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Sample records for aging impacts transcriptome

  1. Proton irradiation impacts age-driven modulations of cancer progression influenced by immune system transcriptome modifications from splenic tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Age plays a crucial role in the interplay between tumor and host, with additional impact due to irradiation. Proton irradiation of tumors induces biological modulations including inhibition of angiogenic and immune factors critical to 'hallmark' processes impacting tumor development. Proton irradiation has also provided promising results for proton therapy in cancer due to targeting advantages. Additionally, protons may contribute to the carcinogenesis risk from space travel (due to the high proportion of high-energy protons in space radiation). Through a systems biology approach, we investigated how host tissue (i.e. splenic tissue) of tumor-bearing mice was altered with age, with or without whole-body proton exposure. Transcriptome analysis was performed on splenic tissue from adolescent (68-day) versus old (736-day) C57BL/6 male mice injected with Lewis lung carcinoma cells with or without three fractionations of 0.5 Gy (1-GeV) proton irradiation. Global transcriptome analysis indicated that proton irradiation of adolescent hosts caused significant signaling changes within splenic tissues that support carcinogenesis within the mice, as compared with older subjects. Increases in cell cycling and immunosuppression in irradiated adolescent hosts with CDK2, MCM7, CD74 and RUVBL2 indicated these were the key genes involved in the regulatory changes in the host environment response (i.e. the spleen). Collectively, these results suggest that a significant biological component of proton irradiation is modulated by host age through promotion of carcinogenesis in adolescence and resistance to immunosuppression, carcinogenesis and genetic perturbation associated with advancing age. (author)

  2. Aging Impacts Transcriptome but not Genome of Hormone-dependentBreast Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yau, Christina; Fedele, Vita; Roydasgupta, Ritu; Fridlyand, Jane; Hubbard, Alan; Gray, Joe W.; Chew, Karen; Dairkee, Shanaz H.; Moore, DanH.; Schittulli, Francesco; Tommasi, Stefania; Paradiso, Angelo; Albertson, Donna G.; Benz, Christopher C.

    2007-10-09

    Age is one of the most important risk factors for human malignancies, including breast cancer; in addition, age-at-diagnosis has been shown to be an independent indicator of breast cancer prognosis. However, except for inherited forms of breast cancer, there is little genetic or epigenetic understanding of the biological basis linking aging with sporadic breast cancer incidence and its clinical behavior.

  3. A differential genome-wide transcriptome analysis: impact of cellular copper on complex biological processes like aging and development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Servos

    Full Text Available The regulation of cellular copper homeostasis is crucial in biology. Impairments lead to severe dysfunctions and are known to affect aging and development. Previously, a loss-of-function mutation in the gene encoding the copper-sensing and copper-regulated transcription factor GRISEA of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina was reported to lead to cellular copper depletion and a pleiotropic phenotype with hypopigmentation of the mycelium and the ascospores, affected fertility and increased lifespan by approximately 60% when compared to the wild type. This phenotype is linked to a switch from a copper-dependent standard to an alternative respiration leading to both a reduced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and of adenosine triphosphate (ATP. We performed a genome-wide comparative transcriptome analysis of a wild-type strain and the copper-depleted grisea mutant. We unambiguously assigned 9,700 sequences of the transcriptome in both strains to the more than 10,600 predicted and annotated open reading frames of the P. anserina genome indicating 90% coverage of the transcriptome. 4,752 of the transcripts differed significantly in abundance with 1,156 transcripts differing at least 3-fold. Selected genes were investigated by qRT-PCR analyses. Apart from this general characterization we analyzed the data with special emphasis on molecular pathways related to the grisea mutation taking advantage of the available complete genomic sequence of P. anserina. This analysis verified but also corrected conclusions from earlier data obtained by single gene analysis, identified new candidates of factors as part of the cellular copper homeostasis system including target genes of transcription factor GRISEA, and provides a rich reference source of quantitative data for further in detail investigations. Overall, the present study demonstrates the importance of systems biology approaches also in cases were mutations in single genes are analyzed to

  4. Transcriptomic profiling of cartilage ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Mandy Jayne Peffers; Xuan Liu; Peter David Clegg

    2014-01-01

    The musculoskeletal system is severely affected by the ageing process, with many tissues undergoing changes that lead to loss of function and frailty. Articular cartilage is susceptible to age related diseases, such as osteoarthritis. Applying RNA-Seq to young and old equine cartilage, we identified an over-representation of genes with reduced expression relating to extracellular matrix, degradative proteases, matrix synthetic enzymes, cytokines and growth factors in cartilage from older dono...

  5. Transcriptomic profiling of cartilage ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peffers, Mandy Jayne; Liu, Xuan; Clegg, Peter David

    2014-12-01

    The musculoskeletal system is severely affected by the ageing process, with many tissues undergoing changes that lead to loss of function and frailty. Articular cartilage is susceptible to age related diseases, such as osteoarthritis. Applying RNA-Seq to young and old equine cartilage, we identified an over-representation of genes with reduced expression relating to extracellular matrix, degradative proteases, matrix synthetic enzymes, cytokines and growth factors in cartilage from older donors. Here we describe the contents and quality controls in detail for the gene expression and related results published by Peffers and colleagues in Arthritis Research and Therapy 2013 associated with the data uploaded to ArrayExpress (E-MTAB-1386). PMID:26484061

  6. Transcriptomic profiling of cartilage ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Jayne Peffers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The musculoskeletal system is severely affected by the ageing process, with many tissues undergoing changes that lead to loss of function and frailty. Articular cartilage is susceptible to age related diseases, such as osteoarthritis. Applying RNA-Seq to young and old equine cartilage, we identified an over-representation of genes with reduced expression relating to extracellular matrix, degradative proteases, matrix synthetic enzymes, cytokines and growth factors in cartilage from older donors. Here we describe the contents and quality controls in detail for the gene expression and related results published by Peffers and colleagues in Arthritis Research and Therapy 2013 associated with the data uploaded to ArrayExpress (E-MTAB-1386.

  7. Age-Dependent Modulation of Cortical Transcriptomes in Spinal Cord Injury and Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Jaerve, Anne; Kruse, Fabian; Malik, Katharina; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Müller, Hans Werner

    2012-01-01

    Both injury and aging of the central nervous system reportedly produce profound changes in gene expression. Therefore, aging may interfere with the success of therapeutic interventions which were tailored for young patients. Using genome-scale transcriptional profiling, we identified distinct age-dependent expression profiles in rat sensorimotor cortex during acute, subacute and chronic phases of spinal cord injury (SCI). Aging affects the cortical transcriptomes triggered by transection of t...

  8. Maternal bisphenol a exposure impacts the fetal heart transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan C Chapalamadugu

    Full Text Available Conditions during fetal development influence health and disease in adulthood, especially during critical windows of organogenesis. Fetal exposure to the endocrine disrupting chemical, bisphenol A (BPA affects the development of multiple organ systems in rodents and monkeys. However, effects of BPA exposure on cardiac development have not been assessed. With evidence that maternal BPA is transplacentally delivered to the developing fetus, it becomes imperative to examine the physiological consequences of gestational exposure during primate development. Herein, we evaluate the effects of daily, oral BPA exposure of pregnant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta on the fetal heart transcriptome. Pregnant monkeys were given daily oral doses (400 µg/kg body weight of BPA during early (50-100 ± 2 days post conception, dpc or late (100 ± 2 dpc--term, gestation. At the end of treatment, fetal heart tissues were collected and chamber specific transcriptome expression was assessed using genome-wide microarray. Quantitative real-time PCR was conducted on select genes and ventricular tissue glycogen content was quantified. Our results show that BPA exposure alters transcription of genes that are recognized for their role in cardiac pathophysiologies. Importantly, myosin heavy chain, cardiac isoform alpha (Myh6 was down-regulated in the left ventricle, and 'A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 12', long isoform (Adam12-l was up-regulated in both ventricles, and the right atrium of the heart in BPA exposed fetuses. BPA induced alteration of these genes supports the hypothesis that exposure to BPA during fetal development may impact cardiovascular fitness. Our results intensify concerns about the role of BPA in the genesis of human metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisá, Sonia J; Shike, Daniel W; Shoup, Lindsay; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Loor, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring's Longissimus muscle (LM) transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW) and normal weaned (NW) Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN)] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN)] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW), 187 (NW) and 354 (before slaughter) days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG). However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW) strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167), especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the "finishing" phase), NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef cattle

  10. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia J Moisá

    Full Text Available In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring's Longissimus muscle (LM transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW and normal weaned (NW Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW, 187 (NW and 354 (before slaughter days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG. However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167, especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the "finishing" phase, NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef

  11. Comparative Meta-Analysis of Transcriptomics Data during Cellular Senescence and In Vivo Tissue Ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos Voutetakis; Aristotelis Chatziioannou; Gonos, Efstathios S.; Trougakos, Ioannis P.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have employed DNA microarrays to identify gene expression signatures that mark human ageing; yet the features underlying this complicated phenomenon remain elusive. We thus conducted a bioinformatics meta-analysis on transcriptomics data from human cell- and biopsy-based microarrays experiments studying cellular senescence or in vivo tissue ageing, respectively. We report that coregulated genes in the postmitotic muscle and nervous tissues are classified into pathways involved...

  12. Evolution of the aging brain transcriptome and synaptic regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M Loerch

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders of aging are characterized by clinical and pathological features that are relatively specific to humans. To obtain greater insight into how brain aging has evolved, we compared age-related gene expression changes in the cortex of humans, rhesus macaques, and mice on a genome-wide scale. A small subset of gene expression changes are conserved in all three species, including robust age-dependent upregulation of the neuroprotective gene apolipoprotein D (APOD and downregulation of the synaptic cAMP signaling gene calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CAMK4. However, analysis of gene ontology and cell type localization shows that humans and rhesus macaques have diverged from mice due to a dramatic increase in age-dependent repression of neuronal genes. Many of these age-regulated neuronal genes are associated with synaptic function. Notably, genes associated with GABA-ergic inhibitory function are robustly age-downregulated in humans but not in mice at the level of both mRNA and protein. Gene downregulation was not associated with overall neuronal or synaptic loss. Thus, repression of neuronal gene expression is a prominent and recently evolved feature of brain aging in humans and rhesus macaques that may alter neural networks and contribute to age-related cognitive changes.

  13. Transcriptome composition of the preoptic area in mid-age and escitalopram treatment in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Shogo; Soga, Tomoko; Wong, Dutt Way; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2016-05-27

    The decrease in serotonergic neurotransmission during aging can increase the risk of neuropsychiatric diseases such as depression in elderly population and decline the reproductive system. Therefore, it is important to understand the age-associated molecular mechanisms of brain aging. In this study, the effect of aging and chronic escitalopram (antidepressant) treatment to admit mice was investigated by comparing transcriptomes in the preoptic area (POA) which is a key nucleus for reproduction. In the mid-aged brain, the immune system-related genes were increased and hormone response-related genes were decreased. In the escitalopram treated brains, transcription-, granule cell proliferation- and vasoconstriction-related genes were increased and olfactory receptors were decreased. Since homeostasis and neuroprotection-related genes were altered in both of mid-age and escitalopram treatment, these genes could be important for serotonin related physiologies in the POA. PMID:27113202

  14. [Impact of aging on sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degauquier, C; Absil, A-S; Psalti, I; Meuris, S; Jurysta, F

    2012-01-01

    Numerous authors on sexual behaviors have studied the link between the persistence of a sexually active life and progressive aging. The knowledge of sexual health in the elderly has shown that biological sexual aging is extremely diverse and heterogeneous in men as well as in women, and contradicts the stereotype of age that would inevitably alter the sexual biological response in each human. Sexual diseases (lubrication, dyspareunia, erectile dysfunction, inability to achieve orgasm) and diseases of aging that impact sexual function have a growing incidence but don't never touch 100% of individuals. There is a decline in sexual interest correlated with the life-span, but the negative effects of age on desire are related to health problems. Moreover, sexual desire is more correlated with personal attitudes toward sexuality than with biological factors and diseases. Several predictors account for the pursuit of an active sexuality (including the presence of a partner, good health, having good sexual self-esteem, enjoyable past experience, an attitude that values the importance of sex in couple relationship), but the most decisive factor to successfully face the specific markers of aging is the ability to adapt to a more sensory sexuality, less focused on performance and coitus. PMID:22891587

  15. Age-dependent modulation of cortical transcriptomes in spinal cord injury and repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Jaerve

    Full Text Available Both injury and aging of the central nervous system reportedly produce profound changes in gene expression. Therefore, aging may interfere with the success of therapeutic interventions which were tailored for young patients. Using genome-scale transcriptional profiling, we identified distinct age-dependent expression profiles in rat sensorimotor cortex during acute, subacute and chronic phases of spinal cord injury (SCI. Aging affects the cortical transcriptomes triggered by transection of the corticospinal tract as there was only a small overlap between the significantly lesion-regulated genes in both age groups. Over-representation analysis of the lesion-regulated genes revealed that, in addition to biological processes in common, such as lipid metabolism, others, such as activation of complement cascade, were specific for aged animals. When a recently developed treatment to suppress fibrotic scarring (anti-scarring treatment AST was applied to the injured spinal cord of aged (22 months and young (2 months rats, we found that the cortical gene expression in old rats was modulated to resemble regeneration-associated profiles of young animals including the up-regulation of known repair promoting growth and transcription factors at 35 dpo. In combination with recent immunohistochemical findings demonstrating regenerative axon growth upon AST in aged animals, the present investigation on the level of gene expression strongly supports the feasibility of a successful AST therapy in elderly patients.

  16. Impact of Hfq on the Bacillus subtilis Transcriptome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hämmerle, H.; Amman, F.; Večerek, Branislav; Stülke, J.; Hofacker, I.; Bläsi, U.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 6 (2014). E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : STAPHYLOCOCCUS-AUREUS RNAIII * SMALL NONCODING RNAS * SMALL REGULATORY RNA Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  17. Impact of aging on radiation hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn-in effects are used to demonstrate the potential impact of thermally activated aging effects on functional and parametric radiation hardness. These results have implications on hardness assurance testing. Techniques for characterizing aging effects are proposed

  18. Global impact of RNA splicing on transcriptome remodeling in the heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen GAO; Yibin WANG

    2012-01-01

    In the eukaryotic transcriptome,both the numbers of genes and different RNA species produced by each gene contribute to the overall complexity.These RNA species are generated by the utilization of different transcriptional initiation or termination sites,or more commonly,from different messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing events.Among the 30 000+ genes in human genome,it is estimated that more than 95% of them can generate more than one gene product via alternative RNA splicing.The protein products generated from different RNA splicing variants can have different intracellular localization,activity,or tissue-distribution.Therefore,alternative RNA splicing is an important molecular process that contributes to the overall complexity of the genome and the functional specificity and diversity among different cell types.In this review,we will discuss current efforts to unravel the full complexity of the cardiac transcriptome using a deep-sequencing approach,and highlight the potential of this technology to uncover the global impact of RNA splicing on the transcriptome during development and diseases of the heart.

  19. Impact papers on aging in 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V; Campisi, Judy; Sinclair, David A;

    2010-01-01

    The Editorial Board of Aging reviews research papers published in 2009, which they believe have or will have significant impact on aging research. Among many others, the topics include genes that accelerate aging or in contrast promote longevity in model organisms, DNA damage responses and telome...

  20. Does Retirement Age Impact Mortality?

    OpenAIRE

    Hernaes, Erik; Markussen, Simen; Piggott, John; Vestad, Ola

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between retirement and mortality, using a unique administrative data set covering the full population of Norway. We make use of a series of retirement policy changes in Norway, which reduced the retirement age for a group of workers but not for others. By employing a difference-in-differences framework based on monthly birth cohort and treatment group status we first establish that the early retirement program significantly reduced the retirement age - this...

  1. [IMPACT OF AGING IN PSYCHIATRY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Romina; Jauregui, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The changes associated with aging influence the clinical presentation and treatment approach of psychiatric illness. Several psychiatric disorders are common in old age as depression or set of diseases with cognitive impairment requiring geriatric knowledge. In many countries psychiatry of the elderly are called psychogeriatric. Regardless of the name objective of this article is to convey that the psychiatrist who treats patients over 65 years with multiple disorders, with frailty social problems and polypharmacy should have some tools in addition to the thorough understanding of psychiatric illness itself. Teamwork, meet physiological changes of aging and how these affect the response to drugs, atypical presentation of illness and keep in mind the importance of psychosocial and environmental issues both in presentation and in addressing and monitoring of disease. PMID:26650408

  2. Quantitative assessment of biological impact using transcriptomic data and mechanistic network models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to biologically active substances such as therapeutic drugs or environmental toxicants can impact biological systems at various levels, affecting individual molecules, signaling pathways, and overall cellular processes. The ability to derive mechanistic insights from the resulting system responses requires the integration of experimental measures with a priori knowledge about the system and the interacting molecules therein. We developed a novel systems biology-based methodology that leverages mechanistic network models and transcriptomic data to quantitatively assess the biological impact of exposures to active substances. Hierarchically organized network models were first constructed to provide a coherent framework for investigating the impact of exposures at the molecular, pathway and process levels. We then validated our methodology using novel and previously published experiments. For both in vitro systems with simple exposure and in vivo systems with complex exposures, our methodology was able to recapitulate known biological responses matching expected or measured phenotypes. In addition, the quantitative results were in agreement with experimental endpoint data for many of the mechanistic effects that were assessed, providing further objective confirmation of the approach. We conclude that our methodology evaluates the biological impact of exposures in an objective, systematic, and quantifiable manner, enabling the computation of a systems-wide and pan-mechanistic biological impact measure for a given active substance or mixture. Our results suggest that various fields of human disease research, from drug development to consumer product testing and environmental impact analysis, could benefit from using this methodology. - Highlights: • The impact of biologically active substances is quantified at multiple levels. • The systems-level impact integrates the perturbations of individual networks. • The networks capture the relationships between

  3. Quantitative assessment of biological impact using transcriptomic data and mechanistic network models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, Ty M. [Selventa, One Alewife Center, Cambridge, MA 02140 (United States); Sewer, Alain, E-mail: Alain.Sewer@pmi.com [Philip Morris International R and D, Philip Morris Products S.A., Quai Jeanrenaud 5, 2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Martin, Florian; Belcastro, Vincenzo [Philip Morris International R and D, Philip Morris Products S.A., Quai Jeanrenaud 5, 2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Frushour, Brian P. [Selventa, One Alewife Center, Cambridge, MA 02140 (United States); Gebel, Stephan [Philip Morris International R and D, Philip Morris Research Laboratories GmbH, Edmund-Rumpler-Strasse 5, 51149 Koeln (Germany); Park, Jennifer [Selventa, One Alewife Center, Cambridge, MA 02140 (United States); Schlage, Walter K. [Philip Morris International R and D, Philip Morris Research Laboratories GmbH, Edmund-Rumpler-Strasse 5, 51149 Koeln (Germany); Talikka, Marja [Philip Morris International R and D, Philip Morris Products S.A., Quai Jeanrenaud 5, 2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Vasilyev, Dmitry M.; Westra, Jurjen W. [Selventa, One Alewife Center, Cambridge, MA 02140 (United States); Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C. [Philip Morris International R and D, Philip Morris Products S.A., Quai Jeanrenaud 5, 2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland)

    2013-11-01

    Exposure to biologically active substances such as therapeutic drugs or environmental toxicants can impact biological systems at various levels, affecting individual molecules, signaling pathways, and overall cellular processes. The ability to derive mechanistic insights from the resulting system responses requires the integration of experimental measures with a priori knowledge about the system and the interacting molecules therein. We developed a novel systems biology-based methodology that leverages mechanistic network models and transcriptomic data to quantitatively assess the biological impact of exposures to active substances. Hierarchically organized network models were first constructed to provide a coherent framework for investigating the impact of exposures at the molecular, pathway and process levels. We then validated our methodology using novel and previously published experiments. For both in vitro systems with simple exposure and in vivo systems with complex exposures, our methodology was able to recapitulate known biological responses matching expected or measured phenotypes. In addition, the quantitative results were in agreement with experimental endpoint data for many of the mechanistic effects that were assessed, providing further objective confirmation of the approach. We conclude that our methodology evaluates the biological impact of exposures in an objective, systematic, and quantifiable manner, enabling the computation of a systems-wide and pan-mechanistic biological impact measure for a given active substance or mixture. Our results suggest that various fields of human disease research, from drug development to consumer product testing and environmental impact analysis, could benefit from using this methodology. - Highlights: • The impact of biologically active substances is quantified at multiple levels. • The systems-level impact integrates the perturbations of individual networks. • The networks capture the relationships between

  4. Competence Classification of Cumulus and Granulosa Cell Transcriptome in Embryos Matched by Morphology and Female Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuesen, Lea Langhoff; Andersen, Claus Yding; Nyboe-Andersen, Anders; Ziebe, Søren; Winther, Ole; Grøndahl, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    Objective By focussing on differences in the mural granulosa cell (MGC) and cumulus cell (CC) transcriptomes from follicles resulting in competent (live birth) and non-competent (no pregnancy) oocytes the study aims on defining a competence classifier expression profile in the two cellular compartments. Design: A case-control study. Setting: University based facilities for clinical services and research. Patients: MGC and CC samples from 60 women undergoing IVF treatment following the long GnRH-agonist protocol were collected. Samples from 16 oocytes where live birth was achieved and 16 age- and embryo morphology matched incompetent oocytes were included in the study. Methods MGC and CC were isolated immediately after oocyte retrieval. From the 16 competent and non-competent follicles, mRNA was extracted and expression profile generated on the Human Gene 1.0 ST Affymetrix array. Live birth prediction analysis using machine learning algorithms (support vector machines) with performance estimation by leave-one-out cross validation and independent validation on an external data set. Results We defined a signature of 30 genes expressed in CC predictive of live birth. This live birth prediction model had an accuracy of 81%, a sensitivity of 0.83, a specificity of 0.80, a positive predictive value of 0.77, and a negative predictive value of 0.86. Receiver operating characteristic analysis found an area under the curve of 0.86, significantly greater than random chance. When applied on 3 external data sets with the end-point outcome measure of blastocyst formation, the signature resulted in 62%, 75% and 88% accuracy, respectively. The genes in the classifier are primarily connected to apoptosis and involvement in formation of extracellular matrix. We were not able to define a robust MGC classifier signature that could classify live birth with accuracy above random chance level. Conclusion We have developed a cumulus cell classifier, which showed a promising performance on

  5. Sex- and age-dependent human transcriptome variability: Implications for chronic heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Boheler, Kenneth R.; Volkova, Maria; Morrell, Christopher; Garg, Rahul; Zhu, Yi; Margulies, Kenneth; Seymour, Anne-Marie; Edward G Lakatta

    2003-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is the end result of progressive and diverse biological adaptations within the diseased myocardium. We used cDNA microarrays and quantitative PCR to examine the transcriptomes of 38 left ventricles from failing and nonfailing human myocardium. After identification of a pool of putative HF-responsive candidate genes by microarrays on seven nonfailing and eight failing hearts, we used quantitative PCR and a general linear statistical model in a larger sample set (n = 34) to v...

  6. In vitro fertilization and embryo culture strongly impact the placental transcriptome in the mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Fauque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART are increasingly used in humans; however, their impact is now questioned. At blastocyst stage, the trophectoderm is directly in contact with an artificial medium environment, which can impact placental development. This study was designed to carry out an in-depth analysis of the placental transcriptome after ART in mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blastocysts were transferred either (1 after in vivo fertilization and development (control group or (2 after in vitro fertilization and embryo culture. Placentas were then analyzed at E10.5. Six percent of transcripts were altered at the two-fold threshold in placentas of manipulated embryos, 2/3 of transcripts being down-regulated. Strikingly, the X-chromosome harbors 11% of altered genes, 2/3 being induced. Imprinted genes were modified similarly to the X. Promoter composition analysis indicates that FOXA transcription factors may be involved in the transcriptional deregulations. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, our study shows that in vitro fertilization associated with embryo culture strongly modify the placental expression profile, long after embryo manipulations, meaning that the stress of artificial environment is memorized after implantation. Expression of X and imprinted genes is also greatly modulated probably to adapt to adverse conditions. Our results highlight the importance of studying human placentas from ART.

  7. The Impacts of Read Length and Transcriptome Complexity for De Novo Assembly: A Simulation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Zheng; Wang, Zhenjia; Li, Guojun

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptome assembly using RNA-seq data - particularly in non-model organisms has been dramatically improved, but only recently have the pre-assembly procedures, such as sequencing depth and error correction, been studied. Increasing read length is viewed as a crucial condition to further improve transcriptome assembly, but it is unknown whether the read length really matters. In addition, though many assembly tools are available now, it is unclear whether the existing assemblers perform we...

  8. Global view of transcriptome in the brains of aged NR2B transgenic mice*****

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunxia Li; Men Su; Huimin Wang; Yinghe Hu

    2013-01-01

    NR2B subunits are involved in regulating aging, in particular, age-related learning and memory deficits. We examined 19-month-old NR2B transgenic mice and their littermate controls. First, we detected expression of the NR2B subunit gene, Grin2b, in the neocortex of transgenic mice using real-time PCR. Next, we used microarrays to examine differences in neocortical gene expression. Pathway and signal-net analyses identified multiple pathways altered in the transgenic mice, in-cluding the P53, Jak-STAT, Wnt, and Notch pathways, as wel as regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions. Further signal-net analysis highlighted the P53 and insulin-like growth factor pathways as key regulatory pathways. Our results provide new insight into understanding the molecular mechanisms of NR2B regulated age-related memory storage, normal organismal aging and age-related disease.

  9. Transcriptome Analysis of B Cell Immune Functions in Periodontitis: Mucosal Tissue Responses to the Oral Microbiome in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L; Kirakodu, Sreenatha S; Novak, M John; Orraca, Luis; Martinez, Janis Gonzalez; Cunningham, Larry L; Thomas, Mark V; Stromberg, Arnold; Pandruvada, Subramanya N; Gonzalez, Octavio A

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has shown activation of T and B cells in gingival tissues in experimental models and in humans diagnosed with periodontitis. The results of this adaptive immune response are noted both locally and systemically with antigenic specificity for an array of oral bacteria, including periodontopathic species, e.g., Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. It has been recognized through epidemiological studies and clinical observations that the prevalence of periodontitis increases with age. This report describes our studies evaluating gingival tissue transcriptomes in humans and specifically exploiting the use of a non-human primate model of naturally occurring periodontitis to delineate gingival mucosal tissue gene expression profiles focusing on cells/genes critical for the development of humoral adaptive immune responses. Patterns of B cell and plasmacyte genes were altered in aging healthy gingival tissues. Substantial increases in a large number of genes reflecting antigen-dependent activation, B cell activation, B cell proliferation, and B cell differentiation/maturation were observed in periodontitis in adults and aged animals. Finally, evaluation of the relationship of these gene expression patterns with those of various tissue destructive molecules (MMP2, MMP9, CTSK, TNFα, and RANKL) showed a greater frequency of positive correlations in healthy tissues versus periodontitis tissues, with only MMP9 correlations similar between the two tissue types. These results are consistent with B cell response activities in healthy tissues potentially contributing to muting the effects of the tissue destructive biomolecules, whereas with periodontitis this relationship is adversely affected and enabling a progression of tissue destructive events. PMID:27486459

  10. Transcriptome Analysis of B Cell Immune Functions in Periodontitis: Mucosal Tissue Responses to the Oral Microbiome in Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Kirakodu, Sreenatha S.; Novak, M. John; Orraca, Luis; Martinez, Janis Gonzalez; Cunningham, Larry L.; Thomas, Mark V.; Stromberg, Arnold; Pandruvada, Subramanya N.; Gonzalez, Octavio A.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has shown activation of T and B cells in gingival tissues in experimental models and in humans diagnosed with periodontitis. The results of this adaptive immune response are noted both locally and systemically with antigenic specificity for an array of oral bacteria, including periodontopathic species, e.g., Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. It has been recognized through epidemiological studies and clinical observations that the prevalence of periodontitis increases with age. This report describes our studies evaluating gingival tissue transcriptomes in humans and specifically exploiting the use of a non-human primate model of naturally occurring periodontitis to delineate gingival mucosal tissue gene expression profiles focusing on cells/genes critical for the development of humoral adaptive immune responses. Patterns of B cell and plasmacyte genes were altered in aging healthy gingival tissues. Substantial increases in a large number of genes reflecting antigen-dependent activation, B cell activation, B cell proliferation, and B cell differentiation/maturation were observed in periodontitis in adults and aged animals. Finally, evaluation of the relationship of these gene expression patterns with those of various tissue destructive molecules (MMP2, MMP9, CTSK, TNFα, and RANKL) showed a greater frequency of positive correlations in healthy tissues versus periodontitis tissues, with only MMP9 correlations similar between the two tissue types. These results are consistent with B cell response activities in healthy tissues potentially contributing to muting the effects of the tissue destructive biomolecules, whereas with periodontitis this relationship is adversely affected and enabling a progression of tissue destructive events. PMID:27486459

  11. Transcriptome analysis in Ceratitis capitata to unveil genes involved in ageing-maturation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. San Andrés

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The sterile insect technique (SIT is widely used in integrated programmes against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae. Information on the age distribution of insects, and more particularly, the knowledge of wild female reproductive status (mature or not at the time of the sterile male release is one of the key factors for the success of the SIT. In recent years, sequencing analysis has become an important tool in molecular biology. In this work we present a genome-wide expression analysis based on SSH (substractive sequence hybridization and EST (expressed sequence tag sequencing and macroarray expression analysis to identify signature genes related to the ageing-maturing process in C. capitata, leading to the successful identification of new putative candidate genes of reproductive status in medfly that would serve as molecular markers for ageing. We have sorted out 94 unigenes from 873 single-pass ESTs, of which 57% have homology with known genes. Ageing-maturing process in C. capitata presents a marked expression pattern accompanied by the increase of transcription level of genes involved in reproduction (vitellogenins, chorion proteins and male-specific serum proteins. Other identified cDNAs (43% with a differential expression pattern would be also candidates but deserve further studies, as they belong to the unknown function class.

  12. Transcriptome Analysis on Monocytes from Patients with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Grunin; Shira- Hagbi-Levi; Batya Rinsky; Yoav Smith; Itay Chowers

    2016-01-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes (MPs), including monocytes/macrophages, play complex roles in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) pathogenesis. We reported altered gene-expression signature in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from AMD patients, and a chemokine receptor signature on AMD monocytes. To obtain comprehensive understanding of MP involvement, particularly in peripheral circulation in AMD, we performed global gene expression analysis in monocytes. We separated monocytes from treatment-na...

  13. Impact of a short-term exposure to spaceflight on the phenotype, genome, transcriptome and proteome of Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianzhi; Chang, De; Xu, Huiwen; Chen, Jiapeng; Su, Longxiang; Guo, Yinghua; Chen, Zhenhong; Wang, Yajuan; Wang, Li; Wang, Junfeng; Fang, Xiangqun; Liu, Changting

    2015-07-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most widely applied model organism in current biological science. As a widespread opportunistic pathogen, E. coli can survive not only by symbiosis with human, but also outside the host as well, which necessitates the evaluation of its response to the space environment. Therefore, to keep humans safe in space, it is necessary to understand how the bacteria respond to this environment. Despite extensive investigations for a few decades, the response of E. coli to the real space environment is still controversial. To better understand the mechanisms how E. coli overcomes harsh environments such as microgravity in space and to investigate whether these factors may induce pathogenic changes in E. coli that are potentially detrimental to astronauts, we conducted detailed genomics, transcriptomic and proteomic studies on E. coli that experienced 17 days of spaceflight. By comparing two flight strains LCT-EC52 and LCT-EC59 to a control strain LCT-EC106 that was cultured under the same temperature conditions on the ground, we identified metabolism changes, polymorphism changes, differentially expressed genes and proteins in the two flight strains. The flight strains differed from the control in the utilization of more than 30 carbon sources. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one deletion were identified in the flight strains. The expression level of more than 1000 genes altered in flight strains. Genes involved in chemotaxis, lipid metabolism and cell motility express differently. Moreover, the two flight strains also differed extensively from each other in terms of metabolism, transcriptome and proteome, indicating the impact of space environment on individual cells is heterogeneous and probably genotype-dependent. This study presents the first systematic profile of E. coli genome, transcriptome and proteome after spaceflight, which helps to elucidate the mechanism that controls the adaptation of microbes to the space

  14. Long-Term Estrogen Receptor Beta Agonist Treatment Modifies the Hippocampal Transcriptome in Middle-Aged Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sárvári, Miklós; Kalló, Imre; Hrabovszky, Erik; Solymosi, Norbert; Rodolosse, Annie; Liposits, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) robustly activates transcription of a broad array of genes in the hippocampal formation of middle-aged ovariectomized rats via estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ, and G protein-coupled ER). Selective ERβ agonists also influence hippocampal functions, although their downstream molecular targets and mechanisms are not known. In this study, we explored the effects of long-term treatment with ERβ agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN, 0.05 mg/kg/day, sc.) on the hippocampal transcriptome in ovariectomized, middle-aged (13 month) rats. Isolated hippocampal formations were analyzed by Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray and quantitative real-time PCR. Four hundred ninety-seven genes fulfilled the absolute fold change higher than 2 (FC > 2) selection criterion. Among them 370 genes were activated. Pathway analysis identified terms including glutamatergic and cholinergic synapse, RNA transport, endocytosis, thyroid hormone signaling, RNA degradation, retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, and mRNA surveillance. PCR studies showed transcriptional regulation of 58 genes encoding growth factors (Igf2, Igfb2, Igf1r, Fgf1, Mdk, Ntf3, Bdnf), transcription factors (Otx2, Msx1), potassium channels (Kcne2), neuropeptides (Cck, Pdyn), peptide receptors (Crhr2, Oprm1, Gnrhr, Galr2, Sstr1, Sstr3), neurotransmitter receptors (Htr1a, Htr2c, Htr2a, Gria2, Gria3, Grm5, Gabra1, Chrm5, Adrb1), and vesicular neurotransmitter transporters (Slc32a1, Slc17a7). Protein-protein interaction analysis revealed networking of clusters associated with the regulation of growth/troph factor signaling, transcription, translation, neurotransmitter and neurohormone signaling mechanisms and potassium channels. Collectively, the results reveal the contribution of ERβ-mediated processes to the regulation of transcription, translation, neurogenesis, neuromodulation, and neuroprotection in the hippocampal formation of ovariectomized, middle-aged rats and elucidate regulatory channels responsible for

  15. Long-Term Estrogen Receptor Beta Agonist Treatment Modifies the Hippocampal Transcriptome in Middle-Aged Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Sárvári

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol (E2 robustly activates transcription of a broad array of genes in the hippocampal formation of middle-aged ovariectomized rats via estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ and G protein-coupled ER. Selective ERβ agonists also influence hippocampal functions, although their downstream molecular targets and mechanisms are not known. In this study, we explored the effects of long-term treatment with ERβ agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN, 0.05 mg/kg/day, sc. on the hippocampal transcriptome in ovariectomized, middle-aged (13 month rats. Isolated hippocampal formations were analyzed by Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray and quantitative real-time PCR. Four hundred ninety-seven genes fulfilled the absolute fold change higher than 2 (FC>2 selection criterion. Among them 370 genes were activated. Pathway analysis identified terms including glutamatergic and cholinergic synapse, RNA transport, endocytosis, thyroid hormone signaling, RNA degradation, retrograde endocannabinoid signaling and mRNA surveillance. PCR studies showed transcriptional regulation of 58 genes encoding growth factors (Igf2, Igfb2, Igf1r, Fgf1, Mdk, Ntf3, Bdnf, transcription factors (Otx2, Msx1, potassium channels (Kcne2, neuropeptides (Cck, Pdyn, peptide receptors (Crhr2, Oprm1, Gnrhr, Galr2, Sstr1, Sstr3, neurotransmitter receptors (Htr1a, Htr2c, Htr2a, Gria2, Gria3, Grm5, Gabra1, Chrm5, Adrb1 and vesicular neurotransmitter transporters (Slc32a1, Slc17a7. Protein-protein interaction analysis revealed networking of clusters associated with the regulation of growth/troph factor signaling, transcription, translation, neurotransmitter and neurohormone signaling mechanisms and potassium channels. Collectively, the results reveal the contribution of ERβ-mediated processes to the regulation of transcription, translation, neurogenesis, neuromodulation and neuroprotection in the hippocampal formation of ovariectomized, middle-aged rats and elucidate regulatory channels responsible for

  16. The impact of aging on regional employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Torben Dall; Mitze, Timo Friedel; Kangasharju, Aki;

    2014-01-01

    Ageing is a key challenge for many countries. The purpose of this paper is to simulate how ageing affects future regional labour market outcomes. We develop a simulation procedure based on data for 71 Nordic regions in Finland, Norway, Sweden and Denmark. The procedure combines spatial econometri...

  17. Functional ability at age 75: is there an impact of physical inactivity from middle age to early old age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Støvring, N; Schultz-Larsen, K;

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of physical inactivity from middle age to early old age on functional ability at age 75. Physical activity is measured both as cumulated activity from age 50 to 60 to 70 and at three separate points in time. Three hundred eighty-seven men and women...... smoking, sex, school education, household composition, chronic disease at baseline and functional ability at age 70 as possible confounders. There was a strong association between physical inactivity at age 70 and disability at age 75. However, the analyses showed no effect of cumulated physical...... inactivity from age 50 to 60 to 70 on disability at age 75 when adjusting for functional ability at age 70. Physical inactivity is a risk factor for disability among old people. Thus, old people should be encouraged to take up and maintain physical training throughout the aging process....

  18. Impact of Physical Exercise on Endocrine Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Joseph A M J L

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise may be vital to the maintenance of the endocrine system with aging and its helps to restore loss of activity of the endocrine system with aging. There is evidence that physical exercise induces activity of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis and so produces anabolic effects in skeletal muscles. Mechano growth factor (MGF), a locally produced isoform of IGF-1, has been hypothesized to be important for the maintenance of skeletal muscles with aging. Short-term high-resistance exercise results in an increase of MGF mRNA in young but not in elderly subjects. Reported changes in levels of circulating sex steroid hormones in men after different types of (acute and chronic) physical exercise are mixed and not consistent. In addition, physical exercise may increase local effects of sex steroid hormones, and this may be more important than levels of circulating sex steroids for the maintenance and function of skeletal muscles. In elderly women, both increased physical exercise and reduced body fat may decrease levels of circulating sex hormones. Aging is further associated with changes in the dynamic functions of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, but these changes may be attenuated/modified by aerobic training. Chronic exercise does not alter circulating cortisol levels in elderly subjects. PMID:27348867

  19. Pyranocoumarin Tissue Distribution, Plasma Metabolome and Prostate Transcriptome Impacts of Sub-Chronic Exposure to Korean Angelica Supplement in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinhui; Li, Li; Tang, Suni; Zhang, Yong; Markiewski, Maciej; Xing, Chengguo; Jiang, Cheng; Lü, Junxuan

    2016-04-01

    Herbal products containing Korean Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root extract are marketed as dietary supplements for memory enhancement, pain killing, and female menopausal symptom relief. We have shown the anticancer activities of AGN supplements in mouse models. To facilitate human anticancer translational research, we characterized the tissue distribution of AGN marker pyranocoumarin compounds decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA) ([Formula: see text]% in AGN) and their metabolite decursinol (DOH), assessed the safety of sub-chronic AGN dietary exposure in mice, and explored its impact on plasma aqueous metabolites and the prostate transcriptome. The data show that after a gavage dose, plasma contained readily detectable DOH, but little D and DA, mirroring patterns in the liver. Extra-hepatic tissues retained greater levels of DA and D than the liver did. For sub-chronic exposures, male mice were provided ad libitum AIN93M-pellet diets with 0.5 and 1% AGN for six weeks. No adverse effects were observed on the plasma biochemistry markers of liver and kidney integrity in spite of their enlargement. Histopathological examinations of the liver, kidney and other visceral organs did not reveal tissue abnormalities. Metabolomic assessment of plasma from mice fed the 1%-AGN diet suggested metabolic shifts of key amino acids especially in the methionine-cysteine cycle, purine cycle, and glycolysis-citrate cycle. Prostate transcriptomic profiling identified gene signature changes in the metabolisms of drugs, lipids and cellular energetics, neuro-muscular features, immunity and inflammation, and tumor suppressor/oncogene balance. The safety profile was corroborated with a daily [Formula: see text] injection of AGN extract (100-300[Formula: see text]mg/kg) for four weeks, which resulted in much greater systemic pyranocoumarin exposure than the dietary route did. PMID:27080944

  20. Linking gene regulation and the exo-metabolome: A comparative transcriptomics approach to identify genes that impact on the production of volatile aroma compounds in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Florian F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 'Omics' tools provide novel opportunities for system-wide analysis of complex cellular functions. Secondary metabolism is an example of a complex network of biochemical pathways, which, although well mapped from a biochemical point of view, is not well understood with regards to its physiological roles and genetic and biochemical regulation. Many of the metabolites produced by this network such as higher alcohols and esters are significant aroma impact compounds in fermentation products, and different yeast strains are known to produce highly divergent aroma profiles. Here, we investigated whether we can predict the impact of specific genes of known or unknown function on this metabolic network by combining whole transcriptome and partial exo-metabolome analysis. Results For this purpose, the gene expression levels of five different industrial wine yeast strains that produce divergent aroma profiles were established at three different time points of alcoholic fermentation in synthetic wine must. A matrix of gene expression data was generated and integrated with the concentrations of volatile aroma compounds measured at the same time points. This relatively unbiased approach to the study of volatile aroma compounds enabled us to identify candidate genes for aroma profile modification. Five of these genes, namely YMR210W, BAT1, AAD10, AAD14 and ACS1 were selected for overexpression in commercial wine yeast, VIN13. Analysis of the data show a statistically significant correlation between the changes in the exo-metabome of the overexpressing strains and the changes that were predicted based on the unbiased alignment of transcriptomic and exo-metabolomic data. Conclusion The data suggest that a comparative transcriptomics and metabolomics approach can be used to identify the metabolic impacts of the expression of individual genes in complex systems, and the amenability of transcriptomic data to direct applications of

  1. Meta-analysis on blood transcriptomic studies identifies consistently coexpressed protein–protein interaction modules as robust markers of human aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Akker, E.B.; Passtoors, W.M.; Jansen, R.; Van Zwet, E.W.; Goeman, J.J.; Hulsman, M.; Emilsson, V.; Perola, M.; Willemsen, G.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Heijmans, B.T.; Maier, A.B.; Boomsma, D.I.; Kok, J.N.; Slagboom, P.E.; Reinders, M.J.T.; Beekman, M.

    2013-01-01

    The bodily decline that occurs with advancing age strongly impacts on the prospects for future health and life expectancy. Despite the profound role of age in disease etiology, knowledge about the molecular mechanisms driving the process of aging in humans is limited. Here, we used an integrative ne

  2. Meta-analysis on blood transcriptomic studies identifies consistently coexpressed protein-protein interaction modules as robust markers of human aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, E.B. van den; Passtoors, W.M.; Jansen, R.; Zwet, E.W. van; Goeman, J.J.; Hulsman, M.; Emilsson, V.; Perola, M.; Willemsen, G.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Heijmans, B.T.; Maier, A.B.; Boomsma, D.I.; Kok, J.N.; Slagboom, P.E.; Reinders, M.J.; Beekman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The bodily decline that occurs with advancing age strongly impacts on the prospects for future health and life expectancy. Despite the profound role of age in disease etiology, knowledge about the molecular mechanisms driving the process of aging in humans is limited. Here, we used an integrative ne

  3. Growth-rate regulated genes have profound impact on interpretation of transcriptome profiling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regenberg, Birgitte; Grotkjaer, Thomas; Winther, Ole;

    2006-01-01

    Growth rate is central to the development of cells in all organisms. However, little is known about the impact of changing growth rates. We used continuous cultures to control growth rate and studied the transcriptional program of the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with generation times...

  4. Impact of Elderly Mother's Death on Middle Age Daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Miriam S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined middle aged daughters' (n=107) responses to death of their mother. In first six months of bereavement, many daughters experienced themes of holding on and letting go. Depression, grief, somatic reactions, impact on sense of self, acceptance of death, and ways in which ties with mother endure were differentially associated with…

  5. The impact of an increase in the legal retirement age on the effective retirement age.

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, Noelia; Vermeulen, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the impact of an increase in the legal retirement age on the effective retirement age in the Netherlands. We do this by means of a dynamic programming model for the retirement behavior of singles. The model is applied to new administrative data that contain very accurate and detailed information on individual incomes and occupational pension entitlements. Our model is able to capture the main patterns observed in the data. We observe that as individuals get older their labor supply...

  6. The impact of heat stress targeting on the hormonal and transcriptomic response in Arabidopsis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobrá, Jana; Černý, M.; Štorchová, Helena; Dobrev, Petre; Skalák, J.; Jedelský, P.L.; Lukšanová, Hana; Gaudinová, Alena; Pešek, Bedřich; Malbeck, Jiří; Vaněk, Tomáš; Brzobohatý, Břetislav; Vaňková, Radomíra

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 231, FEB 2015 (2015), s. 52-61. ISSN 0168-9452 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/2062; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11048; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : Abscisic acid * Cytokinin * Heat stress Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.607, year: 2014

  7. Impact of aging conditions on mechanical properties of thermoplastic polyurethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, impact of environmental aging conditions on the mechanical properties of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) was investigated. Especially, effect of temperature on water diffusion has been studied. Water-sorption experiments, tensile test and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) were performed after immersion in distilled water at different temperatures (25, 70 and 90 oC). The sorption process was analyzed by gravimetric measurements at different temperatures. Also, diffusion coefficients of solvent molecules in the TPU samples were identified. Therefore the activation energy and the mixing enthalpy were deduced. The aging impact on some mechanical properties of this material has been investigated after various aging cycles. Degradation of mechanical properties was observed. In fact, elastic modulus and stress at 200% of strain were decreased. It was also shown that such degradation largely depends on both aging temperature and aging immersion duration. The storage modulus (E') was also affected by the hygrothermal (HT) environment. The modification of mechanical properties seems to be well correlated to structural observations obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photographs. Finally, through thermal aging experiments, it was deduced that the combination of temperature with water seems to be a major factor of TPU degradation.

  8. Negative impact of asthma on patients in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Batan Alith

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact of asthma on patients in Brazil, by age group (12-17 years, 18-40 years, and ≥ 41 years. Methods: From a survey conducted in Latin America in 2011, we obtained data on 400 patients diagnosed with asthma and residing in one of four Brazilian state capitals (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, and Salvador. The data had been collected using a standardized questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. For the patients who were minors, the parents/guardians had completed the questionnaire. The questions addressed asthma control, number of hospitalizations, number of emergency room visits, and school/work absenteeism, as well as the impact of asthma on the quality of life, sleep, and leisure. We stratified the data by the selected age groups. Results: The proportions of patients who responded in the affirmative to the following questions were significantly higher in the 12- to 17-year age group than in the other two groups: "Have you had at least one episode of severe asthma that prevented you from playing/exercising in the last 12 months?" (p = 0.012; "Have you been absent from school/work in the last 12 months?" (p < 0.001; "Have you discontinued your asthma relief or control medication in the last 12 months?" (p = 0.008. In addition, 30.2% of the patients in the 12- to 17-year age group reported that normal physical exertion was very limiting (p = 0.010 vs. the other groups, whereas 14% of the patients in the ≥ 41-year age group described social activities as very limiting (p = 0.011 vs. the other groups. Conclusions: In this sample, asthma had a greater impact on the patients between 12 and 17 years of age, which might be attributable to poor treatment compliance.

  9. Age-dependent myocardial transcriptomic changes in the rat. Novel insights into atrial and ventricular arrhythmias pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scridon Alina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intruducere Deși înaintarea în vârstă este asociată cu creșterea prevalenței aritmiilor cardiace, evenimentele transcriptomice care stau la baza acestui proces rămân neelucidate. Pentru a identifica aceste mecanisme am realizat analiza expresiei ARNm la nivelul miocardului atrial și ventricular la șobolani Wistar-Kyoto (WKY de diferite vârste. Metodă: Expresiile ARNm a 89 de gene au fost analizate prin TLDA utilizând eșantioane atriale și ventriculare de la 3 grupuri (n=4 fiecare de șobolani WKY tineri, adulți și vârstnici. Rezultate: Din cele 89 de gene, 40 și respectiv 64 de gene au prezentat expresii stabile la nivel atrial și respectiv ventricular. Toate genele exprimate diferit în atriile șobolanilor WKY au prezentat o up-regulare cu înaintarea în vârstă, în special genele care codifică canale de K+, Ca2+, Na+ și colagenul de tip 6. Expresia atrială a 19 gene a fost corelată pozitiv cu vârsta. Analiza transcriptomică ventriculară a evidențiat un echilibru între genele up-regulate și down-regulate codificând aceleași canale ionice. Concluzii: Rezultatele noastre indică un răspuns transcripțional atrial, dar nu și ventricular, caracterizat prin up-regulare odată cu înaintarea în vârstă. Aceste rezultate sugerează că cele două cavități sunt supuse unor programe de remodelare moleculară diferite. Atriile îmbătrânite au prezentat un profil transcriptomic sugestiv pentru o predispoziție crescută pentru aritmii, precum up-regularea genelor care codifică If, ICa-L, ICa-P, INa și colagenul, în timp ce transcriptomul ventricular nu pare să fie sever alterat de înaintarea în vârstă. Aceste observații ar putea explica predispoziția mai mare pentru aritmii atriale decât ventriculare la vârstnici.

  10. The Impact of Gender and Age Diversity on Company Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca-Georgiana Moscu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between corporate performance or dividend distribution policy and diversity of gender and age for the Management Teams and the Boards of Directors associated with the companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange. We have also investigated the impact of firm size or of leverage on the relationship between firm performance and of the Management Board's characteristics related to diversity, mentioned above. We have identified certain ...

  11. IMPACT OF EDUCATION, GENDER AND AGE ON CONSUMER LOYALTY

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Klopotan; Kresimir Buntak; Ivana Drozdjek

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the important parameters of customer loyalty and impact of education, gender and age of the respondents will be tested. The study was conducted in the Republic of Croatia, as part of research relevant parameters of customer loyalty, loyal consumer behavior and the role of social networks in building and maintaining a loyal behavior. The concept of loyalty has a strong foothold in marketing theories and in theories of intellectual capital companies. Loyalty has been related to th...

  12. IMPACT OF SMOKING ON ADULTS LUNG AGE AND VENTILATORY FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Farouk Helal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although a large body of evidence exists on the effect of smoking on lung age and pulmonary function, much less attention has been dedicated to using these effects as an effective strategy in smoking cessation. Objective: The present study was carried out to investigate the impact of smoking on lung age and ventilatory function in adult Saudi in order to use these effects in a future strategy for smoking cessation. Methods: Eighty one smoker students with their mean age 23.88 ± 2.7 years were enrolled in this study. Every student performed a ventilatory function tests in order to measure lung age, forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume at the end of the first second (FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio and peak expiratory flow rate PEFR. Results: The result showed significant deterioration in the mean value of FEV1, PEFR and the estimated lung age and a non-significant difference in the mean values of FVC. Conclusion: Smoking has a significant effect on ventilaroty function and deteriorating estimated lung age.

  13. The psychological impact of aging on sexuality and relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsberg, S A

    2000-01-01

    Aging has a powerful impact on the quality of relationships and sexual functioning. The psychological impact of aging after midlife is a particularly timely topic given improved medical and psychological understanding of sexuality in both women and men, as well as more effective treatment for age-related sexual dysfunctions. It is time to dispel the stereotype of the midlife relationship as the continuation of a traditional heterosexual marriage with grown or almost grown children in order to more effectively address emotional and sexual issues arising in relationships. Regardless of the length or nature of the relationship, however, its quality is enhanced by emotional intimacy, autonomy without too much distance, an ability to manage stress and distractions by external factors, and achieving a satisfying sexual equilibrium. Perception of the quality of the primary relationship and sexuality is influenced by the other factors in a person's life. Thus, the relationship must be examined and issues must be addressed taking these external factors into consideration. Among the most powerful external factors is one's occupation or avocation, as it tends to strongly influence one's sense of identity, self-esteem, and self-worth in all areas of life. To understand and treat effects of aging on sexuality, it is important to address the three components of sexual desire: drive, beliefs/values, and motivation, as well as the sexual equilibrium within the primary relationship. It is also essential to understand how the physiological changes in male and female sexual functioning affect desire and equilibrium. Other health-related changes that occur with aging must be recognized and addressed, including the fact that the oldest of old women will outlive their corresponding male cohort. Treatment implications for these issues are discussed. PMID:10695872

  14. IMPACT OF EDUCATION, GENDER AND AGE ON CONSUMER LOYALTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Klopotan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the important parameters of customer loyalty and impact of education, gender and age of the respondents will be tested. The study was conducted in the Republic of Croatia, as part of research relevant parameters of customer loyalty, loyal consumer behavior and the role of social networks in building and maintaining a loyal behavior. The concept of loyalty has a strong foothold in marketing theories and in theories of intellectual capital companies. Loyalty has been related to the management of intellectual capital, especially relational capital, as a component of intellectual capital. In terms of loyalty, series of key parameters that describe it or have an effect on it, and thus impacting the company's business appear.

  15. The Impact of Aging Agricultural Labor Population on Farmland Output: From the Perspective of Farmer Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Guancheng Guo; Qiyu Wen; Jingjuan Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Chinese agriculture is facing an aging workforce which could negatively impact the industry. In this context, research is needed on how work preferences and age of farmers affect agricultural output. This paper attempts to investigate these factors to more fully understand the impact of an aging agricultural labor population on agricultural production. The results show that, in this context of aging, changes in the working-age households have a significant impact on agricultural output. Despi...

  16. The Impact of Traumatic Brain Injury on the Aging Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jacob S; Hobbs, Jonathan G; Bailes, Julian E

    2016-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has come to the forefront of both the scientific and popular culture. Specifically, sports-related concussions or mild TBI (mTBI) has become the center of scientific scrutiny with a large amount of research focusing on the long-term sequela of this type of injury. As the populace continues to age, the impact of TBI on the aging brain will become clearer. Currently, reports have come to light that link TBI to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, as well as certain psychiatric diseases. Whether these associations are causations, however, is yet to be determined. Other long-term sequelae, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), appear to be associated with repetitive injuries. Going forward, as we gain better understanding of the pathophysiological process involved in TBI and subclinical head traumas, and individual traits that influence susceptibility to neurocognitive diseases, a clearer, more comprehensive understanding of the connection between brain injury and resultant disease processes in the aging brain will become evident. PMID:27432348

  17. Single and multiple impact ignition of new and aged high explosives in the Steven Impact Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidester, S K; DePiero, A H; Garza, R G; Tarver, C M

    1999-06-01

    Threshold impact velocities for ignition of exothermic reaction were determined for several new and aged HMX-based solid high explosives using three types of projectiles in the Steven Test. Multiple impact threshold velocities were found to be approximately 10% lower in damaged charges that did not react in one or more prior impacts. Projectiles with protrusions that concentrate the friction work in a small volume of explosive reduced the threshold velocities by approximately 30%. Flat projectiles required nearly twice as high velocities for ignition as rounded projectiles. Blast overpressure gauges were used for both pristine and damaged charges to quantitatively measure reaction violence. Reactive flow calculations of single and multiple impacts with various projectiles suggest that the ignition rates double in damaged charges.

  18. Single and multiple impact ignition of new and aged high explosives in the Steven Impact Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Threshold impact velocities for ignition of exothermic reaction were determined for several new and aged HMX-based solid high explosives using three types of projectiles in the Steven Test. Multiple impact threshold velocities were found to be approximately 10% lower in damaged charges that did not react in one or more prior impacts. Projectiles with protrusions that concentrate the friction work in a small volume of explosive reduced the threshold velocities by approximately 30%. Flat projectiles required nearly twice as high velocities for ignition as rounded projectiles. Blast overpressure gauges were used for both pristine and damaged charges to quantitatively measure reaction violence. Reactive flow calculations of single and multiple impacts with various projectiles suggest that the ignition rates double in damaged charges

  19. Evaluation of the impact of RNA preservation methods of spiders for de novo transcriptome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Nobuaki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yusuke; Tomita, Masaru; Arakawa, Kazuharu

    2016-05-01

    With advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies, de novo transcriptome sequencing and assembly has become a cost-effective method to obtain comprehensive genetic information of a species of interest, especially in nonmodel species with large genomes such as spiders. However, high-quality RNA is essential for successful sequencing, and sample preservation conditions require careful consideration for the effective storage of field-collected samples. To this end, we report a streamlined feasibility study of various storage conditions and their effects on de novo transcriptome assembly results. The storage parameters considered include temperatures ranging from room temperature to -80°C; preservatives, including ethanol, RNAlater, TRIzol and RNAlater-ICE; and sample submersion states. As a result, intact RNA was extracted and assembly was successful when samples were preserved at low temperatures regardless of the type of preservative used. The assemblies as well as the gene expression profiles were shown to be robust to RNA degradation, when 30 million 150-bp paired-end reads are obtained. The parameters for sample storage, RNA extraction, library preparation, sequencing and in silico assembly considered in this work provide a guideline for the study of field-collected samples of spiders. PMID:26561354

  20. Epigenome-wide effects of vitamin D and their impact on the transcriptome of human monocytes involve CTCF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuter, Sabine; Neme, Antonio; Carlberg, Carsten

    2016-05-19

    The physiological functions of vitamin D are mediated by its metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) activating the transcription factor vitamin D receptor (VDR). In THP-1 human monocytes we demonstrated epigenome-wide effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 at 8979 loci with significantly modulated chromatin accessibility. Maximal chromatin opening was observed after 24 h, while after 48 h most sites closed again. The chromatin-organizing protein CTCF bound to 14% of the 1,25(OH)2D3-sensitive chromatin regions. Interestingly, 1,25(OH)2D3 affected the chromatin association of CTCF providing an additional mechanism for the epigenome-wide effects of the VDR ligand. The 1,25(OH)2D3-modulated transcriptome of THP-1 cells comprised 1284 genes, 77.5% of which responded only 24 h after stimulation. During the 1,25(OH)2D3 stimulation time course the proportion of down-regulated genes increased from 0% to 44.9% and the top-ranking physiological function of the respective genes shifted from anti-microbial response to connective tissue disorders. The integration of epigenomic and transcriptomic data identified 165 physiologically important 1,25(OH)2D3 target genes, including HTT and NOD2, whose expression can be predicted primarily from epigenomic data of their genomic loci. Taken together, a large number of 1,25(OH)2D3-triggered epigenome-wide events precede and accompany the transcriptional activation of target genes of the nuclear hormone. PMID:26715761

  1. Oomycete transcriptomics database: A resource for oomycete transcriptomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathy Sucheta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oomycete pathogens have attracted significant attention in recent years due to their economic impact. With improving sequencing technologies, large amounts of oomycete transcriptomics data are now available which have great biological utility. A known bottleneck with next generation sequencing data however lies with their analysis, interpretation, organization, storage and visualization. A number of efforts have been made in this respect resulting in development of a myriad of resources. Most of the existing NGS browsers work as standalone applications that need processed data to be uploaded to the browser locally for visualization. At the same time, several oomycete EST databases such as PFGD, ESTAP and SPC, are not available anymore, so there is an immediate need for a database resource that can store and disseminate this legacy information in addition to NGS data. Description Oomycetes Transcriptomics Database is an integrated transcriptome and EST data resource for oomycete pathogens. The database currently stores processed ABI SOLiD transcript sequences from Phytophthora sojae and its host soybean (P. sojae mycelia, healthy soybean and P. sojae-infected soybean as well as Illumina transcript sequences from five Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis libraries. In addition to those resources, it has also a complete set of Sanger EST sequences from P. sojae, P. infestans and H. arabidopsidis grown under various conditions. A web-based transcriptome browser was created for visualization of assembled transcripts, their mapping to the reference genome, expression profiling and depth of read coverage for particular locations on the genome. The transcriptome browser merges EST-derived contigs with NGS-derived assembled transcripts on the fly and displays the consensus. OTD possesses strong query features and the database interacts with the VBI Microbial Database as well as the Phytophthora Transcriptomics Database. Conclusion Oomycete

  2. Radiation therapy for intracranial ependymomas: impact of age on outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The records of patients with intracranial ependymoma who received radiation therapy at UCSF were reviewed retrospectively to evaluate the impact of Karnofsky performance status (KPS), age, histology, and treatment on outcome. Materials and Methods: Between 1978 and 1996, 45 patients with intracranial ependymoma received postoperative radiation therapy. Overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) were calculated from the date of diagnosis. Median follow up for surviving patients was 72 months. Ages ranged from 4 months to 56 years, with a median of 8 years. The tumor was infratentorial in 35 and supratentorial in 10. All patients had either biopsy (3), subtotal resection (30), or gross total resection (12). There were 29 low grade and 16 anaplastic ependymomas. Thirty-seven patients received standard fractionation to a median dose of 54 Gy. Eight patients received hyperfractionation at 1.0 Gy BID to a median dose of 72 Gy. Thirty-eight patients had partial brain irradiation and seven had craniospinal irradiation. Twenty-three patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. For the infants ≤ 3 years old (n=12), all but one had a subtotal resection and most received chemotherapy prior to radiation therapy. Seven infants received radiation therapy at the time of disease progression and five had radiation therapy prior to progression. Most of the patients > 3 years old were irradiated prior to progression. Results: The five-year actuarial OS and PFS were 65% and 46% for the whole group. Histology and treatment factors such as extent of resection, hyperfractionation, and adjuvant chemotherapy did not significantly affect outcome. Overall, (25(45)) patients had disease progression. Only two patients failed in the brain outside the primary site. Six patients developed leptomeningeal spread (four concurrent with local failure and two subsequent to local failure). Five-year OS for patients ≤ 3 years old was 21% versus 80% for patients > 3 years old (p=0

  3. Fuel age impacts on gaseous fission product capture during separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, Robert T.; Soelberg, Nicolas R.; Strachan, Denis M.; Ilas, G.

