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Sample records for aging impacts transcriptome

  1. Proton irradiation impacts age-driven modulations of cancer progression influenced by immune system transcriptome modifications from splenic tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wage, Justin; Ma, Lili; Peluso, Michael; Lamont, Clare; Hahnfeldt, Philip; Hlatky, Lynn; Beheshti, Afshin; Evens, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Age plays a crucial role in the interplay between tumor and host, with additional impact due to irradiation. Proton irradiation of tumors induces biological modulations including inhibition of angiogenic and immune factors critical to 'hallmark' processes impacting tumor development. Proton irradiation has also provided promising results for proton therapy in cancer due to targeting advantages. Additionally, protons may contribute to the carcinogenesis risk from space travel (due to the high proportion of high-energy protons in space radiation). Through a systems biology approach, we investigated how host tissue (i.e. splenic tissue) of tumor-bearing mice was altered with age, with or without whole-body proton exposure. Transcriptome analysis was performed on splenic tissue from adolescent (68-day) versus old (736-day) C57BL/6 male mice injected with Lewis lung carcinoma cells with or without three fractionations of 0.5 Gy (1-GeV) proton irradiation. Global transcriptome analysis indicated that proton irradiation of adolescent hosts caused significant signaling changes within splenic tissues that support carcinogenesis within the mice, as compared with older subjects. Increases in cell cycling and immunosuppression in irradiated adolescent hosts with CDK2, MCM7, CD74 and RUVBL2 indicated these were the key genes involved in the regulatory changes in the host environment response (i.e. the spleen). Collectively, these results suggest that a significant biological component of proton irradiation is modulated by host age through promotion of carcinogenesis in adolescence and resistance to immunosuppression, carcinogenesis and genetic perturbation associated with advancing age. (author)

  2. Transcriptomic signatures in cartilage ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Age is an important factor in the development of osteoarthritis. Microarray studies provide insight into cartilage aging but do not reveal the full transcriptomic phenotype of chondrocytes such as small noncoding RNAs, pseudogenes, and microRNAs. RNA-Seq is a powerful technique for the interrogation of large numbers of transcripts including nonprotein coding RNAs. The aim of the study was to characterise molecular mechanisms associated with age-related changes in gene signatures. Methods RNA for gene expression analysis using RNA-Seq and real-time PCR analysis was isolated from macroscopically normal cartilage of the metacarpophalangeal joints of eight horses; four young donors (4 years old) and four old donors (>15 years old). RNA sequence libraries were prepared following ribosomal RNA depletion and sequencing was undertaken using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Differentially expressed genes were defined using Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate correction with a generalised linear model likelihood ratio test (P ageing cartilage. Conclusion There was an age-related dysregulation of matrix, anabolic and catabolic cartilage factors. This study has increased our knowledge of transcriptional networks in cartilage ageing by providing a global view of the transcriptome. PMID:23971731

  3. Aging Impacts Transcriptome but not Genome of Hormone-dependentBreast Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yau, Christina; Fedele, Vita; Roydasgupta, Ritu; Fridlyand, Jane; Hubbard, Alan; Gray, Joe W.; Chew, Karen; Dairkee, Shanaz H.; Moore, DanH.; Schittulli, Francesco; Tommasi, Stefania; Paradiso, Angelo; Albertson, Donna G.; Benz, Christopher C.

    2007-10-09

    Age is one of the most important risk factors for human malignancies, including breast cancer; in addition, age-at-diagnosis has been shown to be an independent indicator of breast cancer prognosis. However, except for inherited forms of breast cancer, there is little genetic or epigenetic understanding of the biological basis linking aging with sporadic breast cancer incidence and its clinical behavior.

  4. A differential genome-wide transcriptome analysis: impact of cellular copper on complex biological processes like aging and development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Servos

    Full Text Available The regulation of cellular copper homeostasis is crucial in biology. Impairments lead to severe dysfunctions and are known to affect aging and development. Previously, a loss-of-function mutation in the gene encoding the copper-sensing and copper-regulated transcription factor GRISEA of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina was reported to lead to cellular copper depletion and a pleiotropic phenotype with hypopigmentation of the mycelium and the ascospores, affected fertility and increased lifespan by approximately 60% when compared to the wild type. This phenotype is linked to a switch from a copper-dependent standard to an alternative respiration leading to both a reduced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and of adenosine triphosphate (ATP. We performed a genome-wide comparative transcriptome analysis of a wild-type strain and the copper-depleted grisea mutant. We unambiguously assigned 9,700 sequences of the transcriptome in both strains to the more than 10,600 predicted and annotated open reading frames of the P. anserina genome indicating 90% coverage of the transcriptome. 4,752 of the transcripts differed significantly in abundance with 1,156 transcripts differing at least 3-fold. Selected genes were investigated by qRT-PCR analyses. Apart from this general characterization we analyzed the data with special emphasis on molecular pathways related to the grisea mutation taking advantage of the available complete genomic sequence of P. anserina. This analysis verified but also corrected conclusions from earlier data obtained by single gene analysis, identified new candidates of factors as part of the cellular copper homeostasis system including target genes of transcription factor GRISEA, and provides a rich reference source of quantitative data for further in detail investigations. Overall, the present study demonstrates the importance of systems biology approaches also in cases were mutations in single genes are analyzed to

  5. Transcriptomic profiling of cartilage ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Jayne Peffers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The musculoskeletal system is severely affected by the ageing process, with many tissues undergoing changes that lead to loss of function and frailty. Articular cartilage is susceptible to age related diseases, such as osteoarthritis. Applying RNA-Seq to young and old equine cartilage, we identified an over-representation of genes with reduced expression relating to extracellular matrix, degradative proteases, matrix synthetic enzymes, cytokines and growth factors in cartilage from older donors. Here we describe the contents and quality controls in detail for the gene expression and related results published by Peffers and colleagues in Arthritis Research and Therapy 2013 associated with the data uploaded to ArrayExpress (E-MTAB-1386.

  6. Transcriptome States Reflect Imaging of Aging States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckley, D Mark; Coletta, Christopher E; Orlov, Nikita V; Wilson, Mark A; Iser, Wendy; Bastian, Paul; Lehrmann, Elin; Zhang, Yonqing; Becker, Kevin G; Goldberg, Ilya G

    2018-06-14

    In this study, we describe a morphological biomarker that detects multiple discrete subpopulations (or "age-states") at several chronological ages in a population of nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans). We determined the frequencies of three healthy adult states and the timing of the transitions between them across the lifespan. We used short-lived and long-lived strains to confirm the general applicability of the state classifier and to monitor state progression. This exploration revealed healthy and unhealthy states, the former being favored in long-lived strains and the latter showing delayed onset. Short-lived strains rapidly transitioned through the putative healthy state. We previously found that age-matched animals in different age-states have distinct transcriptome profiles. We isolated animals at the beginning and end of each identified state and performed microarray analysis (principal component analysis, relative sample to sample distance measurements, and gene set enrichment analysis). In some comparisons, chronologically identical individuals were farther apart than morphologically identical individuals isolated on different days. The age-state biomarker allowed assessment of aging in a novel manner, complementary to chronological age progression. We found hsp70 and some small heat shock protein genes are expressed later in adulthood, consistent with the proteostasis collapse model.

  7. Proton Irradiation Impacts Age Driven Modulations of Cancer Progression Influenced by Immune System Transcriptome Modifications from Splenic Tissue

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Age plays a crucial role in the interplay between tumor and host; with further perturbations induced by irradiation. Proton irradiation on tumors induces biological...

  8. Unique transcriptomic response to sepsis is observed among patients of different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Steven L; López, María Cecilia; Baker, Henry V; Larson, Shawn D; Efron, Philip A; Sweeney, Timothy E; Khatri, Purvesh; Moldawer, Lyle L; Wynn, James L

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially at the extremes of age. To understand the human age-specific transcriptomic response to sepsis, a multi-cohort, pooled analysis was conducted on adults, children, infants, and neonates with and without sepsis. Nine public whole-blood gene expression datasets (636 patients) were employed. Age impacted the transcriptomic host response to sepsis. Gene expression from septic neonates and adults was more dissimilar whereas infants and children were more similar. Neonates showed reductions in inflammatory recognition and signaling pathways compared to all other age groups. Likewise, adults demonstrated decreased pathogen sensing, inflammation, and myeloid cell function, as compared to children. This may help to explain the increased incidence of sepsis-related organ failure and death in adults. The number of dysregulated genes in septic patients was proportional to age and significantly differed among septic adults, children, infants, and neonates. Overall, children manifested a greater transcriptomic intensity to sepsis as compared to the other age groups. The transcriptomic magnitude for adults and neonates was dramatically reduced as compared to children and infants. These findings suggest that the transcriptomic response to sepsis is age-dependent, and diagnostic and therapeutic efforts to identify and treat sepsis will have to consider age as an important variable.

  9. Transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also: Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms Definitions for genetic terms used on this page En Español: Transcriptoma Transcriptome What is a transcriptome? What can a transcriptome tell us? How can transcriptome data be used to explore gene function? What is ...

  10. Impact of Transcriptomics on Our Understanding of Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukmirovic, Milica; Kaminski, Naftali

    2018-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal fibrotic lung disease characterized by aberrant remodeling of the lung parenchyma with extensive changes to the phenotypes of all lung resident cells. The introduction of transcriptomics, genome scale profiling of thousands of RNA transcripts, caused a significant inversion in IPF research. Instead of generating hypotheses based on animal models of disease, or biological plausibility, with limited validation in humans, investigators were able to generate hypotheses based on unbiased molecular analysis of human samples and then use animal models of disease to test their hypotheses. In this review, we describe the insights made from transcriptomic analysis of human IPF samples. We describe how transcriptomic studies led to identification of novel genes and pathways involved in the human IPF lung such as: matrix metalloproteinases, WNT pathway, epithelial genes, role of microRNAs among others, as well as conceptual insights such as the involvement of developmental pathways and deep shifts in epithelial and fibroblast phenotypes. The impact of lung and transcriptomic studies on disease classification, endotype discovery, and reproducible biomarkers is also described in detail. Despite these impressive achievements, the impact of transcriptomic studies has been limited because they analyzed bulk tissue and did not address the cellular and spatial heterogeneity of the IPF lung. We discuss new emerging technologies and applications, such as single-cell RNAseq and microenvironment analysis that may address cellular and spatial heterogeneity. We end by making the point that most current tissue collections and resources are not amenable to analysis using the novel technologies. To take advantage of the new opportunities, we need new efforts of sample collections, this time focused on access to all the microenvironments and cells in the IPF lung. PMID:29670881

  11. Thorium impact on tobacco root transcriptome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mazari, Kateřina; Landa, Přemysl; Přerostová, Sylva; Müller, Karel; Vaňková, Radomíra; Soudek, Petr; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 325, MAR 5 (2017), s. 163-169 ISSN 0304-3894 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD11073; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13029 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : arabidopsis-thaliana roots * juncea var. foliosa * cadmium accumulation * deficiency responses * mineral- nutrition * gene-expression * plant transfer * iron uptake * uranium * soil * Microarray * Thorium * Gene expression * Toxicity * Nicotiana tabacum Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 6.065, year: 2016

  12. A genome-wide longitudinal transcriptome analysis of the aging model Podospora anserina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Oliver; Hamann, Andrea; Servos, Jörg; Werner, Alexandra; Koch, Ina; Osiewacz, Heinz D

    2013-01-01

    Aging of biological systems is controlled by various processes which have a potential impact on gene expression. Here we report a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of the fungal aging model Podospora anserina. Total RNA of three individuals of defined age were pooled and analyzed by SuperSAGE (serial analysis of gene expression). A bioinformatics analysis identified different molecular pathways to be affected during aging. While the abundance of transcripts linked to ribosomes and to the proteasome quality control system were found to decrease during aging, those associated with autophagy increase, suggesting that autophagy may act as a compensatory quality control pathway. Transcript profiles associated with the energy metabolism including mitochondrial functions were identified to fluctuate during aging. Comparison of wild-type transcripts, which are continuously down-regulated during aging, with those down-regulated in the long-lived, copper-uptake mutant grisea, validated the relevance of age-related changes in cellular copper metabolism. Overall, we (i) present a unique age-related data set of a longitudinal study of the experimental aging model P. anserina which represents a reference resource for future investigations in a variety of organisms, (ii) suggest autophagy to be a key quality control pathway that becomes active once other pathways fail, and (iii) present testable predictions for subsequent experimental investigations.

  13. A genome-wide longitudinal transcriptome analysis of the aging model Podospora anserina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Philipp

    Full Text Available Aging of biological systems is controlled by various processes which have a potential impact on gene expression. Here we report a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of the fungal aging model Podospora anserina. Total RNA of three individuals of defined age were pooled and analyzed by SuperSAGE (serial analysis of gene expression. A bioinformatics analysis identified different molecular pathways to be affected during aging. While the abundance of transcripts linked to ribosomes and to the proteasome quality control system were found to decrease during aging, those associated with autophagy increase, suggesting that autophagy may act as a compensatory quality control pathway. Transcript profiles associated with the energy metabolism including mitochondrial functions were identified to fluctuate during aging. Comparison of wild-type transcripts, which are continuously down-regulated during aging, with those down-regulated in the long-lived, copper-uptake mutant grisea, validated the relevance of age-related changes in cellular copper metabolism. Overall, we (i present a unique age-related data set of a longitudinal study of the experimental aging model P. anserina which represents a reference resource for future investigations in a variety of organisms, (ii suggest autophagy to be a key quality control pathway that becomes active once other pathways fail, and (iii present testable predictions for subsequent experimental investigations.

  14. Transcriptomic alterations during ageing reflect the shift from cancer to degenerative diseases in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramillo Irizar, Peer; Schäuble, Sascha; Esser, Daniela; Groth, Marco; Frahm, Christiane; Priebe, Steffen; Baumgart, Mario; Hartmann, Nils; Marthandan, Shiva; Menzel, Uwe; Müller, Julia; Schmidt, Silvio; Ast, Volker; Caliebe, Amke; König, Rainer; Krawczak, Michael; Ristow, Michael; Schuster, Stefan; Cellerino, Alessandro; Diekmann, Stephan; Englert, Christoph; Hemmerich, Peter; Sühnel, Jürgen; Guthke, Reinhard; Witte, Otto W; Platzer, Matthias; Ruppin, Eytan; Kaleta, Christoph

    2018-01-30

    Disease epidemiology during ageing shows a transition from cancer to degenerative chronic disorders as dominant contributors to mortality in the old. Nevertheless, it has remained unclear to what extent molecular signatures of ageing reflect this phenomenon. Here we report on the identification of a conserved transcriptomic signature of ageing based on gene expression data from four vertebrate species across four tissues. We find that ageing-associated transcriptomic changes follow trajectories similar to the transcriptional alterations observed in degenerative ageing diseases but are in opposite direction to the transcriptomic alterations observed in cancer. We confirm the existence of a similar antagonism on the genomic level, where a majority of shared risk alleles which increase the risk of cancer decrease the risk of chronic degenerative disorders and vice versa. These results reveal a fundamental trade-off between cancer and degenerative ageing diseases that sheds light on the pronounced shift in their epidemiology during ageing.

  15. Insulin Signaling-independent Activation of DAF-16 Shapes the Transcriptome during Normal Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yan-Ping; Liang, Chung-Yi; Hsu, Ao-Lin; Li, Shang-Tong; Zhang, Pan; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Zhao, Han-Qing

    2018-01-01

    The roles and regulatory mechanisms of transriptome changes during aging are unclear. It has been proposed that the transcriptome suffers decay during aging owing to age-associated down-regulation of transcription factors. In this study, we characterized the role of a transcription factor DAF-16, which is a highly conserved lifespan regulator, in the normal aging process of Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that DAF-16 translocates into the nucleus in aged wild-type worms and activates the exp...

  16. Maternal bisphenol a exposure impacts the fetal heart transcriptome.

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    Kalyan C Chapalamadugu

    Full Text Available Conditions during fetal development influence health and disease in adulthood, especially during critical windows of organogenesis. Fetal exposure to the endocrine disrupting chemical, bisphenol A (BPA affects the development of multiple organ systems in rodents and monkeys. However, effects of BPA exposure on cardiac development have not been assessed. With evidence that maternal BPA is transplacentally delivered to the developing fetus, it becomes imperative to examine the physiological consequences of gestational exposure during primate development. Herein, we evaluate the effects of daily, oral BPA exposure of pregnant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta on the fetal heart transcriptome. Pregnant monkeys were given daily oral doses (400 µg/kg body weight of BPA during early (50-100 ± 2 days post conception, dpc or late (100 ± 2 dpc--term, gestation. At the end of treatment, fetal heart tissues were collected and chamber specific transcriptome expression was assessed using genome-wide microarray. Quantitative real-time PCR was conducted on select genes and ventricular tissue glycogen content was quantified. Our results show that BPA exposure alters transcription of genes that are recognized for their role in cardiac pathophysiologies. Importantly, myosin heavy chain, cardiac isoform alpha (Myh6 was down-regulated in the left ventricle, and 'A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 12', long isoform (Adam12-l was up-regulated in both ventricles, and the right atrium of the heart in BPA exposed fetuses. BPA induced alteration of these genes supports the hypothesis that exposure to BPA during fetal development may impact cardiovascular fitness. Our results intensify concerns about the role of BPA in the genesis of human metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia J Moisá

    Full Text Available In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring's Longissimus muscle (LM transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW and normal weaned (NW Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW, 187 (NW and 354 (before slaughter days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG. However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167, especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the "finishing" phase, NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef

  18. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisá, Sonia J; Shike, Daniel W; Shoup, Lindsay; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Loor, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring's Longissimus muscle (LM) transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW) and normal weaned (NW) Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN)] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN)] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW), 187 (NW) and 354 (before slaughter) days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG). However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW) strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167), especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the "finishing" phase), NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef cattle.

  19. Evolution of the aging brain transcriptome and synaptic regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M Loerch

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders of aging are characterized by clinical and pathological features that are relatively specific to humans. To obtain greater insight into how brain aging has evolved, we compared age-related gene expression changes in the cortex of humans, rhesus macaques, and mice on a genome-wide scale. A small subset of gene expression changes are conserved in all three species, including robust age-dependent upregulation of the neuroprotective gene apolipoprotein D (APOD and downregulation of the synaptic cAMP signaling gene calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CAMK4. However, analysis of gene ontology and cell type localization shows that humans and rhesus macaques have diverged from mice due to a dramatic increase in age-dependent repression of neuronal genes. Many of these age-regulated neuronal genes are associated with synaptic function. Notably, genes associated with GABA-ergic inhibitory function are robustly age-downregulated in humans but not in mice at the level of both mRNA and protein. Gene downregulation was not associated with overall neuronal or synaptic loss. Thus, repression of neuronal gene expression is a prominent and recently evolved feature of brain aging in humans and rhesus macaques that may alter neural networks and contribute to age-related cognitive changes.

  20. Molecular Aging of Human Liver: An Epigenetic/Transcriptomic Signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Franceschi, Claudio; Gentilini, Davide; Ravaioli, Francesco; Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Remondini, Daniel; Pirazzini, Chiara; Giuliani, Cristina; Marasco, Elena; Gensous, Noémie; Di Blasio, Anna Maria; Ellis, Ewa; Gramignoli, Roberto; Castellani, Gastone; Capri, Miriam; Strom, Stephen; Nardini, Christine; Cescon, Matteo; Grazi, Gian Luca; Garagnani, Paolo

    2018-03-15

    The feasibility of liver transplantation from old healthy donors suggests that this organ is able to preserve its functionality during aging. To explore the biological basis of this phenomenon, we characterized the epigenetic profile of liver biopsies collected from 45 healthy liver donors ranging from 13 to 90 years old using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. The analysis indicates that a large remodeling in DNA methylation patterns occurs, with 8823 age-associated differentially methylated CpG probes. Notably, these age-associated changes tended to level off after the age of 60, as confirmed by Horvath's clock. Using stringent selection criteria we further identified a DNA methylation signature of aging liver including 75 genomic regions. We demonstrated that this signature is specific for liver compared to other tissues and that it is able to detect biological age-acceleration effects associated with obesity. Finally we combined DNA methylation measurements with available expression data. Although the intersection between the two omic characterizations was low, both approaches suggested a previously unappreciated role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and Wnt signaling pathways in the aging of human liver.

  1. Transcriptome changes in age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitmore S Scott

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a debilitating, common cause of visual impairment. While the last decade has seen great progress in understanding the pathophysiology of AMD, the molecular changes that occur in eyes with AMD are still poorly understood. In the current issue of Genome Medicine, Newman and colleagues present the first systematic transcriptional profile analysis of AMD-affected tissues, providing a comprehensive set of expression data for different regions (macula versus periphery, tissues (retina versus retinal pigment epithelium (RPE/choroid, and disease state (control versus early or advanced AMD. Their findings will serve as a foundation for additional systems-level research into the pathogenesis of this blinding disease. Please see related article: http://genomemedicine.com/content/4/2/16

  2. Impact of Hfq on the Bacillus subtilis Transcriptome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hämmerle, H.; Amman, F.; Večerek, Branislav; Stülke, J.; Hofacker, I.; Bläsi, U.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 6 (2014) E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : STAPHYLOCOCCUS-AUREUS RNAIII * SMALL NONCODING RNAS * SMALL REGULATORY RNA Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  3. Transcriptomics of aged Drosophila motor neurons reveals a matrix metalloproteinase that impairs motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpurua, Jorge; Mahoney, Rebekah E; Eaton, Benjamin A

    2018-04-01

    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is responsible for transforming nervous system signals into motor behavior and locomotion. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, an age-dependent decline in motor function occurs, analogous to the decline experienced in mice, humans, and other mammals. The molecular and cellular underpinnings of this decline are still poorly understood. By specifically profiling the transcriptome of Drosophila motor neurons across age using custom microarrays, we found that the expression of the matrix metalloproteinase 1 (dMMP1) gene reproducibly increased in motor neurons in an age-dependent manner. Modulation of physiological aging also altered the rate of dMMP1 expression, validating dMMP1 expression as a bona fide aging biomarker for motor neurons. Temporally controlled overexpression of dMMP1 specifically in motor neurons was sufficient to induce deficits in climbing behavior and cause a decrease in neurotransmitter release at neuromuscular synapses. These deficits were reversible if the dMMP1 expression was shut off again immediately after the onset of motor dysfunction. Additionally, repression of dMMP1 enzymatic activity via overexpression of a tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases delayed the onset of age-dependent motor dysfunction. MMPs are required for proper tissue architecture during development. Our results support the idea that matrix metalloproteinase 1 is acting as a downstream effector of antagonistic pleiotropy in motor neurons and is necessary for proper development, but deleterious when reactivated at an advanced age. © 2018 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. [Impact of aging on sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degauquier, C; Absil, A-S; Psalti, I; Meuris, S; Jurysta, F

    2012-01-01

    Numerous authors on sexual behaviors have studied the link between the persistence of a sexually active life and progressive aging. The knowledge of sexual health in the elderly has shown that biological sexual aging is extremely diverse and heterogeneous in men as well as in women, and contradicts the stereotype of age that would inevitably alter the sexual biological response in each human. Sexual diseases (lubrication, dyspareunia, erectile dysfunction, inability to achieve orgasm) and diseases of aging that impact sexual function have a growing incidence but don't never touch 100% of individuals. There is a decline in sexual interest correlated with the life-span, but the negative effects of age on desire are related to health problems. Moreover, sexual desire is more correlated with personal attitudes toward sexuality than with biological factors and diseases. Several predictors account for the pursuit of an active sexuality (including the presence of a partner, good health, having good sexual self-esteem, enjoyable past experience, an attitude that values the importance of sex in couple relationship), but the most decisive factor to successfully face the specific markers of aging is the ability to adapt to a more sensory sexuality, less focused on performance and coitus.

  5. Intra-tumor heterogeneity in breast cancer has limited impact on transcriptomic-based molecular profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Govindasamy-Muralidharan; Rantalainen, Mattias; Stålhammar, Gustav; Lövrot, John; Ullah, Ikram; Alkodsi, Amjad; Ma, Ran; Wedlund, Lena; Lindberg, Johan; Frisell, Jan; Bergh, Jonas; Hartman, Johan

    2017-11-29

    Transcriptomic profiling of breast tumors provides opportunity for subtyping and molecular-based patient stratification. In diagnostic applications the specimen profiled should be representative of the expression profile of the whole tumor and ideally capture properties of the most aggressive part of the tumor. However, breast cancers commonly exhibit intra-tumor heterogeneity at molecular, genomic and in phenotypic level, which can arise during tumor evolution. Currently it is not established to what extent a random sampling approach may influence molecular breast cancer diagnostics. In this study we applied RNA-sequencing to quantify gene expression in 43 pieces (2-5 pieces per tumor) from 12 breast tumors (Cohort 1). We determined molecular subtype and transcriptomic grade for all tumor pieces and analysed to what extent pieces originating from the same tumors are concordant or discordant with each other. Additionally, we validated our finding in an independent cohort consisting of 19 pieces (2-6 pieces per tumor) from 6 breast tumors (Cohort 2) profiled using microarray technique. Exome sequencing was also performed on this cohort, to investigate the extent of intra-tumor genomic heterogeneity versus the intra-tumor molecular subtype classifications. Molecular subtyping was consistent in 11 out of 12 tumors and transcriptomic grade assignments were consistent in 11 out of 12 tumors as well. Molecular subtype predictions revealed consistent subtypes in four out of six patients in this cohort 2. Interestingly, we observed extensive intra-tumor genomic heterogeneity in these tumor pieces but not in their molecular subtype classifications. Our results suggest that macroscopic intra-tumoral transcriptomic heterogeneity is limited and unlikely to have an impact on molecular diagnostics for most patients.

  6. Genome-wide transcriptomics of aging in the rotifer Brachionus manjavacas, an emerging model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Kristin E; Mark Welch, David B

    2017-03-01

    Understanding gene expression changes over lifespan in diverse animal species will lead to insights to conserved processes in the biology of aging and allow development of interventions to improve health. Rotifers are small aquatic invertebrates that have been used in aging studies for nearly 100 years and are now re-emerging as a modern model system. To provide a baseline to evaluate genetic responses to interventions that change health throughout lifespan and a framework for new hypotheses about the molecular genetic mechanisms of aging, we examined the transcriptome of an asexual female lineage of the rotifer Brachionus manjavacas at five life stages: eggs, neonates, and early-, late-, and post-reproductive adults. There are widespread shifts in gene expression over the lifespan of B. manjavacas; the largest change occurs between neonates and early reproductive adults and is characterized by down-regulation of developmental genes and up-regulation of genes involved in reproduction. The expression profile of post-reproductive adults was distinct from that of other life stages. While few genes were significantly differentially expressed in the late- to post-reproductive transition, gene set enrichment analysis revealed multiple down-regulated pathways in metabolism, maintenance and repair, and proteostasis, united by genes involved in mitochondrial function and oxidative phosphorylation. This study provides the first examination of changes in gene expression over lifespan in rotifers. We detected differential expression of many genes with human orthologs that are absent in Drosophila and C. elegans, highlighting the potential of the rotifer model in aging studies. Our findings suggest that small but coordinated changes in expression of many genes in pathways that integrate diverse functions drive the aging process. The observation of simultaneous declines in expression of genes in multiple pathways may have consequences for health and longevity not detected by

  7. Infertility diagnosis has a significant impact on the transcriptome of developing blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallie, Blair R; Parks, Jason C; Griffin, Darren K; Schoolcraft, William B; Katz-Jaffe, Mandy G

    2017-08-01

    Is the human blastocyst transcriptome associated with infertility diagnosis, specifically: polycystic ovaries (PCO), male factor (MF) and unexplained (UE)? The global blastocyst transcriptome was significantly altered in association with a PCO, MF and UE infertility diagnosis. Infertility diagnosis has an impact on the probability for a successful outcome following an IVF cycle. Limited information is known regarding the relationship between a specific infertility diagnosis and blastocyst transcription during preimplantation development. Blastocysts created during infertility treatment from patients with specific infertility diagnoses (PCO, MF and UE) were analyzed for global transcriptome compared to fertile donor oocyte blastocysts (control). Surplus cryopreserved blastocysts were donated with patient consent and institutional review board approval. Female patients were infertility diagnosis: PCO (n = 50), MF (n = 50), UE (n = 50) and fertile donor oocyte controls (n = 50). Pooled blastocysts were lysed for RNA isolation followed by microarray analysis using the SurePrint G3 Human Gene Expression Microarray. Validation was performed on significant genes of interest using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Transcription alterations were observed for all infertility etiologies compared to controls, resulting in differentially expressed genes: PCO = 869, MF = 348 and UE = 473 (P 2-fold). Functional annotation of biological and molecular processes revealed both similarities, as well as differences, across the infertility groups. All infertility etiologies displayed transcriptome alterations in signal transducer activity, receptor binding, reproduction, cell adhesion and response to stimulus. Blastocysts from PCO patients were also enriched for apoptotic genes while MF blastocysts displayed enrichment for genes involved in cancer processes. Blastocysts from couples with unexplained infertility displayed transcription alterations related to various disease states

  8. Quantitative assessment of biological impact using transcriptomic data and mechanistic network models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, Ty M.; Sewer, Alain; Martin, Florian; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Frushour, Brian P.; Gebel, Stephan; Park, Jennifer; Schlage, Walter K.; Talikka, Marja; Vasilyev, Dmitry M.; Westra, Jurjen W.; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to biologically active substances such as therapeutic drugs or environmental toxicants can impact biological systems at various levels, affecting individual molecules, signaling pathways, and overall cellular processes. The ability to derive mechanistic insights from the resulting system responses requires the integration of experimental measures with a priori knowledge about the system and the interacting molecules therein. We developed a novel systems biology-based methodology that leverages mechanistic network models and transcriptomic data to quantitatively assess the biological impact of exposures to active substances. Hierarchically organized network models were first constructed to provide a coherent framework for investigating the impact of exposures at the molecular, pathway and process levels. We then validated our methodology using novel and previously published experiments. For both in vitro systems with simple exposure and in vivo systems with complex exposures, our methodology was able to recapitulate known biological responses matching expected or measured phenotypes. In addition, the quantitative results were in agreement with experimental endpoint data for many of the mechanistic effects that were assessed, providing further objective confirmation of the approach. We conclude that our methodology evaluates the biological impact of exposures in an objective, systematic, and quantifiable manner, enabling the computation of a systems-wide and pan-mechanistic biological impact measure for a given active substance or mixture. Our results suggest that various fields of human disease research, from drug development to consumer product testing and environmental impact analysis, could benefit from using this methodology. - Highlights: • The impact of biologically active substances is quantified at multiple levels. • The systems-level impact integrates the perturbations of individual networks. • The networks capture the relationships between

  9. Impact of aging on radiation hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Fleetwood, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    Burn-in effects are used to demonstrate the potential impact of thermally activated aging effects on functional and parametric radiation hardness. These results have implications on hardness assurance testing. Techniques for characterizing aging effects are proposed

  10. Competence Classification of Cumulus and Granulosa Cell Transcriptome in Embryos Matched by Morphology and Female Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehannah Borup

    Full Text Available By focussing on differences in the mural granulosa cell (MGC and cumulus cell (CC transcriptomes from follicles resulting in competent (live birth and non-competent (no pregnancy oocytes the study aims on defining a competence classifier expression profile in the two cellular compartments.A case-control study.University based facilities for clinical services and research.MGC and CC samples from 60 women undergoing IVF treatment following the long GnRH-agonist protocol were collected. Samples from 16 oocytes where live birth was achieved and 16 age- and embryo morphology matched incompetent oocytes were included in the study.MGC and CC were isolated immediately after oocyte retrieval. From the 16 competent and non-competent follicles, mRNA was extracted and expression profile generated on the Human Gene 1.0 ST Affymetrix array. Live birth prediction analysis using machine learning algorithms (support vector machines with performance estimation by leave-one-out cross validation and independent validation on an external data set.We defined a signature of 30 genes expressed in CC predictive of live birth. This live birth prediction model had an accuracy of 81%, a sensitivity of 0.83, a specificity of 0.80, a positive predictive value of 0.77, and a negative predictive value of 0.86. Receiver operating characteristic analysis found an area under the curve of 0.86, significantly greater than random chance. When applied on 3 external data sets with the end-point outcome measure of blastocyst formation, the signature resulted in 62%, 75% and 88% accuracy, respectively. The genes in the classifier are primarily connected to apoptosis and involvement in formation of extracellular matrix. We were not able to define a robust MGC classifier signature that could classify live birth with accuracy above random chance level.We have developed a cumulus cell classifier, which showed a promising performance on external data. This suggests that the gene signature at

  11. Transcriptomic impacts of rumen epithelium induced by butyrate infusion in dairy cattle in dry period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transcriptomics and bioinformatics are utilized to accelerate our understanding of regulation in rumen epithelial transcriptome of cattle in the dry period induced by butyrate infusion. Butyrate, as an essential element of nutrients, is an HDAC inhibitor that can alter histone acetylation and methyl...

  12. In vitro fertilization and embryo culture strongly impact the placental transcriptome in the mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Fauque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART are increasingly used in humans; however, their impact is now questioned. At blastocyst stage, the trophectoderm is directly in contact with an artificial medium environment, which can impact placental development. This study was designed to carry out an in-depth analysis of the placental transcriptome after ART in mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blastocysts were transferred either (1 after in vivo fertilization and development (control group or (2 after in vitro fertilization and embryo culture. Placentas were then analyzed at E10.5. Six percent of transcripts were altered at the two-fold threshold in placentas of manipulated embryos, 2/3 of transcripts being down-regulated. Strikingly, the X-chromosome harbors 11% of altered genes, 2/3 being induced. Imprinted genes were modified similarly to the X. Promoter composition analysis indicates that FOXA transcription factors may be involved in the transcriptional deregulations. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, our study shows that in vitro fertilization associated with embryo culture strongly modify the placental expression profile, long after embryo manipulations, meaning that the stress of artificial environment is memorized after implantation. Expression of X and imprinted genes is also greatly modulated probably to adapt to adverse conditions. Our results highlight the importance of studying human placentas from ART.

  13. Impact papers on aging in 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V; Campisi, Judy; Sinclair, David A

    2010-01-01

    The Editorial Board of Aging reviews research papers published in 2009, which they believe have or will have significant impact on aging research. Among many others, the topics include genes that accelerate aging or in contrast promote longevity in model organisms, DNA damage responses and telome...

  14. Density Stress has Minimal Impacts on the Barley or Maize Seedling Transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summer St. Pierre

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available High planting density affects the morphology and productivity of many crop species. Our objectives were to examine the phenotypic and transcriptomic changes that occur during plant density stress in barley ( L. and maize ( L. seedlings. In maize and barley seedlings, density stress impacted several morphological traits. Gene expression profiles were examined in four barley and five maize genotypes grown at low and high plant densities. Only 221 barley and 35 maize genes exhibited differential expression in response to plant density stress. The majority of the gene expression changes were observed in a subset of the genotypes and reflected minor changes in the level of expression, indicating that the plant density stress imposed in this study did not result in major changes in gene expression. Also, little overlap was observed within barley or maize genotypes in gene expression during density stress, indicating that genotypic differences play a major role in the response to density stress. While it is clear that gene expression differences are involved in morphological changes induced by high plant densities, it is likely that many of these gene expression differences are subtle and restricted to particular tissues and developmental time.

  15. Impact of traumatic brain injury on sleep structure, electrocorticographic activity and transcriptome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Meriem; Gaudreault, Pierre-Olivier; Freyburger, Marlène; Massart, Renaud; Blanchet-Cohen, Alexis; Jaber, Manar; Gosselin, Nadia; Mongrain, Valérie

    2015-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI), including mild TBI (mTBI), is importantly associated with vigilance and sleep complaints. Because sleep is required for learning, plasticity and recovery, we here evaluated the bidirectional relationship between mTBI and sleep with two specific objectives: (1) Test that mTBI rapidly impairs sleep-wake architecture and the dynamics of the electrophysiological marker of sleep homeostasis (i.e., non-rapid eye movement sleep delta (1-4Hz) activity); (2) evaluate the impact of sleep loss following mTBI on the expression of plasticity markers that have been linked to sleep homeostasis and on genome-wide gene expression. A closed-head injury model was used to perform a 48h electrocorticographic (ECoG) recording in mice submitted to mTBI or Sham surgery. mTBI was found to immediately decrease the capacity to sustain long bouts of wakefulness as well as the amplitude of the time course of ECoG delta activity during wakefulness. Significant changes in ECoG spectral activity during wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement and rapid eye movement sleep were observed mainly on the second recorded day. A second experiment was performed to measure gene expression in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus after a mTBI followed either by two consecutive days of 6h sleep deprivation (SD) or of undisturbed behavior (quantitative PCR and next-generation sequencing). mTBI modified the expression of genes involved in immunity, inflammation and glial function (e.g., chemokines, glial markers) and SD changed that of genes linked to circadian rhythms, synaptic activity/neuronal plasticity, neuroprotection and cell death and survival. SD appeared to affect gene expression in the cerebral cortex more importantly after mTBI than Sham surgery including that of the astrocytic marker Gfap, which was proposed as a marker of clinical outcome after TBI. Interestingly, SD impacted the hippocampal expression of the plasticity elements Arc and EfnA3 only after mTBI. Overall, our

  16. Meta-Analysis on Blood Transcriptomic Studies Identifies Consistently Co-Expressed PPI Modules as Robust Markers of Human Ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, E.B.; Passtoors, W.M.; Jansen, R.; van Zwet, E.W.; Goeman, J.J.; Hulsman, M.; Emilsson, V.; Perola, M.; Willemsen, G.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Heijmans, B.T.; Maier, A.B.; Boomsma, D.I.; Kok, J.N.; Slagboom, P.E.; Reinders, M.J.T.; Beekman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary: The bodily decline that occurs with advancing age strongly impacts on the prospects for future health and life expectancy. Despite the profound role of age in disease etiology, knowledge about the molecular mechanisms driving the process of aging in humans is limited. Here, we used an

  17. Impact of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus versus a mixed microbial inoculum on the transcriptome reprogramming of grapevine roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Raffaella; Salvioli, Alessandra; Dal Molin, Alessandra; Novero, Mara; Gabelli, Giovanni; Paparelli, Eleonora; Marroni, Fabio; Bonfante, Paola

    2017-07-01

    Grapevine, cultivated for both fruit and beverage production, represents one of the most economically important fruit crops worldwide. With the aim of better understanding how grape roots respond to beneficial microbes, a transcriptome sequencing experiment has been performed to evaluate the impact of a single arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal species (Funneliformis mosseae) versus a mixed inoculum containing a bacterial and fungal consortium, including different AM species, on Richter 110 rootstock. Results showed that the impact of a single AM fungus and of a complex microbial inoculum on the grapevine transcriptome differed. After 3 months, roots exclusively were colonized after the F. mosseae treatment and several AM marker genes were found to be upregulated. The mixed inoculum led only to traces of colonization by AM fungi, but elicited an important transcriptional regulation. Additionally, the expression of genes belonging to categories such as nutrient transport, transcription factors, and cell wall-related genes was significantly altered in both treatments, but the exact genes affected differed in the two conditions. These findings advance our understanding about the impact of soil beneficial microbes on the root system of a woody plant, also offering the basis for novel approaches in grapevine cultivation.

  18. Impact of renal aging on drug therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Carlos G; Belloso, Waldo H; Scibona, Paula; Bellizzi, Vincenzo; Macías Núñez, Juan F

    2015-08-01

    Elderly patients (age ≥ 65 years old) use up to 30% of all commonly prescribed medication, and they suffer more their adverse effects than the general population. In order to minimize this risk, physicians should avoid polypharmacy, dangerous pharmacological interactions and take into account pharmacodynamic and senile pharmacokinetic changes before prescribing any medication to the elderly. The present review article originally describes how renal physiology changes secondary to aging such as dysautonomia, glomerular filtration rate reduction, tubular back-filtration, sodium, calcium and magnesium loss, potassium retention, altered dilution-concentration capability, tubular frailty, genetics, internal milieu and body composition are senile changes that when combined predispose elderly people to suffer from pharmacological adverse effects. Knowledge of these physiological modifications associated with aging and their impact on the pharmacology of particular drugs may help to optimize drug use and to avoid complications in this age group.

  19. Slowed aging during reproductive dormancy is reflected in genome-wide transcriptome changes in Drosophila melanogaster

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kucerova, L.; Kubrak, O.I.; Bengtsson, J.M.; Strnad, Hynek; Nylin, S.; Theopold, U.; Nassel, D.R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, JAN 13 (2016), č. článku 50. ISSN 1471-2164 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : mosquito culex-pipiens * insulin-like peptide * extends life-span * follicle cell-differentiation * gene-expression * jak/stat pathway * signaling pathway * oxidative stress * immune-response * caenorhabditis-elegans Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.729, year: 2016

  20. Transcriptome Remodeling of Differentiated Cells during Chronological Ageing of Yeast Colonies: New Insights into Metabolic Differentiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wilkinson, D.; Maršíková, J.; Hlaváček, Otakar; Gilfillan, G.D.; Ježková, E.; Aalokken, R.; Váchová, Libuše; Palková, Z.

    (2018), č. článku 4932905. ISSN 1942-0900 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14083; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08225S; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : BIDIRECTIONAL PROMOTERS * RETROGRADE RESPONSE * NONCODING RNA Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.593, year: 2016

  1. Aging and Intermittent Fasting Impact on Transcriptional Regulation and Physiological Responses of Adult Drosophila Neuronal and Muscle Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sharon; Ratliff, Eric P; Molina, Brandon; El-Mecharrafie, Nadja; Mastroianni, Jessica; Kotzebue, Roxanne W; Achal, Madhulika; Mauntz, Ruth E; Gonzalez, Arysa; Barekat, Ayeh; Bray, William A; Macias, Andrew M; Daugherty, Daniel; Harris, Greg L; Edwards, Robert A; Finley, Kim D

    2018-04-10

    The progressive decline of the nervous system, including protein aggregate formation, reflects the subtle dysregulation of multiple functional pathways. Our previous work has shown intermittent fasting (IF) enhances longevity, maintains adult behaviors and reduces aggregates, in part, by promoting autophagic function in the aging Drosophila brain. To clarify the impact that IF-treatment has upon aging, we used high throughput RNA-sequencing technology to examine the changing transcriptome in adult Drosophila tissues. Principle component analysis (PCA) and other analyses showed ~1200 age-related transcriptional differences in head and muscle tissues, with few genes having matching expression patterns. Pathway components showing age-dependent expression differences were involved with stress response, metabolic, neural and chromatin remodeling functions. Middle-aged tissues also showed a significant increase in transcriptional drift-variance (TD), which in the CNS included multiple proteolytic pathway components. Overall, IF-treatment had a demonstrably positive impact on aged transcriptomes, partly ameliorating both fold and variance changes. Consistent with these findings, aged IF-treated flies displayed more youthful metabolic, behavioral and basal proteolytic profiles that closely correlated with transcriptional alterations to key components. These results indicate that even modest dietary changes can have therapeutic consequences, slowing the progressive decline of multiple cellular systems, including proteostasis in the aging nervous system.

  2. Aging and Intermittent Fasting Impact on Transcriptional Regulation and Physiological Responses of Adult Drosophila Neuronal and Muscle Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The progressive decline of the nervous system, including protein aggregate formation, reflects the subtle dysregulation of multiple functional pathways. Our previous work has shown intermittent fasting (IF enhances longevity, maintains adult behaviors and reduces aggregates, in part, by promoting autophagic function in the aging Drosophila brain. To clarify the impact that IF-treatment has upon aging, we used high throughput RNA-sequencing technology to examine the changing transcriptome in adult Drosophila tissues. Principle component analysis (PCA and other analyses showed ~1200 age-related transcriptional differences in head and muscle tissues, with few genes having matching expression patterns. Pathway components showing age-dependent expression differences were involved with stress response, metabolic, neural and chromatin remodeling functions. Middle-aged tissues also showed a significant increase in transcriptional drift-variance (TD, which in the CNS included multiple proteolytic pathway components. Overall, IF-treatment had a demonstrably positive impact on aged transcriptomes, partly ameliorating both fold and variance changes. Consistent with these findings, aged IF-treated flies displayed more youthful metabolic, behavioral and basal proteolytic profiles that closely correlated with transcriptional alterations to key components. These results indicate that even modest dietary changes can have therapeutic consequences, slowing the progressive decline of multiple cellular systems, including proteostasis in the aging nervous system.

  3. Competence classification of cumulus and granulosa cell transcriptome in embryos matched by morphology and female age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Rehannah; Thuesen, Lea Langhoff; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2016-01-01

    compartments. DESIGN: A case-control study. SETTING: University based facilities for clinical services and research. PATIENTS: MGC and CC samples from 60 women undergoing IVF treatment following the long GnRH-agonist protocol were collected. Samples from 16 oocytes where live birth was achieved and 16 age...... prediction analysis using machine learning algorithms (support vector machines) with performance estimation by leave-one-out cross validation and independent validation on an external data set. RESULTS: We defined a signature of 30 genes expressed in CC predictive of live birth. This live birth prediction...

  4. Evaluation of the impact of RNA preservation methods of spiders for de novo transcriptome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Nobuaki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yusuke; Tomita, Masaru; Arakawa, Kazuharu

    2016-05-01

    With advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies, de novo transcriptome sequencing and assembly has become a cost-effective method to obtain comprehensive genetic information of a species of interest, especially in nonmodel species with large genomes such as spiders. However, high-quality RNA is essential for successful sequencing, and sample preservation conditions require careful consideration for the effective storage of field-collected samples. To this end, we report a streamlined feasibility study of various storage conditions and their effects on de novo transcriptome assembly results. The storage parameters considered include temperatures ranging from room temperature to -80°C; preservatives, including ethanol, RNAlater, TRIzol and RNAlater-ICE; and sample submersion states. As a result, intact RNA was extracted and assembly was successful when samples were preserved at low temperatures regardless of the type of preservative used. The assemblies as well as the gene expression profiles were shown to be robust to RNA degradation, when 30 million 150-bp paired-end reads are obtained. The parameters for sample storage, RNA extraction, library preparation, sequencing and in silico assembly considered in this work provide a guideline for the study of field-collected samples of spiders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Transcriptome-wide comparison of the impact of Atoh1 and miR-183 family on pluripotent stem cells and multipotent otic progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ebeid

    Full Text Available Over 5% of the global population suffers from disabling hearing loss caused by multiple factors including aging, noise exposure, genetic predisposition, or use of ototoxic drugs. Sensorineural hearing loss is often caused by the loss of sensory hair cells (HCs of the inner ear. A barrier to hearing restoration after HC loss is the limited ability of mammalian auditory HCs to spontaneously regenerate. Understanding the molecular mechanisms orchestrating HC development is expected to facilitate cell replacement therapies. Multiple events are known to be essential for proper HC development including the expression of Atoh1 transcription factor and the miR-183 family. We have developed a series of vectors expressing the miR-183 family and/or Atoh1 that was used to transfect two different developmental cell models: pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs and immortalized multipotent otic progenitor (iMOP cells representing an advanced developmental stage. Transcriptome profiling of transfected cells show that the impact of Atoh1 is contextually dependent with more HC-specific effects on iMOP cells. miR-183 family expression in combination with Atoh1 not only appears to fine tune gene expression in favor of HC fate, but is also required for the expression of some HC-specific genes. Overall, the work provides novel insight into the combined role of Atoh1 and the miR-183 family during HC development that may ultimately inform strategies to promote HC regeneration or maintenance.

  6. Transcriptome-wide comparison of the impact of Atoh1 and miR-183 family on pluripotent stem cells and multipotent otic progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeid, Michael; Sripal, Prashanth; Pecka, Jason; Beisel, Kirk W; Kwan, Kelvin; Soukup, Garrett A

    2017-01-01

    Over 5% of the global population suffers from disabling hearing loss caused by multiple factors including aging, noise exposure, genetic predisposition, or use of ototoxic drugs. Sensorineural hearing loss is often caused by the loss of sensory hair cells (HCs) of the inner ear. A barrier to hearing restoration after HC loss is the limited ability of mammalian auditory HCs to spontaneously regenerate. Understanding the molecular mechanisms orchestrating HC development is expected to facilitate cell replacement therapies. Multiple events are known to be essential for proper HC development including the expression of Atoh1 transcription factor and the miR-183 family. We have developed a series of vectors expressing the miR-183 family and/or Atoh1 that was used to transfect two different developmental cell models: pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and immortalized multipotent otic progenitor (iMOP) cells representing an advanced developmental stage. Transcriptome profiling of transfected cells show that the impact of Atoh1 is contextually dependent with more HC-specific effects on iMOP cells. miR-183 family expression in combination with Atoh1 not only appears to fine tune gene expression in favor of HC fate, but is also required for the expression of some HC-specific genes. Overall, the work provides novel insight into the combined role of Atoh1 and the miR-183 family during HC development that may ultimately inform strategies to promote HC regeneration or maintenance.

  7. Memory and aging: What is the real impact of age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Espirito-Santo

    2016-09-01

    Results. Overall, age, education, profession, marital, residential, and clinical condition have differently influenced memory, depending on the type of memory. The hierarchical regression analysis showed that age is a predictive factor in all types of memory. However, other predictors have emerged with higher regression coefficients compared to age, according to the type of memory (except in working memory. Conclusions. Age, education and profession influence memory, as well as factors that potentially stimulate cognitively and socially (like having a partner and living in the community. The results indicate the importance of intervening, especially among institutionalized elderly, older, unmarried, with low education, and manual profession.

  8. Impact of male fertility status on the transcriptome of the bovine epididymis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Légaré, Christine; Akintayo, Ayodélé; Blondin, Patrick; Calvo, Ezequiel; Sullivan, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Can region-specific transcriptional profiling of the epididymis from fertile and sub-fertile bulls predict the etiology of fertility/sub-fertility in males? The highly regulated gene expression along the bovine epididymis is affected by the fertility status of bulls used for artificial insemination. In mammals, sperm maturation and storage occur in the epididymis. Each epididymal segment has his own transcriptomic signature that modulates the intraluminal composition and consequently governs sequential modifications of the maturing male gamete. Epididymides from six Holstein bulls with documented fertility were used. These bulls were divided into two groups: high fertility (n = 3), and medium-low fertility (n = 3) and their epididymal transcriptomic profiles were analyzed. Bovine cDNA microarray probing and bioinformatic tools were used to identify genes that are differentially expressed in caput, corpus and cauda epididymidal tissues of bulls with the documented fertility index. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis revealed a clear separation between caput, corpus and cauda epididymides. Some transcripts characterize a particular anatomical segment, whereas others are expressed in two out of three epididymal segments. Gene ontology analysis allowed deduction of specific functions played by each epididymal segment. The transcriptional profiles between fertile versus sub-fertile conditions clustered most closely in the corpus and cauda segments, whereas the profiles in the caput segment were distinct between fertile and sub-fertile bulls. Of the differently expressed genes, 10 (AKAP4, SMCP, SPATA3, TCP11, ODF1, CTCFL, SPATA18, ADAM28, SORD and FAM161A) were found to exert functions related to reproductive systems and 5 genes (DEAD, CYST11, DEFB119, DEFB124 and MX1) were found to be associated with the defense response. The GEO number for public access of bovine epididymis microarray data is GSE96602. Further work is required to link these

  9. Transcriptome-wide effects of inverted SINEs on gene expression and their impact on RNA polymerase II activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajaddod, Mansoureh; Tanzer, Andrea; Licht, Konstantin; Wolfinger, Michael T; Badelt, Stefan; Huber, Florian; Pusch, Oliver; Schopoff, Sandy; Janisiw, Michael; Hofacker, Ivo; Jantsch, Michael F

    2016-10-25

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) represent the most abundant group of non-long-terminal repeat transposable elements in mammalian genomes. In primates, Alu elements are the most prominent and homogenous representatives of SINEs. Due to their frequent insertion within or close to coding regions, SINEs have been suggested to play a crucial role during genome evolution. Moreover, Alu elements within mRNAs have also been reported to control gene expression at different levels. Here, we undertake a genome-wide analysis of insertion patterns of human Alus within transcribed portions of the genome. Multiple, nearby insertions of SINEs within one transcript are more abundant in tandem orientation than in inverted orientation. Indeed, analysis of transcriptome-wide expression levels of 15 ENCODE cell lines suggests a cis-repressive effect of inverted Alu elements on gene expression. Using reporter assays, we show that the negative effect of inverted SINEs on gene expression is independent of known sensors of double-stranded RNAs. Instead, transcriptional elongation seems impaired, leading to reduced mRNA levels. Our study suggests that there is a bias against multiple SINE insertions that can promote intramolecular base pairing within a transcript. Moreover, at a genome-wide level, mRNAs harboring inverted SINEs are less expressed than mRNAs harboring single or tandemly arranged SINEs. Finally, we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which inverted SINEs can impact on gene expression by interfering with RNA polymerase II.

  10. Impact of SO(2) on Arabidopsis thaliana transcriptome in wildtype and sulfite oxidase knockout plants analyzed by RNA deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamisch, Domenica; Randewig, Dörte; Schliesky, Simon; Bräutigam, Andrea; Weber, Andreas P M; Geffers, Robert; Herschbach, Cornelia; Rennenberg, Heinz; Mendel, Ralf R; Hänsch, Robert

    2012-12-01

    High concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO(2) ) as an air pollutant, and its derivative sulfite, cause abiotic stress that can lead to cell death. It is currently unknown to what extent plant fumigation triggers specific transcriptional responses. To address this question, and to test the hypothesis that sulfite oxidase (SO) is acting in SO(2) detoxification, we compared Arabidopsis wildtype (WT) and SO knockout lines (SO-KO) facing the impact of 600 nl l(-1) SO(2) , using RNAseq to quantify absolute transcript abundances. These transcriptome data were correlated to sulfur metabolism-related enzyme activities and metabolites obtained from identical samples in a previous study. SO-KO plants exhibited remarkable and broad regulative responses at the mRNA level, especially in transcripts related to sulfur metabolism enzymes, but also in those related to stress response and senescence. Focusing on SO regulation, no alterations were detectable in the WT, whereas in SO-KO plants we found up-regulation of two splice variants of the SO gene, although this gene is not functional in this line. Our data provide evidence for the highly specific coregulation between SO and sulfur-related enzymes like APS reductase, and suggest two novel candidates for involvement in SO(2) detoxification: an apoplastic peroxidase, and defensins as putative cysteine mass storages. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Lung Transcriptome Data from Chickens with Newcastle Disease Virus--Impact of Gender Immune Response

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — To determine the gender impact on the immune response of chickens, the mRNA was isolated and sequenced from the lungs of 48 chickens of 2 lines as three time-points...

  12. Impact of nutrition on the ageing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, John C

    2015-01-01

    Human life expectancy has been increasing steadily for almost two centuries and is now approximately double what it was at the beginning of the Victorian era. This remarkable demographic change has been accompanied by a shift in disease prevalence so that age is now the major determinant of most common diseases. The challenge is to enhance healthy ageing and to reduce the financial and social burdens associated with chronic ill health in later life. Studies in model organisms have demonstrated that the ageing phenotype arises because of the accumulation of macromolecular damage within the cell and that the ageing process is plastic. Nutritional interventions that reduce such damage, or which enhance the organism's capacity to repair damage, lead to greater longevity and to reduced risk of age-related diseases. Dietary (energy) restriction increases lifespan in several model organisms, but it is uncertain whether it is effective in primates, including humans. However, excess energy storage leading to increased adiposity is a risk factor for premature mortality and for age-related diseases so that obesity prevention is likely to be a major public health route to healthy ageing. In addition, adherence to healthy eating patterns, such as the Mediterranean dietary pattern, is associated with longevity and reduced risk of age-related diseases.

  13. Growth-rate regulated genes have profound impact on interpretation of transcriptome profiling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regenberg, Birgitte; Grotkjær, Thomas; Winther, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Growth rate is central to the development of cells in all organisms. However, little is known about the impact of changing growth rates. We used continuous cultures to control growth rate and studied the transcriptional program of the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with generation time...

  14. The Impact of Aging on Human Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienzo, Barbara A.

    1985-01-01

    Lay persons and professionals need to be educated on the effects of aging on human sexuality. Effective communication techniques and accurate sexuality information can lead to prevention of psychosocial problems and sexual dysfunction. (Author/DF)

  15. The impact of heat stress targeting on the hormonal and transcriptomic response in Arabidopsis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobrá, Jana; Černý, M.; Štorchová, Helena; Dobrev, Petre; Skalák, J.; Jedelský, P.L.; Lukšanová, Hana; Gaudinová, Alena; Pešek, Bedřich; Malbeck, Jiří; Vaněk, Tomáš; Brzobohatý, Břetislav; Vaňková, Radomíra

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 231, FEB 2015 (2015), s. 52-61 ISSN 0168-9452 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/2062; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11048; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : Abscisic acid * Cytokinin * Heat stress Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.362, year: 2015

  16. The impact of aging on regional employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Torben Dall; Mitze, Timo Friedel; Kangasharju, Aki

    2014-01-01

    Ageing is a key challenge for many countries. The purpose of this paper is to simulate how ageing affects future regional labour market outcomes. We develop a simulation procedure based on data for 71 Nordic regions in Finland, Norway, Sweden and Denmark. The procedure combines spatial econometrics...... and population projections for scenario analyses of future employment patterns up to 2021. Compared to a “benchmark scenario” based on projections of the working age population, we find that predicted regional labour market outcomes tell a much richer story if a combination of estimation results and population...... projections is used. To this end, our results can be helpful for economic policymaking, which is constantly in need of accurate regional labor market forecasts....

  17. Transcriptomics of maternal and fetal membranes can discriminate between gestational-age matched preterm neonates with and without cognitive impairment diagnosed at 18-24 months.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athina Pappas

    Full Text Available Neurocognitive impairment among children born preterm may arise from complex interactions between genes and the intra-uterine environment.(1 To characterize the transcriptomic profiles of chorioamniotic membranes in preterm neonates with and without neurocognitive impairment via microarrays and (2 to determine if neonates with neurocognitive impairment can be identified at birth.A retrospective case-control study was conducted to examine the chorioamniotic transcriptome of gestational-age matched very preterm neonates with and without neurocognitive impairment at 18-24 months' corrected-age defined by a Bayley-III Cognitive Composite Score 1.5; 2 Gene ontology analysis indicated enrichment of 19 biological processes and 3 molecular functions; 3PADOG identified 4 significantly perturbed KEGG pathways: oxidative phosphorylation, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease (q-value <0.1; 4 48 of 90 selected differentially expressed genes were confirmed by qRT-PCR, including genes implicated in energy metabolism, neuronal signaling, vascular permeability and response to injury (e.g., up-regulation of SEPP1, APOE, DAB2, CD163, CXCL12, VWF; down-regulation of HAND1, OSR1(p<0.05; and 5 a multi-gene model predicted 18-24 month neurocognitive impairment (using the ratios of OSR1/VWF and HAND1/VWF at birth in a larger, independent set (sensitivity = 74%, at specificity = 83%.Gene expression patterns in the chorioamniotic membranes link neurocognitive impairment in preterm infants to neurodegenerative disease pathways and might be used to predict neurocognitive impairment. Further prospective studies are needed.

  18. Impact of maternal high fat diet on hypothalamic transcriptome in neonatal Sprague Dawley rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Barrand

    Full Text Available Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during early development has been shown to impact the formation of hypothalamic neurocircuitry, thereby contributing to imbalances in appetite and energy homeostasis and increasing the risk of obesity in subsequent generations. Early in postnatal life, the neuronal projections responsible for energy homeostasis develop in response to appetite-related peptides such as leptin. To date, no study characterises the genome-wide transcriptional changes that occur in response to exposure to high fat diet during this critical window. We explored the effects of maternal high fat diet consumption on hypothalamic gene expression in Sprague Dawley rat offspring at postnatal day 10. RNA-sequencing enabled discovery of differentially expressed genes between offspring of dams fed a high fat diet and offspring of control diet fed dams. Female high fat diet offspring displayed altered expression of 86 genes (adjusted P-value<0.05, including genes coding for proteins of the extra cellular matrix, particularly Collagen 1a1 (Col1a1, Col1a2, Col3a1, and the imprinted Insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2 gene. Male high fat diet offspring showed significant changes in collagen genes (Col1a1 and Col3a1 and significant upregulation of two genes involved in regulation of dopamine availability in the brain, tyrosine hydroxylase (Th and dopamine reuptake transporter Slc6a3 (also known as Dat1. Transcriptional changes were accompanied by increased body weight, body fat and body length in the high fat diet offspring, as well as altered blood glucose and plasma leptin. Transcriptional changes identified in the hypothalamus of offspring of high fat diet mothers could alter neuronal projection formation during early development leading to abnormalities in the neuronal circuitry controlling appetite in later life, hence priming offspring to the development of obesity.

  19. Impact of Aging Brain Circuits on Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Rachel D.; Barnes, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Brain networks that engage the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex are central for enabling effective interactions with our environment. Some of the cognitive processes that these structures mediate, such as encoding and retrieving episodic experience, wayfinding, working memory and attention are known to be altered across the lifespan. As illustrated by examples given below, there is remarkable consistency across species in the pattern of age-related neural and cognitive change observed in healthy humans and other animals. These include changes in cognitive operations that are known to be dependent on the hippocampus, as well as those requiring intact prefrontal cortical circuits. Certain cognitive constructs that reflect the function of these areas lend themselves to investigation across species allowing brain mechanisms at different levels of analysis to be studied in greater depth. PMID:23773059

  20. Transcriptome analysis in oak uncovers a strong impact of endogenous rhythmic growth on the interaction with plant-parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maboreke, Hazel R; Feldhahn, Lasse; Bönn, Markus; Tarkka, Mika T; Buscot, Francois; Herrmann, Sylvie; Menzel, Ralph; Ruess, Liliane

    2016-08-12

    Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.), an important forest tree in temperate ecosystems, displays an endogenous rhythmic growth pattern, characterized by alternating shoot and root growth flushes paralleled by oscillations in carbon allocation to below- and aboveground tissues. However, these common plant traits so far have largely been neglected as a determining factor for the outcome of plant biotic interactions. This study investigates the response of oak to migratory root-parasitic nematodes in relation to rhythmic growth, and how this plant-nematode interaction is modulated by an ectomycorrhizal symbiont. Oaks roots were inoculated with the nematode Pratylenchus penetrans solely and in combination with the fungus Piloderma croceum, and the systemic impact on oak plants was assessed by RNA transcriptomic profiles in leaves. The response of oaks to the plant-parasitic nematode was strongest during shoot flush, with a 16-fold increase in the number of differentially expressed genes as compared to root flush. Multi-layered defence mechanisms were induced at shoot flush, comprising upregulation of reactive oxygen species formation, hormone signalling (e.g. jasmonic acid synthesis), and proteins involved in the shikimate pathway. In contrast during root flush production of glycerolipids involved in signalling cascades was repressed, suggesting that P. penetrans actively suppressed host defence. With the presence of the mycorrhizal symbiont, the gene expression pattern was vice versa with a distinctly stronger effect of P. penetrans at root flush, including attenuated defence, cell and carbon metabolism, likely a response to the enhanced carbon sink strength in roots induced by the presence of both, nematode and fungus. Meanwhile at shoot flush, when nutrients are retained in aboveground tissue, oak defence reactions, such as altered photosynthesis and sugar pathways, diminished. The results highlight that gene response patterns of plants to biotic interactions, both

  1. Impact of external pneumatic compression target inflation pressure on transcriptome-wide RNA expression in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey S; Kephart, Wesley C; Haun, Cody T; McCloskey, Anna E; Shake, Joshua J; Mobley, Christopher B; Goodlett, Michael D; Kavazis, Andreas; Pascoe, David D; Zhang, Lee; Roberts, Michael D

    2016-11-01

    Next-generation RNA sequencing was employed to determine the acute and subchronic impact of peristaltic pulse external pneumatic compression (PEPC) of different target inflation pressures on global gene expression in human vastus lateralis skeletal muscle biopsy samples. Eighteen (N = 18) male participants were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: (1) sham (n = 6), 2) EPC at 30-40 mmHg (LP-EPC; n = 6), and 3) EPC at 70-80 mmHg (MP-EPC; n = 6). One hour treatment with sham/EPC occurred for seven consecutive days. Vastus lateralis skeletal muscle biopsies were performed at baseline (before first treatment; PRE), 1 h following the first treatment (POST1), and 24 h following the last (7th) treatment (POST2). Changes from PRE in gene expression were analyzed via paired comparisons within each group. Genes were filtered to include only those that had an RPKM ≥ 1.0, a fold-change of ≥1.5 and a paired t-test value of <0.01. For the sham condition, two genes at POST1 and one gene at POST2 were significantly altered. For the LP-EPC condition, nine genes were up-regulated and 0 genes were down-regulated at POST1 while 39 genes were up-regulated and one gene down-regulated at POST2. For the MP-EPC condition, two genes were significantly up-regulated and 21 genes were down-regulated at POST1 and 0 genes were altered at POST2. Both LP-EPC and MP-EPC acutely alter skeletal muscle gene expression, though only LP-EPC appeared to affect gene expression with subchronic application. Moreover, the transcriptome response to EPC demonstrated marked heterogeneity (i.e., genes and directionality) with different target inflation pressures. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  2. Fake Statistically Valid Isotopic Ages in Impact Crater Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdan, F.; Schmieder, M.; McWilliams, M. M.; Buchner, E.

