systemically in this paper. The best model is the deep VGG16 model trained with transfer learning, which yields an overall accuracy of 90.4% on the hold-out test set. The proposed deep learning model may have great potential in disease control for modern agriculture.

  5. Automatic Image-Based Plant Disease Severity Estimation Using Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan; Sun, Yu; Wang, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    Automatic and accurate estimation of disease severity is essential for food security, disease management, and yield loss prediction. Deep learning, the latest breakthrough in computer vision, is promising for fine-grained disease severity classification, as the method avoids the labor-intensive feature engineering and threshold-based segmentation. Using the apple black rot images in the PlantVillage dataset, which are further annotated by botanists with four severity stages as ground truth, a series of deep convolutional neural networks are trained to diagnose the severity of the disease. The performances of shallow networks trained from scratch and deep models fine-tuned by transfer learning are evaluated systemically in this paper. The best model is the deep VGG16 model trained with transfer learning, which yields an overall accuracy of 90.4% on the hold-out test set. The proposed deep learning model may have great potential in disease control for modern agriculture.

  6. Learning Building Layouts with Non-geometric Visual Information: The Effects of Visual Impairment and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Amy A.; Legge, Gordon E.; Giudice, Nicholas A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that humans rely on geometric visual information (hallway structure) rather than non-geometric visual information (e.g., doors, signs and lighting) for acquiring cognitive maps of novel indoor layouts. This study asked whether visual impairment and age affect reliance on non-geometric visual information for layout learning. We tested three groups of participants—younger (sighted, older (50–70 years) normally sighted, and low vision (people with heterogeneous forms of visual impairment ranging in age from 18–67). Participants learned target locations in building layouts using four presentation modes: a desktop virtual environment (VE) displaying only geometric cues (Sparse VE), a VE displaying both geometric and non-geometric cues (Photorealistic VE), a Map, and a Real building. Layout knowledge was assessed by map drawing and by asking participants to walk to specified targets in the real space. Results indicate that low-vision and older normally-sighted participants relied on additional non-geometric information to accurately learn layouts. In conclusion, visual impairment and age may result in reduced perceptual and/or memory processing that makes it difficult to learn layouts without non-geometric visual information. PMID:19189732

  7. Changes in the etiology of valvular heart disease in the rapidly aging Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Shin Yi; Ju, Eun-Young; Seo, Su Ra; Choi, Ji Yeon; Park, Sung-Ji; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Park, Seung Woo

    2014-06-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the changes in the causes of valvular heart disease between 2006 and 2011 in Korea. Data were collected from the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2006 through 2011. These data consisted of primary diagnoses related to valvular heart disease regardless of other conditions. Valvular heart disease included non-rheumatic mitral valve disorders, non-rheumatic aortic valve disorders, rheumatic mitral valve disorders, and rheumatic aortic valve disorders. Overall, the age-standardized cumulative prevalence of non-rheumatic valvular heart disease was 70.6 per 100,000 persons in 2006 and 110.3 in 2011. This represented an increase from 42.2 to 65.2 in women and from 28.4 to 45.1 in men. In particular, there was a greater increase in prevalence in patients aged 65 years or older compared with groups aged 20-44 years or 45-64 years for both genders. The age-standardized cumulative prevalence of rheumatic valve disease did not change dramatically between 2006 and 2011. The overall age-standardized cumulative prevalence of non-rheumatic valvular heart diseases increased between 2006 and 2011, especially in individuals older than 65 years. These changes should be considered in future designs of cardiovascular healthcare services in countries with a rapidly aging population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nicotinic receptor imaging with F-18 A85380 PET in Alzheimer's disease and normal ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottlaender, M.; Maziere, B.; Pappata, S.; Dolle, F.; Rowe, C.; Tochon-Danguy, H.; Reutens, D.; Chan, G.; Woodward, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Central nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) mediate excitatory neurotransmission and contribute to a variety of brain functions including learning and memory. Post mortem studies in patients with Alzheimer's disease have revealed losses of nAChR from the neocortex and hippocampal formation with ligand binding studies showing a reduction of over 50% compared to normal elderly brains in the temporal cortex and hippocampus (Sabbagh 1998). This is consistent with the loss of cholinergic neurones that has been well documented in this condition. Nicotinic AChR are predominantly located presynaptically on the cholinergic neurones. Consequently the ability to image and quantify these receptors may provide a measure of cholinergic loss and therefore a test for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and for monitoring therapy designed' to preserve cholinergic neurones. Aging is known to effect nAChR (Hellstrom-Lindahl 2000) so this variable must be quantified and incorporated into analysis of the scans. Nicotinic receptors also have important modulatory effects on glutamate, dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline release and profound receptor loss has been documented in Parkinson's disease and Diffuse Lewy Body disease in addition to AD. Abnormalities in the alpha 7 subtype have been reported in schizophrenia. Imaging studies of nAChR have been hampered by the lack of a suitable tracer for in-vivo imaging. Nicotine itself labelled with carbon-11 for PET imaging has been used but has been shown to reflect regional cerebral blood flow not nAChR due to high nonspecific binding (Nyback et al, 1994). Potent nAChR ligands such as Epibatidine have been very useful for in-vitro studies but are too toxic for routine human use due to strong activation of nAChR including those in the sympathetic ganglia (A3B4 subtype). Recently, the Abbott Laboratories developed A85380 (3-[2(S)-2- azetidinylmethoxyl]pyridine) an azetidine derivative of the 3-pyridyl ethers that has

  9. [Use of nondeclarative and automatic memory processes in motor learning: how to mitigate the effects of aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvel, Guillaume; Maquestiaux, François; Didierjean, André; Joubert, Sven; Dieudonné, Bénédicte; Verny, Marc

    2011-12-01

    Does normal aging inexorably lead to diminished motor learning abilities? This article provides an overview of the literature on the question, with particular emphasis on the functional dissociation between two sets of memory processes: declarative, effortful processes, and non-declarative, automatic processes. There is abundant evidence suggesting that aging does impair learning when past memories of former actions are required (episodic memory) and recollected through controlled processing (working memory). However, other studies have shown that aging does not impair learning when motor actions are performed non verbally and automatically (tapping procedural memory). These findings led us to hypothesize that one can minimize the impact of aging on the ability to learn new motor actions by favouring procedural learning. Recent data validating this hypothesis are presented. Our findings underline the importance of developing new motor learning strategies, which "bypass" declarative, effortful memory processes.

  10. Distributional learning aids linguistic category formation in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jessica; Owen VAN Horne, Amanda; Farmer, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if typically developing children could form grammatical categories from distributional information alone. Twenty-seven children aged six to nine listened to an artificial grammar which contained strategic gaps in its distribution. At test, we compared how children rated novel sentences that fit the grammar to sentences that were ungrammatical. Sentences could be distinguished only through the formation of categories of words with shared distributional properties. Children's ratings revealed that they could discriminate grammatical and ungrammatical sentences. These data lend support to the hypothesis that distributional learning is a potential mechanism for learning grammatical categories in a first language.

  11. Effect of Aging on Periodontal Inflammation, Microbial Colonization, and Disease Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Dong, G; Xiao, W; Xiao, E; Miao, F; Syverson, A; Missaghian, N; Vafa, R; Cabrera-Ortega, A A; Rossa, C; Graves, D T

    2016-04-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease induced by a biofilm that forms on the tooth surface. Increased periodontal disease is associated with aging. We investigated the effect of aging on challenge by oral pathogens, examining the host response, colonization, and osteoclast numbers in aged versus young mice. We also compared the results with mice with lineage-specific deletion of the transcription factor FOXO1, which reduces dendritic cell (DC) function. Periodontitis was induced by oral inoculation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum in young (4 to 5 mo) and aged (14 to 15 mo) mice. Aged mice as well as mice with reduced DC function had decreased numbers of DCs in lymph nodes, indicative of a diminished host response. In vitro studies suggest that reduced DC numbers in lymph nodes of aged mice may involve the effect of advanced glycation end products on DC migration. Surprisingly, aged mice but not mice with genetically altered DC function had greater production of antibody to P. gingivalis, greater IL-12 expression, and more plasma cells in lymph nodes following oral inoculation as compared with young mice. The greater adaptive immune response in aged versus young mice was linked to enhanced levels of P. gingivalis and reduced bacterial diversity. Thus, reduced bacterial diversity in aged mice may contribute to increased P. gingivalis colonization following inoculation and increased periodontal disease susceptibility, reflected by higher TNF levels and osteoclast numbers in the periodontium of aged versus young mice. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  12. Age-related macular disease : studies on incidence, risk factors, and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Leeuwen (Redmer)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAge-related macular disease (AMD) is a new name, recently coined by Bird,25 for a progressive and degenerative disease in elderly persons affecting the macula lutea. Dysfunction of this part of the retina, and especially its centre, the fovea, results in the inability to read,

  13. The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in middle-aged people with intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal-Schuller, I. H.; Goorhuis, A. E. M.; Bock-Sinot, A.; Claassen, I. H. M.; Echteld, M. A.; Evenhuis, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a manifestation of atherosclerosis below the bifurcation of the abdominal aorta. PAD increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and associated mortality. Little is known about the prevalence of PAD in middle-aged persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). We

  14. Accelerated Age-Dependent Hippocampal Volume Loss in Parkinson Disease With Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christine B; Donix, Markus; Linse, Katharina; Werner, Annett; Fauser, Mareike; Klingelhoefer, Lisa; Löhle, Matthias; von Kummer, Rüdiger; Reichmann, Heinz; Storch, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Patients with Parkinson disease are at high risk of developing dementia. During the course of the disease, a substantial number of patients will experience a cognitive decline, indicating the dynamics of the underlying neuropathology. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become increasingly useful for identifying structural characteristics in radiological brain anatomy existing prior to clinical symptoms. Whether these changes reflect pathology, whether they are aging related, or both often remains unclear. We hypothesized that aging-associated brain structural changes would be more pronounced in the hippocampal region among patients with Parkinson disease having mild cognitive deficits relative to cognitively unimpaired patients. Using MRI, we investigated 30 cognitively healthy patients with Parkinson disease and 33 patients with nondemented Parkinson disease having mild cognitive impairment. All participants underwent structural MRI scanning and extensive clinical and neuropsychological assessments. Irrespective of the study participants' cognitive status, older age was associated with reduced cortical thickness in various neocortical regions. Having mild cognitive impairment was not associated with an increased rate of cortical thinning or volume loss in these regions, except in the hippocampus bilaterally. Patients with Parkinson disease having mild cognitive impairment show an accelerated age-dependent hippocampal volume loss when compared with cognitively healthy patients with Parkinson disease. This may indicate pathological processes in a key region for memory functioning in patients with Parkinson disease at risk of developing dementia. Structural MRI of the hippocampal region could potentially contribute to identifying patients who should receive early treatment aimed at delaying the clinical onset of dementia.

  15. Can't read my broker face: Learning about trustworthiness with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Eileen C; Gutchess, Angela

    2018-02-05

    We assessed how age impacted learning who to trust, and the extent to which this type of learning relied on explicit memory. In contrast to prior studies, target faces were neutral without prior reputational information. Younger and older adults made investment decisions for 36 brokers, who yielded a good, neutral, or bad outcome. Brokers were encountered three times to measure adaptive learning. After the investment task, participants completed a surprise explicit source memory test for brokers. Although younger and older adults learned to distinguish good and bad brokers from neutral ones, older adults did not learn the brokers' behavior as well as younger adults. In addition, explicit source memory was highly correlated with investment decisions, although less so for good brokers for older than younger adults. Findings extend prior work by establishing that older adults' impairments in learning who to trust extend to neutral faces, and highlighting the role of explicit memory in investment performance. Future work should vary the task demands to explore the contribution of explicit and implicit processes. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The African Turquoise Killifish: A Model for Exploring Vertebrate Aging and Diseases in the Fast Lane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Itamar; Brunet, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Why and how organisms age remains a mystery, and it defines one of the biggest challenges in biology. Aging is also the primary risk factor for many human pathologies, such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, manipulating the aging rate and potentially postponing the onset of these devastating diseases could have a tremendous impact on human health. Recent studies, relying primarily on nonvertebrate short-lived model systems, have shown the importance of both genetic and environmental factors in modulating the aging rate. However, relatively little is known about aging in vertebrates or what processes may be unique and specific to these complex organisms. Here we discuss how advances in genomics and genome editing have significantly expanded our ability to probe the aging process in a vertebrate system. We highlight recent findings from a naturally short-lived vertebrate, the African turquoise killifish, which provides an attractive platform for exploring mechanisms underlying vertebrate aging and age-related diseases. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  17. CAG repeat expansion in Huntington disease determines age at onset in a fully dominant fashion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, J-M; Ramos, E M; Lee, J-H

    2012-01-01

    Age at onset of diagnostic motor manifestations in Huntington disease (HD) is strongly correlated with an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat. The length of the normal CAG repeat allele has been reported also to influence age at onset, in interaction with the expanded allele. Due to profound...

