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Sample records for aging dietary restriction

  1. Dietary restriction with and without caloric restriction for healthy aging [version 1; referees: 3 approved

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    Changhan Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction is the most effective and reproducible dietary intervention known to regulate aging and increase the healthy lifespan in various model organisms, ranging from the unicellular yeast to worms, flies, rodents, and primates. However, caloric restriction, which in most cases entails a 20–40% reduction of food consumption relative to normal intake, is a severe intervention that results in both beneficial and detrimental effects. Specific types of chronic, intermittent, or periodic dietary restrictions without chronic caloric restriction have instead the potential to provide a significant healthspan increase while minimizing adverse effects. Improved periodic or targeted dietary restriction regimens that uncouple the challenge of food deprivation from the beneficial effects will allow a safe intervention feasible for a major portion of the population. Here we focus on healthspan interventions that are not chronic or do not require calorie restriction.

  2. Dietary restriction of rodents decreases aging rate without affecting initial mortality rate a meta-analysis

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    Simons, Mirre J. P.; Koch, Wouter; Verhulst, Simon

    Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in multiple species from various taxa. This effect can arise via two distinct but not mutually exclusive ways: a change in aging rate and/or vulnerability to the aging process (i.e. initial mortality rate). When DR affects vulnerability, this lowers

  3. Effects of dietary restriction on adipose mass and biomarkers of healthy aging in human.

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    Lettieri-Barbato, Daniele; Giovannetti, Esmeralda; Aquilano, Katia

    2016-11-29

    In developing countries the rise of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes, reflects the changes in lifestyle habits and wrong dietary choices. Dietary restriction (DR) regimens have been shown to extend health span and lifespan in many animal models including primates. Identifying biomarkers predictive of clinical benefits of treatment is one of the primary goals of precision medicine. To monitor the clinical outcomes of DR interventions in humans, several biomarkers are commonly adopted. However, a validated link between the behaviors of such biomarkers and DR effects is lacking at present time. Through a systematic analysis of human intervention studies, we evaluated the effect size of DR (i.e. calorie restriction, very low calorie diet, intermittent fasting, alternate day fasting) on health-related biomarkers. We found that DR is effective in reducing total and visceral adipose mass and improving inflammatory cytokines profile and adiponectin/leptin ratio. By analysing the levels of canonical biomarkers of healthy aging, we also validated the changes of insulin, IGF-1 and IGFBP-1,2 to monitor DR effects. Collectively, we developed a useful platform to evaluate the human responses to dietary regimens low in calories.

  4. The effects of age and dietary restriction on the tissue-specific metabolome of Drosophila.

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    Laye, Matthew J; Tran, ViLinh; Jones, Dean P; Kapahi, Pankaj; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2015-10-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) is a robust intervention that extends lifespan and slows the onset of age-related diseases in diverse organisms. While significant progress has been made in attempts to uncover the genetic mechanisms of DR, there are few studies on the effects of DR on the metabolome. In recent years, metabolomic profiling has emerged as a powerful technology to understand the molecular causes and consequences of natural aging and disease-associated phenotypes. Here, we use high-resolution mass spectroscopy and novel computational approaches to examine changes in the metabolome from the head, thorax, abdomen, and whole body at multiple ages in Drosophila fed either a nutrient-rich ad libitum (AL) or nutrient-restricted (DR) diet. Multivariate analysis clearly separates the metabolome by diet in different tissues and different ages. DR significantly altered the metabolome and, in particular, slowed age-related changes in the metabolome. Interestingly, we observed interacting metabolites whose correlation coefficients, but not mean levels, differed significantly between AL and DR. The number and magnitude of positively correlated metabolites was greater under a DR diet. Furthermore, there was a decrease in positive metabolite correlations as flies aged on an AL diet. Conversely, DR enhanced these correlations with age. Metabolic set enrichment analysis identified several known (e.g., amino acid and NAD metabolism) and novel metabolic pathways that may affect how DR effects aging. Our results suggest that network structure of metabolites is altered upon DR and may play an important role in preventing the decline of homeostasis with age. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Dietary restriction ameliorates haematopoietic ageing independent of telomerase, whilst lack of telomerase and short telomeres exacerbates the ageing phenotype.

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    Al-Ajmi, Nouf; Saretzki, Gabriele; Miles, Colin; Spyridopoulos, Ioakim

    2014-10-01

    Ageing is associated with an overall decline in the functional capacity of tissues and stem cells, including haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), as well as telomere dysfunction. Dietary restriction (DR) is a recognised anti-ageing intervention that extends lifespan and improves health in several organisms. To investigate the role of telomeres and telomerase in haematopoietic ageing, we compared the HSPC profile and clonogenic capacity of bone marrow cells from wild type with telomerase-deficient mice and the effect of DR on these parameters. Compared with young mice, aged wild type mice demonstrated a significant accumulation of HSPCs (1.3% vs 0.2%, P=0.002) and elevated numbers of granulocyte/macrophage colony forming units (CFU-GM, 26.4 vs 17.3, P=0.0037) consistent with myeloid "skewing" of haematopoiesis. DR was able to restrict the increase in HSPC number as well as the myeloid "skewing" in aged wild type mice. In order to analyse the influence of short telomeres on the ageing phenotype we examined mice lacking the RNA template for telomerase, TERC(-/-). Telomere shortening resulted in a similar bone marrow phenotype to that seen in aged mice, with significantly increased HSPC numbers and an increased formation of all myeloid colony types but at a younger age than wild type mice. However, an additional increase in erythroid colonies (BFU-E) was also evident. Mice lacking telomerase reverse transcriptase without shortened telomeres, TERT(-/-), also presented with augmented haematopoietic ageing which was ameliorated by DR, demonstrating that the effect of DR was not dependent on the presence of telomerase in HSPCs. We conclude that whilst shortened telomeres mimic some aspects of haematopoietic ageing, both shortened telomeres and the lack of telomerase produce specific phenotypes, some of which can be prevented by dietary restriction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Insulin signaling and dietary restriction differentially influence the decline of learning and memory with age.

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    Amanda L Kauffman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Of all the age-related declines, memory loss is one of the most devastating. While conditions that increase longevity have been identified, the effects of these longevity-promoting factors on learning and memory are unknown. Here we show that the C. elegans Insulin/IGF-1 receptor mutant daf-2 improves memory performance early in adulthood and maintains learning ability better with age but, surprisingly, demonstrates no extension in long-term memory with age. By contrast, eat-2 mutants, a model of Dietary Restriction (DR, exhibit impaired long-term memory in young adulthood but maintain this level of memory longer with age. We find that crh-1, the C. elegans homolog of the CREB transcription factor, is required for long-term associative memory, but not for learning or short-term memory. The expression of crh-1 declines with age and differs in the longevity mutants, and CREB expression and activity correlate with memory performance. Our results suggest that specific longevity treatments have acute and long-term effects on cognitive functions that decline with age through their regulation of rate-limiting genes required for learning and memory.