    2009-05-01

    Precise dating of impact structures is crucial in several fundamental aspects, such as correlating effects on the bio- and geosphere caused by these catastrophic processes. Among the 176 listed impact structures [1], only 25 have a stated age precision better than ± 2%. Statistical investigation of these 25 ages showed that 11 ages are accurate, 12 are at best ambiguous, and 2 are not well characterized [2]. In this study, we show that even with statistically valid isotope ages, the age of an impact can be "missed" by several hundred millions of years. We present a new 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of 444 ± 4 Ma for the Acraman structure (real age ˜590 Ma [3]) and four plateau ages ranging from 81.07 ± 0.76 Ma to 74.6 ± 1.5 Ma for the Brent structure (estimated real age ˜453 Ma [4]). In addition, we discuss a 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of 994 ± 11, recently obtained by [5] on the Dhala structure (real age ˜2.0 Ga [5]). Despite careful sample preparations (single grain handpicking and HF leaching, in order to remove alteration phases), these results are much younger than the impact ages. Petrographic observations show that Acraman and Dhala grain separates all have an orange color and show evidence of alteration. This suggests that these ages are the results of hydrothermal events that triggered intensive 40Ar* loss and crystallization of secondary phases. More intriguing are the Brent samples (glassy melt rocks obtained from a drill core) that appeared very fresh under the microscope. The Brent glass might be a Cretaceous pseudotachylite generated by a late adjustment of the structure and/or by a local earthquake. Because we know the approximate age of the craters with stratigraphic evidences, these outliers are easy to identify. However, this is a red flag for any uncritical interpretation of isotopic ages (including e.g., 40Ar/39Ar, U/Pb, or U-Th/He [6]). In this paper, we encourage a multi-technique approach (i.e., isotopic, stratigraphic, paleogeographic [7,8]) and

  3. Impact of Chronic Diseases on Work Ability in Ageing Firefighters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plat, Marie-Christine J.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2012-01-01

    Impact of Chronic Diseases on Work Ability in Ageing Firefighters: Marie-Christine J PLAT, et al. Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Coronel Institute of Occupational Health, The Netherlands-Objectives: The aim of this study was to study the impact of chronic diseases on

  4. The impact of population ageing on future Danish drug expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach

    expenditure among the elderly partly is due the high "costs of dying". Aims The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of the ageing Danish population on future total expenditures on out-of-hospital prescription drugs and to describe the association between age and drug expenditure among survivors......Background Population ageing is likely to place an increasing burden on future health care budgets. Several studies have demonstrated that the impact of ageing on future hospital expenditures will be overestimated when not accounting for proximity to death. This is because greater health care...... compared to that of decedents. Methods Taking expenditure during the last year of life and the changes in mortality rates into account, future drug expenditure was projected by multiplying estimated mean annual drug expenditure according to age, gender and survival status by the predicted future number...

  5. Impact of genomic damage and ageing on stem cell function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Axel; van Deursen, Jan M.; Rudolph, K. Lenhard; Schumacher, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Impairment of stem cell function contributes to the progressive deterioration of tissue maintenance and repair with ageing. Evidence is mounting that age-dependent accumulation of DNA damage in both stem cells and cells that comprise the stem cell microenvironment are partly responsible for stem cell dysfunction with ageing. Here, we review the impact of the various types of DNA damage that accumulate with ageing on stem cell functionality, as well as the development of cancer. We discuss DNA-damage-induced cell intrinsic and extrinsic alterations that influence these processes, and review recent advances in understanding systemic adjustments to DNA damage and how they affect stem cells. PMID:24576896

  6. Functional ability at age 75: is there an impact of physical inactivity from middle age to early old age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Støvring, N; Schultz-Larsen, K

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of physical inactivity from middle age to early old age on functional ability at age 75. Physical activity is measured both as cumulated activity from age 50 to 60 to 70 and at three separate points in time. Three hundred eighty-seven men and women...... born in 1914 and living in seven municipalities in the western part of the County of Copenhagen were followed for 25 years with examinations in 1964, 1974, 1984 and 1989. Analyses were conducted with physical inactivity as an independent variable (accumulated and separately for each point in time......) and smoking, sex, school education, household composition, chronic disease at baseline and functional ability at age 70 as possible confounders. There was a strong association between physical inactivity at age 70 and disability at age 75. However, the analyses showed no effect of cumulated physical...

  7. Regional Impact of Population Aging on Changes in Individual Self-perceptions of Aging: Findings From the German Ageing Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Julia K; Beyer, Ann-Kristin; Wurm, Susanne; Nowossadeck, Sonja; Wiest, Maja

    2018-01-18

    The importance of self-perceptions of aging (SPA) for health and longevity is well documented. Comparably little is known about factors that contribute to SPA. Besides individual factors, the context a person lives in may shape SPA. Research has so far focused on country-level differences in age stereotypes, indicating that rapid population aging accompanies more negative age stereotypes. The present study expands previous research by investigating the impact of district-specific population aging within one country on different facets of SPA. Based on a large representative survey in Germany, the study investigates changes in SPA as ongoing development as well as the SPA of physical loss over a 12-year period in adults aged 40+. The study uses several indicators of population aging (e.g., population development, average age, greying index), to identify four clusters differing in their pace of population aging. Based on three-level latent change models, these clusters were compared in their impact on changes in SPA. Compared to districts with an average rate of population aging, the study shows that persons living in regions with a fast population aging rate (C1) hold more negative SPA in both facets (ps = .01). Districts with slow population aging (C2) have significantly higher SPA ongoing development (p = .03). The study underlines the importance for regional differences in population aging on the development of SPA. In particular, societies should be aware that fast population aging may result in more negative SPA. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Exocarp Properties and Transcriptomic Analysis of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Fruit Expressing Age-Related Resistance to Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Kaori; Carr, Kevin M; Colle, Marivi; Mansfeld, Ben N; Grumet, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Very young cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit are highly susceptible to infection by the oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora capsici. As the fruit complete exponential growth, at approximately 10-12 days post pollination (dpp), they transition to resistance. The development of age-related resistance (ARR) is increasingly recognized as an important defense against pathogens, however, underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Peel sections from cucumber fruit harvested at 8 dpp (susceptible) and 16 dpp (resistant) showed equivalent responses to inoculation as did whole fruit, indicating that the fruit surface plays an important role in defense against P. capsici. Exocarp from 16 dpp fruit had thicker cuticles, and methanolic extracts of peel tissue inhibited growth of P. capsici in vitro, suggesting physical or chemical components to the ARR. Transcripts specifically expressed in the peel vs. pericarp showed functional differentiation. Transcripts predominantly expressed in the peel were consistent with fruit surface associated functions including photosynthesis, cuticle production, response to the environment, and defense. Peel-specific transcripts that exhibited increased expression in 16 dpp fruit relative to 8 dpp fruit, were highly enriched (Pfunctions. Specific transcripts included genes associated with potential physical barriers (i.e., cuticle), chemical defenses (flavonoid biosynthesis), oxidative stress, penetration defense, and molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered or effector-triggered (R-gene mediated) pathways. The developmentally regulated changes in gene expression between peels from susceptible- and resistant- age fruits suggest programming for increased defense as the organ reaches full size.

  9. Instrument air system - Aging impact on system availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaran, M.; Subudhi, M.

    1989-01-01

    As part of ongoing efforts to understand and manage the effects of aging in nuclear power plants, an aging assessment was performed for the Instrument Air (IA) system, a system that has been the subject of much scrutiny in recent years. Despite its non-safety classification, instrument air has been a factor in a number of potentially serious events. This report presents the results of the assessment and discusses the impact of instrument air system aging on system availability and plant safety. This work was performed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. To perform the complex task of analyzing an entire system, the Aging and Life Extension Assessment Program (ALEAP) System Level Plan was developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory and applied successfully in previous system aging studies. The work presented herein was performed using two parallel work paths, as described in the ALEAP plant. One path used deterministic techniques to assess the impact of aging on compressed air system performance, while the second path used probabilistic methods. Results from both paths then were used to characterize aging in the instrument air system. Some conclusions from this work are: compressors, air system valves, and air dryers were found to make up the majority of failures; the effectiveness and quantity of preventive maintenance devoted to a component significantly affected the amount of failures experienced; review of compressed air system designs and studies using a PRA-based system model revealed that the redundancy of key components (compressors, dryers, IA/SA crossconnect valve) was an important factor in system availability; total loss of air events are uncommon

  10. Negative impact of asthma on patients in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alith, Marcela Batan; Gazzotti, Mariana Rodrigues; Montealegre, Federico; Fish, James; Nascimento, Oliver Augusto; Jardim, José Roberto

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of asthma on patients in Brazil, by age group (12-17 years, 18-40 years, and ≥ 41 years). From a survey conducted in Latin America in 2011, we obtained data on 400 patients diagnosed with asthma and residing in one of four Brazilian state capitals (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, and Salvador). The data had been collected using a standardized questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. For the patients who were minors, the parents/guardians had completed the questionnaire. The questions addressed asthma control, number of hospitalizations, number of emergency room visits, and school/work absenteeism, as well as the impact of asthma on the quality of life, sleep, and leisure. We stratified the data by the selected age groups. The proportions of patients who responded in the affirmative to the following questions were significantly higher in the 12- to 17-year age group than in the other two groups: "Have you had at least one episode of severe asthma that prevented you from playing/exercising in the last 12 months?" (p = 0.012); "Have you been absent from school/work in the last 12 months?" (p age group reported that normal physical exertion was very limiting (p = 0.010 vs. the other groups), whereas 14% of the patients in the ≥ 41-year age group described social activities as very limiting (p = 0.011 vs. the other groups). In this sample, asthma had a greater impact on the patients between 12 and 17 years of age, which might be attributable to poor treatment compliance.

  11. The impact of owner age on companionship with virtual pets

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Shaun W.; Chesney, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on issues of interaction with a particular type of mobile information system – virtual pets. It examines the impact of owner age on companionship with virtual pets, and tests the hypothesis that younger virtual pet owners will experience closer companionship with their virtual pet than older owners. This is in response to the marketing stance adopted by virtual pet manufacturers who clearly target younger people as the main consumers of their products. The hypothesis was te...

  12. The psychological impact of aging on sexuality and relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsberg, S A

    2000-01-01

    Aging has a powerful impact on the quality of relationships and sexual functioning. The psychological impact of aging after midlife is a particularly timely topic given improved medical and psychological understanding of sexuality in both women and men, as well as more effective treatment for age-related sexual dysfunctions. It is time to dispel the stereotype of the midlife relationship as the continuation of a traditional heterosexual marriage with grown or almost grown children in order to more effectively address emotional and sexual issues arising in relationships. Regardless of the length or nature of the relationship, however, its quality is enhanced by emotional intimacy, autonomy without too much distance, an ability to manage stress and distractions by external factors, and achieving a satisfying sexual equilibrium. Perception of the quality of the primary relationship and sexuality is influenced by the other factors in a person's life. Thus, the relationship must be examined and issues must be addressed taking these external factors into consideration. Among the most powerful external factors is one's occupation or avocation, as it tends to strongly influence one's sense of identity, self-esteem, and self-worth in all areas of life. To understand and treat effects of aging on sexuality, it is important to address the three components of sexual desire: drive, beliefs/values, and motivation, as well as the sexual equilibrium within the primary relationship. It is also essential to understand how the physiological changes in male and female sexual functioning affect desire and equilibrium. Other health-related changes that occur with aging must be recognized and addressed, including the fact that the oldest of old women will outlive their corresponding male cohort. Treatment implications for these issues are discussed.

  13. IMPACT OF EDUCATION, GENDER AND AGE ON CONSUMER LOYALTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Klopotan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the important parameters of customer loyalty and impact of education, gender and age of the respondents will be tested. The study was conducted in the Republic of Croatia, as part of research relevant parameters of customer loyalty, loyal consumer behavior and the role of social networks in building and maintaining a loyal behavior. The concept of loyalty has a strong foothold in marketing theories and in theories of intellectual capital companies. Loyalty has been related to the management of intellectual capital, especially relational capital, as a component of intellectual capital. In terms of loyalty, series of key parameters that describe it or have an effect on it, and thus impacting the company's business appear.

  14. Impact of Population Aging on Military and Security Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Šimková

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Population ageing is among the most important problems of developed European countries and the most frequently discussed social issues. The Czech Republic also faces population ageing and we cannot expect a different trend in the future. Life expectancy has increased due to better health care while current lifestyle often leads to lower natality, resulting in a negative rate of natural increase and a decreasing proportion of young people in population in the future. This problem affects all spheres of life and social and economic development. Population ageing may pose a threat to the security of the population in different ways. The functioning of the security system may be threatened due to decreasing workforce. Population ageing may undercut resources for military budgets. Young recruits represent an important part of military forces and the latter are competing in the labour market with more attractive occupations. Especially ensuring the stability of the personnel needed for securing crisis situations would be a significant problem of near future. This paper presents a demographic perspective on staffing and correct operation of military forces in the context of population ageing. It describes the current situation of human resources in the military policy of the Czech Republic and determines the negative impact of population ageing on recruitment potential. It deals with the sustainability of human resources for security forces.

  15. The Impact of Traumatic Brain Injury on the Aging Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jacob S; Hobbs, Jonathan G; Bailes, Julian E

    2016-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has come to the forefront of both the scientific and popular culture. Specifically, sports-related concussions or mild TBI (mTBI) has become the center of scientific scrutiny with a large amount of research focusing on the long-term sequela of this type of injury. As the populace continues to age, the impact of TBI on the aging brain will become clearer. Currently, reports have come to light that link TBI to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, as well as certain psychiatric diseases. Whether these associations are causations, however, is yet to be determined. Other long-term sequelae, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), appear to be associated with repetitive injuries. Going forward, as we gain better understanding of the pathophysiological process involved in TBI and subclinical head traumas, and individual traits that influence susceptibility to neurocognitive diseases, a clearer, more comprehensive understanding of the connection between brain injury and resultant disease processes in the aging brain will become evident.

  16. Impact of aging and material structure on CANDU plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeau, E.; Ballyk, J.; Ghalavand, N.

    2011-01-01

    In-service behaviour of pressure tubes is a key factor in the assessment of safety margins during plant operation. Pressure tube deformation (diametral expansion) affects fuel bundle dry out characteristics resulting in reduced margin to trip for some events. Pressure tube aging mechanisms also erode design margins on fuel channels or interfacing reactor components. The degradation mechanisms of interest are primarily deformation, loss of fracture resistance and hydrogen ingress. CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium, a registered trademark of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited used under exclusive licence by Candu Energy Inc.) owners and operators need to maximize plant capacity factor and meet or exceed the reactor design life targets while maintaining safety margins. The degradation of pressure tube material and geometry are characterized through a program of inspection, material surveillance and assessment and need to be managed to optimize plant performance. Candu is improving pressure tubes installed in new build and life extension projects. Improvements include changes designed to reduce or mitigate the impact of pressure tube elongation and diametral expansion rates, improvement of pressure tube fracture properties, and reduction of the implications of hydrogen ingress. In addition, Candu provides an extensive array of engineering services designed to assess the condition of pressure tubes and address the impact of pressure tube degradation on safety margins and plant performance. These services include periodic and in-service inspection and material surveillance of pressure tubes and deterministic and probabilistic assessment of pressure tube fitness for service to applicable standards. Activities designed to mitigate the impact of pressure tube deformation on safety margins include steam generator cleaning, which improves trip margins, and trip design assessment to optimize reactor trip set points restoring safety and operating margins. This paper provides an

  17. Impact of aging and material structure on CANDU plant performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadeau, E.; Ballyk, J.; Ghalavand, N. [Candu Energy Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In-service behaviour of pressure tubes is a key factor in the assessment of safety margins during plant operation. Pressure tube deformation (diametral expansion) affects fuel bundle dry out characteristics resulting in reduced margin to trip for some events. Pressure tube aging mechanisms also erode design margins on fuel channels or interfacing reactor components. The degradation mechanisms of interest are primarily deformation, loss of fracture resistance and hydrogen ingress. CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium, a registered trademark of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited used under exclusive licence by Candu Energy Inc.) owners and operators need to maximize plant capacity factor and meet or exceed the reactor design life targets while maintaining safety margins. The degradation of pressure tube material and geometry are characterized through a program of inspection, material surveillance and assessment and need to be managed to optimize plant performance. Candu is improving pressure tubes installed in new build and life extension projects. Improvements include changes designed to reduce or mitigate the impact of pressure tube elongation and diametral expansion rates, improvement of pressure tube fracture properties, and reduction of the implications of hydrogen ingress. In addition, Candu provides an extensive array of engineering services designed to assess the condition of pressure tubes and address the impact of pressure tube degradation on safety margins and plant performance. These services include periodic and in-service inspection and material surveillance of pressure tubes and deterministic and probabilistic assessment of pressure tube fitness for service to applicable standards. Activities designed to mitigate the impact of pressure tube deformation on safety margins include steam generator cleaning, which improves trip margins, and trip design assessment to optimize reactor trip set points restoring safety and operating margins. This paper provides an

  18. The Transcriptomic Response of Arabidopsis thaliana to Zinc Oxide: A Comparison of the Impact of Nanoparticle, Bulk, and Ionic Zinc

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Landa, Přemysl; Přerostová, Sylva; Petrová, Šárka; Knirsch, Vojtěch; Vaňková, Radomíra; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 24 (2015), s. 14537-14545 ISSN 0013-936X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD14125 Grant - others:COST Action(BE) MP1206 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : LIPID TRANSFER PROTEINS * CELLS IN-VITRO * ZNO NANOPARTICLES Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 5.393, year: 2015

  19. Reliability Impact of Stockpile Aging: Stress Voiding; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROBINSON, DAVID G.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this research is to statistically characterize the aging of integrated circuit interconnects. This report supersedes the stress void aging characterization presented in SAND99-0975, ''Reliability Degradation Due to Stockpile Aging,'' by the same author. The physics of the stress voiding, before and after wafer processing have been recently characterized by F. G. Yost in SAND99-0601, ''Stress Voiding during Wafer Processing''. The current effort extends this research to account for uncertainties in grain size, storage temperature, void spacing and initial residual stress and their impact on interconnect failure after wafer processing. The sensitivity of the life estimates to these uncertainties is also investigated. Various methods for characterizing the probability of failure of a conductor line were investigated including: Latin hypercube sampling (LHS), quasi-Monte Carlo sampling (qMC), as well as various analytical methods such as the advanced mean value (Ah/IV) method. The comparison was aided by the use of the Cassandra uncertainty analysis library. It was found that the only viable uncertainty analysis methods were those based on either LHS or quasi-Monte Carlo sampling. Analytical methods such as AMV could not be applied due to the nature of the stress voiding problem. The qMC method was chosen since it provided smaller estimation error for a given number of samples. The preliminary results indicate that the reliability of integrated circuits due to stress voiding is very sensitive to the underlying uncertainties associated with grain size and void spacing. In particular, accurate characterization of IC reliability depends heavily on not only the frost and second moments of the uncertainty distribution, but more specifically the unique form of the underlying distribution

  20. Web services for transcriptomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerincx, P.

    2009-01-01

    Transcriptomics is part of a family of disciplines focussing on high throughput molecular biology experiments. In the case of transcriptomics, scientists study the expression of genes resulting in transcripts. These transcripts can either perform a biological function themselves or function as

  1. Environmental Pollutant Benzo[a]Pyrene Impacts the Volatile Metabolome and Transcriptome of the Human Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defois, Clémence; Ratel, Jérémy; Denis, Sylvain; Batut, Bérénice; Beugnot, Réjane; Peyretaillade, Eric; Engel, Erwan; Peyret, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Benzo[ a ]pyrene (B[ a ]P) is a ubiquitous, persistent, and carcinogenic pollutant that belongs to the large family of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Population exposure primarily occurs via contaminated food products, which introduces the pollutant to the digestive tract. Although the metabolism of B[ a ]P by host cells is well known, its impacts on the human gut microbiota, which plays a key role in health and disease, remain unexplored. We performed an in vitro assay using 16S barcoding, metatranscriptomics and volatile metabolomics to study the impact of B[ a ]P on two distinct human fecal microbiota. B[ a ]P exposure did not induce a significant change in the microbial structure; however, it altered the microbial volatolome in a dose-dependent manner. The transcript levels related to several metabolic pathways, such as vitamin and cofactor metabolism, cell wall compound metabolism, DNA repair and replication systems, and aromatic compound metabolism, were upregulated, whereas the transcript levels related to the glycolysis-gluconeogenesis pathway and bacterial chemotaxis toward simple carbohydrates were downregulated. These primary findings show that food pollutants, such as B[ a ]P, alter human gut microbiota activity. The observed shift in the volatolome demonstrates that B[ a ]P induces a specific deviation in the microbial metabolism.

  2. The impact of phosphate scarcity on pharmaceutical protein production in S. cerevisiae: linking transcriptomic insights to phenotypic responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazemi Seresht Ali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adaptation of unicellular organisms like Saccharomyces cerevisiae to alternating nutrient availability is of great fundamental and applied interest, as understanding how eukaryotic cells respond to variations in their nutrient supply has implications spanning from physiological insights to biotechnological applications. Results The impact of a step-wise restricted supply of phosphate on the physiological state of S. cerevisiae cells producing human Insulin was studied. The focus was to determine the changes within the global gene expression of cells being cultured to an industrially relevant high cell density of 33 g/l cell dry weight and under six distinct phosphate concentrations, ranging from 33 mM (unlimited to 2.6 mM (limited. An increased flux through the secretory pathway, being induced by the PHO circuit during low Pi supplementation, proved to enhance the secretory production of the heterologous protein. The re-distribution of the carbon flux from biomass formation towards increased glycerol production under low phosphate led to increased transcript levels of the insulin gene, which was under the regulation of the TPI1 promoter. Conclusions Our study underlines the dynamic character of adaptive responses of cells towards a change in their nutrient access. The gradual decrease of the phosphate supply resulted in a step-wise modulated phenotypic response, thereby alternating the specific productivity and the secretory flux. Our work emphasizes the importance of reduced phosphate supply for improved secretory production of heterologous proteins.

  3. Radiation therapy for intracranial ependymomas: impact of age on outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Houng T.; Sneed, Penny K.; Wara, William M.; Edwards, Michael S.; Wilson, Charles B.; Larson, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The records of patients with intracranial ependymoma who received radiation therapy at UCSF were reviewed retrospectively to evaluate the impact of Karnofsky performance status (KPS), age, histology, and treatment on outcome. Materials and Methods: Between 1978 and 1996, 45 patients with intracranial ependymoma received postoperative radiation therapy. Overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) were calculated from the date of diagnosis. Median follow up for surviving patients was 72 months. Ages ranged from 4 months to 56 years, with a median of 8 years. The tumor was infratentorial in 35 and supratentorial in 10. All patients had either biopsy (3), subtotal resection (30), or gross total resection (12). There were 29 low grade and 16 anaplastic ependymomas. Thirty-seven patients received standard fractionation to a median dose of 54 Gy. Eight patients received hyperfractionation at 1.0 Gy BID to a median dose of 72 Gy. Thirty-eight patients had partial brain irradiation and seven had craniospinal irradiation. Twenty-three patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. For the infants ≤ 3 years old (n=12), all but one had a subtotal resection and most received chemotherapy prior to radiation therapy. Seven infants received radiation therapy at the time of disease progression and five had radiation therapy prior to progression. Most of the patients > 3 years old were irradiated prior to progression. Results: The five-year actuarial OS and PFS were 65% and 46% for the whole group. Histology and treatment factors such as extent of resection, hyperfractionation, and adjuvant chemotherapy did not significantly affect outcome. Overall, (25(45)) patients had disease progression. Only two patients failed in the brain outside the primary site. Six patients developed leptomeningeal spread (four concurrent with local failure and two subsequent to local failure). Five-year OS for patients ≤ 3 years old was 21% versus 80% for patients > 3 years old (p=0

  4. Fuel age impacts on gaseous fission product capture during separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, Robert T.; Soelberg, Nicolas R.; Strachan, Denis M.; Ilas, G.

    2012-09-21

    relatively short half-lives, 12.3 y and 10.7 y, respectively, the dose decreases with the time from when the fuel is removed from the reactor to the time it is processed (herein “fuel age”). One possible strategy for limiting the discharges of these short halflife radionuclides is to allow the fuel to age to take advantage of radioactive decay. Therefore, the doses and required DFs are calculated as a function of fuel age. Here we calculate, given the above constraints and assumptions, the minimum ages for each fuel type that would not require additional effluent controls for the shorter half-life volatile radionuclides based on dose considerations. With respect to 129I doses, we find that the highest dose is calculated with iodine as a fine particulate. The dose scales as the fraction of the total 129I that is particulate. Therefore, we assume for all of our calculations that 100% of the 129I is particulate and allow the user of the results given here to scale our calculated doses to their needs. To summarize the data given in the body and appendices of this report, we find that the principal isotopes of concern are 3H and 129I, the latter requiring the highest DFs. The maximum DF value for 129I is 8000 for the illustrated cases. The required DF for 3H could be as high as 720, depending on the age of the fuel processed. The DF for 85Kr could be up to ~60, depending on fuel age. The DF for 14C is in many cases 1 (no treatment required) but could be as high as 30. The DFs required are within the range of DFs that are reported for the capture technologies that are available for the volatile radionuclides. Achieving the required 129I and 3H DFs is more challenging. Variations in stack design and other design factors may also significantly impact the DF requirements.

  5. The Impact of Age on Using Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepasdar, Mansoreh; Soori, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    Since age plays an important role in learning a second or foreign language, the present study investigated how different students in different age groups used language learning strategies. The participants of this study were 94 Iranian EFL students from four educational levels and different age groups as, primary (10-12), guidance (13-15), high…

  6. Scrimer: designing primers from transcriptome data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mořkovský, Libor; Pačes, Jan; Rídl, Jakub; Reifová, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 6 (2015), s. 1415-1420 ISSN 1755-098X R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0303 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : next-generation sequencing * primer design * SNaPshot * SNP genotyping * transcriptome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.298, year: 2015

  7. Communication Breakdown: The Impact of Ageing on Synapse Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petralia, Ronald S.; Mattson, Mark P.; Yao, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    Impaired synaptic plasticity is implicated in the functional decline of the nervous system associated with ageing. Understanding the structure of ageing synapses is essential to understanding the functions of these synapses and their role in the ageing nervous system. In this review, we summarize studies on ageing synapses in vertebrates and invertebrates, focusing on changes in morphology and ultrastructure. We cover different parts of the nervous system, including the brain, the retina, the cochlea, and the neuromuscular junction. The morphological characteristics of aged synapses could shed light on the underlying molecular changes and their functional consequences. PMID:24495392

  8. Impact of aging immune system on neurodegeneration and potential immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhanfeng; Zhao, Yang; Ruan, Linhui; Zhu, Linnan; Jin, Kunlin; Zhuge, Qichuan; Su, Dong-Ming; Zhao, Yong

    2017-10-01

    The interaction between the nervous and immune systems during aging is an area of avid interest, but many aspects remain unclear. This is due, not only to the complexity of the aging process, but also to a mutual dependency and reciprocal causation of alterations and diseases between both the nervous and immune systems. Aging of the brain drives whole body systemic aging, including aging-related changes of the immune system. In turn, the immune system aging, particularly immunosenescence and T cell aging initiated by thymic involution that are sources of chronic inflammation in the elderly (termed inflammaging), potentially induces brain aging and memory loss in a reciprocal manner. Therefore, immunotherapeutics including modulation of inflammation, vaccination, cellular immune therapies and "protective autoimmunity" provide promising approaches to rejuvenate neuroinflammatory disorders and repair brain injury. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries linking the aging immune system with the development of neurodegeneration. Additionally, we discuss potential rejuvenation strategies, focusing aimed at targeting the aging immune system in an effort to prevent acute brain injury and chronic neurodegeneration during aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The utility of transcriptomics in fish conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connon, Richard E; Jeffries, Ken M; Komoroske, Lisa M; Todgham, Anne E; Fangue, Nann A

    2018-01-29

    There is growing recognition of the need to understand the mechanisms underlying organismal resilience (i.e. tolerance, acclimatization) to environmental change to support the conservation management of sensitive and economically important species. Here, we discuss how functional genomics can be used in conservation biology to provide a cellular-level understanding of organismal responses to environmental conditions. In particular, the integration of transcriptomics with physiological and ecological research is increasingly playing an important role in identifying functional physiological thresholds predictive of compensatory responses and detrimental outcomes, transforming the way we can study issues in conservation biology. Notably, with technological advances in RNA sequencing, transcriptome-wide approaches can now be applied to species where no prior genomic sequence information is available to develop species-specific tools and investigate sublethal impacts that can contribute to population declines over generations and undermine prospects for long-term conservation success. Here, we examine the use of transcriptomics as a means of determining organismal responses to environmental stressors and use key study examples of conservation concern in fishes to highlight the added value of transcriptome-wide data to the identification of functional response pathways. Finally, we discuss the gaps between the core science and policy frameworks and how thresholds identified through transcriptomic evaluations provide evidence that can be more readily used by resource managers. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Impact of Battery Ageing on an Electric Vehicle Powertrain Optimisation

    OpenAIRE

    Auger, Daniel J.; Groff, Maxime F.; Mohan, Ganesh; Longo, Stefano; Assadian, Francis

    2014-01-01

    An electric vehicle’s battery is its most expensive component, and it cannot be charged and discharged indefinitely. This affects a consumer vehicle’s end-user value. Ageing is tolerated as an unwanted operational side-effect; manufacturers have little control over it. Recent publications have considered trade-offs between efficiency and ageing in plug-in hybrids (PHEVs) but there is no equivalent literature for pure EVs. For PHEVs, battery ageing has been modelled by translating current dema...

  11. Impacts of age-related failures on nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meale, B.M.; Satterwhite, D.G.; Krantz, E.A.; MacDonald, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Aging-related failure data from nine light water reactor safety, support, and power conversion systems have been extracted from an operational data base. Systems and components within the systems that are most affected by aging are identified. In addition, information on aging-related root causes of component failures has been extracted for service water and Class 1E electrical power distribution systems. Engineering insights are presented, and preliminary quantification of the importance of aging-related root causes for a service water system is provided

  12. Next-generation transcriptome assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Jeffrey A.; Wang, Zhong

    2011-09-01

    Transcriptomics studies often rely on partial reference transcriptomes that fail to capture the full catalog of transcripts and their variations. Recent advances in sequencing technologies and assembly algorithms have facilitated the reconstruction of the entire transcriptome by deep RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), even without a reference genome. However, transcriptome assembly from billions of RNA-seq reads, which are often very short, poses a significant informatics challenge. This Review summarizes the recent developments in transcriptome assembly approaches - reference-based, de novo and combined strategies-along with some perspectives on transcriptome assembly in the near future.

  13. Impact of Age, and Cognitive and Coping Resources on Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouillet, Raphael; Doan-Van-Hay, Loane-Martine; Launay, Michel; Martin, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    To explore the predictive value of cognitive and coping resources for problem- and emotion-focused coping with age, we collected data from community-dwelling adults between 20 and 90 years old. We hypothesized that age, perceived stress, self-efficacy, working-memory capacity, and mental flexibility were predictors of coping. We collected data…

  14. Matrix ageing and vascular impacts: focus on elastin fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duca, Laurent; Blaise, Sébastien; Romier, Béatrice; Laffargue, Muriel; Gayral, Stéphanie; El Btaouri, Hassan; Kawecki, Charlotte; Guillot, Alexandre; Martiny, Laurent; Debelle, Laurent; Maurice, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide and represent a major problem of public health. Over the years, life expectancy has considerably increased throughout the world, and the prevalence of CVD is inevitably rising with the growing ageing of the population. The normal process of ageing is associated with progressive deterioration in structure and function of the vasculature, commonly called vascular ageing. At the vascular level, extracellular matrix (ECM) ageing leads to molecular alterations in long half-life proteins, such as elastin and collagen, and have critical effects on vascular diseases. This review highlights ECM alterations occurring during vascular ageing with a specific focus on elastin fragmentation and also the contribution of elastin-derived peptides (EDP) in age-related vascular complications. Moreover, current and new pharmacological strategies aiming at minimizing elastin degradation, EDP generation, and associated biological effects are discussed. These strategies may be of major relevance for preventing and/or delaying vascular ageing and its complications. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The Healthy Aging Research Network: Modeling Collaboration for Community Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belza, Basia; Altpeter, Mary; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G

    2017-03-01

    As the first Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Prevention Research Centers Program thematic network, the Healthy Aging Research Network was established to better understand the determinants of healthy aging within older adult populations, identify interventions that promote healthy aging, and assist in translating research into sustainable community-based programs throughout the nation. To achieve these goals requires concerted efforts of a collaborative network of academic, community, and public health organizational partnerships. For the 2001-2014 Prevention Research Center funding cycles, the Healthy Aging Research Network conducted prevention research and promoted the wide use of practices known to foster optimal health. Organized around components necessary for successful collaborations (i.e., governance and infrastructure, shaping focus, community involvement, and evaluation and improvement), this commentary highlights exemplars that demonstrate the Healthy Aging Research Network's unique contributions to the field. The Healthy Aging Research Network's collaboration provided a means to collectively build capacity for practice and policy, reduce fragmentation and duplication in health promotion and aging research efforts, maximize the efficient use of existing resources and generate additional resources, and ultimately, create synergies for advancing the healthy aging agenda. This collaborative model was built upon a backbone organization (coordinating center); setting of common agendas and mutually reinforcing activities; and continuous communications. Given its successes, the Healthy Aging Research Network model could be used to create new and evaluate existing thematic networks to guide the translation of research into policy and practice. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hiring retirees: impact of age norms and stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Karspinska, K.; Henkens, K.; Schippers, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This study aims to investigate the role of managers in the re-employment of early retirees and focuses on the effect of managers' age norms and stereotypes on managers' employment decisions. Design/methodology/approach – A combination of a factorial study and a survey was conducted. First, information on the age norms and stereotypes was collected. Secondly, profiles of hypothetical retired job applicants were presented to the employers, who were asked to make a specific hiring deci...

  17. The Impact of Obesity and Exercise on Cognitive Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, John S. Y.; Yan, Jin H.; Payne, V. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major concern in the aging population and degrades health, motor functions and cognition in older adults. The effects of obesity are pervasive and challenging to health-care systems, making this a widespread and critically important public health dilemma. In this review, we examine the relationship between obesity, cognitive aging, and related dysfunctions. Potential neural mechanisms underlying such relationship are described. We propose that cost-effective exercises can be empl...

  18. Healthy Adult Ageing: Multitasking Abilities and the Impact of Interruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Nevay, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    The ability to multitask plays a significant role within everyday life. This experiment investigated whether multitasking abilities are impaired in healthy adult ageing. Neuropsychological literature has shown that patients with frontal lobe damage are impaired in their ability to multitask on tests designed to assess cognitive functions used in real-life multitasking situations. Age-related reductions in brain volume are most pronounced in the frontal lobes. Therefore, it’s assumed that olde...

  19. Sexual dimorphism and ageing in the human hyppocampus: Identification, validation and impact of differentially expressed genes by factorial microarray and network analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Victor Guebel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Motivation: In the brain of elderly-healthy individuals, the effects of sexual dimorphism and those due to normal ageing appear overlapped. Discrimination of these two dimensions would powerfully contribute to a better understanding of the aetiology of some neurodegenerative diseases, such as sporadic Alzheimer. Methods: Following a system biology approach, top-down and bottom-up strategies were combined. First, public transcriptome data corresponding to the transition from adulthood to the ageing stage in normal, human hippocampus were analysed through an optimized microarray post-processing (Q-GDEMAR method together with a proper experimental design (full factorial analysis. Second, the identified genes were placed in context by building compatible networks. The subsequent ontology analyses carried out on these networks clarify the main functionalities involved. Results: Noticeably we could identify large sets of genes according to three groups: those that exclusively depend on the sex, those that exclusively depend on the age, and those that depend on the particular combinations of sex and age (interaction. The genes identified were validated against three independent sources (a proteomic study of ageing, a senescence database, and a mitochondrial genetic database. We arrived to several new inferences about the biological functions compromised during ageing in two ways: by taking into account the sex-independent effects of ageing, and considering the interaction between age and sex where pertinent. In particular, we discuss the impact of our findings on the functions of mitochondria, autophagy, mitophagia, and microRNAs.Conclusions: The evidence obtained herein supports the occurrence of significant neurobiological differences in the hippocampus, not only between adult and elderly individuals, but between old-healthy women and old-healthy men. Hence, to obtain realistic results in further analysis of the transition from the normal ageing to

  20. Advancing paternal age and schizophrenia: the impact of delayed fatherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Mats; Wicks, Susanne; Svensson, Anna C; Idring, Selma; Dalman, Christina

    2015-05-01

    It is well known that advancing paternal age is associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring, but the mechanism behind this association remains unknown. This study investigates if delayed fatherhood rather than advancing paternal age per se might explain the increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring associated with advancing paternal age. This is a register-based study of the Swedish population looking at people born 1955-1985 who have 1 or 2 siblings (n = 2 589 502). The main analysis investigated whether the association between advancing paternal age and schizophrenia was explained by delayed fatherhood. Possible confounding factors were taken into account. Cox regression was used throughout. In the main analysis the association between advancing paternal age and increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring disappeared after controlling for delayed fatherhood (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.72-1.21 comparing 45+ years old fathers to those 25-29), whereas delayed fatherhood showed an association with increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring comparing 35-39 and 40-44 years old fathers to 25-29 year olds (HR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.18-1.58; HR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.44-2.28, respectively). The results remained when controlling for possible confounders. This study suggests that the association between paternal age and schizophrenia is not due to paternal age per se, but rather to an unknown factor associated with both delayed fatherhood and schizophrenia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The Impact of Aging on Cardio and Cerebrovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Izzo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of evidences report that aging represents the major risk factor for the development of cardio and cerebrovascular diseases. Understanding Aging from a genetic, biochemical and physiological point of view could be helpful to design a better medical approach and to elaborate the best therapeutic strategy to adopt, without neglecting all the risk factors associated with advanced age. Of course, the better way should always be understanding risk-to-benefit ratio, maintenance of independence and reduction of symptoms. Although improvements in treatment of cardiovascular diseases in the elderly population have increased the survival rate, several studies are needed to understand the best management option to improve therapeutic outcomes. The aim of this review is to give a 360° panorama on what goes on in the fragile ecosystem of elderly, why it happens and what we can do, right now, with the tools at our disposal to slow down aging, until new discoveries on aging, cardio and cerebrovascular diseases are at hand.

  2. The Impact of an Aging Population in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mercedia Stevenson; Burns, Candace; Conlon, Helen Acree

    2018-03-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the number of people 65 years of age or older living in the United States is projected to double by 2030 to 72 million adults, representing 20% of the total U.S. Evidence suggests that older Americans are working longer and spending more time on the job than their peers did in previous years. The increased number of older adults working longer is observed not only in the Unites States but also worldwide. There are numerous ramifications associated with the changing demographics and the expanding prevalence of an aging population in the workforce. Dynamics that arise include stereotyping and discrimination, longevity and on-site expert knowledge, variances in workplace behavior, a multigenerational employee pool, chronic disease management, occupational safety, and the application of adaptive strategies to reduce injury occurrences. Occupational health nurses play a pivotal role in implementing best practices for an aging-friendly workplace.

  3. Understanding Age, Memories, and How They Impact Aesthetic Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Lovely C

    According to the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (), the number of nonsurgical treatments grew 650% from 1996 to 2016. As these procedures have evolved and improved, so have their ability to deliver results that enhance one's natural beauty and reverse the signs of aging. Many patients seek these procedures in the hopes of looking younger and more refreshed, but "younger" can be subjective and the patient's desired outcome may be difficult for practitioners to interpret. A recent study () of 350 women found that patients are carrying around a "memory photo" of themselves that is about 10 years younger than their actual age. Findings from this survey yielded new insights into patient perceptions of age and provides practitioners with a powerful new tool that can be applied in daily clinical practice.

  4. IMPACT ON DEVELOPMENT AGE AND GENDER CHARACTERISTICS PROFESSIONAL PERSON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdeyeva Irina Olegovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In article some questions mentioning gender and age features of the identity of municipal employees, working in the social sphere and their influence on professionalism development are considered. Diagnostics of professional and important qualities and features of experts, their moral and regulatory sphere, adaptation potential and a motivational complex on means of application of the following diagnostic techniques is carried out: R. Kettell's 16 factorial questionnaire (16-PF, a form C, "Valuable orientations" M. Rokich, a multilevel personal questionnaire "Adaptability" (MLO-AM, a technique of studying of motivation of professional activity (K.Zemfir in A.Rean's modification. In this research the example of the multiple parameter linear model created and approved for identification and the analysis of age transformations of municipal employees, working in the social sphere is given. Conclusions are drawn on wagging of gender and age features of experts on development of professionalism of their personality.

  5. Modeling Manufacturing Impacts on Aging and Reliability of Polyurethane Foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Rekha R.; Roberts, Christine Cardinal; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Soehnel, Melissa Marie; Johnson, Kyle; Lorenzo, Henry T.

    2016-10-01

    Polyurethane is a complex multiphase material that evolves from a viscous liquid to a system of percolating bubbles, which are created via a CO2 generating reaction. The continuous phase polymerizes to a solid during the foaming process generating heat. Foams introduced into a mold increase their volume up to tenfold, and the dynamics of the expansion process may lead to voids and will produce gradients in density and degree of polymerization. These inhomogeneities can lead to structural stability issues upon aging. For instance, structural components in weapon systems have been shown to change shape as they age depending on their molding history, which can threaten critical tolerances. The purpose of this project is to develop a Cradle-to-Grave multiphysics model, which allows us to predict the material properties of foam from its birth through aging in the stockpile, where its dimensional stability is important.

  6. The Impact of Obesity and Exercise on Cognitive Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S.Y. eChan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major concern in the aging population and degrades health, motor functions and cognition in older adults. The effects of obesity are pervasive and challenging to health-care systems, making this a widespread and critically important public health dilemma. In this review, we examine the relationship between obesity, cognitive aging, and related dysfunctions. Potential neural mechanisms underlying such relationship are described. We propose that cost-effective exercises can be employed to cope with obesity and cognitive declines in older adults. Finally, we discuss implications and future research directions.

  7. Age impact on autoimmune thyroid disease in females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid autoimmune disease, a widespread phenomenon in female population, impairs thyroid function during pregnancy. Identifying cases, which will develop hypothyroidism during pregnancy, is crucial in the follow-up process. The study group comprised 108 females, with ages between 20-40 years; with known inactive autoimmune thyroid disease, before pregnancy that became pregnant in the study follow-up period. They were monitored by means of clinical, hormonal and immunological assays. Supplemental therapy with thyroid hormones was used, where needed. Maternal age and level of anti-thyroid antibodies were used to predict thyroid functional impairment.

  8. Hiring retirees: impact of age norms and stereotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karpinska, K.; Henkens, K.; Schippers, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - This study aims to investigate the role of managers in the re-employment of early retirees and focuses on the effect of managers' age norms and stereotypes on managers' employment decisions. Design/methodology/approach - A combination of a factorial study and a survey was conducted. First,

  9. Hiring retirees: impact of age norms and stereotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karspinska, K.; Henkens, K.; Schippers, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This study aims to investigate the role of managers in the re-employment of early retirees and focuses on the effect of managers' age norms and stereotypes on managers' employment decisions. Design/methodology/approach – A combination of a factorial study and a survey was conducted. First,

  10. Impact of Battery Ageing on an Electric Vehicle Powertrain Optimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Auger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An electric vehicle’s battery is its most expensive component, and it cannot be charged and discharged indefinitely. This affects a consumer vehicle’s end-user value. Ageing is tolerated as an unwanted operational side-effect; manufacturers have little control over it. Recent publications have considered trade-offs between efficiency and ageing in plug-in hybrids (PHEVs but there is no equivalent literature for pure EVs. For PHEVs, battery ageing has been modelled by translating current demands into chemical degradation. Given such models it is possible to produce similar trade-offs for EVs. We consider the effects of varying battery size and introducing a parallel supercapacitor pack. (Supercapacitors can smooth current demands, but their weight and electronics reduce economy. We extend existing EV optimisation techniques to include battery ageing, illustrated with vehicle case studies. We comment on the applicability to similar EV problems and identify where additional research is needed to improve on our assumptions.

  11. How does healthy aging impact on the circadian clock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa-Wagner, Aurel; Buga, Ana-Maria; Dumitrascu, Dinu Iuliu; Uzoni, Adriana; Thome, Johannes; Coogan, Andrew N

    2017-02-01

    Circadian rhythms are recurring patterns in a host of physiological and other parameters that recur with periods of near 24 h. These rhythms reflect the temporal organization of an organism's homeostatic control systems and as such are key processes in ensuring optimal physiological performance. Dysfunction of circadian processes is linked with adverse health conditions. In this review we highlight the evidence that normal, healthy aging is associated with changes in the circadian system; we examine the molecular mechanisms through which such changes may arise, discuss whether more robust circadian function is a predictor of longevity and highlight the role of circadian rhythms in age-related diseases. Overall, the literature shows that aging is associated with marked changes in circadian processes, both at the behavioral and molecular levels, and the molecular mechanisms through which such changes arise remain to be elucidated, but may involve inflammatory process, redox homeostasis and epigenetic modifications. Understanding the nature of age-related circadian dysfunction will allow for the design of chronotherapeutic intervention strategies to attenuate circadian dysfunction and thus improve health and quality of life.

  12. [Impact of thymic function in age-related immune deterioration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando-Martínez, Sara; de la Fuente, Mónica; Guerrero, Juan Miguel; Leal, Manuel; Muñoz-Fernández, M Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Age-related biological deterioration also includes immune system deterioration and, in consequence, a rise in the incidence and prevalence of infections and cancers, as well as low responses to vaccination strategies. Out of all immune cell subsets, T-lymphocytes seem to be involved in most of the age-related defects. Since T-lymphocytes mature during their passage through the thymus, and the thymus shows an age-related process of atrophy, thymic regression has been proposed as the triggering event of this immune deterioration in elderly people. Historically, it has been accepted that the young thymus sets the T-lymphocyte repertoire during the childhood, whereupon atrophy begins until the elderly thymus is a non-functional evolutionary trace. However, a rising body of knowledge points toward the thymus functioning during adulthood. In the elderly, higher thymic function is associated with a younger immune system, while thymic function failure is associated with all-cause mortality. Therefore, any new strategy focused on the improvement of the elderly quality of life, especially those trying to influence the immune system, should take into account, together with peripheral homeostasis, thymus function as a key element in slowing down age-related decline. Copyright © 2012 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of Prematurity on Language Skills at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jamie Mahurin; DeThorne, Laura Segebart; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Channell, Ron W.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The existing literature on language outcomes in children born prematurely focuses almost exclusively on standardized test scores rather than discourse-level abilities. The authors of this study looked longitudinally at school-age language outcomes and potential moderating variables for a group of twins born prematurely versus a control…

  14. Impact of age, gender and diabetes on serum lipid levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adnan, M.; Shabbir, I.; Ali, Z.; Ali, S.F.; Rahat, T.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives:To see the effects of age, gender and diabetes on serum lipid levels. Study type, settings and duration:Cross sectional analytical study conducted at PMRC Research Centre, Fatima Jinnah Medical College,Lahore from Jun-Dec 2011. Materials and Methods: One hundred type 2 diabetes mellitus and equal numbers of gender matched healthy controls were randomly selected for the study. After an overnight fasting, blood specimens were drawn for lipid profile where total cholesterol,high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were measured by standard enzymatic endpoint methods and LDL-cholesterol by Friedweld's formula. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS-15. Results Odd ratios of age for total cholesterol (OR 1.198); high density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.144); and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.576) revealed that subjects aged 45 years or more had greater risk of having deranged lipid levels. Female gender had higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol (p 0.000); and triglycerides (p 0.001). Odd ratios of men for total cholesterol (OR 0.775); high density lipoprotein cholesterol(OR 0.183); and low density lipoprotein Cholesterol (OR 0.683) illustrated that men were significantly less prone to dyslipidemia than women. Odd ratio of diabetes for high density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.802) suggested that diabetics had 1.8 times more risk of having low high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions: Diabetic females over 45 years of age have significantly high chances of having disturbed or high lipid profile. Policy message:All persons in general and diabetics in particular over the age of 45 years should be screened for dyslipidemia and informed using behavior change communication to prevent disease complications. (author)

  15. Impact of age, gender and diabetes on serum lipid levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adnan, M.; Shabbir, I.; Ali, Z.; Ali, S. F.; Rahat, T. [Fatima Jinnah Medical College, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2013-01-15

    Objectives:To see the effects of age, gender and diabetes on serum lipid levels. Study type, settings and duration:Cross sectional analytical study conducted at PMRC Research Centre, Fatima Jinnah Medical College,Lahore from Jun-Dec 2011. Materials and Methods: One hundred type 2 diabetes mellitus and equal numbers of gender matched healthy controls were randomly selected for the study. After an overnight fasting, blood specimens were drawn for lipid profile where total cholesterol,high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were measured by standard enzymatic endpoint methods and LDL-cholesterol by Friedweld's formula. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS-15. Results Odd ratios of age for total cholesterol (OR 1.198); high density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.144); and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.576) revealed that subjects aged 45 years or more had greater risk of having deranged lipid levels. Female gender had higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol (p 0.000); and triglycerides (p 0.001). Odd ratios of men for total cholesterol (OR 0.775); high density lipoprotein cholesterol(OR 0.183); and low density lipoprotein Cholesterol (OR 0.683) illustrated that men were significantly less prone to dyslipidemia than women. Odd ratio of diabetes for high density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.802) suggested that diabetics had 1.8 times more risk of having low high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions: Diabetic females over 45 years of age have significantly high chances of having disturbed or high lipid profile. Policy message:All persons in general and diabetics in particular over the age of 45 years should be screened for dyslipidemia and informed using behavior change communication to prevent disease complications. (author)

  16. The Impact of Audience Age and Familiarity on Children's Drawings of Themselves in Contrasting Affective States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, Esther; Watling, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the impact of familiarity and audience age on children's self-presentation in self-drawings of happy, sad and neutral figures. Two hundred children (100 girls and 100 boys) with the average age of 8 years 2 months, ranging from 6 years 3 months to 10 years 1 month, formed two age groups and five…

  17. Impact of Typical Aging and Parkinson's Disease on the Relationship among Breath Pausing, Syntax, and Punctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Jessica E.; Darling, Meghan; Francis, Elaine J.; Zhang, Dabao

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examines the impact of typical aging and Parkinson's disease (PD) on the relationship among breath pausing, syntax, and punctuation. Method: Thirty young adults, 25 typically aging older adults, and 15 individuals with PD participated. Fifteen participants were age- and sex-matched to the individuals with PD.…

  18. The immune system and the impact of zinc during aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haase Hajo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The trace element zinc is essential for the immune system, and zinc deficiency affects multiple aspects of innate and adaptive immunity. There are remarkable parallels in the immunological changes during aging and zinc deficiency, including a reduction in the activity of the thymus and thymic hormones, a shift of the T helper cell balance toward T helper type 2 cells, decreased response to vaccination, and impaired functions of innate immune cells. Many studies confirm a decline of zinc levels with age. Most of these studies do not classify the majority of elderly as zinc deficient, but even marginal zinc deprivation can affect immune function. Consequently, oral zinc supplementation demonstrates the potential to improve immunity and efficiently downregulates chronic inflammatory responses in the elderly. These data indicate that a wide prevalence of marginal zinc deficiency in elderly people may contribute to immunosenescence.

  19. Impact of Population Aging on Asia's Future Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Donghyun; Shin, Kwanho

    2011-01-01

    First, the expert contributors argue, Asia must find ways to sustain rapid economic growth in the face of less favorable demographics, which implies slower growth of the workforce. Second, they contend, Asia must find ways to deliver affordable, adequate, and sustainable old-age economic security for its growing elderly population. Underpinned by rigorous analysis, a wide range of concrete policy options for sustaining economic growth while delivering economic security for the elderly are the...

  20. Impact of aging on leaching characteristics of recycled concrete aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspour, Aiyoub; Tanyu, Burak F; Cetin, Bora

    2016-10-01

    The focus of this study was to evaluate the effects of stockpiling (aging) on leaching of elements in recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) that may contribute to tufaceous constituent formation. Speciation and leaching controlling mechanisms of these elements were identified via geochemical modeling. The effects of stockpiling were simulated by comparing freshly produced RCA with RCA aged as part of this study for 1 year both in the laboratory and in the field. Leachate samples were generated following batch water leach test (WLT) and US Geological Survey leach test (USGSLT) methods. USGSLTs were conducted both on the laboratory and field samples while WLT was only conducted on laboratory samples. During the laboratory aging, it is observed that the carbonate content of RCA, measured as calcite equivalent, increased 20 % (i.e., from ∼100 to 120 mg/g) within a year time frame. The leachate extracted from RCA showed minor changes in pH and more significant decreases in electrical conductivity (i.e., ∼300 to 100 μS/cm). A comparison between laboratory and field samples revealed that the RCA aged much slower in the field than in the laboratory within a year. Comparisons between two leach extraction methods on the laboratory conditions showed that the total leached concentrations (TLCs) of most of the constituents from USGSLT were appreciably lower than the ones measured via WLT method. The results of geochemical modeling analyses showed that Al, Si, Fe, Ca, Mg, and Cu exist in their oxidized forms as Al 3+ , Fe 3+ , Si 4+ , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , and Cu 2+ and results revealed that these elements are primarily controlled by the solubility of gibbsite, hematite, silica gel, calcite, magnesite, and tenorite solid phases, respectively. One of the significant findings of the study was to identify the changes in leaching behavior of Ca, Si, Mg, Al, Fe, and Cu due to carbonation.

  1. The crucial impact of lysosomes in aging and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Hughes, Adam L; Madeo, Frank; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    Lysosomes are the main catabolic organelles of a cell and play a pivotal role in a plethora of cellular processes, including responses to nutrient availability and composition, stress resistance, programmed cell death, plasma membrane repair, development, and cell differentiation. In line with this pleiotropic importance for cellular and organismal life and death, lysosomal dysfunction is associated with many age-related pathologies like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, as well as with a decline in lifespan. Conversely, targeting lysosomal functional capacity is emerging as a means to promote longevity. Here, we analyze the current knowledge on the prominent influence of lysosomes on aging-related processes, such as their executory and regulatory roles during general and selective macroautophagy, or their storage capacity for amino acids and ions. In addition, we review and discuss the roles of lysosomes as active players in the mechanisms underlying known lifespan-extending interventions like, for example, spermidine or rapamycin administration. In conclusion, this review aims at critically examining the nature and pliability of the different layers, in which lysosomes are involved as a control hub for aging and longevity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Degradation of impact fracture during accelerated aging of weld metal on microalloyed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas-Arista, B.; Hallen, J. M.; Albiter, A.; Angeles-Chavez, C.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of accelerated aging on the toughness and fracture of the longitudinal weld metal on an API5L-X52 line pipe steel was evaluated by Charpy V-notch impact test, fracture analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Aging was performed at 250 degree centigrade for 100 to 1000 h. The impact results indicated a significant reduction in the fracture energy and impact toughness as a function of aging time, which were achieved by the scanning electron microscope fractography that showed a decrease in the vol fraction of microvoids by Charpy ductile failure with the aging time, which favored the brittle fracture by transgranular cleavage. The minimum vol fraction of microvoids was reached at 500 h due to the peak aged. The microstructural analysis indicated the precipitation of transgranular iron nano carbides in the aged specimens, which was related to the deterioration of toughness and change in the ductile to brittle behavior. (Author) 15 refs

  3. Examining the impact of age and multitasking on motorcycle conspicuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Jonathan L; Boyce, Michael W; Fekety, Drea K; Sawyer, Ben; Smither, Janan A

    2012-01-01

    This poster presents a study to assess one's ability to detect motorcycles under different conditions of conspicuity while performing a secondary visual load task. Previous research in which participants were required to detect motorcycles revealed differences in age (young adults/older adult) as well as differences associated with motorcycle conspicuity conditions. Past research has specifically found motorcycles with headlights ON and modulating headlights (flashing) to be more conspicuous than motorcycles with headlights OFF within traffic conditions. The present study seeks to provide more information on the effects of multitasking on motorcycle conspicuity and safety. The current study seeks to determine the degree to which multitasking limits the conspicuity of a motorcycle within traffic. We expect our results will indicate main effects for distraction task, age, gender, motorcycle lighting conditions, and vehicular DRLs on one's ability to effectively detect a motorcycle. The results have implications for motorcycle safety in general and through this research, a better understanding of motorcycle conspicuity can be established so as to minimize the risk involved with motorcycle operation.

  4. Diagnosis of aged prescribed burning plumes impacting an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangil; Kim, Hyeon K; Yan, Bo; Cobb, Charles E; Hennigan, Chris; Nichols, Sara; Chamber, Michael; Edgerton, Eric S; Jansen, John J; Hu, Yongtao; Zheng, Mei; Weber, Rodney J; Russell, Armistead G

    2008-03-01

    An unanticipated wind shift led to the advection of plumes from two prescribed burning sites that impacted Atlanta, GA, producing a heavy smoke event late in the afternoon on February 28, 2007. Observed PM2.5 concentrations increased to over 140 microg/m3 and O3 concentrations up to 30 ppb in a couple of hours, despite the late hour in February when photochemistry is less vigorous. A detailed investigation of PM2.5 chemical composition and source apportionment analysis showed that the increase in PM2.5 mass was driven mainly by organic carbon (OC). However, both results from source apportionment and an observed nonlinear relationship between OC and PM2.5 potassium (K) indicate that the increased OC was not due solely to primary emissions. Most of the OC was water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and was dominated by hydrophobic compounds. The data are consistent with large enhancements in isoprenoid (isoprene and monoterpenes) and other volatile organic compounds emitted from prescribed burning that led to both significant O3 and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production. Formation of oligomers from oxidation products of isoprenoid compounds or condensation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with multiple functional groups emitted during prescribed burning appears to be a major component of the secondary organic contributor of the SOA. The results from this study imply that enhanced emissions due to the fire itself and elevated temperature in the burning region should be considered in air quality models (e.g., receptor and emission-based models) to assess impacts of prescribed burning emissions on ambient air quality.

  5. Aging may negatively impact movement smoothness during stair negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, P C; Stirling, L; Xu, X; Chang, C C; Dennerlein, J T; Schiffman, J M

    2018-05-26

    Stairs represent a barrier to safe locomotion for some older adults, potentially leading to the adoption of a cautious gait strategy that may lack fluidity. This strategy may be characterized as unsmooth; however, stair negotiation smoothness has yet to be quantified. The aims of this study were to assess age- and task-related differences in head and body center of mass (COM) acceleration patterns and smoothness during stair negotiation and to determine if smoothness was associated with the timed "Up and Go" (TUG) test of functional movement. Motion data from nineteen older and twenty young adults performing stair ascent, stair descent, and overground straight walking trials were analyzed and used to compute smoothness based on the log-normalized dimensionless jerk (LDJ) and the velocity spectral arc length (SPARC) metrics. The associations between TUG and smoothness measures were evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficient (r). Stair tasks increased head and body COM acceleration pattern differences across groups, compared to walking (p < 0.05). LDJ smoothness for the head and body COM decreased in older adults during stair descent, compared to young adults (p ≤ 0.015) and worsened with increasing TUG for all tasks (-0.60 ≤ r ≤ -0.43). SPARC smoothness of the head and body COM increased in older adults, regardless of task (p < 0.001), while correlations showed improved SPARC smoothness with increasing TUG for some tasks (0.33 ≤ r ≤ 0.40). The LDJ outperforms SPARC in identifying age-related stair negotiation adaptations and is associated with performance on a clinical test of gait. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in adults aged 25 years and above

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yun-Hoa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in people aged 25 years and above. Materials and Methods The study sample of 3,799 patients was chosen randomly from patients who visited Pusan National University Dental Hospital and had panoramic radiographs taken. The data collected included presence and impaction state, angulation, and depth of impaction of third molars, and radiographically detected lesions of third molars and adjacent second molars. Results A greater percentage of men than women retained at least one third molar. The incidence of third molars decreased with increasing age. The incidence of partially impacted third molars greatly declined after the age of 30. Vertically impacted maxillary third molars and horizontally impacted mandibular third molars were most frequent in all age groups. Among the maxillary third molars, those impacted below the cervical line of the second molar were most frequent in all age groups, and among the mandibular third molars, deeply impacted third molars were most frequent in those aged over 40. Dental caries was the most common radiographic lesion of the third molars. Mesioangularly impacted third molars showed radiographic lesions in 13 (9.5%) adjacent maxillary second molars and 117 (27.4%) mandibular second molars. Conclusion The number of remaining third molars decreased and the percentage of Class C depth increased with age. Caries was the most frequent lesion in third molars. Partially impacted mesioangular third molars showed a high incidence of caries or periodontal bone loss of the adjacent second molar. Regular oral examination will be essential to keep asymptomatic third molars in good health. PMID:24380060

  7. Prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in adults aged 25 years and above

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in people aged 25 years and above. The study sample of 3,799 patients was chosen randomly from patients who visited Pusan National University Dental Hospital and had panoramic radiographs taken. The data collected included presence and impaction state, angulation, and depth of impaction of third molars, and radiographically detected lesions of third molars and adjacent second molars. A greater percentage of men than women retained at least one third molar. The incidence of third molars decreased with increasing age. The incidence of partially impacted third molars greatly declined after the age of 30. Vertically impacted maxillary third molars and horizontally impacted mandibular third molars were most frequent in all age groups. Among the maxillary third molars, those impacted below the cervical line of the second molar were most frequent in all age groups, and among the mandibular third molars, deeply impacted third molars were most frequent in those aged over 40. Dental caries was the most common radiographic lesion of the third molars. Mesioangularly impacted third molars showed radiographic lesions in 13 (9.5%) adjacent maxillary second molars and 117 (27.4%) mandibular second molars. The number of remaining third molars decreased and the percentage of Class C depth increased with age. Caries was the most frequent lesion in third molars. Partially impacted mesioangular third molars showed a high incidence of caries or periodontal bone loss of the adjacent second molar. Regular oral examination will be essential to keep asymptomatic third molars in good health.

  8. Prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in adults aged 25 years and above

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in people aged 25 years and above. The study sample of 3,799 patients was chosen randomly from patients who visited Pusan National University Dental Hospital and had panoramic radiographs taken. The data collected included presence and impaction state, angulation, and depth of impaction of third molars, and radiographically detected lesions of third molars and adjacent second molars. A greater percentage of men than women retained at least one third molar. The incidence of third molars decreased with increasing age. The incidence of partially impacted third molars greatly declined after the age of 30. Vertically impacted maxillary third molars and horizontally impacted mandibular third molars were most frequent in all age groups. Among the maxillary third molars, those impacted below the cervical line of the second molar were most frequent in all age groups, and among the mandibular third molars, deeply impacted third molars were most frequent in those aged over 40. Dental caries was the most common radiographic lesion of the third molars. Mesioangularly impacted third molars showed radiographic lesions in 13 (9.5%) adjacent maxillary second molars and 117 (27.4%) mandibular second molars. The number of remaining third molars decreased and the percentage of Class C depth increased with age. Caries was the most frequent lesion in third molars. Partially impacted mesioangular third molars showed a high incidence of caries or periodontal bone loss of the adjacent second molar. Regular oral examination will be essential to keep asymptomatic third molars in good health.