  18. 4p16.3 haplotype modifying age at onset of Huntington disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørremølle, A; Budtz-Jørgensen, E; Fenger, K

    2009-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is caused by an expanded CAG repeat sequence in the HD gene. Although the age at onset is correlated to the CAG repeat length, this correlation only explains approximately half of the variation in onset age. Less variation between siblings indicates that the variation is, ...

  19. Stability analysis of a general age-dependent vaccination model of a vertically transmitted disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Doma, M.

    1995-07-01

    An SIR epidemic model of a general age-dependent vaccination of a vertically as well as horizontally transmitted disease is investigated when the population is in steady state and the fertility, mortality and removal rates depends on age. We determine the steady states and examine their stabilities. (author). 24 refs

  20. Disturbance and strategies for reactivation of the circadian rhythm system in aging and Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.-H.; Swaab, D.F.

    2007-01-01

    Circadian rhythm disturbances, such as sleep disorders, are frequently seen in aging and are even more pronounced in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Alterations in the biological clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and the pineal gland during aging and AD are considered to be the biological basis

  1. Risk factors for coronary heart disease in middle-aged men in Crete in 1982.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravanis, C.; Mensink, R.P.; Corcondilas, A.; Ioanidis, P.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    Risk factors for coronary heart disease were studied in healthy middle- aged Cretan men in order to compare them with the middle-aged men of a previous generation studied in 1960 as the Cretan cohort of the Seven Countries Study (1960). In the present cohort mean values for total cholesterol were

  2. Cardiovascular disease and cognitive performance in middle-aged and elderly men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.; Grobbee, D. E.; Aleman, A.; Bots, M.; van der Schouw, Y. T.

    Background: Decline of cognitive function with age may be due, in part, to atherosclerotic changes. The aim of the present study was to determine the relative contribution of cardiovascular disease (CVD) to cognitive functioning in middle-aged and elderly men. Methods: In a cross-sectional study,

  3. AGE-RAGE Stress, Stressors, and Antistressors in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kailash; Mishra, Manish

    2018-03-01

    Adverse effects of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) on the tissues are through nonreceptor- and receptor-mediated mechanisms. In the receptor-mediated mechanism, interaction of AGEs with its cell-bound receptor of AGE (RAGE) increases generation of oxygen radicals, activates nuclear factor-kappa B, and increases expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines resulting in the cellular damage. The deleterious effects of AGE and AGE-RAGE interaction are coined as "AGE-RAGE stress." The body is equipped with defense mechanisms to counteract the adverse effects of AGE and RAGE through endogenous enzymatic (glyoxalase 1, glyoxalase 2) and AGE receptor-mediated (AGER1, AGER2) degradation of AGE, and through elevation of soluble receptor of AGE (sRAGE). Exogenous defense mechanisms include reduction in consumption of AGE, prevention of AGE formation, and downregulation of RAGE expression. We have coined AGE and RAGE as "stressors" and the defense mechanisms as "anti-stressors." AGE-RAGE stress is defined as a shift in the balance between stressors and antistressors in the favor of stressors. Measurements of stressors or antistressors alone would not assess AGE-RAGE stress. For true assessment of AGE-RAGE stress, the equation should include all the stressors and antistressors. The equation for AGE-RAGE stress, therefore, would be the ratio of AGE + RAGE/sRAGE + glyoxalase1 + glyoxalase 2 + AGER1 +AGER2. This is, however, not practical in patients. AGE-RAGE stress may be assessed simply by the ratio of AGE/sRAGE. A high ratio of AGE/sRAGE indicates a relative shift in stressors from antistressors, suggesting the presence of AGE-RAGE stress, resulting in tissue damage, initiation, and progression of the diseases and their complications.

  4. [Echocardiographic indices of the right heart in patients with coronary artery disease in different age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajfulin, R A; Sumin, A N; Arhipov, O G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to examine echocardiographic indices of right heart chambers in patients with coronary artery disease in different age groups. On 678 patients aged 38-85 years, who underwent echocardiography, are including with the use of spectral tissue Doppler. Obtained 2 age groups: 1st - patients up to 60 years (n=282) and group 2nd - patients 60 years and older (n=396). In the analysis the obtained results in patients with coronary heart disease in older age groups showed an increase in right ventricular wall thickness, systolic and average pressure in the pulmonary artery. These changes were accompanied by deterioration in left ventricular diastolic function, while the systolic function of the left and right ventricle were independent of age. Thus, the results can be recommended for assessment of right ventricular dysfunction in patients of older age groups.

  5. Is "Learning" episodic memory? Distinct cognitive and neuroanatomic correlates of immediate recall during learning trials in neurologically normal aging and neurodegenerative cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaletto, K B; Marx, G; Dutt, S; Neuhaus, J; Saloner, R; Kritikos, L; Miller, B; Kramer, J H

    2017-07-28

    Although commonly interpreted as a marker of episodic memory during neuropsychological exams, relatively little is known regarding the neurobehavior of "total learning" immediate recall scores. Medial temporal lobes are clearly associated with delayed recall performances, yet immediate recall may necessitate networks beyond traditional episodic memory. We aimed to operationalize cognitive and neuroanatomic correlates of total immediate recall in several aging syndromes. Demographically-matched neurologically normal adults (n=91), individuals with Alzheimer's disease (n=566), logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (PPA) (n=34), behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (n=97), semantic variant PPA (n=71), or nonfluent/agrammatic variant PPA (n=39) completed a neurocognitive battery, including the CVLT-Short Form trials 1-4 Total Immediate Recall; a majority subset also completed a brain MRI. Regressions covaried for age and sex, and MMSE in cognitive and total intracranial volume in neuroanatomic models. Neurologically normal adults demonstrated a heterogeneous pattern of cognitive associations with total immediate recall (executive, speed, delayed recall), such that no singular cognitive or neuroanatomic correlate uniquely predicted performance. Within the clinical cohorts, there were syndrome-specific cognitive and neural associations with total immediate recall; e.g., semantic processing was the strongest cognitive correlate in svPPA (partial r=0.41), while frontal volumes was the only meaningful neural correlate in bvFTD (partial r=0.20). Medial temporal lobes were not independently associated with total immediate recall in any group (ps>0.05). Multiple neurobehavioral systems are associated with "total learning" immediate recall scores that importantly differ across distinct clinical syndromes. Conventional memory networks may not be sufficient or even importantly contribute to total immediate recall in many syndromes. Interpreting learning scores as

  6. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD as a disease of early aging: Evidence from the EpiChron Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel J Divo

    Full Text Available Aging is an important risk factor for most chronic diseases. Patients with COPD develop more comorbidities than non-COPD subjects. We hypothesized that the development of comorbidities characteristically affecting the elderly occur at an earlier age in subjects with the diagnosis of COPD.We included all subjects carrying the diagnosis of COPD (n = 27,617, and a similar number of age and sex matched individuals without the diagnosis, extracted from the 727,241 records of individuals 40 years and older included in the EpiChron Cohort (Aragon, Spain. We compared the cumulative number of comorbidities, their prevalence and the mortality risk between both groups. Using network analysis, we explored the connectivity between comorbidities and the most influential comorbidities in both groups. We divided the groups into 5 incremental age categories and compared their comorbidity networks. We then selected those comorbidities known to affect primarily the elderly and compared their prevalence across the 5 age groups. In addition, we replicated the analysis in the smokers' subgroup to correct for the confounding effect of cigarette smoking. Subjects with COPD had more comorbidities and died at a younger age compared to controls. Comparison of both cohorts across 5 incremental age groups showed that the number of comorbidities, the prevalence of diseases characteristic of aging and network's density for the COPD group aged 56-65 were similar to those of non-COPD 15 to 20 years older. The findings persisted after adjusting for smoking.Multimorbidity increases with age but in patients carrying the diagnosis of COPD, these comorbidities are seen at an earlier age.

  7. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) as a disease of early aging: Evidence from the EpiChron Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divo, Miguel J; Celli, Bartolome R; Poblador-Plou, Beatriz; Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; de-Torres, Juan Pablo; Gimeno-Feliu, Luis A; Bertó, Juan; Zulueta, Javier J; Casanova, Ciro; Pinto-Plata, Victor M; Cabrera-Lopez, Carlos; Polverino, Francesca; Carmona Píréz, Jonás; Prados-Torres, Alexandra; Marin, Jose M

    2018-01-01

    Aging is an important risk factor for most chronic diseases. Patients with COPD develop more comorbidities than non-COPD subjects. We hypothesized that the development of comorbidities characteristically affecting the elderly occur at an earlier age in subjects with the diagnosis of COPD. We included all subjects carrying the diagnosis of COPD (n = 27,617), and a similar number of age and sex matched individuals without the diagnosis, extracted from the 727,241 records of individuals 40 years and older included in the EpiChron Cohort (Aragon, Spain). We compared the cumulative number of comorbidities, their prevalence and the mortality risk between both groups. Using network analysis, we explored the connectivity between comorbidities and the most influential comorbidities in both groups. We divided the groups into 5 incremental age categories and compared their comorbidity networks. We then selected those comorbidities known to affect primarily the elderly and compared their prevalence across the 5 age groups. In addition, we replicated the analysis in the smokers' subgroup to correct for the confounding effect of cigarette smoking. Subjects with COPD had more comorbidities and died at a younger age compared to controls. Comparison of both cohorts across 5 incremental age groups showed that the number of comorbidities, the prevalence of diseases characteristic of aging and network's density for the COPD group aged 56-65 were similar to those of non-COPD 15 to 20 years older. The findings persisted after adjusting for smoking. Multimorbidity increases with age but in patients carrying the diagnosis of COPD, these comorbidities are seen at an earlier age.

  8. Input and Age-Dependent Variation in Second Language Learning: A Connectionist Account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janciauskas, Marius; Chang, Franklin

    2017-07-26

    Language learning requires linguistic input, but several studies have found that knowledge of second language (L2) rules does not seem to improve with more language exposure (e.g., Johnson & Newport, 1989). One reason for this is that previous studies did not factor out variation due to the different rules tested. To examine this issue, we reanalyzed grammaticality judgment scores in Flege, Yeni-Komshian, and Liu's (1999) study of L2 learners using rule-related predictors and found that, in addition to the overall drop in performance due to a sensitive period, L2 knowledge increased with years of input. Knowledge of different grammar rules was negatively associated with input frequency of those rules. To better understand these effects, we modeled the results using a connectionist model that was trained using Korean as a first language (L1) and then English as an L2. To explain the sensitive period in L2 learning, the model's learning rate was reduced in an age-related manner. By assigning different learning rates for syntax and lexical learning, we were able to model the difference between early and late L2 learners in input sensitivity. The model's learning mechanism allowed transfer between the L1 and L2, and this helped to explain the differences between different rules in the grammaticality judgment task. This work demonstrates that an L1 model of learning and processing can be adapted to provide an explicit account of how the input and the sensitive period interact in L2 learning. © 2017 The Authors. Cognitive Science - A Multidisciplinary Journal published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Glycated Lysine Residues: A Marker for Non-Enzymatic Protein Glycation in Age-Related Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Nadeem A.; Moinuddin,; Ali, Rashid

    2011-01-01

    Nonenzymatic glycosylation or glycation of macromolecules, especially proteins leading to their oxidation, play an important role in diseases. Glycation of proteins primarily results in the formation of an early stage and stable Amadori-lysine product which undergo further irreversible chemical reactions to form advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). This review focuses these products in lysine rich proteins such as collagen and human serum albumin for their role in aging and age-related dise...

