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Sample records for aging dietary restriction

  1. Dietary restriction, mitochondrial function and aging: from yeast to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetenik, Andrea; Barrientos, Antoni

    2015-11-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) attenuates many detrimental effects of aging and consequently promotes health and increases longevity across organisms. While over the last 15 years extensive research has been devoted towards understanding the biology of aging, the precise mechanistic aspects of DR are yet to be settled. Abundant experimental evidence indicates that the DR effect on stimulating health impinges several metabolic and stress-resistance pathways. Downstream effects of these pathways include a reduction in cellular damage induced by oxidative stress, enhanced efficiency of mitochondrial functions and maintenance of mitochondrial dynamics and quality control, thereby attenuating age-related declines in mitochondrial function. However, the literature also accumulates conflicting evidence regarding how DR ameliorates mitochondrial performance and whether that is enough to slow age-dependent cellular and organismal deterioration. Here, we will summarize the current knowledge about how and to which extent the influence of different DR regimes on mitochondrial biogenesis and function contribute to postpone the detrimental effects of aging on health-span and lifespan. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Aging.

  2. Glucose Hysteresis as a Mechanism in Dietary Restriction, Aging and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mobbs, Charles V.; Mastaitis, Jason; Zhang, Minhua; Isoda, Fumiko; Cheng, Hui; Yen, Kelvin

    2007-01-01

    Elevated blood glucose associated with diabetes produces progressive and apparently irreversible damage to many cell types. Conversely, reduction of glucose extends life span in yeast, and dietary restriction reduces blood glucose. Therefore it has been hypothesized that cumulative toxic effects of glucose drive at least some aspects of the aging process and, conversely, that protective effects of dietary restriction are mediated by a reduction in exposure to glucose. The mechanisms mediating...

  3. Dietary restriction of rodents decreases aging rate without affecting initial mortality rate a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Mirre J. P.; Koch, Wouter; Verhulst, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in multiple species from various taxa. This effect can arise via two distinct but not mutually exclusive ways: a change in aging rate and/or vulnerability to the aging process (i.e. initial mortality rate). When DR affects vulnerability, this lowers mortalit

  4. Intervention in the aging immune system: Influence of dietary restriction, dehydroepiandrosterone, melatonin, and exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Pahlavani, Mohammad A.

    1998-01-01

    The decline in immunologic function with age is associated with an increase in susceptibility to infections and the occurrence of autoimmune diseases and cancers. Hence, the restoration of immunologic function is expected to have a beneficial effect in reducing pathology and maintaining a healthy condition in advanced age. A number of therapeutic strategies have been employed to intervene in the aging immune system. This article reviews the effect of dietary restriction (DR), dehydroepiandros...

  5. Does chronic glycolysis accelerate aging? Could this explain how dietary restriction works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipkiss, Alan R

    2006-05-01

    The mechanisms by which dietary restriction (DR) suppresses aging are not understood. Suppression of glycolysis by DR could contribute to controlling senescence. Many glycolytic intermediates can glycate proteins and other macromolecules. Methyglyoxal (MG), formed from dihydroxyacetone- and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphates, rapidly glycates proteins, damages mitochondria, and induces a prooxidant state to create a senescent-like condition. Ad libitum-fed and DR animals differ in mitochondrial activity and glycolytic flux rates. Persistent glycolysis in the unrestricted condition would increase the intracellular load of glycating agents (e.g., MG) and increase ROS generation by inactive mitochondria. Occasional glycolysis during DR would decrease MG and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and could be hormetic, inducing synthesis of glyoxalase-1 and anti-glycating agents (carnosine and polyamines). PMID:16804012

  6. Dietary restriction improves repopulation but impairs lymphoid differentiation capacity of hematopoietic stem cells in early aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Duozhuang; Tao, Si; Chen, Zhiyang; Koliesnik, Ievgen Oleksandrovich; Calmes, Philip Gerald; Hoerr, Verena; Han, Bing; Gebert, Nadja; Zörnig, Martin; Löffler, Bettina; Morita, Yohei; Rudolph, Karl Lenhard

    2016-04-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) improves health, delays tissue aging, and elongates survival in flies and worms. However, studies on laboratory mice and nonhuman primates revealed ambiguous effects of DR on lifespan despite improvements in health parameters. In this study, we analyzed consequences of adult-onset DR (24 h to 1 yr) on hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function. DR ameliorated HSC aging phenotypes, such as the increase in number of HSCs and the skewing toward myeloid-biased HSCs during aging. Furthermore, DR increased HSC quiescence and improved the maintenance of the repopulation capacity of HSCs during aging. In contrast to these beneficial effects, DR strongly impaired HSC differentiation into lymphoid lineages and particularly inhibited the proliferation of lymphoid progenitors, resulting in decreased production of peripheral B lymphocytes and impaired immune function. The study shows that DR-dependent suppression of growth factors and interleukins mediates these divergent effects caused by DR. Supplementation of insulin-like growth factor 1 partially reverted the DR-induced quiescence of HSCs, whereas IL-6/IL-7 substitutions rescued the impairment of B lymphopoiesis exposed to DR. Together, these findings delineate positive and negative effects of long-term DR on HSC functionality involving distinct stress and growth signaling pathways.

  7. Hydrogen sulfide mediates the protection of dietary restriction against renal senescence in aged F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Juan; Cai, Guang-Yan; Ning, Yi-Chun; Cui, Jing; Hong, Quan; Bai, Xue-Yuan; Xu, Xiao-Meng; Bu, Ru; Sun, Xue-Feng; Chen, Xiang-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Renal aging is always accompanied by increased oxidative stress. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can be up-regulated by 50% dietary restriction (DR) for 7-day and can block mitochondrial oxidative stress. H2S production exerts a critical role in yeast, worm, and fruit fly models of DR-mediated longevity. In this study, we found that renal aging could be attenuated by 30% DR for 6-month (DR-6M) and life-long (DR-LL), but not for 6-week (DR-6W). The expressions of cystathionine-γ-lyase (CGL) and cystathionine-β- synthase (CBS) were improved by DR-6M and DR-LL. Endogenous H2S production shared the same trend with CBS and CGL, while glutathione (GSH) didn't. When comparing efficiencies of DR for different durations, more evident production of H2S was found in DR-6M and DR-LL than in DR-6W. Finally the level of oxidative stress was improved by DR-6M and DR-LL rather than by DR-6W. It concluded that aged rats had the ability to produce enough H2S on 30% DR interventions protecting against renal aging, and the effect of DR for long-term were more significant than that of DR for short-term. PMID:27456368

  8. The influence of dietary restriction before and after 10 weeks of age on osteochondrosis in growing gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, de D.B.; Grevenhof, van E.M.; Laurenssen, B.F.A.; Weeren, van P.R.; Hazeleger, W.; Kemp, B.

    2013-01-01

    Osteochondrosis (OC) is one of the main causes of leg weakness causing premature culling in breeding sows and develops in a short time frame in young growing gilts. Dietary restriction may have different effects on OC prevalence depending on the age of the gilts. The aim of this study is to investig

  9. Age- and calorie-independent life span extension from dietary restriction by bacterial deprivation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sager Jennifer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary restriction (DR increases life span and delays age-associated disease in many organisms. The mechanism by which DR enhances longevity is not well understood. Results Using bacterial food deprivation as a means of DR in C. elegans, we show that transient DR confers long-term benefits including stress resistance and increased longevity. Consistent with studies in the fruit fly and in mice, we demonstrate that DR also enhances survival when initiated late in life. DR by bacterial food deprivation significantly increases life span in worms when initiated as late as 24 days of adulthood, an age at which greater than 50% of the cohort have died. These survival benefits are, at least partially, independent of food consumption, as control fed animals are no longer consuming bacterial food at this advanced age. Animals separated from the bacterial lawn by a barrier of solid agar have a life span intermediate between control fed and food restricted animals. Thus, we find that life span extension from bacterial deprivation can be partially suppressed by a diffusible component of the bacterial food source, suggesting a calorie-independent mechanism for life span extension by dietary restriction. Conclusion Based on these findings, we propose that dietary restriction by bacterial deprivation increases longevity in C. elegans by a combination of reduced food consumption and decreased food sensing.

  10. Late-onset intermittent fasting dietary restriction as a potential intervention to retard age-associated brain function impairments in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Rumani; Lakhanpal, Dinesh; Kumar, Sushil; Sharma, Sandeep; Kataria, Hardeep; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2011-01-01

    Lifelong dietary restriction (DR) is known to have many potential beneficial effects on brain function as well as delaying the onset of neurological diseases. In the present investigation, the effect of late-onset short-term intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) regimen was studied on motor coordination and cognitive ability of ageing male rats. These animals were further used to estimate protein carbonyl content and mitochondrial complex I–IV activity in different regions of brain...

  11. Middle age onset short-term intermittent fasting dietary restriction prevents brain function impairments in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rumani; Manchanda, Shaffi; Kaur, Taranjeet; Kumar, Sushil; Lakhanpal, Dinesh; Lakhman, Sukhwinder S; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2015-12-01

    Intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) is recently reported to be an effective intervention to retard age associated disease load and to promote healthy aging. Since sustaining long term caloric restriction regimen is not practically feasible in humans, so use of alternate approach such as late onset short term IF-DR regimen which is reported to trigger similar biological pathways is gaining scientific interest. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of IF-DR regimen implemented for 12 weeks in middle age rats on their motor coordination skills and protein and DNA damage in different brain regions. Further, the effect of IF-DR regimen was also studied on expression of energy regulators, cell survival pathways and synaptic plasticity marker proteins. Our data demonstrate that there was an improvement in motor coordination and learning response with decline in protein oxidative damage and recovery in expression of energy regulating neuropeptides. We further observed significant downregulation in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cytochrome c (Cyt c) levels and moderate upregulation of mortalin and synaptophysin expression. The present data may provide an insight on how a modest level of short term IF-DR, imposed in middle age, can slow down or prevent the age-associated impairment of brain functions and promote healthy aging by involving multiple regulatory pathways aimed at maintaining energy homeostasis. PMID:26318578

  12. Intestinal morphology adjustments caused by dietary restriction improves the nutritional status during the aging process of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Belém, Mônica; Cirilo, Carla Possani; de Santi-Rampazzo, Ana Paula; Schoffen, João Paulo Ferreira; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal; de Almeida Araújo, Eduardo José

    2015-09-01

    During the aging process, the body's systems change structurally and loss of function can occur. Ingesting a smaller amount of food has been considered a plausible proposal for increased longevity with the quality of life. However, the effects of dietary restriction (DR) during aging are still poorly understood, especially for organs of the digestive system. This study aimed to describe the body weight, oxidative status and possible morphological changes of the intestinal wall of rats submitted to DR during the aging process (7 to 18months old). Twelve 7-month-old male Wistar rats fed ad libitum since birth were assigned to two groups: control group (CG, n=6) fed ad libitum from 7 to 18months old; and dietary restriction group (DRG, n=6) fed 50% of the amount of chow consumed by the CG from 7 to 18months old. The body weight, feed and water intake were monitored throughout the experiment. Blood, periepididymal adipose tissue (PAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RAT), and the small intestine were collected at 18months old. The blood was collected to evaluate its components and oxidative status. Sections from the duodenum and ileum were stained with HE, PAS and AB pH2.5 for morphometric analyses of the intestinal wall components, and to count intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), goblet cells and cells in mitosis in the epithelium. DR rats showed a reduction in weight, naso-anal length, PAT, RAT and intestinal length; however, they consumed more water. Blood parameters indicate that the DR rats remained well nourished. In addition, they showed lower lipid peroxidation. Hypertrophy of the duodenal mucosa and atrophy of the ileal mucosa were observed. The number of goblet cells and IELs was reduced, but the mitotic index remained unaltered in both duodenum and ileum. In conclusion, 50% dietary restriction for rats from 7 to 18months old contributed to improving their nutritional parameters but, to achieve this, adjustments were required in the structure of the body

  13. Effects of calorie restriction and ω-3 dietary fat on aging in short-and long-lived rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Troyer, Dean A; Venkatraman, Jaya T.; Fernandes, Gabriel

    1998-01-01

    Aging is accompanied by a steady increase in the incidence of spontaneous tumors and a decline in immune function. Calorie restriction (CR) or supplementation with ω-3 fats prolongs life span, suppresses tumorigenesis, and ameliorates immune function in a variety of experimental models. We suggest that decreased oxidant stress and upregulation of apoptosis mediate the effects of calorie restriction on immunity and longevity. CR prolongs life span in several animal models and our studies have ...

  14. Cholesterol metabolism changes under long-term dietary restrictions while the cholesterol homeostasis remains unaffected in the cortex and hippocampus of aging rats

    OpenAIRE

    Smiljanic, Kosara; Vanmierlo, Tim; Djordjevic, Aleksandra Mladenovic; Perovic, Milka; Ivkovic, Sanja; Luetjohann, Dieter; Kanazir, Selma

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining cholesterol homeostasis in the brain is vital for its proper functioning. While it is well documented that dietary restriction modulates the metabolism of cholesterol peripherally, little is known as to how it can affect cholesterol metabolism in the brain. The present study was designed to elucidate the impact of long-term dietary restriction on brain cholesterol metabolism. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were exposed to long-term dietary restriction until 12 and 24 months of a...

  15. Maternal dietary restriction alters offspring's sleep homeostasis.

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    Noriyuki Shimizu

    Full Text Available Nutritional state in the gestation period influences fetal growth and development. We hypothesized that undernutrition during gestation would affect offspring sleep architecture and/or homeostasis. Pregnant female mice were assigned to either control (fed ad libitum; AD or 50% dietary restriction (DR groups from gestation day 12 to parturition. After parturition, dams were fed AD chow. After weaning, the pups were also fed AD into adulthood. At adulthood (aged 8-9 weeks, we carried out sleep recordings. Although offspring mice displayed a significantly reduced body weight at birth, their weights recovered three days after birth. Enhancement of electroencephalogram (EEG slow wave activity (SWA during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep was observed in the DR mice over a 24-hour period without changing the diurnal pattern or amounts of wake, NREM, or rapid eye movement (REM sleep. In addition, DR mice also displayed an enhancement of EEG-SWA rebound after a 6-hour sleep deprivation and a higher threshold for waking in the face of external stimuli. DR adult offspring mice exhibited small but significant increases in the expression of hypothalamic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (Pparα and brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (Cpt1c mRNA, two genes involved in lipid metabolism. Undernutrition during pregnancy may influence sleep homeostasis, with offspring exhibiting greater sleep pressure.

  16. Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products and Aging

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    Karen Chapman-Novakofski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced glycation end products (AGEs are a heterogeneous, complex group of compounds that are formed when reducing sugar reacts in a non-enzymatic way with amino acids in proteins and other macromolecules. This occurs both exogenously (in food and endogenously (in humans with greater concentrations found in older adults. While higher AGEs occur in both healthy older adults and those with chronic diseases, research is progressing to both quantify AGEs in food and in people, and to identify mechanisms that would explain why some human tissues are damaged, and others are not. In the last twenty years, there has been increased evidence that AGEs could be implicated in the development of chronic degenerative diseases of aging, such as cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease and with complications of diabetes mellitus. Results of several studies in animal models and humans show that the restriction of dietary AGEs has positive effects on wound healing, insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, the effect of restriction in AGEs intake has been reported to increase the lifespan in animal models. This paper will summarize the work that has been published for both food AGEs and in vivo AGEs and their relation with aging, as well as provide suggestions for future research.

  17. Are Dietary Restraint Scales Valid Measures of Acute Dietary Restriction? Unobtrusive Observational Data Suggest Not

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    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Lowe, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The finding that dietary restraint scales predict onset of bulimic pathology has been interpreted as suggesting that dieting causes this eating disturbance, despite the dearth of evidence that these scales are valid measures of dietary restriction. The authors conducted 4 studies that tested whether dietary restraint scales were inversely…

  18. Effect of dietary protein restriction on renal ammonia metabolism.

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    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E; Guo, Hui; Verlander, Jill W; Weiner, I David

    2015-06-15

    Dietary protein restriction has multiple benefits in kidney disease. Because protein intake is a major determinant of endogenous acid production, it is important that net acid excretion change in parallel during protein restriction. Ammonia is the primary component of net acid excretion, and inappropriate ammonia excretion can lead to negative nitrogen balance. Accordingly, we examined ammonia excretion in response to protein restriction and then we determined the molecular mechanism of the changes observed. Wild-type C57Bl/6 mice fed a 20% protein diet and then changed to 6% protein developed an 85% reduction in ammonia excretion within 2 days, which persisted during a 10-day study. The expression of multiple proteins involved in renal ammonia metabolism was altered, including the ammonia-generating enzymes phosphate-dependent glutaminase (PDG) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and the ammonia-metabolizing enzyme glutamine synthetase. Rhbg, an ammonia transporter, increased in expression in the inner stripe of outer medullary collecting duct intercalated cell (OMCDis-IC). However, collecting duct-specific Rhbg deletion did not alter the response to protein restriction. Rhcg deletion did not alter ammonia excretion in response to dietary protein restriction. These results indicate 1) dietary protein restriction decreases renal ammonia excretion through coordinated regulation of multiple components of ammonia metabolism; 2) increased Rhbg expression in the OMCDis-IC may indicate a biological role in addition to ammonia transport; and 3) Rhcg expression is not necessary to decrease ammonia excretion during dietary protein restriction. PMID:25925252

  19. Health promotion by dietary restriction--a focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, K M

    2006-01-01

    Food restriction, although long popular among gerontologists, has emerged as a new challenge in public health in postindustrial societies because this is the only intervention that repeatedly and strikingly increases maximum life span. The practice of food restriction is widespread for cosmetic, health, and economic reasons. The beneficial effects and the molecular mechanism of food restriction have been well established. The present review summarizes the rapidly accumulating evidence on the involvement of food restriction in various diseases and focuses on good dietary practices for health promotion in modern life style. PMID:16910315

  20. Dietary restriction: could it be considered as speed bump on tumor progression road?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangemi, Antonina; Fanale, Daniele; Rinaldi, Gaetana; Bazan, Viviana; Galvano, Antonio; Perez, Alessandro; Barraco, Nadia; Massihnia, Daniela; Castiglia, Marta; Vieni, Salvatore; Bronte, Giuseppe; Mirisola, Mario; Russo, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Dietary restrictions, including fasting (or long-term starvation), calorie restriction (CR), and short-term starvation (STS), are considered a strong rationale that may protect against various diseases, including age-related diseases and cancer. Among dietary approaches, STS, in which food is not consumed during designed fasting periods but is typically not restricted during designated feeding periods, seems to be more suitable, because other dietary regimens involving prolonged fasting periods could worsen the health conditions of cancer patients, being they already naturally prone to weight loss. Until now, the limited amount of available data does not point to a single gene, pathway, or molecular mechanism underlying the benefits to the different dietary approaches. It is well known that the healthy effect is mediated in part by the reduction of nutrient-related pathways. The calorie restriction and starvation (long- and short-term) also suppress the inflammatory response reducing the expression, for example, of IL-10 and TNF-α, mitigating pro-inflammatory gene expression and increasing anti-inflammatory gene expression. The dietary restriction may regulate both genes involved in cellular proliferation and factors associated to apoptosis in normal and cancer cells. Finally, dietary restriction is an important tool that may influence the response to chemotherapy in preclinical models. However, further data are needed to correlate dietary approaches with chemotherapeutic treatments in human models. The aim of this review is to discuss the effects of various dietary approaches on the cancer progression and therapy response, mainly in preclinical models, describing some signaling pathways involved in these processes. PMID:27043958

  1. Dietary restriction: could it be considered as speed bump on tumor progression road?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangemi, Antonina; Fanale, Daniele; Rinaldi, Gaetana; Bazan, Viviana; Galvano, Antonio; Perez, Alessandro; Barraco, Nadia; Massihnia, Daniela; Castiglia, Marta; Vieni, Salvatore; Bronte, Giuseppe; Mirisola, Mario; Russo, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Dietary restrictions, including fasting (or long-term starvation), calorie restriction (CR), and short-term starvation (STS), are considered a strong rationale that may protect against various diseases, including age-related diseases and cancer. Among dietary approaches, STS, in which food is not consumed during designed fasting periods but is typically not restricted during designated feeding periods, seems to be more suitable, because other dietary regimens involving prolonged fasting periods could worsen the health conditions of cancer patients, being they already naturally prone to weight loss. Until now, the limited amount of available data does not point to a single gene, pathway, or molecular mechanism underlying the benefits to the different dietary approaches. It is well known that the healthy effect is mediated in part by the reduction of nutrient-related pathways. The calorie restriction and starvation (long- and short-term) also suppress the inflammatory response reducing the expression, for example, of IL-10 and TNF-α, mitigating pro-inflammatory gene expression and increasing anti-inflammatory gene expression. The dietary restriction may regulate both genes involved in cellular proliferation and factors associated to apoptosis in normal and cancer cells. Finally, dietary restriction is an important tool that may influence the response to chemotherapy in preclinical models. However, further data are needed to correlate dietary approaches with chemotherapeutic treatments in human models. The aim of this review is to discuss the effects of various dietary approaches on the cancer progression and therapy response, mainly in preclinical models, describing some signaling pathways involved in these processes.

  2. Benefits of short-term dietary restriction in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Lauren T.; Mitchell, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary or calorie restriction (DR, CR), defined as reduced food intake without malnutrition, imparts many benefits in model organisms. Extended longevity is the most popularized benefit but the least clinically relevant due to the requirement for long-term food restriction. DR also promotes stress resistance and metabolic fitness. Emerging data in experimental models and in humans indicate that these benefits occur rapidly upon initiation of DR, suggesting potential clinical relevance. Here ...

  3. Loss of Intellectual Function in Children with Phenylketonuria after Relaxation of Dietary Phenylalanine Restriction.

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    Seashore, Margretta R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discontinuation at ages five to six of dietary restriction in 14 children with classic phenylketonuria (PKU--a metabolic disorder which, if untreated, is associated with mental retardation) resulted in deterioration in intellectual function for some of the Ss. Deficits included visual motor integration and cognitive problem solving. (CL)

  4. 限食对衰老大鼠心功能的保护作用及其机制%Protective effect of dietary restriction on cardiac function in aging rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋荣; 侯文婷; 刘雪姣; 申芳; 窦爽; 冷一平

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究限食对衰老大鼠心功能的保护作用及其机制。方法选择2月龄SD大鼠10只,随机分为衰老组和限食组(60%进食量),每组5只。2组大鼠每天皮下注射D-半乳糖100 mg/kg ,连续给药42 d建立衰老动物模型;衰老模型建立后另选5只2月龄SD大鼠设为青年组。3组行心功能检测,包括左心室内压(LVSP)、左心室舒张末压(LVEDP)、左心室压力最大上升速率(+dp/dtmax ),以及血浆丙二醛水平、超氧化物歧化酶活性和左心室心肌脂褐素水平测定。结果与青年组比较,衰老组大鼠 LVSP、+ dp/dtmax 、超氧化物歧化酶活性明显降低, LVEDP、丙二醛、脂褐素水平明显升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05,P<0.01);与衰老组比较,限食组 LVSP [(110.88±7.35)mm Hg(1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa) vs (70.18±19.27)mm Hg]、+ dp/dtmax [(2827.60±237.88) mm Hg/s vs (2365.66±99.81)mm Hg/s]和超氧化物歧化酶[(115.77±10.17)U/ml vs (90.10±17.11)U/ml]活性明显升高,LVEDP [(7.12±2.51)mm Hg vs (14.05±2.01)mm Hg]、丙二醛[(12.54±1.66)nmol/ml vs (15.83±2.51)nmol/ml]和脂褐素[(348.82±27.29)ng/mg vs (400.12±31.89)ng/mg]水平明显降低,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05,P<0.01)。结论衰老大鼠心功能有所降低,限食可能通过降低机体氧化应激水平,使脂褐素形成减少,从而改善衰老大鼠心功能。%Objective To study the protective effect of dietary restriction on cardiac function in ag-ing rats .Methods Ten SD rats aged 2 months were randomly divided into aging group and dieta-ry restriction (60% food intake) group (5 in each group) .An aging rat model was established by daily subcutaneous injection of D-galactose (100 mg/kg) for 42 days .Another 5 SD rats aged 2 months served as an adolecent group .The cardiac functions (including LVSP

  5. Beneficial Effects of Preoperative Dietary Restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. van Ginhoven (Tessa)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPeople have always been searching for methods to stay young and live longer. For example, in the European middle ages alchemists were looking for the “potion of life”. This elixir, also known as the elixir of immortality and sometimes equated with the philosopher’s stone, is a legendary

  6. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction

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    Wood Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. Methods We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO ~10% of total energy. A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Results Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF, hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP and galanin (GAL genes were significantly associated with weight loss. Conclusion A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.

  7. Epigenetic regulation of caloric restriction in aging

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    Daniel Michael

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The molecular mechanisms of aging are the subject of much research and have facilitated potential interventions to delay aging and aging-related degenerative diseases in humans. The aging process is frequently affected by environmental factors, and caloric restriction is by far the most effective and established environmental manipulation for extending lifespan in various animal models. However, the precise mechanisms by which caloric restriction affects lifespan are still not clear. Epigenetic mechanisms have recently been recognized as major contributors to nutrition-related longevity and aging control. Two primary epigenetic codes, DNA methylation and histone modification, are believed to dynamically influence chromatin structure, resulting in expression changes of relevant genes. In this review, we assess the current advances in epigenetic regulation in response to caloric restriction and how this affects cellular senescence, aging and potential extension of a healthy lifespan in humans. Enhanced understanding of the important role of epigenetics in the control of the aging process through caloric restriction may lead to clinical advances in the prevention and therapy of human aging-associated diseases.

  8. The odor of a plant metabolite affects life history traits in dietary restricted adult olive flies.

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    Gerofotis, Christos D; Ioannou, Charalampos S; Nakas, Christos T; Papadopoulos, Nikos T

    2016-01-01

    Food quality shapes life history traits either directly or through response of individuals to additional environmental factors, such as chemical cues. Plant extracts used as food additives modulate key life history traits; however little is known regarding such effects for olfactory chemical cues. Exploiting an interesting experimental system that involves the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the plant metabolite α-pinene we asked whether exposure of adults to this compound modulates adult longevity and female reproduction in similar manner in a stressful - dietary (protein) restricted (DR) and in a relaxed- full diet (FD) feeding environment. Accordingly, we exposed males and females to the aroma of α-pinene and measured lifespan and age-specific fecundity in the above two dietary contexts. Our results demonstrate that exposure to α-pinene increased longevity in males and fecundity in females only under dietary restricted conditions. In relaxed food conditions, females exposed to α-pinene shifted high egg-laying towards younger ages compared to non-exposed ones. This is the first report demonstrating that a plant compound affects key life history traits of adult olive flies through olfaction. These effects are sex-specific and more pronounced in dietary restricted adults. Possible underlying mechanisms and the ecological significance are discussed. PMID:27339862

  9. Dietary Restrictions in Dialysis Patients: Is There Anything Left to Eat?

    OpenAIRE

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Brown, Amanda; Chen, Joline L. T.; Kamgar, Mohammad; Lau, Wei-Ling; Moradi, Hamid; Rhee, Connie M.; Streja, Elani; Kovesdy, Csaba P.

    2015-01-01

    A significant number of dietary restrictions are imposed traditionally and uniformly on maintenance dialysis patients, whereas there is very little data to support their benefits. Recent studies indicate that dietary restrictions of phosphorus may lead to worse survival and poorer nutritional status. Restricting dietary potassium may deprive dialysis patients of heart-healthy diets and lead to intake of more atherogenic diets. There is little data about the survival benefits of dietary sodium...

  10. Intestinal Autophagy Improves Healthspan and Longevity in C. elegans during Dietary Restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Gelino

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary restriction (DR is a dietary regimen that extends lifespan in many organisms. One mechanism contributing to the conserved effect of DR on longevity is the cellular recycling process autophagy, which is induced in response to nutrient scarcity and increases sequestration of cytosolic material into double-membrane autophagosomes for degradation in the lysosome. Although autophagy plays a direct role in DR-mediated lifespan extension in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the contribution of autophagy in individual tissues remains unclear. In this study, we show a critical role for autophagy in the intestine, a major metabolic tissue, to ensure lifespan extension of dietary-restricted eat-2 mutants. The intestine of eat-2 mutants has an enlarged lysosomal compartment and flux assays indicate increased turnover of autophagosomes, consistent with an induction of autophagy in this tissue. This increase in intestinal autophagy may underlie the improved intestinal integrity we observe in eat-2 mutants, since whole-body and intestinal-specific inhibition of autophagy in eat-2 mutants greatly impairs the intestinal barrier function. Interestingly, intestinal-specific inhibition of autophagy in eat-2 mutants leads to a decrease in motility with age, alluding to a potential cell non-autonomous role for autophagy in the intestine. Collectively, these results highlight important functions for autophagy in the intestine of dietary-restricted C. elegans.

  11. Intestinal Autophagy Improves Healthspan and Longevity in C. elegans during Dietary Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelino, Sara; Chang, Jessica T.; Kumsta, Caroline; She, Xingyu; Davis, Andrew; Nguyen, Christian; Panowski, Siler; Hansen, Malene

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) is a dietary regimen that extends lifespan in many organisms. One mechanism contributing to the conserved effect of DR on longevity is the cellular recycling process autophagy, which is induced in response to nutrient scarcity and increases sequestration of cytosolic material into double-membrane autophagosomes for degradation in the lysosome. Although autophagy plays a direct role in DR-mediated lifespan extension in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the contribution of autophagy in individual tissues remains unclear. In this study, we show a critical role for autophagy in the intestine, a major metabolic tissue, to ensure lifespan extension of dietary-restricted eat-2 mutants. The intestine of eat-2 mutants has an enlarged lysosomal compartment and flux assays indicate increased turnover of autophagosomes, consistent with an induction of autophagy in this tissue. This increase in intestinal autophagy may underlie the improved intestinal integrity we observe in eat-2 mutants, since whole-body and intestinal-specific inhibition of autophagy in eat-2 mutants greatly impairs the intestinal barrier function. Interestingly, intestinal-specific inhibition of autophagy in eat-2 mutants leads to a decrease in motility with age, alluding to a potential cell non-autonomous role for autophagy in the intestine. Collectively, these results highlight important functions for autophagy in the intestine of dietary-restricted C. elegans. PMID:27414651

  12. Intestinal Autophagy Improves Healthspan and Longevity in C. elegans during Dietary Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelino, Sara; Chang, Jessica T; Kumsta, Caroline; She, Xingyu; Davis, Andrew; Nguyen, Christian; Panowski, Siler; Hansen, Malene

    2016-07-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) is a dietary regimen that extends lifespan in many organisms. One mechanism contributing to the conserved effect of DR on longevity is the cellular recycling process autophagy, which is induced in response to nutrient scarcity and increases sequestration of cytosolic material into double-membrane autophagosomes for degradation in the lysosome. Although autophagy plays a direct role in DR-mediated lifespan extension in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the contribution of autophagy in individual tissues remains unclear. In this study, we show a critical role for autophagy in the intestine, a major metabolic tissue, to ensure lifespan extension of dietary-restricted eat-2 mutants. The intestine of eat-2 mutants has an enlarged lysosomal compartment and flux assays indicate increased turnover of autophagosomes, consistent with an induction of autophagy in this tissue. This increase in intestinal autophagy may underlie the improved intestinal integrity we observe in eat-2 mutants, since whole-body and intestinal-specific inhibition of autophagy in eat-2 mutants greatly impairs the intestinal barrier function. Interestingly, intestinal-specific inhibition of autophagy in eat-2 mutants leads to a decrease in motility with age, alluding to a potential cell non-autonomous role for autophagy in the intestine. Collectively, these results highlight important functions for autophagy in the intestine of dietary-restricted C. elegans. PMID:27414651

  13. Metabolomics of dietary fatty acid restriction in patients with phenylketonuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Mütze

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU have to follow a lifelong phenylalanine restricted diet. This type of diet markedly reduces the intake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA. Long-chain saturated fatty acids are substrates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for acetyl-CoA production. LC-PUFA are discussed to affect inflammatory and haemostaseological processes in health and disease. The influence of the long term PKU diet on fatty acid metabolism with a special focus on platelet eicosanoid metabolism has been investigated in the study presented here. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 12 children with PKU under good metabolic control and 8 healthy controls were included. Activated fatty acids (acylcarnitines C6-C18 in dried blood and the cholesterol metabolism in serum were analyzed by liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Fatty acid composition of plasma glycerophospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. LC-PUFA metabolites were analyzed in supernatants by LC-MS/MS before and after platelet activation and aggregation using a standardized protocol. Patients with PKU had significantly lower free carnitine and lower activated fatty acids in dried blood compared to controls. Phytosterols as marker of cholesterol (re- absorption were not influenced by the dietary fatty acid restriction. Fatty acid composition in glycerophospholipids was comparable to that of healthy controls. However, patients with PKU showed significantly increased concentrations of y-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6 a precursor of arachidonic acid. In the PKU patients significantly higher platelet counts were observed. After activation with collagen platelet aggregation and thromboxane B(2 and thromboxane B(3 release did not differ from that of healthy controls. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Long-term dietary fatty acid restriction influenced the intermediates of mitochondrial beta

  14. Caloric restriction: beneficial effects on brain aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cauwenberghe, Caroline; Vandendriessche, Charysse; Libert, Claude; Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn E

    2016-08-01

    Dietary interventions such as caloric restriction (CR) extend lifespan and health span. Recent data from animal and human studies indicate that CR slows down the aging process, benefits general health, and improves memory performance. Caloric restriction also retards and slows down the progression of different age-related diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. However, the specific molecular basis of these effects remains unclear. A better understanding of the pathways underlying these effects could pave the way to novel preventive or therapeutic strategies. In this review, we will discuss the mechanisms and effects of CR on aging and Alzheimer's disease. A potential alternative to CR as a lifestyle modification is the use of CR mimetics. These compounds mimic the biochemical and functional effects of CR without the need to reduce energy intake. We discuss the effect of two of the most investigated mimetics, resveratrol and rapamycin, on aging and their potential as Alzheimer's disease therapeutics. However, additional research will be needed to determine the safety, efficacy, and usability of CR and its mimetics before a general recommendation can be proposed to implement them. PMID:27240590

  15. Dietary sodium restriction : a neglected therapeutic opportunity in chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humalda, Jelmer K.; Navis, Gerjan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Restriction of dietary sodium is recommended at a population level as well as for groups at high cardiovascular risk, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review addresses recent evidence for the protective effect of dietary sodium restriction in CKD patients specifically. Recent

  16. Emotion regulation training to reduce problematic dietary restriction: An experimental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynos, Ann F; Hill, Bailey; Fruzzetti, Alan E

    2016-08-01

    Evidence suggests that emotion regulation may be a process relevant to problematic dietary restriction. However, emotion regulation has not been evaluated as an intervention target across a range of restriction severity. This study utilized an experimental design to examine whether targeting emotion regulation reduced problematic dietary restriction. Within a self-identified restrictive sample (n = 72), the effects of an emotion regulation condition (i.e., emotion regulation training) were compared to those of a control condition (i.e., nutrition information training) on dietary restriction indices (i.e., effort to reduce intake on a progressive ratio task, work towards an alternate reinforcer on a progressive ratio task, intake by dietary recall) following a stressor. Exploratory analyses of potential moderators (i.e., restraint, BMI, binge eating and purging status, emotion regulation difficulties) were conducted to examine whether these factors affected the impact of training on dietary restriction. No significant main effects of condition were detected on any outcome measure. However, results were moderated by BMI status. Participants with lower BMIs exerted less effort towards dietary restriction following the emotion regulation condition versus the control condition (p = 0.02). Results suggest that targeting emotion regulation may help to reduce problematic dietary restriction among lower weight individuals. PMID:27105583

  17. Cysteine dietary supplementation reverses the decrease in mitochondrial ROS production at complex I induced by methionine restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, A; Gomez, J; Lopez Torres, M; Naudi, A; Mota-Martorell, N; Pamplona, R; Barja, G

    2015-06-01

    It has been described that dietary cysteine reverses many of the beneficial changes induced by methionine restriction in aging rodents. In this investigation male Wistar rats were subjected to diets low in methionine, supplemented with cysteine, or simultaneously low in methionine and supplemented with cysteine. The results obtained in liver showed that cysteine supplementation reverses the decrease in mitochondrial ROS generation induced by methionine restriction at complex I. Methionine restriction also decreased various markers of oxidative and non-oxidative stress on mitochondrial proteins which were not reversed by cysteine. Instead, cysteine supplementation also lowered protein damage in association with decreases in mTOR activation. The results of the present study add the decrease in mitochondrial ROS production to the various beneficial changes induced by methionine restriction that are reversed by cysteine dietary supplementation.

  18. Dietary approaches that delay age-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, Arthur V; Hilmer, Sarah N; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Jamieson, Hamish A; Truswell, A Stewart; Sharma, Anita P; Mason, Rebecca S; Morris, Brian J; Le Couteur, David G

    2006-01-01

    Reducing food intake in lower animals such as the rat decreases body weight, retards many aging processes, delays the onset of most diseases of old age, and prolongs life. A number of clinical trials of food restriction in healthy adult human subjects running over 2-15 years show significant reductions in body weight, blood cholesterol, blood glucose, and blood pressure, which are risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Lifestyle interventions that lower energy balance by reducing body weight such as physical exercise can also delay the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In general, clinical trials are suggesting that diets high in calories or fat along with overweight are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, some cancers, and dementia. There is a growing literature indicating that specific dietary constituents are able to influence the development of age-related diseases, including certain fats (trans fatty acids, saturated, and polyunsaturated fats) and cholesterol for cardiovascular disease, glycemic index and fiber for diabetes, fruits and vegetables for cardiovascular disease, and calcium and vitamin D for osteoporosis and bone fracture. In addition, there are dietary compounds from different functional foods, herbs, and neutraceuticals such as ginseng, nuts, grains, and polyphenols that may affect the development of age-related diseases. Long-term prospective clinical trials will be needed to confirm these diet-disease relationships. On the basis of current research, the best diet to delay age-related disease onset is one low in calories and saturated fat and high in wholegrain cereals, legumes, fruits and vegetables, and which maintains a lean body weight. Such a diet should become a key component of healthy aging, delaying age-related diseases and perhaps intervening in the aging process itself. Furthermore, there are studies suggesting that nutrition in childhood and

  19. The thioredoxin TRX-1 regulates adult lifespan extension induced by dietary restriction in Caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → First in vivo data for thioredoxin in dietary-restriction-(DR)-induced longevity. → Thioredoxin (trx-1) loss suppresses longevity of eat-2 mutant, a genetic DR model. → trx-1 overexpression extends wild-type longevity, but not that of eat-2 mutant. → Longevity by dietary deprivation (DD), a non-genetic DR model, requires trx-1. → trx-1 expression in ASJ neurons of aging adults is increased in response to DD. -- Abstract: Dietary restriction (DR) is the only environmental intervention known to extend adult lifespan in a wide variety of animal models. However, the genetic and cellular events that mediate the anti-aging programs induced by DR remain elusive. Here, we used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to provide the first in vivo evidence that a thioredoxin (TRX-1) regulates adult lifespan extension induced by DR. We found that deletion of the gene trx-1 completely suppressed the lifespan extension caused by mutation of eat-2, a genetic surrogate of DR in the worm. However, trx-1 deletion only partially suppressed the long lifespan caused by mutation of the insulin-like receptor gene daf-2 or by mutation of the sensory cilia gene osm-5. A trx-1::GFP translational fusion expressed from its own promoter in ASJ neurons (Ptrx-1::trx-1::GFP) rescued the trx-1 deletion-mediated suppression of the lifespan extension caused by mutation of eat-2. This rescue was not observed when trx-1::GFP was expressed from the ges-1 promoter in the intestine. In addition, overexpression of Ptrx-1::trx-1::GFP extended lifespan in wild type, but not in eat-2 mutants. trx-1 deletion almost completely suppressed the lifespan extension induced by dietary deprivation (DD), a non-genetic, nutrient-based model of DR in the worm. Moreover, DD upregulated the expression of a trx-1 promoter-driven GFP reporter gene (Ptrx-1::GFP) in ASJ neurons of aging adults, but not that of control Pgpa-9::GFP (which is also expressed in ASJ neurons). We propose that DR activates TRX-1

  20. The thioredoxin TRX-1 regulates adult lifespan extension induced by dietary restriction in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierro-Gonzalez, Juan Carlos [Karolinska Institute, Center for Biosciences at NOVUM, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, S-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden); Gonzalez-Barrios, Maria [Centro Andaluz de Biologia del Desarrollo (CABD-CSIC), Departamento de Fisiologia, Anatomia y Biologia Celular, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, E-41013 Sevilla (Spain); Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio, E-mail: amirviz@upo.es [Centro Andaluz de Biologia del Desarrollo (CABD-CSIC), Departamento de Fisiologia, Anatomia y Biologia Celular, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, E-41013 Sevilla (Spain); Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio/CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, E-41013 Sevilla (Spain); Swoboda, Peter, E-mail: peter.swoboda@ki.se [Karolinska Institute, Center for Biosciences at NOVUM, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, S-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden)

    2011-03-18

    Highlights: {yields} First in vivo data for thioredoxin in dietary-restriction-(DR)-induced longevity. {yields} Thioredoxin (trx-1) loss suppresses longevity of eat-2 mutant, a genetic DR model. {yields} trx-1 overexpression extends wild-type longevity, but not that of eat-2 mutant. {yields} Longevity by dietary deprivation (DD), a non-genetic DR model, requires trx-1. {yields} trx-1 expression in ASJ neurons of aging adults is increased in response to DD. -- Abstract: Dietary restriction (DR) is the only environmental intervention known to extend adult lifespan in a wide variety of animal models. However, the genetic and cellular events that mediate the anti-aging programs induced by DR remain elusive. Here, we used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to provide the first in vivo evidence that a thioredoxin (TRX-1) regulates adult lifespan extension induced by DR. We found that deletion of the gene trx-1 completely suppressed the lifespan extension caused by mutation of eat-2, a genetic surrogate of DR in the worm. However, trx-1 deletion only partially suppressed the long lifespan caused by mutation of the insulin-like receptor gene daf-2 or by mutation of the sensory cilia gene osm-5. A trx-1::GFP translational fusion expressed from its own promoter in ASJ neurons (Ptrx-1::trx-1::GFP) rescued the trx-1 deletion-mediated suppression of the lifespan extension caused by mutation of eat-2. This rescue was not observed when trx-1::GFP was expressed from the ges-1 promoter in the intestine. In addition, overexpression of Ptrx-1::trx-1::GFP extended lifespan in wild type, but not in eat-2 mutants. trx-1 deletion almost completely suppressed the lifespan extension induced by dietary deprivation (DD), a non-genetic, nutrient-based model of DR in the worm. Moreover, DD upregulated the expression of a trx-1 promoter-driven GFP reporter gene (Ptrx-1::GFP) in ASJ neurons of aging adults, but not that of control Pgpa-9::GFP (which is also expressed in ASJ neurons). We propose

  1. Hepatic autophagy contributes to the metabolic response to dietary protein restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henagan, Tara M; Laeger, Thomas; Navard, Alexandra M; Albarado, Diana; Noland, Robert C; Stadler, Krisztian; Elks, Carrie M; Burk, David; Morrison, Christopher D

    2016-06-01

    Autophagy is an essential cellular response which acts to release stored cellular substrates during nutrient restriction, and particularly plays a key role in the cellular response to amino acid restriction. However, there has been limited work testing whether the induction of autophagy is required for adaptive metabolic responses to dietary protein restriction in the whole animal. Here, we found that moderate dietary protein restriction led to a series of metabolic changes in rats, including increases in food intake and energy expenditure, the downregulation of hepatic fatty acid synthesis gene expression and reduced markers of hepatic mitochondrial number. Importantly, these effects were also associated with an induction of hepatic autophagy. To determine if the induction of autophagy contributes to these metabolic effects, we tested the metabolic response to dietary protein restriction in BCL2-AAA mice, which bear a genetic mutation that impairs autophagy induction. Interestingly, BCL2-AAA mice exhibit exaggerated responses in terms of both food intake and energy expenditure, whereas the effects of protein restriction on hepatic metabolism were significantly blunted. These data demonstrate that restriction of dietary protein is sufficient to trigger hepatic autophagy, and that disruption of autophagy significantly alters both hepatic and whole animal metabolic response to dietary protein restriction. PMID:27173459

  2. Calorie for calorie, dietary fat restriction results in more body fat loss than carbohydrate restriction in people with obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D.; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y.; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J.; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D.; Miller, Bernard V.; Prado, Carla M.; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C.; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J.; Yannai, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5 day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53±6 g/d of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction leading to 89±6 g/d of fat loss and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p=0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. PMID:26278052

  3. A role for autophagy in the extension of lifespan by dietary restriction in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malene Hansen

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In many organisms, dietary restriction appears to extend lifespan, at least in part, by down-regulating the nutrient-sensor TOR (Target Of Rapamycin. TOR inhibition elicits autophagy, the large-scale recycling of cytoplasmic macromolecules and organelles. In this study, we asked whether autophagy might contribute to the lifespan extension induced by dietary restriction in C. elegans. We find that dietary restriction and TOR inhibition produce an autophagic phenotype and that inhibiting genes required for autophagy prevents dietary restriction and TOR inhibition from extending lifespan. The longevity response to dietary restriction in C. elegans requires the PHA-4 transcription factor. We find that the autophagic response to dietary restriction also requires PHA-4 activity, indicating that autophagy is a transcriptionally regulated response to food limitation. In spite of the rejuvenating effect that autophagy is predicted to have on cells, our findings suggest that autophagy is not sufficient to extend lifespan. Long-lived daf-2 insulin/IGF-1 receptor mutants require both autophagy and the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO for their longevity, but we find that autophagy takes place in the absence of DAF-16. Perhaps autophagy is not sufficient for lifespan extension because although it provides raw material for new macromolecular synthesis, DAF-16/FOXO must program the cells to recycle this raw material into cell-protective longevity proteins.

  4. Food restriction prevents an age-associated increase in rat liver beta-adrenergic receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dax, E.M.; Ingram, D.K.; Partilla, J.S.; Gregerman, R.I.

    1989-05-01

    In male Wistar rats fed ad libitum (24% protein, 4.5 Kcal/gm), the (/sup 125/I)iodopindolol binding capacity of the beta-adrenergic receptors in liver of 24-month-old animals is 3-4 times greater than that of 6-month-old counterparts. In rats fed the same diet, on alternate days from weaning, the receptor capacity did not increase significantly between 6 and 24 months (10.20 +/- 0.55 vs 9.20 +/- 0.72 fmol/mg) or between 24 and 30 months. This was not due to acute dietary deprivation, as rats food-restricted for only 2 weeks, at 23.5 months of age, also showed elevated receptor capacities compared to 6-month-old ad libitum fed animals. Moreover, intermittent feeding produced no significant effects among 6-month-old animals, whether restricted since weaning or for two weeks prior to sacrifice. Many biochemical parameters that decrease with aging in rats fed ad libitum are prevented by dietary restriction. Our results demonstrate that a reproducible biochemical process that increases with aging is also prevented with dietary restriction. The age-related, liver beta-receptor increase may be a potentially reliable marker for studying biochemical perturbations that modify life span.

  5. Food restriction prevents an age-associated increase in rat liver beta-adrenergic receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In male Wistar rats fed ad libitum (24% protein, 4.5 Kcal/gm), the [125I]iodopindolol binding capacity of the beta-adrenergic receptors in liver of 24-month-old animals is 3-4 times greater than that of 6-month-old counterparts. In rats fed the same diet, on alternate days from weaning, the receptor capacity did not increase significantly between 6 and 24 months (10.20 +/- 0.55 vs 9.20 +/- 0.72 fmol/mg) or between 24 and 30 months. This was not due to acute dietary deprivation, as rats food-restricted for only 2 weeks, at 23.5 months of age, also showed elevated receptor capacities compared to 6-month-old ad libitum fed animals. Moreover, intermittent feeding produced no significant effects among 6-month-old animals, whether restricted since weaning or for two weeks prior to sacrifice. Many biochemical parameters that decrease with aging in rats fed ad libitum are prevented by dietary restriction. Our results demonstrate that a reproducible biochemical process that increases with aging is also prevented with dietary restriction. The age-related, liver beta-receptor increase may be a potentially reliable marker for studying biochemical perturbations that modify life span

  6. Age-restricted housing in New England

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Francese

    2008-01-01

    Fair Housing Act amendments exempt housing restricted to “older persons” from provisions protecting families with children from discrimination. But municipal leaders who believe that promoting over-55 housing will reduce education costs are in for a rude awakening.

  7. Dietary quality, lifestyle factors and healthy ageing in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman-Nies, A.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: dietary quality, dietary patterns, lifestyle factors, smoking, physical activity, elderly, mortality, Mediterranean Diet Score, Healthy Diet Indicator, healthy ageing, self-rated health, functional statusThe contribution of diet and lifestyle factors to healthy ageing was

  8. Chronic Maternal Dietary Chromium Restriction Modulates Visceral Adiposity

    OpenAIRE

    Padmavathi, Inagadapa J.N.; Rao, K Rajender; Venu, Lagishetty; Ganeshan, Manisha; Kumar, K. Anand; Rao, Ch. Narasima; Harishankar, Nemani; Ismail, Ayesha; Raghunath, Manchala

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We demonstrated previously that chronic maternal micronutrient restriction altered the body composition in rat offspring and may predispose offspring to adult-onset diseases. Chromium (Cr) regulates glucose and fat metabolism. The objective of this study is to determine the long-term effects of maternal Cr restriction on adipose tissue development and function in a rat model. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Female weanling WNIN rats received, ad libitum, a control diet or the same with ...

  9. Dietary carbohydrate restriction in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth Karl S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current nutritional approaches to metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes generally rely on reductions in dietary fat. The success of such approaches has been limited and therapy more generally relies on pharmacology. The argument is made that a re-evaluation of the role of carbohydrate restriction, the historical and intuitive approach to the problem, may provide an alternative and possibly superior dietary strategy. The rationale is that carbohydrate restriction improves glycemic control and reduces insulin fluctuations which are primary targets. Experiments are summarized showing that carbohydrate-restricted diets are at least as effective for weight loss as low-fat diets and that substitution of fat for carbohydrate is generally beneficial for risk of cardiovascular disease. These beneficial effects of carbohydrate restriction do not require weight loss. Finally, the point is reiterated that carbohydrate restriction improves all of the features of metabolic syndrome.

  10. Components of an Anticancer Diet: Dietary Recommendations, Restrictions and Supplements of the Bill Henderson Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Laurie Heilman Bell; Marja Verhoef; Stacey Page; Cynthia Mannion

    2010-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines including dietary supplements, herbals and special diets to prevent or treat disease continues to be popular. The following paper provides a description of an alternative dietary approach to the self-management and treatment of cancer, the Bill Henderson Protocol (BHP). This diet encourages daily intake of raw foods, a combination of cottage cheese and flaxseed oil and a number of supplements. Some foods and food groups are restricted (e.g., ...

  11. Cardiometabolic and reproductive benefits of early dietary energy restriction and voluntary exercise in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane, Abdoulaye; Kupreeva, Maria; Borthwick, Faye; Proctor, Spencer D; Pierce, W David; Vine, Donna F

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine-metabolic disorders in women of reproductive age characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and cardiometabolic risk. The overweight-obese PCOS phenotype appears to have exacerbated reproductive dysfunction and cardiometabolic risk. In overweight-obese adult women with PCOS, exercise and energy restricted diets have shown limited and inconsistent effects on both cardiometabolic indices and reproductive outcomes. We hypothesized that an early lifestyle intervention involving exercise and dietary energy restriction to prevent or reduce the propensity for adiposity would modulate reproductive indices and cardiometabolic risk in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model. Weanling obese PCOS-prone and Lean-Control JCR:LA-cp rodents were given a chow diet ad libitum or an energy-restricted diet combined with or without voluntary exercise (4  h/day) for 8 weeks. Dietary energy restriction and exercise lowered total body weight gain and body fat mass by 30% compared to free-fed sedentary or exercising obese PCOS-prone animals (PPCOS-prone animals compared to free-fed and exercise or sedentary groups. The energy restriction and exercise combination in obese PCOS-prone animals significantly increased plasma sex-hormone binding globulin, hypothalamic cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and Kisspeptin mRNA expression to levels of the Lean-Control group, and this was further associated with improvements in estrous cyclicity. The combination of exercise and dietary energy restriction when initiated in early life exerts beneficial effects on cardiometabolic and reproductive indices in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model, and this may be associated with normalization of the hypothalamic neuropeptides, Kisspeptin and CART.

  12. A randomized trial of dietary sodium restriction in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Emma J; Bauer, Judith D; Hawley, Carmel M; Isbel, Nicole M; Stowasser, Michael; Johnson, David W; Campbell, Katrina L

    2013-12-01

    There is a paucity of quality evidence regarding the effects of sodium restriction in patients with CKD, particularly in patients with pre-end stage CKD, where controlling modifiable risk factors may be especially important for delaying CKD progression and cardiovascular events. We conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized crossover trial assessing the effects of high versus low sodium intake on ambulatory BP, 24-hour protein and albumin excretion, fluid status (body composition monitor), renin and aldosterone levels, and arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity and augmentation index) in 20 adult patients with hypertensive stage 3-4 CKD as phase 1 of the LowSALT CKD study. Overall, salt restriction resulted in statistically significant and clinically important reductions in BP (mean reduction of systolic/diastolic BP, 10/4 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 5 to 15 /1 to 6 mm Hg), extracellular fluid volume, albuminuria, and proteinuria in patients with moderate-to-severe CKD. The magnitude of change was more pronounced than the magnitude reported in patients without CKD, suggesting that patients with CKD are particularly salt sensitive. Although studies with longer intervention times and larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these benefits, this study indicates that sodium restriction should be emphasized in the management of patients with CKD as a means to reduce cardiovascular risk and risk for CKD progression.

  13. Effect of dietary restriction and hay inclusion in the diet of slow-growing broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla P. Picoli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary restriction and inclusion of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. and Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cv Coastal hays in the diets of ISA Label JA57 slow-growing male broilers on performance, gastrointestinal tract characteristics, and economic viability. A total of 272 broilers at 21 days old were distributed in a randomized experimental design with four treatments, four replicates, and 17 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of ad libitum concentrated feed (control intake, feed restriction (80% of the control intake, and feed restrictions with supplementation of alfalfa hay (80% of the control intake+20% alfalfa or Bermudagrass hay (80% control intake+20% Bermuda. Dietary restriction, with and without hay inclusion, negatively affected (P<0.05 the weight gain of the birds; however, feed conversion was improved (P<0.05 for animals that underwent only restricted feeding, which also had the best economic indices. Birds subjected to dietary restriction and inclusion of hays showed changes (P<0.05 in the gastrointestinal organs and intestinal morphology.

  14. Effect of dietary restriction on sperm characteristic and oxidative status on testicular tissue in young rats exposed to long-term heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydilek, N; Varisli, O; Kocyigit, A; Taskin, A; Kaya, M S

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary restriction on oxidative status and sperm parameters in rats exposed to long-term heat stress. Forty healthy Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 2.5 month, were divided into four groups of 10 with respect to feeding and temperature regimen (room temperature (22 °C)-ad libitum, room temperature-dietary restriction (40%), high temperature (38 °C)-ad libitum, high temperature-dietary restriction). At the end of the 9th week, some oxidants (lipid hydroperoxide, total oxidant status, oxidative stress index) and antioxidants (total antioxidant status, sulfhydryl groups, ceruloplasmin, paraoxonase and arylesterase activities) were measured in the testis tissue. The concentration, motility, volume, abnormal sperm count, acrosome and membrane integrity of epididymal spermatozoon and intratesticular testosterone levels were evaluated. High temperature did not change oxidative and antioxidative parameters except for sulfhydryl groups and ceruloplasmin, yet it impaired all sperm values. Neither sperm values nor oxidative status apart from sulfhydryl groups, ceruloplasmin and arylesterase was affected by dietary restriction in the testis tissue. These results suggest that long-term heat stress does not have a significant effect on testicular oxidative status, while the spermatozoa are sensitive to heat stress in young rats. Dietary restriction failed to improve the sperm quality and oxidative status except some individual antioxidant parameters; conversely, it decreased intratesticular testosterone level in the young rats exposed to long-term heat stress. PMID:25418546

  15. School Age Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawing conclusions about the validity of available dietary assessment instruments in school age children is hampered by the differences in instruments, research design, reference methods, and populations in the validation literature.

  16. Effects of dietary restriction or swimming on lymphocytes and macrophages functionality from old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneguello-Coutinho, Marcela; Caperuto, Erico; Bacurau, Aline Villa Nova; Chamusca, Grabriela; Uchida, Marco Carlos; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Pereira, Guilherme Borges; Navalta, James Wilfred; Wasinski, Frederick; Cavaglieri, Claudia Regina; Prestes, Jonato; Costa Rosa, Luis Fernando Bicudo Pereira; Bacurau, Reury Frank

    2014-01-01

    Although aging compromises the functionality of macrophages (MΦ) and lymphocytes (LY), and dietary restriction (DR) and exercise partially counterbalance immunosenescence, it is unknown what effects of both strategies have on the functionality of these immune cells. Rats were randomly distributed into adult control (AD), older group (OLD), older submitted to 50% of DR (DR) and older submitted to swimming (EX) (n = 10 in each group). The function of immune cells (proliferative index, phagocytic capacity and H₂O₂ production), the weight and protein content of lymphoid organs (thymus and spleen), plasma glutamine concentration, interleukins (IL-1, IL-2, IL-6) and, immunoglobulins (IgA and IgG) were analysed. There was an increase of 74% in body weight in aged animals as compared with the AD group, while body weight reduced 19% in the DR as compared with the OLD group. Swimming training stimulated MΦ phagocytosis, while the EX group presented a decrease of the proliferative capacity of LY from the mesenteric lymph nodes (44% and 62%, respectively), when stimulated with ConA and LPS as compared with the old rats. These data demonstrated that DR and exercise affects differentially MΦ and LY function. PMID:24206426

  17. RELATION BETWEEN GLUCOLIPID PROFILE AND SMALL INTESTINE HISTOLOGICAL PATTERNS IN DIABETIC RATS EXPOSED TO AN INTERMITTENT DIETARY RESTRICTION

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    Noriyuki Hisano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an intermittent and prolonged dietary restriction on biochemical variables and histological small intestinal patterns in 12-month-old male eSMT rats are examined. These spontaneously diabetic animals were separated in two groups after weaning: 10 rats fed ad libitum with standard rat chow and 10 rats fed a restricted diet by deprivation of the same food for 24 hours every 72. At 12 months of age, animals were weighed and euthanized after tail vein bleeding for plasma analysis (glycemia- both fasting and 120 minutes after an oral glucose challenge-, triglyceridemia and total cholesterolemia. Small intestines were removed, weighed and measured in length.Intestinal specimens were fixed, embedded in paraffin, semi serially cut at 6 µm and stained with PAS-Hematoxilyn and Hematoxilyn-Eosin. Histometry was performed through a linear devise attached to ocular lens and lectin histochemistry was accomplished employing Canavalis ensiformis, Dolichos biflorus, Arachis hypogea, Ulex europaeus-I, Triticum vulgaris, Ricinus communis and Soy Bean (Glicine Max Agglutinin. Essentially, eSMT rats, a suitable animal model for studying diabetes and/or its complications, revealed at 12 months of age after undergoing the dietary restriction: 1.- An expected improvement in body weight and determined biochemical variables (fasting and after glucose overload glycemias, triglyceridemia and total cholesterolemia without reaching euglycemic values. 2.- Changes in most of the analyzed histometric patterns with no relevant reflection on morphometric ones, and 3.- No modifications in lectinhistochemical patterns.

  18. Effect of a standardised dietary restriction protocol on multiple laboratory strains of Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Richard C Grandison

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Outcomes of lifespan studies in model organisms are particularly susceptible to variations in technical procedures. This is especially true of dietary restriction, which is implemented in many different ways among laboratories. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we have examined the effect of laboratory stock maintenance, genotype differences and microbial infection on the ability of dietary restriction (DR to extend life in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. None of these factors block the DR effect. CONCLUSIONS: These data lend support to the idea that nutrient restriction genuinely extends lifespan in flies, and that any mechanistic discoveries made with this model are of potential relevance to the determinants of lifespan in other organisms.

  19. Dietary restriction involves NAD⁺ -dependent mechanisms and a shift toward oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Natalie; Carmona, Juan J; Anderson, Edward; Hart, Anne C; Sinclair, David A; Blackwell, T Keith

    2014-12-01

    Interventions that slow aging and prevent chronic disease may come from an understanding of how dietary restriction (DR) increases lifespan. Mechanisms proposed to mediate DR longevity include reduced mTOR signaling, activation of the NAD⁺ -dependent deacylases known as sirtuins, and increases in NAD⁺ that derive from higher levels of respiration. Here, we explored these hypotheses in Caenorhabditis elegans using a new liquid feeding protocol. DR lifespan extension depended upon a group of regulators that are involved in stress responses and mTOR signaling, and have been implicated in DR by some other regimens [DAF-16 (FOXO), SKN-1 (Nrf1/2/3), PHA-4 (FOXA), AAK-2 (AMPK)]. Complete DR lifespan extension required the sirtuin SIR-2.1 (SIRT1), the involvement of which in DR has been debated. The nicotinamidase PNC-1, a key NAD⁺ salvage pathway component, was largely required for DR to increase lifespan but not two healthspan indicators: movement and stress resistance. Independently of pnc-1, DR increased the proportion of respiration that is coupled to ATP production but, surprisingly, reduced overall oxygen consumption. We conclude that stress response and NAD⁺ -dependent mechanisms are each critical for DR lifespan extension, although some healthspan benefits do not require NAD⁺ salvage. Under DR conditions, NAD⁺ -dependent processes may be supported by a DR-induced shift toward oxidative metabolism rather than an increase in total respiration.

  20. Manipulation of health span and function by dietary caloric restriction mimetics.

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    Roth, George S; Ingram, Donald K

    2016-01-01

    After nearly a century of rigorous investigation and testing, dietary caloric restriction (CR) remains the most robust and reproducible method for slowing aging and maintaining health, function, and vitality. This intervention has been applied to species across the evolutionary spectrum, but for a number of reasons, practical applicability to humans has been questioned. To overcome these issues, we initiated the field of CR mimetics in 1998 and have observed its development into a full-fledged antiaging industry. Basically, strategies that enable individuals to obtain the biological benefits of CR without reducing actual food intake can be considered CR mimetics, whether functional, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, or other. Some of the best known candidates include resveratrol and related agents, the antidiabetic drug metformin, and rapamycin and other mTOR regulators. While the mechanisms of action vary, these and essentially all CR mimetic candidates work through at least some of the same pathways as actual CR. While the entire field continues to evolve rapidly, the current status will be reviewed here, with particular focus on recent developments, the most practical relevance and applicability for potential consumers, and new strategies for the future. PMID:26214681

  1. Insulin secretion and signaling in response to dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Kate; Kenny, David A; Kelly, Alan K; Waters, Sinéad M

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine systemic insulin response to a glucose tolerance test (GTT) and transcript abundance of genes of the insulin signaling pathway in skeletal muscle, during both dietary restriction and re-alimentation-induced compensatory growth. Holstein Friesian bulls were blocked to one of two groups: 1) restricted feed allowance for 125 days (period 1) (RES, n = 15) followed by ad libitum feeding for 55 days (period 2) or 2) ad libitum access to feed throughout (periods 1 and 2) (ADLIB, n = 15). On days 90 and 36 of periods 1 and 2, respectively, a GTT was performed. M. longissimus dorsi biopsies were harvested from all bulls on days 120 and 15 of periods 1 and 2, respectively, and RNA-Seq analysis was performed. RES displayed a lower growth rate during period 1 (RES: 0.6 kg/day, ADLIB: 1.9 kg/day; P alimentation (RES: 2.5 kg/day, ADLIB: 1.4 kg/day; P alimentation (P > 0.05). Genes differentially expressed in the insulin signaling pathway suggested a greater sensitivity to insulin in skeletal muscle, with pleiotropic effects of insulin signaling interrupted during dietary restriction. Collectively, these results indicate increased sensitivity to glucose clearance and skeletal muscle insulin signaling during dietary restriction; however, no overall role for insulin was apparent in expressing compensatory growth. PMID:26015430

  2. Measuring aging rates of mice subjected to caloric restriction and genetic disruption of growth hormone signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Jacob J.E.; van Heemst, Diana; van Bodegom, David; Bonkowski, Michael S.; Sun, Liou Y.; Bartke, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction and genetic disruption of growth hormone signaling have been shown to counteract aging in mice. The effects of these interventions on aging are examined through age-dependent survival or through the increase in age-dependent mortality rates on a logarithmic scale fitted to the Gompertz model. However, these methods have limitations that impede a fully comprehensive disclosure of these effects. Here we examine the effects of these interventions on murine aging through the increase in age-dependent mortality rates on a linear scale without fitting them to a model like the Gompertz model. Whereas these interventions negligibly and non-consistently affected the aging rates when examined through the age-dependent mortality rates on a logarithmic scale, they caused the aging rates to increase at higher ages and to higher levels when examined through the age-dependent mortality rates on a linear scale. These results add to the debate whether these interventions postpone or slow aging and to the understanding of the mechanisms by which they affect aging. Since different methods yield different results, it is worthwhile to compare their results in future research to obtain further insights into the effects of dietary, genetic, and other interventions on the aging of mice and other species. PMID:26959761

  3. Calorie restriction and prevention of age-associated chronic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Omodei, Daniela; Fontana, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Life expectancy in the world has increased dramatically during the last century; the number of older adults is expected to rise while the number of youths will decline in the near future. This demographic shift has considerable public health and economic implications since aging is associated with the development of serious chronic diseases. Calorie restriction (CR) is the most effective nutritional intervention for slowing aging and preventing chronic disease in rodents. In non-human and hum...

  4. Dietary Protein Considerations to Support Active Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, Benjamin T.; Cermak, Naomi M.; van Loon, Luc J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Given our rapidly aging world-wide population, the loss of skeletal muscle mass with healthy aging (sarcopenia) represents an important societal and public health concern. Maintaining or adopting an active lifestyle alleviates age-related muscle loss to a certain extent. Over time, even small losses of muscle tissue can hinder the ability to maintain an active lifestyle and, as such, contribute to the development of frailty and metabolic disease. Considerable research focus has addressed the ...