    2012-09-21

    relatively short half-lives, 12.3 y and 10.7 y, respectively, the dose decreases with the time from when the fuel is removed from the reactor to the time it is processed (herein “fuel age”). One possible strategy for limiting the discharges of these short halflife radionuclides is to allow the fuel to age to take advantage of radioactive decay. Therefore, the doses and required DFs are calculated as a function of fuel age. Here we calculate, given the above constraints and assumptions, the minimum ages for each fuel type that would not require additional effluent controls for the shorter half-life volatile radionuclides based on dose considerations. With respect to 129I doses, we find that the highest dose is calculated with iodine as a fine particulate. The dose scales as the fraction of the total 129I that is particulate. Therefore, we assume for all of our calculations that 100% of the 129I is particulate and allow the user of the results given here to scale our calculated doses to their needs. To summarize the data given in the body and appendices of this report, we find that the principal isotopes of concern are 3H and 129I, the latter requiring the highest DFs. The maximum DF value for 129I is 8000 for the illustrated cases. The required DF for 3H could be as high as 720, depending on the age of the fuel processed. The DF for 85Kr could be up to ~60, depending on fuel age. The DF for 14C is in many cases 1 (no treatment required) but could be as high as 30. The DFs required are within the range of DFs that are reported for the capture technologies that are available for the volatile radionuclides. Achieving the required 129I and 3H DFs is more challenging. Variations in stack design and other design factors may also significantly impact the DF requirements.

  4. The Employment Impact of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act

    OpenAIRE

    Grimes, Paul W.; Register, Charles A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the macro employment effects of the federal Age Discrimination in Employment Act as amended. The results indicate mixed effects on the legislation on older workers and workers of traditional retirement age.

  5. Arithmetic and Aging: Impact of Quantitative Knowledge and Processing Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozencwajg, Paulette; Schaeffer, Olivier; Lefebvre, Virginie

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine how quantitative knowledge ("Gq" in the CHC model) and processing speed ("Gs" in the CHC model) affect scores on the WAIS-III Arithmetic Subtest (Wechsler, 2000) with aging. Two age groups were compared: 30 young adults and 25 elderly adults. For both age groups, "Gq" was an important predictor of…

  6. Spinal cord injury rehabilitation outcome: the impact of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarkony, G M; Roth, E J; Heinemann, A W; Lovell, L L

    1988-01-01

    The effect of age on self-care and mobility skill performance after spinal cord injury was studied using a 15-task modified Barthel Index (MBI) to score functional abilities for 708 patients aged 6 through 88 years. Analysis of covariance showed no relationship between age and discharge MBI score; however, patients with paraplegia, incomplete lesions, and greater admission functional ratings had greater discharge functional scores than did those with quadriplegia, complete lesions, and lower admission scores, respectively. Advancing age was associated with increased dependence in only seven functional skills (bathing, upper and lower body dressing, stair climbing, and transfers to chair, toilet and bath) and only for patients with complete paraplegia. Other MBI component tasks and patients with complete quadriplegia, incomplete paraplegia and incomplete quadriplegia demonstrated no relationship between age and skill performance. Results of this study support the practice of providing comprehensive rehabilitation services to all patients following spinal cord injury regardless of age. PMID:3335882

  7. Impact of Battery Ageing on an Electric Vehicle Powertrain Optimisation

    OpenAIRE

    Auger, Daniel J.; Groff, Maxime F.; Ganesh Mohan; Stefano Longo; Francis Assadian

    2014-01-01

    An electric vehicle’s battery is its most expensive component, and it cannot be charged and discharged indefinitely. This affects a consumer vehicle’s end-user value. Ageing is tolerated as an unwanted operational side-effect; manufacturers have little control over it. Recent publications have considered trade-offs between efficiency and ageing in plug-in hybrids (PHEVs) but there is no equivalent literature for pure EVs. For PHEVs, battery ageing has been modelled by translating current dema...

  8. Impact of Breastfeeding Duration on Age at Menarche

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sahab, Ban; Adair, Linda; Hamadeh, Mazen J.; Ardern, Chris I.; Tamim, Hala

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to assess the relation between breastfeeding duration and age at menarche. Analysis was based on a cohort of 994 Filipino girls born in 1983–1984 and followed up from infancy to adulthood by the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. The main outcome was self-reported age at menarche. Cox regression was used to investigate the relation between duration of exclusive and any breastfeeding with age at menarche with adjustment sequentially for specific sets of known socioec...

  9. Strategy selection and aging: Impact of task characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Tournier, Isabelle; Postal, Virginie

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aging on strategy selection in a paired-associate word task. Twenty-eight younger adults (mean age = 20.68 years) and 28 older adults (mean age = 68.46 years) studied 39 pairs of concrete, middle and abstract words. The concreteness level was manipulated in order to modify the benefit of imagery and sentence strategies in relation to task characteristics. The results showed an age difference in strategy selection in relation to concreteness l...

  10. Machine learning approaches to investigate the impact of PCBs on the transcriptome of the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, Annalaura; Ryan, James C; Van Dolah, Frances M; Kucklick, John R; Rowles, Teresa K; Wells, Randall S; Rosel, Patricia E; Hohn, Aleta A; Schwacke, Lori H

    2014-09-01

    As top-level predators, common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are particularly sensitive to chemical and biological contaminants that accumulate and biomagnify in the marine food chain. This work investigates the potential use of microarray technology and gene expression profile analysis to screen common bottlenose dolphins for exposure to environmental contaminants through the immunological and/or endocrine perturbations associated with these agents. A dolphin microarray representing 24,418 unigene sequences was used to analyze blood samples collected from 47 dolphins during capture-release health assessments from five different US coastal locations (Beaufort, NC, Sarasota Bay, FL, Saint Joseph Bay, FL, Sapelo Island, GA and Brunswick, GA). Organohalogen contaminants including pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners were determined in blubber biopsy samples from the same animals. A subset of samples (n = 10, males; n = 8, females) with the highest and the lowest measured values of PCBs in their blubber was used as strata to determine the differential gene expression of the exposure extremes through machine learning classification algorithms. A set of genes associated primarily with nuclear and DNA stability, cell division and apoptosis regulation, intra- and extra-cellular traffic, and immune response activation was selected by the algorithm for identifying the two exposure extremes. In order to test the hypothesis that these gene expression patterns reflect PCB exposure, we next investigated the blood transcriptomes of the remaining dolphin samples using machine-learning approaches, including K-nn and Support Vector Machines classifiers. Using the derived gene sets, the algorithms worked very well (100% success rate) at classifying dolphins according to the contaminant load accumulated in their blubber. These results suggest that gene expression profile analysis may provide a valuable means

  11. Transcriptomics of Maternal and Fetal Membranes Can Discriminate between Gestational-Age Matched Preterm Neonates with and without Cognitive Impairment Diagnosed at 18–24 Months

    OpenAIRE

    Athina Pappas; Tinnakorn Chaiworapongsa; Roberto Romero; Korzeniewski, Steven J.; Josef C Cortez; Gaurav Bhatti; Nardhy Gomez-Lopez; Hassan, Sonia S; Seetha Shankaran; Tarca, Adi L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Neurocognitive impairment among children born preterm may arise from complex interactions between genes and the intra-uterine environment. Objectives (1) To characterize the transcriptomic profiles of chorioamniotic membranes in preterm neonates with and without neurocognitive impairment via microarrays and (2) to determine if neonates with neurocognitive impairment can be identified at birth. Materials/Methods A retrospective case-control study was conducted to examine the chorioa...

  12. Matrix ageing and vascular impacts: focus on elastin fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duca, Laurent; Blaise, Sébastien; Romier, Béatrice; Laffargue, Muriel; Gayral, Stéphanie; El Btaouri, Hassan; Kawecki, Charlotte; Guillot, Alexandre; Martiny, Laurent; Debelle, Laurent; Maurice, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide and represent a major problem of public health. Over the years, life expectancy has considerably increased throughout the world, and the prevalence of CVD is inevitably rising with the growing ageing of the population. The normal process of ageing is associated with progressive deterioration in structure and function of the vasculature, commonly called vascular ageing. At the vascular level, extracellular matrix (ECM) ageing leads to molecular alterations in long half-life proteins, such as elastin and collagen, and have critical effects on vascular diseases. This review highlights ECM alterations occurring during vascular ageing with a specific focus on elastin fragmentation and also the contribution of elastin-derived peptides (EDP) in age-related vascular complications. Moreover, current and new pharmacological strategies aiming at minimizing elastin degradation, EDP generation, and associated biological effects are discussed. These strategies may be of major relevance for preventing and/or delaying vascular ageing and its complications. PMID:27009176

  13. The impact of peroxisomes on cellular ageing and death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvambigai eManivannan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisomes are ubiquitous eukaryotic organelles, which perform a plethora of functions including hydrogen peroxide metabolism and β-oxidation of fatty acids. Reactive oxygen species produced by peroxisomes are a major contributing factor to cellular oxidative stress, which is supposed to significantly accelerate ageing and cell death according to the free radical theory of ageing. However, relative to mitochondria, the role of the other oxidative organelles, the peroxisomes, in these degenerative pathways has not been extensively investigated. In this contribution we discuss our current knowledge on the role of peroxisomes in ageing and cell death, with focus on studies performed in yeast.

  14. The Transcriptomic Response of Arabidopsis thaliana to Zinc Oxide: A Comparison of the Impact of Nanoparticle, Bulk, and Ionic Zinc

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Landa, Přemysl; Přerostová, Sylva; Petrová, Šárka; Knirsch, Vojtěch; Vaňková, Radomíra; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 24 (2015), s. 14537-14545. ISSN 0013-936X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD14125 Grant ostatní: COST Action(BE) MP1206 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : LIPID TRANSFER PROTEINS * CELLS IN-VITRO * ZNO NANOPARTICLES Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 5.330, year: 2014

  15. Impact of asteroseismology on improving stellar ages determination

    CERN Document Server

    Lebreton, Yveline

    2013-01-01

    High precision photometry as performed by the CoRoT and Kepler satellites on-board instruments has allowed to detect stellar oscillations over the whole HR diagram. Oscillation frequencies are closely related to stellar interior properties via the density and sound speed profiles, themselves tightly linked with the mass and evolutionary state of stars. Seismic diagnostics performed on stellar internal structure models allow to infer the age and mass of oscillating stars. The accuracy and precision of the age determination depend both on the goodness of the observational parameters (seismic and classical) and on our ability to model a given star properly. They therefore suffer from any misunderstanding of the physical processes at work inside stars (as microscopic physics, transport processes...). In this paper, we recall some seismic diagnostics of stellar age and we illustrate their efficiency in age-dating the CoRoT target HD 52265.

  16. Hiring retirees: impact of age norms and stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Karspinska, K.; Henkens, K.; Schippers, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This study aims to investigate the role of managers in the re-employment of early retirees and focuses on the effect of managers' age norms and stereotypes on managers' employment decisions. Design/methodology/approach – A combination of a factorial study and a survey was conducted. First, information on the age norms and stereotypes was collected. Secondly, profiles of hypothetical retired job applicants were presented to the employers, who were asked to make a specific hiring deci...

  17. Anthropometrics and ageing : impact of weight status on health

    OpenAIRE

    Hollander, de, R.B.G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Weight status is one of the factors that influence healthy ageing. It is often assessed with anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), which indicate underweight or excess fat. Both are associated with adverse health outcomes in adults. The first paper of this thesis investigates whether this association is consistent over calendar time, to check for possible influences of improved healthcare procedures over time. In old age, this associat...

  18. Healthy Adult Ageing: Multitasking Abilities and the Impact of Interruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Nevay, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    The ability to multitask plays a significant role within everyday life. This experiment investigated whether multitasking abilities are impaired in healthy adult ageing. Neuropsychological literature has shown that patients with frontal lobe damage are impaired in their ability to multitask on tests designed to assess cognitive functions used in real-life multitasking situations. Age-related reductions in brain volume are most pronounced in the frontal lobes. Therefore, it’s assumed that olde...

  19. Age of Onset of Marijuana Use Impacts Inhibitory Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Staci A.; Dahlgren, Mary Kathryn; Sagar, Kelly A.; Gönenc, Atilla; Killgore, William DS

    2012-01-01

    Difficulties in the ability to successfully inhibit impulsive behaviors have been reported in marijuana (MJ) smokers, yet few studies have made direct comparisons between early (prior to age 16) and late (age 16 or later) onset MJ smokers, specifically during behavioral inhibition tasks. The current study utilized the Multi-Source Interference Task (MSIT) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in chronic, heavy MJ smokers and healthy non-MJ smoking controls which revealed a more ...

  20. Pharmacotherapy in the ageing patient: The impact of age per se (A review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shamsher; Bajorek, Beata

    2015-11-01

    A literature search was carried out to review the influence of 'ageing' on pharmacotherapeutic decision-making, specifically how 'age' is defined and considered in the utilisation of medication. Embase, Medline, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and Google scholar were canvassed in a three-tiered search according to pre-established inclusion criteria. In tier 1, a total of 22 studies were identified highlighting the underutilisation of medication in elderly patients, with a particular focus on warfarin. Four studies highlighted an age-bias in medication-prescribing for elderly patients, specifically in relation to medicines for rheumatoid arthritis, angina, and hypertension. Tier 2 identified diverse definitions for 'elderly', including biological age, chronological age, physiological age, as well as various descriptions of 'elderly' in clinical trials and guidelines. Finally, medication optimisation tools were identified through the third tier, emphasising the use of chronological age to describe the 'elderly'. Old age influences pharmacotherapeutic decision-making at various levels, however, what complicates the situation is the absence of a comprehensive definition of 'elderly'. Clinical recommendations need to be based more on objective factors known to affect medication effectiveness and safety. PMID:26226330

  1. The Fiscal Impact of Population Aging in the US: Assessing the Uncertainties

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ronald; Edwards, Ryan

    2002-01-01

    Population aging, accelerating as the baby boom generations age, will have important fiscal consequences because expenditures on Social Security, Medicare, and institutional Medicaid make up more than a third of the Federal budget. However, the projected fiscal pressures are far in the future, and long-term projections are very unreliable. Our analysis here has two goals: to examine the fiscal impact of population aging, and to do this in a probabilistic setting. We find that the old age depe...

  2. Urban groundwater age modeling under unconfined condition - Impact of underground structures on groundwater age: Evidence of a piston effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, Guillaume; Rossier, Yvan; Eisenlohr, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, underground structures are shown to have a major influence on the groundwater mean age distribution described as a dispersive piston effect. Urban underground development does not occur without impacts on subsoil resources. In particular, groundwater resources can be vulnerable and generate disturbances when this space is exploited. Groundwater age spatial distribution data are fundamental for resource management as it can provide operational sustainability indicators. However, the application of groundwater age modeling is neglected regarding the potential effect of underground structures in urban areas. A three dimensional modeling approach was conducted to quantify the impact of two underground structures: (1) an impervious structure and (2) a draining structure. Both structures are shown to cause significant mixing processes occurring between shallow and deeper aquifers. The design technique used for draining structures is shown to have the greatest impact, generating a decrease in mean age of more than 80% under the structure. Groundwater age modeling is shown to be relevant for highlighting the role played by underground structures in advective-dispersive flows in urban areas.

  3. IMPACT ON DEVELOPMENT AGE AND GENDER CHARACTERISTICS PROFESSIONAL PERSON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdeyeva Irina Olegovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In article some questions mentioning gender and age features of the identity of municipal employees, working in the social sphere and their influence on professionalism development are considered. Diagnostics of professional and important qualities and features of experts, their moral and regulatory sphere, adaptation potential and a motivational complex on means of application of the following diagnostic techniques is carried out: R. Kettell's 16 factorial questionnaire (16-PF, a form C, "Valuable orientations" M. Rokich, a multilevel personal questionnaire "Adaptability" (MLO-AM, a technique of studying of motivation of professional activity (K.Zemfir in A.Rean's modification. In this research the example of the multiple parameter linear model created and approved for identification and the analysis of age transformations of municipal employees, working in the social sphere is given. Conclusions are drawn on wagging of gender and age features of experts on development of professionalism of their personality.

  4. Degradation of impact fracture during accelerated aging of weld metal on microalloyed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of accelerated aging on the toughness and fracture of the longitudinal weld metal on an API5L-X52 line pipe steel was evaluated by Charpy V-notch impact test, fracture analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Aging was performed at 250 degree centigrade for 100 to 1000 h. The impact results indicated a significant reduction in the fracture energy and impact toughness as a function of aging time, which were achieved by the scanning electron microscope fractography that showed a decrease in the vol fraction of microvoids by Charpy ductile failure with the aging time, which favored the brittle fracture by transgranular cleavage. The minimum vol fraction of microvoids was reached at 500 h due to the peak aged. The microstructural analysis indicated the precipitation of transgranular iron nano carbides in the aged specimens, which was related to the deterioration of toughness and change in the ductile to brittle behavior. (Author) 15 refs

  5. Age impact on autoimmune thyroid disease in females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid autoimmune disease, a widespread phenomenon in female population, impairs thyroid function during pregnancy. Identifying cases, which will develop hypothyroidism during pregnancy, is crucial in the follow-up process. The study group comprised 108 females, with ages between 20-40 years; with known inactive autoimmune thyroid disease, before pregnancy that became pregnant in the study follow-up period. They were monitored by means of clinical, hormonal and immunological assays. Supplemental therapy with thyroid hormones was used, where needed. Maternal age and level of anti-thyroid antibodies were used to predict thyroid functional impairment.

  6. Impact of Battery Ageing on an Electric Vehicle Powertrain Optimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Auger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An electric vehicle’s battery is its most expensive component, and it cannot be charged and discharged indefinitely. This affects a consumer vehicle’s end-user value. Ageing is tolerated as an unwanted operational side-effect; manufacturers have little control over it. Recent publications have considered trade-offs between efficiency and ageing in plug-in hybrids (PHEVs but there is no equivalent literature for pure EVs. For PHEVs, battery ageing has been modelled by translating current demands into chemical degradation. Given such models it is possible to produce similar trade-offs for EVs. We consider the effects of varying battery size and introducing a parallel supercapacitor pack. (Supercapacitors can smooth current demands, but their weight and electronics reduce economy. We extend existing EV optimisation techniques to include battery ageing, illustrated with vehicle case studies. We comment on the applicability to similar EV problems and identify where additional research is needed to improve on our assumptions.

  7. Hiring retirees: impact of age norms and stereotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Karpinska; K. Henkens; J. Schippers

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - This study aims to investigate the role of managers in the re-employment of early retirees and focuses on the effect of managers' age norms and stereotypes on managers' employment decisions. Design/methodology/approach - A combination of a factorial study and a survey was conducted. First,

  8. Hiring retirees: impact of age norms and stereotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karspinska, K.; Henkens, K.; Schippers, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This study aims to investigate the role of managers in the re-employment of early retirees and focuses on the effect of managers' age norms and stereotypes on managers' employment decisions. Design/methodology/approach – A combination of a factorial study and a survey was conducted. First,

  9. Affective Computing and the Impact of Gender and Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Rukavina

    Full Text Available Affective computing aims at the detection of users' mental states, in particular, emotions and dispositions during human-computer interactions. Detection can be achieved by measuring multimodal signals, namely, speech, facial expressions and/or psychobiology. Over the past years, one major approach was to identify the best features for each signal using different classification methods. Although this is of high priority, other subject-specific variables should not be neglected. In our study, we analyzed the effect of gender, age, personality and gender roles on the extracted psychobiological features (derived from skin conductance level, facial electromyography and heart rate variability as well as the influence on the classification results. In an experimental human-computer interaction, five different affective states with picture material from the International Affective Picture System and ULM pictures were induced. A total of 127 subjects participated in the study. Among all potentially influencing variables (gender has been reported to be influential, age was the only variable that correlated significantly with psychobiological responses. In summary, the conducted classification processes resulted in 20% classification accuracy differences according to age and gender, especially when comparing the neutral condition with four other affective states. We suggest taking age and gender specifically into account for future studies in affective computing, as these may lead to an improvement of emotion recognition accuracy.

  10. Affective Computing and the Impact of Gender and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukavina, Stefanie; Gruss, Sascha; Hoffmann, Holger; Tan, Jun-Wen; Walter, Steffen; Traue, Harald C.

    2016-01-01

    Affective computing aims at the detection of users’ mental states, in particular, emotions and dispositions during human-computer interactions. Detection can be achieved by measuring multimodal signals, namely, speech, facial expressions and/or psychobiology. Over the past years, one major approach was to identify the best features for each signal using different classification methods. Although this is of high priority, other subject-specific variables should not be neglected. In our study, we analyzed the effect of gender, age, personality and gender roles on the extracted psychobiological features (derived from skin conductance level, facial electromyography and heart rate variability) as well as the influence on the classification results. In an experimental human-computer interaction, five different affective states with picture material from the International Affective Picture System and ULM pictures were induced. A total of 127 subjects participated in the study. Among all potentially influencing variables (gender has been reported to be influential), age was the only variable that correlated significantly with psychobiological responses. In summary, the conducted classification processes resulted in 20% classification accuracy differences according to age and gender, especially when comparing the neutral condition with four other affective states. We suggest taking age and gender specifically into account for future studies in affective computing, as these may lead to an improvement of emotion recognition accuracy. PMID:26939129

  11. Impact of age, gender and diabetes on serum lipid levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives:To see the effects of age, gender and diabetes on serum lipid levels. Study type, settings and duration:Cross sectional analytical study conducted at PMRC Research Centre, Fatima Jinnah Medical College,Lahore from Jun-Dec 2011. Materials and Methods: One hundred type 2 diabetes mellitus and equal numbers of gender matched healthy controls were randomly selected for the study. After an overnight fasting, blood specimens were drawn for lipid profile where total cholesterol,high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were measured by standard enzymatic endpoint methods and LDL-cholesterol by Friedweld's formula. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS-15. Results Odd ratios of age for total cholesterol (OR 1.198); high density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.144); and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.576) revealed that subjects aged 45 years or more had greater risk of having deranged lipid levels. Female gender had higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol (p 0.000); and triglycerides (p 0.001). Odd ratios of men for total cholesterol (OR 0.775); high density lipoprotein cholesterol(OR 0.183); and low density lipoprotein Cholesterol (OR 0.683) illustrated that men were significantly less prone to dyslipidemia than women. Odd ratio of diabetes for high density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.802) suggested that diabetics had 1.8 times more risk of having low high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions: Diabetic females over 45 years of age have significantly high chances of having disturbed or high lipid profile. Policy message:All persons in general and diabetics in particular over the age of 45 years should be screened for dyslipidemia and informed using behavior change communication to prevent disease complications. (author)

  12. Prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in adults aged 25 years and above

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in people aged 25 years and above. The study sample of 3,799 patients was chosen randomly from patients who visited Pusan National University Dental Hospital and had panoramic radiographs taken. The data collected included presence and impaction state, angulation, and depth of impaction of third molars, and radiographically detected lesions of third molars and adjacent second molars. A greater percentage of men than women retained at least one third molar. The incidence of third molars decreased with increasing age. The incidence of partially impacted third molars greatly declined after the age of 30. Vertically impacted maxillary third molars and horizontally impacted mandibular third molars were most frequent in all age groups. Among the maxillary third molars, those impacted below the cervical line of the second molar were most frequent in all age groups, and among the mandibular third molars, deeply impacted third molars were most frequent in those aged over 40. Dental caries was the most common radiographic lesion of the third molars. Mesioangularly impacted third molars showed radiographic lesions in 13 (9.5%) adjacent maxillary second molars and 117 (27.4%) mandibular second molars. The number of remaining third molars decreased and the percentage of Class C depth increased with age. Caries was the most frequent lesion in third molars. Partially impacted mesioangular third molars showed a high incidence of caries or periodontal bone loss of the adjacent second molar. Regular oral examination will be essential to keep asymptomatic third molars in good health.

  13. Prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in adults aged 25 years and above

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in people aged 25 years and above. The study sample of 3,799 patients was chosen randomly from patients who visited Pusan National University Dental Hospital and had panoramic radiographs taken. The data collected included presence and impaction state, angulation, and depth of impaction of third molars, and radiographically detected lesions of third molars and adjacent second molars. A greater percentage of men than women retained at least one third molar. The incidence of third molars decreased with increasing age. The incidence of partially impacted third molars greatly declined after the age of 30. Vertically impacted maxillary third molars and horizontally impacted mandibular third molars were most frequent in all age groups. Among the maxillary third molars, those impacted below the cervical line of the second molar were most frequent in all age groups, and among the mandibular third molars, deeply impacted third molars were most frequent in those aged over 40. Dental caries was the most common radiographic lesion of the third molars. Mesioangularly impacted third molars showed radiographic lesions in 13 (9.5%) adjacent maxillary second molars and 117 (27.4%) mandibular second molars. The number of remaining third molars decreased and the percentage of Class C depth increased with age. Caries was the most frequent lesion in third molars. Partially impacted mesioangular third molars showed a high incidence of caries or periodontal bone loss of the adjacent second molar. Regular oral examination will be essential to keep asymptomatic third molars in good health.

  14. The immune system and the impact of zinc during aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haase Hajo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The trace element zinc is essential for the immune system, and zinc deficiency affects multiple aspects of innate and adaptive immunity. There are remarkable parallels in the immunological changes during aging and zinc deficiency, including a reduction in the activity of the thymus and thymic hormones, a shift of the T helper cell balance toward T helper type 2 cells, decreased response to vaccination, and impaired functions of innate immune cells. Many studies confirm a decline of zinc levels with age. Most of these studies do not classify the majority of elderly as zinc deficient, but even marginal zinc deprivation can affect immune function. Consequently, oral zinc supplementation demonstrates the potential to improve immunity and efficiently downregulates chronic inflammatory responses in the elderly. These data indicate that a wide prevalence of marginal zinc deficiency in elderly people may contribute to immunosenescence.

  15. The impact of aging on regulatory T-cells

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes eFessler; Anja eFelber; Christina eDuftner; Christian eDejaco

    2013-01-01

    Age related deviations of the immune system contribute to a higher likelihood of infections, cancer and autoimmunity in the elderly. Senescence of T-lymphocytes is characterized by phenotypical and functional changes including the loss of characteristic T-cell surface markers, while an increase of stimulatory receptors, cytotoxicity as well as resistance against apoptosis is observed. One of the key mediators of immune regulation are naturally occurring regulatory T-cells (Tregs). Tregs expre...

  16. The economic impact of the little ice age

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Morgan; Ó Gráda, Cormac

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We investigate by how much the Little Ice Age reduced the harvests on which pre-industrial Europeans relied for survival. We find that weather strongly affected crop yields, but can find little evidence that western Europe experienced long swings or structural breaks in climate. Instead, annual summer temperature reconstructions between the fourteenth and twentieth centuries behave as almost independent draws from a distribution with a constant mean but time varying volatility; while...

  17. IMPACT ON DEVELOPMENT AGE AND GENDER CHARACTERISTICS PROFESSIONAL PERSON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Олеговна Авдеева

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In article some questions mentioning gender and age features of the identity of municipal employees, working in the social sphere and their influence on professionalism development are considered. Diagnostics of professional and important qualities and features of experts, their moral and regulatory sphere, adaptation potential and a motivational complex on means of application of the following diagnostic techniques is carried out: R. Kettell's 16 factorial questionnaire (16-PF, a form C, "Valuable orientations" M. Rokich, a multilevel personal questionnaire "Adaptability" (MLO-AM, a technique of studying of motivation of professional activity (K.Zemfir in A.Rean's modification. In this research the example of the multiple parameter linear model created and approved for identification and the analysis of age transformations of municipal employees, working in the social sphere is given. Conclusions are drawn on wagging of gender and age features of experts on development of professionalism of their personality.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-9

  18. The impact of ageing and changing utilization patterns on future cardiovascular drug expenditure: a pharmacoepidemiological projection approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Andersen, Morten; Støvring, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    To develop a method for projecting the impact of ageing and changing drug utilization patterns on future drug expenditure.......To develop a method for projecting the impact of ageing and changing drug utilization patterns on future drug expenditure....

  19. Genome-wide analysis on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii reveals the impact of hydrogen peroxide on protein stress responses and overlap with other stress transcriptomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaby, Ian K; Blaby-Haas, Crysten E; Pérez-Pérez, María Esther; Schmollinger, Stefan; Fitz-Gibbon, Sorel; Lemaire, Stéphane D; Merchant, Sabeeha S

    2015-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by and have the potential to be damaging to all aerobic organisms. In photosynthetic organisms, they are an unavoidable byproduct of electron transfer in both the chloroplast and mitochondrion. Here, we employ the reference unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to identify the effect of H2O2 on gene expression by monitoring the changes in the transcriptome in a time-course experiment. Comparison of transcriptomes from cells sampled immediately prior to the addition of H2O2 and 0.5 and 1 h subsequently revealed 1278 differentially abundant transcripts. Of those transcripts that increase in abundance, many encode proteins involved in ROS detoxification, protein degradation and stress responses, whereas among those that decrease are transcripts encoding proteins involved in photosynthesis and central carbon metabolism. In addition to these transcriptomic adjustments, we observe that addition of H2O2 is followed by an accumulation and oxidation of the total intracellular glutathione pool, and a decrease in photosynthetic O2 output. Additionally, we analyze our transcriptomes in the context of changes in transcript abundance in response to singlet O2 (O2*), and relate our H2O2 -induced transcripts to a diurnal transcriptome, where we demonstrate enrichments of H2O2 -induced transcripts early in the light phase, late in the light phase and 2 h prior to light. On this basis several genes that are highlighted in this work may be involved in previously undiscovered stress remediation pathways or acclimation responses. PMID:26473430

  20. Gender and education impact on brain aging: A general cognitive factor approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Proust-Lima, Cecile; Amieva, Hélène; Letenneur, Luc; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Dartigues, Jean-François

    2008-01-01

    This article may not exactly replicate the final version published in the APA journal. It is not the copy of record. International audience In cognitive aging research, the study of a general cognitive factor has been shown to have a substantial explanatory power over the study of isolated tests. The authors aimed at differentiating the impact of gender and education on global cognitive change with age from their differential impact on 4 psychometric tests using a new latent process app...

  1. The ADS in the Information Age - Impact on Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Henneken, Edwin A.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Accomazzi, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) grew up with and has been riding the waves of the Information Age, closely monitoring and anticipating the needs of its end-users. By now, all professional astronomers are using the ADS on a daily basis, and a substantial fraction have been using it for their entire professional career. In addition to being an indispensable tool for professional scientists, the ADS also moved into the public domain, as a tool for science education. In this paper we ...

  2. Aging effects in component failure and downtime data and impacts on plant risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work consists of two phases. The objective of the first phase of the work is to develop and apply data analyses approaches to evaluate aging effects in component failure and downtime data. The objective of the second phase of the work is to develop and apply approaches to determine the core melt frequency impacts and plant risk impacts from component aging effects. In the first phase of the work, data analyses procedures and software are being developed to audit plant records and NPRDS data to determine if aging effects are exhibited. The procedures which are being developed are more powerful than previous techniques in that component time line histories can be segmented for maximum aging resolutions, partial histories can be analyzed, specific causes can be examined, and component data can be optimally aggregated to increase the power to identify aging effects. Software are being developed to automate the analyses in an intelligent manner. The procedures have been applied to selected component failure and downtime records to not only demonstrate the process but to determine if aging effects are indeed exhibited in the data. The results to date indicate even more strongly that significant aging effects are exhibited in a wide number of components and plants, even though maintenance and testing are being carried out. In the second phase of the work procedures and software are being developed to allow PRAs such as the NUREG 1150 PRAs to be used for aging evaluations. The procedures allow aging effects to be quantified and to be prioritized with regard to their impacts on core melt frequency, accident sequence frequency, and public health risk. The procedures separate the evaluations of component effects of aging from the evaluations of the resulting risk impacts. This allows general types of aging effects to be considered and allows efficient calculation of the risk impacts

  3. Impact of Population Ageing on Education Level and Average Monthly Salary: The Case of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziga Cepar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Population ageing is a contemporary problem, which does not only mean changing demographic structures, but also affects economy. Based on our research we cannot reject our main research thesis that population ageing has a significant impact on human capital in Slovenia. Using multiple regression analysis, on cross-section data of Slovenian municipalities, we cannot reject our first hypothesis that population ageing in Slovenia leads to lower education level and our second hypothesis that population ageing leads to lower average net monthly salary. Main contribution of this research therefore is the finding and empirical confirmation of the specific impact that population ageing has on human capital based on specific case of Slovenian cross section data. Results of the research imply that some measures have to take place in order to mitigate the unfavourable effects of population ageing on human capital.

  4. DMPD: Interferons at age 50: past, current and future impact on biomedicine. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18049472 Interferons at age 50: past, current and future impact on biomedicine. Bor...975-90. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Interferons at age 50: past, current and future impact on biomedi...cine. PubmedID 18049472 Title Interferons at age 50: past, current and future impact

  5. Aging and Selective Engagement: The Moderating Impact of Motivation on Older Adults’ Resource Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Hess, Thomas M.; Germain, Cassandra M.; Swaim, Elizabeth L.; Osowski, Nicole L.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine age differences in the impact of motivation in a social cognitive task. We tested the hypothesis that aging is associated with an increase in the selective engagement of cognitive resources in support of performance. Different-aged adults read descriptions of 2 people in order to determine which was better suited for a particular job. These descriptions contained behaviors that were either consistent or inconsistent with the job, and participants performe...

  6. Impact of bacterial infections on aging and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strickertsson, Jesper A B; Madsen, Claus Desler; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2014-01-01

    The commensal floras that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract play critical roles in immune responses, energy metabolism, and even cancer prevention. Pathogenic and out of place commensal bacteria, can however have detrimental effects on the host, by introducing genomic instability and mitochondrial...... dysfunction, which are hallmarks of both aging and cancer. Helicobacter pylori and Enterococcus faecalis are bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract that have been demonstrated to affect these two hallmarks. These, and other bacteria, have been shown to decrease the transcription and translation of essential...... DNA repair subunits of major DNA repair pathways and increase production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Defects in DNA repair cause mutations and genomic instability and are found in several cancers as well as in progeroid syndromes. This review describes our contemporary view on how bacterial...

  7. Middle age has a significant impact on gene expression during skin wound healing in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Hagai; Lumenta, David Benjamin; Vierlinger, Klemens; Hofner, Manuela; Kitzinger, Hugo-Benito; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Nöhammer, Christa; Chilosi, Marco; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2016-08-01

    The vast majority of research on the impact of age on skin wound healing (WH) compares old animals to young ones. The middle age is often ignored in biogerontological research despite the fact that many functions that decline in an age-dependent manner have starting points in mid-life. With this in mind, we examined gene expression patterns during skin WH in late middle-aged versus young adult male mice, using the head and back punch models. The rationale behind this study was that the impact of age would first be detectable at the transcriptional level. We pinpointed several pathways which were over-activated in the middle-aged mice, both in the intact skin and during WH. Among them were various metabolic, immune-inflammatory and growth-promoting pathways. These transcriptional changes were much more pronounced in the head than in the back. In summary, the middle age has a significant impact on gene expression in intact and healing skin. It seems that the head punch model is more sensitive to the effect of age than the back model, and we suggest that it should be more widely applied in aging research on wound healing. PMID:27241672

  8. The impact of age and sex on healthcare expenditure of households in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sarker, Abdur Razzaque; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam; Sultana, Marufa; Ahmed, Sayem; Ahmed, Wahid; Khan, Jahangir AM

    2014-01-01

    The impact of age and sex on health care expenditure has recently become one of the major concerns in many developing countries like Bangladesh. Age and sex differences in the use of health care services can be substantial at several stages of life which are reflected in overall healthcare expenditure. We examined the impact of age and sex of the population on overall healthcare expenditure of households in Bangladesh. A total of 10,705 populations who spent for receiving any type of healthca...

  9. Hypoxia-Inducible Histone Lysine Demethylases: Impact on the Aging Process and Age-Related Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu

    2016-03-01

    Hypoxia is an environmental stress at high altitude and underground conditions but it is also present in many chronic age-related diseases, where blood flow into tissues is impaired. The oxygen-sensing system stimulates gene expression protecting tissues against hypoxic insults. Hypoxia stabilizes the expression of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1α (HIF-1α), which controls the expression of hundreds of survival genes related to e.g. enhanced energy metabolism and autophagy. Moreover, many stress-related signaling mechanisms, such as oxidative stress and energy metabolic disturbances, as well as the signaling cascades via ceramide, mTOR, NF-κB, and TGF-β pathways, can also induce the expression of HIF-1α protein to facilitate cell survival in normoxia. Hypoxia is linked to prominent epigenetic changes in chromatin landscape. Screening studies have indicated that the stabilization of HIF-1α increases the expression of distinct histone lysine demethylases (KDM). HIF-1α stimulates the expression of KDM3A, KDM4B, KDM4C, and KDM6B, which enhance gene transcription by demethylating H3K9 and H3K27 sites (repressive epigenetic marks). In addition, HIF-1α induces the expression of KDM2B and KDM5B, which repress transcription by demethylating H3K4me2,3 sites (activating marks). Hypoxia-inducible KDMs support locally the gene transcription induced by HIF-1α, although they can also control genome-wide chromatin landscape, especially KDMs which demethylate H3K9 and H3K27 sites. These epigenetic marks have important role in the control of heterochromatin segments and 3D folding of chromosomes, as well as the genetic loci regulating cell type commitment, proliferation, and cellular senescence, e.g. the INK4 box. A chronic stimulation of HIF-1α can provoke tissue fibrosis and cellular senescence, which both are increasingly present with aging and age-related diseases. We will review the regulation of HIF-1α-dependent induction of KDMs and clarify their role in

  10. The Impact of Aging Agricultural Labor Population on Farmland Output: From the Perspective of Farmer Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guancheng Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese agriculture is facing an aging workforce which could negatively impact the industry. In this context, research is needed on how work preferences and age of farmers affect agricultural output. This paper attempts to investigate these factors to more fully understand the impact of an aging agricultural labor population on agricultural production. The results show that, in this context of aging, changes in the working-age households have a significant impact on agricultural output. Despite the fact that the impacts of intention to abandon land management were not significant, we can ignore this preference in the workforce. The combination of changes in the composition of the working-age households indicates that 58.53 percent of the agricultural producers will likely quit. This is a potential threat for the future of agricultural development. We also found that elderly farmers who do not intend to abandon farming had higher agricultural output compared to other farmers. This indicates that the adverse effects of changes in the agricultural population age result more from the agricultural output of older farmers who intend to give up farming. This intention adversely affected other elements and reduced investment. Therefore, various forms of training should increase efforts to cultivate modern professional farmers and policies should be simultaneously developed to increase agricultural production levels.

  11. Web services for transcriptomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerincx, P.

    2009-01-01

    Transcriptomics is part of a family of disciplines focussing on high throughput molecular biology experiments. In the case of transcriptomics, scientists study the expression of genes resulting in transcripts. These transcripts can either perform a biological function themselves or function as messe

  12. Impact of age on epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Tsuyoshi; Toyooka, Shinichi; Suda, Kenichi; Soh, Junichi; Yatabe, Yasushi; Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2012-12-01

    Aging is one of the best, but rarely referred, risk factors for various types of cancer including lung cancer, because age could be a surrogate for accumulation of genetic events in cancers. Smoking inversely associates with the presence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation in lung cancer, but its strong confounding with age and sex makes it difficult to evaluate sole impact of age. To clarify an impact of age on EGFR mutation, we conducted a cross-sectional study based on data of 1262 lung cancer patients. The associations between EGFR mutation and age, considering sex, smoking and histology, were evaluated using logistic regression models. In multivariate analysis, we found a significant increase of EGFR mutation prevalence by increase of age (p-trend=0.0004). Consistent trend was observed among never-smoking females (p-trend=0.011) and never-smoking males also showed similar trend although not significant. These were consistently observed when we limit the subject to those with adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, age independently associates with EGFR mutation among lung cancer. Positive association between EGFR mutation and age among never-smokers regardless of sex might indicate that EGFR mutation occurs cumulatively by unidentified internal/external factors other than smoking. PMID:23036155

  13. Impact of age on the cardiovascular response to dynamic upright exercise in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleg, J L; O'Connor, F; Gerstenblith, G; Becker, L C; Clulow, J; Schulman, S P; Lakatta, E G

    1995-03-01

    To examine whether age differentially modifies the physiological response to exercise in men and women, we performed gated radionuclide ventriculography with measurement of left ventricular volumes at rest and during peak upright cycle exercise in 200 rigorously screened healthy sedentary volunteers (121 men and 79 women) aged 22-86 yr from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. At rest in the sitting position, age-associated declines in heart rate (HR) and increases in systolic blood pressure occurred in both sexes. Whereas resting cardiac index (CI) and total systemic vascular resistance (TSVR) in men did not vary with age, in women resting CI decreased 16% and TSVR increased 46% over the six-decade age span. Men, but not women, demonstrated an age-associated increase of approximately 20% in sitting end-diastolic volume index (EDVI), end-systolic volume index (ESVI), and stroke volume index over this age span. Peak cycle work rate declined with age approximately 40% in both sexes, but at any age it was greater in men than in women even after normalization for body weight. At peak effort, ejection fraction (EF), HR, and CI were reduced similarly with age while ESVI and TSVR were increased in both sexes; EDVI increased 35% with age and stroke work index (SWI) rose 19% in men, but neither was related to age in women; and stroke volume index did not vary with age in either sex. When hemodynamics were expressed as the change from rest to peak effort as an index of cardiovascular reserve function, both sexes demonstrated age-associated increases in EDVI and ESVI and reductions in EF, HR, and CI. However, the exercise-induced reduction in ESVI and the increases in EF, CI, and SWI from rest were greater in men than in women. Thus, age and gender each have a significant impact on the cardiac response to exhaustive upright cycle exercise. PMID:7775334

  14. Low amplitude impact testing and analysis of pristine and aged solid high explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidester, S K; Garza, R; Tarver, C M

    1998-08-17

    The critical impact velocities of 60.1 mm diameter blunt steel projectiles required for ignition of exothermic chemical reaction were determined for heavily confined charges of new and aged (15-30 years) solid HMX-based high explosives. The explosives in order of decreasing impact sensitivity were: PBX 9404; LX-lo; LX-14; PBX 9501; and LX-04. Embedded pressure gauges measured the interior pressure histories. Stockpile aged LX-04 and PBX 9501 from dismantled units were tested and compared to freshly pressed charges. The understanding of explosive aging on impact ignition and other hazards must improve as systems are being deployed longer than their initial estimated lifetimes. The charges that did not react on the first impact were subjected to multiple impacts. While the violence of reaction increased with impact velocity, it remained much lower than that produced by an intentional detonation. Ignition and Growth reactive flow models were developed to predict HMX-based explosive impact sensitivity in other geometries and scenarios.

  15. Scrimer: designing primers from transcriptome data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mořkovský, Libor; Pačes, Jan; Rídl, Jakub; Reifová, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 6 (2015), s. 1415-1420. ISSN 1755-098X R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0303 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : next-generation sequencing * primer design * SNaPshot * SNP genotyping * transcriptome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.712, year: 2014

  16. Programming of Plant Leaf Senescence with Temporal and Inter-Organellar Coordination of Transcriptome in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hye Ryun; Koo, Hee Jung; Kim, Jeongsik; Jeong, Hyobin; Yang, Jin Ok; Lee, Il Hwan; Jun, Ji Hyung; Choi, Seung Hee; Park, Su Jin; Kang, Byeongsoo; Kim, You Wang; Phee, Bong-Kwan; Kim, Jin Hee; Seo, Chaehwa; Park, Charny; Kim, Sang Cheol; Park, Seongjin; Lee, Byungwook; Lee, Sanghyuk; Hwang, Daehee; Nam, Hong Gil; Lim, Pyung Ok

    2016-05-01

    Plant leaves, harvesting light energy and fixing CO2, are a major source of foods on the earth. Leaves undergo developmental and physiological shifts during their lifespan, ending with senescence and death. We characterized the key regulatory features of the leaf transcriptome during aging by analyzing total- and small-RNA transcriptomes throughout the lifespan of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves at multidimensions, including age, RNA-type, and organelle. Intriguingly, senescing leaves showed more coordinated temporal changes in transcriptomes than growing leaves, with sophisticated regulatory networks comprising transcription factors and diverse small regulatory RNAs. The chloroplast transcriptome, but not the mitochondrial transcriptome, showed major changes during leaf aging, with a strongly shared expression pattern of nuclear transcripts encoding chloroplast-targeted proteins. Thus, unlike animal aging, leaf senescence proceeds with tight temporal and distinct interorganellar coordination of various transcriptomes that would be critical for the highly regulated degeneration and nutrient recycling contributing to plant fitness and productivity. PMID:26966169

  17. The weakening relationship between the Impact Factor and papers' citations in the digital age

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano, George A; Gingras, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Historically, papers have been physically bound to the journal in which they were published but in the electronic age papers are available individually, no longer tied to their respective journals. Hence, papers now can be read and cited based on their own merits, independently of the journal's physical availability, reputation, or Impact Factor. We compare the strength of the relationship between journals' Impact Factors and the actual citations received by their respective papers from 1902 to 2009. Throughout most of the 20th century, papers' citation rates were increasingly linked to their respective journals' Impact Factors. However, since 1990, the advent of the digital age, the strength of the relation between Impact Factors and paper citations has been decreasing. This decrease began sooner in physics, a field that was quicker to make the transition into the electronic domain. Furthermore, since 1990, the proportion of highly cited papers coming from highly cited journals has been decreasing, and accor...

  18. Relation between Charpy impact properties and magnetism in thermally aged Fe-Cu model alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study demonstrates the possibility of applying magnetic methods to pressure vessel surveillance for irradiation embrittlement at nuclear power plants. Charpy impact test and magnetic hesteresis measurement were preformed on thermally aged Fe-1.0wt%Cu model alloys with and without pre-deformation. DBTT increased with increasing aging time. However, magnetic hysteresis parameters showed nonmonotonical changes. The phenomena are discussed in terms of Cu precipitation behavior and dislocation structure. (author)

  19. The Impact of Experienced Emotion on Evaluative Judgments: The Effects of Age and Emotion Regulation Style

    OpenAIRE

    Hess, Thomas M.; Beale, Karen S.; Miles, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Adults aged from 24 to 79 were exposed to four commercial advertisements within the context of television programs designed to induce either a positive or negative mood. Although age was associated with memory for the content of the commercials, it did not moderate the impact of mood on evaluations of the advertized products. Instead, participants who reported engaging in expressive suppression as a common emotion regulation strategy were more likely to make evaluations that were biased by mo...

  20. Ageing with an intellectual disability: the impact of personal resources on well-being.

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, B.A.; Bos, A.E.R.; Rijken, M.; Cardol, M.; Peters, G.J.Y.; Kok, G.; Curfs, L.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The population of ageing people with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities (ID) is growing rapidly. This study examines how personal resources (physical health, mental health and social networks) impact the well-being of ageing people with ID. Methods: Longitudinal survey data on 667 people with a mild or moderate ID were acquired via interviews in 2006 and 2010. Indicators of personal resources (physical health, mental health and social networks) were assessed, as were indi...

  1. Macroeconomic Impact of Population Aging in Japan: A Perspective from an Overlapping Generations Model

    OpenAIRE

    Muto, Ichiro; Oda, Takemasa; Sudo, Nao

    2012-01-01

    Due to a sharp decline in the fertility rate and a rapid increase in longevity, Japan's population aging is the furthest advanced in the world. In this study we explore the macroeconomic impact of population aging using a full-fledged overlapping generations model. Our model replicates well the time paths of Japan’s macroeconomic variables from the 1980s to the 2000s and yields future paths for these variables over a long horizon. We find that Japan’s population aging as a whole adversely aff...

  2. Impact of Age on the Relationships of Brown Adipose Tissue With Sex and Adiposity in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Pfannenberg, Christina; Werner, Matthias K.; Ripkens, Sabine; Stef, Irina; Deckert, Annette; Schmadl, Maria; Reimold, Matthias; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Claussen, Claus D.; Stefan, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Brown adipose tissue (BAT) regulates energy homeostasis and fat mass in mammals and newborns and, most likely, in adult humans. Because BAT activity and BAT mass decline with age in humans, the impact of BAT on adiposity may decrease with aging. In the present study we addressed this hypothesis and further investigated the effect of age on the sex differences in BAT activity and BAT mass. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data from 260 subjects (98 with BAT and 162 study date–matched cont...

  3. Social protection for all ages? Impacts of Ethiopia's Productive Safety Net Program on child nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Catherine; Goyal, Radhika

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the impact of a large-scale social protection scheme, the Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) in Ethiopia, on child nutritional outcomes. Children living in households that receive cash transfers should experience improved child nutrition. However, in the case of the PSNP, which for the majority of participants is a public works program, there are several potential threats to finding effects: first, without conditionality on child inputs, increased household income may not be translated into improved child nutrition. Second, the work requirement may impact on parental time, child time use and calories burned. Third, if there is a critical period for child human capital investment that closes before the age of 5 then children above this age may not see any improvement in medium-term nutritional outcomes, measured here as height-for-age. Using a cohort study that collected data both pre-and post-program implementation in 2002, 2006 and 2009, we exploit several novel aspects of the survey design to find estimates that can deal with non-random program placement. We present both matching and difference-in-differences estimates for the index children, as well as sibling-differences. Our estimates show an important positive medium-term nutritional impact of the program for children aged 5-15 that are comparable in size to Conditional Cash Transfer program impacts for much younger children. We show indicative evidence that the program impact on improved nutrition is associated with improved food security and reduced child working hours. Our robustness checks restrict the comparison group, by including only households who were shortlisted, but never received PSNP, and also exclude those who never received aid, thus identifying impact based on timing alone. We cannot rule out that the nutritional impact of the program is the same for younger and older children. PMID:27176466

  4. Differential impact of ageing on cellular and humoral immunity to a persistent murine γ-herpesvirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkum Claire E

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oncogenic γ-herpesviruses establish life-long infections in their hosts and control of these latent infections is dependent on continual immune surveillance. Immune function declines with age, raising the possibility that immune control of γ-herpesvirus infection becomes compromised with increasing age, allowing viral reactivation and/or increased latent load, both of which are associated with the development of malignancies. Results In this study, we use the experimental mouse γ-herpesvirus model, γHV68, to investigate viral immunity in aged mice. We found no evidence of viral recrudescence or increased latent load in aged latently-infected mice, suggesting that effective immune control of γ-herpesvirus infection remains intact with ageing. As both cellular and humoral immunity have been implicated in host control of γHV68 latency, we independently examined the impact of ageing on γHV68-specific CD8 T cell function and antibody responses. Virus-specific CD8 T cell numbers and cytolytic function were not profoundly diminished with age. In contrast, whereas ELISA titers of virus-specific IgG were maintained over time, there was a progressive decline in neutralizing activity. In addition, although aged mice were able to control de novo acute infection with only slightly delayed viral clearance, serum titers of neutralizing antibody were reduced in aged mice as compared to young mice. Conclusion Although there is no obvious loss of immune control of latent virus, these data indicate that ageing has differential impacts on anti-viral cellular and humoral immune protection during persistent γHV68 infection. This observation has potential relevance for understanding γ-herpesvirus immune control during disease-associated or therapeutic immunosuppression.

  5. Constraining the Flux of Impactors Postdating Heavy Bombardment Using U-Pb Ages of Impact Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemchin, A. A.; Norman, M. L.; Ziegler, R. A.; Grange, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    Spherules of glass varying in size from a few micrometres to a few millimetres are common in the lunar regolith. While some of these glass beads are products of pyroclastic fire fountains others originate as impact melt ejected from the target that breaks into small droplets and solidifies as spherical particles while raining back to the lunar surface. These glasses preserve information about the chemical composition of the target and often contain sufficient amount of radioactive nuclides such as 40K to enable Ar-40-Ar-39 dating of individual beads. Studies measuring the age of glass beads have been used in attempts to establish variations in the flux of impactors hitting the Moon, particularly during the period that postdates the formation of major impact basins [1,2]. These studies proposed a possibility of spike in the impact flux about 800 Ma [2] and over the last 400 Ma [1]. More recently U-Th-Pb isotopic systems have been also utilized to determine the age of impact glasses from the Apollo 17 regolith [3]. Our aim is to extend the application of the U-Pb system in impact glasses to spherules isolated from Apollo 14 soil 14163 in an attempt to further investigate the applicability of this isotopic system to the chronology of impact glass beads and gain additional information on the impact flux in the inner Solar system.

  6. Believing What You Hear: The Impact of Aging Stereotypes upon the Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Teri; Gaines, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Stereotypes about aging and the old, both negative and positive, have significant influence upon older people themselves. Often unknowingly, older people incorporate these stereotypes into their own thinking and self-perceptions. A literature search revealed four primary hypotheses about the manner in which these self-stereotypes impact older…

  7. Impacts of predation on dynamics of age-structured prey: Allee effects and multi-stability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlová, V.; Berec, Luděk

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2012), s. 533-544. ISSN 1874-1738 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : age-specific predation * functional response * generalist predator Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.052, year: 2012 http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs12080-011-0144-y

  8. The Psychosocial Impact of Closed-Circuit Televisions on Persons with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Jessica G.; Jutai, Jeffrey W.; Strong, J. Graham; Plotkin, Ann D.

    2008-01-01

    Closed-circuit televisions (CCTVs) are used by many elderly people who have age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The functional vision of 68 participants, which was measured immediately after they adopted CCTVs, suggested successful outcomes, but the psychosocial impact of the use of CCTVs did not peak until a month later. The findings help…

  9. Transcriptome 2002 Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quackenbush, John

    2002-01-01

    The Transcriptome 2002 meeting was held March 11-13, 2002 in Seattle, Washington with attendance by more than 300 scientists representing the international community. The scientific program was developed by an international organizing committee. In association with the main meeting, an Image Consortium invitational meeting was organized by Charles Auffray of CNRS and held with approximately 40 participants immediately following the conclusion of the Transcriptome meeting.

  10. Effect of Aging Treatment on Impact Toughness and Corrosion Resistance of Super Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Oh, Eun-Ji; Lee, Byung-Chan; Kang, Chang-Yong

    2016-01-01

    The effect of aging time on impact toughness and corrosion resistance of 25%Cr-7%Ni-2%Mo-4%W-0.2%N super duplex stainless steel from the viewpoint of intermetallic secondary phase variation was investigated with scanning electron microscopic observation with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopic analysis and transmission electron microscopy. The results clarified that R-phase is precipitated not only at the interface of ferrite and austenite but inside the ferrite at an initial stage of aging and then transformed into σ-phase from an aging time of 1 h, while the ferrite phase decomposed into γ2 and σ-phase with increase of aging time. This variation of the phases led to decrease of its impact toughness, and specifically, the R-phase was proved to be predominant in the degradation of the impact toughness at the initial stage of the aging. Additionally, these secondary phases led to deterioration of corrosion resistance because of Cr depletion.

  11. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = –0.581), Psychological Domain (r = –0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = –0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = –0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity.

  12. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Linek, Pawel; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-06-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = -0.581), Psychological Domain (r = -0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = -0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = -0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = -0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = -0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  13. Aging and selective engagement: the moderating impact of motivation on older adults' resource utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Thomas M; Germain, Cassandra M; Swaim, Elizabeth L; Osowski, Nicole L

    2009-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine age differences in the impact of motivation in a social cognitive task. We tested the hypothesis that aging is associated with an increase in the selective engagement of cognitive resources in support of performance. Different-aged adults read descriptions of 2 people in order to determine which was better suited for a particular job. These descriptions contained behaviors that were either consistent or inconsistent with the job, and participants performed the task under conditions of high versus low accountability. Examination of memory for behavioral information revealed that accountability disproportionately affected older adults' performance, with the locus of this effect being in conscious recollection processes. This supports the aforementioned selective engagement hypothesis by demonstrating that the differential impact of the motivational manipulation was based in deliberative memory processes. PMID:19357075

  14. Impact absorption of four processed soft denture liners as influenced by accelerated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, F; Koran, A; Nuryanti, A; Inoue, S

    1997-01-01

    The cushioning effect of soft denture liners was evaluated by using a free drop test with an accelerometer. Materials tested included SuperSoft (Coe Laboratories, Chicago, IL), Kurepeet-Dough (Kreha Chemical, Tokyo), Molteno Soft (Molten, Hiroshima, Japan), and Molloplast-B (Molloplast Regneri, Karlsruhe, Germany). All materials were found to reduce the impact force when compared to acrylic denture base resin. A 2.4-mm layer of soft denture material demonstrated good impact absorption, and Molloplast-B and Molteno had excellent impact absorption. When the soft denture liner was kept in an accelerated aging chamber for 900 hours, the damping effect recorded increased for all materials tested. Aging of all materials also affected the cushioning effect. PMID:9484071

  15. Next-generation transcriptome assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Jeffrey A.; Wang, Zhong

    2011-09-01

    Transcriptomics studies often rely on partial reference transcriptomes that fail to capture the full catalog of transcripts and their variations. Recent advances in sequencing technologies and assembly algorithms have facilitated the reconstruction of the entire transcriptome by deep RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), even without a reference genome. However, transcriptome assembly from billions of RNA-seq reads, which are often very short, poses a significant informatics challenge. This Review summarizes the recent developments in transcriptome assembly approaches - reference-based, de novo and combined strategies-along with some perspectives on transcriptome assembly in the near future.

  16. The impact of enhanced He and CNONa abundances on globular cluster relative age-dating methods

    CERN Document Server

    Marin-Franch, Antonio; Aparicio, Antonio; Pietrinferni, Adriano

    2010-01-01

    The impact that unrecognised differences in the chemical patterns of Galactic globular clusters have on their relative age determinations is studied. The two most widely used relative age-dating methods, horizontal and vertical, together with the more recent relative MS-fitting method, were carefully analyzed on a purely theoretical basis. The BaSTI library was adopted to perform the present analysis. We find that relative ages derived using the horizontal and vertical methods are largely dependent on the initial He content and heavy element distribution. Unrecognized cluster-to-cluster chemical abundance differences can lead to an error in the derived relative ages as large as ~0.5 (or ~6 Gyr if an age of 12.8 Gyr is adopted for normalization), and even larger for some extreme cases. It is shown that the relative MS-fitting method is by far the age-dating technique for which undetected cluster-to-cluster differences in the He abundance have less impact. Present results are used in order to pose constraints o...