  7. Dietary restriction improves repopulation but impairs lymphoid differentiation capacity of hematopoietic stem cells in early aging

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    Tang, Duozhuang; Tao, Si; Chen, Zhiyang; Koliesnik, Ievgen Oleksandrovich; Calmes, Philip Gerald; Hoerr, Verena; Han, Bing; Gebert, Nadja; Zörnig, Martin; Löffler, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) improves health, delays tissue aging, and elongates survival in flies and worms. However, studies on laboratory mice and nonhuman primates revealed ambiguous effects of DR on lifespan despite improvements in health parameters. In this study, we analyzed consequences of adult-onset DR (24 h to 1 yr) on hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function. DR ameliorated HSC aging phenotypes, such as the increase in number of HSCs and the skewing toward myeloid-biased HSCs during aging. Furthermore, DR increased HSC quiescence and improved the maintenance of the repopulation capacity of HSCs during aging. In contrast to these beneficial effects, DR strongly impaired HSC differentiation into lymphoid lineages and particularly inhibited the proliferation of lymphoid progenitors, resulting in decreased production of peripheral B lymphocytes and impaired immune function. The study shows that DR-dependent suppression of growth factors and interleukins mediates these divergent effects caused by DR. Supplementation of insulin-like growth factor 1 partially reverted the DR-induced quiescence of HSCs, whereas IL-6/IL-7 substitutions rescued the impairment of B lymphopoiesis exposed to DR. Together, these findings delineate positive and negative effects of long-term DR on HSC functionality involving distinct stress and growth signaling pathways. PMID:26951333

  8. Dietary restriction of rodents decreases aging rate without affecting initial mortality rate -- a meta-analysis.

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    Simons, Mirre J P; Koch, Wouter; Verhulst, Simon

    2013-06-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in multiple species from various taxa. This effect can arise via two distinct but not mutually exclusive ways: a change in aging rate and/or vulnerability to the aging process (i.e. initial mortality rate). When DR affects vulnerability, this lowers mortality instantly, whereas a change in aging rate will gradually lower mortality risk over time. Unraveling how DR extends lifespan is of interest because it may guide toward understanding the mechanism(s) mediating lifespan extension and also has practical implications for the application of DR. We reanalyzed published survival data from 82 pairs of survival curves from DR experiments in rats and mice by fitting Gompertz and also Gompertz-Makeham models. The addition of the Makeham parameter has been reported to improve the estimation of Gompertz parameters. Both models separate initial mortality rate (vulnerability) from an age-dependent increase in mortality (aging rate). We subjected the obtained Gompertz parameters to a meta-analysis. We find that DR reduced aging rate without affecting vulnerability. The latter contrasts with the conclusion of a recent analysis of a largely overlapping data set, and we show how the earlier finding is due to a statistical artifact. Our analysis indicates that the biology underlying the life-extending effect of DR in rodents likely involves attenuated accumulation of damage, which contrasts with the acute effect of DR on mortality reported for Drosophila. Moreover, our findings show that the often-reported correlation between aging rate and vulnerability does not constrain changing aging rate without affecting vulnerability simultaneously. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and the Anatomical Society.

  9. Differential Regulation of Hippocampal IGF-1-Associated Signaling Proteins by Dietary Restriction in Aging Mouse.

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    Hadem, Ibanylla Kynjai Hynniewta; Sharma, Ramesh

    2017-08-01

    Time-dependent alterations in several biological processes of an organism may be characterized as aging. One of the effects of aging is the decline in cognitive functions. Dietary restriction (DR), an intervention where the consumption of food is lessened but without malnutrition, is a well-established mechanism that has a wide range of important outcomes including improved health span, delayed aging, and extension of lifespan of various species. It also plays a beneficial role in protecting against age-dependent deterioration of cognitive functions, and has neuroprotective properties against neurodegenerative diseases. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 plays an important role in the regulation of cellular and tissue functions, and relating to the aging process the most important pathway of IGF-1 is the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) signaling cascade. Although many have studied the changes in the level of IGF-1 and its effect on neural proliferation, the downstream signaling proteins have not been fully elucidated. Hence in the present investigation, the IGF-1 gene expression and the normal endogenous levels of IGF1R (IGF-1 receptor), PI3K, Akt, pAkt, and pFoxO in the hippocampus of young, adult, and old mice were determined using real-time PCR and Western blot analyses. The effects of DR on these protein levels were also studied. Results showed a decrease in the levels of IGF-1, IGF1R, PI3K, and pAkt, while pFoxO level increased with respect to age. Under DR, these protein levels are maintained in adult mice, but old mice displayed diminished expression levels of these proteins as compared to ad libitum-fed mice. Maintenance of PI3K/Akt pathway results in the phosphorylation of FoxOs, necessary for the enhancement of neural proliferation and survival in adult mice. The down-regulation of IGF-I signaling, as observed in old mice, leads to increasing the activity of FoxO factors that may be important for the neuroprotective

  10. Age- and calorie-independent life span extension from dietary restriction by bacterial deprivation in Caenorhabditis elegans

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    Sager Jennifer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary restriction (DR increases life span and delays age-associated disease in many organisms. The mechanism by which DR enhances longevity is not well understood. Results Using bacterial food deprivation as a means of DR in C. elegans, we show that transient DR confers long-term benefits including stress resistance and increased longevity. Consistent with studies in the fruit fly and in mice, we demonstrate that DR also enhances survival when initiated late in life. DR by bacterial food deprivation significantly increases life span in worms when initiated as late as 24 days of adulthood, an age at which greater than 50% of the cohort have died. These survival benefits are, at least partially, independent of food consumption, as control fed animals are no longer consuming bacterial food at this advanced age. Animals separated from the bacterial lawn by a barrier of solid agar have a life span intermediate between control fed and food restricted animals. Thus, we find that life span extension from bacterial deprivation can be partially suppressed by a diffusible component of the bacterial food source, suggesting a calorie-independent mechanism for life span extension by dietary restriction. Conclusion Based on these findings, we propose that dietary restriction by bacterial deprivation increases longevity in C. elegans by a combination of reduced food consumption and decreased food sensing.

  11. Long-term dietary restriction up-regulates activity and expression of renal arginase II in aging mice.

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    Majaw, T; Sharma, R

    2017-06-01

    Arginase II is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of L-arginine into urea and ornithine. It is present in other extra-hepatic tissues that lack urea cycle. Therefore, it is plausible that arginase II has a physiological role other than urea cycle which includes polyamine, proline, glutamate synthesis and regulation of nitric oxide production. The high expression of arginase II in kidney, among extrahepatic tissues, might have an important role associated with kidney functions. The present study is aimed to determine the age-associated alteration in the activity and expression of arginase II in the kidney of mice of different ages. The effect of dietary restriction to modulate the agedependent changes of arginase II was also studied. Results showed that renal arginase II activity declines significantly with the progression of age (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001 in 6- and 18-month-old mice, respectively as compared to 2-month old mice) and is due to the reduction in its protein as well as the mRNA level (p less than 0.001 in both 6- and 18-month-old mice as compared to 2-month-old mice). Long-term dietary restriction for three months has significantly up-regulated arginase II activity and expression level in both 2- and 18-month-old mice (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively as compared to AL group). These findings clearly indicate that the reducing level of arginase II during aging might have an impact on the declining renal functions. This age-dependent down-regulation of arginase II in the kidney can be attenuated by dietary restriction which may help in the maintenance of such functions.