  10. Hippocampal sclerosis of aging, a prevalent and high-morbidity brain disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles D.; Abner, Erin L.; Wilfred, Bernard J.; Wang, Wang-Xia; Neltner, Janna H.; Baker, Michael; Fardo, David W.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Scheff, Stephen W.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Jellinger, Kurt A.; Van Eldik, Linda J.; Schmitt, Frederick A.

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis of aging (HS-Aging) is a causative factor in a large proportion of elderly dementia cases. The current definition of HS-Aging rests on pathologic criteria: neuronal loss and gliosis in the hippocampal formation that is out of proportion to AD-type pathology. HS-Aging is also strongly associated with TDP-43 pathology. HS-Aging pathology appears to be most prevalent in the oldest-old: autopsy series indicate that 5–30 % of nonagenarians have HS-Aging pathology. Among prior studies, differences in study design have contributed to the study-to-study variability in reported disease prevalence. The presence of HS-Aging pathology correlates with significant cognitive impairment which is often misdiagnosed as AD clinically. The antemortem diagnosis is further confounded by other diseases linked to hippocampal atrophy including frontotemporal lobar degeneration and cerebrovascular pathologies. Recent advances characterizing the neurocognitive profile of HS-Aging patients have begun to provide clues that may help identify living individuals with HS-Aging pathology. Structural brain imaging studies of research subjects followed to autopsy reveal hippocampal atrophy that is substantially greater in people with eventual HS-Aging pathology, compared to those with AD pathology alone. Data are presented from individuals who were followed with neurocognitive and neuroradiologic measurements, followed by neuropathologic evaluation at the University of Kentucky. Finally, we discuss factors that are hypothesized to cause or modify the disease. We conclude that the published literature on HS-Aging provides strong evidence of an important and under-appreciated brain disease of aging. Unfortunately, there is no therapy or preventive strategy currently available. PMID:23864344

  11. [Thyroid diseases in old age. Clinical aspects and therapy. Part 1: Hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudorff, K H; Fahrenkrog, U; Jahnke, K

    1981-08-27

    The clinical signs of thyroid disease in older people may differ considerably from those in younger patients. The symptoms are often incorrectly interpreted and attributed to old age. The age is also important to the kind of therapy. The normal clinical hyperthyroidism-indices are not relevant in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in older patients. Organic symptoms predominate in old age (loss of weight, muscular asthenia, tremor, cardiac arrhythmia, stenocardia, congestive cardiomyopathy). Most of the time they are wrongly interpreted as additional symptoms of old age. Probably it is not the age that causes the difficulties in hyperthyroidism-diagnostics in old age, but the atypical symptoms of solitary or multilocular adenomas, which increase with advancing age. A special symptom of hyperthyroidism in old age, often misinterpreted, is "apathetic" hyperthyroidism. Radioiodotherapy is indicated in older patients with hyperthyroidism.

  12. The Potential of Chitosan and Its Derivatives in Prevention and Treatment of Age-Related Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerch, Garry

    2015-01-01

    Age-related, diet-related and protein conformational diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, cancer, hypercholesterolemia, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases are common in the elderly population. The potential of chitosan, chitooligosaccharides and their derivatives in prevention and treatment of age-related dysfunctions is reviewed and discussed in this paper. The influence of oxidative stress, low density lipoprotein oxidation, increase of tissue stiffness, protein conformational changes, aging-associated chronic inflammation and their pathobiological significance have been considered. The chitosan-based functional food also has been reviewed. PMID:25871293

  13. Periodontal disease level-butyric acid putatively contributes to the ageing blood: A proposed link between periodontal diseases and the ageing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueno, Marni E; Seki, Keisuke; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Imai, Kenichi

    2017-03-01

    Periodontal diseases are partly attributable to periodontopathic bacteria found in the host, whereas, butyric acid (BA) is a common secondary metabolite produced by periodontopathic bacterial pathogens. BA has been linked to oxidative stress induction while oxidative stress has long been associated with the ageing process. However, the possible link between BA-induced oxidative stress and the ageing process has never been elucidated. Here, we attempted to show the possible role of periodontal diseaselevel-BA (PDL-BA) in influencing the rat blood ageing process. We injected PDL-BA into the young rat gingiva and, after 24h, heart blood extraction was performed. Blood obtained from PDL-BA-treated young rats was compared to untreated young and middle-aged rats. We found that cytosolic, but not mitochondrial, heme was affected 24h post-injection. In addition, we observed that PDL-BA treatment altered blood NOX activation, NADPH-related oxidative stress components (H 2 O 2 and GR), calcium homeostasis, cell death signals (CASP3 and CASP1), and age-related markers (SIRT1 and mTOR) in young rats, with some components more closely mimicking levels found in middle-aged rats. In this regard, we propose that PDL-BA may play a role in contributing to the rat blood ageing process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Prediction and characterization of human ageing-related proteins by using machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerepesi, Csaba; Daróczy, Bálint; Sturm, Ádám; Vellai, Tibor; Benczúr, András

    2018-03-06

    Ageing has a huge impact on human health and economy, but its molecular basis - regulation and mechanism - is still poorly understood. By today, more than three hundred genes (almost all of them function as protein-coding genes) have been related to human ageing. Although individual ageing-related genes or some small subsets of these genes have been intensively studied, their analysis as a whole has been highly limited. To fill this gap, for each human protein we extracted 21000 protein features from various databases, and using these data as an input to state-of-the-art machine learning methods, we classified human proteins as ageing-related or non-ageing-related. We found a simple classification model based on only 36 protein features, such as the "number of ageing-related interaction partners", "response to oxidative stress", "damaged DNA binding", "rhythmic process" and "extracellular region". Predicted values of the model quantify the relevance of a given protein in the regulation or mechanisms of the human ageing process. Furthermore, we identified new candidate proteins having strong computational evidence of their important role in ageing. Some of them, like Cytochrome b-245 light chain (CY24A) and Endoribonuclease ZC3H12A (ZC12A) have no previous ageing-associated annotations.

  15. The effect of aging on brain barriers and the consequences for Alzheimer's disease development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlé, Nina; Van Cauwenberghe, Caroline; Libert, Claude; Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn E

    2016-08-01

    Life expectancy has increased in most developed countries, which has led to an increase in the proportion of elderly people in the world's population. However, this increase in life expectancy is not accompanied by a lengthening of the health span since aging is characterized with progressive deterioration in cellular and organ functions. The brain is particularly vulnerable to disease, and this is reflected in the onset of age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Research shows that dysfunction of two barriers in the central nervous system (CNS), the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCSFB), plays an important role in the progression of these neurodegenerative diseases. The BBB is formed by the endothelial cells of the blood capillaries, whereas the BCSFB is formed by the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus (CP), both of which are affected during aging. Here, we give an overview of how these barriers undergo changes during aging and in Alzheimer's disease, thereby disturbing brain homeostasis. Studying these changes is needed in order to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of aging at the brain barriers, which might lead to the development of new therapies to lengthen the health span (including mental health) and reduce the chances of developing Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and aging: Effects on spatial learning and memory after sleep deprivation in Octodon degus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, C; Fernández-Gómez, F J; López, D; Gonzalez-Cuello, A; Tunez, I; Toledo, F; Blin, O; Bordet, R; Richardson, J C; Fernandez-Villalba, E; Herrero, M T

    2015-11-01

    The benefits of neuromodulatory procedures as a possible therapeutic application for cognitive rehabilitation have increased with the progress made in non-invasive modes of brain stimulation in aged-related disorders. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive method used to examine multiple facets of the human brain and to ameliorate the impairment in cognition caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study was designed to evaluate how a chronic TMS treatment could improve learning and memory functions after sleep deprivation (SD) in old Octodon degus. SD was executed by gently handling to keep the animals awake throughout the night. Thirty young and twenty-four old O. degus females were divided in six groups (control, acute and chronic TMS treatment). Behavioral tests included; Radial Arm Maze (RAM), Barnes Maze (BM) and Novel Object Recognition (NOR). Although learning and memory functions improved in young animals with only one session of TMS treatment, a significant improvement in cognitive performance was seen in old animals after 4 and 7days of TMS, depending on the task that was performed. No side effects were observed following, which showed therapeutic potential for improving age-related cognitive performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Microglia show altered morphology and reduced arborization in human brain during aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Danielle S; Ma, Jolande; Jegathees, Thuvarahan; Goldsbury, Claire

    2017-11-01

    Changes in microglia function are involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) for which ageing is the major risk factor. We evaluated microglial cell process morphologies and their gray matter coverage (arborized area) during ageing and in the presence and absence of AD pathology in autopsied human neocortex. Microglial cell processes were reduced in length, showed less branching and reduced arborized area with aging (case range 52-98 years). This occurred during normal ageing and without microglia dystrophy or changes in cell density. There was a larger reduction in process length and arborized area in AD compared to aged-matched control microglia. In AD cases, on average, 49%-64% of microglia had discontinuous and/or punctate Iba1 labeled processes instead of continuous Iba1 distribution. Up to 16% of aged-matched control microglia displayed discontinuous or punctate features. There was no change in the density of microglial cell bodies in gray matter during ageing or AD. This demonstrates that human microglia show progressive cell process retraction without cell loss during ageing. Additional changes in microglia occur with AD including Iba1 protein puncta and discontinuity. We suggest that reduced microglial arborized area may be an aging-related correlate of AD in humans. These variations in microglial cells during ageing and in AD could reflect changes in neural-glial interactions which are emerging as key to mechanisms involved in ageing and neurodegenerative disease. © 2016 International Society of Neuropathology.

  18. Parental age and birth order in Chinese children with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, J S; Yip, W C; Joseph, R

    1982-01-01

    Parental age and birth order were studied in 100 Chinese children with congenital heart disease (proven by cardiac catheterisation) and in 100 controls. A higher incidence of congenital heart disease was present in the children with higher birth orders. No relationship was found between the incidence and the paternal or maternal ages. Using the method of multiple regression analysis this birth order effect was significant (p less than 0.01) and independent of parental age. This finding provides indirect evidence of environmental influence in the causation of congenital heart disease, which is known to be inherited in a multifactorial manner. Family planning to limit the size of the family may possibly contribute to the reduction of the incidence of congenital heart disease. PMID:7154041

  19. Reelin Signaling, Hippocampal Neurogenesis, and Efficacy of Aspirin Intake & Stem Cell Transplantation in Aging and Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Ashok K.

    2010-01-01

    Comprehending the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of aging and Alzheimer’s disease has immense value for developing strategies that promote successful aging and prevent or cure Alzheimer’s disease. The first issue of the new journal, “Aging & Disease” comprises articles that discuss the current knowledge pertaining to changes in reelin signaling in normal & pathological forms of aging, memory and neurogenesis in Aging & Alzheimer’s disease, the efficacy of a non-steroidal anti-infla...

  20. Long term effects of murine postnatal exposure to decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on learning and memory are dependent upon APOE polymorphism and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reverte, Ingrid; Klein, Anders Bue; Domingo, José L

    2014-01-01

    exposure to BDE-209 induced long term effects in spatial learning, which were dependent upon age, sex and apoE genotype; these effects were more evident in apoE3 mice. BDNF levels were lower in the frontal cortex of apoE4 mice and higher in the hippocampus of exposed mice, independent of the genotype....... The results of the present study provide evidence of long-lasting effects in spatial learning and memory after early exposure to BDE-209. Developmental exposure to this neurotoxicant may contribute to cognitive decline and abnormal aging....... with varied vulnerability for the development of neurodegenerative diseases. On postnatal day 10, transgenic mice of both sexes carrying apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4 were orally exposed to 0, 10 or 30mg/kg of BDE-209. Spatial reference memory was assessed in a Morris Water Maze (MWM) task at 4 and 12months of age...

  1. Evaluation of faciocutaneous clues to systemic diseases: A learning module for Chinese undergraduate medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Shen

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Introducing this additional learning module may offer an early opportunity to explore systemic diseases from a dermatological view and is likely to lay the foundations for interdisciplinary collaboration in the future practice for medical students.