  5. Dietary restrictions in healing among speakers of Iquito, an endangered language of the Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernigan Kevin A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnobotanical research was carried out with speakers of Iquito, a critically endangered Amazonian language of the Zaparoan family. The study focused on the concept of "dieting" (siyan++ni in Iquito, a practice involving prohibitions considered necessary to the healing process. These restrictions include: 1 foods and activities that can exacerbate illness, 2 environmental influences that conflict with some methods of healing (e.g. steam baths or enemas and 3 foods and activities forbidden by the spirits of certain powerful medicinal plants. The study tested the following hypotheses: H1 - Each restriction will correlate with specific elements in illness explanatory models and H2 - Illnesses whose explanatory models have personalistic elements will show a greater number and variety of restrictions than those based on naturalistic reasoning. Methods The work was carried out in 2009 and 2010 in the Alto Nanay region of Peru. In structured interviews, informants gave explanatory models for illness categories, including etiologies, pathophysiologies, treatments and dietary restrictions necessary for 49 illnesses. Seventeen botanical vouchers for species said to have powerful spirits that require diets were also collected. Results All restrictions found correspond to some aspect of illness explanatory models. Thirty-five percent match up with specific illness etiologies, 53% correspond to particular pathophysiologies, 18% correspond with overall seriousness of the illness and 18% are only found with particular forms of treatment. Diets based on personalistic reasoning have a significantly higher average number of restrictions than those based on naturalistic reasoning. Conclusions Dieting plays a central role in healing among Iquito speakers. Specific prohibitions can be explained in terms of specific aspects of illness etiologies, pathophysiologies and treatments. Although the Amazonian literature contains few studies focusing on

  6. Dietary -carbamylglutamate and rumen-protected -arginine supplementation ameliorate fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Sun, L W; Wang, Z Y; Deng, M T; Zhang, G M; Guo, R H; Ma, T W; Wang, F

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted with an ovine intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) model to test the hypothesis that dietary -carbamylglutamate (NCG) and rumen-protected -Arg (RP-Arg) supplementation are effective in ameliorating fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes. Beginning on d 35 of gestation, ewes were fed a diet providing 100% of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements, 50% of NRC recommendations (50% NRC), 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 20 g/d RP-Arg (providing 10 g/d of Arg), and 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 5 g/d NCG product (providing 2.5 g/d of NCG). On d 110, maternal, fetal, and placental tissues and fluids were collected and weighed. Ewe weights were lower ( effect on concentrations of lactate and GH. Maternal RP-Arg or NCG supplementation markedly improved ( amniotic fluids within nutrient-restricted ewes. These novel results indicate that dietary NCG and RP-Arg supplementation to underfed ewes ameliorated fetal growth restriction, at least in part, by increasing the availability of AA in the conceptus and provide support for its clinical use to ameliorate IUGR in humans and sheep industry production. PMID:27285704

  7. Dietary magnesium restriction reduces amygdala-hypothalamic GluN1 receptor complex levels in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafari, Maryam; Whittle, Nigel; Miklósi, András G; Kotlowski, Caroline; Kotlowsky, Caroline; Schmuckermair, Claudia; Berger, Johannes; Bennett, Keiryn L; Singewald, Nicolas; Lubec, Gert

    2015-07-01

    Reduced daily intake of magnesium (Mg(2+)) is suggested to contribute to depression. Indeed, preclinical studies show dietary magnesium restriction (MgR) elicits enhanced depression-like behaviour establishing a causal relationship. Amongst other mechanisms, Mg(2+) gates the activity of N-methyl-D-asparte (NMDA) receptors; however, it is not known whether reduced dietary Mg(2+) intake can indeed affect brain NMDA receptor complexes. Thus, the aim of the current study was to reveal whether MgR induces changes in brain NMDA receptor subunit composition that would indicate altered NMDA receptor regulation. The results revealed that enhanced depression-like behaviour elicited by MgR was associated with reduced amygdala-hypothalamic protein levels of GluN1-containing NMDA complexes. No change in GluN1 mRNA levels was observed indicating posttranslational changes were induced by dietary Mg(2+) restriction. To reveal possible protein interaction partners, GluN1 immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assays were carried out revealing the expected GluN1 subunit association with GluN2A, GluN2B, but also novel interactions with GluA1, GluA2 in addition to known downstream signalling proteins. Chronic paroxetine treatment in MgR mice normalized enhanced depression-like behaviour, but did not alter protein levels of GluN1-containing NMDA receptors, indicating targets downstream of the NMDA receptor. Collectively, present data demonstrate that dietary MgR alters brain levels of GluN1-containing NMDA receptor complexes, containing GluN2A, GluN2B, AMPA receptors GluA1, GluA2 and several protein kinases. These data indicate that the modulation of dietary Mg(2+) intake may alter the function and signalling of this receptor complex indicating its involvement in the enhanced depression-like behaviour elicited by MgR.

  8. A Meta-Analysis of Effect of Dietary Salt Restriction on Blood Pressure in Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao; Moran, Andrew E; Liu, Jing; Qi, Yue; Xie, Wuxiang; Tzong, Keane; Zhao, Dong

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the effects of dietary salt reduction on blood pressure (BP) in Chinese adults and the effects of China-specific cooking salt-reduction strategies (the use of salt substitutes and salt-restriction spoons). The PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched for studies satisfying the search criteria. Outcomes extracted from each included study were 24-h urinary sodium excretion, salt (sodium chloride) intake, and BP before and after dietary salt lowering. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed, and results were evaluated for evidence of publication bias and heterogeneity. Because most studies aggregated results for hypertensive and normotensive participants, estimates were made for hypertensive participants only and for hypertensive and normotensive participants combined. Six salt-restriction experiment studies (3,153 participants), 4 cooking salt-restriction spoon studies (3,715 participants), and 4 cooking salt-substitute studies (1,730 participants) were analyzed. In salt-restriction experiment studies, the pooled estimate of mean change in 24-h urinary sodium excretion in hypertensive participants was -163.0 mmol/day (95% confidence interval [CI]: -233.5 to -92.5 mmol/day), which was associated with a mean reduction of -8.9 mm Hg (95% CI: -14.1 to -3.7 mm Hg) in systolic BP. Each 1.00-g dietary salt reduction in hypertensive participants was associated with a reduction of 0.94 mm Hg in systolic BP (95% CI: 0.69 to 1.03 mm Hg). These systolic BP reductions in hypertensive participants were 1.71 times greater compared with the mixed hypertensive and normotensive group. Salt-restriction spoon studies demonstrated a 1.46-g decrease in daily salt intake level. The effect of salt-substitute use on systolic BP control was substantial among the hypertensive participants (-4.2 mm Hg; 95% CI: -7.0 to -1.3 mm Hg), but the change did not reach statistical significance in hypertensive and

  9. A Meta-Analysis of Effect of Dietary Salt Restriction on Blood Pressure in Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao; Moran, Andrew E; Liu, Jing; Qi, Yue; Xie, Wuxiang; Tzong, Keane; Zhao, Dong

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the effects of dietary salt reduction on blood pressure (BP) in Chinese adults and the effects of China-specific cooking salt-reduction strategies (the use of salt substitutes and salt-restriction spoons). The PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched for studies satisfying the search criteria. Outcomes extracted from each included study were 24-h urinary sodium excretion, salt (sodium chloride) intake, and BP before and after dietary salt lowering. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed, and results were evaluated for evidence of publication bias and heterogeneity. Because most studies aggregated results for hypertensive and normotensive participants, estimates were made for hypertensive participants only and for hypertensive and normotensive participants combined. Six salt-restriction experiment studies (3,153 participants), 4 cooking salt-restriction spoon studies (3,715 participants), and 4 cooking salt-substitute studies (1,730 participants) were analyzed. In salt-restriction experiment studies, the pooled estimate of mean change in 24-h urinary sodium excretion in hypertensive participants was -163.0 mmol/day (95% confidence interval [CI]: -233.5 to -92.5 mmol/day), which was associated with a mean reduction of -8.9 mm Hg (95% CI: -14.1 to -3.7 mm Hg) in systolic BP. Each 1.00-g dietary salt reduction in hypertensive participants was associated with a reduction of 0.94 mm Hg in systolic BP (95% CI: 0.69 to 1.03 mm Hg). These systolic BP reductions in hypertensive participants were 1.71 times greater compared with the mixed hypertensive and normotensive group. Salt-restriction spoon studies demonstrated a 1.46-g decrease in daily salt intake level. The effect of salt-substitute use on systolic BP control was substantial among the hypertensive participants (-4.2 mm Hg; 95% CI: -7.0 to -1.3 mm Hg), but the change did not reach statistical significance in hypertensive and

  10. Effects of chronic calorie restriction or dietary resveratrol supplementation on insulin sensitivity markers in a primate, Microcebus murinus.

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    Julia Marchal

    Full Text Available The prevalence of diabetes and hyperinsulinemia increases with age, inducing metabolic failure and limiting lifespan. Calorie restriction (CR without malnutrition delays the aging process, but its long-term application to humans seems difficult. Resveratrol (RSV, a dietary polyphenol, appears to be a promising CR mimetic that can be easily administered in humans. In this work, we hypothesized that both CR and RSV impact insulin sensitivity in a non-human primate compared to standard-fed control (CTL animals. Four- to five-year-old male grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus were assigned to three dietary groups: a CTL group, a CR group receiving 30% fewer calories than the CTL and a RSV group receiving the CTL diet supplemented with RSV (200 mg·day(-1·kg(-1. Insulin sensitivity and glycemia were assessed using an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index evaluation after 21 or 33 months of chronic treatment. Resting metabolic rate was also measured to assess the potential relationships between this energy expenditure parameter and insulin sensitivity markers. No differences were found after a 21-month period of treatment, except for lower glucose levels 30 min after glucose loading in CR animals. After 33 months, CR and RSV decreased glycemia after the oral glucose loading without decreasing fasting blood insulin. A general effect of treatment was observed on the HOMA-IR index, with an 81% reduction in CR animals and 53% in RSV animals after 33 months of treatment compared to CTL. Chronic CR and dietary supplementation with RSV affected insulin sensitivity by improving the glucose tolerance of animals without disturbing their baseline insulin secretion. These results suggest that both CR and RSV have beneficial effects on metabolic alterations, although these effects are different in amplitude between the two anti-aging treatments and potentially rely on different metabolic

  11. A Systems Approach to Reverse Engineer Lifespan Extension by Dietary Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lei; Wang, Dan; Chen, Di; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Yue; Cheng, Hao; Xu, Chi; Sun, Na; McDermott, Joseph; Mair, William B; Han, Jing-Dong J

    2016-03-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) is the most powerful natural means to extend lifespan. Although several genes can mediate responses to alternate DR regimens, no single genetic intervention has recapitulated the full effects of DR, and no unified system is known for different DR regimens. Here we obtain temporally resolved transcriptomes during calorie restriction and intermittent fasting in Caenorhabditis elegans and find that early and late responses involve metabolism and cell cycle/DNA damage, respectively. We uncover three network modules of DR regulators by their target specificity. By genetic manipulations of nodes representing discrete modules, we induce transcriptomes that progressively resemble DR as multiple nodes are perturbed. Targeting all three nodes simultaneously results in extremely long-lived animals that are refractory to DR. These results and dynamic simulations demonstrate that extensive feedback controls among regulators may be leveraged to drive the regulatory circuitry to a younger steady state, recapitulating the full effect of DR. PMID:26959186

  12. Physiological responses of the adult male collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu (Tayassuidae), to severe dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Varner, L W; Greene, L W; Amoss, M S; Seager, S W; Grant, W E

    1985-01-01

    Metabolic and hormonal responses of eight adult male collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) to an ad libitum diet intake, or 25% of an ad libitum intake, were examined. Blood samples for hematological, serum-biochemical and hormonal profiles were collected at three week intervals during the nine week experiment starting 4 August 1983. Males fed on the restricted diet lost an average of 26% of their body weight during the trial, compared to a slight weight gain for those fed ad libitum. Characteristics of the red and white blood cell populations were not influenced by diet intake, with the exception of mean corpuscular volume, which was consistently lower amongst males fed on the restricted diet. Restricted food intake resulted in significantly elevated serum values for urea nitrogen, urea nitrogen:creatinine, urea index, alpha globulin:beta globulin, gamma globulin:albumin, nonesterified fatty acids, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase isozymes (LD1 and LD2). Restricted food intake resulted in significantly lowered serum values for total alpha globulin, alpha-1 globulin, total beta globulin, beta-1 globulin, beta-2 globulin, glucose, triglycerides, calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride, copper and triiodothyronine. Serum levels of creatinine, total protein, albumin, alpha-2 globulin, uric acid, total bilirubin, cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, phosphorus, calcium:phosphorus, potassium, iron, zinc and thyroxine were unaffected by diet intake level. Semen evaluation indicated spermatogenesis was not affected by dietary restriction despite reductions in scrotal circumference and ejaculate gel volume. Serum testosterone levels were significantly lower among males fed on the restricted diet after nine weeks. These data suggest male libido might be depressed during poor range conditions, while maintenance of spermatogenesis might permit them to take immediate advantage of improved

  13. Components of an Anticancer Diet: Dietary Recommendations, Restrictions and Supplements of the Bill Henderson Protocol

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    Laurie Heilman Bell

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of complementary and alternative medicines including dietary supplements, herbals and special diets to prevent or treat disease continues to be popular. The following paper provides a description of an alternative dietary approach to the self-management and treatment of cancer, the Bill Henderson Protocol (BHP. This diet encourages daily intake of raw foods, a combination of cottage cheese and flaxseed oil and a number of supplements. Some foods and food groups are restricted (e.g., gluten, meat, dairy. Early background theory that contributed to the protocol’s development is presented as is a summary of relevant evidence concerning the anti-cancer fighting properties of the individual components. Supplement intake is considered in relation to daily recommended intakes. Challenges and risks to protocol adherence are discussed. As with many complementary and alternative interventions, clear evidence of this dietary protocol’s safety and efficacy is lacking. Consumers of this protocol may require guidance on the ability of this protocol to meet their individual nutritional needs.

  14. Metabolomic changes in fatty liver can be modified by dietary protein and calcium during energy restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taru K Pilvi; Tuulikki Sepp(a)nen-Laakso; Helena Simolin; Piet Finckenberg; Anne Huotari; Karl-Heinz Herzig; Riitta Korpela; Matej Ore(s)i(c); Eero M Mervaala

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To characterise the effect of energy restriction (ER) on liver lipid and primary metabolite profile by using metabolomic approach. We also investigated whether the effect of energy restriction can be further enhanced by modification of dietary protein source and calcium.METHODS: Liver metabolomic profile of lean and obese C57BI/6] mice (n = 10/group) were compared with two groups of weight-reduced mice. ER was performed on control diet and whey protein-based high-calcium diet (whey + Ca). The metabolomic an alyses were performed using the UPLC/MS based lipidomic platform and the HPLC/MS/MS based primary metabolite platform.RESULTS: ER on both diets significantly reduced hepatic lipid accumulation and lipid droplet size, while only whey + Ca diet significantly decreased blood glucose (P 0.05, vs lean). These changes were accompanied with up-regulated TCA cycle and pentose phosphate pathway metabolites.CONCLUSION: ER-induced changes on hepatic metabolomic profile can be significantly affected by dietary protein source. The therapeutic potential of whey protein and calcium should be further studied.

  15. Lifestyle and dietary factors determine age at natural menopause

    OpenAIRE

    Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna

    2014-01-01

    A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to...

  16. Dissecting the gene network of dietary restriction to identify evolutionarily conserved pathways and new functional genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, Daniel; Connor, Richard; Vora, Chintan; Craig, Thomas; Li, Yang; Wood, Shona; Vasieva, Olga; Shmookler Reis, Robert; Tang, Fusheng; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR), limiting nutrient intake from diet without causing malnutrition, delays the aging process and extends lifespan in multiple organisms. The conserved life-extending effect of DR suggests the involvement of fundamental mechanisms, although these remain a subject of debate. To help decipher the life-extending mechanisms of DR, we first compiled a list of genes that if genetically altered disrupt or prevent the life-extending effects of DR. We called these DR-essential genes and identified more than 100 in model organisms such as yeast, worms, flies, and mice. In order for other researchers to benefit from this first curated list of genes essential for DR, we established an online database called GenDR (http://genomics.senescence.info/diet/). To dissect the interactions of DR-essential genes and discover the underlying lifespan-extending mechanisms, we then used a variety of network and systems biology approaches to analyze the gene network of DR. We show that DR-essential genes are more conserved at the molecular level and have more molecular interactions than expected by chance. Furthermore, we employed a guilt-by-association method to predict novel DR-essential genes. In budding yeast, we predicted nine genes related to vacuolar functions; we show experimentally that mutations deleting eight of those genes prevent the life-extending effects of DR. Three of these mutants (OPT2, FRE6, and RCR2) had extended lifespan under ad libitum, indicating that the lack of further longevity under DR is not caused by a general compromise of fitness. These results demonstrate how network analyses of DR using GenDR can be used to make phenotypically relevant predictions. Moreover, gene-regulatory circuits reveal that the DR-induced transcriptional signature in yeast involves nutrient-sensing, stress responses and meiotic transcription factors. Finally, comparing the influence of gene expression changes during DR on the interactomes of multiple organisms led

  17. Dissecting the gene network of dietary restriction to identify evolutionarily conserved pathways and new functional genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wuttke

    Full Text Available Dietary restriction (DR, limiting nutrient intake from diet without causing malnutrition, delays the aging process and extends lifespan in multiple organisms. The conserved life-extending effect of DR suggests the involvement of fundamental mechanisms, although these remain a subject of debate. To help decipher the life-extending mechanisms of DR, we first compiled a list of genes that if genetically altered disrupt or prevent the life-extending effects of DR. We called these DR-essential genes and identified more than 100 in model organisms such as yeast, worms, flies, and mice. In order for other researchers to benefit from this first curated list of genes essential for DR, we established an online database called GenDR (http://genomics.senescence.info/diet/. To dissect the interactions of DR-essential genes and discover the underlying lifespan-extending mechanisms, we then used a variety of network and systems biology approaches to analyze the gene network of DR. We show that DR-essential genes are more conserved at the molecular level and have more molecular interactions than expected by chance. Furthermore, we employed a guilt-by-association method to predict novel DR-essential genes. In budding yeast, we predicted nine genes related to vacuolar functions; we show experimentally that mutations deleting eight of those genes prevent the life-extending effects of DR. Three of these mutants (OPT2, FRE6, and RCR2 had extended lifespan under ad libitum, indicating that the lack of further longevity under DR is not caused by a general compromise of fitness. These results demonstrate how network analyses of DR using GenDR can be used to make phenotypically relevant predictions. Moreover, gene-regulatory circuits reveal that the DR-induced transcriptional signature in yeast involves nutrient-sensing, stress responses and meiotic transcription factors. Finally, comparing the influence of gene expression changes during DR on the interactomes of

  18. Responses of brown adipose tissue to diet-induced obesity, exercise, dietary restriction and ephedrine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Nikki; Durrant, Jessica R; Bailey, David; Yoon, Lawrence; Jordan, Holly; Barton, Joanna; Brown, Roger H; Clifton, Lisa; Milliken, Tula; Harrington, Wallace; Kimbrough, Carie; Faber, Catherine A; Cariello, Neal; Elangbam, Chandikumar S

    2013-07-01

    Drug-induced weight loss in humans has been associated with undesirable side effects not present in weight loss from lifestyle interventions (caloric restriction or exercise). To investigate the mechanistic differences of weight loss by drug-induced and lifestyle interventions, we examined the gene expression (mRNA) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and conducted histopathologic assessments in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice given ephedrine (18 mg/kg/day orally), treadmill exercise (10 m/min, 1-h/day), and dietary restriction (DR: 26% dietary restriction) for 7 days. Exercise and DR mice lost more body weight than controls and both ephedrine and exercise reduced percent body fat. All treatments reduced BAT and liver lipid accumulation (i.e., cytoplasmic lipids in brown adipocytes and hepatocytes) and increased oxygen consumption (VO2 ml/kg/h) compared with controls. Mitochondrial biogenesis/function-related genes (TFAM, NRF1 and GABPA) were up-regulated in the BAT of all groups. UCP-1 was up-regulated in exercise and ephedrine groups, whereas MFSD2A was up-regulated in ephedrine and DR groups. PGC-1α up-regulation was observed in exercise and DR groups but not in ephedrine group. In all experimental groups, except for ephedrine, fatty acid transport and metabolism genes were up-regulated, but the magnitude of change was higher in the DR group. PRKAA1 was up-regulated in all groups but not significantly in the ephedrine group. ADRß3 was slightly up-regulated in the DR group only, whereas ESRRA remained unchanged in all groups. Although our data suggest a common pathway of BAT activation elicited by ephedrine treatment, exercise or DR, mRNA changes were indicative of additional nutrient-sensing pathways in exercise and DR.

  19. Dietary Approaches that Delay Age-Related Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Everitt, Arthur V.; Hilmer, Sarah N.; Jennie C. Brand-Miller; Jamieson, Hamish A; Truswell, A Stewart; Sharma, Anita P; Mason, Rebecca S.; Morris, Brian J.; Le Couteur, David G.

    2006-01-01

    Reducing food intake in lower animals such as the rat decreases body weight, retards many aging processes, delays the onset of most diseases of old age, and prolongs life. A number of clinical trials of food restriction in healthy adult human subjects running over 2–15 years show significant reductions in body weight, blood cholesterol, blood glucose, and blood pressure, which are risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Lifestyle interventions that lower energ...

  20. The Relationship Between Social Support and Adherence of Dietary and Fluids Restrictions among Hemodialysis Patients in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Shahnaz Ahrari; Mahdi Moshki; Mahnaz Bahrami

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Patient’s noncompliance dietary and fluids intake can lead to a build-up of toxic fluids and metabolic end-products in the blood stream which may result in an increased morbidity and premature death. The aim of the study is investigate relationship between the social support and adherence to dietary and fluid restrictions in hemodialysis patients. Methods: In this correlational study upon 237 hemodialysis patients, the data was collected with the dialysis diet and fluids non-adh...

  1. Dietary Patterns in Children Aged 2-4 years and Its Impact on Dietary Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeida Alejo Cruz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: the study of nutritional status in children is essential since this stage is characterized by rapid growth and development and acquisition of eating habits that will last for a lifetime. Objective: to determine the dietary patterns in children aged 2-4 years from the doctor’s offices 8 and 9 of the José Luis Chaviano University Teaching Polyclinic in Cienfuegos and their impact on the nutritional status and dietary adequacy. Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in a universe of 87 patients from the doctor’s offices 8 and 9 of the José Luis Chaviano University Teaching Polyclinic in Cienfuegos, who underwent a nutritional assessment using anthropometric variables: weight for height and height for age. A survey of eating behaviors and another of 24 hours dietary recall were administered and processed through the CERES program. Results: all patients showed normal height, 82.75 % of children were classified as eutrophic, 4.60 % were obese and 3.45 % malnourished. Fried foods and bad eating habits in relation to consumption of vegetables predominated in the diet; most of the children received an excess of the recommended nutrients. Conclusion: there are deficiencies in eating behaviours. Diet is a matter of concern due to the high intake of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates; iron intake was critical in most children.

  2. Mannan-Binding Lectin Is Involved in the Protection against Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Dietary Restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shushimita Shushimita

    Full Text Available Preoperative fasting and dietary restriction offer robust protection against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/RI in mice. We recently showed that Mannan-binding lectin (MBL, the initiator of the lectin pathway of complement activation, plays a pivotal role in renal I/RI. Based on these findings, we investigated the effect of short-term DR (30% reduction of total food intake or three days of water only fasting on MBL in 10-12 weeks old male C57/Bl6 mice. Both dietary regimens significantly reduce the circulating levels of MBL as well as its mRNA expression in liver, the sole production site of MBL. Reconstitution of MBL abolished the protection afforded by dietary restriction, whereas in the fasting group the protection persisted. These data show that modulation of MBL is involved in the protection against renal I/RI induced by dietary restriction, and suggest that the mechanisms of protection induced by dietary restriction and fasting may be different.

  3. DIETARY HABITS OF SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN IN TBILISI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebonia, N; Trapaidze, D; Kvanchakhadze, R; Zhizhilashvili, S; Kasradze, N

    2015-11-01

    Study Goal was to determine dietary habits in school-aged children. Sampling of children was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, five schools in Nadzaladevi district of city Tbilisi were randomly selected. On the second stage the study groups from the appropriate school-aged students (10-14 years old children) were also randomly selected. All student participants filled out standardized and adopted questionnaires suggested by the American Academy of family physicians. Data were analyzed by using EpiInfo 7th version. Statistical analyses looked at correlations between criteria of unhealthy diet (such as morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. A Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by using CDC tool. 175 children with ages of 10-14 years (47% boys) were included and interviewed. Half of the children noted that they love or like fast food products. 10% - visits fast food places 2-3 times a week together with a family. 11% - visits fast food places 5 times a week and even more. 34% - do not start morning with breakfast; 15% - eat only twice a day; 26% - add salt to their dishes; 58% - drink non-alcoholic beverages every day or many times during a week; 24% - are overweight; 29% suffer from obesity; 25% noted that fast food places are located near schools. Very weak correlation was found between unhealthy diet (morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. According to study results, dietary habits of school-age children in Tbilisi is unhealthy; to improve nutritional habits is essential: (1) promote consumer (students, parents and teachers) awareness on a healthy diet, (2) educate children, adolescents and adults about nutrition and healthy dietary practices, (3) encourage to raise awareness about the salt consumption in recommended doses in children. PMID:26656554

  4. Food cravings discriminate between anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Implications for "success" versus "failure" in dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Silvia; Warren, Cortney S; Rodríguez, Sonia; Fernández, M Carmen; Cepeda-Benito, Antonio

    2009-06-01

    Food cravings are subjective, motivational states thought to induce binge eating among eating disorder patients. This study compared food cravings across eating disorders. Women (N=135) diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, restrictive (ANR) or binge-purging (ANBP) types, or bulimia nervosa, non-purging (BNNP) or purging (BNP) types completed measures of food cravings. Discriminant analysis yielded two statistically significant functions. The first function differentiated between all the four group pairs except ANBP and BNNP, with levels of various food-craving dimensions successively increasing for ANR, ANBP, BNNP, and BNP participants. The second function differentiated between ANBP and BNNP participants. Overall, the functions improved classification accuracy above chance level (44% fewer errors). The findings suggest that cravings are more strongly associated with loss of control over eating than with dietary restraint tendencies.

  5. Calorie Restriction Suppresses Age-Dependent Hippocampal Transcriptional Signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa J Schafer

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction (CR enhances longevity and mitigates aging phenotypes in numerous species. Physiological responses to CR are cell-type specific and variable throughout the lifespan. However, the mosaic of molecular changes responsible for CR benefits remains unclear, particularly in brain regions susceptible to deterioration during aging. We examined the influence of long-term CR on the CA1 hippocampal region, a key learning and memory brain area that is vulnerable to age-related pathologies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD. Through mRNA sequencing and NanoString nCounter analysis, we demonstrate that one year of CR feeding suppresses age-dependent signatures of 882 genes functionally associated with synaptic transmission-related pathways, including calcium signaling, long-term potentiation (LTP, and Creb signaling in wild-type mice. By comparing the influence of CR on hippocampal CA1 region transcriptional profiles at younger-adult (5 months, 2.5 months of feeding and older-adult (15 months, 12.5 months of feeding timepoints, we identify conserved upregulation of proteome quality control and calcium buffering genes, including heat shock 70 kDa protein 1b (Hspa1b and heat shock 70 kDa protein 5 (Hspa5, protein disulfide isomerase family A member 4 (Pdia4 and protein disulfide isomerase family A member 6 (Pdia6, and calreticulin (Calr. Expression levels of putative neuroprotective factors, klotho (Kl and transthyretin (Ttr, are also elevated by CR in adulthood, although the global CR-specific expression profiles at younger and older timepoints are highly divergent. At a previously unachieved resolution, our results demonstrate conserved activation of neuroprotective gene signatures and broad CR-suppression of age-dependent hippocampal CA1 region expression changes, indicating that CR functionally maintains a more youthful transcriptional state within the hippocampal CA1 sector.

  6. Lifestyle and dietary factors determine age at natural menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna

    2014-01-01

    A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to identify the modifiable risk factors like diet and lifestyle changes. Delayed menopause is associated with increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer, while early ANM enhances the risk for cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The correlation between diet and ANM has not been extensively studied; however, whatever studies have been done till now point towards role of high intake of total calories, fruits, and proteins in delaying the ANM, while high polyunsaturated fat intake accelerates it. The role of dietary soy, total fat, saturated fat, red meat, and dietary fiber in determining the ANM has been controversial and needs further studies to substantiate it. The lifestyle factors like current smoking and vigorous exercise have been significantly associated with early menopause, while moderate alcohol consumption delays the ANM. Large prospective studies are needed to study the association of ANM and other modifiable factors like passive smoking fish consumption, soy, and various types of tea. The knowledge of modifiable determinants of ANM can help in setting up menopausal clinics and initiating health programs specially in developing countries. PMID:24672198

  7. Lifestyle and dietary factors determine age at natural menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna

    2014-01-01

    A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to identify the modifiable risk factors like diet and lifestyle changes. Delayed menopause is associated with increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer, while early ANM enhances the risk for cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The correlation between diet and ANM has not been extensively studied; however, whatever studies have been done till now point towards role of high intake of total calories, fruits, and proteins in delaying the ANM, while high polyunsaturated fat intake accelerates it. The role of dietary soy, total fat, saturated fat, red meat, and dietary fiber in determining the ANM has been controversial and needs further studies to substantiate it. The lifestyle factors like current smoking and vigorous exercise have been significantly associated with early menopause, while moderate alcohol consumption delays the ANM. Large prospective studies are needed to study the association of ANM and other modifiable factors like passive smoking fish consumption, soy, and various types of tea. The knowledge of modifiable determinants of ANM can help in setting up menopausal clinics and initiating health programs specially in developing countries.

  8. Comparative transcriptional pathway bioinformatic analysis of dietary restriction, Sir2, p53 and resveratrol life span extension in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Antosh, Michael; Whitaker, Rachel; Kroll, Adam; Hosier, Suzanne; Chang, Chengyi; Bauer, Johannes; Cooper, Leon; Neretti, Nicola; HELFAND, STEPHEN L.

    2011-01-01

    A multiple comparison approach using whole genome transcriptional arrays was used to identify genes and pathways involved in calorie restriction/dietary restriction (DR) life span extension in Drosophila. Starting with a gene centric analysis comparing the changes in common between DR and two DR related molecular genetic life span extending manipulations, Sir2 and p53, lead to a molecular confirmation of Sir2 and p53's similarity with DR and the identification of a small set of commonly regul...

  9. THE TSC COMPLEX IS REQUIRED FOR THE BENEFITS OF DIETARY PROTEIN RESTRICTION ON STRESS RESISTANCE IN VIVO

    OpenAIRE

    Eylul Harputlugil; Christopher Hine; Dorathy Vargas; Lauren Robertson; Brendan D. Manning; James R. Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    Protein restriction (PR) is important for the benefits of dietary restriction on longevity and stress resistance, but relevant nutrient sensors and downstream effectors in mammals remain poorly defined. We used PR-mediated protection from hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury to probe genetic requirements for the evolutionarily conserved nutrient sensors GCN2 and mTORC1 in stress resistance. One week of PR reduced free amino acids and circulating growth factors, activating GCN2 and mTORC1 repre...

  10. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Stocks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Randomized controlled trial of 771 obese adults. ( REGISTRATION: ISRCTN25867281. One SNP was selected for replication in another weight loss intervention study of 934 obese adults. The original trial was a 10-week 600 kcal/d energy-deficient diet with energy percentage from fat (fat% in range of 20-25 or 40-45. The replication study used an 8-weeks diet of 880 kcal/d and 20 fat%; change in fat% intake was used for estimation of interaction effects. The main outcomes were intervention weight loss and waist reduction. In the trial, mean change in fat% intake was -12/+4 in the low/high-fat groups. In the replication study, it was -23/-12 among those reducing fat% more/less than the median. TFAP2B-rs987237 genotype AA was associated with 1.0 kg (95% CI, 0.4; 1.6 greater weight loss on the low-fat, and GG genotype with 2.6 kg (1.1; 4.1 greater weight loss on the high-fat (interaction p-value; p = 0.00007. The replication study showed a similar (non-significant interaction pattern. Waist reduction results generally were similar. Study-strengths include (i the discovery study randomised trial design combined with the replication opportunity (ii the strict dietary intake control in both studies (iii the large sample sizes of both studies. Limitations are (i the low minor allele frequency of the TFAP2B polymorphism, making it hard to investigate non-additive genetic effects (ii the different interventions preventing identical replication-discovery study designs (iii some missing data for non-completers and dietary intake. No adverse effects/outcomes or side-effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Under energy restriction, TFAP2B may modify the effect of dietary fat intake on

  11. Effect of dietary lysine restriction and arginine supplementation in two patients with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzyuk, Tatiana; Thomas, Amanda; Viau, Krista; Liu, Aiping; De Biase, Irene; Botto, Lorenzo D; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    Pyridoxine-Dependent Epilepsy (PDE) is a recessive disorder caused by deficiency of α-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase in the catabolic pathway of lysine. It is characterized by intractable seizures controlled by the administration of pharmacological doses of vitamin B6. Despite seizure control with pyridoxine, intellectual disability and developmental delays are still observed in some patients with PDE, likely due to the accumulation of toxic intermediates in the lysine catabolic pathway: alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde (AASA), delta-1-piperideine-6-carboxylate (P6C), and pipecolic acid. Here we evaluate biochemical and clinical parameters in two PDE patients treated with a lysine-restricted diet and arginine supplementation (100-150mg/kg), aimed at reducing the levels of PDE biomarkers. Lysine restriction resulted in decreased accumulation of PDE biomarkers and improved development. Plasma lysine but not plasma arginine, directly correlated with plasma levels of AASA-P6C (p<0.001, r(2)=0.640) and pipecolic acid (p<0.01, r(2)=0.484). In addition, plasma threonine strongly correlated with the levels of AASA-P6C (p<0.0001, r(2)=0.732) and pipecolic acid (p<0.005, r(2)=0.527), suggesting extreme sensitivity of threonine catabolism to pyridoxine availability. Our results further support the use of dietary therapies in combination with pyridoxine for the treatment of PDE. PMID:27324284

  12. Target of rapamycin signalling mediates the lifespan-extending effects of dietary restriction by essential amino acid alteration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emran, S.; Yang, M.Y.; He, X.L.; Zandveld, J.; Piper, M.D.W.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR), defined as a moderate reduction in food intake short of malnutrition, has been shown to extend healthy lifespan in a diverse range of organisms, from yeast to primates. Reduced signalling through the insulin/IGF-like (IIS) and Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signalling pathways a

  13. Effects of selenium supply and dietary restriction on maternal and fetal metabolic hormones in pregnant ewe lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives were to evaluate effects of dietary restriction and Se on maternal and fetal metabolic hormones. In Exp. 1, pregnant ewe lambs (n = 32; initial BW = 45.6 ± 2.3 kg) were allotted randomly to 1 of 4 treatments. Diets contained (DM basis) either no added Se (control), or supranutritional Se ...

  14. When less is more: the P13K pathway as a determinant of tumor response to dietary restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul J Coffer

    2009-01-01

    @@ For centuries, either due to the scar-city of food or for religious reasons, the beneficial effects of dietary restriction on health and well-being have been appreciated.Reduced calorie intake has been observed to be the most ef-fective way of extending the life-span of mammals without genetically alter-ing them.

  15. Effect of dietary phytoestrogens, feed restriction, and their interaction on reproductive status of broiler pullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Madnurkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: A major problem faced by the broiler industry around the world is a lowered reproductive fitness of breeding hens which can cause major economic impact in terms of lowered hatchable egg production. In broiler breeders, a lot of the selection pressure has been exerted on growth, conformation and feed efficiency as a result broiler breeder hens are prone to several metabolic disorders and reproductive anomalies. Present study was conducted to assess the effect of phytoestrogen, feed restrictions (75% of their control ad libitum, and their interaction on reproductive parameters in high and low body weight broiler breeder hens. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty-eight healthy female broiler breeder pullets were divided randomly into eight groups from the same hatch and strain. They were transferred to individual laying cages. Birds received ad libitum drinking water and feeding, depend on divided group i.e., ad libitum or restricted feeding (75% of control ad libitum counterpart separately for heavy or low body weight till first egg laid in respective groups. Experimental diets made with practical feed ingredients as per institution recommendation (broiler breeder ration as per experimental planning. Results: Phytoestrogen significantly (p<0.05 improved egg number and size in broiler breeding hens by checking reproductive anomalies (internal laying, double hierarchy, and follicular atresia, restructuring ovarian, and oviductal functional development besides improved physiological maturation of infundibulum. Unlike phytoestrogen, feed restriction as expected delayed the age of sexual maturity but helped in a reduction of ovary weight, number of yellow follicle, number of atretic yellow follicle, incidence of double hierarchy, and internal ovulation. Interaction between phytoestrogen and feed restriction did not give any additional remunerative advantage. Conclusions: It is concluded that phytoestrogens and limited feed

  16. Restriction of dietary protein does not promote hepatic lipogenesis in lean or fatty pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Marta S; Pires, Virgínia M R; Alfaia, Cristina M; Lopes, Paula A; Martins, Susana V; Pinto, Rui M A; Prates, José A M

    2016-04-01

    The influence of genotype (lean v. fatty) and dietary protein level (normal v. reduced) on plasma metabolites, hepatic fatty acid composition and mRNA levels of lipid-sensitive factors is reported for the first time, using the pig as an experimental model. The experiment was conducted on forty entire male pigs (twenty lean pigs of Large White×Landrace×Pietrain cross-breed and twenty fatty pigs of Alentejana purebreed) from 60 to 93 kg of live weight. Each pig genotype was divided into two subgroups, which were fed the following diets: a normal protein diet (NPD) equilibrated for lysine (17·5 % crude protein and 0·7 % lysine) and a reduced protein diet (RPD) not equilibrated for lysine (13·1 % crude protein and 0·4 % lysine). The majority of plasma metabolites were affected by genotype, with lean pigs having higher contents of lipids, whereas fatty pigs presented higher insulin, leptin and urea levels. RPD increased plasma TAG, free fatty acids and VLDL-cholesterol compared with NPD. Hepatic total lipids were higher in fatty pigs than in the lean genotype. RPD affected hepatic fatty acid composition but had a slight influence on gene expression levels in the liver. Sterol regulatory element-binding factor 1 was down-regulated by RPD, and fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) were affected by the interaction between genotype and diet. In pigs fed RPD, FADS1 was up-regulated in the lean genotype, whereas FABP4 increased in the fatty genotype. Although there is a genotype-specific effect of dietary protein restriction on hepatic lipid metabolism, lipogenesis is not promoted in the liver of lean or fatty pigs. PMID:26927728

  17. Effect of Dietary Restriction and Subsequent Re-Alimentation on the Transcriptional Profile of Bovine Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Kate; Kenny, David A; Cormican, Paul; McCabe, Matthew S; Kelly, Alan K; Waters, Sinead M

    2016-01-01

    Compensatory growth (CG), an accelerated growth phenomenon which occurs following a period of dietary restriction is exploited worldwide in animal production systems as a method to lower feed costs. However the molecular mechanisms regulated CG expression remain to be elucidated fully. This study aimed to uncover the underlying biology regulating CG in cattle, through an examination of skeletal muscle transcriptional profiles utilising next generation mRNA sequencing technology. Twenty Holstein Friesian bulls were fed either a restricted diet for 125 days, with a target growth rate of 0.6 kg/day (Period 1), following which they were allowed feed ad libitum for a further 55 days (Period 2) or fed ad libitum for the entirety of the trial. M. longissimus dorsi biopsies were harvested from all bulls on days 120 and 15 of periods 1 and 2 respectively and RNAseq analysis was performed. During re-alimentation in Period 2, previously restricted animals displayed CG, growing at 1.8 times the rate of the ad libitum control animals. Compensating animals were also more feed efficient during re-alimentation and compensated for 48% of their previous dietary restriction. 1,430 and 940 genes were identified as significantly differentially expressed (Benjamini Hochberg adjusted P < 0.1) in periods 1 and 2 respectively. Additionally, 2,237 genes were differentially expressed in animals undergoing CG relative to dietary restriction. Dietary restriction in Period 1 was associated with altered expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and energy production. CG expression in Period 2 occurred in association with greater expression of genes involved in cellular function and organisation. This study highlights some of the molecular mechanisms regulating CG in cattle. Differentially expressed genes identified are potential candidate genes for the identification of biomarkers for CG and feed efficiency, which may be incorporated into future breeding programmes. PMID:26871690

  18. Effect of Dietary Restriction and Subsequent Re-Alimentation on the Transcriptional Profile of Bovine Skeletal Muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Keogh

    Full Text Available Compensatory growth (CG, an accelerated growth phenomenon which occurs following a period of dietary restriction is exploited worldwide in animal production systems as a method to lower feed costs. However the molecular mechanisms regulated CG expression remain to be elucidated fully. This study aimed to uncover the underlying biology regulating CG in cattle, through an examination of skeletal muscle transcriptional profiles utilising next generation mRNA sequencing technology. Twenty Holstein Friesian bulls were fed either a restricted diet for 125 days, with a target growth rate of 0.6 kg/day (Period 1, following which they were allowed feed ad libitum for a further 55 days (Period 2 or fed ad libitum for the entirety of the trial. M. longissimus dorsi biopsies were harvested from all bulls on days 120 and 15 of periods 1 and 2 respectively and RNAseq analysis was performed. During re-alimentation in Period 2, previously restricted animals displayed CG, growing at 1.8 times the rate of the ad libitum control animals. Compensating animals were also more feed efficient during re-alimentation and compensated for 48% of their previous dietary restriction. 1,430 and 940 genes were identified as significantly differentially expressed (Benjamini Hochberg adjusted P < 0.1 in periods 1 and 2 respectively. Additionally, 2,237 genes were differentially expressed in animals undergoing CG relative to dietary restriction. Dietary restriction in Period 1 was associated with altered expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and energy production. CG expression in Period 2 occurred in association with greater expression of genes involved in cellular function and organisation. This study highlights some of the molecular mechanisms regulating CG in cattle. Differentially expressed genes identified are potential candidate genes for the identification of biomarkers for CG and feed efficiency, which may be incorporated into future breeding programmes.

  19. The Relationship Between Social Support and Adherence of Dietary and Fluids Restrictions among Hemodialysis Patients in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Ahrari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patient’s noncompliance dietary and fluids intake can lead to a build-up of toxic fluids and metabolic end-products in the blood stream which may result in an increased morbidity and premature death. The aim of the study is investigate relationship between the social support and adherence to dietary and fluid restrictions in hemodialysis patients. Methods: In this correlational study upon 237 hemodialysis patients, the data was collected with the dialysis diet and fluids non-adherences hemodialysis questionnaire (DDFQ, and the multidimensional scale of perceived Social Support (MSP. Interdialytic weight gain, predialytic serum potassium levels, and predialytic serum phosphate levels was considered as biochemical indicators of dietary and fluid adherence. Data were analyzed by SPSS Ver.11.5. Results: About 41.1% of patients reported non-adherence to diet and 45.2% of them reported non-adherence to fluid. Frequency of non-adherence to fluid was more common in patients. The highest level of perceived support was the family support 11.19 (1.34. There was a significant relationship between social support and adherence to dietary and fluid restrictions. Noncompliances to dietary and fluid restrictions were related to laboratory results. Conclusion: This way those patients who more supported had more adherences of diet and fluid restrictions and had lower level of phosphorus and potassium in laboratory results. Nurses have the main role to identify different methods providing social support for patients, also to encourage the families to support their hemodialysis patients.

  20. A chromatin modifier integrates insulin/IGF-1 signalling and dietary restriction to regulate longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anupama; Kumar, Neeraj; Matai, Latika; Jain, Vaibhav; Garg, Amit; Mukhopadhyay, Arnab

    2016-08-01

    Insulin/IGF-1-like signalling (IIS) and dietary restriction (DR) are the two major modulatory pathways controlling longevity across species. Here, we show that both pathways license a common chromatin modifier, ZFP-1/AF10. The downstream transcription factors of the IIS and select DR pathways, DAF-16/FOXO or PHA-4/FOXA, respectively, both transcriptionally regulate the expression of zfp-1. ZFP-1, in turn, negatively regulates the expression of DAF-16/FOXO and PHA-4/FOXA target genes, apparently forming feed-forward loops that control the amplitude as well as the duration of gene expression. We show that ZFP-1 mediates this regulation by negatively influencing the recruitment of DAF-16/FOXO and PHA-4/FOXA to their target promoters. Consequently, zfp-1 is required for the enhanced longevity observed during DR and on knockdown of IIS. Our data reveal how two distinct sensor pathways control an overlapping set of genes, using different downstream transcription factors, integrating potentially diverse and temporally distinct nutritional situations. PMID:27039057

  1. Evidence of a metabolic memory to early-life dietary restriction in male C57BL/6 mice

    OpenAIRE

    Selman, C.; Hempenstall, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan and induces beneficial metabolic effects in many animals. What is far less clear is whether animals retain a metabolic memory to previous DR exposure, that is, can early-life DR preserve beneficial metabolic effects later in life even after the resumption of ad libitum (AL) feeding. We examined a range of metabolic parameters (body mass, body composition (lean and fat mass), glucose tolerance, fed blood glucose, fasting plasma insulin and ...

  2. Bicarbonate secretion in vivo by rat distal tubules during alkalosis induced by dietary chloride restriction and alkali loading.

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, D Z; Iacovitti, M; Harrison, V

    1991-01-01

    To examine in vivo the separate effects on distal tubule JtCO2, of dietary chloride restriction, bicarbonate loading, and changes in luminal chloride concentration, we microperfused distal tubules at a physiologic flow rate (8 nl/min) with solutions containing either 45 or 0 mM chloride (after gluconate substitution). Rats were fed a diet containing zero, minimal, or normal amounts of chloride, while drinking either water or a solution of 0.15 M sodium bicarbonate. Neither extracellular fluid...

  3. Ovarian and hormonal responses to a progesterone-releasing controlled internal drug releasing treatment in dietary-restricted goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tomomi; Fujiwara, Ken-Ichiro; Kim, Seungjoon; Kamomae, Hideo; Kaneda, Yoshihiro

    2004-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary restriction on ovarian, endocrine (ovarian steroids and luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse) and metabolic (glucose, insulin and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA)) profiles in goats treated with a progesterone-releasing controlled internal drug releasing (CIDR-G) device. Cycling goats were offered either a maintenance or a restricted (30% of requirement; n =4 per treatment) level of feeding. The dietary restriction was started on the day following ovulation. At 30-32 days after the start of food restriction, the goats received a prostaglandin F(2alpha) (2mg of dinoprost) injection followed by 10 days of CIDR-G treatment. Ovarian ultrasonographic images were monitored daily throughout the experiment and blood samples were collected daily just before the morning feeding for analysis of endocrine and metabolic profiles. Frequent blood samples (1 ml) were also collected at 10 min intervals for 8 h from -8 h to CIDR-G removal, and from 32 to 40 h after CIDR-G removal for analysis of LH pulses. Body weight was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in the food-restricted animals. Oestrous behaviour and ovulation followed by a rise of plasma progesterone concentration were observed after the CIDR-G removal in all control animals but not in any of the food-restricted animals within 12 days after CIDR-G removal. The LH pulse frequency from 32 to 40 h after the CIDR-G removal was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the food-restricted animals than in control animals (1.5 +/- 0.6 versus 3.8 +/- 0.5 pulses for 8 h). There was no significant difference in the glucose concentration in weekly plasma samples between control and food-restricted animals. Insulin concentrations from 2 weeks after the start of feed restriction were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in restricted animals than in control animals. The NEFA concentration in restricted animals was significantly (P < 0.05) increased after the start of feed restriction, and

  4. Nutrition and Healthy Ageing: Calorie Restriction or Polyphenol-Rich “MediterrAsian” Diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Pallauf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet plays an important role in mammalian health and the prevention of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD. Incidence of CVD is low in many parts of Asia (e.g., Japan and the Mediterranean area (e.g., Italy, Spain, Greece, and Turkey. The Asian and the Mediterranean diets are rich in fruit and vegetables, thereby providing high amounts of plant bioactives including polyphenols, glucosinolates, and antioxidant vitamins. Furthermore, oily fish which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids is an important part of the Asian (e.g., Japanese and also of the Mediterranean diets. There are specific plant bioactives which predominantly occur in the Mediterranean (e.g., resveratrol from red wine, hydroxytyrosol, and oleuropein from olive oil and in the Asian diets (e.g., isoflavones from soybean and epigallocatechin gallate from green tea. Interestingly, when compared to calorie restriction which has been repeatedly shown to increase healthspan, these polyphenols activate similar molecular targets such as Sirt1. We suggest that a so-called “MediterrAsian” diet combining sirtuin-activating foods (= sirtfoods of the Asian as well as Mediterranean diet may be a promising dietary strategy in preventing chronic diseases, thereby ensuring health and healthy ageing. Future (human studies are needed which take the concept suggested here of the MediterrAsian diet into account.

  5. Short-term dietary energy restriction reduces lean body mass but not performance in physically active men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachwieja, J J; Ezell, D M; Cline, A D; Ricketts, J C; Vicknair, P C; Schorle, S M; Ryan, D H

    2001-05-01

    We studied the effect of moderate, short-term energy restriction on physical performance in physically fit men (n = 13) and women (n = 11) in a controlled clinical research setting with a metabolic kitchen, exercise testing laboratory and training facility. The experiment consisted of a 10 d baseline period followed by either 2 wk of dietary energy restriction (750 kcal/d; n = 16) or energy balance (control; n = 8). During this 24 day study, exercise energy expenditure averaged 465 +/- 5.7 kcal/d in all subjects and was accomplished through treadmill running at a self-selected pace. Body weight was maintained in the control group (-0.36 +/- 0.24kg), but energy restriction resulted in weight loss of -1.29 +/- 0.16 kg (p lean body mass to decline more in the energy restriction group (p = 0.093), accounting for 61% of the weight loss, and urinary nitrogen excretion also tended to be higher in the energy restriction vs. control group (i.e., 13.2 +/- 1.1 vs. 11.2 +/- 1.0g/d; p = 0.089). Muscle strength (leg & shoulder press; 1 repetition maximum) was maintained or increased during the energy restriction period. Muscle endurance, assessed by leg squats to fatigue, and 5 mile run time improved following two weeks of energy restriction or balance. Anaerobic capacity (Wingate Test) increased slightly in the restriction (+ 368 +/- 219 joules) but declined in the control group 649 +/- 288 joules; p<0.05). We conclude that short-term (2 weeks) moderate energy restriction (approximately 750 kcal/d) results in weight loss but does not impair performance in physically fit young men and women.

  6. The MDT-15 subunit of mediator interacts with dietary restriction to modulate longevity and fluoranthene toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Schleit

    Full Text Available Dietary restriction (DR, the limitation of calorie intake while maintaining proper nutrition, has been found to extend life span and delay the onset of age-associated disease in a wide range of species. Previous studies have suggested that DR can reduce the lethality of environmental toxins. To further examine the role of DR in toxin response, we measured life spans of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans treated with the mutagenic polyaromatic hydrocarbon, fluoranthene (FLA. FLA is a direct byproduct of combustion, and is one of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's sixteen priority environmental toxins. Treatment with 5 µg/ml FLA shortened the life spans of ad libitum fed nematodes, and DR resulted in increased sensitivity to FLA. To determine the role of detoxifying enzymes in the toxicity of FLA, we tested nematodes with mutations in the gene encoding the MDT-15 subunit of mediator, a transcriptional coactivator that regulates genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and detoxification. Mutation of mdt-15 increased the life span of FLA treated animals compared to wild-type animals with no difference observed between DR and ad libitum fed mdt-15 animals. We also examined mutants with altered insulin-IGF-1-like signaling (IIS, which is known to modulate life span and stress resistance in C. elegans independently of DR. Mutation of the genes coding for the insulin-like receptor DAF-2 or the FOXO-family transcription factor DAF16 did not alter the animals' susceptibility to FLA compared to wild type. Taken together, our results suggest that certain compounds have increased toxicity when combined with a DR regimen through increased metabolic activation. This increased metabolic activation appears to be mediated through the MDT-15 transcription factor and is independent of the IIS pathway.

  7. Olive oil, dietary fat and ageing, a mitochondrial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiles, José L.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Ageing represents a great concern in developed countries because the high number of people included in this group (indeed, a further increase in the rate of old people it is expected in the near future. Another important aspect concerning ageing is the number of pathologies related with this phenomenon like Alzheimer, Parkinson, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. According to the free radical theory of ageing and its further mitochondrial extension, ageing is the result of the oxidative insult to the organism throughout the life. Some of the damages are not entirely repaired and are accumulated, leading to organism malfunction. Such oxidative-stress related events are particularly important in mitochondria and specially at the mitochondrial DNA level (less protected and more prone to oxidation than nuclear DNA and with a not well established repairing system. Such mitochondrial damage directly affects to the cell energy delivery system, being that, at least in part, the explanation for the structural and functional impairments related to age. Oxidative stress is related with the fatty acid composition of membranes. The intake of a type of fat affects in a direct way the fatty acids and antioxidants composition of subcellular membranes (including mitochondrial membranes and in an indirect way the susceptibility of the membrane to oxidation. Thus, if we build specific biological membranes according to particular types of fats, we would be able to positively affect the way and intensity in which different organs would age. This work hypothesis represents a new point of view in the investigation of ageing and might have important consequences. According to the above-mentioned premises, this work reviews the convenience to use virgin olive oil as dietary fat from the point of view of mitochondrial ageing.El envejecimiento preocupa enormemente en los países desarrollados por el alto número de personas incluidas en este grupo de poblaci

  8. Ghrelin Gene Expression in Broiler Proventriculus Tissue are Changed by Feed Restriction, Different Dietary Energy and Protein Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokoufe Ghazanfari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of feed restriction and different energy and protein contents of diet on ghrelin gene expression in broiler chicken. Approach: Feeding programs consisted of ad libitum and feed restriction, two energy levels (3100 and 2800 kcal ME kg-1 and three protein levels (22.3, 19.3 and 16.3% CP. Feed restriction was applied during 22-32 days of age. Proventriculus samples were collected at 21, 32 and 49 days of age. Ghrelin mRNA expression in proventriculus tissue was quantitate using Real Time quantitative PCR. Results: We found that ghrelin gene expression was increased in restricted chicks compared with those fed ad libitum at 32 days of age (p = 0.09 but feed restriction had no effect on ghrelin gene expression at 49 days of age. A positive response in ghrelin gene expression was achieved by decreasing energy level in the diet at 21 days of age (pConclusion: The present study, we investigated the effects of feed restriction and different energy and protein contents of the diet on ghrelin gene expression in broiler chicken. We have characterized chicken ghrelin cDNA in proventriculus tissue in broiler chicken. We also found that ghrelin gene expression is differently suppressed by diet manipulations. Additional studies are necessary to investigate the role of nutrition on ghrelin gene expression in proventriculus tissue in broiler chicken.

  9. Preschool Age Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawing conclusions from the validation studies on preschool populations discussed in this chapter is difficult because of the varied study designs, the relatively small study populations, and limited number of studies on each dietary assessment method.

  10. Bifidogenic effect of whole-grain wheat during a 12-week energy-restricted dietary intervention in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Licht, Tine Rask; Kristensen, M.;

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives:Consumption of whole-grain products is known to have beneficial effects on human health. The effects of whole-grain products on the intestinal microbiota and intestinal integrity have, however, only been studied limitedly. We investigate changes of the human gut microbiota...... composition after consumption of whole-grain (WW) or refined wheat (RW) and further study effects on gut wall integrity.Subjects/Methods:Quantitative PCR was used to determine changes in the gut bacterial composition in postmenopausal women following a 12-week energy-restricted dietary intervention with WW (N......=38) or RW (N=34). Intestinal integrity was determined by measuring trans-epithelial resistance (TER) across a Caco-2 cell monolayer, following exposure to faecal water.Results:No significant differences in microbiota composition were observed between the two dietary groups; however, the whole...

  11. Food restriction modulates β-adrenergic-sensitive adenylate cyclase in rat liver during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adenylate cyclase activities were studied in rat liver during postmaturational aging of male Fischer 344 rats fed ad libitum or restricted to 60% of the ad libitum intake. Catecholamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity increased by 200-300% between 6 and 24-27 mo of age in ad libitum-fed rats, whereas in food-restricted rats catecholamine response increased by only 58-84% between 6 and 30 mo. In ad libitum-fed rats, glucagon-stimulated enzyme activity also increased by 40% between 6 and 12 mo and in restricted rats a similar age-related increase was delayed until 18 mo. β-Adrenergic receptor density increased by 50% between 6 and 24 mo in livers from ad libitum-fed but not food-restricted rats and showed a highly significant correlation with maximal isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity over the postmaturational life span. Age-related increases in unstimulated (basal) adenylate cyclase activity and nonreceptor-mediated enzyme activation were retarded by food restriction. The results demonstrate that food restriction diminishes a marked age-related increase in β-adrenergic-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity of rat liver. Alterations of adrenergic-responsive adenylate cyclase with age and the modulatory effects of food restriction appear to be mediated by changes in both receptor and nonreceptor components of adenylate cyclase

  12. Male mice retain a metabolic memory of improved glucose tolerance induced during adult onset, short-term dietary restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Kerry M; Miwa, Satomi; Walker, Cornelia; von Zglinicki, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic dietary restriction (DR) has been shown to have beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. These factors show rapid and robust improvements when rodents were crossed over from an ad libitum (AL) diet to DR in mid life. We aimed to determine whether the beneficial effects induced by short-term exposure to DR can be retained as a ‘metabolic memory’ when AL feeding is resumed (AL-DR-AL) and vice versa: whether the effects of long-term DR can be reversed...

  13. A comparative study of dietary intake among urban Japanese and Chinese aged 50∼79

    OpenAIRE

    Wang,Da-Hong; Li, Jiong; Kira, Shohei

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the difference in dietary intake between middle-aged and elderly Japanese and Chinese. Volunteers aged 50–79 living in two cities in both Japan and China were recruited in local community service centers and were asked to complete a 3-day diet recording. The final results were based on 356 subjects (166 Chinese and 190 Japanese). In men, the Japanese subjects significantly consumed more energy, with a large proportion of the energy coming from carbohydrates, dietary fiber,...

  14. Age- and brain-region-specific effects of dietary vitamin K on myelin sulfatides

    OpenAIRE

    Crivello, Natalia A.; Casseus, Sherley L.; Peterson, James W.; Smith, Donald E.; Sarah L. Booth

    2010-01-01

    Dysregulation of myelin sulfatides is a risk factor for cognitive decline with age. Vitamin K is present in high concentrations in the brain and has been implicated in the regulation of sulfatide metabolism. Our objective was to investigate the age-related interrelation between dietary vitamin K and sulfatides in myelin fractions isolated from the brain regions of Fischer 344 male rats fed one of two dietary forms of vitamin K: phylloquinone or its hydrogenated form, dihydrophylloquinone for ...

  15. Insights Into The Beneficial Effect Of Caloric/ Dietary Restriction For A Healthy And Prolonged Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani ePallavi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several years, new evidence has kept pouring in about the remarkable effect of caloric restriction (CR on the conspicuous bedfellows- aging and cancer. Through the use of various animal models, it is now well established that by reducing calorie intake one can not only increase life span but, also, lower the risk of various age related diseases such as cancer. Cancer cells are believed to be more dependent on glycolysis for their energy requirements than normal cells and, therefore, can be easily targeted by alteration in the energy-metabolic pathways, a hallmark of CR. Apart from inhibiting the growth of transplantable tumors, CR has been also shown to inhibit the development of spontaneous, radiation and chemically induced tumors. The question regarding the potentiality of the anti-tumor effect of CR in humans has been in part answered by the resistance of a cohort of women, who had suffered from anorexia in their early life, to breast cancer. However, human research on the beneficial effect of CR is still at an early stage and needs further validation. Though the complete mechanism of the anti-tumor effect of CR is far from clear, the plausible involvement of nutrient sensing pathways or IGF-1 pathways proposed for its anti-aging action cannot be overruled. In fact, cancer cell lines, mutant for proteins involved in IGF-1 pathways, failed to respond to CR. In addition, CR decreases the levels of many growth factors, anabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines and oxidative markers that are deregulated in several cancers.In this review, we discuss the anti-tumor effect of CR, describing experiments done in vitro in tumor models and in vivo in mouse models in which the tumor was induced by means of radiation or chemical exposure, expressing oncogenes or deleting tumor suppression genes. We also discuss the proposed mechanisms of CR anti-tumor action. Lastly, we argue the necessity of gene expression studies in cancerous versus

  16. Effects of selenium supply and dietary restriction on maternal and fetal metabolic hormones in pregnant ewe lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M A; Neville, T L; Reed, J J; Taylor, J B; Hallford, D M; Soto-Navarro, S A; Vonnahme, K A; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S

    2008-05-01

    The objective of these studies was to evaluate the effects of dietary restriction and Se on maternal and fetal metabolic hormones. In Exp. 1, pregnant ewe lambs (n = 32; BW = 45.6 +/- 2.3 kg) were allotted randomly to 1 of 4 treatments. Diets contained (DM basis) either no added Se (control), or supranutritional Se added as high-Se wheat at 3.0 mg/kg (Se-wheat), or sodium selenate at 3 (Se3) and 15 (Se15) mg/kg of Se. Diets (DM basis) were similar in CP (15.5%) and ME (2.68 Mcal/kg). Treatments were initiated at 50 +/- 5 d of gestation. The control, Se-wheat, Se3, and Se15 treatments provided 2.5, 75, 75, and 375 microg/kg of BW of Se, respectively. Ewe jugular blood samples were collected at 50, 64, 78, 92, 106, 120, and 134 d of gestation. Fetal serum samples were collected at necropsy on d 134. In Exp. 2, pregnant ewe lambs (n = 36; BW 53.8 +/- 1.3 kg) were allotted randomly to treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Factors were nutrition (control, 100% of requirements vs. restricted nutrition, 60% of control) and dietary Se (adequate Se, 6 microg/kg of BW vs. high Se, 80 microg/kg of BW). Selenium treatments were initiated 21 d before breeding, and nutritional treatments were initiated on d 64 of gestation. Diets were 16% CP and 2.12 Mcal/kg of ME (DM basis). Blood samples were collected from the ewes at 62, 76, 90, 104, 118, 132, and 135 d of gestation. Fetal blood was collected at necropsy on d 135. In Exp.1, dietary Se source and concentration had no effect (P > 0.17) on maternal and fetal serum IGF-I, triiodothyronine (T(3)), or thyroxine (T(4)) concentrations. Selenium supplementation increased (P = 0.06) the T(4):T(3) ratio vs. controls. In Exp. 2, dietary Se had no impact (P > 0.33) on main effect means for maternal and fetal serum IGF-I, T(3), or T(4) concentrations from d 62 to 132; however, at d 135, high-Se ewes had lower (P = 0.01) serum T(4) concentrations than adequate-Se ewes. A nutrition by Se interaction (P = 0.06) was detected for the T

  17. Dietary fat restriction increases fat taste sensitivity in people with obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Lisa P.; Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P.; Susan J. Torres; Keast, Russell S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Individuals with obesity may be less sensitive to the taste of fat, and it is hypothesized that this is due to excess dietary fat intake. This study assessed the effect of a 6‐week low‐fat (LF) or portion control (PC) diet matched for weight loss on fat taste thresholds, fat perception, and preference in people with overweight/obesity. Methods Participants (n = 53) completed a randomized dietary intervention and consumed either a LF diet (25% fat) or PC diet (33% fat) for 6 weeks. F...

  18. Relationship Between Dietary Patterns and Socio- Demographic or Lifestyle Factors in Urban School- Aged Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan WANG; Yun CHEN; Wei CHEN; Ai ZHAO; Yu-mei ZHANG; Zhi-shen MU

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the dietary patterns in urban school-aged children in China and determine the relations with socio-demographic or lifestyle factors.MethodsA total of 620 school-aged children from 7 cities in China were recruited in a cross-sectional study and their dietary data over the preceding 6 months were recorded via questionnaire between 2011-2012. The dietary patterns were identified using principal components analysis. Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal-Walis H test was preformed to reveal the relationship between dietary patterns and socio-demographic or lifestyle characteristics. Results Three major dietary patterns were identified. The traditional pattern had high positive relationships with grains, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, vegetables and soybeans/soybean products. The high-protein pattern was characterized by large positive coefficient for fruits, fish/shrimps, eggs, milk/milk products, soybeans/soybean products and salt. The oil/fat and beverage pattern with highly related with grains, meat/poultry, eggs, oil/fat, salt and beverages. The relationships between the dietary patterns and various socio-demographic or lifestyle characteristics were analyzed.Conclusion Three dietary patterns were identified. A clear association was found between the dietary patterns and socio-demographic or lifestyle characteristics.

  19. Effects of dietary restriction followed by high dietary energy or protein on compensatory growth of Ashanti Black × Large White crossbred weaner pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addah, Weseh; Dzewu, Reuben Rudolph Kafui; Alenyorege, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The study determined the effect of re-alimenting dietary protein or energy on compensatory growth. Eighteen Ashanti Black × Large White crossbred weaner pigs (7.5 ± 0.30 kg) were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments in a completely randomized design resulting in three replicate pens per treatment (n = 3) and two pigs per pen. In the first treatment, pigs were fed ad libitum a diet containing 12.0 MJ/kg of metabolizable energy (ME) and 14.4% crude protein (CP) (maintenance diet) for 56 days. In the second and third dietary treatments, pigs were fed the maintenance diet for the initial 28 days and then switched to a high protein (17.4% dry matter (DM) CP; protein) or high (14.0 MJ/kg DM; energy) diet for the rest of the 28-day period. Dry matter intake and growth performance were similar (P ≥ 0.52) among treatments during the first 28 days of restrictive feeding, but pigs re-alimented with the protein diet achieved superior (P = 0.004) DM intake, average daily gain (ADG), and feed efficiency than those fed the maintenance diet or re-alimented with the energy diet in the re-alimentation period. At the end of the entire 56-day period, pigs re-alimented with the protein diet had higher (P ≥ 0.01) live weight gains and ADG compared with those fed the maintenance diet or re-alimented with the energy diet, but DM intake was similar (P = 0.66) among treatments. It was concluded that re-alimentation with protein rather than energy can improve compensatory growth of Ashanti Black × Large White crossbred weaner pigs. PMID:26494544

  20. Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldine Huini Lim; Jia Ying Toh; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Ai-Ru Chia; Wee Meng Han; Seang Mei Saw; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Yap-Seng Chong; Fabian Yap; Yung Seng Lee; Kramer, Michael S.; Mary Foong-Fong Chong

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the dietary patterns of Asian infants in the first year of life, nor of their associations with maternal socio-demographic factors. Based on the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother-offspring cohort, cross-sectional dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis using 24-h recalls and food diaries of infants at 6-, 9- and 12-months of age. Dietary pattern trajectories were modeled by mapping similar dietary patterns across each age using mult...

  1. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Angquist, Lars; Banasik, Karina;

    2012-01-01

    Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction.......Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction....