  17. Cognitive predictors and age-based adverse impact among business executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rachael M; Dilchert, Stephan; Ones, Deniz S; Dages, Kelly D

    2015-09-01

    Age differences on measures of general mental ability and specific cognitive abilities were examined in 2 samples of job applicants to executive positions as well as a mix of executive/nonexecutive positions to determine which predictors might lead to age-based adverse impact in making selection and advancement decisions. Generalizability of the pattern of findings was also investigated in 2 samples from the general adult population. Age was negatively related to general mental ability, with older executives scoring lower than younger executives. For specific ability components, the direction and magnitude of age differences depended on the specific ability in question. Older executives scored higher on verbal ability, a measure most often associated with crystallized intelligence. This finding generalized across samples examined in this study. Also, consistent with findings that fluid abilities decline with age, older executives scored somewhat lower on figural reasoning than younger executives, and much lower on a letter series test of inductive reasoning. Other measures of inductive reasoning, such as Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, also showed similar age group mean differences across settings. Implications for employee selection and adverse impact on older job candidates are discussed. PMID:25822067

  18. Aging effects in component failure and downtime data and impacts on plant risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status results of two related projects are described in this presentation. The first part of the presentation, corresponding to the first project, is entitled Evaluation of Aging Effects in Component Failure and Downtime Data. The second part of the presentation, corresponding to the second project, is entitled Evaluation of Core Melt Frequency Effects Due to Component Aging and Maintenance. The work performed to evaluate aging effects in component failure and maintenance downtime data has resulted in an analysis procedure and personal computer software being developed. The procedure has been applied to diesel data circuit breaker data, controller data and starter data. Significant aging effects have been preliminarily identified. The work performed to evaluate core melt frequency impacts from component aging has resulted in approaches and software being developed. The applications to two NUREG 1150 probabilistic risk assessments show the dramatic effects aging and different maintenance programs can have. The detailed contributions which are produced allows the aging contributors to be effectively prioritized. Multiple aging effects are often the dominant contributors. These results are also preliminary and are under review

  19. Attenuated age-impact on systemic inflammatory markers in the presence of a metabolic burden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuurad Erdembileg

    Full Text Available The overall burden of chronic disease, inflammation and cardiovascular risk increases with age. Whether the relationship between age and inflammation is impacted by presence of an adverse metabolic burden is not known.We determined inflammatory markers in humans (336 Caucasians and 224 African Americans and in mice, representing a spectrum of age, weight and metabolic burden.In humans, levels of inflammatory markers increased significantly with age in subjects without the metabolic syndrome, (P=0.009 and P=0.037 for C-reactive protein, P<0.001 and P=0.001 for fibrinogen, P<0.001 and P=0.005 for serum amyloid-A, for Caucasians and African Americans, respectively. In contrast, trend patterns of inflammatory markers did not change significantly with age in subjects with metabolic syndrome in either ethnic group, except for fibrinogen in Caucasians. A composite z-score for systemic inflammation increased significantly with age in subjects without metabolic syndrome (P=0.004 and P<0.006 for Caucasians and African Americans, respectively but not in subjects with metabolic syndrome (P=0.009 for difference in age trend between metabolic syndrome and non-metabolic syndrome. In contrast, no similar age trend was found in vascular inflammation. The findings in humans were paralleled by results in mice as serum amyloid-A levels increased across age (range 2-15 months, P<0.01 and were higher in ob/ob mice compared to control mice (P<0.001.Presence of a metabolic challenge in mice and humans influences levels of inflammatory markers over a wide age range. Our results underscore that already at a young age, presence of a metabolic burden enhances inflammation to a level that appears to be similar to that of decades older people without metabolic syndrome.

  20. Lipid Profile in Diabetes Mellitus; What Impact Has Age and Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.O. Otamere

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus has been known to be associated with lipid disorders and cardiovascular complications. The age of the patient and duration of ailment has been variously believed to influence the lipid Pattern. This study was conducted on out-patients of Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital (ISTH, Irrua to evaluate the impact of age and Duration of illness on lipid Profile in Diabetes Mellitus. One hundred and four (104 patients, 52 males, and 52 females were included in the study conducted from January through October 2010. The patients were clinically assessed and brief history taken with the aid of questionnaire. The lipid parameters studied were Triglycerides, Total cholesterol, Low Density lipoprotein and High Density lipoprotein. There were anomalies in lipid profile whose pattern did not skew to any age group nor duration of illness (p>0.05. In Diabetes mellitus age and duration of illness are not reliable indices for lipid profile prediction.

  1. The impact of gender on emotions and age acting as a moderator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurram Saleem Alimgeer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotional expression is the lifeblood of any organization or community. This study provides a particular focus on how organizational work commitment and performance is gendered and emotionalized. This study investigated what impact gender have on employee emotions for employee well-being. Work commitment research has also not adequately addressed the importance of emotions as part of Commitment. It is this lack of attention to the importance of the relationships between gender and emotions and their impact on work commitment, and how this relationship is understood from the perspective of organizational members that underpins the need for research in this area. The research is also based on age acting as a moderator in the relationship of gender and emotion. Recent research investigating emotion in old age suggests that autonomic responsiveness diminishes with age. The experiential aspects of emotion, however, show less marked age differences. As concerned to the emotional expressions research seems to suggest that older adults are better than younger adults at regulating socially-relevant emotional information, older adults are not affected by negative emotions as much as younger counterparts. With age comes the ability to better regulate emotions in order to not disrupt performance on a memory-intensive task. Future studies should also be conducted to determine exactly how older adults achieved the same emotion-regulatory goal with less cognitive effort.

  2. Crystallization Age and Impact Resetting of Ancient Lunar Crust from the Descartes Terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, M. D.; Borg, L. E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.

    2002-01-01

    Lunar ferroan anorthosites (FANs) are relics of an ancient, primary feldspathic crust that is widely believed to have crystallized from a global magma ocean. Compositions and ages of FANs provide fundamental information about the origin and magmatic evolution of the Moon, while the petrology and thermal history of lunar FANs illustrate the structure and impact history of the lunar crust. Here we report petrologic, geochemical, and isotopic (Nd-Sr-Ar) studies of a ferroan noritic anorthosite clast from lunar breccia 67215 to improve our understanding of the composition, age, and thermal history of the Moon.

  3. Natural history of age-related lobular involution and impact on breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Radisky, Derek C.; Visscher, Daniel W.; Frank, Ryan D.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Winham, Stacey; Stallings-Mann, Melody; Hoskin, Tanya L.; Nassar, Aziza; Vachon, Celine M.; Denison, Lori A.; Hartmann, Lynn C.; Frost, Marlene H.; Degnim, Amy C.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related lobular involution (LI) is a physiological process in which the terminal duct lobular units of the breast regress as a woman ages. Analyses of breast biopsies from women with benign breast disease (BBD) have found that extent of LI is negatively associated with subsequent breast cancer development. Here we assess the natural course of LI within individual women, and the impact of progressive LI on breast cancer risk. The Mayo Clinic BBD cohort consists of 13,455 women with BBD fro...

  4. Restabilization of the aging resistance of compatibilized blends of pre-aged low density polyethylene and high-impact polystyrene (LDPE/HIPS)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Michálková, Danuše; Pospíšil, Jan; Fortelný, Ivan; Hromádková, Jiřina; Lednický, František; Schmidt, Pavel; Kruliš, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 9 (2009), s. 1486-1493. ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06097 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : blends with pre-aged LDPE * upgrading of impact strength * thermal restabilization Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.154, year: 2009

  5. Nature’s timepiece – molecular coordination of metabolism and impact on aging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bednářová, Andrea; Kodrík, Dalibor; Krishnan, N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 2 (2013), s. 3026-3049. E-ISSN 1422-0067 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/1215 Grant ostatní: National Science Foundation(US) MSU 012156-014 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : aging * circadian clocks * cellular metabolism Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.339, year: 2013 http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/14/2/3026

  6. In the Margins: The Impact of Sexualised Images on the Mental Health of Ageing Women

    OpenAIRE

    Hine, Rochelle

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes key findings of a study exploring how a cohort of 16 rural Australian women aged over 60 years think, feel and respond to the prevalence of sexualised imagery in the media. The qualitative research framework was informed by Feminist Standpoint Theory. Participants in three focus groups responded to semi-structured questions and prompts, interspersed with viewing examples of sexualised images. Five strong thematic categories emerged: concern for the harmful impacts of sexu...

  7. Thermal ageing and its impact on charge trap density and breakdown strength in ldpe LDPE

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ziyun; Chen, George; Fu, Mingli; Hou, Shuai

    2015-01-01

    Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) has been widely used as power cable insulation, because of its good electrical performance and stable chemical characteristics. However, in recent years, with the rise of large-capacity and long-distance HVDC transmission systems, the effect of space charge has a significant impact on the insulation selection and design. Furthermore, the change in the electrical performance of insulation after ageing is also required to be understood. It has been reported that ...

  8. IMPACT OF AGE AND SPORTS PARTICIPATION ON SELF ESTEEM OF ADOLESCENT BOYS

    OpenAIRE

    Alfred Basumatary; Tarak Nath Pramanik

    2014-01-01

    -The purpose of the study was to see the impact of age and sports participation on self-esteem of adolescent boys. Total 200 adolescent boys were selected from various public schools of New Delhi where 100 boys have participated in sports and 100 boys have not participated in sports. Rosenberg Self Esteem Inventory (Rosenberg, 1965) was used as a criterion measure for self-esteem. Mean, Standard Deviation, and Two-Way ANOVA were employed as statistical techniques for computati...

  9. The Impact of Age Stereotypes on Older Adults' Hazard Perception Performance and Driving Confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Lyn; Sargent-Cox, Kerry; Horswill, Mark S; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effect of age-stereotype threat on older adults' performance on a task measuring hazard perception performance in driving. The impact of age-stereotype threat in relation to the value participants placed on driving and pre- and post-task confidence in driving ability was also investigated. Eighty-six adults aged from 65 years of age completed a questionnaire measuring demographic information, driving experience, self-rated health, driving importance, and driving confidence. Prior to undertaking a timed hazard perception task, participants were exposed to either negative or positive age stereotypes. Results showed that age-stereotype threats, while not influencing hazard perception performance, significantly reduced post-driving confidence compared with pre-driving confidence for those in the negative prime condition. This finding builds on the literature that has found that stereotype-based influences cannot simply be understood in terms of performance outcomes alone and may be relevant to factors affected by confidence such as driving cessation decisions. PMID:24652925

  10. Effect of ageing and specimen size on the impact properties of manet II steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manet steel is one of the martensitic I 2%Cr-I%Mo-v steels family. These steels are used extensively in highly thermally stressed components, such as superheater tubing and main steam pipe systems in power stations, due to their adequate strength at high temperatures. In the present work the effect of ageing at 550 degree C for 1000 h on the impact properties of manet II steel was investigated. Two different Charpy V-notch impact specimens were used: full-size and sub size ones. Tests were carried out on two instrumental impact machines appropriate for the two specimen sizes. Both microstructure and fracture surface were examined using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that ageing produced little embrittling effect on MANET II steel. Both the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) and the brittleness transition temperature (TD) were increased by bout 15 degree C. The local fracture stress was also slightly reduced due to the ageing treatment. The results were discussed in the light of the chemical composition and the fracture surface morphology. 12 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Age-related alteration of arginase activity impacts on severity of leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Müller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The leishmaniases are a group of vector-borne parasitic diseases that represent a major international public health problem; they belong to the most neglected tropical diseases and have one of the highest rates of morbidity and mortality. The clinical outcome of infection with Leishmania parasites depends on a variety of factors such as parasite species, vector-derived products, genetics, behaviour, and nutrition. The age of the infected individuals also appears to be critical, as a significant proportion of clinical cases occur in children; this age-related higher prevalence of disease is most remarkable in visceral leishmaniasis. The mechanisms resulting in this higher incidence of clinical disease in children are poorly understood. We have recently revealed that sustained arginase activity promotes uncontrolled parasite growth and pathology in vivo. Here, we tested the hypothesis that arginase-mediated L-arginine metabolism differs with age. METHODOLOGY: The age distribution of patients with visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis was determined in cohorts of patients in our clinics in endemic areas in Ethiopia. To exclude factors that are difficult to control in patients, we assessed the impact of ageing on the manifestations of experimental leishmaniasis. We determined parasite burden, T cell responses, and macrophage effector functions in young and aged mice during the course of infection. RESULTS: Our results show that younger mice develop exacerbated lesion pathology and higher parasite burdens than aged mice. This aggravated disease development in younger individuals does not correlate with a change in T helper cytokine profile. To address the underlying mechanisms responsible for the more severe infections in younger mice, we investigated macrophage effector functions. Our results show that macrophages from younger mice do not have an impaired capacity to kill parasites; however, they express significantly higher levels of

  12. Impact of aging on the solid phase chemical fractionation of uranium in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A distinction should be made between persistence of total uranium (U) in soil and persistence of its bioavailable forms. As U age in soil, there is a change in bioavailability. The aging process is partially reversible if environmental parameters change, although a portion of the U ion will be securely entrapped in the soil particle lattice and not available to be re-solubilized. A study was carried out to reveals the impact of aging on chemical fractionation of U in amended soils from three different origin (Soil A: Metamorphic; Soil B: Sedimentary and Soil C: Ingenious basalt). For the study, 5g from each soil were amended with the 50 ml of water containing 100.0 mg/L of U in a falcon tube. After 7 days the supernatant was removed by centrifugation and the soil was allowed to air dry at room temperature

  13. The effect of age on cognitive performance under the impact of vibration in a driving environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzammil, Mohammad

    2004-01-01

    The effect of organismic variable age on human cognitive performance was studied under the impact of vibration in different automobile driving environments, namely city streets, rural roads and highways. Reaction time was measured in milliseconds through a human response measurement system specifically designed for the purpose. Results of the study showed that age had a significant effect in city street and rural road conditions. It was also found that the level of equivalent acceleration of vibration and a difficulty index significantly affected cognitive performance in all driving conditions. The organismic variable age observed to have a significant effect on task performance implied that youngsters and older people are stressed differently in specific environments of driving so proper stress management strategies should be evolved for them in order to minimize the number of accidents. PMID:15598358

  14. IMPACT OF AGE AND SPORTS PARTICIPATION ON SELF ESTEEM OF ADOLESCENT BOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Basumatary

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available -The purpose of the study was to see the impact of age and sports participation on self-esteem of adolescent boys. Total 200 adolescent boys were selected from various public schools of New Delhi where 100 boys have participated in sports and 100 boys have not participated in sports. Rosenberg Self Esteem Inventory (Rosenberg, 1965 was used as a criterion measure for self-esteem. Mean, Standard Deviation, and Two-Way ANOVA were employed as statistical techniques for computation of Selfesteem of school boy students. Results revealed that boys who have participated in sports have higher self-esteem than the boys who have not participated in sports. Participation in sports had effected on selfesteem of different age group but age group alone did not effect on self-esteem of adolescent boys.

  15. Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  16. 77 FR 14567 - Draft General Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement for the Ice Age Complex at Cross...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... National Park Service Draft General Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement for the Ice Age Complex... Statement for the Ice Age Complex at Cross Plains, Wisconsin DATES: The draft General Management Plan... Internet through the Web site above. You may also send comments to Superintendent, Ice Age National...

  17. Programming of Plant Leaf Senescence with Temporal and Inter-Organellar Coordination of Transcriptome in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hee Jung; Kim, Jeongsik; Jeong, Hyobin; Yang, Jin Ok; Lee, Il Hwan; Jun, Ji Hyung; Choi, Seung Hee; Park, Su Jin; Kang, Byeongsoo; Kim, You Wang; Phee, Bong-Kwan; Kim, Jin Hee; Seo, Chaehwa; Park, Charny; Kim, Sang Cheol; Park, Seongjin; Lee, Byungwook; Lee, Sanghyuk; Hwang, Daehee; Lim, Pyung Ok

    2016-01-01

    Plant leaves, harvesting light energy and fixing CO2, are a major source of foods on the earth. Leaves undergo developmental and physiological shifts during their lifespan, ending with senescence and death. We characterized the key regulatory features of the leaf transcriptome during aging by analyzing total- and small-RNA transcriptomes throughout the lifespan of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves at multidimensions, including age, RNA-type, and organelle. Intriguingly, senescing leaves showed more coordinated temporal changes in transcriptomes than growing leaves, with sophisticated regulatory networks comprising transcription factors and diverse small regulatory RNAs. The chloroplast transcriptome, but not the mitochondrial transcriptome, showed major changes during leaf aging, with a strongly shared expression pattern of nuclear transcripts encoding chloroplast-targeted proteins. Thus, unlike animal aging, leaf senescence proceeds with tight temporal and distinct interorganellar coordination of various transcriptomes that would be critical for the highly regulated degeneration and nutrient recycling contributing to plant fitness and productivity. PMID:26966169

  18. The Impact of Age Pension Eligibility Age on Retirement and Program Dependence: Evidence from an Australian Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Kadir Atalay; Garry F Barrett

    2012-01-01

    Identifying the effect of the financial incentives created by social security systems on the retirement behaviour of individuals requires exogenous variation in program parameters. In this paper we study the 1993 Australian Age Pension reform which increased the eligibility age for women to access the social security benefit. We find economically significant responses to the increase in the Age Pension eligibility age. An increase in the eligibility age of 1 year induced a decline in retireme...

  19. Impact of body mass index, age and varicocele on reproductive hormone profile from elderly men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. R. Yamaçake

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To study the impact of obesity, age and varicocele on sexual hormones fof adult and elderly men. Materials and Methods: 875 men who were screened for prostate cancer were enrolled in this study. Data recorded comprised age, body mass index (BMI, serum levels of total testosterone (TT, free testosterone (FT, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH. Patients were divided in groups according to their BMI in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese grades 1, 2 or 3. First, it was studied the association between age, BMI, and hormone profile. Then, clinical varicocele was evaluated in 298 patients to assess its correlation to the others parameters. Results: Obese patients had lower levels of TT, FT and SHBG (p<0.001 compared to underweight or normal weight patients. There were no differences in age (p=0.113, FSH serum levels (p=0.863 and LH serum levels (p=0.218 between obese and non-obese patients. Obese grade 3 had lower levels of TT and FT compared to obese grade 1 and 2 (p<0.05. There was no difference in the SHBG levels (p=0.120 among obese patients. There was no association between varicocele and BMI; and varicocele did not impact on testosterone or SHBG levels. Conclusions: Men with higher BMI have a lower serum level of TT, FT and SHBG. The presence of clinical varicocele as well as its grade has no impact on hormone profile in elderly men.

  20. Quantifying the impact of expanded age group campaigns for polio eradication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley G Wagner

    Full Text Available A priority of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI 2013-2018 strategic plan is to evaluate the potential impact on polio eradication resulting from expanding one or more Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIAs to children beyond age five-years in polio endemic countries. It has been hypothesized that such expanded age group (EAG campaigns could accelerate polio eradication by eliminating immunity gaps in older children that may have resulted from past periods of low vaccination coverage. Using an individual-based mathematical model, we quantified the impact of EAG campaigns in terms of probability of elimination, reduction in polio transmission and age stratified immunity levels. The model was specifically calibrated to seroprevalence data from a polio-endemic region: Zaria, Nigeria. We compared the impact of EAG campaigns, which depend only on age, to more targeted interventions which focus on reaching missed populations. We found that EAG campaigns would not significantly improve prospects for polio eradication; the probability of elimination increased by 8% (from 24% at baseline to 32% when expanding three annual SIAs to 5-14 year old children and by 18% when expanding all six annual SIAs. In contrast, expanding only two of the annual SIAs to target hard-to-reach populations at modest vaccination coverage-representing less than one tenth of additional vaccinations required for the six SIA EAG scenario-increased the probability of elimination by 55%. Implementation of EAG campaigns in polio endemic regions would not improve prospects for eradication. In endemic areas, vaccination campaigns which do not target missed populations will not benefit polio eradication efforts.

  1. Impact of sex and age on the performance of FINDRISC: the HUNT Study in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midthjell, Kristian; Holmen, Jostein; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Carlsen, Sven M; Shaw, Jonathan; Åsvold, Bjørn O

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) is recommended as a screening tool for diabetes risk. However, there is a lack of well-powered studies examining the performance of FINDRISC by sex and age. We aim to estimate, by sex and age, the prevalence of elevated FINDRISC and positive predictive value (PPV) of FINDRISC for identifying impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) in a general Norwegian population. Research design and methods We estimated the prevalence of elevated FINDRISC (≥15) among 47 694 adults in the third survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3, 2006–08). Among 2559 participants who participated in oral glucose tolerance testing, we estimated the PPV of elevated FINDRISC for identifying unknown prevalent diabetes and other forms of IGM. Results The prevalence of elevated FINDRISC was 12.1% in women, 9.6% in men, and increased from 1.5% at age 20–39 to 25.1% at age 70–79 years. The PPVs of elevated FINDRISC were 9.8% for diabetes, 16.9% for impaired glucose tolerance, 8.2% for impaired fasting glucose, and 34.9% for any form of IGM. The PPV for IGM was lower in women (31.2%) than in men (40.4%), and increased from 19.1% at age 20–39 to 55.5% at age ≥80 years. Conclusions FINDRISC identified more women than men as high-risk individuals for diabetes. FINDRISC had a high PPV for detecting prevalent IGM, and the PPV was higher in men than in women and in the older individuals. Our data indicate that the impact of sex and age on diabetes risk is not fully captured by FINDRISC, and that refinements to it might improve diabetes prediction. PMID:27403326

  2. The impacts of ageing effects due to radiation burden on optical fiber couplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perecar, F.; Marcinka, O.; Bednarek, L.; Lucki, M.; Liner, A.; Hajek, L.; Papes, M.; Jaros, J.; Vasinek, V.

    2015-08-01

    The paper discuss about accelerated ageing of optical fiber elements in their burdened with gamma radiation. In addition to the destruction of coating materials, gamma radiation has its effect on the internal structure of the optical fiber. It is necessary to specify the changes in the optical coupler and find out why these changes occur. This article contains experimental measurement of the impact of gamma radiation Cobalt-60 on the optical couplers of various split performance ratio. The couplers were exposed to gradually increasing doses of 60Co. Measurements are focused on the overall distribution of the energy in the core and cladding various branches of SM optical fiber couplers. This article focuses on applied research and experimental development of resources for safety operation of optical networks since monitoring of ageing substantially contributes to its security. It addresses issues of accelerated ageing of optical fiber elements in their burdened with gamma radiation. How does radiation energy of gamma radiation influence optical network elements? This effect is explored just very little bit and is yet another unanswered question. In addition to the destruction of coating materials, gamma radiation has its effect on the internal structure of the optical fiber. It is necessary to specify the changes in the optical coupler and find out why these changes occur. This article contains experimental measurement of the impact of gamma radiation Cobalt-60 on the optical couplers of various split performance ratio. Optical passive components, couplers, were exposed to gradually increasing doses of 60Co. Measurements are focused on the overall distribution of the energy of LP01 mode in the core and cladding various branches of SM optical fiber couplers. Graphical and mathematical detect changes in the dissemination of energy coupler after single doses of gamma radiation are useful to understand the phenomenon of accelerated ageing elements of optical networks in

  3. AR-40 AR-39 Age of an Impact-Melt Lithology in DHOFAR 961

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasl, B.; Cohen, B. A.; Li, Z.-H.; Jolliff, B.; Korotev, R.; Zeigler, R.

    2016-01-01

    The South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin is the stratigraphically oldest identifiable lunar basin and is therefore one of the most important targets for absolute age-dating to help understand whether ancient lunar bombardment history smoothly declined or was punctuated by a cataclysm. The SPA basin also has another convenient property, a geochemically distinct interior, unobscured by extensive mare basalt fill. A case has been made for the possible origin of the Dhofar 961 lunar meteorite in the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin, based on comparing its composition with Lunar Prospector gamma-ray data for the interior of the SPA basin. Dhofar 961 contains several different impact-melt (IM) lithologies. Jolliff et al. described two classes of mafic impact-melt lithologies, one dominated by olivine (Lithology A) and the other by plagioclase (An 95-96.5) (Lithology B). Broad-beam analyses of these lithologies yielded (is) approximately 14.0 wt% FeO, 11.7 wt% MgO, and 15.4 wt% Al2O3. Lithologies A and B differ by approximately 2.5% Al2O3, 1.5% FeO and 1.5% MgO, consistent with the occurrence of olivine phenocrysts in A and plagioclase clasts in B. Both lithologies are considerably more mafic than the Apollo mafic impact-melt breccias, corresponding to olivine gabbronorite. Joy et al. used U-Pb dating to investigate phosphate fragments in the Dhofar 961 matrix and impact-melt clasts. Matrix phosphates have 4.34 to 4 Ga ages, consistent with ancient KREEP-driven magmatic episodes and Pre-Nectarian ((is) greater than 3.92 Ga). Phosphates found within Dhofar 961 crystalline impact melt breccia clasts range from 4.26 to 3.89 Ga, potentially recording events throughout the basin forming epoch of lunar history. The youngest reset ages in the Dhofar 961 sample represent an upper limit for the time of formation of the meteorite. Joy et al suggested this age represents the final impact that mixed and consolidated several generations of precursor rocks into the Dhofar meteorite group

  4. Lunar Impact Basins: Stratigraphy, Sequence and Ages from Superposed Impact Crater Populations Measured from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, C. I.; Head, J. W.; Kadish, S. J.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Impact basin formation is a fundamental process in the evolution of the Moon and records the history of impactors in the early solar system. In order to assess the stratigraphy, sequence, and ages of impact basins and the impactor population as a function of time, we have used topography from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to measure the superposed impact crater size-frequency distributions for 30 lunar basins (D = 300 km). These data generally support the widely used Wilhelms sequence of lunar basins, although we find significantly higher densities of superposed craters on many lunar basins than derived by Wilhelms (50% higher densities). Our data also provide new insight into the timing of the transition between distinct crater populations characteristic of ancient and young lunar terrains. The transition from a lunar impact flux dominated by Population 1 to Population 2 occurred before the mid-Nectarian. This is before the end of the period of rapid cratering, and potentially before the end of the hypothesized Late Heavy Bombardment. LOLA-derived crater densities also suggest that many Pre-Nectarian basins, such as South Pole-Aitken, have been cratered to saturation equilibrium. Finally, both crater counts and stratigraphic observations based on LOLA data are applicable to specific basin stratigraphic problems of interest; for example, using these data, we suggest that Serenitatis is older than Nectaris, and Humboldtianum is younger than Crisium. Sample return missions to specific basins can anchor these measurements to a Pre-Imbrian absolute chronology.

  5. Realistic modeling of environmental tracer migration and composite age distributions in a pine beetle impacted watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, N. B.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    in understanding the long-term environmental impacts of the infestation, and comparisons to measured concentrations are needed to validate those models, making it an ideal test platform. The flow model is a combination of deterministic and geostatistically specified properties that provides a realistic representation of the study site, with age distributions and tracer concentrations subsequently simulated by particle tracking. The simulated concentrations are used to compute inferred mean ages and estimates of the entire age distribution, which are then compared to the known CADs and the domain specific age distributions for several scenarios.

  6. Residual impact of aged nZVI on heavy metal-polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, C; Gil-Díaz, M; Costa, G; Alonso, J; Guerrero, A M; Nande, M; Lobo, M C; Martín, M

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, the residual toxicity and impact of aged nZVI after a leaching experiment on heavy metal (Pb, Zn) polluted soils was evaluated. No negative effects on physico-chemical soil properties were observed after aged nZVI exposure. The application of nZVI to soil produced a significant increase in Fe availability. The impact on soil biodiversity was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). A significant effect of nZVI application on microbial structure has been recorded in the Pb-polluted soil nZVI-treated. Soil bacteria molecular response, evaluated by RT-qPCR using exposure biomarkers (pykA, katB) showed a decrease in the cellular activity (pykA) due to enhanced intracellular oxidative stress (katB). Moreover, ecotoxicological standardised test on Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) showed a decrease in the growth endpoint in the Pb-polluted soil, and particularly in the nZVI-treated. A different pattern has been observed in Zn-polluted soils: no changes in soil biodiversity, an increase in biological activity and a significant decrease of Zn toxicity on C. elegans growth were observed after aged nZVI exposure. The results reported indicated that the pollutant and its nZVI interaction should be considered to design soil nanoremediation strategies to immobilise heavy metals. PMID:25863574

  7. Impact of microstructural evolutions during thermal aging of Alloy 625 on its monotonic mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suave Lorena Mataveli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alloy 625 is widely used for petrochemical, marine and aerospace applications owing to its outstanding corrosion and mechanical properties at high temperatures. However, this alloy is prone to complex microstructure evolutions above 500 ∘C that may impact its mechanical properties. In this study, the impact of its microstructure evolutions occurring upon thermal aging on the monotonic mechanical properties has been studied. Thermal exposures of up to ∼2000 hours in the 550 ∘C – 900 ∘C temperature range have been investigated. TTT diagrams of the δ and γ′′ phases were established based on high resolution scanning electron microscopy observations. The evolutions of secondary carbides distributions were also followed. It has been observed a steep increase of the room temperature micro-hardness after overagings performed at 650 ∘C and 700 ∘C due to the precipitation of the γ′′ phase. Moreover, it is clearly demonstrated a strengthening effect of the δ phase observed after long term thermal exposures at temperatures in excess of 700 ∘C. Finally, the impact of a thermal aging in the γ′′ precipitation domain on the tensile properties was evaluated from room temperature up to 800 ∘C. It is shown that the loss of high temperature ductility is not correlated to the precipitation of grain boundary secondary carbides.

  8. Exclusion in Very Old Age : The Impact of Three Critical Life Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Bickel

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on relational exclusion (i.e. isolation and non-participation in social activities in very old age. Based on a five-year study of an octogenarian cohort, the authors investigate the impact of three critical life events (deterioration of health, death of a close relative, entry into a nursing home on relational life and social involvement. With advancing age, older people withdraw from some social activities, but their relationships with their family and friends remain stable. Life events have a stimulative effect on the support network (especially of family, and only the deterioration of health curbs social activity. This would seem to confirm the existence of a process of disengagement stemming more from the older people's functional or sensory disabilities than from an individual choice.

  9. Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

  10. The Impact of Nutrition, Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle on School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantea-Stoian Anca

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Diet and lifestyle in school-age children have a particularly large impact on health, as well as various consequences in future. The objective of this papers it to assess the relationship between lifestyle and daily diet and the effects of an unhealthy diet. Material and Methods. An observational cohort study was conducted in Bucharest, in three schools and one high school on 100 children, between 2011 and 2013. The criterion for inclusion was the appropriate age (school-age. The protocol consisted in clinical examination, body mass index (BMI calculation, questions about diet, physical activity and time spent watching television (TV. Results. Most children do not respect a schedule of meals and snacks (78%. Unhealthy diet (fast food, carbonated beverages, chocolate registered higher preferences. Mean TV time was 2.32 hours/day (SD=1.92 and a strong evidence on relationship between age and number of hours allocated to TV was discovered (p< .01. Four percent of children were found to be under the 5th percentile (underweight, 18% between 85th and 95th percentile (overweight and 14% above 95th percentile (obesity. Conclusions. A sedentary life in this case was mainly determined by the time spent daily in front of the television rather than lack of exercise.

  11. Impact of Ageing on Long-Term Care Workforce in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Erika

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to show the impact of societal change on the demand and supply of long-term care workforce. As age is the major driver of the need for care the growth in the numberof elderly and oldest old will increase the demand for long-term care workforce. Caregiving to the elderly is predominantly the task of the family in almost all European countries. However, the majority of European countries provide some kind of formal care either in institutions, at home or as cash benefits. The am...

  12. Aging impact on the safety and operability of nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation embrittlement causes a loss of reactor vessel material fracture toughness as nuclear plants age. Fracture mechanics based regulatory requirements limit the permissible level of irradiation embrittlement such that essential fracture prevention margins are maintained throughout the plant operating life. This paper reviews the regulatory requirements and the underlying fracture mechanics technology. Issues identified with that technology are identified and research programs implemented to resolve the issues are described. Where possible, an assessment is given of the anticipated impact on the research program output will have on the reactor vessel fracture-margin assessment process

  13. The Impact of Age, Education and Seniority on Motivation of Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Hitka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Motivation can be changed significantly in dependence on meeting human needs, life situations, internal and external environment, etc. It is caused by different factors which affect motivation in different ways. These factors do not act separately but they are a part of mutually connected network of specific relations. In the paper we show the possibility of the impact of age, education and seniority on the motivation of employees. The level of employee motivation and employee performance can be influenced by means of their detailed knowledge.

  14. Impact of Pretreatment and Aging on the Iodine Capture Performance of Silver-Exchanged Mordenite - 12314

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volatile gas emissions from a nuclear fuel recycle facility in the United States are governed by several key regulations, including 10 CFR 20, 40 CFR 61, and 40 CFR 190. Under 40 CFR 190, the total quantity of iodine that may be released to the environment from the entire fuel cycle is limited to 5 millicuries of I-129 per gigawatt-year of electrical energy produced by the fuel cycle. With a reasonable engineering margin, an iodine decontamination factor (DF) of approximately 1000 will be required for the complete fuel cycle. Off-gas treatment in a fuel reprocessing plant must address several gas streams containing iodine, among a number of volatile radionuclides. Past research and developmental activities identified silver-exchanged mordenite (AgZ) as a very promising sorbent based on its acid resistance, relatively high iodine and methyl iodide capacity, and high achievable DF. Recent studies at ORNL have focused on the impacts of long-term exposure to simulated off-gas streams (aging) and pretreatment on the iodine adsorption performance of hydrogen-reduced silver-exchanged mordenite (Ag0Z). Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of long-term exposure to both dry and moist air on the iodine sorption capacity of Ag0Z. The data indicates that aging reduces the capacity of Ag0Z, which must be accounted for to prevent degradation of DF. Because of its high acid resistance, a AgZ sorbent has been selected specifically for application in treating off-gas streams containing iodine. While extensive tests have been conducted in the United States on a form of this sorbent, the specific material previously tested is no longer commercially available and similar materials are currently being evaluated. As part of this evaluation, tests were conducted to determine the iodine sorption properties of this replacement media and the effects of long-term (up to 6 months) exposure to simulated off-gas streams. The ultimate goal is to develop an understanding of the

  15. Impact of Pretreatment and Aging on the Iodine Capture Performance of Silver-Exchanged Mordenite - 12314

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.; Ramey, D.W.; Spencer, B.B.; Anderson, K.K.; Robinson, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Volatile gas emissions from a nuclear fuel recycle facility in the United States are governed by several key regulations, including 10 CFR 20, 40 CFR 61, and 40 CFR 190. Under 40 CFR 190, the total quantity of iodine that may be released to the environment from the entire fuel cycle is limited to 5 millicuries of I-129 per gigawatt-year of electrical energy produced by the fuel cycle. With a reasonable engineering margin, an iodine decontamination factor (DF) of approximately 1000 will be required for the complete fuel cycle. Off-gas treatment in a fuel reprocessing plant must address several gas streams containing iodine, among a number of volatile radionuclides. Past research and developmental activities identified silver-exchanged mordenite (AgZ) as a very promising sorbent based on its acid resistance, relatively high iodine and methyl iodide capacity, and high achievable DF. Recent studies at ORNL have focused on the impacts of long-term exposure to simulated off-gas streams (aging) and pretreatment on the iodine adsorption performance of hydrogen-reduced silver-exchanged mordenite (Ag{sup 0}Z). Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of long-term exposure to both dry and moist air on the iodine sorption capacity of Ag{sup 0}Z. The data indicates that aging reduces the capacity of Ag{sup 0}Z, which must be accounted for to prevent degradation of DF. Because of its high acid resistance, a AgZ sorbent has been selected specifically for application in treating off-gas streams containing iodine. While extensive tests have been conducted in the United States on a form of this sorbent, the specific material previously tested is no longer commercially available and similar materials are currently being evaluated. As part of this evaluation, tests were conducted to determine the iodine sorption properties of this replacement media and the effects of long-term (up to 6 months) exposure to simulated off-gas streams. The ultimate goal is to develop an

  16. Growth rates and ages of deep-sea corals impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Fisher, Charles R.; Demopoulos, Amanda W. J.; Druffel, Ellen R. M.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the April 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill on deep-sea coral communities in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) is still under investigation, as is the potential for these communities to recover. Impacts from the spill include observation of corals covered with flocculent material, with bare skeleton, excessive mucous production, sloughing tissue, and subsequent colonization of damaged areas by hydrozoans. Information on growth rates and life spans of deep-sea corals is important for understanding the vulnerability of these ecosystems to both natural and anthropogenic perturbations, as well as the likely duration of any observed adverse impacts. We report radiocarbon ages and radial and linear growth rates based on octocorals (Paramuricea spp. and Chrysogorgia sp.) collected in 2010 and 2011 from areas of the DWH impact. The oldest coral radiocarbon ages were measured on specimens collected 11 km to the SW of the oil spill from the Mississippi Canyon (MC) 344 site: 599 and 55 cal yr BP, suggesting continuous life spans of over 600 years for Paramuricea biscaya, the dominant coral species in the region. Calculated radial growth rates, between 0.34 μm yr−1 and 14.20 μm yr−1, are consistent with previously reported proteinaceous corals from the GoM. Anomalously low radiocarbon (Δ14C) values for soft tissue from some corals indicate that these corals were feeding on particulate organic carbon derived from an admixture of modern surface carbon and a low 14C carbon source. Results from this work indicate fossil carbon could contribute 5–10% to the coral soft tissue Δ14C signal within the area of the spill impact. The influence of a low 14C carbon source (e.g., petro-carbon) on the particulate organic carbon pool was observed at all sites within 30 km of the spill site, with the exception of MC118, which may have been outside of the dominant northeast-southwest zone of impact. The quantitatively assessed extreme longevity and slow growth rates documented

  17. A potential impact of DNA repair on ageing and lifespan in the ageing model organism Podospora anserina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, Mette; Gredilla, Ricardo; Müller-Ohldach, Mathis;

    2009-01-01

    The free radical theory of ageing states that ROS play a key role in age-related decrease in mitochondrial function via the damage of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), proteins and lipids. In the sexually reproducing ascomycete Podospora anserina ageing is, as in other eukaryotes, associated with mtDNA...... instability and mitochondrial dysfunction. Part of the mtDNA instabilities may arise due to accumulation of ROS induced mtDNA lesions, which, as previously suggested for mammals, may be caused by an age-related decrease in base excision repair (BER). Alignments of known BER protein sequences with the P....... anserina genome revealed high homology. We report for the first time the presence of BER activities in P. anserina mitochondrial extracts. DNA glycosylase activities decrease with age, suggesting that the increased mtDNA instability with age may be caused by decreased ability to repair mtDNA damage and...

  18. Human T cell aging and the impact of persistent viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas eFulop

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a dysregulation of the immune response, loosely termed immunosenescence. Each part of the immune system is influenced to some extent by the aging process. However, adaptive immunity seems more extensively affected and among all participating cells it is the T cells that are most altered. There is a large body of experimental work devoted to the investigation of age-associated differences in T cell phenotypes and functions in young and old individuals, but few longitudinal studies in humans actually delineating changes at the level of the individual. In most studies, the number and proportion of late-differentiated T cells, especially CD8+ T cells, is reported to be higher in the elderly than in the young. Limited longitudinal studies suggest that accumulation of these cells is a dynamic process and does indeed represent an age-associated change. Accumulations of such late-stage cells may contribute to the enhanced systemic pro-inflammatory milieu commonly seen in older people. We do not know exactly what causes these observed changes, but an understanding of the possible causes is now beginning to emerge. A favored hypothesis is that these events are at least partly due to the effects of the maintenance of essential immune surveillance against persistent viral infections, notably Cytomegalovirus (CMV, which may exhaust the immune system over time. It is still a matter of debate as to whether these changes are compensatory and beneficial or pathological and detrimental to the proper functioning of the immune system and whether they impact longevity. Here, we will review present knowledge of T cell changes with aging and their relation to chronic viral and possibly other persistent infections.

  19. Spotlight on Age-Diversity Climate : The Impact of Age-Inclusive HR Practices on Firm-Level Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Boehm, Stephan A; Kunze, Florian; Bruch, Heike

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the emergence and the performance effects of an age-diversity climate at the organizational level of analysis. Building upon Kopelman and colleagues’ (Kopelman, Brief, & Guzzo, 1990) climate model of firm productivity as well as Cox's (1994)  interactional model of cultural diversity, we hypothesize a positive influence of age-inclusive HR practices on the development of an organization-wide age-diversity climate, which in turn should be directly related to collective ...

  20. 40Ar/39Ar ages of lunar impact glasses: Relationships among Ar diffusivity, chemical composition, shape, and size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, N. E. B.; Delano, J. W.

    2015-07-01

    Lunar impact glasses, which are quenched melts produced during cratering events on the Moon, have the potential to provide not only compositional information about both the local and regional geology of the Moon but also information about the impact flux over time. We present in this paper the results of 73 new 40Ar/39Ar analyses of well-characterized, inclusion-free lunar impact glasses and demonstrate that size, shape, chemical composition, fraction of radiogenic 40Ar retained, and cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages are important for 40Ar/39Ar investigations of these samples. Specifically, analyses of lunar impact glasses from the Apollo 14, 16, and 17 landing sites indicate that retention of radiogenic 40Ar is a strong function of post-formation thermal history in the lunar regolith, size, and chemical composition. This is because the Ar diffusion coefficient (at a constant temperature) is estimated to decrease by ∼3-4 orders of magnitude with an increasing fraction of non-bridging oxygens, X(NBO), over the compositional range of most lunar impact glasses with compositions from feldspathic to basaltic. Based on these relationships, lunar impact glasses with compositions and sizes sufficient to have retained ∼90% of their radiogenic Ar during 750 Ma of cosmic ray exposure at time-integrated temperatures of up to 290 K have been identified and are likely to have yielded reliable 40Ar/39Ar ages of formation. Additionally, ∼50% of the identified impact glass spheres have formation ages of ⩽500 Ma, while ∼75% of the identified lunar impact glass shards and spheres have ages of formation ⩽2000 Ma. Higher thermal stresses in lunar impact glasses quenched from hyperliquidus temperatures are considered the likely cause of poor survival of impact glass spheres, as well as the decreasing frequency of lunar impact glasses in general with increasing age. The observed age-frequency distribution of lunar impact glasses may reflect two processes: (i) diminished

  1. Air quality impact and physicochemical aging of biomass burning aerosols during the 2007 San Diego wildfires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauscher, Melanie D; Wang, Ying; Moore, Meagan J K; Gaston, Cassandra J; Prather, Kimberly A

    2013-07-16

    Intense wildfires burning >360000 acres in San Diego during October, 2007 provided a unique opportunity to study the impact of wildfires on local air quality and biomass burning aerosol (BBA) aging. The size-resolved mixing state of individual particles was measured in real-time with an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) for 10 days after the fires commenced. Particle concentrations were high county-wide due to the wildfires; 84% of 120-400 nm particles by number were identified as BBA, with particles potassium salts heterogeneously reacting with inorganic acids was observed with continuous high temporal resolution for the first time. Ten distinct chemical types shown as BBA factors were identified through positive matrix factorization coupled to single particle analysis, including particles comprised of potassium chloride and organic nitrogen during the beginning of the wildfires, ammonium nitrate and amines after an increase of relative humidity, and sulfate dominated when the air mass back trajectories passed through the Los Angeles port region. Understanding BBA aging processes and quantifying the size-resolved mass and number concentrations are important in determining the overall impact of wildfires on air quality, health, and climate. PMID:23750590

  2. Preservation of ancient impact ages on the R chondrite parent body: 40Ar/39Ar age of hornblende-bearing R chondrite LAP 04840

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Cosca, M. A.; Morgan, L. E.

    2016-07-01

    The hornblende- and biotite-bearing R chondrite LAP 04840 is a rare kind of meteorite possibly containing outer solar system water stored during metamorphism or postshock annealing deep within an asteroid. Because little is known regarding its age and origin, we determined 40Ar/39Ar ages on hornblende-rich separates of the meteorite, and obtained plateau ages of 4340(±40) to 4380(±30) Ma. These well-defined plateau ages, coupled with evidence for postshock annealing, indicate this meteorite records an ancient shock event and subsequent annealing. The age of 4340-4380 Ma (or 4.34-4.38 Ga) for this and other previously dated R chondrites is much older than most impact events recorded by ordinary chondrites and points to an ancient event or events that predated the late heavy bombardment that is recorded in so many meteorites and lunar samples.

  3. About the Same Geological Age and Possible Simultaneous Formation of Obolon' (Ukraine) and Puchezch-Katun' (Russia) Impact Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valter, A. A.; Maschak, M. S.

    2012-03-01

    Structures have Bajocian ages of primary crater sediments and the K-Ar ages of impact glasses: 168 ± 5 Ma (Obolon’) and 167 ± 3 Ma (Puchezch- Katun’). Direction of O elongation coincides with (O)-(P) line. They might be formed by the same projectile.

  4. Cancer Reduces Transcriptome Specialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Octavio; Reyes-Valdés, M. Humberto; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2010-01-01

    A central goal of cancer biology is to understand how cells from this family of genetic diseases undergo specific morphological and physiological changes and regress to a de-regulated state of the cell cycle. The fact that tumors are unable to perform most of the specific functions of the original tissue led us to hypothesize that the degree of specialization of the transcriptome of cancerous tissues must be less than their normal counterparts. With the aid of information theory tools, we analyzed four datasets derived from transcriptomes of normal and tumor tissues to quantitatively test the hypothesis that cancer reduces transcriptome specialization. Here, we show that the transcriptional specialization of a tumor is significantly less than the corresponding normal tissue and comparable with the specialization of dedifferentiated embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the drop in specialization in cancerous tissues is largely due to a decrease in expression of genes that are highly specific to the normal organ. This approach gives us a better understanding of carcinogenesis and offers new tools for the identification of genes that are highly influential in cancer progression. PMID:20454660

  5. Components of a Mediterranean diet and their impact on cognitive functions in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eHuhn

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adhering to the Mediterranean diet (MeDi is known to be beneficial with regard to age-associated diseases including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies also suggest an impact on cognition and brain structure, and increasing effort is made to track effects down to single nutrients.Aims: To review whether two MeDi components, i.e. long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (LC-n3-FA derived from sea-fish, and plant polyphenols including resveratrol (RSV, exert positive effects on brain health in aging. Content: We summarized health benefits associated with the MeDi and evaluated available studies on the effect of (1 fish-consumption and LC-n3-FA supplementation as well as (2 diet-derived or supplementary polyphenols such as RSV, on cognitive performance and brain structure in animal models and human studies. Also, we discussed possible underlying mechanisms.Conclusion: A majority of available studies suggest that consumption of LC-n3-FA with fish or fishoil-supplements exerts positive effects on brain health and cognition in older humans. However, more large-scale randomized controlled trials are needed to draw definite recommendations. Considering polyphenols and RSV, only a few controlled studies are available to date, yet the evidence based on animal research and first interventional human trials is promising and warrants further investigation. In addition, the concept of food synergy within the MeDi encourages future trials that evaluate the impact of comprehensive lifestyle patterns to help maintaining cognitive functions into old age.

  6. Impact of radiobiological considerations on epidemiological inferences of age-dependent radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current epidemiological studies of the age-dependent risk of radiogenic carcinomas are based on populations still in the early stages of cancer expression. The result is a set of logical uncertainties concerning the manner in which inferences may be drawn from the existing data. These uncertainties may be formalized and examined through the application of various radiobiological principles developed from more fundamental experimental data. Chief amongst these considerations are the time course of tumor expression, the role of relative and absolute risk models, the distribution of effects between initiation and promotion, the age-dependent fraction of time a critical cell remains in radiosensitive stages and the combinatorics of the critical cellular subpopulations. Each of these and the combinatorics of the critical cellular subpopulations. Each of these principles are examined in light of their impact on the structuring of epidemiologic data and the drawing of inferences concerning age-dependent radiogenic risk. The data on atomic bomb survivors are employed as a relevant example

  7. Minimal impact of age and housing temperature on the metabolic phenotype of Acc2-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Amanda E; Stuart, Ella; Leslie, Simon J; Hoehn, Kyle L; James, David E; Kraegen, Edward W; Turner, Nigel; Cooney, Gregory J

    2016-03-01

    An important regulator of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is the allosteric inhibition of CPT-1 by malonyl-CoA produced by the enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2). Initial studies suggested that deletion of Acc2 (Acacb) increased fat oxidation and reduced adipose tissue mass but in an independently generated strain of Acc2 knockout mice we observed increased whole-body and skeletal muscle FAO and a compensatory increase in muscle glycogen stores without changes in glucose tolerance, energy expenditure or fat mass in young mice (12-16 weeks). The aim of the present study was to determine whether there was any effect of age or housing at thermoneutrality (29 °C; which reduces total energy expenditure) on the phenotype of Acc2 knockout mice. At 42-54 weeks of age, male WT and Acc2(-/-) mice had similar body weight, fat mass, muscle triglyceride content and glucose tolerance. Consistent with younger Acc2(-/-) mice, aged Acc2(-/-) mice showed increased whole-body FAO (24 h average respiratory exchange ratio=0.95±0.02 and 0.92±0.02 for WT and Acc2(-/-) mice respectively, PFAO in mice, but this has little impact on body composition or insulin action. PMID:26668208

  8. The Impact of Audience Age and Familiarity on Children's Drawings of Themselves in Contrasting Affective States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, Esther; Watling, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the impact of familiarity and audience age on children's self-presentation in self-drawings of happy, sad and neutral figures. Two hundred children (100 girls and 100 boys) with the average age of 8 years 2 months, ranging from 6 years 3 months to 10 years 1 month, formed two age groups and five…

  9. Age and impacts of the caldera-forming Aniakchak II eruption in western Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, J. J.; Payne, R. J.; Heggen, M. P.; de la Riva Caballero, A.; van der Plicht, J.

    2014-07-01

    The mid-Holocene eruption of Aniakchak volcano (Aniakchak II) in southwest Alaska was among the largest eruptions globally in the last 10,000 years (VEI-6). Despite evidence for possible impacts on global climate, the precise age of the eruption is not well-constrained and little is known about regional environmental impacts. A closely spaced sequence of radiocarbon dates at a peatland site over 1000 km from the volcano show that peat accumulation was greatly reduced with a hiatus of approximately 90-120 yr following tephra deposition. During this inferred hiatus no paleoenvironmental data are available but once vegetation returned the flora changed from a Cyperaceae-dominated assemblage to a Poaceae-dominated vegetation cover, suggesting a drier and/or more nutrient-rich ecosystem. Oribatid mites are extremely abundant in the peat at the depth of the ash, and show a longer-term, increasingly wet peat surface across the tephra layer. The radiocarbon sample immediately below the tephra gave a date of 1636-1446 cal yr BC suggesting that the eruption might be younger than previously thought. Our findings suggest that the eruption may have led to a widespread reduction in peatland carbon sequestration and that the impacts on ecosystem functioning were profound and long-lasting.

  10. Postoperative apnea after inguinal hernia repair in formerly premature infants: impacts of gestational age, postconceptional age and comorbidities

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Tunç; Arıkan, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Purpose It is common practice for premature infants undergoing elective inguinal hernia (IH) repair to be hospitalized for postoperative apnea monitoring. This study evaluated the risk of apnea after IH repair with regard to gestational age (GA) and postconceptional age (PCA) in formerly premature infants. Methods Formerly premature infants who had undergone elective IH repair between 01/2000 and 12/2012 were reviewed retrospectively in terms of GA, PCA, body weight, and comorbidities. All po...

  11. The impact of gender, education and age on employee attitudes towards corporate social responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosati, Francesco; Calabrese, Armando; Costa, Roberta;

    Engaging employees can have a positive effect on turnover reduction, client satisfaction, company profitability, innovation and growth. Engaging employees in corporate social responsibility (CSR) can also generate positive impacts on environment and society. To do this, companies need to understand...... their employees' CSR attitudes. In this regard, many studies show that individual characteristics can influence CSR attitudes. This research aims to identify the influence of three sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, educational level and age on three employee CSR attitudes, such as CSR...... bank employees are generally very demanding in terms of CSR efforts and that, although they are trustful in CSR performance, they are not completely satisfied with it. In particular, employee gender has a significant influence on CSR trust and CSR satisfaction, with male employees generally more...

  12. [Impact of age-related cataract on regulation of circadian rhythm in elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M S; Liu, M Y; Dong, X R; Wang, W

    2016-04-11

    This review presented an introduction of the visual pathway related circadian rhythm regulation system: the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells-suprachiasmatic nucleus-pineal gland-melatonin axis, and discussed the impact of light with different wave length and irradiation received by retina on circadian rhythm and sleep habit. A hypothesis was proposed consequently that the high morbidity of sleep disorder in elderly might be partially attributable to the long-term blue light blocking status induced by age-related cataract. A number of relative literatures were reviewed and a novel research direction was advanced on improving circadian rhythm and sleep condition in elderly based on the current knowledge. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 309-314). PMID:27094070

  13. The Microbiome and Musculoskeletal Conditions of Aging: A Review of Evidence for Impact and Potential Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steves, Claire J; Bird, Sarah; Williams, Frances Mk; Spector, Tim D

    2016-02-01

    Recently, we have begun to realize that the billions of microorganisms living in symbiosis with us have an influence on disease. Evidence is mounting that the alimentary tract microbiome, in particular, influences both host metabolic potential and its innate and adaptive immune system. Inflammatory states characterize many bone and joint diseases of aging. This prompts the hypothesis that the gut microbiome could alter the inflammatory state of the individual and directly influence the development of these common and burdensome clinical problems. Because the microbiome is easily modifiable, this could have major therapeutic impact. This perspective discusses evidence to date on the role of the microbiome and the highly prevalent age-related disorders of osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, sarcopenia, and frailty. It also reviews data on the effects of probiotics and prebiotic interventions in animal and human models. Despite suggestive findings, research to date is not conclusive, and we identify priorities for research to substantiate and translate findings. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26676797

  14. Alcohol Policy, Social Context, and Infant Health: The Impact of Minimum Legal Drinking Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Caine

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The minimum legal drinking age (MLDA was increased in the U.S. in the late 1980s in an effort to reduce intoxication-associated injuries, especially those related to motor vehicle accidents. This paper explores distal (secondary effects of changing MLDA on indices of infant health, and whether changes in drinking behaviors or birth composition contributed to these effects. Methods: State- and year-fixed-effects models are used to analyze the relationship between MLDA, drinking behaviors, and birth outcomes. We studied the effects of different MLDA (age 18, 19, 20, or 21 years when potential mothers were 14 years old by merging two population-based datasets, the Natality Detailed Files and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System between 1985 and 2002. Results: A MLDA of 18 years old (when potential mothers were 14 years old increased the prevalence of low birth weight, low Apgar scores, and premature births. Effects were stronger among children born to black women compared with white women. Moreover, a younger MLDA was associated with an increasing proportion of very young and high school dropouts for black women. Furthermore, older MLDA laws at age 14 years decreased the prevalence of binge drinking among black women. Conclusions: Increasing the MLDA had longer term, distal impacts beyond the initially intended outcomes, specifically on birth outcomes (particularly among infants born to black women as well as school drop-outs and binge drinking patterns among black young females. The older MLDA, intended initially to reduce problematic drinking behaviors, appeared to alter broader social contexts that influenced young women during their early childbearing years.

  15. Gender and Age Impact on the Association Between Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone and Serum Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhaowei; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Song, Kun; Tan, Jian; Jia, Qiang; Zhang, Guizhi; Wang, Renfei; He, Yajing; Ren, Xiaojun; Zhu, Mei; He, Qing; Wang, Shen; Li, Xue; Zheng, Wei; Hu, Tianpeng; Liu, Na; Upadhyaya, Arun; Zhou, Pingping; Zhang, Jianping

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and hyperlipidemia is still a topic of debate. We aimed to explore the impact of gender and age on the association between serum TSH and lipid profile in a large cohort of Chinese.This cross-sectional study enrolled 13,915 participants (8565 male, 5350 female), who self-reported as healthy without any known previous diseases. Clinical data including anthropometric measurements, thyroid function, and other serum parameters were collected. The associations between TSH and hyperlipidemia of males and females were analyzed separately after dividing TSH and age into subgroups. Odds ratio for hyperlipidemia was calculated by binary logistic regression models.Young males had significantly higher prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and high serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol than females, yet after menopause, females had higher prevalence than males. TSH was positively associated with hyperlipidemia independent of thyroid hormones. Males showed more reduced risks of hyperlipidemia in low TSH concentrations, while females demonstrated more enhanced risks of hyperlipidemia in high TSH concentrations. For instance, if TSH was lower than 0.3 μIU/mL, the risks of developing hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in males were only 0.198 (P  0.05), respectively. If TSH was higher than 4.0 μIU/mL, women displayed significantly higher risks of developing hypertriglyceridemia than the reference TSH risks (P thyroid hormone independent positive associations between serum TSH and lipids, which were substantially influenced by gender and age. Males demonstrated more protective effects of low TSH against hyperlipidemia, while females showed more detrimental effects of high TSH on hyperlipidemia. PMID:26656346

  16. Lap Shear and Impact Testing of Ochre and Beeswax in Experimental Middle Stone Age Compound Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The production of compound adhesives using disparate ingredients is seen as some of the best evidence of advanced cognition outside of the use of symbolism. Previous field and laboratory testing of adhesives has shown the complexities involved in creating an effective Middle Stone Age glue using Acacia gum. However, it is currently unclear how efficient different adhesive recipes are, how much specific ingredients influence their performance, and how difficult it may have been for those ingredients to be combined to maximum effect. We conducted a series of laboratory-based lap shear and impact tests, following modern adhesion testing standards, to determine the efficacy of compound adhesives, with particular regard to the ingredient ratios. We tested rosin (colophony) and gum adhesives, containing additives of beeswax and ochre in varying ratios. During both lap shear and impact tests compound rosin adhesives performed better than single component rosin adhesives, and pure acacia gum was the strongest. The large difference in performance between each base adhesive and the significant changes in performance that occur due to relatively small changes in ingredient ratios lend further support to the notion that high levels of skill and knowledge were required to consistently produce the most effective adhesives. PMID:26983080

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE AND ITS IMPACTS ON HUMAN SETTLEMENT IN THE CHANGJIANG RIVER DELTA IN NEOLITHIC AGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qiang; LIU Chun-ling; ZHU Cheng; JIANG Tong

    2004-01-01

    Dating data,altitude of Neolithic sites,climatic changes from sedimentary records and previous research results were collected and analyzed to detect possible connections between climatic changes and human activities in the Changjiang River Delta in the Neolithic Age.The results indicated that hydrological changes greatly impacted the human activities in the study region.Low-lying geomorphology made the floods and sea level changes become the important factors affecting human activities,especially the altitude change of human settlements.People usually moved to higher places during the periods characterized by high sea level and frequent floods to escape the negative influences from water body expansion,which resulted in cultural hiatus in certain profiles.However,some higher-altitude settlements were not the results of climatic changes but the results of social factors,such as religious ceremony and social status.Therefore,further research will be necessary for the degree and types of impacts of climatic changes on human activities in the study area at that time.