  12. Middle age onset short-term intermittent fasting dietary restriction prevents brain function impairments in male Wistar rats.

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    Singh, Rumani; Manchanda, Shaffi; Kaur, Taranjeet; Kumar, Sushil; Lakhanpal, Dinesh; Lakhman, Sukhwinder S; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2015-12-01

    Intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) is recently reported to be an effective intervention to retard age associated disease load and to promote healthy aging. Since sustaining long term caloric restriction regimen is not practically feasible in humans, so use of alternate approach such as late onset short term IF-DR regimen which is reported to trigger similar biological pathways is gaining scientific interest. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of IF-DR regimen implemented for 12 weeks in middle age rats on their motor coordination skills and protein and DNA damage in different brain regions. Further, the effect of IF-DR regimen was also studied on expression of energy regulators, cell survival pathways and synaptic plasticity marker proteins. Our data demonstrate that there was an improvement in motor coordination and learning response with decline in protein oxidative damage and recovery in expression of energy regulating neuropeptides. We further observed significant downregulation in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cytochrome c (Cyt c) levels and moderate upregulation of mortalin and synaptophysin expression. The present data may provide an insight on how a modest level of short term IF-DR, imposed in middle age, can slow down or prevent the age-associated impairment of brain functions and promote healthy aging by involving multiple regulatory pathways aimed at maintaining energy homeostasis.

  13. Dietary sodium restriction reverses vascular endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged/older adults with moderately elevated systolic blood pressure

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    Jablonski, Kristen L.; Racine, Matthew L.; Geolfos, Candace J.; Gates, Phillip E.; Chonchol, Michel; McQueen, Matthew B.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We determined the efficacy of dietary sodium restriction (DSR) for improving vascular endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged/older adults with moderately elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP; 130–159 mmHg) and the associated physiological mechanisms. Background Vascular endothelial dysfunction develops with advancing age and elevated SBP, contributing to increased cardiovascular risk. DSR lowers BP, but its effect on vascular endothelial function and mechanisms involved are unknown. Methods Seventeen subjects (11M/6F; 62±7 yrs, mean±S.D.) completed a randomized, crossover study of 4 weeks of both low and normal sodium intake. Vascular endothelial function (endothelium-dependent dilation; EDD), nitric oxide (NO)/tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) bioavailability and oxidative stress-associated mechanisms were assessed following each condition. Results Urinary sodium excretion was reduced by ~50% (to 70±30 mmol/day), and conduit (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation [FMDBA]) and resistance (forearm blood flow responses to acetylcholine [FBFACh]) artery EDD were 68% and 42% (peak FBFACh) higher following the low sodium diet (psodium markedly enhanced NO- mediated EDD (greater ΔFBFACh with endothelial NO synthase [eNOS] inhibition) without changing eNOS expression/activation (Ser1177 phosphorylation), restored BH4 bioactivity (less ΔFMDBA with acute BH4), abolished tonic superoxide suppression of EDD (less ΔFMDBA and ΔFBFACh with ascorbic acid infusion), and increased circulating superoxide dismutase activity (p<0.05). These effects were independent of ΔSBP. Other subject characteristics/dietary factors and endothelium-independent dilation were unchanged. Conclusions DSR largely reverses both macro- and microvascular endothelial dysfunction by enhancing NO and BH4 bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress. Our findings support the emerging concept that DSR induces “vascular protection” beyond that attributable to its BP-lowering effects. PMID

  14. Aging, adiposity, and calorie restriction.

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    Fontana, Luigi; Klein, Samuel

    2007-03-07

    Excessive calorie intake and subsequent obesity increases the risk of developing chronic disease and decreases life expectancy. In rodent models, calorie restriction with adequate nutrient intake decreases the risk of developing chronic disease and extends maximum life span. To evaluate the physiological and clinical implications of calorie restriction with adequate nutrient intake. Search of PubMed (1966-December 2006) using terms encompassing various aspects of calorie restriction, dietary restriction, aging, longevity, life span, adiposity, and obesity; hand search of journals that focus on obesity, geriatrics, or aging; and search of reference lists of pertinent research and review articles and books. Reviewed reports (both basic science and clinical) included epidemiologic studies, case-control studies, and randomized controlled trials, with quality of data assessed by taking into account publication in a peer-reviewed journal, number of animals or individuals studied, objectivity of measurements, and techniques used to minimize bias. It is not known whether calorie restriction extends maximum life span or life expectancy in lean humans. However, calorie restriction in adult men and women causes many of the same metabolic adaptations that occur in calorie-restricted rodents and monkeys, including decreased metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory risk factors for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and possibly cancer. Excessive calorie restriction causes malnutrition and has adverse clinical effects. Calorie restriction in adult men and women causes beneficial metabolic, hormonal, and functional changes, but the precise amount of calorie intake or body fat mass associated with optimal health and maximum longevity in humans is not known. In addition, it is possible that even moderate calorie restriction may be harmful in specific patient populations, such as lean persons who have minimal amounts of body fat.

  15. Eclampsia despite strict dietary sodium restriction.

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    Delemarre, F.M.C.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Berendes, J.N.

    2001-01-01

    The classic indication for prescribing dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy has been the prevention of eclampsia. We describe a case of intrapartum eclampsia in a 24-year-old nulliparous woman. A strongly sodium restricted diet was prescribed because of pre-eclampsia. Compliance to the diet was

  16. Dietary restriction delays the secretion of senescence associated secretory phenotype by reducing DNA damage response in the process of renal aging.

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    Wang, Wenjuan; Cai, Guangyan; Chen, Xiangmei

    2017-09-13

    Dietary restriction (DR) has multiple and essential effects in protecting against DNA damage in model organisms. Persistent DNA damage plays a central role in the process of aging. Senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), as a product of cellular aging, can accelerate the process of cellular senescence as a feedback. In this study, we directly observed whether a DR of 30% for 6months in aged rats could retard SASP by delaying the progression of DNA damage and also found the specific mechanism. The results revealed that a 30% DR could significantly improve renal pathology and some metabolic characteristics. The biomarkers and products of DNA damage were decreased in the process of renal aging on a 30% DR. A series of SASP, notably cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor, were obviously reduced by DR during renal aging. The phosphorylation levels of NF-κB and IκBα in aged kidneys of DR group were markedly reduced. These findings suggest that a 30% DR for 6months can delay renal aging and reduce the accumulation of SASP by retarding the progression of DNA damage and decreasing the transcription activity of NF-κB, thus providing a target to delay renal aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary restriction but not angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade improves DNA damage-related vasodilator dysfunction in rapidly aging Ercc1Δ/- mice.