  2. The feasibility of age-specific travel restrictions during influenza pandemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Elson HY

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have shown that imposing travel restrictions to prevent or delay an influenza pandemic may not be feasible. To delay an epidemic substantially, an extremely high proportion of trips (~99% would have to be restricted in a homogeneously mixing population. Influenza is, however, strongly influenced by age-dependent transmission dynamics, and the effectiveness of age-specific travel restrictions, such as the selective restriction of travel by children, has yet to be examined. Methods A simple stochastic model was developed to describe the importation of infectious cases into a population and to model local chains of transmission seeded by imported cases. The probability of a local epidemic, and the time period until a major epidemic takes off, were used as outcome measures, and travel restriction policies in which children or adults were preferentially restricted were compared to age-blind restriction policies using an age-dependent next generation matrix parameterized for influenza H1N1-2009. Results Restricting children from travelling would yield greater reductions to the short-term risk of the epidemic being established locally than other policy options considered, and potentially could delay an epidemic for a few weeks. However, given a scenario with a total of 500 imported cases over a period of a few months, a substantial reduction in the probability of an epidemic in this time period is possible only if the transmission potential were low and assortativity (i.e. the proportion of contacts within-group were unrealistically high. In all other scenarios considered, age-structured travel restrictions would not prevent an epidemic and would not delay the epidemic for longer than a few weeks. Conclusions Selectively restricting children from traveling overseas during a pandemic may potentially delay its arrival for a few weeks, depending on the characteristics of the pandemic strain, but could have less

  3. Dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: possible effect modification by gender and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Dyerberg, Jørn;

    2004-01-01

    In a 16-year follow-up study (ending in 1998) of 3,686 Danish men and women aged 30–71 years at recruitment, the association between energy intake from dietary fat and the risk of coronary heart disease was evaluated while assessing the possible modifying role of gender and age. In the models used...

  4. Dietary quality, lifestyle factors and healthy ageing in Europe: the SENECA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman-Nies, A.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: to identify dietary and lifestyle factors that contribute to healthy ageing. Subjects: for the analyses, data of the longitudinal SENECA study were used. The study population consisted of 1091 men and 1109 women aged 70-75 years from Belgium, France, Denmark, Italy, The Netherlands, Portu

  5. Attenuation of age-related changes in mouse neuromuscular synapses by caloric restriction and exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Valdez, G; Tapia, J; Kang, H; Clemenson, G.D.; Gage, F.H.; Lichtman, Jeff; Sanes, Joshua R.

    2010-01-01

    The cellular basis of age-related behavioral decline remains obscure but alterations in synapses are likely candidates. Accordingly, the beneficial effects on neural function of caloric restriction and exercise, which are among the most effective anti-aging treatments known, might also be mediated by synapses. As a starting point in testing these ideas, we studied the skeletal neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a large, accessible peripheral synapse. Comparison of NMJs in young adult and aged mice...

  6. ACE inhibition has adverse renal effects during dietary sodium restriction in proteinuric and healthy rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamming, I.; Navis, Ger Jan; Kocks, Menno; van Goor, H.

    2006-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) provide renoprotection. A low sodium diet enhances their efficacy. However, the added effect of sodium restriction on proteinuria and blood pressure is not invariably associated with better preservation of renal morphology, suggesting that the combinat

  7. Influence of dietary nucleotide restriction on bacterial sepsis and phagocytic cell function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, A D; Fanslow, W C; Drath, D B; Rudolph, F B; Van Buren, C T

    1986-02-01

    Although enzyme defects in purine metabolism have revealed the importance of these substrates to maintenance of a normal immune response, the role of exogenous nucleotides on the cells that mediate the host defense system has remained largely unexplored. Recent investigations have revealed that dietary nucleotides are vital to the maintenance of cell-mediated responses to antigen stimulation. To test the influence of dietary nucleotide deprivation on resistance to infection, Balb/c mice were maintained on chow, a nucleotide-free (NF) diet, or an NF diet repleted with adenine, uracil, or RNA. Mice on the NF diet suffered 100% mortality following intravenous challenge with Staphylococcus aureus, while chow-fed and RNA- or uracil-repleted mice demonstrated significantly greater resistance to this bacterial challenge. Macrophages from mice on the NF diet had decreased phagocytic activity as measured by uptake of radiolabeled bacteria compared with mice maintained on the NF diet supplemented with adenine, uracil, or RNA. No change in S aureus antibody response was noted on the various diets. Although the mechanism of this suppression of nonspecific immunity remains unclear, provision of nucleotides to defined diets appears vital to maintain host resistance to bacterial challenge. PMID:3947217

  8. Enhanced Locomotor Activity Is Required to Exert Dietary Restriction-Dependent Increase of Stress Resistance in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurav Ghimire

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary restriction (DR is known to be one of the most effective interventions to increase stress resistance, yet the mechanisms remain elusive. One of the most obvious DR-induced changes in phenotype is an increase in locomotor activity. Although it is conceptually perceivable that nutritional scarcity should prompt enhanced foraging behavior to garner additional dietary resources, the significance of enhanced movement activity has not been associated with the DR-dependent increase of stress resistance. In this study, we confirmed that flies raised on DR exhibited enhanced locomotive activity and increased stress resistance. Excision of fly wings minimized the DR-induced increase in locomotive activity, which resulted in attenuation of the DR-dependent increase of stress resistance. The possibility that wing clipping counteracts the DR by coercing flies to have more intake was ruled out since it did not induce any weight gain. Rather it was found that elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS that is enhanced by DR-induced upregulation of expression of antioxidant genes was significantly reduced by wing clipping. Collectively, our data suggests that DR increased stress resistance by increasing the locomotor activity, which upregulated expression of protective genes including, but not limited to, ROS scavenger system.

  9. Enhanced Locomotor Activity Is Required to Exert Dietary Restriction-Dependent Increase of Stress Resistance in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Saurav; Kim, Man Su

    2015-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) is known to be one of the most effective interventions to increase stress resistance, yet the mechanisms remain elusive. One of the most obvious DR-induced changes in phenotype is an increase in locomotor activity. Although it is conceptually perceivable that nutritional scarcity should prompt enhanced foraging behavior to garner additional dietary resources, the significance of enhanced movement activity has not been associated with the DR-dependent increase of stress resistance. In this study, we confirmed that flies raised on DR exhibited enhanced locomotive activity and increased stress resistance. Excision of fly wings minimized the DR-induced increase in locomotive activity, which resulted in attenuation of the DR-dependent increase of stress resistance. The possibility that wing clipping counteracts the DR by coercing flies to have more intake was ruled out since it did not induce any weight gain. Rather it was found that elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that is enhanced by DR-induced upregulation of expression of antioxidant genes was significantly reduced by wing clipping. Collectively, our data suggests that DR increased stress resistance by increasing the locomotor activity, which upregulated expression of protective genes including, but not limited to, ROS scavenger system.

  10. Sex-Dependent Metabolic, Neuroendocrine, and Cognitive Responses to Dietary Energy Restriction and Excess

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Bronwen; Pearson, Michele; Kebejian, Lisa; Golden, Erin; Keselman, Alex; Bender, Meredith; Carlson, Olga; Egan, Josephine; Ladenheim, Bruce; Cadet, Jean-Lud; Kevin G Becker; Wood, William; Duffy, Kara; Vinayakumar, Prabhu; Maudsley, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    Females and males typically play different roles in survival of the species and would be expected to respond differently to food scarcity or excess. To elucidate the physiological basis of sex differences in responses to energy intake, we maintained groups of male and female rats for 6 months on diets with usual, reduced [20% and 40% caloric restriction (CR), and intermittent fasting (IF)], or elevated (high-fat/high-glucose) energy levels and measured multiple physiological variables related...

  11. Polyclonal B-cell response to stimulation with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide in dietary protein restriction.

    OpenAIRE

    Malavé, I; Pocino, M

    1982-01-01

    The polyclonal B-cell response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide was studied in C57BL/6 mice maintained after weaning on either a moderate protein-restricted diet with 8% casein or a normal diet. After in vitro or in vivo stimulation with the endotoxin, autoreactive and anti-hapten antibody-producing cells were quantitated by direct plaque assay, using bromelain-treated mouse erythrocytes and trinitrophenylated sheep erythrocytes as targets. Larger numbers of plaque-forming cells were ge...

  12. Toxicokinetics of chloral hydrate in ad libitum-fed, dietary-controlled, and calorically restricted male B6C3F1 mice following short-term exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chloral hydrate is widely used as a sedative in pediatric medicine and is a by-product of water chlorination and a metabolic intermediate in the biotransformation of trichloroethylene. Chloral hydrate and its major metabolite, trichloroacetic acid, induce liver tumors in B6C3F1 mice, a strain that can exhibit high rates of background liver tumor incidence, which is associated with increased body weight. This report describes the influence of diet and body weight on the acute toxicity, hepatic enzyme response, and toxickinetics of chloral hydrate as part of a larger study investigating the carcinogenicity of chloral hydrate in ad libitum-fed and dietary controlled mice. Dietary control involves moderate food restriction to maintain the test animals at an idealized body weight. Mice were dosed with chloral hydrate at 0, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg daily, 5 days/week, by aqueous gavage for 2 weekly dosing cycles. Three diet groups were used: ad libitum, dietary control, and 40% caloric restriction. Both dietary control and caloric restriction slightly reduced acute toxicity of high doses of chloral hydrate and potentiated the induction of hepatic enzymes associated with peroxisome proliferation. Chloral hydrate toxicokinetics were investigated using blood samples obtained by sequential tail clipping and a microscale gas chromatography technique. It was rapidly cleared from serum within 3 h of dosing. Trichloroacetate was the major metabolite in serum in all three diet groups. Although the area under the curve values for serum trichloroacetate were slightly greater in the dietary controlled and calorically restricted groups than in the ad libitum-fed groups, this increase did not appear to completely account for the potentiation of hepatic enzyme induction by dietary restriction

  13. If you can't eat what you like, like what you can: How coeliac disease patients and their families construct dietary restrictions as a matter of choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, M.; Molder, te H.; Gremmen, B.; Woerkum, van C.

    2013-01-01

    Although it is recognised that a gluten-free diet has many social implications for coeliac disease patients, not much is known about how such patients actually manage these implications in their everyday interactions. This article examines how dietary restrictions are treated by patients and their f

  14. Diet-related restrictive parenting practices. Impact on dietary intake of 2-year-old children and interactions with child characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Stafleu, A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Vries, N.K.de; Thijs, C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between diet-related parenting practices, parental characteristics, child characteristics, and 2-year-old child's dietary intake. Cross-sectional data (N = 2578) originated from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study. Principal component analyses revealed two restrictive p

  15. Dietary Curcumin Ameliorates Aging-Related Cerebrovascular Dysfunction through the AMPK/Uncoupling Protein 2 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfei Pu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Age-related cerebrovascular dysfunction contributes to stroke, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases. One pathogenic mechanism underlying this effect is increased oxidative stress. Up-regulation of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 plays a crucial role in regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Dietary patterns are widely recognized as contributors to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that dietary curcumin, which has an antioxidant effect, can improve aging-related cerebrovascular dysfunction via UCP2 up-regulation. Methods: The 24-month-old male rodents used in this study, including male Sprague Dawley (SD rats and UCP2 knockout (UCP2-/- and matched wild type mice, were given dietary curcumin (0.2%. The young control rodents were 6-month-old. Rodent cerebral artery vasorelaxation was detected by wire myograph. The AMPK/UCP2 pathway and p-eNOS in cerebrovascular and endothelial cells were observed by immunoblotting. Results: Dietary curcumin administration for one month remarkably restored the impaired cerebrovascular endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in aging SD rats. In cerebral arteries from aging SD rats and cultured endothelial cells, curcumin promoted eNOS and AMPK phosphorylation, up-regulated UCP2 and reduced ROS production. These effects of curcumin were abolished by either AMPK or UCP2 inhibition. Chronic dietary curcumin significantly reduced ROS production and improved cerebrovascular endothelium-dependent relaxation in aging wild type mice but not in aging UCP2-/- mice. Conclusions: Curcumin improves aging-related cerebrovascular dysfunction via the AMPK/UCP2 pathway.

  16. Restriction of human papillomavirus DNA testing in primary cervical screening to women above age 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Njor, Sisse H; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    Cervical screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is less specific for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (=CIN3) than cytology. The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether a restriction of HPV testing to women aged at least 30 years would eliminate the problem....

  17. Exploring the Utility of a School-Age Narrative Microstructure Index: Proportion of Restricted Utterances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerger, Sara; Thorne, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This research attempted to replicate Hoffman's 2009 finding that the proportion of narrative utterances with semantic or syntactic errors (i.e., = 14% "restricted utterances") can differentiate school-age children with typical development from those with language impairment with a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 88%.…

  18. Dietary restriction supports peripheral nerve health by enhancing endogenous protein quality control mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sooyeon; Notterpek, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    The peripheral nervous system (PNS) comprises of an extensive network of connections that convey information between the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral organs. Long myelinated nerve fibers are particularly susceptible to age-related changes, as maintenance of the insulating glial membrane requires extensive synthesis and processing of many proteins. In rodent models, peripheral demyelination caused by genetic risk factors or by normal aging are attenuated by intermittent fasting ...

  19. Long-term Effects of High and Low Glycemic Load Diets at Different Levels of Caloric Restriction on Dietary Adherence, Body Composition and Metabolism in CALERIE, a One Year Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context The effects of dietary macronutrient composition and level of energy intake on adherence to a calorically-restricted diet remain uncertain. Objective To examine the effects of dietary macronutrients, and level of caloric restriction (CR), for 12 months, on adherence to the prescribed regim...

  20. Different modulation by dietary restriction of adipokine expression in white adipose tissue sites in the rat

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    Esteve Montserrat

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White adipose tissue (WAT is a disperse organ acting as energy storage depot and endocrine/paracrine controlling factor in the management of energy availability and inflammation. WAT sites response under energy-related stress is not uniform. In the present study we have analyzed how different WAT sites respond to limited food restriction as a way to better understand the role of WAT in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Methods Overweight male rats had their food intake reduced a 40% compared with free-feeding controls. On day ten, the rats were killed; circulating glucose, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, triacylglycerols and other parameters were measured. The main WAT sites were dissected: mesenteric, retroperitoneal, epididymal and subcutaneous inguinal, which were weighed and frozen. Later all subcutaneous WAT was also dissected and weighed. Samples were used for DNA (cellularity analysis and mRNA extraction and semiquantitarive RT-PCR analysis of specific cytokine gene expressions. Results There was a good correlation between serum leptin and cumulative WAT leptin gene mRNA, but not for adiponectin. Food restriction reduced WAT size, but not its DNA content (except for epididymal WAT. Most cytokines were correlated to WAT site weight, but not to DNA. There was WAT site specialization in the differential expression (and probably secretion of adipokines: subcutaneous WAT showed the highest concentration for leptin, CD68 and MCP-1, mesenteric WAT for TNFα (and both tissues for the interleukins 1β and 6; resistin was highly expressed in subcutaneous and retroperitoneal WAT. Conclusion Food restriction induced different patterns for mesenteric and the other WAT sites, which may be directly related to both the response to intestine-derived energy availability, and an inflammatory-related response. However, retroperitoneal WAT, and to a lower extent, subcutaneous and epididymal, reacted decreasing the expression of

  1. Effects of dietary lipids on renal function of aged rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente Gamba C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal aging is accompanied by renal functional and morphological deterioration and dietetic manipulation has been used to delay this age-related decline. We examined the effects of chronic administration of diets containing 5% lipid-enriched diet (LD, w/w on renal function of rats at different ages. Three types of LD were tested: canola oil, fish oil and butter. Mean systemic tail-cuff blood pressure and glycemia remained within the normal range whatever the age and the diet of the animals. Proteinuria began to rise from the 8th month in the groups ingesting LD, while in the control group it increased significantly (above 10 mg/24 h only after the 10th month. With age, a significant and progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR and renal plasma flow was observed in the LD groups but after 6 months of lipid supplementation, the decline in these parameters was more marked in the butter and fish oil groups. By the 18th month, the lowest GFR level was observed in the group ingesting the butter diet (2.93 ± 0.22 vs 5.01 ± 0.21 ml min-1 kg-1 in control, P<0.05. Net acid excretion, evaluated in 9- and 18-month-old rats, was stimulated in the fish oil group when compared both to control and to the other two LD groups. These results suggest that even low levels of LD in a chronic nutritional regimen can modify the age-related changes in renal function and that the impact of different types of lipid-supplemented diets on renal function depends on the kind of lipid present in the diet.

  2. Do Ames dwarf and calorie-restricted mice share common effects on age-related pathology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Ikeno

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 1996, aging studies using several strains of long-lived mutant mice have been conducted. Among these studies, Ames dwarf mice have been extensively examined to seek clues regarding the role of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis in the aging process. Interestingly, these projects demonstrate that Ames dwarf mice have physiological characteristics that are similar to those seen with calorie restriction, which has been the most effective experimental manipulation capable of extending lifespan in various species. However, this introduces the question of whether Ames dwarf and calorie-restricted (CR mice have an extended lifespan through common or independent pathways. To answer this question, we compared the disease profiles of Ames dwarf mice to their normal siblings fed either ad libitum (AL or a CR diet. Our findings show that the changes in age-related diseases between AL-fed Ames dwarf mice and CR wild-type siblings were similar but not identical. Moreover, the effects of CR on age-related pathology showed similarities and differences between Ames dwarf mice and their normal siblings, indicating that calorie restriction and Ames dwarf mice exhibit their anti-aging effects through both independent and common mechanisms.

  3. Dietary flavonol intake is associated with age of puberty in a longitudinal cohort of girls

    OpenAIRE

    Mervish, Nancy A.; Gardiner, Eliza W.; Galvez, Maida P.; Kushi, Larry H.; Windham, Gayle C.; Biro, Frank M.; Pinney, Susan M; Rybak, Michael; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Mary S Wolff

    2013-01-01

    Lignans and flavonols are dietary phytoestrogens found at high concentrations in the Western Diet. They have potential to influence the timing of puberty. We hypothesized that greater consumption of these two phytoestrogens would be related to later age at pubertal onset among girls. Pubertal assessment and 24-hour diet recall data were available for 1178 girls, ages 6-8 yr (mean 7.3 yr) in the Breast Cancer and Environment Research Project Puberty Study. Lignan and flavonol intakes were main...

  4. Dietary quality, lifestyle factors and healthy ageing in Europe: the SENECA study

    OpenAIRE

    Haveman-Nies, A.; De Groot,, P.A.J.; Staveren, van, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: to identify dietary and lifestyle factors that contribute to healthy ageing. Subjects: for the analyses, data of the longitudinal SENECA study were used. The study population consisted of 1091 men and 1109 women aged 70-75 years from Belgium, France, Denmark, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, and Poland. Methods: this European study started with baseline measurements in 1988-1989 and lasted until 30 April 1999. The study includes data on diet, lifestyle and heal...

  5. Shop Floor Compliance with Age Restrictions for Tobacco Sales: Remote Versus In-Store Age Verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van Joris J.; Gosselt, Jordy F.; Jong, de Menno D.T.

    2010-01-01

    To compare traditional in-store age verification with a newly developed remote age verification system, 100 cigarette purchase attempts were made by 15-year-old “mystery shoppers.” The remote system led to a strong increase in compliance (96% vs. 12%), reflecting more identification requests and mor

  6. Indicators of dietary patterns in Danish infants at 9 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise B.B. Andersen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is important to increase the awareness of indicators associated with adverse infant dietary patterns to be able to prevent or to improve dietary patterns early on. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between a wide range of possible family and child indicators and adherence to dietary patterns for infants aged 9 months. Design: The two dietary patterns ‘Family Food’ and ‘Health-Conscious Food’ were displayed by principal component analysis, and associations with possible indicators were analysed by multiple linear regressions in a pooled sample (n=374 of two comparable observational cohorts, SKOT I and SKOT II. These cohorts comprised infants with mainly non-obese mothers versus infants with obese mothers, respectively. Results: A lower Family Food score indicates a higher intake of liquid baby food, as this pattern shows transition from baby food towards the family's food. Infants, who were younger at diet registration and had higher body mass index (BMI z-scores at 9 months, had lower Family Food pattern scores. A lower Family Food pattern score was also observed for infants with immigrant/descendant parents, parents who shared cooking responsibilities and fathers in the labour market compared to being a student, A lower Health-Conscious Food pattern score indicates a less healthy diet. A lower infant Health-Conscious Food pattern score was associated with a higher maternal BMI, a greater number of children in the household, a higher BMI z-score at 9 months, and a higher infant age at diet registration. Conclusions: Associations between infant dietary patterns and maternal, paternal, household, and child characteristics were identified. This may improve the possibility of identifying infants with an increased risk of developing unfavourable dietary patterns and potentially enable an early targeted preventive support.

  7. Dietary carbohydrate restriction improves insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, microvascular function, and cellular adhesion markers in individuals taking statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Kevin D; Quann, Erin E; Kupchak, Brian R; Volk, Brittanie M; Kawiecki, Diana M; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Seip, Richard L; Maresh, Carl M; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S

    2013-11-01

    Statins positively impact plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, inflammation and vascular endothelial function (VEF). Carbohydrate restricted diets (CRD) improve atherogenic dyslipidemia, and similar to statins, have been shown to favorably affect markers of inflammation and VEF. No studies have examined whether a CRD provides additional benefit beyond that achieved by habitual statin use. We hypothesized that a CRD (carb/fat/pro) and averaged across the intervention (11/58/28% carb/fat/pro) demonstrated dietary compliance, with carbohydrate intake at baseline nearly 5-fold greater than during the intervention (P < .001). Compared to baseline, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased after 3 and 6 weeks (P < .01). Peak forearm blood flow, but not flow-mediated dilation, increased at week 6 compared to baseline and week 3 (P ≤ .03). Serum triglyceride, insulin, soluble E-Selectin and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 decreased (P < .01) from baseline at week 3, and this effect was maintained at week 6. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that individuals undergoing statin therapy experience additional improvements in metabolic and vascular health from a 6 weeks CRD as evidenced by increased insulin sensitivity and resistance vessel endothelial function, and decreased blood pressure, triglycerides, and adhesion molecules. PMID:24176230

  8. Peripheral Circadian Clocks Mediate Dietary Restriction-Dependent Changes in Lifespan and Fat Metabolism in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katewa, Subhash D; Akagi, Kazutaka; Bose, Neelanjan; Rakshit, Kuntol; Camarella, Timothy; Zheng, Xiangzhong; Hall, David; Davis, Sonnet; Nelson, Christopher S; Brem, Rachel B; Ramanathan, Arvind; Sehgal, Amita; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M; Kapahi, Pankaj

    2016-01-12

    Endogenous circadian clocks orchestrate several metabolic and signaling pathways that are known to modulate lifespan, suggesting clocks as potential targets for manipulation of metabolism and lifespan. We report here that the core circadian clock genes, timeless (tim) and period (per), are required for the metabolic and lifespan responses to DR in Drosophila. Consistent with the involvement of a circadian mechanism, DR enhances the amplitude of cycling of most circadian clock genes, including tim, in peripheral tissues. Mass-spectrometry-based lipidomic analysis suggests a role of tim in cycling of specific medium chain triglycerides under DR. Furthermore, overexpression of tim in peripheral tissues improves its oscillatory amplitude and extends lifespan under ad libitum conditions. Importantly, effects of tim on lifespan appear to be mediated through enhanced fat turnover. These findings identify a critical role for specific clock genes in modulating the effects of nutrient manipulation on fat metabolism and aging. PMID:26626459

  9. Calorie restriction and stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzanero Silvia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stroke, a major cause of disability and mortality in the elderly, occurs when a cerebral blood vessel is occluded or ruptured, resulting in ischemic damage and death of brain cells. The injury mechanism involves metabolic and oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, apoptosis and inflammatory processes, including activation of glial cells and infiltration of leukocytes. In animal models, dietary energy restriction, by daily calorie reduction (CR or intermittent fasting (IF, extends lifespan and decreases the development of age-related diseases. Dietary energy restriction may also benefit neurons, as suggested by experimental evidence showing that CR and IF protect neurons against degeneration in animal models. Recent findings by our group and others suggest the possibility that dietary energy restriction may protect against stroke induced brain injury, in part by inducing the expression of neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF; protein chaperones, including heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 and glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78; antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases (SOD and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1, uncoupling proteins and anti-inflammatory cytokines. This article discusses the protective mechanisms activated by dietary energy restriction in ischemic stroke.

  10. Accelerated ageing and renal dysfunction links lower socioeconomic status and dietary phosphate intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Ruth; Christensen, Kelly; Mohammed, Suhaib; McGuinness, Dagmara; Cooney, Josephine; Bakshi, Andisheh; Demou, Evangelia; MacDonald, Ewan; Caslake, Muriel; Stenvinkel, Peter; Shiels, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Background We have sought to explore the impact of dietary Pi intake on human age related health in the pSoBid cohort (n=666) to explain the disparity between health and deprivation status in this cohort. As hyperphosphataemia is a driver of accelerated ageing in rodent models of progeria we tested whether variation in Pi levels in man associate with measures of biological ageing and health. Results We observed significant relationships between serum Pi levels and markers of biological age (telomere length (p=0.040) and DNA methylation content (p=0.028), gender and chronological age (p=0.032). When analyses were adjusted for socio-economic status and nutritional factors, associations were observed between accelerated biological ageing (telomere length, genomic methylation content) and dietary derived Pi levels among the most deprived males, directly related to the frequency of red meat consumption. Conclusions Accelerated ageing is associated with high serum Pi levels and frequency of red meat consumption. Our data provide evidence for a mechanistic link between high intake of Pi and age-related morbidities tied to socio-economic status. PMID:27132985

  11. Compensatory water consumption of broilers submitted to water restriction from 1 to 21 days of age

    OpenAIRE

    TH Viola; AML Ribeiro; AM Penz Jr.

    2005-01-01

    A hundred and fifty male Ross 308 broilers were submitted to water restriction (WR) in different levels (0 to 40%) until 21 days of age. The birds received water ad libitum from 22 to 28 days of age and the compensatory consumption of water (CConW) was calculated as the difference in water intake between birds submitted and not submitted to WR. All WR groups showed a compensatory consumption of water, mainly during the first days of the ad libitum period. The water intake in such groups decre...

  12. Orthomolecular medicine: the therapeutic use of dietary supplements for anti-aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Dietary supplements at high doses as part of medical therapy have been controversial, but the evidence suggests that they play a significant role in prevention and treatment of diseases as well as protection from accelerated aging that results from oxygen free-radical damage, inflammation, and glycation. This literature review examines several supplements that have documented roles in medical therapy, including vitamins C and E, coenzyme Q10, alpha-lipoic acid, chromium, L-carnitine, and quercetin. The evidence shows benefits in diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, congestive heart failure, age-related deterioration of brain function and vision, and immune function, as well as other age-related health problems. PMID:18046879

  13. Effects of Caloric Restriction and Exercise Training on Skeletal Muscle Histochemistry in Aging Fischer 344 Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T. Lowenthal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of calorie restriction and exercise on hindlimb histochemistry and fiber type in Fischer 344 rats as they advanced from adulthood through senescence. At 10 months of age, animals were divided into sedentary fed ad libitum, exercise (18 m/min, 8% grade, 20 min/day, 5 days/week fed ad libitum, and calorie restricted by alternate days of feeding. Succinic dehydrogenase, myosin adenosine triphosphatase (mATPase at pH 9.4, nicotine adenonine dinucleotide reductase, and Periodic Acid Shiff histochemical stains were performed on plantaris and soleus muscles. The results indicated that aging resulted in a progressive decline in plantaris Type I muscle fiber in sedentary animals, while exercise resulted in maintenance of these fibers. The percent of plantaris Type II fibers increased between 10 and 24 months of age. Exercise also resulted in a small, but significant, increase in the percentage of plantaris Type IIa fibers at 24 months of age. The soleus fiber distribution for Type I fibers was unaffected by increasing age in all groups of animals. The implications of these results suggest the implementation of exercise as a lifestyle modification as early as possible.

  14. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemel Michael B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between dairy product or supplemental calcium intake with changes in the plasma lipidome and body composition during energy restriction. A secondary objective of this study was to explore the relationships among calculated macronutrient composition of the energy restricted diet to changes in the plasma lipidome, and body composition during energy restriction. Overweight adults (n = 61 were randomized into one of three intervention groups including a deficit of 500kcal/d: 1 placebo; 2 900 mg/d calcium supplement; and 3 3-4 servings of dairy products/d plus a placebo supplement. Plasma fatty acid methyl esters of cholesterol ester, diacylglycerol, free fatty acids, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and triacylglycerol were quantified by capillary gas chromatography. Results After adjustments for energy and protein (g/d intake, there was no significant effect of treatment on changes in weight, waist circumference or body composition. Plasma lipidome did not differ among dietary treatment groups. Stepwise regression identified correlations between reported intake of monounsaturated fat (% of energy and changes in % lean mass (r = -0.44, P P Conclusions Dairy product consumption or calcium supplementation during energy restriction over the course of 12 weeks did not affect plasma lipids. Independent of calcium and dairy product consumption, short-term energy restriction altered body composition. Reported dietary fat composition of energy restricted diets was associated with the degree of change in body composition in these overweight and obese individuals.

  15. Chronic Caloric Restriction and Exercise Improve Metabolic Conditions of Dietary-Induced Obese Mice in Autophagy Correlated Manner without Involving AMPK

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    Mingxia Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the role of AMPK activation and autophagy in mediating the beneficial effects of exercise and caloric restriction in obesity. Methods. Dietary-induced obesity mice were made and divided into 5 groups; one additional group of normal mice serves as control. Mice in each group received different combinations of interventions including low fat diet, caloric restriction, and exercise. Then their metabolic conditions were assessed by measuring serum glucose and insulin, serum lipids, and liver function. AMPK phosphorylation and autophagy activity were detected by western blotting. Results. Obese mice models were successfully induced by high fat diet. Caloric restriction consistently improved the metabolic conditions of the obese mice, and the effects are more prominent than the mice that received only exercise. Also, caloric restriction, exercise, and low fat diet showed a synergistic effect in the improvement of metabolic conditions. Western blotting results showed that this improvement was not related with the activation of AMPK in liver, skeletal muscle, or heart but correlates well with the autophagy activity. Conclusion. Caloric restriction has more prominent beneficial effects than exercise in dietary-induced obese mice. These effects are correlated with the autophagy activity and may be independent of AMPK activation.

  16. Correlates of dietary energy sources with cardiovascular disease risk markers in Mexican school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Balas-Nakash, Margie; Rodríguez-Cano, Ameyalli; Muñoz-Manrique, Cinthya; Monge-Urrea, Adriana; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe

    2010-02-01

    Dietary and lifestyle changes in Mexico have been linked to an increase in chronic diseases such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. Important dietary changes such as an increase in the consumption of energy-dense foods (high in oils, animal or processed fats, and sugars) have been recently reported. The objective of this study was to identify how key dietary energy sources correlated with other indexes of cardiovascular disease in a Mexican school-age population. From 2004 to 2006, a convenience sample (n=228) of 9- to 13-year-olds, 48.2% girls and 51.8% boys, from three public urban schools were included. Anthropometric, blood pressure, and dietary assessment (two multiple pass 24-hour recalls) were done. More than half of children did not meet the fruit and vegetable recommended intake. High-fat dairy foods (14% of total energy intake), refined carbohydrates (13.5%), red/processed meat (8.5%), added sugars/desserts (7%), corn tortilla (6.5%), and soft drinks/sweetened beverages (5%) were the highest dietary energy sources consumed. In a subgroup of children (n=185), a fasting blood sample was collected for biochemical analysis. A positive association was observed between glucose and diastolic blood pressure with the intake of soft drinks/sweetened beverages, insulin concentrations and the intake of white bread, and triglyceride concentrations with the intake of added fats. Unhealthful dietary energy sources are frequently consumed by these children. Culturally competent nutrition counseling should be offered to Mexican-American children and their families with a significant risk of cardiovascular disease. Efforts should be made to design and implement nutrition education and health promotion strategies in schools. PMID:20102853

  17. Removing the age restrictions for rotavirus vaccination: a benefit-risk modeling analysis.

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    Manish M Patel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To minimize potential risk of intussusception, the World Health Organization (WHO recommended in 2009 that rotavirus immunization should be initiated by age 15 weeks and completed before 32 weeks. These restrictions could adversely impact vaccination coverage and thereby its health impact, particularly in developing countries where delays in vaccination often occur. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a modeling study to estimate the number of rotavirus deaths prevented and the number of intussusception deaths caused by vaccination when administered on the restricted schedule versus an unrestricted schedule whereby rotavirus vaccine would be administered with DTP vaccine up to age 3 years. Countries were grouped on the basis of child mortality rates, using WHO data. Inputs were estimates of WHO rotavirus mortality by week of age from a recent study, intussusception mortality based on a literature review, predicted vaccination rates by week of age from USAID Demographic and Health Surveys, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS, and WHO-UNICEF 2010 country-specific coverage estimates, and published estimates of vaccine efficacy and vaccine-associated intussusception risk. On the basis of the error estimates and distributions for model inputs, we conducted 2,000 simulations to obtain median estimates of deaths averted and caused as well as the uncertainty ranges, defined as the 5th-95th percentile, to provide an indication of the uncertainty in the estimates. We estimated that in low and low-middle income countries a restricted schedule would prevent 155,800 rotavirus deaths (5th-95th centiles, 83,300-217,700 while causing potentially 253 intussusception deaths (76-689. In contrast, vaccination without age restrictions would prevent 203,000 rotavirus deaths (102,000-281,500 while potentially causing 547 intussusception deaths (237-1,160. Thus, removing the age restrictions would avert an

  18. From inflammaging to healthy aging by dietary lifestyle choices: is epigenetics the key to personalized nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarc vel Szic, Katarzyna; Declerck, Ken; Vidaković, Melita; Vanden Berghe, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The progressively older population in developed countries is reflected in an increase in the number of people suffering from age-related chronic inflammatory diseases such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, heart and lung diseases, cancer, osteoporosis, arthritis, and dementia. The heterogeneity in biological aging, chronological age, and aging-associated disorders in humans have been ascribed to different genetic and environmental factors (i.e., diet, pollution, stress) that are closely linked to socioeconomic factors. The common denominator of these factors is the inflammatory response. Chronic low-grade systemic inflammation during physiological aging and immunosenescence are intertwined in the pathogenesis of premature aging also defined as 'inflammaging.' The latter has been associated with frailty, morbidity, and mortality in elderly subjects. However, it is unknown to what extent inflammaging or longevity is controlled by epigenetic events in early life. Today, human diet is believed to have a major influence on both the development and prevention of age-related diseases. Most plant-derived dietary phytochemicals and macro- and micronutrients modulate oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling and regulate metabolic pathways and bioenergetics that can be translated into stable epigenetic patterns of gene expression. Therefore, diet interventions designed for healthy aging have become a hot topic in nutritional epigenomic research. Increasing evidence has revealed that complex interactions between food components and histone modifications, DNA methylation, non-coding RNA expression, and chromatin remodeling factors influence the inflammaging phenotype and as such may protect or predispose an individual to many age-related diseases. Remarkably, humans present a broad range of responses to similar dietary challenges due to both genetic and epigenetic modulations of the expression of target proteins and key genes involved in the metabolism and distribution of the

  19. No impact of dietary iodine restriction in short term development of hypothyroidism following fixed dose radioactive iodine therapy for Graves’ disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jubbin Jagan Jacob; Charles Stephen; Thomas V Paul; Nihal Thomas; Regi Oommen; Mandalam S Seshadri

    2015-01-01

    Background: The increased incidence of autoimmune thyroid disease with increasing dietary iodine intake has been demonstrated both epidemiologically and experimentally. The hypothyroidism that occurs in the first year following radioactive iodine therapy is probably related to the destructive effects of the radiation and underlying ongoing autoimmunity. Objective: To study the outcomes at the end of six months after fixed dose I, 131 therapy for Graves′ disease followed by an iodine restricte...

  20. Effects of dietary salt intake on renal function: a 2-year study in healthy aged cats.

    OpenAIRE

    Chetboul, V; Nguyen, P.; Testault, I; Concordet, Didier; Carlos Sampedrano, C; Elliott, J.; Trehiou-Sechi, E; Abadie, J.; Biourge, V; Lefebvre, H.P.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing salt intake to promote diuresis has been suggested in the management of feline lower urinary tract disease. However, high dietary salt intake might adversely affect blood pressure and renal function The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effects of increased salt intake on renal function in healthy aged cats This study was controlled, randomized, and blinded. Twenty healthy neutered cats (10.1 ± 2.4 years) were randomly allocated into 2 matched groups. One group...

  1. Orthomolecular medicine: the therapeutic use of dietary supplements for anti-aging

    OpenAIRE

    Janson, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Dietary supplements at high doses as part of medical therapy have been controversial, but the evidence suggests that they play a significant role in prevention and treatment of diseases as well as protection from accelerated aging that results from oxygen free-radical damage, inflammation, and glycation. This literature review examines several supplements that have documented roles in medical therapy, including vitamins C and E, coenzyme Q10, alpha-lipoic acid, chromium, L-carnitine, and quer...

  2. Dietary scores at midlife and healthy ageing in a French prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, Karen E; Andreeva, Valentina A; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Verger, Eric O; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-08-01

    Although nutrition has been advocated as a major determinant of healthy ageing (HA), studies investigating the link between dietary quality and HA are scarce. We investigated the association between adherence to French food-based and nutrient-based guidelines at midlife, as assessed by three dietary scores, and HA. HA was assessed in 2007-2009, among 2329 participants of the SUpplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux AntioXydants study aged 45-60 years at baseline (1994-1995) and initially free of diabetes, CVD and cancer. HA was defined as not developing any major chronic disease, good physical and cognitive functioning, no limitations in instrumental activities of daily living, no depressive symptoms, no health-related limitations in social life, good overall self-perceived health and no function-limiting pain. Data from repeated 24-h dietary records provided at baseline permitted the computation of the modified French Programme National Nutrition Santé-Guideline Score (mPNNS-GS), the Probability of Adequate Nutrient Intake Dietary Score (PANDiet) and the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). Associations of these scores with HA were assessed by logistic regression. In 2007-2009, 42 % of men and 36 % of women met our criteria of HA. After adjustment for potential confounders, higher scores of the mPNNS-GS (ORquartile 4 v. quartile 1 1·44; 95 % CI 1·10, 1·87; P trend=0·006) and the PANDiet (1·28; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·64; P trend=0·03) were associated with higher odds of HA. We observed no association between DQI-I and HA. In conclusion, this study suggests a beneficial long-term role of high adherence to both food-based and nutrient-based French dietary guidelines for a HA process. PMID:27301412

  3. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic Acid, the Major Lipid Component of Royal Jelly, Extends the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans through Dietary Restriction and Target of Rapamycin Signaling

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    Yoko Honda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly (RJ produced by honeybees has been reported to possess diverse health-beneficial properties and has been implicated to have a function in longevity across diverse species as well as honeybees. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA, the major lipid component of RJ produced by honeybees, was previously shown to increase the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. The objective of this study is to elucidate signaling pathways that are involved in the lifespan extension by 10-HDA. 10-HDA further extended the lifespan of the daf-2 mutants, which exhibit long lifespan through reducing insulin-like signaling (ILS, indicating that 10-HDA extended lifespan independently of ILS. On the other hand, 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the eat-2 mutants, which show long lifespan through dietary restriction caused by a food-intake defect. This finding indicates that 10-HDA extends lifespan through dietary restriction signaling. We further found that 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the long-lived mutants in daf-15, which encodes Raptor, a target of rapamycin (TOR components, indicating that 10-HDA shared some longevity control mechanisms with TOR signaling. Additionally, 10-HDA was found to confer tolerance against thermal and oxidative stress. 10-HDA increases longevity not through ILS but through dietary restriction and TOR signaling in C. elegans.

  4. Accumulation of long-chain glycosphingolipids during aging is prevented by caloric restriction.

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    María José Hernández-Corbacho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease are major causes of morbidity and mortality that are seen far more commonly in the aged population. Interestingly, kidney function declines during aging even in the absence of underlying renal disease. Declining renal function has been associated with age-related cellular damage and dysfunction with reports of increased levels of apoptosis, necrosis, and inflammation in the aged kidney. Bioactive sphingolipids have been shown to regulate these same cellular processes, and have also been suggested to play a role in aging and cellular senescence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We hypothesized that alterations in kidney sphingolipids play a role in the declining kidney function that occurs during aging. To begin to address this, the sphingolipid profile was measured in young (3 mo, middle aged (9 mo and old (17 mo C57BL/6 male mice. Interestingly, while modest changes in ceramides and sphingoid bases were evident in kidneys from older mice, the most dramatic elevations were seen in long-chain hexosylceramides (HexCer and lactosylceramides (LacCer, with C14- and C16-lactosylceramides elevated as much as 8 and 12-fold, respectively. Increases in long-chain LacCers during aging are not exclusive to the kidney, as they also occur in the liver and brain. Importantly, caloric restriction, previously shown to prevent the declining kidney function seen in aging, inhibits accumulation of long-chain HexCer/LacCers and prevents the age-associated elevation of enzymes involved in their synthesis. Additionally, long-chain LacCers are also significantly elevated in human fibroblasts isolated from elderly individuals. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates accumulation of the glycosphingolipids HexCer and LacCer in several different organs in rodents and humans during aging. In addition, data demonstrate that HexCer and LacCer metabolism is regulated by caloric restriction. Taken together

  5. Intermittent fasting dietary restriction regimen negatively influences reproduction in young rats: a study of hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis.

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    Sushil Kumar

    Full Text Available Nutritional infertility is very common in societies where women fail to eat enough to match their energy expenditure and such females often present as clinical cases of anorexia nervosa. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that link energy balance and central regulation of reproduction are still not well understood. Peripheral hormones such as estradiol, testosterone and leptin, as well as neuropeptides like kisspeptin and neuropeptides Y (NPY play a potential role in regulation of reproduction and energy balance with their primary target converging on the hypothalamic median eminence-arcuate region. The present study was aimed to explore the effects of negative energy state resulting from intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR regimen on complete hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis in Wistar strain young female and male rats. Significant changes in body weight, blood glucose, estrous cyclicity and serum estradiol, testosterone and LH level indicated the negative role of IF-DR regimen on reproduction in these young animals. Further, it was elucidated whether serum level of metabolic hormone, leptin plays a mechanistic role in suppressing hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal (HPG axis via energy regulators, kisspeptin and NPY in rats on IF-DR regimen. We also studied the effect of IF-DR regimen on structural remodeling of GnRH axon terminals in median eminence region of hypothalamus along with the glial cell marker, GFAP and neuronal plasticity marker, PSA-NCAM using immunostaining, Western blotting and RT-PCR. Together these data suggest that IF-DR regimen negatively influences reproduction in young animals due to its adverse effects on complete hypothalamus-hypophysial-gonadal axis and may explain underlying mechanism(s to understand the clinical basis of nutritional infertility.

  6. Dietary habits among children aged 8-9 years in Italy

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    Laura Lauria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe dietary habits and related geographic and socio-demographic characteristics among children aged 8-9 years in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from the 2012 national nutritional surveillance system collected from children, parents and teachers, have been linked to determine the children's eating habits. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between incorrect dietary habits and their potential predictors. RESULTS: Of the 46 307 children, 8.6% skipped breakfast, 48.8% did not eat vegetables and 28.7% did not eat fruit daily, 64.8% ate an abundant mid-morning snack, 41.4% drank sugary beverages and 12.5% drank carbonated beverages at least once a day. Three or more incorrect habits were found in 43.9% of the children. Incorrect dietary habits were more common among children with lower socio-economic conditions, who were resident in the South of the country and who spent more time watching TV. CONCLUSION: In Italy, unhealthy dietary habits are common among children. The deficiencies identified may well be a harbinger of future public health problems.

  7. Adaptação transcultural para o Brasil do Dietary Sodium Restriction Questionnaire (Questionário Restritivo da Dieta de Sódio (DSRQ Adaptación transcultural para Brasil del dietary sodium restriction questionnaire (Cuestionario Restrictivo de la Dieta de Sodio (DSRQ Cross-cultural adaptation into Brazilian portuguese of the Dietary Sodium Restriction Questionnaire (DSRQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Sanches Machado d'Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A restrição de sódio é uma medida não farmacológica frequentemente orientada aos pacientes com Insuficiência Cardíaca (IC. No entanto, a adesão é de baixa prevalência, ficando entre as causas mais frequentes de descompensação da IC. O Dietary Sodium Restriction Questionnaire (DSRQ tem como objetivo identificar fatores que afetam a adesão à restrição dietética de sódio para pacientes com IC. No Brasil, não existem instrumentos que avaliem tais fatores. OBJETIVO: Realizar a adaptação transcultural do DSRQ. MÉTODOS: Estudo metodológico que envolveu as seguintes etapas: tradução, síntese, retrotradução, revisão por um comitê de especialistas, pré-teste da versão final e análise de concordância interobservador. No pré-teste foram avaliados os itens e sua compreensão, além da consistência interna pelo coeficiente alfa de Cronbach. O instrumento foi aplicado por dois pesquisadores simultânea e independentemente, sendo utilizado o teste Kappa para análise da concordância. RESULTADOS: Apenas uma questão sofreu alterações semânticas e/ou culturais maiores. No pré-teste, o alfa de Cronbach obtido para o total foi de 0,77, e para as escalas de Atitude, Norma subjetiva e Controle Comportamental obtiveram-se, respectivamente, 0,66, 0,50 e 0,85. Na etapa de concordância, o Kappa foi calculado para 12 das 16 questões, com valores que variaram de 0,62 a 1,00. Nos itens em que o cálculo não foi possível, a incidência de respostas iguais variou de 95% a 97,5%. CONCLUSÃO: A partir da adaptação transcultural do DSRQ foi possível propor uma versão do questionário para posterior avaliação das propriedades psicométricas.FUNDAMENTO: La restricción de sodio es una medida no farmacológica a menudo dirigida a los pacientes con Insuficiencia Cardíaca (IC. Sin embargo, la adhesión es de baja prevalencia, y queda entre las causas más comunes de descompensación de la IC. El Dietary Sodium

  8. Tandem action of exercise training and food restriction completely preserves ischemic preconditioning in the aging heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abete, P; Testa, G; Galizia, G; Mazzella, F; Della Morte, D; de Santis, D; Calabrese, C; Cacciatore, F; Gargiulo, G; Ferrara, N; Rengo, G; Sica, V; Napoli, C; Rengo, F

    2005-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IP) has been proposed as an endogenous form of protection against ischemia reperfusion injury. IP, however, does not prevent post-ischemic dysfunction in the aging heart but may be partially corrected by exercise training and food restriction. We investigated the role of exercise training combined with food restriction on restoring IP in the aging heart. Effects of IP against ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated hearts from adult (A, 6 months old), sedentary 'ad libitum' fed (SL), trained ad libitum fed (TL), sedentary food-restricted (SR), trained- and food-restricted senescent rats (TR) (24 months old) were investigated. Norepinephrine release in coronary effluent was determined by high performance liquid cromatography. IP significantly improved final recovery of percent developed pressure in hearts from A (p<0.01) but not in those from SL (p=NS) vs unconditioned controls. Developed pressure recovery was partial in hearts from TL and SR (64.3 and 67.3%, respectively; p<0.05 vs controls) but it was total in those from TR (82.3%, p=NS vs A; p<0.05 vs hearts from TL and SR). Similarly, IP determined a similar increase of norepinephrine release in A (p<0.001) and in TR (p<0.001, p=NS vs adult). IP was abolished by depletion of myocardial norepinephrine stores by reserpine in all groups. Thus, IP reduces post-ischemic dysfunction in A but not in SL. Moreover, IP was preserved partially in TR and SR and totally in TR. Complete IP maybe due to full restoration of norepinephrine release in response to IP stimulus. PMID:15664731

  9. Calorie Restriction Prevents Metabolic Aging Caused by Abnormal SIRT1 Function in Adipose Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng; Cai, Yu; Fan, Pengcheng; Bai, Bo; Chen, Jie; Deng, Han-Bing; Che, Chi-Ming; Xu, Aimin; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Wang, Yu

    2015-05-01

    Adipose tissue is a pivotal organ determining longevity, due largely to its role in maintaining whole-body energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. SIRT1 is a NAD-dependent protein deacetylase possessing antiaging activities in a wide range of organisms. The current study demonstrates that mice with adipose tissue-selective overexpression of hSIRT1(H363Y), a dominant-negative mutant that disrupts endogenous SIRT1 activity, show accelerated development of metabolic aging. These mice, referred to as Adipo-H363Y, exhibit hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, ectopic lipid deposition, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance at a much younger age than their wild-type littermates. The metabolic defects of Adipo-H363Y are associated with abnormal epigenetic modifications and chromatin remodeling in their adipose tissues, as a result of excess accumulation of biotin, which inhibits endogenous SIRT1 activity, leading to increased inflammation, cellularity, and collagen deposition. The enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 plays an important role in biotin accumulation within adipose tissues of Adipo-H363Y. Calorie restriction prevents biotin accumulation, abolishes abnormal histone biotinylation, and completely restores the metabolic and adipose functions of Adipo-H363Y. The effects are mimicked by short-term restriction of biotin intake, an approach potentially translatable to humans for maintaining the epigenetic and chromatin remodeling capacity of adipose tissues and preventing aging-associated metabolic disorders.

  10. Aging risk factors and Parkinson's disease: contrasting roles of common dietary constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipkiss, Alan R

    2014-06-01

    Aging is a Parkinson's disease (PD) risk factor. It is suggested here that certain dietary components may either contribute to or ameliorate PD risk. There is evidence, which indicates that excessive carbohydrate (glucose or fructose) catabolism is a cause of mitochondrial dysfunction in PD, one consequence is increased production of methylglyoxal (MG). However, other dietary components (carnosine and certain plant extracts) not only scavenge MG but can also influence some of the biochemical events (signal transduction, stress protein synthesis, glycation, and toxin generation) associated with PD pathology. As double blind, placebo-controlled carnosine supplementation studies have revealed beneficial outcomes in humans, it is suggested that MG scavengers such as carnosine be further explored for their therapeutic potential toward PD. PMID:24388766

  11. Dietary habits of Mongolian people, and their influence on lifestyle-related diseases and early aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Fumio; Kagawa, Yasuo; Kawabata, Terue; Kaneko, Yoshinori; Purvee, Baatar; Otgon, Jugder; Chimedregzen, Ulziiburen

    2008-07-01

    Mongolians are known to have relatively short life expectancy. In order to examine the role of dietary habits in the early aging of Mongolians, the food intake inquiry, anthropometric measurements and blood clinical tests were performed for 365 healthy inhabitants in Murun, a northern Mongolia city, and compared to those of Japanese. Murun inhibitants were found to have a characteristic dietary habit of taking large amounts of meat, milk, dairy products and wheat flour products, in contrast little vegetables, fruits and fishes. The daily calorie intake of the adults was estimated to be 2,525 kcal, and the fat/total calorie ratio was calculated 33.7%, about 1.3-fold higher than that of Japanese. The intake ratio of fatty acid from the Mongolian foods, saturated : mono-unsaturated : poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio, was 10.3 : 7.8 : 3.0. Results of blood clinical tests showed significantly higher levels of serum triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and homocysteine, and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), n-3 PUFA, folic acid and adiponectin, in comparison with those of Japanese. In addition, the Mongolians were also found to have significantly high levels of oxidative stress markers, such as serum malondialdehyde-modified LDL (MDA-LDL), urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and serum reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM). The serum ROM level in the Mongolians seemed to associate with their body fat ratio (pObesity was observed at a high incidence in the subjects over 30-year old, and over 40-year old their handgrip ability was markedly decreased. These findings suggest that in the Mongolians the dietary habits associate with their lifestyle-related diseases and early aging, and the improvement of dietary habits is an effective strategy for health promotion of the inhabitants.

  12. Restriction of dietary protein decreases mTORC1 in tumors and somatic tissues of a tumor-bearing mouse xenograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamming, Dudley W; Cummings, Nicole E; Rastelli, Antonella L; Gao, Feng; Cava, Edda; Bertozzi, Beatrice; Spelta, Francesco; Pili, Roberto; Fontana, Luigi

    2015-10-13

    Reduced dietary protein intake and intermittent fasting (IF) are both linked to healthy longevity in rodents, and are effective in inhibiting cancer growth. The molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of chronic protein restriction (PR) and IF are unclear, but may be mediated in part by a down-regulation of the IGF/mTOR pathway. In this study we compared the effects of PR and IF on tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model of breast cancer. We also investigated the effects of PR and IF on the mechanistic Target Of Rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, inhibition of which extends lifespan in model organisms including mice. The mTOR protein kinase is found in two distinct complexes, of which mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) is responsive to acute treatment with amino acids in cell culture and in vivo. We found that both PR and IF inhibit tumor growth and mTORC1 phosphorylation in tumor xenografts. In somatic tissues, we found that PR, but not IF, selectively inhibits the activity of the amino acid sensitive mTORC1, while the activity of the second mTOR complex, mTORC2, was relatively unaffected by PR. In contrast, IF resulted in increased S6 phosphorylation in multiple metabolic tissues. Our work represents the first finding that PR may reduce mTORC1 activity in tumors and multiple somatic tissues, and suggest that PR may represent a highly translatable option for the treatment not only of cancer, but also other age-related diseases. PMID:26378060

  13. Dietary and lifestyle risk factors associated with age-related macular degeneration: A hospital based study

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    Bhatiwada Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To establish the frequency, associations and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD in hospital population of South India. Materials and Methods : In this cross-sectional hospital based study, 3549 subjects (2090 men and 1459 women above 45 years of age were screened randomly for AMD. Participants underwent ocular evaluation and were interviewed for lifestyle variables and dietary intake of carotenoids by structured food frequency questionnaire. AMD was defined according to the international classifications and grading system. Results : Either form of AMD was detected in 77 (2.2% participants. Of which, early and late AMD was present in 63 (1.8% and 14 (0.4% subjects, respectively. Binary logistic analysis showed that the incidence of AMD was significantly higher with increasing age (Odds ratio [OR] 1.17; 95% CI 1.13-1.22 and diabetes (OR 3.97; 95% CI 2.11-7.46. However, AMD was significant among heavy cigarette smokers (OR 5.58; 95% CI 0.88-7.51 and alcoholics (OR 4.85; 95% CI 2.45-12.22. Dietary lutein/zeaxanthin (L/Z and β-carotene intake were associated (P < 0.001 with the reduction in risk for AMD, with an OR of 0.38 and 0.65, respectively. Conclusions : Higher dietary intake of carotenoids, especially L/Z, was associated with lower risk for AMD. Risk of AMD is higher with increasing age and was prevalent among subjects with diabetes. Cessation of smoking and alcohol may reduce the risk of AMD in this population.

  14. Restricting the ageing degradation of the mechanical properties of gamma irradiated UHMWPE using MWCNTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Sreekanth, P S; Kanagaraj, S

    2013-05-01

    Property degradation of the medical grade polymers after gamma irradiation is the primary concern that limits longevity of them. Though the conventional antioxidant material helps to reduce the degradation but it limits the degree of crosslinking of the polymer. The objective of the present work is to study the influence of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on restricting the degradation of mechanical properties of medical grade ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) after its irradiation. UHMWPE was reinforced by chemically treated MWCNTs at different concentrations such as 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 wt%. The test samples were then subjected to Co⁶⁰ gamma irradiation with an integral dose of 25, 50, 75 and 100 kGy in air. The mechanical properties of irradiated samples were evaluated within 10 days, 60 and 120 days after irradiation. It was observed that the mechanical properties of virgin UHMWPE and nanocomposites were enhanced immediately after irradiation but they were found to be reduced at later stages. It was also observed that the presence of MWCNTs limited the ageing degradation of the mechanical properties of UHMWPE. Raman spectroscopic and TEM studies confirmed the formation of irradiation induced defects on the MWCNTs. Electron spin resonance studies showed that the relative radical intensity of virgin UHWMPE was reduced significantly with an increase of MWCNTs concentration confirming the radical scavenging ability of them. It is concluded that MWCNTs restricted the ageing degradation of irradiated UHMWPE.

  15. Gender Difference on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations

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    Ya-Qun Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary patterns are linked to obesity, but the gender difference in the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. We explored this gender difference in a middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai. Residents (n = 2046; aged ≥45 years; 968 men and 1078 women who participated in the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey were studied. Factor analysis of data from four periods of 24-h dietary recalls (across 2012–2014 identified dietary patterns. Height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate the body mass index. A log binominal model examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity, stratified by gender. Four dietary patterns were identified for both genders: rice staple, wheat staple, snacks, and prudent patterns. The rice staple pattern was associated positively with abdominal obesity in men (prevalence ratio (PR = 1.358; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.132–1.639; p = 0.001, but was associated negatively with general obesity in women (PR = 0.745; 95% CI: 0.673–0.807; p = 0.031. Men in the highest quartile of the wheat staple pattern had significantly greater risk of central obesity (PR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.094–1.627; p = 0.005. There may be gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and obesity in middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai, China.

  16. Gender Difference on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ya-Qun; Li, Fan; Meng, Pai; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu-Guang; Chen, Bo

    2016-07-23

    Dietary patterns are linked to obesity, but the gender difference in the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. We explored this gender difference in a middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai. Residents (n = 2046; aged ≥45 years; 968 men and 1078 women) who participated in the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey were studied. Factor analysis of data from four periods of 24-h dietary recalls (across 2012-2014) identified dietary patterns. Height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate the body mass index. A log binominal model examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity, stratified by gender. Four dietary patterns were identified for both genders: rice staple, wheat staple, snacks, and prudent patterns. The rice staple pattern was associated positively with abdominal obesity in men (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.358; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.132-1.639; p = 0.001), but was associated negatively with general obesity in women (PR = 0.745; 95% CI: 0.673-0.807; p = 0.031). Men in the highest quartile of the wheat staple pattern had significantly greater risk of central obesity (PR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.094-1.627; p = 0.005). There may be gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and obesity in middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai, China.

  17. Protective effects of estrogens and caloric restriction during aging on various rat testis parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khaled Hamden; Dorothee Silandre; Christelle Delalande; Abdelfattah ElFek; Serge Carreau

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2), Peganum harmala extract (PHE) and caloric restriction (CR) on various testis parameters during aging. Methods: Twelve-month-old male rats were treated for 6 months with either E2 or PHE, or submitted to CR (40%). Results: Our results show that estrogens and CR are able to protect the male gonad by preventing the decrease of testosterone and E2 levels as well as the decrease of aromatase and estrogen receptor gene expressions. Indeed, E2, PHE and CR treatments induced an increase in the superoxide dismutase activities and decreased the activity of testicular enzymes: gamma-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate deshydrogenase as well as the aspartate and lactate transaminases in aged animals. In addition, the testicular catalase and gluthatione peroxidase activities were enhanced in E2, PHE and CR-treated rats compared to untreated animals at 18 months of age. Moreover, the positive effects of estradiol, PHE and CR were further supported by a lower level of lipid peroxidation. Recovery of spermatogenesis was recorded in treated rats. Conclusion: Besides a low caloric diet which is beneficial for spermatogenesis, a protective antioxydant role of estrogens is suggested. Estrogens delay testicular cell damage, which leads to functional senescence and, therefore, estrogens are helpful in protecting the reproductive functions from the adverse effects exerted by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in large quanti-ties in the aged testis.

  18. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region

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    Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401 and females (1507 aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use, physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p p p p Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

  19. Dietary Protein to Maintain Muscle Mass in Aging: A Case for Per-meal Protein Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, C H; Oikawa, S Y; Phillips, S M

    2016-01-01

    It is well accepted that daily protein intake is an important dietary consideration to limit and treat age-related declines in muscle mass, strength, and function. Furthermore, we propose that there is a growing appreciation for the need to consider protein intake on a per-meal basis rather than simply focusing on the total daily protein intake. The existence of a saturable dose-response relationship between muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and the quantity of protein consumed in a single meal/bolus provides the rationale for promoting an even/balanced pattern of daily protein intake. We hypothesize that a balanced/even protein intake pattern with the ingestion a quantity of protein shown to optimally stimulate MPS at each meal may be an effective strategy to alleviate sarcopenic muscle loss. In this review we examine the available evidence supporting the influence of dietary protein intake pattern on muscle protein turnover, muscle mass, and muscle function. We present several practical considerations that, it is proposed, should be taken into account when translating a per-meal protein recommendation into dietary advice for older adults. PMID:26980369

  20. Reduced Insulin/Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Signaling and Dietary Restriction Inhibit Translation but Preserve Muscle Mass in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depuydt, Geert; Xie, Fang; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Shanmugam, Nilesh; Smolders, Arne; Dhondt, Ineke; Brewer, Heather M.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Braeckman, Bart P.

    2013-09-03

    Reduced signaling through the C. elegans insulin/IGF1 like tyrosine kinase receptor daf2 and dietary restriction via bacterial dilution are two well-characterized lifespan-extending interventions that operate in parallel or through (partially) independent mechanisms. Using accurate mass and time tag LCMS/MS quantitative proteomics we detected that the abundance of a large number of ribosomal subunits is decreased in response to dietary restriction as well as in the daf2(e1370) insulin/IGF1 receptor mutant. In addition, general protein synthesis levels in these long-lived worms are repressed. Surprisingly, ribosomal transcript levels were not correlated to actual protein abundance, suggesting that posttranscriptional regulation determines ribosome content. Proteomics also revealed increased presence of many structural muscle cell components in long-lived worms, which appears to result from prioritized preservation of muscle cell volume in nutrient-poor conditions or low insulin-like signaling. Activation of DAF16, but not diet-restriction, stimulates mRNA expression of muscle-related genes to prevent muscle atrophy. Important daf2 specific proteome changes include overexpression of aerobic metabolism enzymes and a general activation of stress responsive and immune defense systems, while increased abundance of many protein subunits of the proteasome core complex is a DR-specific characteristic.

  1. Separation anxiety disorder across the lifespan: DSM-5 lifts age restriction on diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silove, Derrick; Rees, Susan

    2014-10-01

    DSM-5 has lifted the age criterion in the definition of separation anxiety disorder thereby overturning the long-standing convention of restricting the diagnosis to childhood. Previously, adults with separation anxiety symptoms were assigned to other conventional categories such as panic disorder, agoraphobia or generalized anxiety disorder. Over the past two decades, an evolving body of research has identified separation anxiety disorder in adulthood, with 20-40% of adult psychiatric outpatients being assigned that diagnosis. In the US, the lifetime prevalence of the disorder in adulthood is 6.6%. The removal of the age restriction on diagnosis has important implications for clinical practice. Whereas parents (particularly mothers) of children with separation anxiety disorder commonly attracted the diagnosis of agoraphobia, the latter are more likely now to be diagnosed with the adult form of separation anxiety disorder, focusing attention on the importance of intervening with both members of the dyad to overcome mutual reinforcement of symptoms. In addition, adults with separation anxiety disorder have been found to manifest high levels of disability and they tend to show a poor response to conventional psychological and pharmacological treatments. There is an urgent need therefore to devise novel psychological and pharmacological interventions for the adult form of the disorder. The reformulation of separation anxiety disorder in DSM-5 therefore requires a paradigm shift in which clinicians are alerted to identifying and treating the condition in all age groups. Research across countries is needed to examine the new formulation of separation anxiety disorder amongst populations of diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds.

  2. Separation anxiety disorder across the lifespan: DSM-5 lifts age restriction on diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silove, Derrick; Rees, Susan

    2014-10-01

    DSM-5 has lifted the age criterion in the definition of separation anxiety disorder thereby overturning the long-standing convention of restricting the diagnosis to childhood. Previously, adults with separation anxiety symptoms were assigned to other conventional categories such as panic disorder, agoraphobia or generalized anxiety disorder. Over the past two decades, an evolving body of research has identified separation anxiety disorder in adulthood, with 20-40% of adult psychiatric outpatients being assigned that diagnosis. In the US, the lifetime prevalence of the disorder in adulthood is 6.6%. The removal of the age restriction on diagnosis has important implications for clinical practice. Whereas parents (particularly mothers) of children with separation anxiety disorder commonly attracted the diagnosis of agoraphobia, the latter are more likely now to be diagnosed with the adult form of separation anxiety disorder, focusing attention on the importance of intervening with both members of the dyad to overcome mutual reinforcement of symptoms. In addition, adults with separation anxiety disorder have been found to manifest high levels of disability and they tend to show a poor response to conventional psychological and pharmacological treatments. There is an urgent need therefore to devise novel psychological and pharmacological interventions for the adult form of the disorder. The reformulation of separation anxiety disorder in DSM-5 therefore requires a paradigm shift in which clinicians are alerted to identifying and treating the condition in all age groups. Research across countries is needed to examine the new formulation of separation anxiety disorder amongst populations of diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds. PMID:25453710

  3. Indicators of dietary patterns in Danish infants at 9 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F.;

    2015-01-01

    towards the family's food. Infants, who were younger at diet registration and had higher body mass index (BMI) z-scores at 9 months, had lower Family Food pattern scores. A lower Family Food pattern score was also observed for infants with immigrant/descendant parents, parents who shared cooking......-score at 9 months, and a higher infant age at diet registration. CONCLUSIONS: Associations between infant dietary patterns and maternal, paternal, household, and child characteristics were identified. This may improve the possibility of identifying infants with an increased risk of developing unfavourable...

  4. Dietary polyphenol supplementation prevents alterations of spatial navigation in middle-aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien eBensalem

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial learning and memory deficits associated with hippocampal synaptic plasticity impairments are commonly observed during aging. Besides, the beneficial role of dietary polyphenols has been suggested as potential functional food candidates to prevent this memory decline. Indeed, polyphenols could potentiate the signaling pathways of synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory. In this study, spatial learning deficits of middle-aged mice were first highlighted and characterized according to navigation patterns in the Morris water maze task. An eight-week polyphenol-enriched diet, containing a polyphenol-rich extract from grape and blueberry (PEGB (from the Neurophenols Consortium with high contents of flavonoids, stilbenes and phenolic acids, was then successful in reversing these age-induced effects. The use of spatial strategies was indeed delayed with aging whereas a polyphenol supplementation could promote the occurrence of spatial strategies. These behavioral results were associated with neurobiological changes: while the expression of hippocampal CaMKII mRNA levels was reduced in middle-aged animals, the polyphenol-enriched diet could rescue them. Besides, an increased expression of NGF mRNA levels was also observed in supplemented adult and middle-aged mice. Thus these data suggest that supplementation with polyphenols could be an efficient nutritional way to prevent age-induced cognitive decline.