  2. Age and education adjusted normative data and discriminative validity for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test in the elderly Greek population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinis, Lambros; Nasios, Grigorios; Mougias, Antonios; Politis, Antonis; Zampakis, Petros; Tsiamaki, Eirini; Malefaki, Sonia; Gourzis, Phillipos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a widely used neuropsychological test to assess episodic memory. In the present study we sought to establish normative and discriminative validity data for the RAVLT in the elderly population using previously adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. We administered the test to 258 cognitively healthy elderly participants, aged 60-89 years, and two patient groups (192 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI, and 65 with Alzheimer's disease, AD). From the statistical analyses, we found that age and education contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT, whereas the influence of gender was not significant. Younger elderly participants with higher education outperformed the older elderly with lower education levels. Moreover, both clinical groups performed significantly worse on most RAVLT trials and composite measures than matched cognitively healthy controls. Furthermore, the AD group performed more poorly than the aMCI group on most RAVLT variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to examine the utility of the RAVLT trials to discriminate cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients. Area under the curve (AUC), an index of effect size, showed that most of the RAVLT measures (individual and composite) included in this study adequately differentiated between the performance of healthy elders and aMCI/AD patients. We also provide cutoff scores in discriminating cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients, based on the sensitivity and specificity of the prescribed scores. Moreover, we present age- and education-specific normative data for individual and composite scores for the Greek adapted RAVLT in elderly subjects aged between 60 and 89 years for use in clinical and research settings.

  3. Utterance-final position and pitch marking aid word learning in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Piera; Laaha, Sabine; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the effects of word order and prosody on word learning in school-age children. Third graders viewed photographs belonging to one of three semantic categories while hearing four-word nonsense utterances containing a target word. In the control condition, all words had the same pitch and, across trials, the position of the target word was varied systematically within each utterance. The only cue to word-meaning mapping was the co-occurrence of target words and referents. This cue was present in all conditions. In the Utterance-final condition, the target word always occurred in utterance-final position, and at the same fundamental frequency as all the other words of the utterance. In the Pitch peak condition, the position of the target word was varied systematically within each utterance across trials, and produced with pitch contrasts typical of infant-directed speech (IDS). In the Pitch peak + Utterance-final condition, the target word always occurred in utterance-final position, and was marked with a pitch contrast typical of IDS. Word learning occurred in all conditions except the control condition. Moreover, learning performance was significantly higher than that observed with simple co-occurrence ( control condition) only for the Pitch peak + Utterance-final condition. We conclude that, for school-age children, the combination of words' utterance-final alignment and pitch enhancement boosts word learning.

  4. Enhancing Care of Aged and Dying Prisoners: Is e-Learning a Feasible Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Susan J; Penrod, Janice; Myers, Valerie H; Baney, Brenda L; Strickfaden, Sophia M; Kitt-Lewis, Erin; Wion, Rachel K

    Prisons and jails are facing sharply increased demands in caring for aged and dying inmates. Our Toolkit for Enhancing End-of-life Care in Prisons effectively addressed end-of-life (EOL) care; however, geriatric content was limited, and the product was not formatted for broad dissemination. Prior research adapted best practices in EOL care and aging; but, delivery methods lacked emerging technology-focused learning and interactivity. Our purposes were to uncover current training approaches and preferences and to ascertain the technological capacity of correctional settings to deliver computer-based and other e-learning training. An environmental scan was conducted with 11 participants from U.S. prisons and jails to ensure proper fit, in terms of content and technology capacity, between an envisioned computer-based training product and correctional settings. Environmental scan findings focused on content of training, desirable qualities of training, prominence of "homegrown" products, and feasibility of commercial e-learning. This study identified qualities of training programs to adopt and pitfalls to avoid and revealed technology-related issues to be mindful of when designing computer-based training for correctional settings, and participants spontaneously expressed an interest in geriatrics and EOL training using this learning modality as long as training allowed for tailoring of materials.

  5. Age-related similarities and differences in brain activity underlying reversal learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru eNashiro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to update associative memory is an important aspect of episodic memory and a critical skill for social adaptation. Previous research with younger adults suggests that emotional arousal alters brain mechanisms underlying memory updating; however, it is unclear whether this applies to older adults. Given that the ability to update associative information declines with age, it is important to understand how emotion modulates the brain processes underlying memory updating in older adults. The current study investigated this question using reversal learning tasks, where younger and older participants (age ranges 19-35 and 61-78 respectively learn a stimulus–outcome association and then update their response when contingencies change. We found that younger and older adults showed similar patterns of activation in the frontopolar OFC and the amygdala during emotional reversal learning. In contrast, when reversal learning did not involve emotion, older adults showed greater parietal cortex activity than did younger adults. Thus, younger and older adults show more similarities in brain activity during memory updating involving emotional stimuli than during memory updating not involving emotional stimuli.

  6. The Use of Errorless Learning Strategies for Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruijie; Liu, Karen P. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article was to review the evidence of errorless learning on learning outcomes in patients with early-stage Alzheimer's disease. A computer-aided literature search from 1999 to 2011 was carried out using MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO and PsycArticles. Keywords included…

  7. Addressing Health Inequities: Coronary Heart Disease Training within Learning Disabilities Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly, Deirdre; Sharp, John

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are at increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Research suggests this may be due to inequalities in health status and inequities in the way health services respond to need. Little is known about the most effective way to improve health outcomes for people with learning disabilities. A previously developed…

  8. Geroprotectors.org: a new, structured and curated database of current therapeutic interventions in aging and age-related disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalev, Alexey; Chernyagina, Elizaveta; de Magalhães, João Pedro; Barardo, Diogo; Thoppil, Harikrishnan; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Budovsky, Arie; Fraifeld, Vadim E.; Garazha, Andrew; Tsvetkov, Vasily; Bronovitsky, Evgeny; Bogomolov, Vladislav; Scerbacov, Alexei; Kuryan, Oleg; Gurinovich, Roman; Jellen, Leslie C.; Kennedy, Brian; Mamoshina, Polina; Dobrovolskaya, Evgeniya; Aliper, Alex; Kaminsky, Dmitry; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2015-01-01

    As the level of interest in aging research increases, there is a growing number of geroprotectors, or therapeutic interventions that aim to extend the healthy lifespan and repair or reduce aging-related damage in model organisms and, eventually, in humans. There is a clear need for a manually-curated database of geroprotectors to compile and index their effects on aging and age-related diseases and link these effects to relevant studies and multiple biochemical and drug databases. Here, we introduce the first such resource, Geroprotectors (http://geroprotectors.org). Geroprotectors is a public, rapidly explorable database that catalogs over 250 experiments involving over 200 known or candidate geroprotectors that extend lifespan in model organisms. Each compound has a comprehensive profile complete with biochemistry, mechanisms, and lifespan effects in various model organisms, along with information ranging from chemical structure, side effects, and toxicity to FDA drug status. These are presented in a visually intuitive, efficient framework fit for casual browsing or in-depth research alike. Data are linked to the source studies or databases, providing quick and convenient access to original data. The Geroprotectors database facilitates cross-study, cross-organism, and cross-discipline analysis and saves countless hours of inefficient literature and web searching. Geroprotectors is a one-stop, knowledge-sharing, time-saving resource for researchers seeking healthy aging solutions. PMID:26342919

  9. Teaching in a digital age guidelines for designing teaching and learning

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, Anthony William

    2015-01-01

    The book examines the underlying principles that guide effective teaching in an age when all of us, and in particular the students we are teaching, are using technology. A framework for making decisions about your teaching is provided, while understanding that every subject is different, and every instructor has something unique and special to bring to their teaching.The book enables teachers and instructors to help students develop the knowledge and skills they will need in a digital age: not so much the IT skills, but the thinking and attitudes to learning that will bring them success.

  10. Effects of observing and producing deictic gestures on memory and learning in different age groups

    OpenAIRE

    Ouwehand, Kim

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe studies presented in this dissertation aimed to investigate whether observing or producing deictic gestures (i.e., pointing and tracing gestures to index a referent in space or a movement pathway), could facilitate memory and learning in children, young adults, and older adults. More specifically, regarding memory it was investigated whether the use of deictic gestures would improve performance on tasks targeting cognitive functions that are found to change with age (worki...

  11. Learning Disabilities and Intellectual Functioning in School-Aged Children With Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Morrow, Connie E.; Culbertson, Jan L.; Accornero, Veronica H.; Xue, Lihua; Anthony, James C.; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2006-01-01

    Risk for developing a learning disability (LD) or impaired intellectual functioning by age 7 was assessed in full-term children with prenatal cocaine exposure drawn from a cohort of 476 children born full term and enrolled prospectively at birth. Intellectual functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Third Edition (Wechsler,1991) shortform, and academic functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT; Wechsler,1993) Screener by e...

  12. The many facets of motor learning and their relevance for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Lucio; Quartarone, Angelo; Hallett, Mark; Frazzitta, Giuseppe; Ghilardi, Maria Felice

    2017-07-01

    The final goal of motor learning, a complex process that includes both implicit and explicit (or declarative) components, is the optimization and automatization of motor skills. Motor learning involves different neural networks and neurotransmitters systems depending on the type of task and on the stage of learning. After the first phase of acquisition, a motor skill goes through consolidation (i.e., becoming resistant to interference) and retention, processes in which sleep and long-term potentiation seem to play important roles. The studies of motor learning in Parkinson's disease have yielded controversial results that likely stem from the use of different experimental paradigms. When a task's characteristics, instructions, context, learning phase and type of measures are taken into consideration, it is apparent that, in general, only learning that relies on attentional resources and cognitive strategies is affected by PD, in agreement with the finding of a fronto-striatal deficit in this disease. Levodopa administration does not seem to reverse the learning deficits in PD, while deep brain stimulation of either globus pallidus or subthalamic nucleus appears to be beneficial. Finally and most importantly, patients with PD often show a decrease in retention of newly learned skill, a problem that is present even in the early stages of the disease. A thorough dissection and understanding of the processes involved in motor learning is warranted to provide solid bases for effective medical, surgical and rehabilitative approaches in PD. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. All rights reserved.

  13. Language, reading, and math learning profiles in an epidemiological sample of school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Lisa M D; Oram Cardy, Janis; Joanisse, Marc F; Ansari, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Dyscalculia, dyslexia, and specific language impairment (SLI) are relatively specific developmental learning disabilities in math, reading, and oral language, respectively, that occur in the context of average intellectual capacity and adequate environmental opportunities. Past research has been dominated by studies focused on single impairments despite the widespread recognition that overlapping and comorbid deficits are common. The present study took an epidemiological approach to study the learning profiles of a large school age sample in language, reading, and math. Both general learning profiles reflecting good or poor performance across measures and specific learning profiles involving either weak language, weak reading, weak math, or weak math and reading were observed. These latter four profiles characterized 70% of children with some evidence of a learning disability. Low scores in phonological short-term memory characterized clusters with a language-based weakness whereas low or variable phonological awareness was associated with the reading (but not language-based) weaknesses. The low math only group did not show these phonological deficits. These findings may suggest different etiologies for language-based deficits in language, reading, and math, reading-related impairments in reading and math, and isolated math disabilities.

  14. Language, reading, and math learning profiles in an epidemiological sample of school age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M D Archibald

    Full Text Available Dyscalculia, dyslexia, and specific language impairment (SLI are relatively specific developmental learning disabilities in math, reading, and oral language, respectively, that occur in the context of average intellectual capacity and adequate environmental opportunities. Past research has been dominated by studies focused on single impairments despite the widespread recognition that overlapping and comorbid deficits are common. The present study took an epidemiological approach to study the learning profiles of a large school age sample in language, reading, and math. Both general learning profiles reflecting good or poor performance across measures and specific learning profiles involving either weak language, weak reading, weak math, or weak math and reading were observed. These latter four profiles characterized 70% of children with some evidence of a learning disability. Low scores in phonological short-term memory characterized clusters with a language-based weakness whereas low or variable phonological awareness was associated with the reading (but not language-based weaknesses. The low math only group did not show these phonological deficits. These findings may suggest different etiologies for language-based deficits in language, reading, and math, reading-related impairments in reading and math, and isolated math disabilities.

  15. Motor performance and learning difficulties in schoolchildren aged 7 to 10 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this study was to evaluate the motor performance of children with and without learning difficulty indicatives. Took part in the study 406 students aged 7 to 10 years old, being 231 girls (56.9% and 175 (43.1% boys enrolled in a municipal public school in São José, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The indicative of learning difficulties was verified through the TDE, while motor performance was evaluated with the MABC. Boys without learning difficulties had better performance in the majority of the abilities evaluated, beyond an association between the indicative of motor problems with learning difficulties towards writing, arithmetic, reading, and in general. On the other hand, female students of the sample with and without any indicative of learning difficulties did not differentiate themselves as to motor abilities evaluated, with an association merely between the indicative of motor problems and reading problems. Based on the differences identified between girls and boys, results call attention to the need for future research in this area, considering gender as a differential variable in this relationship.