  18. Caregiver perceptions about the impact of caring for patients with wet age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukicevic, M; Heraghty, J; Cummins, R; Gopinath, B; Mitchell, P

    2016-03-01

    PurposeCaregivers of older persons with eye disease, namely age-related macular degeneration (AMD), have been reported to have a higher than expected distress. Very few studies have explored caregiver perceptions as to what is important when providing care. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of caregivers of persons with neovascular AMD in relation to the most important aspects of caring, as described in extended answers to self-administered survey questions.MethodsA cross-sectional, self-administered survey of 643 caregivers of people with neovascular AMD, comprising 27 closed-response questions and 2 open ended questions. The latter were analysed as part of this study utilising and 'inductive' Grounded Theory approach.ResultsSix-hundred and forty-three caregiver responses to 2 open ended questions were analysed using an inductive approach and sorted into thematic networks. Three discrete categories arose: The Impact of Caring; Injections and Information and Activities of Daily Living.ConclusionsMost caregivers were family caregivers and were found to be compassionate and self-sacrificing. They accepted additional responsibility whilst providing an encouraging environment for their care recipient. As a result, they experience distress and consider their own needs as secondary. Very few seek or receive respite and this added burden can have a negative impact upon the relationship between caregiver and care recipient. PMID:26611848

  19. Lap Shear and Impact Testing of Ochre and Beeswax in Experimental Middle Stone Age Compound Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozowyk, P R B; Langejans, G H J; Poulis, J A

    2016-01-01

    The production of compound adhesives using disparate ingredients is seen as some of the best evidence of advanced cognition outside of the use of symbolism. Previous field and laboratory testing of adhesives has shown the complexities involved in creating an effective Middle Stone Age glue using Acacia gum. However, it is currently unclear how efficient different adhesive recipes are, how much specific ingredients influence their performance, and how difficult it may have been for those ingredients to be combined to maximum effect. We conducted a series of laboratory-based lap shear and impact tests, following modern adhesion testing standards, to determine the efficacy of compound adhesives, with particular regard to the ingredient ratios. We tested rosin (colophony) and gum adhesives, containing additives of beeswax and ochre in varying ratios. During both lap shear and impact tests compound rosin adhesives performed better than single component rosin adhesives, and pure acacia gum was the strongest. The large difference in performance between each base adhesive and the significant changes in performance that occur due to relatively small changes in ingredient ratios lend further support to the notion that high levels of skill and knowledge were required to consistently produce the most effective adhesives. PMID:26983080

  20. A Late Mesoproterozoic 40Ar/39Ar age for a melt breccia from the Keurusselkä impact structure, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, Martin; Jourdan, Fred; Moilanen, Jarmo; Buchner, Elmar; Öhman, Teemu

    2016-02-01

    Field investigations in the eroded central uplift of the ≤30 km Keurusselkä impact structure, Finland, revealed a thin, dark melt vein that intersects the autochthonous shatter cone-bearing target rocks near the homestead of Kirkkoranta, close to the center of the impact structure. The petrographic analysis of quartz in this melt breccia and the wall rock granite indicate weak shock metamorphic overprint not exceeding ~8-10 GPa. The mode of occurrence and composition of the melt breccia suggest its formation as some kind of pseudotachylitic breccia. 40Ar/39Ar dating of dark and clast-poor whole-rock chips yielded five concordant Late Mesoproterozoic miniplateau ages and one plateau age of 1151 ± 10 Ma [± 11 Ma] (2σ; MSWD = 0.11; P = 0.98), considered here as the statistically most robust age for the rock. The new 40Ar/39Ar age is incompatible with ~1.88 Ga Svecofennian tectonism and magmatism in south-central Finland and probably reflects the Keurusselkä impact, followed by impact-induced hydrothermal chloritization of the crater basement. In keeping with the crosscutting relationships in the outcrop and the possible influence of postimpact alteration, the Late Mesoproterozoic 40Ar/39Ar age of ~1150 Ma should be treated as a minimum age for the impact. The new 40Ar/39Ar results are consistent with paleomagnetic results that suggested a similar age for Keurusselkä, which is shown to be one of the oldest impact structures currently known in Europe and worldwide.

  1. Age spectra of riverine POC - does variability within or between river basins have a larger impact on POC age distributions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheim, B. E.; Galy, V.; Roberts, B. J.; Allison, M. A.; Kolker, A.

    2012-12-01

    Characterization of riverine particulate organic carbon (POC) in terms of age and source is important for constraining biogeochemical models of carbon cycling. Most of the progress made in characterizing riverine POC has been through analysis of bulk carbon and the small percentage of extractable compounds in the POC. We present ramped pyrolysis 14C and δ13C data from two rivers with different transport and depositional characteristics - the Narayani River, a tributary feeding the Ganges River at the slope break of the Himalayas, and the lowermost Mississippi-Atchafalaya River system (MARS) - in order to compare and contrast the radiocarbon age spectra of the two systems. The results show that variability within basins (i.e. high discharge events) indeed affects the POC age spectra, but the variability between the two basins is far more illustrative of contrasts in carbon cycling between small mountainous rivers (SMRs) and large basins such as the Mississippi/Atchafalaya. In the Narayani River, POC is bimodal with respect to radiocarbon age and shows 14C age ranges (~30,000 14C y) one order of magnitude higher than POC from the MARS (~1,700 14C y). In both basins, discharge plays a demonstrable role in POC age spectrum, but likely not the main role. The data from both systems are unique because they represent the spectrum of all components of the POC, rather than bulk 14C ages which can average disparate sources of POC with significantly different ages. As such, we constrain proportions of carbon from very old sources (petrogenic and fossil carbon) that are difficult to quantifiably extract and we improve existing estimates of POC transport to potentially long-term marine sediment sinks. The results corroborate emerging theories relating basin type to POC storage potential (Blair and Aller, 2012), with smaller, steeper basins potentially having a higher storage potential and a higher degree of fossil and petrogenic carbon. References: Blair, N. E., and R. C. Aller

  2. TCW: transcriptome computational workbench.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Soderlund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The analysis of transcriptome data involves many steps and various programs, along with organization of large amounts of data and results. Without a methodical approach for storage, analysis and query, the resulting ad hoc analysis can lead to human error, loss of data and results, inefficient use of time, and lack of verifiability, repeatability, and extensibility. METHODOLOGY: The Transcriptome Computational Workbench (TCW provides Java graphical interfaces for methodical analysis for both single and comparative transcriptome data without the use of a reference genome (e.g. for non-model organisms. The singleTCW interface steps the user through importing transcript sequences (e.g. Illumina or assembling long sequences (e.g. Sanger, 454, transcripts, annotating the sequences, and performing differential expression analysis using published statistical programs in R. The data, metadata, and results are stored in a MySQL database. The multiTCW interface builds a comparison database by importing sequence and annotation from one or more single TCW databases, executes the ESTscan program to translate the sequences into proteins, and then incorporates one or more clusterings, where the clustering options are to execute the orthoMCL program, compute transitive closure, or import clusters. Both singleTCW and multiTCW allow extensive query and display of the results, where singleTCW displays the alignment of annotation hits to transcript sequences, and multiTCW displays multiple transcript alignments with MUSCLE or pairwise alignments. The query programs can be executed on the desktop for fastest analysis, or from the web for sharing the results. CONCLUSION: It is now affordable to buy a multi-processor machine, and easy to install Java and MySQL. By simply downloading the TCW, the user can interactively analyze, query and view their data. The TCW allows in-depth data mining of the results, which can lead to a better understanding of the

  3. Molecular portraits: the evolution of the concept of transcriptome-based cancer signatures

    OpenAIRE

    Modelska, Angelika; Quattrone, Alessandro; Re, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Cancer results from dysregulation of multiple steps of gene expression programs. We review how transcriptome profiling has been widely explored for cancer classification and biomarker discovery but resulted in limited clinical impact. Therefore, we discuss alternative and complementary omics approaches.

  4. IMPACT OF IRRADIATION AND THERMAL AGING ON DWPF SIMULATED SLUDGE PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and development programs in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and other high-level waste vitrification processes require the use of both nonradioactive waste simulants and actual waste samples. While actual waste samples are the ideal materials to study, acquiring large quantities of actual waste is difficult and expensive. Tests utilizing actual high-level waste require the use of expensive shielded cells facilities to provide sufficient shielding for the researchers. Nonradioactive waste simulants have been used for laboratory testing, pilot-scale testing and full-scale integrated facility testing. These waste simulants were designed to reproduce the chemical and, if possible, the physical properties of the actual high-level waste. This technical report documents a study on the impact of irradiating a Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) simulant and of additional tests on aging a SB3 simulant by additional thermal processing. Prior simulant development studies examined methods of producing sludge and supernate simulants and processes that could be used to alter the physical properties of the simulant to more accurately mimic the properties of actual waste. Development of a precipitated sludge simulant for the River Protection Project (RPP) demonstrated that the application of heat for a period of time could significantly alter the rheology of the sludge simulant. The RPP precipitated simulant used distillation to concentrate the sludge solids and produced a reduction in sludge yield stress of up to 80% compared to the initial sludge properties. Observations at that time suggested that a substantial fraction of the iron hydroxide had converted to the oxide during the distillation. DWPF sludge simulant studies showed a much smaller reduction in yield stress (∼10%), demonstrated the impact of shear on particle size, and showed that smaller particle sizes yielded higher yield stress products. The current study documented in this report focuses

  5. Transcriptome analysis of sika deer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bo-Yin; Ba, Heng-Xing; Wang, Gui-Wu; Yang, Ying; Cui, Xue-Zhe; Peng, Ying-Hua; Zheng, Jun-Jun; Xing, Xiu-Mei; Yang, Fu-He

    2016-10-01

    Sika deer is of great commercial value because their antlers are used in tonics and alternative medicine and their meat is healthy and delicious. The goal of this study was to generate transcript sequences from sika deer for functional genomic analyses and to identify the transcripts that demonstrate tissue-specific, age-dependent differential expression patterns. These sequences could enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying sika deer growth and development. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and profiling analysis across ten tissue types and four developmental stages (juvenile, adolescent, adult, and aged) of sika deer, using Illumina paired-end tag (PET) sequencing technology. A total of 1,752,253 contigs with an average length of 799 bp were generated, from which 1,348,618 unigenes with an average length of 590 bp were defined. Approximately 33.2 % of these (447,931 unigenes) were then annotated in public protein databases. Many sika deer tissue-specific, age-dependent unigenes were identified. The testes have the largest number of tissue-enriched unigenes, and some of them were prone to develop new functions for other tissues. Additionally, our transcriptome revealed that the juvenile-adolescent transition was the most complex and important stage of the sika deer life cycle. The present work represents the first multiple tissue transcriptome analysis of sika deer across four developmental stages. The generated data not only provide a functional genomics resource for future biological research on sika deer but also guide the selection and manipulation of genes controlling growth and development. PMID:27423230

  6. 77 FR 19080 - Disparate Impact and Reasonable Factors Other Than Age Under the Age Discrimination in Employment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... United States Supreme Court's decision in Smith v. City of Jackson.\\1\\ 73 FR 16807, Mar. 31, 2008. The... address the meaning ] of ``reasonable factors other than age.'' 75 FR 7212, Feb. 18, 2010. The Commission... charges of workplace discrimination.''); Jenson v. Eveleth Taconite Co., 130 F.3d 1287, 1292 (8th...

  7. Monitoring the impact of influenza by age: emergency department fever and respiratory complaint surveillance in New York City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R Olson

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The importance of understanding age when estimating the impact of influenza on hospitalizations and deaths has been well described, yet existing surveillance systems have not made adequate use of age-specific data. Monitoring influenza-related morbidity using electronic health data may provide timely and detailed insight into the age-specific course, impact and epidemiology of seasonal drift and reassortment epidemic viruses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of emergency department (ED chief complaint data for measuring influenza-attributable morbidity by age and by predominant circulating virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed electronically reported ED fever and respiratory chief complaint and viral surveillance data in New York City (NYC during the 2001-2002 through 2005-2006 influenza seasons, and inferred dominant circulating viruses from national surveillance reports. We estimated influenza-attributable impact as observed visits in excess of a model-predicted baseline during influenza periods, and epidemic timing by threshold and cross correlation. We found excess fever and respiratory ED visits occurred predominantly among school-aged children (8.5 excess ED visits per 1,000 children aged 5-17 y with little or no impact on adults during the early-2002 B/Victoria-lineage epidemic; increased fever and respiratory ED visits among children younger than 5 y during respiratory syncytial virus-predominant periods preceding epidemic influenza; and excess ED visits across all ages during the 2003-2004 (9.2 excess visits per 1,000 population and 2004-2005 (5.2 excess visits per 1,000 population A/H3N2 Fujian-lineage epidemics, with the relative impact shifted within and between seasons from younger to older ages. During each influenza epidemic period in the study, ED visits were increased among school-aged children, and each epidemic peaked among school-aged children before other impacted age groups. CONCLUSIONS

  8. Formation age and geomorphologic history of the Lonar impact crater deduced from in- situ cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, A.; Yokoyama, Y.; Sekine, Y.; Goto, K.; Komatsu, G.; Kumar, P.; Matsuzaki, H.; Matsui, T.

    2013-12-01

    Impact cratering is a dominant surface modification process on planetary surfaces. In the inner solar system, the large majority of impacts occur on bodies covered by primitive igneous rocks. However, most of the impacts remaining on Earth surface are on different rock types than that of the inner planet and hence geologic knowledge derived from Earth's surface cannot be translated readily. The Lonar crater is a 1.88-km-diameter crater located on the Deccan basaltic traps in India (ca. 65 Ma), and is one of a few craters on Earth bombarded directly on basaltic lava flows. Thus, the Lonar crater provides a rare opportunity to study impact structures on the basaltic surfaces of other terrestrial planets and the Moon. Since the ages of terrestrial impact structures is a key to understand geomorphological processes after the impact, various dating methods have been applied to the Lonar Crater such as fission track (Storzer and Koeberl, 2004), radiocarbon (Maloof, 2010), thermoluminescence (Sengupta et al., 1997), and 40Ar/39Ar (Jourdan et al., 2011). Yet, a large discrepancy between these methods ranging from ca. 1.79 to 570 ka has been resulted. Here we report surface exposure ages based on in-situ cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al in order to obtain a precise age of the Lonar crater formation as well as to study the geomorphologic evolution. The samples are collected from the topographic highs on the rim of the crater and from the ejecta blanket. Exposure ages together with newly obtained radiocarbon age of pre-impact soil indicate much younger ages than that of obtained from 40Ar/39Ar method. This suggests the potential bias because of inherited 40Ar in impact glass. Systematically young exposure age from the rim samples compared to the samples from the ejecta blanket indicate that the rim of the Lonar crater is being actively eroded. Spatial distributions of geomorphic ages observed from the Lonar creator is not the same as the pattern reported from the well

  9. Assessing the Impact of Nationwide Smoking Cessation Interventions among Employed, Middle-Aged Japanese Men, 2005-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Wada, Koji; Higuchi, Yoshiyuki; Smith, Derek R

    2016-01-01

    Background A variety of tobacco control interventions have become available in Japan over the past decade, however, the magnitude to which they have impacted on smoking rates may have varied by socioeconomic status such as job content, particularly for middle-aged men who were formerly long-term smokers. We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the differences between smoking cessation strategies among a national sample of middle-aged Japanese employed men between 2005 and 2010. Metho...

  10. Scotland the Grey: A Linked Demographic-CGE Analysis of the Impact of Population Ageing and Decline

    OpenAIRE

    McGregor, Peter; Lisenkova, Katerina; Turner, Karen; Swales, Kim; Pappas, Nikos

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper links a multi-period economic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) modelling framework with a demographic model to analyse the economic impact on Scotland of its projected ageing and declining population. The model quantifies the effect on aggregate economic variables, such as GDP, employment and competitiveness, and also on individual sectors. With the principal demographic projections, the fall in population, and particularly working-age population, has a depr...

  11. The impact of multimorbidity on sexual function in middle-aged and older women: Beyond the single disease perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Appa, AA; Creasman, J; Brown, JS; Van Den Eeden, SK; Thom, DH; Subak, LL; Huang, AJ

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Introduction: Little is known about sexual activity and function in women with multiple chronic health conditions. Aim: To examine the impact of multimorbidity on sexual activity and function in middle-aged and older women. Methods: Multiethnic cross-sectional cohort of 1,997 community-dwelling women (mean age of 60.2 [±9.5] years) in California. Structured questionnaires assessed prior diagnoses of common cardiometabolic, colorectal, neuropsy...

  12. Effect of Thermal Ageing at 600 degree on the Impact Toughness of E911 Steel Welded Joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E911 steel is a high chromium (9% Cr) martensitic steel with 1% Mo and 1% W which have been developed as candidate structural material for the application in fusion reactors and steam power plants. One of the primary concerns of materials in this application is service-induced embrittlement due to ageing. The effect of thermal ageing at 600 degree for 1000 and 3000 h on the impact properties of the individual regions (base metal, heat affected zone and weld metal) of E911 9% Cr steel welded joints was studied. Ageing treatment at 600 degree for 1000 and 3000 h resulted in degradation of the impact properties of the welded joint regions as compared to those produced after post weld heat treatment (PWHT), 760 degree for 2 h. This was manifested as a reduction in the impact energy along the entire testing temperature range and a shift in the fracture appearance transition temperature (FATT) to higher values. The fine grained region of the heat affected zone displayed the highest impact properties both in the PWHT and after ageing at 1000 and 3000 h. The results were discussed in view of the microstructural changes developed during post weld heat treatment and ageing

  13. Direct observation of aerosol particles in aged agricultural biomass burning plumes impacting urban atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Y. Li

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Emissions from agricultural biomass burning (ABB in northern China have a significant impact on the regional and the global climate. According to the Giovanni's Aerosol optical depth (AOD map, the monthly average AOD at 550 nm in northern China in 2007 shows a maximum value of 0.7 in June, suggesting that episodes of severe aerosol pollution occurred in this region. Aerosol particles were collected in urban Beijing during regional brown hazes from 12 to 30 June, 2007. Transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry characterized the morphology, composition, and mixing state of aerosol particles. Potassium salts (K2SO4 and KNO3, ammonium sulfate, soot, and organic particles predominated in fine particles (diameter <1 μm collected from 12 to 20 June, 2007. In contrast, from 21 to 30 June, 2007, ammonium sulfate, soot, and organic particles were dominant. Potassium-dominant particles as a tracer of biomass burning, together with wildfire maps, show that intensive regional ABB in northern China from 10 to 20 June, 2007 contributed significantly to the regional haze. After long-range transport, ABB particles exhibited marked changes in their morphology, elemental composition, and mixing state. Heterogeneous reactions completely converted KCl particles from ABB into K2SO4 and KNO3. Soot particles were generally mixed with potassium salts, ammonium salts, and organic particles. In addition, the abundant aged organic particles and soluble salts emitted by ABB become more hygroscopic and increase their size during long-range transport, becoming in effect additional cloud condensation nuclei. The high AOD (average value at 2.2 during 12 to 20 June, 2007, in Beijing is partly explained by the hygroscopic growth of aged fine aerosol particles and by the strong absorption of internally mixed soot particles, both coming from regional ABB emissions.

  14. 40Ar/39Ar impact ages and time-temperature argon diffusion history of the Bunburra Rockhole anomalous basaltic achondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdan, Fred; Benedix, Gretchen; Eroglu, Ela.; Bland, Phil. A.; Bouvier, Audrey.

    2014-09-01

    The Bunburra Rockhole meteorite is a brecciated anomalous basaltic achondrite containing coarse-, medium- and fine-grained lithologies. Petrographic observations constrain the limited shock pressure to between ca. 10 GPa and 20 GPa. In this study, we carried out nine 40Ar/39Ar step-heating experiments on distinct single-grain fragments extracted from the coarse and fine lithologies. We obtained six plateau ages and three mini-plateau ages. These ages fall into two internally concordant populations with mean ages of 3640 ± 21 Ma (n = 7; P = 0.53) and 3544 ± 26 Ma (n = 2; P = 0.54), respectively. Based on these results, additional 40Ar/39Ar data of fusion crust fragments, argon diffusion modelling, and petrographic observations, we conclude that the principal components of the Bunburra Rockhole basaltic achondrite are from a melt rock formed at ∼3.64 Ga by a medium to large impact event. The data imply that this impact generated high enough energy to completely melt the basaltic target rock and reset the Ar systematics, but only partially reset the Pb-Pb age. We also conclude that a complete 40Ar∗ resetting of pyroxene and plagioclase at this time could not have been achieved at solid-state conditions. Comparison with a terrestrial analog (Lonar crater) shows that the time-temperature conditions required to melt basaltic target rocks upon impact are relatively easy to achieve. Ar data also suggest that a second medium-size impact event occurred on a neighbouring part of the same target rock at ∼3.54 Ga. Concordant low-temperature step ages of the nine aliquots suggest that, at ∼3.42 Ga, a third smaller impact excavated parts of the ∼3.64 Ga and ∼3.54 Ga melt rocks and brought the fragments together. The lack of significant impact activity after 3.5 Ga, as recorded by the Bunburra Rockhole suggests that (1) either the meteorite was ejected in a small secondary parent body where it resided untouched by large impacts, or (2) it was covered by a porous heat

  15. Transcriptomic Analysis of Phenotypic Changes in Birch (Betula platyphylla Autotetraploids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Feng Liu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant breeders have focused much attention on polyploid trees because of their importance to forestry. To evaluate the impact of intraspecies genome duplication on the transcriptome, a series of Betula platyphylla autotetraploids and diploids were generated from four full-sib families. The phenotypes and transcriptomes of these autotetraploid individuals were compared with those of diploid trees. Autotetraploids were generally superior in breast-height diameter, volume, leaf, fruit and stoma and were generally inferior in height compared to diploids. Transcriptome data revealed numerous changes in gene expression attributable to autotetraploidization, which resulted in the upregulation of 7052 unigenes and the downregulation of 3658 unigenes. Pathway analysis revealed that the biosynthesis and signal transduction of indoleacetate (IAA and ethylene were altered after genome duplication, which may have contributed to phenotypic changes. These results shed light on variations in birch autotetraploidization and help identify important genes for the genetic engineering of birch trees.

  16. Asteroid Impacts, Crater Scaling Laws, and a Proposed Younger Age for Venus's Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottke, William; Ghent, Rebecca; Mazrouei, Sara; Robbins, Stuart; Vokrouhlicky, David

    2015-11-01

    A fascinating on-going debate concerns the asteroid sizes needed to form certain large craters. For example, numerical hydrocode models predict that ~12-14 km and ~8 km diameter asteroids are needed to produce craters like Chicxulub (~180 km) and Popigai (~100 km), respectively. The abundance of extraterrestrial Ir/Os measured at well-characterized impact boundaries on land and in oceanic cores, however, predict far smaller projectiles, 4-6 km and 2.5-4 km, respectively (e.g., Paquay et al. 2014; F. Kyte, pers. comm). To test who might be right by proxy, we transformed the near-Earth object (NEO) size distribution (Harris & D'Abramo 2015), where > 90% of the D > 1 km asteroids are known, into a model crater size distribution and compared it to the distribution of D > 20 km craters formed on the Moon, Mars, and Venus over the last ~1-3 Gyr. Here we kept things simple and assumed that f described the ratio between all crater and asteroid diameters of interest (i.e., f = D_crater / D_proj).To our surprise, we found f ~ 23-26 produced excellent matches for the crater size distributions on the Moon, Mars, and Venus, despite their differences in gravity, surface properties, impact velocities, etc. These same values work well for the Earth as well. Consider that terrestrial crater production rates derived by Shoemaker (1998) indicate 340 +/- 170 D > 20 km craters formed over the last 120 Myr. Using f = 25, we get the same value; a D > 0.8 km asteroid makes a D > 20 km crater, and they hit Earth every 0.35 Myr on average (e.g., Bottke et al. 2002), for a total of ~340 over 120 Myr. Accordingly, we predict Chicxulub and Popigai were made by D ~ 7 and D ~ 4 km asteroids, respectively, values close to their predicted sizes from Ir/Os measurements. This result also potentially explains why Chicxulub formed ~65 Myr ago; the interval between D ~ 7 km impacts on Earth is close to this rate.The NEO model by Bottke et al. (2002) also suggests asteroids hit Venus at roughly the same

  17. First course at university: Assessing the impact of student age, nationality and learning style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Bone

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Designing curricula and teaching styles for students entering university is complicated by the diversity of student backgrounds and prior learning styles. We examined a range of factors that might influence success in the first course at university to try to identify those that were most important. Data were obtained for a first year Biology course at a large Australian university. Factors having a significant impact on final marks included student age, whether the students were local or international, time since high school and the learning strategy adopted. Taking a gap year or a longer break after high school was found to be detrimental to performance. Students taking Biology in their first semester performed better than those who did the course in their second or a later semester. International students attained higher grades than local students. Shallow or reproducing learning styles appeared to be as effective to grade achievement as strategies that led to a measurably deeper understanding of the subject matter.

  18. Impact of systolic blood pressure on visit-to-visit blood pressure variability in middle-aged and elderly people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朔华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the impact of systolic blood pressure(SBP)on visit-to-visit blood pressure variability(BPV) in middle-aged and elderly people.Methods Visit-to-visit BPV was determined in 5440 workers in the

  19. The Impact of Gender, Family Type and Age on Undergraduate Parents' Perception of Causes of Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoyase, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the Impact of Gender, Family type and Age on undergraduate parents' perception of causes of child Sexual Abuse. Three hypotheses were formulated and tested. There was a review of relevant literature. The population for the study were 2014 sandwich contact students of Delta State University, Abraka who…

  20. Impact of lifestyle factors on caries experience in three different age groups : 9, 15, and 21-year-olds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, Elise; Kamphuis, Mascha; Schuller, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    ObjectivesTo study the impact of lifestyle factors on dental caries experiences in addition to the effect of demographic characteristics at the ages of 9, 15, and 21years. MethodsThe data were obtained from the study Oral health in children and adolescents in the Netherlands'. Data were collected th

  1. Impact of lifestyle factors on caries experience in three different age groups : 9, 15, and 21-year-olds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, E.; Kamphuis, M.; Schuller, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To study the impact of lifestyle factors on dental caries experiences in addition to the effect of demographic characteristics at the ages of 9, 15, and 21 years. Methods The data were obtained from the study ‘Oral health in children and adolescents in the Netherlands’. Data were collecte

  2. Precipitation and impact toughness of Nb–V stabilised 18Cr–2Mo ferritic stainless steel during isothermal aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jian, E-mail: jh595@uowmail.edu.au [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Li, Huijun [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Barbaro, Frank [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); CBMM Technology Suisse, 14, Rue du Rhone, Geneve 1204 (Switzerland); Jiang, Laizhu [Baoshan Iron and Steel Co., Ltd., Shanghai 200431 (China); Zhu, Zhixiong [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Xu, Haigang; Ma, Li [Baoshan Iron and Steel Co., Ltd., Shanghai 200431 (China)

    2014-08-26

    The effect of isothermal aging on precipitation behaviour and Charpy impact toughness of Nb–V stabilised 18Cr–2Mo ferritic stainless steel was investigated by means of Thermo-Calc prediction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Charpy impact toughness testing. The results show that, niobium, vanadium carbides and nitrides, Fe{sub 2}Nb (Laves phase) and Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6} formed after 2 h aging at 800 °C, and the equilibrium solvus temperature of Fe{sub 2}Nb phase increases to above 750 °C, higher than the calculated temperature (730 °C) using Thermo-Calc. After isothermal aging at 750–950 °C, 2 h aging resulted in a decrease in toughness due to the formation of precipitation, especially (Nb,V)(C,N) and Fe{sub 2}Nb. When isothermally aged at 800 °C for up to 24 h, the coarsening rate of Fe{sub 2}Nb particle is much higher than that of (Nb,V)(C,N), and the impact toughness of the steel is dependent on quantity and sizes of (Nb,V)(C,N) and Fe{sub 2}Nb particles.

  3. Precipitation and impact toughness of Nb–V stabilised 18Cr–2Mo ferritic stainless steel during isothermal aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of isothermal aging on precipitation behaviour and Charpy impact toughness of Nb–V stabilised 18Cr–2Mo ferritic stainless steel was investigated by means of Thermo-Calc prediction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Charpy impact toughness testing. The results show that, niobium, vanadium carbides and nitrides, Fe2Nb (Laves phase) and Cr23C6 formed after 2 h aging at 800 °C, and the equilibrium solvus temperature of Fe2Nb phase increases to above 750 °C, higher than the calculated temperature (730 °C) using Thermo-Calc. After isothermal aging at 750–950 °C, 2 h aging resulted in a decrease in toughness due to the formation of precipitation, especially (Nb,V)(C,N) and Fe2Nb. When isothermally aged at 800 °C for up to 24 h, the coarsening rate of Fe2Nb particle is much higher than that of (Nb,V)(C,N), and the impact toughness of the steel is dependent on quantity and sizes of (Nb,V)(C,N) and Fe2Nb particles

  4. Impact of Dentofacial Deformity on Quality of Life: Age and Gender Differences Evaluated Through OQLQ, OHIP and SF36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Carlos Bortoluzzi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to verify the impact of dentofacial deformity on quality of life and explore gender and age differences. Material and Methods: The impact of dentofacial deformity (DD on quality of life was evaluated through questionnaires; Short Form Health Survey (SF36, Oral Health Impact Profile Questionnaire (OHIP, Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire (OQLQ and a single question answered by a Visual Analogue Scale. Results: Significant differences between male and female patients were observed in domains of OQLQ (oral function, P = 0.006; awareness of facial deformity, P = 0.018; and facial aesthetics, P < 0.001 and OHIP (physical pain, P = 0.006; psychological discomfort, P = 0.007; psychological disability, P = 0.006; and handicap, P = 0.01. Conclusions: The impact of dentofacial deformity was more pronounced in female Brazilian population. Age of patients with dentofacial deformity produced impacts over quality of life in different ways and according to the applied questionnaire and the interaction between age and gender may also produce different impacts in patients with dentofacial deformity. The domains of Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire, Oral Health Impact Profile Questionnaire and Short Form Health Survey showed unaccepted distances in the pattern of answer rising doubts of their ability to assess quality of life as a generic and broad concept. There is a necessity to create a single quality of life instrument capable to measure impacts with sensitivity and specificity and from a generic concept to condition-specific health problem.

  5. Impact of demographic ageing on sustainability of public finance in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Population ageing is a global phenomenon without precedent in the history of humanity having implications in all facets of life. From an economic point of view, population ageing is certainly one of the biggest challenges of modern time. A consequence of these global demographic tendencies reflected in growing number of pensioners which negatively affects sustainability of public pension systems financed by the principle of intergenerational solidarity (Pay-As-You-Go - widely represented in public pension schemes of European countries. In this paper, impact of demographic ageing on pension systems is analyzed in the context of sustainability of public finance in Serbia in the period 2010-2050. Although the comparative analysis of the pension expenditure share in gross domestic product (GDP does not point to significant differences between Serbia and the countries in the neighborhood and the European Union, the growth trend of subsidizing the Pension Fund from the government budget endangers medium-term sustainability of the public pension system in Serbia, bearing in mind that the implementation of measures proposed in pension reforms can be valorized only in the long run. The main objective of the analysis is projecting long-term pension expenditure as a share of GDP. The projections were formed indirectly by modeling the average pension expenditure, because this variable incorporates both growth in the total pension expenditure and growth in the number of pensioners as a result of demographic trends, and better reflects the actual growth of pension expenditure. For the purposes of the analysis, in addition to the projection of real GDP growth, size of the inactive population aged 65 and over, as the main contingent of the pension system users and the total number of pensioners, was projected by means of stochastic cohort component methodology. Based on these projections and assumptions about the growth rate of average pension expenditure

  6. Neurotranscriptomics: The Effects of Neonatal Stimulus Deprivation on the Rat Pineal Transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W Hartley

    Full Text Available The term neurotranscriptomics is used here to describe genome-wide analysis of neural control of transcriptomes. In this report, next-generation RNA sequencing was using to analyze the effects of neonatal (5-days-of-age surgical stimulus deprivation on the adult rat pineal transcriptome. In intact animals, more than 3000 coding genes were found to exhibit differential expression (adjusted-p < 0.001 on a night/day basis in the pineal gland (70% of these increased at night, 376 genes changed more than 4-fold in either direction. Of these, more than two thousand genes were not previously known to be differentially expressed on a night/day basis. The night/day changes in expression were almost completely eliminated by neonatal removal (SCGX or decentralization (DCN of the superior cervical ganglia (SCG, which innervate the pineal gland. Other than the loss of rhythmic variation, surgical stimulus deprivation had little impact on the abundance of most genes; of particular interest, expression levels of the melatonin-synthesis-related genes Tph1, Gch1, and Asmt displayed little change (less than 35% following DCN or SCGX. However, strong and consistent changes were observed in the expression of a small number of genes including the gene encoding Serpina1, a secreted protease inhibitor that might influence extracellular architecture. Many of the genes that exhibited night/day differential expression in intact animals also exhibited similar changes following in vitro treatment with norepinephrine, a superior cervical ganglia transmitter, or with an analog of cyclic AMP, a norepinephrine second messenger in this tissue. These findings are of significance in that they establish that the pineal-defining transcriptome is established prior to the neonatal period. Further, this work expands our knowledge of the biological process under neural control in this tissue and underlines the value of RNA sequencing in revealing how neurotransmission influences cell

  7. The impact of minimum age of employment regulation on child labor and schooling

    OpenAIRE

    Eric V. Edmonds; Shrestha, Maheshwor

    2012-01-01

    Promoting minimum age of employment regulation has been a centerpiece in child labor policy for the last 15 years. If enforced, minimum age regulation would change the age profile of paid child employment. Using micro-data from 59 mostly low-income countries, we observe that age can explain less than one percent of the variation in child participation in paid employment. In contrast, child-invariant household attributes account for 63 percent of the variation in participation in paid employme...

  8. The impact of attitude functions on luxury brand consumption: An age-based group comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schade, Michael; Hegner, Sabrina; Horstmann, Florian; Brinkmann, Nora

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to understand the consumption of luxury brands in different age groups. Attitude functions (social-adjustive, value-expressive, hedonic, utilitarian) explain luxury brand consumption among three age groups. A total of 297 respondents between the age of 16 and 59 par

  9. Shame Solutions: How Shame Impacts School-Aged Children and What Teachers Can Do to Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Though many psychologists and researchers argue over the age at which humans first experience shame, all agree that by age two children have the capacity to be shamed (Lansky and Morrison 1997). School-aged children have invariably been exposed to shame at home and receive an extra dose of it in our current school system. This essay investigates…

  10. Impact of vacancy-solute clusters on the aging of α-Fe solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding and monitoring the aging of steels under vacancy supersaturation is a challenge of great practical interest for many industrial groups, and most of all for those related to nuclear energy. These steels always contain interstitial solutes, either as alloying elements or as impurities, and vacancies (V) that are equilibrium structural defects of materials. We have chosen the Fe-V -X system (X = C, N or O) as a model system for ferritic steels. Vacancy-solute clusters are likely to form in such systems because, despite the very low concentrations of their components, these cluster show very high attractive bonding. First of all, we have been working on the computation of intrinsic equilibrium properties of individual clusters, both thermodynamic (free binding energies) and kinetic (mobilities, dissociation coefficients, and their relationship with continuum diffusion) properties. Thanks to this atomic-scale characterization procedure, we have been able to highlight various effects of these clusters on a macroscopic system containing different cluster types: increase of solute solubility limits and total vacancy concentrations, flux couplings between interstitial solutes and vacancies, acceleration of solute precipitation kinetics and precipitate dissolution by solid solution stabilization due to vacancies. These results would not have been obtained without the development and/or extension of analytical methods in statistical physics which are able to describe cluster's components and their interactions at the atomic scale. Finally, we have also been working on cavities in α-iron, the study of which requires a different approach. Our study highlights the impact of the atomic discrete lattice on the equilibrium shape of cavities, and describes various kinetic mechanisms of these objects at the atomic scale. (author)

  11. Transcriptome analysis of MSC and MSC-derived osteoblasts on Resomer® LT706 and PCL: impact of biomaterial substrate on osteogenic differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Neuss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC represent a particularly attractive cell type for bone tissue engineering because of their ex vivo expansion potential and multipotent differentiation capacity. MSC are readily differentiated towards mature osteoblasts with well-established protocols. However, tissue engineering frequently involves three-dimensional scaffolds which (i allow for cell adhesion in a spatial environment and (ii meet application-specific criteria, such as stiffness, degradability and biocompatibility. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we analysed two synthetic, long-term degradable polymers for their impact on MSC-based bone tissue engineering: PLLA-co-TMC (Resomer® LT706 and poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL. Both polymers enhance the osteogenic differentiation compared to tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS as determined by Alizarin red stainings, scanning electron microscopy, PCR and whole genome expression analysis. Resomer® LT706 and PCL differ in their influence on gene expression, with Resomer® LT706 being more potent in supporting osteogenic differentiation of MSC. The major trigger on the osteogenic fate, however, is from osteogenic induction medium. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates an enhanced osteogenic differentiation of MSC on Resomer® LT706 and PCL compared to TCPS. MSC cultured on Resomer® LT706 showed higher numbers of genes involved in skeletal development and bone formation. This identifies Resomer® LT706 as particularly attractive scaffold material for bone tissue engineering.

  12. Transcriptome analysis of Rpl11-deficient zebrafish model of Diamond-Blackfan Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaojun Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To comprehensively reflect the roles of Rpl11 on the transcriptome of zebrafish model of Diamond-Blackfan Anemia (DBA, we performed whole-genome transcriptome sequencing on the Illumina Hi-Seq 2000 sequencing platform. Two different transcriptomes of zebrafish Rpl11-deficient and control Morpholino (Mo embryos were collected and analyzed. The experimental design and methods, including sample preparation, RNA-Seq data evaluation and treatment, were described in details so that representative high-throughput sequencing data were acquired for assessing the actual impacts of Rpl11 on zebrafish embryos. We provided the accession number GSE51326 for easy access to the database.

  13. Prioritizing child health interventions in Ethiopia: modeling impact on child mortality, life expectancy and inequality in age at death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Husøy Onarheim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fourth Millennium Development Goal calls for a two-thirds reduction in under-5 mortality between 1990 and 2015. Under-5 mortality rate is declining, but many countries are still far from achieving the goal. Effective child health interventions that could reduce child mortality exist, but national decision-makers lack contextual information for priority setting in their respective resource-constrained settings. We estimate the potential health impact of increasing coverage of 14 selected health interventions on child mortality in Ethiopia (2011-2015. We also explore the impact on life expectancy and inequality in the age of death (Gini(health. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used the Lives Saved Tool to estimate potential impact of scaling-up 14 health interventions in Ethiopia (2011-2015. Interventions are scaled-up to 1 government target levels, 2 90% coverage and 3 90% coverage of the five interventions with the highest impact. Under-5 mortality rate, neonatal mortality rate and deaths averted are primary outcome measures. We used modified life tables to estimate impact on life expectancy at birth and inequality in the age of death (Gini(health. Under-5 mortality rate declines from 101.0 in 2011 to 68.8, 42.1 and 56.7 per 1000 live births under these three scenarios. Prioritizing child health would also increase life expectancy at birth from expected 60.5 years in 2015 to 62.5, 64.2 and 63.4 years and reduce inequality in age of death (Gini(health substantially from 0.24 to 0.21, 0.18 and 0.19. CONCLUSIONS: The Millennium Development Goal for child health is reachable in Ethiopia. Prioritizing child health would also increase total life expectancy at birth and reduce inequality in age of death substantially (Gini(health.

  14. The moderating impact of lifestyle factors on sex steroids, sexual activities and aging in Asian men

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Victor HH; Tong, Terry YY

    2011-01-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and me...

  15. Long-term cysteine fortification impacts cysteine/glutathione homeostasis and food intake in ageing rats

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Karine; Breuille, Denis; Serrant, Patrick; Denis, Philippe; Glomot, Francoise; Bechereau, Fabienne; PAPET, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Healthy ageing is associated with higher levels of glutathione. The study aimed to determine whether long-term dietary fortification with cysteine increases cysteine and glutathione pools, thus alleviating age-associated low-grade inflammation and resulting in global physiological benefits. The effect of a 14-week dietary fortification with cysteine was studied in non-inflamed (NI, healthy at baseline) and in spontaneously age-related low-grade inflamed (LGI, prefrail at baseline) 21-month-ol...

  16. Aging In Adipocytes: Potential Impact Of Inherent, Depot-Specific Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Cartwright, Mark J.; Tchkonia, Tamara; Kirkland, James L.

    2007-01-01

    Fat mass and tissue distribution change dramatically throughout life. Fat depot sizes reach a peak by middle or early old age, followed by a substantial decline, together with fat tissue dysfunction and redistribution in advanced old age. These changes are associated with health complications, including type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, thermal dysregulation, and skin ulcers, particularly in advanced old age. Fat tissue growth occurs through increases in size and number of fat c...

  17. The impact of bias in length frequency data on an age structured fisheries stock assessment model

    OpenAIRE

    Heery, Eliza Crenshaw

    2007-01-01

    Statistical age-structured models are widely used in fisheries stock assessment. These models have been become increasingly complex over recent decades, allowing them to incorporate a larger variety of fisheries data. These typically include information regarding annual fishery yields, indices of abundance and catch composition data, which reflect the distribution of ages in the harvested population each year. In some fisheries, age composition can be determined annually through the examin...

  18. Paradoxornis webbianus bulomachus Transcriptome or Gene expression [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Study Type Sample Organism Sequencing Platform Transcriptome Analysis Paradoxornis web...e Length Download SRR392516 SRS259594 Transcriptome Analysis Paradoxornis webbian...t/Resources DRASearch - DDBJ/DRA ENA Browser - EBI/ENA Paradoxornis webbianus bulomachus Transcriptome or Gene expression ...

  19. Environmental impact of copper mining and metallurgy during the Bronze Age at Kargaly (Orenburg region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent García, Juan Manuel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Kargaly (Orenburg, Russia is a copper-producing region in which two main phases of mining activity have taken place: the 4th-2nd millennia BC and the 18th-20th centuries AD. This article is a comparative study on the impact of those mining episodes in the distribution of the forest resources in the region, aimed to estimate the scale of prehistoric mining and metallurgical works. For that purpose two paleopalinological sequences obtained from natural deposits located in Kargaly are analysed by inferential Statistics and Multivariate Methods. The results are compared both with a regional sampling of recent pollen rain supported by an analytical model of the present day landscape, and with the anthracological data coming from the Late Bronze Age settlement of Gorny 1. Analysis confirm the large scale of the prehistoric mining impact on the forest cover from the beginnings, as well as the strong effect of husbandry once mining works ended. These results allow us to dismiss a climatic change as main explanation for the detected diachronic variability in the palinological record. They also prove the viability of the proposed approach as a means of integrating the paleoenvironmental disciplines in Landscape Archaeology.

    Kargaly (región de Orenburgo, Rusia es una región cuprífera explotada entre los milenios IV y II cal BC y los siglos XVIII y XX d.C. El objetivo del artículo es estudiar comparativamente el impacto de estos episodios mineros en la distribución de los recursos forestales de la región, para aproximar la escala de las operaciones minero-metalúrgicas prehistóricas. Para ello se analizan con métodos estadísticos inferenciales y multivariantes dos secuencias paleopalinológicas procedentes de depósitos naturales de la región y se comparan con un muestreo regional de la lluvia polínica reciente apoyado por un modelo analítico del paisaje actual y con los datos antracol

  20. Dating a small impact crater: An age of Kaali crater (Estonia) based on charcoal emplaced within proximal ejecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losiak, A.; Wild, E. M.; Geppert, W. D.; Huber, M. S.; Jõeleht, A.; Kriiska, A.; Kulkov, A.; Paavel, K.; Pirkovic, I.; Plado, J.; Steier, P.; VäLja, R.; Wilk, J.; Wisniowski, T.; Zanetti, M.

    2016-04-01

    The estimates of the age of the Kaali impact structure (Saaremaa Island, Estonia) provided by different authors vary by as much as 6000 years, ranging from ~6400 to ~400 before current era (BCE). In this study, a new age is obtained based on 14C dating charred plant material within the proximal ejecta blanket, which makes it directly related to the impact structure, and not susceptible to potential reservoir effects. Our results show that the Kaali crater was most probably formed shortly after 1530-1450 BCE (3237 ± 10 14C yr BP). Saaremaa was already inhabited when the bolide hit the Earth, thus, the crater-forming event was probably witnessed by humans. There is, however, no evidence that this event caused significant change in the material culture (e.g., known archeological artifacts) or patterns of human habitation on Saaremaa.

  1. Under the Radar: The Impact of Relatively Young Age for Grade Level on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryken, Klazina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether age differences affect students' academic achievement, and whether age differences affect students in low-income areas differently than those in mixed or higher-income areas. Student achievement data for grades 3, 7, and 11 in language arts and math were obtained from a variety of schools…

  2. Impact of IQ, Age, SES, Gender, and Race on Autistic Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine differences in autism severity and symptoms as a function of IQ, age, SES, gender, and race while simultaneously controlling these variables in 777 children with autism using a comprehensive measure evaluating 30 core and associated symptoms of autism. The children were 1-17 years of age with IQs from 9 to…

  3. Age dependent food consumption data provided for the computation of the radiological impact via the ingestion pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averaged age dependent food consumption data are compiled and evaluated to provide input data for the computation of the radiological impact via the ingestion pathway. For special population groups (self-suppliers e.g.) factors are provided, by which the consumption for special foods may be exceeded. The evaluated data are compared with those of the 'USNRC-Regulatory Guide 1.109 (revised 1977)' and those of the 'Recommendation of the German Commission on Radiological Protection (Draft 1977)'. (orig.)

  4. Patellar tendinopathy in master track and field athletes: influence of impact profile, weight, height, age and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Longo, Giuseppe U; Rittweger, Joern; Garau, Girogio; Radonic, Biljana; Gutwasser, Constanze; Gilliver, Sally F; Kusy, Krzysztof; Zielinski, Jacek; Felsenberg, Dieter; Maffulli, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Patellar tendinopathy causes significant morbidity in professional and recreational athletes. Despite the relevance of the problem, its causative factors remain poorly understood. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to evaluate the influence of age, gender, weight, height and impact profile on developing patellar tendinopathy in master track and field athletes. Methods During the European Veterans Athletics Championships in Poznan´ in July 2006, 174 at...

  5. The impact of reduced detection on aesthetic design in children aged 2,5 to 3,5 years

    OpenAIRE

    Šoba, Meta

    2014-01-01

    The thesis in the field of art education represents the impact of reduced perception on the aesthetic design of an artistic composition with simple geometrical shapes for two children, aged two and a half years and three and a half years. In the theoretical part the gestalt psychologist Rudolf Arnheim's theory is presented, who explores in depth the dynamic aspects of visual perception, also in relation to the visual and artistic arts. The empirical part describes the interaction of th...

  6. Experimental Techniques for Evaluating the Effects of Aging on Impact and High Strain Rate Properties of Triaxial Braided Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J. Michael; Roberts, Gary D.; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Gilat, Amos; Matrka, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    An experimental program is underway to measure the impact and high strain rate properties of triaxial braided composite materials and to quantify any degradation in properties as a result of thermal and hygroscopic aging typically encountered during service. Impact tests are being conducted on flat panels using a projectile designed to induce high rate deformation similar to that experienced in a jet engine fan case during a fan blade-out event. The tests are being conducted on as-fabricated panels and panels subjected to various numbers of aging cycles. High strain rate properties are being measured using a unique Hopkinson bar apparatus that has a larger diameter than conventional Hopkinson bars. This larger diameter is needed to measure representative material properties because of the large unit cell size of the materials examined in this work. In this paper the experimental techniques used for impact and high strain rate testing are described and some preliminary results are presented for both as-fabricated and aged composites.

  7. Impact of personal and environmental factors on the rate of chromosome aberrations named translocations - Part 1: age, gender, smoking, alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of exposure to ionizing radiation, carried out long time after exposure, is currently performed by scoring of translocations, a specific type of chromosomal aberrations. The translocations rate observed in peripheral blood lymphocytes of exposed subjects is compared to that observed in a control population. However, the translocation specificity towards radiation exposure is not clearly identified. To avoid any hasty conclusion, it is necessary to identify all the factors likely to induce translocation. To our knowledge, no study has thus far examined the effects of all these different factors on translocation rates. A review of the literature thus allowed us to assess the impact of host factors and lifestyle on the production of translocations. This study confirms that age appears to be the factor having the greatest impact on the rate of translocations, especially over 60 years. To date, the factor 'age' is already considered in estimating the impact of radiation on the rate of translocation for all age groups. However, the study also shows that this rate varies significantly when the patient is exposed simultaneously and significantly towards many lifestyle agents. A precise threshold translocation rate should thus be established as a function of known behavioral exposures, below which it is impossible to conclude that radiological exposure has occurred. The effects of chemicals on the translocation rate after occupational exposure will be the subject of a second part. (authors)

  8. Effects of thermal aging on fracture toughness and Charpy-impact strength of stainless steel pipe welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degradation of fracture toughness, tensile, and Charpy-impact properties of Type 304 and 304/308 SS pipe welds due to thermal aging was studied at room temperature and 290 C. Thermal aging of SS welds results in moderate decreases in charpy-impact strength and fracture toughness. Upper-shelf energy decreased by 50-80 J/cm2. Decrease in fracture toughness J-R curve or JIC is relatively small. Thermal aging had no or little effect on tensile strength of the welds. Fracture properties of SS welds are controlled by the distribution and morphology of second-phase particles. Failure occurs by formation and growth of microvoids near hard inclusions; such processes are relatively insensitive to thermal aging. The ferrite phase has little or no effect on fracture properties of the welds. Differences in fracture resistance of the welds arise from differences in the density and size of inclusions. Mechanical-property data from the present study are consistent with results from other investigations. The existing data have been used to establish minimum expected fracture properties for SS welds

  9. Effects of thermal aging on fracture toughness and Charpy-impact strength of stainless steel pipe welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavenda, D.J.; Michaud, W.F.; Galvin, T.M.; Burke, W.F.; Chopra, O.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Degradation of fracture toughness, tensile, and Charpy-impact properties of Type 304 and 304/308 SS pipe welds due to thermal aging was studied at room temperature and 290 C. Thermal aging of SS welds results in moderate decreases in charpy-impact strength and fracture toughness. Upper-shelf energy decreased by 50-80 J/cm{sup 2}. Decrease in fracture toughness J-R curve or J{sub IC} is relatively small. Thermal aging had no or little effect on tensile strength of the welds. Fracture properties of SS welds are controlled by the distribution and morphology of second-phase particles. Failure occurs by formation and growth of microvoids near hard inclusions; such processes are relatively insensitive to thermal aging. The ferrite phase has little or no effect on fracture properties of the welds. Differences in fracture resistance of the welds arise from differences in the density and size of inclusions. Mechanical-property data from the present study are consistent with results from other investigations. The existing data have been used to establish minimum expected fracture properties for SS welds.

  10. Effects of thermal aging on fracture toughness and charpy-impact strength of stainless steel pipe welds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavenda, D. J.; Michaud, W. F.; Galvin, T. M.; Burke, W. F.; Chopra, O. K.; Energy Technology

    1996-06-05

    The degradation of fracture toughness, tensile, and Charpy-impact properties of Type 308 stainless steel (SS) pipe welds due to thermal aging has been characterized at room temperature and 290 C. Thermal aging of SS welds results in moderate decreases in Charpy-impact strength and fracture toughness. For the various welds in this study, upper-shelf energy decreased by 50-80 J/cm{sup 2}. The decrease in fracture toughness J-R curve or JIC is relatively small. Thermal aging had little or no effect on the tensile strength of the welds. Fracture properties of SS welds are controlled by the distribution and morphology of second-phase particles. Failure occurs by the formation and growth of microvoids near hard inclusions; such processes are relatively insensitive to thermal aging. The ferrite phase has little or no effect on the fracture properties of the welds. Differences in fracture resistance of the welds arise from differences in the density and size of inclusions. Mechanical-property data from the present study are consistent with results from other investigations. The existing data have been used to establish minimum expected fracture properties for SS welds.

  11. T-lymphocyte subsets in West African children: impact of age, sex, and season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Whittle, H;

    1997-01-01

    determinants of T-lymphocyte subset levels. METHODS: A total of 803 healthy West African children younger than 6 years were included in the three community studies of T-lymphocyte subsets among twins and singletons, after measles infection and after measles immunization. We used the immunoalkaline phosphatase...... method to determine T-lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: We found differences by age, sex, and season, whereas there were no significant differences by birth order, twinning, or ethnic group. The CD4+ percentage declined from birth to age 2 years, at which time it started to increase to higher levels at age 4...

  12. Interaction between diazepam and hippocampal corticosterone after acute stress: impact on memory in middle-aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eBeracochea

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Benzodiazepines (BDZ are widely prescribed in the treatment of anxiety disorders associated to aging. Interestingly, whereas a reciprocal interaction between the GABAergic system and HPA axis has been evidenced, there is to our knowledge no direct evaluation of the impact of BDZ on both hippocampus (HPC corticosterone concentrations and HPC-dependent memory in stressed middle-aged subjects. We showed previously that an acute stress induced in middle-aged mice severe memory impairments in a hippocampus-dependent task, and increased in parallel hippocampus corticosterone concentrations, as compared to non stressed middle-aged controls (Tronche et al., 2010. Based on these findings, the aims of the present study were to evidence the impact of diazepam (a positive allosteric modulator of the GABA-A receptor on HPC glucocorticoids concentrations and in parallel on HPC-dependent memory in acutely stressed middle-aged mice.Microdialysis experiments showed an interaction between diazepam doses and corticosterone concentrations into the HPC. From 0.25 mg/kg to 0.5 mg/kg, diazepam dose-dependently reduces intra-HPC corticosterone concentrations and in parallel, dose-dependently increased hippocampal-dependent memory performance. In contrast, the highest (1.0mg/kg diazepam dose induces a reduction in HPC corticosterone concentration, which was of greater magnitude as compared to the two other diazepam doses, but however decreased the hippocampal-dependent memory performance. In summary, our study provides first evidence that diazepam restores in stressed middle-aged animals the hippocampus-dependent response, in relation with HPC corticosterone concentrations. Overall, our data illustrate how stress and benzodiazepines could modulate cognitive functions depending on hippocampus activity.

  13. Low-velocity impact craters in ice and ice-saturated sand with implications for Martian crater count ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, S. K.; Kieffer, S. W.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper reports on a series of low-velocity impact experiments performed in ice and ice-saturated sand. It is found that crater diameters in ice-saturated sand were about 2 times larger than in the same energy and velocity range in competent blocks of granite, basalt and cement, while craters in ice were 3 times larger. It is shown that if this dependence of crater size on strength persists to large hypervelocity impact craters, then surface of geologic units composed of ice or ice-saturated soil would have greater crater count ages than rocky surfaces with identical influx histories. Among the conclusions are that Martian impact crater energy versus diameter scaling may also be a function of latitude.

  14. A transcriptome resource for the Antarctic pteropod Limacina helicina antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin M; Hofmann, Gretchen E

    2016-08-01

    The pteropod Limacina helicina antarctica is a dominant member of the zooplankton assemblage in the Antarctic marine ecosystem, and is part of a relatively simple food web in nearshore marine Antarctic waters. As a shelled pteropod, Limacina has been suggested as a candidate sentinel organism for the impacts of ocean acidification, due to the potential for shell dissolution in undersaturated waters. In this study, our goal was to develop a transcriptomic resource for Limacina that would support mechanistic studies to explore the physiological response of Limacina to abiotic stressors such as ocean acidification and ocean warming. To this end, RNA sequencing libraries were prepared from Limacina that had been exposed to a range of pH levels and an elevated temperature to maximize the diversity of expressed genes. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was conducted on an Illumina NextSeq500 which produced 339,000,000 150bp paired-end reads. The de novo transcriptome was produced using Trinity and annotation of the assembled transcriptome resulted in the identification of 81,229 transcripts in 137 KEGG pathways. This RNA-seq effort resulted in a transcriptome for the Antarctic pteropod, Limacina helicina antarctica, that is a major resource for an international marine science research community studying these pelagic molluscs in a global change context. PMID:27157132

  15. Towards Unraveling the Human Tooth Transcriptome: The Dentome

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Shijia; Parker, Joel; Wright, John Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study was to characterize the transcriptome profiles of human ameloblasts and odontoblasts, evaluate molecular pathways and advance our knowledge of the human “dentome”. Laser capture microdissection was used to isolate odontoblasts and ameloblasts from human tooth buds (15-20week gestational age) from 4 fetuses. RNA was examined using Agilent 41k whole genome arrays at 2 different stages of enamel formation, presecretory and secretory. Probe detection was considered against t...

  16. Impact of a Workshop About Aging on the Empathy Scores of Pharmacy and Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Van Winkle, Lon J; Fjortoft, Nancy; Hojat, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To measure changes in pharmacy and medical students’ empathy scores after a 40-minute workshop during which students observed and discussed a theatrical performance about the challenges of aging.

  17. Impact of age and sex on sudden cardiovascular death following myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrom, S Z; Rask-Madsen, C; Ottesen, M M; Andersen, P K; Rosthøj, S; Torp-Pedersen, C; Køber, L

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the risk of sudden cardiovascular death (SCD) and non-SCD after myocardial infarction (MI) associated with age and sex. DESIGN: Cohort study of patients admitted with an enzyme verified acute MI and discharged alive. Patients were followed up for up to four years...... (> or = 76 years). Age significantly increased both SCD and non-SCD risk (p < 0.0001), but the increase in non-SCD risk was 40% higher (p < 0.0001). Male sex was associated with increased risk of SCD independently of age (risk ratio 1.34, p < 0.005). However, the absolute three year probability of SCD....... PATIENTS: 5983 consecutive hospital survivors of acute MI were enrolled in the TRACE (trandolapril cardiac evaluation) registry from 1990-92. Four age groups were prespecified: < 56, 56-65, 66-75, and > or = 76 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: SCD was defined as cardiovascular death within one hour of onset...

  18. Ageing of power plants socio-economical, sanitary and environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Association of the local Commissions of Information (A.N.C.L.I.) presents a colloquium about the ageing of nuclear power plants. The different following points are presented. The life cycle of nuclear power plants and the new types of reactors. The ageing of power plants: stakes and perspectives for the French and world nuclear park. A power plant of 30 years is it sure? The role of the studies of ageing and the follow-up according to the age. Stop or continue to exploit a nuclear power plant: who decides, when and how. The socio-economic consequences of a stop of power plant: the Spanish experience. Ten-year visits of a power plant: the associative experience. 58 reactors today: how to assume their end of life and welcome equipments to come. (N.C.)

  19. Aging and innate immunity in the mouse: impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kovacs, Elizabeth J.; Jessica L. Palmer; Fortin, Carl F.; Fülöp, Tamas; Goldstein, Daniel R; Linton, Phyllis-Jean

    2009-01-01

    Aging affects every innate immune cell, including changes in cell numbers and function. Defects in the function of some cells are intrinsic, whereas for other cells, defects are extrinsic and possibly the consequence of the complex interactions with other cell types or the environmental milieu that is altered with aging. Abnormal function contributes to worsened outcomes after injury or infection and leads to diseases observed in the elderly. Knowing the mechanisms responsible for the aberran...

  20. Impact of age norms and stereotypes on managers' hiring decisions of retirees

    OpenAIRE

    Karpinska, K.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.; Schippers, J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose -Our study investigates the role of managers in the re-employment of early retirees and asks what the effect is of managers’ age norms and stereotypes on managers’ employment decisions. Design/methodology/approach- A combination of a factorial study and a survey was conducted. First, information on the age norms and stereotypes was collected. Secondly, profiles of hypothetical retired job applicants were presented to the employers, who were asked to make a specific hiring decision. Th...

  1. Children Perception on TV Advertisement: The Impact of Age, Gender and Parental Influence

    OpenAIRE

    Ahasanul Haque; Ali Khatibi

    2004-01-01

    This study examined two components of understanding TV advertising: the recognition of the difference between programmes and commercials and the comprehension of advertising intent. ANOVA analyses were performed to assess the effect on age, gender, parent-child interaction and parental control over children of TV programme watching. Research found that majority of children aged between five and eight have some understanding of TV advertising, they are capable in differentiate programme and co...