  9. Impaction of lower third molars and their association with age: radiological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryalat, Soukaina; AlRyalat, Saif Aldeen; Kassob, Zaid; Hassona, Yazan; Al-Shayyab, Mohammad H; Sawair, Faleh

    2018-04-04

    Third molars are the most commonly impacted teeth, and their extraction is the most commonly performed procedure in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The aim of the present study is to describe the pattern of mandibular third molar impaction and to define the most appropriate age for prophylactic extraction of mandibular third molar teeth. A total of 1198 orthopantomographs (OPGs) with 1810 impacted lower third molars were reviewed by two authors. The pattern of eruption in relation to patient's age was examined using standard radiographic points and angles. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS for Windows release 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). In patients older than 20 years, vertical pattern of impaction was the most common (21.4%); while in young patients; horizontal impaction was more common (21.3%). Furthermore, there was a constant pattern of increase in Pell-Gregory ramus class 1 with increasing age, as the prevalence of class 1 was 0% at age 18 years compared to 54.9% at the age of 26 years. Frequency of vertical impaction of lower third molars was seen more at an older age (> 20 years) in this study, with an increase in the retromolar space. Late extraction of mandibular third molar teeth (i.e. after the age of 20) is therefore recommended when prophylactic extraction is considered.

  10. Of Energy and Entropy: The Ineluctable Impact of Aging in Old Age Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Boccardi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD represents the most common form of dementia among older age subjects, and despite decades of studies, the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved. The definition of AD has changed over the past 100 years, and while early-onset AD is commonly related to genetic mutations, late-onset AD is more likely due to a gradual accumulation of age-related modifications. “Normal brain aging” and AD may represent different pathways of successful or failed capability to adapt brain structures and cerebral functions. Cellular senescence and age-related changes (ARCs affecting the brain may be considered as biologic manifestations of increasing entropy, a measure of disorder. Late-onset AD may be regarded as the final effect of a reduced energy production, due to exhausted mitochondria, and an increased entropy in the brain. This unique trajectory enables a bioenergetics-centered strategy targeting disease-stage specific profile of brain metabolism for disease prevention and treatment.

  11. Hypoxia-Inducible Histone Lysine Demethylases: Impact on the Aging Process and Age-Related Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is an environmental stress at high altitude and underground conditions but it is also present in many chronic age-related diseases, where blood flow into tissues is impaired. The oxygen-sensing system stimulates gene expression protecting tissues against hypoxic insults. Hypoxia stabilizes the expression of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1α (HIF-1α), which controls the expression of hundreds of survival genes related to e.g. enhanced energy metabolism and autophagy. Moreover, many stress-related signaling mechanisms, such as oxidative stress and energy metabolic disturbances, as well as the signaling cascades via ceramide, mTOR, NF-κB, and TGF-β pathways, can also induce the expression of HIF-1α protein to facilitate cell survival in normoxia. Hypoxia is linked to prominent epigenetic changes in chromatin landscape. Screening studies have indicated that the stabilization of HIF-1α increases the expression of distinct histone lysine demethylases (KDM). HIF-1α stimulates the expression of KDM3A, KDM4B, KDM4C, and KDM6B, which enhance gene transcription by demethylating H3K9 and H3K27 sites (repressive epigenetic marks). In addition, HIF-1α induces the expression of KDM2B and KDM5B, which repress transcription by demethylating H3K4me2,3 sites (activating marks). Hypoxia-inducible KDMs support locally the gene transcription induced by HIF-1α, although they can also control genome-wide chromatin landscape, especially KDMs which demethylate H3K9 and H3K27 sites. These epigenetic marks have important role in the control of heterochromatin segments and 3D folding of chromosomes, as well as the genetic loci regulating cell type commitment, proliferation, and cellular senescence, e.g. the INK4 box. A chronic stimulation of HIF-1α can provoke tissue fibrosis and cellular senescence, which both are increasingly present with aging and age-related diseases. We will review the regulation of HIF-1α-dependent induction of KDMs and clarify their role in

  12. Comparative Analysis of the Arabidopsis Pollen Transcriptome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honys, David; Twell, D.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 132, - (2003), s. 640ů652 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5038207 Grant - others:Royal Society(GB) NATO Postdoctoral Fellowship (to D.H.) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910; CEZ:MSM 113100003 Keywords : transcriptome profiling * Arabidopsis pollen * male gametophyte Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.634, year: 2003

  13. Effects of Thermal Aging on Microstructure and Impact Properties of 316LN Stainless Steel Weld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUO Qiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the thermal aging of nuclear primary pipe material 316LN stainless steel weld, accelerated thermal aging experiment was performed at 400℃ for 15000h. Microstructure evolution of weld after aging was investigated by TEM and HREM. Impact properties of weld thermally aged at different time was measured by Charpy impact test. Meanwhile, taking Charpy impact energy as the standard of thermal aging embrittlement, the thermal kinetics formula was obtained by the fitting method. Finally, the Charpy impact properties of the weld during 60 years of service at the actual operation temperature were estimated by the thermal kinetics formula. The results indicate that the spinodal decomposition occurs in the ferrite of the weld after thermal aging at 400℃ for 1000h, results in α (Fe-rich and α'(Cr-rich phases, and meanwhile, the G-phase is precipitated in the ferrite; the spinodal decomposition and the G-phase precipitation lead to the decrease in the impact energy of weld as time prolongs; the prediction results show that the Charpy impact energy of weld decreases quickly in the early 25 years, and then undergoes a slow decrease during the subsequent operation process.

  14. Impact of Adult Weight, Density, and Age on Reproduction of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of adult weight, age, and density on reproduction of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied. The impact of adult weight on reproduction was determined in two ways: 1) counting the daily progeny of individual adult pairs of known weight and analyzing the data with line...

  15. Growth on Chitin Impacts the Transcriptome and Metabolite Profiles of Antibiotic-Producing Vibrio coralliilyticus S2052 and Photobacterium galatheae S2753

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giubergia, Sonia; Phippen, Christopher; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2017-01-01

    Members of the Vibrionaceae family are often associated with chitin-containing organisms, and they are thought to play a major role in chitin degradation. The purpose of the present study was to determine how chitin affects the transcriptome and metabolome of two bioactive Vibrionaceae strains...... potentially involved in host colonization and/or infection. The expression of genes involved in secondary metabolism was also significantly affected by growth on chitin, in one case being 34-fold upregulated. This was reflected in the metabolome, where the antibiotics andrimid and holomycin were produced...... and that their secondary metabolites likely play a crucial role during chitin colonization. IMPORTANCE The bacterial family Vibrionaceae (vibrios) is considered a major player in the degradation of chitin, the most abundant polymer in the marine environment; however, the majority of studies on the topic have focused...

  16. The impact of ageing and changing utilization patterns on future cardiovascular drug expenditure: a pharmacoepidemiological projection approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Andersen, Morten; Støvring, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    To develop a method for projecting the impact of ageing and changing drug utilization patterns on future drug expenditure.......To develop a method for projecting the impact of ageing and changing drug utilization patterns on future drug expenditure....

  17. Prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in adults aged 25 years and above

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Yun-Hoa; Cho, Bong-Hae

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in people aged 25 years and above. Materials and Methods The study sample of 3,799 patients was chosen randomly from patients who visited Pusan National University Dental Hospital and had panoramic radiographs taken. The data collected included presence and impaction state, angulation, and depth of impaction of third molars, and radiographically detected lesions of third molars and adjacent ...

  18. Transcriptomic SNP discovery for custom genotyping arrays: impacts of sequence data, SNP calling method and genotyping technology on the probability of validation success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humble, Emily; Thorne, Michael A S; Forcada, Jaume; Hoffman, Joseph I

    2016-08-26

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery is an important goal of many studies. However, the number of 'putative' SNPs discovered from a sequence resource may not provide a reliable indication of the number that will successfully validate with a given genotyping technology. For this it may be necessary to account for factors such as the method used for SNP discovery and the type of sequence data from which it originates, suitability of the SNP flanking sequences for probe design, and genomic context. To explore the relative importance of these and other factors, we used Illumina sequencing to augment an existing Roche 454 transcriptome assembly for the Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella). We then mapped the raw Illumina reads to the new hybrid transcriptome using BWA and BOWTIE2 before calling SNPs with GATK. The resulting markers were pooled with two existing sets of SNPs called from the original 454 assembly using NEWBLER and SWAP454. Finally, we explored the extent to which SNPs discovered using these four methods overlapped and predicted the corresponding validation outcomes for both Illumina Infinium iSelect HD and Affymetrix Axiom arrays. Collating markers across all discovery methods resulted in a global list of 34,718 SNPs. However, concordance between the methods was surprisingly poor, with only 51.0 % of SNPs being discovered by more than one method and 13.5 % being called from both the 454 and Illumina datasets. Using a predictive modeling approach, we could also show that SNPs called from the Illumina data were on average more likely to successfully validate, as were SNPs called by more than one method. Above and beyond this pattern, predicted validation outcomes were also consistently better for Affymetrix Axiom arrays. Our results suggest that focusing on SNPs called by more than one method could potentially improve validation outcomes. They also highlight possible differences between alternative genotyping technologies that could be

  19. PROCEEDINGS OF THE AGING AMERICANS: IMPACT ON THE ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY WORKSHOP

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. is undergoing a dramatic demographic transformation toward older adults, spearheaded by the aging Baby Boomers, but projected to last beyond the Boomer generation. There has been little discussion in the environmental community, however, about the impact of the aging soc...

  20. Impact of aging on antigen presentation cell function of dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christine; Goldstein, Daniel R

    2013-08-01

    Older people exhibit increased mortality to infections and cancer as compared to younger people, indicating that aging impairs immunity. Dendritic cells (DCs) are key for bridging the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system by priming antigen specific T cells. Discerning how aging impacts DC function to initiate adaptive immune responses is of great biomedical importance as this could lead to the development of novel therapeutics to enhance immunity with aging. This review details reports indicating that aging impairs the antigen presenting function of DCs but highlights other studies indicating preserved DC function with aging. How aging impacts antigen presentation by DCs is complex and without a clear unifying biological underpinning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. AGEING IN LUSOPHONE COUNTRIES: THE IMPACT OF AGE-SPECIFIC LEGISLATION ON THE RECOGNITION OF RIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Braz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The ageing phenomenon of the 21 St Century has led to an increased need of public policies to protect the rights of the older population. An example is the Law of the Rights of Older Persons, a Brazilian legislation. Some countries still lack this kind of legislation, which may cause more vulnerability among this population. The exercise of interpersonal rights in daily life requires recognition of general and specific duties, beyond the competence to exercise them. Considering that the first step in the exercise of rights is to recognize them, the goals of this descriptive study are: (a presenting some exploratory and inferential data on the recognition of rights, from the responses of 60 elderly (30 Brazilian and 30 Portuguese to an eight-item questionnaire regarding to the Law for the Rights of Older Persons, (b discussing the importance of the elderly rights in the Brazilian and Portuguese contexts. In general, the Brazilian sample presented higher scores than the Portuguese sample for the recognition of three rights (priority assistance, free issuing of documents, reserved parking spaces which might be related to the existence of a legislation in Brazil but not in Portugal. Both groups reported higher scores only of awareness of rights, medium scores for exercising rights and low scores for discrimination of unrespected rights and for mobilization of feelings of justice, which points to possible difficulties to claim for their rights. These findings may indicate that age-specific legislation is a necessary but not sufficient condition to prevent violence against the older persons. We discuss the importance of research and psychosocial interventions to promote the necessary skills for the older persons claim and defend their rights.

  2. Middle age has a significant impact on gene expression during skin wound healing in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Hagai; Lumenta, David Benjamin; Vierlinger, Klemens; Hofner, Manuela; Kitzinger, Hugo-Benito; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Nöhammer, Christa; Chilosi, Marco; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2016-08-01

    The vast majority of research on the impact of age on skin wound healing (WH) compares old animals to young ones. The middle age is often ignored in biogerontological research despite the fact that many functions that decline in an age-dependent manner have starting points in mid-life. With this in mind, we examined gene expression patterns during skin WH in late middle-aged versus young adult male mice, using the head and back punch models. The rationale behind this study was that the impact of age would first be detectable at the transcriptional level. We pinpointed several pathways which were over-activated in the middle-aged mice, both in the intact skin and during WH. Among them were various metabolic, immune-inflammatory and growth-promoting pathways. These transcriptional changes were much more pronounced in the head than in the back. In summary, the middle age has a significant impact on gene expression in intact and healing skin. It seems that the head punch model is more sensitive to the effect of age than the back model, and we suggest that it should be more widely applied in aging research on wound healing.

  3. DMPD: Interferons at age 50: past, current and future impact on biomedicine. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18049472 Interferons at age 50: past, current and future impact on biomedicine. Bor...975-90. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Interferons at age 50: past, current and future impact on biomedicine.... PubmedID 18049472 Title Interferons at age 50: past, current and future impact on biomedicine

  4. TCW: transcriptome computational workbench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderlund, Carol; Nelson, William; Willer, Mark; Gang, David R

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of transcriptome data involves many steps and various programs, along with organization of large amounts of data and results. Without a methodical approach for storage, analysis and query, the resulting ad hoc analysis can lead to human error, loss of data and results, inefficient use of time, and lack of verifiability, repeatability, and extensibility. The Transcriptome Computational Workbench (TCW) provides Java graphical interfaces for methodical analysis for both single and comparative transcriptome data without the use of a reference genome (e.g. for non-model organisms). The singleTCW interface steps the user through importing transcript sequences (e.g. Illumina) or assembling long sequences (e.g. Sanger, 454, transcripts), annotating the sequences, and performing differential expression analysis using published statistical programs in R. The data, metadata, and results are stored in a MySQL database. The multiTCW interface builds a comparison database by importing sequence and annotation from one or more single TCW databases, executes the ESTscan program to translate the sequences into proteins, and then incorporates one or more clusterings, where the clustering options are to execute the orthoMCL program, compute transitive closure, or import clusters. Both singleTCW and multiTCW allow extensive query and display of the results, where singleTCW displays the alignment of annotation hits to transcript sequences, and multiTCW displays multiple transcript alignments with MUSCLE or pairwise alignments. The query programs can be executed on the desktop for fastest analysis, or from the web for sharing the results. It is now affordable to buy a multi-processor machine, and easy to install Java and MySQL. By simply downloading the TCW, the user can interactively analyze, query and view their data. The TCW allows in-depth data mining of the results, which can lead to a better understanding of the transcriptome. TCW is freely available from www.agcol.arizona.edu/software/tcw.

  5. The Impact of Aging Agricultural Labor Population on Farmland Output: From the Perspective of Farmer Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guancheng Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese agriculture is facing an aging workforce which could negatively impact the industry. In this context, research is needed on how work preferences and age of farmers affect agricultural output. This paper attempts to investigate these factors to more fully understand the impact of an aging agricultural labor population on agricultural production. The results show that, in this context of aging, changes in the working-age households have a significant impact on agricultural output. Despite the fact that the impacts of intention to abandon land management were not significant, we can ignore this preference in the workforce. The combination of changes in the composition of the working-age households indicates that 58.53 percent of the agricultural producers will likely quit. This is a potential threat for the future of agricultural development. We also found that elderly farmers who do not intend to abandon farming had higher agricultural output compared to other farmers. This indicates that the adverse effects of changes in the agricultural population age result more from the agricultural output of older farmers who intend to give up farming. This intention adversely affected other elements and reduced investment. Therefore, various forms of training should increase efforts to cultivate modern professional farmers and policies should be simultaneously developed to increase agricultural production levels.

  6. Age Distribution of Lunar Impact-Melt Rocks in Apollo Drive-Tube 68001/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, N. M.; Bower, D. M.; Frasl, B.; Cohen, B. A.

    2018-01-01

    Apollo 16 double-drive tube 68001 /68002 provides impact and volcanic materials along a depth of approximately 60 cm in five compositional distinct units. 68001 /2 offers the potential to study distinct populations of impact melts with depth to understand how 'gardening' affects these samples. We will use unbiased major-element chemistry, mineralogy, and age to understand the impact history of Apollo 16 landing site. The study demonstrates the techniques that landed missions require to identify lithologies of interest (e.g., impact melts).

  7. The Extent of mRNA Editing Is Limited in Chicken Liver and Adipose, but Impacted by Tissular Context, Genotype, Age, and Feeding as Exemplified with a Conserved Edited Site in COG3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-François Roux

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available RNA editing is a posttranscriptional process leading to differences between genomic DNA and transcript sequences, potentially enhancing transcriptome diversity. With recent advances in high-throughput sequencing, many efforts have been made to describe mRNA editing at the transcriptome scale, especially in mammals, yielding contradictory conclusions regarding the extent of this phenomenon. We show, by detailed description of the 25 studies focusing so far on mRNA editing at the whole-transcriptome scale, that systematic sequencing artifacts are considered in most studies whereas biological replication is often neglected and multi-alignment not properly evaluated, which ultimately impairs the legitimacy of results. We recently developed a rigorous strategy to identify mRNA editing using mRNA and genomic DNA sequencing, taking into account sequencing and mapping artifacts, and biological replicates. We applied this method to screen for mRNA editing in liver and white adipose tissue from eight chickens and confirm the small extent of mRNA recoding in this species. Among the 25 unique edited sites identified, three events were previously described in mammals, attesting that this phenomenon is conserved throughout evolution. Deeper investigations on five sites revealed the impact of tissular context, genotype, age, feeding conditions, and sex on mRNA editing levels. More specifically, this analysis highlighted that the editing level at the site located on COG3 was strongly regulated by four of these factors. By comprehensively characterizing the mRNA editing landscape in chickens, our results highlight how this phenomenon is limited and suggest regulation of editing levels by various genetic and environmental factors.

  8. Transcriptomic signatures shaped by cell proportions shed light on comparative developmental biology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pantalacci, S.; Gueguen, L.; Petit, C.; Lambert, A.; Peterková, Renata; Sémon, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, feb (2017), s. 29 ISSN 1474-760X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GB14-37368G Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : comparative transcriptomics * developmental biology * transcriptomic signature Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology OBOR OECD: Developmental biology Impact factor: 11.908, year: 2016

  9. Fasting and Fast Food Diet Play an Opposite Role in Mice Brain Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrogiovanni, Paola; Li Volti, Giovanni; Sanfilippo, Cristina; Tibullo, Daniele; Galvano, Fabio; Vecchio, Michele; Avola, Roberto; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Malaguarnera, Lucia; Castorina, Sergio; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Imbesi, Rosa; Di Rosa, Michelino

    2018-01-20

    Fasting may be exploited as a possible strategy for prevention and treatment of several diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and aging. On the other hand, high-fat diet (HFD) represents a risk factor for several diseases and increased mortality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of fasting on mouse brain aging transcriptome and how HFD regulates such pathways. We used the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, in order to identify suitable microarray datasets comparing mouse brain transcriptome under fasting or HFD vs aged mouse brain transcriptome. Three microarray datasets were selected for this study, GSE24504, GSE6285, and GSE8150, and the principal molecular mechanisms involved in this process were evaluated. This analysis showed that, regardless of fasting duration, mouse brain significantly expressed 21 and 30 upregulated and downregulated genes, respectively. The involved biological processes were related to cell cycle arrest, cell death inhibition, and regulation of cellular metabolism. Comparing mouse brain transcriptome under fasting and aged conditions, we found out that the number of genes in common increased with the duration of fasting (222 genes), peaking at 72 h. In addition, mouse brain transcriptome under HFD resembles for the 30% the one of the aged mice. Furthermore, several molecular processes were found to be shared between HFD and aging. In conclusion, we suggest that fasting and HFD play an opposite role in brain transcriptome of aged mice. Therefore, an intermittent diet could represent a possible clinical strategy to counteract aging, loss of memory, and neuroinflammation. Furthermore, low-fat diet leads to the inactivation of brain degenerative processes triggered by aging.

  10. The Impact of the Age of Vines on Soil Hydraulic Conductivity in Vineyards in Eastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Alagna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil infiltration processes manage runoff generation, which in turn affects soil erosion. There is limited information on infiltration rates. In this study, the impact of vine age on soil bulk density (BD and hydraulic conductivity (Ks was assessed on a loam soil tilled by chisel plough. Soil sampling was conducted in the inter row area of six vineyards, which differed by the age from planting: 0 (Age 0; just planted, 1, 3, 6, 13, and 25 years (Age 1, Age 3, Age 6, Age 13, and Age 25, respectively. The One Ponding Depth (OPD approach was applied to ring infiltration data to estimate soil Ks with an α* parameter equal to 0.012 mm−1. Soil bulk density for Age 0 was about 1.5 times greater than for Age 25, i.e., the long-term managed vineyards. Saturated hydraulic conductivity at Age 0 was 86% less than at Age 25. The planting works were considered a major factor for soil compaction and the reduction of hydraulic conductivity. Compared to the long-term managed vineyards, soil compaction was a very short-term effect given that BD was restored in one year due to ploughing. Reestablishment of Ks to the long-term value required more time.

  11. Relationship between cortisol reactivity to psychosocial stress and declarative memory decline during aging: Impact of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Aline Talita; Leyendecker, Dayse Maria D; Costa, Ana Lucia Siqueira; de Souza-Talarico, Juliana Nery

    2018-01-01

    To analyze the relationship between memory performance and the neuroendocrine and cardiovascular response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy older people, and the sex and age impact in this relationship. We randomly selected 100 literate older adults, without cognitive or functional impairment. The neuroendocrine stress response was evaluated by measuring the concentration of salivary cortisol, whereas cardiovascular reactions were determined based on blood pressure and heart rate measures taken before, during and after participant exposure to an acute psychosocial stressor (the Trier social stress test [TSST]). Memory performance was evaluated by applying the word pairs test before and after the TSST. A significant reduction in the word pair test scores was observed after the TSST, and a negative correlation between cortisol concentration and immediate and delayed recall of the word pair. Cortisol concentration associated with age, sex and education explained memory performance variability before and after the TSST. The results showed that the influence of acute stress on memory performance during aging might vary according to age and sex, highlighting potential differences in the vulnerability of older individuals to the neurotoxic effects of stress exposure on memory and consequently on the development of cognitive disorders. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 169-176. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  12. The impact of retirement on age related cognitive decline - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Annette; Nexø, Mette Andersen; Borg, Vilhelm

    2017-07-21

    Knowledge on factors affecting the rate of cognitive decline and how to maintain cognitive functioning in old age becomes increasingly relevant. The purpose of the current study was to systematically review the evidence for the impact of retirement on cognitive functioning and on age related cognitive decline. We conducted a systematic literature review, following the principles of the PRISMA statement, of longitudinal studies on the association between retirement and cognition. Only seven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. We found weak evidence that retirement accelerates the rate of cognitive decline in crystallised abilities, but only for individuals retiring from jobs high in complexity with people. The evidence of the impact of retirement on the rate of decline in fluid cognitive abilities is conflicting. The review revealed a major knowledge gap in regards to the impact of retirement on cognitive decline. More knowledge on the association between retirement and age related cognitive decline as well as knowledge on the mechanisms behind these associations is needed.

  13. Impact Analysis of Age on Fallout Fatality Estimations for IND Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-30

    dependent radiation dose response for acute effects was evaluated in detail. The analysis included data from animal studies, radiation oncology, and other...and genetic disposition. 17 Section 5. Future Work Analysis provided by the current study suggests that age-variability in dose response can...Defense Threat Reduction Agency 8725 John J. Kingman Road, MS-6201 Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201 Impact Analysis of Age on

  14. TCW: transcriptome computational workbench.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Soderlund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The analysis of transcriptome data involves many steps and various programs, along with organization of large amounts of data and results. Without a methodical approach for storage, analysis and query, the resulting ad hoc analysis can lead to human error, loss of data and results, inefficient use of time, and lack of verifiability, repeatability, and extensibility. METHODOLOGY: The Transcriptome Computational Workbench (TCW provides Java graphical interfaces for methodical analysis for both single and comparative transcriptome data without the use of a reference genome (e.g. for non-model organisms. The singleTCW interface steps the user through importing transcript sequences (e.g. Illumina or assembling long sequences (e.g. Sanger, 454, transcripts, annotating the sequences, and performing differential expression analysis using published statistical programs in R. The data, metadata, and results are stored in a MySQL database. The multiTCW interface builds a comparison database by importing sequence and annotation from one or more single TCW databases, executes the ESTscan program to translate the sequences into proteins, and then incorporates one or more clusterings, where the clustering options are to execute the orthoMCL program, compute transitive closure, or import clusters. Both singleTCW and multiTCW allow extensive query and display of the results, where singleTCW displays the alignment of annotation hits to transcript sequences, and multiTCW displays multiple transcript alignments with MUSCLE or pairwise alignments. The query programs can be executed on the desktop for fastest analysis, or from the web for sharing the results. CONCLUSION: It is now affordable to buy a multi-processor machine, and easy to install Java and MySQL. By simply downloading the TCW, the user can interactively analyze, query and view their data. The TCW allows in-depth data mining of the results, which can lead to a better understanding of the

  15. Impact of Tile Drainage on the Distribution of Concentration and Age of Inorganic Soil Nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, D.; Kumar, P.

    2017-12-01

    Extensive network of tile drainage network across the Midwestern United States, northern Europe and other regions of the world have enhanced agricultural productivity. Because of its impact on sub-surface flow patterns and moisture and temperature dynamics, it controls the nitrogen cycle in agricultural systems, and its influence on nitrogen dynamics plays a key role in determining the short- and long-term evolution of soil inorganic nitrogen concentration and age. The spatial mapping of nitrogen concentration and age under tile-drained fields has, therefore, the potential to open up novel solution to the vexing challenge of reducing environmental impacts while at the same time maintaining agricultural productivity. The objective of this study is to explore the impacts of tile drains on the age dynamics of nitrate, immobile ammonium, mobile ammonia/um, and non-reactive tracer (such as chloride) by implementing two mobile interacting pore domains to capture matrix and preferential flow paths in a coupled ecohydrology and biogeochemistry model, Dhara. We applied this model to an agricultural farm supporting a corn-soybean rotation in the Midwestern United States. It should be expected that the installation of tile drains decrease the age of soil nutrient due to nutrient losses through tile drainage. However, an increase in the age of mobile ammonia/um is observed in contrast to the cases for nitrate, immobile ammonium, and non-reactive tracer. These results arise because the depletion of mobile ammonia/um due to tile drainage causes a high mobility flux from immobile ammonium to mobile ammonia/um, which also carries a considerable amount of relatively old age of immobile ammonium to mobile ammonia/um. In addition, the ages of nitrate and mobile ammonia/um in tile drainage range from 1 to 3 years, and less than a year, respectively, implying that not considering age transformations between nitrogen species would result in substantial underestimation of nitrogen ages

  16. Poor cognitive ageing: Vulnerabilities, mechanisms and the impact of nutritional interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, Sophie; Champ, Claire; Day, Jon; Aarts, Esther; Bahr, Ben A; Bakker, Martijntje; Bánáti, Diána; Calabrese, Vittorio; Cederholm, Tommy; Cryan, John; Dye, Louise; Farrimond, Jonathan A; Korosi, Aniko; Layé, Sophie; Maudsley, Stuart; Milenkovic, Dragan; Mohajeri, M Hasan; Sijben, John; Solomon, Alina; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Thuret, Sandrine; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Vauzour, David; Vellas, Bruno; Wesnes, Keith; Willatts, Peter; Wittenberg, Raphael; Geurts, Lucie

    2018-03-01

    Ageing is a highly complex process marked by a temporal cascade of events, which promote alterations in the normal functioning of an individual organism. The triggers of normal brain ageing are not well understood, even less so the factors which initiate and steer the neuronal degeneration, which underpin disorders such as dementia. A wealth of data on how nutrients and diets may support cognitive function and preserve brain health are available, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying their biological action in both normal ageing, age-related cognitive decline, and in the development of neurodegenerative disorders have not been clearly elucidated. This review aims to summarise the current state of knowledge of vulnerabilities that predispose towards dysfunctional brain ageing, highlight potential protective mechanisms, and discuss dietary interventions that may be used as therapies. A special focus of this paper is on the impact of nutrition on neuroprotection and the underlying molecular mechanisms, and this focus reflects the discussions held during the 2nd workshop 'Nutrition for the Ageing Brain: Functional Aspects and Mechanisms' in Copenhagen in June 2016. The present review is the most recent in a series produced by the Nutrition and Mental Performance Task Force under the auspice of the International Life Sciences Institute Europe (ILSI Europe). Coupling studies of cognitive ageing with studies investigating the effect of nutrition and dietary interventions as strategies targeting specific mechanisms, such as neurogenesis, protein clearance, inflammation, and non-coding and microRNAs is of high value. Future research on the impact of nutrition on cognitive ageing will need to adopt a longitudinal approach and multimodal nutritional interventions will likely need to be imposed in early-life to observe significant impact in older age. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Transposable elements in the Anopheles funestus transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Medina, Rita D; Carareto, Claudia M A; Struchiner, Cláudio J; Ribeiro, José M C

    2017-06-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are present in most of the eukaryotic genomes and their impact on genome evolution is increasingly recognized. Although there is extensive information on the TEs present in several eukaryotic genomes, less is known about the expression of these elements at the transcriptome level. Here we present a detailed analysis regarding the expression of TEs in Anopheles funestus, the second most important vector of human malaria in Africa. Several transcriptionally active TE families belonging both to Class I and II were identified and characterized. Interestingly, we have identified a full-length putative active element (including the presence of full length TIRs in the genomic sequence) belonging to the hAT superfamily, which presents active members in other insect genomes. This work contributes to a comprehensive understanding of the landscape of transposable elements in A. funestus transcriptome. Our results reveal that TEs are abundant and diverse in the mosquito and that most of the TE families found in the genome are represented in the mosquito transcriptome, a fact that could indicate activity of these elements.The vast diversity of TEs expressed in A. funestus suggests that there is ongoing amplification of several families in this organism.

  18. The impact of cellular senescence in skin ageing: A notion of mosaic and therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutfaire, Marie; Bauwens, Emilie; Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence

    2017-10-15

    Cellular senescence is now recognized as one of the nine hallmarks of ageing. Recent data show the involvement of senescent cells in tissue ageing and some age-related diseases. Skin represents an ideal model for the study of ageing. Indeed, skin ageing varies between individuals depending on their chronological age but also on their exposure to various exogenous factors (mainly ultraviolet rays). If senescence traits can be detected with ageing in the skin, the senescent phenotype varies among the various skin cell types. Moreover, the origin of cellular senescence in the skin is still unknown, and multiple origins are possible. This reflects the mosaic of skin ageing. Senescent cells can interfere with their microenvironment, either via the direct secretion of factors (the senescence-associated secretory phenotype) or via other methods of communication, such as extracellular vesicles. Knowledge regarding the impact of cellular senescence on skin ageing could be integrated into dermatology research, especially to limit the appearance of senescent cells after photo(chemo)therapy or in age-related skin diseases. Therapeutic approaches include the clearance of senescent cells via the use of senolytics or via the cooperation with the immune system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Age Is Relative—Impact of Donor Age on Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cell Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Tamara Strässler

    2018-01-01

    PSC-derived cells from older donors suffer early senescence or show functional impairments when compared with those from younger donors. Thus, the data would suggest that donor age does not limit iPSC application for modelling genetic diseases nor regenerative therapies. However, open questions remain, e.g., regarding the potential tumourigenicity of iPSC-derived cells and the impact of epigenetic pattern retention.

  20. Change of Charpy impact fracture behavior of precracked ferritic specimens due to thermal aging in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, W.L.

    1985-12-01

    A series of tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of sodium on the impact fracture behavior of precracked Charpy specimens made of HT-9 weldment. One set of samples was precracked prior to sodium aging and the other set was precracked after aging in sodium. Both set of specimens exhibited the same DBTT. Samples precracked prior to sodium exposure, however, showed a 40% reduction in the upper shelf energy (USE) as compared to the set precracked after aging. The results suggest that the fracture toughness of the material may be reduced if an existing crack was soaked in sodium at elevated temperature for a period of time

  1. Believing What You Hear: The Impact of Aging Stereotypes upon the Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Teri; Gaines, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Stereotypes about aging and the old, both negative and positive, have significant influence upon older people themselves. Often unknowingly, older people incorporate these stereotypes into their own thinking and self-perceptions. A literature search revealed four primary hypotheses about the manner in which these self-stereotypes impact older…

  2. The impact of the age of vines on soil hydraulic conductivity in vineyards in eastern Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alagna, Vincenzo; Prima, Di Simone; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; Iovino, Massimo; Pirastru, Mario; Keesstra, Saskia D.; Novara, Agata; Cerdà, Artemio

    2017-01-01

    Soil infiltration processes manage runoff generation, which in turn affects soil erosion. There is limited information on infiltration rates. In this study, the impact of vine age on soil bulk density (BD) and hydraulic conductivity (Ks) was assessed on a loam soil tilled by chisel plough. Soil

  3. Impacts of predation on dynamics of age-structured prey: Allee effects and multi-stability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlová, V.; Berec, Luděk

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2012), s. 533-544 ISSN 1874-1738 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : age-specific predation * functional response * generalist predator Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.052, year: 2012 http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs12080-011-0144-y

  4. The Impact of Instrumental Music Learning on Attainment at Age 16: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Susan; Rogers, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing international evidence that playing a musical instrument has a positive impact on attainment at school but little research has been undertaken in the UK. This study addresses this drawing on data on attainment at age 11 and 16 relating to 608 students, 115 of whom played a musical instrument. The fndings showed that the young…

  5. The economic impact of COPD in patients of working age: Results from 'COPD uncovered' the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Boven, J.F.; Van Der Molen, T.; Postma, M.J.; Vegter, S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) poses a significant burden on health care budgets. The impact of impaired and lost productivity is less known. The aim of this study was to explore the economic burden of COPD in patients of working age in The Netherlands across three areas:

  6. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Saulicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = –0.581, Psychological Domain (r = –0.451, and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.577. Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = –0.434 has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = –0.598 has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.507. Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity.

  7. Modeling the Impact of Uganda's Safe Male Circumcision Program: Implications for Age and Regional Targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripke, Katharine; Vazzano, Andrea; Kirungi, William; Musinguzi, Joshua; Opio, Alex; Ssempebwa, Rhobbinah; Nakawunde, Susan; Kyobutungi, Sheila; Akao, Juliet N; Magala, Fred; Mwidu, George; Castor, Delivette; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Uganda aims to provide safe male circumcision (SMC) to 80% of men ages 15-49 by 2016. To date, only 2 million men have received SMC of the 4.2 million men required. In response to age and regional trends in SMC uptake, the country sought to re-examine its targets with respect to age and subnational region, to assess the program's progress, and to refine the implementation approach. The Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), was used in conjunction with incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM) to conduct this analysis. Population, births, deaths, and HIV incidence and prevalence were used to populate the model. Baseline male circumcision prevalence was derived from the 2011 AIDS Indicator Survey. Uganda can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising men ages 20-34. This group will also require the fewest circumcisions for each HIV infection averted. Focusing on men ages 10-19 will offer the greatest impact over a 15-year period, while focusing on men ages 15-34 offers the most cost-effective strategy over the same period. A regional analysis showed little variation in cost-effectiveness of scaling up SMC across eight regions. Scale-up is cost-saving in all regions. There is geographic variability in program progress, highlighting two regions with low baseline rates of circumcision where additional efforts will be needed. Focusing SMC efforts on specific age groups and regions may help to accelerate Uganda's SMC program progress. Policy makers in Uganda have already used model outputs in planning efforts, proposing males ages 10-34 as a priority group for SMC in the 2014 application to the Global Fund's new funding model. As scale-up continues, the country should also consider a greater effort to expand SMC in regions with low MC prevalence.

  8. Modeling the Impact of Uganda's Safe Male Circumcision Program: Implications for Age and Regional Targeting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Kripke

    Full Text Available Uganda aims to provide safe male circumcision (SMC to 80% of men ages 15-49 by 2016. To date, only 2 million men have received SMC of the 4.2 million men required. In response to age and regional trends in SMC uptake, the country sought to re-examine its targets with respect to age and subnational region, to assess the program's progress, and to refine the implementation approach.The Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0, was used in conjunction with incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM to conduct this analysis. Population, births, deaths, and HIV incidence and prevalence were used to populate the model. Baseline male circumcision prevalence was derived from the 2011 AIDS Indicator Survey. Uganda can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising men ages 20-34. This group will also require the fewest circumcisions for each HIV infection averted. Focusing on men ages 10-19 will offer the greatest impact over a 15-year period, while focusing on men ages 15-34 offers the most cost-effective strategy over the same period. A regional analysis showed little variation in cost-effectiveness of scaling up SMC across eight regions. Scale-up is cost-saving in all regions. There is geographic variability in program progress, highlighting two regions with low baseline rates of circumcision where additional efforts will be needed.Focusing SMC efforts on specific age groups and regions may help to accelerate Uganda's SMC program progress. Policy makers in Uganda have already used model outputs in planning efforts, proposing males ages 10-34 as a priority group for SMC in the 2014 application to the Global Fund's new funding model. As scale-up continues, the country should also consider a greater effort to expand SMC in regions with low MC prevalence.

  9. Effect of Aging Treatment on Impact Toughness and Corrosion Resistance of Super Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Oh, Eun-Ji; Lee, Byung-Chan; Kang, Chang-Yong

    2016-01-01

    The effect of aging time on impact toughness and corrosion resistance of 25%Cr-7%Ni-2%Mo-4%W-0.2%N super duplex stainless steel from the viewpoint of intermetallic secondary phase variation was investigated with scanning electron microscopic observation with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopic analysis and transmission electron microscopy. The results clarified that R-phase is precipitated not only at the interface of ferrite and austenite but inside the ferrite at an initial stage of aging and then transformed into σ-phase from an aging time of 1 h, while the ferrite phase decomposed into γ2 and σ-phase with increase of aging time. This variation of the phases led to decrease of its impact toughness, and specifically, the R-phase was proved to be predominant in the degradation of the impact toughness at the initial stage of the aging. Additionally, these secondary phases led to deterioration of corrosion resistance because of Cr depletion.

  10. Laser-fusion 40Ar/39Ar Ages of Darwin Impact Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ching-Hua; Howard, Kieren T.; Chung, Sun-Lin; Meffre, Sebastien

    2002-11-01

    Three samples of Darwin Glass, an impact glass found in Tasmania, Australia at the edge of the Australasian tektite strewn field were dated using the 40Ar/39Ar single-grain laser fusion technique, yielding isochron ages of 796-815 ka with an overall weighted mean of 816 ± 7 ka. These data are statistically indistinguishable from those recently reported for the Australasian tektites from Southeast Asia and Australia (761-816 ka; with a mean weighted age of 803 ± 3 ka). However, considering the compositional and textural differences and the disparity from the presumed impact crater area for Australasian tektites, Darwin Glass is more likely to have resulted from a distinct impact during the same period of time.

  11. The search for alternative aqueous film forming foams (AFFF) with a low environmental impact: physiological and transcriptomic effects of two Forafac(®) fluorosurfactants in turbot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenaars, A; Meyer, I J; Herzke, D; Pardo, B G; Martinez, P; Pabon, M; De Coen, W; Knapen, D

    2011-08-01

    Fluorosurfactants are the key components in aqueous film forming foams (AFFF). They provide these fire fighting agents with the required low surface tension and they enable film formation on top of lighter fuels to prevent burn back. Development of effective and environmentally acceptable PFOS alternatives is one of the most important priorities in the fire fighting foam industry. DuPont™ offers the fluorosurfactant mixtures Forafac(®)1157 and Forafac(®)1157N for the formulation of AFFFs which are alternatives to the persistent and toxic perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS). Ecotoxicological testing of these inadequately documented mixtures is necessary to include them in AFFF hazard and risk assessment. Juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) were exposed for 14 days to 0.1; 0.5 and 1.5mg/L of the fluorosurfactant mixtures used in Forafac(®)1157 and Forafac(®)1157N. In an initial transcriptomics experiment, microarray analysis revealed differentially expressed transcripts of genes which were mainly involved in digestion and in the immune system. This discovery-driven screening approach offered the basis for new hypotheses that were tested in two subsequent experiments in which food intake, energy reserves, growth and a set of haematological parameters were examined. Additionally, effects of the two mixtures were compared to those of PFOS. Based on the results of this study, the mode of action of Forafac(®)1157N was the activation of the acute phase reaction resulting in increased leukocyte concentrations and the inhibition of growth due to the high energetic cost of toxicant exposure. For Forafac(®)1157, evidences of immunosuppression were found on the transcriptional level and the altered differential leukocyte profiles indicated that stress was induced in these fish. However, food intake, energy reserves and growth were not compromised, even at high exposure concentrations, which was in contrast to the effects seen after PFOS exposure. Taking into account

  12. Cognitive predictors and age-based adverse impact among business executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rachael M; Dilchert, Stephan; Ones, Deniz S; Dages, Kelly D

    2015-09-01

    Age differences on measures of general mental ability and specific cognitive abilities were examined in 2 samples of job applicants to executive positions as well as a mix of executive/nonexecutive positions to determine which predictors might lead to age-based adverse impact in making selection and advancement decisions. Generalizability of the pattern of findings was also investigated in 2 samples from the general adult population. Age was negatively related to general mental ability, with older executives scoring lower than younger executives. For specific ability components, the direction and magnitude of age differences depended on the specific ability in question. Older executives scored higher on verbal ability, a measure most often associated with crystallized intelligence. This finding generalized across samples examined in this study. Also, consistent with findings that fluid abilities decline with age, older executives scored somewhat lower on figural reasoning than younger executives, and much lower on a letter series test of inductive reasoning. Other measures of inductive reasoning, such as Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, also showed similar age group mean differences across settings. Implications for employee selection and adverse impact on older job candidates are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Minor class splicing shapes the zebrafish transcriptome during development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markmiller, Sebastian; Cloonan, Nicole; Lardelli, Rea M

    2014-01-01

    known as Taybi-Linder syndrome or microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism 1, and a hereditary intestinal polyposis condition, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Although a key mechanism for regulating gene expression, the impact of impaired U12-type splicing on the transcriptome is unknown. Here, we...

  14. Blood transcriptomics: applications in toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Pius; Umbright, Christina; Sellamuthu, Rajendran

    2015-01-01

    The number of new chemicals that are being synthesized each year has been steadily increasing. While chemicals are of immense benefit to mankind, many of them have a significant negative impact, primarily owing to their inherent chemistry and toxicity, on the environment as well as human health. In addition to chemical exposures, human exposures to numerous non-chemical toxic agents take place in the environment and workplace. Given that human exposure to toxic agents is often unavoidable and many of these agents are found to have detrimental human health effects, it is important to develop strategies to prevent the adverse health effects associated with toxic exposures. Early detection of adverse health effects as well as a clear understanding of the mechanisms, especially at the molecular level, underlying these effects are key elements in preventing the adverse health effects associated with human exposure to toxic agents. Recent developments in genomics, especially transcriptomics, have prompted investigations into this important area of toxicology. Previous studies conducted in our laboratory and elsewhere have demonstrated the potential application of blood gene expression profiling as a sensitive, mechanistically relevant and practical surrogate approach for the early detection of adverse health effects associated with exposure to toxic agents. The advantages of blood gene expression profiling as a surrogate approach to detect early target organ toxicity and the molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity are illustrated and discussed using recent studies on hepatotoxicity and pulmonary toxicity. Furthermore, the important challenges this emerging field in toxicology faces are presented in this review article. PMID:23456664

  15. Quantifying the impact of µCT-scanning of human fossil teeth on ESR age results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Mathieu; Martín-Francés, Laura

    2017-05-01

    Fossil human teeth are nowadays systematically CT-scanned by palaeoanthropologists prior to any further analysis. It has been recently demonstrated that this noninvasive technique has, in most cases, virtually no influence on ancient DNA preservation. However, it may have nevertheless an impact on other techniques, like Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) dating, by artificially ageing the apparent age of the sample. To evaluate this impact, we µCT-scanned several modern enamel fragments following the standard analytical procedures employed by the Dental Anthropology Group at CENIEH, Spain, and then performed ESR dose reconstruction for each of them. The results of our experiment demonstrate that the systematic high-resolution µCT-scanning of fossil hominin remains introduces a nonnegligible X-ray dose into the tooth enamel, equivalent to 15-30 Gy depending on the parameters used. This dose may be multiplied by a factor of ∼8 if no metallic filter is used. However, this dose estimate cannot be universally extrapolated to any µCT-scan experiment but has instead to be specifically assessed for each device and set of parameters employed. The impact on the ESR age results is directly dependent on the magnitude of the geological dose measured in fossil enamel but could potentially lead to an age overestimation up to 40% in case of Late Pleistocene samples, if not taken into consideration. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Attenuated age-impact on systemic inflammatory markers in the presence of a metabolic burden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuurad Erdembileg

    Full Text Available The overall burden of chronic disease, inflammation and cardiovascular risk increases with age. Whether the relationship between age and inflammation is impacted by presence of an adverse metabolic burden is not known.We determined inflammatory markers in humans (336 Caucasians and 224 African Americans and in mice, representing a spectrum of age, weight and metabolic burden.In humans, levels of inflammatory markers increased significantly with age in subjects without the metabolic syndrome, (P=0.009 and P=0.037 for C-reactive protein, P<0.001 and P=0.001 for fibrinogen, P<0.001 and P=0.005 for serum amyloid-A, for Caucasians and African Americans, respectively. In contrast, trend patterns of inflammatory markers did not change significantly with age in subjects with metabolic syndrome in either ethnic group, except for fibrinogen in Caucasians. A composite z-score for systemic inflammation increased significantly with age in subjects without metabolic syndrome (P=0.004 and P<0.006 for Caucasians and African Americans, respectively but not in subjects with metabolic syndrome (P=0.009 for difference in age trend between metabolic syndrome and non-metabolic syndrome. In contrast, no similar age trend was found in vascular inflammation. The findings in humans were paralleled by results in mice as serum amyloid-A levels increased across age (range 2-15 months, P<0.01 and were higher in ob/ob mice compared to control mice (P<0.001.Presence of a metabolic challenge in mice and humans influences levels of inflammatory markers over a wide age range. Our results underscore that already at a young age, presence of a metabolic burden enhances inflammation to a level that appears to be similar to that of decades older people without metabolic syndrome.

  17. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  18. Developmental transcriptome of Aplysia californica'

    KAUST Repository

    Heyland, Andreas; Vue, Zer; Voolstra, Christian R.; Medina, Mó nica; Moroz, Leonid L.

    2010-01-01

    developmental transcriptome with similar studies in the zebra fish Danio rerio, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and other studies on molluscs suggests an overall highly divergent pattern of gene regulatory mechanisms

  19. The impact of old age on surgical outcomes of totally laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Gyu; Kim, Hee Sung; Kim, Byung Sik; Kwon, Sung Joon

    2013-11-01

    Old age is regarded as the risk factor of major abdominal surgery due to the lack of functional reserve and the increased presence of comorbidities. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of old age on the surgical outcomes of totally laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer. This study enrolled 389 gastric cancer patients who underwent totally laparoscopic gastrectomy at Hanyang University Guri Hospital and ASAN Medical Center. The patients were classified into two groups according to age as those older than 70 years and those younger than 70 years. Early surgical outcomes such as operation time, postoperative complications, time to first flatus, days until soft diet began, and hospital stay were evaluated. No patient was converted to open surgery. The two groups differed significantly in terms of overall postoperative complication rate, time to first flatus, days until soft diet began, and hospital stay. The patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy differed in incidence of postoperative ileus but not in severe postoperative complication rate. The results of this study demonstrated that old age can have an effect on the surgical outcomes of totally laparoscopic gastrectomy. This study especially showed that elderly patients are affected by the return of bowel movement after totally laparoscopic gastrectomy. On the other hand, however, it is presumed that old age has not had a serious impact on surgical outcomes in totally laparoscopic gastrectomy because no difference in the severe postoperative complication rate was observed.

  20. The impact of age, HIV serostatus and seroconversion on methamphetamine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Jessica L; Cattie, Jordan; Morgan, Erin; Woods, Steven Paul; Cherner, Mariana; Moore, David J; Atkinson, J Hampton; Grant, Igor

    2016-03-01

    Characterizing methamphetamine use in relation to age, HIV serostatus and seroconversion is pertinent given the increasingly older age of the population with HIV and the intertwined epidemics of methamphetamine use and HIV. Study aims were to investigate whether (i) methamphetamine use differs by age and HIV serostatus, and (ii) receiving an HIV diagnosis impacts methamphetamine use among younger and older persons with HIV. This study examined methamphetamine use characteristics among 217 individuals with a lifetime methamphetamine dependence diagnosis who completed an in-person study assessment. Multivariable regressions revealed that HIV serostatus uniquely attenuates methamphetamine use, such that persons with HIV report a smaller cumulative quantity (β = -0.16, p = 0.01) and a fewer number of days (β = -0.18, p = 0.004) of methamphetamine use than persons without HIV. Among the HIV+ sample, all participants persisted in methamphetamine use after receiving an HIV diagnosis, with about 20% initiating use after seroconversion. Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that density of methamphetamine use (i.e. grams per day used) was greater among the younger, relative to the older, HIV+ group (p = 0.02), and increased for both age groups following seroconversion (p methamphetamine use behaviors, many people with HIV initiate, or persist in, methamphetamine use after receiving an HIV diagnosis. These findings raise the question of whether tailoring of prevention and intervention strategies might reduce the impact of methamphetamine and HIV across the age continuum.

  1. Age effects on sensory-processing abilities and their impact on handwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Hus, Sari; Rosenblum, Sara

    2012-12-01

    Sensory-processing abilities are known to deteriorate in the elderly. As a result, daily activities such as handwriting may be impaired. Yet, knowledge about sensory-processing involvement in handwriting characteristics among older persons is limited. To examine how age influences sensory-processing abilities and the impact on handwriting as a daily performance. The study participants were 118 healthy, independently functioning adults divided into four age groups: 31-45, 46-60, 61-75 and 76+ years. All participants completed the Adolescent/ Adult Sensory Profile (AASP). Handwriting process was documented using the Computerized Handwriting Penmanship Evaluation Tool (ComPET). Age significantly affects sensory processing and handwriting pressure as well as temporal and spatial measures. Both handwriting time and spatial organization of the written product were predicted by sensory seeking. When examining age contribution to the prediction of handwriting by sensory processing, sensory seeking showed a tendency for predicting handwriting pressure (p = .06), while sensory sensitivity significantly predicted handwriting velocity. Age appears to influence sensory-processing abilities and affect daily performance tasks, such as handwriting, for which sensitivity and seeking for sensations are essential. Awareness of clinicians to sensory-processing deficits among older adults and examining their impact on broader daily activities are essential to improve daily performance and quality of life.

  2. Crystallization Age and Impact Resetting of Ancient Lunar Crust from the Descartes Terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, M. D.; Borg, L. E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.

    2002-01-01

    Lunar ferroan anorthosites (FANs) are relics of an ancient, primary feldspathic crust that is widely believed to have crystallized from a global magma ocean. Compositions and ages of FANs provide fundamental information about the origin and magmatic evolution of the Moon, while the petrology and thermal history of lunar FANs illustrate the structure and impact history of the lunar crust. Here we report petrologic, geochemical, and isotopic (Nd-Sr-Ar) studies of a ferroan noritic anorthosite clast from lunar breccia 67215 to improve our understanding of the composition, age, and thermal history of the Moon.

  3. Impact of age-relevant goals on future thinking in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapp, Leann K; Spaniol, Julia

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated how personal goals influence age differences in episodic future thinking. Research suggests that personal goals change with age and like autobiographical memory, future thinking is thought to be organised and impacted by personal goals. It was hypothesised that cueing older adults with age-relevant goals should modulate age differences in episodic details and may also influence phenomenological characteristics of imagined scenarios. Healthy younger and older adults completed the Future Thinking Interview [Addis, D. R., Wong, A. T., & Schacter, D. L. (2008). Age-related changes in the episodic simulation of future events. Psychological Science, 19(1), 33-41. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02043.x ] adapted to activate age-appropriate goals. Narratives were scored with an established protocol to obtain objective measures of episodic and semantic details. Subjective features such as emotionality and personal significance showed age differences as a function of goal domain while other features (e.g., vividness) were unaffected. However, consistent with prior reports, older adults produced fewer episodic details than younger adults and this was not modulated by goal domain. The results do not indicate that goal activation affects level of episodic detail. With respect to phenomenological aspects of future thinking, however, younger adults show more sensitivity to goal activation, compared with older adults.

  4. Immunosenescence of microglia and macrophages: impact on the ageing central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawji, Khalil S; Mishra, Manoj K; Michaels, Nathan J; Rivest, Serge; Stys, Peter K; Yong, V Wee

    2016-03-01

    Ageing of the central nervous system results in a loss of both grey and white matter, leading to cognitive decline. Additional injury to both the grey and white matter is documented in many neurological disorders with ageing, including Alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, stroke, and multiple sclerosis. Accompanying neuronal and glial damage is an inflammatory response consisting of activated macrophages and microglia, innate immune cells demonstrated to be both beneficial and detrimental in neurological repair. This article will propose the following: (i) infiltrating macrophages age differently from central nervous system-intrinsic microglia; (ii) several mechanisms underlie the differential ageing process of these two distinct cell types; and (iii) therapeutic strategies that selectively target these diverse mechanisms may rejuvenate macrophages and microglia for repair in the ageing central nervous system. Most responses of macrophages are diminished with senescence, but activated microglia increase their expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines while diminishing chemotactic and phagocytic activities. The senescence of macrophages and microglia has a negative impact on several neurological diseases, and the mechanisms underlying their age-dependent phenotypic changes vary from extrinsic microenvironmental changes to intrinsic changes in genomic integrity. We discuss the negative effects of age on neurological diseases, examine the response of senescent macrophages and microglia in these conditions, and propose a theoretical framework of therapeutic strategies that target the different mechanisms contributing to the ageing phenotype in these two distinct cell types. Rejuvenation of ageing macrophage/microglia may preserve neurological integrity and promote regeneration in the ageing central nervous system. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  5. The impact of retirement on age related cognitive decline - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Annette; Nexø, Mette Andersen; Borg, Vilhelm

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge on factors affecting the rate of cognitive decline and how to maintain cognitive functioning in old age becomes increasingly relevant. The purpose of the current study was to systematically review the evidence for the impact of retirement on cognitive functioning and on age...... related cognitive decline. METHOD: We conducted a systematic literature review, following the principles of the PRISMA statement, of longitudinal studies on the association between retirement and cognition. RESULTS: Only seven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. We found weak evidence...... that retirement accelerates the rate of cognitive decline in crystallised abilities, but only for individuals retiring from jobs high in complexity with people. The evidence of the impact of retirement on the rate of decline in fluid cognitive abilities is conflicting. CONCLUSION: The review revealed a major...

  6. Age-related mitochondrial DNA depletion and the impact on pancreatic Beta cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Donna L; Brown, Audrey E; Kumaheri, Meutia A; Blair, Helen R; Heggie, Alison; Miwa, Satomi; Cree, Lynsey M; Payne, Brendan; Chinnery, Patrick F; Brown, Louise; Gunn, David A; Walker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterised by an age-related decline in insulin secretion. We previously identified a 50% age-related decline in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in isolated human islets. The purpose of this study was to mimic this degree of mtDNA depletion in MIN6 cells to determine whether there is a direct impact on insulin secretion. Transcriptional silencing of mitochondrial transcription factor A, TFAM, decreased mtDNA levels by 40% in MIN6 cells. This level of mtDNA depletion significantly decreased mtDNA gene transcription and translation, resulting in reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity and ATP production. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was impaired following partial mtDNA depletion, but was normalised following treatment with glibenclamide. This confirms that the deficit in the insulin secretory pathway precedes K+ channel closure, indicating that the impact of mtDNA depletion is at the level of mitochondrial respiration. In conclusion, partial mtDNA depletion to a degree comparable to that seen in aged human islets impaired mitochondrial function and directly decreased insulin secretion. Using our model of partial mtDNA depletion following targeted gene silencing of TFAM, we have managed to mimic the degree of mtDNA depletion observed in aged human islets, and have shown how this correlates with impaired insulin secretion. We therefore predict that the age-related mtDNA depletion in human islets is not simply a biomarker of the aging process, but will contribute to the age-related risk of type 2 diabetes.

  7. The impact of natural aging on computational and neural indices of perceptual decision making: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dully, Jessica; McGovern, David P; O'Connell, Redmond G

    2018-02-10

    It is well established that natural aging negatively impacts on a wide variety of cognitive functions and research has sought to identify core neural mechanisms that may account for these disparate changes. A central feature of any cognitive task is the requirement to translate sensory information into an appropriate action - a process commonly known as perceptual decision making. While computational, psychophysical, and neurophysiological research has made substantial progress in establishing the key computations and neural mechanisms underpinning decision making, it is only relatively recently that this knowledge has begun to be applied to research on aging. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of this work which is beginning to offer new insights into the core psychological processes that mediate age-related cognitive decline in adults aged 65 years and over. Mathematical modelling studies have consistently reported that older adults display longer non-decisional processing times and implement more conservative decision policies than their younger counterparts. However, there are limits on what we can learn from behavioural modeling alone and neurophysiological analyses can play an essential role in empirically validating model predictions and in pinpointing the precise neural mechanisms that are impacted by aging. Although few studies to date have explicitly examined correspondences between computational models and neural data with respect to cognitive aging, neurophysiological studies have already highlighted age-related changes at multiple levels of the sensorimotor hierarchy that are likely to be consequential for decision making behaviour. Here, we provide an overview of this literature and suggest some future directions for the field. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. SOME COMMENTS ABOUT THE IMPACT OF POPULATION AGEING ON FISCAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Cristina NUTA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to determine the impact that demographic changes have had during the 1995-2013 fiscal indicators such as the level of public expenditure, the total/social budget deficit or public debt in Romania. Population aging affects a number of categories of expenditures (social protection expenditure, the health care expenditure or long-term care, and government revenue, through many mechanisms.

  9. Nature’s timepiece – molecular coordination of metabolism and impact on aging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bednářová, Andrea; Kodrík, Dalibor; Krishnan, N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 2 (2013), s. 3026-3049 E-ISSN 1422-0067 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/1215 Grant - others:National Science Foundation(US) MSU 012156-014 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : aging * circadian clocks * cellular metabolism Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.339, year: 2013 http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/14/2/3026

  10. In the Margins: The Impact of Sexualised Images on the Mental Health of Ageing Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hine, Rochelle

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes key findings of a study exploring how a cohort of 16 rural Australian women aged over 60 years think, feel and respond to the prevalence of sexualised imagery in the media. The qualitative research framework was informed by Feminist Standpoint Theory. Participants in three focus groups responded to semi-structured questions and prompts, interspersed with viewing examples of sexualised images. Five strong thematic categories emerged: concern for the harmful impacts of sexualised images on the vulnerable, the media's portrayal of sexual content with a focus on physical appearance and youth, descriptions of the impact of viewing sexualised images, moderators of the impact of sexualised images on well-being, and marginalisation of women in the media. Findings from this research indicate that sexualised images in the media do have an impact on older women's self image and mental health in numerous ways and in a range of situations. Emotional impacts included sadness, anger, concern, envy, desensitisation, marginalisation, and discomfort that their appearance was being judged by others. A strong sense of self apart from appearance, feeling valued by family and community, ignoring or overlooking media content, and being aware that media images are not real and attainable helped buffer the link between sexualised images and well-being. Another important finding is that the impact is variable: women may experience different responses to similar sexualised content depending on a range of social, health and lifestyle factors affecting them at any given time.

  11. Restabilization of the aging resistance of compatibilized blends of pre-aged low density polyethylene and high-impact polystyrene (LDPE/HIPS)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Michálková, Danuše; Pospíšil, Jan; Fortelný, Ivan; Hromádková, Jiřina; Lednický, František; Schmidt, Pavel; Kruliš, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 9 (2009), s. 1486-1493 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06097 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : blends with pre-aged LDPE * upgrading of impact strength * thermal restabilization Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.154, year: 2009

  12. The Psychosocial Impact of Cleft in a Western Australian Cohort Across 3 Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Wendy; Selvey, Linda A; Harper, Craig; Persson, Martin; Robinson, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    Management of a cleft of the lip and/or palate (CL/P) involves a multidisciplinary team approach lasting from birth to potentially postskeletal maturity. This condition is complex, with both medical and psychosocial implications that may place individuals with a cleft at higher risk of developing psychosocial problems. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by a sample from the Western Australian cleft population comprising 3 age groups: child (n = 100), adolescent (n = 101), and adult (n = 158). Public speaking, being photographed, special relationships, and participation in school were identified as the areas most impacted by having a cleft. Hearing and speech were reported to have a higher importance than facial and dental appearance. Participants rated support given to them by their parents as the most important, with high ratings for treatment providers. For teasing, the impact of cleft was significantly higher among participants with cleft lip and palate for both the adolescent and adult age groups. There was little significant difference by gender across the variables, which suggests that males are just as likely to require support as females. The impact of a cleft across multiple psychosocial domains needs to be recognized and addressed as part of craniofacial team care across age groups.

  13. Cultural syndromes and age moderate the emotional impact of illness intrusiveness in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devins, Gerald M; Gupta, Anita; Cameron, Jill; Woodend, Kirsten; Mah, Kenneth; Gladman, Dafna

    2009-02-01

    The authors investigated cultural syndromes (multidimensional vectors comprising culturally based attitudes, values, and beliefs) and age as moderators of the emotional impact of illness intrusiveness--illness-induced lifestyle disruptions--in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and examined illness intrusiveness effects in total and separately for three life domains (relationships and personal development, intimacy, and instrumental). People with RA (n = 105) completed the Illness Intrusiveness Ratings, Individualism-Collectivism, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies--Depression scales in a one-on-one interview. Controlling for disease and background characteristics, the association between illness intrusiveness (total score and the Relationships and Personal Development subscale) and distress was inverse when young adults with RA endorsed high horizontal individualism. Illness intrusiveness into intimacy was associated with increased distress, and this intensified when respondents endorsed high vertical individualism, horizontal collectivism, vertical collectivism, or low horizontal individualism. The negative emotional impact of illness intrusiveness into intimacy diminished with increasing age. Given an aging and increasingly pluralistic society, diversity can no longer be ignored in addressing the psychosocial impact of chronic, disabling disease.

  14. Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adults? How can you reduce anesthesia risks in older patients? Age Age may bring wisdom but it also brings ... Ask your physician to conduct a pre-surgery cognitive test — an assessment of your mental function. The physician can use the results as a ...

  15. Deciphering the Developmental Dynamics of the Mouse Liver Transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumedha S Gunewardena

    Full Text Available During development, liver undergoes a rapid transition from a hematopoietic organ to a major organ for drug metabolism and nutrient homeostasis. However, little is known on a transcriptome level of the genes and RNA-splicing variants that are differentially regulated with age, and which up-stream regulators orchestrate age-specific biological functions in liver. We used RNA-Seq to interrogate the developmental dynamics of the liver transcriptome in mice at 12 ages from late embryonic stage (2-days before birth to maturity (60-days after birth. Among 21,889 unique NCBI RefSeq-annotated genes, 9,641 were significantly expressed in at least one age, 7,289 were differently regulated with age, and 859 had multiple (> = 2 RNA splicing-variants. Factor analysis showed that the dynamics of hepatic genes fall into six distinct groups based on their temporal expression. The average expression of cytokines, ion channels, kinases, phosphatases, transcription regulators and translation regulators decreased with age, whereas the average expression of peptidases, enzymes and transmembrane receptors increased with age. The average expression of growth factors peak between Day-3 and Day-10, and decrease thereafter. We identified critical biological functions, upstream regulators, and putative transcription modules that seem to govern age-specific gene expression. We also observed differential ontogenic expression of known splicing variants of certain genes, and 1,455 novel splicing isoform candidates. In conclusion, the hepatic ontogeny of the transcriptome ontogeny has unveiled critical networks and up-stream regulators that orchestrate age-specific biological functions in liver, and suggest that age contributes to the complexity of the alternative splicing landscape of the hepatic transcriptome.