  16. Active aging as a way of keeping diseases at arm’s length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    Active ageing has increasingly become the ideal of how to live later life. Concepts of activity, participation and independence are central to how elderly see themselves and practice aging (Katz 2000). The elderly are encouraged and expected to stay active and independent. This is believed...... to be good for their quality of life, health, functionality and the economy (Sundhedsstyrelsen 2008, EC 2006, WHO 2002). At the same time active aging is inscribed into a general health care focus, which individualizes the responsibility for health and disease. This requires subjects ready to self......-care, by paying attention to the signals of the body and leading healthy lives (Rose 2001). However, active aging seems to contain an ambiguity in this aspect, as the practice of active aging is often a way for elderly to keep diseases at arm’s length, and not a way to sense the possible abnormalities in the body...

  17. Smoking and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne S; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated associations of smoking and coronary heart disease (CHD) by age. Methods. Data came from the Pooling Project on Diet and Coronary Heart Disease (8 prospective studies, 1974-1996; n = 192 067 women and 74 720 men, aged 40-89 years). Results. During follow-up, 4326 cases...... years or older. The largest absolute risk differences between current smokers and never smokers were observed among the oldest participants. Finally, the majority of CHD cases among smokers were attributable to smoking. For example, attributable proportions of CHD by age group were 88% (40-49 years), 81......% (50-59 years), 71% for (60-69 years), and 68% (70+ years) among women who smoked. Conclusions. Among smokers, the majority of CHD cases are attributable to smoking in all age groups. Smoking prevention is important, irrespective of age. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print June 13...

  18. Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Main report and appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U. [and others

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volume s 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This document is Volume 1, consisting of the executive summary, summary and observations, and an appendix listing the GALL literature review tables.

  19. Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Main report and appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volumes 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This document is Volume 1, consisting of the executive summary, summary and observations, and an appendix listing the GALL literature review tables

  20. Alterations and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract caused by old age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayerl, F.

    1981-01-01

    The dissertation reviews the publications on 'The gastrointestinal tract in old age' since 1941. As in the 1941 publication by Heinrich, particular interest is taken in diagnostic radiology. The lower age limit of the cases described was set at 55 to 60 years. Oesophageal changes ranged from functional disturbances (e.g. atonia, changes in peristalsis, or dilatation) to chronic inflammation, displacement caused by the surrounding organs, and tumours (mainly carcinoma). Formation of diverticula takes an intermediate position. Of the gastric and duodenal changes, hiatal hermia and chronic atrophic gastritis were the most frequent. Ulcers caused by old age differ from 'common' ulcers in some respects, and the symptoms may be confused with those of gastric carcinoma. Early gastric carcinoma is another disease whose incidence increases with age. Thoracic and spinal changes may cause impressions on the stomach. The effects of old age on the time of passage of contrast media, on gastric tone, and on the shape of the stomach remain unclear. Changes caused by old age in the small and large intestine range from formation of diverticula and vascular diseases (e.g. ischaemic colitis and obstruction of the mesenteric vessels) to the frequent carcinoma of the large intestine and rectum. According to this study it has to be supposed that the degenerative atrophic processes of aging and previous diseases occurring increasingly in old age, favour the provocation of ratrogenic injuries. (orig./MG) [de

  1. A common brain network links development, aging, and vulnerability to disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Groves, Adrian R; Tamnes, Christian K; Westlye, Lars Tjelta; Duff, Eugene P; Engvig, Andreas; Walhovd, Kristine B; James, Anthony; Gass, Achim; Monsch, Andreas U; Matthews, Paul M; Fjell, Anders M; Smith, Stephen M; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2014-12-09

    Several theories link processes of development and aging in humans. In neuroscience, one model posits for instance that healthy age-related brain degeneration mirrors development, with the areas of the brain thought to develop later also degenerating earlier. However, intrinsic evidence for such a link between healthy aging and development in brain structure remains elusive. Here, we show that a data-driven analysis of brain structural variation across 484 healthy participants (8-85 y) reveals a largely--but not only--transmodal network whose lifespan pattern of age-related change intrinsically supports this model of mirroring development and aging. We further demonstrate that this network of brain regions, which develops relatively late during adolescence and shows accelerated degeneration in old age compared with the rest of the brain, characterizes areas of heightened vulnerability to unhealthy developmental and aging processes, as exemplified by schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease, respectively. Specifically, this network, while derived solely from healthy subjects, spatially recapitulates the pattern of brain abnormalities observed in both schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. This network is further associated in our large-scale healthy population with intellectual ability and episodic memory, whose impairment contributes to key symptoms of schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Taken together, our results suggest that the common spatial pattern of abnormalities observed in these two disorders, which emerge at opposite ends of the life spectrum, might be influenced by the timing of their separate and distinct pathological processes in disrupting healthy cerebral development and aging, respectively.

  2. Huntington's disease accelerates epigenetic aging of human brain and disrupts DNA methylation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Steve; Langfelder, Peter; Kwak, Seung; Aaronson, Jeff; Rosinski, Jim; Vogt, Thomas F; Eszes, Marika; Faull, Richard L M; Curtis, Maurice A; Waldvogel, Henry J; Choi, Oi-Wa; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V; Coppola, Giovanni; Yang, X William

    2016-07-01

    Age of Huntington's disease (HD) motoric onset is strongly related to the number of CAG trinucleotide repeats in the huntingtin gene, suggesting that biological tissue age plays an important role in disease etiology. Recently, a DNA methylation based biomarker of tissue age has been advanced as an epigenetic aging clock. We sought to inquire if HD is associated with an accelerated epigenetic age. DNA methylation data was generated for 475 brain samples from various brain regions of 26 HD cases and 39 controls. Overall, brain regions from HD cases exhibit a significant epigenetic age acceleration effect (p=0.0012). A multivariate model analysis suggests that HD status increases biological age by 3.2 years. Accelerated epigenetic age can be observed in specific brain regions (frontal lobe, parietal lobe, and cingulate gyrus). After excluding controls, we observe a negative correlation (r=-0.41, p=5.5×10-8) between HD gene CAG repeat length and the epigenetic age of HD brain samples. Using correlation network analysis, we identify 11 co-methylation modules with a significant association with HD status across 3 broad cortical regions. In conclusion, HD is associated with an accelerated epigenetic age of specific brain regions and more broadly with substantial changes in brain methylation levels.

  3. Age and sex influence on formation of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children with chronic gastroduodenitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chemenkov Yu.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to investigate age and sex influence on formation of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children with chronic gastroduodenitis. Material and Methods. Features of acidity in esophagus and cardial part of stomach was studied in 175 children aged 4 to 17 years with chronic gastroduodenitis by pH-monitoring. pH-monitoring was carried by «Gastroscan-24». Age and sex characteristics have been identified on examination results. Results. Children of preschool age experience the most unfavorable reflux from the stomach to the esophagus. Boys experience the pathological reflux more severely. Conclusions: Effectiveness of esophageal clearance is lower in children of preschool age. Pathological reflux progresses are more favorably in a standing position, especially in children of preschool age. Pathological reflux occurs more often in the supine position and has a longer and more aggressive course in preschool age boys.

  4. Identifying Medical Diagnoses and Treatable Diseases by Image-Based Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermany, Daniel S; Goldbaum, Michael; Cai, Wenjia; Valentim, Carolina C S; Liang, Huiying; Baxter, Sally L; McKeown, Alex; Yang, Ge; Wu, Xiaokang; Yan, Fangbing; Dong, Justin; Prasadha, Made K; Pei, Jacqueline; Ting, Magdalene Y L; Zhu, Jie; Li, Christina; Hewett, Sierra; Dong, Jason; Ziyar, Ian; Shi, Alexander; Zhang, Runze; Zheng, Lianghong; Hou, Rui; Shi, William; Fu, Xin; Duan, Yaou; Huu, Viet A N; Wen, Cindy; Zhang, Edward D; Zhang, Charlotte L; Li, Oulan; Wang, Xiaobo; Singer, Michael A; Sun, Xiaodong; Xu, Jie; Tafreshi, Ali; Lewis, M Anthony; Xia, Huimin; Zhang, Kang

    2018-02-22

    The implementation of clinical-decision support algorithms for medical imaging faces challenges with reliability and interpretability. Here, we establish a diagnostic tool based on a deep-learning framework for the screening of patients with common treatable blinding retinal diseases. Our framework utilizes transfer learning, which trains a neural network with a fraction of the data of conventional approaches. Applying this approach to a dataset of optical coherence tomography images, we demonstrate performance comparable to that of human experts in classifying age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema. We also provide a more transparent and interpretable diagnosis by highlighting the regions recognized by the neural network. We further demonstrate the general applicability of our AI system for diagnosis of pediatric pneumonia using chest X-ray images. This tool may ultimately aid in expediting the diagnosis and referral of these treatable conditions, thereby facilitating earlier treatment, resulting in improved clinical outcomes. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of Machine Learning in Postural Control Kinematics for the Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Costa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of wearable devices to study gait and postural control is a growing field on neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD. In this paper, we investigate if machine-learning classifiers offer the discriminative power for the diagnosis of AD based on postural control kinematics. We compared Support Vector Machines (SVMs, Multiple Layer Perceptrons (MLPs, Radial Basis Function Neural Networks (RBNs, and Deep Belief Networks (DBNs on 72 participants (36 AD patients and 36 healthy subjects exposed to seven increasingly difficult postural tasks. The decisional space was composed of 18 kinematic variables (adjusted for age, education, height, and weight, with or without neuropsychological evaluation (Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA score, top ranked in an error incremental analysis. Classification results were based on threefold cross validation of 50 independent and randomized runs sets: training (50%, test (40%, and validation (10%. Having a decisional space relying solely on postural kinematics, accuracy of AD diagnosis ranged from 71.7 to 86.1%. Adding the MoCA variable, the accuracy ranged between 91 and 96.6%. MLP classifier achieved top performance in both decisional spaces. Having comprehended the interdynamic interaction between postural stability and cognitive performance, our results endorse machine-learning models as a useful tool for computer-aided diagnosis of AD based on postural control kinematics.

  6. Serum transglutaminase 3 antibodies correlate with age at celiac disease diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmi, Teea T; Kurppa, Kalle; Hervonen, Kaisa; Laurila, Kaija; Collin, Pekka; Huhtala, Heini; Saavalainen, Päivi; Sievänen, Harri; Reunala, Timo; Kaukinen, Katri

    2016-06-01

    Transglutaminase (TG)2 is the autoantigen in celiac disease, but also TG3 antibodies have been detected in the serum of celiac disease patients. To investigate the correlations between serum TG3 antibodies and clinical and histological manifestations of celiac disease and to assess gluten-dependency of TG3 antibodies. Correlations between serum TG3 antibody levels measured from 119 adults and children with untreated coeliac disease and the demographic data, clinical symptoms, celiac antibodies, histological data and results of laboratory tests and bone mineral densities were tested. TG3 antibodies were reinvestigated in 97 celiac disease patients after 12 months on a gluten-free diet (GFD). TG3 antibody titers were shown to correlate with the age at celiac disease diagnosis. Further, negative correlation with TG3 antibodies and intestinal γδ+ cells at diagnosis and on GFD was detected. Correlations were not detected with the clinical manifestation of celiac disease, TG2 or endomysial autoantibodies, laboratory values, severity of mucosal villous atrophy, associated diseases or complications. TG3 antibody titers decreased on GFD in 56% of the TG3 antibody positive patients. Serum TG3 antibody positivity in celiac disease increases as the diagnostic age rises. TG3 antibodies did not show similar gluten-dependency as TG2 antibodies. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. How Family Support and Internet Self-Efficacy Influence the Effects of E-Learning among Higher Aged Adults--Analyses of Gender and Age Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Regina Ju-chun

    2010-01-01

    Gender and age differences in the effects of e-learning, including students' satisfaction and Internet self-efficacy, have been supported in prior research. What is less understood is how these differences are shaped, especially for higher aged adults. This article examines the utility of family support (tangible and emotional) and Internet…

  8. Combining macula clinical signs and patient characteristics for age-related macular degeneration diagnosis: a machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraccaro, Paolo; Nicolo, Massimo; Bonetto, Monica; Giacomini, Mauro; Weller, Peter; Traverso, Carlo Enrico; Prosperi, Mattia; OSullivan, Dympna

    2015-01-27

    To investigate machine learning methods, ranging from simpler interpretable techniques to complex (non-linear) "black-box" approaches, for automated diagnosis of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD). Data from healthy subjects and patients diagnosed with AMD or other retinal diseases were collected during routine visits via an Electronic Health Record (EHR) system. Patients' attributes included demographics and, for each eye, presence/absence of major AMD-related clinical signs (soft drusen, retinal pigment epitelium, defects/pigment mottling, depigmentation area, subretinal haemorrhage, subretinal fluid, macula thickness, macular scar, subretinal fibrosis). Interpretable techniques known as white box methods including logistic regression and decision trees as well as less interpreitable techniques known as black box methods, such as support vector machines (SVM), random forests and AdaBoost, were used to develop models (trained and validated on unseen data) to diagnose AMD. The gold standard was confirmed diagnosis of AMD by physicians. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC) were used to assess performance. Study population included 487 patients (912 eyes). In terms of AUC, random forests, logistic regression and adaboost showed a mean performance of (0.92), followed by SVM and decision trees (0.90). All machine learning models identified soft drusen and age as the most discriminating variables in clinicians' decision pathways to diagnose AMD. Both black-box and white box methods performed well in identifying diagnoses of AMD and their decision pathways. Machine learning models developed through the proposed approach, relying on clinical signs identified by retinal specialists, could be embedded into EHR to provide physicians with real time (interpretable) support.