  2. The impact of major transformations of a production process on age-related accident risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, V L; Laflamme, L; Diderichsen, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a study of whether accident risks were equally distributed across age categories among a population of mining workers whose work activities were suspected to be age-impaired. The impairment factors in focus are the transformation of production technology during the 80s...... changes designed to increase productivity and reduce staffing levels more rapidly affect efficiency and productivity than they do accident occurrence, and that they penalize young workers in the first instance....

  3. Reassessing the impact of smoking on preeclampsia/eclampsia: are there age and racial differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Jen Chang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between cigarette use during pregnancy and pregnancy-induced hypertension/preeclampsia/eclampsia (PIH by maternal race/ethnicity and age. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was based on the U.S. 2010 natality data. Our study sample included U.S. women who delivered singleton pregnancies between 20 and 44 weeks of gestation without major fetal anomalies in 2010 (n = 3,113,164. Multivariate logistic regression models were fit to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: We observed that the association between maternal smoking and PIH varied by maternal race/ethnicity and age. Compared with non-smokers, reduced odds of PIH among pregnant smokers was only evident for non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic American Indian women aged less than 35 years. Non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander women who smoked during pregnancy had increased odds of PIH regardless of maternal age. Non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black women 35 years or older who smoked during pregnancy also had increased odds of PIH. CONCLUSION: Our study findings suggest important differences by maternal race/ethnicity and age in the association between cigarette use during pregnancy and PIH. More research is needed to establish the biologic and social mechanisms that might explain the variations with maternal age and race/ethnicity that were observed in our study.

  4. Impact of aging on mitochondrial function in cardiac and skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepple, R T

    2016-09-01

    Both skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle are subject to marked structural and functional impairment with aging and these changes contribute to the reduced capacity for exercise as we age. Since mitochondria are involved in multiple aspects of cellular homeostasis including energetics, reactive oxygen species signaling, and regulation of intrinsic apoptotic pathways, defects in this organelle are frequently implicated in the deterioration of skeletal and cardiac muscle with aging. On this basis, the purpose of this review is to evaluate the evidence that aging causes dysfunction in mitochondria in striated muscle with a view towards drawing conclusions about the potential of these changes to contribute to the deterioration seen in striated muscle with aging. As will be shown, impairment in respiration and reactive oxygen species emission with aging are highly variable between studies and seem to be largely a consequence of physical inactivity. On the other hand, both skeletal and cardiac muscle mitochondria are more susceptible to permeability transition and this seems a likely cause of the increased recruitment of mitochondrial-mediated pathways of apoptosis seen in striated muscle. The review concludes by examining the role of degeneration of mitochondrial DNA versus impaired mitochondrial quality control mechanisms in the accumulation of mitochondria that are sensitized to permeability transition, whereby the latter mechanism is favored as the most likely cause. PMID:27033952

  5. Sensitivity Analysis for Studying Impacts of Aging on Population Toxicokinetics and Toxicodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessing the impacts of toxicant exposures upon susceptible populations such as the elderly requires adequate characterization of prior long-term exposures, reductions in various organ functions, and potential intake of multiple drugs. Additionally, significant uncertainties and...

  6. Macroeconomic Impact of Ageing Population in Scotland. A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lisenkova, Katerina; McGregor, Peter; Pappas, Nikos; Swales, Kim; Turner, Karen; Wright, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This paper combines a multi-period economic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) modelling framework with a demographic model to analyse the macroeconomic impact of the projected demographic trends in Scotland. Demographic trends are defined by the existing fertility-mortality rates and the level of annual net-migration. We employ a combination of a demographic and a CGE simulation to track the impact of changes in demographic structure upon macroeconomic variables under different scenarios f...

  7. Impacts of aging on in vivo and in vitro measurements of soil-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, W.R.; McDonald, T.J.; Bordelon, N.R.; George, S.E.; Donnelly, K.B. [Texas A & M University, College Station, TX (USA). Dept. of Veterinary Anatomy and Public Health and Department of Civil Engineering

    2001-04-15

    Ingestion of contaminated soil is an exposure pathway at approximately one-half of the superfund sites in the United States. This study was designed to evaluate the impacts of aging in soil on the availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Two coal tar (CT)-amended soils were prepared. One was aged for 270 days and the other was not aged. Both of these treatments were incorporated into pellets and fed to male Fischer 344 rats. Excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in urine and PAH concentrations in the liver were monitored as end points. Additionally, soil: water partitioning and desorption were measured as comparison to the in vivo results. After 5 days of ingesting their respective treatments, rats in the aged soil group excreted 4.41 {+-} 1.67 ppm 1-OHP/mg of pyrene ingested while rats in the unaged soil group excreted 5.27 {+-} 1.37 ppm/mg of pyrene ingested. Animals fed aged CT soil had 0.051 {+-} 0.011 carcinogenic PAHs in livers/mg ingested while rats fed unaged CT soil had 0.063 {+-} 0.037 ppm carcinogenic PAHs in livers/mg ingested. Partitioning and desorption results revealed a similar results. These results indicate that, at high application rates, soil contact time may not play as significant a role in determining availability as simple dispersion and sorption on soil. 15 refs., 1 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. The Impact of Age-Related Dysregulation of the Angiotensin System on Mitochondrial Redox Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya eVajapey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with the accumulation of various deleterious changes in cells. According to the free radical and mitochondrial theory of aging, mitochondria initiate most of the deleterious changes in aging and govern life span. The failure of mitochondrial reduction-oxidation (redox homeostasis and the formation of excessive free radicals are tightly linked to dysregulation in the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS. A main rate-controlling step in RAS is renin, an enzyme that hydrolyzes angiotensinogen to generate angiotensin I. Angiotensin I is further converted to Angiotensin II (Ang II by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE. Ang II binds with equal affinity to two main angiotensin receptors—type 1 (AT1R and type 2 (AT2R. The binding of Ang II to AT1R activates NADPH oxidase, which leads to increased generation of cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species (ROS. This Ang II-AT1R–NADPH-ROS signal triggers the opening of mitochondrial KATP channels and mitochondrial ROS production in a positive feedback loop. Furthermore, RAS has been implicated in the decrease of many of ROS scavenging enzymes, thereby leading to detrimental levels of free radicals in the cell.AT2R is less understood, but evidence supports an anti-oxidative and mitochondria-protective function for AT2R. The overlap between age related changes in RAS and mitochondria, and the consequences of this overlap on age-related diseases are quite complex. RAS dysregulation has been implicated in many pathological conditions due to its contribution to mitochondrial dysfunction. Decreased age-related, renal and cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction was seen in patients treated with angiotensin receptor blockers. The aim of this review is to: (a report the most recent information elucidating the role of RAS in mitochondrial redox hemostasis and (b discuss the effect of age-related activation of RAS on generation of free radicals.

  9. Impact of age on outcome after colorectal cancer surgery in the elderly - a developing country perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Syed

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major source of morbidity and mortality in the elderly population and surgery is often the only definitive management option. The suitability of surgical candidates based on age alone has traditionally been a source of controversy. Surgical resection may be considered detrimental in the elderly solely on the basis of advanced age. Based on recent evidence suggesting that age alone is not a predictor of outcomes, Western societies are increasingly performing definitive procedures on the elderly. Such evidence is not available from our region. We aimed to determine whether age has an independent effect on complications after surgery for colorectal cancer in our population. Methods A retrospective review of all patients who underwent surgery for pathologically confirmed colorectal cancer at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi between January 1999 and December 2008 was conducted. Using a cut-off of 70 years, patients were divided into two groups. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics and postoperative complications and 30-day mortality were compared. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed with clinically relevant variables to determine whether age had an independent and significant association with the outcome. Results A total of 271 files were reviewed, of which 56 belonged to elderly patients (≥ 70 years. The gender ratio was equal in both groups. Elderly patients had a significantly higher comorbidity status, Charlson score and American society of anesthesiologists (ASA class (all p Conclusion Older patients have more co-morbid conditions and higher ASA scores, but increasing age itself is not independently associated with complications after surgery for CRC. Therefore patient selection should focus on the clinical status and ASA class of the patient rather than age.

  10. Impact of age at marriage and migration on HIV and AIDS epidemics in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohkusa Yasushi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The causes of wide variation in the rates of HIV and AIDS epidemics among Japanese and non-Japanese nationals are not well understood. So, this paper examines the associations and assesses the potential roles of mean age at marriage, and migration in the HIV and AIDS epidemics in Japan. For the purpose, bivariate and multivariate regression analysis have been performed using epidemiological panel data to build up the relationships among overall HIV and AIDS prevalence, mean age at marriage, and migration. The same analyses have done for non-Japanese nationals living with HIV and AIDS separately. These indicators were significantly correlated with mean age at marriage, and migration. Multivariate linear regression analysis identified non-Japanese nationals' HIV and AIDS prevalence and mean age at marriage as the two most prominent factors linked with the national HIV and AIDS epidemics. The findings of this study supported the hypotheses that a high average age at marriage in the population leads to long period of premarital sex and the non-Japanese nationals' high prevalence facilitating the spread of the HIV and AIDS epidemics in Japan.

  11. Nature’s Timepiece—Molecular Coordination of Metabolism and Its Impact on Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Kodrík

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms are found in almost all organisms from cyanobacteria to humans, where most behavioral and physiological processes occur over a period of approximately 24 h in tandem with the day/night cycles. In general, these rhythmic processes are under regulation of circadian clocks. The role of circadian clocks in regulating metabolism and consequently cellular and metabolic homeostasis is an intensively investigated area of research. However, the links between circadian clocks and aging are correlative and only recently being investigated. A physiological decline in most processes is associated with advancing age, and occurs at the onset of maturity and in some instances is the result of accumulation of cellular damage beyond a critical level. A fully functional circadian clock would be vital to timing events in general metabolism, thus contributing to metabolic health and to ensure an increased “health-span” during the process of aging. Here, we present recent evidence of links between clocks, cellular metabolism, aging and oxidative stress (one of the causative factors of aging. In the light of these data, we arrive at conceptual generalizations of this relationship across the spectrum of model organisms from fruit flies to mammals.

  12. Does social support impact depression in caregivers of adults ageing with spinal cord injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodakowski, Juleen; Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Rogers, Joan C.; Schulz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the role of social support in predicting depression in caregivers of adults aging with spinal cord injuries (SCI). Design Cross-sectional secondary data analyses were conducted for this study. Setting Participants were recruited from multiple community locations in Pittsburgh, PA and Miami, FL. Subjects Community-dwelling caregivers of aging adults with SCI (N=173) were interviewed as part of a multisite randomized clinical trial. Main measures The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale measured caregiver depression symptom levels. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis examined the effect of social support (social integration, received social support, and negative social interactions) on depressive symptoms levels for the caregivers of adults aging with SCI, controlling for demographic characteristics and caregiving characteristics. Results Caregivers were, on average, 53 years old (SD=15) and care-recipients were 55 years old (SD=13). Average Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores indicated that sixty-nine (40%) caregivers had significant depressive symptoms (mean 8.69, SD=5.5). Negative social interactions (β̂ =.27, P<.01) and social integration (β̂ =−.25, P<.01) were significant independent predictors of depressive symptom levels in caregivers of adults aging with SCI. Conclusions Findings demonstrate that negative social interactions and social integration are associated with burden in caregivers of adults aging with SCI. Negative social interactions and social integration should be investigated in assessments and interventions intended to target caregiver depressive symptom levels. PMID:23117350

  13. The Impact of Aging and Alzheimer's Disease on Decoding Emotion Cues from Bodily Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline M. Insch

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Both healthy aging and dementia cause problems with emotion perception, and the impairment is generally greater for specific emotions (anger, sadness and fear. Most studies to date have focused on static facial photographs of emotions. The current study investigated the effects of healthy aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD on the ability to decode emotions from bodily motion displayed by point light stimuli. Response biases were controlled to investigate whether these influenced the specificity of impairment in perceiving individual emotions. Study 1 compared healthy young and older adults, and Study 2 people with AD and age-matched controls, on an emotion perception task using point light stimuli. Accuracy and the pattern of errors were investigated. Specific age-related impairments were found in labeling sadness, anger and fear from point light displays. Response biases were also found, and controlling for these biases indicated that older adults were worse at labeling all emotions. People with AD were less accurate than healthy older controls at labeling fear, anger and sadness. After controlling for response biases, AD caused impairment in perceiving all emotions. These results indicate a general age-related impairment in decoding emotions from bodily motion, and a further impairment in this skill in AD. Apparent specificity of deficits in emotion labeling tasks needs to be interpreted cautiously, and correction for response bias should be considered. Problems perceiving emotion cues from biological motion might impair social interaction in older adults, particularly those with dementia.

  14. The impact of age on the diagnosis and therapy of myelodysplastic syndromes: results from a retrospective multicenter analysis in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattermann, Norbert; Kündgen, Andrea; Kellermann, Lenka; Zeffel, Matti; Paessens, Bernadette; Germing, Ulrich

    2013-12-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is a disease of predominantly elderly patients with a median age of >70 yrs. However, data on the management of these patients outside of clinical trials are scarce. To assess patterns of MDS management in routine patient care with regard to the impact of age, we conducted a multicenter, representative survey of MDS health services in Germany. Data of 269 patients treated at 57 institutions were collected from preplanned chart reviews and were analyzed retrospectively. At diagnosis, median age was 70 yrs, 50% of patients had a Karnofsky index (KI) of 90%, and 12% had a comorbidity index ≥ 3 according to Sorror et al. (J Clin Oncol, 25, 2007, 4246). Cytogenetic analysis and International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) risk assessment were performed significantly less frequently in patients >75 yrs than in patients ≤ 75 yrs (P 75 yrs (51% vs. 37%, P = 0.007). In bivariate analysis age ≤ 75 yrs (y/n, P = 0.007) was a significant predictor for active treatment with no correlation with the other predictors [IPSS risk score int-2 or high (y/n, P = 0.005), WHO subtypes RCUD (y/n, P < 0.001), RCMD (y/n, P = 0.003), RAEB II (y/n, P < 0.001), or CMML I (y/n, P = 0.020)]. This survey confirms the impact of age on the thoroughness of MDS diagnosis and the decision for active treatment. As cytogenetic analysis and risk assessment are essential for the choice of appropriate therapy, elderly patients in particular may not be receiving adequate treatment. PMID:24102637

  15. 40Ar/39Ar ages of lunar impact glasses: Relationships among Ar diffusivity, chemical composition, shape, and size

    CERN Document Server

    Zellner, N E B

    2015-01-01

    Lunar impact glasses, quenched melts produced during cratering events on the Moon, have the potential to provide not only compositional information about both the local and regional geology of the Moon but also information about the impact flux over time. We present in this paper the results of 73 new 40Ar/39Ar analyses of well-characterized, inclusion-free lunar impact glasses and demonstrate that size, shape, chemical composition, fraction of radiogenic 40Ar retained, and cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages are important for 40Ar/39Ar investigations of these samples. Specifically, analyses of lunar impact glasses from the Apollo 14, 16, and 17 landing sites indicate that retention of radiogenic 40Ar is a strong function of post-formation thermal history in the lunar regolith, size, and chemical composition. Based on the relationships presented in this paper, lunar impact glasses with compositions and sizes sufficient to have retained 90% of their radiogenic Ar during 750 Ma of cosmic ray exposure at time-integra...

  16. Sense of Community within Oxford House Recovery Housing: Impact of Resident Age and Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, B C; Jason, L A; Ferrari, J F

    2009-01-01

    The experience of psychological sense of community (PSOC) can play an important role in the substance abuse recovery process. This study explored the relationship between PSOC and setting-level variables of age and income amongst residents living in Oxford House, a communal, self-governed recovery housing model (n = 70). Age and income variables were not related to an overall PSOC or components such as shared common mission or feelings of reciprocal responsibility. However, both age and income variables were significant predictors of the harmony felt within these houses. The role that PSOC may play in recovery facilities and other co-housing arrangements was discussed, and implications for future research and application were outlined. PMID:20657670

  17. Impact of Air Pollutants on Oxidative Stress in Common Autophagy-Mediated Aging Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Saber Numan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pollution-induced cellular oxidative stress is probably one of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in most of the common autophagy-mediated aging diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Alzheimer’s, disease, as well as Paget’s disease of bone with or without frontotemporal dementia and inclusion body myopathy. Oxidative stress has serious damaging effects on the cellular contents: DNA, RNA, cellular proteins, and cellular organelles. Autophagy has a pivotal role in recycling these damaged non-functional organelles and misfolded or unfolded proteins. In this paper, we highlight, through a narrative review of the literature, that when autophagy processes are impaired during aging, in presence of cumulative air pollution-induced cellular oxidative stress and due to a direct effect on air pollutant, autophagy-mediated aging diseases may occur.

  18. Metabolic syndrome and dementia associated with Parkinson's disease: impact of age and hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Oscar Schelp

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine correlations between age and metabolic disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD patients. METHODS: This observational cross-sectional study included brief tests for dementia and the Mattis test. Signals of metabolic syndrome were evaluated. RESULTS: There was no significant effect from the presence of hypertension (OR=2.36 for patients under 65 years old and OR=0.64 for patients over 65, diabetes or hypercholesterolemia regarding occurrences of dementia associated with PD (24% of the patients. The study demonstrated that each year of age increased the estimated risk of dementia in PD patients by 9% (OR=1.09; 95%CI: 1.01-1.17. CONCLUSION: There was no evidence to correlate the presence of metabolic syndrome with the risk of dementia that was associated with PD. The study confirmed that dementia in PD is age dependent and not related to disease duration.

  19. Children Perception on TV Advertisement: The Impact of Age, Gender and Parental Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahasanul Haque

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined two components of understanding TV advertising: the recognition of the difference between programmes and commercials and the comprehension of advertising intent. ANOVA analyses were performed to assess the effect on age, gender, parent-child interaction and parental control over children of TV programme watching. Research found that majority of children aged between five and eight have some understanding of TV advertising, they are capable in differentiate programme and commercials especially if this understanding is measured by non-verbal rather than verbal measure. However, the results based on verbal measures are not as conclusive. The findings also indicated that children age has substantial positive effect on the children understanding of TV advertising. This effect pronounced for verbal measure of comprehension intent for advertisements. Results also showed a small but significant negative effect of parental control of TV viewing, in which a high control of TV viewing result in a relatively low understanding of TV advertising.

  20. Chemical fingerprint and impact of shipping emissions over a western Mediterranean metropolis: Primary and aged contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An intensive monitoring campaign was carried out in the harbor of Barcelona (Spain) to quantify the contribution of primary shipping emissions (PSE) on PM10. Chemical composition of inorganic species, as well as OC and EC, was completed, and a source apportionment analysis by Positive Matrix Factorization was conducted. Among the 6 sources extracted, two were linked to harbor emissions: dusty materials released in different areas along the harbor and fuel–oil combustion. On average, harbor emissions accounted for 31% of the PM10 mass. Since the chemical signature of PSE was not determined neither their contribution was obtained, additional approaches were followed and mainly consisted in: 1) the evaluation of V/Ni and V/Cu ratios to identify those days affected by PSE; 2) the identification of the chemical components increasing under the influence of PSE; 3) the calculation of the daily and average PSE from their experimentally-determined chemical signature and the experimental concentrations of vanadium. As a result, the contribution of PSE was estimated in 0.84 μg m−3 (2.7% of PM10) and the residual fuel–oil combustion factor (3.6 μg m−3, 12% of PM10) was interpreted as aged shipping emissions. The present study splits the contribution of shipping emissions into primary and aged, and highlights the importance of atmospheric mixing and aging processes in western Mediterranean atmospheres. In the case of shipping emissions, the aged products were found to be dominant with respect to the primary ones even in the vicinity of the source. Highlights: • Primary and aged shipping emissions were quantified. • An experimental chemical profile for primary shipping emissions is provided. • Aged shipping emissions prevailed even in the proximity of the emission source

  1. Chemical fingerprint and impact of shipping emissions over a western Mediterranean metropolis: Primary and aged contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pey, Jorge, E-mail: jorge.pey@univ-amu.fr [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, IDÆA-CSIC, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, LCE FRE 3416, 13331 Marseille (France); Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Region, 00198 Roma (Italy); Pérez, Noemí [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, IDÆA-CSIC, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Region, 00198 Roma (Italy); Cortés, Joaquim [Autoriat Portuaria de Barcelona, 08002 Barcelona (Spain); Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, IDÆA-CSIC, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-10-01

    An intensive monitoring campaign was carried out in the harbor of Barcelona (Spain) to quantify the contribution of primary shipping emissions (PSE) on PM{sub 10}. Chemical composition of inorganic species, as well as OC and EC, was completed, and a source apportionment analysis by Positive Matrix Factorization was conducted. Among the 6 sources extracted, two were linked to harbor emissions: dusty materials released in different areas along the harbor and fuel–oil combustion. On average, harbor emissions accounted for 31% of the PM{sub 10} mass. Since the chemical signature of PSE was not determined neither their contribution was obtained, additional approaches were followed and mainly consisted in: 1) the evaluation of V/Ni and V/Cu ratios to identify those days affected by PSE; 2) the identification of the chemical components increasing under the influence of PSE; 3) the calculation of the daily and average PSE from their experimentally-determined chemical signature and the experimental concentrations of vanadium. As a result, the contribution of PSE was estimated in 0.84 μg m{sup −3} (2.7% of PM{sub 10}) and the residual fuel–oil combustion factor (3.6 μg m{sup −3}, 12% of PM{sub 10}) was interpreted as aged shipping emissions. The present study splits the contribution of shipping emissions into primary and aged, and highlights the importance of atmospheric mixing and aging processes in western Mediterranean atmospheres. In the case of shipping emissions, the aged products were found to be dominant with respect to the primary ones even in the vicinity of the source. Highlights: • Primary and aged shipping emissions were quantified. • An experimental chemical profile for primary shipping emissions is provided. • Aged shipping emissions prevailed even in the proximity of the emission source.

  2. Degradation of impact fracture during accelerated aging of weld metal on microalloyed steel; Degradacion de la tenacidad al impacto durante el envejecimiento acelerado de soldadura en acero microaleado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas-Arista, B.; Hallen, J. M.; Albiter, A.; Angeles-Chavez, C.

    2008-07-01

    The effect of accelerated aging on the toughness and fracture of the longitudinal weld metal on an API5L-X52 line pipe steel was evaluated by Charpy V-notch impact test, fracture analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Aging was performed at 250 degree centigrade for 100 to 1000 h. The impact results indicated a significant reduction in the fracture energy and impact toughness as a function of aging time, which were achieved by the scanning electron microscope fractography that showed a decrease in the vol fraction of microvoids by Charpy ductile failure with the aging time, which favored the brittle fracture by transgranular cleavage. The minimum vol fraction of microvoids was reached at 500 h due to the peak aged. The microstructural analysis indicated the precipitation of transgranular iron nano carbides in the aged specimens, which was related to the deterioration of toughness and change in the ductile to brittle behavior. (Author) 15 refs.

  3. The impact of birth weight and gestational age on the management of juvenile essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogas Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential hypertension in children is a very important biological aspect in child pathology, caused by the synergic action of multiple risk factors, with an increasing prevalence. Since there is not much knowledge about juvenile essential hypertension in childhood, in this paper we will clarify the existing data about this pathology and its management, mainly by referring to the correlations during different stages. We found significant correlations between hypertension and the individual values of birth weight and gestational age, which suggest that there is an important relationship between birth weight and gestational age, as important biological markers vs. the different stages of essential hypertension.

  4. Aging research impact on component and system reliability and maintenance in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program of aging research on safety-related components and systems in nuclear power plants is being conducted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Data on the performance and failure of existing components and systems in nuclear power plants, current maintenance practices, and surveillance and monitoring techniques is being collected and evaluated to determine what effect aging could have on plant operation, reliability and maintenance. The results of these studies are being used also in the resolution of NRC generic safety issues, the development of an NRC rule for future plant license extension beyond 40 years and a maintenance rule

  5. EEG features of absence seizures in idiopathic generalized epilepsy: Impact of syndrome, age, and state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadleir, L.G.; Scheffer, I.E.; Smith, S.;

    2009-01-01

    seizures were evaluated in 70 children with the following syndromes: childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) 37, CAE+ photoparoxysmal response (PPR) 10, juvenile absence epilepsy (JAE) 8, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) 6, and unclassified 9. Polyspikes occurred in all syndromes but were more common in JME....... They were brought out by drowsiness and sleep in fragments of generalized spike and wave (GSW). Polyspikes were more likely to occur during photic stimulation, but were not influenced by age independently. GSW was more likely to be disorganized in JME than JAE, and in JAE than CAE. Increasing age and...

  6. In Situ Chemical Characterization of Aged Biomass-Burning Aerosols Impacting Cold Wave Clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Pratt, Kerri A.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Twohy, Cynthia H.; Murphy, Shane M.; DeMott, Paul J.; Hudson , James G.; R. Subramanian; Wang, Zhien; Seinfeld, John H.; Prather, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    During the Ice in Clouds Experiment–Layer Clouds (ICE-L), aged biomass-burning particles were identified within two orographic wave cloud regions over Wyoming using single-particle mass spectrometry and electron microscopy. Using a suite of instrumentation, particle chemistry was characterized in tandem with cloud microphysics. The aged biomass-burning particles comprised ~30%–40% by number of the 0.1–1.0-μm clear-air particles and were composed of potassium, organic carbon, elemental carbon,...

  7. Control of ascariasis through age-targeted chemotherapy: impact of 6-monthly chemotherapeutic regimens.

    OpenAIRE

    Thein-Hlaing; Than-Saw; Myat-Lay-Kyin

    1990-01-01

    A field trial of 6-monthly ascariasis chemotherapeutic regimens targeted at 1-19-, 1-14-, and 5-19-year-olds was carried out in three communities in rural Myanmar to observe the effects on the prevalence, intensity, and morbidity indicators over 2 years. After periodic chemotherapy, the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris infection in age-targeted and non-age-targeted groups fell in all the study areas, more markedly among the 1-19- and 1-14-year-olds. There was also a decrease in the frequen...

  8. Ar-40-Ar-39 Age of an Impact-Melt Lithology in Lunar Meteorite Dhofar 961

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara; Frasl, Barbara; Jolliff, Brad; Korotev, Randy; Zeigler, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The Dhofar 961 lunar meteorite was found in 2003 in Oman. It is texturally paired with Dhofar 925 and Dhofar 960 (though Dhofar 961 is more mafic and richer in incompatible elements). Several lines of reasoning point to the South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA) basin as a plausible source (Figure 2): Mafic character of the melt-breccia lithic clasts consistent the interior of SPA, rules out feldspathic highlands. Compositional differences from Apollo impact-melt groups point to a provenance that is separated and perhaps far distant from the Procellarum KREEP Terrane SPA "hot spots" where Th concentrations reach 5 ppm and it has a broad "background" of about 2 ppm, similar to lithic clasts in Dhofar 961 subsamples If true, impact-melt lithologies in this meteorite may be unaffected by the Imbrium-forming event that is pervasively found in our Apollo sample collection, and instead record the early impact history of the Moon.

  9. The developmental transcriptome of Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of Connecticut; Graveley, Brenton R.; Brooks, Angela N.; Carlson, Joseph W.; Duff, Michael O.; Landolin, Jane M.; Yang, Li; Artieri, Carlo G.; van Baren, Marijke J.; Boley, Nathan; Booth, Benjamin W.; Brown, James B.; Cherbas, Lucy; Davis, Carrie A.; Dobin, Alex; Li, Renhua; Lin, Wei; Malone, John H.; Mattiuzzo, Nicolas R.; Miller, David; Sturgill, David; Tuch, Brian B.; Zaleski, Chris; Zhang, Dayu; Blanchette, Marco; Dudoit, Sandrine; Eads, Brian; Green, Richard E.; Hammonds, Ann; Jiang, Lichun; Kapranov, Phil; Langton, Laura; Perrimon, Norbert; Sandler, Jeremy E.; Wan, Kenneth H.; Willingham, Aarron; Zhang, Yu; Zou, Yi; Andrews, Justen; Bicke, Peter J.; Brenner, Steven E.; Brent, Michael R.; Cherbas, Peter; Gingeras, Thomas R.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Kaufman, Thomas C.; Oliver, Brian; Celniker, Susan E.

    2010-12-02

    . Whereas, 20% of Drosophila genes are annotated as encoding alternatively spliced premRNAs, splice-junction microarray experiments indicate that this number is at least 40% (ref. 7). Determining the diversity of mRNAs generated by alternative promoters, alternative splicing and RNA editing will substantially increase the inferred protein repertoire. Non-coding RNA genes (ncRNAs) including short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAS (miRNAs) (reviewed in ref. 10), and longer ncRNAs such as bxd (ref. 11) and rox (ref. 12), have important roles in gene regulation, whereas others such as small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs)and small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are important components of macromolecular machines such as the ribosome and spliceosome. The transcription and processing of these ncRNAs must also be fully documented and mapped. As part of the modENCODE project to annotate the functional elements of the D. melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans genomes, we used RNA-Seq and tiling microarrays to sample the Drosophila transcriptome at unprecedented depth throughout development from early embryo to ageing male and female adults. We report on a high-resolution view of the discovery, structure and dynamic expression of the D. melanogaster transcriptome.

  10. Being human in a technological age : A study of the impacts of smart technology usage

    OpenAIRE

    Brulin, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Today humans are using a large amount of smart technology to support their daily activities, for instance smartphones, tablets and computers. The relationship towards technology is changing, and with the change comes questions. In this thesis a qualitative interview study was used to deepen the understanding of humans’ daily use of technology and its impacts on their daily life. The study has shown that humans’ technology usage has both positive and negative impacts on their daily life. For i...

  11. Impacts of fire on forest age and runoff in mountain ash forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S.A.; Beringer, J.; Hutley, L.B.; McGuire, A.D.; Van Dijk, A.; Kilinc, M.

    2008-01-01

    Runoff from mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans F.Muell.) forested catchments has been shown to decline significantly in the few decades following fire - returning to pre-fire levels in the following centuries - owing to changes in ecosystem water use with stand age in a relationship known as Kuczera's model. We examined this relationship between catchment runoff and stand age by measuring whole-ecosystem exchanges of water using an eddy covariance system measuring forest evapotranspiration (ET) combined with sap-flow measurements of tree water use, with measurements made across a chronosequence of three sites (24, 80 and 296 years since fire). At the 296-year old site eddy covariance systems were installed above the E. regnans overstorey and above the distinct rainforest understorey. Contrary to predictions from the Kuczera curve, we found that measurements of whole-forest ET decreased by far less across stand age between 24 and 296 years. Although the overstorey tree water use declined by 1.8 mm day-1 with increasing forest age (an annual decrease of 657 mm) the understorey ET contributed between 1.2 and 1.5 mm day-1, 45% of the total ET (3 mm day-1) at the old growth forest. ?? CSIRO 2008.

  12. Daily Social Exchanges and Affect in Middle and Later Adulthood: The Impact of Loneliness and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Alissa; Bergeman, C. S.; Scott, Stacey B.

    2012-01-01

    Although daily social exchanges are important for well-being, it is unclear how different types of exchanges affect daily well-being, as well as which factors influence the way in which individuals react to their daily social encounters. The present study included a sample of 705 adults aged 31 to 91, and using Multilevel Modeling analyses…

  13. GROWTH-HORMONE THERAPY IN TURNERS SYNDROME - IMPACT OF INJECTION FREQUENCY AND INITIAL BONE-AGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RONGENWESTERLAKEN, C; VANES, A; WIT, JM; OTTEN, BJ; KEIZERSCHRAMA, SMPFD; DRAYER, NM; OOSTDIJK, W; DELEMARREVANDERWAAL, HA; GONS, MH; WAELKENS, JJJ; VANDENBRANDE, JL

    1992-01-01

    Study Objective.-To determine the influence of the injection frequency and the initial bone age on the efficacy of treatment with biosynthetic growth hormone in Turner's syndrome. Design.-Randomized study. Setting.-Referral-based pediatric endocrinology departments of seven university medical center

  14. Impact of Hydrologic Variability on Nutrient Age Distribution in Intensively Managed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Woo, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    The distribution, concentration, and transport of nutrients in agricultural landscapes are of significant societal concern. Our interests in reactive nitrogen and the nitrogen cycle have shifted from increasing the efficiency of nitrogen delivery to target crop species to decreasing environmental damage caused by intensive agricultural practices. Enhancing the reactive nitrogen use efficiency to increase food production to meet future demand inevitably contributes to an increase in the reactive nitrogen load in the ecosystem, and damaging the environment. However, due to the complexity of the nitrogen cycle, the dynamics of nitrogen in soils and its interactions with ecohydrological processes at the watershed and regional scales are not well understood to enable adequate remedial measures. To unravel the complexity of this dynamics we have developed a model for characterizing the nitrogen age (elapsed time) distribution. The goal of our study is to develop and analyze the dynamics of nitrogen in the context of age and transit times resulting from advection, mixing, and production/destruction processes; evaluate the effects of micro-topographic variability on the nitrogen age distributions; and investigate how the temporal dynamics of the nitrogen age distribution are affected by changes in the variability of climate drivers. Our study is performed for the Upper Sangamon River Basin in the Critical Zone Observatory for Intensively Managed Landscapes (IML-CZO).

  15. Impact of lattice geometry distortion due to ageing on selected physics parameters of a CANDU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, results related to a limited scope assessment of the geometry-distortion-induced effects on key reactor physics parameters of a CANDU reactor are discussed. These results were generated by simulations using refined analytical methods and detailed modeling of CANDU reactor core with aged lattice cell geometry. (authors)

  16. The Impact of Medical and Dental Education on Student's Attitudes Toward the Aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Joseph M.; Beck, James D.

    The need for the incorporation of training in geriatrics and gerontology into basic medical and dental education has recently been recognized. Existing studies which attempt to measure the attitudes of medical and dental students toward the aged are extremely limited. As part of a larger study of attitudes and knowledge among 500 health workers,…

  17. Impact of age norms and stereotypes on managers' hiring decisions of retirees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karpinska, K.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.; Schippers, J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose -Our study investigates the role of managers in the re-employment of early retirees and asks what the effect is of managers’ age norms and stereotypes on managers’ employment decisions. Design/methodology/approach- A combination of a factorial study and a survey was conducted. First, informa

  18. Impact of Age and Myopia on the Rate of Visual Field Progression in Glaucoma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Young Lopilly; Hong, Kyung Euy; Park, Chan Kee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Myopia is rapidly increasing in young populations and patients with glaucoma associated with myopia are reported to be young aged in East Asia. These young patients have a longer life expectancy, which increases their risk of end-of-life visual disabilities. There is a need to understand the clinical course of myopic glaucoma patients, which may be important for the care of these myopic populations. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the age at presentation and the rate of glaucoma progression in the visual field (VF) according to the presence of myopia. The study was conducted as a prospective observational study including 179 patients with open-angle glaucoma who had undergone at least 5 VF examinations with a follow-up of at least 5 years. The progression rate of the mean deviation (MD) and the pattern standard deviation (PSD) are expressed as change in decibels (dB) per year. The slopes of the MD and PSD were calculated by linear regression analyses. Factors related to the slope of VF MD changes were analyzed with correlation and regression analyses. The slope of the linear fit line plotted against age at presentation and the rate of change in the VF MD was −0.026 (P myopia compared to eyes without myopia. Older age was significantly related to the rate of change in the VF only in myopic glaucomatous eyes. PMID:27227916

  19. Impact of Age and Myopia on the Rate of Visual Field Progression in Glaucoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Young Lopilly; Hong, Kyung Euy; Park, Chan Kee

    2016-05-01

    Myopia is rapidly increasing in young populations and patients with glaucoma associated with myopia are reported to be young aged in East Asia. These young patients have a longer life expectancy, which increases their risk of end-of-life visual disabilities. There is a need to understand the clinical course of myopic glaucoma patients, which may be important for the care of these myopic populations. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the age at presentation and the rate of glaucoma progression in the visual field (VF) according to the presence of myopia. The study was conducted as a prospective observational study including 179 patients with open-angle glaucoma who had undergone at least 5 VF examinations with a follow-up of at least 5 years. The progression rate of the mean deviation (MD) and the pattern standard deviation (PSD) are expressed as change in decibels (dB) per year. The slopes of the MD and PSD were calculated by linear regression analyses. Factors related to the slope of VF MD changes were analyzed with correlation and regression analyses. The slope of the linear fit line plotted against age at presentation and the rate of change in the VF MD was -0.026 (P myopia compared to eyes without myopia. Older age was significantly related to the rate of change in the VF only in myopic glaucomatous eyes. PMID:27227916

  20. Remodeling of chromatin structure in senescent cells and its potential impact on tumor suppression and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Peter D

    2007-01-01

    Cellular senescence is an important tumor suppression process, and a possible contributor to tissue aging. Senescence is accompanied extensive changes in chromatin structure. In particular, many senescent cells accumulate specialized domains of facultative heterochromatin, called Senescence Associated Heterochromatin Foci (SAHF), which are thought to repress expression of proliferation-promoting genes, thereby contributing to senescence-associated proliferation arrest. This article reviews ou...

  1. The Perceived Impact of Playing Music while Studying: Age and Cultural Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsopoulou, Anastasia; Hallam, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Rating scale questionnaires were administered to 600 students in three age groups, 12-13, 15-16 and 20-21 from Japan, the UK, Greece and the USA. The questionnaires explored the extent of playing music while studying, the kinds of tasks when music was played, the perceived effects of music on studying, the characteristics and types of music played…

  2. The impact of oropharynegeal dysphagia on quality of life in individuals with age over 50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the demographics of individuals presented with oropharyngeal dysphagia, correlation of different demographic factors with the quality of life (QOL) after validation of the Urdu translation of Swallowing Quality of Life (SWAL-QOL) questionnaire. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey, carried out at the speech and language therapy department of Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, Rawalpindi from July 2013 to January 2014 enrolling patients > 50 years of age with oropharyngeal dysphagia and scoring them on Urdu translation of SWAL-QOL questionnaire. The reliability of the tool was measured through Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Results: Of 40 patients, majority (60%) were males, married (62.5 %), illiterate (80%) and settling in age group of 51- 61 years. Most of them were from Punjab (30%) and Sindh (30%). The most common primary pathology was stroke (47.5%).The mean SWAL-QOL score was 147±13 (Range: 124 - 176). Most domains of questionnaire had Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.7. No variable was found to be significantly affecting SWAL-QOL score. Conclusion: The Urdu-translated version of SWAL-QOL is a valid tool. QOL in Pakistani patients of age > 50 years with oropharyngeal dysphagia is adversely affected, however, it does not depend on age, gender, marital status, education, ethnicity based on provinces or primary pathology for dysphagia. (author)

  3. Journal impact factors and the influence of age and number of citations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact factor (IF) of a scientific journal is considered a measure of how important a journal is within its discipline, and it is based on a simple relationship between the number of citations of the journal’s articles divided by the number of articles in the scientific journal (http://en.wikipe...

  4. Effect of thermal ageing on the impact fracture behaviour of Eurofer'97 steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hadraba, Hynek; Dlouhý, Ivo

    386-388, - (2009), s. 564-568. ISSN 0022-3115 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200410502; GA ČR GA106/08/1397 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : brittleness * fracture * cracks Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.933, year: 2009

  5. Impact of Hydrologic and Micro-topographic Variabilities on Spatial Distribution of Mean Soil-Nitrogen Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, D.; Kumar, P.

    2015-12-01

    Excess reactive nitrogen in soils of intensively managed agricultural fields causes adverse environmental impact, and continues to remain a global concern. Many novel strategies have been developed to provide better management practices and, yet, the problem remains unresolved. The objective of this study is to develop a 3-dimensional model to characterize the spatially distributed ``age" of soil-nitrogen (nitrate and ammonia-ammonium) across a watershed. We use the general theory of age, which provides an assessment of the elapsed time since nitrogen is introduced into the soil system. Micro-topographic variability incorporates heterogeneity of nutrient transformations and transport associated with topographic depressions that form temporary ponds and produce prolonged periods of anoxic conditions, and roadside agricultural ditches that support rapid surface movement. This modeling effort utilizes 1-m Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. We find a significant correlation between hydrologic variability and mean nitrate age that enables assessment of preferential flow paths of nitrate leaching. The estimation of the mean nitrogen age can thus serve as a tool to disentangle complex nitrogen dynamics by providing the analysis of the time scales of soil-nitrogen transformation and transport processes without introducing additional parameters.

  6. HIV Testing Among Young People Aged 16-24 in South Africa: Impact of Mass Media Communication Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Mai; Figueroa, Maria Elena; Lawrence Kincaid, D

    2016-09-01

    Knowing one's serostatus is critical in the HIV prevention, care and treatment continuum. This study examines the impact of communication programs on HIV testing in South Africa. Data came from 2204 young men and women aged 16-24 who reported to be sexually active in a population based survey. Structural equation modeling was used to test the directions and causal pathways between communication program exposure, HIV testing discussion, and having a test in the last 12 months. Bivariate and multivariate probit regressions provided evidence of exogeneity of communication exposure and the two HIV-related outcomes. One in three sampled individuals had been tested in the last 12 months. Communication program exposure only had an indirect effect on getting tested by encouraging young people to talk about testing. The study suggests that communication programs may create an environment that supports open HIV-related discussions and may have a long-term impact on behavior change. PMID:27102409

  7. Incidence, risk factors and impact of age on retinal detachment following cataract surgery in France: a national population study

    OpenAIRE

    Daien, Vincent; Le Pape, Annick; Hève, Didier; Carriere, Isabelle; Villain, Max

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the incidence, risk factors and impact of age on retinal detachment (RD) following cataract surgery.Design: Cohort study Subjects: All patients > 40 years old who underwent a primary cataract surgery in France between January 2009 and December 2012. Methods: A Cox proportional-hazard regression model was used to analyze risk factors of RD after cataract surgery.Main Outcome Measures: Risk factors of RD after cataract surgeryResults: Over 4 years, 2,680,167 eyes in 1,787,0...

  8. Impact of age at onset and newborn screening on outcome in organic acidurias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heringer, Jana; Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Lund, Allan M;

    2016-01-01

    % versus 39 %, p = 0.002; GA1: 26 % versus 73 %, p < 0.001). For other OADs, the clinical benefit of NBS was less clear. Reported age-adjusted intake of natural protein and calories was significantly higher in LO patients than in EO patients reflecting different disease severities. Variable drug...... (363 days, p < 0.001], but not compared to the EO group. Of all OAD patients 71 % remained asymptomatic until day 8. Patients with cobalamin-nonresponsive MMA (MMA-Cbl(-)) and GA1 identified by NBS were less likely to have movement disorders than those diagnosed by selective screening (MMA-Cbl(-): 10...... combinations, ranging from 12 in MMA-Cbl(-) to two in isovaleric aciduria, were used for maintenance treatment. The effects of specific metabolic treatment strategies on the health outcomes remain unclear because of the strong influences of age at onset (EO versus LO), diagnostic mode (NBS versus selective...

  9. The Impact of Age and Motivation on Cognitive Effort: Implications for Cognitive Engagement in Older Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Ennis, Gilda E.; Hess, Thomas M.; Smith, Brian T

    2013-01-01

    We examined age differences in the effort required to perform the basic cognitive operations needed to achieve a specified objective outcome and how hypothesized increases in effort requirements in later life are related to intrinsic motivation associated with enjoyment of and participation in effortful cognitive activities. Young (N = 59; 20–40 years) and older (N = 57; 64–85 years) adults performed a memory-search task varying in difficulty across trials, with systolic blood pressure respon...

  10. Reassessing the Impact of Smoking on Preeclampsia/Eclampsia: Are There Age and Racial Differences?

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jen Jen; Strauss, Jerome F.; Deshazo, Jon P.; Rigby, Fidelma B.; Chelmow, David P; Macones, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between cigarette use during pregnancy and pregnancy-induced hypertension/preeclampsia/eclampsia (PIH) by maternal race/ethnicity and age. Methods This retrospective cohort study was based on the U.S. 2010 natality data. Our study sample included U.S. women who delivered singleton pregnancies between 20 and 44 weeks of gestation without major fetal anomalies in 2010 (n = 3,113,164). Multivariate logistic regression models were fit to estimate crude and...

  11. Skin aging modulates percutaneous drug absorption: the impact of ultraviolet irradiation and ovariectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, Chi-Feng; Chen, Wei-Yu; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A.; Lin, Yin-Ku; Shih, Hui-Chi; Fang, Jia-you

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) exposure and menopause are known as the inducers of damage to the skin structure. The combination of these two factors accelerates the skin aging process. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of UV and ovariectomy (OVX) on the permeation of drugs through the skin. The role of tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs) in the cutaneous absorption of extremely lipophilic permeants and macromolecules was explored. The OVX nude mouse underwent bilateral ovary...

  12. Traditional folk event with national importance: The impact of visitors’ age

    OpenAIRE

    Petra Solarová; Roman Švec

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the cultural tourism, this paper focuses on the traditional folk event with national importance that is held in the Czech Republic and its name is Porta. The aim is to assess characteristic traits and satisfaction of two age categories of Porta´s visitors. Through the realised research among visitors, the importance of segmentation was proved. Hence, it is crucial to focus on getting to know the visitors and their motivation. In addition to that, cultural events ...

  13. The Impact of Age and Sex on the Refusal Strategies Used by Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Shahpouri Arani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One major problem for non-native speakers is using refusals and because of this, second language teachers and others who communicate in that language should have the cultural differences in mind. When the interlocutors say “no” to a request or invitation, either directly or indirectly, they use speech act of refusal.  Refusal is considered a face threatening act, as there exists a kind of contradiction in it and is always realized indirectly. Thus, a high level of pragmatic competence is needed to realize it. The aim of this study is to find out whether the age and sex of Iranian learners have any effect on their used refusal strategies and if the existence of such an effect was demonstrated which group is more native like in terms of content and form of used strategies. To achieve this end, graduated students (male/female of different age, sex and different fields of study were selected. Three groups of participants participated in this study. The first group includes 30 American English Speakers (A.E.S. The second group consists of participants whose ages were between 22-29 and the third group was a group of 30 participants of both sexes who speak English as a second language (sex is the only variable under study in this group. Using a Discourse Completion Test (DCT, a number of refusal situations were collected, responded by participants and analyzed. The results revealed that the age and sex of EFL learners does not have any significant effect on using refusal strategies.  Keywords: Speech Act, Refusal, Pragmatic Competence

  14. Impact of structural aging on seismic risk assessment of reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Structural Aging Program is addressing the potential for degradation of concrete structural components and systems in nuclear power plants over time due to aging and aggressive environmental stressors. Structures are passive under normal operating conditions but play a key role in mitigating design-basis events, particularly those arising from external challenges such as earthquakes, extreme winds, fires and floods. Structures are plant-specific and unique, often are difficult to inspect, and are virtually impossible to replace. The importance of structural failures in accident mitigation is amplified because such failures may lead to common-cause failures of other components. Structural condition assessment and service life prediction must focus on a few critical components and systems within the plant. Components and systems that are dominant contributors to risk and that require particular attention can be identified through the mathematical formalism of a probabilistic risk assessment, or PRA. To illustrate, the role of structural degradation due to aging on plant risk is examined through the framework of a Level 1 seismic PRA of a nuclear power plant. Plausible mechanisms of structural degradation are found to increase the core damage probability by approximately a factor of two

  15. Impact of Donor Age, Gender and Handling Time on the DNA Concentration Left on Different Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Gršković

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: We analyzed the correlation between several factors (donor age and gender, and handling time and trace DNA concentration that participants left on different surfaces (paper, plastic, plastic coated metal while holding items in their hands or rubbing them with their fingers, their palms, and the side of the palm of the dominant hand. Material and Methods: Sixty participants took part in the study. Items were swabbed with a moistened cotton swab. DNA was isolated using the Chelex procedure and quantified by real-time PCR. Results: We found that DNA concentration transferred to an item was independent of the handling time. On the contrary, it was dependent on the item’s texture; the greatest concentration was left on plastic coated metal (PCM and the least on paper. The greatest concentration of trace DNA was left by participants from 35 to 44 years of age. Results of the study showed that men deposit a higher DNA concentration than do women. Conclusion: Item texture, donor age, and gender influence trace DNA concentration. Further investigations are necessary to fully understand the process of DNA transfer from donors to handled items.

  16. Social-Ecological Innovation in Purposeful Organizations: Implications & Impacts in an Age of Wicked Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Blahova, Michaela

    and profit alike. As such socially equitable, ecologically sensitive, and economically sound enterprise strategy that can be translated into socially responsible, environmentally neutral or positive, and financially profitable performance and impact is a critical weapon of wicked warfare. A clear......-ecological innovation that also delivers positive economic impact. Models for social-ecological innovation (SEI) and sustainable enterprise excellence, resilience and robustness (SEER2) are briefly presented prior to their deeper consideration within organizational contexts and in light of wicked global challenges that...... contributions are presented along with a roadmap for their use. Successful application of these tools hold the potential to render an enterprise sustainable, excellent, resilient, robust and responsible at economic, societal, and ecological levels....

  17. A social work study on the impact of age, gender and residential status on drug addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Iravani; Karam Allah Javanmard; Shahram Basity; Faezeh Taghipour; Hajar Jannesari

    2013-01-01

    During the past few years, there have been growing interests on intellectual capital due to industrial changes on the market. Thus, identifying different ways to create, manage, and evaluate the impact of intellectual capital has remained an open area of research. One of the most important organizational capabilities, which could help organizations create and share knowledge is to effectively use knowledge to create competitive advantage. The primary objective of this study is to investigate ...

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of Enterococcus faecalis in Response to Alkaline Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran eshujun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available E. faecalis is the most commonly isolated species from endodontic failure root canals; its persistence in treated root canals has been attributed to its ability to resist high pH stress. The goal of this study was to characterize the E. faecalis transcriptome and to identify candidate genes for response and resistance to alkaline stress using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing.We found that E. faecalis could survive and form biofilms in a pH 10 environment and that alkaline stress had a great impact on the transcription of many genes in the E. faecalis genome. The transcriptome sequencing results revealed that 613 genes were differentially expressed (DEGs for E. faecalis grown in pH 10 medium; 211 genes were found to be differentially up-regulated and 402 genes differentially down-regulated. Many of the down-regulated genes found are involved in cell energy production and metabolism and carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and the up-regulated genes are mostly related to nucleotide transport and metabolism. The results presented here reveal that cultivation of E. faecalis in alkaline stress has a profound impact on its transcriptome. The observed regulation of genes and pathways revealed that E. faecalis reduced its carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and increased nucleotide synthesis to adapt and grow in alkaline stress. A number of the regulated genes may be useful candidates for the development of new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of E. faecalis infections.

  19. The impact of healthy ageing on dual task performance using a novel dual task paradigm: Implications for clinical use in Alzheimer’s disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Sotiriou, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Primary objective: To explore the impact of healthy ageing on dual tasking abilities using a novel dual task paradigm and to consider any clinical implications in aiding the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Secondary objective: To contribute to the theoretical understanding of the central executive. Research design: A cross-sectional research design was implemented to determine the impact of age on dual task performance using healthy participants. A correlational rese...

  20. An overview of indoor air quality and its impact on respiratory health among Malaysian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Chua Poh; Jalaludin, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The indoor environment is a major source of human exposure to pollutants. Some pollutants can have concentrations that are several times higher indoors than outdoors. Prolonged exposure may lead to adverse biologic effects, even at low concentrations. Several studies done in Malaysia had underlined the role of indoor air pollution in affecting respiratory health, especially for school-aged children. A critical review was conducted on the quantitative literature linking indoor air pollution with respiratory illnesses among school-aged children. This paper reviews evidence of the association between indoor air quality (IAQ) and its implications on respiratory health among Malaysian school-aged children. This review summarizes six relevant studies conducted in Malaysia for the past 10 years. Previous epidemiologic studies relevant to indoor air pollutants and their implications on school-aged children's respiratory health were obtained from electronic database and included as a reference in this review. The existing reviewed data emphasize the impact of IAQ parameters, namely, indoor temperature, ventilation rates, indoor concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matters (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and airborne microbes, on children's respiratory health. The study found that most of the Malaysian school-aged children are exposed to the inadequate environment during their times spent either in their houses or in their classrooms, which is not in compliance with the established standards. Children living in households or studying in schools in urban areas are more likely to suffer from respiratory illnesses compared with children living in homes or studying in schools in rural areas. PMID:25411980

  1. Impact of Long-Term Endurance Training vs. Guideline-Based Physical Activity on Brain Structure in Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Katelyn N; Nikolov, Robert; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Brain structure is a fundamental determinant of brain function, both of which decline with age in the adult. Whereas short-term exercise improves brain size in older adults, the impact of endurance training on brain structure when initiated early and sustained throughout life, remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that long-term competitive aerobic training enhances cortical and subcortical mass compared to middle to older-aged healthy adults who adhere to the minimum physical activity guidelines. Observations were made in 16 masters athletes (MA; 53 ± 6 years, VO2max = 55 ± 10 ml/kg/min, training > 15 years), and 16 active, healthy, and cognitively intact subjects (HA; 58 ± 9 years, VO2max = 38 ± 7 ml/kg/min). T1-weighted structural acquisition at 3T enabled quantification of cortical thickness and subcortical gray and white matter volumes. Cardiorespiratory fitness correlated strongly with whole-brain cortical thickness. Subcortical volumetric mass at the lateral ventricles, R hippocampus, R amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex, correlated with age but not fitness. In a region-of-interest (ROI) group-based analysis, MA expressed greater cortical thickness in the medial prefrontal cortex, pre and postcentral gyri, and insula. There was no effect of group on the rate of age-related cortical or subcortical decline. The current data suggest that lifelong endurance training that produces high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, builds cortical reserve early in life, and sustains this benefit over the 40-70 year age span. This reserve likely has important implications for neurological health later in life. PMID:27445798

  2. The impact of ovariectomy on calcium homeostasis and myofilament calcium sensitivity in the aging mouse heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Fares

    Full Text Available This study determined whether deficiency of ovarian estrogen starting very early in life promoted age-associated Ca(2+ dysregulation and contractile dysfunction in isolated ventricular myocytes. Myocytes were isolated from anesthetized C57BL/6 female mice. Animals received an ovariectomy or sham-operation at one month and were aged to ~24 months. Excitation-contraction coupling parameters were compared in fura-2 loaded myocytes (37°C. While Ca(2+ transients were larger and faster in field-stimulated myocytes from ovariectomized mice, ovariectomy had no effect on peak fractional shortening. Similarly, ovariectomy had no effect on fractional shortening measured in vivo by echocardiography (values were 60.5 ± 2.9 vs. 60.3 ± 2.5% in sham and ovariectomized, respectively; n=5 mice/group. Ovariectomy did decrease myofilament Ca(2+ sensitivity, as evidenced by a 26% increase in the Ca(2+ required to activate actomyosin MgATPase in ovariectomized hearts. Larger Ca(2+ transients were attributable to a 48% increase in peak Ca(2+ current, along with an increase in the amplitude, width and frequency of Ca(2+ sparks measured in fluo-4 loaded myocytes. These changes in Ca(2+ handling were not due to increased expression of Ca(2+ channels (Cav1.2, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+ ATPase (SERCA2 or Na(+-Ca(2+ exchanger in ovariectomized hearts. However, ovariectomy increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+ stores by ~90% and promoted spontaneous Ca(2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum when compared to sham controls. These observations demonstrate that long-term ovariectomy promotes intracellular Ca(2+ dysregulation, reduces myofilament Ca(2+ sensitivity and increases spontaneous Ca(2+ release in the aging female heart.

  3. The impact of repeated marathon running on cardiovascular function in the aging population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlstedt Erin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have correlated elevations in cardiac biomarkers of injury post marathon with transient and reversible right ventricular (RV systolic dysfunction as assessed by both transthoracic echocardiography (TTE and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. Whether or not permanent myocardial injury occurs due to repeated marathon running in the aging population remains controversial. Objectives To assess the extent and severity of cardiac dysfunction after the completion of full marathon running in individuals greater than 50 years of age using cardiac biomarkers, TTE, cardiac computed tomography (CCT, and CMR. Methods A total of 25 healthy volunteers (21 males, 55 ± 4 years old from the 2010 and 2011 Manitoba Full Marathons (26.2 miles were included in the study. Cardiac biomarkers and TTE were performed one week prior to the marathon, immediately after completing the race and at one-week follow-up. CMR was performed at baseline and within 24 hours of completion of the marathon, followed by CCT within 3 months of the marathon. Results All participants demonstrated an elevated cTnT post marathon. Right atrial and ventricular volumes increased, while RV systolic function decreased significantly immediately post marathon, returning to baseline values one week later. Of the entire study population, only two individuals demonstrated late gadolinium enhancement of the subendocardium in the anterior wall of the left ventricle, with evidence of stenosis of the left anterior descending artery on CCT. Conclusions Marathon running in individuals over the age of 50 is associated with a transient, yet reversible increase in cardiac biomarkers and RV systolic dysfunction. The presence of myocardial fibrosis in older marathon athletes is infrequent, but when present, may be due to underlying occult coronary artery disease.

  4. Age-related changes in attentional control across adolescence: how does this impact emotion regulation capacities?

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen Kadosh, Kathrin; Heathcote, Lauren C.; Jennifer Y.F. Lau

    2014-01-01

    This study set out to establish the novel use of the go/no-go Overlap task for investigating the role of attentional control capacities in the processing of emotional expressions across different age-groups within adolescence: at the onset of adolescence (11–12 year-olds) and toward the end of adolescence (17–18 year-olds). We also looked at how attentional control in the processing of fearful, happy, and neutral expressions relates to individual differences in trait anxiety in these adolesce...

  5. Age-related changes in attentional control across adolescence: How does this impact emotion regulation capacities?

    OpenAIRE

    KathrinCohen Kadosh; JenniferY FLau

    2014-01-01

    This study set out to establish the use of a novel task, the go/no-go Overlap task, for investigating the role of attentional control capacities in the processing of emotional expressions across different age-groups within adolescence: at the onset of adolescence (11-12 year-olds) and towards the end of adolescence (17-18 year-olds). We also looked at how attentional control in the processing of fearful, happy, and neutral expressions relates to individual differences in trait anxiety in thes...

  6. The impact of the Little Ice Age on Danish warfare in the 17th century

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Caspar le Fevre

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to analyze in what way the Little Ice Age, a colder climatic period between around 1300-1850, affected the development of the modern Danish state. This is though too large a scope for a single thesis and the wars between 1550-1750 have been chosen as an area of focus. These wars changed the geopolitical position of Denmark in the Nordic area, from a strong nation to a minor player. The worst outcome came, as Denmark lost all processions east of the Sound Strait to i...