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    Wu, Haiyan; van Thiel, Bibi S; Bautista-Niño, Paula K; Reiling, Erwin; Durik, Matej; Leijten, Frank P J; Ridwan, Yanto; Brandt, Renata M C; van Steeg, Harry; Dollé, Martijn E T; Vermeij, Wilbert P; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Essers, Jeroen; van der Pluijm, Ingrid; Danser, A H Jan; Roks, Anton J M

    2017-08-01

    DNA damage is an important contributor to endothelial dysfunction and age-related vascular disease. Recently, we demonstrated in a DNA repair-deficient, prematurely aging mouse model ( Ercc1 Δ/- mice) that dietary restriction (DR) strongly increases life- and health span, including ameliorating endothelial dysfunction, by preserving genomic integrity. In this mouse mutant displaying prominent accelerated, age-dependent endothelial dysfunction we investigated the signaling pathways involved in improved endothelium-mediated vasodilation by DR, and explore the potential role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Ercc1 Δ/- mice showed increased blood pressure and decreased aortic relaxations to acetylcholine (ACh) in organ bath experiments. Nitric oxide (NO) signaling and phospho-Ser 1177 -eNOS were compromised in Ercc1 Δ / - DR improved relaxations by increasing prostaglandin-mediated responses. Increase of cyclo-oxygenase 2 and decrease of phosphodiesterase 4B were identified as potential mechanisms. DR also prevented loss of NO signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells and normalized angiotensin II (Ang II) vasoconstrictions, which were increased in Ercc1 Δ/- mice. Ercc1 Δ/ - mutants showed a loss of Ang II type 2 receptor-mediated counter-regulation of Ang II type 1 receptor-induced vasoconstrictions. Chronic losartan treatment effectively decreased blood pressure, but did not improve endothelium-dependent relaxations. This result might relate to the aging-associated loss of treatment efficacy of RAS blockade with respect to endothelial function improvement. In summary, DR effectively prevents endothelium-dependent vasodilator dysfunction by augmenting prostaglandin-mediated responses, whereas chronic Ang II type 1 receptor blockade is ineffective. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  18. Fasting or caloric restriction for healthy aging.

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    Anton, Stephen; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2013-10-01

    Aging is associated with a host of biological changes that contribute to a progressive decline in cognitive and physical function, ultimately leading to a loss of independence, and increased risk of mortality. To date, prolonged caloric restriction (i.e., a reduction in caloric intake without malnutrition) is the only non-genetic intervention that has consistently been found to extend both mean and maximal life span across a variety of species. Most individuals have difficulty sustaining prolonged caloric restriction, which has led to a search for alternative approaches that can produce similar to benefits as caloric restriction. A growing body of evidence indicates that fasting periods and intermittent fasting regimens in particular can trigger similar biological pathways as caloric restriction. For this reason, there is increasing scientific interest in further exploring the biological and metabolic effects of intermittent fasting periods, as well as whether long-term compliance may be improved by this type of dietary approach. This special will highlight the latest scientific findings related to the effects of both caloric restriction and intermittent fasting across various species including yeast, fruit flies, worms, rodents, primates, and humans. A specific emphasis is placed on translational research with findings from basic bench to bedside reviewed and practical clinical implications discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Splicing factor 1 modulates dietary restriction and TORC1 pathway longevity in C. elegans

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    Heintz, Caroline; Doktor, Thomas K; Lanjuin, Anne

    2017-01-01

    via splicing factor 1 (SFA-1; the C. elegans homologue of SF1, also known as branchpoint binding protein, BBP). We show that SFA-1 is specifically required for lifespan extension by dietary restriction and by modulation of the TORC1 pathway components AMPK, RAGA-1 and RSKS-1/S6 kinase. We also...... homeostasis is a biomarker and predictor of life expectancy in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using transcriptomics and in-depth splicing analysis in young and old animals fed ad libitum or subjected to dietary restriction, we find defects in global pre-mRNA splicing with age that are reduced by dietary restriction...

  20. DAF-2/insulin-like signaling in C. elegans modifies effects of dietary restriction and nutrient stress on aging, stress and growth.

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    Wendy B Iser

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary restriction (DR and reduced insulin/IGF-I-like signaling (IIS are two regimens that promote longevity in a variety of organisms. Genetic analysis in C. elegans nematodes has shown that DR and IIS couple to distinct cellular signaling pathways. However, it is not known whether these pathways ultimately converge on overlapping or distinct targets to extend lifespan.We investigated this question by examining additional effects of DR in wildtype animals and in daf-2 mutants with either moderate or severe IIS deficits. Surprisingly, DR and IIS had opposing effects on these physiological processes. First, DR induced a stress-related change in intestinal vesicle trafficking, termed the FIRE response, which was suppressed in daf-2 mutants. Second, DR did not strongly affect expression of a daf-2- and stress-responsive transcriptional reporter. Finally, DR-related growth impairment was suppressed in daf-2 mutants.These findings reveal that an important biological function of DAF-2/IIS is to enhance growth and survival under nutrient-limited conditions. However, we also discovered that levels of DAF-2 pathway activity modified the effects of DR on longevity. Thus, while DR and IIS clearly affect lifespan through independent targets, there may also be some prolongevity targets that are convergently regulated by these pathways.

  1. DAF-2/insulin-like signaling in C. elegans modifies effects of dietary restriction and nutrient stress on aging, stress and growth.

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    Iser, Wendy B; Wolkow, Catherine A

    2007-11-28

    Dietary restriction (DR) and reduced insulin/IGF-I-like signaling (IIS) are two regimens that promote longevity in a variety of organisms. Genetic analysis in C. elegans nematodes has shown that DR and IIS couple to distinct cellular signaling pathways. However, it is not known whether these pathways ultimately converge on overlapping or distinct targets to extend lifespan. We investigated this question by examining additional effects of DR in wildtype animals and in daf-2 mutants with either moderate or severe IIS deficits. Surprisingly, DR and IIS had opposing effects on these physiological processes. First, DR induced a stress-related change in intestinal vesicle trafficking, termed the FIRE response, which was suppressed in daf-2 mutants. Second, DR did not strongly affect expression of a daf-2- and stress-responsive transcriptional reporter. Finally, DR-related growth impairment was suppressed in daf-2 mutants. These findings reveal that an important biological function of DAF-2/IIS is to enhance growth and survival under nutrient-limited conditions. However, we also discovered that levels of DAF-2 pathway activity modified the effects of DR on longevity. Thus, while DR and IIS clearly affect lifespan through independent targets, there may also be some prolongevity targets that are convergently regulated by these pathways.