  9. Epigenetic Control of Stem Cell Potential During Homeostasis, Aging, and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerman, Isabel; Rossi, Derrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell decline is an important cellular driver of aging-associated pathophysiology in multiple tissues. Epigenetic regulation is central to establishing and maintaining stem cell function, and emerging evidence indicates that epigenetic dysregulation contributes to the altered potential of stem cells during aging. Unlike terminally differentiated cells, the impact of epigenetic dysregulation in stem cells is propagated beyond self; alterations can be heritably transmitted to differentiated progeny, in addition to being perpetuated and amplified within the stem cell pool through self-renewal divisions. This review focuses on recent studies examining epigenetic regulation of tissue-specific stem cells in homeostasis, aging, and aging-related disease. PMID:26046761

  10. Energy Metabolism and Inflammation in Brain Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fei; Sancheti, Harsh; Patil, Ishan; Cadenas, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    The high energy demand of the brain renders it sensitive to changes in energy fuel supply and mitochondrial function. Deficits in glucose availability and mitochondrial function are well-known hallmarks of brain aging and are particularly accentuated in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. As important cellular sources of H2O2, mitochondrial dysfunction is usually associated with altered redox status. Bioenergetic deficits and chronic oxidative stress are both major contributors to cognitive decline associated with brain aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroinflammatory changes, including microglial activation and production of inflammatory cytokines, are observed in neurodegenerative diseases and normal aging. The bioenergetic hypothesis advocates for sequential events from metabolic deficits to propagation of neuronal dysfunction, to aging, and to neurodegeneration, while the inflammatory hypothesis supports microglia activation as the driving force for neuroinflammation. Nevertheless, growing evidence suggests that these diverse mechanisms have redox dysregulation as a common denominator and connector. An independent view of the mechanisms underlying brain aging and neurodegeneration is being replaced by one that entails multiple mechanisms coordinating and interacting with each other. This review focuses on the alterations in energy metabolism and inflammatory responses and their connection via redox regulation in normal brain aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Interactions of these systems is reviewed based on basic research and clinical studies. PMID:27154981

  11. Forecasting and Analyzing the Disease Burden of Aged Population in China, Based on the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhen Bao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Forecasting the disease burden of the elderly will contribute to make a comprehensive assessment about physical and mental status of the elderly in China and provide a basis for reducing the negative consequences of aging society to a minimum. Methods: This study collected data from a public database online provided by Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Grey model GM (1, 1 was used to forecast all-cause and disease-specific rates of disability adjusted life years (DALYs in 2015 and 2020. Results: After cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis, we found that non-communicable diseases (NCDs were still the greatest threats in the elderly, followed by injuries. As for 136 predicted causes, more than half of NCDs increased obviously with age, less than a quarter of communicable, material, neonatal, and nutritional disorders or injuries had uptrend. Conclusions: The findings display the health condition of the Chinese elderly in the future, which will provide critical information for scientific and sociological researches on preventing and reducing the risks of aging society.

  12. Tuberculosis: Learn the Signs and Symptoms of TB Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Tuberculosis (TB) Disease: Symptoms and Risk Factors Language: English ( ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria that ...

  13. Evaluating aging in cats: How to determine what is healthy and what is disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Jan; Center, Sharon; Daristotle, Leighann; Estrada, Amara H; Flickinger, Elizabeth A; Horwitz, Debra F; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Lepine, Allan; Perea, Sally; Scherk, Margie; Shoveller, Anna K

    2016-07-01

    Many of the changes that occur with aging are not considered pathologic and do not negatively affect overall wellness or quality of life. Ruling out disease is essential, however, when attempting to determine whether an aged cat can be considered 'healthy'. A clear understanding of the normal and abnormal changes that are associated with aging in cats can help practitioners make decisions regarding medical management, feeding interventions and additional testing procedures for their aged patients. It can be difficult to determine if a cat is displaying changes that are appropriate for age. For example, healthy aged cats may have hematologic or serum biochemistry changes that differ from those of the general feline population. Assessment of behavioral health and cognitive changes, as well as auditory, olfactory and visual changes, can also be challenging in the aged patient. This is the second of two review articles in a Special Issue devoted to feline healthy aging. The goals of the project culminating in these publications included developing a working definition for healthy aging in feline patients and identifying clinical methods that can be used to accurately classify healthy aged cats. This second review proposes criteria for assessing 'healthy aged cats'. There is a paucity of research in feline aging. The authors draw on expert opinion and available data in both the cat and other species. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Automated detection of exudative age-related macular degeneration in spectral domain optical coherence tomography using deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treder, Maximilian; Lauermann, Jost Lennart; Eter, Nicole

    2018-02-01

    Our purpose was to use deep learning for the automated detection of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). A total of 1112 cross-section SD-OCT images of patients with exudative AMD and a healthy control group were used for this study. In the first step, an open-source multi-layer deep convolutional neural network (DCNN), which was pretrained with 1.2 million images from ImageNet, was trained and validated with 1012 cross-section SD-OCT scans (AMD: 701; healthy: 311). During this procedure training accuracy, validation accuracy and cross-entropy were computed. The open-source deep learning framework TensorFlow™ (Google Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA) was used to accelerate the deep learning process. In the last step, a created DCNN classifier, using the information of the above mentioned deep learning process, was tested in detecting 100 untrained cross-section SD-OCT images (AMD: 50; healthy: 50). Therefore, an AMD testing score was computed: 0.98 or higher was presumed for AMD. After an iteration of 500 training steps, the training accuracy and validation accuracies were 100%, and the cross-entropy was 0.005. The average AMD scores were 0.997 ± 0.003 in the AMD testing group and 0.9203 ± 0.085 in the healthy comparison group. The difference between the two groups was highly significant (p deep learning-based approach using TensorFlow™, it is possible to detect AMD in SD-OCT with high sensitivity and specificity. With more image data, an expansion of this classifier for other macular diseases or further details in AMD is possible, suggesting an application for this model as a support in clinical decisions. Another possible future application would involve the individual prediction of the progress and success of therapy for different diseases by automatically detecting hidden image information.

  15. Pharmacologic Approaches Against Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) in Diabetic Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenna, Antonio; Nappi, Francesco; Avtaar Singh, Sanjeet Singh; Sutherland, Fraser W; Di Domenico, Fabio; Chello, Massimo; Spadaccio, Cristiano

    2015-05-01

    Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs) are signaling proteins associated to several vascular and neurological complications in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. AGEs proved to be a marker of negative outcome in both diabetes management and surgical procedures in these patients. The reported role of AGEs prompted the development of pharmacological inhibitors of their effects, giving rise to a number of both preclinical and clinical studies. Clinical trials with anti-AGEs drugs have been gradually developed and this review aimed to summarize most relevant reports. Evidence acquisition process was performed using PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov with manually checked articles. Pharmacological approaches in humans include aminoguanidine, pyridoxamine, benfotiamine, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, statin, ALT-711 (alagebrium) and thiazolidinediones. The most recent promising anti-AGEs agents are statins, alagebrium and thiazolidinediones. The role of AGEs in disease and new compounds interfering with their effects are currently under investigation in preclinical settings and these newer anti-AGEs drugs would undergo clinical evaluation in the next years. Compounds with anti-AGEs activity but still not available for clinical scenarios are ALT-946, OPB-9195, tenilsetam, LR-90, TM2002, sRAGE and PEDF. Despite most studies confirm the efficacy of these pharmacological approaches, other reports produced conflicting evidences; in almost any case, these drugs were well tolerated. At present, AGEs measurement has still not taken a precise role in clinical practice, but its relevance as a marker of disease has been widely shown; therefore, it is important for clinicians to understand the value of new cardiovascular risk factors. Findings from the current and future clinical trials may help in determining the role of AGEs and the benefits of anti-AGEs treatment in cardiovascular disease.

  16. Recent Developments in Understanding Brain Aging: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, Ferenc; Freeman, Willard M; Ungvari, Zoltan; Csiszar, Anna; Sonntag, William E

    2016-01-01

    As the population of the Western world is aging, there is increasing awareness of age-related impairments in cognitive function and a rising interest in finding novel approaches to preserve cerebral health. A special collection of articles in The Journals of Gerontology: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences brings together information of different aspects of brain aging, from latest developments in the field of neurodegenerative disorders to cerebral microvascular mechanisms of cognitive decline. It is emphasized that although the cellular changes that occur within aging neurons have been widely studied, more research is required as new signaling pathways are discovered that can potentially protect cells. New avenues for research targeting cellular senescence, epigenetics, and endocrine mechanisms of brain aging are also discussed. Based on the current literature it is clear that understanding brain aging and reducing risk for neurological disease with age requires searching for mechanisms and treatment options beyond the age-related changes in neuronal function. Thus, comprehensive approaches need to be developed that address the multiple, interrelated mechanisms of brain aging. Attention is brought to the importance of maintenance of cerebromicrovascular health, restoring neuroendocrine balance, and the pressing need for funding more innovative research into the interactions of neuronal, neuroendocrine, inflammatory and microvascular mechanisms of cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Recent Developments in Understanding Brain Aging: Implications for Alzheimer’s Disease and Vascular Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, Ferenc; Freeman, Willard M.; Ungvari, Zoltan; Csiszar, Anna

    2016-01-01

    As the population of the Western world is aging, there is increasing awareness of age-related impairments in cognitive function and a rising interest in finding novel approaches to preserve cerebral health. A special collection of articles in The Journals of Gerontology: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences brings together information of different aspects of brain aging, from latest developments in the field of neurodegenerative disorders to cerebral microvascular mechanisms of cognitive decline. It is emphasized that although the cellular changes that occur within aging neurons have been widely studied, more research is required as new signaling pathways are discovered that can potentially protect cells. New avenues for research targeting cellular senescence, epigenetics, and endocrine mechanisms of brain aging are also discussed. Based on the current literature it is clear that understanding brain aging and reducing risk for neurological disease with age requires searching for mechanisms and treatment options beyond the age-related changes in neuronal function. Thus, comprehensive approaches need to be developed that address the multiple, interrelated mechanisms of brain aging. Attention is brought to the importance of maintenance of cerebromicrovascular health, restoring neuroendocrine balance, and the pressing need for funding more innovative research into the interactions of neuronal, neuroendocrine, inflammatory and microvascular mechanisms of cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26590911

  18. Fisetin Acts on Multiple Pathways to Reduce the Impact of Age and Disease on CNS Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that neurological diseases are multi-factorial involving disruptions in multiple cellular systems. Thus, while each disease has its own initiating mechanisms and pathologies, certain common pathways appear to be involved in most, if not all, neurological diseases described to date. Thus, it is unlikely that modulating only a single factor will be effective at either preventing disease development or slowing disease progression. A better approach is to identify small (fisetin. Fisetin not only has direct antioxidant activity but it can also increase the intracellular levels of glutathione, the major intracellular antioxidant. Fisetin can also activate key neurotrophic factor signaling pathways. In addition, it has anti-inflammatory activity against microglial cells and inhibits the activity of lipoxygenases, thereby reducing the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and their by-products. This wide range of actions suggests that fisetin has the ability to reduce the impact of age-related neurological diseases on brain function. PMID:25961687

  19. Motor and non-motor symptoms in old-age onset Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Marcelo D; Lampreia, Tania; Miguel, Rita; Caetano, André; Barbosa, Raquel; Bugalho, Paulo

    2017-07-01

    Advancing age is a well-known risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). With population ageing it is expected that the total number of patients with PD onset at oldage increases. Information on the motor but particularly on non-motor phenotype of this late-onset population is lacking. We recruited 24 patients with PD onset at or over 75 years. Each patient was matched with 1 control patient with PD onset between the ages of 40 and 65 and matched for disease duration. Both groups were assessed with the UPDRS, the Non-motor symptoms scale (NMSS) and other scales to assess non-motor symptoms. Groups were compared with conditional logistic regression analysis. Old-age onset PD was, on average, 80 years at the time of PD onset while middle-age onset were 59. Disease duration was approximately 5 years in both groups. While no difference was observed in the total UPDRS-III scores, old-age onset PD was associated with higher axial symptoms (7.42 vs. 4.63, p = 0.011) and a higher frequency of dementia (7/24 vs. 0/24, p = 0.009). While no difference in the total number of non-motor symptoms was observed (6.79 vs. 6.22, p = 0.310), old-age onset patients had a higher prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms (20/24 vs. 12/24, p = 0.037). For the same disease duration, older age onset is associated with worse axial motor dysfunction and dementia in PD patients. Beside gastrointestinal symptoms, non-motor symptoms are not associated with age.