  16. Advanced age negatively impacts survival in an experimental brain tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladomersky, Erik; Zhai, Lijie; Gritsina, Galina; Genet, Matthew; Lauing, Kristen L; Wu, Meijing; James, C David; Wainwright, Derek A

    2016-09-06

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults, with an average age of 64 years at the time of diagnosis. To study GBM, a number of mouse brain tumor models have been utilized. In these animal models, subjects tend to range from 6 to 12 weeks of age, which is analogous to that of a human teenager. Here, we examined the impact of age on host immunity and the gene expression associated with immune evasion in immunocompetent mice engrafted with syngeneic intracranial GL261. The data indicate that, in mice with brain tumors, youth conveys an advantage to survival. While age did not affect the tumor-infiltrating T cell phenotype or quantity, we discovered that old mice express higher levels of the immunoevasion enzyme, IDO1, which was decreased by the presence of brain tumor. Interestingly, other genes associated with promoting immunosuppression including CTLA-4, PD-L1 and FoxP3, were unaffected by age. These data highlight the possibility that IDO1 contributes to faster GBM outgrowth with advanced age, providing rationale for future investigation into immunotherapeutic targeting in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The impact of age on lamotrigine and oxcarbazepine kinetics: a historical cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Ilse; Wilhelm, Abraham J; Sander, Josemir W; Lindhout, Dick

    2013-10-01

    Age as well as estrogen levels may have an impact on the pharmacokinetics of lamotrigine (LTG) and monohydroxycarbazepine (MHD), the active metabolite of oxcarbazepine (OXC). To assess the effects of age and menopause, we evaluated retrospectively a therapeutic drug-monitoring database. Samples from 507 women and 302 men taking LTG and 464 women and 319 men taking OXC were used to develop a population pharmacokinetic model. Data were analyzed using NONMEM software and were compared with a population pharmacokinetic model based on samples of 1705 women and 1771 men taking carbamazepine (CBZ). Age was a significant factor contributing to pharmacokinetic variability in individuals using LTG, OXC, and CBZ with increasing clearance as a function of bioavailability (Cl/F) over age 18, a maximum Cl/F at 33years (CBZ) and 36 years (LTG and OXC), and a gradual decrease of Cl/F towards older age. We found no effect of perimenopausal age range on LTG and MHD clearance. © 2013.

  18. White-tailed deer age ratios as herd management and predator impact measures in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, Christopher S.; Norton, Andrew S.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Fleegle, Jeannine T.; Wallingford, Bret D.

    2011-01-01

    A review of the Pennsylvania Game Commission's (PGC) deer management program and public concern about predator impacts on deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations compelled the PGC to investigate the role of age ratios in developing management recommendations. Age ratios, such as proportion of juveniles in the antlerless harvest, may provide an index to population productivity and predator impacts. We estimated proportion of juveniles in the antlerless harvest from hunter-killed deer, population trends using the Pennsylvania (USA) sex–age–kill model, and reproduction from road-killed females. Using these estimates and a simulation model, we concluded that no single age-ratio value would serve as a reliable measure of population status. Wildlife Management Unit-specific trends in proportion of juveniles in the antlerless harvest and population trends provided the most relevant management information. We also provide an example decision chart to guide management actions in response to declining age ratios in the harvest. Although predator management activities and juvenile survival studies are often desired by the public, our decision-chart example indicated a number of deer management options exist before investing resources in predator management activities and juvenile survival studies.

  19. Towards person-centredness in aged care - exploring the impact of leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Annica; Sjögren, Karin; Lindkvist, Marie; Lövheim, Hugo; Edvardsson, David

    2016-09-01

    To explore the association between leadership behaviours among managers in aged care, and person-centredness of care and the psychosocial climate. Theory suggests that leadership is important for improving person-centredness in aged care, however, empirical evidence is lacking. A cross-sectional design was used to collect data from Swedish aged care staff (n = 3661). Valid and reliable questionnaires assessing leadership behaviours, person-centeredness of care and the psychosocial climate were used. Data were analysed using multiple linear regression including interaction terms. Leadership behaviours were significantly related to the person-centredness of care and the psychosocial climate. The level of person-centredness of care moderated the impact of leadership on the psychosocial climate. The leadership behaviour of managers significantly impacts person-centred care practice and contributes to the psychosocial climate for both staff and residents in aged care. This study is the first empirically to confirm that middle managers have a central leadership role in developing and supporting person-centred care practice, thereby creating a positive psychosocial climate and high quality care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Older age impacts on survival outcome in patients receiving curative surgery for solid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hsien Lu

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Given the global increase in aging populations and cancer incidence, understanding the influence of age on postoperative outcome after cancer surgery is imperative. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of age on survival outcome in solid cancer patients receiving curative surgery. Methods: A total of 37,288 patients receiving curative surgeries for solid cancers between 2007 and 2012 at four affiliated Chang Gung Memorial Hospital were included in the study. All patients were categorized into age groups by decades for survival analysis. Results: The percentages of patient populations aged <40 years, 40–49 years, 50–59 years, 60–69 years, 70–79 years, and ≥80 years were 9.7%, 17.7%, 27.8%, 22.1%, 16.9%, and 5.7%, respectively. The median follow-up period was 38.9 months (range, 22.8–60.4 months and the overall, cancer-specific, and noncancer-specific mortality rates were 26.0%, 17.6%, and 8.5%, respectively. The overall mortality rate of patients in different age groups were 18.5%, 21.1%, 22.0%, 25.3%, 35.3%, and 49.0%, respectively. Compared to patients aged <40 years, more significant decrease in long-term survival were observed in aging patients. Multivariate analysis showed higher postoperative short-term mortality rates in patients older than 70 years, and the adjusted odds ratio of mortality risk ranged from 1.47 to 1.74 and 2.26 to 3.03 in patients aged 70–79 years and ≥80 years, respectively, compared to those aged <40 years. Conclusion: Aging was a negative prognostic factor of survival outcome in solid cancer patients receiving curative surgery. After adjustment of other clinicopathologic factors, the influence of age on survival outcome was less apparent in the elderly. Keywords: Age, Solid cancer, Surgical resection, Prognosis

  1. Impact of vaginal parity and aging on the architectural design of pelvic floor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperin, Marianna; Cook, Mark; Tuttle, Lori J; Esparza, Mary C; Lieber, Richard L

    2016-09-01

    Vaginal delivery and aging are key risk factors for pelvic floor muscle dysfunction, which is a critical component of pelvic floor disorders. However, alterations in the pelvic floor muscle intrinsic structure that lead to muscle dysfunction because of childbirth and aging remain elusive. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of vaginal deliveries and aging on human cadaveric pelvic floor muscle architecture, which is the strongest predictor of active muscle function. Coccygeus, iliococcygeus, and pubovisceralis were obtained from younger donors who were ≤51 years old, vaginally nulliparous (n = 5) and vaginally parous (n = 6) and older donors who were >51 years old, vaginally nulliparous (n = 6) and vaginally parous (n = 6), all of whom had no history of pelvic floor disorders. Architectural parameters, which are predictive of muscle's excursion and force-generating capacity, were determined with the use of validated methods. Intramuscular collagen content was quantified by hydroxyproline assay. Main effects of parity and aging and the interactions were determined with the use of 2-way analysis of variance, with Tukey's post-hoc testing and a significance level of .05. The mean age of younger and older donors differed by approximately 40 years (P = .001) but was similar between nulliparous and parous donors within each age group (P > .9). The median parity was 2 (range, 1-3) in younger and older vaginally parous groups (P = .7). The main impact of parity was increased fiber length in the more proximal coccygeus (P = .03) and iliococcygeus (P = .04). Aging changes manifested as decreased physiologic cross-sectional area across all pelvic floor muscles (P < .05), which substantially exceeded the age-related decline in muscle mass. The physiologic cross-sectional area was lower in younger vaginally parous, compared with younger vaginally nulliparous, pelvic floor muscles; however, the differences did not reach statistical significance

  2. Impact of physical activity on ovarian reserve markers in normal, overweight and obese reproductive age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surekha, T; Himabindu, Y; Sriharibabu, M; Pandey, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for overweight and obesity in the society. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the reproductive age group women not only affects maternal health but also the health of the off spring. Infertility is a common problem in India affecting 13-19 million people at any given time. Even though it is not life threatening, infertility causes intense mental agony and trauma that can only be best described by infertile couples themselves. Infertility is more common in overweight and obese individuals compared to normal weight individuals. Decreasing ovarian reserve is an important factor for infertility in women. This study examined the impact of physical activity on ovarian reserve markers in normal, overweight and obese reproductive age women. The observations made in this study reveal that physical activity improves ovarian reserve markers in all reproductive age women but this improvement is more distinct and statistically significant in overweight and obese women compared to normal weight women.

  3. Impact of aging on the solid phase chemical fractionation of uranium in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, Sabyasachi; Ajay Kumar; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    A distinction should be made between persistence of total uranium (U) in soil and persistence of its bioavailable forms. As U age in soil, there is a change in bioavailability. The aging process is partially reversible if environmental parameters change, although a portion of the U ion will be securely entrapped in the soil particle lattice and not available to be re-solubilized. A study was carried out to reveals the impact of aging on chemical fractionation of U in amended soils from three different origin (Soil A: Metamorphic; Soil B: Sedimentary and Soil C: Ingenious basalt). For the study, 5g from each soil were amended with the 50 ml of water containing 100.0 mg/L of U in a falcon tube. After 7 days the supernatant was removed by centrifugation and the soil was allowed to air dry at room temperature

  4. Impact of age, sex and body mass index on cortisol secretion in 143 healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Roelfsema

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Studies on 24-h cortisol secretion are rare. The impact of sex, age and adiposity on cortisol levels, often restricted to one or a few samples, are well recognized, but conflicting. Objective: To investigate cortisol dynamics in 143 healthy men and women, spanning 7 decades and with a 2-fold body mass index (BMI range with different analytic tools. Setting: Clinical Research Unit. Design: Cortisol concentrations in 10-min samples collected for 24 h. Outcomes were mean levels, deconvolution parameters, approximate entropy (ApEn, regularity statistic and 24-h rhythms. Results: Total 24-h cortisol secretion rates estimated by deconvolution analysis were sex, age and BMI independent. Mean 24-h cortisol concentrations were lower in premenopausal women than those in men of comparable age (176 ± 8.2 vs 217 ± 9.4 nmol/L, P = 0.02, but not in subjects older than 50 years. This was due to lower daytime levels in women, albeit similar in the quiescent overnight period. Aging increased mean cortisol by 10 nmol/L per decade during the quiescent secretory phase and advanced the acrophase of the diurnal rhythm by 24 min/decade. However, total 24-h cortisol secretion rates estimated by deconvolution analysis were sex, age and BMI independent. ApEn of 24-h profiles was higher (more random in premenopausal women than those in men (1.048 ± 0.025 vs 0.933 ± 0.023, P = 0.001, but not in subjects older than 50 years. ApEn peaked during the daytime. Conclusion: Sex and age jointly determine the 24-h cortisol secretory profile. Sex effects are largely restricted to age <50 years, whereas age effects elevate concentrations in the late evening and early night and advance the timing of the peak diurnal rhythm.

  5. Lunar Impact Basins: Stratigraphy, Sequence and Ages from Superposed Impact Crater Populations Measured from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, C. I.; Head, J. W.; Kadish, S. J.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Impact basin formation is a fundamental process in the evolution of the Moon and records the history of impactors in the early solar system. In order to assess the stratigraphy, sequence, and ages of impact basins and the impactor population as a function of time, we have used topography from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to measure the superposed impact crater size-frequency distributions for 30 lunar basins (D = 300 km). These data generally support the widely used Wilhelms sequence of lunar basins, although we find significantly higher densities of superposed craters on many lunar basins than derived by Wilhelms (50% higher densities). Our data also provide new insight into the timing of the transition between distinct crater populations characteristic of ancient and young lunar terrains. The transition from a lunar impact flux dominated by Population 1 to Population 2 occurred before the mid-Nectarian. This is before the end of the period of rapid cratering, and potentially before the end of the hypothesized Late Heavy Bombardment. LOLA-derived crater densities also suggest that many Pre-Nectarian basins, such as South Pole-Aitken, have been cratered to saturation equilibrium. Finally, both crater counts and stratigraphic observations based on LOLA data are applicable to specific basin stratigraphic problems of interest; for example, using these data, we suggest that Serenitatis is older than Nectaris, and Humboldtianum is younger than Crisium. Sample return missions to specific basins can anchor these measurements to a Pre-Imbrian absolute chronology.

  6. The Impact of Memory Change on Daily Life in Normal Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Preeyam K; Troyer, Angela K; Maione, Andrea M; Murphy, Kelly J

    2016-10-01

    Older adults with age-normal memory changes and those with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) report mild memory difficulties with everyday problems such as learning new names or remembering past events. Although the type and extent of memory changes in these populations have been well documented, little is known about how memory changes impact their everyday lives. Using a qualitative research design, data were collected from three focus groups of older adults with normal memory changes (n = 23) and two focus groups of older adults with aMCI (n = 14). A thematic analysis using the constant comparative method was used to identify the impacts of memory change on key life domains. Four major themes emerged from the two groups, including changes in feelings and views of the self, changes in relationships and social interactions, changes in work and leisure activities, and deliberate increases in compensatory behaviors. Participants described both positive and negative consequences of memory change, and these were more substantial and generally more adverse for individuals with aMCI than for those with age-normal memory changes. There are similarities and important differences in the impact of mild memory change on the everyday lives of older adults with age-normal memory changes and those with aMCI. Findings underscore the need for clinical interventions that aim to minimize the emotional impact of memory changes and that increase leisure and social activity in individuals with aMCI. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Cognitive impacts of ambient air pollution in the National Social Health and Aging Project (NSHAP) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallon, Lindsay A; Manjourides, Justin; Pun, Vivian C; Salhi, Carmel; Suh, Helen

    2017-07-01

    Pathways through which air pollution may impact cognitive function are poorly understood, particularly with regard to whether and how air pollution interacts with social and emotional factors to influence cognitive health. To examine the association between air pollutant exposures and cognitive outcomes among older adults participating in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) cohort study. Measures of cognitive function, social connectedness, and physical and mental health were obtained for each NSHAP participant starting with Wave 1 of the study in 2005. Cognitive function was assessed using the Chicago Cognitive Function Measure (CCFM) for 3377 participants. Exposures to fine particles (PM 2.5 ) were estimated for each participant using GIS-based spatio-temporal models, and exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) were obtained from the nearest EPA monitors. In adjusted linear regression models, IQR increases in 1 to 7year PM 2.5 exposures were associated with a 0.22 (95% CI: -0.44, -0.01) to a 0.25 (95% CI: -0.43, -0.06) point decrease in CCFM scores, equivalent to aging 1.6years, while exposures to NO 2 were equivalent to aging 1.9years. The impacts of PM 2.5 on cognition were modified by stroke, anxiety, and stress, and were mediated by depression. The impacts of NO 2 were mediated by stress and effect modification by impaired activities of daily living for NO 2 was found. Exposures to long-term PM 2.5 and NO 2 were associated with decreased cognitive function in our cohort of older Americans, and individuals who experienced a stroke or elevated anxiety were more susceptible to the effects of PM 2.5 on cognition. Additionally, mediation results suggest that PM 2.5 may impact cognition through pathways related to mood disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantifying the impact of expanded age group campaigns for polio eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Bradley G; Behrend, Matthew R; Klein, Daniel J; Upfill-Brown, Alexander M; Eckhoff, Philip A; Hu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    A priority of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) 2013-2018 strategic plan is to evaluate the potential impact on polio eradication resulting from expanding one or more Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIAs) to children beyond age five-years in polio endemic countries. It has been hypothesized that such expanded age group (EAG) campaigns could accelerate polio eradication by eliminating immunity gaps in older children that may have resulted from past periods of low vaccination coverage. Using an individual-based mathematical model, we quantified the impact of EAG campaigns in terms of probability of elimination, reduction in polio transmission and age stratified immunity levels. The model was specifically calibrated to seroprevalence data from a polio-endemic region: Zaria, Nigeria. We compared the impact of EAG campaigns, which depend only on age, to more targeted interventions which focus on reaching missed populations. We found that EAG campaigns would not significantly improve prospects for polio eradication; the probability of elimination increased by 8% (from 24% at baseline to 32%) when expanding three annual SIAs to 5-14 year old children and by 18% when expanding all six annual SIAs. In contrast, expanding only two of the annual SIAs to target hard-to-reach populations at modest vaccination coverage-representing less than one tenth of additional vaccinations required for the six SIA EAG scenario-increased the probability of elimination by 55%. Implementation of EAG campaigns in polio endemic regions would not improve prospects for eradication. In endemic areas, vaccination campaigns which do not target missed populations will not benefit polio eradication efforts.

  9. Impact of body mass index, age and varicocele on reproductive hormone profile from elderly men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. R. Yamaçake

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To study the impact of obesity, age and varicocele on sexual hormones fof adult and elderly men. Materials and Methods: 875 men who were screened for prostate cancer were enrolled in this study. Data recorded comprised age, body mass index (BMI, serum levels of total testosterone (TT, free testosterone (FT, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH. Patients were divided in groups according to their BMI in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese grades 1, 2 or 3. First, it was studied the association between age, BMI, and hormone profile. Then, clinical varicocele was evaluated in 298 patients to assess its correlation to the others parameters. Results: Obese patients had lower levels of TT, FT and SHBG (p<0.001 compared to underweight or normal weight patients. There were no differences in age (p=0.113, FSH serum levels (p=0.863 and LH serum levels (p=0.218 between obese and non-obese patients. Obese grade 3 had lower levels of TT and FT compared to obese grade 1 and 2 (p<0.05. There was no difference in the SHBG levels (p=0.120 among obese patients. There was no association between varicocele and BMI; and varicocele did not impact on testosterone or SHBG levels. Conclusions: Men with higher BMI have a lower serum level of TT, FT and SHBG. The presence of clinical varicocele as well as its grade has no impact on hormone profile in elderly men.

  10. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yamada, Michiko

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis that exposure to ionizing radiation accelerates the aging process has been actively investigated at ABCC-RERF since 1958, when longitudinal cohort studies of the Adult Health Study (AHS) and the Life Span Study (LSS) were initiated. In their 1975 overall review of aging studies related to the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, Finch and Beebe concluded that while most studies had shown no correlation between aging and radiation exposure, they had not involved the large numbers of subjects required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Extending LSS mortality data up to 1978 did not alter the earlier conclusion that any observed life-shortening was associated primarily with cancer induction rather than with any nonspecific cause. The results of aging studies conducted during the intervening 15 years using data from the same populations are reviewed in the present paper. Using clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory techniques, a broad spectrum of aging parameters have been studied, such as postmortem morphological changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, laboratory tests, tissue changes, and morbidity. With respect to the aging process, the overall results have not been consistent and are generally thought to show no relation to radiation exposure. Although some preliminary results suggest a possible radiation-induced increase in atherosclerotic diseases and acceleration of aging in the T-cell-related immune system, further study is necessary to confirm these findings. In the future, applying the latest gerontological study techniques to data collected from subjects exposed 45 years ago to A-bomb radiation at relatively young ages will present a new body of data relevant to the study of late radiation effects. (author) 103 refs

  11. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.C.; Beebe, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    The hypothesis that ionizing radiation accelerates natural aging has been under investigation at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission since 1959. Postmortem observations of morphologic and chemical changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, clinical laboratory tests, tissue changes, morbidity, and mortality have all been examined by ABCC investigators interested in this hypothesis. These studies have been beset with conceptual difficulties centered on the definition and measurement of aging. An empirical approach early led to the calculation of an index of physiologic age as a linear combination of age-related tests of various organ systems. Most studies have been negative but have not involved the large numbers that might be required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Mortality, however, has been examined on the basis of a large sample and over the period 1950-1972 had provided no support for the hypothesis of radiation-accelerated aging. Ionizing radiation dose, of course shorten human life, but its life-shortening effect appears to be the result of specific radiation-induced disease, especially neoplasms. The hypothesis is now much less attractive than it was 10-20 years ago but still has some value in stimulating research on aging. The experience of the A-bomb survivors provides an unusual opportunity for a definitive test of the hypothesis. (auth.)

  12. Walking a mile in another's shoes: The impact of wearing an Age Suit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallière, Martin; D'Ambrosio, Lisa; Gennis, Angelina; Burstein, Arielle; Godfrey, Kathryn M; Waerstad, Hilde; Puleo, Rozanne M; Lauenroth, Andreas; Coughlin, Joseph F

    2017-01-01

    The "Age Suit" described in this article was developed to enable future designers, business leaders, and engineers to experience navigating the world as many older adults must. Tools such as this Age Suit offer the opportunity to "walk a mile" in another's shoes to develop empathy that can result in better design of spaces, goods, and services to meet the needs of a rapidly growing older population. This work first examined, through a series of clinical tests, whether younger adults' physical capacities were reduced in a direction consistent with aging by wearing a suit developed by the MIT AgeLab. An experiential learning task was then completed with the suit to understand its impact on completion of an instrumental activity of daily living. Results showed that younger adults wearing the suit experienced changes in task performance consistent with expected changes associated with aging. Participants' self-reports from the experiential learning task indicated that they were able to empathize with older adults regarding some issues they face while completing a grocery shopping task. Future research with the suit should involve a wider range of individuals from the population and examine what effect participants' levels of fitness have on the experience of wearing the suit.

  13. The impact of population ageing on the social security expenditure and economic growth in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, N

    1987-05-01

    The author considers the impact of demographic aging in Japan on the social security system and on economic growth. It is argued that "First of all, as the cost of social security (including social services) increases remarkably at the earlier stage of ageing, the disposable (after tax) income and private consumption of the present labour force generation tend to increase at a lower growth rate than that of the GNP....Secondly if pension systems are based on terminal funding schemes, the ageing of the population increases savings (net increase of the amount of the pension funds) at the earlier stage of the ageing of the population. Thirdly, there is a time lag between the increase of social security benefits and the decrease in the personal savings ratio. The high ratio of savings and the shortage of aggregate demand as well as the high pressure for export in...recent Japan can partly be attributed to the above factors." Possible future economic scenarios as demographic ageing in Japan proceeds are described, and policies to avert anticipated problems are outlined. (SUMMARY IN JPN) excerpt

  14. Differential Impact of Genetic Loci on Age at Thelarche and Menarche in Healthy Girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Alexander S; Hagen, Casper P; Assens, Maria

    2018-01-01

    ) were followed through puberty and genotyped for FSHB c.-211G>T (rs10835638), FSHR c.-29G>A (rs1394205), FSHR c.2039A>G (rs6116), LIN28B (rs7759938), INHA (rs4141153), MKRN3 (rs12148769), TMEM38B (rs10453225), and ZNF483 (rs10980921). Main Outcome Measures: Clinical pubertal staging and anthropometric...... data. Results: We observed an association of LIN28B (rs7759938) with age at thelarche (P year, 95% confidence interval: 0.12 to 0.42) and age at menarche (P = 0.005, 0.17 year, 0.05 to 0.29). FSHB c.-211G>T (rs10835638) and FSHR c.-29G>A (rs1394205) minor allele count...... was associated with age at thelarche (P = 0.004, 0.19 year, 0.06 to 0.31) but not with age at menarche (P = 0.97; all adjusted for body mass index z scores). Conclusion: Our results indicate a differential impact of specific genetic loci on age at thelarche and menarche in healthy girls....

  15. Impact of socioeconomic status and medical conditions on health and healthcare utilization among aging Ghanaians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Bashiru Ii; Xicang, Zhao; Yawson, Alfred Edwin; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Nsowah-Nuamah, Nicholas N N

    2015-03-20

    This study attempts to examine the impact of socioeconomic and medical conditions in health and healthcare utilization among older adults in Ghana. Five separate models with varying input variables were estimated for each response variable. Data (Wave 1 data) were drawn from the World Health Organization Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) conducted during 2007-2008 and included a total of 4770 respondents aged 50+ and 803 aged 18-49 in Ghana. Ordered logits was estimated for self-rated health, and binary logits for functional limitation and healthcare utilization. Our results show that the study provides enough grounds for further research on the interplay between socioeconomic and medical conditions on one hand and the health of the aged on the other. Controlling for socioeconomic status substantially contributes significantly to utilization. Also, aged women experience worse health than men, as shown by functioning assessment, self-rated health, chronic conditions and functional limitations. Women have higher rates of healthcare utilization, as shown by significantly higher rates of hospitalization and outpatient encounters. Expansion of the national health insurance scheme to cover the entire older population--for those in both formal and informal employments--is likely to garner increased access and improved health states for the older population.

  16. Impact of sleep on executive functioning in school-age children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, A J; Hoffman, E K

    2018-06-01

    Sleep problems have an impact on executive functioning in the general population. While children with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk for sleep problems, the impact of these sleep problems on executive functioning in school-age children with DS is less well documented. Our study examined the relationship between parent-reported and actigraphy-measured sleep duration and sleep quality with parent and teacher reports and neuropsychology assessments of executive functioning among school-age children with DS. Thirty school-age children with DS wore an actigraph watch for a week at home at night. Their parent completed ratings of the child's sleep during that same week. Children completed a neuropsychology assessment of their inhibitory control, ability to shift and working memory. Their parents and teachers completed rating scales to assess these same constructs of executive functioning. Parent reports of restless sleep behaviours on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), but not actigraph-measured sleep period or efficiency, were predictive of parent reports of concerns with inhibitory control, shifting and working memory, and of teacher reports of inhibitory control. No measure of sleep was predictive of executive functioning as measured by the neuropsychology assessment. The study findings corroborate the preliminary literature that parent-reported sleep problems are related to executive functioning in school-age children with DS, particularly in the area of inhibitory control across home and school. These findings have implications for understanding contributing factors to academic performance and school behaviour in school-age children with DS. © 2018 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Technologies for Mobility and Their Implications for Active Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabela Correia Martins

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Active ageing is defined as the process of optimizing opportunities for physical, social and mental health to enable older people to actively take part in society without discrimination and to enjoy independence and good quality of life. The World Health Organization assumed this to be a process for increasing and maintaining an individual’s participation in activities to enhance his/her quality of life. In this survey, the authors addressed the following question: is assistive technology (AT for mobility contributing to enhancement of lifelong capacity and performance? Method: From June 2015 until February 2016, 96 community dwelling adults, AT users for mobility (powered wheelchairs, manual wheelchairs, lower limb prostheses, walkers, crutches and canes, aged 45–97, mean 67.02 ± 14.24 years old, 56.3% female, were interviewed using the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (P-PIADS, the Activities and Participation Profile related to Mobility (APPM and demographics, clinical and questions about AT use and training. Results and Discussion: The participants’ profiles revealed moderate limitation and restrictions in participation, measured by the APPM (2.03. Most participants displayed a positive impact from AT; average scores obtained from the P-PIADS subscales were: Self-esteem 0.62, Competency 1.11 and Adaptability 1.10. The P-PIADS total was 0.96, with the powered wheelchair users scoring the highest (1.53 and the walker users scoring the lowest (0.73. All subscales and the P-PIADS total were positively correlated with the activities and participation profile. There was no relation between age and the psychosocial impact of AT or activities and participation profile. These results encourage the authors to follow up with these participants for a lifelong intervention. To accomplish that aim, currently, the protocol is implemented at the AT prescribing centers in Coimbra, Portugal in order to assess the impact of AT on

  18. Evaluation of dental age and associated developmental anomalies in subjects with impacted mandibular canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shikha; Shetty, K Sadashiva; Jain, Shweta; Jain, Sachin; Prakash, A T; Agrawal, Mamta

    2015-07-01

    To assess the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the rate of dental development and the occurrence of selected developmental anomalies related to shape, number, structure, and position of teeth between subjects with impacted mandibular canines and those with normally erupted canines. Pretreatment records of 42 subjects diagnosed with mandibular canines impaction (impaction group: IG) were compared with those of 84 subjects serving as a control reference sample (control group: CG). Independent t-tests were used to compare mean dental ages between the groups. Intergroup differences in distribution of subjects based on the rate of dental development and occurrence of selected dental anomalies were assessed using χ(2) tests. Odds of late, normal, and early developers and various categories of developmental anomalies between the IG and the CG were evaluated in terms of odds ratios. Mean dental age for the IG was lower than that for the CG in general. Specifically, this was true for girls (P dental development and occurrence of positional anomalies also reached statistical significance (P anomalies compared with controls (odds ratios 3.00 and 2.82, respectively; P dental development compared with the female orthodontic patients. Increased frequency of positional developmental anomalies was also remarkable in the IG.

  19. The impact of age on outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease differs by relationship status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Kristen E; Plaufcan, Melissa R; Ford, Dee W; Sandhaus, Robert A; Strand, Matthew; Strange, Charlie; Wamboldt, Frederick S

    2014-08-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a genetic condition that can lead to early-onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The objective of this study was to examine the impact of age on psychological and clinical outcomes among individuals with AATD-associated COPD. 468 individuals with AATD-associated COPD (age 32-84 at baseline) completed questionnaires at baseline, 1- and 2-year follow-up. Age was examined as a predictor of depression, anxiety, health-related quality of life, and breathlessness at all three time points using linear mixed models. Age was associated with anxiety (b = -0.09, SE = 0.02, p life (b = -0.29, SE = 0.09, p life, and breathlessness. Among individuals who were single, younger age was associated with more symptoms of depression (b = -0.08, SE = 0.03, p life (b = -0.61, SE = 0.16, p < 0.001), and more breathlessness (b = -0.023, SE = 0.009, p < 0.01) throughout the 2-year study. Age was not associated with these three outcomes among individuals who were married/part of an unmarried couple. Results suggest that individuals who develop a chronic illness at a young age, particularly those who are single, may be more likely to have worse psychological and clinical outcomes.

  20. Impact of maternal age on delivery outcomes following spontaneous labour at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omih, Edwin Eseoghene; Lindow, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    Pregnancy in women of advancing maternal age is linked to incrementally worsening perinatal outcome. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of maternal age on delivery outcome in women that spontaneously labour at term. This was a retrospective study of women that spontaneously labour at term. Women with singletons in spontaneous onset labour beyond 37 weeks of gestation were divided into five maternal age groups: 35 years by their age at delivery. The main outcome variables are augmentation of labour, caesarean section, assisted vaginal delivery, and perineal trauma, while admission of the newborn into the neonatal unit within 24 h following delivery was the secondary outcome measure. A total of 30,022 met the inclusion criteria with primiparae and multiparae accounting for 46 and 54%, respectively. Increasing age in primiparae was associated with; augmentation of labour OR 2.05 (95% CI 1.73-2.43), second degree perineal tear 1.35 (1.12-1.61), assisted vaginal delivery 1.92 (1.53-2.41) and caesarean section 4.23 (3.19-5.12). While that for multiparae; augmentation of labour OR 1.93 (1.05-3.52), perineal trauma 2.50 (1.85-3.34), assisted vaginal delivery 4.95 (91.82-13.35) and caesarean section 1.64 (1.13-2.38). The secondary outcome measure did not reach statistical significance. Increasing maternal age is an independent risk factor for operative delivery, and perineal trauma. However, maternal age has no significant effect on admission of infants into the NICU during the first 24 h following delivery.

  1. Transcriptome adaptation of the bovine mammary gland to diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids shows greater impact of linseed oil over safflower oil on gene expression and metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M; Li, Ran; Ammah, Adolf A; Dudemaine, Pier-Luc; Bissonnette, Nathalie; Benchaar, Chaouki; Zhao, Xin

    2016-02-09

    /cholesterol metabolism. This study shows that rich α-linolenic acid LSO has a greater impact on mammary gland transcriptome by affecting more genes, pathways and processes as compared to SFO, rich in linoleic acid. Our study suggest that decrease in milk SFAs was due to down-regulation of genes in the FA/lipid synthesis and lipid metabolism pathways while increase in PUFAs was due to increased availability of ruminal biohydrogenation metabolites that were up taken and incorporated into milk or used as substrate for the synthesis of PUFAs.

  2. The retirement impact in people with Parkinson disease during active age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Alvarez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to comprehend the retirement impact in individuals with Parkinson disease during active age. We conducted a qualitative study using as Methodological Reference the Theory Grounded on Data. We interviewed 30 people with Parkinson disease, from those six were retired during active age. The data collection was in September 2013 to April 2014 and analyzed through open coding, axial and selective techniques. From the analysis, four categories emerged: retirement and identity in Parkinson disease; the incompatibility between the desire and the capacity to work; disconnecting and facing reality; the unexpected from retirement. The results indicated that people face difficulties in the disability retirement process, and we identified the need for emotional accompaniment and preparation for this transition moment in a way to stimulate a productive living, even with Parkinson disease.

  3. The impact of aging and hearing status on verbal short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Clémence; Collette, Fabienne; Majerus, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the impact of hearing status on age-related decrease in verbal short-term memory (STM) performance. This was done by administering a battery of verbal STM tasks to elderly and young adult participants matched for hearing thresholds, as well as to young normal-hearing control participants. The matching procedure allowed us to assess the importance of hearing loss as an explanatory factor of age-related STM decline. We observed that elderly participants and hearing-matched young participants showed equal levels of performance in all verbal STM tasks, and performed overall lower than the normal-hearing young control participants. This study provides evidence for recent theoretical accounts considering reduced hearing level as an important explanatory factor of poor auditory-verbal STM performance in older adults.

  4. Older lesbian sexuality: identity, sexual behavior, and the impact of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, Paige; Yoon, Intae; Jenkins, Carol L

    2012-01-01

    In response to the very limited and mostly outdated literature on older lesbian sexuality, this exploratory study examined older lesbian sexual identity, romantic relationships, the impact of aging, and experiences of discrimination within these contexts. Utilizing an online survey that recruited via numerous online lesbian communities and snowball sampling, 456 lesbians over the age of 50 responded to closed, Likert scale, and open-ended questions that provided a preliminary understanding of older lesbian sexuality. The results indicated that older lesbians have experienced fluidity in past romantic and sexual relationships, as well as in erotic fantasies, despite strong identification with being lesbian. The findings also indicate a decreased focus on sexuality in the context of relationships, with more focus on stability and continuity. Future research is needed that provides greater specificity and detail about older lesbian conceptions of sexual behavior and sexual identity labels, as well as specific sexual behaviors.

  5. Young onset dementia: the impact of emergent age-based factors upon personhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolhurst, Edward; Bhattacharyya, Sarmishtha; Kingston, Paul

    2014-03-01

    This paper evaluates how emergent age-based factors may impact upon the experience of dementia. A review of selected literature is undertaken to explore how personhood has been conceptualised in relation to dementia. It is then highlighted that very little literature explicitly addresses personhood with reference to young onset dementia. Young onset dementia is defined, and evaluation is then undertaken of the distinctive age-based factors that might shape the experience of the condition. It is noted that whilst there are separate literatures on both personhood and young onset dementia, there appears to be little endeavour to draw these two strands of thought together. The distinctive factors that shape young onset dementia suggest that a more heterogeneous perspective should be developed that accounts more appropriately for how personal characteristics shape the lived experience of dementia. The paper concludes that further research should be undertaken that has an explicit focus on personhood and young onset dementia.

  6. Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

  7. The Impact of Age, Education and Seniority on Motivation of Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Hitka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Motivation can be changed significantly in dependence on meeting human needs, life situations, internal and external environment, etc. It is caused by different factors which affect motivation in different ways. These factors do not act separately but they are a part of mutually connected network of specific relations. In the paper we show the possibility of the impact of age, education and seniority on the motivation of employees. The level of employee motivation and employee performance can be influenced by means of their detailed knowledge.

  8. Impact of physical and mental health on life satisfaction in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puvill, Thomas; Lindenberg, Jolanda; de Craen, Antonius J. M.

    2016-01-01

     depressive symptoms and perceived loneliness. Depressive symptoms and perceived loneliness were strongly related to lower life satisfaction (both p physical health characteristics...... having representative levels of disease and disability. Comorbidity, low cognitive function, and residual lifespan as markers of health were not associated with life satisfaction. Poor physical performance and low functional status were weakly but significantly associated with lower life satisfaction (p....... CONCLUSION: Poor physical health was hardly related to lower life satisfaction, whereas poor mental health was strongly related to lower life satisfaction. This indicates that mental health has a greater impact on life satisfaction at old age than physical health, and that physical health is less relevant...

  9. Impact of NBTI Aging on the Single-Event Upset of SRAM Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Bagatin, M; Gerardin, Simone; Paccagnella, Alessandro; Bagatin, Marta

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the impact of negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) on the single-event upset rate of SRAM cells through experiments and SPICE simulations. We performed critical charge simulations introducing different degradation patterns in the cells, in three technology nodes, from 180 to 90 nm. The simulations results were checked with alpha-particle and heavy-ion irradiations on a 130-nm technology. Both simulations and experimental results show that NBTI degradation does not significantly affect the single-event upset SRAM cell rate as long as the parametric drift induced by aging is within 10\\%.

  10. Aging impact on the safety and operability of nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    Irradiation embrittlement causes a loss of reactor vessel material fracture toughness as nuclear plants age. Fracture mechanics based regulatory requirements limit the permissible level of irradiation embrittlement such that essential fracture prevention margins are maintained throughout the plant operating life. This paper reviews the regulatory requirements and the underlying fracture mechanics technology. Issues identified with that technology are identified and research programs implemented to resolve the issues are described. Where possible, an assessment is given of the anticipated impact on the research program output will have on the reactor vessel fracture-margin assessment process

  11. The Impact of Nutrition, Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle on School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantea-Stoian Anca

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Diet and lifestyle in school-age children have a particularly large impact on health, as well as various consequences in future. The objective of this papers it to assess the relationship between lifestyle and daily diet and the effects of an unhealthy diet. Material and Methods. An observational cohort study was conducted in Bucharest, in three schools and one high school on 100 children, between 2011 and 2013. The criterion for inclusion was the appropriate age (school-age. The protocol consisted in clinical examination, body mass index (BMI calculation, questions about diet, physical activity and time spent watching television (TV. Results. Most children do not respect a schedule of meals and snacks (78%. Unhealthy diet (fast food, carbonated beverages, chocolate registered higher preferences. Mean TV time was 2.32 hours/day (SD=1.92 and a strong evidence on relationship between age and number of hours allocated to TV was discovered (p< .01. Four percent of children were found to be under the 5th percentile (underweight, 18% between 85th and 95th percentile (overweight and 14% above 95th percentile (obesity. Conclusions. A sedentary life in this case was mainly determined by the time spent daily in front of the television rather than lack of exercise.

  12. Impact of Aging and Cytomegalovirus on Immunological Response to Influenza Vaccination and Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merani, Shahzma; Pawelec, Graham; Kuchel, George A; McElhaney, Janet E

    2017-01-01

    The number of people over the age of 60 is expected to double by 2050 according to the WHO. This emphasizes the need to ensure optimized resilience to health stressors in late life. In older adults, influenza is one of the leading causes of catastrophic disability (defined as the loss of independence in daily living and self-care activities). Influenza vaccination is generally perceived to be less protective in older adults, with some studies suggesting that the humoral immune response to the vaccine is further impaired in cytomegalovirus (CMV)-seropositive older people. CMV is a β-herpes virus infection that is generally asymptomatic in healthy individuals. The majority of older adults possess serum antibodies against the virus indicating latent infection. Age-related changes in T-cell-mediated immunity are augmented by CMV infection and may be associated with more serious complications of influenza infection. This review focuses on the impact of aging and CMV on immune cell function, the response to influenza infection and vaccination, and how the current understanding of aging and CMV can be used to design a more effective influenza vaccine for older adults. It is anticipated that efforts in this field will address the public health need for improved protection against influenza in older adults, particularly with regard to the serious complications leading to loss of independence.

  13. Impact of Aging and Cytomegalovirus on Immunological Response to Influenza Vaccination and Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzma Merani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The number of people over the age of 60 is expected to double by 2050 according to the WHO. This emphasizes the need to ensure optimized resilience to health stressors in late life. In older adults, influenza is one of the leading causes of catastrophic disability (defined as the loss of independence in daily living and self-care activities. Influenza vaccination is generally perceived to be less protective in older adults, with some studies suggesting that the humoral immune response to the vaccine is further impaired in cytomegalovirus (CMV-seropositive older people. CMV is a β-herpes virus infection that is generally asymptomatic in healthy individuals. The majority of older adults possess serum antibodies against the virus indicating latent infection. Age-related changes in T-cell-mediated immunity are augmented by CMV infection and may be associated with more serious complications of influenza infection. This review focuses on the impact of aging and CMV on immune cell function, the response to influenza infection and vaccination, and how the current understanding of aging and CMV can be used to design a more effective influenza vaccine for older adults. It is anticipated that efforts in this field will address the public health need for improved protection against influenza in older adults, particularly with regard to the serious complications leading to loss of independence.

  14. Impact of Aging on the Auditory System and Related Cognitive Functions: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dona M. P. Jayakody

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Age-related hearing loss (ARHL, presbycusis, is a chronic health condition that affects approximately one-third of the world's population. The peripheral and central hearing alterations associated with age-related hearing loss have a profound impact on perception of verbal and non-verbal auditory stimuli. The high prevalence of hearing loss in the older adults corresponds to the increased frequency of dementia in this population. Therefore, researchers have focused their attention on age-related central effects that occur independent of the peripheral hearing loss as well as central effects of peripheral hearing loss and its association with cognitive decline and dementia. Here we review the current evidence for the age-related changes of the peripheral and central auditory system and the relationship between hearing loss and pathological cognitive decline and dementia. Furthermore, there is a paucity of evidence on the relationship between ARHL and established biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease, as the most common cause of dementia. Such studies are critical to be able to consider any causal relationship between dementia and ARHL. While this narrative review will examine the pathophysiological alterations in both the peripheral and central auditory system and its clinical implications, the question remains unanswered whether hearing loss causes cognitive impairment or vice versa.

  15. Type W Human Endogenous Retrovirus (HERV-W) Integrations and Their Mobilization by L1 Machinery: Contribution to the Human Transcriptome and Impact on the Host Physiopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Nicole; Tramontano, Enzo

    2017-06-27

    Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs) are ancient infection relics constituting ~8% of our DNA. While HERVs' genomic characterization is still ongoing, impressive amounts of data have been obtained regarding their general expression across tissues. Among HERVs, one of the most studied is the W group, which is the sole HERV group specifically mobilized by the long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1) machinery, providing a source of novel insertions by retrotransposition of HERV-W processed pseudogenes, and comprising a member encoding a functional envelope protein coopted for human placentation. The HERV-W group has been intensively investigated for its putative role in several diseases, such as cancer, inflammation, and autoimmunity. Despite major interest in the link between HERV-W expression and human pathogenesis, no conclusive correlation has been demonstrated so far. In general, (i) the absence of a proper identification of the specific HERV-W sequences expressed in a given condition, and (ii) the lack of studies attempting to connect the various observations in the same experimental conditions are the major problems preventing the definitive assessment of the HERV-W impact on human physiopathology. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the HERV-W group presence within the human genome and its expression in physiological tissues as well as in the main pathological contexts.

  16. Impact of Age at Smoking Initiation on Smoking-Related Morbidity and All-Cause Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Hee; Stommel, Manfred

    2017-07-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults, the aims of this study were to examine the impact of early smoking initiation on the development of self-reported smoking-related morbidity and all-cause mortality. National Health Interview Survey data from 1997 through 2005 were linked to the National Death Index with follow-up to December 31, 2011. Two primary dependent variables were smoking-related morbidity and all-cause mortality; the primary independent variable was age of smoking initiation. The analyses included U.S. population of current and former smokers aged ≥30 years (N=90,278; population estimate, 73.4 million). The analysis relied on fitting logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models. Among the U.S. population of smokers, 7.3% started smoking before age 13 years, 11.0% at ages 13-14 years, 24.2% at ages 15-16 years, 24.5% at ages 17-18 years, 14.5% at ages 19-20 years, and 18.5% at ages ≥21 years. Early smoking initiation before age 13 years was associated with increased risks for cardiovascular/metabolic (OR=1.67) and pulmonary (OR=1.79) diseases as well as smoking-related cancers (OR=2.1) among current smokers; the risks among former smokers were cardiovascular/metabolic (OR=1.38); pulmonary (OR=1.89); and cancers (OR=1.44). Elevated mortality was also related to early smoking initiation among both current (hazard ratio, 1.18) and former smokers (hazard ratio, 1.19). Early smoking initiation increases risks of experiencing smoking-related morbidities and all-cause mortality. These risks are independent of demographic characteristics, SES, health behaviors, and subsequent smoking intensity. Comprehensive tobacco control programs should be implemented to prevent smoking initiation and promote cessation among youth. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The impact of green roof ageing on substrate characteristics and hydrological performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Ville, Simon; Menon, Manoj; Jia, Xiaodong; Reed, George; Stovin, Virginia

    2017-04-01

    Green roofs contribute to stormwater management through the retention of rainfall and the detention of runoff. However, there is very limited knowledge concerning the evolution of green roof hydrological performance with system age. This study presents a non-invasive technique which allows for repeatable determination of key substrate characteristics over time, and evaluates the impact of observed substrate changes on hydrological performance. The physical properties of 12 green roof substrate cores have been evaluated using non-invasive X-ray microtomography (XMT) imaging. The cores comprised three replicates of two contrasting substrate types at two different ages: unused virgin samples; and 5-year-old samples from existing green roof test beds. Whilst significant structural differences (density, pore and particle sizes, tortuosity) between virgin and aged samples of a crushed brick substrate were observed, these differences did not significantly affect hydrological characteristics (maximum water holding capacity and saturated hydraulic conductivity). A contrasting substrate based upon a light expanded clay aggregate experienced increases in the number of fine particles and pores over time, which led to increases in maximum water holding capacity of 7%. In both substrates, the saturated hydraulic conductivity estimated from the XMT images was lower in aged compared with virgin samples. Comparisons between physically-derived and XMT-derived substrate hydrological properties showed that similar values and trends in the data were identified, confirming the suitability of the non-invasive XMT technique for monitoring changes in engineered substrates over time. The observed effects of ageing on hydrological performance were modelled as two distinct hydrological processes, retention and detention. Retention performance was determined via a moisture-flux model using physically-derived values of virgin and aged maximum water holding capacity. Increased water holding

  18. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: VI. Impact of short-term graded calorie restriction on transcriptomic responses of the hypothalamic hunger and circadian signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derous, Davina; Mitchell, Sharon E; Green, Cara L; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jing-Dong J; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E L; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R; Douglas, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Food intake and circadian rhythms are regulated by hypothalamic neuropeptides and circulating hormones, which could mediate the anti-ageing effect of calorie restriction (CR). We tested whether these two signaling pathways mediate CR by quantifying hypothalamic transcripts of male C57BL/6 mice exposed to graded levels of CR (10 % to 40 %) for 3 months. We found that the graded CR manipulation resulted in upregulation of core circadian rhythm genes, which correlated negatively with circulating levels of leptin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). In addition, key components in the hunger signaling pathway were expressed in a manner reflecting elevated hunger at greater levels of restriction, and which also correlated negatively with circulating levels of insulin, TNF-α, leptin and IGF-1. Lastly, phenotypes, such as food anticipatory activity and body temperature, were associated with expression levels of both hunger genes and core clock genes. Our results suggest modulation of the hunger and circadian signaling pathways in response to altered levels of circulating hormones, that are themselves downstream of morphological changes resulting from CR treatment, may be important elements in the response to CR, driving some of the key phenotypic outcomes.

  19. Neurotranscriptomics: The Effects of Neonatal Stimulus Deprivation on the Rat Pineal Transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W Hartley

    Full Text Available The term neurotranscriptomics is used here to describe genome-wide analysis of neural control of transcriptomes. In this report, next-generation RNA sequencing was using to analyze the effects of neonatal (5-days-of-age surgical stimulus deprivation on the adult rat pineal transcriptome. In intact animals, more than 3000 coding genes were found to exhibit differential expression (adjusted-p < 0.001 on a night/day basis in the pineal gland (70% of these increased at night, 376 genes changed more than 4-fold in either direction. Of these, more than two thousand genes were not previously known to be differentially expressed on a night/day basis. The night/day changes in expression were almost completely eliminated by neonatal removal (SCGX or decentralization (DCN of the superior cervical ganglia (SCG, which innervate the pineal gland. Other than the loss of rhythmic variation, surgical stimulus deprivation had little impact on the abundance of most genes; of particular interest, expression levels of the melatonin-synthesis-related genes Tph1, Gch1, and Asmt displayed little change (less than 35% following DCN or SCGX. However, strong and consistent changes were observed in the expression of a small number of genes including the gene encoding Serpina1, a secreted protease inhibitor that might influence extracellular architecture. Many of the genes that exhibited night/day differential expression in intact animals also exhibited similar changes following in vitro treatment with norepinephrine, a superior cervical ganglia transmitter, or with an analog of cyclic AMP, a norepinephrine second messenger in this tissue. These findings are of significance in that they establish that the pineal-defining transcriptome is established prior to the neonatal period. Further, this work expands our knowledge of the biological process under neural control in this tissue and underlines the value of RNA sequencing in revealing how neurotransmission influences cell

  20. High Throughput Transcriptomics @ USEPA (Toxicology ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ideal chemical testing approach will provide complete coverage of all relevant toxicological responses. It should be sensitive and specific It should identify the mechanism/mode-of-action (with dose-dependence). It should identify responses relevant to the species of interest. Responses should ideally be translated into tissue-, organ-, and organism-level effects. It must be economical and scalable. Using a High Throughput Transcriptomics platform within US EPA provides broader coverage of biological activity space and toxicological MOAs and helps fill the toxicological data gap. Slide presentation at the 2016 ToxForum on using High Throughput Transcriptomics at US EPA for broader coverage biological activity space and toxicological MOAs.

  1. A potential impact of DNA repair on ageing and lifespan in the ageing model organism Podospora anserina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, Mette; Gredilla, Ricardo; Müller-Ohldach, Mathis

    2009-01-01

    and hence contribute to ageing and lifespan control in this ageing model. Additionally, we find low DNA glycosylase activities in the long-lived mutants grisea and DeltaPaCox17::ble, which are characterized by low mitochondrial ROS generation. Overall, our data identify a potential role of mtDNA repair......The free radical theory of ageing states that ROS play a key role in age-related decrease in mitochondrial function via the damage of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), proteins and lipids. In the sexually reproducing ascomycete Podospora anserina ageing is, as in other eukaryotes, associated with mtDNA...... instability and mitochondrial dysfunction. Part of the mtDNA instabilities may arise due to accumulation of ROS induced mtDNA lesions, which, as previously suggested for mammals, may be caused by an age-related decrease in base excision repair (BER). Alignments of known BER protein sequences with the P...

  2. Fisetin Reduces the Impact of Aging on Behavior and Physiology in the Rapidly Aging SAMP8 Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currais, Antonio; Farrokhi, Catherine; Dargusch, Richard; Armando, Aaron; Quehenberger, Oswald; Schubert, David; Maher, Pamela

    2018-03-02

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is rarely addressed in the context of aging even though there is an overlap in pathology. We previously used a phenotypic screening platform based on old age-associated brain toxicities to identify the flavonol fisetin as a potential therapeutic for AD and other age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Based on earlier results with fisetin in transgenic AD mice, we hypothesized that fisetin would be effective against brain aging and cognitive dysfunction in rapidly aging senescence-accelerated prone 8 (SAMP8) mice, a model for sporadic AD and dementia. An integrative approach was used to correlate protein expression and metabolite levels in the brain with cognition. It was found that fisetin reduced cognitive deficits in old SAMP8 mice while restoring multiple markers associated with impaired synaptic function, stress, and inflammation. These results provide further evidence for the potential benefits of fisetin for the treatment of age-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Human T cell aging and the impact of persistent viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas eFulop

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a dysregulation of the immune response, loosely termed immunosenescence. Each part of the immune system is influenced to some extent by the aging process. However, adaptive immunity seems more extensively affected and among all participating cells it is the T cells that are most altered. There is a large body of experimental work devoted to the investigation of age-associated differences in T cell phenotypes and functions in young and old individuals, but few longitudinal studies in humans actually delineating changes at the level of the individual. In most studies, the number and proportion of late-differentiated T cells, especially CD8+ T cells, is reported to be higher in the elderly than in the young. Limited longitudinal studies suggest that accumulation of these cells is a dynamic process and does indeed represent an age-associated change. Accumulations of such late-stage cells may contribute to the enhanced systemic pro-inflammatory milieu commonly seen in older people. We do not know exactly what causes these observed changes, but an understanding of the possible causes is now beginning to emerge. A favored hypothesis is that these events are at least partly due to the effects of the maintenance of essential immune surveillance against persistent viral infections, notably Cytomegalovirus (CMV, which may exhaust the immune system over time. It is still a matter of debate as to whether these changes are compensatory and beneficial or pathological and detrimental to the proper functioning of the immune system and whether they impact longevity. Here, we will review present knowledge of T cell changes with aging and their relation to chronic viral and possibly other persistent infections.

  4. Impact of Age, Caloric Restriction, and Influenza Infection on Mouse Gut Microbiome: An Exploratory Study of the Role of Age-Related Microbiome Changes on Influenza Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna M. Bartley

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Immunosenescence refers to age-related declines in the capacity to respond to infections such as influenza (flu. Caloric restriction represents a known strategy to slow many aging processes, including those involving the immune system. More recently, some changes in the microbiome have been described with aging, while the gut microbiome appears to influence responses to flu vaccination and infection. With these considerations in mind, we used a well-established mouse model of flu infection to explore the impact of flu infection, aging, and caloric restriction on the gut microbiome. Young, middle-aged, and aged caloric restricted (CR and ad lib fed (AL mice were examined after a sublethal flu infection. All mice lost 10–20% body weight and, as expected for these early time points, losses were similar at different ages and between diet groups. Cytokine and chemokine levels were also similar with the notable exception of IL-1α, which rose more than fivefold in aged AL mouse serum, while it remained unchanged in aged CR serum. Fecal microbiome phyla abundance profiles were similar in young, middle-aged, and aged AL mice at baseline and at 4 days post flu infection, while increases in Proteobacteria were evident at 7 days post flu infection in all three age groups. CR mice, compared to AL mice in each age group, had increased abundance of Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia at all time points. Interestingly, principal coordinate analysis determined that diet exerts a greater effect on the microbiome than age or flu infection. Percentage body weight loss correlated with the relative abundance of Proteobacteria regardless of age, suggesting flu pathogenicity is related to Proteobacteria abundance. Further, several microbial Operational Taxonomic Units from the Bacteroidetes phyla correlated with serum chemokine/cytokines regardless of both diet and age suggesting an interplay between flu-induced systemic inflammation and gut microbiota. These

  5. Spirituality and Aging in Place: The Impact of Extreme Climatic Conditions on Domestic Gardening Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Joanne; Pascal, Jan; Dickson-Swift, Virginia

    2014-12-01

    There is limited research exploring how domestic water restrictions imposed as a result of drought conditions impact upon the lives of independently living older people. Within this age group (60 years plus), the domestic garden frequently forms an intrinsic component of ongoing health and well-being. Gardening practice offers components of both mental and physical activity and, for many older people, leads to emotional and spiritual connection on a number of levels. The capacity of older people to maintain a garden during a period of water restrictions is greatly reduced, and the resulting impact on health and well-being is considerable. A recent study, conducted in south-eastern Australia, aimed to determine the benefits to health and well-being of maintaining a domestic garden for older people and the impact of water restrictions on garden practice. This occurred at a time following a prolonged period of drought and, in central Victoria, a complete ban on outside watering. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 gardeners aged between 60 and 83 who had tended their garden over an extended period. The lived experience of gardening was explored through hermeneutic phenomenological analysis. Clear benefits to health and well-being were established, and yet, the essence of this experience lay in the capacity of gardeners to remain connected to their garden despite change. The crisis imposed by ongoing drought and restricted use of water generated a strong impetus for adaptation, resilience and acceptance of change. The spiritual nature of gardening practice clearly emerged and appeared to intensify the experience of gardening and consolidate adaption to change on a number of levels. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. When patents matter: The impact of competition and patent age on the performance contribution of intellectual property rights protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maresch, Daniela; Fink, Matthias; Harms, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The question whether patenting impacts patenting firms' subsequent financial performance is important for technology-oriented companies. However, relevant research has led to contradictory results. We strive to overcome this impasse by introducing innovation competition and patent age as moderators

  7. Components of a Mediterranean diet and their impact on cognitive functions in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eHuhn

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adhering to the Mediterranean diet (MeDi is known to be beneficial with regard to age-associated diseases including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies also suggest an impact on cognition and brain structure, and increasing effort is made to track effects down to single nutrients.Aims: To review whether two MeDi components, i.e. long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (LC-n3-FA derived from sea-fish, and plant polyphenols including resveratrol (RSV, exert positive effects on brain health in aging. Content: We summarized health benefits associated with the MeDi and evaluated available studies on the effect of (1 fish-consumption and LC-n3-FA supplementation as well as (2 diet-derived or supplementary polyphenols such as RSV, on cognitive performance and brain structure in animal models and human studies. Also, we discussed possible underlying mechanisms.Conclusion: A majority of available studies suggest that consumption of LC-n3-FA with fish or fishoil-supplements exerts positive effects on brain health and cognition in older humans. However, more large-scale randomized controlled trials are needed to draw definite recommendations. Considering polyphenols and RSV, only a few controlled studies are available to date, yet the evidence based on animal research and first interventional human trials is promising and warrants further investigation. In addition, the concept of food synergy within the MeDi encourages future trials that evaluate the impact of comprehensive lifestyle patterns to help maintaining cognitive functions into old age.

  8. Symptom communication during critical illness: the impact of age, delirium, and delirium presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Judith A; Sereika, Susan; Divirgilio, Dana; Nilsen, Marci; Demerci, Jill; Campbell, Grace; Happ, Mary Beth

    2013-08-01

    Symptom communication is integral to quality patient care. Communication between patients and nurses in the intensive care unit (ICU) is complicated by oral or endotracheal intubation and fluctuating neurocognitive status or delirium. We report the (a) prevalence of delirium and its subtypes in non-vocal, mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients; (b) impact of age on delirium; and (c) influence of delirium and age on symptom communication. Videorecorded interactions between patients (N = 89) and nurses (N = 30) were analyzed for evidence of patient symptom communication at four time points across 2 consecutive days. Delirium was measured at enrollment and following sessions. Delirium prevalence was 23.6% at enrollment and 28.7% across sessions. Participants age >60 were more likely to be delirious on enrollment and during observational sessions. Delirium was associated with self-report of pain, drowsiness, and feeling cold. Patients were significantly less likely to initiate symptom communication when delirious. Symptom identification should be carefully undertaken in older adults with or without delirium. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Impact of radiobiological considerations on epidemiological inferences of age-dependent radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford-Brown, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Current epidemiological studies of the age-dependent risk of radiogenic carcinomas are based on populations still in the early stages of cancer expression. The result is a set of logical uncertainties concerning the manner in which inferences may be drawn from the existing data. These uncertainties may be formalized and examined through the application of various radiobiological principles developed from more fundamental experimental data. Chief amongst these considerations are the time course of tumor expression, the role of relative and absolute risk models, the distribution of effects between initiation and promotion, the age-dependent fraction of time a critical cell remains in radiosensitive stages and the combinatorics of the critical cellular subpopulations. Each of these and the combinatorics of the critical cellular subpopulations. Each of these principles are examined in light of their impact on the structuring of epidemiologic data and the drawing of inferences concerning age-dependent radiogenic risk. The data on atomic bomb survivors are employed as a relevant example

  10. Workers’ Age and the Impact of Psychological Factors on the Perception of Safety at Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dawood Idrees

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The safety of construction workers is always a major concern at construction sites as the construction industry is inherently dangerous with many factors influencing worker safety. Several studies concluded that psychological factors such as workload, organizational relationships, mental stress, job security, and job satisfaction have significant effects on workers’ safety. However, research on psychological factors that are characteristic of different age groups have been limited. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of psychological factors on the perception of worker safety for two different age groups. After an extensive literature review, different psychological factors were identified, and a hypothetical research model was developed based on psychological factors that could affect workers’ perception of safety. A survey instrument was developed, and data were collected from seven different construction sites in Pakistan. Structural equation modeling (SEM was employed to test the hypothetical model for both age groups. The results revealed that workload and job satisfaction are significantly dominant factors on workers’ perception of safety in older workers, whereas organizational relationships, mental stress, and job security are dominant factors for younger workers at construction sites.

  11. Head Impact Exposure in Youth Football: Comparing Age- and Weight-Based Levels of Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Mireille E; Urban, Jillian E; Miller, Logan E; Jones, Derek A; Espeland, Mark A; Davenport, Elizabeth M; Whitlow, Christopher T; Maldjian, Joseph A; Stitzel, Joel D

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 5,000,000 athletes play organized football in the United States, and youth athletes constitute the largest proportion with ∼3,500,000 participants. Investigations of head impact exposure (HIE) in youth football have been limited in size and duration. The objective of this study was to evaluate HIE of athletes participating in three age- and weight-based levels of play within a single youth football organization over four seasons. Head impact data were collected using the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System. Mixed effects linear models were fitted, and Wald tests were used to assess differences in head accelerations and number of impacts among levels and session type (competitions vs. practices). The three levels studied were levels A (n = 39, age = 10.8 ± 0.7 years, weight = 97.5 ± 11.8 lb), B (n = 48, age = 11.9 ± 0.5 years, weight = 106.1 ± 13.8 lb), and C (n = 32, age = 13.0 ± 0.5 years, weight = 126.5 ± 18.6 lb). A total of 40,538 head impacts were measured. The median/95th percentile linear head acceleration for levels A, B, and C was 19.8/49.4g, 20.6/51.0g, and 22.0/57.9g, respectively. Level C had significantly greater mean linear acceleration than both levels A (p = 0.005) and B (p = 0.02). There were a significantly greater number of impacts per player in a competition than in a practice session for all levels (A, p = 0.0005, B, p = 0.0019, and C, p football and are an important step in making evidence-based decisions to reduce HIE.

  12. Preservation of ancient impact ages on the R chondrite parent body: 40Ar/39Ar age of hornblende-bearing R chondrite LAP 04840

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, Kevin; Cosca, Michael A.; Morgan, Leah

    2016-01-01

    The hornblende- and biotite-bearing R chondrite LAP 04840 is a rare kind of meteorite possibly containing outer solar system water stored during metamorphism or postshock annealing deep within an asteroid. Because little is known regarding its age and origin, we determined 40Ar/39Ar ages on hornblende-rich separates of the meteorite, and obtained plateau ages of 4340(±40) to 4380(±30) Ma. These well-defined plateau ages, coupled with evidence for postshock annealing, indicate this meteorite records an ancient shock event and subsequent annealing. The age of 4340–4380 Ma (or 4.34–4.38 Ga) for this and other previously dated R chondrites is much older than most impact events recorded by ordinary chondrites and points to an ancient event or events that predated the late heavy bombardment that is recorded in so many meteorites and lunar samples.

  13. Impact of age and gender on the clinicopathological characteristics of bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the impact of age and gender on the clinicopathological characteristics of histologically confirmed bladder cancer in India. Materials and Methods: From January 2001 to June 2008, records of patients with bladder cancer were evaluated for age and gender at presentation, clinical symptoms, cystoscopic finding, history of smoking, and histopathological characteristics. A total of 561 patients were identified from the computer-based hospital information system and the case files of patients. Results: A total of 97% of the patients presented with painless hematuria. The mean age was 60.2 ± 4.4 years old (range: 18-90 years old and the male to female ratio was 8.6:1. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC was the most common histological variety, which was present in 97.71% (470 of 481 of the patients. A total of 26% of the patients had muscle invasive disease at the time of presentation. However, 34.5% (166 of 481 of the patients did not show any evidence of detrusor muscle in their biopsy specimen. In patients with nonmuscle-invasive bladder carcinoma, 55% had p Ta while 45% had p T1. Overall, 44.7% (215 of 481 of the patients had low-grade disease. Among patients younger than 60 years old, low-grade (51.0% vs. 38.1%; P = 0.006 and low-stage (77.1% vs. 70.8%; P = 0.119 disease were more prevalent than in patients older than 60 years old. The incidence of smoking was much higher among males compared with females (74% vs. 22%. Conclusion: TCC is the predominant cancer, with significant male preponderance among Indian patients. Younger-aged patients have low-grade disease. Hematuria is the most common presentation and greater awareness is needed not to overlook bladder cancer.