  2. Self-Reported Dietary Restrictions and Dietary Patterns in Polish Girls: A Short Research Report (GEBaHealth Study

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    Grzegorz Galinski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary restraint is a commonly reported practice observed among young females. The practice remains controversial and can be interpreted as a beneficial self-regulating behavior or the opposite, an eating disorder that may have a detrimental effect on health. The aim of this short report was to investigate if dietary restrictions are associated with dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls. Analyses were carried out on data from the Girls’ Eating Behavior and Health (GEBaHealth study. The sample included 1107 girls, ranging in age from 13 to 21 years old. Restrictions regarding food quantities and selected food groups were assessed using a standardized interview. Dietary patterns were identified with Principal Component Analysis (PCA, based on dietary data collected with Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs. Logistic regression analysis was used to study the associations between self-reported restrictions and each dietary pattern. In the total sample, 30.5% of girls reported following some food restrictions. The most common restrictions regarded consumption of sugar and/or sweets (23.7%, high-fat foods (22.4%, and fats (21.3%. Girls who declared following any restrictions, restrictions in food quantity and restrictions in the consumption of sugar and/or sweets, high-fat foods, fats, cereals and/or bread and/or potatoes were more likely to adhere to the “fruit and vegetables” (considered pro-healthy dietary pattern (adjusted odds ratios (ORs: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.14–2.12; 1.61, 95% CI: 1.17–2.21; 1.81, 95% CI: 1.30–2.52; 1.46, 95% CI: 1.04–2.06; 1.96, 95% CI: 1.38–2.80 and 3.25, 95% CI: 1.97–5.37, respectively, and less likely to adhere to the “fast foods and sweets” (unhealthy and “traditional Polish” (rather unhealthy patterns, compared to girls who declared no restrictions. Declared restrictions in the consumption of foods high in sugar, fat, and starch were observed in girls in the “fruit and

  3. Dietary restriction alters fine motor function in rats.

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    Smith, Lori K; Metz, Gerlinde A

    2005-08-07

    A number of standard behavioral tasks in animal research utilize food rewards for positive reinforcement. In order to enhance the motivation to participate in these tasks, animals are usually placed on a restricted diet. While dietary restriction (DR) has been shown to have beneficial effects on recovery after brain injury, life span and aging processes, it might also represent a stressor. Since stress can influence a broad range of behaviors, the purpose of this study was to assess whether DR may have similar effects on skilled movement. Adult male Long-Evans rats were trained and tested in a skilled reaching task both prior to and during a mild food restriction regimen that maintained their body weights at 90-95% of baseline weight for eight days. The observations revealed that DR decreased reaching success and increased the number of attempts to grasp a single food pellet. The animals appeared to be more frantic when attempting to reach for food pellets, and the time taken to reach for 20 pellets decreased following the onset of DR. A second experiment investigating behaviors that do not require food rewards, including a ladder rung walking task and an open field test, confirmed that rats on DR display deficits in skilled movements and are hyperactive. These findings suggest that results obtained in motor tasks using food rewards need to be interpreted with caution. The findings are discussed with respect to stress associated with DR.

  4. Effect of dietary protein restriction on renal ammonia metabolism

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    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E.; Guo, Hui; Verlander, Jill W.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary protein restriction has multiple benefits in kidney disease. Because protein intake is a major determinant of endogenous acid production, it is important that net acid excretion change in parallel during protein restriction. Ammonia is the primary component of net acid excretion, and inappropriate ammonia excretion can lead to negative nitrogen balance. Accordingly, we examined ammonia excretion in response to protein restriction and then we determined the molecular mechanism of the changes observed. Wild-type C57Bl/6 mice fed a 20% protein diet and then changed to 6% protein developed an 85% reduction in ammonia excretion within 2 days, which persisted during a 10-day study. The expression of multiple proteins involved in renal ammonia metabolism was altered, including the ammonia-generating enzymes phosphate-dependent glutaminase (PDG) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and the ammonia-metabolizing enzyme glutamine synthetase. Rhbg, an ammonia transporter, increased in expression in the inner stripe of outer medullary collecting duct intercalated cell (OMCDis-IC). However, collecting duct-specific Rhbg deletion did not alter the response to protein restriction. Rhcg deletion did not alter ammonia excretion in response to dietary protein restriction. These results indicate 1) dietary protein restriction decreases renal ammonia excretion through coordinated regulation of multiple components of ammonia metabolism; 2) increased Rhbg expression in the OMCDis-IC may indicate a biological role in addition to ammonia transport; and 3) Rhcg expression is not necessary to decrease ammonia excretion during dietary protein restriction. PMID:25925252

  5. Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products and Aging

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    Karen Chapman-Novakofski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced glycation end products (AGEs are a heterogeneous, complex group of compounds that are formed when reducing sugar reacts in a non-enzymatic way with amino acids in proteins and other macromolecules. This occurs both exogenously (in food and endogenously (in humans with greater concentrations found in older adults. While higher AGEs occur in both healthy older adults and those with chronic diseases, research is progressing to both quantify AGEs in food and in people, and to identify mechanisms that would explain why some human tissues are damaged, and others are not. In the last twenty years, there has been increased evidence that AGEs could be implicated in the development of chronic degenerative diseases of aging, such as cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease and with complications of diabetes mellitus. Results of several studies in animal models and humans show that the restriction of dietary AGEs has positive effects on wound healing, insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, the effect of restriction in AGEs intake has been reported to increase the lifespan in animal models. This paper will summarize the work that has been published for both food AGEs and in vivo AGEs and their relation with aging, as well as provide suggestions for future research.

  6. Strong dietary restrictions protect Drosophila against anoxia/reoxygenation injuries.

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    Paul Vigne

    Full Text Available Reoxygenation of ischemic tissues is a major factor that determines the severity of cardiovascular diseases. This paper describes the consequences of anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R stresses on Drosophila, a useful, anoxia tolerant, model organism.Newly emerged adult male flies were exposed to anoxic conditions (<1% O2 for 1 to 6 hours, reoxygenated and their survival was monitored.A/R stresses induced a transient increase in mortality which peaked at the time of reoxygenation. Then flies recovered low mortality rates similar to those of control flies. A/R induced mortality was strongly dependent on dietary conditions during the 48 h that preceded anoxia. Well fed flies were anoxia sensitive. Strong dietary restrictions and starvation conditions protected flies against A/R injuries. The tolerance to anoxia was associated to large decreases in glycogen, protein, and ATP contents. During anoxia, anoxia tolerant flies produced more lactate, less phosphate and they maintained more stable ATP levels than anoxia sensitive flies. Moderate dietary restrictions, which increased the longevity of normoxic flies, did not promote resistance to A/R stresses. Diet dependent A/R injuries were still observed in sigma loss of function mutants and they were insensitive to dietary rapamycin or resveratrol. AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribose-furanoside, an activator AMP kinase decreased A/R injuries. Mutants in the insulin signalling pathway were more anoxia tolerant in a fed state.Long A/R stresses induce a transient increase in mortality in Drosophila. This mortality is highly dependent on dietary conditions prior to the stress. Strong dietary restrictions and starvation conditions protect flies against A/R injuries, probably by inducing a major remodelling of energy metabolism. The results also indicate that mechanistically different responses develop in response to dietary restrictions of different strengths. AMP kinase and the insulin signalling

  7. The reno-protective effects of dietary caloric restriction against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have shown that dietary caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition can increase longevity. This study aims to evaluate the protective effects of CR on oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and inflammatory cytokines in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Forty 12-week old male Wistar rats, weighing ...