  20. Association of Perivascular Localization of Aquaporin-4 With Cognition and Alzheimer Disease in Aging Brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppenfeld, Douglas M; Simon, Matthew; Haswell, J Douglas; D'Abreo, Daryl; Murchison, Charles; Quinn, Joseph F; Grafe, Marjorie R; Woltjer, Randall L; Kaye, Jeffrey; Iliff, Jeffrey J

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive impairment and dementia, including Alzheimer disease (AD), are common within the aging population, yet the factors that render the aging brain vulnerable to these processes are unknown. Perivascular localization of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) facilitates the clearance of interstitial solutes, including amyloid-β, through the brainwide network of perivascular pathways termed the glymphatic system, which may be compromised in the aging brain. To determine whether alterations in AQP4 expression or loss of perivascular AQP4 localization are features of the aging human brain and to define their association with AD pathology. Expression of AQP4 was analyzed in postmortem frontal cortex of cognitively healthy and histopathologically confirmed individuals with AD by Western blot or immunofluorescence for AQP4, amyloid-β 1-42, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Postmortem tissue and clinical data were provided by the Oregon Health and Science University Layton Aging and Alzheimer Disease Center and Oregon Brain Bank. Postmortem tissue from 79 individuals was evaluated, including cognitively intact "young" individuals aged younger than 60 years (range, 33-57 years), cognitively intact "aged" individuals aged older than 60 years (range, 61-96 years) with no known neurological disease, and individuals older than 60 years (range, 61-105 years) of age with a clinical history of AD confirmed by histopathological evaluation. Forty-eight patient samples (10 young, 20 aged, and 18 with AD) underwent histological analysis. Sixty patient samples underwent Western blot analysis (15 young, 24 aged, and 21 with AD). Expression of AQP4 protein, AQP4 immunoreactivity, and perivascular AQP4 localization in the frontal cortex were evaluated. Expression of AQP4 was associated with advancing age among all individuals (R2 = 0.17; P = .003). Perivascular AQP4 localization was significantly associated with AD status independent of age (OR, 11.7 per 10% increase in localization; z

  1. Effect of maternal age and cardiac disease severity on outcome of pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furenäs, Eva; Eriksson, Peter; Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt; Dellborg, Mikael

    2017-09-15

    There is an increasing prevalence of women with congenital heart defects reaching childbearing age. In western countries women tend to give birth at a higher age compared to some decades ago. We evaluated the CARdiac disease in PREGnancy (CARPREG) and modified World Health Organization (mWHO) risk classifications for cardiac complications during pregnancies in women with congenital heart defects and analyzed the impact of age on risk of obstetric and fetal outcome. A single-center observational study of cardiac, obstetric, and neonatal complications with data from cardiac and obstetric records of pregnancies in women with congenital heart disease. Outcomes of 496 pregnancies in 232 women, including induced abortion, miscarriage, stillbirth, and live birth were analyzed regarding complications, maternal age, mode of delivery, and two risk classifications: CARPREG and mWHO. There were 28 induced abortions, 59 fetal loss, 409 deliveries with 412 neonates. Cardiac (14%), obstetric (14%), and neonatal (15%) complications were noted, including one maternal death and five stillbirths. The rate of cesarean section was 19%. Age above 35years was of borderline importance for cardiac complications (p=0.054) and was not a significant additional risk factor for obstetric or neonatal complications. Both risk classifications had moderate clinical utility, with area under the curve (AUC) 0.71 for CARPREG and 0.65 for mWHO on cardiac complications. Pregnancy complications in women with congenital heart disease are common but severe complications are rare. Advanced maternal age does not seem to affect complication rate. Existing risk classification systems are insufficient in predicting complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The learning curve of robot-assisted laparoscopic aortofemoral bypass grafting for aortoiliac occlusive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotný, Tomáš; Dvorák, Martin; Staffa, Robert

    2011-02-01

    Since the end of the 20th century, robot-assisted surgery has been finding its role among other minimally invasive methods. Vascular surgery seems to be another specialty in which the benefits of this technology can be expected. Our objective was to assess the learning curve of robot-assisted laparoscopic aortofemoral bypass grafting for aortoiliac occlusive disease in a group of 40 patients. Between May 2006 and January 2010, 40 patients (32 men, 8 women), who were a median age of 58 years (range, 48-75 years), underwent 40 robot-assisted laparoscopic aortofemoral reconstructions. Learning curve estimations were used for anastomosis, clamping, and operative time assessment. For conversion rate evaluation, the cumulative summation (CUSUM) technique was used. Statistical analysis comparing the first and second half of our group, and unilateral-to-bilateral reconstructions were performed. We created 21 aortofemoral and 19 aortobifemoral bypasses. The median proximal anastomosis time was 23 minutes (range, 18-50 minutes), median clamping time was 60 minutes (range, 40-95 minutes), and median operative time was 295 minutes (range, 180-475 minutes). The 30-day mortality rate was 0%, and no graft or wound infection or cardiopulmonary or hepatorenal complications were observed. During the median 18-month follow-up (range, 2-48 months), three early graft occlusions occurred (7%). After reoperations, the secondary patency of reconstructions was 100%. Data showed a typical short learning curve for robotic proximal anastomosis creation with anastomosis and clamping time reduction. The operative time learning curve was flat, confirming the procedure's complexity. There were two conversions to open surgery. CUSUM analysis confirmed that an acceptable conversion rate set at 5% was achieved. Comparing the first and second half of our group, all recorded times showed statistically significant improvements. Differences between unilateral and bilateral reconstructions were not

  3. The retirement impact in people with Parkinson disease during active age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Alvarez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to comprehend the retirement impact in individuals with Parkinson disease during active age. We conducted a qualitative study using as Methodological Reference the Theory Grounded on Data. We interviewed 30 people with Parkinson disease, from those six were retired during active age. The data collection was in September 2013 to April 2014 and analyzed through open coding, axial and selective techniques. From the analysis, four categories emerged: retirement and identity in Parkinson disease; the incompatibility between the desire and the capacity to work; disconnecting and facing reality; the unexpected from retirement. The results indicated that people face difficulties in the disability retirement process, and we identified the need for emotional accompaniment and preparation for this transition moment in a way to stimulate a productive living, even with Parkinson disease.

  4. Elastin and collagen fibre microstructure of the human aorta in ageing and disease: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamis, Alkiviadis; Krawiec, Jeffrey T.; Vorp, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Aortic disease is a significant cause of death in developed countries. The most common forms of aortic disease are aneurysm, dissection, atherosclerotic occlusion and ageing-induced stiffening. The microstructure of the aortic tissue has been studied with great interest, because alteration of the quantity and/or architecture of the connective fibres (elastin and collagen) within the aortic wall, which directly imparts elasticity and strength, can lead to the mechanical and functional changes associated with these conditions. This review article summarizes the state of the art with respect to characterization of connective fibre microstructure in the wall of the human aorta in ageing and disease, with emphasis on the ascending thoracic aorta and abdominal aorta where the most common forms of aortic disease tend to occur. PMID:23536538

  5. Effect of Age on the Hemostatic Function in Patients with Degenerative Diseases of the Large Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor L. Shlykov, PhD¹, ScD¹

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aging is associated with an increased hypercoagulable state. Degenerative diseases of the large joints are also accompanied by increased coagulation activity. We investigated the effect of age on the hemostatic function in patients with osteoarthritis. Material and Methods: The study included 192 patients with osteoarthritis admitted to the clinic for primary hip or knee arthroplasty. The patients were categorized into 5 age groups: the age group under 40 years, the 41–to-50 -year age group, the 51–to-60-year age group, the 61-to-70- year age group, and the age group over 70 years. The general blood clotting tests, platelet number, fibrinogen, antithrombin, protein C, TAT, D-dimer, vonWillebrand factor (vWF, PAI-1, ß-thromboglobulin were determined. Results: Among patients with osteoarthritis, the antithrombin III level significantly decreased by the age of 50; however, above the age of 60 there was a distinct decrease in platelet count, and over the age of 70 the activity of the extrinsic coagulation pathway and the plasminogen level dropped significantly. TAT and D-dimer levels were elevated in most of the patients. Conclusion: The decrease in platelet count coupled with the activity of the extrinsic coagulation pathway in elderly osteoarthritic patients may increase blood loss during total arthroplasty; also, the drop in the anticoagulant and fibrinolytic potential may play a negative role in strengthening the prothrombotic state during the postoperative period.

  6. A Culture-Brain Link: Negative Age Stereotypes Predict Alzheimer’s-disease Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Becca R.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B.; Slade, Martin D.; Troncoso, Juan; Resnick, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Although negative age stereotypes have been found to predict adverse outcomes among older individuals, it was unknown whether the influence of stereotypes extends to brain changes associated with Alzheimer’s disease. To consider this possibility, we drew on the age stereotypes of dementia-free participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging that had been measured decades before yearly MRIs and brain autopsies were performed. Those with more negative age stereotypes earlier in life had significantly steeper hippocampal-volume loss, and significantly greater accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques at autopsy, adjusting for relevant covariates. These findings suggest a new pathway to identifying mechanisms and potential interventions related to the neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26641877

  7. A culture-brain link: Negative age stereotypes predict Alzheimer's disease biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Becca R; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B; Slade, Martin D; Troncoso, Juan; Resnick, Susan M

    2016-02-01

    Although negative age stereotypes have been found to predict adverse outcomes among older individuals, it was unknown whether the influence of stereotypes extends to brain changes associated with Alzheimer's disease. To consider this possibility, we drew on dementia-free participants, in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, whose age stereotypes were assessed decades before yearly magnetic resonance images and brain autopsies were performed. Those holding more-negative age stereotypes earlier in life had significantly steeper hippocampal-volume loss and significantly greater accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques, adjusting for relevant covariates. These findings suggest a new pathway to identifying mechanisms and potential interventions related to the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Aging and the Kidneys: Anatomy, Physiology and Consequences for Defining Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassock, Richard J; Rule, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    The varied functions of the kidneys are influenced by the complex process of aging. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) steadily declines with normal aging, and the progress of this process can be influenced by superimposed diseases. Microscopically, nephron numbers decrease as global glomerulosclerosis becomes more evident. The precise mechanisms underlying nephron loss with aging are not well understood, but derangements in podocyte biology appear to be involved. Classifications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) incorporate GFR values and attendant risk of adverse events. Arbitrary and fixed thresholds of GFR for defining CKD have led to an overdiagnosis of CKD in the elderly. An age-sensitive definition of CKD could offer a solution to this problem and more meaningfully capture the prognostic implications of CKD. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Review of the generic aging lessons learned (GALL) report for U.S. NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Yi; Dou Yikang