  14. Ageing midface: The impact of surgeon's experience on the consistency in the assessment and proposed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazrati, Ali; Izadpanah, Ali; Zadeh, Teanoosh; Gosman, Amanda; Chao, James J; Dobke, Marek K

    2011-02-01

    An individual's face undergoes numerous changes throughout life. Since mid-face aesthetic units are key areas for rejuvenation procedures, their comprehensive assessment is essential for the development of any aesthetic management plan. Despite the availability of many evaluation criteria for treatment of mid-face ageing, there are discrepancies existing in both assessment and management approaches. The goal of this study was to determine if there are any identifiable profiles of clinical judgements and approaches related to the level of surgeon's experience. Forty seven standardised non-digital and not altered natural size photographic images of patients' faces (front and profile) were presented to eight senior board certified plastic surgeons, eight junior non-board certified plastic surgeons and eight plastic surgery residents from an independent program. Surveyed physicians were 'blinded' from each other and asked to assess five different major features characterising ageing mid-face. An interclass correlation data analysis was performed and the Cronbach coefficient alpha values were computed for each category. Responses obtained from senior plastic surgeons were consistently characterised by higher Cronbach coefficient alpha values indicating higher concordance. The highest agreement levels were obtained for the assessment of rhytids and jowls across all groups and the lowest agreement levels were obtained for the assessment and recommendation of upper lip management. This study illustrated that discrepancies in clinical assessments and surgical management exist among surgeons involved in the aesthetic surgery of the mid-face ageing. It appears that the level of surgeon's experience significantly impacts the inter-rater reliability and consensus in assessment and treatment of mid-face ageing. The most senior plastic surgeons' assessment and recommendations had the highest level of concordance while the junior non-board certified plastic surgeons and the

  15. Age-related differences in hormonal and nutritional impact on lean anorexia nervosa bone turnover uncoupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galusca, B; Bossu, C; Germain, N; Kadem, M; Frere, D; Lafage-Proust, M H; Lang, F; Estour, B

    2006-01-01

    subgroups of the AN patients. Other hormones or nutritional parameters displayed age-related correlations with bone markers, leading to different stepwise regression models for each age interval. In mature adolescent AN patients, up to 54% of the osteocalcin variance was due to BMI, cortisol and 17 beta estradiol, while 54% of the sCTX variance was determined by GH. In adult subjects, freeT3 and IGF-I accounted for 64% of osteocalcin variance, while 65% of the sCTX variance was due to GH, FTI and methoxyamines. We suggest a more complex mechanism of AN bone uncoupling that includes not only "classical" influence elements like cortisol, IGF-I, GH or 17 beta estradiol but also freeT3, catecholamines and a "direct" hormone-independent impact of denutrition. Continuous changes of these influences with age should be considered within the therapeutic approach to AN bone loss.

  16. THE IMPACT OF ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS ON MANIFESTATION OF EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH IN VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS AGED 13 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Nesic

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to investigate the plyometric training model used for the increase of explosive strength type (the vertical jump, an experimental research was carried out, drawing a sample of 40 volleyball players at the cadet level. For the purpose of this research, we applied nine anthropometric characteristics, which made the predictor system of variables. For the assessment of explosive strength, three tests were performed. The data were processed by descriptive and regression analyses. Based on the findings of the research and the discussion, one could unfailingly conclude that the applied system of anthropometric characteristics, as a predictor, has a significant impact on manifestation of explosive strength in volleyball players, aged 13 years, that is, it is possible to predict results of the tests of explosive strength based on the measures of anthropometric status of examinees.

  17. Fisetin Acts on Multiple Pathways to Reduce the Impact of Age and Disease on CNS Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that neurological diseases are multi-factorial involving disruptions in multiple cellular systems. Thus, while each disease has its own initiating mechanisms and pathologies, certain common pathways appear to be involved in most, if not all, neurological diseases described to date. Thus, it is unlikely that modulating only a single factor will be effective at either preventing disease development or slowing disease progression. A better approach is to identify small (fisetin. Fisetin not only has direct antioxidant activity but it can also increase the intracellular levels of glutathione, the major intracellular antioxidant. Fisetin can also activate key neurotrophic factor signaling pathways. In addition, it has anti-inflammatory activity against microglial cells and inhibits the activity of lipoxygenases, thereby reducing the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and their by-products. This wide range of actions suggests that fisetin has the ability to reduce the impact of age-related neurological diseases on brain function. PMID:25961687

  18. Potential public health impact of Age-Related Eye Disease Study results: AREDS report no. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressler, Neil M; Bressler, Susan B; Congdon, Nathan G; Ferris, Frederick L; Friedman, David S; Klein, Ronald; Lindblad, Anne S; Milton, Roy C; Seddon, Johanna M

    2003-11-01

    To estimate the potential public health impact of the findings of the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) on reducing the number of persons developing advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) during the next 5 years in the United States. The AREDS clinical trial provides estimates of AMD progression rates and of reduction in risk of developing advanced AMD when a high-dose nutritional supplement of antioxidants and zinc is used. These results are applied to estimates of the US population at risk, to estimate the number of people who would potentially avoid advanced AMD during 5 years if those at risk were to take a supplement such as that used in AREDS. An estimated 8 million persons at least 55 years old in the United States have monocular or binocular intermediate AMD or monocular advanced AMD. They are considered to be at high risk for advanced AMD and are those for whom the AREDS formulation should be considered. Of these people, 1.3 million would develop advanced AMD if no treatment were given to reduce their risk. If all of these people at risk received supplements such as those used in AREDS, more than 300,000 (95% confidence interval, 158,000-487,000) of them would avoid advanced AMD and any associated vision loss during the next 5 years. If people at high risk for advanced AMD received supplements such as those suggested by AREDS results, the potential impact on public health in the United States would be considerable during the next 5 years.

  19. Impact of Age and Comorbidity on Cervical and Breast Cancer Literacy of African Americans, Latina, and Arab Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Costellia H; Williams, Karen Patricia

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the relationship between age, comorbidity, and breast and cervical cancer literacy in a sample of African American, Latina, and Arab women (N = 371) from Detroit, Michigan. The Age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (ACC) was used characterize the impact of age and comorbidity on breast and cervical cancer literacy. The relationship between ACC and breast and cervical cancer screening, and group differences, were assessed. There was a statistically significant difference between breast cancer literacy scores. ACC had a greater impact on breast cancer literacy for African Americans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A high-precision 40Ar/39Ar age for the Nördlinger Ries impact crater, Germany, and implications for the accurate dating of terrestrial impact events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, Martin; Kennedy, Trudi; Jourdan, Fred; Buchner, Elmar; Reimold, Wolf Uwe

    2018-01-01

    40Ar/39Ar dating of specimens of moldavite, the formation of which is linked to the Ries impact in southern Germany, with a latest-generation ARGUS VI multi-collector mass spectrometer yielded three fully concordant plateau ages with a weighted mean age of 14.808 ± 0.021 Ma (± 0.038 Ma including all external uncertainties; 2σ; MSWD = 0.40, P = 0.67). This new best-estimate age for the Nördlinger Ries is in general agreement with previous 40Ar/39Ar results for moldavites, but constitutes a significantly improved precision with respect to the formation age of the distal Ries-produced tektites. Separates of impact glass from proximal Ries ejecta (suevite glass from three different surface outcrops) and partially melted feldspar particles from impact melt rock of the SUBO 18 Enkingen drill core failed to produce meaningful ages. These glasses show evidence for excess 40Ar introduction, which may have been incurred during interaction with hydrothermal fluids. Only partially reset 40Ar/39Ar ages could be determined for the feldspathic melt separates from the Enkingen core. The new 40Ar/39Ar results for the Ries impact structure constrain the duration of crater cooling, during the prevailing hydrothermal activity, to locally at least ∼60 kyr. With respect to the dating of terrestrial impact events, this paper briefly discusses a number of potential issues and effects that may be the cause for seemingly precise, but on a kyr-scale inaccurate, impact ages.

  1. Lap Shear and Impact Testing of Ochre and Beeswax in Experimental Middle Stone Age Compound Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozowyk, P R B; Langejans, G H J; Poulis, J A

    2016-01-01

    The production of compound adhesives using disparate ingredients is seen as some of the best evidence of advanced cognition outside of the use of symbolism. Previous field and laboratory testing of adhesives has shown the complexities involved in creating an effective Middle Stone Age glue using Acacia gum. However, it is currently unclear how efficient different adhesive recipes are, how much specific ingredients influence their performance, and how difficult it may have been for those ingredients to be combined to maximum effect. We conducted a series of laboratory-based lap shear and impact tests, following modern adhesion testing standards, to determine the efficacy of compound adhesives, with particular regard to the ingredient ratios. We tested rosin (colophony) and gum adhesives, containing additives of beeswax and ochre in varying ratios. During both lap shear and impact tests compound rosin adhesives performed better than single component rosin adhesives, and pure acacia gum was the strongest. The large difference in performance between each base adhesive and the significant changes in performance that occur due to relatively small changes in ingredient ratios lend further support to the notion that high levels of skill and knowledge were required to consistently produce the most effective adhesives.

  2. Assessing the Impact of Equipment Aging on System Performance Using Simulation Modeling Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, N. K.

    2005-01-01

    The radiological Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) is used to analyze the radioactive samples collected from different radioactive material processing operations at Savannah River Site (SRS). The expeditious processing of these samples is important for safe and reliable operations at SRS. As the radiological (RAD) ICP-MS machine ages, the experience shows that replacement parts and repairs are difficult to obtain on time for reliable operations after 5 years of service. A discrete event model using commercial software EXTEND was prepared to assess the impact on sample turn around times as the ICP-MS gets older. The model was prepared using the sample statistics from the previous 4 years. Machine utilization rates were calculated for the new machine, 5 year old machine, 10 year old machine, and a 12 year old machine. Computer simulations were run for these periods and the sample delay times calculated. The model was validated against the sample statistics collected from the previous 4 quarters. 90% confidence intervals were calculated for the 10th, 25th, 50th, and 90th quantiles of the samples. The simulation results show that if 50% of the samples are needed on time for efficient site operations, a 10 year old machine could take nearly 50 days longer to process these samples than a 5-year old machine. This simulation effort quantifies the impact on sample turn around time as the ICP-MS gets older

  3. Characterizing Ancylostoma caninum transcriptome and exploring nematode parasitic adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawdon John

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hookworm infection is one of the most important neglected diseases in developing countries, with approximately 1 billion people infected worldwide. To better understand hookworm biology and nematode parasitism, the present study generated a near complete transcriptome of the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum to a very high coverage using high throughput technology, and compared it to those of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasite Brugia malayi. Results The generated transcripts from four developmental stages, infective L3, serum stimulated L3, adult male and adult female, covered 93% of the A. caninum transcriptome. The broad diversity among nematode transcriptomes was confirmed, and an impact of parasitic adaptation on transcriptome diversity was inferred. Intra-population analysis showed that A. caninum has higher coding sequence diversity than humans. Examining the developmental expression profiles of A. caninum revealed major transitions in gene expression from larval stages to adult. Adult males expressed the highest number of selectively expressed genes, but adult female expressed the highest number of selective parasitism-related genes. Genes related to parasitism adaptation and A. caninum specific genes exhibited more expression selectivity while those conserved in nematodes tend to be consistently expressed. Parasitism related genes were expressed more selectively in adult male and female worms. The comprehensive analysis of digital expression profiles along with transcriptome comparisons enabled identification of a set of parasitism genes encoding secretory proteins in animal parasitic nematode. Conclusions This study validated the usage of deep sequencing for gene expression profiling. Parasitic adaptation of the canine hookworm is related to its diversity and developmental dynamics. This comprehensive comparative genomic and expression study substantially improves our understanding of

  4. The developmental transcriptome of Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of Connecticut; Graveley, Brenton R.; Brooks, Angela N.; Carlson, Joseph W.; Duff, Michael O.; Landolin, Jane M.; Yang, Li; Artieri, Carlo G.; van Baren, Marijke J.; Boley, Nathan; Booth, Benjamin W.; Brown, James B.; Cherbas, Lucy; Davis, Carrie A.; Dobin, Alex; Li, Renhua; Lin, Wei; Malone, John H.; Mattiuzzo, Nicolas R.; Miller, David; Sturgill, David; Tuch, Brian B.; Zaleski, Chris; Zhang, Dayu; Blanchette, Marco; Dudoit, Sandrine; Eads, Brian; Green, Richard E.; Hammonds, Ann; Jiang, Lichun; Kapranov, Phil; Langton, Laura; Perrimon, Norbert; Sandler, Jeremy E.; Wan, Kenneth H.; Willingham, Aarron; Zhang, Yu; Zou, Yi; Andrews, Justen; Bicke, Peter J.; Brenner, Steven E.; Brent, Michael R.; Cherbas, Peter; Gingeras, Thomas R.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Kaufman, Thomas C.; Oliver, Brian; Celniker, Susan E.

    2010-12-02

    . Whereas, 20% of Drosophila genes are annotated as encoding alternatively spliced premRNAs, splice-junction microarray experiments indicate that this number is at least 40% (ref. 7). Determining the diversity of mRNAs generated by alternative promoters, alternative splicing and RNA editing will substantially increase the inferred protein repertoire. Non-coding RNA genes (ncRNAs) including short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAS (miRNAs) (reviewed in ref. 10), and longer ncRNAs such as bxd (ref. 11) and rox (ref. 12), have important roles in gene regulation, whereas others such as small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs)and small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are important components of macromolecular machines such as the ribosome and spliceosome. The transcription and processing of these ncRNAs must also be fully documented and mapped. As part of the modENCODE project to annotate the functional elements of the D. melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans genomes, we used RNA-Seq and tiling microarrays to sample the Drosophila transcriptome at unprecedented depth throughout development from early embryo to ageing male and female adults. We report on a high-resolution view of the discovery, structure and dynamic expression of the D. melanogaster transcriptome.

  5. The Impact of Age on the Epidemiology of Atrial Fibrillation Hospitalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Sahar; Wang, Yun; Miller, Amy L.; Rodriguez, Fátima; Chung, Mina K.; Radford, Martha J.; Foody, JoAnne M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Given 4 million individuals in the United States suffer from atrial fibrillation, understanding the epidemiology of this disease is crucial. We sought to identify and characterize the impact of age on national atrial fibrillation hospitalization patterns. Methods The study sample was drawn from the 2009–2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). Patients hospitalized with a principal ICD9 discharge diagnosis of atrial fibrillation were included. Patients were categorized as “older” (65 and older) or “younger” (under 65 years) for the purposes of analysis. The outcomes measured included hospitalization rate, length of stay, in-hospital mortality, and discharge status. Results We identified 192,846 atrial fibrillation hospitalizations. There was significant geographic variation in hospitalizations for both younger and older age groups. States with high hospitalizations differed from those states known to have high stroke mortality. Younger patients (33% of the sample) were more likely to be obese (21% versus 8%, patrial fibrillation hospitalizations in contemporary practice. Younger patients are healthier, with a different distribution of risk factors, than older patients who have higher associated morbidity and mortality. PMID:24332722

  6. Impact of Age and Hearing Impairment on Work Performance during Long Working Hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Wagner-Hartl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on demographic prognoses, it must be assumed that a greater number of older workers will be found in the future labor market. How to deal with their possible age-related impairments of sensory functions, like hearing impairment and work performance during extended working time, has not been addressed explicitly until now. The study addresses this interplay. The study was performed on two consecutive days after normal working hours. The 55 participants had to “work” in the study at least three additional hours to simulate a situation of long working hours. The tested measures for (job performance were: general attention, long-term selective attention, concentration, and reaction time. All of the investigated variables were taken at both days of the study (2 × 2 × 2 repeated measurement design. The results show effects for age, the interaction of hearing impairment and time of measurement, and effects of the measurement time. Older participants reacted slower than younger participants did. Furthermore, younger participants reacted more frequently in a correct way. Hearing impairment seems to have a negative impact especially on measures of false reactions, and therefore especially on measurement time 1. The results can be interpreted in a way that hearing-impaired participants are able to compensate their deficits over time.

  7. Impact of Age and Hearing Impairment on Work Performance during Long Working Hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Hartl, Verena; Grossi, Nina R; Kallus, K Wolfgang

    2018-01-09

    Based on demographic prognoses, it must be assumed that a greater number of older workers will be found in the future labor market. How to deal with their possible age-related impairments of sensory functions, like hearing impairment and work performance during extended working time, has not been addressed explicitly until now. The study addresses this interplay. The study was performed on two consecutive days after normal working hours. The 55 participants had to "work" in the study at least three additional hours to simulate a situation of long working hours. The tested measures for (job) performance were: general attention, long-term selective attention, concentration, and reaction time. All of the investigated variables were taken at both days of the study (2 × 2 × 2 repeated measurement design). The results show effects for age, the interaction of hearing impairment and time of measurement, and effects of the measurement time. Older participants reacted slower than younger participants did. Furthermore, younger participants reacted more frequently in a correct way. Hearing impairment seems to have a negative impact especially on measures of false reactions, and therefore especially on measurement time 1. The results can be interpreted in a way that hearing-impaired participants are able to compensate their deficits over time.

  8. Quantifying the impact cosmetic make-up has on age perception and the first impression projected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Steven H; Cho, Katherine; Siracusa, Mary; Gutierrez-Borst, Selika

    2015-04-01

    First impressions are lasting, consequential and defined as the immediate judgment made of another from zero acquaintance. Multiple studies have reported the benefits of cosmetic make-up. We set out to investigate the psychosocial and aesthetic effects of cosmetic make-up in order to better understand why women wear it. Twenty-seven women were recruited in order to examine the effects of cosmetic make-up on first impressions. The photographs of individual subjects wearing the control cosmetics, their own make-up, and no make-up were randomly assigned to three binders (A, B, and C). Three hundred evaluators participated (100 evaluators per book) and completed a 10-point First Impression Scale for each of the 27 photos in their binder. Statistical analysis of the collected data was conducted in SPSS using two-tailed t-tests to determine the statistical significance of the differences between first impressions of Own Make-up vs No Make-up, No Make-up vs Control Make-up, and Own Makeup vs Control Make-up. There was a significant difference in improvement in all pairings across all 8 categories in the First Impressions questionnaire particularly in perceived age between own make-up, no make-up, control make-up (41, 42, 38; Pfirst impressions, age perception, self-esteem, and the quality of life impact that cosmetic makeup has on women's appearance and confidence. Subjects wearing cosmetic make-up appeared 4 years younger than those wearing no make-up. And the control cosmetic make-up subjects on average projected a 37% better first impression than subjects wearing no make-up. We objectively quantified and qualified the benefits of applying cosmetic make-up. Make-up can reduce the perceived age, improve the first impression projected and increase the self-esteem of those who apply it.

  9. Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) and bee age impact honey bee pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Traynor, Kirsten S; Andree, Michael; Lichtenberg, Elinor M; Chen, Yanping; Saegerman, Claude; Cox-Foster, Diana L

    2017-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies continue to experience high annual losses that remain poorly explained. Numerous interacting factors have been linked to colony declines. Understanding the pathways linking pathophysiology with symptoms is an important step in understanding the mechanisms of disease. In this study we examined the specific pathologies associated with honey bees collected from colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) and compared these with bees collected from apparently healthy colonies. We identified a set of pathological physical characteristics that occurred at different rates in CCD diagnosed colonies prior to their collapse: rectum distension, Malpighian tubule iridescence, fecal matter consistency, rectal enteroliths (hard concretions), and venom sac color. The multiple differences in rectum symptomology in bees from CCD apiaries and colonies suggest effected bees had trouble regulating water. To ensure that pathologies we found associated with CCD were indeed pathologies and not due to normal changes in physical appearances that occur as an adult bee ages (CCD colonies are assumed to be composed mostly of young bees), we documented the changes in bees of different ages taken from healthy colonies. We found that young bees had much greater incidences of white nodules than older cohorts. Prevalent in newly-emerged bees, these white nodules or cellular encapsulations indicate an active immune response. Comparing the two sets of characteristics, we determined a subset of pathologies that reliably predict CCD status rather than bee age (fecal matter consistency, rectal distension size, rectal enteroliths and Malpighian tubule iridescence) and that may serve as biomarkers for colony health. In addition, these pathologies suggest that CCD bees are experiencing disrupted excretory physiology. Our identification of these symptoms is an important first step in understanding the physiological pathways that underlie CCD and factors

  10. Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD and bee age impact honey bee pathophysiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis vanEngelsdorp

    Full Text Available Honey bee (Apis mellifera colonies continue to experience high annual losses that remain poorly explained. Numerous interacting factors have been linked to colony declines. Understanding the pathways linking pathophysiology with symptoms is an important step in understanding the mechanisms of disease. In this study we examined the specific pathologies associated with honey bees collected from colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD and compared these with bees collected from apparently healthy colonies. We identified a set of pathological physical characteristics that occurred at different rates in CCD diagnosed colonies prior to their collapse: rectum distension, Malpighian tubule iridescence, fecal matter consistency, rectal enteroliths (hard concretions, and venom sac color. The multiple differences in rectum symptomology in bees from CCD apiaries and colonies suggest effected bees had trouble regulating water. To ensure that pathologies we found associated with CCD were indeed pathologies and not due to normal changes in physical appearances that occur as an adult bee ages (CCD colonies are assumed to be composed mostly of young bees, we documented the changes in bees of different ages taken from healthy colonies. We found that young bees had much greater incidences of white nodules than older cohorts. Prevalent in newly-emerged bees, these white nodules or cellular encapsulations indicate an active immune response. Comparing the two sets of characteristics, we determined a subset of pathologies that reliably predict CCD status rather than bee age (fecal matter consistency, rectal distension size, rectal enteroliths and Malpighian tubule iridescence and that may serve as biomarkers for colony health. In addition, these pathologies suggest that CCD bees are experiencing disrupted excretory physiology. Our identification of these symptoms is an important first step in understanding the physiological pathways that underlie CCD and

  11. IMPACT OF IRRADIATION AND THERMAL AGING ON DWPF SIMULATED SLUDGE PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eibling, R; Michael Stone, M

    2006-01-01

    The research and development programs in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and other high-level waste vitrification processes require the use of both nonradioactive waste simulants and actual waste samples. While actual waste samples are the ideal materials to study, acquiring large quantities of actual waste is difficult and expensive. Tests utilizing actual high-level waste require the use of expensive shielded cells facilities to provide sufficient shielding for the researchers. Nonradioactive waste simulants have been used for laboratory testing, pilot-scale testing and full-scale integrated facility testing. These waste simulants were designed to reproduce the chemical and, if possible, the physical properties of the actual high-level waste. This technical report documents a study on the impact of irradiating a Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) simulant and of additional tests on aging a SB3 simulant by additional thermal processing. Prior simulant development studies examined methods of producing sludge and supernate simulants and processes that could be used to alter the physical properties of the simulant to more accurately mimic the properties of actual waste. Development of a precipitated sludge simulant for the River Protection Project (RPP) demonstrated that the application of heat for a period of time could significantly alter the rheology of the sludge simulant. The RPP precipitated simulant used distillation to concentrate the sludge solids and produced a reduction in sludge yield stress of up to 80% compared to the initial sludge properties. Observations at that time suggested that a substantial fraction of the iron hydroxide had converted to the oxide during the distillation. DWPF sludge simulant studies showed a much smaller reduction in yield stress (∼10%), demonstrated the impact of shear on particle size, and showed that smaller particle sizes yielded higher yield stress products. The current study documented in this report focuses

  12. The impact of obesity on foot morphology in women aged 48 years or older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Tománková

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is major risk factor for many diseases within society and represents extensive loads for the feet which lead to various foot disorders and deformities. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of obesity as represented by percent body fat (PBF on foot morphology. Methods: The study sample included 139 Czech women aged 48-69 years. The women were divided into two groups by PBF: non-obese women (NOW (n = 66; PBF < 35% and obese women (OW (n = 73; PBF > 35%. Measurements included % PBF and width, length and angle dimensions of foot. The Chippaux-Smirak index (CSI was calculated for each foot. Results: We found significant differences between OW and NOW in these parameters: direct forefoot width (sin. p = .02, rpb = .20, direct heel width (sin. p = .01, rpb = .22; dex. p < .01, rpb = .22, hallux angle (sin. p = .01, rpb = .25 and CSI (sin. p < .01, rpb = .26; dex. p < .01, rpb = .27. The results showed that the mean values of the heel width and CSI were significantly higher in OW on both feet, the mean values of forefoot width only on the left foot. Conclusions: Results proved that obesity impacts all parts of the foot (heel, longitudinal foot arch, forefoot. Despite significant differences of the CSI between NOW and OW, the number of subjects with flat feet was in both groups negligible.

  13. Impact of ambient air pollution on gestational age is modified by season in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln Doug

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of individual pollutants and the period(s during pregnancy when pollutant levels are likely to have most impact on preterm birth is not clear. We evaluated the effect of prenatal exposure to six common urban air pollutants in the Sydney metropolitan area on preterm birth. Methods We obtained information on all births in metropolitan Sydney between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2000. For each birth, exposure to each air pollutant was estimated for the first trimester, the three months preceding birth, the first month after the estimated date of conception and the month prior to delivery. Gestational age was analysed as a categorical variable in logistic regression models. Results There were 123 840 singleton births in Sydney in 1998–2000 and 4.9% were preterm. Preterm birth was significantly associated with maternal age, maternal smoking, male infant, indigenous status and first pregnancy. Air pollutant levels in the month and three months preceding birth had no significant effect on preterm birth after adjusting for maternal and infant covariates. Ozone levels in the first trimester of pregnancy and spring months of conception and sulphur dioxide were associated with increased risks for preterm births. Nitrogen dioxide was associated with a decreased risk of preterm births. Conclusion We found more protective than harmful associations between ambient air pollutants and preterm births with most associations non-significant. In view of these inconsistent associations, it is important to interpret the harmful effects with caution. If our results are confirmed by future studies then it will be imperative to reduce Sydney's already low air pollution levels even further.

  14. Age is the work of art? Impact of neutrophil and organism age on neutrophil extracellular trap formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortmann, Weronika; Kolaczkowska, Elzbieta

    2018-03-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps or NETs are released by highly activated neutrophils in response to infectious agents, sterile inflammation, autoimmune stimuli and cancer. In the cells, the nuclear envelop disintegrates and decondensation of chromatin occurs that depends on peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) and neutrophil elastase (NE). Subsequently, proteins from neutrophil granules (e.g., NE, lactoferrin and myeloperoxidase) and the nucleus (histones) bind to decondensed DNA and the whole structure is ejected from the cell. The DNA decorated with potent antimicrobials and proteases can act to contain dissemination of infection and in sterile inflammation NETs were shown to degrade cytokines and chemokines via serine proteases. On the other hand, overproduction of NETs, or their inadequate removal and prolonged presence in vasculature or tissues, can lead to bystander damage or even initiation of diseases. Considering the pros and cons of NET formation, it is of relevance if the stage of neutrophil maturation (immature, mature and senescent cells) affects the capacity to produce NETs as the cells of different age-related phenotypes dominate in given (pathological) conditions. Moreover, the immune system of neonates and elderly individuals is weaker than in adulthood. Is the same pattern followed when it comes to NETs? The overall importance of individual and neutrophil age on the capacity to release NETs is reviewed in detail and the significance of these facts is discussed.

  15. Experiencing aging or demystifying myths? - impact of different "geriatrics and gerontology" teaching strategies in first year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Alessandra Lamas Granero; Lucchetti, Giancarlo; de Oliveira, Isabella Noceli; Moreira-Almeida, Alexander; da Silva Ezequiel, Oscarina

    2017-02-08

    With the aging of the population comes a greater need for geriatric and gerontology teaching. However, there is currently a dearth of investigations on the impact of different educational methodologies for teaching in this area early in medical courses. The present study aims to determine the impact of two educational strategies on the topic "Geriatrics and Gerontology" ("experiencing aging" and "myths of aging") as compared to a control group (no intervention) on the attitudes, empathy and knowledge of first year medical students. An intervention-based study in education was conducted at the beginning of the first year of a medical course. Students submitted to educational strategies were compared against students with no intervention. The two strategies were: "Experiencing Aging" - also known as the "aging game" (simulation of the disabilities and physiological changes of aging), and "Myths of Aging" - a knowledge discussion based on a "quiz show", questioning common myths about aging. All students were assessed on their attitudes towards older persons (Maxwell-Sullivan, UCLA attitudes), empathy (Maxwell-Sullivan), knowledge on facts and positive view about aging (Palmore), and cognitive knowledge. Data were analysed using Student's t, Chi-squared or ANOVA tests. A total of 230 students were assessed. The "experiencing aging" intervention was associated with improvement in empathy but worsening of attitude. The "myths of aging" intervention was associated with an improved attitude overall and positive view about aging but with no change in empathy towards older persons. Educational strategies can influence the attitudes and empathy of students, leading to different outcomes. These data highlight the importance of assessing the outcomes of educational strategies in medical teaching to ascertain in what manner (how), situations (when) and settings (where) these activities should be introduced.

  16. Age shock: misperceptions of the impact of age on fertility before and after IVF in women who conceived after age 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Dougall, K; Beyene, Y; Nachtigall, R D

    2013-02-01

    What do older women understand of the relationship between age and fertility prior and subsequent to delivering their first child? Women who were first-time parents over the age of 40 did not accurately perceive the relationship between age and fertility prior to conceiving with IVF. While increases in women's age at their first birth have been most pronounced in relatively older women, the rapidity of fertility decline is not appreciated by most non-infertility specialist physicians, the general public or men and women who are delaying childbearing. Qualitative retrospective interviews were conducted from 2009 to 2011 with 61 self-selected women who were patients in one of two fertility clinics in the USA. All participants had delivered their first child following IVF when the woman was 40 years or older. The data include women's responses to the semi-structured and open-ended interview questions 'What information did you have about fertility and age before you started trying to get pregnant?' and 'What did you learn once you proceeded with fertility treatment?' Of the women, 30% expected their fertility to decline gradually until menopause at around 50 years and 31% reported that they expected to get pregnant without difficulty at the age of 40. Reasons for a mistaken belief in robust fertility included recollections of persistent and ongoing messaging about pregnancy prevention starting in adolescence (23%), healthy lifestyle and family history of fertility (26%), and incorrect information from friends, physicians or misleading media reports of pregnancies in older celebrity women (28%). Participants had not anticipated the possibility that they would need IVF to conceive with 44% reporting being 'shocked' and 'alarmed' to discover that their understanding of the rapidity of age-related reproductive decline was inaccurate'. In retrospect, their belated recognition of the effect of age on fertility led 72% of the women to state that they felt 'lucky' or had

  17. Strategic and Operational Plan for Integrating Transcriptomics ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plans for incorporating high throughput transcriptomics into the current high throughput screening activities at NCCT; the details are in the attached slide presentation presentation on plans for incorporating high throughput transcriptomics into the current high throughput screening activities at NCCT, given at the OECD meeting on June 23, 2016

  18. Effect of age, impaction types and operative time on inflammatory tissue reactions following lower third molar surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obi Emeka V

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postoperative mobidity following third molar surgery is affected by a number of factors. The study of these factors is essential for effective planning and limitation of morbidity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of age, type of impaction and operative time on immediate postoperative tissue reactions following mandibular third molar surgery. Methods Consecutive patients with impacted mandibular third molar teeth were studied. All the third molars were classified according to Winter's classification. Surgical extraction was performed on all the patients by a single surgeon under local anaesthesia. The operation time was determined by the time lapse between incision and completion of suturing. Postoperative pain, swelling and trismus were evaluated. Results There were 120 patients with an age range of 19-42 years. Patients in the age range of 35-42 years recorded a lower pain score (p = 0.5 on day 1. The mouth opening was much better in the lower age group on day 2 and 5 (p = 0.007 and p = 0.01 respectively. Pain, swelling and trismus increased with increasing operative time. Distoangular impaction was significantly associated with higher VAS score on day 1 and 2 (p = 0.01, 0.0, 04. Distoangular and horizontal impaction are associated with a higher degree of swelling and reduced mouth opening on postoperative review days. Vertical impaction was associated with the least degree of facial swelling and best mouth opening. Conclusions Increasing operating time and advancing age are associated with more postoperative morbidity, likewise distoangular and horizontal impaction types.

  19. Impact of demographic ageing on sustainability of public finance in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Population ageing is a global phenomenon without precedent in the history of humanity having implications in all facets of life. From an economic point of view, population ageing is certainly one of the biggest challenges of modern time. A consequence of these global demographic tendencies reflected in growing number of pensioners which negatively affects sustainability of public pension systems financed by the principle of intergenerational solidarity (Pay-As-You-Go - widely represented in public pension schemes of European countries. In this paper, impact of demographic ageing on pension systems is analyzed in the context of sustainability of public finance in Serbia in the period 2010-2050. Although the comparative analysis of the pension expenditure share in gross domestic product (GDP does not point to significant differences between Serbia and the countries in the neighborhood and the European Union, the growth trend of subsidizing the Pension Fund from the government budget endangers medium-term sustainability of the public pension system in Serbia, bearing in mind that the implementation of measures proposed in pension reforms can be valorized only in the long run. The main objective of the analysis is projecting long-term pension expenditure as a share of GDP. The projections were formed indirectly by modeling the average pension expenditure, because this variable incorporates both growth in the total pension expenditure and growth in the number of pensioners as a result of demographic trends, and better reflects the actual growth of pension expenditure. For the purposes of the analysis, in addition to the projection of real GDP growth, size of the inactive population aged 65 and over, as the main contingent of the pension system users and the total number of pensioners, was projected by means of stochastic cohort component methodology. Based on these projections and assumptions about the growth rate of average pension expenditure

  20. Prevalence and impact of primary headache disorders among students and working population in 18-25 years age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowri Aishwarya S, Eswari N, Chandrasekar M, Chandra Prabha J

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Headache or cephalalgia is defined as pain in the head. Headache is an extremely common symptom that may have a profound impact on peoples’ functioning and quality of life. According to International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD, they are Primary and Secondary headaches. Primary Headaches are triggered by stress, alcohol, changes in sleep pattern, anxiety, poor posture, all of which are part and parcel our day-to-day life. The study was performed to investigate the prevalence of primary headache disorders and its severity of impact among students and working population in the age group 18-25. Methods: The study was conducted on 718 subjects of which 483 subjects were medical and engineering students from the age group 18-21 and 235 subjects were working people from the age group 22-25. Written consent was taken from each of them. Headache Impact Test-6 (version 1.1 and the HARDSHIP Questionnaire by Timothy Steiner et al. were the questionnaires used to diagnose the severity of impact and the type of headache respectively. The study was ethically approved by Ethical Clearance Board of MAHER University. People suffering from psychiatric illness were excluded from the study. Result: There was increased prevalence of migraine in the age group 18-21 and tension type headache in the age group 22-25.Over 50%of subjects from both the age groups had headaches that have substantial to severe impact on their lives. There was no significant gender variation in headache prevalence.

  1. The Impact of Gestational Age and Birth Weight on the Risk of Strabismus among Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Shilpa; Andrews, Chris A.; Apkarian, Alexandra O.; Musch, David C.; Lee, Paul P.; Stein, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Strabismus causes irreversible vision loss if not detected and treated early. It is unclear whether birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) are risk factors for strabismus. OBJECTIVE To estimate the impact of BW and GA on the likelihood of developing strabismus among premature infants. DESIGN In this longitudinal cohort analysis, we followed a group of premature children from birth to determine the proportion which developed strabismus and the timing of first strabismus diagnosis. Multivariable Cox regression analyses assessed the relationships of BW and GA and the development of strabismus. Regression models were adjusted for other known risk factors for strabismus, sociodemographic factors, and ocular comorbidities. SETTING Communities throughout the United States PARTICIPANTS 38055 otherwise healthy children born prematurely who were enrolled for >6 months in a nationwide US managed care network between 2001–2011. EXPOSURE BW strabismus with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) RESULTS Of 38055 otherwise healthy children who were born prematurely, 587 were diagnosed with strabismus later in life. Cumulative incidence of strabismus was 3.0% at 5 years. Controlling for GA and other factors, infants born with BW strabismus. Controlling for BW and other covariates, there was no significant association between strabismus and GA (HR=0.98, [CI, 0.69–1.38]). Among premature infants with BW strabismus relative to those born after 32 weeks (HR=1.27, [CI, 0.86–1.88]). In contrast, among those with GA ≤32 weeks, BW strabismus relative to BW >2000g (HR=14.4, [CI 1.99–104]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Independent of GA, very low BW conferred a large increase in strabismus risk among premature infants. In contrast, independent of BW, GA did not significantly impact the risk of strabismus. Updates to existing guidelines in the pediatric and ophthalmic literature should be considered, highlighting the importance of BW rather than GA and alerting clinicians about

  2. The extent and pathways of nitrogen loss in turfgrass systems: Age impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaihai; Yang, Tianyou; Xia, Qing; Bowman, Daniel; Williams, David; Walker, John T; Shi, Wei

    2018-05-11

    Nitrogen loss from fertilized turf has been a concern for decades, with most research focused on inorganic (NO 3 - ) leaching. The present work examined both inorganic and organic N species in leachate and soil N 2 O emissions from intact soil cores of a bermudagrass chronosequence (1, 15, 20, and 109 years old) collected in both winter and summer. Measurements of soil N 2 O emissions were made daily for 3 weeks, while leachate was sampled once a week. Four treatments were established to examine the impacts of fertilization and temperature: no N, low N at 30 kg N ha -1 , and high N at 60 kg N ha -1 , plus a combination of high N and temperature (13 °C in winter or 33 °C in summer compared to the standard 23 °C). Total reactive N loss generally showed a "cup" pattern of turf age, being lowest for the 20 years old. Averaged across all intact soil cores sampled in winter and summer, organic N leaching accounted for 51% of total reactive N loss, followed by inorganic N leaching at 41% and N 2 O-N efflux at 8%. Proportional loss among the fractions varied with grass age, season, and temperature and fertilization treatments. While high temperature enhanced total reactive N loss, it had little influence on the partitioning of loss among dissolved organic N, inorganic N and N 2 O-N when C availability was expected to be high in summer due to rhizodeposition and root turnover. This effect of temperature was perhaps due to higher microbial turnover in response to increased C availability in summer. However when C availability was low in winter, warming might mainly affect microbial growth efficiency and therefore partitioning of N. This work provides a new insight into the interactive controls of warming and substrate availability on dissolved organic N loss from turfgrass systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Revisiting the impact of age and molecular subtype on overall survival after radiotherapy in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, Jian Hua; Diest, Paul J.Van; Perez-Losada, Jesus; Snijders, Antoine M

    2017-01-01

    Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in breast cancer (BC) is often used to eradicate remaining tumor cells following surgery with the goal of maximizing local control and increasing overall survival. The current study investigated the impact of age and BC molecular subtype on overall survival after RT using

  4. Impact of infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on community acquired pneumonia hospitalization in all ages in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, A. M.M.; Schurink-van't Klooster, Tessa M; Man, W. H.; van de Kassteele, J.; van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Arianne B; Bruijning-Verhagen, P. C.J.L.; de Melker, Hester E.; Sanders, E. A.M.; Knol, Mirjam J.

    2017-01-01

    Background The long-term impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on pneumonia hospitalizations in all age-groups varies between countries. In the Netherlands, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was implemented for newborns in 2006 and replaced by PCV10 in 2011. We assessed the

  5. Impacts of leaf age and heat stress duration on photosynthetic gas exchange and foliar nonstructural carbohydrates in Coffea arabica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielle E. Marias; Frederick C. Meinzer; Christopher Still

    2017-01-01

    Given future climate predictions of increased temperature, and frequency and intensity of heat waves in the tropics, suitable habitat to grow ecologically, economically, and socially valuable Coffea arabica is severely threatened. We investigated how leaf age and heat stress duration impact recovery from heat stress in C. arabica...

  6. IMPACTS OF AGING ON IN VIVO AND IN VITRO MEASUREMENTS OF SOIL-BOUND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON AVAILABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingestion of contaminated soil is an exposure pathway at approximately one-half of the Superfund sites in the United States. This study was designed to evaluate the impacts of aging in soil on the availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Two coal tar (CT)-amended ...

  7. Impact of age at diagnosis and duration of type 2 diabetes on mortality in Australia 1997-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huo, Lili; Magliano, Dianna J; Rancière, Fanny

    2018-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Current evidence suggests that type 2 diabetes may have a greater impact on those with earlier diagnosis (longer duration of disease), but data are limited. We examined the effect of age at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes on the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality over 15...... to cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and all other causes were identified. Poisson regression was used to model mortality rates by sex, current age, age at diagnosis, diabetes duration and calendar time. RESULTS: The median age at registration on the NDSS was 60.2 years (interquartile range [IQR] 50...... mortality was constant. All mortality rates increased exponentially with age. An earlier diagnosis of type 2 diabetes (longer duration of disease) was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality, primarily driven by CVD mortality. A 10 year earlier diagnosis (equivalent to 10 years' longer duration...

  8. Impact of vacancy-solute clusters on the aging of α-Fe solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and monitoring the aging of steels under vacancy supersaturation is a challenge of great practical interest for many industrial groups, and most of all for those related to nuclear energy. These steels always contain interstitial solutes, either as alloying elements or as impurities, and vacancies (V) that are equilibrium structural defects of materials. We have chosen the Fe-V -X system (X = C, N or O) as a model system for ferritic steels. Vacancy-solute clusters are likely to form in such systems because, despite the very low concentrations of their components, these cluster show very high attractive bonding. First of all, we have been working on the computation of intrinsic equilibrium properties of individual clusters, both thermodynamic (free binding energies) and kinetic (mobilities, dissociation coefficients, and their relationship with continuum diffusion) properties. Thanks to this atomic-scale characterization procedure, we have been able to highlight various effects of these clusters on a macroscopic system containing different cluster types: increase of solute solubility limits and total vacancy concentrations, flux couplings between interstitial solutes and vacancies, acceleration of solute precipitation kinetics and precipitate dissolution by solid solution stabilization due to vacancies. These results would not have been obtained without the development and/or extension of analytical methods in statistical physics which are able to describe cluster's components and their interactions at the atomic scale. Finally, we have also been working on cavities in α-iron, the study of which requires a different approach. Our study highlights the impact of the atomic discrete lattice on the equilibrium shape of cavities, and describes various kinetic mechanisms of these objects at the atomic scale. (author) [fr

  9. Impact on obstetric outcome of third-trimester screening for small-for-gestational-age fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callec, R; Lamy, C; Perdriolle-Galet, E; Patte, C; Heude, B; Morel, O

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the performance of screening for small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses by ultrasound biometry at 30-35 weeks' gestation, and to determine the impact of screening on obstetric and neonatal outcomes. For this prospective cohort study, pregnant women were recruited from two French university maternity centers between 2003 and 2006. Performance measures of third-trimester biometry for the prediction of SGA, defined as estimated fetal weight third-trimester ultrasound had a sensitivity of 29.0% (95% CI, 22.5-36.6%) and specificity of 94.2% (95% CI, 93.0-95.2%). Positive and negative predictive values were 30.8% (95% CI, 23.9-38.7%) and 93.7% (95% CI, 92.5-94.8%), respectively. One hundred and ten SGA neonates went undiagnosed at ultrasound. Compared to the TN neonates considered as of normal weight at ultrasound, planned preterm delivery (before 37 weeks) and elective Cesarean section for a fetal growth indication were 2.4 (P = 0.01) and 2.85 (P = 0.003) times more likely to occur, respectively, in the FP group of non-SGA neonates, diagnosed incorrectly as SGA during the antenatal period. There was no statistically significant difference in 5-min Apgar score third-trimester ultrasound screening for SGA seems poor, as it misses the diagnosis of a large number of SGA neonates. The consequences of routine screening for SGA in a low-risk population may lead to unnecessary planned preterm deliveries and elective Cesarean sections in FP pregnancies, without improved neonatal outcome in the FN pregnancies. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Role of adrenal vein sampling in primary aldosteronism: Impact of imaging, localization, and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtel, Heather; Zaheer, Salman; Shah, Parth K; Trerotola, Scott O; Karakousis, Giorgos C; Roses, Robert E; Cohen, Debbie L; Fraker, Douglas L

    2016-04-01

    The role of adrenal vein sampling (AVS) has been debated, with some authorities advocating selective use in younger patients (≤40 years), and those localized by preoperative imaging. We examined our experience to determine the impact of AVS in patients who routinely underwent AVS with a high success rate. A retrospective cohort study was performed using a prospectively maintained database of patients referred for evaluation of PA (1997-2013). Patients were classified as localized (L) if a unilateral mass was identified on imaging, and non-localized (NL) otherwise. Of 367 patients, 94% (n = 345) underwent successful AVS. Seventy-two percent (n = 265) were L; AVS was lateralizing 58% (n = 214). AVS changed management in 43% of patients (n = 158). In patients ≤40 years, AVS changed management in 30% (n = 15). In patients ≤40 years with a ≥1 cm adrenal mass, 12% (n = 3) would have undergone unnecessary surgery based on imaging results alone; in patients >40 years with a ≥1 cm adrenal mass, 3% (n = 5) would have undergone wrong-side surgery, and 30% (n = 50) would have undergone unnecessary surgery based on imaging. AVS changed management in a significant minority of patients regardless of age and imaging findings. AVS should be routinely recommended in all patients with PA, to direct operative therapy. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;113:532-537. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Transcriptome wide annotation of eukaryotic RNase III reactivity and degradation signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules Gagnon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Detection and validation of the RNA degradation signals controlling transcriptome stability are essential steps for understanding how cells regulate gene expression. Here we present complete genomic and biochemical annotations of the signals required for RNA degradation by the dsRNA specific ribonuclease III (Rnt1p and examine its impact on transcriptome expression. Rnt1p cleavage signals are randomly distributed in the yeast genome, and encompass a wide variety of sequences, indicating that transcriptome stability is not determined by the recurrence of a fixed cleavage motif. Instead, RNA reactivity is defined by the sequence and structural context in which the cleavage sites are located. Reactive signals are often associated with transiently expressed genes, and their impact on RNA expression is linked to growth conditions. Together, the data suggest that Rnt1p reactivity is triggered by malleable RNA degradation signals that permit dynamic response to changes in growth conditions.

  12. Transcriptome Wide Annotation of Eukaryotic RNase III Reactivity and Degradation Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Jules; Lavoie, Mathieu; Catala, Mathieu; Malenfant, Francis; Elela, Sherif Abou

    2015-01-01

    Detection and validation of the RNA degradation signals controlling transcriptome stability are essential steps for understanding how cells regulate gene expression. Here we present complete genomic and biochemical annotations of the signals required for RNA degradation by the dsRNA specific ribonuclease III (Rnt1p) and examine its impact on transcriptome expression. Rnt1p cleavage signals are randomly distributed in the yeast genome, and encompass a wide variety of sequences, indicating that transcriptome stability is not determined by the recurrence of a fixed cleavage motif. Instead, RNA reactivity is defined by the sequence and structural context in which the cleavage sites are located. Reactive signals are often associated with transiently expressed genes, and their impact on RNA expression is linked to growth conditions. Together, the data suggest that Rnt1p reactivity is triggered by malleable RNA degradation signals that permit dynamic response to changes in growth conditions. PMID:25680180

  13. Modeling the Impact of Uganda’s Safe Male Circumcision Program: Implications for Age and Regional Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripke, Katharine; Vazzano, Andrea; Kirungi, William; Musinguzi, Joshua; Opio, Alex; Ssempebwa, Rhobbinah; Nakawunde, Susan; Kyobutungi, Sheila; Akao, Juliet N.; Magala, Fred; Mwidu, George; Castor, Delivette

    2016-01-01

    Background Uganda aims to provide safe male circumcision (SMC) to 80% of men ages 15–49 by 2016. To date, only 2 million men have received SMC of the 4.2 million men required. In response to age and regional trends in SMC uptake, the country sought to re-examine its targets with respect to age and subnational region, to assess the program’s progress, and to refine the implementation approach. Methods and Findings The Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), was used in conjunction with incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM) to conduct this analysis. Population, births, deaths, and HIV incidence and prevalence were used to populate the model. Baseline male circumcision prevalence was derived from the 2011 AIDS Indicator Survey. Uganda can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising men ages 20–34. This group will also require the fewest circumcisions for each HIV infection averted. Focusing on men ages 10–19 will offer the greatest impact over a 15-year period, while focusing on men ages 15–34 offers the most cost-effective strategy over the same period. A regional analysis showed little variation in cost-effectiveness of scaling up SMC across eight regions. Scale-up is cost-saving in all regions. There is geographic variability in program progress, highlighting two regions with low baseline rates of circumcision where additional efforts will be needed. Conclusion Focusing SMC efforts on specific age groups and regions may help to accelerate Uganda’s SMC program progress. Policy makers in Uganda have already used model outputs in planning efforts, proposing males ages 10–34 as a priority group for SMC in the 2014 application to the Global Fund’s new funding model. As scale-up continues, the country should also consider a greater effort to expand SMC in regions with low MC prevalence. PMID:27410234

  14. Precipitation and impact toughness of Nb–V stabilised 18Cr–2Mo ferritic stainless steel during isothermal aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jian, E-mail: jh595@uowmail.edu.au [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Li, Huijun [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Barbaro, Frank [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); CBMM Technology Suisse, 14, Rue du Rhone, Geneve 1204 (Switzerland); Jiang, Laizhu [Baoshan Iron and Steel Co., Ltd., Shanghai 200431 (China); Zhu, Zhixiong [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Xu, Haigang; Ma, Li [Baoshan Iron and Steel Co., Ltd., Shanghai 200431 (China)

    2014-08-26

    The effect of isothermal aging on precipitation behaviour and Charpy impact toughness of Nb–V stabilised 18Cr–2Mo ferritic stainless steel was investigated by means of Thermo-Calc prediction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Charpy impact toughness testing. The results show that, niobium, vanadium carbides and nitrides, Fe{sub 2}Nb (Laves phase) and Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6} formed after 2 h aging at 800 °C, and the equilibrium solvus temperature of Fe{sub 2}Nb phase increases to above 750 °C, higher than the calculated temperature (730 °C) using Thermo-Calc. After isothermal aging at 750–950 °C, 2 h aging resulted in a decrease in toughness due to the formation of precipitation, especially (Nb,V)(C,N) and Fe{sub 2}Nb. When isothermally aged at 800 °C for up to 24 h, the coarsening rate of Fe{sub 2}Nb particle is much higher than that of (Nb,V)(C,N), and the impact toughness of the steel is dependent on quantity and sizes of (Nb,V)(C,N) and Fe{sub 2}Nb particles.

  15. Precipitation and impact toughness of Nb–V stabilised 18Cr–2Mo ferritic stainless steel during isothermal aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jian; Li, Huijun; Barbaro, Frank; Jiang, Laizhu; Zhu, Zhixiong; Xu, Haigang; Ma, Li

    2014-01-01

    The effect of isothermal aging on precipitation behaviour and Charpy impact toughness of Nb–V stabilised 18Cr–2Mo ferritic stainless steel was investigated by means of Thermo-Calc prediction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Charpy impact toughness testing. The results show that, niobium, vanadium carbides and nitrides, Fe 2 Nb (Laves phase) and Cr 23 C 6 formed after 2 h aging at 800 °C, and the equilibrium solvus temperature of Fe 2 Nb phase increases to above 750 °C, higher than the calculated temperature (730 °C) using Thermo-Calc. After isothermal aging at 750–950 °C, 2 h aging resulted in a decrease in toughness due to the formation of precipitation, especially (Nb,V)(C,N) and Fe 2 Nb. When isothermally aged at 800 °C for up to 24 h, the coarsening rate of Fe 2 Nb particle is much higher than that of (Nb,V)(C,N), and the impact toughness of the steel is dependent on quantity and sizes of (Nb,V)(C,N) and Fe 2 Nb particles

  16. Current Knowledge and Recent Advances in Marine Dinoflagellate Transcriptomic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Afiq Akbar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates are essential components in marine ecosystems, and they possess two dissimilar flagella to facilitate movement. Dinoflagellates are major components of marine food webs and of extreme importance in balancing the ecosystem energy flux in oceans. They have been reported to be the primary cause of harmful algae bloom (HABs events around the world, causing seafood poisoning and therefore having a direct impact on human health. Interestingly, dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are major components of coral reef foundations. Knowledge regarding their genes and genome organization is currently limited due to their large genome size and other genetic and cytological characteristics that hinder whole genome sequencing of dinoflagellates. Transcriptomic approaches and genetic analyses have been employed to unravel the physiological and metabolic characteristics of dinoflagellates and their complexity. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge and findings from transcriptomic studies to understand the cell growth, effects on environmental stress, toxin biosynthesis, dynamic of HABs, phylogeny and endosymbiosis of dinoflagellates. With the advancement of high throughput sequencing technologies and lower cost of sequencing, transcriptomic approaches will likely deepen our understanding in other aspects of dinoflagellates’ molecular biology such as gene functional analysis, systems biology and development of model organisms.

  17. The impact of music on the adjustment patterns of the aged at empty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Music is a sound that appeals to the body and soul. As there are differnt kinds of music, so also there may be individual preferences in music preference especially as regards to the aged. The aged are individuals who have reached the age of 60 and above. They are special as well as vulnerable group. Most of the elderly ...

  18. The impact of attitude functions on luxury brand consumption: An age-based group comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schade, Michael; Hegner, Sabrina; Hegner, Sabrina; Horstmann, Florian; Brinkmann, Nora

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to understand the consumption of luxury brands in different age groups. Attitude functions (social-adjustive, value-expressive, hedonic, utilitarian) explain luxury brand consumption among three age groups. A total of 297 respondents between the age of 16 and 59

  19. How the impact of HR practices on employee well-being and performance changes with age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, T.A.M.; Guest, D.; Clinton, M.; Knight, T.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Dikkers, J.S.E.

    2013-01-01

    With changing retirement ages and an aging workforce, interest is growing on the potential contribution of relevant bundles of HR practices in eliciting well-being and performance among aging workers. Drawing on theories on lifespan development and self-regulation, we distinguished two bundles of HR

  20. Medication and finance management among HIV-infected adults: the impact of age and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thames, April D; Kim, Michelle S; Becker, Brian W; Foley, Jessica M; Hines, Lindsay J; Singer, Elyse J; Heaton, Robert K; Castellon, Steven A; Hinkin, Charles H

    2011-02-01

    This study examined the effects of aging and cognitive impairment on medication and finance management in an HIV sample. We observed main effects of age (older finance management. The interaction of advancing age and cognitive impairment may confer significant functional limitations for HIV individuals that may be better detected by performance-based measures of functional abilities rather than patient self-report.

  1. How the impact of HR Practices on employee well-being and performance changes with age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, T.A.M.; Guest, D.; Clinton, M.; Knight, T.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Dikkers, J.S.E.

    2013-01-01

    With changing retirement ages and an aging workforce, interest is growing on the potential contribution of relevant bundles of HR practices in eliciting well-being and performance among aging workers. Drawing on theories on lifespan development and self-regulation, we distinguished two bundles of HR

  2. Transcriptome profiling of ontogeny in the acridid grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdan, Emma L; Finck, Jonas; Johnston, Paul R; Waurick, Isabelle; Mazzoni, Camila J; Mayer, Frieder

    2017-01-01

    Acridid grasshoppers (Orthoptera:Acrididae) are widely used model organisms for developmental, evolutionary, and neurobiological research. Although there has been recent influx of orthopteran transcriptomic resources, many use pooled ontogenetic stages obscuring information about changes in gene expression during development. Here we developed a de novo transcriptome spanning 7 stages in the life cycle of the acridid grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus. Samples from different stages encompassing embryonic development through adults were used for transcriptomic profiling, revealing patterns of differential gene expression that highlight processes in the different life stages. These patterns were validated with semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Embryonic development showed a strongly differentiated expression pattern compared to all of the other stages and genes upregulated in this stage were involved in signaling, cellular differentiation, and organ development. Our study is one of the first to examine gene expression during post-embryonic development in a hemimetabolous insect and we found that only the fourth and fifth instars had clusters of genes upregulated during these stages. These genes are involved in various processes ranging from synthesis of biogenic amines to chitin binding. These observations indicate that post-embryonic ontogeny is not a continuous process and that some instars are differentiated. Finally, genes upregulated in the imago were generally involved in aging and immunity. Our study highlights the importance of looking at ontogeny as a whole and indicates promising directions for future research in orthopteran development.

  3. Comparative Transcriptomics to Identify Novel Genes and Pathways in Dinoflagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, D.

    2016-02-01

    The unarmored dinoflagellate Karenia brevis is among the most prominent harmful, bloom-forming phytoplankton species in the Gulf of Mexico. During blooms, the polyketides PbTx-1 and PbTx-2 (brevetoxins) are produced by K. brevis. Brevetoxins negatively impact human health and the Gulf shellfish harvest. However, the genes underlying brevetoxin synthesis are currently unknown. Because the K. brevis genome is extremely large ( 1 × 1011 base pairs long), and with a high proportion of repetitive, non-coding DNA, it has not been sequenced. In fact, large, repetitive genomes are common among the dinoflagellate group. High-throughput RNA sequencing technology enabled us to assemble Karenia transcriptomes de novo and investigate potential genes in the brevetoxin pathway through comparative transcriptomics. The brevetoxin profile varies among K. brevis clonal cultures. For example, well-documented Wilson-CCFWC268 typically produces 8-10 pg PbTx per cell, whereas SP1 produces differences in gene expression. Of the 85,000 transcripts in the K. brevis transcriptome, 4,600 transcripts, including novel unannotated orthologs and putative polyketide synthases (PKSs), were only expressed by brevetoxin-producing K. brevis and K. papilionacea, not K. mikimotoi. Examination of gene expression between the typical- and low-toxin Wilson clones identified about 3,500 genes with significantly different expression levels, including 2 putative PKSs. One of the 2 PKSs was only found in the brevetoxin-producing Karenia species. These transcriptomes could not have been characterized without high-throughput RNA sequencing.

  4. Age-related changes in sleep and circadian rhythms: impact on cognitive performance and underlying neuroanatomical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina eSchmidt

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Circadian and homeostatic sleep-wake regulatory processes interact in a fine tuned manner to modulate human cognitive performance. Dampening of the circadian alertness signal and attenuated deterioration of psychomotor vigilance in response to elevated sleep pressure with aging change this interaction pattern. As evidenced by neuroimaging studies, both homeostatic sleep pressure and circadian sleep-wake promotion impact on cognition-related cortical and arousal-promoting subcortical brain regions including the thalamus, the anterior hypothalamus and the brainstem locus coeruleus (LC. However, how age- related changes in circadian and homeostatic processes impact on the cerebral activity subtending waking performance remains largely unexplored. Post-mortem studies point to neuronal degeneration in the SCN and age-related modifications to aging in the arousal-promoting LC. Alongside, cortical frontal brain areas are particularly susceptible both to aging and misalignment between circadian and homeostatic processes. In this perspective, we summarise and discuss here the potential neuroanatomical networks underlying age-related changes in circadian and homeostatic modulation of waking performance, ranging from basic arousal to higher order cognitive behaviours.

  5. Developmental transcriptome of Aplysia californica'

    KAUST Repository

    Heyland, Andreas

    2010-12-06

    Genome-wide transcriptional changes in development provide important insight into mechanisms underlying growth, differentiation, and patterning. However, such large-scale developmental studies have been limited to a few representatives of Ecdysozoans and Chordates. Here, we characterize transcriptomes of embryonic, larval, and metamorphic development in the marine mollusc Aplysia californica and reveal novel molecular components associated with life history transitions. Specifically, we identify more than 20 signal peptides, putative hormones, and transcription factors in association with early development and metamorphic stages-many of which seem to be evolutionarily conserved elements of signal transduction pathways. We also characterize genes related to biomineralization-a critical process of molluscan development. In summary, our experiment provides the first large-scale survey of gene expression in mollusc development, and complements previous studies on the regulatory mechanisms underlying body plan patterning and the formation of larval and juvenile structures. This study serves as a resource for further functional annotation of transcripts and genes in Aplysia, specifically and molluscs in general. A comparison of the Aplysia developmental transcriptome with similar studies in the zebra fish Danio rerio, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and other studies on molluscs suggests an overall highly divergent pattern of gene regulatory mechanisms that are likely a consequence of the different developmental modes of these organisms. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  6. The impact of age and gender on the ICF-based assessment of chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehrmann, Elisabeth; Kotulla, Simone; Fischer, Linda; Kienbacher, Thomas; Tuechler, Kerstin; Mair, Patrick; Ebenbichler, Gerold; Paul, Birgit

    2018-01-12

    To evaluate the impact of age and gender on the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF)-based assessment for chronic low back pain. Two hundred forty-four chronic low back pain patients (52% female) with a mean age of 49 years (SD =17.64) were interviewed with the comprehensive ICF core set for activities and participation, and environmental factors. After conducting explorative factor analysis, the impact of age and gender on the different factors was analyzed using analyzes of variances. Results revealed that older patients experienced more limitations within "self-care and mobility" and "walking" but less problems with "transportation" compared to younger patients. Older or middle-aged low back pain patients further perceived more facilitation through "architecture and products for communication", "health services", and "social services and products for mobility" than younger patients. Regarding gender differences, women reported more restriction in "housework" than men. An interaction effect between age and gender was found for "social activities and recreation" with young male patients reporting the highest impairment. The study demonstrated that the comprehensive ICF core set classification for chronic low back pain is influenced by age and gender. This impact is relevant for ICF-based assessments in clinical practice, and should be considered in intervention planning for rehabilitative programs. Implications for rehabilitation It is important to consider age and gender differences when classifying with the ICF. The intervention planning based on the ICF should focus on improvement of bodily functioning and mobility in older patients, facilitation of household activities in women, consideration of work-life balance and recreation (e.g., through mindfulness based stress reduction), and reduction of dissatisfaction with rehabilitation in younger patients. It is important to offer patients the opportunity to participate in

  7. Environmental impact of copper mining and metallurgy during the Bronze Age at Kargaly (Orenburg region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent García, Juan Manuel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Kargaly (Orenburg, Russia is a copper-producing region in which two main phases of mining activity have taken place: the 4th-2nd millennia BC and the 18th-20th centuries AD. This article is a comparative study on the impact of those mining episodes in the distribution of the forest resources in the region, aimed to estimate the scale of prehistoric mining and metallurgical works. For that purpose two paleopalinological sequences obtained from natural deposits located in Kargaly are analysed by inferential Statistics and Multivariate Methods. The results are compared both with a regional sampling of recent pollen rain supported by an analytical model of the present day landscape, and with the anthracological data coming from the Late Bronze Age settlement of Gorny 1. Analysis confirm the large scale of the prehistoric mining impact on the forest cover from the beginnings, as well as the strong effect of husbandry once mining works ended. These results allow us to dismiss a climatic change as main explanation for the detected diachronic variability in the palinological record. They also prove the viability of the proposed approach as a means of integrating the paleoenvironmental disciplines in Landscape Archaeology.