  8. Beneficial Effects of Preoperative Dietary Restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. van Ginhoven (Tessa)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPeople have always been searching for methods to stay young and live longer. For example, in the European middle ages alchemists were looking for the “potion of life”. This elixir, also known as the elixir of immortality and sometimes equated with the philosopher’s stone, is a legendary

  9. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction

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    Wood Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. Methods We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO ~10% of total energy. A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Results Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF, hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP and galanin (GAL genes were significantly associated with weight loss. Conclusion A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.

  10. Dietary management of chronic kidney disease: protein restriction and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Nimrit; Wesson, Donald E

    2012-11-01

    More kidney protective strategies are needed to reduce the burden of complete kidney failure from chronic kidney disease (CKD). Clinicians sometimes use protein restriction as kidney protection despite its demonstrated lack of effectiveness in the only large-scale study. Small-scale studies support that dietary acid reduction is kidney-protective, including when done with base-inducing foods like fruits and vegetables. We review these studies in light of current kidney-protective recommendations. Animal models of CKD show that acid-inducing dietary protein exacerbates and base-inducing protein ameliorates nephropathy progression, and that increased intake of acid-inducing but not base-inducing dietary protein exacerbates progression. Clinical studies show that dietary acid reduction with Na-based alkali reduces kidney injury and slows nephropathy progression in patients with CKD and reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR); base-inducing fruits and vegetables reduce kidney injury in patients with reduced GFR; and base-inducing fruits and vegetables improve metabolic acidosis in CKD. Protein type rather than amount might more importantly affect nephropathy progression. Base-inducing foods might be another way to reduce dietary acid, a strategy shown in small studies to slow nephropathy progression. Further studies will determine if CKD patients should be given base-inducing food as part of their management.

  11. Aging, neurogenesis, and caloric restriction in different model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan-Ergul, Ayca; Ozdemir, A Tugrul; Adams, Michelle M

    2013-08-01

    Brain aging is a multifactorial process that is occurring across multiple cognitive domains. A significant complaint that occurs in the elderly is a decrement in learning and memory ability. Both rodents and zebrafish exhibit a similar problem with memory during aging. The neurobiological changes that underlie this cognitive decline are complex and undoubtedly influenced by many factors. Alterations in the birth of new neurons and neuron turnover may contribute to age-related cognitive problems. Caloric restriction is the only non-genetic intervention that reliably increases life span and healthspan across multiple organisms although the molecular mechanisms are not well-understood. Recently the zebrafish has become a popular model organism for understanding the neurobiological consequences but to date very little work has been performed. Similarly, few studies have examined the effects of dietary restriction in zebrafish. Here we review the literature related to memory decline, neurogenesis, and caloric restriction across model organisms and suggest that zebrafish has the potential to be an important animal model for understanding the complex interactions between age, neurobiological changes in the brain, and dietary regimens or their mimetics as interventions.

  12. Protective effects of short-term dietary restriction in surgical stress and chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Sebastian; Harputlugil, Eylul; Mitchell, James R; Longo, Valter D

    2017-10-01

    Reduced caloric intake including fasting, as well as the dietary composition or the timing of food intake, impact longevity, likely through a modification in the onset or the severity of chronic aging-related diseases such as cancer. As with pre- and post-operative dietary recommendations, evidence-based nutritional advice from healthcare professionals during and after cancer treatment is often vague or conflicting. We hypothesize that preventive dietary recommendations can help in the context of both chronic cancer treatment efficacy and the avoidance of development of secondary malignancies, as well as in the context of protection from the acute stress of surgery. In this perspective review, we will discuss the latest findings on the potential role of short-term dietary restriction in cancer treatment and improvement of surgical outcome. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Epigenetic regulation of caloric restriction in aging

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    Daniel Michael

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The molecular mechanisms of aging are the subject of much research and have facilitated potential interventions to delay aging and aging-related degenerative diseases in humans. The aging process is frequently affected by environmental factors, and caloric restriction is by far the most effective and established environmental manipulation for extending lifespan in various animal models. However, the precise mechanisms by which caloric restriction affects lifespan are still not clear. Epigenetic mechanisms have recently been recognized as major contributors to nutrition-related longevity and aging control. Two primary epigenetic codes, DNA methylation and histone modification, are believed to dynamically influence chromatin structure, resulting in expression changes of relevant genes. In this review, we assess the current advances in epigenetic regulation in response to caloric restriction and how this affects cellular senescence, aging and potential extension of a healthy lifespan in humans. Enhanced understanding of the important role of epigenetics in the control of the aging process through caloric restriction may lead to clinical advances in the prevention and therapy of human aging-associated diseases.

  14. The effect of dietary restriction on reproduction: a meta-analytic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Walling, Craig; Moatt, Joshua; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Lagisz, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Background Dietary restriction (DR), a reduction in the amount of food or particular nutrients eaten, is the most consistent environmental manipulation to extend lifespan and protect against age related diseases. Current evolutionary theory explains this effect as a shift in the resolution of the trade-off between lifespan and reproduction. However, recent studies have questioned the role of reproduction in mediating the effect of DR on longevity and no study has quantitatively investigated t...

  15. Metabolomics of dietary fatty acid restriction in patients with phenylketonuria.

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    Ulrike Mütze

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU have to follow a lifelong phenylalanine restricted diet. This type of diet markedly reduces the intake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA. Long-chain saturated fatty acids are substrates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for acetyl-CoA production. LC-PUFA are discussed to affect inflammatory and haemostaseological processes in health and disease. The influence of the long term PKU diet on fatty acid metabolism with a special focus on platelet eicosanoid metabolism has been investigated in the study presented here. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 12 children with PKU under good metabolic control and 8 healthy controls were included. Activated fatty acids (acylcarnitines C6-C18 in dried blood and the cholesterol metabolism in serum were analyzed by liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Fatty acid composition of plasma glycerophospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. LC-PUFA metabolites were analyzed in supernatants by LC-MS/MS before and after platelet activation and aggregation using a standardized protocol. Patients with PKU had significantly lower free carnitine and lower activated fatty acids in dried blood compared to controls. Phytosterols as marker of cholesterol (re- absorption were not influenced by the dietary fatty acid restriction. Fatty acid composition in glycerophospholipids was comparable to that of healthy controls. However, patients with PKU showed significantly increased concentrations of y-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6 a precursor of arachidonic acid. In the PKU patients significantly higher platelet counts were observed. After activation with collagen platelet aggregation and thromboxane B(2 and thromboxane B(3 release did not differ from that of healthy controls. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Long-term dietary fatty acid restriction influenced the intermediates of mitochondrial beta

  16. Metabolomics of Dietary Fatty Acid Restriction in Patients with Phenylketonuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mütze, Ulrike; Beblo, Skadi; Kortz, Linda; Matthies, Claudia; Koletzko, Berthold; Bruegel, Mathias; Rohde, Carmen; Thiery, Joachim; Kiess, Wieland; Ceglarek, Uta