  7. Age of second language acquisition in multilinguals has an impact on gray matter volume in language-associated brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Anelis; Eppenberger, Leila S; Smieskova, Renata; Borgwardt, Stefan; Kuenzli, Esther; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Nitsch, Cordula; Bendfeldt, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Numerous structural studies have established that experience shapes and reshapes the brain throughout a lifetime. The impact of early development, however, is still a matter of debate. Further clues may come from studying multilinguals who acquired their second language at different ages. We investigated adult multilinguals who spoke three languages fluently, where the third language was learned in classroom settings, not before the age of 9 years. Multilinguals exposed to two languages simultaneously from birth (SiM) were contrasted with multinguals who acquired their first two languages successively (SuM). Whole brain voxel based morphometry revealed that, relative to SuM, SiM have significantly lower gray matter volume in several language-associated cortical areas in both hemispheres: bilaterally in medial and inferior frontal gyrus, in the right medial temporal gyrus and inferior posterior parietal gyrus, as well as in the left inferior temporal gyrus. Thus, as shown by others, successive language learning increases the volume of language-associated cortical areas. In brains exposed early on and simultaneously to more than one language, however, learning of additional languages seems to have less impact. We conclude that - at least with respect to language acquisition - early developmental influences are maintained and have an effect on experience-dependent plasticity well into adulthood. PMID:26106338

  8. Normative perceptual estimates for 91 healthy subjects age 60-75: impact of age, education, employment, physical exercise, alcohol, and video gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, Inge L; Nielsen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Visual perception serves as the basis for much of the higher level cognitive processing as well as human activity in general. Here we present normative estimates for the following components of visual perception: the visual perceptual threshold, the visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity and the visual perceptual encoding/decoding speed (processing speed) of VSTM based on an assessment of 91 healthy subjects aged 60-75. The estimates were modeled from input from a whole-report assessment based on a theory of visual attention. In addition to the estimates themselves, we present correlational data, and multiple regression analyses between the estimates and self-reported demographic data and lifestyle variables. The regression statistics suggest that education level, video gaming activity, and employment status may significantly impact the encoding/decoding speed of VTSM but not the capacity of VSTM nor the visual perceptual threshold. The estimates will be useful for future studies into the effects of various types of intervention and training on cognition in general and visual attention in particular. PMID:25339932

  9. Transcriptomics and disease vector control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranson Hilary

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Next-generation sequencing can be used to compare transcriptomes under different conditions. A study in BMC Genomics applies this approach to investigating the effects of exposure to a range of xenobiotics on changes in gene expression in the larvae of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue fever. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/11/216

  10. Transcriptomic changes in brain development

    OpenAIRE

    Dillman, Allissa A.; Cookson, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    The transcriptome changes hugely during development of the brain. Whole genes, alternate exons and single base pair changes related to RNA editing all show differences between embryonic and mature brain. Collectively, these changes control proteomic diversity as the brain develops. Additionally, there are many changes in non-coding RNAs (miRNA and lncRNA) that interact with mRNA to influence the overall transcriptional landscape. Here we will discuss what is known about such changes in brain ...

  11. Tricks to translating TB transcriptomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffur, Armin; Wilkinson, Robert J; Coussens, Anna K

    2015-05-01

    Transcriptomics and other high-throughput methods are increasingly applied to questions relating to tuberculosis (TB) pathogenesis. Whole blood transcriptomics has repeatedly been applied to define correlates of TB risk and has produced new insight into the late stage of disease pathogenesis. In a novel approach, authors of a recently published study in Science Translational Medicine applied complex data analysis of existing TB transcriptomic datasets, and in vitro models, in an attempt to identify correlates of protection in TB, which are crucially required for the development of novel TB diagnostics and therapeutics to halt this global epidemic. Utilizing latent TB infection (LTBI) as a surrogate of protection, they identified IL-32 as a mediator of interferon gamma (IFNγ)-vitamin D dependent antimicrobial immunity and a marker of LTBI. Here, we provide a review of all TB whole-blood transcriptomic studies to date in the context of identifying correlates of protection, discuss potential pitfalls of combining complex analyses originating from such studies, the importance of detailed metadata to interpret differential patient classification algorithms, the effect of differing circulating cell populations between patient groups on the interpretation of resulting biomarkers and we decipher weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), a recently developed systems biology tool which holds promise of identifying novel pathway interactions in disease pathogenesis. In conclusion, we propose the development of an integrated OMICS platform and open access to detailed metadata, in order for the TB research community to leverage the vast array of OMICS data being generated with the aim of unraveling the holy grail of TB research: correlates of protection. PMID:26046091

  12. Microstructural and compositional contributions towards the mechanical behavior of aging human bone measured by cyclic and impact reference point indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Adam C; Agarwalla, Avinesh; Yadavalli, Aditya; Liu, Jenny Y; Tang, Simon Y

    2016-06-01

    The assessment of fracture risk often relies primarily on measuring bone mineral density, thereby accounting for only a single pathology: the loss of bone mass. However, bone's ability to resist fracture is a result of its biphasic composition and hierarchical structure that imbue it with high strength and toughness. Reference point indentation (RPI) testing is designed to directly probe bone mechanical behavior at the microscale in situ, although it remains unclear which aspects of bone composition and structure influence the results at this scale. Therefore, our goal in this study was to investigate factors that contribute to bone mechanical behavior measured by cyclic reference point indentation, impact reference point indentation, and three-point bending. Twenty-eight female cadavers (ages 57-97) were subjected to cyclic and impact RPI in parallel at the unmodified tibia mid-diaphysis. After RPI, the middiaphyseal tibiae were removed, scanned using micro-CT to obtain cortical porosity (Ct.Po.) and tissue mineral density (TMD), then tested using three-point bending, and lastly assayed for the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Both the indentation distance increase from cyclic RPI (IDI) and bone material strength index from impact RPI (BMSi) were significantly correlated with TMD (r=-0.390, p=0.006; r=0.430, p=0.002; respectively). Accumulation of AGEs was significantly correlated with IDI (r=0.281, p=0.046), creep indentation distance (CID, r=0.396, p=0.004), and BMSi (r=-0.613, p<0.001). There were no significant relationships between tissue TMD or AGEs accumulation with the quasi-static material properties. Toughness decreased with increasing tissue Ct.Po. (r=-0.621, p<0.001). Other three-point bending measures also correlated with tissue Ct.Po. including the bending modulus (r=-0.50, p<0.001) and ultimate stress (r=-0.56, p<0.001). The effects of Ct.Po. on indentation were less pronounced with IDI (r=0.290, p=0.043) and BMSi (r=-0.299, p

  13. The impact of obesity on skeletal muscle strength and structure through adolescence to old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, D J; Erskine, R M; Morse, C I; Winwood, K; Onambélé-Pearson, Gladys

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is associated with functional limitations in muscle performance and increased likelihood of developing a functional disability such as mobility, strength, postural and dynamic balance limitations. The consensus is that obese individuals, regardless of age, have a greater absolute maximum muscle strength compared to non-obese persons, suggesting that increased adiposity acts as a chronic overload stimulus on the antigravity muscles (e.g., quadriceps and calf), thus increasing muscle size and strength. However, when maximum muscular strength is normalised to body mass, obese individuals appear weaker. This relative weakness may be caused by reduced mobility, neural adaptations and changes in muscle morphology. Discrepancies in the literature remain for maximal strength normalised to muscle mass (muscle quality) and can potentially be explained through accounting for the measurement protocol contributing to muscle strength capacity that need to be explored in more depth such as antagonist muscle co-activation, muscle architecture, a criterion valid measurement of muscle size and an accurate measurement of physical activity levels. Current evidence demonstrating the effect of obesity on muscle quality is limited. These factors not being recorded in some of the existing literature suggest a potential underestimation of muscle force either in terms of absolute force production or relative to muscle mass; thus the true effect of obesity upon skeletal muscle size, structure and function, including any interactions with ageing effects, remains to be elucidated. PMID:26667010

  14. Microstructure evolution and impact fracture behaviors of Z3CN20-09M stainless steels after long-term thermal aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Z3CN20-09M steels of primary circuit piping in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant were studied on the microstructure evolution and fracture behaviors after thermal aging at 400 °C for up to 20,000 h. The impact toughness of aged materials decreases a lot with aging time, and the impact fracture features change from ductile dimples into brittle cleavages in ferrite and tearing in austenite. Nano-indentation tests indicate that hardness in ferrite continuously increases with aging time. After long-term aging, ferrite decomposes into coherent Cr-rich and Fe-rich domains, and extensive G-phases precipitate homogeneously in ferrite, but no precipitate in austenite. Spinodal decomposition in ferrite leads to the thermal aging embrittlement in CASS. G-phase, with the Fm-3m space group and the lattice parameter of 1.14 nm, adopts a cube-on-cube orientation relationship with the ferrite matrix

  15. Microstructure evolution and impact fracture behaviors of Z3CN20-09M stainless steels after long-term thermal aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.L.; Wang, Y.L.; Zhang, H.L.; Li, S.X.; Zheng, K. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Xue, F. [China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group, Shenzhen 518028 (China); Wang, X.T., E-mail: xtwang@ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2013-02-15

    Z3CN20-09M steels of primary circuit piping in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant were studied on the microstructure evolution and fracture behaviors after thermal aging at 400 °C for up to 20,000 h. The impact toughness of aged materials decreases a lot with aging time, and the impact fracture features change from ductile dimples into brittle cleavages in ferrite and tearing in austenite. Nano-indentation tests indicate that hardness in ferrite continuously increases with aging time. After long-term aging, ferrite decomposes into coherent Cr-rich and Fe-rich domains, and extensive G-phases precipitate homogeneously in ferrite, but no precipitate in austenite. Spinodal decomposition in ferrite leads to the thermal aging embrittlement in CASS. G-phase, with the Fm-3m space group and the lattice parameter of 1.14 nm, adopts a cube-on-cube orientation relationship with the ferrite matrix.

  16. Microstructure evolution and impact fracture behaviors of Z3CN20-09M stainless steels after long-term thermal aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S. L.; Wang, Y. L.; Zhang, H. L.; Li, S. X.; Zheng, K.; Xue, F.; Wang, X. T.

    2013-02-01

    Z3CN20-09M steels of primary circuit piping in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant were studied on the microstructure evolution and fracture behaviors after thermal aging at 400 °C for up to 20,000 h. The impact toughness of aged materials decreases a lot with aging time, and the impact fracture features change from ductile dimples into brittle cleavages in ferrite and tearing in austenite. Nano-indentation tests indicate that hardness in ferrite continuously increases with aging time. After long-term aging, ferrite decomposes into coherent Cr-rich and Fe-rich domains, and extensive G-phases precipitate homogeneously in ferrite, but no precipitate in austenite. Spinodal decomposition in ferrite leads to the thermal aging embrittlement in CASS. G-phase, with the Fm-3m space group and the lattice parameter of 1.14 nm, adopts a cube-on-cube orientation relationship with the ferrite matrix.

  17. Impact of Hearing Loss on Daily Life Style and Schooling among Children between 5 and 15 Years Age-Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiteshree C Patel, Mohua Moitra, Anjali Modi, Jaymin Contractor, S L Kantharia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: “Hearing”- one of the five special senses with which a human is gifted. At times, due to variety of reasons, this sense is impaired. Hearing impairment of any degree has a profound effect on children. It delays development of speech, slows educational progress and leads to being stigmatized. Objectives: To document the impact of hearing loss in daily life style and schooling of children between 5 and 15 years age-group. Materials & methods: This was cross- sectional study done in Children between 5 and 15 years age-group with hearing loss, coming to an ENT OPD, New Civil Hospital, Surat during the period of 1st August 2011 to 31 July 2012. Results: A total of 246 children were studied. Mean age of the study population was 9±3.46 years. Most common impactin life of children with hearing loss was that “they were not admitted to school by their parents” (31.3%. Among them, 84.4% had congenital deafness and 15.6% had acquired deafness. This difference was statistically significant. (p= 0.002, x2= 8.63. As per parents’ perception, academic performance of the children was significantly associated with type of school (normal Vs deaf & mute school” (p< 0.001. Conclusion: Most common impact was that “children being not admitted to school” and “children were lagging behind in studies”. Among the congenitally deaf children, the quality of life was significantly better in those who attended these special schools (p<0.001.

  18. The Impact of Maternal Age, Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index Weight Gain and Parity on Glucose Challenge Test (GCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoshirvan Kazemnejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM complicates 3-7% of all pregnancies and feto-maternal outcomes are strongly related to early diagnosis of GDM. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of risk factors in the prediction of an abnormal glucose challenge test (GCT.Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study conducted during 2009-2010 in two prenatal clinics in Rey, Iran. A total of 711 pregnant women who were in their first trimester of pregnancy and met the inclusion criteria were selected. The women were observed once every other week until 24-28 weeks of gestation. All patients at 24-28 weeks of gestation were screened with 50 g oral glucose GCT. The effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, maternal age, and weight gain until the time of GCT, and parity on abnormal GCT were evaluated. All confident intervals were calculated at the 95% level. Data was analyzed using student’s t test and the logistic regression test.Results: Maternal age (p<0.001, pre-pregnancy BMI (p<0.00, parity (p=0.05 and weight gain during pregnancy (p=0.05, were significantly higher in women with abnormal GCT compared to women who had normal GCT. Logistic regression analyses confirmed that pre-pregnancy BMI (OR=1.09, maternal age (OR=1.14, and weight gain during pregnancy (OR=1.13 were associated with abnormal GCT.Conclusion: Weight gain had a profound impact on the prevalence of abnormal GCT in our population. Therefore, we propose that pregnant women should only gain the recommended amount of weight during pregnancy.

  19. Impact of obesity on glucose and lipid profiles in adolescents at different age groups in relation to adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plourde Gilles

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As obesity is rapidly becoming a major medical and public health problem, the aim of our study was to determine: 1 if obesity in Caucasian adolescents at 5 different Tanner stages are associated with obesity in adulthood and its obesity-associated abnormal glucose and lipid profiles, 2 the type of fat distribution is associated with glucose and lipid profile abnormalities, and 3 the risk level and the age of appearance of these abnormalities. Methods For the first study, data analyses were from a case-control study of adolescents classified according to their BMI; a BMI ≥ 85th percentile for age and sex as overweight, and those with a BMI ≥ 95th percentile as obese. Subjects with a BMI th percentile were classified as controls. WC:AC ratio of waist circumference to arm circumference was used as an indicator of a central pattern of adiposity. Two other indices of central adiposity were calculated from skinfolds: Central-peripheral (CPR as subscapular skinfold + suprailliac skinfold/ (triceps skinfold + thigh skinfold and ratio of subscapular to triceps skinfold (STR. The sum of the four skinfolds (SUM was calculated from triceps, subscapular, suprailliac and thigh skinfolds. SUM provides a single measure of subcutaneous adiposity. Representative adult subjects were used for comparison. Glucose and lipid profiles were also determined in these subjects. Abnormal glucose and lipid profiles were determined as being those with fasting glucose ≥ 6.1 mmol/l and lipid values ≥ 85th percentile adjusted for age and sex, respectively. Prevalence and odds ratio analysis were used to determine the impact of obesity on glucose and lipid profiles at each Tanner stages for both sexes. Correlation coefficient analyses were used to determine the association between glucose and lipid profiles and anthropometric measurements for both sexes. The second study evaluated in a retrospective-prospective longitudinal way if: 1 obesity in

  20. Seasonal fluxes and age of particulate organic carbon exported from Arctic catchments impacted by localized permafrost slope disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Projected warming is expected to alter the Arctic permafrost regime with potential impacts on hydrological fluxes of particulate organic carbon (POC) and sediment. Previous work has focused on large Arctic basins and revealed the important contribution of old carbon in river POC, but little is known about POC fluxes from smaller coastal watersheds, particularly where widespread postglacial raised marine sediments represent a potential source of old soil carbon that could be mobilized by permafrost disturbance. To evaluate these processes, the characteristics of POC, particulate nitrogen (PN) and suspended sediment transport from paired small coastal Arctic watersheds subject to recent permafrost disturbance were investigated at the Cape Bounty Arctic Watershed Observatory (CBAWO) in the Canadian High Arctic. Approximately 2% of the total suspended sediment load from both watersheds was composed of POC and the majority of the sediment and POC fluxes occurred during the spring snowmelt period. Radiocarbon analysis of POC indicates recent permafrost disturbances deliver substantially older POC to the aquatic system. Localized permafrost slope disturbances have a measurable influence on downstream POC age and dominate (estimated up to 78% of POC) sediment fluxes during summer baseflow. The elevation of disturbances and Holocene emergence data show limited age sensitivity of POC to the location of disturbance and suggest slope failures are likely to deliver carbon with a relatively similar age range to the aquatic system, regardless of landscape location. (paper)

  1. Are We There Yet? Exploring the Impact of Translating Cognitive Tests for Dementia Using Mobile Technology in an Aging Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Kai; Maguire, Áine; Andrews, Jack L; Martin, Eric; Menon, Shantanu

    2016-01-01

    This study examines implications of the expanded use of mobile platforms in testing cognitive function, and generates evidence on the impact utilizing mobile platforms for dementia screen. The Saint Louis University Mental State examination (SLUMS) was ported onto a computerized mobile application named the Cambridge University Pen to Digital Equivalence assessment (CUPDE). CUPDE was piloted and compared to the traditional pen and paper version, with a common comparator test for both groups. Sixty healthy participants (aged 50-79) completed both measurements. Differences were tested between overall outcomes, individual items, and relationship with the comparator. Significant differences in the overall scores between the two testing versions as well as within individual items were observed. Even when groups were matched by cognitive function and age, scores on SLUMS original version (M = 19.75, SD = 3) were significantly higher than those on CUPDE (M = 15.88, SD = 3.5), t (15) = 3.02, p Mobile platforms require the development of new normative standards, even when items can be directly translated. Furthermore, these must fit aging populations with significant variance in familiarity with mobile technology. Greater understanding of the interplay and related mechanisms between auditory and visual systems, which are not well understood yet in the context of mobile technologies, is mandatory. PMID:27014053

  2. The Impact of Population Ageing on the Labour Market: Evidence from Overlapping Generations Computable General Equilibrium (OLG-CGE) Model of Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Lisenkova, Katerina; Mérette, Marcel; Wright, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic Overlapping Generations Computable General Equilibrium (OLG-CGE) model of Scotland. The model is used to examine the impact of population ageing on the labour market. More specifically, it is used to evaluate the effects of labour force decline and labour force ageing on key macro-economic variables. The second effect is assumed to operate through age-specific productivity and labour force participation. In the analysis, particular attention is paid to how popula...

  3. Traditional folk event with national importance: The impact of visitors’ age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Solarová

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the cultural tourism, this paper focuses on the traditional folk event with national importance that is held in the Czech Republic and its name is Porta. The aim is to assess characteristic traits and satisfaction of two age categories of Porta´s visitors. Through the realised research among visitors, the importance of segmentation was proved. Hence, it is crucial to focus on getting to know the visitors and their motivation. In addition to that, cultural events are also important for local government. According to the officials of local government, where this event is held, such events are able to attract visitors to the particular locality. However, they have only limited opportunities how to support these events (especially from the financial viewpoint.

  4. Stress before Puberty Exerts a Sex- and Age-Related Impact on Auditory and Contextual Fear Conditioning in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Toledo-Rodriguez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a period of major physical, hormonal, and psychological changes. It is also characterized by a significant increase in the incidence of psychopathologies and this increase is gender-specific. Stress during adolescence is associated with the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. In this study, we evaluated the impact of psychogenic stress (exposure to predator odor followed by placement on an elevated platform experienced before puberty (days 28–30 on fear memories and hormonal response of male and female rats during adolescence and early adulthood. Stress before puberty impacted in a sex- and age-specific way on the responses to auditory and contextual fear conditioning in adolescence and adulthood: (a increased conditioned fear to the tone in males during adolescence but not during adulthood; (b impaired extinction to the tone in adult males; and (c reduced freezing responses to the context in adolescent females. Stress before puberty did not influence the corticosterone levels 30 minutes after an additional stressor given in adulthood. These results indicate that stress experienced prior to puberty can exert a sex-related differential impact on fear-related behaviors displayed by individuals during late adolescence and early adulthood.

  5. Impact of age-related comorbidity on results of colorectal cancer surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Corrado Pedrazzani; Guido Cerullo; Giovanni De Marco; Daniele Marrelli; Alessandro Neri; Alfonso De Stefano; Enrico Pinto; Franco Roviello

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the correlation between preexisting comorbidity and other clinicopathological features, short-term surgical outcome and long-term survival in elderly patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: According to age, 403 patients operated on for CRC in our department were divided into group A (< 70 years old) and group B (≥ 70 years old) and analyzed statistically.RESULTS: Rectal localization prevailed in group A (31.6% vs 19.7%, P = 0.027), whereas the percentage of R0 resect ions was 77% in the two groups.Comorbidity rate was 46.2% and 69.1% for group A and B, respectively ( P < 0.001), with a huge difference as regards cardiovascular diseases. Overall, postoperative morbidity was 16.9% and 20.8% in group A and B,respectively ( P = 0.367), whereas mortality was limited to group B (4.5%, P = 0.001). In both groups, patients who suffered from postoperative complications had a higher overall comorbidity rate, with preexisting cardiovascular diseases prevailing in group B ( P = 0.003).Overall 5-year survival rate was significantly better for group A (75.2% vs 55%, P = 0.006), whereas no significant difference was observed considering diseasespecific survival (76.3% vs 76.9%, P = 0.674).CONCLUSION: In spite of an increase in postoperative mortality and a lower overall long-term survival for patients aged ≥ 70 years old, it should be considered that, even in the elderly group, a significant number of patients is alive 5 years after CRC resection.

  6. Silicon wafer wettability and aging behaviors: Impact on gold thin-film morphology

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, X. M.

    2014-10-01

    This paper reports on the wettability and aging behaviors of the silicon wafers that had been cleaned using a piranha (3:1 mixture of sulfuric acid (H2SO4, 96%) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O 2, 30%), 120 °C), SC1 (1:1:5 mixture of NH4OH, H 2O2 and H2O, at 80°C) or HF solution (6 parts of 40% NH4F and 1 part of 49% HF, at room temperature) solution, and treated with gaseous plasma. The silicon wafers cleaned using the piranha or SC1 solution were hydrophilic, and the water contact angles on the surfaces would increase along with aging time, until they reached the saturated points of around 70°. The contact angle increase rate of these wafers in a vacuum was much faster than that in the open air, because of loss of water, which was physically adsorbed on the wafer surfaces. The silicon wafers cleaned with the HF solution were hydrophobic. Their contact angle decreased in the atmosphere, while it increased in the vacuum up to 95°. Gold thin films deposited on the hydrophilic wafers were smoother than that deposited on the hydrophobic wafers, because the numerous oxygen groups formed on the hydrophilic surfaces would react with gold adatoms in the sputtering process to form a continuous thin film at the nucleation stage. The argon, nitrogen, oxygen gas plasma treatments could change the silicon wafer surfaces from hydrophobic to hydrophilic by creating a thin (around 2.5 nm) silicon dioxide film, which could be utilized to improve the roughness and adhesion of the gold thin film. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modelling the chemically aged and mixed aerosols over the eastern central Atlantic Ocean – potential impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Astitha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Detailed information on the chemical and physical properties of aerosols is important for assessing their role in air quality and climate. This work explores the origin and fate of continental aerosols transported over the Central Atlantic Ocean, in terms of chemical composition, number and size distribution, using chemistry-transport models, satellite data and in situ measurements. We focus on August 2005, a period with intense hurricane and tropical storm activity over the Atlantic Ocean. A mixture of anthropogenic (sulphates, nitrates, natural (desert dust, sea salt and chemically aged (sulphate and nitrate on dust aerosols is found entering the hurricane genesis region, most likely interacting with clouds in the area. Results from our modelling study suggest rather small amounts of accumulation mode desert dust, sea salt and chemically aged dust aerosols in this Atlantic Ocean region. Aerosols of smaller size (Aitken mode are more abundant in the area and in some occasions sulphates of anthropogenic origin and desert dust are of the same magnitude in terms of number concentrations. Typical aerosol number concentrations are derived for the vertical layers near shallow cloud formation regimes, indicating that the aerosol number concentration can reach several thousand particles per cubic centimetre. The vertical distribution of the aerosols shows that the desert dust particles are often transported near the top of the marine cloud layer as they enter into the region where deep convection is initiated. The anthropogenic sulphate aerosol can be transported within a thick layer and enter the cloud deck through multiple ways (from the top, the base of the cloud, and by entrainment. The sodium (sea salt related aerosol is mostly found below the cloud base. The results of this work may provide insights relevant for studies that consider aerosol influences on cloud processes and storm development in the Central Atlantic region.

  8. Chemically aged and mixed aerosols over the Central Atlantic Ocean – potential impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. C. Denier van der Gon

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Detailed information on the chemical and physical properties of aerosols is important for assessing their role in air quality and climate. This work explores the origin and fate of continental aerosols transported over the Central Atlantic Ocean, in terms of chemical composition, number and size distribution, using chemistry-transport models, satellite data and in situ measurements. We focus on August 2005, a period with intense hurricane and tropical storm activity over the Atlantic Ocean. A mixture of anthropogenic (sulphates, nitrates, natural (desert dust, sea salt and chemically aged (sulphate and nitrate on dust aerosols is found entering the hurricane genesis region, most likely interacting with clouds in the area. Results from our modelling study suggest rather small amounts of accumulation mode desert dust, sea salt and chemically aged dust aerosols in this Atlantic Ocean region. Aerosols of smaller size (Aitken mode are more abundant in the area and in some occasions sulphates of anthropogenic origin and desert dust are of the same magnitude in terms of number concentrations. Typical aerosol number concentrations are derived for the vertical layers near shallow cloud formation regimes, designating that the aerosol number concentration can reach several thousand particles per cubic centimetre. The vertical distribution of the aerosols indicates that the desert dust particles are often transported near the top of the marine cloud layer as they enter into the region where deep convection is initiated. The anthropogenic sulphate aerosol can be transported within a thick layer and enter the cloud deck through multiple ways (from the top, the base of the cloud and entrainment. The sodium (sea salt related aerosol is mostly found below the cloud base. The results of this work may provide insights relevant for studies that consider aerosol influences on cloud processes and storm development in the Central Atlantic region.

  9. Impact of interactive teaching on the efficient realization of objectives for children in early school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbona Xhemajli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Innovation of the practice of teaching through interactive models, new roles of teacher and student, and preference of the activity of the student in the learning process, are found in the basis of changes that is taking place in education in Kosovo. We are talking about actions that aim to improve the quality, durability and applicability of the knowledge that students acquire in school. So today, in all cycles of education, new teaching models are applied that determine the student as an active subject in the teaching process. Interactive teaching is recommended and implemented with significant uplift, because it is becoming a need of modern education, and part of the needs of teachers and students. The extent and quality of mastering the knowledge in a large extent depends on the way work is organized in class and therefore interactive teaching is a key factor to improve the efficiency and quality of learning. Interactive teaching influences a higher level of motivation in the classroom by developing the cooperation between the students and activates the responsibility of the students. They learn about the harmonization of positions, collective action, tolerance and modern communication using different sources of knowledge. In this paper we define the terms of interaction and interactive teaching and actualize a number of other issues related to interactive teaching in the early school age. Also, this paper presents only a part of the authentic results of the two studies combined, one of the results obtained by means of questionnaires given to teachers from nine schools in Kosovo and from the results of interviews conducted with professionists as a focus group. Results from the survey show that interactive learning methods are extensively covered by the school age. They are already very popular in professional environments or communities of teachers since practice proved their effectiveness.

  10. Transcriptome and Biochemical Analyses of Fungal Degradation of Wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien, Ming

    2009-03-14

    Lignocellulosic accounts for a large percentage of material that can be utilized for biofuels. The most costly part of lignocellulosic material processing is the initial hydrolysis of the wood which is needed to circumvent the lignin barrier and the crystallinity of cellulose. Enzymes will play an increased role in this conversion in that they potentially provide an alternative to costly and caustic high temperature and acid treatment. The increasing use of enzymes in biotechnology is facilitated by both continued improvements in enzyme technology but also in the discovery of new and novel enzymes. The present proposal is aimed at identifying the enzymes which are known to depolymerize woody biomass. Fundamental understanding of how nature gains access to cellulose and hemicellulose will impact all applications. Because fungi are the only known microbes capable of circumventing the lignin barrier, knowledge of the enzyme they use is of great potential for biofuel processing. Nature has evolved different fungal mechanisms for enzymatic hydrolysis of wood. Most notable are the white-rot fungi (wrf) and the brown-rot fungi (brf). This proposed research aims at determining the complete transcriptome of three wrf and two brf to determine the enzymes involved in lignocellulose degradation. The transcriptome work will be supported by enzyme characterization (and zymograms) and finally analysis of the lignin component to determine the mode of lignin modification. In this proposed research, we hypothesize that: 1) Determination of the complete transcriptome of closely related white and brown rot fungi will lead to knowledge of the relevant enzymes involved in wood degradation. 2) Knowledge of the extracellular transcriptome and the mechanism of wood decay can only be obtained if the products of the decay are known. As such, characterization of the lignin oxidation products will correlate the enzymes involved (obtained from the transcriptome) to the lignin oxidation products

  11. Staphylococcus aureus Transcriptome Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäder, Ulrike; Nicolas, Pierre; Depke, Maren;

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen that colonizes about 20% of the human population. Intriguingly, this Gram-positive bacterium can survive and thrive under a wide range of different conditions, both inside and outside the human body. Here, we investigated the transcriptional adaptation of S...... to their dependence on the RNA polymerase sigma factors SigA or SigB, and allow identification of new potential targets for several known transcription factors. In particular, this study revealed a relatively low abundance of antisense RNAs in S. aureus, where they overlap only 6% of the coding genes, and only 19...... antisense RNAs not co-transcribed with other genes were found. Promoter analysis and comparison with Bacillus subtilis links the small number of antisense RNAs to a less profound impact of alternative sigma factors in S. aureus. Furthermore, we revealed that Rho-dependent transcription termination...

  12. Altering endocannabinoid neurotransmission at critical developmental ages: impact on rodent emotionality and cognitive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Trezza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system shows functional activity from early stages of brain development: it plays an important role in fundamental developmental processes such as cell proliferation, migration and differentiation, thus shaping brain organization during pre- and postnatal life. Cannabis sativa preparations are among the illicit drugs most commonly used by young people, including pregnant women. The developing brain can be therefore exposed to cannabis preparations during two critical periods: first, in offspring of cannabis-using mothers through perinatal and/or prenatal exposure; second, in adolescent cannabis users during neural maturation. In the last decade, it has become clear that the endocannabinoid system critically modulates memory processing and emotional responses. Therefore, it is well possible that developmental exposure to cannabinoid compounds induces enduring changes in behaviors and neural processes belonging to the cognitive and emotional domains. We address this issue by focusing on rodent studies, in order to provide a framework for understanding the impact of cannabinoid exposure on the developing brain.

  13. Using Transcriptomics to Understand the Wheat Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important food crops in the world, and transcriptomics studies of this crop promise to reveal the expression dynamics of genes that control many agriculturally important traits. In this review of wheat transcriptomics research, the current status of tr...

  14. Skin aging modulates percutaneous drug absorption: the impact of ultraviolet irradiation and ovariectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chi-Feng; Chen, Wei-Yu; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Lin, Yin-Ku; Shih, Hui-Chi; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) exposure and menopause are known as the inducers of damage to the skin structure. The combination of these two factors accelerates the skin aging process. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of UV and ovariectomy (OVX) on the permeation of drugs through the skin. The role of tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs) in the cutaneous absorption of extremely lipophilic permeants and macromolecules was explored. The OVX nude mouse underwent bilateral ovary removal. Both UVA and UVB were employed to irradiate the skin. The physiological and biochemical changes of the skin structure were examined with focus on transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin color, immunohistochemistry, and mRNA levels of proteins. UVB and OVX increased TEWL, resulting in stratum corneum (SC) integrity disruption and dehydration. A hyperproliferative epidermis was produced by UVB. UVA caused a pale skin color tone due to keratinocyte apoptosis in the epidermis. E-cadherin and β-catenin showed a significant loss by both UVA and UVB. OVX downregulated the expression of filaggrin and involucrin. A further reduction was observed when UV and OVX were combined. The in vitro cutaneous absorption demonstrated that UV increased the skin permeation of tretinoin by about twofold. However, skin accumulation and flux of estradiol were not modified by photoaging. OVX basically revealed a negligible effect on altering the permeation of small permeants. OVX increased tretinoin uptake by the appendages from 1.36 to 3.52 μg/cm(2). A synergistic effect on tretinoin follicular uptake enhancement was observed for combined UV and OVX. However, the intervention of OVX to photoaged skin resulted in less macromolecule (dextran, molecular weight = 4 kDa) accumulation in the skin reservoir because of retarded partitioning into dry skin. The in vivo percutaneous absorption of lipophilic dye examined by confocal microscopy had indicated that the SC was still important to

  15. “Then She Looked at Me and Said – the Old Age!”: The Impact of Social Representations of Ageing on the Elderly People’s Chronic Illness Experience in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Mezinska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the impact of social representations of ageing, such as breakdown, inevitability of illnesses and unfitness, on chronic illness experience of elderly people in Latvia. The qualitative study is based on theoretical framework of symbolic interactionism and uses grounded theory methodology. The results of the study lead to the conclusion that in Latvia certain social representations of ageing have a negative impact on chronic illness experience of elderly people, decreasing health-related quality of life and hampering reception of required medical assistance, adaptation of environment to the needs of elderly people with chronic illnesses and successful incorporation of the chronic illness in the context of biography.

  16. Transcriptome sequencing goals, assembly, and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, Christopher W; Vogel, Heiko

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptome sequencing provides quick, direct access to the mRNA. With this information, one can design primers for PCR of thousands of different genes, SNP markers, probes for microarrays and qPCR, or just use the sequence data itself in comparative studies. Transcriptome sequencing, while getting cheaper, is still an expensive endeavor, with an examination of data quality and its assembly infrequently performed in depth. Here, we outline many of the important issues we think need consideration when starting a transcriptome sequencing project. We also walk the reader through a detailed analysis of an example transcriptome dataset, highlighting the importance of both within-dataset analysis and comparative inferences. Our hope is that with greater attention focused upon assessing assembly performance, advances in transcriptome assembly will increase as prices continue to drop and new technologies, such as Illumina sequencing, start to be used. PMID:22065435

  17. Social consequences of ethanol: Impact of age, stress, and prior history of ethanol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2015-09-01

    The adolescent period is associated with high significance of interactions with peers, high frequency of stressful situations, and high rates of alcohol use. At least two desired effects of alcohol that may contribute to heavy and problematic drinking during adolescence are its abilities to both facilitate interactions with peers and to alleviate anxiety, perhaps especially anxiety seen in social contexts. Ethanol-induced social facilitation can be seen using a simple model of adolescence in the rat, with normal adolescents, but not their more mature counterparts, demonstrating this ethanol-related social facilitation. Prior repeated stress induces expression of ethanol-induced social facilitation in adults and further enhances socially facilitating effects of ethanol among adolescent rats. In contrast, under normal circumstances, adolescent rats are less sensitive than adults to the social inhibition induced by higher ethanol doses and are insensitive to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol can be modified by prior stress or ethanol exposure at both ages. Shortly following repeated restraint or ethanol exposure, adolescents exhibit social anxiety-like behavior, indexed by reduced social preference, and enhanced sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol, indexed through ethanol-associated reinstatement of social preference in these adolescents. Repeated restraint, but not repeated ethanol, induces similar effects in adults as well, eliciting social anxiety-like behavior and increasing their sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of acute ethanol; the stressor also decreases sensitivity of adults to ethanol-induced social inhibition. The persisting consequences of early adolescent ethanol exposure differ from its immediate consequences, with males exposed early in adolescence, but not females or those exposed later in adolescence, showing social anxiety-like behavior when tested

  18. Older and colder: The impact of starspots on stellar masses, ages, and lithium during the pre-main sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Garrett

    2016-01-01

    Starspots are ubiquitously found on young, active stars on the pre-main sequence (pre-MS), and may cover up to ~50% of their surfaces, but their effects on early stellar evolution have never been fully explored. I study the impact of such extreme spot coverage on pre-MS stellar evolution by modifying an existing stellar evolution code to account for spot effects on both the surface boundary conditions and the transport of energy in the interior. I show that heavy spot coverage systematically increases the radii of young stars, while reducing their luminosity and average surface temperature. Such increased radii may underlie the well-known radius inflation of some young, active stars, while the decreased luminosity and effective temperature displace stars on the HR diagram, leading to systematic under-estimation of stellar masses by up to 2x, and of stellar ages by up to 10x, if spotted stars are interpreted with un-spotted isochrones. The inhomogeneous surfaces of spotted stars also distort the emission spectrum, and can thus explain the anomalous colors of the rapidly rotating K dwarfs of the Pleiades, a young open cluster. I further find that spots reduce the central temperature of stars, leading to a suppression of lithium burning during the pre-MS. As a result, pre-MS stars of equal mass but differing spot properties reach the zero-age main sequence with different surface lithium abundances. I show that this effect can account for the previously unexplained lithium abundance dispersions observed at fixed Teff in the Pleiades, and other young clusters.Synthesizing these results, I argue that the inclusion of spots, a prominent phenomenon on the pre-MS, can explain several outstanding mysteries associated with young stars: inflated radii, age spreads in young clusters, the anomalous colors of rapid rotators, and the lithium abundance dispersions in young star clusters. I discuss implications of under-estimated masses and ages for measuring age spreads in young

  19. Inefficient DNA Repair Is an Aging-Related Modifier of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepe, Sara; Milanese, Chiara; Gabriels, Sylvia; Derks, Kasper W J; Payan-Gomez, Cesar; van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Rijksen, Yvonne M A; Nigg, Alex L; Moreno, Sandra; Cerri, Silvia; Blandini, Fabio; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Mastroberardino, Pier G

    2016-05-31

    The underlying relation between Parkinson's disease (PD) etiopathology and its major risk factor, aging, is largely unknown. In light of the causative link between genome stability and aging, we investigate a possible nexus between DNA damage accumulation, aging, and PD by assessing aging-related DNA repair pathways in laboratory animal models and humans. We demonstrate that dermal fibroblasts from PD patients display flawed nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity and that Ercc1 mutant mice with mildly compromised NER exhibit typical PD-like pathological alterations, including decreased striatal dopaminergic innervation, increased phospho-synuclein levels, and defects in mitochondrial respiration. Ercc1 mouse mutants are also more sensitive to the prototypical PD toxin MPTP, and their transcriptomic landscape shares important similarities with that of PD patients. Our results demonstrate that specific defects in DNA repair impact the dopaminergic system and are associated with human PD pathology and might therefore constitute an age-related risk factor for PD. PMID:27210754

  20. Impact of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal meningitis in children up to two years of age in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indianara Maria Grando

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae on the morbidity and mortality from pneumococcal meningitis in children ≤ 2 years in Brazil, from 2007 to 2012. This is a descriptive study and ecological analysis using data from the Information System on Notifiable Diseases. Pre-vaccination (2007-2009 and post-vaccination (2011-2012 periods were defined to compare incidence rates and mortality. A total of 1,311 cases and 430 deaths were reported during the study period. Incidence decreased from 3.70/100,000 in 2007 to 1.84/100,000 in 2012, and mortality decreased from 1.30/100,000 to 0.40/100,000, or 50% and 69% respectively, with the greatest impact in the 6-11 month age group. This decrease in Pneumococcal meningitis morbidity and mortality rates two years after introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine suggests its effectiveness.

  1. Transcriptomic changes in brain development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Allissa A.; Cookson, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    The transcriptome changes hugely during development of the brain. Whole genes, alternate exons and single base pair changes related to RNA editing all show differences between embryonic and mature brain. Collectively, these changes control proteomic diversity as the brain develops. Additionally, there are many changes in non-coding RNAs (miRNA and lncRNA) that interact with mRNA to influence the overall transcriptional landscape. Here we will discuss what is known about such changes in brain development, particularly focussing on high throughput approaches and how those can be used to infer mechanisms by which gene expression is controlled in the brain as it matures. PMID:25172477

  2. Effect of high-impact aerobics and strength training on BMD in young women aged 20-35 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, M T C; Braun, W; Bassin, S L; Dutto, D; Pontello, A; Wong, N D; Spalding, T W; Arnaud, S B

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of a 12-month exercise intervention using either high-impact step aerobic exercise or moderate-intensity strength training on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) we studied 51 untrained women, aged 20-35 years, for this study. Whole body and heel and wrist aBMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Hologic or PIXI Lunar). Subjects were randomly assigned to: impact-loaded step aerobic exercise (SA, n=15), moderate-intensity lower body strength training (ST, n=16) or non-exercise control (CON, n=20). Data analysis only included those who completed 95% of each training routine and attended at least 80% of all sessions. Group differences in aBMD, leg press strength and urinary cross-link deoxypridinoline (μDPD) were analysed using analysis of variance. After a 12-month intervention, the SA elicited an increase in aBMD of the heel (4.4%, p<0.05) and leg press strength (15%, p<0.05), relative to baseline. Meanwhile, the ST showed an increase in leg press strength (48%, p<0.05) with no significant increase in aBMD at any measured site. Similar and unchanged μDPD was observed in all 3 groups at baseline, 6 and 12 months. In conclusion, a 12-month high-impact step aerobic exercise resulted in a significant increase in the heel aBMD in untrained young women, who complied with the exercise regimen. A moderate intensity strength training intervention of similar duration had no effect on aBMD although leg strength increased significantly. PMID:21165807

  3. Uptake and impact of vaccinating school age children against influenza during a season with circulation of drifted influenza A and B strains, England, 2014/15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebody, Richard G; Green, Helen K; Andrews, Nick; Boddington, Nicola L; Zhao, Hongxin; Yonova, Ivelina; Ellis, Joanna; Steinberger, Sophia; Donati, Matthew; Elliot, Alex J; Hughes, Helen E; Pathirannehelage, Sameera; Mullett, David; Smith, Gillian E; de Lusignan, Simon; Zambon, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The 2014/15 influenza season was the second season of roll-out of a live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) programme for healthy children in England. During this season, besides offering LAIV to all two to four year olds, several areas piloted vaccination of primary (4-11 years) and secondary (11-13 years) age children. Influenza A(H3N2) circulated, with strains genetically and antigenically distinct from the 2014/15 A(H3N2) vaccine strain, followed by a drifted B strain. We assessed the overall and indirect impact of vaccinating school age children, comparing cumulative disease incidence in targeted and non-targeted age groups in vaccine pilot to non-pilot areas. Uptake levels were 56.8% and 49.8% in primary and secondary school pilot areas respectively. In primary school age pilot areas, cumulative primary care influenza-like consultation, emergency department respiratory attendance, respiratory swab positivity, hospitalisation and excess respiratory mortality were consistently lower in targeted and non-targeted age groups, though less for adults and more severe end-points, compared with non-pilot areas. There was no significant reduction for excess all-cause mortality. Little impact was seen in secondary school age pilot only areas compared with non-pilot areas. Vaccination of healthy primary school age children resulted in population-level impact despite circulation of drifted A and B influenza strains. PMID:26537222

  4. Transcriptome analyzis of germinatiing maize kernels exposed to smoke-water and active compound KAR1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soós, V.; Sebestyén, E.; Juhász, A.; Light, M. E.; Kohout, Ladislav; Szalai, G.; Tandori, J.; van Staden, J.; Balázs, E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 236 (2010), s. 1-15. ISSN 1471-2229 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : smoke compound * transcriptome * KAR1 * butenolide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.085, year: 2010

  5. The application of RNA-seq to the comprehensive analysis of plant mitochondrial transcriptomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stone, James D.; Štorchová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 290, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-9. ISSN 1617-4615 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1359 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : RNA-seq * Plant mitochondria * Transcriptome Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.728, year: 2014

  6. Impact on respiratory tract infections of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine administered at 3, 5 and 11 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesati Laura

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical and public health importance of pneumococcal infections justifies the implementation of measures capable of reducing their incidence and severity, and explains why the recently marketed heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7 has been widely studied by pediatricians. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of PCV-7 administered at 3, 5 and 11 months of age on respiratory tract infections in very young children. Methods A total of 1,571 healthy infants (910 males aged 75–105 days (median 82 days were enrolled in this prospective cohort trial to receive a hexavalent vaccine (DTaP/IPV/HBV/Hib and PCV-7 (n = 819 or the hexavalent vaccine alone (n = 752 at 3, 5 and 11 months of age. Morbidity was recorded for the 24 months following the second dose by monthly telephone interviews conducted by investigators blinded to the study treatment assignment using standardised questionnaires. During these interviews, the caregivers and the children's pediatricians were questioned about illnesses and the use of antibiotics since the previous telephone call. All of the data were analysed using SAS Windows v.12. Results Among the 1,555 subjects (98.9% who completed the study, analysis of the data by the periods of follow-up demonstrated that radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia (CAP was significantly less frequent in the PCV-7 group during the follow-up as a whole and during the last period of follow-up. Moreover, there were statistically significant between-group differences in the incidence of acute otitis media (AOM in each half-year period of follow-up except the first, with significantly lower number of episodes in children receiving PCV-7 than in controls. Furthermore, the antibiotic prescription data showed that the probability of receiving an antibiotic course was significantly lower in the PCV-7 group than in the control group. Conclusion Our findings show the effectiveness of the simplified

  7. The olfactory transcriptomes of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Soria, Ximena; Levitin, Maria O; Saraiva, Luis R; Logan, Darren W

    2014-09-01

    The olfactory (OR) and vomeronasal receptor (VR) repertoires are collectively encoded by 1700 genes and pseudogenes in the mouse genome. Most OR and VR genes were identified by comparative genomic techniques and therefore, in many of those cases, only their protein coding sequences are defined. Some also lack experimental support, due in part to the similarity between them and their monogenic, cell-specific expression in olfactory tissues. Here we use deep RNA sequencing, expression microarray and quantitative RT-PCR in both the vomeronasal organ and whole olfactory mucosa to quantify their full transcriptomes in multiple male and female mice. We find evidence of expression for all VR, and almost all OR genes that are annotated as functional in the reference genome, and use the data to generate over 1100 new, multi-exonic, significantly extended receptor gene annotations. We find that OR and VR genes are neither equally nor randomly expressed, but have reproducible distributions of abundance in both tissues. The olfactory transcriptomes are only minimally different between males and females, suggesting altered gene expression at the periphery is unlikely to underpin the striking sexual dimorphism in olfactory-mediated behavior. Finally, we present evidence that hundreds of novel, putatively protein-coding genes are expressed in these highly specialized olfactory tissues, and carry out a proof-of-principle validation. Taken together, these data provide a comprehensive, quantitative catalog of the genes that mediate olfactory perception and pheromone-evoked behavior at the periphery. PMID:25187969

  8. The olfactory transcriptomes of mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Ibarra-Soria

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory (OR and vomeronasal receptor (VR repertoires are collectively encoded by 1700 genes and pseudogenes in the mouse genome. Most OR and VR genes were identified by comparative genomic techniques and therefore, in many of those cases, only their protein coding sequences are defined. Some also lack experimental support, due in part to the similarity between them and their monogenic, cell-specific expression in olfactory tissues. Here we use deep RNA sequencing, expression microarray and quantitative RT-PCR in both the vomeronasal organ and whole olfactory mucosa to quantify their full transcriptomes in multiple male and female mice. We find evidence of expression for all VR, and almost all OR genes that are annotated as functional in the reference genome, and use the data to generate over 1100 new, multi-exonic, significantly extended receptor gene annotations. We find that OR and VR genes are neither equally nor randomly expressed, but have reproducible distributions of abundance in both tissues. The olfactory transcriptomes are only minimally different between males and females, suggesting altered gene expression at the periphery is unlikely to underpin the striking sexual dimorphism in olfactory-mediated behavior. Finally, we present evidence that hundreds of novel, putatively protein-coding genes are expressed in these highly specialized olfactory tissues, and carry out a proof-of-principle validation. Taken together, these data provide a comprehensive, quantitative catalog of the genes that mediate olfactory perception and pheromone-evoked behavior at the periphery.

  9. Developmental transcriptome of Aplysia californica'

    KAUST Repository

    Heyland, Andreas

    2010-12-06

    Genome-wide transcriptional changes in development provide important insight into mechanisms underlying growth, differentiation, and patterning. However, such large-scale developmental studies have been limited to a few representatives of Ecdysozoans and Chordates. Here, we characterize transcriptomes of embryonic, larval, and metamorphic development in the marine mollusc Aplysia californica and reveal novel molecular components associated with life history transitions. Specifically, we identify more than 20 signal peptides, putative hormones, and transcription factors in association with early development and metamorphic stages-many of which seem to be evolutionarily conserved elements of signal transduction pathways. We also characterize genes related to biomineralization-a critical process of molluscan development. In summary, our experiment provides the first large-scale survey of gene expression in mollusc development, and complements previous studies on the regulatory mechanisms underlying body plan patterning and the formation of larval and juvenile structures. This study serves as a resource for further functional annotation of transcripts and genes in Aplysia, specifically and molluscs in general. A comparison of the Aplysia developmental transcriptome with similar studies in the zebra fish Danio rerio, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and other studies on molluscs suggests an overall highly divergent pattern of gene regulatory mechanisms that are likely a consequence of the different developmental modes of these organisms. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  10. Research Resource: A Reference Transcriptome for Constitutive Androstane Receptor and Pregnane X Receptor Xenobiotic Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, Scott A; Tsimelzon, Anna; Dong, Jianrong; Coarfa, Cristian; McKenna, Neil J

    2016-08-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) (PXR/NR1I3) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) (CAR/NR1I2) members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of ligand-regulated transcription factors are well-characterized mediators of xenobiotic and endocrine-disrupting chemical signaling. The Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas maintains a growing library of transcriptomic datasets involving perturbations of NR signaling pathways, many of which involve perturbations relevant to PXR and CAR xenobiotic signaling. Here, we generated a reference transcriptome based on the frequency of differential expression of genes across 159 experiments compiled from 22 datasets involving perturbations of CAR and PXR signaling pathways. In addition to the anticipated overrepresentation in the reference transcriptome of genes encoding components of the xenobiotic stress response, the ranking of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and gonadotropin action sheds mechanistic light on the suspected role of xenobiotics in metabolic syndrome and reproductive disorders. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis showed that although acetaminophen, chlorpromazine, and phenobarbital impacted many similar gene sets, differences in direction of regulation were evident in a variety of processes. Strikingly, gene sets representing genes linked to Parkinson's, Huntington's, and Alzheimer's diseases were enriched in all 3 transcriptomes. The reference xenobiotic transcriptome will be supplemented with additional future datasets to provide the community with a continually updated reference transcriptomic dataset for CAR- and PXR-mediated xenobiotic signaling. Our study demonstrates how aggregating and annotating transcriptomic datasets, and making them available for routine data mining, facilitates research into the mechanisms by which xenobiotics and endocrine-disrupting chemicals subvert conventional NR signaling modalities. PMID:27409825

  11. The Impact of Diabetes on the Labour Force Participation, Savings and Retirement Income of Workers Aged 45-64 Years in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Schofield, Deborah; Cunich, Michelle; Kelly, Simon; Passey, Megan E; Shrestha, Rupendra; Callander, Emily; Tanton, Robert; Veerman, Lennert

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a debilitating and costly condition. The costs of reduced labour force participation due to diabetes can have severe economic impacts on individuals by reducing their living standards during working and retirement years. Methods A purpose-built microsimulation model of Australians aged 45-64 years in 2010, Health&WealthMOD2030, was used to estimate the lost savings at age 65 due to premature exit from the labour force because of diabetes. Regression models were used to ...

  12. Complexity and Specificity of the Neutrophil Transcriptomes in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zihua; Jiang, Kaiyu; Frank, Mark Barton; Chen, Yanmin; Jarvis, James N

    2016-01-01

    NIH projects such as ENCODE and Roadmap Epigenomics have revealed surprising complexity in the transcriptomes of mammalian cells. In this study, we explored transcriptional complexity in human neutrophils, cells generally regarded as nonspecific in their functions and responses. We studied distinct human disease phenotypes and found that, at the gene, gene isoform, and miRNA level, neutrophils exhibit considerable specificity in their transcriptomes. Thus, even cells whose responses are considered non-specific show tailoring of their transcriptional repertoire toward specific physiologic or pathologic contexts. We also found that miRNAs had a global impact on neutrophil transcriptome and are associated with innate immunity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). These findings have important implications for our understanding of the link between genes, non-coding transcripts and disease phenotypes. PMID:27271962

  13. Comparative transcriptomics in the Triticeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waugh Robbie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley and particularly wheat are two grass species of immense agricultural importance. In spite of polyploidization events within the latter, studies have shown that genotypically and phenotypically these species are very closely related and, indeed, fertile hybrids can be created by interbreeding. The advent of two genome-scale Affymetrix GeneChips now allows studies of the comparison of their transcriptomes. Results We have used the Wheat GeneChip to create a "gene expression atlas" for the wheat transcriptome (cv. Chinese Spring. For this, we chose mRNA from a range of tissues and developmental stages closely mirroring a comparable study carried out for barley (cv. Morex using the Barley1 GeneChip. This, together with large-scale clustering of the probesets from the two GeneChips into "homologous groups", has allowed us to perform a genomic-scale comparative study of expression patterns in these two species. We explore the influence of the polyploidy of wheat on the results obtained with the Wheat GeneChip and quantify the correlation between conservation in gene sequence and gene expression in wheat and barley. In addition, we show how the conservation of expression patterns can be used to elucidate, probeset by probeset, the reliability of the Wheat GeneChip. Conclusion While there are many differences in expression on the level of individual genes and tissues, we demonstrate that the wheat and barley transcriptomes appear highly correlated. This finding is significant not only because given small evolutionary distance between the two species it is widely expected, but also because it demonstrates that it is possible to use the two GeneChips for comparative studies. This is the case even though their probeset composition reflects rather different design principles as well as, of course, the present incomplete knowledge of the gene content of the two species. We also show that, in general, the Wheat GeneChip is not able

  14. Impact of glutathione-enriched inactive dry yeast preparations on the stability of terpenes during model wine aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Andújar-Ortiz, Inmaculada; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Simó, Carolina; González, Javier; Chana, Antonio; Dávalos, Juan; Pozo-Bayón, M Ángeles

    2014-02-12

    The impact of the addition of glutathione-enriched Inactive dry yeast preparations (g-IDYs) on the stability of some typical wine terpenes (linalool, α-terpineol, β-citronellol, and nerol) stored under accelerated oxidative conditions was evaluated in model wines. Additionally, the effects of a second type of IDY preparation with a different claim (fermentative nutrient) and the sole addition of commercial glutathione into the model wines were also assessed. Model wines were spiked with the low molecular weight fraction (aroma compounds with other yeast components. An exhaustive chemical characterization of both IDY permeates was carried out by using targeted and nontargeted metabolomics approaches using CE-MS and FT-ICR-MS analytical platforms. The findings suggest that the addition of model wines submitted to accelerated aging conditions. The g-IDY preparation did indeed release reduced GSH into the model wines, although this compound did not seem exclusively related to the protective effect on some aroma compounds determined in both model wines. The presence of other sulfur-containing compounds from yeast origin in g-IDY, and also the presence of small yeast peptides, such as methionine/tryptophan/tyrosine-containing tripeptide in both types of IDYs, seemed to be related to the antioxidant activity determined in the two permeates and to the minor loss of some terpenes in the model wines spiked with them. PMID:24460029

  15. Integration of transcriptomics and metabonomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Rantalainen, Mattias; Wang, Yulan;

    2014-01-01

    A systems biology approach to multi-faceted diseases has provided an opportunity to establish a holistic understanding of the processes at play. Thus, the current study merges transcriptomics and metabonomics data in order to improve diagnostics, biomarker identification and to explore the...... possibilities of a molecular phenotyping of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. Biopsies were obtained from the descending colon of 43 UC patients (22 active UC and 21 quiescent UC) and 15 controls. Genome-wide gene expression analyses were performed using Affymetrix GeneChip Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0. Metabolic...... performance was evaluated using nested Monte Carlo cross-validation. The prediction performance of the merged data sets and that of relative small (<20 variables) multivariate biomarker panels suggest that it is possible to discriminate between active UC, quiescent UC, and controls; between patients with or...

  16. Female Aging Alters Expression of Human Cumulus Cells Genes that Are Essential for Oocyte Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamadir Al-Edani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact of female aging is an important issue in human reproduction. There was a need for an extensive analysis of age impact on transcriptome profile of cumulus cells (CCs to link oocyte quality and developmental potential with patient’s age. CCs from patients of three age groups were analyzed individually using microarrays. RT-qPCR validation was performed on independent CC cohorts. We focused here on pathways affected by aging in CCs that may explain the decline of oocyte quality with age. In CCs collected from patients >37 years, angiogenic genes including ANGPTL4, LEPR, TGFBR3, and FGF2 were significantly overexpressed compared to patients of the two younger groups. In contrast genes implicated in TGF-β signaling pathway such as AMH, TGFB1, inhibin, and activin receptor were underexpressed. CCs from patients whose ages are between 31 and 36 years showed an overexpression of genes related to insulin signaling pathway such as IGFBP3, PIK3R1, and IGFBP5. A bioinformatic analysis was performed to identify the microRNAs that are potential regulators of the differentially expressed genes of the study. It revealed that the pathways impacted by age were potential targets of specific miRNAs previously identified in our CCs small RNAs sequencing.

  17. Characterization of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Reese, Justin; Christenson, Matthew K.; Leng, Nan; Saha, Surya; Cantarel, Brandi; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia; MacCarthy, Justin; Weaver, Daniel; Trease, Andrew J.; Ready, Steven V.; Davis, Vincent M.; McCormick, Courtney; Haudenschild, Christian; Han, Shunsheng

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a vector for the causative agents of Huanglongbing, which threatens citrus production worldwide. This study reports and discusses the first D. citri transcriptomes, encompassing the three main life stages of D. citri, egg, nymph and adult. The transcriptomes were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO) and insecticide-related genes within each life stage were identified to aid the development of future D. citri insectici...

  18. Integrative investigation of metabolic and transcriptomic data

    OpenAIRE

    Önsan Z İlsen; Hayes Andrew; Kırdar Betül; Pir Pınar; Ülgen Kutlu Ö; Oliver Stephen G

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background New analysis methods are being developed to integrate data from transcriptome, proteome, interactome, metabolome, and other investigative approaches. At the same time, existing methods are being modified to serve the objectives of systems biology and permit the interpretation of the huge datasets currently being generated by high-throughput methods. Results Transcriptomic and metabolic data from chemostat fermentors were collected with the aim of investigating the relation...

  19. Integrative investigation of metabolic and transcriptomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Önsan Z İlsen

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New analysis methods are being developed to integrate data from transcriptome, proteome, interactome, metabolome, and other investigative approaches. At the same time, existing methods are being modified to serve the objectives of systems biology and permit the interpretation of the huge datasets currently being generated by high-throughput methods. Results Transcriptomic and metabolic data from chemostat fermentors were collected with the aim of investigating the relationship between these two data sets. The variation in transcriptome data in response to three physiological or genetic perturbations (medium composition, growth rate, and specific gene deletions was investigated using linear modelling, and open reading-frames (ORFs whose expression changed significantly in response to these perturbations were identified. Assuming that the metabolic profile is a function of the transcriptome profile, expression levels of the different ORFs were used to model the metabolic variables via Partial Least Squares (Projection to Latent Structures – PLS using PLS toolbox in Matlab. Conclusion The experimental design allowed the analyses to discriminate between the effects which the growth medium, dilution rate, and the deletion of specific genes had on the transcriptome and metabolite profiles. Metabolite data were modelled as a function of the transcriptome to determine their congruence. The genes that are involved in central carbon metabolism of yeast cells were found to be the ORFs with the most significant contribution to the model.

  20. A social work study on measuring the impact of age and job title on stress: A case study of hydro-power employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Iravani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study performs an empirical study based on the implementation of ANOVA and LSD tests to measure the impact of stress among people with different job titles and ages in a hydropower unit located in city of Esfahan, Iran. The study performed the survey among all 81 people who were working for customer service section of this company and consisted of two parts, in the first part; we gather all private information such as age, gender, education, job experience, etc. through seven important questions. In the second part of the survey, there were 66 questions, which included all the relevant factors impacting employees' stress. Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.946, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. The implementation of ANOVA and LSD tests have revealed that there are no meaning differences among people with different job titles but people in different age groups maintained various level of stress.

  1. Gender-specific impact of personal health parameters on individual brain aging in cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eFranke

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging alters brain structure and function. Personal health markers and modifiable lifestyle factors are related to individual brain aging as well as to the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD. This study uses a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-based biomarker to assess the effects of 17 health markers on individual brain aging in cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects. By employing kernel regression methods, the expression of normal brain-aging patterns forms the basis to estimate the brain age of a given new subject. If the estimated age is higher than the chronological age, a positive brain age gap estimation (BrainAGE score indicates accelerated atrophy and is considered a risk factor for developing AD. Within this cross-sectional, multi-center study 228 cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects (118 males completed an MRI at 1.5T, physiological and blood parameter assessments. The multivariate regression model combining all measured parameters was capable of explaining 39% of BrainAGE variance in males (p < 0.001 and 32% in females (p < 0.01. Furthermore, markers of the metabolic syndrome as well as markers of liver and kidney functions were profoundly related to BrainAGE scores in males (p < 0.05. In females, markers of liver and kidney functions as well as supply of vitamin B12 were significantly related to BrainAGE (p < 0.05. In conclusion, in cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects several clinical markers of poor health were associated with subtle structural changes in the brain that reflect accelerated aging, whereas protective effects on brain aging were observed for markers of good health. Additionally, the relations between individual brain aging and miscellaneous health markers show gender-specific patterns. The BrainAGE approach may thus serve as a clinically relevant biomarker for the detection of subtly abnormal patterns of brain aging probably preceding cognitive decline and development of AD.