    Kargaly (región de Orenburgo, Rusia es una región cuprífera explotada entre los milenios IV y II cal BC y los siglos XVIII y XX d.C. El objetivo del artículo es estudiar comparativamente el impacto de estos episodios mineros en la distribución de los recursos forestales de la región, para aproximar la escala de las operaciones minero-metalúrgicas prehistóricas. Para ello se analizan con métodos estadísticos inferenciales y multivariantes dos secuencias paleopalinológicas procedentes de depósitos naturales de la región y se comparan con un muestreo regional de la lluvia polínica reciente apoyado por un modelo analítico del paisaje actual y con los datos antracol

  8. Context Influences on the Subjective Experience of Aging: The Impact of Culture and Domains of Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Erica L; Hess, Thomas M; Kornadt, Anna E; Rothermund, Klaus; Fung, Helene; Voss, Peggy

    2017-08-01

    Attitudes about aging influence how people feel about their aging and affect psychological and health outcomes in later life. Given cross-cultural variability in such attitudes, the subjective experience of aging (e.g., subjective age [SA]) may also vary, potentially accounting for culture-specific patterns of aging-related outcomes. Our study explored cultural variation in SA and its determinants. American (N = 569), Chinese (N = 492), and German (N = 827) adults aged 30-95 years completed a questionnaire that included instruments measuring basic demographic information, SA, beliefs about thresholds of old age, control over life changes, and age dependency of changes in eight different life domains (i.e., family, work). Analyses revealed consistency across cultures in the domain-specificity of SA, but differences in the amount of shared variance across domains (e.g., Chinese adults exhibited greater homogeneity across domains than did Americans and Germans). Cultural differences were also observed in levels of SA in some domains, which were attenuated by domain-specific beliefs (e.g., control). Interestingly, beliefs about aging accounted for more cultural variation in SA than did sociodemographic factors (e.g., education). Our results demonstrate that subjective perceptions of aging and everyday functioning may be best understood from a perspective focused on context (i.e., culture, life domain). Given its important relation to functioning, examination of cross-cultural differences in the subjective experience of aging may highlight factors that determine variations in aging-related outcomes that then could serve as targets of culture-specific interventions promoting well-being in later life. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Prioritizing child health interventions in Ethiopia: modeling impact on child mortality, life expectancy and inequality in age at death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Husøy Onarheim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fourth Millennium Development Goal calls for a two-thirds reduction in under-5 mortality between 1990 and 2015. Under-5 mortality rate is declining, but many countries are still far from achieving the goal. Effective child health interventions that could reduce child mortality exist, but national decision-makers lack contextual information for priority setting in their respective resource-constrained settings. We estimate the potential health impact of increasing coverage of 14 selected health interventions on child mortality in Ethiopia (2011-2015. We also explore the impact on life expectancy and inequality in the age of death (Gini(health. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used the Lives Saved Tool to estimate potential impact of scaling-up 14 health interventions in Ethiopia (2011-2015. Interventions are scaled-up to 1 government target levels, 2 90% coverage and 3 90% coverage of the five interventions with the highest impact. Under-5 mortality rate, neonatal mortality rate and deaths averted are primary outcome measures. We used modified life tables to estimate impact on life expectancy at birth and inequality in the age of death (Gini(health. Under-5 mortality rate declines from 101.0 in 2011 to 68.8, 42.1 and 56.7 per 1000 live births under these three scenarios. Prioritizing child health would also increase life expectancy at birth from expected 60.5 years in 2015 to 62.5, 64.2 and 63.4 years and reduce inequality in age of death (Gini(health substantially from 0.24 to 0.21, 0.18 and 0.19. CONCLUSIONS: The Millennium Development Goal for child health is reachable in Ethiopia. Prioritizing child health would also increase total life expectancy at birth and reduce inequality in age of death substantially (Gini(health.

  10. Impact of age and sex on normal left heart structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagström, Linn; Henein, Michael Y; Karp, Kjell; Waldenström, Anders; Lindqvist, Per

    2017-11-01

    Accurate age- and sex-related normal reference values of ventricular structure and function are important to determine the level of dysfunction in patients. The aim of this study therefore was to document normal age range sex-related measurements of LV structural and functional measurements to serve such purpose. We evaluated left ventricular structure and function in 293 healthy subjects between 20 and 90 years with equally distributed gender. Doppler echocardiography was used including measure of both systolic and diastolic functions. Due to systolic LV function, only long axis function correlated with age (r = 0·55, P<0·01) and the correlation was stronger in females. Concerning diastolic function, there was a strong age correlation in all parameters used (r = 0·40-0·74, P<0·001). Due to LV structural changes over age, females showed a larger reduction in end-diastolic volumes, but no or trivial difference in wall thickness after the age of 60 years. Age is associated with significant normal changes in left ventricular structure and function, which should be considered when deciding on normality. These changes are related to systemic arterial changes as well as body stature, thus reflecting overall body ageing process. Furthermore, normal cardiac ageing in females might partly explain the higher prevalence of heart failure with preserved ejection in females. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The Impact of Values-Job Fit and Age on Work-Related Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Ouweland, Loth; Van den Bossche, Piet

    2017-01-01

    Research shows that both individual and job-related factors influence a worker's work-related learning. This study combines these factors, examining the impact of fit between one's work values and job characteristics on learning. Although research indicates that fit benefits multiple work-related outcomes, little is known about the impact of fit…

  12. Fragmentation, topography, and forest age modulate impacts of drought on a tropical forested landscape in eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriarte, M.; Schwartz, N.; Budsock, A.

    2017-12-01

    Naturally regenerating second-growth forests account for ca. 50% of tropical forest cover and provide key ecosystem services. Understanding climate impacts on these ecosystems is critical for developing effective mitigation programs. Differences in environmental conditions and landscape context from old-growth forests may exacerbate climate impacts on second-growth stands. Nearly 70% of forest regeneration is occurring in hilly, upland, or mountain regions; a large proportion of second-growth forests are also fragmented. The effects of drought at the landscape scale, however, and the factors that modulate landscape heterogeneity in drought impacts remain understudied. Heterogeneity in soil moisture, light, and temperature in fragmented, topographically complex landscapes is likely to influence climate impacts on these forests. We examine impacts of a severe drought in 2015 on a forested landscape in Puerto Rico using two anomalies in vegetation indices. The study landscape is fragmented and topographically complex and includes old- and second-growth forests. We consider how topography (slope, aspect), fragmentation (distance to forest edge, patch size), and forest age (old- vs second-growth) modulate landscape heterogeneity of drought impacts and recovery from drought. Drought impacts were more severe in second-growth forests than in old-growth stands. Both topography and forest fragmentation influences the magnitude of drought impacts. Forest growing in steep areas, south facing slopes, small patches, and closer to forest edges exhibited more marked responses to drought. Forest recovery from drought was greater in second-growth forests and south facing slopes but slower in small patches and closer to forest edges. These findings are congruent with studies of drought impacts on tree growth in the study region. Together these results demonstrate the need for a multi-scalar approach to the study of drought impacts on tropical forests.

  13. Impact of β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on age-related functional deficits in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Michael; Pincu, Yair; Merritt, Jennifer; Cobert, Adam; Brander, Ryan; Jensen, Tor; Rhodes, Justin; Boppart, Marni D

    2017-01-01

    β-Hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a metabolite of the essential amino acid leucine. Recent studies demonstrate a decline in plasma HMB concentrations in humans across the lifespan, and HMB supplementation may be able to preserve muscle mass and strength in older adults. However, the impact of HMB supplementation on hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition remains largely unexplored. The purpose of this study was to simultaneously evaluate the impact of HMB on muscle strength, neurogenesis and cognition in young and aged mice. In addition, we evaluated the influence of HMB on muscle-resident mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (Sca-1 + CD45 - ; mMSC) function to address these cells potential to regulate physiological outcomes. Three month-old (n=20) and 24 month-old (n=18) female C57BL/6 mice were provided with either Ca-HMB or Ca-Lactate in a sucrose solution twice per day for 5.5weeks at a dose of 450mg/kg body weight. Significant decreases in relative peak and mean force, balance, and neurogenesis were observed in aged mice compared to young (age main effects, p≤0.05). Short-term HMB supplementation did not alter activity, balance, neurogenesis, or cognitive function in young or aged mice, yet HMB preserved relative peak force in aged mice. mMSC gene expression was significantly reduced with age, but HMB supplementation was able to recover expression of select growth factors known to stimulate muscle repair (HGF, LIF). Overall, our findings demonstrate that while short-term HMB supplementation does not appear to affect neurogenesis or cognitive function in young or aged mice, HMB may maintain muscle strength in aged mice in a manner dependent on mMSC function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of aging and HIV infection on serologic response to seasonal influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallikkuth, Suresh; De Armas, Lesley R; Pahwa, Rajendra; Rinaldi, Stefano; George, Varghese K; Sanchez, Celeste M; Pan, Li; Dickinson, Gordon; Rodriguez, Allan; Fischl, Margaret; Alcaide, Maria; Pahwa, Savita

    2018-02-08

    To determine influence of age and HIV infection on influenza vaccine responses. Evaluate serologic response to seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) as the immunologic outcome in HIV-infected (HIV) and age-matched HIV negative (HIV) adults. During 2013-2016, 151 virologically controlled HIV individuals on antiretroviral therapy and 164 HIV volunteers grouped by age as young (<40 years), middle aged (40-59 years) and old (≥60 years) were administered TIV and investigated for serum antibody response to vaccine antigens. At prevaccination (T0) titers were in seroprotective range in more than 90% of participants. Antibody titers increased in all participants postvaccination but frequency of classified vaccine responders to individual or all three vaccine antigens at 3-4 weeks was higher in HIV than HIV adults with the greatest differences manifesting in the young age group. Of the three vaccine strains in TIV, antibody responses at T2 were weakest against H3N2 with those to H1N1 and B antigens dominating. Among the age groups, the titers for H1N1 and B were lowest in old age, with evidence of an age-associated interaction in HIV persons with antibody to B antigen. Greater frequencies of vaccine nonresponders are seen in HIV young compared with HIV adults and the observed age-associated interaction for B antigen in HIV persons are supportive of the concept of premature immune senescence in controlled HIV infection. High-potency influenza vaccination recommended for healthy aging could be considered for HIV adults of all ages.

  15. The impact of a minimum pension on old age poverty and its budgetary cost. Evidence from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Dethier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact on old age poverty and the fiscal cost of universal minimum oldage pensions in Latin America using recent household survey data for 18 countries. Alleviatingold age poverty requires different approach from other age groups and a minimum pension islikely to be the only alternative available. First we measure old age poverty rates for all countries.Second we discuss the design of minimum pensions schemes, means-tested or not, as wellas the disincentive effects that they are expected to have on the economic and social behavior ofhouseholds including labor supply, saving and family solidarity. Third we use the household surveysto simulate the fiscal cost and the impact on poverty rates of alternative minimum pensionschemes in the 18 countries. We show that a universal minimum pension would substantiallyreduce poverty among the elderly except in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay where minimumpension systems already exist and poverty rates are low. Such schemes have much tobe commended in terms of incentives, spillover effects and administrative simplicity but have ahigh fiscal cost. The latter is a function of the age at which benefits are awarded, the prevailinglongevity, the generosity of benefits, the efficacy of means testing, and naturally the fiscal capacityof the country.

  16. Environmental risk factors and their impact on the age of onset of schizophrenia: Comparing familial to non-familial schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Martin; Hamann, Melanie; Schwerthöffer, Dirk; Froböse, Teresa; Vukovich, Ruth; Pitschel-Walz, Gabriele; Bäuml, Josef

    2012-04-01

    Several risk factors for schizophrenia have yet been identified. The aim of our study was to investigate how certain childhood and adolescent risk factors predict the age of onset of psychosis in patients with and without a familial component (i.e. a relative with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder). Aside from the age of onset of psychosis, we examined the risk factors for schizophrenia including obstetric complications, birth during winter or spring, behavioral deviances or delayed motor and speech development, exposure to adverse life events and exposure to substance use within a group of 100 patients (45 female, 55 male) with a mean age (± standard deviation) of 35.15 ± 13.21. Birth complications and cannabis abuse are predictors for an earlier onset of schizophrenia in patients with non-familial schizophrenia. No environmental risk factors for an earlier age of onset in familial schizophrenia have been identified. Certain environmental risk factors for schizophrenia seem to have an impact on the age of onset of psychosis in non-familial schizophrenia, they do not seem to have an impact on familial schizophrenia.

  17. Finding Shangri-La: Limiting the Impact of Senescence on Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabucco, Sally E; Zhang, Hong

    2016-03-03

    Senescence plays an important role in the age-associated decline of tissue functions. Recent studies now show that targeting senescent cells can enhance the functions of stem/progenitor cells in aged mice and extend lifespan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Does age impact self-actualization needs?—an empirical study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, although this study supports the existence of needs, the chronology of their dominance may not be as per Maslow's hierarchy pyramid. This empirical study establishes that there may not be progressive increase in self-actualization need as age progresses. Keywords: Maslow, need priorities, age, self-actualization ...

  19. Comparative transcriptomics in the Triticeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waugh Robbie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley and particularly wheat are two grass species of immense agricultural importance. In spite of polyploidization events within the latter, studies have shown that genotypically and phenotypically these species are very closely related and, indeed, fertile hybrids can be created by interbreeding. The advent of two genome-scale Affymetrix GeneChips now allows studies of the comparison of their transcriptomes. Results We have used the Wheat GeneChip to create a "gene expression atlas" for the wheat transcriptome (cv. Chinese Spring. For this, we chose mRNA from a range of tissues and developmental stages closely mirroring a comparable study carried out for barley (cv. Morex using the Barley1 GeneChip. This, together with large-scale clustering of the probesets from the two GeneChips into "homologous groups", has allowed us to perform a genomic-scale comparative study of expression patterns in these two species. We explore the influence of the polyploidy of wheat on the results obtained with the Wheat GeneChip and quantify the correlation between conservation in gene sequence and gene expression in wheat and barley. In addition, we show how the conservation of expression patterns can be used to elucidate, probeset by probeset, the reliability of the Wheat GeneChip. Conclusion While there are many differences in expression on the level of individual genes and tissues, we demonstrate that the wheat and barley transcriptomes appear highly correlated. This finding is significant not only because given small evolutionary distance between the two species it is widely expected, but also because it demonstrates that it is possible to use the two GeneChips for comparative studies. This is the case even though their probeset composition reflects rather different design principles as well as, of course, the present incomplete knowledge of the gene content of the two species. We also show that, in general, the Wheat GeneChip is not able

  20. Impact of age on efficacy of postoperative oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuan-Zhang; Gao, Peng; Song, Yong-Xi; Sun, Jing-Xu; Chen, Xiao-Wan; Zhao, Jun-Hua; Ma, Bin; Wang, Jun; Wang, Zhen-Ning

    2016-04-12

    Clinical practice guidelines focusing on age-related adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer are currently limited. The present study aimed to explore the impact of age on the efficacy of adjuvant oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare-linked database from 1992-2009. We enrolled patients with yp stages I-III rectal cancer who received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and underwent curative resection. The age-related survival benefit of adding oxaliplatin to adjuvant 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with propensity score-matching and Cox proportional hazards models. Comparing the oxaliplatin group with the 5-FU group, there were significant interactions between age and chemotherapy efficacy in terms of overall survival (OS) (p for interaction = 0.017) among patients with positive lymph nodes (ypN+). Adding oxaliplatin to 5-FU could prolong survival in patients aged rectal cancer who have already received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and undergone curative resection, adding oxaliplatin to 5-FU could prolong OS in patients aged < 73 years and ypN+ category. However, adding oxaliplatin did not translate into survival benefits in patients age ≥ 73 years and ypN+ category, or in ypN- patients.

  1. Learning and memory in mice with neuropathic pain: impact of old age and progranulin deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris eAlbuquerque

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Persistent neuropathic pain is a frequent consequence of peripheral nerve injuries, particularly in the elderly. Using the IntelliCage we studied if a sciatic nerve injury obstructed learning and memory in young and aged mice, each in wild type and progranulin deficient mice, which develop premature signs of brain aging and are more susceptible to nerve injury evoked nociceptive hypersensitivity and hence allow to assess a potential mutual aggravation of pain and old age. Both young and aged mice developed long-term nerve injury-evoked hyperalgesia and allodynia but, in both genotypes, only aged mice with neuropathic pain showed high error rates in place avoidance acquisition tasks. Once learnt however, aged mice with neuropathic pain maintained the aversive memory longer, i.e. the extinction was significantly slowed. In addition, nerve injury in progranulin deficient mice impaired the learning of spatial sequences of awarded places, particularly in aged mice, whereas easy place preference learning was not affected by nerve injury or progranulin deficiency. The sequencing task required a discrimination of clockwise and anti-clockwise sequences and spatial flexibility to re-learn a novel sequence. The loss of spatial flexibility did not occur in sham operated mice, i.e. was a consequence of nerve injury and suggests that neuropathic pain accelerates manifestations of old age and progranulin deficiency. Neuropathic pain at old age, irrespective of the genotype, resulted in a long maintenance of aversive memory suggesting a negative alliance and possibly mutual aggravation of chronic neuropathic pain and aversive memory at old age.

  2. Transcriptome analyzis of germinatiing maize kernels exposed to smoke-water and active compound KAR1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soós, V.; Sebestyén, E.; Juhász, A.; Light, M. E.; Kohout, Ladislav; Szalai, G.; Tandori, J.; van Staden, J.; Balázs, E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 236 (2010), s. 1-15 ISSN 1471-2229 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : smoke compound * transcriptome * KAR1 * butenolide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.085, year: 2010

  3. Network Analysis of Rodent Transcriptomes in Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Maya; Fogle, Homer; Costes, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Network analysis methods leverage prior knowledge of cellular systems and the statistical and conceptual relationships between analyte measurements to determine gene connectivity. Correlation and conditional metrics are used to infer a network topology and provide a systems-level context for cellular responses. Integration across multiple experimental conditions and omics domains can reveal the regulatory mechanisms that underlie gene expression. GeneLab has assembled rich multi-omic (transcriptomics, proteomics, epigenomics, and epitranscriptomics) datasets for multiple murine tissues from the Rodent Research 1 (RR-1) experiment. RR-1 assesses the impact of 37 days of spaceflight on gene expression across a variety of tissue types, such as adrenal glands, quadriceps, gastrocnemius, tibalius anterior, extensor digitorum longus, soleus, eye, and kidney. Network analysis is particularly useful for RR-1 -omics datasets because it reinforces subtle relationships that may be overlooked in isolated analyses and subdues confounding factors. Our objective is to use network analysis to determine potential target nodes for therapeutic intervention and identify similarities with existing disease models. Multiple network algorithms are used for a higher confidence consensus.

  4. Impact of age on pulmonary artery systolic pressures at rest and with exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garvan C Kane

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: It is not well known if advancing age influences normal rest or exercise pulmonary artery pressures. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the association of increasing age with measurements of pulmonary artery systolic pressure at rest and with exercise. Subjects and methods: A total of 467 adults without cardiopulmonary disease and normal exercise capacity (age range: 18–85 years underwent symptom-limited treadmill exercise testing with Doppler measurement of rest and exercise pulmonary artery systolic pressure. Results: There was a progressive increase in rest and exercise pulmonary artery pressures with increasing age. Pulmonary artery systolic pressures at rest and with exercise were 25 ± 5 mmHg and 33 ± 9 mmHg, respectively, in those <40 years, and 30 ± 5 mmHg and 41 ± 12 mmHg, respectively, in those ≥70 years. While elevated left-sided cardiac filling pressures were excluded by protocol design, markers of arterial stiffness associated with the age-dependent effects on pulmonary pressures. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that in echocardiographically normal adults, pulmonary artery systolic pressure increases with advancing age. This increase is seen at rest and with exercise. These increases in pulmonary pressure occur in association with decreasing transpulmonary flow and increases in systemic pulse pressure, suggesting that age-associated blood vessel stiffening may contribute to these differences in pulmonary artery systolic pressure.

  5. The Impact of Cardiorespiratory Fitness on Age-Related Lipids and Lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Moon Mark; Sui, Xuemei; Liu, Junxiu; Zhou, Haiming; Kokkinos, Peter F.; Lavie, Carl J.; Hardin, James W.; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence on the effect of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on age-related longitudinal changes of lipids and lipoproteins is scarce. Objectives This study sought to assess the longitudinal, aging trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins for the life course in adults, and to determine whether CRF modifies the age-associated trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins. Methods Data came from 11,418 men, 20 to 90 years of age, without known high cholesterol, high triglycerides, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline and during follow-up from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. There were 43,821 observations spanning 2 to 25 (mean 3.5) health examinations between 1970 and 2006. CRF was quantified by a maximal treadmill exercise test. Marginal models using generalized estimating equations were applied. Results Total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) presented similar inverted U-shaped quadratic trajectories with aging: gradual increases were noted until the mid-40s to early 50s, with subsequent declines (all p lipoproteins in young to middle-aged men than in older men. Conclusions Our investigation reveals a differential trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins with aging according to CRF in healthy men, and suggests that promoting increased CRF levels may help delay the development of dyslipidemia. PMID:25975472

  6. Nuclear AMPK regulated CARM1 stabilization impacts autophagy in aged heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chen; Yu, Lu; Xue, Han; Yang, Zheng; Yin, Yue; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Mai; Ma, Heng

    2017-01-01

    Senescence-associated autophagy downregulation leads to cardiomyocyte dysfunction. Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) participates in many cellular processes, including autophagy in mammals. However, the effect of CARM1 in aging-related cardiac autophagy decline remains undefined. Moreover, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator in metabolism and autophagy, however, the role of nuclear AMPK in autophagy outcome in aged hearts still unclear. Hers we identify the correlation between nuclear AMPK and CARM1 in aging heart. We found that fasting could promote autophagy in young hearts but not in aged hearts. The CARM1 stabilization is markedly decrease in aged hearts, which impaired nucleus TFEB-CARM1 complex and autophagy flux. Further, S-phase kinase-associated protein 2(SKP2), responsible for CARM1 degradation, was increased in aged hearts. We further validated that AMPK dependent FoxO3 phosphorylation was markedly reduced in nucleus, the decreased nuclear AMPK-FoxO3 activity fails to suppress SKP2-E3 ubiquitin ligase. This loss of repression leads to The CARM1 level and autophagy in aged hearts could be restored through AMPK activation. Taken together, AMPK deficiency results in nuclear CARM1 decrease mediated in part by SKP2, contributing to autophagy dysfunction in aged hearts. Our results identified nuclear AMPK controlled CARM1 stabilization as a new actor that regulates cardiac autophagy. - Highlights: • AMPK-dependent CARM1 stabilization is an important nuclear mechanism in cardiac autophagy. • AMPK deficiency lead to SKP2-mediated decrease in CARM1. • AMPK–SKP2–CARM1 in the regulation of autophagy dysfunction in aged heart.

  7. Biomechanics of side impact: Injury criteria, aging occupants, and airbag technology

    OpenAIRE

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Stemper, Brian D.; Gennarelli, Thomas A.; Weigelt, John A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of side impact trauma-related biomedical investigations with specific reference to certain aspects of epidemiology relating to the growing elderly population, improvements in technology such as side airbags geared toward occupant safety, and development of injury criteria. The first part is devoted to the involvement of the elderly by identifying variables contributing to injury including impact severity, human factors, and national and international field data. T...

  8. Psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics in adolescence: validity and reliability of a questionnaire across age-groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klages, Ulrich; Erbe, Christina; Sandru, Sandra Dinca; Brüllman, Dan; Wehrbein, Heinrich

    2015-02-01

    Dental malocclusion is a highly prevalent health condition in adolescence. Patients seek treatment primarily for aesthetic reasons. Therapy benefits are regarded, in the first place, to be psychosocial in nature. Therefore, it is mandatory to consider the perspective of the patient in treatment planning and control using a dental-aesthetics-related quality of life measure. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) developed in adult samples including the subscales Dental Self-Confidence, Social Impact, Psychological Impact and Aesthetic Concern is also applicable in adolescents aged 11 years and above. The psychometric properties were examined across three age-groups (11-12, 13-14, 15-17 year olds) with respect to factorial invariance, internal consistency, temporal stability, discriminant validity and gender- or age-associated scale mean differences and item response bias. Participants were 1,112 adolescents recruited from 4 institutions: orthodontic and dental practices, schools, and youth clubs. They answered the 23 partially reformulated items of the PIDAQ. Subjective and dentist evaluations of dental occlusion were assessed using the Perception of Occlusion Scale and the Aesthetic Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Both indices were aggregated to one Malocclusion Index (MI-S and MI-D). The fit indices using confirmatory factor analyses suggested that the factor structure and factor loadings underlying the PIDAQ items were invariant across ages (comparative fit index = 0.91, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.04). Internal consistency and temporal stability were adequate within the age-groupings (Alpha = 0.71-0.88; intra-class correlations = 0.82-0.96). Adolescents with severe compared to slight malocclusion according to both self-evaluation and dentist evaluation were found to differ in all PIDAQ subscales at a level of p < 0.001 for all ages. PIDAQ

  9. Impacts of Canada's minimum age for tobacco sales (MATS) laws on youth smoking behaviour, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Russell Clarence; Sanches, Marcos; Gatley, Jodi; Cunningham, James K; Chaiton, Michael Oliver; Schwartz, Robert; Bondy, Susan; Benny, Claire

    2018-01-13

    Recently, the US Institute of Medicine has proposed that raising the minimum age for tobacco purchasing/sales to 21 years would likely lead to reductions in smoking behavior among young people. Surprisingly few studies, however, have assessed the potential impacts of minimum-age tobacco restrictions on youth smoking. To estimate the impacts of Canadian minimum age for tobacco sales (MATS) laws on youth smoking behaviour. A regression-discontinuity design, using seven merged cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey, 2000-2014. Survey respondents aged 14-22 years (n=98 320). Current Canadian MATS laws are 18 years in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Quebec, the Yukon and Northwest Territories, and 19 years of age in the rest of the country. Current, occasional and daily smoking status; smoking frequency and intensity; and average monthly cigarette consumption. In comparison to age groups slightly younger than the MATS, those just older had significant and abrupt increases immediately after the MATS in the prevalence of current smokers (absolute increase: 2.71%; 95% CI 0.70% to 4.80%; P=0.009) and daily smokers (absolute increase: 2.43%; 95% CI 0.74% to 4.12%; P=0.005). Average past-month cigarette consumption within age groups increased immediately following the MATS by 18% (95% CI 3% to 39%; P=0.02). There was no evidence of significant increases in smoking intensity for daily or occasional smokers after release from MATS restrictions. The study provides relevant evidence supporting the effectiveness of Canadian MATS laws for limiting smoking among tobacco-restricted youth. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Impact of parental ages and other characteristics at childbearing on congenital anomalies: Results for the Czech Republic, 2000-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Rychtarikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND If the impact of maternal age at childbearing on congenital anomalies is well-known for the occurrence of Down syndrome, less is known concerning its effects on other major anomalies. Information is even scarcer for the possible effects of other maternal characteristics and of age of the father. OBJECTIVE We present new results on the associations between parental ages and other maternal characteristics, on the one hand, and congenital anomalies, on the other hand, using data linkage between three Czech registries on mother, newborn, and malformations, for the period 2000-2007. METHODS As the variables are in categorical format, binary logistic regression is used in order to investigate the relationship between presence/absence of a congenital anomaly, for each of the eleven types of anomalies considered, and the set of predictors. RESULTS This research confirms the impact of a higher age of the mother on Down syndrome and on other chromosomal anomalies. Paternal age is not associated with chromosomal anomalies and, in this Czech population, has a rather slight effect on some of the congenital anomalies examined. Another finding of the present study is the possible role of various other maternal characteristics on congenital malformations. CONCLUSIONS Based on a large data set, this study concludes that both parental ages can be associated with congenital anomalies of the child, and that maternal characteristics other than age have also to be considered. COMMENTS Risk factors can be tentatively proposed if they are based on a plausible and suitably tested explanatory mechanism. Unfortunately, in the majority of individual cases of congenital anomaly, the cause of the condition is still unknown and suspected to be an interaction of multiple environmental and genetic factors.

  11. Age dependent food consumption data provided for the computation of the radiological impact via the ingestion pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalckbrenner, R.; Bayer, A.

    1979-08-01

    Averaged age dependent food consumption data are compiled and evaluated to provide input data for the computation of the radiological impact via the ingestion pathway. For special population groups (self-suppliers e.g.) factors are provided, by which the consumption for special foods may be exceeded. The evaluated data are compared with those of the 'USNRC-Regulatory Guide 1.109 (revised 1977)' and those of the 'Recommendation of the German Commission on Radiological Protection (Draft 1977)'. (orig.) [de

  12. An exploratory study of the perceived impact of raising the age of cigarette purchase on young smokers in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, T; Amos, A

    2009-10-01

    To explore the perceived impact among a group of Scottish 16- and 17-year-old school leavers of the recent increase in age of sale of cigarettes (1 October 2007) from 16 to 18 years on their ability to purchase and access cigarettes. Qualitative interviews with friendship pairs. Twelve paired qualitative interviews conducted in June 2008. Participants were 16- and 17-year-old early school leavers undertaking a work skills programme in Lothian who smoked at least one cigarette per week. Data were analysed thematically. The increase in the age of sale affected participants' perceived ability to purchase cigarettes to differing extents. Three groups were identified: those who were unable to purchase cigarettes either before or after the change in the law, those who could purchase cigarettes before the change in the law but who found it very difficult to do so afterwards, and those who were relatively unaffected as they could purchase cigarettes both before and after the age was raised to 18 years, mostly from small corner shops. Smoking was embedded in participants' social lives and networks. Thus, there was only a limited impact upon their reported ability to access cigarettes due to the availability of alternative social sources of cigarettes from family, friends and others. This exploratory study raises questions about the nature and extent of the impact of raising the age of sale on young smokers' ability to purchase and access cigarettes. The importance of alternative social sources of cigarettes highlights the need for further research to investigate whether the change in legislation had less of an impact on more disadvantaged adolescent smokers, as they are likely to have greater access to alternative sources from their family, friends and community.

  13. Characterizing the transcriptome and molecular markers information ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008). Analyses of the genetic structure .... The annotations and classifications for the transcriptome ... Based on the Pfam classification, the predic- ..... J. Lipid. Res. 33, 251–262. Eckert C. G., Samis K. E. and Lougheed S. C. 2008 Genetic vari-.

  14. The floral transcriptome of Eucalyptus grandis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vining, KJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As a step toward functional annotation of genes required for floral initiation and development within the Eucalyptus genome, we used short read sequencing to analyze transcriptomes of floral buds from early and late developmental stages...

  15. T-lymphocyte subsets in West African children: impact of age, sex, and season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Whittle, H

    1997-01-01

    method to determine T-lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: We found differences by age, sex, and season, whereas there were no significant differences by birth order, twinning, or ethnic group. The CD4+ percentage declined from birth to age 2 years, at which time it started to increase to higher levels at age 4......OBJECTIVE: There has been no reference material for T-lymphocyte subsets for normal children in developing countries. We therefore used T-lymphocyte subset determinations among children in three different studies in Guinea-Bissau to construct age-related reference material and to examine possible...... determinants of T-lymphocyte subset levels. METHODS: A total of 803 healthy West African children younger than 6 years were included in the three community studies of T-lymphocyte subsets among twins and singletons, after measles infection and after measles immunization. We used the immunoalkaline phosphatase...

  16. Aging of the endocrine system and its potential impact on sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Giovanni; Cesari, Matteo; Mari, Daniela

    2016-11-01

    Sarcopenia, occurring as a primary consequence of aging, is a progressive generalized decline of skeletal muscle mass, strength and function. The pathophysiology of sarcopenia is complex and multifactorial. One major cause of muscle mass and strength loss with aging appears to be the alteration in hormonal networks involved in the inflammatory processes, muscle regeneration and protein synthesis. This review describes the recent findings concerning the role of the aging on the endocrine system in the development of sarcopenia. We also report the benefits and safety of hormone replacement therapy in elderly subjects and discuss future perspectives in the therapy and prevention of skeletal muscle aging. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The impact of major transformations of a production process on age-related accident risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, V L; Laflamme, L; Diderichsen, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a study of whether accident risks were equally distributed across age categories among a population of mining workers whose work activities were suspected to be age-impaired. The impairment factors in focus are the transformation of production technology during the 80s...... and consequent changes in job content. It was hypothesized that the combined effect of these factors might lead accident risks, both non-specific (aggregated) and specific (by kind), to increase with age. Accident risk ratios (ARRs), however, proved to be higher for younger workers than older ones, in both...... the non-specific and the specific cases. However, two accident patterns (specific risks) also show relatively high ARRs among workers in their 40s (and even 30s), results that might be explained by particular exposures and/or age-related performance problems. The findings suggest that technological...

  18. Ageing of power plants socio-economical, sanitary and environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, Ch.; Denner, M.; Vouilloux, F.; Foucher, L.; Serviere, M.; Vila d'Abadal Serra, M.

    2005-01-01

    The National Association of the local Commissions of Information (A.N.C.L.I.) presents a colloquium about the ageing of nuclear power plants. The different following points are presented. The life cycle of nuclear power plants and the new types of reactors. The ageing of power plants: stakes and perspectives for the French and world nuclear park. A power plant of 30 years is it sure? The role of the studies of ageing and the follow-up according to the age. Stop or continue to exploit a nuclear power plant: who decides, when and how. The socio-economic consequences of a stop of power plant: the Spanish experience. Ten-year visits of a power plant: the associative experience. 58 reactors today: how to assume their end of life and welcome equipments to come. (N.C.)

  19. The impact of aging on different types of health care: The example of the Polish health insurance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocot, Ewa

    2018-02-22

    The aging phenomenon, which is being observed all over the world, can strongly affect health policy and a planning in the health care sector. However, the impact of demographic changes on different parts of it can be varied. The main objective of this study was to check the possible impact of aging on health expenditure (HE) regarding different types of health care and to evaluate whether this impact is significant for all analyzed areas. To show a relationship between age and HE a special indicator (old-age sensitivity) was defined, showing a difference between the standardized value of HE per capita in the age group 65+ and in the group 20 to 64 (defined as the reference group). Then a simple prognosis of expenditure was prepared. Both analyses were done separately for 11 types of health care services and 2 types of goods reimbursement. The results show that while sensitivity varies between the different types of care, however, it is strong in most of them. Because of the prognosis, the expenditure will be increasing for the 9 types of care and decreasing for 4 of them. While in the case of the low values of sensitivity the HE is actually decreasing, the high value of sensitivity does not result in a growing tendency. Our main conclusion is that it is very important for health policy and planning to take into account the diversity of the types of health care and the different influences of changes in the size and structure of population on them. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The Impact of New Age Music as Treatment to Reduce Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Salve, Henny Regina

    2007-01-01

    New Age music is the same as Alternative music. The term New Age take various forms and directions. This music draws on some of the flow of the music on this list, temasuk Ambient, Minimalism, Native American, Drum and Percussion, World, Electronic, Celtic, and Alternative. In music also use this technique entrainment and binaural beats. Entrainment is a principle in physics and is defined as the synchronization of two or more rounds rhythm (synchronization of two or more cycles rhytmic). The...

  1. The Impact of Advanced Age on Driving Safety in Adults with Medical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sanghee; Ranchet, Maud; Akinwuntan, Abiodun Emmanuel; Tant, Mark; Carr, David Brian; Raji, Mukaila Ajiboye; Devos, Hannes

    2018-01-01

    Adults aged 85 and older, often referred to as the oldest-old, are the fastest-growing segment of the population. The rapidly increasing number of older adults with chronic and multiple medical conditions poses challenges regarding their driving safety. To investigate the effect of advanced age on driving safety in drivers with medical conditions. We categorized 3,425 drivers with preexisting medical conditions into four age groups: middle-aged (55-64 years, n = 1,386), young-old (65-74 years, n = 1,013), old-old (75-84 years, n = 803), or oldest-old (85 years and older, n = 223). All underwent a formal driving evaluation. The outcome measures included fitness to drive recommendation by the referring physician, comprehensive fitness to drive decision from an official driving evaluation center, history of motor vehicle crashes (MVCs), and history of traffic violations. The oldest-old reported more cardiopulmonary and visual conditions, but less neurological conditions than the old-old. Compared to the middle-aged, the oldest-old were more likely to be considered unfit to drive by the referring physicians (odds ratio [OR] = 4.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.20-9.10) and by the official driving evaluation center (OR = 2.74, 95% CI 1.87-4.03). The oldest-old reported more MVCs (OR = 2.79, 95% CI 1.88-4.12) compared to the middle-aged. Advanced age adversely affected driving safety outcomes. The oldest-old are a unique age group with medical conditions known to interfere with safe driving. Driving safety strategies should particularly target the oldest-old since they are the fastest-growing group and their increased frailty is associated with severe or fatal injuries due to MVCs. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Impact of sex steroid ablation on viral, tumour and vaccine responses in aged mice.

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    Tracy S P Heng

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that the decline in resistance to viral infections with age occurs predominantly as a result of a gradual loss of naïve antigen-specific T cells. As such, restoration of the naïve T cell repertoire to levels seen in young healthy adults may improve defence against infection in the aged. We have previously shown that sex steroid ablation (SSA rejuvenates the ageing thymus and increases thymic export of naïve T cells, but it remains unclear whether T cell responses are improved. Using mouse models of clinically relevant diseases, we now demonstrate that SSA increases the number of naïve T cells able to respond to antigen, thereby enhancing effector responses in aged mice. Specifically, aged mice exhibit a delay in clearing influenza A virus, which correlates with diminished specific cytotoxic activity. This is due to a decreased magnitude of response and not an intrinsic defect in effector T cell function. Upon SSA, aged mice exhibit increased T cell responsiveness that restores efficient viral clearance. We further demonstrate that SSA decreases the incidence of an inducible tumour in aged mice and can potentially increase their responsiveness to a low-dose human papillomavirus vaccine in clearing pre-formed tumours. As thymectomy abrogates the increase in T cell numbers and responsiveness following SSA, we propose that the T cell effects of SSA are dependent on thymic reactivation and subsequent replenishment of the peripheral T cell pool with newly emigrated naïve T cells. These findings have important implications for strategies to improve protection from infection and responsiveness to vaccination in the aged.

  3. Impact of sociodemographic factors on cognitive function in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyede, Gbemisola O; Lesi, Foluso Ea; Ezeaka, Veronica C; Umeh, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we sought to evaluate the influence of sociodemographic factors, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, maternal education, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, on cognitive performance in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children. Sixty-nine HIV-positive children aged 6-15 years were matched with 69 HIV-negative control children for age and sex. The children were subdivided for the purpose of analysis into two cognitive developmental stages using Piaget's staging, ie, the concrete operational stage (6-11 years) and the formal operational stage (12-15 years). All participants underwent cognitive assessment using Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (RPM). Sociodemographic data for the study participants, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, and level of maternal education, were obtained using a study proforma. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine associations of HIV status and sociodemographic characteristics with RPM cognitive scores. The overall mean RPM score for the HIV-positive children was 18.2 ± 9.8 (range 8.0-47.0) which was significantly lower than the score of 27.2 ± 13.8 (range 8.0-52.0) for the HIV-negative children (P < 0.001). On RPM grading, 56.5% of the HIV-positive children had cognitive performance at below average to intellectually defective range. Below average RPM scores were found to be significantly associated with younger age (6-11 years), positive HIV status, lower socioeconomic status, and low level of maternal education. Younger age, poor socioeconomic status, and low level of maternal education were factors apart from HIV infection that were significantly associated with low cognitive function in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children.

  4. Improving amphibian genomic resources: a multitissue reference transcriptome of an iconic invader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Mark F; Sequeira, Fernando; Selechnik, Daniel; Carneiro, Miguel; Vallinoto, Marcelo; Reid, Jack G; West, Andrea J; Crossland, Michael R; Shine, Richard; Rollins, Lee A

    2018-01-01

    Cane toads (Rhinella marina) are an iconic invasive species introduced to 4 continents and well utilized for studies of rapid evolution in introduced environments. Despite the long introduction history of this species, its profound ecological impacts, and its utility for demonstrating evolutionary principles, genetic information is sparse. Here we produce a de novo transcriptome spanning multiple tissues and life stages to enable investigation of the genetic basis of previously identified rapid phenotypic change over the introduced range. Using approximately 1.9 billion reads from developing tadpoles and 6 adult tissue-specific cDNA libraries, as well as a transcriptome assembly pipeline encompassing 100 separate de novo assemblies, we constructed 62 202 transcripts, of which we functionally annotated ∼50%. Our transcriptome assembly exhibits 90% full-length completeness of the Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs data set. Robust assembly metrics and comparisons with several available anuran transcriptomes and genomes indicate that our cane toad assembly is one of the most complete anuran genomic resources available. This comprehensive anuran transcriptome will provide a valuable resource for investigation of genes under selection during invasion in cane toads, but will also greatly expand our general knowledge of anuran genomes, which are underrepresented in the literature. The data set is publically available in NCBI and GigaDB to serve as a resource for other researchers. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. 3rd International Conference on Transcriptomics

    OpenAIRE

    John A Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Conference Series has been instrumental in conducting international Biochemistry meetings for seven years, and very excited to expand Europe, America and Asia Pacific continents. Previous meetings were held in major cities like Philadelphia, Orlando with success the meetings again scheduled in three continents. 3rd International Conference on Transcriptomics to be held during October 30 - November 01, 2017 at Bangkok, Thailand The Global Transcriptomics business sector to develop at a C...

  6. Impact of age and gender interaction on circulating endothelial progenitor cells in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Alexandra; Ayoubi, Fida; Deveaux, Christel; Charbit, Beny; Delmau, Catherine; Christin-Maitre, Sophie; Jaillon, Patrice; Uzan, Georges; Simon, Tabassome

    2010-02-01

    To assess the level of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPC) in cycling women compared with men and menopausal women. Controlled clinical study. Healthy, nonsmoking volunteers. Twelve women, aged 18-40 years, with regular menstrual cycles, 12 menopausal women, and two groups of 12 age-matched men were recruited. Women did not receive any hormone therapy. Collection of 20 mL of peripheral blood. The number of CEPC, defined as (Lin-/7AAD-/CD34+/CD133+/KDR+) cells per 10(6) mononuclear cells (MNC), was measured by flow cytometry. The number of CEPC was significantly higher in cycling women than in age-matched men and menopausal women (26.5 per 10(6) MNC vs. 10.5 per 10(6) MNC vs. 10 per 10(6) MNC, respectively). The number of CEPC was similar in menopausal women, age-matched, and young men. The number of CEPC is influenced by an age-gender interaction. This phenomenon may explain in part the better vascular repair and relative cardiovascular protection in younger women as compared with age-matched men. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Functional and Homeostatic Impact of Age-Related Changes in Lymph Node Stroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Thompson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adults over 65 years of age are more vulnerable to infectious disease and show poor responses to vaccination relative to those under 50. A complex set of age-related changes in the immune system is believed to be largely responsible for these defects. These changes, collectively termed immune senescence, encompass alterations in both the innate and adaptive immune systems, in the microenvironments where immune cells develop or reside, and in soluble factors that guide immune homeostasis and function. While age-related changes in primary lymphoid organs (bone marrow, and, in particular, the thymus, which involutes in the first third of life have been long appreciated, changes affecting aging secondary lymphoid organs, and, in particular, aging lymph nodes (LNs have been less well characterized. Over the last 20 years, LN stromal cells have emerged as key players in maintaining LN morphology and immune homeostasis, as well as in coordinating immune responses to pathogens. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the contributions of LN stromal cells to immune senescence. We discuss approaches to understand the mechanisms behind the decline in LN stromal cells and conclude by considering potential strategies to rejuvenate aging LN stroma to improve immune homeostasis, immune responses, and vaccine efficacy in the elderly.

  8. The Impact of Age and Cognitive Reserve on Resting-State Brain Connectivity

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    Jessica I. Fleck

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive reserve (CR is a protective mechanism that supports sustained cognitive function following damage to the physical brain associated with age, injury, or disease. The goal of the research was to identify relationships between age, CR, and brain connectivity. A sample of 90 cognitively normal adults, ages 45–64 years, had their resting-state brain activity recorded with electroencephalography (EEG and completed a series of memory and executive function assessments. CR was estimated using years of education and verbal IQ scores. Participants were divided into younger and older age groups and low- and high-CR groups. We observed greater left- than right-hemisphere coherence in younger participants, and greater right- than left-hemisphere coherence in older participants. In addition, greater coherence was observed under eyes-closed than eyes-open recording conditions for both low-CR and high-CR participants, with a more substantial difference between recording conditions in individuals high in CR regardless of age. Finally, younger participants low in CR exhibited greater mean coherence than younger participants high in CR, whereas the opposite pattern was observed in older participants, with greater coherence in older participants high in CR. Together, these findings suggest the possibility of a shift in the relationship between CR and brain connectivity during aging.

  9. Folate/Folic Acid Knowledge, Intake, and Self-Efficacy of College-Aged Women: Impact of Text Messaging and Availability of a Folic Acid-Containing Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersaud, Gail C.; Sokolow, Andrew; Gruspe, Abigail; Colee, James C.; Kauwell, Gail P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of educational text messages (TMs) on folate/folic acid knowledge and consumption among college-aged women, and to evaluate the impact of providing folic acid supplements on folate/folic acid intake among college-aged women. Participants: A total of 162 women (18-24 years) recruited from a university. Methods: The…

  10. Effect of the thermal ageing on the tensile and impact properties of a 18%Cr ODS ferritic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouffié, A.L., E-mail: anne-laure.rouffie@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DANS, DMN, SRMA, Bât 453, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mines ParisTech, Centre des Matériaux P.M. Fourt, UMR CNRS 7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry (France); Crépin, J.; Sennour, M. [Mines ParisTech, Centre des Matériaux P.M. Fourt, UMR CNRS 7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry (France); Tanguy, B. [CEA, DEN, DANS, DMN, SEMI, Bât 625, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Pineau, A. [Mines ParisTech, Centre des Matériaux P.M. Fourt, UMR CNRS 7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry (France); Hamon, D.; Wident, P.; Vincent, S. [CEA, DEN, DANS, DMN, SRMA, Bât 453, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Garat, V. [AREVA NP, 10 rue J. Récamier, 69006 Lyon (France); Fournier, B. [Manoir Industries – Petrochem and Nuclear, Metallurgy Dpt., 12 rue des Ardennes, BP 8401 Pitres, 27108 Val de Reuil Cedex (France)

    2014-02-01

    The effects of the thermal ageing at 400 °C, 500 °C and 600 °C during 5000 h on the mechanical properties of a 18%Cr ODS ferritic steel are investigated. A hardening effect is observed after ageing at 400 °C and 500 °C, probably due to the presence of chromium rich α′ particles as suggested by the literature. The impact resistance and the ductility of the material are strongly lowered by the ageing at 600 °C. This embrittlement is characterized on the fracture surfaces by the presence of cleavage facets on the whole range of testing temperatures. The intermetallic σ phase is found to be responsible for the occurrence of cleavage fracture on the material aged at 600 °C, and thus for the significant embrittlement of this material. M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides are also observed before and after thermal ageing. The lattice parameters of the σ phase and the M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides observed in this 18%Cr ODS steel aged at 600 °C during 5000 h are measured.

  11. Ageing of the baby boomer generation: how demographic change will impact on city and rural GP and nursing workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, D J; Page, S L; Lyle, D M; Walker, T J

    2006-01-01

    To compare the impact of ageing on the GP and nursing rural and city workforce. Cohort analysis of Australian Bureau of Statistics census data. The data was used to examine the age distribution of the city and rural GP and nursing workforce; patterns of attrition for those 50 years and over; and the impact of changes in working hours. The rural GP and nursing workforce is significantly older than their city counterparts (pbaby boomer' generation making up 52% of city GPs but 59% of rural GPs in 2001. While a large proportion of city and rural GPs continued to work past the age of 65 years, rural GPs left the workforce at a significantly younger age than city doctors (pgeneration X' GPs were no more likely to work long hours than those in the city (pbaby boomers' continued to work long hours. Rural GPs are retiring faster than city GPs and strategies to attract rural GPs and nurses will be critical to ensure adequate rural health care and that current rural workforce shortage do not worsen.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF NEURODEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOMES IN INFANTS 6-12 MONTHS OF AGE ACCORDING TO IMPACT OF PERINATAL RISK FACTORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tskimanauri, N; Khachapuridze, N; Imnadze, P; Chanadiri, T; Bakhtadze, S

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the developmental follow-up of infants (at age of 6 month and 12 month), exposed to separate and combination impact of perinatal risk factors, compared with not exposed cases, within the prospective cohort study. Between January 2015 and January 2017, in this research we prospectively enrolled 1018 live-born infants from the medical reports of the participating clinics in Tbilisi (capital of Republic of Georgia) and Mtskheta, Dusheti (districts of Georgia). Within postnatal follow-up, the children from whole population were assessed at 6 and 12 months of age by family doctors using the Denver Developmental Screening Test (Denver II). The association between the risk factors and neurodevelopmental outcomes was analyzed by Chi-square test of independence. Statistical analysis of these data was performed using the SPSS version 12. (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). A P value of less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Prevalence of abnormal development in whole population was revealed 9.0% or 92 cases at age of 6 month and 36 cases or 3.5% at age of 12 month. Point prevalence of farther neurodevelopmental adversities for healthy born children not influenced by studied risk factors was 0.1% and for infants with impact of the risk factors - 1.5%; on the other hand, prevalence of observed abnormal development in infant's population who had neonatal pathologies was 2.3% if risk factors were not exposed and 21.6% under influence of risk factors. Statistical analysis showed that an abnormal developmental outcomes were more frequent when researched risk factors were exposed (OR-23.18, CI 95% - 11.83 to 45.41 - at age of 6 month; OR - 26.12, CI 95% - 7.95 to 85.85 - at age of 12 month) as well, as correlation of these risk factors with neurodevelopmental adverse outcomes was significant (prisk factors, such as maternal age (35Y), pathologies of pregnancy and delivery as well as gestation age (risk factors increased probability of

  13. Integrative investigation of metabolic and transcriptomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Önsan Z İlsen

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New analysis methods are being developed to integrate data from transcriptome, proteome, interactome, metabolome, and other investigative approaches. At the same time, existing methods are being modified to serve the objectives of systems biology and permit the interpretation of the huge datasets currently being generated by high-throughput methods. Results Transcriptomic and metabolic data from chemostat fermentors were collected with the aim of investigating the relationship between these two data sets. The variation in transcriptome data in response to three physiological or genetic perturbations (medium composition, growth rate, and specific gene deletions was investigated using linear modelling, and open reading-frames (ORFs whose expression changed significantly in response to these perturbations were identified. Assuming that the metabolic profile is a function of the transcriptome profile, expression levels of the different ORFs were used to model the metabolic variables via Partial Least Squares (Projection to Latent Structures – PLS using PLS toolbox in Matlab. Conclusion The experimental design allowed the analyses to discriminate between the effects which the growth medium, dilution rate, and the deletion of specific genes had on the transcriptome and metabolite profiles. Metabolite data were modelled as a function of the transcriptome to determine their congruence. The genes that are involved in central carbon metabolism of yeast cells were found to be the ORFs with the most significant contribution to the model.

  14. Transcriptomic Analysis of Young and Old Erythrocytes of Fish

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    Miriam Götting

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding gene expression changes over the lifespan of cells is of fundamental interest and gives important insights into processes related to maturation and aging. This study was undertaken to understand the global transcriptome changes associated with aging in fish erythrocytes. Fish erythrocytes retain their nuclei throughout their lifetime and they are transcriptionally and translationally active. However, they lose important functions during their lifespan in the circulation. We separated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss erythrocytes into young and old fractions using fixed angle-centrifugation and analyzed transcriptome changes using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq technology and quantitative real-time PCR. We found 930 differentially expressed between young and old erythrocyte fractions; 889 of these showed higher transcript levels in young, while only 34 protein-coding genes had higher transcript levels in old erythrocytes. In particular genes involved in ion binding, signal transduction, membrane transport, and those encoding various enzyme classes are affected in old erythrocytes. The transcripts with higher levels in old erythrocytes were associated with seven different GO terms within biological processes and nine within molecular functions and cellular components, respectively. Our study furthermore found several highly abundant transcripts as well as a number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs for which the protein products are currently not known revealing the gaps of knowledge in most non-mammalian vertebrates. Our data provide the first insight into changes involved in aging on the transcriptional level and thus opens new perspectives for the study of maturation processes in fish erythrocytes.

  15. The Impact of Age-Related Dysregulation of the Angiotensin System on Mitochondrial Redox Balance

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    Ramya eVajapey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with the accumulation of various deleterious changes in cells. According to the free radical and mitochondrial theory of aging, mitochondria initiate most of the deleterious changes in aging and govern life span. The failure of mitochondrial reduction-oxidation (redox homeostasis and the formation of excessive free radicals are tightly linked to dysregulation in the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS. A main rate-controlling step in RAS is renin, an enzyme that hydrolyzes angiotensinogen to generate angiotensin I. Angiotensin I is further converted to Angiotensin II (Ang II by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE. Ang II binds with equal affinity to two main angiotensin receptors—type 1 (AT1R and type 2 (AT2R. The binding of Ang II to AT1R activates NADPH oxidase, which leads to increased generation of cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species (ROS. This Ang II-AT1R–NADPH-ROS signal triggers the opening of mitochondrial KATP channels and mitochondrial ROS production in a positive feedback loop. Furthermore, RAS has been implicated in the decrease of many of ROS scavenging enzymes, thereby leading to detrimental levels of free radicals in the cell.AT2R is less understood, but evidence supports an anti-oxidative and mitochondria-protective function for AT2R. The overlap between age related changes in RAS and mitochondria, and the consequences of this overlap on age-related diseases are quite complex. RAS dysregulation has been implicated in many pathological conditions due to its contribution to mitochondrial dysfunction. Decreased age-related, renal and cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction was seen in patients treated with angiotensin receptor blockers. The aim of this review is to: (a report the most recent information elucidating the role of RAS in mitochondrial redox hemostasis and (b discuss the effect of age-related activation of RAS on generation of free radicals.

  16. The moderating impact of lifestyle factors on sex steroids, sexual activities and aging in Asian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Victor H H; Tong, Terry Y Y

    2011-07-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and metabolic parameters, some lifestyle factors and sexual activities. Testosterone (T), bioavailable testosterone (BioT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) concentrations decreased with age, while estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and %BF increased with age. In addition, there exist intricate associations among hormonal and lifestyle factors, %BF and age. High-intensity exercise and longer duration of sleep were associated with higher concentrations of T and BioT. T was shown to be associated positively with men who were engaged in masturbation. DHEAS was associated with men wanting more sex and with good morning penile rigidity. Older Singaporean men tended to sleep for shorter duration, but exercised more intensely than younger men. Coital and masturbation frequencies decreased with age, and a significantly greater number of younger men were engaged in masturbation. Relationship between the partners is a key determinant of sexuality in men. It appears that T may have a limited, while dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) have a greater role than previously suggest, as a motivational signal for sexual function in men. Both biological and psychosocial factors interact with each other to influence sexual functions in men. Hence, a biopsychosocial approach may be more appropriate for a more lasting resolution to sexual dysfunctions in men.

  17. The impact of sent-down movement on Chinese women's age at first marriage

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    Shige Song

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chinese women's age at first marriage increased for more than three years on average during the short period between 1970 and 1979. Demographers attributed it to the 'later, longer, fewer' family planning policy of the 1970s whereas some sociologists suggested that the 'send-down' movement in 1968-1978, which mobilized over 17 million urban youths and sent them to the countryside, may also have played a role. Methods: Using newly available high-quality national representative sample survey data, we estimated the effect of being sent-down on women's age at first marriage. We then conducted counterfactual simulations to decompose the total increase in women's age of marriage between 1970 and 1979 into a component attributed to the send-down and a residual component attributed to other factors. Results: Our results suggest that being sent-down delayed Chinese women's age at first marriage by 1.2 years. For urban women, this accounts for 13.3 percent of the total increase in their age at first marriage between 1970 and 1979. For urban and rural women together, the overall contribution of send-down to the increase in their age of marriage is less than one percent. Conclusions: On one hand, the send-down policy did not play an important role in the demographic transition process in China. On the other hand, for the 17 million sent-down youths, being forced to leave home and settle in a harsh and unfamiliar rural environment at very young ages marked a hard transition to adulthood and inevitably disrupted their normal life course. Delayed marriage, as revealed by this study, may be just tip of the iceberg.

  18. Impact of age on outcome after colorectal cancer surgery in the elderly - a developing country perspective

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    Zafar Syed

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major source of morbidity and mortality in the elderly population and surgery is often the only definitive management option. The suitability of surgical candidates based on age alone has traditionally been a source of controversy. Surgical resection may be considered detrimental in the elderly solely on the basis of advanced age. Based on recent evidence suggesting that age alone is not a predictor of outcomes, Western societies are increasingly performing definitive procedures on the elderly. Such evidence is not available from our region. We aimed to determine whether age has an independent effect on complications after surgery for colorectal cancer in our population. Methods A retrospective review of all patients who underwent surgery for pathologically confirmed colorectal cancer at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi between January 1999 and December 2008 was conducted. Using a cut-off of 70 years, patients were divided into two groups. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics and postoperative complications and 30-day mortality were compared. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed with clinically relevant variables to determine whether age had an independent and significant association with the outcome. Results A total of 271 files were reviewed, of which 56 belonged to elderly patients (≥ 70 years. The gender ratio was equal in both groups. Elderly patients had a significantly higher comorbidity status, Charlson score and American society of anesthesiologists (ASA class (all p Conclusion Older patients have more co-morbid conditions and higher ASA scores, but increasing age itself is not independently associated with complications after surgery for CRC. Therefore patient selection should focus on the clinical status and ASA class of the patient rather than age.

  19. Impact of cannabis and other drugs on age at onset of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pinto, Ana; Vega, Patricia; Ibáñez, Berta; Mosquera, Fernando; Barbeito, Sara; Gutiérrez, Miguel; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Ruiz, Iván; Vieta, Eduard

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between age and cannabis use in patients with a first psychotic episode, and to analyze the mediating effect of comorbid use of other drugs and sex on age at onset of psychosis. All consenting patients (aged 15 to 65 years) with a first psychotic episode needing inpatient psychiatric treatment during a 2-year period between February 1997 and January 1999 were considered, confirming a total of 131 patients. Subjects were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, and clinical and demographic data were collected. We used general linear models with age at onset as the response variable and survival Cox models to confirm the results. Both a multivariate linear model and the corresponding Cox model were fitted with a covariate that summarizes the most significant contributors that seemed to decrease age at onset. Regarding the effect of cannabis use, a significant gradual reduction on age at onset was found as dependence on cannabis increased, consisting in a decrement of 7, 8.5, and 12 years for users, abusers, and dependents, respectively, with respect to nonusers (p = .004, p drugs or by gender. The finding was similar in the youngest patients, suggesting that this effect was not due to chance. The major contribution of this investigation is the independent and strong link between cannabis use and early age at onset of psychosis, and the slight or nonexistent effect of sex and comorbid substance abuse in this variable. These results point to cannabis as a dangerous drug in young people at risk of developing psychosis.

  20. The impact of age at diagnosis on socioeconomic inequalities in adult cancer survival in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, Ula; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Rachet, Bernard; Coleman, Michel P

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the age at which persistent socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival become apparent may help motivate and support targeting of cancer site-specific interventions, and tailoring guidelines to patients at higher risk. We analysed data on more than 40,000 patients diagnosed in England with one of three common cancers in men and women, breast, colon and lung, 2001-2005 with follow-up to the end of 2011. We estimated net survival for each of the five deprivation categories (affluent, 2, 3, 4, deprived), cancer site, sex and age group (15-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 and 75-99 years). The magnitude and pattern of the age specific socioeconomic inequalities in survival was different for breast, colon and lung. For breast cancer the deprivation gap in 1-year survival widened with increasing age at diagnosis, whereas the opposite was true for lung cancer, with colon cancer having an intermediate pattern. The 'deprivation gap' in 1-year breast cancer survival widened steadily from -0.8% for women diagnosed at 15-44 years to -4.8% for women diagnosed at 75-99 years, and was the widest for women diagnosed at 65-74 years for 5- and 10-year survival. For colon cancer in men, the gap was widest in patients diagnosed aged 55-64 for 1-, 5- and 10-year survival. For lung cancer, the 'deprivation gap' in survival in patients diagnoses aged 15-44 years was more than 10% for 1-year survival in men and for 1- and 5-year survival in women. Our findings suggest that reduction of socioeconomic inequalities in survival will require updating of current guidelines to ensure the availability of optimal treatment and appropriate management of lung cancer patients in all age groups and older patients in deprived groups with breast or colon cancer. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Interaction between diazepam and hippocampal corticosterone after acute stress: impact on memory in middle-aged mice

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    Daniel eBeracochea

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Benzodiazepines (BDZ are widely prescribed in the treatment of anxiety disorders associated to aging. Interestingly, whereas a reciprocal interaction between the GABAergic system and HPA axis has been evidenced, there is to our knowledge no direct evaluation of the impact of BDZ on both hippocampus (HPC corticosterone concentrations and HPC-dependent memory in stressed middle-aged subjects. We showed previously that an acute stress induced in middle-aged mice severe memory impairments in a hippocampus-dependent task, and increased in parallel hippocampus corticosterone concentrations, as compared to non stressed middle-aged controls (Tronche et al., 2010. Based on these findings, the aims of the present study were to evidence the impact of diazepam (a positive allosteric modulator of the GABA-A receptor on HPC glucocorticoids concentrations and in parallel on HPC-dependent memory in acutely stressed middle-aged mice.Microdialysis experiments showed an interaction between diazepam doses and corticosterone concentrations into the HPC. From 0.25 mg/kg to 0.5 mg/kg, diazepam dose-dependently reduces intra-HPC corticosterone concentrations and in parallel, dose-dependently increased hippocampal-dependent memory performance. In contrast, the highest (1.0mg/kg diazepam dose induces a reduction in HPC corticosterone concentration, which was of greater magnitude as compared to the two other diazepam doses, but however decreased the hippocampal-dependent memory performance. In summary, our study provides first evidence that diazepam restores in stressed middle-aged animals the hippocampus-dependent response, in relation with HPC corticosterone concentrations. Overall, our data illustrate how stress and benzodiazepines could modulate cognitive functions depending on hippocampus activity.