  5. No impact of dietary iodine restriction in short term development of hypothyroidism following fixed dose radioactive iodine therapy for graves disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jubbin Jagan Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increased incidence of autoimmune thyroid disease with increasing dietary iodine intake has been demonstrated both epidemiologically and experimentally. The hypothyroidism that occurs in the first year following radioactive iodine therapy is probably related to the destructive effects of the radiation and underlying ongoing autoimmunity. Objective: To study the outcomes at the end of six months after fixed dose I, 131 therapy for Graves′ disease followed by an iodine restricted diet for a period of six months. Materials and Methods: Consecutive adult patients with Graves′ disease planned for I 131 therapy were randomized either to receive instructions regarding dietary iodine restriction or no advice prior to fixed dose (5mCi I 131 administration. Thyroid functions and urinary iodine indices were evaluated at 3 rd and 6 th month subsequently. Results: Forty seven patients (13M and 34F were assessed, 2 were excluded, 45 were randomized (Cases 24 and Controls 21 and 39 patients completed the study. Baseline data was comparable. Median urinary iodine concentration was 115 and 273 μg/gm creat (p = 0.00 among cases and controls respectively. Outcomes at the 3 rd month were as follows (cases and controls; Euthyroid (10 and 6: P = 0.24, Hypothyroid (3 and 5: P = 0.38 and Hyperthyroid (7 and 8: P = 0.64. Outcomes at the end of six months were as follows (cases and controls; Euthyroid (10 and 5: P = 0.12, Hypothyroid (3 and 5: P = 0.38 and Hyperthyroid (7 and 9: P = 0.43. Of the hypothyroid patients 5 (cases 1 and controls 4: P = 0.13 required thyroxine replacement. Conclusions: There was no statistical significant difference in the outcome of patients with dietary iodine restriction following I 131 therapy for Graves′ disease.

  6. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: VII. Topological rearrangement of hypothalamic aging networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derous, Davina; Mitchell, Sharon E; Green, Cara L; Wang, Yingchun; Han, Jing Dong J; Chen, Luonan; Promislow, Daniel E L; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R; Douglas, Alex

    2016-05-01

    Connectivity in a gene-gene network declines with age, typically within gene clusters. We explored the effect of short-term (3 months) graded calorie restriction (CR) (up to 40 %) on network structure of aging-associated genes in the murine hypothalamus by using conditional mutual information. The networks showed a topological rearrangement when exposed to graded CR with a higher relative within cluster connectivity at 40CR. We observed changes in gene centrality concordant with changes in CR level, with Ppargc1a, and Ppt1 having increased centrality and Etfdh, Traf3 and Abcc1 decreased centrality as CR increased. This change in gene centrality in a graded manner with CR, occurred in the absence of parallel changes in gene expression levels. This study emphasizes the importance of augmenting traditional differential gene expression analyses to better understand structural changes in the transcriptome. Overall our results suggested that CR induced changes in centrality of biological relevant genes that play an important role in preventing the age-associated loss of network integrity irrespective of their gene expression levels. PMID:27115072

  7. [Prevalence of deficiency and dietary intake of iron, zinc and copper in Chilean childbearing age women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujica-Coopman, María F; Borja, Angélica; Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate anemia, the biochemical status and dietary adequacy of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), in Chilean childbearing age women. We studied a convenience sample of 86 women aged 18 to 48 years from Santiago, Chile. We determined anemia and the micronutrient status through hemoglobin (Hb) mean corpuscular volume, transferrin saturation, zinc protoporphyrin, serum ferritin (SF), serum Zn and Cu. Dietary adequacy was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Of all women, 4.7% had Fe deficiency (ID) anemia, 21 % ID without anemia, 26 % depleted Fe stores and 48.3% normal Fe status. Obese women had higher SF (p<0.01) compared with those classified as having normal BMI. Also, showed higher Hb (p<0.05) concentrations compared with overweight and normal weight women. Partidipants showed 3.5 % and 2.3 % of Zn and Cu deficiency, respectively. Also, 95 %, 94 % and 99 % had adequate intake of Fe, Zn and Cu respectively, according to EAR cut points. There were no significant differences in micronutrients intake across different nutritional status. There was a low prevalence of anemia, Fe, Zn and Cu deficiency. A high percentage of women reached micronutrient adequacy. However, 47% of women had ID without anemia and Fe depleted stores.

  8. Contribution of energy restriction and macronutrient composition to changes in adipose tissue gene expression during dietary weight-loss programs in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capel, Frédéric; Viguerie, Nathalie; Vega, Nathalie;

    2008-01-01

    expression from human obese women according to energy deficit and the fat and carbohydrate content of the diet. DESIGN AND SETTING: Obese subjects recruited among eight European clinical centers were followed up 10 wk of either a low-fat (high carbohydrate) or a moderate-fat (low carbohydrate) hypoenergetic...... lipid profile. One thousand genes were regulated by energy restriction. We validated an effect of the fat to carbohydrate ratio for five genes (FABP4, NR3C1, SIRT3, FNTA, and GABARAPL2) with increased expression during the moderate-fat diet. CONCLUSIONS: Energy restriction had a more pronounced impact......CONTEXT: Hypoenergetic diets are used to reduce body fat mass and metabolic risk factors in obese subjects. The molecular changes in adipose tissue associated with weight loss and specifically related to the dietary composition are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated adipose tissue gene...

  9. Behavioural changes are a major contributing factor in the reduction of sarcopenia in caloric-restricted ageing mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norren, van K.; Rusli, F.; Dijk, van M.; Lute, C.; Nagel, J.C.; Dijk, F.J.; Dwarkasing, J.T.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Luiking, Y.; Witkamp, R.F.; Müller, M.R.; Steegenga, W.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background - In rodent models, caloric restriction (CR) with maintenance of adequate micronutrient supply has been reported to increase lifespan and to reduce age-induced muscle loss (sarcopenia) during ageing. In the present study, we further investigated effects of CR on the onset and severity of

  10. Older age and dietary folate are determinants of genomic and p16-specific DNA methylation in mouse colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder age and inadequate folate intake are strongly implicated as important risk factors for colon cancer, and each is associated with altered DNA methylation. This study was designed to determine the effect of aging and dietary folate on select features of DNA methylation in the colon that are rele...

  11. Dietary wolfberry supplementation enhances the protective effect of flu vaccine against influenza challenge in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaogang; Wang, Junpeng; Niu, Xinli; Smith, Donald; Wu, Dayong; Meydani, Simin Nikbin

    2014-02-01

    Current vaccines for influenza do not fully protect the aged against influenza infection. Although wolfberry (goji berry) has been shown to improve immune response, including enhanced antibody production, after vaccination in the aged, it is not known if this effect would translate to better protection after influenza infection, nor is its underlying mechanism well understood. To address these issues, we conducted a study using a 2 × 2 design in which aged male mice (20-22 mo) were fed a control or a 5% wolfberry diet for 30 d, then immunized with an influenza vaccine or saline (control) on days 31 and 52 of the dietary intervention, and finally challenged with influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 virus. Mice fed wolfberry had higher influenza antibody titers and improved symptoms (less postinfection weight loss) compared with the mice treated by vaccine alone. Furthermore, an in vitro mechanistic study showed that wolfberry supplementation enhanced maturation and activity of antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in aged mice, as indicated by phenotypic change in expression of DC activation markers major histocompatibility complex class II, cluster of differentiation (CD) 40, CD80, and CD86, and functional change in DC production of cytokines interleukin-12 and tumor necrosis factor-α as well as DC endocytosis. Also, adoptive transfer of wolfberry-treated bone marrow DCs (loaded with ovalbumin(323-339)-peptide) promoted antigen-specific T cell proliferation as well as interleukin-4 and interferon-γ production in CD4(+) T cells. In summary, our data indicate that dietary wolfberry enhances the efficacy of influenza vaccination, resulting in better host protection to prevent subsequent influenza infection; this effect may be partly attributed to improved DC function. PMID:24336457

  12. Calorie restriction: A new therapeutic intervention for age-related dry eye disease in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A decrease in lacrimal gland secretory function is closely related to aging and leads to an increased prevalence of dry eye syndrome. Since calorie restriction (CR) is considered to prevent functional decline of various organs due to aging, we hypothesized that CR could prevent age-related lacrimal dysfunction. Six-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were randomly divided into ad libitum (AL) and CR (-35%) groups. After 6 months of CR, tear function was examined under conscious state. After euthanasia, lacrimal glands were subjected to histological examination, tear protein secretion stimulation test with Carbachol, and assessment of oxidative stress with 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) antibodies. CR significantly improved tear volume and tended to increase tear protein secretion volume after stimulation with Carbachol compared to AL. The acinar unit density was significantly higher in the CR rats compared to AL rats. Lacrimal glands in the CR rats showed a lesser degree of interstitial fibrosis. CR reduced the concentration of 8-OHdG and the extent of staining with HNE in the lacrimal gland, compared to AL. Furthermore, our electron microscopic observations showed that mitochondrial structure of the lacrimal gland obtained from the middle-aged CR rats was preserved in comparison to the AL rats. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that CR may attenuate oxidative stress related damage in the lacrimal gland with preservation of lacrimal gland functions. Although molecular mechanism(s) by which CR maintains lacrimal gland function remains to be resolved, CR might provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treating dry eye syndrome.

  13. Calorie restriction: A new therapeutic intervention for age-related dry eye disease in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Okada, Naoko; Ogawa, Yoko [Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Murat, Dogru [Department of Ocular Surface and Visual Optics, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nakamura, Shigeru; Nakashima, Hideo [Research Center, Ophtecs Corporation, Hyogo (Japan); Shimmura, Shigeto [Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Shinmura, Ken [Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Tsubota, Kazuo, E-mail: tsubota@sc.itc.keio.ac.jp [Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-07-09

    A decrease in lacrimal gland secretory function is closely related to aging and leads to an increased prevalence of dry eye syndrome. Since calorie restriction (CR) is considered to prevent functional decline of various organs due to aging, we hypothesized that CR could prevent age-related lacrimal dysfunction. Six-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were randomly divided into ad libitum (AL) and CR (-35%) groups. After 6 months of CR, tear function was examined under conscious state. After euthanasia, lacrimal glands were subjected to histological examination, tear protein secretion stimulation test with Carbachol, and assessment of oxidative stress with 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) antibodies. CR significantly improved tear volume and tended to increase tear protein secretion volume after stimulation with Carbachol compared to AL. The acinar unit density was significantly higher in the CR rats compared to AL rats. Lacrimal glands in the CR rats showed a lesser degree of interstitial fibrosis. CR reduced the concentration of 8-OHdG and the extent of staining with HNE in the lacrimal gland, compared to AL. Furthermore, our electron microscopic observations showed that mitochondrial structure of the lacrimal gland obtained from the middle-aged CR rats was preserved in comparison to the AL rats. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that CR may attenuate oxidative stress related damage in the lacrimal gland with preservation of lacrimal gland functions. Although molecular mechanism(s) by which CR maintains lacrimal gland function remains to be resolved, CR might provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treating dry eye syndrome.

  14. Cell size and fat content of dietary-restricted Caenorhabditis elegans are regulated by ATX-2, an mTOR repressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Daniel Z; Charar, Chayki; Dorfman, Jehudith; Yadid, Tam; Tafforeau, Lionel; Lafontaine, Denis L J; Gruenbaum, Yosef

    2016-08-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) is a metabolic intervention that extends the lifespan of multiple species, including yeast, flies, nematodes, rodents, and, arguably, rhesus monkeys and humans. Hallmarks of lifelong DR are reductions in body size, fecundity, and fat accumulation, as well as slower development. We have identified atx-2, the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of the human ATXN2L and ATXN2 genes, as the regulator of these multiple DR phenotypes. Down-regulation of atx-2 increases the body size, cell size, and fat content of dietary-restricted animals and speeds animal development, whereas overexpression of atx-2 is sufficient to reduce the body size and brood size of wild-type animals. atx-2 regulates the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, downstream of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and upstream of ribosomal protein S6 kinase and mTOR complex 1 (TORC1), by its direct association with Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor β, which likely regulates RHEB shuttling between GDP-bound and GTP-bound forms. Taken together, this work identifies a previously unknown mechanism regulating multiple aspects of DR, as well as unknown regulators of the mTOR pathway. They also extend our understanding of diet-dependent growth retardation, and offers a potential mechanism to treat obesity. PMID:27457958

  15. Assessing dietary exposure to cadmium in a metal recycling community in Vietnam: Age and gender aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study estimates the dietary exposure to cadmium (Cd), and associated potential health risks, for individuals living and working in a metal recycling community (n = 132) in Vietnam in comparison to an agricultural (reference) community (n = 130). Individual-level exposure to Cd was estimated through analysis of staple foodstuffs combined with information from a food frequency questionnaire. Individual-level exposure estimates were compared with published ‘safe’ doses to derive a Hazard Quotient (HQ) for each member of the study population. Looking at the populations as a whole, there were no significant differences in the diets of the two villages. However, significantly more rice was consumed by working age adults (18–60 years) in the recycling village compared to the reference village (p 3), while 20% of adult participants from the reference village had an HQ > 1. We found an elevated health risk from dietary exposure to Cd in the metal recycling village compared to the reference community. WHO standard of 0.4 mg Cd/kg rice may not be protective where people consume large amounts of rice/have relatively low body weight. - Highlights: ► First individual-level risk assessment of cadmium in recycling villages of Vietnam. ► Dietary analysis undertaken for a recycling community and an agricultural community. ► No significant differences were found between the diets of the two populations. ► 87% of people in the recycling community had elevated health risk. ► WHO standard (0.4 mg Cd/kg rice) may not be protective for rice-based cultures.

  16. Carbohydrate restriction and dietary cholesterol modulate the expression of HMG-CoA reductase and the LDL receptor in mononuclear cells from adult men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volek Jeff S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The liver is responsible for controlling cholesterol homeostasis in the body. HMG-CoA reductase and the LDL receptor (LDL-r are involved in this regulation and are also ubiquitously expressed in all major tissues. We have previously shown in guinea pigs that there is a correlation in gene expression of HMG-CoA reductase and the LDL-r between liver and mononuclear cells. The present study evaluated human mononuclear cells as a surrogate for hepatic expression of these genes. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate restriction with low and high cholesterol content on HMG-CoA reductase and LDL-r mRNA expression in mononuclear cells. All subjects were counseled to consume a carbohydrate restricted diet with 10–15% energy from carbohydrate, 30–35% energy from protein and 55–60% energy from fat. Subjects were randomly assigned to either EGG (640 mg/d additional dietary cholesterol or SUB groups [equivalent amount of egg substitute (0 dietary cholesterol contributions per day] for 12 weeks. At the end of the intervention, there were no changes in plasma total or LDL cholesterol (LDL-C compared to baseline (P > 0.10 or differences in plasma total or LDL-C between groups. The mRNA abundance for HMG-CoA reductase and LDL-r were measured in mononuclear cells using real time PCR. The EGG group showed a significant decrease in HMG-CoA reductase mRNA (1.98 ± 1.26 to 1.32 ± 0.92 arbitrary units P

  17. Auditory Function in Rhesus Monkeys: Effects of Aging and Caloric Restriction in the Wisconsin Monkeys Five Years Later

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, Cynthia G.; Chiasson, Kirstin Beach; Leslie, Tami Hanson; Thomas, Denise; Beasley, T. Mark; Kemnitz, Joseph W; Weindruch, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) slows aging in many species and protects some animals from age-related hearing loss (ARHL), but the effect on humans is not yet known. Because rhesus monkeys are long-lived primates that are phylogenically closer to humans than other research animals are, they provide a better model for studying the effects of CR in aging and ARHL. Subjects were from the pool of 55 rhesus monkeys aged 15–28 years who had been in the Wisconsin study on CR and aging for 8–13.5 years. Di...

  18. Dietary and behavioral interventions protect against age related activation of caspase cascades in the canine brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Snigdha

    Full Text Available Lifestyle interventions such as diet, exercise, and cognitive training represent a quietly emerging revolution in the modern approach to counteracting age-related declines in brain health. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that long-term dietary supplementation with antioxidants and mitochondrial cofactors (AOX or behavioral enrichment with social, cognitive, and exercise components (ENR, can effectively improve cognitive performance and reduce brain pathology of aged canines, including oxidative damage and Aβ accumulation. In this study, we build on and extend our previous findings by investigating if the interventions reduce caspase activation and ceramide accumulation in the aged frontal cortex, since caspase activation and ceramide accumulation are common convergence points for oxidative damage and Aβ, among other factors associated with the aged and AD brain. Aged beagles were placed into one of four treatment groups: CON--control environment/control diet, AOX--control environment/antioxidant diet, ENR--enriched environment/control diet, AOX/ENR--enriched environment/antioxidant diet for 2.8 years. Following behavioral testing, brains were removed and frontal cortices were analyzed to monitor levels of active caspase 3, active caspase 9 and their respective cleavage products such as tau and semaphorin7a, and ceramides. Our results show that levels of activated caspase-3 were reduced by ENR and AOX interventions with the largest reduction occurring with combined AOX/ENR group. Further, reductions in caspase-3 correlated with reduced errors in a reversal learning task, which depends on frontal cortex function. In addition, animals treated with an AOX arm showed reduced numbers of cells expressing active caspase 9 or its cleavage product semaphorin 7A, while ENR (but not AOX reduced ceramide levels. Overall, these data demonstrate that lifestyle interventions curtail activation of pro-degenerative pathways to improve cellular

  19. Dietary and behavioral interventions protect against age related activation of caspase cascades in the canine brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snigdha, Shikha; Berchtold, Nicole; Astarita, Giuseppe; Saing, Tommy; Piomelli, Daniele; Cotman, Carl W

    2011-01-01

    Lifestyle interventions such as diet, exercise, and cognitive training represent a quietly emerging revolution in the modern approach to counteracting age-related declines in brain health. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that long-term dietary supplementation with antioxidants and mitochondrial cofactors (AOX) or behavioral enrichment with social, cognitive, and exercise components (ENR), can effectively improve cognitive performance and reduce brain pathology of aged canines, including oxidative damage and Aβ accumulation. In this study, we build on and extend our previous findings by investigating if the interventions reduce caspase activation and ceramide accumulation in the aged frontal cortex, since caspase activation and ceramide accumulation are common convergence points for oxidative damage and Aβ, among other factors associated with the aged and AD brain. Aged beagles were placed into one of four treatment groups: CON--control environment/control diet, AOX--control environment/antioxidant diet, ENR--enriched environment/control diet, AOX/ENR--enriched environment/antioxidant diet for 2.8 years. Following behavioral testing, brains were removed and frontal cortices were analyzed to monitor levels of active caspase 3, active caspase 9 and their respective cleavage products such as tau and semaphorin7a, and ceramides. Our results show that levels of activated caspase-3 were reduced by ENR and AOX interventions with the largest reduction occurring with combined AOX/ENR group. Further, reductions in caspase-3 correlated with reduced errors in a reversal learning task, which depends on frontal cortex function. In addition, animals treated with an AOX arm showed reduced numbers of cells expressing active caspase 9 or its cleavage product semaphorin 7A, while ENR (but not AOX) reduced ceramide levels. Overall, these data demonstrate that lifestyle interventions curtail activation of pro-degenerative pathways to improve cellular health and are the

  20. Age dependent values of dietary intake for assessing human exposures to environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed information concerning human food consumption patterns necessary for relating pollutant body burdens to environmental contamination levels was compiled to be used in lieu of site-specific data for calculating health impacts arising from the ingestion of food containing various levels of such pollutants as radionuclides, toxic heavy metals, insecticides and many others. This paper examines available data on human food consumption rates and estimates dietary intake rates by individuals of various ages. Ingestion parameters include intake rates of water and other beverages, milk, vegetables, fruits, meat, poultry, grain and fish. Information was analyzed from documented surveys of individuals within households and from interviews and personal communications. Although average intake rates are often the only data reported in the literature, ranges as well as averages are included in this paper whenever possible. Various results are tabulated including per capita food consumption in 1955 and 1965 and changes in per capita consumption as well as changes by urbanization. Details of milk consumption are presented by selected sex-age groups. Solid food intake is given by age group. Market basket quantities of foods consumed daily are also tabulated. (author)

  1. Effectiveness of Dietary Allergen Exclusion Therapy on Eosinophilic Colitis in Chinese Infants and Young Children ≤ 3 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic colitis is a well recognized clinical entity mainly associated with food allergies. Empiric treatment options include dietary allergen exclusion (extensively hydrolyzed protein formula and elimination diet, anti-allergy medications (antihistamines and leukotriene receptor antagonists and corticosteroids. We evaluated the effectiveness of dietary antigen exclusion on clinical remission of eosinophilic colitis in infants and young children. We retrospectively reviewed charts of all infants and children ≤3 years of age who were diagnosed with eosinophilic colitis (defined as mucosal eosinophilia ≥20 hpf−1 from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013 at a tertiary children’s hospital in China. Forty-nine children were identified with eosinophilic colitis. Elemental formula, simple elimination diet or combination therapy resulted in clinical improvement in 75%, 88.2% and 80% of patients, respectively. In conclusion, eosinophilic colitis in infants and children ≤3 years of age responded well to dietary allergen exclusion.

  2. Early Shifts of Brain Metabolism by Caloric Restriction Preserve White Matter Integrity and Long-Term Memory in Aging Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Janet eGuo; Vikas eBakshi; Ai-Ling eLin

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of brain integrity with age is highly associated with lifespan determination. Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase longevity and healthspan in various species; however, its effects on preserving living brain functions in aging remain largely unexplored. In the study, we used multimodal, non-invasive neuroimaging (PET/MRI/MRS) to determine in vivo brain glucose metabolism, energy metabolites, and white matter structural integrity in young and old mice fed with eithe...

  3. Making healthy food choices using nutrition facts panels. The roles of knowledge, motivation, dietary modifications goals, and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisa M Soederberg; Cassady, Diana L

    2012-08-01

    Nutrition facts panels (NFPs) contain a rich assortment of nutrition information and are available on most food packages. The importance of this information is potentially even greater among older adults due to their increased risk for diet-related diseases, as well as those with goals for dietary modifications that may impact food choice. Despite past work suggesting that knowledge and motivation impact attitudes surrounding and self-reported use of NFPs, we know little about how (i.e., strategies used) and how well (i.e., level of accuracy) younger and older individuals process NFP information when evaluating healthful qualities of foods. We manipulated the content of NFPs and, using eye tracking methodology, examined strategies associated with deciding which of two NFPs, presented side-by-side, was healthier. We examined associations among strategy use and accuracy as well as age, dietary modification status, knowledge, and motivation. Results showed that, across age groups, those with dietary modification goals made relatively more comparisons between NFPs with increasing knowledge and motivation; but that strategy effectiveness (relationship to accuracy) depended on age and motivation. Results also showed that knowledge and motivation may protect against declines in accuracy in later life and that, across age and dietary modification status, knowledge mediates the relationship between motivation and decision accuracy.

  4. Assessing dietary exposure to cadmium in a metal recycling community in Vietnam: Age and gender aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minh, Ngo Duc [Vietnamese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Soils and Fertilizers Research Institute (SFRI), Tu Liem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hough, Rupert Lloyd, E-mail: rupert.hough@hutton.ac.uk [The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Thuy, Le Thi [Vietnamese Academy of Agriculture Science, Institute of Agricultural Environment (IAE), Tu Liem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nyberg, Ylva [Department of Crop Production Ecology, PO Box 7043, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Mai, Le Bach [National Institute of Nutrition, 48b Tang Bat Ho, Hoan Kiem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Vinh, Nguyen Cong [Vietnamese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Soils and Fertilizers Research Institute (SFRI), Tu Liem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Khai, Nguyen Manh [Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Ha Noi University of Science (HUS-VNU), 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Oeborn, Ingrid [Department of Crop Production Ecology, PO Box 7043, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-02-01

    This study estimates the dietary exposure to cadmium (Cd), and associated potential health risks, for individuals living and working in a metal recycling community (n = 132) in Vietnam in comparison to an agricultural (reference) community (n = 130). Individual-level exposure to Cd was estimated through analysis of staple foodstuffs combined with information from a food frequency questionnaire. Individual-level exposure estimates were compared with published 'safe' doses to derive a Hazard Quotient (HQ) for each member of the study population. Looking at the populations as a whole, there were no significant differences in the diets of the two villages. However, significantly more rice was consumed by working age adults (18-60 years) in the recycling village compared to the reference village (p < 0.001). Rice was the main staple food with individuals consuming 461 {+-} 162 g/d, followed by water spinach (103 {+-} 51 kg/d). Concentrations of Cd in the studied foodstuffs were elevated in the metal recycling village. Values of HQ exceeded unity for 87% of adult participants of the metal recycling community (39% had a HQ > 3), while 20% of adult participants from the reference village had an HQ > 1. We found an elevated health risk from dietary exposure to Cd in the metal recycling village compared to the reference community. WHO standard of 0.4 mg Cd/kg rice may not be protective where people consume large amounts of rice/have relatively low body weight. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First individual-level risk assessment of cadmium in recycling villages of Vietnam. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dietary analysis undertaken for a recycling community and an agricultural community. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant differences were found between the diets of the two populations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 87% of people in the recycling community had elevated health risk. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer WHO standard (0.4 mg Cd/kg rice) may

  5. Smoking, Antioxidant Supplementation and Dietary Intakes among Older Adults with Age-Related Macular Degeneration over 10 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Kifley, Annette; Liew, Gerald; Mitchell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to compare the micronutrient usage and other lifestyle behaviors over 10 years among those with and without age-related macular degeneration (AMD). 1612 participants aged 49+ years at baseline were re-examined over 10 years, west of Sydney, Australia. AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Smoking status was self-reported. 56 participants had any AMD at baseline, of these 25% quit smoking at 5 yea...

  6. Prolonged Calorie Restriction Downregulates Skeletal Muscle mTORC1 Signaling Independent of Dietary Protein Intake and Associated microRNA Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Lee M.; Rivas, Donato A.; Berrone, Maria; Ezzyat, Yassine; Young, Andrew J.; McClung, James P.; Fielding, Roger A.; Pasiakos, Stefan M.

    2016-01-01

    Short-term (5–10 days) calorie restriction (CR) downregulates muscle protein synthesis, with consumption of a high protein-based diet attenuating this decline. Benefit of increase protein intake is believed to be due to maintenance of amino acid-mediated anabolic signaling through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), however, there is limited evidence to support this contention. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of prolonged CR and high protein diets on skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling and expression of associated microRNA (miR). Twelve-week old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL) or calorie restricted (CR; 40%) adequate (10%, AIN-93M) or high (32%) protein milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Body composition was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle protein content was calculated from muscle homogenate protein concentrations expressed relative to fat-free mass to estimate protein content. Western blot and RT-qPCR were used to determine mTORC1 signaling and mRNA and miR expression in fasted mixed gastrocnemius. Independent of dietary protein intake, muscle protein content was 38% lower (P protein content (r = 0.64, r2 = 0.36). Skeletal muscle miR expression was not altered by either energy or protein intake. This study provides evidence that chronic CR attenuates muscle protein content by downregulating mTORC1 signaling. This response is independent of skeletal muscle miR and dietary protein. PMID:27761114

  7. A weekly alternating diet between caloric restriction and medium-fat protects the liver from fatty liver development in middle-aged C57BL/6J mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusli, F.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Zubia, A.A.; Lute, C.; Müller, M.R.; Steegenga, W.T.

    2015-01-01

    Scope : We aimed to investigate whether a novel dietary intervention consisting of an every-other-week calorie restricted diet could prevent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development induced by a medium-fat diet. Methods and results : Nine week-old male C57BL/6J mice received either a 1)

  8. Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Huini Lim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the dietary patterns of Asian infants in the first year of life, nor of their associations with maternal socio-demographic factors. Based on the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO mother-offspring cohort, cross-sectional dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis using 24-h recalls and food diaries of infants at 6-, 9- and 12-months of age. Dietary pattern trajectories were modeled by mapping similar dietary patterns across each age using multilevel mixed models. Associations with maternal socio-demographic variables, collected through questionnaires during pregnancy, were assessed using general linear models. In n = 486 infants, four dietary pattern trajectories were established from 6- to 12-months. Predominantly breastmilk: mainly breastmilk and less formula milk, Guidelines: rice porridge, vegetables, fruits and low-fat fish and meat, Easy-to-prepare foods: infant cereals, juices, cakes and biscuits and Noodles (in soup and seafood: noodle and common accompaniments. In adjusted models, higher maternal education attainment was correlated with higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk, but lowest education attainment increased its adherence over time. Older mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods, but younger mothers had increased adherence over time. Chinese mothers had higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk but greater adherence to Guidelines over time, while Indian mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods but greater adherence to Predominantly breastmilk with time (p < 0.05 for all. Changes in trajectories over time were small. Hence, dietary patterns established during weaning are strongly influenced by maternal socio-demographic factors and remain stable over the first year of life.

  9. Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Geraldine Huini; Toh, Jia Ying; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Chia, Ai-Ru; Han, Wee Meng; Saw, Seang Mei; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Lee, Yung Seng; Kramer, Michael S.; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the dietary patterns of Asian infants in the first year of life, nor of their associations with maternal socio-demographic factors. Based on the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother-offspring cohort, cross-sectional dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis using 24-h recalls and food diaries of infants at 6-, 9- and 12-months of age. Dietary pattern trajectories were modeled by mapping similar dietary patterns across each age using multilevel mixed models. Associations with maternal socio-demographic variables, collected through questionnaires during pregnancy, were assessed using general linear models. In n = 486 infants, four dietary pattern trajectories were established from 6- to 12-months. Predominantly breastmilk: mainly breastmilk and less formula milk, Guidelines: rice porridge, vegetables, fruits and low-fat fish and meat, Easy-to-prepare foods: infant cereals, juices, cakes and biscuits and Noodles (in soup) and seafood: noodle and common accompaniments. In adjusted models, higher maternal education attainment was correlated with higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk, but lowest education attainment increased its adherence over time. Older mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods, but younger mothers had increased adherence over time. Chinese mothers had higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk but greater adherence to Guidelines over time, while Indian mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods but greater adherence to Predominantly breastmilk with time (p < 0.05 for all). Changes in trajectories over time were small. Hence, dietary patterns established during weaning are strongly influenced by maternal socio-demographic factors and remain stable over the first year of life. PMID:27314387

  10. If you can't eat what you like, like what you can: how children with coeliac disease and their families construct dietary restrictions as a matter of choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, M.; Molder, te H.; Gremmen, B.; Woerkum, van C.

    2013-01-01

    Although it is recognised that a gluten-free diet has many social implications for coeliac disease patients, not much is known about how such patients actually manage these implications in their everyday interactions. This article examines how dietary restrictions are treated by patients and their f

  11. Methionine restriction and life-span control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Cheon; Kaya, Alaattin; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) without malnutrition is associated with longevity in various organisms. However, it has also been shown that reduced calorie intake is often ineffective in extending life span. Selecting optimal dietary regimens for DR studies is complicated, as the same regimen may lead to different outcomes depending on genotype and environmental factors. Recent studies suggested that interventions such as moderate protein restriction with or without adequate nutrition (e.g., particular amino acids or carbohydrates) may have additional beneficial effects mediated by certain metabolic and hormonal factors implicated in the biology of aging, regardless of total calorie intake. In particular, it was shown that restriction of a single amino acid, methionine, can mimic the effects of DR and extend life span in various model organisms. We discuss the beneficial effects of a methionine-restricted diet, the molecular pathways involved, and the use of this regimen in longevity interventions.

  12. Neuroinflammation and aging: influence of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layé Sophie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune system of the brain is principally composed of microglial cells and astrocytes, which, once activated, protect neurons against noxious agents or lesions. Activated glial cells produce inflammatory cytokines that act specifically through receptors expressed in the brain, leading to the development of altered emotional and cognitive behavior. These behavioral alterations cease along with the synthesis of brain cytokines. When the level of expression of these cytokines remains high, they become toxic to neurons possibly leading to neuronal death, as observed in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. Omega-3 (n-3 type polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are essential nutrients and fundamental components of neuronal and glial cell membranes. Additionally, they have immunomodulatory properties. They accumulate in the brain during the perinatal period in a dietary supply-dependant fashion. Their brain levels diminish with age, but can be corrected by a diet enriched in n-3 PUFAs. The increasing exposure of the population to diets unbalanced in n-3 PUFAs could contribute to the deleterious effect of inflammatory cytokines in the brain.

  13. Dietary calcium intake and risk of obesity in school girls aged 8-10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehnoosh Samadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some studies have demonstrated the role of calcium in reducing body mass index (BMI or fat mass. Though, BMI does not provide very valid information about changes in body fat mass, Fat Mass Index (FMI relates body fat mass to height and allows comparing body fat mass of individuals at different heights. This study investigated the possible association between dietary calcium intake (CI and other nutritional factors and weight status of girls aged 8-10 years. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 110 girls aged 8-10 with FMI at or above 7.2 kg/m 2 as cases and 307 girls with FMI less than 7.2 kg/m 2 as controls were recruited through multistage cluster random sampling. FMI at or above 7.2 kg/m 2 was considered as the cutoff point for obesity. Body fat mass was assessed by a stand on bio impedance analyzer. In order to assess CI, participants were asked to complete a validated food frequency questionnaire. Results: Mean and standard deviation of CI in the case group was significantly lower than the control group 649 ± 103 and 951 ± 152 mg/d, respectively ( P < 0.01. After Adjustment for total energy intake, the percentage of energy from fat, carbohydrate and protein in quartiles of physical activity, inverse association between CI and obesity was significant and in the highest quartile of physical activity the association was weaker. By further adjustment for the effect of fruits and vegetable intake inverse association between CI and obesity became weaker but yet was significant. Conclusion: The inverse relationship between CI and FMI remained significant even after controlling for confounding factors. FMI may be more accurate, compared to BMI, in showing the association between CI and obesity.

  14. Influence of Physical Exercise and Food Restriction on the Biomechanical Properties of the Femur of Ageing Male Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Skalicky, Monika; Viidik, Andrus

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary running in wheels as well as food reduction increase the life spans of rats. Disparate parameters such as the collagen biomarker of ageing and the development of kidney pathologies are decreased by voluntary exercise. There are few reports on the influence of physical exercise...... and food restriction on the skeleton of male rats. Most investigations initiated rather short-term interventions in 4- to 5-week-old animals and thus studied more the influence of growth than the influence of ageing on the skeleton. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of physical exercise and food...... to SE group. This decrease was counteracted by physical exercise (RW and TM groups) as well as by food restriction (PW group). In contrast, the strength of the femoral mid-diaphysis did not differ between BL and SE groups. CONCLUSIONS: The distal metaphysis in the male rat femur is more prone...

  15. Predictors of outcome at 2 years of age after early intrauterine growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrance, H. L.; Bloemen, M. C. T.; Mulder, E. J. H.; Nikkels, P. G. J.; Derks, J. B.; De Vries, L. S.; Visser, G. H. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the relative importance of antenatal and perinatal variables on short- and long-term outcome of preterm growth restricted fetuses with umbilical artery (UA) Doppler abnormalities. Methods This was a cohort study of 180 neonates with birth weight <10(th) percentile, gestational a

  16. Response to dietary-induced energy restriction in dairy sheep divergently selected for resistance or susceptibility to mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier-Muller, J; Allain, C; Enjalbert, F; Tabouret, G; Portes, D; Caubet, C; Tasca, C; Foucras, G; Rupp, R

    2016-01-01

    Dairy ruminants experiencing a severe postpartum negative energy balance (NEB) are considered to be more susceptible to mastitis. Although the genetic variability of mastitis resistance is well established, the biological basis of the link between energy metabolism and resistance is mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of NEB on metabolism and immune response according to the genetic background for mastitis resistance or susceptibility. Forty-eight ewes from high and low somatic cell score (SCS) genetic lines were allocated to 2 homogeneous subgroups 2 wk after lambing: one group (NEB) received an energy-restricted diet to cover 60% of their energy requirements, and the other group received a control (positive energy balance: PEB) diet. Both diets met the protein requirements. After 10 d on either the NEB or PEB diet, all ewes were injected with a Pam3CSK4/MDP solution in one half-udder to induce an inflammatory response. The ewes were monitored for milk production, somatic cell count (SCC), body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), and blood metabolites. Differential milk cell counts were determined by flow cytometry. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and triiodothyronine were determined. Energy restriction resulted in an increased fat:protein ratio in milk and decreased milk yield, BW, and BCS. The NEB ewes had significantly higher NEFA and BHB and lower plasma glucose concentrations than PEB ewes, reflecting a mobilization of body reserves and ketone body synthesis. High-SCS ewes had a higher SCS than low-SCS throughout the experiment, except after the inflammatory challenge, which resulted in similar SCS in all 4 groups. A noteworthy interaction between genetic background and diet was evidenced on metabolic parameters and BW. Indeed, high-SCS ewes subjected to NEB showed greater decrease in BW and increased NEFA and BHB concentrations compared with low

  17. Response to dietary-induced energy restriction in dairy sheep divergently selected for resistance or susceptibility to mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier-Muller, J; Allain, C; Enjalbert, F; Tabouret, G; Portes, D; Caubet, C; Tasca, C; Foucras, G; Rupp, R

    2016-01-01

    Dairy ruminants experiencing a severe postpartum negative energy balance (NEB) are considered to be more susceptible to mastitis. Although the genetic variability of mastitis resistance is well established, the biological basis of the link between energy metabolism and resistance is mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of NEB on metabolism and immune response according to the genetic background for mastitis resistance or susceptibility. Forty-eight ewes from high and low somatic cell score (SCS) genetic lines were allocated to 2 homogeneous subgroups 2 wk after lambing: one group (NEB) received an energy-restricted diet to cover 60% of their energy requirements, and the other group received a control (positive energy balance: PEB) diet. Both diets met the protein requirements. After 10 d on either the NEB or PEB diet, all ewes were injected with a Pam3CSK4/MDP solution in one half-udder to induce an inflammatory response. The ewes were monitored for milk production, somatic cell count (SCC), body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), and blood metabolites. Differential milk cell counts were determined by flow cytometry. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and triiodothyronine were determined. Energy restriction resulted in an increased fat:protein ratio in milk and decreased milk yield, BW, and BCS. The NEB ewes had significantly higher NEFA and BHB and lower plasma glucose concentrations than PEB ewes, reflecting a mobilization of body reserves and ketone body synthesis. High-SCS ewes had a higher SCS than low-SCS throughout the experiment, except after the inflammatory challenge, which resulted in similar SCS in all 4 groups. A noteworthy interaction between genetic background and diet was evidenced on metabolic parameters and BW. Indeed, high-SCS ewes subjected to NEB showed greater decrease in BW and increased NEFA and BHB concentrations compared with low

  18. Modification of the Effect of Vitamin E Supplementation on the Mortality of Male Smokers by Age and Dietary Vitamin C

    OpenAIRE

    Hemilä, Harri; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2009-01-01

    The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study (1985–1993) recruited 29,133 Finnish male cigarette smokers, finding that vitamin E supplementation had no overall effect on mortality. The authors of this paper found that the effect of vitamin E on respiratory infections in ATBC Study participants was modified by age, smoking, and dietary vitamin C intake; therefore, they examined whether the effect of vitamin E supplementation on mortality is modified by the same variables....

  19. Vitamin E supplementation and pneumonia risk in males who initiated smoking at an early age: effect modification by body weight and dietary vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaprio Jaakko

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We had found a 14% higher incidence of pneumonia with vitamin E supplementation in a subgroup of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC Study cohort: participants who had initiated smoking by the age of 20 years. In this study, we explored the modification of vitamin E effect by body weight, because the same dose could lead to a greater effect in participants with low body weight. Methods The ATBC Study recruited males aged 50–69 years who smoked at least 5 cigarettes per day at the baseline; it was conducted in southwestern Finland in 1985–1993. The current study was restricted to 21,657 ATBC Study participants who initiated smoking by the age of 20 years; the median follow-up time was 6.0 years. The hospital-diagnosed pneumonia cases were retrieved from the national hospital discharge register (701 cases. Results Vitamin E supplementation had no effect on the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight in a range from 70 to 89 kg (n = 12,495, risk ratio (RR = 0.99 (95% CI: 0.81 to 1.22. Vitamin E increased the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight less than 60 kg (n = 1054, RR = 1.61 (1.03 to 2.53, and in participants with body weight over 100 kg (n = 1328, RR = 2.34 (1.07 to 5.08. The harm of vitamin E supplementation was restricted to participants with dietary vitamin C intake above the median. Conclusion Vitamin E supplementation may cause harmful effects on health in certain groups of male smokers. The dose of vitamin E used in the ATBC Study, 50 mg/day, is substantially smaller than conventional vitamin E doses that are considered safe. Our findings should increase caution towards taking vitamin E supplements. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342992.

  20. Growth and haematological response of indigenous Venda chickens aged 8 to 13 weeks to varying dietary lysine to energy ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, O J; Ng'ambi, J W; Mbajiorgu, E F; Norris, D; Mabelebele, M

    2015-06-01

    The effect of feeding varying dietary lysine to energy levels on growth and haematological values of indigenous Venda chickens aged 8 - 13 weeks was evaluated. Four hundred and twenty Venda chickens (BW 362 ± 10 g) were allocated to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated seven times, and each replicate had fifteen chickens. Four maize-soya beans-based diets were formulated. Each diet had similar CP (150 g/kg DM) and lysine (8 g lysine/kg DM) but varying energy levels (11, 12, 13 and 14 MJ ME/kg DM). The birds were reared in a deep litter house; feed and water were provided ad libitum. Data on growth and haematological values were collected and analysed using one-way analysis of variance. Duncan's test for multiple comparisons was used to test the significant difference between treatment means (p feed intake, feed conversion ratio, live weight, haemoglobin and pack cell volume values of chickens. Dry matter digestibility, metabolizable energy and nitrogen retention not influenced by dietary lysine to energy ratio. Also, white blood cell, red blood cell, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration in female Venda chickens aged 91 days were not influenced by dietary lysine to energy ratio. It is concluded that dietary lysine to energy ratios of 0.672, 0.646, 0.639 and 0.649 optimized feed intake, growth rate, FCR and live weight in indigenous female Venda chickens fed diets containing 8 g of lysine/kg DM, 150 g of CP/kg DM and 11 MJ of ME/kg DM. This has implications in diet formulation for indigenous female Venda chickens.

  1. Long-term food consumption and body weight changes in neotame safety studies are consistent with the allometric relationship observed for other sweeteners and during dietary restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, W Gary; Blackburn, George L; Comer, C Phil; Mayhew, Dale A; Stargel, W Wayne

    2003-10-01

    In long-term safety studies with neotame, a new high-intensity sweetener 7000-13,000 times sweeter than sucrose, the percent changes (%Delta) in body weight gain (BWG) in Sprague-Dawley rats were several-fold greater than the %Delta in overall food consumption (FC). This study investigates the question of whether the changes in BWG were adverse or secondary to small, long-term decrements in FC. The hypothesis tested in Sprague-Dawley rats was that the relationship between long-term %Delta in FC and %Delta in BWG is linear and in a ratio of 1:1. The %Delta in FC were compared to %Delta in BWG after 52 weeks on study in one saccharin (825 rats), two sucralose (480 rats), two neotame (630 rats), and five dietary restriction (>1000 rats) studies. Non-transformed plotting of data points demonstrated an absence of linearity between %Delta in FC and %Delta in BWG; however, log-log evaluation demonstrated a robust (R2=0.97) linear relationship between %Delta in FC and %Delta in BWG. This relationship followed the well-known allometric equation, y=bxa where x is %DeltaFC, y is %DeltaBWG, b is %DeltaBWG when DeltaFC=1, and a is the log-log slope. Thus, in Sprague-Dawley rats at week 52, the long-term relationship between %Delta in FC and %Delta in BWG was determined to be: %DeltaBWG=3.45(%DeltaFC0.74) for males and %DeltaBWG=5.28(%DeltaFC0.68) for females. Sexes were statistically different but study types, i.e., the high-intensity sweeteners saccharin and sucralose versus dietary restriction, were not. The %Delta in BWG are allometrically consistent with the observed %Delta in FC for these high-intensity sweeteners, including neotame. BW parameters are not appropriate endpoints for setting no-observed-effect levels (NOELs) when materials with intense taste are admixed into food. An approach using objective criteria is proposed to delineate BW changes due to toxicity from those secondary to reduced FC. PMID:14550756

  2. A Dietary Treatment Improves Cerebral Blood Flow and Brain Connectivity in Aging apoE4 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Wiesmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available APOE ε4 (apoE4 polymorphism is the main genetic determinant of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD. A dietary approach (Fortasyn including docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, uridine, choline, phospholipids, folic acid, vitamins B12, B6, C, and E, and selenium has been proposed for dietary management of AD. We hypothesize that the diet could inhibit AD-like pathologies in apoE4 mice, specifically cerebrovascular and connectivity impairment. Moreover, we evaluated the diet effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF, functional connectivity (FC, gray/white matter integrity, and postsynaptic density in aging apoE4 mice. At 10–12 months, apoE4 mice did not display prominent pathological differences compared to wild-type (WT mice. However, 16–18-month-old apoE4 mice revealed reduced CBF and accelerated synaptic loss. The diet increased cortical CBF and amount of synapses and improved white matter integrity and FC in both aging apoE4 and WT mice. We demonstrated that protective mechanisms on vascular and synapse health are enhanced by Fortasyn, independent of apoE genotype. We further showed the efficacy of a multimodal translational approach, including advanced MR neuroimaging, to study dietary intervention on brain structure and function in aging.

  3. A Dietary Treatment Improves Cerebral Blood Flow and Brain Connectivity in Aging apoE4 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmann, Maximilian; Zerbi, Valerio; Jansen, Diane; Haast, Roy; Lütjohann, Dieter; Broersen, Laus M; Heerschap, Arend; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2016-01-01

    APOE ε4 (apoE4) polymorphism is the main genetic determinant of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). A dietary approach (Fortasyn) including docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, uridine, choline, phospholipids, folic acid, vitamins B12, B6, C, and E, and selenium has been proposed for dietary management of AD. We hypothesize that the diet could inhibit AD-like pathologies in apoE4 mice, specifically cerebrovascular and connectivity impairment. Moreover, we evaluated the diet effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF), functional connectivity (FC), gray/white matter integrity, and postsynaptic density in aging apoE4 mice. At 10-12 months, apoE4 mice did not display prominent pathological differences compared to wild-type (WT) mice. However, 16-18-month-old apoE4 mice revealed reduced CBF and accelerated synaptic loss. The diet increased cortical CBF and amount of synapses and improved white matter integrity and FC in both aging apoE4 and WT mice. We demonstrated that protective mechanisms on vascular and synapse health are enhanced by Fortasyn, independent of apoE genotype. We further showed the efficacy of a multimodal translational approach, including advanced MR neuroimaging, to study dietary intervention on brain structure and function in aging. PMID:27034849

  4. Effect of dietary, social, and lifestyle determinants of accelerated aging and its common clinical presentation: A survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarakoon, S M S; Chandola, H M; Ravishankar, B

    2011-07-01

    Aging is unavoidable and natural phenomenon of life. Modern gerontologists are realizing the fact that aging is a disease, which Ayurveda had accepted as natural disease since long. Rate of aging is determined by one's biological, social, lifestyle, and psychological conditions and adversity of which leads to accelerated form of aging (Akalaja jara or premature aging). The aim of this study is to identify potential factors that may accelerate aging in the context of dietry factors, lifestyle and mental makeup. The 120 diagnosed subjects of premature-ageing of 30-60 years were randomly selected in the survey study. Premature ageing was common among females (75.83%), in 30-40 age group (70%), 86.67% were married, had secondary level of education (36.66%), house-views (61.67%), belongs top middle class (58.33%) and engaged in occupations that dominating physical labour (88.33%). The maximum patients are constipated (60%), had mandagni (80%), vata-kapha prakriti (48.33%), rajasika prakriti (58.33%), madhyama vyayama shakti (73.33%), and madhyama jarana shakti (85.83%). Collectively, 43.33% patients were above normal BMI. The more patients had anushna (38.33%) and vishamasana dietary pattern (25.83%), consumed Lavana (88.33%) and Amla rasa (78.33%) in excess on regular basis. Some patients had addicted to tobacco (11.67%) and beetle chewing (5.83%). The maximum patients had no any exercise (79.17%) and specific hobby (79.17%) in their leisure times. Analyzing Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Rating Scales revealed that 39.80%, 37.86%, 33.98%, 24.27% and 18.44% patients had insomnia, depression, tension, GIT symptoms and anxious mood respectively. These data suggest that certain social, dietary and lifestyle factors contribute towards accelerated ageing among young individuals. PMID:22529643

  5. Caloric Restriction Eliminates the Aging-related Declines of NMDA and AMPA Receptor Subunits in the Rat Hippocampus and Induces Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Lei; Adams, Michelle M.; Linville, M. Constance; Newton, Isabel G.; Forbes, M. Elizabeth; Long, Ashley; Riddle, David R.; Brunso-Bechtold, Judy K.

    2007-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) extends lifespan and ameliorates the aging-related decline in hippocampal-dependent cognitive function. In the present study, we compared subunit levels of NMDA and AMPA types of the glutamate receptor and quantified total synapses and multiple spine bouton (MSB) synapses in hippocampal CA1 from young (10 months), middle-aged (18 months), and old (29 months) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats that were ad libitum (AL) fed or caloric restricted (CR) from 4 months of age. ...

  6. Effects of aging and calorie restriction on the global gene expression profiles of mouse testis and ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Dan L

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aging of reproductive organs is not only a major social issue, but of special interest in aging research. A long-standing view of 'immortal germ line versus mortal soma' poses an important question of whether the reproductive tissues age in similar ways to the somatic tissues. As a first step to understand this phenomenon, we examine global changes in gene expression patterns by DNA microarrays in ovaries and testes of C57BL/6 mice at 1, 6, 16, and 24 months of age. In addition, we compared a group of mice on ad libitum (AL feeding with a group on lifespan-extending 40% calorie restriction (CR. Results We found that gene expression changes occurred in aging gonads, but were generally different from those in somatic organs during aging. For example, only two functional categories of genes previously associated with aging in muscle, kidney, and brain were confirmed in ovary: genes associated with complement activation were upregulated, and genes associated with mitochondrial electron transport were downregulated. The bulk of the changes in gonads were mostly related to gonad-specific functions. Ovaries showed extensive gene expression changes with age, especially in the period when ovulation ceases (from 6 to 16 months, whereas testes showed only limited age-related changes. The same trend was seen for the effects of CR: CR-mediated reversal of age-associated gene expression changes, reported in somatic organs previously, was limited to a small number of genes in gonads. Instead, in both ovary and testis, CR caused small and mostly gonad-specific effects: suppression of ovulation in ovary and activation of testis-specific genes in testis. Conclusion Overall, the results are consistent with unique modes of aging and its modification by CR in testis and ovary.

  7. Negative effects of prolonged dietary restriction on male mating effort: nuptial gifts as honest indicators of long-term male condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Rego, Renato C; Costa-Schmidt, Luiz Ernesto; Santos, Eduardo S A; Machado, Glauco

    2016-01-01

    The handicap principle proposes that sexual signals must be costly to be honest. Honesty may be maintained by the costs paid by honest signallers or by the potential costs of cheating. In the latter, handicaps should emerge as a consequence of specific biological constraints, such as life-history trade-offs. Nuptial prey-giving arthropods are good systems to investigate the honesty of sexual signals taking into account trade-offs between self-maintenance and mating effort. We experimentally evaluated if prolonged food shortage during early adulthood imposes long-term negative effects on gift construction by males of the spider Paratrechalea ornata. We also evaluated whether a burst of food availability improved body condition of poorly fed males, increasing their frequency of gift construction. Poorly fed males hardly constructed gifts, even after a marked increase in feeding rate, which clearly improved their body condition. Moreover, initially poorly fed males that latter received high food intake constructed lighter gifts than continuously well fed males. The long-term effects of prolonged dietary restriction on male propensity to construct a gift and on the size of this gift may increase the honesty of this sexually selected signal. From the female's perspective the offer of a gift may bring information on male quality. PMID:26908253

  8. Mathematical model of mean age, mean arsenic dietary dose and age-specific prevalence rate from endemic chronic arsenic poisoning: a human toxicology study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zald' ivar, R.; Ghai, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to develop a mathematical model of mean age, mean arsenic dietary dose, and age-specific prevalence rate for endemic chronic arsenic poisoning. Data on mean age (years), mean arsenic dietary dose (mg/kg body weight/day), and age-specific prevalence rate per 100,000 population for endemic chronic arsenic poisoning in Antofagasta Commune, northern Chile, for the 1968 to 1971 period, were collected. Endemic chronic arsenic poisoning means here chronic arsenical dermatosis associated with marked or sever symptoms (or signs) of chronic arsenic poisoning (chronic diarrhea, hepatic cirrohsis, chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, recurrent broncho-pneumonia, cardiomegaly, systemic occlusive arterial disease, cerebral thrombosis, etc.). There was a strong positive correlation between age-specific pevalence rate per 100,000 population and mean arsenic dose (r = + 0.9593) and a negative correlation between prevalence rate and mean age (r = 0.8789). These findings show that the prevalence rate declines with the advancing age and increases with the increase of arsenic dose. A multiple linear regression model E(y) = alpha + beta X1 + gamma X2, where y represents the age-specific prevalence rate per 100,000 population, X1 the mean arsenic dose, and X2 the mean age, was fitted to the data. The estimates of the parameters (alpha, beta, and gamma) were obtained by minimizing the residual sum of squares sigma(y - alpha - beta X1 - gamma X2)2. The following multiple linear regression equation was obtained: Y = 202.161 + 8452.455 X1 - 2.394 X2. Of the total variability in the prevalence rate, 96.22 percent was accounted for by the multiple regression.

  9. Hormone Responses to an Acute Bout of Low Intensity Blood Flow Restricted Resistance Exercise in College-Aged Females

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    Eonho Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the acute hormone response to exercise differed between low intensity blood flow restricted resistance exercise and traditional high-intensity resistance exercise in college-aged women. A total of 13 healthy women (aged 18-25 yrs, who were taking oral contraceptives, volunteered for this randomized crossover study. Subjects performed a session of low intensity blood flow restricted resistance exercise (BFR (20% of 1-RM, 1 set 30 reps, 2 sets 15 reps and a session of traditional high intensity resistance exercise without blood flow restriction (HI (3 sets of 10 repetitions at 80% of 1-RM on separate days. Fasting serum cortisol and growth hormone (GH and blood lactate responses were measured in the morning pre and post exercise sessions. GH (Change: HI: 6.34 ± 1.72; BFR: 4.22 ± 1.40 ng·mL-1 and cortisol (Change: HI: 4.46 ± 1.53; BFR: 8.10 ± 2.30 ug·dL-1 significantly (p < 0.05 increased immediately post exercise for both protocols compared to baseline and there were no significant differences between the protocols for these responses. In contrast, blood lactate levels (HI: 7.35 ± 0.45; BFR: 4.02 ± 0.33 mmol·L-1 and ratings of perceived exertion were significantly (p < 0.01 higher for the HI protocol. In conclusion, acute BFR restricted resistance exercise stimulated similar increases in anabolic and catabolic hormone responses in young women.

  10. Physiological basis of dietary prevention of perimenopausal disorders in the context of dietary habits associated with the consumption of water and beverages by women aged 45-65

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    Joanna Sadowska

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : This study aimed to evaluate the amount of water and type of beverages consumed by women of perimenopausal age against a background of dietary prevention of perimenopausal disorders. Material and methods : This study was conducted in autumn 2012, in Wielkopolska Province (Poland, on 100 women aged from 45 to 65 years, employed as office workers. Information on the diet, beverages consumption and anthropometric data were collected. Results : Analysis of the nutritional status of the surveyed women showed that over 50% of them had excess body weight. Analysis of the survey results indicated that the amount of water in the diet of the examined women was appropriate, although the type of drinks consumed was inadequate. The women consumed too much coffee and tea, and simultaneously had a low intake of potable water. More than a half of the surveyed women sweetened coffee and tea. Women with excess body weight did so statistically significantly quite often, and they also used larger amounts of sugar for sweetening. Nearly 60% of the surveyed women added milk, or less frequently cream, to coffee. Milk was statistically significantly more frequently chosen by women with normal body weight, and cream by women with excess body weight. There was a positive correlation between body mass index and the energy value of the consumed fluids. Conclusions : The dietary irregularities identified in this study may intensify perimenopausal symptoms and contribute to the development of diet-related chronic diseases. Taking into account the observed irregularities, it seems appropriate to provide perimenopausal women with nutrition education and diet correction, including the amount and type of fluids consumed.

  11. Entropy Generation and Human Aging: Lifespan Entropy and Effect of Diet Composition and Caloric Restriction Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos A. Silva; Kalyan Annamalai

    2009-01-01

    The first and second laws of thermodynamic were applied to statistical databases on nutrition and human growth in order to estimate the entropy generation over the human lifespan. The calculations were performed for the cases of variation in the diet composition and calorie restriction diets; and results were compared to a base case in which lifespan entropy generation was found to be 11 404 kJ/K per kg of body mass, predicting a lifespan of 73.78 and 81.61 years for the average male and fema...

  12. Effects of exercise and dietary epigallocatechin gallate and β-alanine on skeletal muscle in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Brandt D; Gibbons, Trisha E; Bhattacharya, Tushar K; Mach, Houston; Ossyra, Jessica M; Petr, Geraldine; Martin, Stephen A; Wang, Lin; Rubakhin, Stanislav S; Sweedler, Jonathan V; McCusker, Robert H; Kelley, Keith W; Rhodes, Justin S; Johnson, Rodney W; Woods, Jeffrey A

    2016-02-01

    Aging leads to sarcopenia and loss of physical function. We examined whether voluntary wheel running, when combined with dietary supplementation with (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and β-alanine (β-ALA), could improve muscle function and alter gene expression in the gastrocnemius of aged mice. Seventeen-month-old BALB/cByJ mice were given access to a running wheel or remained sedentary for 41 days while receiving either AIN-93M (standard feed) or AIN-93M containing 1.5 mg·kg(-1) EGCG and 3.43 mg·kg(-1) β-ALA. Mice underwent tests over 11 days from day 29 to day 39 of the study period, including muscle function testing (grip strength, treadmill exhaustive fatigue, rotarod). Following a rest day, mice were euthanized and gastrocnemii were collected for analysis of gene expression by quantitative PCR. Voluntary wheel running (VWR) improved rotarod and treadmill exhaustive fatigue performance and maintained grip strength in aged mice, while dietary intervention had no effect. VWR increased gastrocnemius expression of several genes, including those encoding interleukin-6 (Il6, p = 0.001), superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1, p = 0.046), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α (Ppargc1a, p = 0.013), forkhead box protein O3 (Foxo3, p = 0.005), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf, p = 0.008), while reducing gastrocnemius levels of the lipid peroxidation marker 4-hydroxynonenal (p = 0.019). Dietary intervention alone increased gastrocnemius expression of Ppargc1a (p = 0.033) and genes encoding NAD-dependent protein deacetylase sirtuin-1 (Sirt1, p = 0.039), insulin-like growth factor I (Igf1, p = 0.003), and macrophage marker CD11b (Itgam, p = 0.016). Exercise and a diet containing β-ALA and EGCG differentially regulated gene expression in the gastrocnemius of aged mice, while VWR but not dietary intervention improved muscle function. We found no synergistic effects between dietary intervention and VWR. PMID:26761622

  13. Tailored, iterative, printed dietary feedback is as effective as group education in improving dietary behaviours: results from a randomised control trial in middle-aged adults with cardiovascular risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Sherriff Jillian L; Wright Janine L; Dhaliwal Satvinder S; Mamo John CL

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Tailored nutrition interventions have been shown to be more effective than non-tailored materials in changing dietary behaviours, particularly fat intake and fruit and vegetable intake. But further research examining efficacy of tailored nutrition education in comparison to other nutrition education methods and across a wider range of dietary behaviours is needed. The Stages to Healthy Eating Patterns Study (STEPs) was an intervention study, in middle-aged adults with card...

  14. Entropy Generation and Human Aging: Lifespan Entropy and Effect of Diet Composition and Caloric Restriction Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The first and second laws of thermodynamic were applied to statistical databases on nutrition and human growth in order to estimate the entropy generation over the human lifespan. The calculations were performed for the cases of variation in the diet composition and calorie restriction diets; and results were compared to a base case in which lifespan entropy generation was found to be 11 404 kJ/K per kg of body mass, predicting a lifespan of 73.78 and 81.61 years for the average male and female individuals respectively. From the analysis of the results, it was found that changes of diet % of fat and carbohydrates do not have a significant impact on predicted lifespan, while the diet % of proteins has an important effect. Reduction of diet protein % to the minimum recommended in nutrition literature yields an average increase of 3.3 years on the predicted lifespan. Changes in the calorie content of the diet also have an important effect, yielding a % increase in lifespan equal or higher than the % reduction in the diet caloric content. This correlates well experimental data on small mammal and insects, in which lifespan has been increased by diet restriction.

  15. Low Dietary Diversity and Intake of Animal Source Foods among School Aged Children in Libo Kemkem and Fogera Districts, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Herrador

    Full Text Available A low dietary diversity score (DDS and low consumption of food from animal sources (ASF are among the factors related to malnutrition in school-aged children living in Libo Kemkem and Fogera (Ethiopia.This study aimed to identify associated determinants for low dietary diversity and lack of consumption of ASF.In 2009, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in May, at the end of the lean season. Socio-demographic characteristics and diet habits were collected from 886 school-aged children. Additionally, 516 children from rural sites were followed up in the post-harvest season, in December of the same year. Bivariate and multivariable statistical methods were employed to assess low DDS and ASF intake and their association with different factors.Up to 80% and 60% of school-aged children living in rural and urban sites, respectively, ate ≤ 3 food groups the day before the survey. The percentage of children consuming ASF was significantly higher in urban settings (64% vs 18%. In the rural areas, if the head of the household was male (OR: 1.91; 95%CI: 1.00-3.65 and older than 40 years (OR: 1.56; 95%CI: 1.02-2.38 the child had a lower DDS in the lean season, while differences by socioeconomic indexes were observed in the post-harvest season. Males took more ASF than females in rural settings (OR: 1.73; 95%CI: 1.14-2.62 and differences by socioeconomic indexes were observed in both settings in the lean season, though not in post-harvest survey.The findings of this study revealed that the diet among school-aged children in Libo Kemkem and Fogera districts lacked diversity, and that the intake of foods from animal sources was low, especially among rural girls. To effectively tackle malnutrition, dietary diversification strategies oriented to the local needs are recommended.

  16. Dietary Nucleotides Supplementation Improves the Intestinal Development and Immune Function of Neonates with Intra-Uterine Growth Restriction in a Pig Model.

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    Lianqiang Che

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to determine whether dietary nucleotides supplementation could improve growth performance, intestinal development and immune function of intra-uterine growth restricted (IUGR neonate using pig as animal model. A total of 14 pairs of normal birth weight (NBW and IUGR piglets (7 days old were randomly assigned to receive a milk-based control diet (CON diet or diet supplemented with nucleotides (NT diet for a period of 21 days. Blood samples, intestinal tissues and digesta were collected at necropsy and analyzed for morphology, digestive enzyme activities, microbial populations, peripheral immune cells, expression of intestinal innate immunity and barrier-related genes and proteins. Compared with NBW piglets, IUGR piglets had significantly lower average daily dry matter intake and body weight gain (P<0.05. Moreover, IUGR markedly decreased the villous height and villi: crypt ratio in duodenum (P<0.05, as well as the maltase activity in jejunum (P<0.05. In addition, IUGR significantly decreased the serum concentrations of IgA, IL-1βand IL-10 (P<0.05, as well as the percentage of peripheral lymphocytes (P<0.05. Meanwhile, the down-regulation of innate immunity-related genes such as TOLLIP (P<0.05, TLR-9 (P = 0.08 and TLR-2 (P = 0.07 was observed in the ileum of IUGR relative to NBW piglets. Regardless of birth weight, however, feeding NT diet markedly decreased (P<0.05 feed conversion ratio, increased the villous height in duodenum (P<0.05, activities of lactase and maltase in jejunum (P<0.05, count of peripheral leukocytes (P<0.05, serum concentrations of IgA and IL-1β as well as gene expressions of TLR-9, TLR-4 and TOLLIP in ileum (P<0.05. In addition, expressions of tight junction proteins (Claudin-1 and ZO-1 in ileum were markedly increased by feeding NT diet relative to CON diet (P<0.05. These results indicated that IUGR impaired growth performance, intestinal and immune function, but dietary nucleotides supplementation

  17. Dietary Nucleotides Supplementation Improves the Intestinal Development and Immune Function of Neonates with Intra-Uterine Growth Restriction in a Pig Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Lianqiang; Hu, Liang; Liu, Yan; Yan, Chuan; Peng, Xie; Xu, Qin; Wang, Ru; Cheng, Yuanfang; Chen, Hong; Fang, Zhengfeng; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Feng, Bin; Chen, Daiwen; Wu, De

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to determine whether dietary nucleotides supplementation could improve growth performance, intestinal development and immune function of intra-uterine growth restricted (IUGR) neonate using pig as animal model. A total of 14 pairs of normal birth weight (NBW) and IUGR piglets (7 days old) were randomly assigned to receive a milk-based control diet (CON diet) or diet supplemented with nucleotides (NT diet) for a period of 21 days. Blood samples, intestinal tissues and digesta were collected at necropsy and analyzed for morphology, digestive enzyme activities, microbial populations, peripheral immune cells, expression of intestinal innate immunity and barrier-related genes and proteins. Compared with NBW piglets, IUGR piglets had significantly lower average daily dry matter intake and body weight gain (P<0.05). Moreover, IUGR markedly decreased the villous height and villi: crypt ratio in duodenum (P<0.05), as well as the maltase activity in jejunum (P<0.05). In addition, IUGR significantly decreased the serum concentrations of IgA, IL-1βand IL-10 (P<0.05), as well as the percentage of peripheral lymphocytes (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the down-regulation of innate immunity-related genes such as TOLLIP (P<0.05), TLR-9 (P = 0.08) and TLR-2 (P = 0.07) was observed in the ileum of IUGR relative to NBW piglets. Regardless of birth weight, however, feeding NT diet markedly decreased (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio, increased the villous height in duodenum (P<0.05), activities of lactase and maltase in jejunum (P<0.05), count of peripheral leukocytes (P<0.05), serum concentrations of IgA and IL-1β as well as gene expressions of TLR-9, TLR-4 and TOLLIP in ileum (P<0.05). In addition, expressions of tight junction proteins (Claudin-1 and ZO-1) in ileum were markedly increased by feeding NT diet relative to CON diet (P<0.05). These results indicated that IUGR impaired growth performance, intestinal and immune function, but dietary nucleotides supplementation

  18. Association between Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study from 2003 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muga, Miriam Adoyo; Owili, Patrick Opiyo; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Rau, Hsiao-Hsien; Chao, Jane C-J

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of mortality and loss of disability-adjusted life years in developed countries. This study derived a dietary pattern using an a priori method and additionally derived dietary patterns using a posteriori methods, and assessed the relationship with CVD risk factors in Taiwanese middle-aged and elderly adults. Methods Cross-sectional analyses of 62,965 subjects aged 40 years and above from the Mei Jau (MJ) database collected between 2003 and 2012 in Taiwan. Diet was assessed using a 22 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Using this information, three dietary patterns were generated. The a priori diet was labeled the Taiwanese dietary pattern and was derived using hypothesized effect of 22 food groups, while two a posteriori dietary patterns, “vegi-fruits” and “meat-processed”, were derived using principal component analysis. The association between dietary patterns and a range of CVD risk factors (i.e. blood lipids, blood glucose and C-reactive protein) was evaluated using linear regression. Results The results showed that high intake (Q5, quintile 5) of Taiwanese diet was negatively associated with CVD risk factors at (p meat-processed dietary pattern (Q5) was positively associated with CVD risk factors (p meat-processed dietary pattern and CVD risk factors. The findings suggested that a diet rich in vegetables and fruits has a beneficial effect in the management of CVD risk factors. PMID:27366909

  19. Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in adolescents aged 14-18 y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Taryn J; Tripkovic, Laura; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescents are a population group at high risk of low vitamin D status, yet the evidence base for establishing dietary vitamin D requirements remains weak. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to establish the distribution of vitamin D intakes required to maintain serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)...