  2. Target and biomarker identification platform to design new drugs against aging and age-related diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Fedichev

    2015-01-01

    We studied fundamental aspects of aging to develop a mathematical model of gene regulatory network. We show that aging manifests itself as an inherent instability of gene network leading to exponential accumulation of regulatory errors with age. To validate our approach we studied age-dependent omic data such as transcriptomes, metabolomes etc of different model organisms and humans.We build a computational platform based on our model to identify the targets and biomarkers of aging to design ...

  3. Comprehensive transcriptional landscape of aging mouse liver

    OpenAIRE

    White, Ryan R.; Milholland, Brandon; MacRae, Sheila L.; Lin, Mingyan; Zheng, Deyou; Vijg, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Background Mammalian aging is a highly complex process, a full mechanistic understanding of which is still lacking. One way to help understand the molecular changes underlying aging is through a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptome, the primary determinant of age-related phenotypic diversity. Previous studies have relied on microarray analysis to examine gene expression profiles in different tissues of aging organisms. However, studies have shown microarray-based transcriptional profil...

  4. Gender-specific impact of personal health parameters on individual brain aging in cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Katja Franke; Michael Ristow

    2014-01-01

    Aging alters brain structure and function. Personal health markers and modifiable lifestyle factors are related to individual brain aging as well as to the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This study uses a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based biomarker to assess the effects of 17 health markers on individual brain aging in cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects. By employing kernel regression methods, the expression of normal brain-aging patterns forms the basis to estim...

  5. Gender-specific impact of personal health parameters on individual brain aging in cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Katja; Ristow, Michael; Gaser, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Aging alters brain structure and function. Personal health markers and modifiable lifestyle factors are related to individual brain aging as well as to the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study used a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based biomarker to assess the effects of 17 health markers on individual brain aging in cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects. By employing kernel regression methods, the expression of normal brain-aging patterns forms the basis to estim...

  6. The Impact of Minimum Age of Employment Regulation on Child Labor and Schooling: Evidence from UNICEF MICS Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Eric V. Edmonds; Maheshwor Shrestha

    2012-01-01

    Promoting minimum age of employment regulation has been a centerpiece in child labor policy for the last 15 years. If enforced, minimum age regulation would change the age profile of paid child employment. Using micro-data from 59 mostly low-income countries, we observe that age can explain less than 1 percent of the variation in child participation in paid employment. In contrast, child-invariant household attributes account for 63 percent of the variation in participation in paid employment...

  7. Normative perceptual estimates for 91 healthy subjects age 60–75: impact of age, education, employment, physical exercise, alcohol, and video gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Wilms, Inge L.; Nielsen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Visual perception serves as the basis for much of the higher level cognitive processing as well as human activity in general. Here we present normative estimates for the following components of visual perception: the visual perceptual threshold, the visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity and the visual perceptual encoding/decoding speed (processing speed) of VSTM based on an assessment of 91 healthy subjects aged 60–75. The estimates were modeled from input from a whole-report assessment ba...

  8. The impact of dysphagia on quality of life in ageing and Parkinson's disease as measured by the swallowing quality of life (SWAL-QOL) questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Li Pyn; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee; Anderson, Tim; Beckert, Lutz

    2010-09-01

    This prospective, cross-sectional study evaluated the impact of dysphagia on quality of life in healthy ageing and in subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) using the Swallowing Quality of Life (SWAL-QOL) questionnaire. Sixteen healthy young adults (8 males, mean age = 25.1 years) and 16 healthy elders (8 males, mean age = 72.8 years) were recruited. Thirty-two subjects with idiopathic PD (mean age = 68.5 years) were recruited from a movement disorders clinic. The severity of PD was staged using the Hoehn and Yahr scale. Results revealed that elders experienced symptoms of dysphagia more frequently than young adults but the overall SWAL-QOL scores were not significantly different. Subjects with PD who experienced dysphagia reported greatly reduced QOL, and significant differences were found in all but one subsection of the SWAL-QOL. Disease progression detrimentally impacts QOL, with subjects in later-stage PD experiencing further reduction in the desire to eat, difficulty with food selection, and prolonged eating duration. These features, which increase with disease severity, are likely to impact negatively upon nutritional status, which is already under threat from PD-related dysphagia. PMID:19680723

  9. Age and nursing affect the neonatal porcine uterine transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lactocrine hypothesis for maternal programming of neonatal development was proposed to describe a mechanism through which milk-borne bioactive factors, delivered from mother to nursing offspring, could affect development of tissues, including the uterus. Porcine uterine development, initiated be...

  10. Aging-like Changes in the Transcriptome of Irradiated Microglia

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Matthew D; Burns, Terry C.; Kumar, Sunny; Morgan, Alexander A.; Sloan, Steven A.; Palmer, Theo D.

    2015-01-01

    Whole brain irradiation remains important in the management of brain tumors. Although necessary for improving survival outcomes, cranial irradiation also results in cognitive decline in long-term survivors. A chronic inflammatory state characterized by microglial activation has been implicated in radiation-induced brain injury. We here provide the first comprehensive transcriptional profile of irradiated microglia. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) was used to isolate CD11b+ microgli...

  11. Transcriptomics of the bed bug (Cimex lectularius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Bai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are blood-feeding insects poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Resistance of C. lectularius to insecticides/pesticides is one factor thought to be involved in its sudden resurgence. Despite its high-impact status, scant knowledge exists at the genomic level for C. lectularius. Hence, we subjected the C. lectularius transcriptome to 454 pyrosequencing in order to identify potential genes involved in pesticide resistance. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using 454 pyrosequencing, we obtained a total of 216,419 reads with 79,596,412 bp, which were assembled into 35,646 expressed sequence tags (3902 contigs and 31744 singletons. Nearly 85.9% of the C. lectularius sequences showed similarity to insect sequences, but 44.8% of the deduced proteins of C. lectularius did not show similarity with sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis revealed putative members of several detoxification pathways involved in pesticide resistance. Lamprin domains, Protein Kinase domains, Protein Tyrosine Kinase domains and cytochrome P450 domains were among the top Pfam domains predicted for the C. lectularius sequences. An initial assessment of putative defense genes, including a cytochrome P450 and a glutathione-S-transferase (GST, revealed high transcript levels for the cytochrome P450 (CYP9 in pesticide-exposed versus pesticide-susceptible C. lectularius populations. A significant number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (296 and microsatellite loci (370 were predicted in the C. lectularius sequences. Furthermore, 59 putative sequences of Wolbachia were retrieved from the database. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first study to elucidate the genetic makeup of C. lectularius. This pyrosequencing effort provides clues to the identification of potential detoxification genes involved in pesticide resistance of C. lectularius and lays the foundation for

  12. Report of a consultants meeting on impact of ageing on human energy, macro- and micronutrient metabolism and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna convened a Consultants' Meeting from 9-13 December, 2002, to provide the Agency with current insights into the application of nuclear and isotopic techniques as a means to support research on the impact of ageing on human energy and macro-nutrient metabolism and requirements. The Consultants were: Dr. Anura Kurpad, Dr. Victoria Lambert, Dr. June Stevens, Dr. Benjamin Torun and Dr. Mauro Valencia-Juillerat. Dr. Pirjo Pietinen, from the World Health Organization, and Dr. Barry Popkin, from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, were present as Observers during the initial part of the Meeting. Given the Consultants' areas of expertise and the topics covered in the discussions, the scope of the Meeting was modified as 'The Application of Nuclear and Isotopic Techniques to improve Research on Body Composition, Energy Expenditure, Non-communicable Chronic Diseases, and the Ageing Process, with particular emphasis on Developing Countries'. The objectives of the Meeting were to: i) Evaluate the overall scope of a new Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) and suggest options for specific areas of research within that scope; ii) Suggest approaches to improve the use of nuclear and isotopic techniques for the evaluation of energy and macro-nutrient requirements of older adults in diverse populations of the developing world; iii) Discuss and make recommendations for the use of these techniques in the measurement of energy expenditure, physical activity, total body fat and body fat distribution; and, iv) Propose a harmonization of methods for direct use or for validation of field measurements aimed at obtaining a better understanding of the ageing process and its relation to the incidence of obesity and non-communicable chronic diseases in communities in transition. This meeting benefited from the broad areas of experience of scientists from both developed and developing countries. Their expertise in the use of

  13. [Transcriptome analysis of Dunaliella viridis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuaiqi; Gong, Yifu; Hang, Yuqing; Liu, Hao; Wang, Heyu

    2015-08-01

    In order to understand the gene information, function, haloduric pathway (glycerolipid metabolism) and related key genes for Dunaliella viridis, we used Illumina HiSeqTM 2000 high-throughput sequencing technology to sequence its transcriptome. Trinity soft was used to assemble the data to form transcripts. Based on the Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG ) databases, we carried out functional annotation and classification, pathway annotation, and the opening reading fragment (ORF) sequence prediction of transcripts. The key genes in the glycerolipid metabolism were analyzed. The results suggested that 81,593 transcripts were found, and 77,117 ORF sequences were predicted, accounting for 94.50% of all transcripts. COG classification results showed that 16,569 transcripts were assigned to 24 categories. GO classification annotated 76,436 transcripts. The number of transcripts for biologcial processes was 30,678, accounting for 40.14% of all transcripts. KEGG pathway analysis showed that 26,428 transcripts were annotated to 317 pathways, and 131 pathways were related to metabolism, accounting for 41.32% of all annotated pathways. Only one transcript was annotated as coding the key enzyme dihydroxyacetone kinase involved in the glycerolipid pathway. This enzyme could be related to glycerol biosynthesis under salt stress. This study further improved the gene information and laid the foundation of metabolic pathway research for Dunaliella viridis. PMID:26266786

  14. Impact of Gait Speed and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living on All-Cause Mortality in Adults ≥65 Years of Age with Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Alexander X.; Donnelly, John P.; McGwin, Gerald; Bittner, Vera; Ahmed, Ali; Brown, Cynthia J.

    2015-01-01

    Mobility and function are important predictors of survival. However, their combined impact on mortality in adults ≥65 years of age with heart failure (HF) is not well understood. This study examined the role of gait speed and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in all-cause mortality in a cohort of 1,119 community-dwelling Cardiovascular Health Study participants ≥65 years of age with incident HF. Data on HF and mortality were collected through annual examinations or contact during...

  15. The impact of gentle body exercise on the metabolism of lipids in healthy people aged up to 50 years old with normal weight

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ioannidou; I. Siochu; A. Siochu

    2007-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the current study was to determine whether gentle body exercise has a positive impact on the HDL and LDL levels of cholesterol and levels of trigyceryl in people aged up to 50 years old with normal body weight. Material and Method: The sample consisted of 40 healthy persons aged up to 50 years old with normal body weight, which they did not have a cardiovascular disease history, a diabetes history, or a hormonal disorder history. Furthermore, those people were found with high ...

  16. The impact of track and field sports professionalization on age limits of athletes sports skills qualifications saving.

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlova O.K.

    2011-01-01

    The age-related features of elite athletes were defined track-and-field events. It was established, that professionalization of track-and-field sport assists the expansion of the age limits elite athletes performances on a world of sporting arena. The most of sportsmen age of which exceeds 30 years is specialized in such of track-and-field events: race walking 50 km (men) - 56,7 %; hammer throw (men) -46,7%; discuss throw(women) - 46,7%.

  17. Impact of zeolite aging in hot liquid water on activity for acid-catalyzed dehydration of alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vjunov, Aleksei; Derewinski, Miroslaw A.; Fulton, John L.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2015-08-19

    The catalytic performance of zeolite in aqueous medium depends on a multitude of factors, such as the concentration and distribution of active sites and framework integrity. Al K–edge extended X–ray absorption fine structure and 27Al MAS NMR spectroscopies in combination with DFT calculations are used to determine the distribution of tetrahedral Al sites both qualitatively and quantitatively for both parent and 48 h 160 ºC water treated HBEA catalysts. There is no evidence of Al coordination modification after aging in water. The distribution and concentration of Al T–sites, active centers for the dehydration of cyclohexanol, do not markedly impact the catalytic performance in water, because the Brønsted acidic protons are present in the form of hydrated hydronium ions and thus have very similar acid properties. The results suggest that all Brønsted acid sites are equally active in aqueous medium. The decrease of zeolite catalytic performance after water treatment is attributed to the reduced concentration of Brønsted acid sites. Increasing the stability of pore walls and decreasing the rate of Si–O–Si group hydrolysis may result in improved apparent zeolite catalytic performance in aqueous medium. Authors thank B. W. Arey (PNNL) for HIM measurements, T. Huthwelker for support during Al XAFS measurements at the Swiss Light Source (PSI, Switzerland), J. Z. Hu and S. D. Burton (PNNL) for support during NMR experiments. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. MD acknowledges support by the Materials Synthesis and Simulation Across Scales (MS3 Initiative) conducted under Laboratory Directed Research & Development Program at PNNL. HIM imaging and NMR experiments were performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE Office of Science, Office of Biological

  18. Comprehensive evaluation of AmpliSeq transcriptome, a novel targeted whole transcriptome RNA sequencing methodology for global gene expression analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wenli; Turner, Amy; Aggarwal, Praful; Matter, Andrea; Storvick, Erin; Donna K Arnett; Broeckel, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Background Whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) represents a powerful approach for whole transcriptome gene expression analysis. However, RNA-seq carries a few limitations, e.g., the requirement of a significant amount of input RNA and complications led by non-specific mapping of short reads. The Ion AmpliSeq™ Transcriptome Human Gene Expression Kit (AmpliSeq) was recently introduced by Life Technologies as a whole-transcriptome, targeted gene quantification kit to overcome these limitati...

  19. Ageing of power plants socio-economical, sanitary and environmental impact; Veillissement des centrales Impacts socio-economiques, sanitaires et environnementaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, Ch. [Depute du nord (France); Denner, M. [EDF pour la Region Bourgogne (France); Vouilloux, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Foucher, L. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France); Serviere, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Vila d' Abadal Serra, M

    2005-07-01

    The National Association of the local Commissions of Information (A.N.C.L.I.) presents a colloquium about the ageing of nuclear power plants. The different following points are presented. The life cycle of nuclear power plants and the new types of reactors. The ageing of power plants: stakes and perspectives for the French and world nuclear park. A power plant of 30 years is it sure? The role of the studies of ageing and the follow-up according to the age. Stop or continue to exploit a nuclear power plant: who decides, when and how. The socio-economic consequences of a stop of power plant: the Spanish experience. Ten-year visits of a power plant: the associative experience. 58 reactors today: how to assume their end of life and welcome equipments to come. (N.C.)

  20. IMPACT OF AGE, GENDER, PRE - OPERATIVE INTRA OCULAR PRESSURE AND ANTERIOR CHAMBER DEPTH ON THE OUTCOME OF PHACOEMULSIFICATION PROCEDURE IN PSEUDO - EXFOLIATION SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhilesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This was a prospective non comparative study conducted at Mahatme Eye Bank Eye Hospital, Nagpur, India. 175 eyes with Pseudo - exfoliation syndrome (PXF undergoing cataract surgery by phacoemulsification were studied. The study aimed at finding ou t impact of age, gender, pre - operative Intra Ocular Pressure (IOP and Anterior Chamber Depth (ACD on the intraoperative complications of phacoemulsification surgery in these patients. It was found that association of age, gender and intraoperative compli cations was not significant (P value – 0.0958. No significant impact of preoperative intraocular pressure and intraoperative complications was noted. The mean anterior chamber depth in complicated cases was 2.42 +/ - 0.37 as compared to 2.72 +/ - 0.43 in ey es without complications. The relation between these groups was statistically significant (P value = 0.031.

  1. The Human Transcriptome: An Unfinished Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Pertea

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent technological advances, the study of the human transcriptome is still in its early stages. Here we provide an overview of the complex human transcriptomic landscape, present the bioinformatics challenges posed by the vast quantities of transcriptomic data, and discuss some of the studies that have tried to determine how much of the human genome is transcribed. Recent evidence has suggested that more than 90% of the human genome is transcribed into RNA. However, this view has been strongly contested by groups of scientists who argued that many of the observed transcripts are simply the result of transcriptional noise. In this review, we conclude that the full extent of transcription remains an open question that will not be fully addressed until we decipher the complete range and biological diversity of the transcribed genomic sequences.

  2. Impact of visual acuity on developing literacy at age 4–5 years: a cohort-nested cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, Alison; Fairley, Lesley; Chambers, Bette; Wright, John; Sheldon, Trevor A

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of poor vision in children aged 4-5 years and determine the impact of visual acuity on literacy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study linking clinical, epidemiological and education data. SETTING: Schools located in the city of Bradford, UK. PARTICIPANTS: Prevalence was determined for 11 186 children participating in the Bradford school vision screening programme. Data linkage was undertaken for 5836 Born in Bradford (BiB) birth cohort study children participat...

  3. 老龄化对居民教育水平的影响分析%Analysis on Impact of Aging on Level of Education of Residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛

    2015-01-01

    Basing on the adult literacy rate,aging rate,total public expenditure on education to GDP rate,per capita GDP growth rate of 36 countries in 2000 and 2010,the paper uses the generalized least squares method, analyzes the impact of dif-ferent countries aging on level of education of residents. The results shows that impact of total public expenditure on education to GDP rate is not significant,but impact of aging and per capita GDP growth rate are more notable,paper proposes some sug-gestions according to these results finally.%本文使用36个国家在2000年和2010年的成人识字率、老龄化率、教育公共开支总额占GDP的比率、人均GDP增长率等数据,采用广义最小二乘方法,分析了各国人口老龄化对居民教育水平的影响。分析结果显示,教育公共开支总额占GDP的比率对居民教育水平的影响并不显著,而老龄化和人均GDP增长率对居民教育水平的影响较显著,根据研究结果文章提出一些建议。

  4. Transcriptome of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex hepatopancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gismondi, E; Thomé, J P

    2016-06-01

    So far, ecotoxicological studies used biomarkers of exposure or of effects in order to investigate the impacts of contaminated areas on biota (Peakall, 1994 [6]). However, although these results are important in the ecotoxicological risk assessment, biomarkers are very specific and only provide information on the biological processes or physiological pathways targeted by the biomarkers experimenters choose to test (Monsinjon and Knigge, 2007 [5]). In recent years, proteomics have become a major tool in ecotoxicology, as they provide a global insight into the mechanism of action of pollutants without the need of hypothesis testing or any preconception on the biological processes likely impacted (Gismondi et al., 2015; Trapp et al., 2015 [7]; Truebano, 2016 [8]). However, the analysis of proteomic results is often limited due to the lack of database, especially for non-model organisms, such as Gammarus sp, commonly used as biological model in ecotoxicology (Sornom et al., 2012 [11]; Vellinger et al., 2013 [9]; Gismondi and Thomé, 2014 [1]; Lebrun et al., 2014 [3]). Here, we performed Illumina HiSeq sequencing to total RNA isolated from the hepatopancreas (i.e. detoxification tissue) of Gammarus pulex males and females coming from uncontaminated river and contaminated river (e.g. PCB, benzo(a)pyrene). Approximately 290 M paired-end reads were assembled, filtered and sorted into 39,801 contigs whose 10.878 were similar of proteins available in databases. The assembled contigs could represent a reference hepatopancreas transcriptome for G. pulex, and constitute an important resource for future investigations on the impacts of pollutants on invertebrate biota, since it would improve the understanding of the mechanisms of action involved in toxicity. In addition, the hepatopancreas transcriptome will also allow the identification of new potential biomarkers for the ecotoxicological risk assessments. Assembled contigs were deposited in the European Nucleotide Archive

  5. Transcriptome of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex hepatopancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gismondi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available So far, ecotoxicological studies used biomarkers of exposure or of effects in order to investigate the impacts of contaminated areas on biota (Peakall, 1994 [6]. However, although these results are important in the ecotoxicological risk assessment, biomarkers are very specific and only provide information on the biological processes or physiological pathways targeted by the biomarkers experimenters choose to test (Monsinjon and Knigge, 2007 [5]. In recent years, proteomics have become a major tool in ecotoxicology, as they provide a global insight into the mechanism of action of pollutants without the need of hypothesis testing or any preconception on the biological processes likely impacted (Gismondi et al., 2015; Trapp et al., 2015 [7]; Truebano, 2016 [8]. However, the analysis of proteomic results is often limited due to the lack of database, especially for non-model organisms, such as Gammarus sp, commonly used as biological model in ecotoxicology (Sornom et al., 2012 [11]; Vellinger et al., 2013 [9]; Gismondi and Thomé, 2014 [1]; Lebrun et al., 2014 [3]. Here, we performed Illumina HiSeq sequencing to total RNA isolated from the hepatopancreas (i.e. detoxification tissue of Gammarus pulex males and females coming from uncontaminated river and contaminated river (e.g. PCB, benzo(apyrene. Approximately 290 M paired-end reads were assembled, filtered and sorted into 39,801 contigs whose 10.878 were similar of proteins available in databases. The assembled contigs could represent a reference hepatopancreas transcriptome for G. pulex, and constitute an important resource for future investigations on the impacts of pollutants on invertebrate biota, since it would improve the understanding of the mechanisms of action involved in toxicity. In addition, the hepatopancreas transcriptome will also allow the identification of new potential biomarkers for the ecotoxicological risk assessments. Assembled contigs were deposited in the European

  6. Transcriptomic response to differentiation induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrov DS

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays used for gene expression studies yield large amounts of data. The processing of such data typically leads to lists of differentially-regulated genes. A common terminal data analysis step is to map pathways of potentially interrelated genes. Methods We applied a transcriptomics analysis tool to elucidate the underlying pathways of leukocyte maturation at the genomic level in an established cellular model of leukemia by examining time-course data in two subclones of U-937 cells. Leukemias such as Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL are characterized by a block in the hematopoietic stem cell maturation program at a point when expansion of clones which should be destined to mature into terminally-differentiated effector cells get locked into endless proliferation with few cells reaching maturation. Treatment with retinoic acid, depending on the precise genomic abnormality, often releases the responsible promyelocytes from this blockade but clinically can yield adverse sequellae in terms of potentially lethal side effects, referred to as retinoic acid syndrome. Results Briefly, the list of genes for temporal patterns of expression was pasted into the ABCC GRID Promoter TFSite Comparison Page website tool and the outputs for each pattern were examined for possible coordinated regulation by shared regelems (regulatory elements. We found it informative to use this novel web tool for identifying, on a genomic scale, genes regulated by drug treatment. Conclusion Improvement is needed in understanding the nature of the mutations responsible for controlling the maturation process and how these genes regulate downstream effects if there is to be better targeting of chemical interventions. Expanded implementation of the techniques and results reported here may better direct future efforts to improve treatment for diseases not restricted to APL.

  7. Short-term evaluation of the impact of a food program on the micronutrient nutritional status of Argentinean children under the age of six.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varea, Ana; Malpeli, Agustina; Etchegoyen, Graciela; Vojkovic, María; Disalvo, Liliana; Apezteguía, María; Pereyras, Silvia; Pattín, Jorgelina; Ortale, Susana; Carmuega, Estéban; González, Horacio F

    2011-12-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of Plan Más Vida (PMV) on the micronutrient nutritional condition of children aged 1 to 6 years 1 year after PMV implementation. The food program was intended for low-income families from the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina and provided supplementary diets. A prospective, nonexperimental study was carried out. Children (472 at baseline and 474 after 1 year) were divided into two groups (1-2 and 2-6 years of age). Biochemical tests (hemogram, ferritin, zinc, vitamin A, and folic acid), anthropometric assessments (weight and height), and dietary surveys (24-h recall) were performed. Chronic growth retardation (-2 height/age Z-score) was present in 2.8% and 8.7% of 1-2- and 2-6-year-old children, respectively; 14.4% in the former and 8.8% in the latter group had overweight/obesity. No significant changes were recorded 1 year after PMV implementation. Whereas anemia values decreased (55.3% to 39.1%, p = 0.003) and serum zinc values increased in 1-2-year-old children, the risk for vitamin A deficiency decreased significantly in both age groups. The evaluation of the early impact of PMV actions provided important nutritional data that should be used by provincial health authorities to conduct future evaluations. PMID:21301990

  8. Transcriptomes of Frankia sp. strain CcI3 in growth transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bickhart Derek M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frankia sp. strains are actinobacteria that form N2-fixing root nodules on angiosperms. Several reference genome sequences are available enabling transcriptome studies in Frankia sp. Genomes from Frankia sp. strains differ markedly in size, a consequence proposed to be associated with a high number of indigenous transposases, more than 200 of which are found in Frankia sp. strain CcI3 used in this study. Because Frankia exhibits a high degree of cell heterogeneity as a consequence of its mycelial growth pattern, its transcriptome is likely to be quite sensitive to culture age. This study focuses on the behavior of the Frankia sp. strain CcI3 transcriptome as a function of nitrogen source and culture age. Results To study global transcription in Frankia sp. CcI3 grown under different conditions, complete transcriptomes were determined using high throughput RNA deep sequencing. Samples varied by time (five days vs. three days and by culture conditions (NH4+ added vs. N2 fixing. Assembly of millions of reads revealed more diversity of gene expression between five-day and three-day old cultures than between three day old cultures differing in nitrogen sources. Heat map analysis organized genes into groups that were expressed or repressed under the various conditions compared to median expression values. Twenty-one SNPs common to all three transcriptome samples were detected indicating culture heterogeneity in this slow-growing organism. Significantly higher expression of transposase ORFs was found in the five-day and N2-fixing cultures, suggesting that N starvation and culture aging provide conditions for on-going genome modification. Transposases have previously been proposed to participate in the creating the large number of gene duplication or deletion in host strains. Subsequent RT-qPCR experiments confirmed predicted elevated transposase expression levels indicated by the mRNA-seq data. Conclusions The overall pattern of

  9. The impact of socioeconomic status across early life on age at menarche among a racially diverse population of girls

    OpenAIRE

    James-Todd, Tamarra; Tehranifar, Parisa; Rich-Edwards, Janet Wilson; Titievsky, Lina; Terry, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We sought to evaluate the association between childhood socioeconomic status (SES) at two time points and age at menarche in a multiracial sample of U.S. girls. Methods Our study population consisted of a cohort of female participants enrolled at birth at the New York site of the Collaborative Perinatal Project, who were born during the period 1959–1963 (n = 262). SES at birth, at age 7, and change between birth and age 7 were measured prospectively through an index score ...

  10. Do other cardiovascular risk factors influence the impact of age on the association between blood pressure and mortality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishram, Julie K K; Borglykke, Anders; Andreasen, Anne H; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Ibsen, Hans; Jørgensen, Torben; Broda, Grazyna; Palmieri, Luigi; Giampaoli, Simona; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Kee, Frank; Mancia, Giuseppe; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Salomaa, Veikko; Sans, Susana; Ferrieres, Jean; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Söderberg, Stefan; McElduff, Patrick; Arveiler, Dominique; Pajak, Andrzej; Olsen, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate age-related shifts in the relative importance of SBP and DBP as predictors of cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality and whether these relations are influenced by other cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: Using 42 cohorts from the MORGAM Project with baseline......-cause mortality, but not CHD mortality. The age at which the importance of SBP exceeded DBP was for stroke mortality influenced by sex, cholesterol, and country risk. CONCLUSION: Age-related shifts to the superiority of SBP exist for stroke mortality and all-cause mortality, and for stroke mortality was this...... shift influenced by other cardiovascular risk factors....

  11. Characterization of the abomasal transcriptome for mechanisms of resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Robert W

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The response of the abomasal transcriptome to gastrointestinal parasites was evaluated in parasite-susceptible and parasite-resistant Angus cattle using RNA-seq at a depth of 23.7 million sequences per sample. These cattle displayed distinctly separate resistance phenotypes as assessed by fecal egg counts. Approximately 65.3% of the 23 632 bovine genes were expressed in the fundic abomasum. Of these, 13 758 genes were expressed in all samples tested and likely represent core components of the bovine abomasal transcriptome. The gene (BT14427 with the most abundant transcript, accounting for 10.4% of sequences in the transcriptome, is located on chromosome 29 and has unknown functions. Additionally, PIGR (1.6%, Complement C3 (0.7%, and Immunoglobulin J chain (0.5% were among the most abundant transcripts in the transcriptome. Among the 203 genes impacted, 64 were significantly over-expressed in resistant animals at a stringent cutoff (FDR

  12. Development of molecular resources for an intertidal clam, Sinonovacula constricta, using 454 transcriptome sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghong Niu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The razor clam Sinonovacula constricta is a benthic intertidal bivalve species with important commercial value. Despite its economic importance, knowledge of its transcriptome is scarce. Next generation sequencing technologies offer rapid and efficient tools for generating large numbers of sequences, which can be used to characterize the transcriptome, to develop effective molecular markers and to identify genes associated with growth, a key breeding trait. RESULTS: Total RNA was isolated from the mantle, gill, liver, siphon, gonad and muscular foot tissues. High-throughput deep sequencing of S. constricta using 454 pyrosequencing technology yielded 859,313 high-quality reads with an average read length of 489 bp. Clustering and assembly of these reads produced 16,323 contigs and 131,346 singletons with average lengths of 1,376 bp and 458 bp, respectively. Based on transcriptome sequencing, 14,615 sequences had significant matches with known genes encoding 147,669 predicted proteins. Subsequently, previously unknown growth-related genes were identified. A total of 13,563 microsatellites (SSRs and 13,634 high-confidence single nucleotide polymorphism loci (SNPs were discovered, of which almost half were validated. CONCLUSION: De novo sequencing of the razor clam S. constricta transcriptome on the 454 GS FLX platform generated a large number of ESTs. Candidate growth factors and a large number of SSRs and SNPs were identified. These results will impact genetic studies of S. constricta.

  13. The Spatial and Temporal Transcriptomic Landscapes of Ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kangyu; Jiang, Shicui; Sun, Chunyu; Lin, Yanping; Yin, Rui; Wang, Yi(Centre for Theoretical Cosmology, DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA U.K.); Zhang, Meiping

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng, including Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius L.), is one of the most important medicinal herbs in Asia and North America, but significantly understudied. This study sequenced and characterized the transcriptomes and expression profiles of genes expressed in 14 tissues and four different aged roots of Asian ginseng. A total of 265.2 million 100-bp clean reads were generated using the high-throughput sequencing platform HiSeq 2000, represen...

  14. The transcriptional landscape of age in human peripheral blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Marjolein J.; Joehanes, Roby; Pilling, Luke C.; Schurmann, Claudia; Conneely, Karen N.; Powell, Joseph; Reinmaa, Eva; Sutphin, George L.; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Schramm, Katharina; Wilson, Yana A.; Kobes, Sayuko; Tukiainen, Taru; Nalls, Michael A.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Cookson, Mark R.; Gibbs, Raphael J.; Hardy, John; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Zonderman, Alan B.; Dillman, Allissa; Traynor, Bryan; Smith, Colin; Longo, Dan L.; Trabzuni, Daniah; Troncoso, Juan; van der Brug, Marcel; Weale, Michael E.; O'Brien, Richard; Johnson, Robert; Walker, Robert; Zielke, Ronald H.; Arepalli, Sampath; Ryten, Mina; Singleton, Andrew B.; Ramos, Yolande F.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Fornage, Myriam; Liu, Yongmei; Gharib, Sina A.; Stranger, Barbara E.; De Jager, Philip L.; Aviv, Abraham; Levy, Daniel; Murabito, Joanne M.; Munson, Peter J.; Huan, Tianxiao; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; van Rooij, Jeroen; Stolk, Lisette; Broer, Linda; Verbiest, Michael M. P. J.; Jhamai, Mila; Arp, Pascal; Metspalu, Andres; Tserel, Liina; Milani, Lili; Samani, Nilesh J.; Peterson, Pärt; Kasela, Silva; Codd, Veryan; Peters, Annette; Ward-Caviness, Cavin K.; Herder, Christian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Roden, Michael; Singmann, Paula; Zeilinger, Sonja; Illig, Thomas; Homuth, Georg; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Völzke, Henry; Steil, Leif; Kocher, Thomas; Murray, Anna; Melzer, David; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Bandinelli, Stefania; Moses, Eric K.; Kent, Jack W.; Curran, Joanne E.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Westra, Harm-Jan; McRae, Allan F.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Hovatta, Iiris; Perola, Markus; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Henders, Anjali K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Smith, Alicia K.; Mehta, Divya; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Nylocks, K Maria; Kennedy, Elizabeth M.; Klengel, Torsten; Ding, Jingzhong; Suchy-Dicey, Astrid M.; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Brody, Jennifer; Rotter, Jerome I.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Slagboom, P. Eline; Helmer, Quinta; den Hollander, Wouter; Bean, Shannon; Raj, Towfique; Bakhshi, Noman; Wang, Qiao Ping; Oyston, Lisa J.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Tracy, Russell P.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Turner, Stephen T.; Blangero, John; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Ressler, Kerry J.; Yang, Jian; Franke, Lude; Kettunen, Johannes; Visscher, Peter M.; Neely, G. Gregory; Korstanje, Ron; Hanson, Robert L.; Prokisch, Holger; Ferrucci, Luigi; Esko, Tonu; Teumer, Alexander; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Johnson, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Disease incidences increase with age, but the molecular characteristics of ageing that lead to increased disease susceptibility remain inadequately understood. Here we perform a whole-blood gene expression meta-analysis in 14,983 individuals of European ancestry (including replication) and identify 1,497 genes that are differentially expressed with chronological age. The age-associated genes do not harbor more age-associated CpG-methylation sites than other genes, but are instead enriched for the presence of potentially functional CpG-methylation sites in enhancer and insulator regions that associate with both chronological age and gene expression levels. We further used the gene expression profiles to calculate the ‘transcriptomic age' of an individual, and show that differences between transcriptomic age and chronological age are associated with biological features linked to ageing, such as blood pressure, cholesterol levels, fasting glucose, and body mass index. The transcriptomic prediction model adds biological relevance and complements existing epigenetic prediction models, and can be used by others to calculate transcriptomic age in external cohorts. PMID:26490707

  15. The transcriptional landscape of age in human peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Marjolein J; Joehanes, Roby; Pilling, Luke C; Schurmann, Claudia; Conneely, Karen N; Powell, Joseph; Reinmaa, Eva; Sutphin, George L; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Schramm, Katharina; Wilson, Yana A; Kobes, Sayuko; Tukiainen, Taru; Ramos, Yolande F; Göring, Harald H H; Fornage, Myriam; Liu, Yongmei; Gharib, Sina A; Stranger, Barbara E; De Jager, Philip L; Aviv, Abraham; Levy, Daniel; Murabito, Joanne M; Munson, Peter J; Huan, Tianxiao; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; van Rooij, Jeroen; Stolk, Lisette; Broer, Linda; Verbiest, Michael M P J; Jhamai, Mila; Arp, Pascal; Metspalu, Andres; Tserel, Liina; Milani, Lili; Samani, Nilesh J; Peterson, Pärt; Kasela, Silva; Codd, Veryan; Peters, Annette; Ward-Caviness, Cavin K; Herder, Christian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Roden, Michael; Singmann, Paula; Zeilinger, Sonja; Illig, Thomas; Homuth, Georg; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Völzke, Henry; Steil, Leif; Kocher, Thomas; Murray, Anna; Melzer, David; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Bandinelli, Stefania; Moses, Eric K; Kent, Jack W; Curran, Joanne E; Johnson, Matthew P; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Westra, Harm-Jan; McRae, Allan F; Smith, Jennifer A; Kardia, Sharon L R; Hovatta, Iiris; Perola, Markus; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Henders, Anjali K; Martin, Nicholas G; Smith, Alicia K; Mehta, Divya; Binder, Elisabeth B; Nylocks, K Maria; Kennedy, Elizabeth M; Klengel, Torsten; Ding, Jingzhong; Suchy-Dicey, Astrid M; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Brody, Jennifer; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-Der I; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Slagboom, P Eline; Helmer, Quinta; den Hollander, Wouter; Bean, Shannon; Raj, Towfique; Bakhshi, Noman; Wang, Qiao Ping; Oyston, Lisa J; Psaty, Bruce M; Tracy, Russell P; Montgomery, Grant W; Turner, Stephen T; Blangero, John; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Ressler, Kerry J; Yang, Jian; Franke, Lude; Kettunen, Johannes; Visscher, Peter M; Neely, G Gregory; Korstanje, Ron; Hanson, Robert L; Prokisch, Holger; Ferrucci, Luigi; Esko, Tonu; Teumer, Alexander; van Meurs, Joyce B J; Johnson, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    Disease incidences increase with age, but the molecular characteristics of ageing that lead to increased disease susceptibility remain inadequately understood. Here we perform a whole-blood gene expression meta-analysis in 14,983 individuals of European ancestry (including replication) and identify 1,497 genes that are differentially expressed with chronological age. The age-associated genes do not harbor more age-associated CpG-methylation sites than other genes, but are instead enriched for the presence of potentially functional CpG-methylation sites in enhancer and insulator regions that associate with both chronological age and gene expression levels. We further used the gene expression profiles to calculate the 'transcriptomic age' of an individual, and show that differences between transcriptomic age and chronological age are associated with biological features linked to ageing, such as blood pressure, cholesterol levels, fasting glucose, and body mass index. The transcriptomic prediction model adds biological relevance and complements existing epigenetic prediction models, and can be used by others to calculate transcriptomic age in external cohorts. PMID:26490707

  16. The Effect of Physiological Stimuli on Sarcopenia; Impact of Notch and Wnt Signaling on Impaired Aged Skeletal Muscle Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Tsivitse Arthur, Ian D. Cooley

    2012-01-01

    The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function that is associated with sarcopenia can result in ultimate consequences such as decreased quality of life. The causes of sarcopenia are multifactorial and include environmental and biological factors. The purpose of this review is to synthesize what the literature reveals in regards to the cellular regulation of sarcopenia, including impaired muscle regenerative capacity in the aged, and to discuss if physiological stimuli have the pote...

  17. Microarray analyses reveal that plant mutagenesis may induce more transcriptomic changes than transgene insertion

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Rita; Saibo, Nelson; Lourenço, Tiago; Oliveira, Maria Margarida

    2008-01-01

    Controversy regarding genetically modified (GM) plants and their potential impact on human health contrasts with the tacit acceptance of other plants that were also modified, but not considered as GM products (e.g., varieties raised through conventional breeding such as mutagenesis). What is beyond the phenotype of these improved plants? Should mutagenized plants be treated differently from transgenics? We have evaluated the extent of transcriptome modification occurring ...

  18. Meta-analysis of muscle transcriptome data using the MADMuscle database reveals biologically relevant gene patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Teusan Raluca; Bihouée Audrey; Dubois Emeric; Baron Daniel; Steenman Marja; Jourdon Philippe; Magot Armelle; Péréon Yann; Veitia Reiner; Savagner Frédérique; Ramstein Gérard; Houlgatte Rémi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background DNA microarray technology has had a great impact on muscle research and microarray gene expression data has been widely used to identify gene signatures characteristic of the studied conditions. With the rapid accumulation of muscle microarray data, it is of great interest to understand how to compare and combine data across multiple studies. Meta-analysis of transcriptome data is a valuable method to achieve it. It enables to highlight conserved gene signatures between mu...

  19. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing and preliminary functional analysis in four Neotropical tree species

    OpenAIRE

    Brousseau, Louise; Tinaut, Alexandra; Duret, Caroline; Lang, Tiange; Garnier-Gere, Pauline; Scotti, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Background The Amazonian rainforest is predicted to suffer from ongoing environmental changes. Despite the need to evaluate the impact of such changes on tree genetic diversity, we almost entirely lack genomic resources. Results In this study, we analysed the transcriptome of four tropical tree species (Carapa guianensis, Eperua falcata, Symphonia globulifera and Virola michelii) with contrasting ecological features, belonging to four widespread botanical families (respectively Meliaceae, Fab...

  20. Postpartal Subclinical Endometritis Alters Transcriptome Profiles in Liver and Adipose Tissue of Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Haji Akbar; Cardoso, Felipe C; Susanne Meier; Christopher Burke; Scott McDougall; Murray Mitchell; Caroline Walker; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.; Everts, Robin E.; Lewin, Harris A; Roche, John R; Juan J. Loor

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptome alterations in liver and adipose tissue of cows with subclinical endometritis (SCE) at 29 d postpartum were evaluated. Bioinformatics analysis was performed using the Dynamic Impact Approach by means of KEGG and DAVID databases. Milk production, blood metabolites (non-esterified fatty acids, magnesium), and disease biomarkers (albumin, aspartate aminotransferase) did not differ greatly between healthy and SCE cows. In liver tissue of cows with SCE, alterations in gene expression...

  1. Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in Malawi: Modeling the Impact and Cost of Focusing the Program by Client Age and Geography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Kripke

    Full Text Available In 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO recommended scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC in priority countries with high HIV prevalence and low male circumcision (MC prevalence. According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS, an estimated 5.8 million males had undergone VMMC by the end of 2013. Implementation experience has raised questions about the need to refocus VMMC programs on specific subpopulations for the greatest epidemiological impact and programmatic effectiveness. As Malawi prepared its national operational plan for VMMC, it sought to examine the impacts of focusing on specific subpopulations by age and region.We used the Decision Makers' Program Planning Toolkit, Version 2.0, to study the impact of scaling up VMMC to different target populations of Malawi. National MC prevalence by age group from the 2010 Demographic and Health Survey was scaled according to the MC prevalence for each district and then halved, to adjust for over-reporting of circumcision. In-country stakeholders advised a VMMC unit cost of $100, based on implementation experience. We derived a cost of $451 per patient-year for antiretroviral therapy from costs collected as part of a strategic planning exercise previously conducted in- country by UNAIDS.Over a fifteen-year period, circumcising males ages 10-29 would avert 75% of HIV infections, and circumcising males ages 10-34 would avert 88% of infections, compared to the current strategy of circumcising males ages 15-49. The Ministry of Health's South West and South East health zones had the lowest cost per HIV infection averted. Moreover, VMMC met WHO's definition of cost-effectiveness (that is, the cost per disability-adjusted life-year [DALY] saved was less than three times the per capita gross domestic product in all health zones except Central East. Comparing urban versus rural areas in the country, we found that circumcising men in urban areas would be both cost

  2. IMPACTS-Hamilton: A GIS-Based Decision-Support Tool for Evaluating the Transportation-Related Impacts of an Aging Population

    OpenAIRE

    Kanaroglou, Pavlos; Scott, D. M.; A. Paez; Newbold, K B; H.F. Maoh

    2006-01-01

    As in other developed countries, Canada’s population is aging. In fact, by 2026, approximately 21% of Canadians will be at least 65 years old – an increase of almost 9% from 2001. In absolute terms, the elderly population is expected to grow from 3.935 mi

  3. Natural Variation in Fish Transcriptomes: Comparative Analysis of the Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas and Zebrafish (Danio rerio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Lin Wang

    Full Text Available Fathead minnow and zebrafish are among the most intensively studied fish species in environmental toxicogenomics. To aid the assessment and interpretation of subtle transcriptomic effects from treatment conditions of interest, better characterization and understanding are needed for natural variation in gene expression among fish individuals from lab cultures. Leveraging the transcriptomics data from a number of our toxicogenomics studies conducted over the years, we conducted a meta-analysis of nearly 600 microarrays generated from the ovary tissue of untreated, reproductively mature fathead minnow and zebrafish samples. As expected, there was considerable batch-to-batch transcriptomic variation; this "batch-effect" appeared to differentially impact subsets of fish transcriptomes in a nonsystematic way. Temporally more closely spaced batches tended to share a greater transcriptomic similarity among one another. The overall level of within-batch variation was quite low in fish ovary tissue, making it a suitable system for studying chemical stressors with subtle biological effects. The observed differences in the within-batch variability of gene expression, at the levels of both individual genes and pathways, were probably both technical and biological. This suggests that biological interpretation and prioritization of genes and pathways targeted by experimental conditions should take into account both their intrinsic variability and the size of induced transcriptional changes. There was significant conservation of both the genomes and transcriptomes between fathead minnow and zebrafish. The high degree of conservation offers promising opportunities in not only studying fish molecular responses to environmental stressors by a comparative biology approach, but also effective sharing of a large amount of existing public transcriptomics data for developing toxicogenomics applications.

  4. Comparison of microstructural properties and Charpy impact behaviour between different plates of the Eurofer97 steel and effect of isothermal ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratil, Ludek [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic); Hadraba, Hynek, E-mail: hadraba@ipm.cz [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic); Bursik, Jiri; Dlouhy, Ivo [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-09-30

    Highlights: > Two plates of Eurofer97 steel were tested in thermally unaffected and aged state. > The two plates of Eurofer97 differ significantly in mean prior austenite grain size. > The different grain size lead to different transition temperature between the plates. > Thermal ageing applied lead to slight microstructural changes of the Eurofer97. > The microstructural changes caused small shift of transition temperature. - Abstract: The microstructure and fracture properties of the Eurofer97 steel plates of thickness 14 mm and 25 mm were investigated in as-received state and in state after long-term thermal ageing (550 deg. C/5000 h). Detailed microstructure studies were carried out by means of optical light, electron and quantitative electron microscopy. Mechanical properties were evaluated by means of Charpy impact testing and hardness testing and fracture surfaces were fractographically analysed in macro and microscales. The microstructure of the Eurofer97 consisted of tempered martensite with M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and MX precipitates. Microstructure of 14 mm plate was more homogenous and fine grained than 25 mm plate. Due to different microstructure the t{sub DBTT} of thicker plate was on +10 deg. C higher than for 14 mm plate for which reached -60 deg. C. Slight microstructural changes on the level of subgrain consisting of their partial recrystallization and slight carbide coarsening were observed after applied ageing. The isothermal ageing caused evident shift in t{sub DBTT} about +5 deg. C, which was most likely caused by recrystallization of subgrains.

  5. The impact of ageing and gender on visual mental imagery processes: A study of performance on tasks from the Complete Visual Mental Imagery Battery (CVMIB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Liana; Piccardi, Laura; Nori, Raffaella; Giusberti, Fiorella; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2016-09-01

    In this study we aim to evaluate the impact of ageing and gender on different visual mental imagery processes. Two hundred and fifty-one participants (130 women and 121 men; age range = 18-77 years) were given an extensive neuropsychological battery including tasks probing the generation, maintenance, inspection, and transformation of visual mental images (Complete Visual Mental Imagery Battery, CVMIB). Our results show that all mental imagery processes with the exception of the maintenance are affected by ageing, suggesting that other deficits, such as working memory deficits, could account for this effect. However, the analysis of the transformation process, investigated in terms of mental rotation and mental folding skills, shows a steeper decline in mental rotation, suggesting that age could affect rigid transformations of objects and spare non-rigid transformations. Our study also adds to previous ones in showing gender differences favoring men across the lifespan in the transformation process, and, interestingly, it shows a steeper decline in men than in women in inspecting mental images, which could partially account for the mixed results about the effect of ageing on this specific process. We also discuss the possibility to introduce the CVMIB in clinical assessment in the context of theoretical models of mental imagery. PMID:27134072

  6. The transcriptome landscape of early maize meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiosis, particularly meiotic recombination, is a major factor affecting yield and breeding of plants. To gain insight into the transcriptome landscape during early initiation steps of meiotic recombination, we profiled early prophase I meiocytes from maize using RNA-seq. Our analyses of genes prefe...

  7. Global daily dynamics of the pineal transcriptome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bustos, Diego M; Bailey, Michael J; Sugden, David;

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptome profiling of the pineal gland has revealed night/day differences in the expression of a major fraction of the genes active in this tissue, with two-thirds of these being nocturnal increases. A set of over 600 transcripts exhibit two-fold to >100-fold daily differences in abundance...

  8. Mastitis associated transcriptomic disruptions in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastitis is ranked as the top disease for dairy cattle based on traditional cost analysis. Greater than 100 organisms from a broad phylogenetic spectrum are able to cause bovine mastitis. Transcriptomic characterization facilitates our understanding of host-pathogen relations and provides mechanisti...

  9. The impact of diabetes on the labour force participation, savings and retirement income of workers aged 45-64 years in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Schofield

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a debilitating and costly condition. The costs of reduced labour force participation due to diabetes can have severe economic impacts on individuals by reducing their living standards during working and retirement years.A purpose-built microsimulation model of Australians aged 45-64 years in 2010, Health&WealthMOD2030, was used to estimate the lost savings at age 65 due to premature exit from the labour force because of diabetes. Regression models were used to examine the differences between the projected savings and retirement incomes of people at age 65 for those currently working full or part time with no chronic health condition, full or part time with diabetes, and people not in the labour force due to diabetes.All Australians aged 45-65 years who are employed full time in 2010 will have accumulated some savings at age 65; whereas only 90.5% of those who are out of the labour force due to diabetes will have done so. By the time they reach age 65, those who retire from the labour force early due to diabetes have a median projected savings of less than $35,000. This is far lower than the median value of total savings for those who remained in the labour force full time with no chronic condition, projected to have $638,000 at age 65.Not only does premature retirement due to diabetes limit the immediate income available to individuals with this condition, but it also reduces their long-term financial capacity by reducing their accumulated savings and the income these savings could generate in retirement. Policies designed to support the labour force participation of those with diabetes, or interventions to prevent the onset of the disease itself, should be a priority to preserve living standards comparable with others who do not suffer from this condition.

  10. Impact of age on the cerebrovascular proteomes of wild-type and Tg-SwDI mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Searcy

    Full Text Available The structural integrity of cerebral vessels is compromised during ageing. Abnormal amyloid (Aβ deposition in the vasculature can accelerate age-related pathologies. The cerebrovascular response associated with ageing and microvascular Aβ deposition was defined using quantitative label-free shotgun proteomic analysis. Over 650 proteins were quantified in vessel-enriched fractions from the brains of 3 and 9 month-old wild-type (WT and Tg-SwDI mice. Sixty-five proteins were significantly increased in older WT animals and included several basement membrane proteins (nidogen-1, basement membrane-specific heparan sulfate proteoglycan core protein, laminin subunit gamma-1 precursor and collagen alpha-2(IV chain preproprotein. Twenty-four proteins were increased and twenty-one decreased in older Tg-SwDI mice. Of these, increases in Apolipoprotein E (APOE and high temperature requirement serine protease-1 (HTRA1 and decreases in spliceosome and RNA-binding proteins were the most prominent. Only six shared proteins were altered in both 9-month old WT and Tg-SwDI animals. The age-related proteomic response in the cerebrovasculature was distinctly different in the presence of microvascular Aβ deposition. Proteins found differentially expressed within the WT and Tg-SwDI animals give greater insight to the mechanisms behind age-related cerebrovascular dysfunction and pathologies and may provide novel therapeutic targets.

  11. The Effect of Physiological Stimuli on Sarcopenia; Impact of Notch and Wnt Signaling on Impaired Aged Skeletal Muscle Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Tsivitse Arthur, Ian D. Cooley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function that is associated with sarcopenia can result in ultimate consequences such as decreased quality of life. The causes of sarcopenia are multifactorial and include environmental and biological factors. The purpose of this review is to synthesize what the literature reveals in regards to the cellular regulation of sarcopenia, including impaired muscle regenerative capacity in the aged, and to discuss if physiological stimuli have the potential to slow the loss of myogenic potential that is associated with sarcopenia. In addition, this review article will discuss the effect of aging on Notch and Wnt signaling, and whether physiological stimuli have the ability to restore Notch and Wnt signaling resulting in rejuvenated aged muscle repair. The intention of this summary is to bring awareness to the benefits of consistent physiological stimulus (exercise to combating sarcopenia as well as proclaiming the usefulness of contraction-induced injury models to studying the effects of local and systemic influences on aged myogenic capability.

  12. Embryonic transcriptome of the brackishwater amphipod Gammarus chevreuxi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truebano, Manuela; Tills, Oliver; Spicer, John I

    2016-08-01

    Environmental change can dramatically alter the development of aquatic organisms. While the effect of such change on physiological and morphological ontogenies is becoming clearer, the molecular mechanisms underpinning them are largely unexplored. Characterizing these mechanisms is often limited by the lack of molecular resources. We have applied Illumina HiSeq sequencing to RNA isolated from different developmental stages of the brackishwater amphipod Gammarus chevreuxi. Over 52.6M paired-end reads were assembled de novo into 172,081 contigs, representing 118,812 potential genes. The assembly generated constitutes a reference embryonic transcriptome for an ecologically-important aquatic shredder species. This resource will contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the development of physiological function through functional, comparative and quantitative expression studies. It will also allow the identification of candidate biomarkers for assessing the impact of environmental stressors in estuarine systems. PMID:26896099

  13. The quality of life impact of peripheral versus central vision loss with a focus on glaucoma versus age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Evans

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Keith Evans1, Simon K Law2, John Walt3, Patricia Buchholz4, Jan Hansen31Global Health Outcomes, Wolters Kluwer Health, Chester, United Kingdom; 2Jules Stein Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Global Health Outcomes Strategy and Research, Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA, USA; 4Health Economics, Pricing, and Reimbursement, Allergan GmbH, Ettlingen, GermanyPurpose: It is well accepted that conditions that cause central vision loss (CVL have a negative impact on functional ability and quality of life (QoL, but the impact of diseases that cause peripheral vision loss (PVL is less well understood. Focusing on glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration (ARMD, the effects of CVL and PVL on QoL were compared. Methods: A systematic literature review of publications reporting QoL in patients with CVL or PVL identified 87 publications using four generic (Short-Form Health Survey-36 and -12, EuroQoL EQ-5D and Sickness Impact Profile and five vision-specific (National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-51, -39, and -25, Impact of Vision Impairment and Visual Function-14 QoL instruments; 33 and 15 publications reported QoL in ARMD and glaucoma, respectively.Results: QoL was impaired to a similar extent by diseases associated with PVL and CVL, but different domains were affected. In contrast to ARMD, mental aspects appeared to be affected more than physical aspects in patients with glaucoma.Conclusions: The differential impact upon QoL might be a function of the pathology of the diseases, for example potential for blindness and better ability to perform physical tasks due to retention of central vision may explain these observations in glaucoma.Keywords: vision loss, quality of life, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic macular edema, cataracts

  14. Characterization of blood biochemical markers during aging in the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus: impact of gender and season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchal Julia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hematologic and biochemical data are needed to characterize the health status of animal populations over time to determine the habitat quality and captivity conditions. Blood components and the chemical entities that they transport change predominantly with sex and age. The aim of this study was to utilize blood chemistry monitoring to establish the reference levels in a small prosimian primate, the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus. Method In the captive colony, mouse lemurs may live 10–12 years, and three age groups for both males and females were studied: young (1–3 years, middle-aged (4–5 years and old (6–10 years. Blood biochemical markers were measured using the VetScan Comprehensive Diagnostic Profile. Because many life history traits of this primate are highly dependent on the photoperiod (body mass and reproduction, the effect of season was also assessed. Results The main effect of age was observed in blood markers of renal functions such as creatinine, which was higher among females. Additionally, blood urea nitrogen significantly increased with age and is potentially linked to chronic renal insufficiency, which has been described in captive mouse lemurs. The results demonstrated significant effects related to season, especially in blood protein levels and glucose rates; these effects were observed regardless of gender or age and were likely due to seasonal variations in food intake, which is very marked in this species. Conclusion These results were highly similar with those obtained in other primate species and can serve as references for future research of the Grey Mouse Lemur.

  15. The Impact of Electronic Health Records on Risk Management of Information Systems in Australian Residential Aged Care Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Yu, Ping; Hailey, David; Ma, Jun; Yang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    To obtain indications of the influence of electronic health records (EHR) in managing risks and meeting information system accreditation standard in Australian residential aged care (RAC) homes. The hypothesis to be tested is that the RAC homes using EHR have better performance in meeting information system standards in aged care accreditation than their counterparts only using paper records for information management. Content analysis of aged care accreditation reports from the Aged Care Standards and Accreditation Agency produced between April 2011 and December 2013. Items identified included types of information systems, compliance with accreditation standards, and indicators of failure to meet an expected outcome for information systems. The Chi-square test was used to identify difference between the RAC homes that used EHR systems and those that used paper records in not meeting aged care accreditation standards. 1,031 (37.4%) of 2,754 RAC homes had adopted EHR systems. Although the proportion of homes that met all accreditation standards was significantly higher for those with EHR than for homes with paper records, only 13 RAC homes did not meet one or more expected outcomes. 12 used paper records and nine of these failed the expected outcome for information systems. The overall contribution of EHR to meeting aged care accreditation standard in Australia was very small. Risk indicators for not meeting information system standard were no access to accurate and appropriate information, failure in monitoring mechanisms, not reporting clinical incidents, insufficient recording of residents' clinical changes, not providing accurate care plans, and communication processes failure. The study has provided indications that use of EHR provides small, yet significant advantages for RAC homes in Australia in managing risks for information management and in meeting accreditation requirements. The implication of the study for introducing technology innovation in RAC in

  16. Impact of Parental History of Myopia on the Development of Myopia in Mainland China School-Aged Children

    OpenAIRE

    Lik Thai Lim; Yanhong Gong; Ah-kee, Elliott Y.; Gexin Xiao; Xiulan Zhang; Shicheng Yu

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Myopia is a very common condition and a significant public health problem in China. The objective of the study was to explore the genetic influence on myopia in Mainland China school-aged children in Beijing. METHODS In 2008, the data from 15,316 Chinese school students aged 6–18 years from 19 randomized schools in Beijing were analyzed to evaluate genetic influence on myopia in children. Heritability was calculated by mid-parent–offspring regression and parent–offspring regression...

  17. [Measuring the impact of an "age-friendly city" approach on a territory by setting up cross-cutting indicators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapon, Pierre-Marie; Lefebvre, Pierre-Olivier; Philipona, Angélique; Finot, Floria

    2015-06-01

    The "Age-friendly cities" program has been developing in France since 2010. So far the existing protocols had not allowed cities to assess actions taken in favor of elderly people comprehensively. The work done with the Francophone network of age-friendly cities (RFVAA) has led to the definition of an indicator consisting of 12 points; the relative importance of each target was weighted using a decision-making tool. This work has demonstrated the major role of governance in the implementation of cross-cutting policies for the benefit of older people. PMID:26103108

  18. Social role participation and the life course in healthy adults and individuals with osteoarthritis: are we overlooking the impact on the middle-aged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignac, Monique A M; Backman, Catherine L; Davis, Aileen M; Lacaille, Diane; Cao, Xingshan; Badley, Elizabeth M

    2013-03-01

    different ages among those with chronic diseases like OA when developing interventions to help understand the impact of roles on psychological well-being. PMID:23312300

  19. The impact of minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use: evidence from a regression discontinuity design using exact date of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yörük, Barış K; Yörük, Ceren Ertan

    2011-07-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to estimate the impact of the minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use among young adults. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997 Cohort), we find that granting legal access to alcohol at age 21 leads to an increase in several measures of alcohol consumption, including an up to a 13 percentage point increase in the probability of drinking. Furthermore, this effect is robust under several different parametric and non-parametric models. We also find some evidence that the discrete jump in alcohol consumption at age 21 has negative spillover effects on marijuana use but does not affect the smoking habits of young adults. Our results indicate that although the change in alcohol consumption habits of young adults following their 21st birthday is less severe than previously known, policies that are designed to reduce drinking among young adults may have desirable impacts and can create public health benefits. PMID:21719131

  20. Assessing the impact of humidex on HFMD in Guangdong Province and its variability across social-economic status and age groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wangjian; Du, Zhicheng; Zhang, Dingmei; Yu, Shicheng; Huang, Yong; Hao, Yuantao

    2016-01-01

    Humidex is a meteorological index that combines the impacts of temperature and humidity, and is directly comparable with dry temperature in degrees Celsius. However, to date, no research has focused on the effect of humidex on hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). The current study was designed to address this research need. Case-based HFMD surveillance data and daily meteorological data collected between 2010 and 2012 was obtained from the China CDC and the National Meteorological Information Center, respectively. Distributed lag nonlinear models were applied to assess the impact of humidex on HFMD among children under 15 years oldin Guangdong, and its variability across social-economic status and age groups. We found that relative risk (RR) largely increased with humidex. Lag-specific and cumulative humidex-RR curves for children from the Pearl-River Delta Region as well as older children were more likely to show two-peak distribution patterns. One RR peak occurred at a humidex of between 15 and 20, and the other occurred between 30 and 35. This study provides a comprehensive picture of the impact of humidex on HFMD incidence in Guangdong Province. Results from the present study should be important in the development of area-and-age-targeted control programs.