  2. The Zebrafish Models to Explore Genetic and Epigenetic Impacts on Evolutionary Developmental Origins of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    Can we reset, reprogram, rejuvenate or reverse the organismal aging process? Certain genetic manipulations could at least reset and reprogram epigenetic dynamics beyond phenotypic plasticity and elasticity in cells, which can be further manipulated into organisms. However, in a whole complex aging organism, how can we rejuvenate intrinsic resources and infrastructures in an intact/noninvasive manner? The incidence of diseases increases exponentially with age, accompanied by progressive deteriorations of physiological functions in organisms. Aging-associated diseases are sporadic but essentially inevitable complications arising from senescence. Senescence is often considered the antithesis of early development, but yet there may be factors and mechanisms in common between these two phenomena to rejuvenate over the dynamic process of aging. The association between early development and late-onset disease with advancing age is thought to come from a consequence of developmental plasticity, the phenomenon by which one genotype can give rise to a range of physiologically and/or morphologically adaptive states based on diverse epigenotypes, in response to intrinsic or extrinsic environmental cues and genetic perturbations. We hypothesized that the future aging process can be predictive based on adaptivity during the early developmental period. Modulating the thresholds and windows of plasticity and its robustness by molecular genetic and chemical epigenetic approaches, we have successfully conducted experiments to isolate zebrafish mutants expressing apparently altered senescence phenotypes during their embryonic and/or larval stages (“embryonic/larval senescence”). Subsequently, at least some of these mutant animals were found to show shortened lifespan, while some others would be expected to live longer in adulthoods. We anticipate that previously uncharacterized developmental genes may mediate the aging process and play a pivotal role in senescence. On the other

  3. Impact of sociodemographic factors on cognitive function in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyede GO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gbemisola O Boyede,1,2 Foluso EA Lesi,2 Veronica C Ezeaka,2 Charles S Umeh3 1Division of Developmental Paediatrics, School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 2Department of Paediatrics, 3Clinical Psychology Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria Background: In this study, we sought to evaluate the influence of sociodemographic factors, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, maternal education, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV status, on cognitive performance in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children. Methods: Sixty-nine HIV-positive children aged 6–15 years were matched with 69 HIV-negative control children for age and sex. The children were subdivided for the purpose of analysis into two cognitive developmental stages using Piaget’s staging, ie, the concrete operational stage (6–11 years and the formal operational stage (12–15 years. All participants underwent cognitive assessment using Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (RPM. Sociodemographic data for the study participants, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, and level of maternal education, were obtained using a study proforma. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine associations of HIV status and sociodemographic characteristics with RPM cognitive scores. Results: The overall mean RPM score for the HIV-positive children was 18.2 ± 9.8 (range 8.0–47.0 which was significantly lower than the score of 27.2 ± 13.8 (range 8.0–52.0 for the HIV-negative children (P < 0.001. On RPM grading, 56.5% of the HIV-positive children had cognitive performance at below average to intellectually defective range. Below average RPM scores were found to be significantly associated with younger age (6–11 years, positive HIV status, lower socioeconomic status, and low level of maternal education. Conclusion: Younger age, poor socioeconomic

  4. Volumetric changes in the aging rat brain and its impact on cognitive and locomotor functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamezah, Hamizah Shahirah; Durani, Lina Wati; Ibrahim, Nor Faeizah; Yanagisawa, Daijiro; Kato, Tomoko; Shiino, Akihiko; Tanaka, Sachiko; Damanhuri, Hanafi Ahmad; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2017-12-01

    Impairments in cognitive and locomotor functions usually occur with advanced age, as do changes in brain volume. This study was conducted to assess changes in brain volume, cognitive and locomotor functions, and oxidative stress levels in middle- to late-aged rats. Forty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: 14, 18, 23, and 27months of age. 1 H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a 7.0-Tesla MR scanner system. The volumes of the lateral ventricles, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, and whole brain were measured. Open field, object recognition, and Morris water maze tests were conducted to assess cognitive and locomotor functions. Blood was taken for measurements of malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl content, and antioxidant enzyme activity. The lateral ventricle volumes were larger, whereas the mPFC, hippocampus, and striatum volumes were smaller in 27-month-old rats than in 14-month-old rats. In behavioral tasks, the 27-month-old rats showed less exploratory activity and poorer spatial learning and memory than did the 14-month-old rats. Biochemical measurements likewise showed increased MDA and lower glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the 27-month-old rats. In conclusion, age-related increases in oxidative stress, impairment in cognitive and locomotor functions, and changes in brain volume were observed, with the most marked impairments observed in later age. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Impact of Type of Sport, Gender and Age on Red Blood Cell Deformability of Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomschi, Fabian; Bloch, Wilhelm; Grau, Marijke

    2018-01-01

    Our objective was to detect possible differences in red blood cell (RBC) deformability of elite athletes performing different types of sports and being of different age and gender.182 athletes were included in this cross-sectional study. RBC deformability was measured using the laser-assisted optical rotational cell-analyzer. Maximal elongation index (EI  max ) and shear stress at half-maximum deformation (SS  1/2 ) were calculated. The ratio SS  1/2  /EI  max  (EI  Ratio ) was calculated with low values representing high RBC deformation. Hematocrit (Hct) and mean cellular volume (MCV) were determined in venous blood. Overall RBC deformability did not differ between male and female athletes but, when separated by age of the subjects, RBC deformability increased with age in male but not in female athletes. RBC deformability was lower in Combat sports compared other sport groups. Hct was higher in male compared to female athletes while no difference was observed for MCV. MCV and Hct increased with increasing age. A negative correlation was found between the EI  Ratio  and MCV and between EI  Ratio  and Hct. RBC deformability is influenced by age and endurance rate of the sport which suggests that the RBC system may adapt to changing conditions such as adolescence with the onset effects of sex hormones or physical exercise. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Nature’s Timepiece—Molecular Coordination of Metabolism and Its Impact on Aging

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    Dalibor Kodrík

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms are found in almost all organisms from cyanobacteria to humans, where most behavioral and physiological processes occur over a period of approximately 24 h in tandem with the day/night cycles. In general, these rhythmic processes are under regulation of circadian clocks. The role of circadian clocks in regulating metabolism and consequently cellular and metabolic homeostasis is an intensively investigated area of research. However, the links between circadian clocks and aging are correlative and only recently being investigated. A physiological decline in most processes is associated with advancing age, and occurs at the onset of maturity and in some instances is the result of accumulation of cellular damage beyond a critical level. A fully functional circadian clock would be vital to timing events in general metabolism, thus contributing to metabolic health and to ensure an increased “health-span” during the process of aging. Here, we present recent evidence of links between clocks, cellular metabolism, aging and oxidative stress (one of the causative factors of aging. In the light of these data, we arrive at conceptual generalizations of this relationship across the spectrum of model organisms from fruit flies to mammals.

  7. Impact of age-related neuroglial cell responses on hippocampal deterioration

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    Joseph O Ojo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aging is one of the greatest risk factors for the development of sporadic age-related neurodegenerative diseases and neuroinflammation is a common feature of this disease phenotype. In the immunoprivileged brain, neuroglial cells, which mediate neuroinflammatory responses, are influenced by the physiological factors in the microenvironment of the central nervous system (CNS. These physiological factors include but are not limited to cell-to-cell communication involving cell adhesion molecules, neuronal electrical activity and neurotransmitter and neuromodulator action. However, despite this dynamic control of neuroglial activity, in the healthy aged brain there is an alteration in the underlying neuroinflammatory response notably seen in the hippocampus, typified by astrocyte/microglia activation and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production and signalling. Normally, these changes occur without any concurrent pathology, however, they can correlate with deteriorations in hippocampal or cognitive function. In this review we examine two important phenomenons, firstly the relationship between age-related brain deterioration (focusing on hippocampal function and underlying neuroglial response(s, and secondly how the latter affects molecular and cellular processes within the hippocampus that makes it vulnerable to age-related cognitive decline.

  8. Visuospatial working memory in very preterm and term born children--impact of age and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mürner-Lavanchy, I; Ritter, B C; Spencer-Smith, M M; Perrig, W J; Schroth, G; Steinlin, M; Everts, R

    2014-07-01

    Working memory is crucial for meeting the challenges of daily life and performing academic tasks, such as reading or arithmetic. Very preterm born children are at risk of low working memory capacity. The aim of this study was to examine the visuospatial working memory network of school-aged preterm children and to determine the effect of age and performance on the neural working memory network. Working memory was assessed in 41 very preterm born children and 36 term born controls (aged 7-12 years) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuropsychological assessment. While preterm children and controls showed equal working memory performance, preterm children showed less involvement of the right middle frontal gyrus, but higher fMRI activation in superior frontal regions than controls. The younger and low-performing preterm children presented an atypical working memory network whereas the older high-performing preterm children recruited a working memory network similar to the controls. Results suggest that younger and low-performing preterm children show signs of less neural efficiency in frontal brain areas. With increasing age and performance, compensational mechanisms seem to occur, so that in preterm children, the typical visuospatial working memory network is established by the age of 12 years. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Visuospatial working memory in very preterm and term born children—Impact of age and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mürner-Lavanchy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is crucial for meeting the challenges of daily life and performing academic tasks, such as reading or arithmetic. Very preterm born children are at risk of low working memory capacity. The aim of this study was to examine the visuospatial working memory network of school-aged preterm children and to determine the effect of age and performance on the neural working memory network. Working memory was assessed in 41 very preterm born children and 36 term born controls (aged 7–12 years using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and neuropsychological assessment. While preterm children and controls showed equal working memory performance, preterm children showed less involvement of the right middle frontal gyrus, but higher fMRI activation in superior frontal regions than controls. The younger and low-performing preterm children presented an atypical working memory network whereas the older high-performing preterm children recruited a working memory network similar to the controls. Results suggest that younger and low-performing preterm children show signs of less neural efficiency in frontal brain areas. With increasing age and performance, compensational mechanisms seem to occur, so that in preterm children, the typical visuospatial working memory network is established by the age of 12 years.

  10. A preliminary study to assess the impact of maternal age on stress-related variables in healthy nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Blanco, Ana; Monferrer, Alberto; Grimaldos, Jorge; Hervás, David; Balanzá-Martínez, Vicent; Diago, Vicente; Vento, Máximo; Cháfer-Pericás, Consuelo

    2017-04-01

    Childbearing age has progressively increased in industrialized countries. The impact of this delay on motherhood, however, requires further research. The study sample included a prospective cohort of healthy nulliparous pregnant women aged between 18 and 40 years (n=148) assessed at 38 weeks gestation (Time#1, T1), 48h after birth (Time#2, T2), and 3 months after birth (Time#3, T3). The effect of age on psychological, biological, and social variables was evaluated. Maternal psychological symptoms in terms of depression and anxiety were assessed at T1-T3; and parenting stress at T3. Stress biomarkers (cortisol, α-amylase) were determined in mothers at T1-T3. Questionnaires addressing social functioning (i.e., family functioning, maternal attitudes, and social support) were conducted at T3. Bayesian additive models were used to analyze the data. Depressive symptoms showed a steep increase starting from 35 years of age at T1 and an U-shaped relationship with a minimum around 30 years old at T3. The same results were observed for parenting stress. Cortisol levels increased sharply from 30 years of age at T3. Family functioning, maternal attitudes, and social support improved moderately from 30 years of age. Prenatal depressive symptoms were higher in older women, but postpartum depressive symptoms and parenting stress increased in both younger and older women. Nevertheless, cortisol levels just increased in older ages at postpartum. In contrast, social functioning (family functioning, maternal attitudes, and social support) improved with age. We conclude that these social advantages may compensate for other disadvantages of delayed childbearing (i.e., depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and high cortisol level). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of age at onset and newborn screening on outcome in organic acidurias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heringer, Jana; Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Lund, Allan M

    2016-01-01

    analyses, symptomatic patients were divided into those presenting with first symptoms during (i.e. early onset, EO) or after the newborn period (i.e. late onset, LO). RESULTS: Patients identified by newborn screening (NBS) had a significantly lower median age of diagnosis (8 days) compared to the LO group...... % versus 39 %, p = 0.002; GA1: 26 % versus 73 %, p age-adjusted intake of natural protein and calories was significantly higher in LO patients than in EO patients reflecting different disease severities. Variable drug...... combinations, ranging from 12 in MMA-Cbl(-) to two in isovaleric aciduria, were used for maintenance treatment. The effects of specific metabolic treatment strategies on the health outcomes remain unclear because of the strong influences of age at onset (EO versus LO), diagnostic mode (NBS versus selective...

  12. The Impact of MicroRNAs on Brain Aging and Neurodegeneration

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    Stephan P. Persengiev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular instructions that govern gene expression regulation are encoded in the genome and ultimately determine the morphology and functional specifications of the human brain. As a consequence, changes in gene expression levels might be directly related to the functional decline associated with brain aging. Small noncoding RNAs, including miRNAs, comprise a group of regulatory molecules that modulate the expression of hundred of genes which play important roles in brain metabolism. Recent comparative studies in humans and nonhuman primates revealed that miRNAs regulate multiple pathways and interconnected signaling cascades that are the basis for the cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disorders during aging. Identifying the roles of miRNAs and their target genes in model organisms combined with system-level studies of the brain would provide more comprehensive understanding of the molecular basis of brain deterioration during the aging process.

  13. Impact of an Aging Simulation Game on Pharmacy Students’ Empathy for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiersma, Mary E.; Yehle, Karen S.; Plake, Kimberly S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate changes in empathy and perceptions as well as game experiences among student pharmacists participating in an aging simulation game. Methods. First-year student pharmacists participated in an aging simulation game. Changes were measured pre/post-activity using the Kiersma-Chen Empathy Scale (KCES) and Jefferson Scale of Empathy – Health Professions Scale (JSE-HPS) for empathy and the Aging Simulation Experience Survey (ASES) for perceptions of older adults’ experiences and game experiences. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to determine changes. Results. One hundred fifty-six student pharmacists completed the instruments. Empathy using the KCES and JSE-HPS improved significantly. Of the 13 items in the ASES, 9 significantly improved. Conclusion. Simulation games may help students overcome challenges demonstrating empathy and positive attitudes toward elderly patients. PMID:26396274

  14. Impact of an Aging Simulation Game on Pharmacy Students' Empathy for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aleda M H; Kiersma, Mary E; Yehle, Karen S; Plake, Kimberly S

    2015-06-25

    To evaluate changes in empathy and perceptions as well as game experiences among student pharmacists participating in an aging simulation game. First-year student pharmacists participated in an aging simulation game. Changes were measured pre/post-activity using the Kiersma-Chen Empathy Scale (KCES) and Jefferson Scale of Empathy--Health Professions Scale (JSE-HPS) for empathy and the Aging Simulation Experience Survey (ASES) for perceptions of older adults' experiences and game experiences. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to determine changes. One hundred fifty-six student pharmacists completed the instruments. Empathy using the KCES and JSE-HPS improved significantly. Of the 13 items in the ASES, 9 significantly improved. Simulation games may help students overcome challenges demonstrating empathy and positive attitudes toward elderly patients.

  15. Impact of physical activity on balance in people over 65 years of age

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    Justyna Rak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The cause of aging society is the significant prolongation of life expectancy. With the aging process, there is progressive and permanent decrease in functional reserves and deterioration of homeostasis control. [1,2,3,4] By degenerative changes, there is imbalance and hence the frequency of falls, and therefore regular physical activity is important to restore, maintain, and maintain independence. [3,4,5,6] The study was performed by a patient aged 86, 56 kg and a height of 149 cm. Equilibrium assessment was performed using static posturography and the Four Squar Step Test (FSST before and after a 10-day rehabilitation session under the supervision of a physiotherapist. The results of the exercise were improved in the test and posturography test with open eyes, while deterioration was indicated in the eyes with closed eyes.

  16. Metabolic syndrome and dementia associated with Parkinson's disease: impact of age and hypertension

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    Arthur Oscar Schelp

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine correlations between age and metabolic disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD patients. METHODS: This observational cross-sectional study included brief tests for dementia and the Mattis test. Signals of metabolic syndrome were evaluated. RESULTS: There was no significant effect from the presence of hypertension (OR=2.36 for patients under 65 years old and OR=0.64 for patients over 65, diabetes or hypercholesterolemia regarding occurrences of dementia associated with PD (24% of the patients. The study demonstrated that each year of age increased the estimated risk of dementia in PD patients by 9% (OR=1.09; 95%CI: 1.01-1.17. CONCLUSION: There was no evidence to correlate the presence of metabolic syndrome with the risk of dementia that was associated with PD. The study confirmed that dementia in PD is age dependent and not related to disease duration.

  17. Impact of age on care pathways of people living with HIV followed up in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacomet, Christine; Berland, Pauline; Guiguet, Marguerite; Simon, Anne; Rey, David; Arvieux, Cédric; Pugliese, Pascal; Gerbaud, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    The aging population of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH) is exposed to a widening spectrum of non-AIDS-defining diseases. Thus, our objective was to compare the health care offered to PLWH according to age. We conducted a multicenter cross-sectional study on PLWH who consulted at one of 59 French HIV reference centers from 15th to 19th October 2012. Using our survey questionnaires, PLWH self-reported the medical care they received, whether or not tied to HIV infection monitoring, during the previous year. A total of 650 PLWH participated in the survey (median age 48 years, Interquartile range (IQR) 40-54), of which 95 were aged 60 years or over (14.5%). Compared to younger PLWH, 60-and-over PLWH were more often under complementary health insurance cover and less socially deprived based on the French EPICES (Evaluation of Precarity and Inequalities in Health Examination Centers) score. The elderly PLWH presented more comorbidities and less coinfections with hepatitis viruses. During health care, therapeutic education was less often offered to older PLWH (14% vs. 26%, p = .01), but this difference was mainly explained by sociodemographic factors and clinical status. Over the previous 6 months, 74% of PLWH who were followed up in hospital had also consulted another doctor, with a mean of 3.75 consultations (±4.18) without difference between age groups. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors and comorbidities, PLWH over 60 years were more likely to have consulted medical specialists as outpatients in the last 6 months (odds ratio [OR] = 2.63 [1.11-6.20]). Whatever their age, 13% of PLWH had been refused care on disclosure of their HIV status, and 27% of PLWH still did not disclose their HIV status to some caregivers. Coordinated health care throughout patients' lives is crucial, as health-care pathways evolve toward outpatient care as the patients get older.

  18. Low levels of serum testosterone in middle-aged men impact pathological features of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llukani, Elton; Katz, Benjamin F; Agalliu, Ilir; Lightfoot, Andrew; Yu, Sue-Jean S; Kathrins, Martin; Lee, Ziho; Su, Yu-Kai; Monahan Agnew, Kelly; McGill, Alice; Eun, Daniel D; Lee, David I

    2017-03-01

    Serum testosterone deficiency increases with aging. Age is also a major risk factor for prostate cancer (PrCa) and PCa tumors are more frequently diagnosed among men >65 years old. We evaluated the relationship between preoperative serum testosterone and clinical/ pathological features of PrCa in middle-aged and elderly patients. A total of 605 PrCa patients who underwent robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy between September 2010 and January 2013 at the University of Pennsylvania, and who had serum testosterone levels measured using Elecsys Testosterone II Immunoassay were included in this IRB-approved protocol. Androgen deficiency was determined as serum free testosterone (FT) men with low vs. normal TT or FT were compared using t-test or chi-square tests. Logistic regression was used to determine associations of clinical and pathological variables with FT or TT levels. Among middle-aged men (45-64 years; n = 367), those with low FT and low TT had, on average, a higher BMI (29.7 vs. 27.4, P men with normal FT and normal TT values. Patients with low FT had also higher number of positive cores on biopsy (3.9 vs. 3.1 P = 0.019) and greater tumor volume (7.9 ml vs. 6.1 ml, P = 0.045) compared to those with normal FT. Among men ≥65 years ( n = 135) there was no difference in prostatectomy specimens of PrCa between patients with low or normal FT or TT. Among men aged 45-64 years low serum pretreatment FT and TT predicted more aggressive features of PrCa in prostatectomy specimens. In middle-aged patients low testosterone levels measured pre-operatively may indicate more aggressive disease parameters.

  19. Impact of age on outcome after colorectal cancer surgery in the elderly - a developing country perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Rizwan; Bari, Hassaan; Zafar, Syed Nabeel; Raza, Syed Ahsan

    2011-08-17

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major source of morbidity and mortality in the elderly population and surgery is often the only definitive management option. The suitability of surgical candidates based on age alone has traditionally been a source of controversy. Surgical resection may be considered detrimental in the elderly solely on the basis of advanced age. Based on recent evidence suggesting that age alone is not a predictor of outcomes, Western societies are increasingly performing definitive procedures on the elderly. Such evidence is not available from our region. We aimed to determine whether age has an independent effect on complications after surgery for colorectal cancer in our population. A retrospective review of all patients who underwent surgery for pathologically confirmed colorectal cancer at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi between January 1999 and December 2008 was conducted. Using a cut-off of 70 years, patients were divided into two groups. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics and postoperative complications and 30-day mortality were compared. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed with clinically relevant variables to determine whether age had an independent and significant association with the outcome. A total of 271 files were reviewed, of which 56 belonged to elderly patients (≥ 70 years). The gender ratio was equal in both groups. Elderly patients had a significantly higher comorbidity status, Charlson score and American society of anesthesiologists (ASA) class (all p < 0.001). Upon multivariate analysis, factors associated with more complications were ASA status (95% CI = 1.30-6.25), preoperative perforation (95% CI = 1.94-48.0) and rectal tumors (95% CI = 1.21-5.34). Old age was significantly associated with systemic complications upon univariate analysis (p = 0.05), however, this association vanished upon multivariate analysis (p = 0.36). Older patients have more co-morbid conditions and higher ASA scores

  20. The impact of birth weight and gestational age on the management of juvenile essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogas Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential hypertension in children is a very important biological aspect in child pathology, caused by the synergic action of multiple risk factors, with an increasing prevalence. Since there is not much knowledge about juvenile essential hypertension in childhood, in this paper we will clarify the existing data about this pathology and its management, mainly by referring to the correlations during different stages. We found significant correlations between hypertension and the individual values of birth weight and gestational age, which suggest that there is an important relationship between birth weight and gestational age, as important biological markers vs. the different stages of essential hypertension.

  1. AGE analysis of the impact of a carbon energy tax on the Irish economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissema, W.W.; Dellink, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    computable general equilibrium model with specific detail in taxation and energy use is developed in this paper to quantify the impact of the implementation of energy taxation to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in Ireland. Benchmark data combining physical energy and emissions data and economic data

  2. Biomechanics of side impact: injury criteria, aging occupants, and airbag technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Stemper, Brian D; Gennarelli, Thomas A; Weigelt, John A

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of side impact trauma-related biomedical investigations with specific reference to certain aspects of epidemiology relating to the growing elderly population, improvements in technology such as side airbags geared toward occupant safety, and development of injury criteria. The first part is devoted to the involvement of the elderly by identifying variables contributing to injury including impact severity, human factors, and national and international field data. This is followed by a survey of various experimental models used in the development of injury criteria and tolerance limits. The effects of fragility of the elderly coupled with physiological changes (e.g., visual, musculoskeletal) that may lead to an abnormal seating position (termed out-of-position) especially for the driving population are discussed. Fundamental biomechanical parameters such as thoracic, abdominal and pelvic forces; upper and lower spinal and sacrum accelerations; and upper, middle and lower chest deflections under various initial impacting conditions are evaluated. Secondary variables such as the thoracic trauma index and pelvic acceleration (currently adopted in the United States Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards), peak chest deflection, and viscous criteria are also included in the survey. The importance of performing research studies with specific focus on out-of-position scenarios of the elderly and using the most commonly available torso side airbag as the initial contacting condition in lateral impacts for occupant injury assessment is emphasized.

  3. Vitamin D and Iodine Deficiency:Impact on Health and Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kuprinenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is a review of the key highlights of the conference on Vitamin D and Iodine Deficiency, which took place on 21-22 of April in Chernivtsy (Ukraine. Data about status of Vitamin D in Ukrainian population, impact of Vitamin D and Iodine intake disorders on endocrine status are presented.

  4. The impact of differences between subjective and objective social class on life satisfaction among the Korean population in early old age: Analysis of Korean longitudinal study on aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Several previous studies have established the relationship between the effects of socioeconomic status or subjective social strata on life satisfaction. However, no previous study has examined the relationship between social class and life satisfaction in terms of a disparity between subjective and objective social status. To investigate the relationship between differences in subjective and objective social class and life satisfaction. Data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging with 8252 participants aged 45 or older was used. Life satisfaction was measured by the question, "How satisfied are you with your quality of life?" The main independent variable was differences in objective (income and education) and subjective social class, which was classified according to nine categories (ranging from high-high to low-low). This association was investigated by linear mixed model due to two waves data nested within individuals. Lower social class (income, education, subjective social class) was associated with dissatisfaction. The impact of objective and subjective social class on life satisfaction varied according to the level of differences in objective and subjective social class. Namely, an individual's life satisfaction declined as objective social classes decreased at the same level of subjective social class (i.e., HH, MH, LH). In both dimensions of objective social class (education and income), an individual's life satisfaction declined as subjective social class decreased by one level (i.e., HH, HM, HL). Our findings indicated that social supports is needed to improve the life satisfaction among the population aged 45 or more with low social class. The government should place increased focus on policies that encourage not only the life satisfaction of the Korean elderly with low objective social class, but also subjective social class. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of age norms and stereotypes on managers' hiring decisions of retirees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karpinska, K.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.; Schippers, J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose -Our study investigates the role of managers in the re-employment of early retirees and asks what the effect is of managers’ age norms and stereotypes on managers’ employment decisions. Design/methodology/approach- A combination of a factorial study and a survey was conducted. First,

  6. Impact of ageing on problem size and proactive interference in arithmetic facts solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambeau, Kim; De Visscher, Alice; Noël, Marie-Pascale; Gevers, Wim

    2018-02-01

    Arithmetic facts (AFs) are required when solving problems such as "3 × 4" and refer to calculations for which the correct answer is retrieved from memory. Currently, two important effects that modulate the performance in AFs have been highlighted: the problem size effect and the proactive interference effect. The aim of this study is to investigate possible age-related changes of the problem size effect and the proactive interference effect in AF solving. To this end, the performance of young and older adults was compared in a multiplication production task. Furthermore, an independent measure of proactive interference was assessed to further define the architecture underlying this effect in multiplication solving. The results indicate that both young and older adults were sensitive to the effects of interference and of the problem size. That is, both interference and problem size affected performance negatively: the time needed to solve a multiplication problem increases as the level of interference and the size of the problem increase. Regarding the effect of ageing, the problem size effect remains constant with age, indicating a preserved AF network in older adults. Interestingly, sensitivity to proactive interference in multiplication solving was less pronounced in older than in younger adults suggesting that part of the proactive interference has been overcome with age.

  7. Impact of age on the importance of systolic and diastolic blood pressures for stroke risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishram, Julie K K; Borglykke, Anders Rething; Andreasen, Anne H

    2012-01-01

    , and Monograph (MORGAM) Project with baseline between 1982 and 1997, 68 551 subjects aged 19 to 78 years, without cardiovascular disease and not receiving antihypertensive treatment, were included. During a mean of 13.2 years of follow-up, stroke incidence was 2.8%. Stroke risk was analyzed using hazard ratios...

  8. The impact of metabolism on aging and cell size in single yeast cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huberts, Daphne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to determine how metabolism affects yeast aging in single yeast cells using a novel microfluidic device. We first review how cells are able to sense nutrients in their environment and then describe the use of the microfluidic dissection platform that greatly improves our

  9. Vine water deficit impacts aging bouquet in fine red Bordeaux wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Magali; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Guyon, François; Gaillard, Laetitia; de Revel, Gilles; Marchand, Stéphanie

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of vine water status on bouquet typicality, revealed after aging, and the perception of three aromatic notes (mint, truffle, and undergrowth) in bottled fine red Bordeaux wines. To address the issue of the role of vine water deficit in the overall quality of fine aged wines, a large set of wines from four Bordeaux appellations were subjected to sensory analysis. As vine water status can be characterized by carbon isotope discrimination (δ13C), this ratio was quantified for each wine studied. Statistical analyses combining δ13C and sensory data highlighted that δ13C values discriminated effectively between the most- and least-typical wines. In addition, Principal Component Analysis revealed correlations between δ13C values and truffle, undergrowth, and mint aromatic notes, three characteristics of the red Bordeaux wine aging bouquet. These correlations were confirmed to be significant using a Spearman statistical test. This study highlighted for the first time that vine water deficit positively relates to the perception of aging bouquet typicality, as well as the expression of its key aromatic nuances.

  10. The impact of oropharynegeal dysphagia on quality of life in individuals with age over 50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibi, S.; Iqblal, A.; Ayaz, S.B.; Khan, A.A.; Matee, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the demographics of individuals presented with oropharyngeal dysphagia, correlation of different demographic factors with the quality of life (QOL) after validation of the Urdu translation of Swallowing Quality of Life (SWAL-QOL) questionnaire. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey, carried out at the speech and language therapy department of Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, Rawalpindi from July 2013 to January 2014 enrolling patients > 50 years of age with oropharyngeal dysphagia and scoring them on Urdu translation of SWAL-QOL questionnaire. The reliability of the tool was measured through Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Results: Of 40 patients, majority (60%) were males, married (62.5 %), illiterate (80%) and settling in age group of 51- 61 years. Most of them were from Punjab (30%) and Sindh (30%). The most common primary pathology was stroke (47.5%).The mean SWAL-QOL score was 147±13 (Range: 124 - 176). Most domains of questionnaire had Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.7. No variable was found to be significantly affecting SWAL-QOL score. Conclusion: The Urdu-translated version of SWAL-QOL is a valid tool. QOL in Pakistani patients of age > 50 years with oropharyngeal dysphagia is adversely affected, however, it does not depend on age, gender, marital status, education, ethnicity based on provinces or primary pathology for dysphagia. (author)

  11. Photochemical stability of lipoic acid and its impact on skin ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsugo, Seiichi; Bito, Toshinori; Konishi, Tetsuya

    2011-08-01

    It is well known that α-lipoic acid (LA) functions as an essential co-factor of the mitochondrial multi-enzyme complex and thus plays an important role in energy metabolism. Currently, it is attracting attention as a nutritional supplement because of its unique antioxidant properties and broad spectra of cellular functions. Skin protection from photodamage and ageing is one of the functional applications of LA. Medical and cosmetic application has been widely realized in the world. However, LA has a unique structure bearing a distorted five membered 1, 2-dithiolane ring, making it quite vulnerable to UV radiation. The present article briefly reviews skin ageing from the viewpoint of oxidative stress and sun exposure and analyses the photochemical properties of LA. It also discusses the effect of LA to cellular signalling and its adequate applications to treat skin ageing caused by oxidation. Data presented in this review suggest that LA is a powerful anti-ageing agent under the appropriate usage.

  12. Impact of Vocational Interests, Previous Academic Experience, Gender and Age on Situational Judgement Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schripsema, Nienke R.; van Trigt, Anke M.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2017-01-01

    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree programme in Medicine at University of Groningen, the…

  13. Impact of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on Situational Judgement Test performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schripsema, Nienke R.; Trigt, van Anke M.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree

  14. Population aging and its impacts: strategies of the health-care system in Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Hsien; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Liang, Chih-Kuang; Peng, Li-Ning; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2010-11-01

    Taiwan is one of the fastest aging countries in the world. As such, the government has developed various strategies to promote an age-friendly health-care system. Health services are supported by National Health Insurance (NHI), which insures over 97% of citizens and over 99% of health-care institutes. The current health-care system has difficulties in caring for older patients with multiple comorbidities, complex care needs, functional impairments, and post-acute care needs. Taipei, an international metropolis with a well-preserved tradition of filial piety in Chinese societies, has developed various strategies to overcome the aforementioned barriers to an age-friendly health-care system. These include an emphasis on general medical care and a holistic approach in all specialties, development of a geriatrics specialty training program, development of post-acute services, and strengthening of linkages between health and social care services. Despite achievements thus far, challenges still include creating a more extensive integration between medical specialties, promotion of an interdisciplinary care model across specialties and health-care settings, and integration of health and social care services. The experiences of Taipei in developing an age-friendly health-care service system may be a culturally appropriate model for other Chinese and Asian communities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Lap Shear and Impact Testing of Ochre and Beeswax in Experimental Middle Stone Age Compound Adhesives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozowyk, P.R.B.; Langejans, G.; Poulis, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    The production of compound adhesives using disparate ingredients is seen as some of the best evidence of advanced cognition outside of the use of symbolism. Previous field and laboratory testing of adhesives has shown the complexities involved in creating an effective Middle Stone Age glue using

  16. Chronological age and its impact on associative learning proficiency and brain structure in middle adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwadkar, Vaibhav A; Bellani, Marcella; Ahmed, Rizwan; Dusi, Nicola; Rambaldelli, Gianluca; Perlini, Cinzia; Marinelli, Veronica; Ramaseshan, Karthik; Ruggeri, Mirella; Bambilla, Paolo

    2016-01-15

    The rate of biological change in middle-adulthood is relatively under-studied. Here, we used behavioral testing in conjunction with structural magnetic resonance imaging to examine the effects of chronological age on associative learning proficiency and on brain regions that previous functional MRI studies have closely related to the domain of associative learning. Participants (n=66) completed a previously established associative learning paradigm, and consented to be scanned using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Age-related effects were investigated both across sub-groups in the sample (younger vs. older) and across the entire sample (using regression approaches). Chronological age had substantial effects on learning proficiency (independent of IQ and Education Level), with older adults showing a decrement compared to younger adults. In addition, decreases in estimated gray matter volume were observed in multiple brain regions including the hippocampus and the dorsal prefrontal cortex, both of which are strongly implicated in associative learning. The results suggest that middle adulthood may be a more dynamic period of life-span change than previously believed. The conjunctive application of narrowly focused tasks, with conjointly acquired structural MRI data may allow us to enrich the search for, and the interpretation of, age-related changes in cross-sectional samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Daily Social Exchanges and Affect in Middle and Later Adulthood: The Impact of Loneliness and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Alissa; Bergeman, C. S.; Scott, Stacey B.

    2012-01-01

    Although daily social exchanges are important for well-being, it is unclear how different types of exchanges affect daily well-being, as well as which factors influence the way in which individuals react to their daily social encounters. The present study included a sample of 705 adults aged 31 to 91, and using Multilevel Modeling analyses…

  18. Impact of job burnout, age and marital status on job involvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was aimed to explore the effect of job burnout, age and marital status on job involvement among banking personnel. The sample consists of 100 employees working in banks of Eritrea, Asmara, North East Africa, selected randomly. Job involvement scale developed by Lodhal and Kejner (1965) and ...

  19. The Experience of Anger and Sadness in Everyday Problems Impacts Age Differences in Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Coats, Abby Heckman

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined regulation of the discrete emotions anger and sadness in adolescents through older adults in the context of describing everyday problem situations. The results support previous work; in comparison to younger age groups, older adults reported that they experienced less anger and reported that they used more passive and fewer…

  20. Does school time matter? On the impact of compulsory education age on school dropout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabus, S.J.; de Witte, K.

    2010-01-01

    A straightforward way to prevent students from leaving education without a higher secondary diploma consists of increasing the compulsory education age. By staying longer in school, the idea is that more students eventually obtain a higher secondary diploma. This paper examines by a

  1. The Perceived Impact of Playing Music while Studying: Age and Cultural Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsopoulou, Anastasia; Hallam, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Rating scale questionnaires were administered to 600 students in three age groups, 12-13, 15-16 and 20-21 from Japan, the UK, Greece and the USA. The questionnaires explored the extent of playing music while studying, the kinds of tasks when music was played, the perceived effects of music on studying, the characteristics and types of music played…

  2. Impacts of forest age on water use in Mountain ash forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stephen A.; Beringer, Jason; Hutley, Lindsay B.; McGuire, A. David; Van Dijk, Albert; Kilinc, Musa

    2008-01-01

    Runoff from mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans F.Muell.) forested catchments has been shown to decline significantly in the few decades following fire returning to pre-fire levels in the following centuries owing to changes in ecosystem water use with stand age in a relationship known as Kuczera's model. We examined this relationship between catchment runoff and stand age by measuring whole-ecosystem exchanges of water using an eddy covariance system measuring forest evapotranspiration (ET) combined with sap-flow measurements of tree water use, with measurements made across a chronosequence of three sites (24, 80 and 296 years since fire). At the 296-year old site eddy covariance systems were installed above the E. regnans overstorey and above the distinct rainforest understorey. Contrary to predictions from the Kuczera curve, we found that measurements of whole-forest ET decreased by far less across stand age between 24 and 296 years. Although the overstorey tree water use declined by 1.8mmday-1 with increasing forest age (an annual decrease of 657mm) the understorey ET contributed between 1.2 and 1.5mmday-1, 45% of the total ET (3mmday-1) at the old growth forest.

  3. Impacts of fire on forest age and runoff in mountain ash forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S.A.; Beringer, J.; Hutley, L.B.; McGuire, A.D.; Van Dijk, A.; Kilinc, M.

    2008-01-01

    Runoff from mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans F.Muell.) forested catchments has been shown to decline significantly in the few decades following fire - returning to pre-fire levels in the following centuries - owing to changes in ecosystem water use with stand age in a relationship known as Kuczera's model. We examined this relationship between catchment runoff and stand age by measuring whole-ecosystem exchanges of water using an eddy covariance system measuring forest evapotranspiration (ET) combined with sap-flow measurements of tree water use, with measurements made across a chronosequence of three sites (24, 80 and 296 years since fire). At the 296-year old site eddy covariance systems were installed above the E. regnans overstorey and above the distinct rainforest understorey. Contrary to predictions from the Kuczera curve, we found that measurements of whole-forest ET decreased by far less across stand age between 24 and 296 years. Although the overstorey tree water use declined by 1.8 mm day-1 with increasing forest age (an annual decrease of 657 mm) the understorey ET contributed between 1.2 and 1.5 mm day-1, 45% of the total ET (3 mm day-1) at the old growth forest. ?? CSIRO 2008.

  4. Individual Education Plan Goals and Services for Adolescents with Autism: Impact of Age and Educational Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Jennifer; Mastergeorge, Ann M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the educational programs for adolescents with autism (age 12-16 years) in inclusion and noninclusion settings as reflected in their Individual Education Plan (IEP) goals, services, and curricular adaptations. Students who were included in general education math and language arts instruction had fewer…

  5. Impact of age, gender and race on patient and graft survival ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    age, race and gender, on the outcome of renal transplantation. Most reports ... Gender does not influence graft survival, but females do have a higher overall mortality rate following renal transplantation at our centre. S Afr Med 2003; 93: 689-695. have a suitable living ..... analysis of its role in graft outcome. Transplantation ...

  6. Impact of alternative harvesting technologies on thinning entry and optimal rotation age for eastern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    2007-01-01

    A complete system simulation model is used to integrate alternative logging technologies, stand data, market prices, transportation costs, and economic concerns in a longterm continuous manner to evaluate thinning entry timing and optimal rotation age. Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) stand data for the oak/hickory forest type and time and motion study data for 70,...

  7. Vine Water Deficit Impacts Aging Bouquet in Fine Red Bordeaux Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Picard

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of vine water status on bouquet typicality, revealed after aging, and the perception of three aromatic notes (mint, truffle, and undergrowth in bottled fine red Bordeaux wines. To address the issue of the role of vine water deficit in the overall quality of fine aged wines, a large set of wines from four Bordeaux appellations were subjected to sensory analysis. As vine water status can be characterized by carbon isotope discrimination (δ13C, this ratio was quantified for each wine studied. Statistical analyses combining δ13C and sensory data highlighted that δ13C-values discriminated effectively between the most- and least-typical wines. In addition, Principal Component Analysis (PCA revealed correlations between δ13C-values and truffle, undergrowth, and mint aromatic notes, three characteristics of the red Bordeaux wine aging bouquet. These correlations were confirmed to be significant using a Spearman statistical test. This study highlighted for the first time that vine water deficit positively relates to the perception of aging bouquet typicality, as well as the expression of its key aromatic nuances.

  8. The impact of obesity on US mortality levels: the importance of age and cohort factors in population estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Ryan K; Reither, Eric N; Powers, Daniel A; Yang, Y Claire; Burger, Andrew E; Link, Bruce G

    2013-10-01

    To estimate the percentage of excess death for US Black and White men and women associated with high body mass, we examined the combined effects of age variation in the obesity-mortality relationship and cohort variation in age-specific obesity prevalence. We examined 19 National Health Interview Survey waves linked to individual National Death Index mortality records, 1986-2006, for age and cohort patterns in the population-level association between obesity and US adult mortality. The estimated percentage of adult deaths between 1986 and 2006 associated with overweight and obesity was 5.0% and 15.6% for Black and White men, and 26.8% and 21.7% for Black and White women, respectively. We found a substantially stronger association than previous research between obesity and mortality risk at older ages, and an increasing percentage of mortality attributable to obesity across birth cohorts. Previous research has likely underestimated obesity's impact on US mortality. Methods attentive to cohort variation in obesity prevalence and age variation in obesity's effect on mortality risk suggest that obesity significantly shapes US mortality levels, placing it at the forefront of concern for public health action.

  9. Working Life Expectancy at Age 50 in the United States and the Impact of the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudel, Christian; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2017-12-01

    A key concern about population aging is the decline in the size of the economically active population. Working longer is a potential remedy. However, little is known about the length of working life and how it relates to macroeconomic conditions. We use the U.S. Health and Retirement Study for 1992-2011 and multistate life tables to analyze working life expectancy at age 50 and study the impact of the Great Recession in 2007-2009. Despite declines of one to two years following the recession, in 2008-2011, American men aged 50 still spent 13 years, or two-fifths of their remaining life, working; American women of the same age spent 11 years, or one-third of their remaining life, in employment. Although educational differences in working life expectancy have been stable since the mid-1990s, racial differences started changing after the onset of the Great Recession. Our results show that although Americans generally work longer than people in other countries, considerable subpopulation heterogeneity exists. We also find that the time trends are fluctuating, which may prove troublesome as the population ages. Policies targeting the weakest performing groups may be needed to increase the total population trends.

  10. Impact of physical and mental health on life satisfaction in old age: a population based observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvill, Thomas; Lindenberg, Jolanda; de Craen, Antonius J M; Slaets, Joris P J; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2016-11-25

    It is widely assumed that poor health lowers life satisfaction when ageing. Yet, research suggests this relationship is not straightforward. This study investigated how older people evaluate their life when facing disease and disabilities. The Leiden 85-plus Study, a prospectively followed cohort of a cohort of a middle-sized city in the Netherlands, all aged 85 years, that was age-representative of the general population, was used. Those with severe cognitive dysfunction were excluded (n = 501). Comorbidities, physical performance, cognitive function, functional status, residual lifespan, depressive symptoms and experienced loneliness were measured during home visits. Life satisfaction was self-reported with Cantril's ladder. All analyses were performed using regression analysis. Participants reported high life satisfaction (median 8 out of 10 points) despite having representative levels of disease and disability. Comorbidity, low cognitive function, and residual lifespan as markers of health were not associated with life satisfaction. Poor physical performance and low functional status were weakly but significantly associated with lower life satisfaction (p life satisfaction (both p life satisfaction, whereas poor mental health was strongly related to lower life satisfaction. This indicates that mental health has a greater impact on life satisfaction at old age than physical health, and that physical health is less relevant for a satisfactory old age.

  11. Examining the psychological and social impact of relative age in primary school children: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A; Allen, K; Ukoumunne, O C; Hayes, R; Ford, T

    2017-11-01

    A number of studies demonstrate that children who are younger within their school year have poorer academic attainment and are more likely to have special educational needs. Few, however, have considered the impact relative age may have on child mental health, behaviour and happiness in school. This paper utilized data from the Supporting Teachers and Children in Schools study (2075 pupils aged 5 to 9 years from 80 primary schools) to explore the relationship among relative age, behaviour and happiness in school. Behavioural and emotional development was assessed by using the teacher-reported and parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Pupil Behaviour Questionnaire. Children's happiness within school was assessed by using the How I Feel About My School Questionnaire. Relatively younger children had higher Total Difficulties scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire than their peers. There was a mean increase per 30-day decrease in relative age of 0.09 (95% CI: 0.03 to 0.16; p = 0.007) in teacher-reported and 0.08 (0.001 to 0.16; p = 0.05) in parent-reported scores. There was little evidence of a relationship between relative age and children's behaviour and happiness in school. For children with complex difficulties, being relatively young for their school year may be an additional stressor that may undermine mental health. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Impact of Age and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 on DNA Damage Responses in UV-Irradiated Human Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Michael G; Spandau, Dan F; Travers, Jeffrey B

    2017-02-26

    The growing incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) necessitates a thorough understanding of its primary risk factors, which include exposure to ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths of sunlight and age. Whereas UV radiation (UVR) has long been known to generate photoproducts in genomic DNA that promote genetic mutations that drive skin carcinogenesis, the mechanism by which age contributes to disease pathogenesis is less understood and has not been sufficiently studied. In this review, we highlight studies that have considered age as a variable in examining DNA damage responses in UV-irradiated skin and then discuss emerging evidence that the reduced production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) by senescent fibroblasts in the dermis of geriatric skin creates an environment that negatively impacts how epidermal keratinocytes respond to UVR-induced DNA damage. In particular, recent data suggest that two principle components of the cellular response to DNA damage, including nucleotide excision repair and DNA damage checkpoint signaling, are both partially defective in keratinocytes with inactive IGF-1 receptors. Overcoming these tumor-promoting conditions in aged skin may therefore provide a way to lower aging-associated skin cancer risk, and thus we will consider how dermal wounding and related clinical interventions may work to rejuvenate the skin, re-activate IGF-1 signaling, and prevent the initiation of NMSC.

  13. Impact of Age and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 on DNA Damage Responses in UV-Irradiated Human Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Kemp

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC necessitates a thorough understanding of its primary risk factors, which include exposure to ultraviolet (UV wavelengths of sunlight and age. Whereas UV radiation (UVR has long been known to generate photoproducts in genomic DNA that promote genetic mutations that drive skin carcinogenesis, the mechanism by which age contributes to disease pathogenesis is less understood and has not been sufficiently studied. In this review, we highlight studies that have considered age as a variable in examining DNA damage responses in UV-irradiated skin and then discuss emerging evidence that the reduced production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 by senescent fibroblasts in the dermis of geriatric skin creates an environment that negatively impacts how epidermal keratinocytes respond to UVR-induced DNA damage. In particular, recent data suggest that two principle components of the cellular response to DNA damage, including nucleotide excision repair and DNA damage checkpoint signaling, are both partially defective in keratinocytes with inactive IGF-1 receptors. Overcoming these tumor-promoting conditions in aged skin may therefore provide a way to lower aging-associated skin cancer risk, and thus we will consider how dermal wounding and related clinical interventions may work to rejuvenate the skin, re-activate IGF-1 signaling, and prevent the initiation of NMSC.

  14. IMPACT OF MORNING STIFFNESS, EDUCATION, AND AGE ON THE FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Pallaska, Kelmend; Murtezani, Ardiana; Osmani-Vllasolli, Teuta; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between disability status and duration of morning stiffness in hands with regard to age, level of education, and gender in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Also, the authors wanted to investigate this relationship with regard to the presence of rheumatoid factor, i.e., the serological status. A retrospective study was conducted in 250 patients with the classic form of RA (186 females, s64 males, mean age Xb = 49.96 y ears, range 25-60 years, disease duration 1-27 years, Xb = 6.41) previously diagnosed with RA according to the ACR (American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria). All patients were in Steinbrocker functional classes II and III. The probability level was expressed by p 0.05) seronegative, (r = 0.12, y = 0.00x + 2.30, p > 0.05) seropositive]. High positive values were obtained for the linear correlation coefficient between duration of the disease and functional class (p < 0.01). Also, high values were obtained regarding the coefficient of correlation between age and functional class [(r = 0.29, p < 0.01) seronegative, (r = 0.47, p < 0.01) seropositive]. Uneducated patients were significantly more represented in functional class III [ 23 (50%) seronegative, 19 (42.2%) seropositive] than in functional class II [16 (20.3%) seronegative, 22 (27.5%) seropositive]. In conclusion, in this study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, increased duration of morning stiffness was associated with functional disability. Functional disability increased with the duration of the disease, depended on age and educational level, and was more pronounced in older age, regardless of RA serological status. With regard to serological status and sex, the differences were non-significant.

  15. Impact of wheel running on chronic ethanol intake in aged Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brager, Allison J; Hammer, Steven B

    2012-10-10

    Alcohol dependence in aging populations is seen as a public health concern, most recently because of the significant proportion of heavy drinking among "Baby Boomers." Basic animal research on the effects of aging on physiological and behavioral regulation of ethanol (EtOH) intake is sparse, since most of this research is limited to younger models of alcoholism. Here, EtOH drinking and preference were measured in groups of aged Syrian hamsters. Further, because voluntary exercise (wheel-running) is a rewarding substitute for EtOH in young adult hamsters, the potential for such reward substitution was also assessed. Aged (24 month-old) male hamsters were subjected to a three-stage regimen of free-choice EtOH (20% v/v) or water and unlocked or locked running wheels to investigate the modulatory effects of voluntary wheel running on EtOH intake and preference. Levels of fluid intake and activity were recorded daily across 60 days of experimentation. Prior to wheel running, levels of EtOH intake were significantly less than levels of water intake, resulting in a low preference for EtOH (30%). Hamsters with access to an unlocked running wheel had decreased EtOH intake and preference compared with hamsters with access to a locked running wheel. These group differences in EtOH intake and preference were sustained for up to 10 days after running wheels were re-locked. These results extend upon those of our previous work in young adult hamsters, indicating that aging dampens EtOH intake and preference. Voluntary wheel running further limited EtOH intake, suggesting that exercise could offer a practical approach for managing late-life alcoholism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The impact of Wolbachia, male age and mating history on cytoplasmic incompatibility and sperm transfer in Drosophila simulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awrahman, Z A; Champion de Crespigny, F; Wedell, N

    2014-01-01

    Most insects harbour a variety of maternally inherited endosymbionts, the most widespread being Wolbachia pipientis that commonly induce cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) and reduced hatching success in crosses between infected males and uninfected females. High temperature and increasing male age are known to reduce the level of CI in a variety of insects. In Drosophila simulans, infected males have been shown to mate at a higher rate than uninfected males. By examining the impact of mating rate independent of age, this study investigates whether a high mating rate confers an advantage to infected males through restoring their compatibility with uninfected females over and above the effect of age. The impact of Wolbachia infection, male mating rate and age on the number of sperm transferred to females during copulation and how it relates to CI expression was also assessed. As predicted, we found that reproductive compatibility was restored faster in males that mate at higher rate than that of low mating and virgin males, and that the effect of mating history was over and above the effect of male age. Nonvirgin infected males transferred fewer sperm than uninfected males during copulation, and mating at a high rate resulted in the transfer of fewer sperm per mating irrespective of infection status. These results indicate that the advantage to infected males of mating at a high rate is through restoration of reproductive compatibility with uninfected females, whereas uninfected males appear to trade off the number of sperm transferred per mating with female encounter rate and success in sperm competition. This study highlights the importance Wolbachia may play in sexual selection by affecting male reproductive strategies. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  17. Impact of age on the association between 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurements and target organ damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Thomas B; Pareek, Manan; Stidsen, Jacob V; Blicher, Marie K; Rasmussen, Susanne; Vishram-Nielsen, Julie K K; Kjaer-Hansen, Kathrine; Olsen, Michael H

    2018-05-17

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of age on the associations between hemodynamic components derived from 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (24-h ABPM) and target organ damage, in apparently healthy, nonmedicated individuals. Twenty-four-hour ABPM and target organ damage (left ventricular mass index, pulse wave velocity, urine albumin : creatinine ratio and carotid atherosclerotic plaques) were evaluated in 1408 individuals. Associations were examined in regression models, stratified for age [middle-aged (41 or 51 years) or elderly (61 or 71 years)], and adjusted for sex, smoking status, and total-cholesterol. In middle-aged individuals, an increase of 10 mmHg in 24-h SBP was independently associated with an increase of 3.8 (2.7-4.8) g/m in LVMI. The effect was nearly doubled in the elderly subgroup, where the same increase resulted in an increase in LVMI of 6.3 (5.0-7.6) g/m (P for interaction h SBP was associated with a 6.7% increase in pulse wave velocity in middle-aged individuals and with an 9.1% increase in elderly individuals (P for interaction h ABPM and urine albumin : creatinine ratio was only observed in the elderly subgroup. Associations between the presence of atherosclerotic plaques and components from 24-h ABPM except 24-h DBP were not modified by age (all P for interaction >0.26). Age enhances the associations between hemodynamic components obtained from 24-h ABPM and measures of arterial stiffness, microvascular damage, and cardiac structure, but not atherosclerosis.

  18. Age-Associated Decline in Dendritic Cell Function and the Impact of Mediterranean Diet Intervention in Elderly Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Clements

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAging is accompanied by increased susceptibility to infection and age-associated chronic diseases. It is also associated with reduced vaccine responses, which is often attributed to immunosenescence and the functional decline of the immune system. Immunosenescence is characterized by a chronic, low-grade, inflammatory state termed inflammaging. Habitants of Mediterranean (MED regions maintain good health into old age; often attributed to MED diets.HypothesisAdoption of a MED-diet by elderly subjects, in Norfolk (UK, may improve immune responses of these individuals and in particular, dendritic cell (DC function.Experimental approachA total of 120 elderly subjects (65–79 years old recruited onto the Nu-AGE study, a multicenter European dietary study specifically addressing the needs of the elderly, across five countries, and were randomized to the control or MED-diet groups, for one year. Blood samples were taken pre- and post-intervention for DC analysis and were compared with each other, and to samples obtained from 45 young (18–40 years old subjects. MED-diet compliance was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography-with tandem mass spectrometry analysis of urine samples. Immune cell and DC subset numbers and concentrations of secreted proteins were determined by flow cytometric analysis.ResultsAs expected, reduced myeloid DC numbers were observed in blood samples from elderly subjects compared with young. The elevated secretion of the adipokine, resistin, after ex vivo stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from elderly subjects, was significantly reduced after MED-diet intervention.ConclusionThis study provides further evidence of numerical and functional effects of aging on DCs. The MED-diet showed potential to impact on the aging immune cells investigated and could provide an economical approach to address problems associated with our aging population.

  19. The impact of age and gender on resource utilization and profitability in ED patients seen and released.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Philip L; Nathanson, Brian H; Ribeiro, Kara; Balasubramanian, Hari

    2014-10-01

    To determine how age and gender impact resource utilization and profitability in patients seen and released from an Emergency Department (ED). Billing data for patients seen and released from an Emergency Department (ED) with >100,000 annual visits between 2003 and 2009 were collected. Resource utilization was measured by length of stay (placement in ED bed to leaving the bed) and direct clinical costs (e.g., ED nursing salary and benefits, pharmacy and supply costs, etc.) estimated using relative value unit cost accounting. The primary outcome of profitability was defined as contribution margin per hour. A patient's contribution margin by insurance type (excluding self-pay) was determined by subtracting direct clinical costs from facility contractual revenue. Results are expressed as medians and US dollars. In 523 882 outpatient ED encounters, as patients' aged, length of stay and direct clinical cost increased while the contribution margin and contribution margin by hour decreased. Women of childbearing age (15-44) had higher median length of stay (2.1 hours), direct clinical cost ($149), and contribution margin per hour ($103/hour) than men of same age (1.7, $131, $85/hour, respectively). Resource utilization and profitability by gender were similar in children and adults over 45. Resource utilization increased and profitability decreased with increasing age in patients seen and released from an ED. The care of women of childbearing age resulted in higher resource utilization and higher profitability than men of the same age. No differences in resource utilization or profitability by gender were observed in children and adults over 45. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of age on the selection of nuclear cardiology stress protocols: The INCAPS (IAEA nuclear cardiology protocols) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Pascual, Thomas N B; Mercuri, Mathew; Vitola, João V; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Better, Nathan; Dondi, Maurizio; Paez, Diana; Einstein, Andrew J

    2018-05-15

    There is growing concern about radiation exposure from nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), particularly among younger patients who are more prone to develop untoward effects of ionizing radiation, and hence US and European professional society guidelines recommend age as a consideration in weighing radiation risk from MPI. We aimed to determine how patient radiation doses from MPI vary across age groups in a large contemporary international cohort. Data were collected as part of a global cross-sectional study of centers performing MPI coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Sites provided information on each MPI study completed during a single week in March-April 2013. We compared across age groups laboratory adherence to pre-specified radiation-related best practices, radiation effective dose (ED; a whole-body measure reflecting the amount of radiation to each organ and its relative sensitivity to radiation's deleterious effects), and the proportion of patients with ED ≤ 9 mSv, a target level specified in guidelines. Among 7911 patients undergoing MPI in 308 laboratories in 65 countries, mean ED was 10.0 ± 4.5 mSv with slightly higher exposure among younger age groups (trend p value < 0.001). There was no difference in the proportion of patients with ED ≤ 9 mSv across age groups, or in adherence to best practices based on the median age of patients in a laboratory. In contemporary nuclear cardiology practice, the age of the patient appears not to impact protocol selection and radiation dose, contrary to professional society guidelines. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Explaining the impact of poverty on old-age frailty in Europe: material, psychosocial and behavioural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Erwin; Mayerl, Hannes; Waxenegger, Anja; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2017-12-01

    Previous research found poverty to be associated with adverse health outcomes among older adults but the factors that translate low economic resources into poor physical health are not well understood. The goal of this analysis was to assess the impact of material, psychosocial, and behavioural factors as well as education in explaining the poverty-health link. In total, 28 360 observations from 11 390 community-dwelling respondents (65+) in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (2004-13, 10 countries) were analysed. Multilevel growth curve models were used to assess the impact of combined income and asset poverty risk on old-age frailty (frailty index) and associated pathway variables. In total, 61.8% of the variation of poverty risk on frailty level was explained by direct and indirect effects. Results stress the role of material and particularly psychosocial factors such as perceived control and social isolation, whereas the role of health behaviour was negligible. We suggest to strengthen social policy and public health efforts in order to fight poverty and its deleterious health effects from early age on as well as to broaden the scope of interventions with regard to psychosocial factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  2. The impact of age on anxiety level and cognitive function in patients with colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Stilidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Colorectal cancer is highly prevalent in Russia, especially among the elderly patients. We analyzed the influence of age on anxiety level and cognitive function on patients with colorectal cancer.Materials and methods. In the period 2012–2015 we analyzed pre-operatively the level of anxiety (HADS scale and cognitive disfunction (MoCA test in 244 patients who underwent radical colorectal resection.Results. Patients younger than 60 constituted 34 %, 60–74 years – 31 %, 75 years and older – 35 %. We were able to show a correlation between age and anxiety level according to HADS. The same trend was found according to MoCA test.Conclusion. Oncopsychologist shall develop individualized treatment plan according to anxiety and cognitive levels in patients with colorectal cancer.

  3. The impact of gender, education and age on employee attitudes towards corporate social responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosati, Francesco; Calabrese, Armando; Costa, Roberta

    their employees' CSR attitudes. In this regard, many studies show that individual characteristics can influence CSR attitudes. This research aims to identify the influence of three sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, educational level and age on three employee CSR attitudes, such as CSR demandingness...... and satisfied than female colleagues. Educational level differences also have a significant influence on CSR trust and CSR satisfaction, with graduated employees generally more trustful and satisfied than not graduated colleagues. However, employee gender and education do not influence CSR demandingness......, and employee age does not have a significant effect on any CSR attitude. This research indicates that the banks under study need to improve the effectiveness of their internal CSR communication, especially with women and not graduated employees, who show the lowest levels of CSR trust and satisfaction...

  4. Differences in nativity, age and gender may impact health behavior and perspectives among Asian Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Sohini; Gor, Beverly; Banerjee, Deborah; Krishnan, Sunil; Dorai, V K; Jones, Lovell; Kabad, Kanchan; Naik, Lakshmi Rai; Legha, Sewa S; Pande, Mala

    2017-07-03

    Identify health perspectives among Asian Indians in greater Houston area, to guide a tailored community wide survey. Four focus groups of different ages, gender, and nativity were conducted at which participants were asked for their opinions about specific health topics. Key informant interviews were conducted with ten community leaders to validate focus group responses. Recordings from focus groups and key informant interviews were transcribed and analyzed. Diabetes, cancer, and hypertension were primary health concerns. Common themes were sedentary lifestyle and poor health literacy. Older participants were more accepting of having familial hypertension and high cholesterol. Women were more concerned about health of family members and dietary habits. Perspectives differed on eating habits, physical activity, use of Western medicine, and smoking based on nativity. Responses from key informant interviews validated focus group findings. Perspectives on health may differ among Asian Indians depending on gender, age, and nativity.

  5. Street connectivity and obesity in Glasgow, Scotland: impact of age, sex and socioeconomic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Kylie; Lamb, Karen; Travaglini, Noemi; Ellaway, Anne

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated associations of street connectivity with body mass index (BMI), and whether these associations varied by sex, age and socioeconomic position, amongst adults in Glasgow, Scotland. Data on socio-demographic variables, height and weight were collected from 1062 participants in the Greater Glasgow Health and Well-being Study, and linked with neighbourhood-level census and geo-referenced data on area level deprivation and street connectivity. Results of multilevel models showed that, after adjustment for individual level covariates, street connectivity was not significantly associated with either BMI or BMI category; nor were there any significant interactions between age, sex or socioeconomic position and street connectivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. EEG features of absence seizures in idiopathic generalized epilepsy: Impact of syndrome, age, and state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadleir, L.G.; Scheffer, I.E.; Smith, S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Factors influencing the electroencephalography (EEG) features of absence seizures in newly presenting children with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) have not been rigorously studied. We examined how specific factors such as state, provocation, age, and epilepsy syndrome affect the EEG...... features of absence seizures. Methods: Children with untreated absence seizures were studied using video-EEG recording. The influence of state of arousal, provocation (hyperventilation, photic stimulation), age, and epilepsy syndrome on specific EEG features was analyzed. Results: Five hundred nine...... seizures were evaluated in 70 children with the following syndromes: childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) 37, CAE+ photoparoxysmal response (PPR) 10, juvenile absence epilepsy (JAE) 8, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) 6, and unclassified 9. Polyspikes occurred in all syndromes but were more common in JME...

  7. Impact of E-Cigarette Minimum Legal Sale Age Laws on Current Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lauren M; Glantz, Stanton A; Arrazola, René A; King, Brian A

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to use individual-level data to examine the relationship between e-cigarette minimum legal sale age (MLSA) laws and cigarette smoking among U.S. adolescents, adjusting for e-cigarette use. In 2016 and 2017, we regressed (logistic) current (past 30-day) cigarette smoking (from 2009-2014 National Youth Tobacco Surveys [NYTS]) on lagged (laws enacted each year counted for the following year) and unlagged (laws enacted January-June counted for that year) state e-cigarette MLSA laws prohibiting sales to youth aged e-cigarette and other tobacco use, sex, race/ethnicity, and age) and state-level (smoke-free laws, cigarette taxes, medical marijuana legalization, income, and unemployment) covariates. Cigarette smoking was not significantly associated with lagged MLSA laws after adjusting for year (odds ratio [OR] = .87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .73-1.03; p = .10) and covariates (OR = .85, .69-1.03; p = .10). Unlagged laws were significantly and negatively associated with cigarette smoking (OR = .84, .71-.98, p = .02), but not after adjusting for covariates (OR = .84, .70-1.01, p = .07). E-cigarette and other tobacco use, sex, race/ethnicity, age, and smoke-free laws were associated with cigarette smoking (p e-cigarette use and other tobacco use yielded a significant negative association between e-cigarette MLSA laws and cigarette smoking (lagged: OR = .78, .64-.93, p = .01; unlagged: OR = .80, .68-.95, p = .01). After adjusting for covariates, state e-cigarette MLSA laws did not affect youth cigarette smoking. Unadjusted for e-cigarette and other tobacco use, these laws were associated with lower cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. The Impact of Age and Sex on the Refusal Strategies Used by Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Shahpouri Arani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One major problem for non-native speakers is using refusals and because of this, second language teachers and others who communicate in that language should have the cultural differences in mind. When the interlocutors say “no” to a request or invitation, either directly or indirectly, they use speech act of refusal.  Refusal is considered a face threatening act, as there exists a kind of contradiction in it and is always realized indirectly. Thus, a high level of pragmatic competence is needed to realize it. The aim of this study is to find out whether the age and sex of Iranian learners have any effect on their used refusal strategies and if the existence of such an effect was demonstrated which group is more native like in terms of content and form of used strategies. To achieve this end, graduated students (male/female of different age, sex and different fields of study were selected. Three groups of participants participated in this study. The first group includes 30 American English Speakers (A.E.S. The second group consists of participants whose ages were between 22-29 and the third group was a group of 30 participants of both sexes who speak English as a second language (sex is the only variable under study in this group. Using a Discourse Completion Test (DCT, a number of refusal situations were collected, responded by participants and analyzed. The results revealed that the age and sex of EFL learners does not have any significant effect on using refusal strategies.

  9. Impacts of age and calcium on Phytase efficacy in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 648 straight-run hatchling Heritage 56M × fast feathering Cobb 500F broiler birds were used to determine the effects of Ca concentration and age on phytase efficacy. Corn and SBM based diets with 0.19%non-phytate P were prepared with three Ca (6.5, 8.0 and 9.5 g/kg) concentrations. A 6-ph...

  10. Aging impact on biochemical activities and gene expression of Drosophila melanogaster mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubessay, Pascal; Garreau-Balandier, Isabelle; Jarrousse, Anne-Sophie; Fleuriet, Annie; Sion, Benoit; Debise, Roger; Alziari, Serge

    2007-08-01

    The consequences of aging are characterized by a decline in the main cellular functions, including those of the mitochondria. Although these consequences have been much studied, efforts have often focused solely on a few parameters used to assess the "state" of mitochondrial function during aging. We performed comparative measurements of several parameters in young (a few days) and old (8 and 12 weeks) adult male Drosophila melanogaster: respiratory complex activities, mitochondrial respiration, ATP synthesis, lipid composition of the inner membrane, concentrations of respiratory complex subunits, expression of genes (nuclear and mitochondrial) coding for mitochondrial proteins. Our results show that, in the mitochondria of "old" flies, the activities of three respiratory complexes (I, III, IV) are greatly diminished, ATP synthesis is decreased, and the lipid composition of the inner membrane (fatty acids, cardiolipin) is modified. However, the respiration rate and subunit concentrations measured by Western blot are unaffected. Although cellular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content remains constant, there is a decrease in concentrations of nuclear and mitochondrial transcripts apparently coordinated. The expression of nuclear genes encoding the transcription factors TFAM, TFB1, TFB2, and DmTTF, which are essential for the maintenance and expression of mtDNA are also decreased. The decrease in nuclear and mitochondrial transcript concentrations may be one of the principal effects of aging on mitochondria, and could explain observed decreases in mitochondrial efficiency.