  20. Dietary cholesterol and fats at a young age : do they influence cholesterol metabolism in adult life?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmerman, A M; Vonk, R J; Niezen-Koning, K; Berger, R.; Fernandes, J

    1989-01-01

    The effects of dietary cholesterol and fats on cholesterol metabolism later in life were studied in Mongolian gerbils. Three groups were given a basic diet with soybean oil, palm kernel oil amounting to 8.75% (w/w), or the basic diet only. In three other groups, cholesterol (0.05%) was added to the

  1. Compliance With Legal Age Restrictions on Adolescent Alcohol Sales for Alcohol Home Delivery Services (AHDS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van Joris J.; Wildenberg, van den Esther; Bruijn, de Dorien

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Alcohol availability is an important predictor of alcohol use in adolescents and its negative consequences. Within this study, we zoomed in on availability through alcohol home delivery services (AHDS) by measuring compliance with the legal age limit in this sector. Methods: Two methods wer

  2. Interaction of growth hormone receptor/binding protein gene disruption and caloric restriction for insulin sensitivity and attenuated aging [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5a7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oge Arum

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The correlation of physiological sensitivity to insulin (vis-à-vis glycemic regulation and longevity is extensively established, creating a justifiable gerontological interest on whether insulin sensitivity is causative, or even predictive, of some or all phenotypes of slowed senescence (including longevity. The growth hormone receptor/ binding protein gene-disrupted (GHR-KO mouse is the most extensively investigated insulin-sensitive, attenuated aging model. It was reported that, in a manner divergent from similar mutants, GHR-KO mice fail to respond to caloric restriction (CR by altering their insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that maximized insulin responsiveness is what causes GHR-KO mice to exhibit a suppressed survivorship response to dietary (including caloric restriction; and attempted to refute this hypothesis by assessing the effects of CR on GHR-KO mice for varied slow-aging-associated phenotypes. In contrast to previous reports, we found GHR-KO mice on CR to be less responsive than their ad libitum (A.L. counterparts to the hypoglycemia-inducing effects of insulin. Further, CR had negligible effects on the metabolism or cognition of GHR-KO mice. Therefore, our data suggest that the effects of CR on the insulin sensitivity of GHR-KO mice do not concur with the effects of CR on the aging of GHR-KO mice.

  3. Interaction of growth hormone receptor/binding protein gene disruption and caloric restriction for insulin sensitivity and attenuated aging [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4fk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oge Arum

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The correlation of physiological sensitivity to insulin (vis-à-vis glycemic regulation and longevity is extensively established, creating a justifiable gerontological interest on whether insulin sensitivity is causative, or even predictive, of some or all phenotypes of slowed senescence (including longevity. The growth hormone receptor/ binding protein gene-disrupted (GHR-KO mouse is the most extensively investigated insulin-sensitive, attenuated aging model. It was reported that, in a manner divergent from similar mutants, GHR-KO mice fail to respond to caloric restriction (CR by altering their insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that maximized insulin responsiveness is what causes GHR-KO mice to exhibit a suppressed survivorship response to dietary (including caloric restriction; and attempted to refute this hypothesis by assessing the effects of CR on GHR-KO mice for varied slow-aging-associated phenotypes. In contrast to previous reports, we found GHR-KO mice on CR to be less responsive than their ad libitum (A.L. counterparts to the hypoglycemia-inducing effects of insulin. Further, CR had negligible effects on the metabolism or cognition of GHR-KO mice. Therefore, our data suggest that the effects of CR on the insulin sensitivity of GHR-KO mice do not concur with the effects of CR on the aging of GHR-KO mice.

  4. Integrating spot short-term measurements of carbon emissions and backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate intake in lactating dairy cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A B D; Utsumi, S A; Dorich, C D; Brito, A F

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to use spot short-term measurements of CH4 (QCH4) and CO2 (QCO2) integrated with backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate dry matter intake (DMI) in lactating dairy cows. Twelve multiparous cows averaging 173±37d in milk and 4 primiparous cows averaging 179±27d in milk were blocked by days in milk, parity, and DMI (as a percentage of body weight) and, within each block, randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: ad libitum intake (AL) or restricted intake (RI=90% DMI) according to a crossover design. Each experimental period lasted 22d with 14d for treatments adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. Diets contained (dry matter basis): 40% corn silage, 12% grass-legume haylage, and 48% concentrate. Spot short-term gas measurements were taken in 5-min sampling periods from 15 cows (1 cow refused sampling) using a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system (GreenFeed, C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD) with intervals of 12h between the 2daily samples. Sampling points were advanced 2h from a day to the next to yield 16 gas samples per cow over 8d to account for diurnal variation in QCH4 and QCO2. The following equations were used sequentially to estimate DMI: (1) heat production (MJ/d)=(4.96 + 16.07 ÷ respiratory quotient) × QCO2; respiratory quotient=0.95; (2) metabolizable energy intake (MJ/d)=(heat production + milk energy) ± tissue energy balance; (3) digestible energy (DE) intake (MJ/d)=metabolizable energy + CH4 energy + urinary energy; (4) gross energy (GE) intake (MJ/d)=DE + [(DE ÷ in vitro true dry matter digestibility) - DE]; and (5) DMI (kg/d)=GE intake estimated ÷ diet GE concentration. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) and Fit Model procedure in JMP (α=0.05; SAS Institute Inc.). Cows significantly differed in DMI measured (23.8 vs. 22.4kg/d for AL and RI, respectively). Dry matter intake estimated using QCH4 and QCO2 coupled with

  5. Association of dietary factors with presence and severity of tinnitus in a middle-aged UK population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby McCormack

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The impact of dietary factors on tinnitus has received limited research attention, despite being a considerable concern among people with tinnitus and clinicians. The objective was to examine the link between dietary factors and presence and severity of tinnitus. DESIGN: This study used the UK Biobank resource, a large cross-sectional study of adults aged 40-69. 171,722 eligible participants were asked questions specific to tinnitus (defined as noises such as ringing or buzzing in the head or ears. Dietary factors included portions of fruit and vegetables per day, weekly fish consumption (oily and non-oily, bread type, cups of caffeinated coffee per day, and avoidance of dairy, eggs, wheat and sugar. We controlled for lifestyle, noise exposure, hearing, personality and comorbidity factors. RESULTS: Persistent tinnitus, defined as present at least a lot of the time, was elevated with increased: (i fruit/vegetable intake (OR = 1.01 per portion/day, (ii bread (wholemeal/wholegrain, OR = 1.07; other bread, 1.20 and (iii dairy avoidance (OR = 1.27. Persistent tinnitus was reduced with: (i fish consumption (non-oily, OR = 0.91; oily, 0.95, (ii egg avoidance (OR = 0.87 and (iii caffeinated coffee consumption (OR = 0.99 per cup/day. Reports of “bothersome” tinnitus (moderate-severe handicap reduced with wholemeal/wholegrain bread intake (OR = 0.86 [corrected].Reports of less frequent transient tinnitus increased with dairy avoidance (OR = 1.18 and decreased with caffeinated coffee (OR = 0.98 per cup/day and brown bread (OR = 0.94. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first population study to report the association between dietary factors and tinnitus. Although individually dietary associations are mostly modest, particular changes in diet, such as switching between foodstuffs, may result in stronger associations. These findings offer insights into possible dietary associations with tinnitus, and this may be useful

  6. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aweke Kebede

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F in drinking water (~5 mg F/L. The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60 and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220. Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed.

  7. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Aweke; Retta, Negussie; Abuye, Cherinet; Whiting, Susan J; Kassaw, Melkitu; Zeru, Tesfaye; Tessema, Masresha; Kjellevold, Marian

    2016-01-01

    An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F) in drinking water (~5 mg F/L). The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60) and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F) content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220). Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL) of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages) all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L) the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed. PMID:27472351

  8. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Aweke; Retta, Negussie; Abuye, Cherinet; Whiting, Susan J; Kassaw, Melkitu; Zeru, Tesfaye; Tessema, Masresha; Kjellevold, Marian

    2016-07-26

    An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F) in drinking water (~5 mg F/L). The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60) and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F) content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220). Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL) of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages) all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L) the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed.

  9. Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Ara; Kim, Hyesook; Chung, Hyewon; Chang, Namsoo

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30–49 years) females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP). Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile) in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for those who consumed ≤100 g. These results suggest that, in Korean women of reproductive age, some foods such as beverages and egg may be associated with body burdens of BPA, MnBP, MEHHP and MEOHP. PMID:27399734

  10. Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ara Jo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30–49 years females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (MEOHP. Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for those who consumed ≤100 g. These results suggest that, in Korean women of reproductive age, some foods such as beverages and egg may be associated with body burdens of BPA, MnBP, MEHHP and MEOHP.

  11. Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Ara; Kim, Hyesook; Chung, Hyewon; Chang, Namsoo

    2016-07-05

    Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30-49 years) females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP). Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile) in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for those who consumed ≤100 g. These results suggest that, in Korean women of reproductive age, some foods such as beverages and egg may be associated with body burdens of BPA, MnBP, MEHHP and MEOHP.

  12. Influence of prolonged dietary consumption of zeolites on a survival rate and intestine response in mice different age after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of long-term dietary consumption of zeolites on the structural-functional status of adherent mucous layers of digestive tract in mice of different age is studied as well as zeolites effect on the survival and mean life span in irradiation mice. Mice were exposed to whole-body acute irradiation at 4 Gy dose. RUM-17 X-ray apparatus was used for exposure. It is shown that the zeolites increase the survival and mean life span in mice following irradiation. Shivirtuin caused more expressed effect than that of pegasin

  13. The effect of aging and caloric restriction on murine CD8+ T cell chemokine receptor gene expression

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    Mo RuRan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanism explaining the increased disease susceptibility in aging is not well understood. CD8+ T cells are crucial in anti-viral and anti-tumor responses. Although the chemokine system plays a critical role in CD8+ T cell function, very little is known about the relationship between aging and the T cell chemokine system. Results In this study we have examined the effect of aging on murine CD8+ T cell chemokine receptor gene expression. Freshly isolated splenic CD8+ T cells from old C57BL/6 mice were found to have higher CCR1, CCR2, CCR4, CCR5 and CXCR5, and lower CCR7 gene expression compared to their younger cohort. Anti-CD3/anti-CD28 stimulation elicited a similar robust chemokine receptor response from young and old CD8+ T cells. Western blot analyses confirmed elevated protein level of CCR4 and CCR5 in aged CD8+ T cells. Increases in T cell CCR1 and CCR5 expression also correlate to increased in vitro chemotaxis response to macrophage-inflammatory protein-1 α(MIP-1α. Finally, caloric restriction selectively prevents the loss of CD8+ T cell CCR7 gene expression in aging to the level that is seen in young CD8+ T cells. Conclusion These findings are consistent with the notion that aging exists in a state of low grade pro-inflammatory environment. In addition, our results provide a potential mechanism for the reported aging-associated impaired T cell lymphoid homing and allograft response, and reduced survival in sepsis.

  14. The Effect of Minimum Legal Drinking Age Restrictions on Teenage Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Inna Cintina

    2012-01-01

    I estimate the effect of state minimum legal drinking ages (MLDA) on teen pregnancy, birth, and abortion rates using individual level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Results from a discrete-time hazard model indicate that a decrease in the MLDA below 21 years increases the probability of pregnancy among black teens and, surprisingly, decreases the probability of pregnancy among Hispanics. Yet, the effect on white women is statistically insignificant. I find evidence of a ...

  15. Dietary glycemic index during pregnancy is associated with biomarkers of the metabolic syndrome in offspring at age 20 years.

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    Inge Danielsen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Growing evidence indicates that metabolic syndrome is rooted in fetal life with a potential key role of nutrition during pregnancy. The objective of the study was to assess the possible associations between the dietary glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL during pregnancy and biomarkers of the metabolic syndrome in young adult offspring. METHODS: Dietary GI and GL were assessed by questionnaires and interviews in gestation week 30 and offspring were clinically examined at the age of 20 years. Analyses based on 428 mother-offspring dyads were adjusted for maternal smoking during pregnancy, height, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, education, energy intake, and the offspring's ambient level of physical activity. In addition, possible confounding by gestational diabetes mellitus was taken into account. OUTCOME MEASURES: Waist circumference, blood pressure, HOMA insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and plasma levels of fasting glucose, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, insulin, and leptin were measured in the offspring. RESULTS: Significant associations were found between dietary GI in pregnancy and HOMA-IR (the relative increase in HOMA-IR per 10 units' GI increase was 1.09 [95% CI: 1.01, 1.16], p = 0.02, insulin (1.09 [95% CI: 1.02, 1.16], p = 0.01 and leptin (1.21 [95% CI: 1.06, 1.38], p = 0.01 in the offspring; whereas no associations were detected for GL. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that high dietary GI in pregnancy may affect levels of markers for the metabolic syndrome in young adult offspring in a potentially harmful direction.

  16. AgeFactDB—the JenAge Ageing Factor Database—towards data integration in ageing research

    OpenAIRE

    Hühne, Rolf; Thalheim, Torsten; Sühnel, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    AgeFactDB (http://agefactdb.jenage.de) is a database aimed at the collection and integration of ageing phenotype data including lifespan information. Ageing factors are considered to be genes, chemical compounds or other factors such as dietary restriction, whose action results in a changed lifespan or another ageing phenotype. Any information related to the effects of ageing factors is called an observation and is presented on observation pages. To provide concise access to the complete info...

  17. Association between Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study from 2003 to 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Adoyo Muga

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is one of the leading causes of mortality and loss of disability-adjusted life years in developed countries. This study derived a dietary pattern using an a priori method and additionally derived dietary patterns using a posteriori methods, and assessed the relationship with CVD risk factors in Taiwanese middle-aged and elderly adults.Cross-sectional analyses of 62,965 subjects aged 40 years and above from the Mei Jau (MJ database collected between 2003 and 2012 in Taiwan. Diet was assessed using a 22 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Using this information, three dietary patterns were generated. The a priori diet was labeled the Taiwanese dietary pattern and was derived using hypothesized effect of 22 food groups, while two a posteriori dietary patterns, "vegi-fruits" and "meat-processed", were derived using principal component analysis. The association between dietary patterns and a range of CVD risk factors (i.e. blood lipids, blood glucose and C-reactive protein was evaluated using linear regression.The results showed that high intake (Q5, quintile 5 of Taiwanese diet was negatively associated with CVD risk factors at (p < 0.001, model 3, but not with triacylglycerol. In addition, high intake of vegi-fruit dietary pattern (Q5 was negatively associated with CVD risk factors (p < 0.001, but not with high-density lipoprotein, while high consumption of meat-processed dietary pattern (Q5 was positively associated with CVD risk factors (p < 0.001, but negatively related with triacylglycerol in Q3 level and no association with C-reactive protein.A negative association was observed between Taiwanese or vegi-fruit dietary patterns and CVD risk factors, while a positive association was found between meat-processed dietary pattern and CVD risk factors. The findings suggested that a diet rich in vegetables and fruits has a beneficial effect in the management of CVD risk factors.

  18. Calving intervals in beef cows at 2, 3, and 4 years of age when breeding is not restricted after calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, L A; Azzam, S M; Kinder, J E

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate calving intervals and repeatability of calving intervals of young beef cows when breeding seasons were initiated immediately after calving. Average calving date at 2, 3, and 4 yr of age was recorded, and duration of calving interval between the first and second and second and third parities was compared in 178 crossbred beef cows calving between 1981 and 1988. Cows were placed in paddocks with intact bulls immediately after calving so they had the opportunity to conceive at the estrus associated with the initial estrous cycles after calving. Average Gregorian date of calving for cows was progressively earlier with older age (March 9, March 5, and February 14 at 2, 3, and 4) yr of age, respectively). Repeatability of calving intervals within individual cows was also evaluated. There was an interaction between year and parity on calving interval between 2 and 3 (P < .001) and 3 and 4 (P < .004) yr of age. Repeatability of calving interval was low and negative during 5 of the 6 yr. In young beef cows, year and parity interact to influence calving interval, and this average interval is less than 365 d when initiation of the breeding season is not restricted after calving. PMID:8707715

  19. Different dietary lifestyles and serum zinc and copper in women of reproductive age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breskin, M.W.; Worthington-Roberts, B.S.; Monsen, E.R.

    1986-03-01

    Nutrient intakes and biochemical measures of zinc and copper were compared in non-pregnant young women representing different dietary lifestyles, viz, those who habitually ate red meat (RM), fish or poultry (FP), or lacto-ovo-vegetarian (LV) sources of protein. All were in good health and concerned about their diets; none was using supplements or oral contraceptives. Three-day food records were analyzed for nutrient content. Serum and drinking water samples were assayed for zinc and copper (AAS), and serum, for ceruloplasmin (RID). Sign. diff. in dietary Zn or Cu content were not reflected by serum(Zn) or (Cu), but the incidence of serum(Zn) < the 95% CI for RM eaters was sign. higher in FP and LV groups (X/sup 2/ = 20.65, p < 0.001). Thus, use of diets limited in animal protein sources may be associated with an increase risk of low serum (Zn).

  20. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M; Abahussain Nada A; Al-Sobayel Hana I; Qahwaji Dina M; Musaiger Abdulrahman O

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in...

  1. Relationship between dietary iron intake, corrected for diet reporting error, and serum ferritin in Danish women aged 35-65 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, B L; Milman, N; Hansen, G L

    1996-06-01

    Several studies have failed to demonstrate an association between Fe status and intake of dietary Fe. However, in the long term, it seems logical to presume that body Fe reserves are, fundamentally, dependent on the intake of bioavailable dietary Fe. This discrepancy may depend on several factors: (1) interindividual variation in biological availability of dietary Fe (differences in intestinal absorption), (2) interactions between dietary Fe and absorption enhancers and inhibitors, (3) variations in physiological (menstruation, childbirth) or unphysiological (blood donation) Fe losses, (4) the failure to adjust dietary intake data for Fe supplements, (5) uncertain food composition data (discrepancies between calculated and chemically measured Fe content in the diet), and (6) diet reporting error (reported intake of dietary Fe may deviate considerably from the true intake). The present study examined associations between dietary intake of Fe (assessed by diet history interview) and Fe status (assessed by ferritin status) among 167 Danish women aged 35-65 years, who were not blood donors, by taking into account diet reporting error (assessed from p-amino benzoic acid-validated urinary N), physiological blood losses (menstruation, childbirth, abortions), and Fe supplementation. Our results indicate that the lack of a general association between Fe status and dietary Fe intake may, in part, be caused by selective diet reporting error. PMID:8774235

  2. Capability poverty by deficits in net dietary intake at early age – neglected by the Rangarajan poverty line

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    Per A Eklund

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Rangarajan Expert Group set up to improve the methodology for measuring poverty fails to: (i shift from uncertain assessments of calorie - consumption poverty to use of ‘direct’ determinants of deficits in net dietary intake, indicating risk of capability poverty; [1,2] (ii include vegetables and fruit as an additional food category; and (iii consider inequity in child nutritional outcomes.  The 2014 poverty line includes raised expenditure on calories, meat, protein and fats and four non-food categories. The report avoids the issue of disparities in social protection that drive capability poverty. It concludes that its normative food basket does offer “a basis for optimism on associated nutrition-status outcomes”. Rationale: Inferior nutrition status, compounded in the lowest wealth groups, argues for use of ‘direct’ indicators of net deficits in nutritional intake in poverty assessments, such as the growth curve of children and measurements of anaemia. [3,4] Objective: Where, and how, do diseases and poor nutrients, contribute to rising deficits in net dietary intake? In 20 of 106 districts, in six states, from the 2002-04 LDHS-2 to the 2011 Hungama survey, child underweight (<-2SD, 5y increased by more than 5 percentage points. [5] Why? Methods and results: Literature confirms socio-economic rationale of addressing capability poverty indicated by child chronic undernutrition. [6,7,8] Iron-poor vegetarian diets, limited coverage of iron supplementation to young children and of food fortification in low-income settings, argue for raised intake of fruit and vegetables. [9] Conclusion: Capability poverty, driven by nutritional deficits at early age, perpetuates socio-economic disparities. Will location-specific determinants be addressed of rising deficits in net dietary intake at early age? Will iron - rich vegetables and fruits become an additional food group in a revised poverty line? 

  3. Effect of aging and dietary salt and potassium intake on endothelial PTEN (Phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome 10 function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Zhong Ying

    Full Text Available Aging promotes endothelial dysfunction, defined as a reduction in bioavailable nitric oxide (NO produced by the endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (NOS3. This enzyme is critically regulated by phosphorylation by protein kinase B (Akt, which in turn is regulated by the lipid phosphatase, PTEN. The present series of studies demonstrated a reduction in bioavailable NO as the age of rats increased from 1 to 12 months. At 12 months of age, rats no longer demonstrated increases in phosphorylated NOS3 in response to high dietary salt intake. Endothelial cell levels of PTEN increased with age and became refractory to change with increased salt intake. In contrast to the reduction in NO production, endothelial cell production of transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß relative to NO increased progressively with age. In macrovascular endothelial cells, PTEN was regulated in a dose-dependent fashion by TGF-ß, which was further regulated by extracellular [KCl]. When combined with prior studies, the present series of experiments suggested an integral role for PTEN in endothelial cell pathobiology of aging and an important mitigating function of TGF-ß in endothelial PTEN regulation. The findings further supported a role for diet in affecting vascular function through the production of TGF-ß and NO.

  4. Smoking, antioxidant supplementation and dietary intakes among older adults with age-related macular degeneration over 10 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamini Gopinath

    Full Text Available We aimed to compare the micronutrient usage and other lifestyle behaviors over 10 years among those with and without age-related macular degeneration (AMD. 1612 participants aged 49+ years at baseline were re-examined over 10 years, west of Sydney, Australia. AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Smoking status was self-reported. 56 participants had any AMD at baseline, of these 25% quit smoking at 5 years and were still not smoking at 10-year follow-up. Among participants who had below the recommended intake of vitamins A, C or E supplements at baseline, those who did compared to those who did not develop late AMD over 10 years were more likely to report vitamins A (total, C or E supplement intake above the recommended intake at 10-year follow-up: multivariable-adjusted OR 4.21 (95% CI 1.65-10.73; OR 6.52 (95% CI 2.76-15.41; and OR 5.71 (95% CI 2.42-13.51, respectively. Participants with compared to without AMD did not appreciably increase fish, fruit and vegetable consumption and overall diet quality. Adherence to smoking and dietary recommendations was poor among older adults with AMD. However, uptake of antioxidant supplements increased significantly among those with late AMD.

  5. An Antioxidant Dietary Supplement Improves Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Serum of Aged Dogs: Preliminary Results

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    Sara Sechi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological aging is characterized by a progressive accumulation of oxidative damage and decreased endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms. The production of oxidants by normal metabolism damages proteins, lipids, and nucleotides, which may contribute to cognitive impairment. In this study 36 dogs were randomly divided into four groups and fed croquettes of different compositions for 6 months. We monitored derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (dROMs and biological antioxidant potential (BAP levels in dogs’ plasma samples as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF serum levels at the beginning and at the end of the dietary regime. Our results showed that a dietary regime, enriched with antioxidants, induced a significant decrease of plasma levels of dROMs (p<0.005 and a significant increase in BDNF serum levels (p<0.005 after six months. Thus, we hypothesized a possible role of the diet in modulating pro- and antioxidant species as well as BDNF levels in plasma and serum, respectively. In conclusion the proposed diet enriched with antioxidants might be considered a valid alternative and a valuable strategy to counteract aging-related cognitive decline in elderly dogs.

  6. Mediterranean dietary pattern and prevalence and incidence of depressive symptoms in mid-aged women: results from a large community-based prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienks, J.; Dobson, A.; Mishra, G.D.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between dietary patterns and prevalence and incidence 3 years later of depressive symptoms using data from the mid-aged cohort in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Participants (aged 50–55 years) completed a f

  7. Risk of dietary exposure to aflatoxins and fumonisins in infants less than 6 months of age in Rombo, Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoha, Happy; Kimanya, Martin; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Roberfroid, Dominique; Lachat, Carl; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Infants less than 6 months of age receiving foods other than breast milk are at a high risk of exposure to mycotoxins. We surveyed food intake and estimated the risk of exposures to aflatoxin and fumonisin mycotoxins for infants less than 6 months of age in Northern Tanzania. A total of 143 infants were progressively recruited and three follow-up visits were made at 1, 3 and 5 months of age. A 24-h dietary recall technique was used to estimate flour intake of infants who had been introduced to maize foods. Aflatoxins and fumonisins in the flours were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography technique. Exposure to aflatoxins or fumonisins was estimated using the deterministic approach. By the age of 3 months, 98 infants had started taking food; 67 of them, maize flours at levels ranging from 0.57 to 37.50 g per infant per day (average 8 g per infant per day). Fifty-eight per cent of 67 maize flour samples contained detectable aflatoxins (range 0.33-69.47 μg kg(-1) ; median 6 μg kg(-1) ) and 31% contained detectable fumonisins (range 48-1224 μg kg(-1) ; median 124 μg kg(-1) ). For infants who consumed contaminated flours, aflatoxin exposure ranged from 0.14 to 120 ng kg(-1) body weight (BW) per day (all above the health concern level of 0.017 ng kg(-1) BW per day as recommended by the European Food Safety Agency) and fumonisin exposure ranged from 0.005 to 0.88 μg kg(-1) BW per day. Insignificant association was observed between exposure to fumonisins or aflatoxins and stunting or underweight. Reducing aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of maize and dietary diversification can prevent infants and the public, in general, from exposure to the toxins. PMID:25422038

  8. The effect of under-reporting of energy intake on dietary patterns and on the associations between dietary patterns and self-reported chronic disease in women aged 50-69 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markussen, Marianne S; Veierød, Marit B; Ursin, Giske; Andersen, Lene F

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether under-reporting of energy intake affects derived dietary patterns and the association between dietary patterns and self-reported chronic disease. Diets of 6204 women aged 50-69 years participating in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program were assessed using a 253-item FFQ. We identified dietary patterns using principal component analysis. According to the revised Goldberg cut-off method, women with a ratio of reported energy intake:estimated BMR<1·10 were classified as low energy reporters (n 1133, 18 %). We examined the associations between dietary patterns and self-reported chronic diseases by log-binomial regression, and the results are presented as prevalence ratios (PR) and CI. 'Prudent', 'Western' and 'Continental' dietary patterns were identified among all reporters and plausible reporters. The PR expressing the associations between the 'Western' and 'Prudent' dietary pattern scores and self-reported chronic diseases were consistently highest among plausible reporters except for joint/muscle/skeletal disorders. The largest difference in PR among plausible v. all reporters was found for the association between the 'Prudent' pattern and diabetes (PR for highest v. lowest tertile: PRall reporters 2·16; 95 % CI 1·50, 3·13; P trend<0·001; PRplausible reporters 2·86; 95 % CI 1·81, 4·51; P trend<0·001). In conclusion, our results suggest that under-reporting can result in systematic error that can affect the association between dietary pattern and disease. In studies of dietary patterns, investigators ought to consider reporting effect estimates both for all individuals and for plausible reporters. PMID:27265399

  9. Adaptação transcultural para o Brasil do Dietary Sodium Restriction Questionnaire (Questionário Restritivo da Dieta de Sódio (DSRQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Sanches Machado d'Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A restrição de sódio é uma medida não farmacológica frequentemente orientada aos pacientes com Insuficiência Cardíaca (IC. No entanto, a adesão é de baixa prevalência, ficando entre as causas mais frequentes de descompensação da IC. O Dietary Sodium Restriction Questionnaire (DSRQ tem como objetivo identificar fatores que afetam a adesão à restrição dietética de sódio para pacientes com IC. No Brasil, não existem instrumentos que avaliem tais fatores. OBJETIVO: Realizar a adaptação transcultural do DSRQ. MÉTODOS: Estudo metodológico que envolveu as seguintes etapas: tradução, síntese, retrotradução, revisão por um comitê de especialistas, pré-teste da versão final e análise de concordância interobservador. No pré-teste foram avaliados os itens e sua compreensão, além da consistência interna pelo coeficiente alfa de Cronbach. O instrumento foi aplicado por dois pesquisadores simultânea e independentemente, sendo utilizado o teste Kappa para análise da concordância. RESULTADOS: Apenas uma questão sofreu alterações semânticas e/ou culturais maiores. No pré-teste, o alfa de Cronbach obtido para o total foi de 0,77, e para as escalas de Atitude, Norma subjetiva e Controle Comportamental obtiveram-se, respectivamente, 0,66, 0,50 e 0,85. Na etapa de concordância, o Kappa foi calculado para 12 das 16 questões, com valores que variaram de 0,62 a 1,00. Nos itens em que o cálculo não foi possível, a incidência de respostas iguais variou de 95% a 97,5%. CONCLUSÃO: A partir da adaptação transcultural do DSRQ foi possível propor uma versão do questionário para posterior avaliação das propriedades psicométricas.

  10. Effects of dietary energy on growth performance and carcass quality of white growing pekin ducks from two to six weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, H P; Xie, M; Wang, W W; Hou, S S; Huang, W

    2008-06-01

    A dose-response experiment with 6 dietary energy levels (2,600, 2,700, 2,800, 2,900, 3,000, 3,100 kcal of AME /kg) was conducted to study the effects of dietary energy on growth performance and carcass quality of White Pekin ducks from 2 to 6 wk of age. Six hundred 14-d-old White Pekin ducks were randomly divided to 6 dietary treatments, each containing 5 replicate pens with 10 males and 10 females per pen, and these birds were raised until 6 wk of age. At 42 d of age, weight gain, feed intake, and feed:gain of ducks from each pen were measured, and 2 ducks (1 male and 1 female) selected randomly from each pen were slaughtered to evaluate the yields of abdominal fat, breast meat (including pectoralis major and pectoralis minor), and leg meat (including thigh and drumstick). As dietary energy increased from 2,600 to 3,100 kcal of AME/kg, the weight gain of ducks increased significantly, and the feed intake and feed:gain decreased significantly. According to the broken-line regression analysis, the AME requirements of White Pekin ducks from 2 to 6 wk of age for optimal weight gain and feed:gain were 3,008 and 3,030 kcal/kg, respectively, when dietary protein was 18%. On the other hand, high dietary energy did not affect breast and leg meat (P > 0.05), but abdominal fat increased (P < 0.05) when dietary AME was above 2,700 kcal/kg.

  11. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods. The objective ...

  12. Caloric restriction increases internal iliac artery and penil nitric oxide synthase expression in rat: Comparison of aged and adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Ozbek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of the positive corelation between healthy cardiovascular system and sexual life we aimed to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction (CR on endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, nNOS expression in cavernousal tissues and eNOS expression in the internal iliac artery in young and aged rats. Young (3 mo, n = 7 and aged (24 mo, n = 7 male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 40% CR and were allowed free access to water for 3 months. Control rats (n = 14 fed ad libitum had free access to food and water at all times. On day 90, rats were sacrified and internal iliac arteries and penis were removed and parafinized, eNOS and nNOS expression evaluated with immunohistochemistry. Results were evaluated semiquantitatively. eNOS and nNOS expression in cavernousal tis- sue in CR rats were more strong than in control group in both young and old rats. eNOS expression was also higher in the internal iliac arteries of CR rats than in control in young and old rats. As a result of our study we can say that there is a positive link between CR and neurotransmitter of erection in cavernousal tissues and internal iliac arteries. CR has beneficial effect to prevent sexual dysfunction in young and old animals and possible humans.

  13. Development of a bioassay to screen for chemicals mimicking the anti-aging effects of calorie restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → We identified four sequence motifs lying upstream of putative pro-longevity genes. → One of these motifs binds to HNF-4α. → HNF-4α/PGC-1α could up-regulate the transcription of a reporter gene linked to this motif. → The reporter system described here could be used to screen candidate anti-aging molecules. -- Abstract: Suppression of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I pathway in Ames dwarf (DF) mice, and caloric restriction (CR) in normal mice extends lifespan and delays the onset of age-related disorders. In combination, these interventions have an additive effect on lifespan in Ames DF mice. Therefore, common signaling pathways regulated by DF and CR could have additive effects on longevity. In this study, we tried to identity the signaling mechanism and develop a system to assess pro-longevity status in cells and mice. We previously identified genes up-regulated in the liver of DF and CR mice by DNA microarray analysis. Motif analysis of the upstream sequences of those genes revealed four major consensus sequence motifs, which have been named dwarfism and calorie restriction-responsive elements (DFCR-REs). One of the synthesized sequences bound to hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α (HNF-4α), an important transcription factor involved in liver metabolism. Furthermore, using this sequence information, we developed a highly sensitive bioassay to identify chemicals mimicking the anti-aging effects of CR. When the reporter construct, containing an element upstream of a secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) gene, was co-transfected with HNF-4α and its regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), SEAP activity was increased compared with untransfected controls. Moreover, transient transgenic mice established using this construct showed increased SEAP activity in CR mice compared with ad libitum-fed mice. These data suggest that because of its rapidity, ease of use, and specificity

  14. Development of a bioassay to screen for chemicals mimicking the anti-aging effects of calorie restriction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Takuya, E-mail: takuya@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Investigative Pathology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Tomoshi [Division of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8501 (Japan); Komatsu, Toshimitsu; Mori, Ryoichi; Hayashi, Hiroko [Department of Investigative Pathology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Shimano, Hitoshi [Department of Internal Medicine (Endocrinology and Metabolism), Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Spindler, Stephen R. [Department of Biochemistry, Room 5478, Boyce Hall, University of California - Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Shimokawa, Isao [Department of Investigative Pathology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} We identified four sequence motifs lying upstream of putative pro-longevity genes. {yields} One of these motifs binds to HNF-4{alpha}. {yields} HNF-4{alpha}/PGC-1{alpha} could up-regulate the transcription of a reporter gene linked to this motif. {yields} The reporter system described here could be used to screen candidate anti-aging molecules. -- Abstract: Suppression of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I pathway in Ames dwarf (DF) mice, and caloric restriction (CR) in normal mice extends lifespan and delays the onset of age-related disorders. In combination, these interventions have an additive effect on lifespan in Ames DF mice. Therefore, common signaling pathways regulated by DF and CR could have additive effects on longevity. In this study, we tried to identity the signaling mechanism and develop a system to assess pro-longevity status in cells and mice. We previously identified genes up-regulated in the liver of DF and CR mice by DNA microarray analysis. Motif analysis of the upstream sequences of those genes revealed four major consensus sequence motifs, which have been named dwarfism and calorie restriction-responsive elements (DFCR-REs). One of the synthesized sequences bound to hepatocyte nuclear factor-4{alpha} (HNF-4{alpha}), an important transcription factor involved in liver metabolism. Furthermore, using this sequence information, we developed a highly sensitive bioassay to identify chemicals mimicking the anti-aging effects of CR. When the reporter construct, containing an element upstream of a secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) gene, was co-transfected with HNF-4{alpha} and its regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {gamma} coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}), SEAP activity was increased compared with untransfected controls. Moreover, transient transgenic mice established using this construct showed increased SEAP activity in CR mice compared with ad libitum-fed mice. These data

  15. Effects of age and dietary soybean oil level on eggshell quality, bone strength and blood biochemistry in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S; Cui, L Y; Hou, J F; Shi, C; Ke, X; Yang, L C; Ma, X P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the differences in eggshell quality, bone quality and serum bone biochemistry markers associated with changes in age and dietary soybean oil levels in laying hens. A total of 54, 19-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were housed in 18 battery cages (3 birds/cage) and randomly divided into three diet treatments for 90 d: control-fat (CF, 1.9% soybean oil), moderate-fat (MF, 7% soybean oil) and high-fat (HF, 10% soybean oil). The hens' body weights (BW), egg production, egg weights, eggshell thickness and femoral diameter were higher at d 90 than at d 60 or d 30. Meanwhile, feed intake, relative bone weights, all bone strength parameters and serum Ca were lower at d 90 or 60 than at d 30. Compared to the CF hens, the feed intake, BW, abdominal fat pad weights and serum alkaline phosphatase activity were elevated in MF or HF hens. The eggshell thickness, relative femoral and tibial weight, femoral stiffness, femoral modulus, tibial mixed force and serum calcium and phosphorus levels were lower in MF or HF hens than CF hens. These findings suggest that bone loss in caged hens starts from an early stage of the laying period, and dietary oil (particularly with diets over 10% soybean oil) has harmful effects on eggshell quality, bone strength and bone mineralisation from an early stage of the laying period.

  16. Dietary source of vitamin B12 intake and vitamin B12 status in female elderly Koreans aged 85 and older living in rural area

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Lee, Mee Sook; Lee, Hae Jeung; Whang, Jin Yong; Park, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we found and analyzed vitamin B12 in some Korean traditional plant foods which had not reported, yet. This study was to investigate vitamin B12 intake and its dietary sources and the vitamin B12 status in the very old elderly Koreans. We measured serum vitamin B12 level and estimated the amounts of vitamin B12 intake from different dietary sources in female elderly Koreans aged 85 and over who had consumed a relatively low animal traditional diet for the whole life. The average age ...

  17. Maternal obesity and offspring dietary patterns at 9 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Trolle, Ellen;

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives:Differences in the quality of complementary feeding between infants of obese and nonobese mothers have not been examined sufficiently. The aim of this paper was to compare dietary patterns, foods, nutrients and energy intakes of 9-month-old Danish infants in a cohort.......Results:SKOT I was characterized by a lower maternal body mass index (BMI) and a higher social class than SKOT II in relation to parental education and occupation. Infants in SKOT II had lower scores on a Health-Conscious Food pattern reflected at the food group level, for example, with lower intake of the food...... months. Therefore, the promotion of healthy complementary feeding might be beneficial for the prevention of health implications, such as obesity, later in life for these infants.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 3 December 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.258....

  18. Mechanistically linking age-related diseases and dietary carbohydrate via autophagy and the ubiquitin proteolytic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological data indicate that consuming diets that deliver sugar to the blood rapidly (called high glycemic index, GI) is associated with enhanced risk for age-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cataract and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). These debilities...

  19. Nutritional adequacy of dietary intake in women with anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the establishment of dietary treatment. Design: Women, aged 19 to 30 years, with both restricting and binge purge types of AN, participating in an ecological momentary assessment study, completed three nonc...

  20. Associations between Dietary Fiber Intake in Infancy and Cardiometabolic Health at School Age: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gijssel, Rafaëlle M A; Braun, Kim V E; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Franco, Oscar H; Voortman, Trudy

    2016-01-01

    Dietary fiber (DF) intake may be beneficial for cardiometabolic health. However, whether this already occurs in early childhood is unclear. We investigated associations between DF intake in infancy and cardiometabolic health in childhood among 2032 children participating in a population-based cohort in The Netherlands. Information on DF intake at a median age of 12.9 months was collected using a food-frequency questionnaire. DF was adjusted for energy intake using the residual method. At age 6 years, body fat percentage, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and blood pressure were assessed and expressed in age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores (SDS). These five factors were combined into a cardiometabolic risk factor score. In models adjusted for several parental and child covariates, a higher DF intake was associated with a lower cardiometabolic risk factor score. When we examined individual cardiometabolic factors, we observed that a 1 g/day higher energy-adjusted DF intake was associated with 0.026 SDS higher HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.009, 0.042), and 0.020 SDS lower triglycerides (95% CI -0.037, -0.003), but not with body fat, insulin, or blood pressure. Results were similar for DF with and without adjustment for energy intake. Our findings suggest that higher DF intake in infancy may be associated with better cardiometabolic health in later childhood. PMID:27589791

  1. The role of dietary protein intake in the prevention of sarcopenia of aging

    OpenAIRE

    Beasley, Jeannette M; Shikany, James M.; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as age-related decrease in muscle mass and performance. Several consensus definitions of sarcopenia exist, each providing different cut points and methodologies for assessing muscle mass and muscle strength. Thus, wide variation in the prevalence of sarcopenia has been reported, generally ranging up to 45% for men and 26% for women. Risk factors for sarcopenia include age, malnutrition, and physical inactivity. Additional evidence suggests a protective role for protein s...

  2. Body composition, dietary patterns, cardiovascular disease and mortality in older age

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and poor quality diet are major interrelated risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality, which are well established in middle-aged populations. However, there is controversy on the effects of obesity on CVD and mortality in the elderly. Since body composition changes with age (visceral fat increases and muscle mass decreases) it may be important to also account for muscle mass in the elderly. However, few studies have examined the combined effects of adiposity and sar...

  3. Dietary restriction-resistant human tumors harboring the PIK3CA-activating mutation H1047R are sensitive to metformin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cufí, Sílvia; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Lopez-Bonet, Eugeni; Bonavia, Rosa; Pernas, Sonia; López, Isabel álvarez; Dorca, Joan; Martínez, Susana; López, Norberto Batista; Fernández, Severina Domínguez; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Visa, Joana; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Joven, Jorge; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Menendez, Javier A.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer cells expressing constitutively active phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) are proliferative regardless of the absence of insulin, and they form dietary restriction (DR)-resistant tumors in vivo. Because the binding of insulin to its receptors activates the PI3K/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling cascade, activating mutations in the PIK3CA oncogene may determine tumor response to DR-like pharmacological strategies targeting the insulin and mTOR pathways. The anti-diabetic drug metformin is a stereotypical DR mimetic that exerts its anti-cancer activity through a dual mechanism involving insulin-related (systemic) and mTOR-related (cell-autonomous) effects. However, it remains unclear whether PIK3CA-activating mutations might preclude the anti-cancer activity of metformin in vivo. To model the oncogenic PIK3CA-driven early stages of cancer, we used the clonal breast cancer cell line MCF10DCIS.com, which harbors the gain-of-function H1047R hot-spot mutation in the catalytic domain of the PI3KCA gene and has been shown to form DR-refractory xenotumors. To model PIK3CA-activating mutations in late stages of cancer, we took advantage of the isogenic conversion of a PIK3CA-wild-type tumor into a PIK3CA H1047R-mutated tumor using the highly metastatic colorectal cancer cell line SW48. MCF10DCIS.com xenotumors, although only modestly affected by treatment with oral metformin (approximately 40% tumor growth inhibition), were highly sensitive to the intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of metformin, the anti-cancer activity of which increased in a time-dependent manner and reached >80% tumor growth inhibition by the end of the treatment. Metformin treatment via the i.p. route significantly reduced the proliferation factor mitotic activity index (MAI) and decreased tumor cellularity in MCF10DCIS.com cancer tissues. Whereas SW48-wild-type (PIK3CA+/+) cells rapidly formed metformin-refractory xenotumors in mice, ad libitum access to water containing

  4. Effects of dietary restriction on lowing blood lipid and learning-memory behaviors of hyperlipidemia mice%饮食限制对高脂小鼠降血脂和学习记忆行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高海涛; 邵邻相; 成文召; 陈康丽; 许争争; 吴云飞; 张璐敏

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of dietary restriction on weight,blood lipid and learning-memory behaviors of hyperlipidemia mice,hyperlipidemia mice model was established.Those mice were randomly divided into model control group and 20%-,40%-,60%-dietary restriction group (DR20% group,DR40% group,DR60% group) with 10 mice in each group.After restrict diet for 28 days,the concentration of total cholesterol (TC),triglyceride (TG),high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C),and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were determined by commercial assay kits; learning-memory behaviors were tested by Morris water maze and open field test.All the mice were dissected to measure organs coefficient and Lee's index.The results revealed that weight,Lee's index,fat coefficient and TG concentration of each dietary restriction group mice were markedly lower than model control group (P < 0.05) ; Spleen coefficient of DR20% group and DR40% group mice were significantly lower than model control group (P <0.01),but liver coefficient and HDL-C content was higher than model control group (P < 0.01).TG and LDL-C concentration of DR60% group mice were notably lower than model control group (P < 0.05).In morris water maze experiment,the latency of each dietary restriction group's mice was strikingly shorter than model control group (P <0.05).The results demonstrated that dietary restriction could reduce hyperlipidemia mice's weight and blood lipid,and improve their learning-memory ability.%为探究饮食限制对高脂小鼠体质量、血脂及学习记忆能力的影响,建立了高脂小鼠模型,设模型组和20%,40%,60%饮食限制组(DR20%组、DR40%组、DR60%组),饮食限制28d,测定小鼠的总胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)含量;用开场实验和水迷宫实验测定小鼠的学习记忆能力;解剖小鼠,测定小鼠各脏器系数及Lee's指

  5. Reducing the Genetic Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration With Dietary Antioxidants, Zinc, and omega-3 Fatty Acids The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Ho; R. van Leeuwen; J.C.M. Witteman; C.M. van Duijn; A.G. Uitterlinden; A. Hofman; P.T.V.M. de Jong; J.R. Vingerling; C.C.W. Klaver

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether dietary nutrients can reduce the genetic risk of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) conferred by the genetic variants CFH Y402H and LOC387715 A69S in a nested case-control study. Methods: For 2167 individuals (>= 55 years) from the population-based Rotterd

  6. Metabolic and growth response of mink (Neovison vison) kits until 10 weeks of age when exposed to different dietary protein provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Caroline; Fink, Rikke; Matthiesen, Connie Marianne Frank;

    2012-01-01

    Growth performance and metabolism were investigated in mink kits (n = 210) exposed to the same dietary treatment as their dams (n = 30), i.e. high (HP; 61% of metabolisable energy, ME), medium (MP; 48% of ME) or low (LP; 30% of ME) protein supply, from birth until 10 weeks of age. The kits were w...

  7. Dietary intake, food pattern, and abnormal blood glucose status of middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional community-based study in Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlaing Hlaing Hlaing

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lifestyle changes, particularly dietary intake, had resulted in increasing trends of type-2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, dietary intake is diverse across country contexts. This study aimed to compare the dietary intake, food patterns, and blood glucose among middle-aged adults living in urban and suburban areas in Mandalay city, Myanmar, and explore their relationships. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted during June–November 2014. Adults aged 35–64 were randomly selected and requested to record all food they ate in a 4-day diary. Fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose values were measured over two consecutive days. Dietary intakes were calculated in terms of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index, and glycemic load, and food patterns were identified by factor analysis. The relationships between food pattern, dietary intake, and blood glucose were assessed. Results: Of 440 participants, dietary intake between urban and suburban residents was significantly different. Six food patterns were identified. There was no difference in fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose between urban and suburban residents, but a strong correlation between fasting blood glucose and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose was found (correlation coefficient=0.8. Identification of abnormal blood glucose status using original fasting and converted 2-hour postprandial values showed substantial agreement (prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa= 0.8. Relationships between food patterns and blood glucose or abnormal blood glucose status were not found. Conclusion: Food patterns were associated with dietary intake, not with abnormal blood glucose status. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was highly correlated with fasting blood glucose and may be used for identifying abnormal blood glucose status.

  8. Do long-lived mutant and calorie-restricted mice share common anti-aging mechanisms?--a pathological point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeno, Yuji; Lew, Christie M; Cortez, Lisa A; Webb, Celeste R; Lee, Shuko; Hubbard, Gene B

    2006-06-01

    Rodent models are an invaluable resource for studying the mechanism of mammalian aging. In recent years, the availability of transgenic and knockout mouse models has facilitated the study of potential mechanisms of aging. Since 1996, aging studies with several long-lived mutant mice have been conducted. Studies with the long-lived mutant mice, Ames and Snell dwarf, and growth hormone receptor/binding protein knockout mice, are currently providing important clues regarding the role of the growth hormone/insulin like growth factor-1 axis in the aging process. Interestingly, these studies demonstrate that these long-lived mutant mice have physiological characteristics that are similar to the effects of calorie restriction, which has been the most effective experimental manipulation capable of extending lifespan in various species. However, a question remains to be answered: do these long-lived mutant and calorie-restricted mice extend their lifespan through a common underlying mechanism? PMID:19943137

  9. Dietary habits of partly breast-fed and completely weaned infants at 9 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondolf, Ulla Holmboe; Tetens, Inge; Fleischer Michaelsen, Kim;

    2012-01-01

    completely weaned infants (n 141) of similar age. Furthermore, they had lower intake of energy, both in absolute amount (P,0?0001) and per kilogram of body weight (P50?049). Significantly lower intakes of most energy-yielding nutrients, in absolute amounts and as energy percentages, were seen for the partly...

  10. Maintenance of a healthy trajectory of the intestinal microbiome during aging: A dietary approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candela, M.; Biagi, E.; Brigidi, P.; O'Toole, P.W.; Vos, de W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Sharing an intense transgenomic metabolism with the host, the intestinal microbiota is an essential factor for several aspects of the human physiology. However, several age-related factors, such as changes diet, lifestyle, inflammation and frailty, force the deterioration of this intestinal microbio

  11. Isotopic dietary reconstruction of humans from Middle Bronze Age Lerna, Argolid, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triantaphyllou, S.; Richards, M. P.; Zerner, C.; Voutsaki, S.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the results of a carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis of 39 human bone and 8 animal samples from Middle Bronze Age (or Middle Helladic, MH, ca. 2100-1700 BC) Lerna, Greece. The isotopic data indicate that the humans had a C-3 terrestrial diet while certain individuals appe

  12. Accelerated aging of reproductive capacity in male rat offspring of protein-restricted mothers is associated with increased testicular and sperm oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-González, Guadalupe L.; Reyes-Castro, Luis A.; Vega, Claudia C; Boeck, Lourdes; Ibáñez, Carlos; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Larrea, Fernando; Zambrano, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Maternal protein restriction (MPR) in pregnancy causes life course organ dysfunction, but few studies link the developmental origins of disease hypothesis to early aging. Suboptimal developmental nutrition increases oxidative stress (OS) and male infertility, damaging sperm function. We hypothesized that MPR in pregnancy accelerates age-related changes in testicular and sperm function related to both maternal diet and increased testicular OS in rat offspring. We studied male rats whose pregna...

  13. Influence of aging and long-term caloric restriction on oxygen radical generation and oxidative DNA damage in rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Torres, Mónica; Gredilla, Ricardo; Sanz, Alberto; Barja, Gustavo

    2002-05-01

    The effect of long-term caloric restriction and aging on the rates of mitochondrial H2O2 production and oxygen consumption as well as on oxidative damage to nuclear (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was studied in rat liver tissue. Long-term caloric restriction significantly decreased H2O2 production of rat liver mitochondria (47% reduction) and significantly reduced oxidative damage to mtDNA (46% reduction) with no changes in nDNA. The decrease in ROS production was located at complex I because it only took place with complex I-linked substrates (pyruvate/malate) but not with complex II-linked substrates (succinate). The mechanism responsible for that decrease in ROS production was not a decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption because it did not change after long-term restriction. Instead, the caloric restricted mitochondria released less ROS per unit electron flow, due to a decrease in the reduction degree of the complex I generator. On the other hand, increased ROS production with aging in state 3 was observed in succinate-supplemented mitochondria because old control animals were unable to suppress H2O2 production during the energy transition from state 4 to state 3. The levels of 8-oxodG in mtDNA increased with age in old animals and this increase was abolished by caloric restriction. These results support the idea that caloric restriction reduces the aging rate at least in part by decreasing the rate of mitochondrial ROS production and so, the rate of oxidative attack to biological macromolecules like mtDNA. PMID:11978489

  14. A priori and a posteriori dietary patterns at the age of 1 year and body composition at the age of 6 years: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voortman, Trudy; Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; Franco, Oscar H; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Moll, Henriette A; Hofman, Albert; van den Hooven, Edith H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2016-08-01

    Dietary patterns have been linked to obesity in adults, however, not much is known about this association in early childhood. We examined associations of different types of dietary patterns in 1-year-old children with body composition at school age in 2026 children participating in a population-based cohort study. Dietary intake at the age of 1 year was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. At the children's age of 6 years we measured their body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and we calculated body mass index, fat mass index (FMI), and fat-free mass index (FFMI). Three dietary pattern approaches were used: (1) An a priori-defined diet quality score; (2) dietary patterns based on variation in food intake, derived from principal-component-analysis (PCA); and (3) dietary patterns based on variations in FMI and FFMI, derived with reduced-rank-regression (RRR). Both the a priori-defined diet score and a 'Health-conscious' PCA-pattern were characterized by a high intake of fruit, vegetables, grains, and vegetable oils, and, after adjustment for confounders, children with higher adherence to these patterns had a higher FFMI at 6 years [0.19 SD (95 % CI 0.08;0.30) per SD increase in diet score], but had no different FMI. One of the two RRR-patterns was also positively associated with FFMI and was characterized by intake of whole grains, pasta and rice, and vegetable oils. Our results suggest that different a priori- and a posteriori-derived health-conscious dietary patterns in early childhood are associated with a higher fat-free mass, but not with fat mass, in later childhood. PMID:27384175

  15. Dietary lactoferrin alleviates age-related lacrimal gland dysfunction in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoko Kawashima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Decrease in lacrimal gland secretory function is related to age-induced dry eye disease. Lactoferrin, the main glycoprotein component of tears, has multiple functions, including anti-inflammatory effects and the promotion of cell growth. We investigated how oral administration of lactoferrin affects age-related lacrimal dysfunction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Twelve-month-old male C57BL/6Cr Slc mice were randomly divided into a control fed group and an oral lactoferrin treatment group. Tear function was measured at a 6-month time-point. After euthanasia, the lacrimal glands were subjected to histological examination with 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG antibodies, and serum concentrations of 8-OHdG and hexanoyl-lysine adduct (HEL were evaluated. Additionally, monocyte chemotactic protein-1(MCP-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α gene expression levels were determined by real-time PCR. The volume of tear secretion was significantly larger in the treated group than in the control. Lactoferrin administration reduced inflammatory cell infiltration and the MCP-1 and TNF-α expression levels. Serum concentrations of 8-OHdG and HEL in the lactoferrin group were lower than those in the control group and were associated with attenuated 8-OHdG immunostaining of the lacrimal glands. CONCLUSION: Oral lactoferrin administration preserves lacrimal gland function in aged mice by attenuating oxidative damage and suppressing subsequent gland inflammation.

  16. Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich chicks as affected by dietary protein levels during 2–9 weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh.M. Mahrose

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted to examine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP levels (18, 21 and 24% on growth performance (Initial and final body weight, daily body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio during 2-9 weeks of age and certain body measurements (body height, tibiotarsus length and tibiotarsus girth at 9 weeks of age. A total of 30 African Black unsexed ostrich chicks were used in the present study in simple randomized design. The results of the present work indicated that initial and final live body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion of ostrich chicks were insignificantly affected by dietary protein level used. Protein efficiency ratio was high in the group of chicks fed diet contained 18% CP. Results obtained indicated that tibiotarsus girth was decreased (P≤0.01 with the increasing dietary protein level, where the highest value of tibiotarsus girth (18.38 cm was observed in chicks fed 18% dietary protein level. Body height and tibiotarsus length were not significantly different. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that ostrich chicks (during 2-9 weeks of age could grow on diets contain lower levels of CP (18%.

  17. Epidemiological characteristics of renal stone patients age (21-60) and barriers in their dietary modification in Saurashtra Region

    OpenAIRE

    Arpan Chandubhai Patel; Nishank Harris Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dietary factors remain an entity attributed to a kidney stone and thus renal stone becomes more of a \\'lifestyle\\' disease relying more on prevention for its amelioration than advanced and specific treatment modalities. Although there are various studies conducted in past to show importance of dietary modification in patient with kidney stone , no single study was conducted to identify perceived barriers in dietary modification by patient. Methods: Through this population base...

  18. Use of a Computerized Tracking System to Monitor and Provide Feedback on Dietary Goals for Calorie-Restricted Diets: The POUNDS LOST Study

    OpenAIRE

    Anton, Stephen D.; LeBlanc, Eric; Allen, H Raymond; Karabetian, Christy; Sacks, Frank; Bray, George; Donald A. Williamson

    2012-01-01

    The use of self-monitoring as a tool to facilitate behavioral modification is common in many lifestyle-based weight loss interventions. Electronic tracking programs, including computer-based systems and smart phone applications, have been developed to allow individuals to self-monitor their behavior digitally. These programs offer an advantage over traditional self-report modalities in that they can provide users with direct feedback about dietary and/or physical activity adherence levels and...

  19. Prevention of Neuromusculoskeletal Frailty in Slow-Aging Ames Dwarf Mice: Longitudinal Investigation of Interaction of Longevity Genes and Caloric Restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Arum, Oge; Rasche, Zachary Andrew; Rickman, Dustin John; Bartke, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Ames dwarf (Prop1 df/df ) mice are remarkably long-lived and exhibit many characteristics of delayed aging and extended healthspan. Caloric restriction (CR) has similar effects on healthspan and lifespan, and causes an extension of longevity in Ames dwarf mice. Our study objective was to determine whether Ames dwarfism or CR influence neuromusculoskeletal function in middle-aged (82 ± 12 weeks old) or old (128 ± 14 w.o.) mice. At the examined ages, strength was improved by dwarfism, CR, and d...

  20. Infant emotional distress, maternal restriction at a home meal, and child BMI gain through age 6years in the Colorado Adoption Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittner, James B; Johnson, Cassandra; Tripicchio, Gina; Faith, Myles S

    2016-04-01

    Infant temperament and parental feeding practices may be risk factors for childhood obesity, however most studies have relied upon parent-report assessments. We tested whether infant emotional distress and maternal restrictive feeding at 12-months of age, assessed observationally at a home feeding interaction, predicted child BMI through age 6years. We conducted a prospective observational study of 86 children (34 girls and 52 boys, from 55 adoptive and 31 non-adoptive families) enrolled in the Colorado Adoption Project. Mother-infant feeding interactions were video-recorded during a home snack or meal at year 1, and child anthropometrics (length or height, and weight) were assessed at years 1 through 6. The main outcome measures were child weight-for-length at year 1 and body mass index (BMI: kg/m(2)) at years 2-6. Results of generalized linear models indicated that greater infant emotional distress at 12-months predicted greater increases in child weight status through age 6years, B=0.62 and odds ratio (OR)=1.87. In separate analyses, restrictive feeding interacted with child sex in predicting weight status trajectories (p=.012). Male infants whose mothers displayed any compared to no restriction at year 1 showed a downward BMI trajectory from 2 to 6years; for female infants, exposure to any compared to no restriction prompts predicted increasing BMI from 4 to 6years. In sum, early obesity prevention strategies should pay greater attention to infant temperament, especially distress and negative affect, and how parents respond to such cues. Additionally, 'responsive feeding' strategies that provide an alternative to restriction warrant greater research during infancy. PMID:26872074

  1. Development and Validation of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Dietary Intake of Turkish School-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güneş Fatma Esra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ on the dietary intake of Turkish school-aged children. Fifty randomly selected students aged 7–12 from urban areas of Istanbul were included in this study. An FFQ, containing a list of 138 frequently consumed foods was developed. Dietary records (DRs including three days, and FFQs were collected during autumn and spring. Daily consumption of each food group was assessed and the nutrient compositions of diet were calculated. The Pearson correlation coefficient, weighted kappa, the Bland-Altman scatter plots between averages of the reported (FFQ and the references method (DR were used as validity coefficient.

  2. Use of a computerized tracking system to monitor and provide feedback on dietary goals for calorie-restricted diets: the POUNDS LOST study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D; LeBlanc, Eric; Allen, H Raymond; Karabetian, Christy; Sacks, Frank; Bray, George; Williamson, Donald A

    2012-09-01

    The use of self-monitoring as a tool to facilitate behavioral modification is common in many lifestyle-based weight loss interventions. Electronic tracking programs, including computer-based systems and smart phone applications, have been developed to allow individuals to self-monitor their behavior digitally. These programs offer an advantage over traditional self-report modalities in that they can provide users with direct feedback about dietary and/or physical activity adherence levels and thereby assist them in real-time decision making. This article describes the use of an Internet-based computerized tracking system (CTS) that was developed specifically for the POUNDS LOST study, a 2-year randomized controlled trial designed to test the efficacy of four macronutrient diets for weight and fat reduction in healthy, overweight men and women (body mass index range = 25.0-39.9 kg/m(2)). The CTS served many functions in this study, including data collection, dietary and exercise assessment and feedback, messaging system, and report generation. Across all groups, participants with high usage of the CTS during the initial 8 weeks lost greater amounts of weight than participants with low usage (8.7% versus 5.5% of initial body weight, respectively; p smart phone applications, offer significant potential to improve the user's self-monitoring experience and adherence to health promotion programs designed specifically for individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:23063049

  3. Effects of aging and dietary antler supplementation on the calcium-regulating hormones and bone status in ovariectomized SAMP8 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chi; Liu, Mei-Hui; Wang, Ming-Fu; Chen, Cheng-Chin

    2007-12-31

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of aging and long-term dietary antler supplementation on the calcium-regulating hormones and bone status in ovariectomized (Ovx) SAMP8 mice. The female SAMP8 mice were divided into four groups (in each group n = 6), Ovx or sham operated at the age of 2 months, and fed with 0.2% antler containing diet or control diet from the age of 2.5 months. The samples were collected at the age of 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months, respectively, for physicochemical analyses, biochemical analyses, and the determination of hormones by radioimmunoassay. The results showed that plasma calcium (Ca) concentrations were maintained in a narrow range in all groups throughout the whole experimental period. With aging and/or ovariectomy, plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-(OH)2-D3) levels increased, and plasma phosphorus (P) and calcitonin (CT) levels decreased, and the femoral bone densities and Ca contents increased during the earlier stage, and then decreased gradually in all groups. Plasma PTH and 1,25-(OH)2-D3 levels in the Ovx mice were significantly higher than those in the intact mice, and plasma P concentrations, plasma CT levels, femoral bone densities, and femoral Ca contents in the Ovx mice were significantly lower than those in the intact mice. In addition, the decreases of plasma P levels, plasma CT levels, femoral bone densities, and femoral Ca contents, and the increases of plasma PTH levels were moderated by antler administration in both Ovx and intact mice. However, there was no effect of the dietary antler supplementation on the plasma 1,25-(OH)2-D3 levels in the female mice. It is concluded that prolonged dietary antler supplementation has important positive effects on bone loss with age and/ or ovarian function deficiency.

  4. Prevention of neuromusculoskeletal frailty in slow-aging ames dwarf mice: longitudinal investigation of interaction of longevity genes and caloric restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oge Arum

    Full Text Available Ames dwarf (Prop1 (df/df mice are remarkably long-lived and exhibit many characteristics of delayed aging and extended healthspan. Caloric restriction (CR has similar effects on healthspan and lifespan, and causes an extension of longevity in Ames dwarf mice. Our study objective was to determine whether Ames dwarfism or CR influence neuromusculoskeletal function in middle-aged (82 ± 12 weeks old or old (128 ± 14 w.o. mice. At the examined ages, strength was improved by dwarfism, CR, and dwarfism plus CR in male mice; balance/ motor coordination was improved by CR in old animals and in middle-aged females; and agility/ motor coordination was improved by a combination of dwarfism and CR in both genders of middle-aged mice and in old females. Therefore, extension of longevity by congenital hypopituitarism is associated with improved maintenance of the examined measures of strength, agility, and motor coordination, key elements of frailty during human aging, into advanced age. This study serves as a particularly important example of knowledge related to addressing aging-associated diseases and disorders that results from studies in long-lived mammals.

  5. Differential Development of Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Different Adipose Tissue Depots Along Aging in Wistar Rats: Effects of Caloric Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra Rojas, Johanna X; García-San Frutos, Miriam; Horrillo, Daniel; Lauzurica, Nuria; Oliveros, Eva; Carrascosa, Jose María; Fernández-Agulló, Teresa; Ros, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes increases with aging and these disorders are associated with inflammation. Insulin resistance and inflammation do not develop at the same time in all tissues. Adipose tissue is one of the tissues where inflammation and insulin resistance are established earlier during aging. Nevertheless, the existence of different fat depots states the possibility of differential roles for these depots in the development of age-associated inflammation and insulin resistance. To explore this, we analyzed insulin signaling and inflammation in epididymal, perirenal, subcutaneous, and brown adipose tissues during aging in Wistar rats. Although all tissues showed signs of inflammation and insulin resistance with aging, epididymal fat was the first to develop signs of inflammation and insulin resistance along aging among white fat tissues. Subcutaneous adipose tissue presented the lowest degree of inflammation and insulin resistance that developed latter with age. Brown adipose tissue also presented latter insulin resistance and inflammation but with lower signs of macrophage infiltration. Caloric restriction ameliorated insulin resistance and inflammation in all tissues, being more effective in subcutaneous and brown adipose tissues. These data demonstrate differential susceptibility of the different adipose depots to the development of age-associated insulin resistance and inflammation.

  6. Fasting and Caloric Restriction in Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Sebastian; Longo, Valter D

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA and among the leading major diseases in the world. It is anticipated to continue to increase because of the growth of the aging population and prevalence of risk factors such as obesity, smoking, and/or poor dietary habits. Cancer treatment has remained relatively similar during the past 30 years with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in combination with surgery remaining the standard therapies although novel therapies are slowly replacing or complementing the standard ones. According to the American Cancer Society, the dietary recommendation for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy is to increase calorie and protein intake. In addition, there are no clear guidelines on the type of nutrition that could have a major impact on cancer incidence. Yet, various forms of reduced caloric intake such as calorie restriction (CR) or fasting demonstrate a wide range of beneficial effects able to help prevent malignancies and increase the efficacy of cancer therapies. Whereas chronic CR provides both beneficial and detrimental effects as well as major compliance challenges, periodic fasting (PF), fasting-mimicking diets (FMDs), and dietary restriction (DR) without a reduction in calories are emerging as interventions with the potential to be widely used to prevent and treat cancer. Here, we review preclinical and preliminary clinical studies on dietary restriction and fasting and their role in inducing cellular protection and chemotherapy resistance.