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) have to follow a lifelong phenylalanine restricted diet. This type of diet markedly reduces the intake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Long-chain saturated fatty acids are substrates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for acetyl-CoA production. LC-PUFA are discussed to affect inflammatory and haemostaseological processes in health and disease. The influence of the long term PKU diet on fatty acid metabolism with a special focus on platelet eicosanoid metabolism has been investigated in the study presented here. Methodology/Principal Findings 12 children with PKU under good metabolic control and 8 healthy controls were included. Activated fatty acids (acylcarnitines C6–C18) in dried blood and the cholesterol metabolism in serum were analyzed by liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Fatty acid composition of plasma glycerophospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. LC-PUFA metabolites were analyzed in supernatants by LC-MS/MS before and after platelet activation and aggregation using a standardized protocol. Patients with PKU had significantly lower free carnitine and lower activated fatty acids in dried blood compared to controls. Phytosterols as marker of cholesterol (re-) absorption were not influenced by the dietary fatty acid restriction. Fatty acid composition in glycerophospholipids was comparable to that of healthy controls. However, patients with PKU showed significantly increased concentrations of y-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6) a precursor of arachidonic acid. In the PKU patients significantly higher platelet counts were observed. After activation with collagen platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 and thromboxane B3 release did not differ from that of healthy controls. Conclusion/Significance Long-term dietary fatty acid restriction influenced the intermediates of mitochondrial beta-oxidation. No functional

  17. The Sexual Dimorphism of Dietary Restriction Responsiveness in Caenorhabditis elegans

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    Sakiko Honjoh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organismal lifespan is highly plastic in response to environmental cues, and dietary restriction (DR is the most robust way to extend lifespan in various species. Recent studies have shown that sex also is an important factor for lifespan regulation; however, it remains largely unclear how these two factors, food and sex, interact in lifespan regulation. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has two sexes, hermaphrodite and male, and only the hermaphrodites are essential for the short-term succession of the species. Here, we report an extreme sexual dimorphism in the responsiveness to DR in C. elegans; the essential hermaphrodites show marked longevity responses to various forms of DR, but the males show few longevity responses and sustain reproductive ability. Our analysis reveals that the sex determination pathway and the steroid hormone receptor DAF-12 regulate the sex-specific DR responsiveness, integrating sex and environmental cues to determine organismal lifespan.

  18. Dietary salt restriction improves cardiac and adipose tissue pathology independently of obesity in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Takuya; Murase, Tamayo; Takatsu, Miwa; Nagasawa, Kai; Matsuura, Natsumi; Watanabe, Shogo; Murohara, Toyoaki; Nagata, Kohzo

    2014-12-02

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) enhances salt sensitivity of blood pressure and is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The effects of dietary salt restriction on cardiac pathology associated with metabolic syndrome remain unclear. We investigated whether dietary salt restriction might ameliorate cardiac injury in DahlS.Z-Lepr(fa)/Lepr(fa) (DS/obese) rats, which are derived from a cross between Dahl salt-sensitive and Zucker rats and represent a model of metabolic syndrome. DS/obese rats were fed a normal-salt (0.36% NaCl in chow) or low-salt (0.0466% NaCl in chow) diet from 9 weeks of age and were compared with similarly treated homozygous lean littermates (DahlS.Z-Lepr(+)/Lepr(+), or DS/lean rats). DS/obese rats fed the normal-salt diet progressively developed hypertension and showed left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction at 15 weeks. Dietary salt restriction attenuated all of these changes in DS/obese rats. The levels of cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation and the expression of cardiac renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system genes were increased in DS/obese rats fed the normal-salt diet, and dietary salt restriction downregulated these parameters in both DS/obese and DS/lean rats. In addition, dietary salt restriction attenuated the increase in visceral adipose tissue inflammation and the decrease in insulin signaling apparent in DS/obese rats without reducing body weight or visceral adipocyte size. Dietary salt restriction did not alter fasting serum glucose levels but it markedly decreased the fasting serum insulin concentration in DS/obese rats. Dietary salt restriction not only prevents hypertension and cardiac injury but also ameliorates insulin resistance, without reducing obesity, in this model of metabolic syndrome. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  19. Evaluation of a Theory-Based Intervention Aimed at Reducing Intention to Use Restrictive Dietary Behaviors Among Adolescent Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laramée, Catherine; Drapeau, Vicky; Valois, Pierre; Goulet, Claude; Jacob, Raphaëlle; Provencher, Véronique; Lamarche, Benoît

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a theory-based intervention to reduce the intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight among adolescent female athletes involved in aesthetic sports. Cluster-randomized controlled trial. Aesthetic sport teams of adolescent female athletes aged 12-17 years. Two teams (n = 37 athletes) in the intervention group and 3 teams (n = 33) in the comparison group. The 2 groups received nutrition education during 3 weekly 60-minute sessions. The intervention group was further exposed to a theory-based intervention targeting the specific determinant of intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight, namely attitude. Difference over time between groups in intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight and in nutrition knowledge. Mixed models for repeated measures. The theory-based intervention contributed to maintaining a low intention of using restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight over time in the intervention group compared with the comparison group (P theory-based behavior change intervention may help maintain a low intention of using restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight among female high school athletes involved in aesthetic sports. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Dietary protein considerations to support active aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Benjamin T; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2014-11-01

    Given our rapidly aging world-wide population, the loss of skeletal muscle mass with healthy aging (sarcopenia) represents an important societal and public health concern. Maintaining or adopting an active lifestyle alleviates age-related muscle loss to a certain extent. Over time, even small losses of muscle tissue can hinder the ability to maintain an active lifestyle and, as such, contribute to the development of frailty and metabolic disease. Considerable research focus has addressed the application of dietary protein supplementation to support exercise-induced gains in muscle mass in younger individuals. In contrast, the role of dietary protein in supporting the maintenance (or gain) of skeletal muscle mass in active older persons has received less attention. Older individuals display a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to dietary protein ingestion. However, this reduced anabolic response can largely be overcome when physical activity is performed in close temporal proximity to protein consumption. Moreover, recent evidence has helped elucidate the optimal type and amount of dietary protein that should be ingested by the older adult throughout the day in order to maximize the skeletal muscle adaptive response to physical activity. Evidence demonstrates that when these principles are adhered to, muscle maintenance or hypertrophy over prolonged periods can be further augmented in active older persons. The present review outlines the current understanding of the role that dietary protein occupies in the lifestyle of active older adults as a means to increase skeletal muscle mass, strength and function, and thus support healthier aging.