  1. Assessing the impact of humidex on HFMD in Guangdong Province and its variability across social-economic status and age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wangjian; Du, Zhicheng; Zhang, Dingmei; Yu, Shicheng; Huang, Yong; Hao, Yuantao

    2016-01-01

    Humidex is a meteorological index that combines the impacts of temperature and humidity, and is directly comparable with dry temperature in degrees Celsius. However, to date, no research has focused on the effect of humidex on hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). The current study was designed to address this research need. Case-based HFMD surveillance data and daily meteorological data collected between 2010 and 2012 was obtained from the China CDC and the National Meteorological Information Center, respectively. Distributed lag nonlinear models were applied to assess the impact of humidex on HFMD among children under 15 years oldin Guangdong, and its variability across social-economic status and age groups. We found that relative risk (RR) largely increased with humidex. Lag-specific and cumulative humidex-RR curves for children from the Pearl-River Delta Region as well as older children were more likely to show two-peak distribution patterns. One RR peak occurred at a humidex of between 15 and 20, and the other occurred between 30 and 35. This study provides a comprehensive picture of the impact of humidex on HFMD incidence in Guangdong Province. Results from the present study should be important in the development of area-and-age-targeted control programs. PMID:26743684

  2. Impact of Air Pollution on Age and Gender Related Increase in Cough Reflex Sensitivity of Healthy Children in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin-Alexikova, Silvia; Plevkova, Jana; Mazurova, Lenka; Zatko, Tomas; Alexik, Mikulas; Hanacek, Jan; Tatar, Milos

    2016-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies show higher cough reflex sensitivity (CRS) and cough outcomes in children compared to adults and in females compared to males. Despite close link that exists between cough and environment the potential influence of environmental air pollution on age- and gender -related differences in cough has not been studied yet. Purpose: The purpose of our study was to analyse whether the effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) from parental smoking and PM10 from living in urban area are implied in age- and gender-related differences in cough outcomes of healthy, non-asthmatic children. Assessment of CRS using capsaicin and incidence of dry and wet cough was performed in 290 children (mean age 13.3 ± 2.6 years (138 females/152 males). Results: CRS was significantly higher in girls exposed to ETS [22.3 μmol/l (9.8–50.2 μmol/l)] compared to not exposed girls [79.9 μmol/l (56.4–112.2 μmol/l), p = 0.02] as well as compared to exposed boys [121.4 μmol/l (58.2–253.1 μmol/l), p = 0.01]. Incidence of dry cough lasting more than 3 weeks was significantly higher in exposed compared to not exposed girls. CRS was significantly higher in school-aged girls living in urban area [22.0 μmol/l (10.6–45.6 μmol/l)] compared to school-aged girls living in rural area [215.9 μmol/l (87.3–533.4 μmol/l); p = 0.003], as well as compared to teenage girls living in urban area [108.8 μmol/l (68.7–172.9 μmol/l); p = 0.007]. No CRS differences were found between urban and rural boys when controlled for age group. No CRS differences were found between school-aged and teenage boys when controlled for living area. Conclusions: Our results have shown that the effect of ETS on CRS was gender specific, linked to female gender and the effect of PM10 on CRS was both gender and age specific, related to female gender and school-age. We suggest that age and gender related differences in incidence of cough and CRS might be, at least partially

  3. The role of transcriptome resilience in resistance of corals to bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneca, Francois O; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2015-04-01

    Wild populations increasingly experience extreme conditions as climate change amplifies environmental variability. How individuals respond to environmental extremes determines the impact of climate change overall. The variability of response from individual to individual can represent the opportunity for natural selection to occur as a result of extreme conditions. Here, we experimentally replicated the natural exposure to extreme temperatures of the reef lagoon at Ofu Island (American Samoa), where corals can experience severe heat stress during midday low tide. We investigated the bleaching and transcriptome response of 20 Acropora hyacinthus colonies 5 and 20 h after exposure to control (29 °C) or heated (35 °C) conditions. We found a highly dynamic transcriptome response: 27% of the coral transcriptome was significantly regulated 1 h postheat exposure. Yet 15 h later, when heat-induced coral bleaching became apparent, only 12% of the transcriptome was differentially regulated. A large proportion of responsive genes at the first time point returned to control levels, others remained differentially expressed over time, while an entirely different subset of genes was successively regulated at the second time point. However, a noteworthy variability in gene expression was observed among individual coral colonies. Among the genes of which expression lingered over time, fast return to normal levels was associated with low bleaching. Colonies that maintained higher expression levels of these genes bleached severely. Return to normal levels of gene expression after stress has been termed transcriptome resilience, and in the case of some specific genes may signal the physiological health and response ability of individuals to environmental stress. PMID:25728233

  4. The Impact of Gender, Age and Tissues in vitro on Estimating Postmortem Interval by FTIR Spectroscopy%The Impact of Gender,Age and Tissues in vitro on Estimating Postmortem Interval by FTIR Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUAN Miao-gen; FU Gao-wen; LIU Feng; MENG Hao-tian; WANG Zhen-yuan

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the influence of such individual factors as gender,age and tissues in vitro to the postmortem interval (PMI) by the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer in animal experiments.SD rats were classified into male and female groups,different age groups (21-day,42-day and 63-day group),and tissues in vitro and in vivo groups.The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation,whose bodies were kept in a controlled environmental chamber set at (20±2)℃ and 50% humidity.The liver,kidney,spleen,myocardium,brain,lung and skeletal muscle tissues were collected for measurement from time zero to 48 h postmortem.With the change of PMI,no obvious changes were found in the main FTIR absorbance peaks and their ratios at different time points.All the experimental groups showed no significant changes when compared with the controls.The gender,age and tissues in vitro were not found to be contributing factors in the estimation of PMI via FTIR spectroscopy.

  5. Impact of a Community-Based Prevention Marketing Intervention to Promote Physical Activity among Middle-Aged Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Granner, Michelle L.; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E.; Bryant, Carol A.; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda

    2010-01-01

    A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral…

  6. The Movement Assessment Battery in Greek Preschoolers: The Impact of Age, Gender, Birth Order, and Physical Activity on Motor Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kabitsis, Nikolaos; Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Zaragas, Charilaos; Katartzi, Ermioni; Kabitsis, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Early identification of possible risk factors that could impair the motor development is crucial, since poor motor performance may have long-term negative consequences for a child's overall development. The aim of the current study was the examination of disorders in motor coordination in Greek pre-school aged children and the detection of…

  7. User Preferences for Web-Based Module Design Layout and Design Impact on Information Recall Considering Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomales-García, Cristina; Rivera-Nivar, Mericia

    2015-01-01

    Research in design of Web-based modules should incorporate aging as an important factor given the diversity of the current workforce. This work aims to understand how Web-Based Learning modules can be designed to accommodate young (25-35 years) as well as older (55-65 years) users by: (1) identifying how information sources (instructor video,…

  8. Water age prediction and its potential impacts on water quality using a hydrodynamic model for Poyang Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hengda; Lu, Jianzhong; Chen, Xiaoling; Sauvage, Sabine; Sanchez-Pérez, José-Miguel

    2016-07-01

    The water quality in Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, has deteriorated steadily in recent years and local governments have made efforts to manage the potential eutrophication. In order to investigate the transport and retention processes of dissolved substances, the hydrodynamic model, Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) was applied by using the concept of water age. The simulated results showed agreement with the measured water level, discharge, and inundation area. The water age in Poyang Lake was significantly influenced by the variations of hydrological conditions. The annual analysis revealed that the largest averaged water age was observed during the wet year (2010) with 28.4 days at Hukou, the junction of the Yangtze River and Poyang Lake. In the normal season (April), the youngest age with 9.1 days was found. The spatial distribution of water quality derived from the remote sensing images suggested that a higher chlorophyll-a concentration, lower turbidity, and smaller water age in the eastern area of Poyang Lake might threaten the regional aquatic health. The particle tracking simulation reproduced the trajectories of the dissolved substances, indicating that the water mass with greater nutrient loading would further lead to potential environmental problems in the east lake. Moreover, the water transfer ability would be weakened due to dam (Poyang Project) construction resulting in the rising water levels in periods of regulation. Generally, this study quantified an indicative transport timescale, which could help to better understand the complex hydrodynamic processes and manage wetland ecosystems similar to Poyang Lake. PMID:27023820

  9. Immediate and longer term impact of the varicella shortage on children 18 and 24 months of age in a community population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmerman Rick

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the impact of the recent varicella vaccine shortage. To assess the temporal trend in varicella vaccine administration before 18 and 24 months of age in a community cohort of children prior to, during and after the recent varicella vaccine shortage. And to compare the temporal trends in varicella vaccinations to trends of an older, more widely accepted vaccine, the MMR. Methods Community population-based birth cohorts were identified who were eligible for the varicella vaccination before, during and after the 2001 to 2002 varicella vaccine shortage. Only children (84% of all who remained in the community through their second birthday were included. For each child in the cohort, the medical records and immunization registry records from both medical facilities in the county were reviewed to identify the dates and sites for all varicella immunizations given. In addition to varicella immunizations, the dates of all MMR vaccinations were recorded. Additional data abstracted included the child's birth date, gender and dates of any recognized cases of chickenpox up through age 24 months. Results Of the 2,512 children in the birth cohorts, 50.8% were boys. In the three cohorts combined, 81.1% of the boys and 79.3% of the girls (p = 0.30 received the varicella vaccine by age 24 months. The pre-shortage community rate of varicella immunization was 79.7% by 24 months of age. During the varicella vaccine shortage, the rate of varicella immunization by 24 months fell to 77.2%. Only 6 additional children received a "catch-up" immunization by 36 months of age. In the post shortage period the community 24-month immunization rate rebounded to a level higher than the pre-shortage rate 84.0%. During the almost three years of observation, the MMR immunization rate by age 24 months was constant (87%. Conclusion The varicella shortage was associated with an immediate drop in the 24-month varicella immunizations rate but

  10. The Impact of Animated Books on the Vocabulary and Language Development of Preschool-Aged Children in Two School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broemmel, Amy D.; Moran, Mary Jane; Wooten, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    With the emergence of electronic media over the past two decades, young children have been found to have increased exposure to video games, computer-based activities, and electronic books (e-books). This study explores how exposure to animated ebooks impacts young children's literacy development. A stratified convenience sample (n = 24) was…

  11. Martian ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subjects of this paper are a discussion of the methodology of relative age determination by impact crater statistics, a comparison of currently proposed Martian impact chronologies for the determination of absolute ages from crater frequencies, a report on our work of dating Martian volcanoes and erosional features by impact crater statistics, and an attempt to understand the main features of Martian history through a synthesis of our crater frequency data and those published by other authors. Two cratering chronology models are presented and used for inference of absolute ages from crater frequency data: model 1, with nearly equal Martian and lunar cratering rates around (ca.) 4- to 10-km crater sizes, and model II. equivalent to model I for ages >3.5 x 109 years but with a factor of 2 higher Martian cratering rate at ages 9 years. Those model cratering chronologies are applied to the data. The interpretation of all crater frequency data available and tractable by our methodology leads to a global Martian geological history that is characterized essentially by two epochs of activity. The division between the two epochs is measured at a cumulative crater frequency value for 1-km craters (crater retention age) of N(1) = 8 x 10-4 (km-2) corresponding to an absolute age of ca. 3 x 109 years (applying model I cratering chronology) and of ca. 1.5 x 109 years (applying model II cratering chronology). In the ancient epoch all major events like emplacement of the plains lavas, the piling up of most volcanic constructs, and large-scale erosion of channels and mensae (highland/northern lowland boundary) have taken place. During the younger epoch, only the big Tharsis shield volcanoes were active, and some minor erosion took place. This means that Mars is not a youthful planet but an ancient one with respect to most of its surface features

  12. The Predictive Impact of Biological and Sociocultural Factors on Executive Processing: The Role of Age, Education, and Frequency of Reading and Writing Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrena, Charles; Branco, Laura D; Cardoso, Caroline O; Wong, Cristina Elizabeth I; Fonseca, Rochele P

    2016-01-01

    Although the impact of education and age on executive functions (EF) has been widely studied, the influence of daily cognitive stimulation on EF has not been sufficiently investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the age, education, and frequency of reading and writing habits (FRWH) of healthy adults could predict their performance on measures of inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Inhibition speed, inhibitory control, and set shifting were assessed using speed, accuracy, and discrepancy scores on the Trail-Making Test (TMT) and Hayling Test. Demographic characteristics and the FRWH were assessed using specialized questionnaires. Regression analyses showed that age and the FRWH predicted speed and accuracy on the TMT. The FRWH predicted both speed and accuracy on the Hayling Test, for which speed and accuracy scores were also partly explained by age and education, respectively. Surprisingly, only the FRWH was associated with Hayling Test discrepancy scores, considered one of the purest EF measures. This highlights the importance of regular cognitive stimulation over the number of years of formal education on EF tasks. Further studies are required to investigate the role of the FRWH so as to better comprehend its relationship with EF and general cognition. PMID:26111081

  13. IMPACTS !

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    (Photo courtesy of Don Davis / NASA)The University of Geneva (UNIGE) and the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale of Lausanne (EPFL) are organising the 4th series of public lectures on astronomy, on the theme of "Impacts". The schedule is as follows: Il y a 100 ans : une explosion dans la Tunguska – Dr. Frédéric COURBIN, EPFL Les impacts sur Terre – Prof. Didier Queloz, UNIGE La fin des dinosaures – Dr. Stéphane Paltani, UNIGE Wednesday 7 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire CO1, EPFL, Ecublens Thursday 08 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire Rouiller, Uni-Dufour, Genève All 3 lectures will be givent each evening! Admission free Information: 022 379 22 00

  14. Ageing management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageing management is generally defined in a broad sense covering not only ageing management of hardware (structures, systems and components), but also management issues such as keeping up with developments in state-of-the-art technology and the latest management practices. The importance assigned to traditional ageing management, in terms of issues related to hardware degradation problems, is clearly very high. The other aspects, for example developments in engineering or management, are considered important as well, but are less emphasized. Plant ageing management is composed of the following necessary elements, which are all linked together: understanding and knowledge of ageing-related damage mechanisms, including benchmarking of the consequences of damage mechanisms into macroscopic behaviour of materials and structures under applicable conditions; predictive models to extrapolate behaviour of systems, structures or components up to a defined time; qualified methods for detection and surveillance of ageing degradation; qualified mitigation, repair and replacements measures; reliable plant documentation, including optimisation of the ageing management programme based on current understanding and knowledge and periodic self-assessment; availability of a technical service and knowledge base. The subject of plant ageing management has gained increasing attention over the past years, notably as more nuclear power plants across the world are being considered for lifetime extension. In this context, the NEA has conducted numerous technical studies to assess the impact of ageing mechanisms on safe and reliable plant operation. International research activities have also been initiated or are under way to provide the technical basis for decision making. This article provides an overview of some of the activities and accomplishments of the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) Working Group on the Integrity and Ageing of Components and Structures

  15. The impact of demographic changes on financial markets : an empirical study of the historical relationship between age structure and real returns in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerke, Carl Frederick

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of demographic changes on financial markets, by testing the historical relationship between US age structure and the real return of the S&P 500 index. By critically discussing relevant research on the subject, we begin by providing an overview on where we stand today. Based on the theoretical framework of the Bakshi and Chen (1994) paper we then present two hypotheses, the life-cycle investment hypothesis and the life-cycle risk aversion hypothesis, as a motivati...

  16. How Do Age and Tooth Loss Affect Oral Health Impacts and Quality of Life?A Study Comparing Two State Samples of Gujarat and Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mathur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Age and tooth loss are expected to have a complex relationship with oral health-related quality of life. So the purpose of this study was to explain the impact of age and tooth loss on oral health-related quality of life using the short form 14-item oral health impact profile (OHIP-14 among two population samples of Gujarat and Rajasthan.Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted among 1441 subjects collected from two major cities of Gujarat and Rajasthan. Both questionnaire approaches using OHIP-14 scale and clinical examination were conducted in accordance with WHO criteria using type III procedure on the same day. Chi square test, ANOVA and stepwise multiple regression analysis were applied using SPSS software version 15.0.Results: With the increase of age, OHIP mean score in both states increased, but that among Rajasthan state was higher, depicting poor oral health. Whereas, in the remaining 23-27 number of teeth both states showed higher OHIP mean, however again the score was much higher among Rajasthan subjects showing worse oral hygiene. Hence, overall all mean OHIP score for Gujarat was lower indicating good oral health; whereas, that among Rajasthan was higher indicating poor oral health-related quality of life.Conclusion: Both age and tooth loss are associated with each other, but they have an independent effect on the oral health-related quality of life. Thus, all studied populations with complete natural dentition showed good oral health-related quality of life.

  17. The impact of weight for age on survival in acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Report from a tertiary care center in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Trehan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Undernutrition is considered to have a negative impact on survival in children with malignancies. The objective of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate the morbidity pattern and outcome of therapy in undernourished (UN children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: A retrospective analysis of impact of weight for age was performed in children treated for ALL. The IAP & CDC criteria for undernutrition were used in the two different time periods of analysis. Results: There were two cohorts in the study: Between 1995 and 2005, 360 children were evaluated where the weight for age was classified using the Indian Academy of Pediatrics criteria for undernourishment (Group A. Group B of the study included 373 children treated from 2007 to 2011, who were graded as per the Centers for Disease Control criteria for weight for age. In Group A, 35% of the children were malnourished at presentation. The morbidity and supportive care needed in the well-nourished and UN group were similar. The event-free survival and mortality were similar in both groups. Analysis of Group B showed an overall survival of 62.6% with a greater survival in children with a weight of ≥10th centile for age compared to children at the <10th centile, (P = 0.026 with a higher mortality (P = 0.011 in the UN group. Conclusion: Our data have yielded conflicting results. The older cohort did not show a significant difference in survival using malnutrition as a risk factor. However, in the subsequent cohort, a difference in survival was noted. This could be due to the reason that different criteria for classification of undernutrition were applied in the two groups. This analysis lays the foundation for a future prospective analysis to evaluate nutrition as an independent risk factor nutrition as an independent risk factor in the outcome of childhood malignancies.

  18. Characterization of the floral transcriptome of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis at different flowering developmental stages by transcriptome sequencing and RNA-seq analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As an arborescent and perennial plant, Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis (Carrière J. Houzeau, synonym Phyllostachys heterocycla Carrière is characterized by its infrequent sexual reproduction with flowering intervals ranging from several to more than a hundred years. However, little bamboo genomic research has been conducted on this due to a variety of reasons. Here, for the first time, we investigated the transcriptome of developing flowers in Moso bamboo by using high-throughput Illumina GAII sequencing and mapping short reads to the Moso bamboo genome and reference genes. We performed RNA-seq analysis on four important stages of flower development, and obtained extensive gene and transcript abundance data for the floral transcriptome of this key bamboo species. RESULTS: We constructed a cDNA library using equal amounts of RNA from Moso bamboo leaf samples from non-flowering plants (CK and mixed flower samples (F of four flower development stages. We generated more than 67 million reads from each of the CK and F samples. About 70% of the reads could be uniquely mapped to the Moso bamboo genome and the reference genes. Genes detected at each stage were categorized to putative functional categories based on their expression patterns. The analysis of RNA-seq data of bamboo flowering tissues at different developmental stages reveals key gene expression properties during the flower development of bamboo. CONCLUSION: We showed that a combination of transcriptome sequencing and RNA-seq analysis was a powerful approach to identifying candidate genes related to floral transition and flower development in bamboo species. The results give a better insight into the mechanisms of Moso bamboo flowering and ageing. This transcriptomic data also provides an important gene resource for improving breeding for Moso bamboo.

  19. Online newspapers: the impact of culture, sex, and age on the perceived importance of specified quality factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley G. Hope

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a proliferation of online newspapers over recent years. Despite this, or perhaps because of it, factors affecting the quality of online newspapers remain only partially understood. Based on a two-factor model of hygiene and motivator factors, this paper examines quality for online newspapers giving attention to differences across culture, sex, and age. Hygiene factors are essential requirements whose absence causes dissatisfaction, while motivators are desirable elements that add value and increase user satisfaction. The paper presents findings from an empirical study of eighty-four Web users. Results show that hygiene factors for our respondents were: Timeliness, Content attractiveness, Content coverage, Usefulness, and Navigation, while motivators were: Writing style, Layout, Archives, Services, Interactivity, and Multimedia presentation. Four factors were borderline: Journalism ethics, Ease of use, Front page and headlines, and Locating information. However, the research reveals some differences in classification of factors across culture, sex, and age.

  20. Mate selection and its impact on female marriage age, pregnancy wastages, and first child survival in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureender, S; Prabakaran, B; Khan, A G

    1998-01-01

    Marriage in Indian society is a religious duty. Consanguineous marriage is common, where individuals prefer to marry within their clan (a unilateral kin group based on either matrilineal or patrilineal descent). Keeping in mind that this form of marriage has certain disadvantages for social and biological as well as demographic aspects of individuals and families, the present study examines the influence of mate selection (i.e., close relatives, distant relatives, not related) on female age at marriage, pregnancy wastages, and survival status of the first child. The study was designed based on the information collected on a sample size of 3,948 married women aged 13-49 in Tamil Nadu, India, by the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), 1992. Results suggest that 48 per cent of women in Tamil Nadu marry their relatives. This practice of marrying relatives is high in rural areas, among Hindus, Scheduled Castes/tribes, and illiterate women as compared to urban areas, among non-Hindus, non-SC/ST, and educated women, respectively. The bivariate analysis reveals that women marrying their close relatives had low age at marriage and experienced a higher per cent of pregnancy wastage and child loss (first child) as compared to those women marrying their distant relatives or nonrelatives. The result is found to be consistent even after controlling for selected background variables through multivariate techniques (applied separately for age at marriage, pregnancy wastages, and the survival status of first child). Hence, this study suggests that steps should be taken to inform people about the problems of marrying close relatives through appropriate IEC programs in Tamil Nadu. PMID:10085741

  1. The impact of available anti-glaucoma therapy on the volume and age profile of patients undergoing glaucoma filtration surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keane, P A

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether new classes of glaucoma medication have influenced glaucoma filtration surgery over a 20-year period in the southeast region of Ireland. METHODS: All patients undergoing glaucoma filtration surgery between January 1986 and December 2005 in Waterford Regional Hospital were identified. The following data were recorded for each patient: age; sex; and type of filtration procedure. RESULTS: Over the 20-year study period two consultant ophthalmic surgeons performed a total of 760 glaucoma filtration procedures on patients aged over 20 years. The annual average number of glaucoma surgeries declined steadily, defined by availability of different topical anti-glaucoma medications, from an average of 23.75 surgeries per surgeon per year in the subperiod 1986-1995, to 21 in 1996, 20 in 1997, and 12.69 surgeries per surgeon per year in 1998-2005, these differences being statistically significant (general linear model, P<0.001). The age profile of patients did not change significantly over the course of the study period. CONCLUSIONS: The volume of patients requiring glaucoma filtration surgery under the care of two consultant ophthalmic surgeons decreased over the 20-year study period, an era in which three classes of anti-glaucoma medications were made available. However, an increase in the age profile of patients undergoing glaucoma filtration surgery during the same period was not observed. Further study is required to resolve whether introduction of the new topical anti-glaucoma medications has led to a real reduction in the demand for glaucoma filtration surgery, or has just led to the deferral of such a demand.

  2. The Effect of Cues of Parental Investment on Attractiveness Ratings of Males: The Impact of Child Presence and Age

    OpenAIRE

    Went, Hannah

    2007-01-01

    According to evolutionary theories of mate choice, male parental investment is a desired characteristic of long term mates. Brase (2006) found that cues of a positive disposition towards parental investment increased males’ perceived attractiveness to females. Interacting with a child was taken to be a measure of males’ disposition towards parental investment. The present study sought to replicate and extend these findings by altering the age of the child involved. The results ...

  3. Online newspapers: the impact of culture, sex, and age on the perceived importance of specified quality factors

    OpenAIRE

    Beverley G. Hope; Zhiru Li

    2004-01-01

    There has been a proliferation of online newspapers over recent years. Despite this, or perhaps because of it, factors affecting the quality of online newspapers remain only partially understood. Based on a two-factor model of hygiene and motivator factors, this paper examines quality for online newspapers giving attention to differences across culture, sex, and age. Hygiene factors are essential requirements whose absence causes dissatisfaction, while motivators are desirable elements that a...

  4. Modelling Cost Effectiveness in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Impact of Using Contrast Sensitivity vs. Visual Acuity.

    OpenAIRE

    Butt, T.; Patel, P. J.; Tufail, A; Rubin, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The cost utility of treatments of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is commonly assessed using health state transition models defined by levels of visual acuity. However, there is evidence that another measure of visual function, contrast sensitivity, may be better associated with utility than visual acuity. This paper investigates the difference in cost effectiveness resulting from models based on visual acuity and contrast sensitivity using the example of bevacizumab (Avasti...

  5. Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes – The Impact of Gender, Age, and Health-Related Functioning on Eating Disorder Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Wisting, Line; Bang, Lasse; Skrivarhaug, Torild; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut; Rø, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate correlates of eating disorder psychopathology in adolescent males and females with type 1 diabetes. Method A total of 105 adolescents with type 1 diabetes (42% males), aged 12–20 years, were recruited from the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry in this population-based study. All participants were interviewed with the Child Eating Disorder Examination. Additionally, the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experience...

  6. Defining sarcopenia: the impact of different diagnostic criteria on the prevalence of sarcopenia in a large middle aged cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Bijlsma, A. Y.; Meskers, C. G. M.; Ling, C. H. Y.; Narici, M.; Kurrle, S E; Cameron, I.D.; Westendorp, R G J; Maier, A. B.

    2012-01-01

    Sarcopenia, low muscle mass, is an increasing problem in our ageing society. The prevalence of sarcopenia varies extremely between elderly cohorts ranging from 7% to over 50%. Without consensus on the definition of sarcopenia, a variety of diagnostic criteria are being used. We assessed the degree of agreement between seven different diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia based on muscle mass and handgrip strength, described in literature. In this cross-sectional study, we included men (n = 325) ...

  7. Changes in the MEG background activity in patients with positive symptoms of schizophrenia: spectral analysis and impact of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequency spectrum of the magnetoencephalogram (MEG) background activity was analysed in 15 schizophrenia (SCH) patients with predominant positive symptoms and 17 age-matched healthy control subjects using the following variables: median frequency (MF), spectral entropy (SpecEn) and relative power in delta (RPδ), theta (RPθ), lower alpha (RPα1), upper alpha (RPα2), beta (RPβ) and gamma (RPγ) bands. We found significant differences between the two subject groups in the average level of MF and RPγ in some regions of the scalp. Additionally, the MF, SpecEn, RPβ and RPγ values of SCH patients with positive symptoms had a different dependence on age as compared with the results of control subjects, suggesting that SCH affects the way in which the brain activity evolves with age. Moreover, we also classified the MEG signals by means of a cross-validated feature selection process followed by a logistic regression. The subjects were classified with 71.3% accuracy and an area under the ROC curve of 0.741. Thus, the spectral and classification analysis of the MEG in SCH may provide insights into how this condition affects the brain activity and may help in its early detection. (paper)

  8. Impact of glutathione-enriched inactive dry yeast preparations on the stability of terpenes during model wine aging

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Andújar-Ortiz, Inmaculada; Moreno-Arribas, M. Victoria; Simó, Carolina; González, Javier; Chana, Antonio; Dávalos, Juan Z.; Pozo-Bayón, Mª Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the addition of glutathione-enriched Inactive dry yeast preparations (g-IDYs) on the stability of some typical wine terpenes (linalool, α-terpineol, β-citronellol, and nerol) stored under accelerated oxidative conditions was evaluated in model wines. Additionally, the effects of a second type of IDY preparation with a different claim (fermentative nutrient) and the sole addition of commercial glutathione into the model wines were also assessed. Model wines were spiked with the l...

  9. Prioritizing Child Health Interventions in Ethiopia: Modeling Impact on Child Mortality, Life Expectancy and Inequality in Age at Death

    OpenAIRE

    Onarheim, Kristine Husøy; Tessema, Solomon; Johansson, Kjell Arne; Eide, Kristiane Tislevoll; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Miljeteig, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Background: The fourth Millennium Development Goal calls for a two-thirds reduction in under-5 mortality between 1990 and 2015. Under-5 mortality rate is declining, but many countries are still far from achieving the goal. Effective child health interventions that could reduce child mortality exist, but national decision-makers lack contextual information for priority setting in their respective resource-constrained settings. We estimate the potential health impact of increasing coverage of 1...

  10. Stress before Puberty Exerts a Sex- and Age-Related Impact on Auditory and Contextual Fear Conditioning in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of major physical, hormonal, and psychological changes. It is also characterized by a significant increase in the incidence of psychopathologies and this increase is gender-specific. Stress during adolescence is associated with the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. In this study, we evaluated the impact of psychogenic stress (exposure to predator odor followed by placement on an elevated platform) experienced before puberty (days 28–30) on fear m...

  11. Stress before Puberty Exerts a Sex- and Age-Related Impact on Auditory and Contextual Fear Conditioning in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Toledo-Rodriguez; Carmen Sandi

    2007-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of major physical, hormonal, and psychological changes. It is also characterized by a significant increase in the incidence of psychopathologies and this increase is gender-specific. Stress during adolescence is associated with the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. In this study, we evaluated the impact of psychogenic stress (exposure to predator odor followed by placement on an elevated platform) experienced before puberty (days 28–30) on fear memori...

  12. Avoiding Aging? Social Psychology's Treatment of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Anne E.; Redmond, Rebecca; von Rohr, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Population aging, in conjunction with social and cultural transformations of the life course, has profound implications for social systems--from large-scale structures to micro-level processes. However, much of sociology remains fairly quiet on issues of age and aging, including the subfield of social psychology that could illuminate the impact of…

  13. Transcriptome Profiling of Pediatric Core Binding Factor AML.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Hsu

    Full Text Available The t(8;21 and Inv(16 translocations disrupt the normal function of core binding factors alpha (CBFA and beta (CBFB, respectively. These translocations represent two of the most common genomic abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia (AML patients, occurring in approximately 25% pediatric and 15% of adult with this malignancy. Both translocations are associated with favorable clinical outcomes after intensive chemotherapy, and given the perceived mechanistic similarities, patients with these translocations are frequently referred to as having CBF-AML. It remains uncertain as to whether, collectively, these translocations are mechanistically the same or impact different pathways in subtle ways that have both biological and clinical significance. Therefore, we used transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq to investigate the similarities and differences in genes and pathways between these subtypes of pediatric AMLs. Diagnostic RNA from patients with t(8;21 (N = 17, Inv(16 (N = 14, and normal karyotype (NK, N = 33 were subjected to RNA-seq. Analyses compared the transcriptomes across these three cytogenetic subtypes, using the NK cohort as the control. A total of 1291 genes in t(8;21 and 474 genes in Inv(16 were differentially expressed relative to the NK controls, with 198 genes differentially expressed in both subtypes. The majority of these genes (175/198; binomial test p-value < 10(-30 are consistent in expression changes among the two subtypes suggesting the expression profiles are more similar between the CBF cohorts than in the NK cohort. Our analysis also revealed alternative splicing events (ASEs differentially expressed across subtypes, with 337 t(8;21-specific and 407 Inv(16-specific ASEs detected, the majority of which were acetylated proteins (p = 1.5 x 10(-51 and p = 1.8 x 10(-54 for the two subsets. In addition to known fusions, we identified and verified 16 de novo fusions in 43 patients, including three fusions involving NUP98 in six

  14. Analysis of Whole Transcriptome Sequencing Data: Workflow and Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, In Seok; Kim, Sangwoo

    2015-12-01

    RNA is a polymeric molecule implicated in various biological processes, such as the coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes. Numerous studies have examined RNA features using whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) approaches. RNA-seq is a powerful technique for characterizing and quantifying the transcriptome and accelerates the development of bioinformatics software. In this review, we introduce routine RNA-seq workflow together with related software, focusing particularly on transcriptome reconstruction and expression quantification. PMID:26865842

  15. Applications of new sequencing technologies for transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Olena; Hirst, Martin; Marra, Marco A

    2009-01-01

    Transcriptome analysis has been a key area of biological inquiry for decades. Over the years, research in the field has progressed from candidate gene-based detection of RNAs using Northern blotting to high-throughput expression profiling driven by the advent of microarrays. Next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized transcriptomics by providing opportunities for multidimensional examinations of cellular transcriptomes in which high-throughput expression data are obtained at a single-base resolution. PMID:19715439

  16. Novel Approaches for Fungal Transcriptomics from Host Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Amorim-Vaz, Sara; Sanglard, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans adaptation to the host requires a profound reprogramming of the fungal transcriptome as compared to in vitro laboratory conditions. A detailed knowledge of the C. albicans transcriptome during the infection process is necessary in order to understand which of the fungal genes are important for host adaptation. Such genes could be thought of as potential targets for antifungal therapy. The acquisition of the C. albicans transcriptome is, however, technically challenging due to...

  17. Novel software package for cross-platform transcriptome analysis (CPTRA)

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Background Next-generation sequencing techniques enable several novel transcriptome profiling approaches. Recent studies indicated that digital gene expression profiling based on short sequence tags has superior performance as compared to other transcriptome analysis platforms including microarrays. However, the transcriptomic analysis with tag-based methods often depends on available genome sequence. The use of tag-based methods in species without genome sequence should be complemented by ot...

  18. Impact of different monochromatic LED light colours and bird age on the behavioural output and fear response in ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabiha Sultana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to observe the effect of monochromatic light emitting diode (LED light colour and bird age on the behaviour and fear response of ducks. A total of 200 1-day-old ducklings were used in the experiment (two replications, 25 ducklings/pen, and lighting was set up as follows: white (W, control, 400-770 nm, yellow (Y, 600 nm, green (G, 520 nm and blue (B, 460 nm LED lights. Ducks were subjected to 23L: 1D h lighting with 0.1 Watt/m2 light intensity. Video was recorded twice per day (2 h in the morning and 2 h in the afternoon and observed five consecutive days per week. Duration of feeding, drinking, sitting, walking, standing, preening, wing flapping, wing stretching, tail wagging, head shaking, body shaking, ground pecking, peck object, and social interaction behaviour were recorded. At 3 and 6 weeks of age, 10 birds per treatment were subjected to the tonic immobility (TI test (three times/duck. Ducks reared in Y and W light were more active, as expressed by more walking, ground pecking, drinking and social interaction activities than those of ducks under the B light treatment (P<0.05. Ducks showed more time sitting, standing, and preening under B light (P<0.05. Feeding, sitting, standing and drinking behaviours increased, and walking and social interaction behaviours decreased with age of the ducks (P<0.05. Differences in behaviours among different light colours were observed. In addition, the TI test results indicated that B and G light reduced the fear response of the ducks.

  19. Oscillating Transcriptome during Rice-Magnaporthe Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, T R; Das, Alok; Thakur, Shallu; Devanna, B N; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Jain, Priyanka; Vijayan, Joshitha; Kumar, Shrawan

    2016-01-01

    Rice blast disease caused by the fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most devastating diseases of rice. Deciphering molecular mechanism of host-pathogen interactions is of great importance in devising disease management strategies. Transcription being the first step for gene regulation in eukaryotes, basic understanding of the transcriptome is sine qua non for devising effective management strategy. The availability of genome sequences of rice and M. oryzae has facilitated the process to a large extent. The current review summarizes recent understanding of rice-blast pathosystem, application of transcriptomics approaches to understand the interactions employing different platforms, major determinants in the interaction and possibility of using certain candidate for conditioning enhanced disease resistance (Effector Triggered Immunity and PAMP Triggered Immunity) and downstream signalling in rice. A better understanding of the interaction elements and effective strategies hold potential to reduce yield losses in rice caused by M. oryzae. PMID:26363736

  20. Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel; Bustos, Diego M;

    2011-01-01

    microarray and qRTPCR technology, thereby extending previous studies on selected genes (Furukawa et al. 1999). Deletion of Crx was not found to alter pineal morphology, but was found to broadly modulate the mouse pineal transcriptome, characterized by a > 2-fold down-regulation of 543 genes and a > 2-fold up-regulation...... of 745 genes (p < 0.05). Of these, one of the most highly up-regulated (18-fold) was Hoxc4, a member of the Hox gene family, members of which are known to control gene expression cascades. During a 24-h period, a set of 51 genes exhibited differential day/night expression in pineal glands of wild...... influences differential night/day gene expression in this tissue. Some effects of Crx deletion on the pineal transcriptome might be mediated by Hoxc4 up-regulation....

  1. Dynamics of the chili pepper transcriptome during fruit development

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-López, Luis A; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí; Martínez, Octavio

    2014-01-01

    Background The set of all mRNA molecules present in a cell constitute the transcriptome. The transcriptome varies depending on cell type as well as in response to internal and external stimuli during development. Here we present a study of the changes that occur in the transcriptome of chili pepper fruit during development and ripening. Results RNA-Seq was used to obtain transcriptomes of whole Serrano-type chili pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L.; ‘Tampiqueño 74’) collected at 10, 20, 40 and ...

  2. Transcriptome landscape of the human placenta

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Jinsil; Zhao Keyan; Jiang Peng; Lu Zhi-xiang; Wang Jinkai; Murray Jeffrey C; Xing Yi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The placenta is a key component in understanding the physiological processes involved in pregnancy. Characterizing genes critical for placental function can serve as a basis for identifying mechanisms underlying both normal and pathologic pregnancies. Detailing the placental tissue transcriptome could provide a valuable resource for genomic studies related to placental disease. Results We have conducted a deep RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) study on three tissue components (amni...

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of Sarracenia, an Insectivorous Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Anuj; Rogers, Willie L.; Breton, Catherine M.; Cai, Liming; Malmberg, Russell L.

    2011-01-01

    Sarracenia species (pitcher plants) are carnivorous plants which obtain a portion of their nutrients from insects captured in the pitchers. To investigate these plants, we sequenced the transcriptome of two species, Sarracenia psittacina and Sarracenia purpurea, using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We obtained 46 275 and 36 681 contigs by de novo assembly methods for S. psittacina and S. purpurea, respectively, and further identified 16 163 orthologous contigs between them. Estimation o...

  4. Global meta-analysis of transcriptomics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, José; Vinga, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptomics meta-analysis aims at re-using existing data to derive novel biological hypotheses, and is motivated by the public availability of a large number of independent studies. Current methods are based on breaking down studies into multiple comparisons between phenotypes (e.g. disease vs. healthy), based on the studies' experimental designs, followed by computing the overlap between the resulting differential expression signatures. While useful, in this methodology each study yields multiple independent phenotype comparisons, and connections are established not between studies, but rather between subsets of the studies corresponding to phenotype comparisons. We propose a rank-based statistical meta-analysis framework that establishes global connections between transcriptomics studies without breaking down studies into sets of phenotype comparisons. By using a rank product method, our framework extracts global features from each study, corresponding to genes that are consistently among the most expressed or differentially expressed genes in that study. Those features are then statistically modelled via a term-frequency inverse-document frequency (TF-IDF) model, which is then used for connecting studies. Our framework is fast and parameter-free; when applied to large collections of Homo sapiens and Streptococcus pneumoniae transcriptomics studies, it performs better than similarity-based approaches in retrieving related studies, using a Medical Subject Headings gold standard. Finally, we highlight via case studies how the framework can be used to derive novel biological hypotheses regarding related studies and the genes that drive those connections. Our proposed statistical framework shows that it is possible to perform a meta-analysis of transcriptomics studies with arbitrary experimental designs by deriving global expression features rather than decomposing studies into multiple phenotype comparisons. PMID:24586684

  5. Transcriptome analysis of Ginkgo biloba kernels

    OpenAIRE

    He, Bing; Gu, Yincong; Xu, Meng; Wang, Jianwen; Cao, Fuliang; Xu, Li-an

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba is a dioecious species native to China with medicinally and phylogenetically important characteristics; however, genomic resources for this species are limited. In this study, we performed the first transcriptome sequencing for Ginkgo kernels at five time points using Illumina paired-end sequencing. Approximately 25.08-Gb clean reads were obtained, and 68,547 unigenes with an average length of 870 bp were generated by de novo assembly. Of these unigenes, 29,987 (43.74%) were ann...

  6. High-resolution transcriptome of human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Beyer

    Full Text Available Macrophages are dynamic cells integrating signals from their microenvironment to develop specific functional responses. Although, microarray-based transcriptional profiling has established transcriptional reprogramming as an important mechanism for signal integration and cell function of macrophages, current knowledge on transcriptional regulation of human macrophages is far from complete. To discover novel marker genes, an area of great need particularly in human macrophage biology but also to generate a much more thorough transcriptome of human M1- and M1-like macrophages, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq of human macrophages. Using this approach we can now provide a high-resolution transcriptome profile of human macrophages under classical (M1-like and alternative (M2-like polarization conditions and demonstrate a dynamic range exceeding observations obtained by previous technologies, resulting in a more comprehensive understanding of the transcriptome of human macrophages. Using this approach, we identify important gene clusters so far not appreciated by standard microarray techniques. In addition, we were able to detect differential promoter usage, alternative transcription start sites, and different coding sequences for 57 gene loci in human macrophages. Moreover, this approach led to the identification of novel M1-associated (CD120b, TLR2, SLAMF7 as well as M2-associated (CD1a, CD1b, CD93, CD226 cell surface markers. Taken together, these data support that high-resolution transcriptome profiling of human macrophages by RNA-seq leads to a better understanding of macrophage function and will form the basis for a better characterization of macrophages in human health and disease.

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of Zebrafish Embryogenesis Using Microarrays

    OpenAIRE

    Mathavan, Sinnakaruppan; Lee, Serene G. P.; Mak, Alicia; Lance D. Miller; Murthy, Karuturi Radha Krishna; Govindarajan, Kunde R; Tong, Yan; Wu, Yi Lian; Lam, Siew Hong; Yang, Henry; Ruan, Yijun; Korzh, Vladimir; Gong, Zhiyuan; Liu, Edison T; Lufkin, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a well-recognized model for the study of vertebrate developmental genetics, yet at the same time little is known about the transcriptional events that underlie zebrafish embryogenesis. Here we have employed microarray analysis to study the temporal activity of developmentally regulated genes during zebrafish embryogenesis. Transcriptome analysis at 12 different embryonic time points covering five different developmental stages (maternal, blastula, gastrula, segmenta...

  8. Transcriptomic changes of Legionella pneumophila in water

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Laam; Mendis, Nilmini; Trigui, Hana; Faucher, Sébastien P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Legionella pneumophila (Lp) is a water-borne opportunistic pathogen. In water, Lp can survive for an extended period of time until it encounters a permissive host. Therefore, identifying genes that are required for survival in water may help develop strategies to prevent Legionella outbreaks. Results We compared the global transcriptomic response of Lp grown in a rich medium to that of Lp exposed to an artificial freshwater medium (Fraquil) for 2, 6 and 24 hours. We uncovered succe...

  9. Transcriptome and microRNome of Theileria annulata Host Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Rchiad, Zineb

    2016-06-01

    Tropical Theileriosis is a parasitic disease of calves with a profound economic impact caused by Theileria annulata, an apicomplexan parasite of the genus Theileria. Transmitted by Hyalomma ticks, T. annulata infects and transforms bovine lymphocytes and macrophages into a cancer-like phenotype characterized by all six hallmarks of cancer. In the current study we investigate the transcriptional landscape of T. annulata-infected lymphocytes to define genes and miRNAs regulated by host cell transformation using next generation sequencing. We also define genes and miRNAs differentially expressed as a result of the attenuation of a T.annulata-infected macrophage cell line used as a vaccine. By comparing the transcriptional landscape of one attenuated and two transformed cell lines we identify four genes that we propose as key factors in transformation and virulence of the T. annulata host cells. We also identify miR- 126-5p as a key regulator of infected cells proliferation, adhesion, survival and invasiveness. In addition to the host cell trascriptome we studied T. annulata transcriptome and identified the role of ROS and TGF-β2 in controlling parasite gene expression. Moreover, we have used the deep parasite ssRNA-seq data to refine the available T. annulata annotation. Taken together, this study provides the full list of host cell’s genes and miRNAs transcriptionally perturbed after infection with T. annulata and after attenuation and describes genes and miRNAs never identified before as players in this type of host cell transformation. Moreover, this study provides the first database for the transcriptome of T. annulata and its host cells using next generation sequencing.

  10. The Impact of Intestinal Parasitic Infections on the Nutritional Status of Rural and Urban School-Aged Children in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Kenneth N.; Udoidung, Nsima I.; Opara, Dominic C.; Okon, Okpok E.; Edosomwan, Evelyn U.; Udoh, Anietie J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Intestinal parasitic infection and undernutrition are still major public health problems in poor and developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between intestinal parasitic infection and nutritional status in 405 primary school children from rural and urban areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Methods This cross-sectional survey in 2009 obtained anthropometric data, height-for-age (HA), weight-for-height (WH) and weight-for-age (WA) Z-scores from each child and fecal samples were also collected and screened for intestinal parasites using standard parasitological protocols. Results The prevalence of infection with any intestinal parasite was 67.4%. A total of six intestinal parasites were detected; hookworm (41.7%) had the highest prevalence. The prevalence of intestinal parasites and undernutrition was significantly higher in rural than in urban children (Pparasitic infections are associated with malnutrition, controlling these parasites could increase the physical development and well-being of the affected children.

  11. The impact of changes in self-rated general health on 28-year mortality among middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Siersma, V.; Kreiner, S.; Hiort, L.C.; Drivsholm, T.; Eplov, L.F.; Hollnagel, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Self-rated general health (SRH) predicts future mortality. SRH may change, and these changes may alter the mortality risk. All-cause mortality until the age of 68 and its association with changes in SRH from the age of 40-45, 45-51, and 51-60 years was examined in a cohort of Danes...... as participants grew older. Multivariate analysis of the effect of changes of SRH on mortality gave similar results: hazard ratios for declined SRH were (reference: "unchanged good") 1.55 (95% CI 0.93-2.58), 1.96 (95% CI 1.09-3.53), and 2.22 (95% CI 0.97-5.09) at the 40-45, 45-51, and 51-60-year...... intervals. However, unchanged poor and improved SRH (at the 40-45-year interval) were also associated with an increase, and additional analyses showed that just rating SRH as poor at one rating was associated with increased risk. CONCLUSION: Changes in SRH are associated with higher mortality risks than...

  12. The impact of malnutrition on intelligence at 3 and 11 years of age: The mediating role of temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, Peter H; Raine, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    Previous work has shown that malnutrition has deleterious effects on both IQ and aspects of temperament. It is hypothesized that while malnutrition bears a direct relation to IQ, aspects of temperament are also involved in a mediating role so that they produce indirect associations between malnutrition and IQ. The study examines the association of 3 indices of malnutrition-stunting, anemia and wasting-to Verbal IQ (VIQ) and Performance IQ (PIQ) and temperament in 1,376 3-year-old and 11-year-old children in Mauritius. Two dimensions of temperament were extracted from ratings of behavior and were labeled as Uninhibited (UI) and Task Orientation (TO). At age 3 stunting had direct relations to Verbal IQ and Performance IQ and also indirect relations via the mediating effect of temperament (UI but not TO). In the case of anemia there were no direct relations to VIQ or PIQ but both temperament meditators were involved in indirect relations. For wasting, indirect but not direct relations were observed. When age 11 cognitive performance was examined, there were direct relations to stunting and anemia and indirect relations via UI, but not TO. The relations between malnutrition and IQ were graded and linear showing that it is not only when malnutrition is defined by its severest levels that it has an effect on cognitive performance. It is suggested that malnutrition affects those brain structures and functions that are involved in both cognitive behavior and temperament. PMID:26569559

  13. Use Impact-Echo Method to Evaluate Bond of Reinforced Concrete Subjected to Early-Age Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Keng-Tsang; Cheng, Chia-Chi; Lin, Yiching

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a non-destructive test method for evaluating the bond of reinforcing bars in concrete structure which was damaged by earthquake while still cast in the form. In the experimental design, the specimens containing a steel reinforcing bar with one end extruded outside were constructed. Different degrees of damage on the rebar-concrete interfaces were successfully created by the resonant vibration of exposed steel bar induced by the cyclic motion of the specimen. The local bond-loss of the steel bars was evaluated by both non-destructive impact-echo tests and the destructive pullout tests. To create different kinds of failure mode in the pullout test, some of the specimens contain stirrups surrounding reinforcing bar. Poor-bond was quantitatively evaluated before the pullout test by the amplitude of the peak corresponding to the multiple reflections from the steel bar in the normalized spectra derived from the impact-echo tests. As a result, two empirical formulas displaying the proportional relations between the percentage of loss of local bond-stress and loss of steel-amplitude for specimens failed by split failure and pull-out failure modes were established.

  14. Transcriptome sequencing of Zhikong scallop (Chlamys farreri and comparative transcriptomic analysis with Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bivalves play an important role in the ecosystems they inhabit and represent an important food source all over the world. So far limited genetic research has focused on this group of animals largely due to the lack of sufficient genetic or genomic resources. Here, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce the most comprehensive expressed sequence tag resource for Zhikong scallop (Chlamys farreri, and conducted the first transcriptome comparison for scallops. RESULTS: In a single 454 sequencing run, 1,033,636 reads were produced and then assembled into 26,165 contigs. These contigs were then clustered into 24,437 isotigs and further grouped into 20,056 isogroups. About 47% of the isogroups showed significant matches to known proteins based on sequence similarity. Transcripts putatively involved in growth, reproduction and stress/immune-response were identified through Gene ontology (GO and KEGG pathway analyses. Transcriptome comparison with Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis revealed similar patterns of GO representation. Moreover, 38 putative fast-evolving genes were identified through analyzing the orthologous gene pairs between the two scallop species. More than 46,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and 350 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were also detected. CONCLUSION: Our study provides the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource currently available for C. farreri. Based on this resource, we performed the first large-scale transcriptome comparison between the two scallop species, C. farreri and P. yessoensis, and identified a number of putative fast-evolving genes, which may play an important role in scallop speciation and/or local adaptation. A large set of single nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats were identified, which are ready for downstream marker development. This transcriptomic resource should lay an important foundation for future genetic or genomic studies on C. farreri.

  15. Black carbon simulations using a size- and mixing-state-resolved three-dimensional model: 2. Aging timescale and its impact over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, H.

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the aging timescale and the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of black carbon (BC) over East Asia and its outflow region using a size- and mixing-state-resolved three-dimensional model, the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-chem) with the Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation (ATRAS) and the Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC). The WRF-chem/ATRAS-MOSAIC model explicitly calculates BC aging (condensation and coagulation) and removal processes, with 12 size and 10 BC mixing state bins (128 bins in total). The model reveals large spatial and temporal variability of the BC aging timescale and the CCN activity of BC-containing particles over East Asia (spring 2009) with their strong size and supersaturation dependence. The BC aging timescale differs from 0.19 to 3.1 days (period and domain average at an altitude of 1 km), depending on the choice of size (mass or number) and supersaturation (1.0% or 0.1%). As a result, almost 100% of BC-containing particles are CCN-active at a supersaturation of 1.0%, whereas 20-50% of BC-containing particles are CCN-inactive at a supersaturation of 0.1%, with a strong size dependence. These results show the importance of resolving BC aging processes and their dependence on size and supersaturation in models for more accurate simulations of BC concentrations and their distribution and lifetime. A sensitivity simulation without resolving BC mixing state shows the underestimation of total BC mass concentrations by 5-10% and the BC mass concentrations in the CCN-inactive particles (at a supersaturation of 0.1%) by 40-60% over the outflow region (at 150°E), compared with the simulation resolving BC mixing state. Because BC aging speed is very slow at 150°E and eastward, the change in BC mass and its CCN activity by resolving BC mixing state will continue over long distances and may have a large impact on BC transport from East

  16. The impacts of fireworks burning at Chinese Spring Festival on air quality and human health: insights of tracers, source evolution and aging processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, S.; Li, L.; Li, X.; Yin, Y.; Chen, K.; Liu, D.; Yuan, L.; Zhang, Y.; Shan, Y.; Ji, Y.

    2014-11-01

    To understand the impact of fireworks burning (FW) particles on air quality and human health during winter haze period, thirty-nine elements, ten water-soluble ions and eight fractions of carbonaceous species in atmospheric PM2.5 at Nanjing were investigated during 2014 Chinese Spring Festival (SF). Serious regional haze pollution persisted throughout the entire sampling period, PM2.5 averaging at 113 ± 69 μg m-3 and visibility at 4.8 ± 3.2 km. The holiday effect led to almost all the chemical species decreasing during the SF, except for Al, K, Ba and Sr which were related to FW. The source contributions of coal combustion, vehicle emission and road dust descreased dramatically, whereas FW contributed to about half of the PM2.5 during SF period. The intensive emission of FW particles at New Year's Eve accounted for 60.1% of the PM2.5. They also significnatly modified the chemical compositions of PM2.5, with 39.3% contributed by increased organic matter, followed by steadly increased loadings of secondary inorganic ions. The aging processes of the FW particles lasted for at least six days reflected by the variation of SO42-, characterized by heterogeneous reactions of SO2 and NOx on crustal materials directly from FW, the replacement of Cl- by NO3- and SO42- coating of NO3- and SO42- on soot, formation of secondary organic aerosols and metal-catalyzed formation of NO3- and SO42- at higher relative humidity. During aging, the main contributors to the extinction coefficient shifted from elemental carbon and organic matter to sulfate ammonium. The particles raised higher cancer risks by heavy metals (especially for Cd and As) as 1.62 ×10-6. This study provided detailed composition data and first comprehensive analysis of the aging processes of FW particles at serious haze pollution period and their potential impact on human health.

  17. The impact of land use, season, age, and sex on the prevalence and intensity of Baylisascaris procyonis infections in raccoons (Procyon lotor) from Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Claire M; Pearl, David L; Puskas, Kirstie; Campbell, Doug G; Shirose, Lenny; Peregrine, Andrew S

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of land use, demographic factors, and season on the prevalence and intensity of Baylisascaris procyonis infections in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Ontario, Canada. From March to October 2012, we recorded the number of B. procyonis in the intestinal tracts of raccoons submitted to the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre for necropsy. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between the presence of B. procyonis and age (adult, juvenile), sex, land use (suburban/urban, rural), and season (March-June and July-October); negative binomial regression models were used to examine associations between the number of worms and the same variables. We detected B. procyonis in 38% (95% confidence interval 30-47%) of raccoons examined (n=128). In univariable models, the presence of B. procyonis was significantly associated with age, land use, and season (Praccoons were significantly more likely to be infected with B. procyonis than suburban/urban female raccoons. However, later in the summer (July-October), the opposite was true. The median number of worms in the intestinal tracts of infected raccoons was 3 (range 1-116). Worm number was significantly associated with age and season in univariable models; in the multivariable model, juvenile raccoons had significantly more worms than adults, and the impact of season on the number of worms varied with land use and sex. A better understanding of the epidemiology of B. procyonis in raccoons is important for developing appropriate strategies to reduce the risk of human exposure to B. procyonis from the environment. PMID:25098302

  18. Impact of personal and environmental factors on the rate of chromosome aberrations named translocations - Part 1: age, gender, smoking, alcohol; Impact des facteurs individuels et environnementaux sur le taux d'aberrations chromosomiques de type translocations - Partie 1: age, sexe, tabac, alcool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoire, E.; Gruel, G.; Martin, C.; Roch-Lefevre, S.; Vaurijoux, A.; Voisin, P.; Roy, L. [IRSN, Laboratoire de Dosimetrie Biologique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2010-04-15

    The assessment of exposure to ionizing radiation, carried out long time after exposure, is currently performed by scoring of translocations, a specific type of chromosomal aberrations. The translocations rate observed in peripheral blood lymphocytes of exposed subjects is compared to that observed in a control population. However, the translocation specificity towards radiation exposure is not clearly identified. To avoid any hasty conclusion, it is necessary to identify all the factors likely to induce translocation. To our knowledge, no study has thus far examined the effects of all these different factors on translocation rates. A review of the literature thus allowed us to assess the impact of host factors and lifestyle on the production of translocations. This study confirms that age appears to be the factor having the greatest impact on the rate of translocations, especially over 60 years. To date, the factor 'age' is already considered in estimating the impact of radiation on the rate of translocation for all age groups. However, the study also shows that this rate varies significantly when the patient is exposed simultaneously and significantly towards many lifestyle agents. A precise threshold translocation rate should thus be established as a function of known behavioral exposures, below which it is impossible to conclude that radiological exposure has occurred. The effects of chemicals on the translocation rate after occupational exposure will be the subject of a second part. (authors)

  19. Impact of the age of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails on Schistosoma mansoni transmission: modulation of the genetic outcome and the internal defence system of the snail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Fathy Abou-El-Naga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Of the approximately 34 identified Biomphalariaspecies,Biomphalaria alexandrinarepresents the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoniin Egypt. Using parasitological and SOD1 enzyme assay, this study aimed to elucidate the impact of the age of B. alexandrinasnails on their genetic variability and internal defence against S. mansoniinfection. Susceptible and resistant snails were reared individually for self-reproduction; four subgroups of their progeny were used in experiment. The young susceptible subgroup showed the highest infection rate, the shortest pre-patent period, the highest total cercarial production, the highest mortality rate and the lowest SOD1 activity. Among the young and adult susceptible subgroups, 8% and 26% were found to be resistant, indicating the inheritance of resistance alleles from parents. The adult resistant subgroup, however, contained only resistant snails and showed the highest enzyme activity. The complex interaction between snail age, genetic background and internal defence resulted in great variability in compatibility patterns, with the highest significant difference between young susceptible and adult resistant snails. The results demonstrate that resistance alleles function to a greater degree in adults, with higher SOD1 activity and provide potential implications for Biomphalariacontrol. The identification of the most susceptible snail age enables determination of the best timing for applying molluscicides. Moreover, adult resistant snails could be beneficial in biological snail control.

  20. The impact of insecticide-treated school uniforms on dengue infections in school-aged children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilder-Smith Annelies

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need to protect children against dengue since this age group is particularly sensitive to the disease. Since dengue vectors are active mainly during the day, a potential target for control should be schools where children spend a considerable amount of their day. School uniforms are the cultural norm in most developing countries, worn throughout the day. We hypothesise that insecticide-treated school uniforms will reduce the incidence of dengue infection in school-aged children. Our objective is to determine the impact of impregnated school uniforms on dengue incidence. Methods A randomised controlled trial will be conducted in eastern Thailand in a group of schools with approximately 2,000 students aged 7–18 years. Pre-fabricated school uniforms will be commercially treated to ensure consistent, high-quality insecticide impregnation with permethrin. A double-blind, randomised, crossover trial at the school level will cover two dengue transmission seasons. Discussion Practical issues and plans concerning intervention implementation, evaluation, analysing and interpreting the data, and possible policy implications arising from the trial are discussed. Trial registration clinicaltrial.gov. Registration number: NCT01563640