  7. Fasting and Caloric Restriction in Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Sebastian; Longo, Valter D

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA and among the leading major diseases in the world. It is anticipated to continue to increase because of the growth of the aging population and prevalence of risk factors such as obesity, smoking, and/or poor dietary habits. Cancer treatment has remained relatively similar during the past 30 years with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in combination with surgery remaining the standard therapies although novel therapies are slowly replacing or complementing the standard ones. According to the American Cancer Society, the dietary recommendation for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy is to increase calorie and protein intake. In addition, there are no clear guidelines on the type of nutrition that could have a major impact on cancer incidence. Yet, various forms of reduced caloric intake such as calorie restriction (CR) or fasting demonstrate a wide range of beneficial effects able to help prevent malignancies and increase the efficacy of cancer therapies. Whereas chronic CR provides both beneficial and detrimental effects as well as major compliance challenges, periodic fasting (PF), fasting-mimicking diets (FMDs), and dietary restriction (DR) without a reduction in calories are emerging as interventions with the potential to be widely used to prevent and treat cancer. Here, we review preclinical and preliminary clinical studies on dietary restriction and fasting and their role in inducing cellular protection and chemotherapy resistance. PMID:27557543

  8. The influence of peri-conception and first trimester dietary restriction of protein in cattle on meat quality traits of entire male progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Tharcilla I R C; Copping, Katrina J; Han, Xuemei; Clayton, Edward H; Meyer, Richard J; Rodgers, Raymond J; McMillen, I Caroline; Perry, Viv E A; Geesink, Geert

    2016-11-01

    Primiparous Santa Gertrudis heifers were used to evaluate the effects of gestational dietary protein content on meat quality traits of 20month old bull progeny (n=40). At -60d before AI, heifers were randomly allocated to HIGH or LOW protein diet (HPERI and LPERI). From 24dpc, half of each treatment group changed to an alternative post-conception HIGH or LOW protein diet (HPOST and LPOST). LPERI and LPOST diets resulted in higher shear force of the semitendinosus muscle than HPERI (P=0.053) and HPOST (P=0.003), respectively. Heat-soluble collagen in the semitendinosus muscle was lower (P=0.019) for LPERI than HPERI. Collagen and tenderness of the longissimus muscle were not affected by dam nutrition (P>0.05). Color, pH, sarcomere length, cooking loss, compression values, desmin and troponin-T degradation, fiber type, intramuscular fat and polyunsaturated fatty acid content were not affected by dam nutrition during the peri-conception and first trimester gestational period (P>0.05). PMID:27317848

  9. Pituitary-gonadal function in adolescent males born appropriate or small for gestational age with or without intrauterine growth restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Beck; Vielwerth, Signe; Larsen, Torben Kjeldgaard;

    2007-01-01

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is suggested to influence female pituitary-gonadal axis, but only a few studies have focused on male pituitary-gonadal function.......Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is suggested to influence female pituitary-gonadal axis, but only a few studies have focused on male pituitary-gonadal function....

  10. Dietary Glycemic Index during Pregnancy Is Associated with Biomarkers of the Metabolic Syndrome in Offspring at Age 20 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Inge; Granström, Charlotta; Haldorsson, Thorhallur;

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that metabolic syndrome is rooted in fetal life with a potential key role of nutrition during pregnancy. The objective of the study was to assess the possible associations between the dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) during pregnancy and biomarkers...

  11. Ideal amino acid profile and dietary lysine specification for broiler chickens of 20 to 40 days of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mack, S.; Bercovici, D.; Groote, G. de; Leclercq, B.; Lippens, M.; Pack, M.; Schutte, J.B.; Cauwenberghe, S. van

    1999-01-01

    1. The aim of the study was to determine the ideal ratio of the essential amino acids lysine (Lys), methionine (Met), threonine (Thr), tryptophan (Trp), arginine (Arg), valine (Val) and isoleucine (Ile) and to assess the required dietary lysine concentration for optimum performance in broiler chicke

  12. A Dietary Treatment Improves Cerebral Blood Flow and Brain Connectivity in Aging apoE4 Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiesmann, M.; Zerbi, V.; Jansen, D.; Haast, R.; Lutjohann, D.; Broersen, L.M.; Heerschap, A.; Kiliaan, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    APOE epsilon4 (apoE4) polymorphism is the main genetic determinant of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). A dietary approach (Fortasyn) including docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, uridine, choline, phospholipids, folic acid, vitamins B12, B6, C, and E, and selenium has been proposed for di

  13. Trial Protocol: Randomised controlled trial of the effects of very low calorie diet, modest dietary restriction, and sequential behavioural programme on hunger, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers stopping smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajek Peter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight gain accompanies smoking cessation, but dieting during quitting is controversial as hunger may increase urges to smoke. This is a feasibility trial for the investigation of a very low calorie diet (VLCD, individual modest energy restriction, and usual advice on hunger, ketosis, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers trying to quit. Methods This is a 3 armed, unblinded, randomized controlled trial in overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2, daily smokers (CO > 10 ppm; with at least 30 participants in each group. Each group receives identical behavioural support and NRT patches (25 mg(8 weeks,15 mg(2 weeks,10 mg(2 weeks. The VLCD group receive a 429-559 kcal/day liquid formula beginning 1 week before quitting and continuing for 4 weeks afterwards. The modest energy restricted group (termed individual dietary and activity planning(IDAP engage in goal-setting and receive an energy prescription based on individual basal metabolic rate(BMR aiming for daily reduction of 600 kcal. The control group receive usual dietary advice that accompanies smoking cessation i.e. avoiding feeling hungry but eating healthy snacks. After this, the VLCD participants receive IDAP to provide support for changing eating habits in the longer term; the IDAP group continues receiving this support. The control group receive IDAP 8 weeks after quitting. This allows us to compare IDAP following a successful quit attempt with dieting concurrently during quitting. It also aims to prevent attrition in the unblinded, control group by meeting their need for weight management. Follow-up occurs at 6 and 12 months. Outcome measures include participant acceptability, measured qualitatively by semi-structured interviewing and quantitatively by recruitment and attrition rates. Feasibility of running the trial within primary care is measured by interview and questionnaire of the treatment providers. Adherence to the VLCD is verified by the presence of

  14. Practicality of Intermittent Fasting in Humans and its Effect on Oxidative Stress and Genes Related to Aging and Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Martin P Wegman; Guo, Michael H.; Bennion, Douglas M.; Shankar, Meena N.; Chrzanowski, Stephen M.; Goldberg, Leslie A.; Xu, Jinze; Williams, Tiffany A.; Lu, Xiaomin; Hsu, Stephen I.; Anton, Stephen D.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Brantly, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Caloric restriction has consistently been shown to extend life span and ameliorate aging-related diseases. These effects may be due to diet-induced reactive oxygen species acting to up-regulate sirtuins and related protective pathways, which research suggests may be partially inhibited by dietary anti-oxidant supplementation. Because caloric restriction is not sustainable long term for most humans, we investigated an alternative dietary approach, intermittent fasting (IF), which is proposed t...

  15. Association between Dietary Vitamin C Intake and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study among Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wei

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has become one of the most prevalent chronic liver disease all over the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD.Subjects were diagnosed with NAFLD by abdominal ultrasound examination and the consumption of alcohol was less than 40g/day for men or less than 20g/day for women. Vitamin C intake was classified into four categories according to the quartile distribution in the study population: ≤74.80 mg/day, 74.81-110.15 mg/day, 110.16-146.06 mg/day, and ≥146.07 mg/day. The energy and multi-variable adjusted odds ratio (OR, as well as their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI, were used to determine the relationship between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD through logistic regression.The present cross-sectional study included 3471 subjects. A significant inverse association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD was observed in the energy-adjusted and the multivariable model. The multivariable adjusted ORs (95%CI for NAFLD were 0.69 (95%CI: 0.54-0.89, 0.93 (95%CI: 0.72-1.20, and 0.71 (95%CI: 0.53-0.95 in the second, third and fourth dietary vitamin C intake quartiles, respectively, compared with the lowest (first quartile. The relative odds of NAFLD was decreased by 0.71 times in the fourth quartile of dietary vitamin C intake compared with the lowest quartile. After stratifying data by sex or the status of obesity, the inverse association remained valid in the male population or non-obesity population, but not in the female population or obesity population.There might be a moderate inverse association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD in middle-aged and older adults, especially for the male population and non-obesity population.

  16. Effects of Activity-Based Personalized Nutrition Education on Dietary Behaviors and Blood Parameters in Middle-Aged and Older Type 2 Diabetes Korean Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of activity-based personalized nutrition education (APNE) with a general instruction for diabetes (control, CTRL) in middle-aged and older Korean outpatients with type 2 diabetes. After an initial screening, 70 subjects were randomly assigned to APNE (n = 37) or CTRL (n = 33) group. APNE considered each patient’s anthropometry, blood chemistry data, and dietary habits in addition to planning meal choices with the aid of registered dietitians. After 3 months, dietary behavior, food intake, and anthropometric and blood measurement results were evaluated. Fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial blood glucose, and glycated hemoglobin levels decreased in the APNE group (n = 33) but not in the CTRL group (n = 23). In the APNE group, the meal intervals and number of days of consuming high-fat food were decreased, while the number of days following a meal plan and balanced diet that entailed consuming fruits, vegetables, and healthy food was increased. A lower consumption of carbohydrates, saccharides, grains, and tuber crops and a higher protein, pulses, and fat-derived calorie intake compared with the initial values were observed in the APNE group. In contrast, only the number of days following the meal plan and balanced diet was increased in the CRTL group, without significantly changing the individual macronutrient-derived calorie intake. The APNE approach appeared to effectively educate outpatients with type 2 diabetes about changing their dietary behavior and food intake and improving the clinical parameters related to diabetic conditions. PMID:27812513

  17. Dietary calcium intake and higher body mass index in Mexican adults aged 20 to 59 years old: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Efraín Flores-Aldana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although energy balance is the main factor that regulates body weight, recent studies suggest that calcium metabolism can modify the energy balance and help regulate body weight. Objective. To evaluate the association between the calcium intake in the diet and high body mass index in Mexican adults in the 20-59 age group. Material and methods. A cross-sectional secondary analytical study was conducted based on the 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutritional Survey (ENSANUT 2006. Food intake questionnaires applied to 16,494 adults were analyzed. After removing biologically implausible values or incomplete information, we arrived at a final sample of 15,662 adults grouped according to their body mass index. Linear regression was used to assess association between daily dietary calcium intake and body mass index. Results. There was an inverse association between dietary calcium consumption and a high body mass index. The mean calcium intake in subjects with normal body mass index was 903.9 mg/day versus 832.0 mg/day in obese subjects (p < 0.0001. Conclusion. The study corroborates existing evidence of an inverse association between the dietary calcium intake and a high body mass index.

  18. Dietary diversity, animal source food consumption and linear growth among children aged 1-5 years in Bandung, Indonesia: a longitudinal observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslimatun, Siti; Wiradnyani, Luh Ade Ari

    2016-07-01

    Dietary diversity involves adequate intake of macronutrient and micronutrient. The inclusion of animal source foods (ASF) in the diet helps prevent multiple nutrient deficiencies and any resultant, linear growth retardation. The objective of the current study was to assess the relationship between dietary diversity, ASF consumption and height-for-age z-score (HAZ) among children aged 12-59 months old across a 1-year observation. This longitudinal observational study without controls was conducted among four age groups: 12-23 months (n 57), 24-35 months (n 56), 36-47 months (n 58) and 48-59 months (n 56). Anthropometry and dietary intake were measured during each of four visits at 16-20-week intervals. The general characteristics and other observations were only collected at baseline and endline. During the year-long study period, approximately 27 % of the children ate a diverse diet (consumed ≥6 out of 9 food groups) according to ≥3 visits. ASF consumption was high, particularly for eggs, poultry, processed meats and liquid milk. Yet, micronutrient intake inadequacy, especially of Zn, Ca, Fe and vitamin A, was highly prevalent. A multivariate regression analysis showed that the consumption of a diverse diet and ASF was not significantly associated with the HAZ at endline, after controlling for demographic characteristics and the baseline HAZ. The consumption of a diverse diet was significantly associated with Ca intake adequacy. Moreover, ASF consumption was significantly associated with adequate intake of protein and micronutrients, particularly vitamin A, Ca and Zn. Thus, the recommendation is to continue and strengthen the promotion of consuming a diverse diet that includes ASF in supporting the linear growth of young children. PMID:26817493

  19. Dietary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program's goals in Dietary Assessment are to increase the precision of dietary intake estimates by improving self-report of dietary intake and the analytic procedures for processing reported information.

  20. Effect of dietary, social, and lifestyle determinants of accelerated aging and its common clinical presentation: A survey study

    OpenAIRE

    Samarakoon, S. M. S.; Chandola, H. M.; Ravishankar, B.

    2011-01-01

    Aging is unavoidable and natural phenomenon of life. Modern gerontologists are realizing the fact that aging is a disease, which Ayurveda had accepted as natural disease since long. Rate of aging is determined by one's biological, social, lifestyle, and psychological conditions and adversity of which leads to accelerated form of aging (Akalaja jara or premature aging). The aim of this study is to identify potential factors that may accelerate aging in the context of dietry factors, lifestyle ...

  1. Current perspectives on the health risks associated with the consumption of advanced glycation end products: recommendations for dietary management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palimeri S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sotiria Palimeri,* Eleni Palioura,* Evanthia Diamanti-KandarakisEndocrine Unit, Medical School University of Athens, Athens, Greece*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs constitute a complex group of compounds produced endogenously during the aging process and under conditions of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. AGEs also have an emerging exogenous origin. Cigarette smoke and diet are the two main exogenous sources of AGEs (glycotoxins. Modern Western diets are rich in AGEs which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several metabolic and degenerative disorders. Accumulating evidence underlies the beneficial effect of the dietary restriction of AGEs not only in animal studies but also in patients with diabetic complications and metabolic diseases. This article reviews the evidence linking dietary glycotoxins to several disorders from diabetic complications and renal failure to liver dysfunction, female reproduction, eye and cognitive disorders as well as cancer. Furthermore, strategies for AGE reduction are discussed with a focus on dietary modification.Keywords: AGEs, dietary glycotoxins, dietary restriction, PCOS, MSR-1, RAGE

  2. Dietary guidelines in singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Benjamin Lc

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Dietary Guidelines were developed with the aim of providing guidance on what dietary strategies can best address increasing rates of obesity and non-communicable chronic disease in Singapore. This set of dietary guidelines was developed with a local expert committee based on a review of scientific literature and data on current dietary patterns from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey. Projected nutrient intakes from a diet adhering to the 2011 Dietary Guidelines were calculated using a local food composition database (FOCOS) and validated against nutrient recommendations. Acknowledging that dietary requirements differ between age groups, different sets of dietary guidelines have been developed and customised for different segments of the population. To date, Singapore has produced dietary guidelines for children and adolescents (focusing on establishing healthy lifelong eating patterns), adults (focusing on preventing obesity and reinforcing healthy eating patterns), and most recently, guidelines for older adults (>50 years of age) that address the issue of potential dietary insufficiency caused by age-related increases in nutrient requirements combined with a reduction in energy requirements. In Singapore, dietary guidelines have been used to inform and direct public policy and promote dietary patterns that meet nutrient requirements while reducing the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases. Examples of public policy include: national guidelines on food advertising and standards for food served in nursing homes; examples of public health promotion programmes include: the Healthier Choice Symbol Programme for packaged food products and programmes encouraging provision of healthier meals in hawker centres, restaurants, and school or workplace canteens. PMID:21859669

  3. Age Group and Sex Do Not Influence Responses of Vitamin K Biomarkers to Changes in Dietary Vitamin K123

    OpenAIRE

    Truong, Jennifer T.; Fu, Xueyan; Saltzman, Edward; Al Rajabi, Ala; Dallal, Gerard E.; Gundberg, Caren M; Booth, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    Inadequate vitamin K intake has been associated with abnormal soft tissue calcification. Older adults may have insufficient intakes of vitamin K and respond less to vitamin K supplementation compared with younger adults. However, little is known about the determinants that influence the response to vitamin K supplementation. Our primary objective was to assess dietary and nondietary determinants of vitamin K status in healthy younger and older adults. In a nonrandomized, nonmasked study, 21 y...

  4. Comprehensive study of the effects of age, iron deficiency, diabetes mellitus, and cadmium burden on dietary cadmium absorption in cadmium-exposed female Japanese farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorption rate of dietary cadmium (Cd) was investigated among 38 female farmers who had been exposed to Cd at levels close to the current provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI); these levels were much higher than those examined in previous studies. The study group composed of 7 diabetics and their 13 age-matched controls and 6 anemic subjects and their 12 controls. With their informed consent, the study participants were confined in an inn for 7 nights and 8 days to collect all feces and urine and duplicates of all food consumed. The dietary Cd absorption rate was calculated for each subject from her total Cd intake and fecal excretion. The means and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the diabetic group and the anemic group did not differ significantly from those of their respective controls. By individual analysis using all 38 subjects, however, significant Pearson's correlation coefficients were observed between Cd absorption rate and age, serum ferritin, serum iron, and blood and urine Cd levels. Among these, multiple regression analysis revealed that only age was a significant factor contributing to Cd absorption rate. The actual Cd absorption rate in the youngest age group (20-39 years) was 44.0%, which was highly accelerated compared with the rate in the total subject group of 6.5%, while zero to negative balance was observed in the older subjects. These results demonstrate that age, rather than iron deficiency, diabetes mellitus (DM), or Cd burden, is the only independent factor affecting the Cd absorption rate, suggesting that young women are always at high risk

  5. Changes in the histochemical properties and meat quality traits of porcine muscles during the growing-finishing period as affected by feed restriction, slaughter age, or slaughter weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, G; Calderini, M; Biolley, C; Guex, G; Herzog, W; Lindemann, M D

    2007-04-01

    In this study, the degree of contractile and metabolic development of myofibers in porcine LM, rectus femoris (RF), and dark and light portions of the semitendinosus (STD and STL, respectively) was determined, and their impact on meat quality was compared at the same age but different BW (trial 1) or at a given BW but different age (trial 2) in 48 Swiss Large White barrows from 12 litters after the growing and finishing period. The barrows had ad libitum (A) or restricted (R, 80% of A) feed access. In trial 1, at 113 and 154 d of age, 6 barrows in treatment A (62.1 and 99.5 kg of BW, respectively) and 6 siblings in treatment R (51.0 and 86.6 kg of BW, respectively) were slaughtered. In trial 2, a similar protocol was used except that the barrows were slaughtered at 61.3 (104 or 119 d of age, respectively) or 101.3 kg of BW (145 or 167 d of age, respectively). Muscle fibers were stained and classified as slow oxidative (SO), fast oxidative-glycolytic (FOG), or fast glycolytic (FG), and fiber area and distribution were determined. At 113 and 154 d of age, R barrows had smaller (P slaughtered at the same BW, the myofiber size did not differ (P > or = 0.11). However, the LM tended to have fewer (P = 0.06) SO and more (P slaughtered at the same age or the same BW as the A barrows, shear force values and cooking losses were greater (P changes in myofiber type distribution among the younger-lighter and older-heavier barrows indicated that myofiber maturation was already completed in the younger-lighter barrows. Although changes in meat quality traits were affected by the feeding regimen, they were not related to myofiber characteristics.

  6. Conventional foods, followed by dietary supplements and fortified foods, are the key sources of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake in Dutch participants of the NU-AGE study

    OpenAIRE

    Berendsen, Agnes A.M.; Lieshout, van, J.J.; Heuvel, van den, E.P.J.; Matthys, Christophe; Péter, Szabolcs; De Groot,, P.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    With aging, energy needs decrease, necessitating a more nutrient-dense diet to meet nutritional needs. To bridge this gap, the use of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements can be important. This observational study aims to describe current micronutrient intakes of Dutch elderly and to identify the contribution of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements to the intake of micronutrients that are often inadequately consumed in Dutch elderly. Data of...

  7. Effects of environment, dietary regime and ageing on the dengue vector microbiota: evidence of a core microbiota throughout Aedes aegypti lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Mariana Rocha; dos Santos, Lilha Maria Barbosa; Vicente, Ana Carolina Paulo; Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mosquito midgut microbiota is a key component of vector competence, as gut bacteria can disturb pathogen development. In this study, we addressed the microbiota composition of Aedes aegypti during its lifespan, under field conditions. We also investigated the possible effects of environment, dietary regime and ageing on the gut community composition. We employed culture independent and dependent approaches to characterise vector microbiota. There was evidence of a lifelong stable core microbiota after mosquitoes were released into an urban settlement, where they presumably fed on a range of vertebrate hosts and carbohydrate sources. This core was formed mainly of bacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Aeromonas and Stenotrophomonas and to the families Oxalobacteraceae, Enterobacteriaceae and Comamonadaceae. We showed that both dietary regime and age were associated with the abundance of some bacterial groups in the Ae. aegypti microbiota. The majority of the bacterial groups we identified have been detected in the midgut of Ae. aegypti from laboratory and wild populations, indicating a possible core microbiota associated with this mosquito species. Our findings suggest that Ae. aegypti harbours a stable bacterial community during its adult life, similar to mosquito populations from distinct geographic areas, which may be further explored for arbovirus biocontrol strategies. PMID:27580348

  8. Effects of environment, dietary regime and ageing on the dengue vector microbiota: evidence of a core microbiota throughout Aedes aegypti lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Mariana Rocha; Santos, Lilha Maria Barbosa Dos; Vicente, Ana Carolina Paulo; Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    Mosquito midgut microbiota is a key component of vector competence, as gut bacteria can disturb pathogen development. In this study, we addressed the microbiota composition of Aedes aegypti during its lifespan, under field conditions. We also investigated the possible effects of environment, dietary regime and ageing on the gut community composition. We employed culture independent and dependent approaches to characterise vector microbiota. There was evidence of a lifelong stable core microbiota after mosquitoes were released into an urban settlement, where they presumably fed on a range of vertebrate hosts and carbohydrate sources. This core was formed mainly of bacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Aeromonas and Stenotrophomonas and to the families Oxalobacteraceae, Enterobacteriaceae and Comamonadaceae. We showed that both dietary regime and age were associated with the abundance of some bacterial groups in the Ae. aegypti microbiota. The majority of the bacterial groups we identified have been detected in the midgut of Ae. aegypti from laboratory and wild populations, indicating a possible core microbiota associated with this mosquito species. Our findings suggest that Ae. aegypti harbours a stable bacterial community during its adult life, similar to mosquito populations from distinct geographic areas, which may be further explored for arbovirus biocontrol strategies. PMID:27580348

  9. Restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiomyopathy - restrictive; Infiltrative cardiomyopathy ... In a case of restrictive cardiomyopathy, the heart muscle is normal size or slightly enlarged. Most of the time, it also pumps normally. However, it does not ...

  10. Dietary factors associated with lifetime asthma or hayfever diagnosis in Australian middle-aged and older adults: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenkranz Richard R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is abundant research relevant to genetic and environmental influences on asthma and hayfever, but little is known about dietary risk factors in Australian adults. This study’s purpose was to identify dietary factors associated with lifetime asthma (AS and asthma or hayfever (AS/HF diagnosis in Australian middle-aged and older adults. Methods From The 45 and Up Study baseline self-report data, this study included 156,035 adult men and women. Participants were sampled from the general population of New South Wales, Australia in 2006–2009. About 12% of participants reported ever receiving an AS diagnosis (men 10%; women 14% and 23% reported AS/HF diagnosis (men 19%; women 26%. Following principle components factor analysis, dietary items loaded onto one of four factors for men (meats/cheese; fruits/vegetables; poultry/seafood; grains/alcohol or five factors for women (meats; fruits/vegetables; poultry/seafood; cereal/alcohol; brown bread/cheese. Logistic regression was used to analyze the associations between dietary factors and AS or AS/HF diagnosis. Results For men, the meats/cheese factor was positively associated with AS (AOR = adjusted odds ratio for highest versus lowest quintile = 1.18, 95%CI = 1.08, 1.28; Ptrend = 0.001 and AS/HF (AOR for highest versus lowest quintile = 1.22, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.29; Ptrend Ptrend = 0.002. For women, significant risk factors for AS/HF included meats (AOR for highest versus lowest quintile = 1.25, 95%CI = 1.19, 1.31; Ptrend = 0.001, poultry/seafood (AOR for highest versus lowest quintile = 1.06, 95%CI = 1.01, 1.12; Ptrend = 0.016, and fruits/vegetables (AOR for highest versus lowest quintile = 1.07, 95%CI = 1.02, 1.12; Ptrend = 0.011. In contrast, the cheese/brown bread dietary factor was protective against AS in women (AOR for highest versus lowest quintile = 0.88, 95%CI = 0.82, 0.94; Ptrend Conclusions Generally, diets marked by greater intakes of meats, poultry, and seafood were

  11. Dietary patterns in Canadian men and women ages 25 and older: relationship to demographics, body mass index, and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Towheed Tanveer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that underlying dietary patterns are related to the risk of many different adverse health outcomes, but the relationship of these underlying patterns to skeletal fragility is not well understood. The objective of the study was to determine whether dietary patterns in men (ages 25-49, 50+ and women (pre-menopause, post-menopause are related to femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD independently of other lifestyle variables, and whether this relationship is mediated by body mass index. Methods We performed an analysis of 1928 men and 4611 women participants in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study, a randomly selected population-based longitudinal cohort. We determined dietary patterns based on the self-administered food frequency questionnaires in year 2 of the study (1997-99. Our primary outcome was BMD as measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry in year 5 of the study (2000-02. Results We identified two underlying dietary patterns using factor analysis and then derived factor scores. The first factor (nutrient dense was most strongly associated with intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. The second factor (energy dense was most strongly associated with intake of soft drinks, potato chips and French fries, certain meats (hamburger, hot dog, lunch meat, bacon, and sausage, and certain desserts (doughnuts, chocolate, ice cream. The energy dense factor was associated with higher body mass index independent of other demographic and lifestyle factors, and body mass index was a strong independent predictor of BMD. Surprisingly, we did not find a similar positive association between diet and BMD. In fact, when adjusted for body mass index, each standard deviation increase in the energy dense score was associated with a BMD decrease of 0.009 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.016 g/cm2 for men 50+ years old and 0.004 (95% CI: 0.000, 0.008 g/cm2 for postmenopausal women. In contrast, for men 25-49 years old

  12. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove;

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of dietary supplement use varies largely among populations, and previous studies have indicated that it is high in the Danish population compared with other European countries. The diversity in supplement use across countries indicates that cultural and environmental factors could...... influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54 948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements...... to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher...

  13. Dietary advanced glycation endproducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Malene Wibe

    sensitivity and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were found. In conclusion, results from this PhD thesis suggest that diets prepared by low heat may reduce risk markers for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, it can currently not be concluded that AGEs are responsible...... complications. A potential pathophysiological role of dietary AGEs in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease has been discussed, as the contribution of dietary AGEs has been estimated to be larger than the amount of endogenously formed AGEs. Furthermore, the increased mortality associated with type 2...... diabetes and cardiovascular disease underlines the importance of identifying possible risk factors in the Western lifestyle. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate if intake of dietary AGEs increases risk markers for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In an acute meal study, effects...

  14. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF DIETARY AND EXERCISE HABITS AS CO-RELATES OF HYPERTENSION IN PERSON AGED 45 AND ABOVE IN AGRA DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Agrawal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to changing lifestyle in Indian population prevalence of hypertension is increasing which needs modification in dietary and exercise habit of the general population. Objective: A study was designed to correlate dietary and exercise habits with hypertension in general population. Material and methods: Present study is a community based cross sectional study among persons aged more than 45 years in Agra district using PPS multi stage simple random sampling technique with a sample size of 553, which includes 260 persons from urban and 293 persons from rural area. Results: Out of 544 persons studied, overall prevalence of hypertension was found to be 36.21% which was 41.47% in urban and 31.47% in rural areas. Prevalence decreases significantly in person engaged in heavy physical activity (14.54%. Hypertension is more prevalent in non vegetarian diet (44.26% as compared to vegetarian (33.88% and very high in population consuming extra salt (73.77%. Conclusion: Prevalence of hypertension in this study is 36.21% and increases with lack of exercise and yoga, non vegetarian diet and consumption of extra salt in diet.

  15. Assessment of lutein and zeaxanthin status and dietary markers as predictors of the contrast threshold in 2 age groups of men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez-Santiago, Rocío; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Beltrán-de-Miguel, Beatriz

    2016-07-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin (L + Z) status is associated with the macular pigment (MP). The relationship between MP and visual function is controversial. We hypothesized that, within the framework of nutrition, visual function was related to MP and nutritional and/or/dietary factors influencing it. A cross-sectional study was performed in 108 volunteers divided into 2 age groups (20-35 years; 45-65 years), each 27 women and 27 men, to assess the relationship between MP optical density (MPOD) and contrast threshold (CT), considering the influence of L + Z and, fruit and vegetable (F + V) intake. MPOD, L + Z in serum and dietary intake were determined using heterochromatic flicker photometry, high-performance liquid chromatography and 3-day food records, respectively. CT was measured with the CGT-1000 Contrast Glaretester at 6 stimulus sizes, with and without glare. Spearman correlation coefficient and a generalized linear model were used for the statistical study. MPOD and CT were higher and lower, respectively in younger than in elder individuals (P V intake (correlation coefficients and P values ranging from -.265 to -.176 and from .000 to .010, respectively). As predictors of CT in the total sample, MPOD, F + V (every 100 g/d) and sex were identified (β coefficients ranged from -0.01 to -1.86; from 0.01 to 0.08 and from 0.01 to 0.40, respectively). CT revealed age-specific nutritional predictors: MPOD and serum lutein in the 45- to 65-year group, and F + V intake in the 20- to 35-year group. PMID:27262538

  16. Orchidectomy-induced alterations in volumetric bone density, cortical porosity and strength of femur are attenuated by dietary conjugated linoleic acid in aged guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGuire, Jason R; Mak, Ivy L; Lavery, Paula; Agellon, Sherry; Wykes, Linda J; Weiler, Hope A

    2015-04-01

    Age-related osteoporosis and sarcopenia are ascribed in part to reductions in anabolic hormones. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) improves lean and bone mass, but its impact during androgen deficiency is not known. This study tested if CLA would attenuate the effects of orchidectomy (ORX)-induced losses of bone and lean tissue. Male guinea pigs (n=40; 70-72 weeks), were randomized into four groups: (1) SHAM+Control diet, (2) SHAM+CLA diet, (3) ORX+Control diet, (4) ORX+CLA diet. Baseline blood sampling and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were conducted, followed by surgery 4 days later with the test diets started 7 days after baseline sampling. Serial blood sampling and DXA scans were repeated 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks on the test diets. Body composition and areal BMD (aBMD) of whole body, lumbar spine, femur and tibia were measured using DXA. At week 16, muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR), volumetric BMD (vBMD), microarchitecture and bone strength were assessed. Body weight declined after SHAM and ORX surgery, with slower recovery in the ORX group. Dietary CLA did not affect weight or lean mass, but attenuated gains in fat mass. Lean mass was stable in SHAM and reduced in ORX by 2 weeks with whole body and femur bone mineral content (BMC) reduced by 4 weeks; CLA did not alter BMC. By week 16 ORX groups had lower free testosterone and myofibrillar FSR, yet higher cortisol, osteocalcin and ionized calcium with no alterations due to CLA. ORX+Control had higher prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and total alkaline phosphatase compared to SHAM+Control whereas ORX+CLA were not different from SHAM groups. Femur metaphyseal vBMD was reduced in ORX+CTRL with the reduction attenuated by CLA. Femur cortical thickness (Ct.Th.) and biomechanical strength were reduced and cortical porosity (Ct.Po.) elevated by ORX and attenuated by CLA. This androgen deficient model with a sarcopenic-osteoporotic phenotype similar to aging men responded to dietary CLA with

  17. Graduated Driver Licensing Night Driving Restrictions and Drivers Aged 16 or 17 Years Involved in Fatal Night Crashes - United States, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, Ruth A; Williams, Allan F

    2016-01-01

    Fatal crash risk is higher at night for all drivers, but especially for young, inexperienced drivers (1). To help address the increased crash risk for beginner teen drivers, 49 states and the District of Columbia include a night driving restriction (NDR) in their Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) system. NDRs have been shown to reduce crashes among newly licensed teens, with higher reductions associated with NDRs starting at 10:00 p.m. or earlier (2-3). However, in 23 states and the District of Columbia, NDRs begin at 12:00 a.m. or later, times when most teen drivers subject to GDL are not driving. CDC analyzed 2009-2014 national and state-level data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) to determine the proportion of drivers aged 16 or 17 years involved in fatal crashes who crashed at night (9:00 p.m.-5:59 a.m.) and the proportion of these drivers who crashed before 12:00 a.m. Nationwide, among 6,104 drivers aged 16 or 17 years involved in fatal crashes during 2009-2014, 1,865 (31%) were involved in night crashes. Among drivers involved in night crashes, 1,054 (57%) crashed before 12:00 a.m. State-level analyses revealed an approximately twofold variation among states in both the proportions of drivers aged 16 or 17 years involved in fatal crashes that occurred at night and the proportions of night fatal crash involvements that occurred before 12:00 a.m. Because nearly all of the night driving trips taken by drivers aged 16 or 17 years end before 12:00 a.m., NDRs beginning at 12:00 a.m. or later provide minimal protection. States could consider updating their NDR coverage to include earlier nighttime hours. This descriptive report summarizes the characteristics of NDRs, estimates the extent to which drivers aged 16 or 17 years drive at night, and describes their involvement in fatal nighttime crashes during 2009-2014. The effects of NDRs on crashes were not evaluated because of the small state-level sample sizes during the 6-year study period. PMID

  18. Conventional foods, followed by dietary supplements and fortified foods, are the key sources of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake in Dutch participants of the NU-AGE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, Agnes A.M.; Lieshout, van Lilou E.L.M.; Heuvel, van den Ellen G.H.M.; Matthys, Christophe; Péter, Szabolcs; Groot, de Lisette C.P.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    With aging, energy needs decrease, necessitating a more nutrient-dense diet to meet nutritional needs. To bridge this gap, the use of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements can be important. This observational study aims to describe current micronutrient intakes of Dutch e

  19. Achieving Salt Restriction in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J. McMahon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is consistent evidence linking excessive dietary sodium intake to risk factors for cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD progression in CKD patients; however, additional research is needed. In research trials and clinical practice, implementing and monitoring sodium intake present significant challenges. Epidemiological studies have shown that sodium intake remains high, and intervention studies have reported varied success with participant adherence to a sodium-restricted diet. Examining barriers to sodium restriction, as well as factors that predict adherence to a low sodium diet, can aid researchers and clinicians in implementing a sodium-restricted diet. In this paper, we critically review methods for measuring sodium intake with a specific focus on CKD patients, appraise dietary adherence, and factors that have optimized sodium restriction in key research trials and discuss barriers to sodium restriction and factors that must be considered when recommending a sodium-restricted diet.

  20. Association of breakfast intake with obesity, dietary and physical activity behavior among urban school-aged adolescents in Delhi, India: results of a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Monika

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, regular breakfast consumption is inversely associated with excess weight and directly associated with better dietary and improved physical activity behaviors. Our objective was to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among school-going adolescents in Delhi and evaluate its association with overweight and obesity as well as other dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Eight schools (Private and Government of Delhi in the year 2006. Participants: 1814 students from 8th and 10th grades; response rate was 87.2%; 55% were 8th graders, 60% were boys and 52% attended Private schools. Main outcome measures: Body mass index, self-reported breakfast consumption, diet and physical activity related behaviors, and psychosocial factors. Data analysis: Mixed effects regression models were employed, adjusting for age, gender, grade level and school type (SES. Results Significantly more Government school (lower SES students consumed breakfast daily as compared to Private school (higher SES students (73.8% vs. 66.3%; p. More 8th graders consumed breakfast daily vs.10th graders (72.3% vs. 67.0%; p. A dose–response relationship was observed such that overall prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents who consumed breakfast daily (14.6% was significantly lower vs. those who only sometimes (15.2% or never (22.9% consumed breakfast (p. This relationship was statistically significant for boys (15.4 % vs. 16.5% vs. 26.0; p but not for girls. Intake of dairy products, fruits and vegetables was 5.5 (95% CI 2.4-12.5, 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5 and 2.2 (95% CI 1.3-3.5 times higher among those who consumed breakfast daily vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Breakfast consumption was associated with greater physical activity vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Positive values and beliefs about healthy eating; body image satisfaction; and positive

  1. Age-related changes in the brain antioxidant status: modulation by dietary supplementation of Decalepis hamiltonii and physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikiran, Tekupalli; Sowbhagya, Ramachandregowda; Anupama, Sindhghatta Kariyappa; Anand, Santosh; Bhagyalakshmi, Dundaiah

    2016-08-01

    The synergistic effects of physical exercise and diet have profound benefits on brain function. The present study was aimed to determine the effects of exercise and Decalepis hamiltonii (Dh) on age-related responses on the antioxidant status in discrete regions of rat brain. Male Wistar albino rats of 4 and 18 months old were orally supplemented with Dh extract and swim trained at 3 % intensity for 30 min/day, 5 days/week, for a period of 30 days. Supplementation of 100 mg Dh aqueous extract/kg body weight and its combination with exercise significantly elevated the antioxidant enzyme activities irrespective of age. Age-related and region-specific changes were observed in superoxide levels, and protein carbonyl and malondialdehyde contents, and were found to be decreased in both trained and supplemented groups. Levels of total thiols, protein, and nonprotein thiols decreased with age and significantly increased in the SW-T(+100 mg) groups. Our results demonstrated that the interactive effects of two treatments enhanced the antioxidant status and decreased the risk of protein and lipid oxidation in the rat brain. PMID:27379504

  2. Dietary Polyphenols, Berries, and Age-Related Bone Loss: A Review Based on Human, Animal, and Cell Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice A. Hubert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone loss during aging has become an increasing public health concern as average life expectancy has increased. One of the most prevalent forms of age-related bone disease today is osteoporosis in which the body slows down bone formation and existing bone is increasingly being resorbed by the body to maintain the calcium balance. Some causes of this bone loss can be attributed to dysregulation of osteoblast and osteoclast activity mediated by increased oxidative stress through the aging process. Due to certain serious adverse effects of the currently available therapeutic agents that limit their efficacy, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM has garnered interest as a natural means for the prevention of this debilitating disease. Natural antioxidant supplementation, a type of CAM, has been researched to aid in reducing bone loss caused by oxidative stress. Naturally occurring polyphenols, such as anthocyanins rich in berries, are known to have anti-oxidative properties. Several studies have been reviewed to determine the impact polyphenol intake—particularly that of berries—has on bone health. Studies reveal a positive association of high berry intake and higher bone mass, implicating berries as possible inexpensive alternatives in reducing the risk of age related bone loss.

  3. Focus on Pivotal Role of Dietary Intake (Diet and Supplement and Blood Levels of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols in Obtaining Successful Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Rondanelli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous specific age-related morbidities have been correlated with low intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. We performed a review in order to evaluate the extant evidence regarding: (1 the association between intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols and age-related pathologies (osteoporosis, sarcopenia and cognitive impairment; and (2 the optimum diet therapy or supplementation with tocopherols and tocotrienols for the treatment of these abnormalities. This review included 51 eligible studies. The recent literature underlines that, given the detrimental effect of low intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols on bone, muscle mass, and cognitive function, a change in the lifestyle must be the cornerstone in the prevention of these specific age-related pathologies related to vitamin E-deficient status. The optimum diet therapy in the elderly for avoiding vitamin E deficiency and its negative correlates, such as high inflammation and oxidation, must aim at achieving specific nutritional goals. These goals must be reached through: accession of the elderly subjects to specific personalized dietary programs aimed at achieving and/or maintaining body weight (avoid malnutrition; increase their intake of food rich in vitamin E, such as derivatives of oily seeds (in particular wheat germ oil, olive oil, hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and cereals rich in vitamin E (such as specific rice cultivar rich in tocotrienols or take vitamin E supplements. In this case, vitamin E can be correctly used in a personalized way either for the outcome from the pathology or to achieve healthy aging and longevity without any adverse effects.

  4. Nutritional status and dietary intakes of children aged 6 months to 12 years: findings of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children (SEANUTS Malaysia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Boon Koon; Siti Haslinda, Mohd Din; Nik Shanita, Safii; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Ng, Lai Oon; Khouw, Ilse; Norimah, A Karim

    2013-09-01

    The dual burden of malnutrition reportedly coexists in Malaysia; however, existing data are scarce and do not adequately represent the nutritional status of Malaysian children. The Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children was carried out with the aim of assessing the nutritional status in a sample of nationally representative population of children aged 6 months to 12 years. A total of 3542 children were recruited using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemical assessment involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using semi-quantitative FFQ, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). The prevalence of overweight (9·8%) and obesity (11·8%) was higher than that of thinness (5·4%) and stunting (8·4%). Only a small proportion of children had low levels of Hb (6·6%), serum ferritin (4·4%) and vitamin A (4·4%), but almost half the children (47·5%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Dietary intake of the children was not compatible with the recommendations, where more than one-third did not achieve the Malaysian RNI for energy, Ca and vitamin D. The present study revealed that overnutrition was more prevalent than undernutrition. The presence of high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and the inadequate intake of Ca and vitamin D are of concern. Hence, strategies for improving the nutritional status of Malaysian children need to consider both sides of malnutrition and also put emphasis on approaches for the prevention of overweight and obesity as well as vitamin D insufficiency. PMID:24016764

  5. Restricted Airspace

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Redstone Technical Test Center has restricted airspace up to 30,000 feet ASL. Airspace encompasses R-2104 (Redstone). Airspace is used extensively for airborne/UAV...

  6. The application of NAA and ASS techniques on determination of daily dietary intake of Ca, Fe and Zn in school-aged children in Bandung city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micronutrient elements contained in foods have an important role in the metabolism process in human body, so micronutrient element deficiencies can cause health problems and chronic diseases. Children are the population that generally more vulnerable in suffering of micronutrient deficiencies which have significant affects on their growth and development. Micronutrient deficiencies have long been happening in Indonesia but were not solved and the nutrition status data of children in Indonesia is still limited. Therefore, through this research the daily dietary intake of Ca, Fe and Zn micronutrient in school-aged children has been determined. Food sampling was carried out using duplicate diet method and the Fe and Zn elements were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) while the Ca was determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) method. The analysis results show the range concentration of Ca, Fe and Zn in food samples obtained were 307-1991; 10,1-95,5 and 11,9-29,4 mg/kg respectively, while the average of Ca, Fe and Zn daily intake were 228; 9.3 and 4.6 mg/day and they were only fulfill 28%, 74% and 39% of AKG (adequate value of nutrient). The Ca, Fe and Zn deficiencies were observed on school-aged children in Bandung. This result is expected to give description and information to the authority on planning and policies taking as efforts in quality improvement of the next human resources. (author)

  7. Dietary analysis and patterns of nutritional supplement use in normal and age-related macular disease affected subjects: a prospective cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eperjesi Frank

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor diet is thought to be a risk factor for many diseases, including age-related macular disease (ARMD, which is the leading cause of blind registration in those aged over 60 years in the developed world. The aims of this study were 1 to evaluate the dietary food intake of three subject groups: participants under the age of 50 years without ARMD (U50, participants over the age of 50 years without ARMD (O50, and participants with ARMD (AMD, and 2 to obtain information on nutritional supplement usage. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study designed in a clinical practice setting. Seventy-four participants were divided into three groups: U50; 20 participants aged 50 years, from 52 to 77 (62.7 ± 6.8 years, and ARMD; 27 participants aged > 50 years with ARMD, from 55 to 79 (66.0 ± 5.8 years. Participants were issued with a three-day food diary, and were also asked to provide details of any daily nutritional supplements. The diaries were analysed using FoodBase 2000 software. Data were input by one investigator and statistically analysed using Microsoft Excel for Microsoft Windows XP software, employing unpaired t-tests. Results Group O50 consumed significantly more vitamin C (t = 3.049, p = 0.005 and significantly more fibre (t = 2.107, p = 0.041 than group U50. Group ARMD consumed significantly more protein (t = 3.487, p = 0.001 and zinc (t = 2.252, p = 0.029 than group O50. The ARMD group consumed the highest percentage of specific ocular health supplements and the U50 group consumed the most multivitamins. Conclusions We did not detect a deficiency of any specific nutrient in the diets of those with ARMD compared with age- and gender-matched controls. ARMD patients may be aware of research into use of nutritional supplementation to prevent progression of their condition.

  8. Effects of Age and Dietary Fibre Level on Caecal Microbial Communities of Conventional and Specific Pathogen-Free Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Bennegadi, Nadia; Fonty, Gérard; Millet, Liliane; Gidenne, Thierry; Licois, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Caecal community structure in conventional and specific pathogen-free (SPF) rabbits was assessed by performing dot-blot hybridization with 16S rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probes. The variation of the caecal flora was analysed according to age (18–70 days old), nutritional status (acid detergent fibre=19% in standard and 9% in fibre-deficient diet) and rabbit health (healthy vs diarrhoeic). Caecal flora was stabilized at around 25–28 days. Bacteria and archaea represented 73% and...

  9. Aging and Aging Intervention by Coloric Restriction in Nonhuman Primate Rhesus Monkeys%非人类灵长类恒河猴衰老与热量限制抗衰老研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮清伟; 俞卓伟; 马永兴

    2013-01-01

    Nonhuman primate rhesus monkey is a ideal model for human aging and aging intervention. Same with human aging, rehesus monkey demonstrates age-related aging and diseases in endocrine, neural , immune and cardiovascular system. Coloric restriction can slow down the primary and secondry aging efficently. The mechanism may be to suppress the oxidative stress-inflammaging-DNA damage by mediating the nutrient sensitive metablic signal pathways, and activate damaged DNA repair. However, the dif-fereces of study design, husbandry and diet composition may differently affect CR against the the primary and secondry effects in a long-lived nonhuman primate. Optimization in protocol design, control of the ex-perimetal variables, and shortening the experimental period will be advantageous to understand the mechanistic questions about the anti-aging effects of CR.%非人类灵长类恒河猴是研究人类衰老和热量限制抗衰老的理想模型.与人类衰老一样,恒河猴由于增龄性神经内分泌、免疫、神经系统、心血管系统等衰老,出现相应的老年病.热量限制能有效地延缓恒河猴原发性衰老和继发性衰老.其机制可能是调节代谢相关的信号通路,抑制氧化应激-炎性衰老-DNA损伤;同时激活DNA损伤修复.然而,不同的实验设计、饲养环境、饮食组成和遗传背景等可能对热量限制抗长生命周期恒河猴原发性衰老和继发性衰老作用存在不同的影响.优化实验设计,控制这些变量,缩短实验周期将更有利于明确CR抗衰老的作用及其机制.

  10. Early-age feed restriction affects viability and gene expression of satellite cells isolated from the gastrocnemius muscle of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yue

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle growth depends on the fusion of proliferate satellite cells to existing myofibers. We reported previously that 0–14 day intermittent feeding led to persistent retardation in myofiber hypertrophy. However, how satellite cells respond to such nutritional insult has not been adequately elucidated. Results One-day-old broiler chicks were allocated to control (Con, ad libitum feeding, intermittent feeding (IF, feed provided on alternate days and re-feeding (RF, 2 days ad libitum feeding after 12 days of intermittent feeding groups. Chickens were killed on Day 15 and satellite cells were isolated. When cultured, satellite cells from the IF group demonstrated significant retardation in proliferation and differentiation potential, while RF partly restored the proliferation rate and differentiation potential of the satellite cells. Significant up-regulation of insulin like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR (P0.05 and thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα (P0.05, and down-regulation of growth hormone receptor (GHR (P0.01 and IGF-I (P0.01 mRNA expression was observed in freshly isolated IF satellite cells when compared with Con cells. In RF cells, the mRNA expression of IGF-I was higher (P0.05 and of TRα was lower (P0.01 than in IF cells, suggesting that RF restored the mRNA expression of TRα and IGF-I, but not of GHR and IGF-IR. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio tended to increase in the IF group, which was reversed in the RF group (P0.05, indicating that RF reduced the pro-apoptotic influence of IF. Moreover, no significant effect of T3 was detected on cell survival in IF cells compared with Con (PP0.05 cells. Conclusions These data suggest that early-age feed restriction inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells, induces changes in mRNA expression of the GH/IGF-I and thyroid hormone receptors in satellite cells, as well as blunted sensitivity of satellite cells to T3, and that RF partially reverses these effects. Thus

  11. 饮食蛋白的限制对高龄患者营养状况和慢性肾脏病进展的影响%Effects of dietary protein restriction on the nutritional status and renal function in the very elderly with chronic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭利; 程庆砾; 刘胜; 王小丹; 赵佳慧; 李青霖; 张晓英

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察饮食蛋白的限制对老年慢性肾脏病(CKD)患者营养状况及肾功能进展的影响.方法 对168例高龄(75 ~94岁)男性CKD 3期患者的低蛋白饮食(LPD)治疗情况进行回顾性分析.采用Maroni公式估算患者平均每日蛋白质入量(eDPI)以评估患者对LPD的依从性,并依据eDPI水平及是否服用复方α-酮酸制剂(KA)治疗将患者分为单纯限制蛋白组、限制蛋白+KA组、未限制蛋白组及未限制蛋白+KA组,比较分析18个月病程中四组患者的营养状况和肾功能的进展.结果 单纯限制蛋白组患者的血清白蛋白水平和前白蛋白水平降低(P<0.05);未限制蛋白组患者的血磷水平明显升高(P<0.05),服用KA制剂两组患者的血钙水平明显升高(P<0.05);较未限制蛋白组及单纯限制蛋白组,限制蛋白+KA组患者的eGFR下降幅度最小(P<0.05).结论 高龄CKD患者单纯给予限制蛋白治疗,可能会导致营养不良;KA可以改善CKD患者的营养状况和血钙水平;限制蛋白并辅以KA治疗可以有效延缓老年CKD进展.%Objective To investigate the effects of dietary protein restriction supplemented with or without α-ketoacids(KA) on nutritional status and renal function in the very elderly with chronic kidney disease (CKD).Methods The clinical data of 168 elderly patients with CKD stage 3 were analyzed in this retrospective cohort study.The compliance to LPD was evaluated using estimated daily protein intake (eDPI).According to the level of eDPI and supplementation with or without KA,the patients were divided into four groups including protein-restriction alone,protein-restriction + KA,non protein-restriction and non protein-restriction + KA.The nutritional status and the changes of eGFR were recorded and followed up for 18 months.Results The levels of serum albumin,serum prealbumin and serum calcium in protein-restriction + KA group and non protein-restriction + KA group were higher than that in

  12. Cellular and Physiological Effects of Dietary Supplementation with β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate (HMB and β-Alanine in Late Middle-Aged Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Vallejo

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that severe decline of skeletal muscle mass and function with age may be mitigated by exercise and dietary supplementation with protein and amino acid ingredient technologies. The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of the leucine catabolite, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB, in C2C12 myoblasts and myotubes, and to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with HMB, the amino acid β-alanine and the combination thereof, on muscle contractility in a preclinical model of pre-sarcopenia. In C2C12 myotubes, HMB enhanced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR calcium release beyond vehicle control in the presence of all SR agonists tested (KCl, P<0.01; caffeine, P = 0.03; ionomycin, P = 0.03. HMB also improved C2C12 myoblast viability (25 μM HMB, P = 0.03 and increased proliferation (25 μM HMB, P = 0.04; 125 μM HMB, P<0.01. Furthermore, an ex vivo muscle contractility study was performed on EDL and soleus muscle from 19 month old, male C57BL/6nTac mice. For 8 weeks, mice were fed control AIN-93M diet, diet with HMB, diet with β-alanine, or diet with HMB and β-alanine. In β-alanine fed mice, EDL muscle showed a 7% increase in maximum absolute force compared to the control diet (202 ± 3vs. 188± 5 mN, P = 0.02. At submaximal frequency of stimulation (20 Hz, EDL from mice fed HMB plus β-alanine showed an 11% increase in absolute force (88.6 ± 2.2 vs. 79.8 ± 2.4 mN, P = 0.025 and a 13% increase in specific force (12.2 ± 0.4 vs. 10.8 ± 0.4 N/cm2, P = 0.021. Also in EDL muscle, β-alanine increased the rate of force development at all frequencies tested (P<0.025, while HMB reduced the time to reach peak contractile force (TTP, with a significant effect at 80 Hz (P = 0.0156. In soleus muscle, all experimental diets were associated with a decrease in TTP, compared to control diet. Our findings highlight beneficial effects of HMB and β-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle function in aging mice.

  13. Cellular and Physiological Effects of Dietary Supplementation with β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate (HMB) and β-Alanine in Late Middle-Aged Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Julian; Spence, Madoka; Cheng, An-Lin; Brotto, Leticia; Edens, Neile K; Garvey, Sean M; Brotto, Marco

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that severe decline of skeletal muscle mass and function with age may be mitigated by exercise and dietary supplementation with protein and amino acid ingredient technologies. The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of the leucine catabolite, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), in C2C12 myoblasts and myotubes, and to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with HMB, the amino acid β-alanine and the combination thereof, on muscle contractility in a preclinical model of pre-sarcopenia. In C2C12 myotubes, HMB enhanced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium release beyond vehicle control in the presence of all SR agonists tested (KCl, Pionomycin, P = 0.03). HMB also improved C2C12 myoblast viability (25 μM HMB, P = 0.03) and increased proliferation (25 μM HMB, P = 0.04; 125 μM HMB, P<0.01). Furthermore, an ex vivo muscle contractility study was performed on EDL and soleus muscle from 19 month old, male C57BL/6nTac mice. For 8 weeks, mice were fed control AIN-93M diet, diet with HMB, diet with β-alanine, or diet with HMB and β-alanine. In β-alanine fed mice, EDL muscle showed a 7% increase in maximum absolute force compared to the control diet (202 ± 3vs. 188± 5 mN, P = 0.02). At submaximal frequency of stimulation (20 Hz), EDL from mice fed HMB plus β-alanine showed an 11% increase in absolute force (88.6 ± 2.2 vs. 79.8 ± 2.4 mN, P = 0.025) and a 13% increase in specific force (12.2 ± 0.4 vs. 10.8 ± 0.4 N/cm2, P = 0.021). Also in EDL muscle, β-alanine increased the rate of force development at all frequencies tested (P<0.025), while HMB reduced the time to reach peak contractile force (TTP), with a significant effect at 80 Hz (P = 0.0156). In soleus muscle, all experimental diets were associated with a decrease in TTP, compared to control diet. Our findings highlight beneficial effects of HMB and β-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle function in aging mice. PMID:26953693

  14. The First International Mini-Symposium on Methionine Restriction and Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene eAbles

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been 20 years since the Orentreich Foundation for the Advancement of Science, under the leadership Dr. Norman Orentreich, first reported that low methionine (Met ingestion by rats extends lifespan [1]. Since then, several studies have replicated the effects of dietary methionine restriction (MR in delaying age-related diseases [2–5]. We report the abstracts from the First International Mini-Symposium on Methionine Restriction and Lifespan held in Tarrytown, NY last September 2013. The goals were 1 to gather researchers with an interest in methionine restriction and lifespan, 2 to exchange knowledge, 3 to generate ideas for future investigations, and 4 to strengthen relationships within this community. The presentations highlighted the importance of research on cysteine, growth hormone (GH, and ATF4 in the paradigm of aging. In addition, the effects of dietary restriction or MR in the kidneys, liver, bones and the adipose tissue were discussed. The symposium also emphasized the value of other species, e.g. the naked mole rat, Brandt’s bat and drosophila in aging research. Overall, the symposium consolidated scientists with similar research interests and provided opportunities to conduct future collaborative studies.

  15. Methionine restriction beyond life-span extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ables, Gene P; Hens, Julie R; Nichenametla, Sailendra N

    2016-01-01

    Dietary methionine restriction (MR) extends life span across species via various intracellular regulatory mechanisms. In rodents, MR induces resistance against adiposity, improves hepatic glucose metabolism, preserves cardiac function, and reduces body size, all of which can affect the onset of age-related diseases. Recent studies have shown that MR-affected biomarkers, such as fibroblast growth factor 21, adiponectin, leptin, cystathionine β synthase, and insulin-like growth factor 1, can potentially alter physiology. The beneficial effects of MR could be explained in part by its ability to reduce mitochondrial oxidative stress. Studies have revealed that MR can reduce reactive oxygen species that damage cells and promote cancer progression. It has been demonstrated that either MR or the targeting of specific genes in the methionine cycle could induce cell apoptosis while decreasing proliferation in several cancer models. The complete mechanism underlying the actions of MR on the cell cycle during cancer has not been fully elucidated. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as methylation and noncoding RNAs, are also possible downstream effectors of MR; future studies should help to elucidate some of these mechanisms. Despite evidence that changes in dietary methionine can affect epigenetics, it remains unknown whether epigenetics is a mechanism in MR. This review summarizes research on MR and its involvement in metabolism, cancer, and epigenetics.

  16. Dietary Intake of Trans Fatty Acids in Children Aged 4–5 in Spain: The INMA Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Scholz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Trans fatty acid (TFA intake has been identified as a health hazard in adults, but data on preschool children are scarce. We analyzed the data from the Spanish INMA Project to determine the intake of total, industrial and natural TFA, their main sources and the associated socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in children aged 4–5 (n = 1793. TFA intake was estimated using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire, and multiple linear regression was used to explore associated factors. The mean daily intakes of total, industrial and natural TFA were 1.36, 0.60, and 0.71 g/day, respectively. Ten percent of the children obtained >1% of their energy intake from TFA. The main sources of industrial TFA were fast food, white bread and processed baked goods. Milk, red and processed meat and processed baked goods were the main sources of natural TFA. Having parents from countries other than Spain was significantly associated with higher natural TFA (in mg/day intake (β 45.5 and television viewing was significantly associated with higher industrial TFA intake (β 18.3. Higher fruits and vegetables intake was significantly associated with lower intakes of all TFAs, whereas higher sweetened beverages intake was significantly associated with lower total and natural TFA intake. Thus, total and industrial TFA intake was associated with less healthy food patterns and lifestyles in Spanish preschool children.

  17. Dietary Intake of Trans Fatty Acids in Children Aged 4–5 in Spain: The INMA Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Alexander; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria; Garcia-de-la-Hera, Manuela; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina; Santa Marina, Loreto; Irazabal, Amaia; Romaguera, Dora; Guxens, Mònica; Julvez, Jordi; Llop, Sabrina; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Vioque, Jesus

    2016-01-01

    Trans fatty acid (TFA) intake has been identified as a health hazard in adults, but data on preschool children are scarce. We analyzed the data from the Spanish INMA Project to determine the intake of total, industrial and natural TFA, their main sources and the associated socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in children aged 4–5 (n = 1793). TFA intake was estimated using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire, and multiple linear regression was used to explore associated factors. The mean daily intakes of total, industrial and natural TFA were 1.36, 0.60, and 0.71 g/day, respectively. Ten percent of the children obtained >1% of their energy intake from TFA. The main sources of industrial TFA were fast food, white bread and processed baked goods. Milk, red and processed meat and processed baked goods were the main sources of natural TFA. Having parents from countries other than Spain was significantly associated with higher natural TFA (in mg/day) intake (β 45.5) and television viewing was significantly associated with higher industrial TFA intake (β 18.3). Higher fruits and vegetables intake was significantly associated with lower intakes of all TFAs, whereas higher sweetened beverages intake was significantly associated with lower total and natural TFA intake. Thus, total and industrial TFA intake was associated with less healthy food patterns and lifestyles in Spanish preschool children. PMID:27735864

  18. Perspectives on dietary adherence among women with inborn errors of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Alex R; Brewer, Cheryl A; Singh, Rani H

    2010-02-01

    Adherence to highly restrictive diets is critical for women of childbearing age who have inborn errors of metabolism such as phenylketonuria. The purpose of this study was to explore attitudes about diet, barriers to and facilitators of dietary adherence, and experiences with the health care system in promoting dietary adherence among adolescent and adult women with inborn errors of metabolism to identify policy-level interventions to improve adherence. We analyzed the results of four focus groups including a total of 19 women between the ages of 12 and 52 years with phenylketonuria, methylmalonic acidemia, or maple syrup urine disease attending an educational summer camp in 2008. Themes were identified after independent analysis of transcripts. Most participants were highly knowledgeable about their dietary requirements and some could describe their own specific negative experiences of nonadherence. Many reported specific challenges, such as feelings of being different, that they experienced in elementary and middle school. Friends and family play an important role in maintaining dietary adherence. Participants identified one registered dietitian in particular who has played an important supportive role. Insurance coverage for medical foods was a common concern. Most participants identified concerns about transitioning from pediatric to adult medical services. We identified four specific strategies for future evaluation that may improve dietary adherence and health outcomes for women and their potential offspring: symptom-based dietary monitoring for some, educating school officials about medical diets, expanding the role of registered dietitians; and assisting with the transition from pediatric to adult health care providers. PMID:20102852

  19. Dietary management practices in phenylketonuria across European centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahring, Kirsten; Belanger-Quintana, Amaya; Dokoupil, Katharina; Ozel, Hulya Gokmen; Lammardo, Anna Maria; MacDonald, Anita; Motzfeldt, Kristina; Nowacka, Maria; van Rijn, Margreet; Robert, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dietary phenylalanine restriction is the cornerstone of phenylketonuria (PKU) management. However, there are no European consensus guidelines for its optimal dietary care. Methods: Detailed information on the routine dietary management of PKU was obtained from 10 European centres using s

  20. Dietary Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble fiber or insoluble fiber. Both types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts ...

  1. Restriction of dairy products: a reality in inflammatory bowel disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Brasil Lopes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calcium deficiency is considered a risk factor for the development of osteoporosis in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD patients. Various dietary restrictions, including milk products are reported by these patients. Objective: To evaluate dairy product and dietary calcium intake by IBD patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 65 outpatients with IBD recruited from one reference center for IBD. A semi-structured questionnaire (to collect demographic, socioeconomic and clinical data and a quantitative food frequency questionnaire were administered. With regard to clinical data, we evaluated the anthropometric nutritional status, the disease classification, the disease activity index and the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Selfreported modifications in the use of dairy products were evaluated. Results: The IBD patients´ ages ranged from 20-75 years and 67.0% were diagnosed with ulcerative colitis. The majority (64.7% reported restricting dairy products. The frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms was higher among the Crohn´s disease patients who restricted dairy products than among those with no restrictions (100% vs 42.9%; p = 0.013; this result was not observed among the UC (ulcerative colitis patients. Disease activity was also more frequent in the IBD patients who restricted dairy products than in those with no restrictions (23.8% vs 4.5%; p = 0.031, and among the UC patients, extensive disease was more common in the patients who restricted dairy products than in those with no restrictions (42.9% vs 20.0%; p = 0.03. Conclusion: Restricting dairy products is common among IBD patients, possibly due to disease activity, the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms and the extension of the disease.

  2. 限饲与营养补偿对小尾寒羊生长性能、消化代谢和瘤胃液纤维素酶活性的影响%Effects of Dietary Restriction and Realimentation on Growth Performance, Digestion, Metabolism and Cellulase Activity in Ruminal Fluid of Small Tail Han Sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军强; 丁路明; 高强; 龙瑞军; 安吾; 刘培培; 张丽莉

    2015-01-01

    本试验旨在研究不同限饲水平与营养补偿对小尾寒羊生长性能、消化代谢以和瘤胃液纤维素酶活性的影响. 选择体重相近的3月龄小尾寒羊公羊40只,采用单因素4水平随机设计,每组10只,正试期90 d. 对照(Ⅰ)组全期自由采食;30 d限饲期内,Ⅱ、Ⅲ和Ⅳ组分别按照NRC(2007)推荐的日增重500、400和300 g/d所需要的代谢能(ME)和粗蛋白质(CP)的量配制饲粮,限饲结束后,试验组自由采食60 d为营养补偿期. 在24~30 d和84~90 d进行消化代谢试验. 结果表明:1 )限饲期,限饲水平对结束体重和平均日增重( ADG )有显著影响( P0.05);Ⅱ、Ⅲ和Ⅳ组体重补偿百分比分别为对照组的104.36%、101.71%、99.61%;限饲水平对ADG有显著影响( P0.05). 营养补偿期,组间营养物质的表观消化率差异不显著( P>0.05). 3)限饲期,限饲水平对食入氮、氮沉积、氮沉积率有显著影响( P0.05);粪氮和尿氮的变化不显著(P>0.05). 营养补偿期,组间氮代谢指标差异不显著(P>0.05). 4)1~30 d,试验组瘤胃液纤维素酶活性呈降低趋势,31~90 d,呈升高趋势,在90 d,试验组均高于对照组. 综上所述,对小尾寒羊采用短期适度限饲,经过营养补偿可以使其生长性能、消化代谢不受影响.%The objective of this study was to explore the effects of dietary restriction level and realimentation on growth performance, digestion, metabolism and cellulase activity in ruminal fluid of small tail Han sheep. For-ty 3-month old small tail Han sheep with average body weight (BW) of (19.77±1.34) kg were randomly split into four groups with ten sheep in each group by a single factor four levels design. The study lasted for 90 days. Control group ( group Ⅰ) was fed ad libitum during the whole period; during 30-day dietary restriction peri-od, three experimental groups were fed diets with different metabolizable energy ( ME ) and crude protein ( CP) levels, which were designed to meet

  3. Effects of gender, age, and diabetes duration on dietary self-care in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a Self-Determination Theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Stéphanie; Senécal, Caroline; Guay, Frédéric; Nouwen, Arie

    2011-09-01

    This study tests a model derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT) (Deci and Ryan, 2000) to explain the mechanisms by which non-modifiable factors influence dietary self-care in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (n = 289). SEM analyses adjusted for HbA1c levels revealed that longer diabetes duration and female gender were indicative of poorer dietary self-care. This effect was mediated by contextual and motivational factors as posited by SDT. Poorer autonomy support from practitioners was predominant in girls with longer diabetes duration. Perceived autonomous motivation and self-efficacy were indicative of greater autonomy support, and led to better dietary self-care.

  4. Healthy eating at schools:How does a school food programme affect the quality of dietary intake at lunch among children aged 7-13 years?

    OpenAIRE

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Tetens, Inge; Toft, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Background and aimIn 2007, the Danish Food Industry Agency announced a project where Danish schools could apply for funds to establish a school food programme to provide the school children with free school meals for two months during 2008. This school food programme should be tested and evaluated. The present PhD thesis is based on evaluation of the dietary effect of this project.There is room for improvement of the dietary habits of Danish children. Dietary habits are influenced by multiple...

  5. Dietary sodium intake is associated with total fluid and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in US children and adolescents aged 2–18 y: NHANES 2005–2008123

    OpenAIRE

    Grimes, Carley A; Wright, Jacqueline D.; Liu, Kiang; Nowson, Caryl A; Loria, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Increasing dietary sodium drives the thirst response. Because sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are frequently consumed by children, sodium intake may drive greater consumption of SSBs and contribute to obesity risk.

  6. 不同年龄阶段城市女性体育休闲限制研究——以郑州市为例%Restrictions of Recreational Sport of Urban Women of Different Ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈爱霞; 杨文龙

    2012-01-01

    体育休闲的本质是通过体育文化途径消除体力的疲劳,获得精神的慰籍。依据休闲限制的相关理论,调查了解不同年龄阶段的女性休闲方式.了解以体育作为休闲方式的主要障碍。依照Crawford和Godbev提出的休闲限制阶层模型.调查了600名不同年龄、学历和收入的城市女性。结果表明,青春期后期、成人中期和成人后期都认为自身因素是体育休闲的主要限制.成人早期将时间、经济等视为主要影响因素.人际障碍对女性体育休闲负面影响不大。除了三类限制因素之外.在一致性方面文化因素对不同年龄阶段的影响没有显著性差异.这表明中国女性的知识、信仰、道德习俗等文化基因乃是导致其不愿意参加休闲体育活动的主要原因。%The essence of recreational sport is to get spiritual consolation by alleviating physical fatigue through the sports culture. According to the recreation restriction theories, the paper investigates the recreation ways of women of different ages and reveals the major obstacles of the recreational sport. According to the recreation restriction stratification model proposed by Crawford and Godbey, the paper investigates 600 urban women of different ages, schooling and income. The paper reveals that the urban women of late adolescence, middle adult age and late adult age consider their own factors as the main restrictions of the recreational sport. Urban women of early adult age consider time and economy as the main in- fluential factors and the personal relationship has no negative impact on the women recreational sport. Besides the three restrictive factors, the cultural factor has no impact on the urban women of different ages. The paper proposes that knowledge, belief and moral customs are the main restrictive factors for the recreational sport of urban women.