  11. Age, Sex, and Religious Beliefs Impact the Attitude towards Cord Blood Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundell, Inger Birgitta; Setzer, Teddi J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a self-administered questionnaire was used to assess opinions about stem cell research and cord blood banking. Three attitudes were examined: willingness to accept cord blood banking, willingness to accept embryonic stem cell research, and religious belief system. A total of 90 Wayne State University students enrolled in the study in response to an invitation posted on a web page for the university. Sex distribution among study participants was 79 females and eight males; three declined to state their sex. Support for cord blood banking was high (> 70%) among students. Students over the age of 25 years of age were more (85%) positive than students 18 to 24 years old (57%). They prefered a public cord blood bank over a private cord blood bank. Atheist/agnostic or spiritual/not religious students (> 90%), Catholic students (78%) and Christian students (58%) support cord blood banking. Age, sex and religion seems influence the student's attitude towards stem cell research and cord blood banking.

  12. Impact of structural aging on seismic risk assessment of reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingwood, B.; Song, J.

    1996-03-01

    The Structural Aging Program is addressing the potential for degradation of concrete structural components and systems in nuclear power plants over time due to aging and aggressive environmental stressors. Structures are passive under normal operating conditions but play a key role in mitigating design-basis events, particularly those arising from external challenges such as earthquakes, extreme winds, fires and floods. Structures are plant-specific and unique, often are difficult to inspect, and are virtually impossible to replace. The importance of structural failures in accident mitigation is amplified because such failures may lead to common-cause failures of other components. Structural condition assessment and service life prediction must focus on a few critical components and systems within the plant. Components and systems that are dominant contributors to risk and that require particular attention can be identified through the mathematical formalism of a probabilistic risk assessment, or PRA. To illustrate, the role of structural degradation due to aging on plant risk is examined through the framework of a Level 1 seismic PRA of a nuclear power plant. Plausible mechanisms of structural degradation are found to increase the core damage probability by approximately a factor of two

  13. Plant transcriptomics and responses to environmental stress: an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Centre for Environmental Research, Near East University, 33010, Lefkosha, Turkish Republic of the Northern Cyprus. 4Department of ...... Transcriptomic analysis of sense and antisense strands of .... 2008 Stem cell transcriptome profiling via.

  14. HIV Testing Among Young People Aged 16-24 in South Africa: Impact of Mass Media Communication Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Mai; Figueroa, Maria Elena; Lawrence Kincaid, D

    2016-09-01

    Knowing one's serostatus is critical in the HIV prevention, care and treatment continuum. This study examines the impact of communication programs on HIV testing in South Africa. Data came from 2204 young men and women aged 16-24 who reported to be sexually active in a population based survey. Structural equation modeling was used to test the directions and causal pathways between communication program exposure, HIV testing discussion, and having a test in the last 12 months. Bivariate and multivariate probit regressions provided evidence of exogeneity of communication exposure and the two HIV-related outcomes. One in three sampled individuals had been tested in the last 12 months. Communication program exposure only had an indirect effect on getting tested by encouraging young people to talk about testing. The study suggests that communication programs may create an environment that supports open HIV-related discussions and may have a long-term impact on behavior change.

  15. Effect of the impact directions, of the fibers and of the aging on the glass fibers composite resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vina, J.; Arguelles, A.; Zenasni, R.; Ouinas, D.

    2006-01-01

    Usually, composites of epoxy matrix reinforced with glass fiber are used in the fabrication of wind turbine blades. This material has an anisotropic structure and its mechanical properties are not the same in all the directions. The impact strength was evaluated from the mechanical tests carried out in two perpendicular directions. The effect of aging was analyzed immersing the specimens into water to 70 C, during different periods of time. From the results of the tests, the dynamic fracture toughness (Kid) and the resilience (KCV) were obtained. An important difference was obtained between the specimens taken out in the blade direction and in the perpendicular direction. The aging specimens, in the two directions, have showed continuous decrements in the dynamic toughness and resilience, from the first period of immersion of 15 days until 180 days. (authors)

  16. The impact of ageing population on pay-as-you-go pension systems: The case of Luxembourg

    OpenAIRE

    Guigou, Jean-Daniel; Lovat, Bruno; Schiltz, Jang

    2010-01-01

    Financing of the Luxembourg pension system is based on a pay-as-you-go system and hence on an intergenerational contract. As is the case for most other European countries, this system will be exposed to the effects of demographic aging over the coming decades. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the impact of this demographic deficit on the long term sustainability of the Luxembourg pension system. We proceed in two steps. In a first step, we highlight the evolution of salaries in ...

  17. Impact of age and diagnosis on viability during centrifugation and cryopreservation of peripheral blood stem cell products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civriz Bozdag, S; Bay, M; Ayyıldız, E; Topcuoglu, P; Ilhan, O

    2012-08-01

    The viability of the hematopoietic stem cells infused to the patient is important for transplant outcome. We evaluated 31 peripheral blood stem cell product collected from 15 patients. We aimed to check the viabilities of the cells from patients with different age and diagnosis, in different stages of the cryopreservation procedure. We showed a markedly decreased viability rate after centrifugation and addition of DMSO. Percentages of viabilities were similar between young and old patients in each step. Type of hematological malignancy did not make a significant influence on the viability. High speed centrifugation has a negative impact on the viability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychological Impact of Virtual Reality Gaming on the Formation of Self-Image in Early School-Age Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pakhomova V.G.,

    2017-01-01

    The article investigates the problem of interaction between a modern primary school-aged child and the field of virtual reality gaming and, in particular, the impact of virtual reality on the formation of self-image. Our study enabled us to explore the differences in the self-image in active and non-active players of roleplaying video games. The outcomes proved that there are certain changes in the self-image of active players related to their self-identification with characters of computer g...

  19. The impact of age on the art of mammography and how to adapt accordingly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, B; Cielecki, L; Williams, S; Worrall, C; Metelko, M

    2017-11-01

    Breast cancer is increasingly a disease of the elderly, and combined with the NHS Breast Screening Extension means that more elderly patients are having mammography. Increasing age can make mammography more technically difficult. This is a technical note detailing the results of a local audit which may be of interest due to potential service implications. A retrospective audit of the first year of screening extension of The Shropshire Breast Screening Programme. Aims to collect data on patient demographics and describe the technical adaptations developed in Shropshire. Breast screening extension has increased by 2.5 times the number of women aged 70-74 screened, and doubled the overall numbers of women over 70 screened. Significantly more older patients are being screened to present technical challenges to a screening programme. Data was obtained from a month of screening showed that 29% of patients over 70 needed extra time for positioning. Reasons included 22% difficulty in obtaining adequate positioning and 15% needed a relative to aid with consent. In the Shropshire screening programme different technical adaptations have been developed and are key to ensuring adequate images. These include double appointments, two radiographers, thorough assessment, steeper angles, seated examinations, from-below imaging and pre-planning for subsequent screen. Significantly more older women are having breast screening due to the increasing incidence of breast cancer and the Breast Screening Programme extension. Increasing age can significantly increase time taken for adequate imaging and present technical challenges. Development of technical adaptations to art of mammography is key to achieve adequate images. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of age on intermittent hypoxia in obstructive sleep apnea: a propensity-matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostanci, Asli; Bozkurt, Selen; Turhan, Murat

    2018-05-01

    To determine independent relationship of aging with chronic intermittent hypoxia, we compared hypoxia-related polysomnographic variables of geriatric patients (aged ≥ 65 years) with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI)-, gender-, body mass index (BMI)-, and neck circumference-matched cohort of non-geriatric patients. The study was conducted using clinical and polysomnographic data of 1280 consecutive patients who underwent complete polysomnographic evaluation for suspected sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) at a single sleep disorder center. A propensity score-matched analysis was performed to obtain matched cohorts of geriatric and non-geriatric patients, which resulted in successful matching of 168 patients from each group. Study groups were comparable for gender (P = 0.999), BMI (P = 0.940), neck circumference (P = 0.969), AHI (P = 0.935), and severity of SDB (P = 0.089). The oximetric variables representing the duration of chronic intermittent hypoxia such as mean (P = 0.001), the longest (P = 0.001) and total apnea durations (P = 0.003), mean (P = 0.001) and the longest hypopnea durations (P = 0.001), and total sleep time with oxygen saturation below 90% (P = 0.008) were significantly higher in the geriatric patients as compared with younger adults. Geriatric patients had significantly lower minimum (P = 0.013) and mean oxygen saturation (P = 0.001) than non-geriatric patients. The study provides evidence that elderly patients exhibit more severe and deeper nocturnal intermittent hypoxia than the younger adults, independent of severity of obstructive sleep apnea, BMI, gender, and neck circumference. Hypoxia-related polysomnographic variables in geriatric patients may in fact reflect a physiological aging process rather than the severity of a SDB.

  1. Impact of age on both BIS values and EEG bispectrum during anaesthesia with sevoflurane in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodey, E; Tirel, O; Bansard, J Y; Terrier, A; Chanavaz, C; Harris, R; Ecoffey, C; Senhadji, L

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential relationship between age, BIS (Aspect), and the EEG bispectrum during anaesthesia with sevoflurane. BIS and raw EEG were recorded at a steady state of 1 MAC in 100 children, and during a decrease from 2 to 0.5 MAC in a sub-group of 29 children. The bispectrum of the EEG was estimated using MATLAB software. For analysis, the bispectrum was divided into 36 frequencies of coupling (P(i))--the MatBis. A multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was used to establish an underlying structure of the pattern of each individual's MatBis at 1 MAC. Clustering of children into homogeneous groups was conducted by a hierarchical ascending classification (HAC). The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. At 1 MAC, the BIS values for all children ranged from 20 to 74 (median 40). Projection of both age and BIS value recorded at 1 MAC onto the structured model of the MCA showed them to be distributed along the same axis, demonstrating that the different values of BIS obtained in younger or older children are mainly dependent on their MatBis. At 1 MAC, six homogeneous groups of children were obtained through the HAC. Groups 5 (30 months; range 23-49) and 6 (18 months; range 6-180) were the younger children and Group 1 (97 months; range 46-162) the older. Groups 5 and 6 had the highest median values of BIS (54; range 50-59) (55; range 26-74) and Group 1 the lowest values (29; range 22-37). The EEG bispectrum, as well as the BIS appeared to be strongly related to the age of children at 1 MAC sevoflurane.

  2. Perception of Esthetic Impact of Smile Line in Complete Denture Wearers by Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Alves, Leandro Pereira; da Costa Prado, Matheus; Oliveira, Rener Leal; Costa, Matheus Souza Campos; da Silva Coqueiro, Raildo; Gusmão, João Milton Rocha; Santos, Rogério Lacerda

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate esthetic perceptions based on tooth exposure when smiling of patients wearing complete dentures by evaluators in different age groups. Alterations were made to a front view photograph of a smiling patient wearing complete maxillary and mandibular dentures. Alterations in the smile line were simulated to increase or decrease tooth exposure (increments of 0.5 mm). For this purpose, image manipulation software was used. After manipulation, images were printed on photo paper, attached to a questionnaire, and distributed to individuals in three age groups (n = 150). To evaluate the esthetic perception for each image, a visual analog scale was used, with 0 representing least attractive, 5 representing attractive, and 10 representing very attractive. Differences between examiners were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. All statistical analyses were performed with a degree of confidence of 95%. Two evaluators did not observe any differences between images. The images given the best and worst scores were E and O (alterations of 2 and 7 mm), respectively, in the 15- to 19-year-old group, B and O (alterations of 0.5 and 7 mm), respectively, in the 35- to 44-year-old group, and A and M (no alteration and 6 mm alteration), respectively, in the 65- to 74-year-old group. When the images were presented together (images 1 and 2), the unaltered image was selected by individuals of different age groups as the best, and the image with a change of 7 mm was selected as the worst. In this study, complete dental prostheses with smile lines that coincided with the cervical margins of the anterior teeth were the most acceptable. Less exposure of the maxillary teeth when smiling corresponded with decreased attractiveness. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  3. Impact of Education on School-aged Children's Knowledge of and Participation in "The Choking Game".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Kendall; Raingruber, Bonnie; Butler, Eric; Wilson, Machelle

    2016-06-01

    To better understand school-aged children's awareness of and attitudes about the Choking Game (TCG). To determine if education can increase awareness of the risk of injury when playing TCG and to determine if education can decrease interest in TCG participation. Anonymous pre- and post-education surveys. Two middle/high schools; one in Utah and one in California. 291 participants (163 in Utah, 128 in California) aged 9-18, 68% under age 15, 32% 15 and older; 65% white, 35% non-white; 52% female, 48% male. 76% of participants knew about TCG, of those 62% heard about it at school. 32% knew someone who had played, and twelve (4%) had played, usually with others. Most frequently cited as reasons for participation were curiosity, peer pressure, and competition. School was the most common location for playing. In California education significantly increased risk awareness, and significant positive attitude changes were observed regarding interest in playing TCG. Utah participants also exhibited attitude changes in the desired direction (less interest in playing TCG, would warn friends, and realized it was not safe to stop breathing), although results were not statistically significant, possibly due to previous education and four recent and highly publicized TCG deaths in the community. Results indicate that interactive, standardized, and skills-based education can increase student awareness of TCG risks and decrease interest in participation. Students reported that the schools were often where they first heard about TCG and where TCG was commonly played. Educators and associated health care professionals should therefore be encouraged to provide preventative education as part of school curricula.

  4. The impact of repeated marathon running on cardiovascular function in the aging population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlstedt Erin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have correlated elevations in cardiac biomarkers of injury post marathon with transient and reversible right ventricular (RV systolic dysfunction as assessed by both transthoracic echocardiography (TTE and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. Whether or not permanent myocardial injury occurs due to repeated marathon running in the aging population remains controversial. Objectives To assess the extent and severity of cardiac dysfunction after the completion of full marathon running in individuals greater than 50 years of age using cardiac biomarkers, TTE, cardiac computed tomography (CCT, and CMR. Methods A total of 25 healthy volunteers (21 males, 55 ± 4 years old from the 2010 and 2011 Manitoba Full Marathons (26.2 miles were included in the study. Cardiac biomarkers and TTE were performed one week prior to the marathon, immediately after completing the race and at one-week follow-up. CMR was performed at baseline and within 24 hours of completion of the marathon, followed by CCT within 3 months of the marathon. Results All participants demonstrated an elevated cTnT post marathon. Right atrial and ventricular volumes increased, while RV systolic function decreased significantly immediately post marathon, returning to baseline values one week later. Of the entire study population, only two individuals demonstrated late gadolinium enhancement of the subendocardium in the anterior wall of the left ventricle, with evidence of stenosis of the left anterior descending artery on CCT. Conclusions Marathon running in individuals over the age of 50 is associated with a transient, yet reversible increase in cardiac biomarkers and RV systolic dysfunction. The presence of myocardial fibrosis in older marathon athletes is infrequent, but when present, may be due to underlying occult coronary artery disease.

  5. Environmental impact to multimedia systems on the example of fingerprint aging behavior at crime scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Ronny; Breuhan, Andy; Hildebrandt, Mario; Vielhauer, Claus; Bräutigam, Anja

    2012-06-01

    In the field of crime scene forensics, current methods of evidence collection, such as the acquisition of shoe-marks, tireimpressions, palm-prints or fingerprints are in most cases still performed in an analogue way. For example, fingerprints are captured by powdering and sticky tape lifting, ninhydrine bathing or cyanoacrylate fuming and subsequent photographing. Images of the evidence are then further processed by forensic experts. With the upcoming use of new multimedia systems for the digital capturing and processing of crime scene traces in forensics, higher resolutions can be achieved, leading to a much better quality of forensic images. Furthermore, the fast and mostly automated preprocessing of such data using digital signal processing techniques is an emerging field. Also, by the optical and non-destructive lifting of forensic evidence, traces are not destroyed and therefore can be re-captured, e.g. by creating time series of a trace, to extract its aging behavior and maybe determine the time the trace was left. However, such new methods and tools face different challenges, which need to be addressed before a practical application in the field. Based on the example of fingerprint age determination, which is an unresolved research challenge to forensic experts since decades, we evaluate the influences of different environmental conditions as well as different types of sweating and their implications to the capturing sensory, preprocessing methods and feature extraction. We use a Chromatic White Light (CWL) sensor to exemplary represent such a new optical and contactless measurement device and investigate the influence of 16 different environmental conditions, 8 different sweat types and 11 different preprocessing methods on the aging behavior of 48 fingerprint time series (2592 fingerprint scans in total). We show the challenges that arise for such new multimedia systems capturing and processing forensic evidence

  6. Developmental Transcriptome for a Facultatively Eusocial Bee, Megalopta genalis

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Beryl M.; Wcislo, William T.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptomes provide excellent foundational resources for mechanistic and evolutionary analyses of complex traits. We present a developmental transcriptome for the facultatively eusocial bee Megalopta genalis, which represents a potential transition point in the evolution of eusociality. A de novo transcriptome assembly of Megalopta genalis was generated using paired-end Illumina sequencing and the Trinity assembler. Males and females of all life stages were aligned to this transcriptome fo...

  7. Age-Associated Loss of OPA1 in Muscle Impacts Muscle Mass, Metabolic Homeostasis, Systemic Inflammation, and Epithelial Senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezze, Caterina; Romanello, Vanina; Desbats, Maria Andrea; Fadini, Gian Paolo; Albiero, Mattia; Favaro, Giulia; Ciciliot, Stefano; Soriano, Maria Eugenia; Morbidoni, Valeria; Cerqua, Cristina; Loefler, Stefan; Kern, Helmut; Franceschi, Claudio; Salvioli, Stefano; Conte, Maria; Blaauw, Bert; Zampieri, Sandra; Salviati, Leonardo; Scorrano, Luca; Sandri, Marco

    2017-06-06

    Mitochondrial dysfunction occurs during aging, but its impact on tissue senescence is unknown. Here, we find that sedentary but not active humans display an age-related decline in the mitochondrial protein, optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), that is associated with muscle loss. In adult mice, acute, muscle-specific deletion of Opa1 induces a precocious senescence phenotype and premature death. Conditional and inducible Opa1 deletion alters mitochondrial morphology and function but not DNA content. Mechanistically, the ablation of Opa1 leads to ER stress, which signals via the unfolded protein response (UPR) and FoxOs, inducing a catabolic program of muscle loss and systemic aging. Pharmacological inhibition of ER stress or muscle-specific deletion of FGF21 compensates for the loss of Opa1, restoring a normal metabolic state and preventing muscle atrophy and premature death. Thus, mitochondrial dysfunction in the muscle can trigger a cascade of signaling initiated at the ER that systemically affects general metabolism and aging. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of radiation history, gender and age on bone quality in sites for orthodontic skeletal anchorage device placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konermann, A; Appel, T; Wenghoefer, M; Sirokay, S; Dirk, C; Jäger, A; Götz, W

    2015-05-01

    Stability of orthodontic miniscrew implants is prerequisite to their success and durability in orthodontic treatment. As investigations revealed a positive correlation of miniscrew stability to periimplant bone quality, it has been the aim of this study to analyze the bone structure of resection preparations of human mandibles histologically by investigating the samples according to age, gender and exposure to radiotherapy. Inflammation- and tumor-free alveolar bone sections from human mandibles (n = 31) with previously diagnosed carcinoma, chronic osteomyelitis or cysts were analyzed histomorphologically and histomorphometrically as to the dimension of trabeculae in cancellous areas. Group A investigated the impact of a history of radiation therapy, group B of gender and group C contrasted biopsies from individuals aging under 60 or over 60 years. Statistics were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis-test. Radiation, gender and age did not significantly influence bone density. The mean bone density averaged 40.7 ± 15.0% of spongiosa for the total collective with a median age of 58.4 years ± 14.7 years. Our findings provide new information on bone quality, thus contributing to a more precise evaluation of the parameters affecting and those not affecting miniscrew implant stability. On the basis of these results, the formulation of clinical guidelines for risk assessment of therapeutic approaches in patients prior to insertion of orthodontic skeletal anchorage devices seems to be conceivable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of Hydrologic and Micro-topographic Variabilities on Spatial Distribution of Mean Soil-Nitrogen Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, D.; Kumar, P.

    2015-12-01

    Excess reactive nitrogen in soils of intensively managed agricultural fields causes adverse environmental impact, and continues to remain a global concern. Many novel strategies have been developed to provide better management practices and, yet, the problem remains unresolved. The objective of this study is to develop a 3-dimensional model to characterize the spatially distributed ``age" of soil-nitrogen (nitrate and ammonia-ammonium) across a watershed. We use the general theory of age, which provides an assessment of the elapsed time since nitrogen is introduced into the soil system. Micro-topographic variability incorporates heterogeneity of nutrient transformations and transport associated with topographic depressions that form temporary ponds and produce prolonged periods of anoxic conditions, and roadside agricultural ditches that support rapid surface movement. This modeling effort utilizes 1-m Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. We find a significant correlation between hydrologic variability and mean nitrate age that enables assessment of preferential flow paths of nitrate leaching. The estimation of the mean nitrogen age can thus serve as a tool to disentangle complex nitrogen dynamics by providing the analysis of the time scales of soil-nitrogen transformation and transport processes without introducing additional parameters.

  10. The impact of cortisol reactivity to acute stress on memory: sex differences in middle-aged people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almela, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Espín, Laura; Gómez-Amor, Jesús; Salvador, Alicia

    2011-03-01

    Stress has been identified as a main factor involved in the cognitive changes that occur during the aging process. This study investigated sex differences in the relationship between the magnitude of the acute stress-induced salivary cortisol response and memory performance among middle-aged people. To this end, 16 men and 16 women (aged 54-72 years) were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test and a control condition in a crossover design. Afterwards their memory performance was measured using a standardized memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). Only among women, there was an acute impact of stress on memory performance and a significant relationship between a higher cortisol response to the stressor and poorer memory performance in both the stress and control conditions. Additionally, a poorer memory performance was related to earlier timing of sexual maturation (age at menarche), which was also marginally related to higher cortisol reactivity to stress. These results confirm that sex is a critical factor in the relationship between cortisol and poor memory performance. Furthermore, the findings emphasize a strong link between the individual cortisol response to stress and memory functioning among postmenopausal women.

  11. Degradation of impact fracture during accelerated aging of weld metal on microalloyed steel; Degradacion de la tenacidad al impacto durante el envejecimiento acelerado de soldadura en acero microaleado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas-Arista, B.; Hallen, J. M.; Albiter, A.; Angeles-Chavez, C.

    2008-07-01

    The effect of accelerated aging on the toughness and fracture of the longitudinal weld metal on an API5L-X52 line pipe steel was evaluated by Charpy V-notch impact test, fracture analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Aging was performed at 250 degree centigrade for 100 to 1000 h. The impact results indicated a significant reduction in the fracture energy and impact toughness as a function of aging time, which were achieved by the scanning electron microscope fractography that showed a decrease in the vol fraction of microvoids by Charpy ductile failure with the aging time, which favored the brittle fracture by transgranular cleavage. The minimum vol fraction of microvoids was reached at 500 h due to the peak aged. The microstructural analysis indicated the precipitation of transgranular iron nano carbides in the aged specimens, which was related to the deterioration of toughness and change in the ductile to brittle behavior. (Author) 15 refs.

  12. The impact of obesity on skeletal muscle strength and structure through adolescence to old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, D J; Erskine, R M; Morse, C I; Winwood, K; Onambélé-Pearson, Gladys

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is associated with functional limitations in muscle performance and increased likelihood of developing a functional disability such as mobility, strength, postural and dynamic balance limitations. The consensus is that obese individuals, regardless of age, have a greater absolute maximum muscle strength compared to non-obese persons, suggesting that increased adiposity acts as a chronic overload stimulus on the antigravity muscles (e.g., quadriceps and calf), thus increasing muscle size and strength. However, when maximum muscular strength is normalised to body mass, obese individuals appear weaker. This relative weakness may be caused by reduced mobility, neural adaptations and changes in muscle morphology. Discrepancies in the literature remain for maximal strength normalised to muscle mass (muscle quality) and can potentially be explained through accounting for the measurement protocol contributing to muscle strength capacity that need to be explored in more depth such as antagonist muscle co-activation, muscle architecture, a criterion valid measurement of muscle size and an accurate measurement of physical activity levels. Current evidence demonstrating the effect of obesity on muscle quality is limited. These factors not being recorded in some of the existing literature suggest a potential underestimation of muscle force either in terms of absolute force production or relative to muscle mass; thus the true effect of obesity upon skeletal muscle size, structure and function, including any interactions with ageing effects, remains to be elucidated.

  13. Impact of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on Situational Judgement Test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schripsema, Nienke R; van Trigt, Anke M; Borleffs, Jan C C; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2017-05-01

    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree programme in Medicine at University of Groningen, the Netherlands. All applicants for the academic year 2015-2016 were included and had to choose between learning communities Global Health (n = 126), Sustainable Care (n = 149), Intramural Care (n = 225), or Molecular Medicine (n = 116). This choice was used as a proxy for vocational interest. In addition, all graduate-entry applicants for academic year 2015-2016 (n = 213) were included to examine the effect of previous academic experience on performance. We used MANCOVA analyses with Bonferroni post hoc multiple comparisons tests for applicant performance on a six-scenario SJT. The MANCOVA analyses showed that for all scenarios, the independent variables were significantly related to performance (Pillai's Trace: 0.02-0.47, p performance on three scenarios (p performance on two scenarios (p performance, as was previous academic experience. Gender and age were related to performance on SJT scenarios in different settings. Especially the first effect might be helpful in selecting appropriate candidates for areas of health care in which more professionals are needed.

  14. Estrogen Interactions With Lipid Rafts Related to Neuroprotection. Impact of Brain Ageing and Menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Marin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Estrogens (E2 exert a plethora of neuroprotective actions against aged-associated brain diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD. Part of these actions takes place through binding to estrogen receptors (ER embedded in signalosomes, where numerous signaling proteins are clustered. Signalosomes are preferentially located in lipid rafts which are dynamic membrane microstructures characterized by a peculiar lipid composition enriched in gangliosides, saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and sphingolipids. Rapid E2 interactions with ER-related signalosomes appear to trigger intracellular signaling ultimately leading to the activation of molecular mechanisms against AD. We have previously observed that the reduction of E2 blood levels occurring during menopause induced disruption of ER-signalosomes at frontal cortical brain areas. These molecular changes may reduce neuronal protection activities, as similar ER signalosome derangements were observed in AD brains. The molecular impairments may be associated with changes in the lipid composition of lipid rafts observed in neurons during menopause and AD. These evidences indicate that the changes in lipid raft structure during aging may be at the basis of alterations in the activity of ER and other neuroprotective proteins integrated in these membrane microstructures. Moreover, E2 is a homeostatic modulator of lipid rafts. Recent work has pointed to this relevant aspect of E2 activity to preserve brain integrity, through mechanisms affecting lipid uptake and local biosynthesis in the brain. Some evidences have demonstrated that estrogens and the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA exert synergistic effects to stabilize brain lipid matrix. DHA is essential to enhance molecular fluidity at the plasma membrane, promoting functional macromolecular interactions in signaling platforms. In support of this, DHA detriment in neuronal lipid rafts has been associated with the most common age-associated neuropathologies

  15. Normative perceptual estimates for 91 healthy subjects age 60-75: Impact of age, education, employment, physical exercise, alcohol and video gaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Linda Wilms

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception serves as the basis for much of the higher level cognitive processing as well as human activity in general. Here we present normative estimates for the following components of visual perception: the visual perceptual threshold, the visual short-term memory capacity and the visual perceptual encoding/decoding speed (processing speed of Visual Short-Term Memory (VSTM based on an assessment of 91 healthy subjects aged 60-75. The estimates were modelled from input from a whole-report assessment based on A Theory of Visual Attention (TVA. In addition to the estimates themselves, we present correlational data, and multiple regression analyses between the estimates and self-reported demographic data and lifestyle variables. The regression statistics suggest that education level, video gaming activity and employment status may significantly impact the encoding/decoding speed of VTSM but not the capacity of VSTM nor the visual perceptual threshold. The estimates will be useful for future studies into the effects of various types of intervention and training on cognition in general and visual attention in particular.

  16. Traditional folk event with national importance: The impact of visitors’ age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Solarová

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the cultural tourism, this paper focuses on the traditional folk event with national importance that is held in the Czech Republic and its name is Porta. The aim is to assess characteristic traits and satisfaction of two age categories of Porta´s visitors. Through the realised research among visitors, the importance of segmentation was proved. Hence, it is crucial to focus on getting to know the visitors and their motivation. In addition to that, cultural events are also important for local government. According to the officials of local government, where this event is held, such events are able to attract visitors to the particular locality. However, they have only limited opportunities how to support these events (especially from the financial viewpoint.

  17. Impact of Age, Gender, and Addition of Probiotics on Treatment Success for Helicobacter pylori in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Weiner MD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of age, gender, and the use of probiotics with standard treatment regimen on Helicobacter pylori eradication. Based on endoscopic findings and clinical presentation, selected patients were treated with standard triple therapy (omeprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin. Those who failed were offered a repeat treatment with omeprazole, metronidazole, and amoxicillin. After the publications of the possible advantages of probiotic treatment on H pylori eradication, the probiotic agent “Probiotica Forte” was routinely added to the treatment. Eradication was noted for 94/130 patients (72% and for 128/197 patients (65% with or without probiotic agent, respectively (P = .23. For second-line treatment eradication was noted in 33/46 (72% and in 9/20 (45% with or without probiotic agent, respectively (P = .053. The addition of probiotics may improve eradication success especially in addition to second-line treatment.

  18. Blood transcriptomics and metabolomics for personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuzhao; Todor, Andrei; Luo, Ruiyan

    2016-01-01

    Molecular analysis of blood samples is pivotal to clinical diagnosis and has been intensively investigated since the rise of systems biology. Recent developments have opened new opportunities to utilize transcriptomics and metabolomics for personalized and precision medicine. Efforts from human immunology have infused into this area exquisite characterizations of subpopulations of blood cells. It is now possible to infer from blood transcriptomics, with fine accuracy, the contribution of immune activation and of cell subpopulations. In parallel, high-resolution mass spectrometry has brought revolutionary analytical capability, detecting > 10,000 metabolites, together with environmental exposure, dietary intake, microbial activity, and pharmaceutical drugs. Thus, the re-examination of blood chemicals by metabolomics is in order. Transcriptomics and metabolomics can be integrated to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the human biological states. We will review these new data and methods and discuss how they can contribute to personalized medicine.

  19. The Human Transcriptome: An Unfinished Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Pertea

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent technological advances, the study of the human transcriptome is still in its early stages. Here we provide an overview of the complex human transcriptomic landscape, present the bioinformatics challenges posed by the vast quantities of transcriptomic data, and discuss some of the studies that have tried to determine how much of the human genome is transcribed. Recent evidence has suggested that more than 90% of the human genome is transcribed into RNA. However, this view has been strongly contested by groups of scientists who argued that many of the observed transcripts are simply the result of transcriptional noise. In this review, we conclude that the full extent of transcription remains an open question that will not be fully addressed until we decipher the complete range and biological diversity of the transcribed genomic sequences.

  20. Modelling the chemically aged and mixed aerosols over the eastern central Atlantic Ocean – potential impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Astitha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Detailed information on the chemical and physical properties of aerosols is important for assessing their role in air quality and climate. This work explores the origin and fate of continental aerosols transported over the Central Atlantic Ocean, in terms of chemical composition, number and size distribution, using chemistry-transport models, satellite data and in situ measurements. We focus on August 2005, a period with intense hurricane and tropical storm activity over the Atlantic Ocean. A mixture of anthropogenic (sulphates, nitrates, natural (desert dust, sea salt and chemically aged (sulphate and nitrate on dust aerosols is found entering the hurricane genesis region, most likely interacting with clouds in the area. Results from our modelling study suggest rather small amounts of accumulation mode desert dust, sea salt and chemically aged dust aerosols in this Atlantic Ocean region. Aerosols of smaller size (Aitken mode are more abundant in the area and in some occasions sulphates of anthropogenic origin and desert dust are of the same magnitude in terms of number concentrations. Typical aerosol number concentrations are derived for the vertical layers near shallow cloud formation regimes, indicating that the aerosol number concentration can reach several thousand particles per cubic centimetre. The vertical distribution of the aerosols shows that the desert dust particles are often transported near the top of the marine cloud layer as they enter into the region where deep convection is initiated. The anthropogenic sulphate aerosol can be transported within a thick layer and enter the cloud deck through multiple ways (from the top, the base of the cloud, and by entrainment. The sodium (sea salt related aerosol is mostly found below the cloud base. The results of this work may provide insights relevant for studies that consider aerosol influences on cloud processes and storm development in the Central Atlantic region.

  1. Impact of interactive teaching on the efficient realization of objectives for children in early school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbona Xhemajli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Innovation of the practice of teaching through interactive models, new roles of teacher and student, and preference of the activity of the student in the learning process, are found in the basis of changes that is taking place in education in Kosovo. We are talking about actions that aim to improve the quality, durability and applicability of the knowledge that students acquire in school. So today, in all cycles of education, new teaching models are applied that determine the student as an active subject in the teaching process. Interactive teaching is recommended and implemented with significant uplift, because it is becoming a need of modern education, and part of the needs of teachers and students. The extent and quality of mastering the knowledge in a large extent depends on the way work is organized in class and therefore interactive teaching is a key factor to improve the efficiency and quality of learning. Interactive teaching influences a higher level of motivation in the classroom by developing the cooperation between the students and activates the responsibility of the students. They learn about the harmonization of positions, collective action, tolerance and modern communication using different sources of knowledge. In this paper we define the terms of interaction and interactive teaching and actualize a number of other issues related to interactive teaching in the early school age. Also, this paper presents only a part of the authentic results of the two studies combined, one of the results obtained by means of questionnaires given to teachers from nine schools in Kosovo and from the results of interviews conducted with professionists as a focus group. Results from the survey show that interactive learning methods are extensively covered by the school age. They are already very popular in professional environments or communities of teachers since practice proved their effectiveness.

  2. Silicon wafer wettability and aging behaviors: Impact on gold thin-film morphology

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaoming; Zhong, Zhaowei; Diallo, Elhadj; Wang, Zhihong; Yue, Weisheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the wettability and aging behaviors of the silicon wafers that had been cleaned using a piranha (3:1 mixture of sulfuric acid (H2SO4, 96%) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O 2, 30%), 120 °C), SC1 (1:1:5 mixture of NH4OH, H 2O2 and H2O, at 80°C) or HF solution (6 parts of 40% NH4F and 1 part of 49% HF, at room temperature) solution, and treated with gaseous plasma. The silicon wafers cleaned using the piranha or SC1 solution were hydrophilic, and the water contact angles on the surfaces would increase along with aging time, until they reached the saturated points of around 70°. The contact angle increase rate of these wafers in a vacuum was much faster than that in the open air, because of loss of water, which was physically adsorbed on the wafer surfaces. The silicon wafers cleaned with the HF solution were hydrophobic. Their contact angle decreased in the atmosphere, while it increased in the vacuum up to 95°. Gold thin films deposited on the hydrophilic wafers were smoother than that deposited on the hydrophobic wafers, because the numerous oxygen groups formed on the hydrophilic surfaces would react with gold adatoms in the sputtering process to form a continuous thin film at the nucleation stage. The argon, nitrogen, oxygen gas plasma treatments could change the silicon wafer surfaces from hydrophobic to hydrophilic by creating a thin (around 2.5 nm) silicon dioxide film, which could be utilized to improve the roughness and adhesion of the gold thin film. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Silicon wafer wettability and aging behaviors: Impact on gold thin-film morphology

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaoming

    2014-10-01

    This paper reports on the wettability and aging behaviors of the silicon wafers that had been cleaned using a piranha (3:1 mixture of sulfuric acid (H2SO4, 96%) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O 2, 30%), 120 °C), SC1 (1:1:5 mixture of NH4OH, H 2O2 and H2O, at 80°C) or HF solution (6 parts of 40% NH4F and 1 part of 49% HF, at room temperature) solution, and treated with gaseous plasma. The silicon wafers cleaned using the piranha or SC1 solution were hydrophilic, and the water contact angles on the surfaces would increase along with aging time, until they reached the saturated points of around 70°. The contact angle increase rate of these wafers in a vacuum was much faster than that in the open air, because of loss of water, which was physically adsorbed on the wafer surfaces. The silicon wafers cleaned with the HF solution were hydrophobic. Their contact angle decreased in the atmosphere, while it increased in the vacuum up to 95°. Gold thin films deposited on the hydrophilic wafers were smoother than that deposited on the hydrophobic wafers, because the numerous oxygen groups formed on the hydrophilic surfaces would react with gold adatoms in the sputtering process to form a continuous thin film at the nucleation stage. The argon, nitrogen, oxygen gas plasma treatments could change the silicon wafer surfaces from hydrophobic to hydrophilic by creating a thin (around 2.5 nm) silicon dioxide film, which could be utilized to improve the roughness and adhesion of the gold thin film. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Conditioned taste aversion to ethanol in a social context: impact of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Melissa; Schatz, Kelcie C; Anderson, Rachel I; Spear, Linda P; Varlinskaya, Elena I

    2014-03-15

    Given that human adolescents place a high value on social interactions-particularly while consuming alcohol-the current study utilized a novel social drinking paradigm to examine rewarding and aversive properties of ethanol in non-water deprived rats that were housed and tested in groups of five same-sex littermates. On postnatal day P34 (adolescents) or P69 (adults), rats were habituated to the testing apparatus for 30 min. On the next day, animals were placed into the test apparatus and given 30 min access to a supersaccharin solution (3% sucrose; 0.125% saccharin), followed immediately by an intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 g/kg). Subsequent intake of the supersacharrin solution was assessed on three consecutive test days. Adolescent males were less sensitive to ethanol's aversive effects than adult males, with adolescent males maintaining an aversion on all three test days only at the 1.5 g/kg dose, whereas adults demonstrated aversions across test days to 1 and 1.5 g/kg. Adolescent females maintained aversions to 1 and 1.5 g/kg across days, whereas adult females continued to show an aversion to the 1.5 g/kg dose only. These opposite patterns of sensitivity that emerged among males and females at each age in the propensity to maintain an ethanol-induced taste aversion under social conditions may contribute to age- and sex-related differences in ethanol intake. Testing in social groups may be useful for future work when studying rodent models of adolescent alcohol use given the importance that human adolescents place on drinking in social settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of Inuit customary adoption on behavioral problems in school-age Inuit children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaluwe, Béatrice; Jacobson, Sandra W; Poirier, Marie-Andrée; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Jacobson, Joseph L; Muckle, Gina

    2015-05-01

    A large proportion of Inuit children in Arctic Quebec are adopted in accordance with traditional Inuit customs. In contrast to adoptions in Southern Canada and the United States, the child is adopted at birth and by a close family member; he or she knows who his or her biological parents are, and will typically have contact with them. Studies of other populations have reported an increased incidence of behavior problems in adopted compared with nonadopted children. This study examined the actual extent of the increase in the number of behavior problems seen in Inuit children adopted in accordance with traditional customs. In a prospective longitudinal study conducted in the Canadian Arctic (n = 46 adopted and 231 nonadopted children), prenatal and familial variables were documented at birth and at school age (M = 11.3 years). Behavior problems were assessed on the Teacher Report Form of the Child Behavior Checklist. Adopted children lived in more economically disadvantaged families, but their caregivers were less prone to depression, domestic violence, or alcohol abuse compared with those of the nonadopted children. The adoption status was not related to the teacher's report of attention problems, externalizing or internalizing behaviors, after controlling for confounders. Despite less favorable socioeconomic circumstances, a higher extent of behavioral problems was not seen at school age in Inuit children adopted at birth by a family member. Psychosocial stressors associated with adoption are more likely to be responsible for an association with higher levels of childhood behavior problems rather than adoption per se. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Impact of divorce on the quality of life in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymann, Alfredo; Busaniche, Julio; Llera, Julián; De Cunto, Carmen; Wahren, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    To assess psychosocial quality of life in school-age children of divorced parents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the pediatric outpatient clinic of a community hospital. Children 5 to 12 years old from married families and divorced families were included. Child quality of life was assessed through maternal reports using a Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Form 50. A multiple linear regression model was constructed including clinically relevant variables significant on univariate analysis (beta coefficient and 95%CI). Three hundred and thirty families were invited to participate and 313 completed the questionnaire. Univariate analysis showed that quality of life was significantly associated with parental separation, child sex, time spent with the father, standard of living, and maternal education. In a multiple linear regression model, quality of life scores decreased in boys -4.5 (-6.8 to -2.3) and increased for time spent with the father 0.09 (0.01 to 0.2). In divorced families, multiple linear regression showed that quality of life scores increased when parents had separated by mutual agreement 6.1 (2.7 to 9.4), when the mother had university level education 5.9 (1.7 to 10.1) and for each year elapsed since separation 0.6 (0.2 to 1.1), whereas scores decreased in boys -5.4 (-9.5 to -1.3) and for each one-year increment of maternal age -0.4 (-0.7 to -0.05). Children's psychosocial quality of life was affected by divorce. The Child Health Questionnaire can be useful to detect a decline in the psychosocial quality of life.

  7. Impact of maternal undernutrition on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness in sheep at different ages postnatal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadio, S E; Kotsampasi, B; Papadomichelakis, G; Deligeorgis, S; Kalogiannis, D; Menegatos, I; Zervas, G

    2007-03-01

    cortisol levels at the age of 5.5 months (P < 0.01, P < 0.001 respectively) and with higher cortisol levels (P < 0.01) at 10 months of age than males. It is concluded that the HPA axis is programmable by altered nutrition in utero. The sensitivity of the axis to exogenous stimulation is enhanced during early postnatal life and attenuated with age, suggesting a role for the postnatal influences in resetting of the HPA axis and emphasizing the importance of identifying the impact of maternal undernutrition at several time points after birth.

  8. Sarcopenia, dynapenia, and the impact of advancing age on human skeletal muscle size and strength; a quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, W Kyle; Williams, John; Atherton, Philip; Larvin, Mike; Lund, John; Narici, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Changing demographics make it ever more important to understand the modifiable risk factors for disability and loss of independence with advancing age. For more than two decades there has been increasing interest in the role of sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle or lean mass, in curtailing active and healthy aging. There is now evidence to suggest that lack of strength, or dynapenia, is a more constant factor in compromised wellbeing in old age and it is apparent that the decline in muscle mass and the decline in strength can take quite different trajectories. This demands recognition of the concept of muscle quality; that is the force generating per capacity per unit cross-sectional area (CSA). An understanding of the impact of aging on skeletal muscle will require attention to both the changes in muscle size and the changes in muscle quality. The aim of this review is to present current knowledge of the decline in human muscle mass and strength with advancing age and the associated risk to health and survival and to review the underlying changes in muscle characteristics and the etiology of sarcopenia. Cross-sectional studies comparing young (18-45 years) and old (>65 years) samples show dramatic variation based on the technique used and population studied. The median of values of rate of loss reported across studies is 0.47% per year in men and 0.37% per year in women. Longitudinal studies show that in people aged 75 years, muscle mass is lost at a rate of 0.64-0.70% per year in women and 0.80-00.98% per year in men. Strength is lost more rapidly. Longitudinal studies show that at age 75 years, strength is lost at a rate of 3-4% per year in men and 2.5-3% per year in women. Studies that assessed changes in mass and strength in the same sample report a loss of strength 2-5 times faster than loss of mass. Loss of strength is a more consistent risk for disability and death than is loss of muscle mass.

  9. Sarcopenia, dynapenia and the impact of advancing age on human skeletal muscle size and strength; a quantitative review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Kyle Mitchell

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Changing demographics make it ever more important to understand the modifiable risk factors for disability and loss of independence with advancing age. For more than two decades there has been increasing interest in the role of sarcopenia, the age related loss of muscle or lean mass, in curtailing active and healthy aging. There is now evidence to suggest that lack of strength, or dynapenia, is a more constant factor in compromised wellbeing in old age and it is apparent that the decline in muscle mass and the decline in strength can take quite different trajectories. This demands recognition of the concept of muscle quality; that is the force generating per capacity per unit cross-sectional area (CSA. An understanding of the impact of aging on skeletal muscle will require attention to both the changes in muscle size and the changes in muscle quality.The aim of this review is to present current knowledge of the decline in human muscle mass and strength with advancing age and the associated risk to health and survival and to review the underlying changes in muscle characteristics and the aetiology of sarcopenia. Cross-sectional studies comparing young (18-45yrs and old (>65yrs samples show dramatic variation based on the technique used and population studied. The median of values of rate of loss reported across studies is 0.47% per year in men and 0.37% per year in women. Longitudinal studies show that in people aged 75yrs, muscle mass is lost at a rate of 0.64-0.70% per year in women and 0.80-0.98% per year in men. Strength is lost more rapidly. Longitudinal studies show that at age 75yrs, strength is lost at a rate of 3-4% per year in men and 2.5-3% per year in women. Studies that assessed changes in mass and strength in the same sample report a loss of strength 2 – 5 times faster than loss of mass. Loss of strength is a more consistent risk for disability and death than is loss of muscle mass.

  10. The impact of frailty on healthcare utilisation in Ireland: evidence from the Irish longitudinal study on ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Lorna; Normand, Charles; Wren, Maev-Ann; Browne, John; O'Halloran, Aisling M

    2017-09-05

    To examine the impact of frailty on medical and social care utilisation among the Irish community-dwelling older population to inform strategies of integrated care for older people with complex needs. Participants aged ≥65 years from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) representative of the Irish community-dwelling older population were analysed (n = 3507). The frailty index was used to examine patterns of utilisation across medical and social care services. Multivariate logistic and negative binomial regression models were employed to examine the impact of frailty on service utilisation outcomes after controlling for other factors. The prevalence of frailty and pre-frailty was 24% (95% CI: 23, 26%) and 45% (95% CI: 43, 47%) respectively. Frailty was a significant predictor of utilisation of most social care and medical care services after controlling for the main correlates of frailty and observed individual effects. Frailty predicts utilisation of many different types of healthcare services rendering it a useful risk stratification tool for targeting strategies of integrated care. The pattern of care is predominantly medical as few of the frail older population use social care prompting questions about sub-groups of the frail older population with unmet care needs.

  11. Age of second language acquisition in multilinguals has an impact on gray matter volume in language-associated brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Anelis; Eppenberger, Leila S; Smieskova, Renata; Borgwardt, Stefan; Kuenzli, Esther; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Nitsch, Cordula; Bendfeldt, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Numerous structural studies have established that experience shapes and reshapes the brain throughout a lifetime. The impact of early development, however, is still a matter of debate. Further clues may come from studying multilinguals who acquired their second language at different ages. We investigated adult multilinguals who spoke three languages fluently, where the third language was learned in classroom settings, not before the age of 9 years. Multilinguals exposed to two languages simultaneously from birth (SiM) were contrasted with multinguals who acquired their first two languages successively (SuM). Whole brain voxel based morphometry revealed that, relative to SuM, SiM have significantly lower gray matter volume in several language-associated cortical areas in both hemispheres: bilaterally in medial and inferior frontal gyrus, in the right medial temporal gyrus and inferior posterior parietal gyrus, as well as in the left inferior temporal gyrus. Thus, as shown by others, successive language learning increases the volume of language-associated cortical areas. In brains exposed early on and simultaneously to more than one language, however, learning of additional languages seems to have less impact. We conclude that - at least with respect to language acquisition - early developmental influences are maintained and have an effect on experience-dependent plasticity well into adulthood.

  12. Psychological impact of genetic counseling for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer: the role of cancer history, gender, age, and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenbring, Monika I; Kreddig, Nina; Deges, Gabriele; Epplen, Joerg T; Kunstmann, Erdmute; Stemmler, Susanne; Schulmann, Karsten; Willert, Joerg; Schmiegel, Wolf

    2011-04-01

    We prospectively examined the impact of an initial interdisciplinary genetic counseling (human geneticist, oncologist, and psycho-oncologist) on feelings of anxiety with a special focus on subgroups related to personal cancer history, gender, age, and education. At baseline, cancer-affected men revealed a significantly higher level of anxiety than unaffected men (pDepression Scale-A cases can be predicted by general distress (Brief Symptom Inventory) as well as by hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer-related cognitions of intrusion and avoidance (impact of event scale) with a correct classification of 86%. Although initial hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer counseling leads to an overall reduction of anxiety, differential effects of cancer history, gender, and age focus on subgroups of cancer-affected men, who may display unexpectedly high anxiety scores at baseline. Especially younger men do not seem to reduce this high anxiety level. Baseline anxiety was mainly determined by maladaptive situation-specific cognitions. Therefore, consulters should be more aware of anxiety-related cognitions in cancer-affected younger men.

  13. Age of second language acquisition in multilinguals has an impact on grey matter volume in language-associated brain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelis eKaiser

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous structural studies have established that experience shapes and reshapes the brain throughout a lifetime. The impact of early development, however, is still a matter of debate. Further clues may come from studying multilinguals who acquired their second language at different ages. We investigated adult multilinguals who spoke three languages fluently, where the third language was learned in classroom settings, not before the age of 9 years. Multilinguals exposed to 2 languages simultaneously from birth (SiM were contrasted with multinguals who acquired their first two languages successively (SuM. Whole brain voxel based morphometry revealed that, relative to SuM, SiM have significantly lower grey matter volume in several language-associated cortical areas in both hemispheres: bilaterally in medial and inferior frontal gyrus, in the right medial temporal gyrus and inferior posterior parietal gyrus, as well as in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Thus, as shown by others, successive language learning increases the volume of language-associated cortical areas. In brains exposed early on and simultaneously to more than one language, however, learning of additional languages seems to have less impact. We conclude that - at least with respect to language acquisition - early developmental influences are maintained and influence experience-dependent plasticity well into adulthood.

  14. Impact of habitual physical activity and type of exercise on physical performance across ages in community-living people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Landi

    Full Text Available The maintenance of muscle function into late life protects against various negative health outcomes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of habitual physical activity and exercise types on physical performance across ages in community-living adults. The Longevity check-up 7+ (Lookup 7+ project is an ongoing cross-sectional survey conducted in unconventional settings (e.g., exhibitions, malls, and health promotion campaigns across Italy that began on June 1st 2015. The project was designed to raise awareness in the general population on major lifestyle behaviors and risk factors for chronic diseases. Candidate participants are eligible for enrolment if they are at least 18 years of age and provide written informed consent. Physical performance is evaluated through the 5-repetition chair stand test. Analyses were conducted in 6,242 community-living adults enrolled between June 1st 2015 and June 30th 2017, after excluding 81 participants for missing values of the variables of interest. The mean age of the 6,242 participants was 54.4 years (standard deviation 15.2, range 18-98 years, and 3552 (57% were women. The time to complete the chair stand test was similar from 18 to 40-44 years, and declined progressively across subsequent age groups. Overall, the performance on the chair stand test was better in physically active participants, who completed the test with a mean of 0.5 s less than sedentary enrollees (p < .001. After adjusting for potential confounders, a different distribution of physical performance across exercise intensities was observed, with better performance being recorded in participants engaged in more vigorous activities. Our findings suggest that regular physical activity modifies the age-related pattern of decline in physical performance, with greater benefits observed for more intensive activities. Efforts are needed from health authorities and healthcare providers to promote the large-scale adoption of an

  15. Impact of habitual physical activity and type of exercise on physical performance across ages in community-living people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Francesco; Calvani, Riccardo; Picca, Anna; Tosato, Matteo; Martone, Anna Maria; D'Angelo, Emanuela; Serafini, Elisabetta; Bernabei, Roberto; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2018-01-01

    The maintenance of muscle function into late life protects against various negative health outcomes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of habitual physical activity and exercise types on physical performance across ages in community-living adults. The Longevity check-up 7+ (Lookup 7+) project is an ongoing cross-sectional survey conducted in unconventional settings (e.g., exhibitions, malls, and health promotion campaigns across Italy) that began on June 1st 2015. The project was designed to raise awareness in the general population on major lifestyle behaviors and risk factors for chronic diseases. Candidate participants are eligible for enrolment if they are at least 18 years of age and provide written informed consent. Physical performance is evaluated through the 5-repetition chair stand test. Analyses were conducted in 6,242 community-living adults enrolled between June 1st 2015 and June 30th 2017, after excluding 81 participants for missing values of the variables of interest. The mean age of the 6,242 participants was 54.4 years (standard deviation 15.2, range 18-98 years), and 3552 (57%) were women. The time to complete the chair stand test was similar from 18 to 40-44 years, and declined progressively across subsequent age groups. Overall, the performance on the chair stand test was better in physically active participants, who completed the test with a mean of 0.5 s less than sedentary enrollees (p performance across exercise intensities was observed, with better performance being recorded in participants engaged in more vigorous activities. Our findings suggest that regular physical activity modifies the age-related pattern of decline in physical performance, with greater benefits observed for more intensive activities. Efforts are needed from health authorities and healthcare providers to promote the large-scale adoption of an active lifestyle throughout the life course.

  16. Assessing the Impact of Nationwide Smoking Cessation Interventions among Employed, Middle-Aged Japanese Men, 2005-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Wada

    Full Text Available A variety of tobacco control interventions have become available in Japan over the past decade, however, the magnitude to which they have impacted on smoking rates may have varied by socioeconomic status such as job content, particularly for middle-aged men who were formerly long-term smokers. We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the differences between smoking cessation strategies among a national sample of middle-aged Japanese employed men between 2005 and 2010.Data was extracted from a previous longitudinal survey of middle-aged and elderly people that had been conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. In 2005, 16,738 Japanese men aged 50-59 years were recruited and sent a questionnaire in each year of the study. We analyzed data for individuals who reported being current smokers at baseline. Cox's discrete time proportional hazard regression analysis was used to examine potential associations between smoking cessation and socioeconomic factors.Of the 6187 employed, male smokers who participated in 2005, 31% subsequently quit smoking during the 5-year follow-up period. Those working in manufacturing, transportation, or security were less likely to have quit smoking than those working in management. Having no marital partner, never having been married, or those experiencing psychological distress were significantly less likely to have quit smoking during this time.Although almost one-third of middle-aged, male smokers quit their habit between 2005 and 2010; the uptake of this national strategy appears to have been far from uniform across Japanese society. Socioeconomic factors such as occupation, marital status and psychological distress were negatively correlated with quitting, suggesting that these groups should be more aggressively targeted in further interventions.

  17. An overview of indoor air quality and its impact on respiratory health among Malaysian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Chua Poh; Jalaludin, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The indoor environment is a major source of human exposure to pollutants. Some pollutants can have concentrations that are several times higher indoors than outdoors. Prolonged exposure may lead to adverse biologic effects, even at low concentrations. Several studies done in Malaysia had underlined the role of indoor air pollution in affecting respiratory health, especially for school-aged children. A critical review was conducted on the quantitative literature linking indoor air pollution with respiratory illnesses among school-aged children. This paper reviews evidence of the association between indoor air quality (IAQ) and its implications on respiratory health among Malaysian school-aged children. This review summarizes six relevant studies conducted in Malaysia for the past 10 years. Previous epidemiologic studies relevant to indoor air pollutants and their implications on school-aged children's respiratory health were obtained from electronic database and included as a reference in this review. The existing reviewed data emphasize the impact of IAQ parameters, namely, indoor temperature, ventilation rates, indoor concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matters (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and airborne microbes, on children's respiratory health. The study found that most of the Malaysian school-aged children are exposed to the inadequate environment during their times spent either in their houses or in their classrooms, which is not in compliance with the established standards. Children living in households or studying in schools in urban areas are more likely to suffer from respiratory illnesses compared with children living in homes or studying in schools in rural areas.

  18. The impact of media type on shared decision processes in third-age populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reychav, Iris; Najami, Inam; Raban, Daphne Ruth; McHaney, Roger; Azuri, Joseph

    2018-04-01

    To examine the relationship between the media, through which medical information was made available (e.g. digital versus printed), and the patients' desire to play an active part in a medical decision in an SDM or an ISDM-based process. The goal of this research was to expand knowledge concerning social and personal factors that affect and explain patients' willingness to participate in the process. A questionnaire was distributed in this empirical study of 103 third-age participants. A theoretical model formed the basis for the study and utilized a variety of factors from technology acceptance, as well as personal and environmental influences to investigate the likelihood of subjects preferring a certain decision-making approach. The research population included men and women aged 65 or older who resided in five assisted living facilities in Israel. The sample was split randomly into 2 groups. One group used digital information and the other print. A path analysis was conducted, using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) in AMOS SPSS, to determine the influence of the information mode of presentation on the patient's choice of the SDM or ISDM model. When digital media was accessible, the information's perceived usefulness (PU) led participants to choose an ISDM-based process; this was not true with printed information. When information was available online, higher self-efficacy (SE) led participants to prefer an SDM-based process. When the information was available in print, a direct positive influence was found on the participant's choice of SDM, while a direct negative influence was found on their choice of an ISDM-based process. PU was found to be affected by external peer influences, particularly when resources were made available in print. This meant that digital resources tended to be accepted at face value more readily. Cognitive absorption had a positive effect on the research variables only when the information was available digitally. The findings suggest

  19. Impact of Distance Determinations on Galactic Structure. I. Young and Intermediate-Age Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Bono, Giuseppe; Chen, Xiaodian; de Grijs, Richard; Inno, Laura; Nishiyama, Shogo

    2018-06-01

    Here we discuss impacts of distance determinations on the Galactic disk traced by relatively young objects. The Galactic disk, ˜40 kpc in diameter, is a cross-road of studies on the methods of measuring distances, interstellar extinction, evolution of galaxies, and other subjects of interest in astronomy. A proper treatment of interstellar extinction is, for example, crucial for estimating distances to stars in the disk outside the small range of the solar neighborhood. We'll review the current status of relevant studies and discuss some new approaches to the extinction law. When the extinction law is reasonably constrained, distance indicators found in today and future surveys are telling us stellar distribution and more throughout the Galactic disk. Among several useful distance indicators, the focus of this review is Cepheids and open clusters (especially contact binaries in clusters). These tracers are particularly useful for addressing the metallicity gradient of the Galactic disk, an important feature for which comparison between observations and theoretical models can reveal the evolution of the disk.

  20. Altering endocannabinoid neurotransmission at critical developmental ages: impact on rodent emotionality and cognitive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana eTrezza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system shows functional activity from early stages of brain development: it plays an important role in fundamental developmental processes such as cell proliferation, migration and differentiation, thus shaping brain organization during pre- and postnatal life. Cannabis sativa preparations are among the illicit drugs most commonly used by young people, including pregnant women. The developing brain can be therefore exposed to cannabis preparations during two critical periods: first, in offspring of cannabis-using mothers through perinatal and/or prenatal exposure; second, in adolescent cannabis users during neural maturation. In the last decade, it has become clear that the endocannabinoid system critically modulates memory processing and emotional responses. Therefore, it is well possible that developmental exposure to cannabinoid compounds induces enduring changes in behaviors and neural processes belonging to the cognitive and emotional domains. We address this issue by focusing on rodent studies, in order to provide a framework for understanding the impact of cannabinoid exposure on the developing brain.

  1. Impact of Mid-Life Symptoms of Alcoholism on the Health and Wellbeing of Aging Parents of Adults with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subharati; Ha, Jung-Hwa; Pai, Manacy; Essenfeld, Harper; Park, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the effect of adult children's disability on parents' physical health in later life and the extent to which parents' symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life moderates the link between children's disability and later life parental health. Analyses are based on data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. The analytic sample included parents of children with developmental disabilities (n = 145) or mental health problems (n = 200) and 2,432 parents of unaffected children. The results showed that the negative health consequences in later life of having a child with a developmental disability were greater for those who showed more symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life. However, symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life did not significantly moderate the impact of an adult child's mental health problems on parents' later life physical health. The findings suggest a potential area where gerontological social workers could intervene, given the negative impact of symptoms of alcoholism on the health of aging parents of children with a disability who may be significantly more susceptible to the negative health impacts of alcohol compared to their younger counterparts.

  2. Effect of aging on impact properties of ASTM A890 Grade 1C super duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Marcelo; Forti, Leonardo Rodrigues Nogueira

    2008-01-01

    Super duplex stainless steels in the solution annealed condition are thermodynamically metastable systems which, when exposed to heat, present a strong tendency to 'seek' the most favorable thermodynamic condition. The main purpose of this study was to characterize the microstructure of a super duplex stainless steel in the as cast and solution annealed conditions, and to determine the influence of aging heat treatments on its impact strength, based on Charpy impact tests applied to V-notched test specimens. The sigma phase was found to begin precipitating at heat treatment temperatures above 760 deg. C and to dissolve completely only above 1040 deg. C, with the highest peak concentration of this phase appearing at close to 850 deg. C. Heat treatments conducted at temperatures of 580 deg. C to 740 deg. C led to a reduction of the energy absorbed in the Charpy impact test in response to the precipitation of a particulate phase with particle sizes ranging from 0.5 μm to 1.0 μm, with a chromium and iron-rich chemical composition

  3. Phenolic compositions of 50 and 30 year sequences of Australian red wines: the impact of wine age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Dambergs, Robert G; Kassara, Stella; Parker, Mango; Jeffery, David W; Herderich, Markus J; Smith, Paul A

    2012-10-10

    The phenolic composition of red wine impacts upon the color and mouthfeel and thus quality of the wine. Both of these characteristics differ depending on the age of a wine, with the purple of young wines changing to brick red and the puckering or aggressive astringency softening in older wines. This study investigated the color parameters, tannin concentrations and tannin composition of a 50 year series of Cabernet Sauvignon wines from a commercial label as well as 30 year series of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz wines from a separate commercial label to assess the impact of wine age on phenolic composition and concentration. The wine color density in wines of 40 to 50 years old was around 5 AU compared with 16 AU of wine less than 12 months old, which correlated well with the concentration of non-bleachable pigments and pigmented polymers. Conversely, the anthocyanin concentrations in 10 year old wines were substantially lower than that of recently bottled wines (around 100 mg/L compared with 627 mg/L, respectively), adding further evidence that non-bleachable pigments including pigmented polymers play a much larger role in long-term wine color than anthocyanins. No age-related trend was observed for tannin concentration, indicating that the widely noted softer astringency of older red wines cannot necessarily be directly related to lower concentrations of soluble wine tannin and is potentially a consequence of changes in tannin structure. Wine tannins from older wines were generally larger than tannins from younger wines and showed structural changes consistent with oxidation.

  4. The impact of aging and Alzheimer's disease on emotional enhancement of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Zeynel; Cangöz, Banu; Ozel-Kizil, Erguvan T

    2014-01-01

    Emotional enhancement of memory (EEM) has been a well-known phenomenon which corresponds to the advantage of emotional stimuli to be better recalled than neutral ones. Previous studies suggest that aging favours recollection of positive items and this pattern is disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Emotional valence of different stimulus modalities, i.e. pictures and words, may also have an effect on each other's memory performances. However, none of these were clearly studied in AD. This study aimed to evaluate how emotional valences of simultaneously presented stimuli affected recall in healthy young (YG, n = 30), healthy elderly (HE, n = 30) participants and in patients with AD (n = 30). A battery consisting of emotional words presented on emotional pictures was developed. An analysis of a 3 (Groups) × 3 (Emotional Valence of Picture) × 3 (Emotional Valence of Word) mixed ANOVA design was carried out. Patients with AD could process emotional information similarly to healthy participants; however, they had EEM only for picture recalling. Emotional valence of the co-presented stimulus had a boosting effect both in the YG and HE, but not in AD group, especially if both of the stimuli had the same emotional valence. This study highlights the impaired EEM for verbal and preserved EEM for non-verbal declarative memory in patients with AD, the neurobiological underpinnings of which should be addressed by future studies. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Forecasting age-related macular degeneration through the year 2050: the potential impact of new treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, David B; Wittenborn, John S; Zhang, Xinzhi; Honeycutt, Amanda A; Lesesne, Sarah B; Saaddine, Jinan

    2009-04-01

    To forecast age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and its consequences in the United States through the year 2050 with different treatment scenarios. We simulated cases of early AMD, choroidal neovascularization (CNV), geograp