    2014-01-01

    Generic aging lessons learned (GALL) report is a technical basis document issued by U.S. nuclear regulatory commission (NRC) for guiding the review of license renewal application (LRA) of its domestic nuclear power plants (NPPs). By form of tabulations, GALL report addresses the correlation among materials, environments, aging effects/mechanisms, and aging management programs (AMPs) from the level of specific structures and/or components. Based on literature investigation and analysis, the essential information of GALL report in the aspects of background, development history, content framework, and application was reviewed in this paper, which should be the first time in China and would have reference value for establishment of both the AMPs and the nuclear safety regulations of extending the lifetime of its NPPs. (authors)

  10. The contribution of mediator-based deficiencies to age differences in associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlosky, John; Hertzog, Christopher; Powell-Moman, Amy

    2005-03-01

    Production, mediational, and utilization deficiencies, which describe how strategy use may contribute to developmental trends in episodic memory, have been intensively investigated. Using a mediator report-and-retrieval method, the authors present evidence concerning the degree to which 2 previously unexplored mediator-based deficits--retrieval and decoding deficiencies--account for age deficits in learning. During study, older and younger adults were instructed to use a strategy (imagery or sentence generation) to associate words within paired associates. They also reported each mediator and later attempted to retrieve each response and the mediator produced at study. Substantial deficits occurred in mediator recall, and small differences were observed in decoding mediators. Mediator recall also accounted for a substantial proportion of the age deficits in criterion recall independently of fluid or crystallized intelligence. Discussion focuses on mediator-based deficiencies and their implications for theories of age deficits in episodic memory. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Machine Learning, Sentiment Analysis, and Tweets: An Examination of Alzheimer's Disease Stigma on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar, Nels; Fox, Pamela A; Croucher, Racheal; Wernick, Riana; Keune, Jessica; Hooker, Karen

    2017-09-01

    Social scientists need practical methods for harnessing large, publicly available datasets that inform the social context of aging. We describe our development of a semi-automated text coding method and use a content analysis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia portrayal on Twitter to demonstrate its use. The approach improves feasibility of examining large publicly available datasets. Machine learning techniques modeled stigmatization expressed in 31,150 AD-related tweets collected via Twitter's search API based on 9 AD-related keywords. Two researchers manually coded 311 random tweets on 6 dimensions. This input from 1% of the dataset was used to train a classifier against the tweet text and code the remaining 99% of the dataset. Our automated process identified that 21.13% of the AD-related tweets used AD-related keywords to perpetuate public stigma, which could impact stereotypes and negative expectations for individuals with the disease and increase "excess disability". This technique could be applied to questions in social gerontology related to how social media outlets reflect and shape attitudes bearing on other developmental outcomes. Recommendations for the collection and analysis of large Twitter datasets are discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Does Implicit Learning in Non-Demented Parkinson's Disease depend on the Level of Cognitive Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbossche, Jochen; Deroost, Natacha; Soetens, Eric; Kerckhofs, Eric

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the level of cognitive functioning on sequence-specific learning in Parkinson's disease (PD). This was done by examining the relationship between the scales for outcomes in Parkinson's disease-cognition [SCOPA-COG, Marinus, J., Visser, M., Verwey, N. A., Verhey, F. R. J., Middelkoop, H. A. M.,Stiggelbout, A., et…

  13. Implicit perceptual-motor skill learning in mild cognitive impairment and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobel, Eric W; Blomeke, Kelsey; Zadikoff, Cindy; Simuni, Tanya; Weintraub, Sandra; Reber, Paul J

    2013-05-01

    Implicit skill learning is hypothesized to depend on nondeclarative memory that operates independent of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system and instead depends on cortico striatal circuits between the basal ganglia and cortical areas supporting motor function and planning. Research with the Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task suggests that patients with memory disorders due to MTL damage exhibit normal implicit sequence learning. However, reports of intact learning rely on observations of no group differences, leading to speculation as to whether implicit sequence learning is fully intact in these patients. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often exhibit impaired sequence learning, but this impairment is not universally observed. Implicit perceptual-motor sequence learning was examined using the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task in patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI; n = 11) and patients with PD (n = 15). Sequence learning in SISL is resistant to explicit learning and individually adapted task difficulty controls for baseline performance differences. Patients with MCI exhibited robust sequence learning, equivalent to healthy older adults (n = 20), supporting the hypothesis that the MTL does not contribute to learning in this task. In contrast, the majority of patients with PD exhibited no sequence-specific learning in spite of matched overall task performance. Two patients with PD exhibited performance indicative of an explicit compensatory strategy suggesting that impaired implicit learning may lead to greater reliance on explicit memory in some individuals. The differences in learning between patient groups provides strong evidence in favor of implicit sequence learning depending solely on intact basal ganglia function with no contribution from the MTL memory system.

  14. AGE - RELATED AND SOCIO - ECONOMIC CORRELATIONS OF LANGUAGE LEARNING: A STUDY OF THE HUNGARIAN YOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novák, Ildikó

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In our study we examined the background of the foreign language knowledge and learning of the Hungarian Youth. Who are successful and what group of learners can convert their knowledge into language certificates? What aspects lie behind their success? We based our analysis on the Magyar Ifjúság 2012 database using the variables that could help us draw conclusions about language skills, language learning and language certificates. As in the first place we studied the effect of age and student status, we divided the sample into 3 main categories: 15-19-year-old secondary school students, 20-24-year-old students mostly students studying at higher education and 25-29-year-old students predominantly workers. We examined several dimensions of language learning: (1 the subjective perception of language skills (2 the objective perception of language skills (language certificates and their level, (3 formal and non-formal education (4 students’ plans to study foreign languages in the future. Examining the similarities and the differences between the groups we also analysed what correlations there were between the socioeconomic status of the parents and the language skills of the students. We analysed the students’ attitude to foreign languages as we ll as their attitude towards English as a foreign language. As a result we detected strong parental influence, however, some differences between the age groups could be observed .

  15. REST and Stress Resistance in Ageing and Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Tao; Aron, Liviu; Zullo, Joseph M.; Pan, Ying; Kim, Haeyoung; Chen, Yiwen; Yang, Tun-Hsiang; Kim, Hyun-Min; Drake, Derek Mark; Liu, Xiaole (Shirley) Shirley; Bennett, David A.; Colaiacovo, Monica P.; Yankner, Bruce Albert

    2014-01-01

    Human neurons are functional over an entire lifetime, yet the mechanisms that preserve function and protect against neurodegeneration during ageing are unknown. Here we show that induction of the repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor (REST; also known as neuron-restrictive silencer factor, NRSF) is a universal feature of normal ageing in human cortical and hippocampal neurons. REST is lost, however, in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Chromatin immunoprecipitati...

  16. Prevention of congenital Chagas disease by Benznidazole treatment in reproductive-age women. An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, María G; Vigliano, Carlos; Lococo, Bruno; Bertocchi, Graciela; Viotti, Rodolfo

    2017-10-01

    Since the decline in new cases of infection by insect/vector, congenital Chagas disease has become more relevant in the transmission of Chagas disease. Treatment with benznidazole significantly reduces the parasitemia, which constitutes an important factor linked to vertical transmission. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether treatment with benznidazole previously administered to women of childbearing age can prevent or reduce the incidence of new cases of congenital Chagas disease. An historical cohort study that included all women in reproductive age (15-45 years) assisted in our center was designed. We included 67 mothers with chronic Chagas disease; 35 women had not been treated prior to pregnancy, 15 had been treated prior to pregnancy and 17 gave birth prior and after treatment with benznidazole. Eight mothers gave birth to 16 children with congenital Chagas disease (8/67, 12%). The prevalence of congenital Chagas was 16/114 (14%) children born to untreated mothers and 0/42 (0%) children born to benznidazole- treated mothers, p=0.01. No significant differences were observed in clinical, serologic, epidemiological or socioeconomic baseline variables between mothers with and without children born with congenital Chagas. A 32% conversion rate to negative serology was observed in benznidazole-treated women after long-term follow up. Antiparasitic treatment administered to women in reproductive age can prevent the occurrence of congenital Chagas disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reflux esophagitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease: a cross-sectional study of gastroesophageal reflux disease patients by age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Filho Rowilson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the intensity of acid reflux and severity of esophageal tissue damage in a cross-sectional study of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. Seventy-eight patients with were selected in accordance with the strict 24-hour ambulatory esophageal pHmetry (24h-pHM criteria and distributed into three age groups: Group A: 14 - 24 years of age. Group B: 25 - 54; and Group C: 55 - 64. The 24h-pHM was carried out in accordance with DeMeester standardization, and the Savary-Miller classification for the diagnosis of reflux esophagitis was used. The groups were similar in 24h-pHM parameters (p > 0.05, having above normal values. For the study group as a whole, there was no correlation between age group and intensity of acid reflux, and there was no correlation between intensity of acid reflux and severity of esophageal tissue damage. However, when the same patients were sub-grouped in accordance with the depth of their epithelial injury and then distributed into age groups, there was a significant difference in esophagitis without epithelial discontinuity. Younger patients had less epithelial damage than older patients. Additionally, although there was a significant progression from the least severe to the moderate stages of epithelial damage among the age groups, there was no apparent difference among the age groups in the distribution between the moderate stages and most severe stages. The findings support the conclusion that the protective response of individuals to acid reflux varies widely. Continued aggression by acid reflux appears to lead to the exhaustion of individual mechanisms of epithelial protection in some patients, but not others, regardless of age or duration of the disease. Therefore, the diagnosis and follow-up of GERD should include both measurements of the quantity of refluxed acid and an assessment of the damage to the esophageal epithelium.

  18. Semi-supervised manifold learning with affinity regularization for Alzheimer's disease identification using positron emission tomography imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shen; Xia, Yong; Cai, Tom Weidong; Feng, David Dagan

    2015-01-01

    Dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) in particular is a global problem and big threat to the aging population. An image based computer-aided dementia diagnosis method is needed to providing doctors help during medical image examination. Many machine learning based dementia classification methods using medical imaging have been proposed and most of them achieve accurate results. However, most of these methods make use of supervised learning requiring fully labeled image dataset, which usually is not practical in real clinical environment. Using large amount of unlabeled images can improve the dementia classification performance. In this study we propose a new semi-supervised dementia classification method based on random manifold learning with affinity regularization. Three groups of spatial features are extracted from positron emission tomography (PET) images to construct an unsupervised random forest which is then used to regularize the manifold learning objective function. The proposed method, stat-of-the-art Laplacian support vector machine (LapSVM) and supervised SVM are applied to classify AD and normal controls (NC). The experiment results show that learning with unlabeled images indeed improves the classification performance. And our method outperforms LapSVM on the same dataset.

  19. Family relationships versus learning: an analysis with children aged 5 and 6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Claudia Jacometo Durante

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the first mediator between man and culture, the family constitutes the dynamic unity of affective, social and cognitive relations that are immersed in the material, historical and cultural conditions of a given social group. The overall objective of the study was to investigate whether family relationships can compromise children’s learning. Specifically, it was intended to: a Identify conflicts in family relationships; B To verify if the conflicts in the family relations can compromise the interpersonal relationship of the children in the literacy phase; C Analyze whether conflicts in family relationships interfere with children’s learning. A total of 219 families with children aged 5 and 6 participated in the study. The main results indicate that there is a distancing of the parents in relation to the school life of the children, as well as in the family relationships there is a mixture of conflict and affection. It is considered that the learning of children can be compromised by conflicts in family relationships because learning and school performance depend primarily on family interaction and later on the relationship between teacher-student.

  20. Serial position effects in Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, and normal aging: predictive value for conversion to dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Catarina; Guerreiro, Manuela; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Oliveira, Paulo Eduardo; Santana, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Serial position effects in word list learning have been used to differentiate normal aging and dementia. Prominent recency and diminished primacy have consistently been observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined serial position effects in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), in patients with AD, and in normal healthy controls. Additionally, we classified MCI patients into those who progressed to AD (MCI-p) and those who did not (MCI-np). We compared two serial position measures: regional and standard scores. Regional scores, mainly the primacy effect, improved discrimination between MCI and controls and between MCI-np and MCI-p, proving to be more sensitive and specific than the recency effect.