  7. A re-evaluation of life-long severe galactose restriction for the nutrition management of classic galactosemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Calcar, Sandra C; Bernstein, Laurie E; Rohr, Frances J; Scaman, Christine H; Yannicelli, Steven; Berry, Gerard T

    2014-07-01

    The galactose-restricted diet is life-saving for infants with classic galactosemia. However, the benefit and extent of dietary galactose restriction required after infancy remain unclear and variation exists in practice. There is a need for evidence-based recommendations to better standardize treatment for this disorder. This paper reviews the association between diet treatment and outcomes in classic galactosemia and evaluates the contribution of food sources of free galactose in the diet. Recommendations include allowing all fruits, vegetables, legumes, soy products that are not fermented, various aged cheeses and foods containing caseinates. Further research directions are discussed. PMID:24857409

  8. Dietary ecology of human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dietary life of humans varies with the environment where they live and has been changing with time. It has become possible to examine such changes by using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition as a chemical tool. The present report outlines recent developments in the application of this tool and compares the dietary ecologies of various human groups from the viewpoint of isotope geochemistry. The history of the application of this tool to dietary analysis is summarized first, and features of the carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in animals and their relations with the food chain are outlined. The dietary ecology of the current people is then discussed in relation to the isotope composition in food, the isotope composition in hair of the current people, and determination of food habit of specific groups of people from such isotope compositions. For prediction of dietary composition, the report presents a flow chart for an algorism which is based on the Monte Carlo method. It also outlines processes for analyzing food habits of people in the prehistoric age, focusing on distribution of isotope composition in humans over the world. (N.K.)

  9. Analysis of dietary behavior of children aged 1-6 years in Changning district%长宁区1-6岁儿童饮食行为现状分析及探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 蔡文秀; 鲁巧珍; 黄璧琨; 金星明

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解长宁区儿童饮食行为问题发生的现况及其影响因素,为儿童饮食行为问题的干预提供参考依据.方法 对长宁区1-6岁儿童采用整群系统抽样,对儿童照养人进行问卷调查,内容包括儿童的饮食行为现状和影响因素.结果 儿童饮食行为问题发生率为45.20%.而家长报告的儿童饮食行为问题为59.57%.与儿童饮食行为问题有关的因素为:儿童年龄(χ2=27.572,P<0.001)、呼吸道感染频率(χ2=8.418,P<0.05)、便秘(χ2=33.217,P<0.001)、胃食管返流(χ2=9.152,P<0.01)、气质(χ2=58.184,P<0.001)、照养人的饮食行为(χ2=10.035,P<0.01).结论 1-6岁儿童饮食行为问题发生率高.对高发人群要重点加强饮食行为的培养和干预;儿童饮食行为问题类化于照养人饮食行为问题,应开展饮食行为问题的家庭综合干预.%Objective To investigate the status of dietary behavior and its influencing factors on 1- to 6-years old children in Changning district, and to provide reference for intervention measures on dietary behavior problems of children. Methods 1- to 6-years old children in Changning district were selected with cluster and system sampling and their caregivers were surveyed with questionnaire about dietary behavior and its influencing factors. Results The prevalence of dietary behavior problems was 45. 2% and the rate reported by parents was 59. 6% . The prevalence of dietary behavior prohlems was influenced by age( x2 = 27. 572 ,P<0. 001 , frequency of upper respiratory tract infection( x2 = 8. 418 ,P<0. 05 ) , constipation(x2 = 33. 217 , P < 0. 001 ) , gastroesophageal efflux( x2 =9. 152 , P < 0. 01 ) , temperament ( x2 = 58. 184 ,P< 0. 01 )and dietary behavior of caregivers( x2 = 10. 035 , P < 0. 001 ). Gender , frequency of diarrhea , frequency of tonsillitis and saprodontia had nothing to do with the prevalence of dietary hehavior prohlems ( P>0. 05 ). Conclusion The prevalence of dietary behavior

  10. Do long-lived mutant and calorie-restricted mice share common anti-aging mechanisms?—a pathological point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeno, Yuji; Lew, Christie M.; Cortez, Lisa A.; Webb, Celeste R.; Lee, Shuko; Gene B Hubbard

    2006-01-01

    Rodent models are an invaluable resource for studying the mechanism of mammalian aging. In recent years, the availability of transgenic and knockout mouse models has facilitated the study of potential mechanisms of aging. Since 1996, aging studies with several long-lived mutant mice have been conducted. Studies with the long-lived mutant mice, Ames and Snell dwarf, and growth hormone receptor/binding protein knockout mice, are currently providing important clues regarding the role of the grow...

  11. C/EBPα is dispensable for the ontogeny of PD-1+ CD4+ memory T cells but restricts their expansion in an age-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrie, Ida Christine; Ohlsson, Ewa; Nielsen, Olaf;

    2014-01-01

    Ageing and cancer is often associated with altered T cell distributions and this phenomenon has been suggested to be the main driver in the development of immunosenescence. Memory phenotype PD-1+ CD4+ T cells accumulate with age and during leukemic development, and they might account for the atte...

  12. Effects of dietary fibre intake during adolescence on the components of the metabolic syndrome at the age of 36 years: The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, L.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Driessen, M.T.; Samoocha, D.; Twisk, J.W.R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is increasing, especially in young individuals. Most of the previous studies that have investigated the association between dietary fibre intake and the metabolic syndrome are cross-sectional or of short duration, and their results are inconsisten

  13. Dietary Patterns Predict Changes in Two-Hour Post-Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Plasma Glucose Concentrations in Middle-Aged Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, C.; Toft, U.; Tetens, Inge;

    2009-01-01

    We examined whether the adherence to major dietary patterns at baseline of 5824 nondiabetic Danes (30-60 y) enrolled in the nonpharmacological Inter99 intervention predicted changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and postchallenge 2-h plasma glucose (2h-PG) concentrations during a 5 y period and...

  14. Correlation between anthropometric measurement, lipid profile, dietary vitamins, serum antioxidants, lipoprotein (a) and lipid peroxides in known cases of 345 elderly hypertensive South Asian aged 56-64 y-A hospital based study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To address the association of dietary vitamins, anthropometric profile, lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in hypertensive participant compared with normotensive healthy controls.Methods:in both hypertensive participants and normotensive age-sex matched healthy controls. The associated changes in serum antioxidants and lipid peroxidation were also assessed along with lipid profile and anthropometric measurements in both groups of subjects under study.Results:Dietary intake of vitamins was assessed by 131 food frequency questionnaire items B2 and ascorbic acid compared to normotensive controls. Anthropometric variables in the hypertensive showed significant differences in weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip ratio and mid-arm circumference. The total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride were significantly higher (P<0.001) in hypertensive except high-density lipoprotein cholesterol which was significantly higher (P<0.001) in normotensive. The serum endogenous antioxidants and enzyme antioxidants were significantly decreased in hypertensive except serum albumin levels compared to normotensive along with concomitant increase in serum lipoprotein (a) malondialdehyde and conjugated diene levels. Dietary vitamins intake was higher in hypertensive participants excepting for vitamin Conclusions: Based on the observations, our study concludes that hypertension is caused due to interplay of several confounding factors namely anthropometry, lipid profile, depletion of endogenous antioxidants and rise in oxidative stress.

  15. 我国中老年人群高胆固醇血症的膳食影响因素分析%The analysis of dietary effect on the hypercholesterolaemia in middle-aged and aged Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟丽苹; 张坚; 王春荣; 满青青; 李莹; 赵文华

    2008-01-01

    TC血症的高危人群和患者应尽量减少动物性食物摄入量,在控制总能量的前提下适当增加粮谷类食物摄入量.%Objective To analyze the dietary effect on hypercholesterolaemia in middle-aged and aged Chinese population,and to provide scientific basis for pertinent dietary preventive management for hypercholesterolaemia.Method 17 545 suhjects aged 45 and above were selected from the data of"2002 China National Nutrition Survey"according to their dietary habit and regional distribution character,who were from southeast seaside,southwest inland and mid inland,including 23 provinces.We analyzed the difference of dietary pattern between the group of hypercholesterolaemia and the group of normal TC level.We also analyzed the dietary effect factors by logistic regress model.The hypercholesterolaemia was defined by the criteria of TC≥6.22 mmol/L,recommend by the Prevention and Cure Guide for Dyslipidemia of Chinese Adults,2007.Results The consumption volume of meat and egg in the group of hypercholesterolaemia was 146.2 g/d and 26.3 g/d,respectively,both were 1.3 times of those in the TC normal group.The consumption volume of cereal and the percentage of energy from carbohydrate for hypercholesterolaemia group was 352.9 g/d and 52.9%,respectively.And for the TC normal group,The consumption volume of cereal and the percentage of energy from carbohydrate was 411.5 g/d and 57.7%,respectively,which both were significantly higher than those of the hypercholesterolaemia group(for cereal intake:t=6.51,P<0.01;for the percentage of energy from carbohydrate:t=7.18,P<0.01).The prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia in the group of meat consumption<50 g,50-99 g,100 g-was 1.6%,2.2%and 2.5%,respectively(trend test for groups comparison:x2=14.4,P<0.01).The prevalence in the group of egg consumption<50g,50-99 g,100 g-was1.9%,2.8%and 2.7%,respectively(x2=8.6,P<0.01).The prevalence in the group of the ratio of animal food to plant food<0.2,0.2-0.4 and

  16. Dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madar, Z; Thorne, R

    1987-01-01

    Studies done on dietary fiber (DF) over the past five years are presented in this Review. The involvement of dietary fiber in the control of plasma glucose and lipid levels is now established. Two dietary fiber sources (soybean and fenugreek) were studied in our laboratory and are discussed herein. These sources were found to be potentially beneficial in the reduction of plasma glucose in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus subjects. They are shown to be acceptable by human subjects and are easy to use either in a mixture of milk products and in cooking. The mechanism by which dietary fiber alters the nutrient absorption is also discussed. The effect of DF on gastric emptying, transit time, adsorption and glucose transport may contribute to reducing plasma glucose and lipid levels. DF was found to be effective in controlling blood glucose and lipid levels of pregnant diabetic women. Dietary fiber may also be potentially beneficial in the reduction of exogenous insulin requirements in these subjects. However, increased consumption of DF may cause adverse side effects; the binding capabilities of fiber may affect nutrient availability, particularly that of minerals and prolonged and high DF dosage supplementation must be regarded cautiously. This is particularly true when recommending such a diet for pregnant or lactating women, children or subjects with nutritional disorders. Physiological effects of DF appear to depend heavily on the source and composition of fiber. Using a combination of DF from a variety of sources may reduce the actual mass of fiber required to obtain the desired metabolic effects and will result in a more palatable diet. Previously observed problems, such as excess flatus, diarrhea and mineral malabsorption would also be minimized.

  17. 日粮中限制赖氨酸水平对育肥猪生长性能和血液尿素氮的影响%Effect of dietary lysine restriction on growth performance and serum urea nitrogen in finishing pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金英海; 耿春银; 梁婉薪; 张敏

    2012-01-01

    试验研究日粮中限制赖氨酸水平对育肥猪生长性能和血液尿素氮的影响.试验选择健康的体重为(59.92±0.99) kg的杂交(约克夏×长白×杜洛克)育肥猪60头,随机分为3个处理组,每个处理组5个重复,每个重复4头猪,进行了8周的饲养试验.分为对照组是基础日粮中养分参照NRC(1998)饲养标准、日粮中赖氨酸水平限制15%和限制30%的3个处理组.结果表明:试验组在育肥期(0~8周)和育肥前期(0~4周),赖氨酸水平的降低,试验末重、平均日增重、平均日采食量(P<0.01)、饲料效率呈显著降低趋势(P<0.05).对照组与试验组之间差异显著(P<0.05).育肥后期(5~8周)血液尿素氮的浓度有显著性差异(P<0.01).%This experiment was to study the effect of dietary lysine restriction on growth performance and serum urea nitrogen in finishing pigs. 60 hybrid fattening pigs (York summer× Landrace X Duroc) with the initial body weight of (59.92±0.99) kg were randomly divided into 3 groups with 5 repetitions, each repetition had 4 pigs, the experiment lasted 8 weeks. The 3 groups were basic diet formulated by NRC(1998), dietary with lysine restriction level of 15% and 30% Respectively. The result indicated that, in the fattening time(0~8 week) and the earlier finishing period(0~4 week), with the decrease of dietary lysine level, the final body weight, average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake(P<0.01) and feed efficiency of experimental groups were significantly decreased(P<0.05). The blood urea nitrogen density has the significant differences in the latter finishing period(5~8 week).

  18. Reduced telomere length is not associated with early signs of vascular aging in young men born after intrauterine growth restriction: a paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laganovic, M.; Bendix, L.; Rubelj, I.;

    2014-01-01

    signs of vascular aging and whether telomere length could be a biomarker of this pathway. Methods: One hundred and fourteen healthy young men born SGA or after normal pregnancy [appropriate for gestational age (AGA)] were enrolled. Patient data were gathered from questionnaires and clinical exams......, including blood pressure (BP) measurement routine laboratory analyses, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was assessed by quantitative PCR. Birth data were obtained from medical records. Results: The SGA group had significantly higher pulse pressure and c......Objective: The mechanisms that increase cardiovascular risk in individuals born small for gestational age (SGA) are not well understood. Telomere shortening has been suggested to be a predictor of disease onset. Our aim was to determine whether impaired intrauterine growth is associated with early...

  19. Why US children use dietary supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Regan L; Gahche, Jaime J; Thomas, Paul R.; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplements are used by one-third of children. We examined motivations for supplement use in children, the types of products used by motivations, and the role of physicians and health care practitioners in guiding choices about supplements. Methods: We examined motivations for dietary supplement use reported for children (from birth to 19 y of age; n = 8,245) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010. Results: Dietary supplements were used by 31%...

  20. Dietary Practices in Saudi Cerebral Palsy Children

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hammad, Nouf S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the dietary practices of Saudi cerebral palsy (CP) children. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the following information from parents of CP children: demographics, main source of dietary information, frequency of main meals, foods/drinks used for main meals and in-between-meals. Results: Parents of 157 CP children participated. Parents were divided into three, while children were divided into two age groups. The main sources of dietary inf...

  1. Alcoholic Beverage Preference and Dietary Habits in Elderly across Europe: Analyses within the Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluik, Diewertje; Jankovic, Nicole; O’Doherty, Mark G.; Geelen, Anouk; Schöttker, Ben; Rolandsson, Olov; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Ferrieres, Jean; Bamia, Christina; Fransen, Heidi P.; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Eriksson, Sture; Martínez, Begoña; Huerta, José María; Kromhout, Daan; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; Franco, Oscar H.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Boffetta, Paolo; Kee, Frank; Feskens, Edith J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The differential associations of beer, wine, and spirit consumption on cardiovascular risk found in observational studies may be confounded by diet. We described and compared dietary intake and diet quality according to alcoholic beverage preference in European elderly. Methods From the Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES), seven European cohorts were included, i.e. four sub-cohorts from EPIC-Elderly, the SENECA Study, the Zutphen Elderly Study, and the Rotterdam Study. Harmonized data of 29,423 elderly participants from 14 European countries were analyzed. Baseline data on consumption of beer, wine, and spirits, and dietary intake were collected with questionnaires. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI). Intakes and scores across categories of alcoholic beverage preference (beer, wine, spirit, no preference, non-consumers) were adjusted for age, sex, socio-economic status, self-reported prevalent diseases, and lifestyle factors. Cohort-specific mean intakes and scores were calculated as well as weighted means combining all cohorts. Results In 5 of 7 cohorts, persons with a wine preference formed the largest group. After multivariate adjustment, persons with a wine preference tended to have a higher HDI score and intake of healthy foods in most cohorts, but differences were small. The weighted estimates of all cohorts combined revealed that non-consumers had the highest fruit and vegetable intake, followed by wine consumers. Non-consumers and persons with no specific preference had a higher HDI score, spirit consumers the lowest. However, overall diet quality as measured by HDI did not differ greatly across alcoholic beverage preference categories. Discussion This study using harmonized data from ~30,000 elderly from 14 European countries showed that, after multivariate adjustment, dietary habits and diet quality did not differ greatly according to alcoholic beverage

  2. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population......-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease...... Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium....

  3. Effect of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibition, Dietary Sodium Restriction, and/or Diuretics on Urinary Kidney Injury Molecule 1 Excretion in Nondiabetic Proteinuric Kidney Disease: A Post Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waanders, Femke; Vaidya, Vishal S.; van Goor, Harry; Leuvenink, Henri; Damman, Kevin; Hamming, Inge; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Vogt, Liffert; Navis, Gerjan

    2012-01-01

    Background Tubulointerstitial damage plays an important role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) with proteinuria. Urinary kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) reflects tubular KIM-1 and is considered a sensitive biomarker for early tubular damage. We hypothesized that a decrease in proteinuria by using therapeutic interventions is associated with decreased urinary KIM-1 levels. Study Design Post hoc analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Setting & Participants 34 proteinuric patients without diabetes from our outpatient renal clinic. Intervention Stepwise 6-week interventions of losartan, sodium restriction (low-sodium [LS] diet), their combination, losartan plus hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), and the latter plus an LS diet. Outcomes & Measurements Urinary excretion of KIM-1, total protein, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) as a positive control for tubular injury. Results Mean baseline urine protein level was 3.8 ± 0.4 (SE) g/d, and KIM-1 level was 1,706 ± 498 ng/d (increased compared with healthy controls; 74 ng/d). KIM-1 level was decreased by using placebo/LS (1,201 ± 388 ng/d; P = 0.04), losartan/high sodium (1,184 ± 296 ng/d; P = 0.09), losartan/LS (921 ± 176 ng/d; P = 0.008), losartan/high sodium plus HCT (862 ± 151 ng/d; P = 0.008) and losartan/LS plus HCT (743 ± 170 ng/d; P = 0.001). The decrease in urinary KIM-1 levels paralleled the decrease in proteinuria (R = 0.523; P < 0.001), but not blood pressure or creatinine clearance. 16 patients reached target proteinuria with protein less than 1 g/d, whereas KIM-1 levels normalized in only 2 patients. Urinary NAG level was increased at baseline and significantly decreased during the treatment periods of combined losartan plus HCT only. The decrease in urinary NAG levels was not closely related to proteinuria. Limitations Post hoc analysis. Conclusions Urinary KIM-1 level was increased in patients with nondiabetic CKD with proteinuria and decreased in parallel with

  4. Comparison of a Restricted and Unrestricted Vegan Diet Plan with a Restricted Omnivorous Diet Plan on Health-Specific Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Bloomer, Richard J; Gunnels, Trint A; JohnHenry M. Schriefer

    2015-01-01

    Background: We have previously noted beneficial health outcomes when individuals follow a dietary restriction plan in accordance with the Daniel Fast (DF). This is true whether individuals eliminate all animal products or include small amounts of meat and dairy in their plan. The present study sought to compare anthropometric and biochemical measures of health in individuals following a traditional DF (i.e., restricted vegan) or modified DF (i.e., restricted omnivorous; inclusive of ad libitu...

  5. Evidence For and Against Dietary Recommendations to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dildy, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based dietary guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease have changed significantly over the past 9 years. Now less emphasis is placed on total dietary fat and cholesterol restriction and more emphasis on restricting saturated fat. The public outcry to stop demonizing saturated fats has been around for some time. We are now hearing more agreement from medical researchers and clinicians alike, as they become aware of evidence that some saturated fatty acids are not harmfu...

  6. Maternal characteristics associated with the dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines in women of child-bearing age: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canfield Mark A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple N-nitroso compounds have been observed in animal studies to be both mutagenic and teratogenic. Human exposure to N-nitroso compounds and their precursors, nitrates and nitrites, can occur through exogenous sources, such as diet, drinking water, occupation, or environmental exposures, and through endogenous exposures resulting from the formation of N-nitroso compounds in the body. Very little information is available on intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines and factors related to increased consumption of these compounds. Methods Using survey and dietary intake information from control women (with deliveries of live births without major congenital malformations during 1997-2004 who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS, we examined the relation between various maternal characteristics and intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines from dietary sources. Estimated intake of these compounds was obtained from the Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire as adapted for the NBDPS. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the consumption of these compounds by self-reported race/ethnicity and other maternal characteristics. Results Median intake per day for nitrates, nitrites, total nitrites (nitrites + 5% nitrates, and nitrosamines was estimated at 40.48 mg, 1.53 mg, 3.69 mg, and 0.472 μg respectively. With the lowest quartile of intake as the referent category and controlling for daily caloric intake, factors predicting intake of these compounds included maternal race/ethnicity, education, body mass index, household income, area of residence, folate intake, and percent of daily calories from dietary fat. Non-Hispanic White participants were less likely to consume nitrates, nitrites, and total nitrites per day, but more likely to consume dietary nitrosamines than other participants that participated in the NBDPS. Primary

  7. 长春市社区老年高血压患者膳食结构现状调查%Survey on dietary pattern of aged patients with hypertension in community of Changchun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李程; 李文涛; 柴春燕; 王月琦; 陈秀明

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解社区老年高血压患者膳食结构,为实施护理干预提供依据.方法 通过方便取样对长春市某社区104名老年高血压患者膳食结构进行自制问卷调查.结果 被调查的老年高血压患者平均每人每日食物摄入中三大营养索供能比例不平衡,脂肪供能偏高,占34%,碳水化合物供能偏低,占54%,蛋白质供能较合理,占12%;相关营养素摄人量:钠偏高,而钾、钙、镁偏低.结论 与中国居民膳食指南比较,目前老年高血压患者膳食结构不合理,应通过合理的、有针对性的护理干预使老年高血压患者建立正确的膳食观念、膳食习惯.%Objective To investigate the dietary pattern for aged patients with hypertension in the community and provide basis for implementing the nursing intervention. Methods 104 aged patients with hypertension in one cummunity of Changehun City were sampled to be surveyed by diet questionnaire at random. Results The daily intakes of grain, meat, oils and salt for everyone were (279.9±31.4), (73.1±40.6), (36.9±10.5) and (9.2±3.5) g/d, respectively The daily intakes of fruit, fish and milk were (176.9±115.5), (16.5±14.7) and (120.2±124.1) g/d, respectively. The ratio of carbohydrate, protein and fat was improper. The percentages of energy from fat, carbohydrate and protein were 34%, 54% and 12%, respectively. So, the energy from fat was relatively high, and the energy from protein was reasonable. The daily intake of natrium was excessive. However, the daily intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium were not enough. Conclusions Compared with Dietary Guideline and Balance Diet Pagoda for Chinese Residents, current dietary pattern for aged patients with hypertension is unreasonable. Reasonable and pertinent nursing intervention should he carried out in order to help aged patients with hypertension acquire correct concepts of dietary and good habits of dietary.

  8. Human Ageing Genomic Resources: integrated databases and tools for the biology and genetics of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacutu, Robi; Craig, Thomas; Budovsky, Arie; Wuttke, Daniel; Lehmann, Gilad; Taranukha, Dmitri; Costa, Joana; Fraifeld, Vadim E; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The Human Ageing Genomic Resources (HAGR, http://genomics.senescence.info) is a freely available online collection of research databases and tools for the biology and genetics of ageing. HAGR features now several databases with high-quality manually curated data: (i) GenAge, a database of genes associated with ageing in humans and model organisms; (ii) AnAge, an extensive collection of longevity records and complementary traits for >4000 vertebrate species; and (iii) GenDR, a newly incorporated database, containing both gene mutations that interfere with dietary restriction-mediated lifespan extension and consistent gene expression changes induced by dietary restriction. Since its creation about 10 years ago, major efforts have been undertaken to maintain the quality of data in HAGR, while further continuing to develop, improve and extend it. This article briefly describes the content of HAGR and details the major updates since its previous publications, in terms of both structure and content. The completely redesigned interface, more intuitive and more integrative of HAGR resources, is also presented. Altogether, we hope that through its improvements, the current version of HAGR will continue to provide users with the most comprehensive and accessible resources available today in the field of biogerontology.

  9. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Kossoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  10. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Diabetes and Dietary Supplements: In Depth Share: On This ... health product or practice. Are dietary supplements for diabetes safe? Some dietary supplements may have side effects, ...

  11. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  12. Dietary Guidelines should reflect new understandings about adult protein needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layman Donald K

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dietary Guidelines for Americans provide nutrition advice aimed at promoting healthy dietary choices for life-long health and reducing risk of chronic diseases. With the advancing age of the population, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines confront increasing risks for age-related problems of obesity, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, heart disease, and sarcopenia. New research demonstrates that the meal distribution and amount of protein are important in maintaining body composition, bone health and glucose homeostasis. This editorial reviews the benefits of dietary protein for adult health, addresses omissions in current nutrition guidelines, and offers concepts for improving the Dietary Guidelines.

  13. DAILY DYNAMICS OF THE ELEMENTS OF MULE DUCKS BEHAVIOR AT A DIFFERENT AGE, BRED IN INTEGRATED FISH PONDS UNDER DIFFERENT NUTRIENT REGIMES. II. AT APPLYING THE SCHEME OF FEEDING WITH PARTIAL RESTRICTION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila NIKOLOVA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation upon the daily dynamics of the separate elements of mule ducks behavior has been carried out at the Institute of Fisheries and Acuaculture Plovdiv, Bulgaria, applying the schedule of feeding with partial restriction, at conditions of integrated fish-ducks technology. Our investigation has shown that the fishponds have been suitable for mule ducks rearing – the birds have had a good plumage status without demonstrations of cannibalism and aggressiveness. Together with the fattening period advance, ducks have spent less time for feeding and have reacted rather weakly to forage supply; the dry land stay time has been on the account of the fish-pond stay, having in mind that the swimming time has increased, as well as the rest time in the fish-pond together with the advance in age.

  14. Lessons from Studies in Middle-Aged and Older Adults Living in Mediterranean Islands: The Role of Dietary Habits and Nutrition Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanos Tyrovolas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Islands in the Mediterranean basin share particular habits and traditions and greater life expectancy than other European regions. In this paper, particular interest has been given to the effect of the Mediterranean diet, as well as nutritional services on CVD risk, on Mediterranean islands. Methods. Published results from observational studies were retrieved from electronic databases (Pubmed and Scopus and summarized. Results. Prevalence of CVD risk factors is increased. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was moderate, even among the elderly participants. Furthermore, the presence of a dietician was associated with higher adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern and consequently lowers CVD risk. Conclusion. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is reduced, while the prevalence of CVD risk factors is increasing at alarming rates. Public health nutrition policy has the opportunity to improve the health and quality of life of people living in isolated insular areas of the Mediterranean basin.

  15. Dietary status of 336 infants aged 0-18 months in rural areas of Shaanxi province%陕西农村0~18月龄婴幼儿膳食状况调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨媛媛; 刘黎明; 孙晓勉; 杨文方; 张水平; 王懿; 贾梅

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解陕西部分农村地区0~18月龄婴幼儿膳食状况,为提高西北地区家庭养育理念提供理论依据及干预措施.方法 采用整群分层抽样的方法 抽取0~18月龄婴幼儿336名,按月龄分为5组,并采用称重法入户对婴幼儿进行连续3天(72小时)膳食调查和血红蛋白检测,分析婴幼儿膳食情况,并比较贫血和非贫血婴幼儿的膳食摄入情况.结果 该地区0~18月龄的婴幼儿蛋白质、脂肪和碳水化合物摄入量占推荐摄入量的74.90%、85.35%和43.01%;能量摄入在4个月内接近膳食营养素参考摄入量的80%,4个月以后基本保持在60%左右;自婴幼儿6个月以后,除膳食镁和维生素B2的摄入较为充足之外,其它各元素均不能满足推荐摄入量或适宜摄入量.贫血组的多数营养素摄入均低于正常组,包括能量、蛋白质、脂肪、碳水化合物、维生素A、维生素B2、维生素C,钠、钙、镁、铁、锌等,但两组的差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05).结论 陕西农村地区0~18月龄婴幼儿能量摄入普遍不足,且表现出不均衡性,蛋白质来源较差.采取有效措施加强健康教育对改善当地婴幼儿膳食营养状况具有重要意义.%Objective To understand the dietary status of infants aged 0-18 months in rural areas of Shaanxi province , so as to provide theory basis and intervention measures for family rearing in northwest China . Methods Totally 336 infants aged 048 months were chosen by stratified cluster sampling , and they were divided into 5 groups according to age. With weighing method, dietary was recorded and hematoglobin was detected at objects 'home for 3 continuous days to analyze infants 'dietary and compare the nutrients intake between anemia infants and non-anemia infants. Results Intake of protein, fat and carbohydrate of these infants accounted for 74. 90% ,85. 35% and 43. 01% of the recommended nutrient intakes (RNIs) respectively. Energy intake was nearly 80

  16. Dietary guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling

    2015-01-01

    in a number of countries have addressed the issue of making dietary guidelines that integrate health and sustainability, but in all cases they have been met with different kinds of resistance. This article reviews the development towards an integrated understanding of health and sustainability in...... relation to food and eating and the emergence of proposals for integrated guidelines. It explores the conflicts and controversies that have arisen in the wake of the various proposals and identifies a number of different types of conflicts. These relate to conflicts of interests between the various actors...... involved and political resistance against initiatives that are perceived as being in conflict with the values of a market economy and free trade. Furthermore, there are controversies that can be broadly characterised as relating to the politics of knowledge and have to do with the differentiation of...

  17. Dietary guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling

    2015-01-01

    in a number of countries have addressed the issue of making dietary guidelines that integrate health and sustainability, but in all cases they have been met with different kinds of resistance. This article reviews the development towards an integrated understanding of health and sustainability in relation...... to food and eating and the emergence of proposals for integrated guidelines. It explores the conflicts and controversies that have arisen in the wake of the various proposals and identifies a number of different types of conflicts. These relate to conflicts of interests between the various actors involved...... and political resistance against initiatives that are perceived as being in conflict with the values of a market economy and free trade. Furthermore, there are controversies that can be broadly characterised as relating to the politics of knowledge and have to do with the differentiation of expertise...

  18. 中国学龄儿童饮食习惯、营养摄入及与BMI相关研究%The Dietary Habits and Nutrition Intake of School-age Children in China and Their Correlation with BMI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶心明; 肖巧俐; 易红赤

    2016-01-01

    研究通过比较我国学龄儿童(城市儿童、城市流动儿童以及留守儿童)不同饮食习惯与营养摄入情况,以及在这些不同习惯与身体形态指标之间关系的基础上,对导致我国不同学龄儿童肥胖、营养不良等健康问题的饮食习惯原因进行了分析。结果为:当前我国城市学龄儿童无论在饮食习惯上,还是在膳食营养摄入方面,均比流动儿童与留守儿童好;城市儿童在身体形态关系密切的肉类与蛋类方面的过量摄入,则是导致城市儿童BMI高于流动儿童与留守儿童的主要原因;农民工子弟特别是流动儿童群体日益趋同于城市儿童的膳食结构,有可能会引起这类儿童新的肥胖问题。%By comparing the dietary habits and nutrition intake of China’ s school-age children in urban areas, mi-grant children living in urban areas and left-behind-at-home children in rural areas, and their correlations with IBM, the present paper analyzed the reasons for the obesity and malnutrition of different school-age chil-dren. Results:Children in urban areas have better dietary habits and nutrition intake than migrant children liv-ing in urban areas and left-behind-at-home children in rural areas. Children in urban areas take in too much meat and eggs, which is the primary reason why their BMI is higher than that of migrant children and left-behind-at -home children in rural areas. Children of migrant workers, especially migrant children are be-coming more close to children in urban areas in dietary structure, it is possible that they will face new obesity problem.

  19. The cell biology of aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLoreto, Race; Murphy, Coleen T.

    2015-01-01

    One of the original hypotheses of organismal longevity posits that aging is the natural result of entropy on the cells, tissues, and organs of the animal—a slow, inexorable slide into nonfunctionality caused by stochastic degradation of its parts. We now have evidence that aging is instead at least in part genetically regulated. Many mutations have been discovered to extend lifespan in organisms of all complexities, from yeast to mammals. The study of metazoan model organisms, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, has been instrumental in understanding the role of genetics in the cell biology of aging. Longevity mutants across the spectrum of model organisms demonstrate that rates of aging are regulated through genetic control of cellular processes. The regulation and subsequent breakdown of cellular processes represent a programmatic decision by the cell to either continue or abandon maintenance procedures with age. Our understanding of cell biological processes involved in regulating aging have been particularly informed by longevity mutants and treatments, such as reduced insulin/IGF-1 signaling and dietary restriction, which are critical in determining the distinction between causes of and responses to aging and have revealed a set of downstream targets that participate in a range of cell biological activities. Here we briefly review some of these important cellular processes. PMID:26668170

  20. Cognitive enhancement in middle-aged and old cats with dietary supplementation with a nutrient blend containing fish oil, B vitamins, antioxidants and arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuanlong; Araujo, Joseph A; Burrows, Joey; de Rivera, Christina; Gore, Asa; Bhatnagar, Sandeep; Milgram, Norton W

    2013-07-14

    Cognitive dysfunction syndrome is a major disease affecting old cats and is the consequence of severe and irreversible loss of brain cells and brain atrophy. The present study focused on the hypothesis that the optimal strategy for promoting successful brain ageing is to target risk factors associated with brain ageing and dementia. We used a nutritional strategy involving supplementation with a blend of nutrients (antioxidants, arginine, B vitamins and fish oil) to test this hypothesis. Middle-aged and old cats between 5·5 and 8·7 years of age were assigned to cognitively equivalent control or treatment groups based on prior cognitive experience and performance on baseline cognitive tests. The cats in the treatment group were maintained on a diet supplemented with the nutrient blend and the cats in the control group were maintained on the identical base diet without the additional supplementation. After an initial wash-in period, all cats were tested on a battery of cognitive test protocols. The cats fed the test diet showed significantly better performance on three of four test protocols: a protocol assessing egocentric learning, a protocol assessing discrimination and reversal learning and a protocol focused on acquisition of a spatial memory task. The results support the hypothesis that brain function of middle-aged and old cats can be improved by the nutrient blend that was selected to minimise or eliminate the risk factors associated with brain ageing and dementia. PMID:23211671

  1. Validation of a food quantification picture book targeting children of 0–10 years of age for pan-European and national dietary surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Ruprich, Jiří;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to validate thirty-eight picture series of six pictures each developed within the PANCAKE (Pilot study for the Assessment of Nutrient intake and food Consumption Among Kids in Europe) project for portion size estimation of foods consumed by infants, toddlers and c...... in the PANCAKE picture book. However, the picture series of baby food, salads and cakes either can only be used for foods that are very similar to those depicted or need to be substituted by another quantification tool.......The aim of the present study was to validate thirty-eight picture series of six pictures each developed within the PANCAKE (Pilot study for the Assessment of Nutrient intake and food Consumption Among Kids in Europe) project for portion size estimation of foods consumed by infants, toddlers...... and children for future pan-European and national dietary surveys. Identical validation sessions were conducted in three European countries. In each country, forty-five foods were evaluated; thirty-eight foods were the same as the depicted foods, and seven foods were different, but meant to be quantified...

  2. Meeting report: American Aging Association 40th Annual Meeting, Raleigh, North Carolina, June 3-6, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Melanie

    2011-08-01

    The focus of the 2011 American Aging Association meeting was emerging concepts in the mechanisms of aging. Many of the usual topics in aging were covered, such as dietary restriction (DR), inflammation, stress resistance, homeostasis and proteasome activity, sarcopenia, and neural degeneration. There was also discussion of newer methods, such as microRNAs and genome sequencing, that have been employed to investigate gene expression variance with aging and genetic signatures of longevity. Aging as a field continues to mature, including the following areas: Using a systems approach to tracing conserved pathways across organisms; sharpening definitions of sarcopenia, frailty, and health span; and distinguishing interventions by age tier (early-onset versus late-onset). A preconference session on late-onset intervention concluded that there are numerous benefits to deriving such interventions. Conference talks applied the biology of aging in a translational manner to intervention development. Using an individual's own stem cells to regenerate organs for transplantation and as a cell source for cellular therapies could be a powerful near-term solution to disease. Several proposed interventions were pharmaceutical, myostatin inhibition, losartan, Janus kinase (JAK) pathway inhibitors, and enalapril for frailty and sarcopenia, and metformin to promote the Nrf2 antiinflammation response. In DR, protein restriction was found to be better than general calorie restriction. Short-term fasting may be helpful in chemotherapy, surgery, and acute stress, simultaneously increasing the killing of cancer cells by chemotherapy, while improving the survival of normal cells. Immune system interventions remain elusive, although statins may help to improve cellular senescence promoted bacterial infection. Engineered enzymes may be useful in lysosomal catabolism. Dietary restriction mimetics, most promisingly involving target of rapamycin (TOR; TORC1 inhibition and rapamycin), may be more

  3. 藏羊瘤胃发酵参数对燕麦干草为饲粮限饲的响应及其氮维持需要量估测%Response of Dietary Restriction of Oat Hay on Ruminal Fermentation Parameters of Tibetan Sheep and Estimation of Maintenance Requirement of Nitrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑛; 周建伟; 刘浩; 米见对; 龙瑞军

    2014-01-01

    本试验旨在研究燕麦干草为饲粮限饲对藏羊瘤胃发酵参数的影响,并估测其氮维持需要量。选用5只体况和体重[(45±2) kg]相近的20月龄去势公羊,进行饲养试验和绝食代谢试验。饲养试验采用4×4拉丁方设计,将5只羊随机分成4组(其中1组为2只藏羊,设为组内重复),设4个限饲水平,分别饲喂燕麦干草饲粮自由采食量的90%、70%、50%和30%,采集粪尿样,并在饲喂的0、2、4、6和8h采集瘤胃液,测定营养物质消化代谢指标及瘤胃发酵参数。绝食代谢试验测定其每天排出的粪氮、尿氮。结果表明:1)限饲水平对瘤胃液pH和乙酸、丙酸、异丁酸、戊酸和异戊酸含量及乙酸/丙酸无显著影响(P>0.050),而对丁酸含量和总挥发性脂肪酸浓度存在显著或极显著影响( P<0.050或P<0.001)。2)限饲水平对干物质、有机物、粗蛋白质、中性洗涤纤维和酸性洗涤纤维的消化率均无显著影响(P>0.050)。3)随绝食时间的延长,粪氮呈现出先降低后稳定的趋势,尿氮与总氮排出量均呈先降后升最后达到稳定的趋势。综合得出,限饲水平不影响藏羊对营养物质的消化,藏羊常规饲养期可消化氮维持需要量为0.12 g/(kg BW0.75· d),绝食期氮维持需要量为0.15 g/(kg BW0.75· d)。%The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary restriction of oat hay on ruminal fer-mentation parameters of Tibetan sheep, and to estimate maintenance requirement of nitrogen.Five 20-month-old castrated male Tibetan sheep with similar body weight [ ( 45 ±2 ) kg] were selected in a feeding trial and a fasting metabolism trial.Five sheep were randomly divided into four groups ( two sheep in one of the groups as replicate) in the feeding trial using a 4 ×4 Latin square design.Four dietary restriction levels were set, which were 90%, 70%, 50 and 30%of

  4. Dietary Patterns and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Iranian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Azadbakht; Mohammad H. Rouhani; Ahmad Esmaillzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Background: : To evaluate the association of major dietary patterns identified by factor analysis and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a group of Iranian school aged children.Materials and Method: : This cross-sectional study was conducted among 375 school-aged children in Tehran, Iran. Usual dietary intakes were assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. DSM-IV questionnaire was used to determine the prevalence of ADHD. Major dietary patterns were ident...

  5. Dietary Interventions for Heart Failure in Older Adults: Re-emergence of the Hedonic Shift

    OpenAIRE

    Wessler, Jeffrey D.; Hummel, Scott L.; Maurer, Mathew S.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary non-adherence to sodium restriction is an important contribution to heart failure (HF) symptom burden, particularly in older adults. While knowledge, skills, and attitudes towards sodium restriction are important, sodium intake is closely linked to the ability to taste salt. The ‘hedonic shift’ occurs when sodium restriction induces changes in an individual’s salt taste that lower subsequent salt affinity. Older adults often have compromised salt taste and higher dietary salt affinity...

  6. Long-lasting effect of perinatal exposure to L-tryptophan on circadian clock of primary cell lines established from male offspring born from mothers fed on dietary protein restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Nascimento

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AIMS: Maternal undernutrition programs metabolic adaptations which are ultimately detrimental to adult. L-tryptophan supplementation was given to manipulate the long-term sequelae of early-life programming by undernutrition and explore whether cultured cells retain circadian clock dysregulation. METHODS: Male rat pups from mothers fed on low protein (8%, LP or control (18%, CP diet were given, one hour before light off, an oral bolus of L-tryptophan (125 mg/kg between Day-12 and Day-21 of age. Body weight, food intake, blood glucose along with the capacity of colonization of primary cells from biopsies were measured during the young (45-55 days and adult (110-130 days phases. Circadian clock oscillations were re-induced by a serum shock over 30 hours on near-confluent cell monolayers to follow PERIOD1 and CLOCK proteins by Fluorescent Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (FLISA and period1 and bmal1 mRNA by RT-PCR. Cell survival in amino acid-free conditions were used to measure circadian expression of MAP-LC3B, MAP-LC3B-FP and Survivin. RESULTS: Tryptophan supplementation did not alter body weight gain nor feeding pattern. By three-way ANOVA of blood glucose, sampling time was found significant during all phases. A significant interaction between daily bolus (Tryptophan, saline and diets (LP, CP were found during young (p = 0.0291 and adult (p = 0.0285 phases. In adult phase, the capacity of colonization at seeding of primary cells was twice lower for LP rats. By three-way ANOVA of PERIOD1 perinuclear/nuclear immunoreactivity during young phase, we found a significant effect of diets (p = 0.049, daily bolus (p<0.0001 and synchronizer hours (p = 0.0002. All factors were significantly interacting (p = 0.0148. MAP-LC3B, MAP-LC3B-FP and Survivin were altered according to diets in young phase. CONCLUSIONS: Sequelae of early-life undernutrition and the effects of L-tryptophan supplementation can be monitored non-invasively by

  7. Effect of dietary on bone density among school-age children%学龄儿童骨密度水平及其膳食影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐咏梅; 杨猛; 刘英莉; 刘毅; 宁鸿珍; 周瑞华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of children's dietary factors on the bone mineral density level,and to provide scientific evidence for the efficient intervention.Methods The whole 2 046 of 1 to 6 grade students from 3 primary schools in Tangshan city were selected.Factors of related children's bone health and diet intakes were investigated,ultrasonic bone mineral density admeasurements were done in children.The data were analyzed with SPSS 13.0.Results The children's bone speed of sound (SOS) level was 1 530.2 ± 21.0 (m/s),descended from 6 and 9 years old then increased slowly following the age between 10-13.The hobby of drinking carbonated beverages and intakes of phosphorus were negative dietary factors about effect on SOS.The positive diet factors on children's SOS with the effectiveness going down include intakes of bean product,milk and its product,calcium,the pasta,leafy vegetables.Conclusion It need to change the children's dietary factors to promote their bone density reaching higher peak.%目的 探究膳食因素对学龄儿童骨密度的影响,为实施高效率干预计划提供科学依据.方法 选取唐山市3所小学一~六年级学生2 046名,进行骨健康相关因素调查、膳食调查和骨密度测定.结果 学龄儿童超声骨密度的平均声波传导速度(SOS)为(1 530.2 ±21.0)m/s.6~9岁年龄组随年龄增长SOS值呈下降趋势,10~13岁儿童SOS值略有回升.对学龄儿童SOS值有正性影响的膳食因素作用由大到小依次为豆制品、奶及制品、钙、面食、叶菜的摄入量,而经常喝碳酸饮料和磷的摄入量有负性影响(P值均<0.05).结论 膳食行为和膳食摄入对学龄期儿童骨密度值均有影响,需要进行调整改善.

  8. Survey on dietary behavior of simple obese children aged 0-6 years%0~6岁单纯性肥胖儿童饮食行为调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫淑平; 高敬文

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the dietary behavior of obese children aged 0-6 years and analyze the causes of obesity, so as to provide guidance for dietary behavior of simple obese children. Methods In the Fifth Hospital of Xi' an City 105 obese children ( obese group ) and another 105 normal weight children ( control group ) were selected, and questionnaires were used to obtain relevant information. Results There were significant differences in feeding behavior, eating behavior, food selection, eating environment between obese group and control group (x2 value was 62. 89, 34. 56, 53. 19 and 15. 36, respectively, all P <0. 01 ). Ingesting large amount of staple food and eating meat, dairy products, sweet food, fried food, snacks and supper were found in obese children. The proportion of not receiving high education among obese children' s mothers was relatively high. Conclusion Besides genetic factors, childhood obesity is closely related with dietary behavior.%目的 调查0~6岁肥胖儿童的饮食行为,分析其肥胖原因,为单纯性肥胖儿童饮食行为提供指导依据.方法 选取在西安市第五医院儿保门诊肥胖儿童(肥胖组)和体重正常儿童(对照组)各105名,采用问卷调查的方式取得相关资料并加以分析.结果 肥胖组儿童的饮食行为在喂养行为、进食行为、食物选择、进食环境与对照组存在显著性差异,χ2值分别为62.89,34.56,53.19,15.36,均P<0.01.肥胖组儿童摄入主食量大,爱吃肉类食品、奶制品、甜食、油炸类食品,爱吃零食、夜宵.肥胖组儿童母亲未接受高等教育者的比例较大(χ2=23.44,P<0.01).结论 除遗传因素外,儿童肥胖与饮食行为有密切关系.

  9. Changes in plasma and hepatic lipids, small intestinal histology and pancreatic enzyme activity due to aging and dietary fiber in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeman, B O; Richter, D

    1993-07-01

    Rats were fed either a control diet or a control diet supplemented with wheat bran, psyllium husk or oat bran to increase intake of fiber. Groups of rats were killed after 3.5, 10, 15, or 18.5 mo of consuming the diets. Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in 18.5-mo-old than younger animals. Fiber supplementation did not prevent the age-related increase in lipids. Cecal weight, including contents, was higher in the psyllium husk and oat bran groups than control, and smooth muscle thickness in the ileum of psyllium husk and oat bran animals was greater than control. The score for torn villi in the small intestine was lower than expected in the wheat bran group. Amylase activity in the pancreas declined significantly with age in all groups. In aging animals fiber supplementation may enhance ileal compensation for decreases in proximal intestinal function but does not prevent age-related changes in the gut or in lipid concentrations. PMID:7686573

  10. Old teeth, new methods: microtexture and morphometry analysis provide insight in gradual evolution and dietary change in the extinct bovid Myotragus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    This article reveals that either a dietary shift took place in this lineage or Myotragus successively adapted to increased intraspecific competition, expanding its dietary range to adapt to energetic restrictions.

  11. Dietary phytoestrogen intake and cognitive function in older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreijkamp-Kaspers, Sanne; Kok, Linda; Grobbee, Diederick E.; de Haan, Edward H. F.; Aleman, Andre; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Aging is associated with a decline in cognitive function; we explored the possible influence of dietary phytoestrogens on this decline. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 301 Dutch women aged 60-75 years. Dietary isoflavone and lignan intake was assessed with a food-frequen

  12. Dietary and nutritional manipulation of the nuclear transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins as a tool for reversing the primary diseases of premature death and delaying aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtak, Karen A

    2014-04-01

    Evolution over 2.1 billion years has equipped us with a biochemical pathway that has the power to literally reverse the primary disease etiologies that have become the leading causes of death and aging in the developed world. Activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) pathway arrests inflammatory signaling throughout the body, reverses damage to tissues, reverses insulin resistance, and can even dissolve beta-amyloid plaque in the brain. It has played a critical role in the evolution of the metazoans and the successful migration of humans to all corners of the Earth. For two decades, various pharmaceuticals have been designed to activate the PPAR pathway but have consistently fallen short of expectations. There is nothing wrong with these drugs. The problem has been the standard "healthy" diet creating mixed signals that render the drugs ineffective. This article explores the ongoing dance between the two primary nuclear receptors that mediate gene regulation of fatty acids. It discusses their interaction with sirtuins and telomerase, optimization of their obligate heterodimers, and why manipulation of dietary and nutritional factors, like the ketogenic diet, is the most effective means of activation. These are effective tools that we can start implementing now to slow, and in some cases reverse, the diseases of aging. PMID:24713058

  13. Is extrinsic sugar a vehicle for dietary fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, P M; Heaton, K W

    1995-06-17

    Although many guidelines to healthy eating recommend restriction of the intake of extrinsic (refined) sugar, there are concerns that such restriction might result in an increase in the amount and the proportion of dietary fats with a consequent possible increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease. We used regression analysis to examine the determinants of fat intake in subjects from a population survey who had weighed their food for 4 days. In men (n = 77) and women (n = 83), fat eaten was positively related to the intake of extrinsic sugar. When intakes were expressed as percent of calories the relation became negative. A survey in a semi-random sample of 739 men aged 40-69 yr and 976 women aged 25-69 yr showed that, in both sexes, an increase in extrinsic sugar was associated with a linear increase in the intake of sweetened fat and hence of fat combined with carbohydrate. This was due mainly to a higher intake of cakes and biscuits. Foods containing sugar and fat provided an extra 12.0 g per day of fat in the men and 13.8 g per day in the women when the highest quartile of extrinsic sugar consumers were compared with the lowest quartile. We conclude that lowering the intake of extrinsic sugar is unlikely to be associated with higher fat intake. Instead extrinsic sugar may act as a vehicle for fat intake, encouraging consumption by making the fat more palatable.

  14. 膳食宏量营养素摄入量与年龄相关白内障危险性分析%Association between Dietary Macronutrient Intake and Age-related Cataract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫佳; 孙文慧; 张迪; 姜腾轩; 翟淑娜; 李岩; 卢智泉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between dietary macronutrient intake and age - related cataract ( ARC ) in middle - aged and elderly men. Methods A hospital - based case - control study was conducted from September 2009 to March 2011. The case group included 360 patients with cataract aged 45 -85 years old, and the control group included 360 patients who had been admitted to the same hospital for diseases not related to cataract. All subjects were interviewed using a structured interviewer - administrated questionnaire that included information on socio - demographic characteristics, lifestyle habits, and detailed medical history. Meanwhile, the dietary intakes of nutrients were collected via a valid semi - quantitative food frequency questionnaire ( FFQ ). The odds ratios ( OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals ( CI ) of three types of ARC were obtained using multiple logistic regression models. Results After adjusting many multiple potential confounders, it was found that total dietary intake of carbohydrate was positively correlated to cortical cataract. Compared to controls in the lowest quartile, the OR for cases in the highest quartile intake was 2. 471 [ 95% CI ( 1. 348, 6.043), P =0.027]. Higher dietary intakes of protein played a protective role in posterior subcapsular cataract ( PSC ) [ OR =0.528, 95% CI ( 0. 148, 0. 869), P = 0. 023 ]. Total dietary fat intake was not associated with any type of cataract; however, the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids intake were closely related with cataract. The risk of the subjects who had the highest quartile intake was 2. 7 times as high as that of those who had the lowest quartile intake [ OR =2.742, 95% CI ( 1.790, 4.200), P = 0.033]. Conclusion A higher intake of carbohydrate and polyunsaturated fatty acid may increase the odds of cortical and nuclear cataract, respectively. However, high intake of protein ( especially animal protein ) may protect against PSC cataract. Dietary changes in the

  15. Optimisation of broiler chicken responses from 0 to 7 d of age to dietary leucine, isoleucine and valine using Taguchi and mathematical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedghi, M; Golian, A; Kolahan, F; Afsar, A

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the applicability of the Taguchi method (TM) and optimisation algorithms to optimise the branch chain amino acids (BCAA) requirements in 0 to 7 d broiler chicks. In the first experiment, the standardised digestible (SID) amino acids and apparent metabolisable energy (AME) values of maize, wheat and soya bean meal were evaluated. In the second experiment, three factors including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val), each at 4 levels, were selected, and an orthogonal array layout of L16 (4(3)) using TM was performed. After data collection, optimisation of average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained using TM. The multiobjective genetic algorithm (MOGA) and random search algorithm (RSA) were also applied to predict the optimal combination of BCAA for broiler performance. In the third experiment, a growth study was conducted to evaluate the applicability of obtained optimum BCAA requirements data by TM, MOGA and RSA, and results were compared with those of birds fed with a diet formulated according to Ross 308 recommendations. In the second experiment, the TM resulted in 13.45 g/kg SID Leu, 8.5 g/kg SID Ile and 10.45 g/kg SID Val as optimum level for maximum ADG (21.57 g/bird/d) and minimum FCR (1.11 g feed/g gain) in 0- to 7-d-old broiler chickens. MOGA predicted the following combinations: SID Leu = 14.8, SID Ile = 9.1 and SID Val = 10.3 for maximum ADG (22.05) and minimum FCR (1.11). The optimisation using RSA predicted Leu = 16.0, Ile = 9.5 and Val = 10.2 for maximum ADG (22.67), and Leu = 15.5, Ile = 9.0 and Val = 10.4 to achieve minimum FCR (1.08). The validation experiment confirmed that TM, MOGA and RSA yielded optimum determination of dietary amino acid requirements and improved ADG and FCR as compared to Aviagen recommendations. However, based on the live animal validation trial, MOGA and RSA overpredicted the optimum requirement as compared to TM. In

  16. Orlistat after initial dietary/behavioural treatment: changes in body weight and dietary maintenance in subjects with sleep related breathing disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonstad Serena

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep related breathing disorders (SRBD are associated with increased morbidity and mortality and weight loss is recommended to overweight or obese patients with SRBD. However, maintenance of weight loss is difficult to achieve and strategies for weight loss maintenance is needed. Orlistat is a pharmacological agent that reduces the intestinal absorption of fat and may favour long-term weight maintenance. Objective To examine the change in body weight and dietary intake during a 1-year treatment with orlistat after an initial weight loss in obese subjects with SRBD. Furthermore, to explore the dietary determinants of weight maintenance during treatment with orlistat. Methods Men and women with SRBD aged 32-62 years (n = 63 participated in a 3-month dietary intervention to increase intake of vegetables and fruit. After an initial weight loss of 3.4 kg they achieved a mean body mass index of 34.3 ± 4.7 kg/m2. Subsequently they were treated with orlistat for 1 year. During this year, dietary and behavioural interventions to attain weight loss were provided in the course of 14 group sessions. Dietary intake, energy density and food choices were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire before and after orlistat treatment. Results With orlistat, body weight decreased by a mean of 3.5 kg (95% CI 1.5, 5.5. The dietary E% from saturated fat, intake of fatty dairy products and energy density increased after 1 year while intakes of oils, fish and vegetables decreased (all P adj = 0.19 [95% CI 0.10, 0.46], and inversely associated with E% saturated fat (R2adj = 0.20 [95% CI 0.12, 0.47] and fatty dairy products (R2adj = 0.23 [95% CI 0.12, 0.49]. Conclusions Orlistat induced further weight loss, but dietary compliance declined with time. Increasing dietary protein and restricting saturated fat and fatty dairy products may facilitate weight loss with orlistat.

  17. Dietary Restriction Combined with Intravenous Nutritional Support in Treatment of Acute Diarrhea in Children%饮食限制联合静脉营养支持治疗小儿急性腹泻临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海芳; 纪福利; 李晓惠; 解金凤; 吴永利; 苏立红

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the curative effect of diet restriction combined with intravenous nutri-tional support in treatment of acute diarrhea in children .Method:The observation group was given intrave-nous nutritional support therapy , while limiting the enteral feeding .The control group was given conventional rehydration therapy and usual eating .They all received the same basic remedy .Their efficiency and antidiar-rheal time and the incidence of infectious diseases in three months post -discharge were compared .Result:The efficiency and antidiarrheal time and the incidence of infectious diseases in three months post -discharge between two groups had statistical significance ( P <0.05 ) .Conclusion: Effect of dietary restriction com-bine with intravenous nutrition support for treatment of acute diarrhea in children is significant , can reduce the occurrence of the short-term infection diarrhea after discharge .%目的:观察饮食限制联合静脉营养支持治疗小儿急性腹泻的疗效。方法:105例腹泻病住院患儿在口服用药基础上,观察组给予静脉营养支持治疗,同时限制经肠道进食。对照组仍为常规补液治疗及照常进食。比较两组有效率、止泻时间及出院后3个月内感染性疾病的发生率。结果:观察组与对照组有效率及止泻时间比较差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。观察组出院后3个月内感染性疾病的发病例率与对照组比较差异有统计学意义。结论:饮食限制联合静脉营养支持治疗小儿急性腹泻疗显著且可降低腹泻患儿出院后短期内感染性疾病的发生。

  18. Dietary intake and main food sources of vitamin D as a function of age, sex, vitamin D status, body composition, and income in an elderly German cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Jungert, Alexandra; Spinneker, Andre; Nagel, Anja; Neuhäuser-Berthold, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Background: Elderly subjects are at risk of insufficient vitamin D status mainly because of diminished capacity for cutaneous vitamin D synthesis. In cases of insufficient endogenous production, vitamin D status depends on vitamin D intake.Objective: The purpose of this study is to identify the main food sources of vitamin D in elderly subjects and to analyse whether contributing food sources differ by sex, age, vitamin D status, body mass index (BMI), or household income. In addition, we ana...

  19. Dietary n-3 Fatty Acid, α-Tocopherol, Zinc, vitamin D, vitamin C, and β-carotene are Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Aya Aoki; Maiko Inoue; Elizabeth Nguyen; Ryo Obata; Kazuaki Kadonosono; Shoji Shinkai; Hideki Hashimoto; Satoshi Sasaki; Yasuo Yanagi

    2016-01-01

    This case-control study reports the association between nutrient intake and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Japan. The nutrient intake of 161 neovascular AMD cases from two university hospitals and 369 population-based control subjects from a cohort study was assessed using a brief-type self-administered questionnaire on diet history, which required respondent recall of the usual intake of 58 foods during the preceding month. Energy-adjusted nutrient intake values were c...

  20. DIETARY SOURCES OF VITAMIN D AND SEASONAL VARIATIONS OF 25 (OH) VITAMIN D SERUM LEVELS IN MEN OVER 45 YEARS OF AGE IN LATVIA

    OpenAIRE

    VOIKA OLGA; ZARIŅŠ ZIGURD; SITOVA ANASTASIA

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Over 50% of population are found to suffer from vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency in Europe, Northern Europe, especially in elderly people, was revealed by many epidemiological studies. Insufficient vitamin D intake was detected in the population of the North America and Eastern Europe, comprising only 50% of vitamin D daily recommended dose. Materials and methods. 134 males aged 45-80 were included in the research. None of the research participants were taking any vita...

  1. Dietary Deficiency of Calcium and/or Iron, an Age-Related Risk Factor for Renal Accumulation of Cadmium in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyong-Son; Sano, Erika; Ueda, Hidenori; Sakazaki, Fumitoshi; Yamada, Keita; Takano, Masaoki; Tanaka, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    The major route of cadmium (Cd) intake by non-smokers is through food ingestion. Cd is a non-essential metal absorbed through one or more transporters of essential metal ions. Expression of these transporters is affected by nutritional status. To investigate the risk factors for Cd toxicity, the effects of deficiency of essential metals on hepatic and renal accumulation of Cd were studied in mice of different ages. Mice were administered a control diet or one of the essential metal-deficient diets, administered Cd by gavage for 6 weeks, and killed; then, Cd accumulation was evaluated. Iron deficiency (FeDF) or calcium deficiency (CaDF) resulted in remarkable increases in hepatic and renal Cd accumulation compared with control-diet mice and other essential metal-deficient mice. Cd accumulation in hepatic and renal tissue was increased significantly at all ages tested in FeDF and CaDF mice. Renal Cd concentrations were higher in 4-week-old mice than in 8- and 25-week-old mice. Increase in intestinal mRNA expression of calcium transporter (CaT)1, divalent metal ion transporter-1, and metallothionein (MT)1 was also higher in 4-week-old mice than in other mice. Renal accumulation of Cd showed strong correlation with intestinal mRNA expression of CaT1 and MT1. These data suggest that CaDF and FeDF at younger ages can be a risk factor for Cd toxicity.

  2. Effects of Almond- and Olive Oil-Based Docosahexaenoic- and Vitamin E-Enriched Beverage Dietary Supplementation on Inflammation Associated to Exercise and Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Capó

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols are potential key factors for the treatment and prevention of chronic inflammation associated to ageing and non-communicable diseases. The aim was to analyse effects of an almond and olive oil beverage enriched with α-tocopherol and docosahexaenoic, exercise and age on inflammatory plasma markers, and immune gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. Five young and five senior athletes who were supplemented for five weeks with a functional beverage performed a stress test under controlled conditions before and after beverage supplementation. Blood samples were taken immediately before and 1 h after each test. Plasma, erythrocytes and PBMCs were isolated. Beverage supplementation increased plasmatic Tumour Necrosis Factor α (TNFα levels depending on age and exercise. Exercise increased plasma non esterified fatty acids (NEFAs, soluble Intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (sICAM3 and soluble L-selectin (sL-Selectin, and this increase was attenuated by the supplementation. Exercise increased PGE2 plasma levels in supplemented young and in senior placebo athletes. Exercise increased NFkβ-activated levels in PBMCs, which are primed to a pro-inflammatory response increasing pro-inflammatory genes expression after the exercise mainly in the young group after the supplementation. The functional beverage supplementation to young athletes enhances a pro-inflammatory circulating environment in response to the exercise that was less evident in the senior group.

  3. Effects of Almond- and Olive Oil-Based Docosahexaenoic- and Vitamin E-Enriched Beverage Dietary Supplementation on Inflammation Associated to Exercise and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capó, Xavier; Martorell, Miquel; Sureda, Antoni; Riera, Joan; Drobnic, Franchek; Tur, Josep Antoni; Pons, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols are potential key factors for the treatment and prevention of chronic inflammation associated to ageing and non-communicable diseases. The aim was to analyse effects of an almond and olive oil beverage enriched with α-tocopherol and docosahexaenoic, exercise and age on inflammatory plasma markers, and immune gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Five young and five senior athletes who were supplemented for five weeks with a functional beverage performed a stress test under controlled conditions before and after beverage supplementation. Blood samples were taken immediately before and 1 h after each test. Plasma, erythrocytes and PBMCs were isolated. Beverage supplementation increased plasmatic Tumour Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) levels depending on age and exercise. Exercise increased plasma non esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), soluble Intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (sICAM3) and soluble L-selectin (sL-Selectin), and this increase was attenuated by the supplementation. Exercise increased PGE2 plasma levels in supplemented young and in senior placebo athletes. Exercise increased NFkβ-activated levels in PBMCs, which are primed to a pro-inflammatory response increasing pro-inflammatory genes expression after the exercise mainly in the young group after the supplementation. The functional beverage supplementation to young athletes enhances a pro-inflammatory circulating environment in response to the exercise that was less evident in the senior group. PMID:27735833

  4. Dietary Vitamin D Deficiency in Rats from Middle- to Old-age Leads to Elevated Tyrosine Nitration and Proteomics Changes in Levels of Key Proteins in Brain: Implications for Low Vitamin D-dependent Age-Related Cognitive Decline

    OpenAIRE

    Keeney, Jeriel T. R.; Förster, Sarah; Sultana, Rukhsana; Brewer, Lawrence D.; Caitlin S Latimer; Cai, Jian; Klein, Jon B.; Porter, Nada M.; Butterfield, D. Allan

    2013-01-01

    In addition to the well-known effects of vitamin D (VitD) in maintaining bone health, there is increasing appreciation that this vitamin may serve important roles in other organs and tissues, including the brain. Given that VitD deficiency is especially widespread among the elderly, it is important to understand how the range of serum VitD levels that mimic those found in humans (from low to high) affects the brain during aging from middle-age to old-age. To address this issue, twenty-seven m...

  5. “Stop eating lollies and do lots of sports”: a prospective qualitative study of the development of children’s awareness of dietary restraint and exercise to lose weight

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel F. Rodgers; Wertheim, Eleanor H; Damiano, Stephanie R; Gregg, Karen J; Paxton, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Background Beliefs surrounding the usefulness of dietary restriction and physical activity as means of body shape and size modification is already present in children as young as 5-years-old, and these beliefs may increase the risk of unhealthy weight control behaviours later in life. To date, however, little is known regarding the development of these beliefs in younger children. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to explore young (aged 3- to 5-years old) children’s conceptualisati...

  6. Projected Impact of Salt Restriction on Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in China: A Modeling Study

    OpenAIRE

    Miao Wang; Moran, Andrew E.; Jing Liu; Coxson, Pamela G.; Joanne Penko; Lee Goldman; Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo; Dong Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the effects of achieving China’s national goals for dietary salt (NaCl) reduction or implementing culturally-tailored dietary salt restriction strategies on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. Methods The CVD Policy Model was used to project blood pressure lowering and subsequent downstream prevented CVD that could be achieved by population-wide salt restriction in China. Outcomes were annual CVD events prevented, relative reductions in rates of CVD incidence and m...

  7. Feasibility and validity of mobile phones to assess dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Darren B; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Current limitations of conventional dietary assessment methods restrict the establishment of diet-disease relationships and efficacy of dietary interventions. Technology, in particular the use of mobile phones, may help resolve methodologic limitations, in turn improving the validity of dietary assessment and research and associated findings. This review aims to evaluate the validity, feasibility, and acceptability of dietary assessment methods that have been deployed on mobile phone platforms. In August 2013, electronic databases for health sciences were searched for English, peer-reviewed, full-text articles, published from January 1, 2001 onward; and accompanied by a hand search of available relevant publications from universities and government bodies. Studies were not limited by design, length, setting, or population group. Of 194 articles, 12 met eligibility criteria: mobile phone as the dietary recording platform and validation of energy and/or macronutrient intake against another dietary or biological reference method. Four dietary recoding methods had been validated on mobile phone platforms: electronic food diary, food photograph-assisted self-administered, 24 h recall, food photograph analysis by trained dietitians, and automated food photograph analysis. All mobile phone dietary assessment methods showed similar, but not superior, validity or reliability when compared with conventional methods. Participants' satisfaction and preferences for mobile phone dietary assessment methods were higher than those for conventional methods, indicating the need for further research. Validity testing in larger and more diverse populations, over longer durations is required to evaluate the efficacy of these methods in dietary research. PMID:24976425

  8. Consumo alimentar de macro e micronutrientes de crianças menores de cinco anos no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil Dietary intake of macro and micronutrients by children under five years of age in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristianne Martins Ferreira Fidelis

    2007-03-01

    micronutrient inadequacy were analyzed according to the Dietary Reference Intakes. RESULTS: the deficit of energy and micronutrients prevailed in children of all age ranges and geographic areas; however, protein consumption exceeded the references levels. There was a high prevalence of micronutrient inadequacy, especially iron and zinc, in children above 12 months old. The results in the Rural Interior were the lowest, considering the nutrients analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: food consumption by children in the State of Pernambuco is low in energy, macro and micronutrients. It is expected that these results may contribute to the implementation of health and nutrition policies at State level, aiming to prevent the main nutritional disturbances in children under five years old.

  9. Patterns of food avoidance in chronic fatigue syndrome: is there a case for dietary recommendations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Trabal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the dietary habits and food avoidance-behavior in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS. Methods: Cross-sectional pilot study with 28 patients diagnosed with severe CFS. Eating habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire and 3-day food records. We analyzed variables related to dietary restrictions induced by symptoms or external information. Results: The most prevalent restrictions were for dairy products and gluten-containing grains, with 22 and 15 restricting patients, respectively. Patients reported different digestive symptoms, which did not improve with the use of exclusion diets. Thirteen patients had received information against the intake of certain foods through different sources. Six cases of grains restriction and 11 of dairy were compatible with a counseling-induced pattern of exclusion. Conclusions: There is not a homogeneous pattern of food avoidance. Dietary restrictions should be based on a proven food allergy or intolerance. Dietary counseling should be based on sound nutritional knowledge.

  10. Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W.

    2016-01-01

    While telomerase is expressed in ~90% of primary human tumors, most somatic tissue cells except transiently proliferating stem-like cells do not have detectable telomerase activity (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Telomeres progressively shorten with each cell division in normal cells, including proliferating stem-like cells, due to the end replication (lagging strand synthesis) problem and other causes such as oxidative damage, therefore all somatic cells have limited cell proliferation capacity (Hayflick limit) (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The progressive telomere shortening eventually leads to growth arrest in normal cells, which is known as replicative senescence (Shay et al., 1991). Once telomerase is activated in cancer cells, telomere length is stabilized by the addition of TTAGGG repeats to the end of chromosomes, thus enabling the limitless continuation of cell division (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Therefore, the link between aging and cancer can be partially explained by telomere biology. There are many rapid and convenient methods to study telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) (Mender and Shay, 2015b) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this protocol paper we describe Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) analysis to determine average telomeric length of cells. Telomeric length can be indirectly measured by a technique called Telomere Restriction Fragment analysis (TRF). This technique is a modified Southern blot, which measures the heterogeneous range of telomere lengths in a cell population using the length distribution of the terminal restriction fragments (Harley et al., 1990; Ouellette et al., 2000). This method can be used in eukaryotic cells. The description below focuses on the measurement of human cancer cells telomere length. The principle of this method relies on the lack of

  11. Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feinman, Richard D; Pogozelski, Wendy K; Astrup, Arne;

    2015-01-01

    The inability of current recommendations to control the epidemic of diabetes, the specific failure of the prevailing low-fat diets to improve obesity, cardiovascular risk, or general health and the persistent reports of some serious side effects of commonly prescribed diabetic medications, in com...

  12. Effect of dietary restrictions on disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Beri, D; Malaviya, A N; Shandilya, R; Singh, R R

    1988-01-01

    Additions in five steps were made, as a possible therapeutic measure, to the diet of 27 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after a period of two weeks of a basal isocaloric diet free from pulses, cereals, milk, and non-vegetarian protein foods. Fourteen patients finally took part in the trial, 10 (71%) of whom showed significant clinical improvement. Only three patients (11%) adhered to the diet for a period of 10 months. The others discontinued the diet and were then treated with conven...

  13. Glucose homeostasis in pregnant rats submitted to dietary protein restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Maria Alice Rostom; Luciano, Eliete; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães; Latorraca, Márcia Queiroz; Machado de Oliveira, Camnila Aparecida; Boschero, Antonio Carlos

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, we examined the effects of feeding a low protein diet during pregnancy on glucose-induced insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis in rats. Young (60 days), pregnant (P) or non-pregnant (NP) rats were fed during pregnancy or for 21 days (the NP) a normal (17%) or a low (6%) protein diet. Serum glucose and insulin levels and pancreas insulin content in the fed state; total area under serum glucose curve (AG) after a glucose load and serum glucose disappearance rate (Kitt) after insulin administration; as well as 86Rb outflow, 45Ca uptake and insulin secretion by isolated pancreatic islets in response to glucose were evaluated. Serum glucose was lower in 17%-P (12%) and 6%-P (27%) than in corresponding NP-rats. Serum insulin was higher in 17%-P (153%) and 6%-P (77%) compared to the corresponding NP-rats. Pancreatic insulin was higher in 6%-rats (55%) than in 17%-rats. No differences were found in AG among the groups whereas Kitt was lower in 6%-NP and higher in 6%-P than in the equivalent 17% rats. Increasing glucose concentration from 2.8 to 16.7 mmol/l, reduced 86Rb outflow from isolated islets from all groups. Increasing glucose concentration from 2.8 to 16.7 mmol/l elevated 45Ca uptake by 17%-NP (47%), 17%-P (40%) and 6%-P (214%) islets but not by 6%-NP ones. The increase in 45Ca uptake was followed by an increase in insulin release by the 17%-NP (2767%), 17%-P (2850%) and 6%-P (1200%) islets. In conclusion, 6%-P rats show impaired glucose induced insulin secretion related to reduced calcium uptake by pancreatic islets. However, the poor insulin secretion did not fully compensate the high peripheral sensitivity to the hormone, resulting in hypoglycemia. PMID:15686122

  14. Effects of parenteral gibberellic acid and dietary supplementaion of vitamin D3 on egg quality and physiological characteristics in aged laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed M. Razuki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of parenteral gibberellic acid (GA3 and/or vitamin D3 supplementation in diet on egg quality and blood physiological characteristics in aged laying hens. A total of 270 Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens aging 73-week were randomly assigned to equal three treatment groups (T1, T2 and T3 with equal 3 replicas in each group. The birds of group T1 (control group were injected subcutaneously (SC with sesame oil at 0.2 mL/kg body weight. The birds of group T2 were given with GA3 at 400 µg/kg b.wt., SC, whereas group T3 had diet containing vitamin D3 at 500 IU/kg feed. Relative weight of albumen and egg shell, Haugh unit, shell thickness, serum glucose, serum calcium, serum phosphorous, serum estradiol, and bone calcium absorption were significantly increased in the birds of group T2 and T3. On the other hand, relative weight of yolk, yolk cholesterol, and serum cholesterol were significantly decreased in group T2 and T3 as compared to group T1. However, serum protein and albumen were unaffected in the treatments. In conclusion, the parenteral GA3 and vitamin D3 supplementation in diet could improve egg quality traits and serum blood biochemical perperties in agend laying hens.

  15. Nutritional Adequacy of Dietary Intake in Women with Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K. Raatz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA dietary survey 2011–2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1–3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps.

  16. Development of adherence metrics for caloric restriction interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective measures are needed to quantify dietary adherence during caloric restriction (CR) while participants are freeliving. One method to monitor adherence is to compare observed weight loss to the expected weight loss during a prescribed level of CR. Normograms (graphs)of expected weight loss ca...

  17. Development of adherence metrics for caloric restriction interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective measures are needed to quantify dietary adherence during caloric restriction (CR) while participants are freeliving. One method to monitor adherence is to compare observed weight loss to the expected weight loss during a prescribed level of CR. Normograms (graphs) of expected weight loss c...

  18. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    of the complexity in child nutrition both in observational and intervention designs as well as for investigating development of dietary patterns over time. Explorative analyses of indicators for dietary patterns showed that parental, household and child characteristics are associated with dietary patterns in early...

  19. Effects of soy milk as a dietary complement during the natural aging process Efecto de la leche de soja como completemento dietario durante el proceso de envejecimiento natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fontenla

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oxidative stress is one mechanism that could contribute to the acceleration of aging and age-related diseases. On the other hand, because of their antioxidative qualities soybean derived foods could have beneficial effects on the aging process. Objectives: The aim of our work was to study the effects of a diet supplemented with soy milk on certain biological features of aging in rats Methods: Male Wistar rats of 3 to 18 months of age, were assigned to one of two diets: 1 Experimental Group, commercial rat formula and soy milk; 2 Control Group, commercial rat formula and water. Every three months both lipid profile and lipid peroxidation were determined and neuronal cells of hippocampus were counted in control and experimental rats. Results: The soy milk diet significantly improved the plasmatic lipid profile, decreasing serum cholesterol (total as well as LDL and serum triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol was significatively higher in experimental animals. The LDL/HDL ratio was thus significantly lowered. The soy diet also produced decreased values of lipid peroxidation in brain, liver and kidney. These effects were significant after 6 to 9 months. The experimental animals lost fewer hippocampal neurons than the controls. Finally at 18 months of age, a greater number of surviving animals in experimental group with respect to the control one was observed. Conclusions: 1 soy intake could have beneficial effects as a complement of normal diet, but not as a replacement for animal proteins and 2 these effects are the result of a very long period (almost lifelong of consumption of this diet.Introducción: El estrés oxidativo es uno de los mecanismos que contribuye al envejecimiento y al desarrollo de enfermedades crónicas. Por otro lado, los alimentos a base de soja, por a sus cualidades antioxidantes podrían tener un efecto benéfico en este proceso. Objetivos: El propósito de nuestro trabajo fue estudiar el efecto de la suplementaci

  20. A role for neuronal cAMP responsive-element binding (CREB)-1 in brain responses to calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Salvatore; Ripoli, Cristian; Podda, Maria Vittoria; Ranieri, Sofia Chiatamone; Leone, Lucia; Toietta, Gabriele; McBurney, Michael W; Schütz, Günther; Riccio, Antonella; Grassi, Claudio; Galeotti, Tommaso; Pani, Giovambattista

    2012-01-10

    Calorie restriction delays brain senescence and prevents neurodegeneration, but critical regulators of these beneficial responses other than the NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase Sirtuin-1 (Sirt-1) are unknown. We report that effects of calorie restriction on neuronal plasticity, memory and social behavior are abolished in mice lacking cAMP responsive-element binding (CREB)-1 in the forebrain. Moreover, CREB deficiency drastically reduces the expression of Sirt-1 and the induction of genes relevant to neuronal metabolism and survival in the cortex and hippocampus of dietary-restricted animals. Biochemical studies reveal a complex interplay between CREB and Sirt-1: CREB directly regulates the transcription of the sirtuin in neuronal cells by binding to Sirt-1 chromatin; Sirt-1, in turn, is recruited by CREB to DNA and promotes CREB-dependent expression of target gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α and neuronal NO Synthase. Accordingly, expression of these CREB targets is markedly reduced in the brain of Sirt KO mice that are, like CREB-deficient mice, poorly responsive to calorie restriction. Thus, the above circuitry, modulated by nutrient availability, links energy metabolism with neurotrophin signaling, participates in brain adaptation to nutrient restriction, and is potentially relevant to accelerated brain aging by overnutrition and diabetes. PMID:22190495

  1. The low-methionine content of vegan diets may make methionine restriction feasible as a life extension strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F; Barroso-Aranda, Jorge; Contreras, Francisco

    2009-02-01

    Recent studies confirm that dietary methionine restriction increases both mean and maximal lifespan in rats and mice, achieving "aging retardant" effects very similar to those of caloric restriction, including a suppression of mitochondrial superoxide generation. Although voluntary caloric restriction is never likely to gain much popularity as a pro-longevity strategy for humans, it may be more feasible to achieve moderate methionine restriction, in light of the fact that vegan diets tend to be relatively low in this amino acid. Plant proteins - especially those derived from legumes or nuts - tend to be lower in methionine than animal proteins. Furthermore, the total protein content of vegan diets, as a function of calorie content, tends to be lower than that of omnivore diets, and plant protein has somewhat lower bioavailability than animal protein. Whole-food vegan diets that moderate bean and soy intake, while including ample amounts of fruit and wine or beer, can be quite low in methionine, while supplying abundant nutrition for health (assuming concurrent B12 supplementation). Furthermore, low-fat vegan diets, coupled with exercise training, can be expected to promote longevity by decreasing systemic levels of insulin and free IGF-I; the latter effect would be amplified by methionine restriction - though it is not clear whether IGF-I down-regulation is the sole basis for the impact of low-methionine diets on longevity in rodents.

  2. Dietary patterns in India: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rosemary; Milner, James; Joy, Edward J M; Agrawal, Sutapa; Dangour, Alan D

    2016-07-01

    Dietary patterns analysis is an emerging area of research. Identifying distinct patterns within a large dietary survey can give a more accurate representation of what people are eating. Furthermore, it allows researchers to analyse relationships between non-communicable diseases (NCD) and complete diets rather than individual food items or nutrients. However, few such studies have been conducted in developing countries including India, where the population has a high burden of diabetes and CVD. We undertook a systematic review of published and grey literature exploring dietary patterns and relationships with diet-related NCD in India. We identified eight studies, including eleven separate models of dietary patterns. Most dietary patterns were vegetarian with a predominance of fruit, vegetables and pulses, as well as cereals; dietary patterns based on high-fat, high-sugar foods and more meat were also identified. There was large variability between regions in dietary patterns, and there was some evidence of change in diets over time, although no evidence of different diets by sex or age was found. Consumers of high-fat dietary patterns were more likely to have greater BMI, and a dietary pattern high in sweets and snacks was associated with greater risk of diabetes compared with a traditional diet high in rice and pulses, but other relationships with NCD risk factors were less clear. This review shows that dietary pattern analyses can be highly valuable in assessing variability in national diets and diet-disease relationships. However, to date, most studies in India are limited by data and methodological shortcomings. PMID:27146890

  3. Estimating Trade Restrictiveness Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Kee, Hiau Looi; Nicita, Alessandro; Olarreaga, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the impact of trade restrictiveness on growth, poverty, or unemployment are frequent in the academic literature. Few authors, however, provide a precise definition of what they mean by trade restrictiveness. When they do, the definition is unlikely to have tight links with trade theory. The objective of this article is to fill this gap by providing for 78 developing and developed countries clearly defined indicators of trade restrictiveness that are well grounded in trade theory. R...

  4. Restrictions and Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses three central aspects of the freedoms under European Community law, namely 1) the prohibition against restrictions as an important extension of the prohibition against discrimination, 2) a prohibition against exit restrictions which is just as important as the prohibition...... against host country restrictions, but which is often not recognised to the same extent by national law, and 3) the importance of also identifying and recognising an exit restriction, so that it is possible to achieve the required test of appropriateness and proportionality in relation to the rule...

  5. The Effect of a Phaseolus vulgaris and Dietary Fiber Based Supplement on Advanced Glycation End Products: An Open-label Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett J. West

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Elevated Advanced Glycation End product (AGE levels are associated with certain impaired health states. As these are disruptive to the function of healthy tissues, due to their protein cross-linking ability, AGEs are significant contributors to the aging process. In fact, population studies have revealed that AGE levels tend to increase as we get older. Certain lifestyle and dietary factors may accelerate AGE accumulation. Therefore, strategies intended to modify these factors, or mitigate their effects, may be useful in controlling the aging process. In an 11 week open-label clinical trial, 30 adult volunteers consumed daily a commercially available combination of white kidney bean extract, dietary fibers, &beta-carotene and noni (Morinda citrifolia fruit pulp, in combination with calorie restriction and exercise. During the course of the trial, participants experienced significant weekly declines in average body weight and fat mass. The average AGE score, as measured by skin auto-fluorescence, had also decreased significantly. In terms of AGE associated years, the change in AGE scores corresponded to an average decrease of 8.83 years. The results indicate that the intervention contributed to improved health and exhibited anti-aging properties.

  6. Dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in male university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Ligia; Grunert, Klaus G; Sepúlveda, José; Lobos, Germán; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Mora, Marcos; Etchebarne, Soledad; Salinas-Oñate, Natalia; Schnettler, Berta

    2016-04-01

    Self-discrepancy describes the distance between an ideal and the actual self. Research suggests that self-discrepancy and dietary restraint are related, causing a significant impact on the person's well-being. However, this relationship has been mostly reported in female and mixed populations. In order to further explore dietary behaviors and their relations to self-discrepancy and well-being-related variables in men, a survey was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 119 male students from five Chilean state universities (mean age=21.8, SD=2.75). The questionnaire included the Revised Restraint Scale (RRS) with the subscales weight fluctuations (WF) and diet concern (DC), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Satisfaction with Food-Related Life Scale (SWFL), the Nutrition Interest Scale (NIS), and the Self-discrepancy Index (SDI). Questions were asked about socio-demographic characteristics, eating and drinking habits, and approximate weight and height. A cluster analysis applied to the Z-scores of the RRS classified the following typologies: Group 1 (22.7%), men concerned about weight fluctuations; Group 2 (37.0%), men concerned about diet and weight fluctuations; Group 3 (40.3%), unconcerned about diet and weight fluctuations. The typologies differed in their SDI score, restriction on pastry consumption and reported body mass index (BMI). Students with higher DC and WF scores had a higher BMI, and tended to report high self-discrepancy not only on a physical level, but also on social, emotional, economic and personal levels. This study contributes to the literature on subjective well-being, dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in men from non-clinical samples. PMID:26835591

  7. 34周以下早产儿宫外生长发育迟缓发生的影响因素%Risk factors for extrauterine growth restriction in preterm infants with gestational age less than 34 weeks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玮; 张永红; 赵冬莹; 夏红萍; 朱天闻; 谢利娟

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the correlated factors contributed to extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) in preterm infants with the gestational age less than 34 weeks.MethodsA total of 694 preterm infants with the gestational ages less than 34 weeks were enrolled. They were classiifed into EUGR and non-EUGR groups by weight on discharge. The perinatal data, growth data, nutritional information and morbidities during hospitalization were compared between the two groups.ResultsEUGR on discharge occurred in 284 (40.9%) out of the 694 infants. The incidence of EUGR in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) infants was signiifcantly higher than in non-IUGR infants (P<0.01). The very low birth weight (VLBW) infants had a higher incidence of EUGR than non-VLBW infants (P<0.01). The incidence of EUGR increased with the decreases of gestational age at birth and birth weight (P<0.01). Compared with the non-EUGR group, the fasting time, the duration of parenteral nutrition, the time beginning to feed and the age to achieve full enteral feeds were signiifcantly greater in the EUGR group (P<0.01). The cumulative protein deifcit and cumulative caloric deifcit in the ifrst week of life in the EUGR group were higher than in the non-EUGR group (P<0.05). The incidences of respiratory distress syndrome, apnea, necrotizing enterocolitis and septicemia in the EUGR group were higher than in the non-EUGR group (P<0.05). The logistic regression analysis showed that birth weight, gestational age at birth and IUGR were the independent risk factors for EUGR.ConclusionsThe incidence of EUGR in infants with gestational age less than 34 weeks is high, especially in IUGR or VLBW infants. Early and aggressive nutritional strategy and prevention of apnea and septicemia may facilitate to reduce the occurrence of EUGR.%目的:研究34周以下早产儿宫外生长发育迟缓(EUGR)发生的相关因素。方法选取<34周早产儿694例,根据出院时体重分为EUGR组和非EUGR组,回顾

  8. Long-term therapy with NTBC and tyrosine-restricted diet in a murine model of hereditary tyrosinemia type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dhalimy, M; Overturf, K; Finegold, M; Grompe, M

    2002-01-01

    In human patients with hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HT1) a combination therapy of 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3 cyclohexane dione (NTBC) and dietary restriction of phenylalanine and tyrosine is currently widely used. We previously reported that the use of NTBC in a murine model of HT1 abolished acute liver failure but did not prevent the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the setting of nonrestricted protein intake. Here we present the results obtained with higher doses of NTBC plus dietary tyrosine restriction on long-term follow up (>2 years). Liver function tests and succinylacetone levels were completely corrected with this regimen and cancer-free survival was improved when compared to historical controls. However, while no HT1 animals had HCC at age 13 months, the incidence was 2/16 (13%) at age 18 months and 1/6 (17%) after 24 months. Thus, even the most stringent therapy could not prevent the emergence of HCC in the mouse model of HT1, even when initiated prenatally. PMID:11825062

  9. Normal range of human dietary sodium intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarron, David A; Kazaks, Alexandra G; Geerling, Joel C;

    2013-01-01

    The recommendation to restrict dietary sodium for management of hypertensive cardiovascular disease assumes that sodium intake exceeds physiologic need, that it can be significantly reduced, and that the reduction can be maintained over time. In contrast, neuroscientists have identified neural...... circuits in vertebrate animals that regulate sodium appetite within a narrow physiologic range. This study further validates our previous report that sodium intake, consistent with the neuroscience, tracks within a narrow range, consistent over time and across cultures....

  10. Improvement of Meat Taste by Dietary Components

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimura, Shinobu; Kadowaki, Motoni

    2006-01-01

    Dietary nutrients play a significant part in determining growth rate and meat yield. It is known that the compositions of protein and total amino acids of meat are invariable by feeding treatments, hence the meat taste is considered to be invariable. However, the relationship of taste components of meat with nutrients is not fully elucidated, and there have been few reports on the effect of feeding treatments on taste-active components of chicken meat. Previously, restricted feeding and dieta...

  11. The Comparative Kinetics of Ca, Sr, and Ra within the Yellow-Bellied Turtle. Trachemys scripta, as influenced by Dietary Calcium, Season, Age and Sex of the Animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the data on assimilation and retention of radionuclides by animals is from homeothermic mammals. The assimilation and retention of radionuclides have only recently been investigated in reptiles. In both groups, interesting conjectures can be made concerning the kinetics of radionuclides in relation to temperature and to the abundance of the radioisotope chemical analogue. Temperature plays an important role in the metabolism and behavior of ectotherms and can thus affect radionuclide kinetics. The abundance of chemical analogues has been shown to decrease the assimilation and retention of radionuclides in homeotherms but such relationships have not been well documented in vertebrate ectotherms. The kinetics of Ca, Sr, and Ra in the freshwater turtle, Trachemys scripta is studied. It is ectothermic and 40% of its wet mass is comprised of a calcareous shell. What role does the shell play in calcium homeostasis, and how do the kinetics of analogous radioisotopes behave in such a calcium-rich system. T. scripta have a long life span of 20-30 years. They demonstrate reserved sexual dimorphism with females being larger, and they grow continuously, which results in large ranges in adult body size. Much of the winter is spent in hibernation. The spring is an active period related to mating, yet one in which little food is consumed. How do such oscillating changes in metabolic rate, as well as differences in body size, affect radionuclide elimination. To address such questions, radionuclide assimilation and retention as influenced by the amount of stable calcium in the turtle diet, season of the year and age and sex of the animal, are examined. The results demonstrate the complex nature of radionuclide kinetics within ectotherms and give insights into the basic biology of turtles

  12. Effects of dietary restriction combined with different exercise programs or physical activity recommendations on blood lipids in overweight adults Efectos de la restricción dietética combinada con diferentes programas de ejercicio o actividad física sobre los lípidos sanguíneos en adultos con sobrepeso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Morencos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Many exercise studies, although generally showing the beneficial effects of supervised aerobic, resistance or combined exercise on blood lipids, have sometimes reached equivocal conclusions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of different programs that combined exercise and dietary restriction on blood lipids versus a clinical practice intervention for weight loss, in overweight adults. Methods: For this study 66 subjects participated in a supervised 22 weeks training program, composed of three sessions per week and they were randomized in three groups: strength training (S; n = 19, endurance training (E; n = 25, a combination of E and S (SE; n = 22. Eighteen subjects served as physical activity group (PA that followed a clinical intervention consisted of physical activity recommendations. All groups followed the same dietary treatment, and blood samples were obtained for lipids measurements, at the beginning and end of the study. Results: Lipid profile improved in all groups. No significant differences for baseline and post-training values were observed between groups. In general, SE and PA decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C values (p Antecedentes y objetivo: Muchos estudios sobre ejercicio han proporcionado en ocasiones conclusiones equívocas, si bien, por lo general, han demostrado los efectos beneficiosos del ejercicio supervisado aeróbico, de resistencia o combinado. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar el impacto de diferentes programas que combinan ejercicio y restricción dietética sobre los lípidos sanguíneos frente a una intervención de la práctica clínica de pérdida de ejercicio en los adultos con sobrepeso. Métodos: En este estudio participaron 66 individuos en un programa de entrenamiento supervisado de 22 semanas, compuesto por tres sesiones semanales y, posteriormente, se les distribuyó al azar en tres grupos: entrenamiento de fuerza (F; n = 19, entrenamiento de

  13. Associations between dietary patterns and screen time among Korean adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae Yeon; Jun, Nuri; Baik, Inkyung

    2013-01-01

    Data are limited on the association between dietary patterns and screen time among Korean adolescents. The present study identified dietary patterns of 691 adolescents, aged 13-18 years, who had participated in the Third Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III) and analyzed their associations with screen time. Screen time was defined as the time spent watching TV, using a computer, or playing video games was calculated as a sum of all these times. Dietary patterns...

  14. Affective tone of mothers' statements to restrict their children's eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Megan H; Miller, Alison L; Appugliese, Danielle P; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Lumeng, Julie C

    2016-08-01

    Maternal restrictive feeding behaviors have been associated with child weight status. The affective tone of mothers' statements intended to restrict their children's eating has not been examined. The objectives of this study were to describe the affective tone of mothers' restrictive feeding behaviors (positive or negative), and to test the association of child and mother characteristics with rates of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect and Total Restriction. A total of 237 low-income child-mother dyads (mean child age 5.9 years) participated in a videotaped standardized laboratory eating protocol, during which mothers and children were both presented with large servings of cupcakes. A coding scheme was developed to count each restrictive statement with a positive affective tone and each restrictive statement with a negative affective tone. To establish reliability, 20% of videos were double-coded. Demographics and anthropometrics were obtained. Poisson regression models were used to test the association between characteristics of the child and mother with counts of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect, and Total Restriction. Higher rates of Restriction with Positive Affect and Total Restriction were predicted by child obese weight status, and mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity. Higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect were predicted by older child age, child obese weight status, mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, and lower mother education level. In conclusion, in this study mothers of obese (vs. non-obese) children had higher rates of restriction in general, but particularly higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect. Rather than being told not to restrict, mothers may need guidance on how to sensitively restrict their child's intake. Future studies should consider the contributions of maternal affect to children's responses to maternal restriction. PMID:27090342

  15. How Do Tracking and Changes in Dietary Pattern during Adolescence Relate to the Amount of Body Fat in Early Adulthood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Celestino Schneider

    Full Text Available Few studies have addressed the influence of dietary patterns (DP during adolescence on the amount of body fat in early adulthood.To analyze the associations between DP tracking and changes in the period between 15 and 18 years of age and the percentage of body fat (%BF at age 18 years.We used data from 3,823 members of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort. Body density was measured at age 18 years by air displacement plethysmograph (BOD POD and the %BF was calculated applying the Siri equation. Based on the estimates from the FFQ, we identified DP at ages 15 ("Varied", "Traditional", "Dieting" and "Processed meats" and 18 years ("Varied", "Traditional", "Dieting" and "Fish, fast food and alcohol". The DP tracking was defined as the individual's adherence to the same DP at both ages. Associations were tested using multiple linear regression models stratified by sex.The mean %BF was 25.0% (95% CI: 24.7 to 25.4, significantly greater for girls than boys (p<0.001. The adherence to any DP at age 15 years was not associated with the %BF at age 18 years. However, individuals who adhered to a "Dieting" DP at age 18 years showed greater %BF (1.30 and 1.91 percentage points in boys and girls, respectively in comparison with those who adhered to a "Varied" DP. Boys who presented tracking of a "Dieting" DP presented greater average %BF in comparison with others DP, as well as girls who changed from the "Traditional" or "Processed meats" DP to a "Dieting" DP.These results may support public health policies and strategies focused on improving dietary habits of adolescents and young adults and preventing accumulation of body fat, especially among the adolescents with restrictive dietary habits.

  16. Perception and knowledge about dietary intake in patients with liver cirrhosis and its relationship with the level of education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine patients perception and knowledge regarding diet in cirrhosis and its relationship with the level of patients education. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Gastroenterology Outpatient Clinics at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, the Aga Khan Health Services, Malir, Karachi and Hamdard University, Karachi, from January to December 2010. Methodology: Consecutive adult patients with compensated cirrhosis were enrolled. Demographic data, level of education, type and reason of food restriction as well as the source of dietary information was asked. Baseline laboratory test were performed, and nutritional status was assessed by BMI normogram. Results: Ninety patients, 58% male were enrolled. Mean age of the patient was 49 +- 11 years. Overall 73% of the patients were restricting fat, meat, fish and eggs in their diet; 53% were in uneducated group and 47% were in educated group (CI, 0.24-1.62, p-0.34). Twenty two patients (62.8%) in uneducated and 21 in educated group (68%) were restricting diet on the advice of their doctors, whereas 13 in uneducated group (37%) and 11 in educated group (32%) believed these dietary components to be harmful for the liver. Thirty two of uneducated patient (71.1%) and 28 of educated patients (62.2%) believed that vegetables, fruits and sugarcane had a beneficial effect on the liver. Main source of dietary information to the patients was the doctor. On sub-group analysis those who restricted diet irrespective of their educational level, had more patients with BMI less than 18.5 kg/m/sup 2/, (CI 0.01-0.94, p-0.001), haemoglobin less than 12 g/dl (CI 0- 0.03, p-0.001) and serum albumin less than 3 g/dl (CI 0.1- 03, p-0.001). Conclusion: Both educated and uneducated classes of the patients have improper knowledge and perception of diet in cirrhosis. Patients with cirrhosis who restricted diet, had relatively low BMI, haemoglobin and albumin

  17. Dietary management practices in phenylketonuria across European centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Kirsten; Bélanger-Quintana, Amaya; Dokoupil, Katharina;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dietary phenylalanine restriction is the cornerstone of phenylketonuria (PKU) management. However, there are no European consensus guidelines for its optimal dietary care. METHODS: Detailed information on the routine dietary management of PKU was obtained from 10 European centres using...... and nutritionists varied widely; in some centres dietitians were responsible for managing the diet, while in others this was performed by a physician. There were marked differences in target blood phenylalanine concentrations, the dosages of protein substitutes, systems for allocating daily phenylalanine allowance...... systems designed to assist patients in managing their diets. Further studies are needed to compare different dietary treatments with the aim of identifying best practice to optimise phenylalanine control and dietary adherence....

  18. Social determinants of dietary habits in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Margit Velsing; Fagt, Sisse; Brøndsted, L.

    2001-01-01

    in Denmark, 1995. Subjects: Random sample from the civil registration system. A total of 852 men and 870 women aged 18-80y participated, a response rate of 58%. Interventions: A 7 day estimated dietary record was used to obtain information about the diet. Information about social background was gained...... significantly associated with the intake of fruit and vegetables. Conclusions: Education seems to be the most important social variable to explain social differences in dietary habits. Additional variables are needed to explain dietary habits of women. Differences are seen for both foods and nutrients....... Sponsorship: The data analysis was financially supported by the Health Insurance Fund. Descriptors: socioeconomic status; education; dietary habits; diet surveys, E%; fat, fruit and vegetables....

  19. Rapid assessment of dietary calcium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordblad, Mikaela; Graham, Fiona; Mughal, M Zulf; Padidela, Raja

    2016-07-01

    A five-food item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a 3-day food diary (3DFD) were used to estimate daily dietary calcium (Ca) intake in 32 patients aged 1-17 years. Median and IQR of Ca intake from 3DFD was 840 mg and 438 mg while from FFQ it was 700 mg and 987 mg, respectively. The non-parametrical Bland-Altman limits of agreement plot between two methods showed that most of the values fell between the limits of agreement at +794 mg and -388 mg. The FFQ had a specificity of 93% in identifying children who consumed inadequate amount of dietary Ca and a sensitivity of 78% in identifying children whose dietary Ca intake exceeded UK's Reference Nutrient Intake. Thus the FFQ allows rapid estimation of children with low daily dietary Ca intake in the clinic setting; however it does not replace 3DFD. PMID:26662924

  20. How strict is galactose restriction in adults with galactosaemia? International practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, S.; Akroyd, R.; Bernabei, S.; Bollhalder, S.; Boocock, S.; Burlina, A.; Coote, T.; Corthouts, K.; Dalmau, J.; Dawson, S.; Defourny, S.; De Meyer, A.; Desloovere, A.; Devlin, Y.; Diels, M.; Dokoupil, K.; Donald, S.; Evans, S.; Fasan, I.; Ferguson, C.; Ford, S.; Forga, M.; Gallo, G.; Gruenert, S. C.; Heddrich-Ellerbrok, M.; Heidenborg, C.; Jonkers, C.; Lefebure, K.; Luyten, K.; MacDonald, A.; Meyer, U.; Micciche, A.; Mueller, E.; Portnoi, P.; Ripley, S.; Robert, M.; Robertson, L. V.; Rosenbaum-Fabian, S.; Sahm, K.; Schultz, S.; Singleton, K.; Sjoqvist, E.; Stoelen, L.; Terry, A.; Thompson, S.; Timmer, C.; Vande Kerckhove, K.; van der Ploeg, L.; Van Driessche, M.; van Rijn, M.; van Teeffelen-Heithoff, A.; Vitoria, I.; Voillot, C.; Wenz, J.; Westbrook, M.; Wildgoose, J.; Zweers, H.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary management of 418 adult patients with galactosaemia (from 39 centres/12 countries) was compared. All centres advised lactose restriction, 6 restricted galactose from galactosides +/- fruits and vegetables and 12 offal. 38% (n = 15) relaxed diet by: 1) allowing traces of lactose in manufactur

  1. How strict is galactose restriction in adults with galactosaemia? International practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, S.; Akroyd, R.; Bernabei, S.; Bollhalder, S.; Boocock, S.; Burlina, A.; Coote, T.; Corthouts, K.; Dalmau, J.; Dawson, S.; Defourny, S.; Meijer, A; Desloovere, A.; Devlin, Y.; Diels, M.; Dokoupil, K.; Donald, S.; Evans, S.; Fasan, I.; Ferguson, C.; Ford, S.; Forga, M.; Gallo, G.; Grunert, S.C.; Heddrich-Ellerbrok, M.; Heidenborg, C.; Jonkers, C.; Lefebure, K.; Luyten, K.; Macdonald, A.; Meyer, U.; Micciche, A.; Muller, E.; Portnoi, P.; Ripley, S.; Robert, M.; Robertson, L.V.; Rosenbaum-Fabian, S.; Sahm, K.; Schultz, S.; Singleton, K.; Sjoqvist, E.; Stoelen, L.; Terry, A.; Thompson, S.; Timmer, C.; Kerckhove, K. Vande; Ploeg, L. van der; Driessche, M. Van; Rijn, M. van de; Teeffelen-Heithoff, A. van; Vitoria, I.; Voillot, C.; Wenz, J.; Westbrook, M.; Wildgoose, J.; Zweers, H.E.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary management of 418 adult patients with galactosaemia (from 39 centres/12 countries) was compared. All centres advised lactose restriction, 6 restricted galactose from galactosides +/- fruits and vegetables and 12 offal. 38% (n=15) relaxed diet by: 1) allowing traces of lactose in manufactured

  2. Energy restriction during childhood and early adulthood and ovarian cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo J Schouten

    Full Text Available Dietary energy restriction may protect against cancer. In parts of The Netherlands, mostly in larger cities, periods of chronically impaired nutrition and even severe famine (Hunger Winter 1944-1945 existed during the 1930s and World War II (1940-1945. We studied the association between energy restriction during childhood and early adulthood on the risk of ovarian cancer later in life. In 1986, the Netherlands Cohort Study was initiated. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other cancer risk factors was completed by 62,573 women aged 55-69 years at baseline. Follow-up for cancer was established by record linkage to the Netherlands Cancer Registry. After 16.3 years of follow-up, 364 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 2220 subcohort members (sampled from the total cohort directly after baseline with complete information confounders were available for case-cohort analyses. In multivariable analysis, ovarian cancer risk was lower for participants with an unemployed father during the 1930s (Hazard Ratio (HR, 0.70; 95% Confidence Interval (CI, 0.47-1.06 compared to participants with an employed father as well as for participants living in a city during World War II (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.54-0.90 compared to participants living in the country-side. Residence in a Western City during the famine (Hunger Winter was not associated with a decreased risk. Our results show a relation between proxy variables for modest energy restriction over a longer period of time during childhood or early adulthood and a reduced ovarian cancer risk.

  3. Dietary supplement use among health care professionals enrolled in an online curriculum on herbs and dietary supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woods Charles

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many health care professionals (HCPs in the United States have been educated about and recommend dietary supplements, little is known about their personal use of dietary supplements and factors associated with their use. Methods We surveyed HCPs at the point of their enrollment in an on-line course about dietary supplements between September, 2004 and May, 2005. We used multivariable logistic regression to analyze demographic and practice factors associated with use of dietary supplements. Results Of the 1249 health care professionals surveyed, 81 % reported having used a vitamin, mineral, or other non-herbal dietary supplements in the last week. Use varied by profession with highest rates among nurses (88%, physician assistants or nurse practitioners (84 % and the lowest rates among pharmacists (66% and trainees (72%. The most frequently used supplements were multivitamins (60%, calcium (40%, vitamin B (31%, vitamin C (30%, and fish oil (24%. Factors associated with higher supplement use were older age, female, high knowledge of dietary supplements, and discussing dietary supplements with patients. In our adjusted model, nurses were more likely than other professionals to use a multivitamin and students were more likely to use calcium. Conclusion Among HCPs enrolled in an on-line course about dietary supplements, women, older clinicians, those with higher knowledge and those who talk with patients about dietary supplements had higher use of dietary supplements. Additional research is necessary to understand the impact of professionals' personal use of dietary supplements on communication with patients about them.

  4. Serotonin signaling mediates protein valuation and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Jennifer; Pak, Gloria; Malec, Paige A; Lyu, Yang; Allison, David B; Kennedy, Robert T; Pletcher, Scott D

    2016-01-01

    Research into how protein restriction improves organismal health and lengthens lifespan has largely focused on cell-autonomous processes. In certain instances, however, nutrient effects on lifespan are independent of consumption, leading us to test the hypothesis that central, cell non-autonomous processes are important protein restriction regulators. We characterized a transient feeding preference for dietary protein after modest starvation in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and identified tryptophan hydroxylase (Trh), serotonin receptor 2a (5HT2a), and the solute carrier 7-family amino acid transporter, JhI-21, as required for this preference through their role in establishing protein value. Disruption of any one of these genes increased lifespan up to 90% independent of food intake suggesting the perceived value of dietary protein is a critical determinant of its effect on lifespan. Evolutionarily conserved neuromodulatory systems that define neural states of nutrient demand and reward are therefore sufficient to control aging and physiology independent of food consumption. PMID:27572262

  5. Effects of calorie restriction on survival and open-field behavior of early old age rats%限制饮食对老年早期大鼠生存状态和旷场行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿义群; 关计添; 傅玉才; 徐小虎

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of a shorter period of CR from early old age rats on the survival and health status by behavioral stray.Methods Male SD rats with age of 18 months were subjected to restricted intake in CR group(n=29)by 60%comparing with that of rats fed ad libitum(AL)(n=31)for 6months.The overall health status.including survival and locomotor activity by open-field test was compared.Resuits Growth rate of the CR rats demonstrated a period of decline during the first 10 weeks of treatment,and thereafter became steady below that of AL rats (P<0.01).The CR rats showed a higher survival 89.66%than AL rats 67.74% (P=0.039).In the open-field test,the CR rats traveled longer[(CR:201.06±78.35)m,AL:(147.38±36.89)m,P=0.021] especially at the centre place (P=0.048),and moved faster [(CR:78.10±34.38)mm/s,AL:(48.96±14.87)mm/s,P=0.021] as well as in circumjacent area (P=0.012) than the AL rats.Conclusion The 6-month treatment of 60%CR elevated survival of early old age rat.The 6-month treatment of 60% CR benefited health status by locomotor activity.%目的 研究热量限制对老年早期大鼠的生存状态和行为学的影响.方法 选用18月龄的健康雄性SD大鼠,根据进食情况分为2组,一组为CR组(n=29)给予对照组进食量60%的食量饲养,对照组为ad libitum(AL)组(n=31)自由进食,观察6个月,在此期间,记录大鼠的生存状况,每周测定大鼠体质量;6个月后,进行旷场实验观察自发活动能力.结果 CR组给予60%的饮食控制后,体质量维持在低于对照组约20%左右(P<0.01).CR组的生存率为89.66%显著高于AL组67.74%(P=0.039);在旷场实验中测定的CR组大鼠自发活动路程为(201.06±78.35)m,显著长于AL组[(147.38±36.89)m,P=0.021],而CR组的自发活动速度为(78.10±34.38)mm/s也显著高于AL组[(48.96±14.87)mm/s,P=0.021],并且CR组大鼠具有在中央区域的活动距离长(P=0.048)和在周边区域活动速度快(P=0.012)的特点.结论

  6. Adaptive capacity to bacterial diet modulates aging in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shanshan; Curran, Sean P

    2014-02-01

    Diet has a substantial impact on cellular metabolism and physiology. Animals must sense different food sources and utilize distinct strategies to adapt to diverse diets. Here we show that Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan is regulated by their adaptive capacity to different diets, which is controlled by alh-6, a conserved proline metabolism gene. alh-6 mutants age prematurely when fed an Escherichia coli OP50 but not HT115 diet. Remarkably, this diet-dependent aging phenotype is determined by exposure to food during development. Mechanistically, the alh-6 mutation triggers diet-induced mitochondrial defects and increased generation of ROS, likely due to accumulation of its substrate 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate. We also identify that neuromedin U receptor signaling is essential for diet-induced mitochondrial changes and premature aging. Moreover, dietary restriction requires alh-6 to induce longevity. Collectively, our data reveal a homeostatic mechanism that animals employ to cope with potential dietary insults and uncover an example of lifespan regulation by dietary adaptation. PMID:24440036

  7. 年龄别体质量Z评分法动态评估早产儿宫外生长发育迟缓%Variation of weight for age Z scores in preterm infants with extrauterine growth restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文英; 胡金绘; 岳虹霓; 张丽; 王玉美; 武荣

    2016-01-01

    乳累积使用剂量(r =-2.221)与出院时 WZ 评分均呈负相关(P 均<0.05)。每周的 WZ 评分预测 EUGR 的曲线下面积随着出生后时间的延长而逐渐增大;每周 WZ 评分值用于诊断 EUGR 均有统计学意义(P 均=0.000),均具有较高的敏感性和特异性。结论动态监测早产儿 WZ 评分可直观地显示早产儿营养和生长情况,且可早期对早产儿发生 EUGR 进行预警。%Objective To understand variation of weight for age Z scores in premature infants with extrauterine growth restriction(EUGR).Methods Retrospective analysis was adopted with the data of very -low -gestational age (VLGA)preterm infants who met with the following criteria:admitted to Neonatal Medical Center of Huai′an Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital from January 201 1 to December 201 3,gestational age <32 weeks,more than 4 weeks of hospital stay and survived when discharged.All VLGA premature infants were divided into non -EUGR group and EUGR group according to whether the standard weight on hospital discharge was below the 1 0th percentile of body weight at corrected age.The weight for age Z scores of preterm infants were calculated at each time point.The differences and trends between 2 groups were compared.The receiver operating characteristic (ROC)curve in diagnosing EUGR by weight for age Z scores was drawn.Results A total of 1 77 VLGA premature infants were enrolled,and among them there were was 1 04 cases of EUGR and the incidence amounted to 58.8%.The weight for age Z scores curve of EUGR group was under that of all preterm infants,and the curve of non -EUGR group was above that of all preterm infants. The weight for age Z scores of all preterm infants and EUGR group showed overall downward trend along with prolonged hospitalization.However,the weight for age Z scores of non -EUGR group did not change significantly at each week point except for the first week.The weight for age Z scores of EUGR group was lower than that of

  8. Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Stroke in Chinese Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.P.; He, Y.; Lai, J.Q.; Wang, D.; Zhang, J.; Fu, P.; Yang, X.G.; Qi, L.

    2011-01-01

    We recently featured Chinese dietary patterns that were associated with obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. In this study, we examined the association of those dietary patterns and risk of stroke among 26,276 Chinese adults aged >= 45 y by using data from the 2002 China

  9. Dietary acid load and risk of hypertension: The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberink, M.F.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Brink, E.J.; Baak, van M.A.; Rooij, van F.J.A.; Hofman, A.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mild metabolic acidosis, which can be caused by diet, may result in elevated blood pressure (BP). Design: The analyses included 2241 participants aged =55 y who were free of hypertension at baseline (1990–1993) and who had complete dietary and BP data. Dietary data were obtained from a 1

  10. Barriers to dietary control among pregnant women with phenylketonuria--United States, 1998-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-15

    Newborns in the United States are screened for phenylketonuria (PKU), a metabolic disorder that when left untreated is characterized by elevated blood phenylalanine (phe) levels and severe mental retardation (MR). An estimated 3,000-4,000 U.S.-born women of reproductive age with PKU have not gotten severe MR because as newborns their diets were severely restricted in the intake of protein-containing foods and were supplemented with medical foods (e.g., amino acid-modified formula and modified low-protein foods). When women with PKU do not adhere to their diet before and during pregnancy, infants born to them have a 93% risk for MR and a 72% risk for microcephaly. These risks result from the toxic effects of high maternal blood phe levels during pregnancy, not because the infant has PKU. The restricted diet, which should be maintained for life, often is discontinued during adolescence. This report describes the pregnancies of three women with PKU and underscores the importance of overcoming the barriers to maintaining the recommended dietary control of blood phe levels before and during pregnancy. For maternal PKU-associated MR to be prevented, studies are needed to determine effective approaches to overcoming barriers to dietary control. PMID:11898925

  11. Restrictions of stable bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Balaji, V

    2011-01-01

    The Mehta-Ramanathan theorem ensures that the restriction of a stable vector bundle to a sufficiently high degree complete intersection curve is again stable. We improve the bounds for the "sufficiently high degree" and propose a possibly optimal conjecture.

  12. Dietary Patterns and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Iranian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Azadbakht

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: : To evaluate the association of major dietary patterns identified by factor analysis and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in a group of Iranian school aged children.Materials and Method: : This cross-sectional study was conducted among 375 school-aged children in Tehran, Iran. Usual dietary intakes were assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. DSM-IV questionnaire was used to determine the prevalence of ADHD. Major dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Results: The prevalence of ADHD was 9.7% in this population. We identified 4 major dietary patterns: "healthy", "western", "sweet" and "fast foods" dietary patterns. Children in top quintile of "sweet dietary pattern” score had greater odds for having ADHD as compared with those in the lowest quintile (Odds ratio: 3.95; 95% CI: 1.16, 15.31; p=0.03. Greater adherence to "fast food" dietary pattern was significantly associated with higher risk of having ADHD (Odds ratio: 3.21; 95% CI: 1.05, 10.90; p=0.03. No overall significant associations were seen between either healthy or western dietary patterns with ADHD. All these analysis were done in the controlled model for confounders.Conclusion: We found significant independent associations between "sweet" and "fast foods" dietary patterns and prevalence of ADHD. Prospective studies are required to confirm these findings

  13. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Prezioso

    2015-07-01

    reasonable to advice a balanced consumption of fruit and vegetables and a low consumption of chocolate and cola according to general nutritional guidelines, although no studies have assessed in pediatric stone formers the effect of fruit and vegetables supplementation on urinary citrate and the effects of chocolate and cola restriction on urinary oxalate in pediatric stone formers. Despite the low level of scientific evidence, a low-protein (< 20 g/day low-salt (< 2 g/day diet with high hydration (> 3 liters/day is strongly advised in children with cystinuria. Elderly: In older patients dietary counseling for renal stone prevention has to consider some particular aspects of aging. A restriction of sodium intake in association with a higher intake of potassium, magnesium and citrate is advisable in order to reduce urinary risk factors for stone formation but also to prevent the loss of bone mass and the incidence of hypertension, although more hemodynamic sensitivity to sodium intake and decreased renal function of the elderly have to be considered. A diet rich in calcium (1200 mg/day is useful to maintain skeletal wellness and to prevent kidney stones although an higher supplementation could involve an increase of risk for both the formation of kidney stones and cardiovascular diseases. A lower content of animal protein in association to an higher intake of plant products decrease the acid load and the excretion of uric acid has no particular contraindications in the elderly patients, although overall nutritional status has to be preserved.

  14. Adolescent Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    As with school age children, it is difficult to make conclusions about the validity of available dietary assessment instruments for adolescents because of the differences in instruments, research designs, reference methods, and populations in the validation literature.

  15. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly summarize

  16. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The predominan

  17. Dietary patterns in Swedish adults; results from a national dietary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ax, Erika; Warensjö Lemming, Eva; Becker, Wulf; Andersson, Agneta; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Cederholm, Tommy; Sjögren, Per; Fung, Teresa T

    2016-01-14

    Dietary patterns derived by statistical procedures is a way to identify overall dietary habits in specific populations. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise dietary patterns in Swedish adults using data from the national dietary survey Riksmaten adults 2010-11 (952 women, 788 men). Principal component analyses were used and two patterns were identified in both sexes: a healthy pattern loading positively on vegetables, fruits, fish and seafood, and vegetable oils, and negatively on refined bread and fast food, and a Swedish traditional pattern loading positively on potatoes, meat and processed meat, full-fat milk products, sweet bakery products, sweet condiments and margarine. In addition, a light-meal pattern was identified in women with positive loadings on fibre-rich bread, cheese, rice, pasta and food grain dishes, substitute products for meat and dairy products, candies and tea. The healthy pattern was positively correlated to dietary fibre (r 0·51-0·58) and n-3 (r 0·25-0·31) (all Psugar (r 0·20-0·25) and the Swedish traditional also to SFA (r 0·13-0·21) (all P<0·0001); both patterns were in general negatively correlated to micronutrients. Dietary pattern scores were associated with, for example, age, physical activity, education and income. In conclusion, we identified three major dietary patterns among Swedish adults. The patterns can be further used for examining the association between whole diet and health outcomes. PMID:26490112

  18. Effect of feed restriction on performance of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina de Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment assessed the effect of feed restriction in rabbits on performance and economic viability of the activity. Sixty New Zealand White rabbits, weaned at 33 days and slaughtered at 81 days of age, were used. The design was of randomized blocks with four treatments and five replications. The treatments were, as follows: 1 - free feeding, 2 - feed restriction from 35 to 40 days of age (50 g/d/rabbit, 3 - feed restriction from 54 to 61 days of age (90 g/d/rabbit and 4 - feed restriction from 33 to 40 days (50 g/d/rabbit and from 54 to 61 days of age (90 g/d/rabbit. There was no difference in the performance and carcass parameters, indicating that there was compensatory growth in the rabbits that suffered feed restriction. The best gross margin was obtained with feed restriction from 54 to 61 days age. Feed restriction in growing rabbits can be adopted at different ages because it does not interfere negatively in the performance and carcass parameters. In two periods and from 51 to 61 days, feed restriction was more economically viable for the sale of live and slaughtered rabbits, respectively.

  19. Conserved and differential effects of dietary energy intake on the hippocampal transcriptomes of females and males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwen Martin

    Full Text Available The level of dietary energy intake influences metabolism, reproductive function, the development of age-related diseases, and even cognitive behavior. Because males and females typically play different roles in the acquisition and allocation of energy resources, we reasoned that dietary energy intake might differentially affect the brains of males and females at the molecular level. To test this hypothesis, we performed a gene array analysis of the hippocampus in male and female rats that had been maintained for 6 months on either ad libitum (control, 20% caloric restriction (CR, 40% CR, intermittent fasting (IF or high fat/high glucose (HFG diets. These diets resulted in expected changes in body weight, and circulating levels of glucose, insulin and leptin. However, the CR diets significantly increased the size of the hippocampus of females, but not males. Multiple genes were regulated coherently in response to energy restriction diets in females, but not in males. Functional physiological pathway analyses showed that the 20% CR diet down-regulated genes involved in glycolysis and mitochondrial ATP production in males, whereas these metabolic pathways were up-regulated in females. The 40% CR diet up-regulated genes involved in glycolysis, protein deacetylation, PGC-1alpha and mTor pathways in both sexes. IF down-regulated many genes in males including those involved in protein degradation and apoptosis, but up-regulated many genes in females including those involved in cellular energy metabolism, cell cycle regulation and protein deacetylation. Genes involved in energy metabolism, oxidative stress responses and cell death were affected by the HFG diet in both males and females. The gender-specific molecular genetic responses of hippocampal cells to variations in dietary energy intake identified in this study may mediate differential behavioral responses of males and females to differences in energy availability.

  20. Joint Venture Structuring in Restricted Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2008-01-01

    When investing in China’s restricted in- dustries, it is essential to have a joint venture (JV) partner. Often the maximum percent- age of equity allowed in foreign ownership can only be 50 percent. So what options are available to the foreign investor to mitigate the risk of not owning, on paper, a majority

  1. 22~42日龄肉仔鸡饲粮粗蛋白质最低需要量的研究%Dietary Crude Protein Requirement of Broilers from 22 to 42 Days of Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾晓阁; 李晓菲; 胡义信; 温倩; 赵露露; 张丽阳; 李素芬; 罗绪刚

    2015-01-01

    通过饲养试验和氮代谢试验,观测饲粮粗蛋白质水平对22~42日龄肉仔鸡生长性能、胴体性能及肉品质、血清生化指标、免疫功能、氮排放及氮表观利用率的影响,研究22~42日龄肉仔鸡玉米-豆粕型饲粮中粗蛋白质的最低需要量。采用单因子完全随机试验设计,将360只22日龄AA肉公雏按体重随机分成6个组,每个组10个重复笼,每个重复笼6只鸡,分别饲喂粗蛋白质实测水平为19.87%(对照组)、18.84%、17.63%、16.81%、15.75%和14.88%的玉米-豆粕型饲粮21 d。38~42日龄进行氮代谢试验。结果表明:耗料/增重、腹脂率、胸肌滴水损失和红度(a∗)值、腿肌a∗和黄度(b∗)值、血清总胆固醇含量、甘油三酯含量、尿酸含量和氮表观利用率随饲粮粗蛋白质水平降低而显著提高( P0.05),但显著降低粪便氮排放(P0.05), however, nitrogen content in feces was significantly lower (P<0.05). Broilers fed diets containing 16.81% or lower CP had significantly lower average daily gain and ND antibody titer ( P<0.05) . Ratio of feed intake to body gain, abdominal fat, drip loss of breast meat, serum total choles-terol and triglyceride were significantly higher when chicks were fed diets with lower CP than 16.81%, respec-tively ( P<0.05) . Therefore, the minimum dietary CP requirement of broilers from 22 to 42 days of age is sug-gested as 17.63%.

  2. Association between parenting practices and children's dietary intake, activity behavior and development of body mass index: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries Nanne K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insights into the effects of energy balance-related parenting practices on children's diet and activity behavior at an early age is warranted to determine which practices should be recommended and to whom. The purpose of this study was to examine child and parent background correlates of energy balance-related parenting practices at age 5, as well as the associations of these practices with children's diet, activity behavior, and body mass index (BMI development. Methods Questionnaire data originated from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study for ages 5 (N = 2026 and 7 (N = 1819. Linear regression analyses were used to examine the association of child and parent background characteristics with parenting practices (i.e., diet- and activity-related restriction, monitoring and stimulation, and to examine the associations between these parenting practices and children's diet (in terms of energy intake, dietary fiber intake, and added sugar intake and activity behavior (i.e., physical activity and sedentary time at age 5, as well as BMI development from age 5 to age 7. Moderation analyses were used to examine whether the associations between the parenting practices and child behavior depended on child characteristics. Results Several child and parent background characteristics were associated with the parenting practices. Dietary monitoring, stimulation of healthy intake and stimulation of physical activity were associated with desirable energy balance-related behaviors (i.e., dietary intake and/or activity behavior and desirable BMI development, whereas restriction of sedentary time showed associations with undesirable behaviors and BMI development. Child eating style and weight status, but not child gender or activity style, moderated the associations between parenting practices and behavior. Dietary restriction and monitoring showed weaker, or even undesirable associations for children with a deviant eating style, whereas these

  3. Inuit dietary patterns in modern Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Jeppesen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions. Study design. Cross-sectional population survey. Methods. A total of 2,247 Inuit aged 18+ from 15 towns and villages in West Greenland (25% of all communities) were interviewed about their diet as part of a general health survey. A 67-i...

  4. Neuroaesthetics: range and restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Anjan

    2013-04-01

    Bullot & Reber (B&R) should be commended for highlighting tensions between scientific aesthetics and art history. The question of how each tradition can learn from the other is timely. While I am sympathetic to their views, their diagnosis of the problem appears exaggerated and their solution partial. They underestimate the reach of scientific aesthetics while failing to identify its inherent restrictions. PMID:23507092

  5. Training Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Asja

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) are probabilistic graphical models that can also be interpreted as stochastic neural networks. Training RBMs is known to be challenging. Computing the likelihood of the model parameters or its gradient is in general computationally intensive. Thus, training...

  6. Bilinear Fourier restriction theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Demeter, Ciprian

    2012-01-01

    We provide a general scheme for proving $L^p$ estimates for certain bilinear Fourier restrictions outside the locally $L^2$ setting. As an application, we show how such estimates follow for the lacunary polygon. In contrast with prior approaches, our argument avoids any use of the Rubio de Francia Littlewood--Paley inequality.

  7. In Search for Anti-Aging Strategy: Can We Rejuvenate Our Aging Stem Cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggested that we grow old partly because of our stem cells grow old as a result of mechanisms that suppress the development of cancer over a lifetime. We believe that a further, more precise mechanistic understanding of this process will be required before this knowledge can be translated into human anti-aging therapies. CONTENT: A diminished capacity to maintain tissue homeostasis is a central physiological characteristic of aging. As stem cells regulate tissue homeostasis, depletion of stem cell reserves and/or diminished stem cell function have been postulated to contribute to aging. It has further been suggested that accumulated DNA damage could be a principal mechanism underlying age-dependent stem cell decline. It is interesting that many of the rejuvenating interventions act on the stem cell compartments, perhaps reflecting shared genetic and biochemical pathways controlling stem cell function and longevity. Strategy to slow down the aging processes is based on caloric restriction refers to a dietary regimen low in calories but without undernutrition. Sirtuin (SIRT1 and 3, increases longevity by mimicking the beneficial effects of caloric restriction. SIRT3 regulates stress-responsive mitochondrial homeostasis, and more importantly, SIRT3 upregulation rejuvenates aged stem cells in tissues. Resveratrol (3,5,4’-trihydroxystilbene, a natural polyphenol found in grapes and wine, was the most powerful natural activator of SIRT1. In fact, resveratrol treatment has been demonstrated to rescue adult stem cell decline, slow down bodyweight loss, improve trabecular bone structure and mineral density, and significantly extend lifespan. SUMMARY: Tissue-specific stem cells persist throughout the entire lifespan to repair and maintain tissues, but their self-renewal and differentiation potential become dysregulated with aging. Given that adult stem cells are thought to be central to tissue maintenance and organismal

  8. 营养宣教对新疆农村维吾尔族13~15岁学生膳食状况的影响%Effect of nutritional propaganda and education on the dietary status of Uyghur students aged 13 ~ 15 years old in rural areas of Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜超; 武杰; 王明霞; 任相涛; 秦天红

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解新疆农村维吾尔族13~15岁学生的膳食营养状况,发现膳食中存在的问题,提出具有针对性的改善营养状况的对策和建议.方法:定期对学生进行营养知识宣教,采用24h膳食回顾法结合食物称重法和饮食习惯调查表进行连续跟踪调查,对比宣教前后的调查结果,根据和做出评价.结果:宣教前后,新疆农村维吾尔族13~15岁学生的膳食营养状况无显著变化;摄入的总能量低于DRIs;三餐热能分配较为合理;蛋白质供能比基本正常,脂肪供能比严重偏低,碳水化合物供能比偏高;各种营养素的摄入量不均衡,其中维生素A、维生素B2和钙严重缺乏,钠的实际摄入量严重超标.结论:所调查的13~15岁学生营养不良现象十分普遍,定期的营养宣教无法改善膳食营养状况,政府和学校应制定符合当地经济水平和生活习惯的政策以改善学生的营养状况.%Objective: To understand the dietary and nutritional status of Uyghur students aged 13 ~ 15 years old in rural areas of Xinjiang, find out the dietary problems, propose targeted strategies and suggestions to improve the nutritional status. Methods: Nutritional propaganda and education were carried out among the students regularly, 24 - hour dietary recall method was used for continuous follow - up and survey combined with food weighing method and dietary habits questionnaire, the survey results before and after nutritional propaganda and education were compared, then the evaluation was given according to" Chinese Dietary Guidelines" and" Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)" . Results: There was no significant change in dietary and nutritional status of Uyghur students aged 13 ~ 15 years old in rural areas of Xinjiang before and after nutritional propaganda and education; the total energy intake was less than DRIs; the energy distributions of three meals were reasonable; the proportion of energy provided by protein was

  9. Dietary non-esterified oleic Acid decreases the jejunal levels of anorectic N-acylethanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diep, Thi Ai; Madsen, Andreas N; Krogh-Hansen, Sandra;

    2014-01-01

    mice respond to dietary fat (olive oil) by reducing levels of anorectic NAEs, and 3) whether dietary non-esterified oleic acid also can decrease levels of anorectic NAEs in mice. We are searching for the fat sensor in the intestine, which mediates the decreased levels of anorectic NAEs. METHODS: Male...... of anorectic NAEs in mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the down-regulation of the jejunal level of anorectic NAEs by dietary fat is not restricted to rats, and that the fatty acid component oleic acid, in dietary olive oil may be sufficient to mediate this regulation. Thus, a fatty acid sensor may...

  10.  Age-related changes of skeletal muscles: physiology, pathology and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Ławniczak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  This review provides a short presentation of the aging-related changes of human skeletal muscles. The aging process is associated with the loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia and strength. This results from fibre atrophy and apoptosis, decreased regeneration capacity, mitochondrial dysfunction, gradual reduction of the number of spinal cord motor neurons, and local and systemic metabolic and hormonal alterations. The latter involve age-related decrease of the expression and activity of some mitochondrial and cytoplasmic enzymes, triacylglycerols and lipofuscin accumulation inside muscle fibres, increased proteolytic activity, insulin resistance and decreased serum growth hormone and IGF-1 concentrations. Aging of the skeletal muscles is also associated with a decreased number of satellite cells and their proliferative activity. The age-related reduction of skeletal muscle mass and function may be partially prevented by dietary restriction and systematic physical exercises.

  11. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coomes Margerie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90 of all foods; meats 12% (11/90; and grains 11% (10/90. Sauces (6%, 5/90, sweets (4%, 4/90, and desserts (4%, 4/90 were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal.

  12. Effects of dietary lysine and methionine supplementation on ross 708 male broilers from 21 to 42 days of age (III): serum metabolites, hormones, and their relationship with growth performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    A previous study has shown that a limited increase of lysine (Lys) and methionine (Met) in broiler diets may improve feed conversion ratio (FCR), BW, carcass yield, and breast meat yield. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary Lys and Met supplementation on various blood serum ...

  13. In Ivorian school-age children, infection with hookworm does not reduce dietary iron absorption or systemic iron utilization, whereas afebrile Plasmodium falciparum infection reduces iron absorption by half

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glinz, D.; Hurrell, R.F.; Righetti, A.A.; Zeder, C.; Adiossan, L.G.; Tjalsma, H.; Utzinger, J.; Zimmermann, M.B.; N'Goran, E.K.; Wegmuller, R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, parasitic diseases and low bioavailable iron intake are major causes of anemia. Anemia results from inflammation, preventing iron recycling and decreasing dietary iron absorption. Hookworm, Plasmodium, and Schistosoma infections contribute to anemia, but their infl

  14. Dietary Supplements for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Dietary Supplements for Toddlers Page Content Article Body If you ... a diet recommended for children), she may need supplements of vitamins B12 and D as well as ...

  15. Incontinence Treatment: Dietary Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sorbitol, commonly used as a sweetener in many dietetic foods, candies, and gums; and fructose, also used ... everyone. A physician can take a brief dietary history and with a 2–3 week diary of ...

  16. Dietary treatment of nephrolithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Meschi, Tiziana; Guerra, Angela; Allegri, Franca; Prati, Beatrice; Borghi, Loris

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of idiopathic nephrolithiasis is increasing in rich countries. Dietary manipulation could contribute to the prevention of both its first appearance and the recurrence of the disease. The target of dietary treatment is to decrease the “urinary lithogenic risk factors” such as low urine volume, hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, hyperphosphaturia, hypocitraturia, hypomagnesuria and excessively alkaline or acid urinary pH. Due to the lack of randomized controlled tria...

  17. Estimating the Distribution of Dietary Consumption Patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-02-01

    In the United States the preferred method of obtaining dietary intake data is the 24-hour dietary recall, yet the measure of most interest is usual or long-term average daily intake, which is impossible to measure. Thus, usual dietary intake is assessed with considerable measurement error. We were interested in estimating the population distribution of the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), a multi-component dietary quality index involving ratios of interrelated dietary components to energy, among children aged 2-8 in the United States, using a national survey and incorporating survey weights. We developed a highly nonlinear, multivariate zero-inflated data model with measurement error to address this question. Standard nonlinear mixed model software such as SAS NLMIXED cannot handle this problem. We found that taking a Bayesian approach, and using MCMC, resolved the computational issues and doing so enabled us to provide a realistic distribution estimate for the HEI-2005 total score. While our computation and thinking in solving this problem was Bayesian, we relied on the well-known close relationship between Bayesian posterior means and maximum likelihood, the latter not computationally feasible, and thus were able to develop standard errors using balanced repeated replication, a survey-sampling approach.

  18. Feasibility study on dietary recommendations for older adults in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    MAK TSZ NING; MUSSIO FLAMINIA; LOURO CALDEIRA SANDRA

    2015-01-01

    Despite mounting scientific evidence to support healthy and balanced diet in promoting active and healthy ageing, targeted, age-specific, and up-to-date dietary recommendations for older adults in Europe are not easy to find. On the 23-24 October 2014, the JRC organised an expert workshop "Feasibility study on dietary recommendations for older adults in the European Union" to discuss the need for dietary recommendations targeting older adults in Europe, and to identify strategies to promote b...

  19. Restriction of Helmholtz Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Polunin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of the experimental studies of physical mechanisms of energy dissipation in the oscillating system in which air cavity held by the forces of magnetic levitation is used as the elastic element, and magnetic fluid prepared on the basis of dispersing media with different viscosity level is used as the inertial element are considered in the article. Based on the obtained results the conclusion on the restriction of the applicability of Helmholtz equation, caused by boundary effects is made.

  20. Late gestational nutrient restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Nørgaard, Peder;

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 50% nutrient restriction during the last 6 weeks of gestation on twin-pregnant ewes' plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acid, ß-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, IGF-1 and leptin concentrations and the effects on lamb birth weight and ewes' lactation performance. Plasma...... changes in feed intake and energy balance. It is concluded that severely reduced nutrient availability in late gestation affects fetal growth in utero and has a prolonged negative effect on lactation performance....