  1. Dietary patterns as predictors of successful ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, A M; O'Dea, K; English, D R; Giles, G G; Flicker, L

    2014-03-01

    To examine associations between dietary patterns identified by factor analysis, and successful ageing. Prospective cohort study with diet measured in 1990-4, and successful ageing in 2003-7. Ordered logistic regression with outcome determined as dead/usual ageing/successful ageing was used to examine associations with quintile groups of dietary factor scores. Men and women (n=6308), without history of major illness at baseline, and aged >70 years at follow-up, or who had died before follow-up but would have been aged >70 at the commencement of follow-up, from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Frequencies of intake of 121 foods at baseline were collected in a food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometry and other health and lifestyle data were collected. At follow-up, questionnaire data relating to mental health, physical function and medical history were used to define successful ageing. Four dietary factors were identified, characterized by higher loadings for (1) vegetables; (2) fruit, (3) feta, legumes, salad, olive oil, and inverse loadings for tea, margarine, cake, sweet biscuits and puddings; (4) meat, white bread, savoury pastry dishes and fried foods. In models excluding body size, the second factor 'Fruit' was positively associated with successful ageing (OR in top 20% vs lowest 20% of score 1.31, 95%CI (1.05-1.63), p trend across quintile groups 0.001); while the fourth factor 'Meat/fatty foods' was inversely associated (OR in top 20% vs lowest 20% of score 0.69, 95%CI (0.55-0.86), p trend across quintile groups 0.001). Factors 1 and 3 did not show significant associations with successful ageing. The association for 'Fruit' was little altered after adjustment for body size, while for 'Meat/fatty foods' the association was somewhat attenuated. A dietary pattern including plenty of fruit while limiting meat and fried foods may improve the likelihood of ageing successfully.

  2. Biology of Ageing and Role of Dietary Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in relationship between diet and ageing is growing. Research has shown that dietary calorie restriction and some antioxidants extend lifespan in various ageing models. On the one hand, oxygen is essential to aerobic organisms because it is a final electron acceptor in mitochondria. On the other hand, oxygen is harmful because it can continuously generate reactive oxygen species (ROS, which are believed to be the factors causing ageing of an organism. To remove these ROS in cells, aerobic organisms possess an antioxidant defense system which consists of a series of enzymes, namely, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and glutathione reductase (GR. In addition, dietary antioxidants including ascorbic acid, vitamin A, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and plant flavonoids are also able to scavenge ROS in cells and therefore theoretically can extend the lifespan of organisms. In this connection, various antioxidants including tea catechins, theaflavins, apple polyphenols, black rice anthocyanins, and blueberry polyphenols have been shown to be capable of extending the lifespan of fruit flies. The purpose of this review is to brief the literature on modern biological theories of ageing and role of dietary antioxidants in ageing as well as underlying mechanisms by which antioxidants can prolong the lifespan with focus on fruit flies as an model.

  3. Protein and Amino Acid Restriction, Aging and Disease: from yeast to humans

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzaei, Hamed; Suarez, Jorge A.; Longo, Valter D.

    2014-01-01

    Many of the effects of dietary restriction (DR) on longevity and health span in model organisms have been linked to reduced protein and amino acid (AA) intake and the stimulation of specific nutrient signaling pathways. Studies in yeast have shown that addition of serine, threonine, and valine in media promotes cellular sensitization and aging by activating different but connected pathways. Protein or essential AA restriction extends both lifespan and healthspan in rodent models. In humans, p...

  4. Dietary sodium restriction and β2-adrenergic receptor polymorphism modulate cardiovascular function in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenach, John H; Schroeder, Darrell R; Pike, Tasha L; Johnson, Christopher P; Schrage, William G; Snyder, Eric M; Johnson, Bruce D; Garovic, Vesna D; Turner, Stephen T; Joyner, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    Dietary Na+ intake influences β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) responsiveness. While receiving a normal Na+ diet (150 mmol day−1), subjects homozygous for glycine at amino acid 16 (Gly16) have greater forearm β2AR-mediated vasodilatation than subjects homozygous for arginine (Arg16), an effect that is mediated by endothelial NO. We tested the hypothesis that dietary Na+ restriction eliminates genotype differences in forearm and systemic β2AR-mediated dilatation in these groups. We measured heart rate, mean arterial pressure and cardiac output (CO, acetylene breathing) responses to administration of intravenous terbutaline (TRB) before and after 5 days of low dietary Na+ intake (10 mmol day−1) in healthy Gly16 (n = 17; age, 31 ± 7 year) and Arg16 homozygotes (n = 15; age, 29 ± 8 year). After the low-Na+ diet, a catheter was placed in the brachial artery to measure forearm blood flow (FBF, plethysmography) responses to administration of isoprenaline (isoproterenol) before and after NO inhibition with NG-mono-methyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA). In the Gly16 group, the low-Na+ diet decreased baseline CO from 6.4 ± 1.4 to 5.5 ± 1.2 l min−1 (P = 0.003, paired t test), tended to decrease stroke volume from 97.0 ± 20.6 to 86.9 ± 21.7 ml (P = 0.06) and increased peripheral resistance from 1106 ± 246 to 1246 ± 222 dynes s cm−5 (P = 0.02); significant effects of the low-Na+ diet were not observed in Arg16 subjects. In a repeated measures ANOVA, the responses of all cardiovascular measures to systemic administration of TRB were not influenced by genotype or diet. Additionally, the FBF response to incremenetal doses of isoprenaline did not differ between genotype groups before or after administration of l-NMMA. We conclude that dietary Na+ restriction blunted the increased forearm NO-mediated β2AR responsiveness in Gly16 homozygotes observed in a previous study after normal dietary Na+ intake, while baseline CO decreased and peripheral resistance increased in this

  5. Adult height, dietary patterns, and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenjie; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Qi; Rimm, Eric B; Qi, Lu

    2017-08-01

    Background: Adult height has shown directionally diverse associations with several age-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, decline in cognitive function, and mortality. Objective: We investigated the associations of adult height with healthy aging measured by a full spectrum of health outcomes, including incidence of chronic diseases, memory, physical functioning, and mental health, among populations who have survived to older age, and whether lifestyle factors modified such relations. Design: We included 52,135 women (mean age: 44.2 y) from the Nurses' Health Study without chronic diseases in 1980 and whose health status was available in 2012. Healthy aging was defined as being free of 11 major chronic diseases and having no reported impairment of subjective memory, physical impairment, or mental health limitations. Results: Of all eligible study participants, 6877 (13.2%) were classified as healthy agers. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, we observed an 8% (95% CI: 6%, 11%) decrease in the odds of healthy aging per SD (0.062 m) increase in height. Compared with the lowest category of height (≤1.57 m), the OR of achieving healthy aging in the highest category (≥1.70 m) was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.87; P -trend healthy aging ( P -interaction = 0.005), and among the individual dietary factors characterizing the prudent dietary pattern, fruit and vegetable intake showed the strongest effect modification ( P -interaction = 0.01). The association of greater height with reduced odds of healthy aging appeared to be more evident among women with higher adherence to the prudent dietary pattern rich in vegetable and fruit intake. Conclusions: Greater height was associated with a modest decrease in the likelihood of healthy aging. A prudent diet rich in fruit and vegetables might modify the relation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Null effect of dietary restriction on prostate carcinogenesis in the Wistar-Unilever rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, David L; Johnson, William D; Haryu, Todd M; Bosland, Maarten C; Lubet, Ronald A; Steele, Vernon E

    2007-01-01

    Chronic dietary restriction inhibits carcinogenesis in several sites in laboratory animals. To determine the effects of dietary restriction on prostate carcinogenesis, prostate cancers were induced in male Wistar-Unilever rats by a sequential regimen of cyproterone acetate (50 mg/day; 21 days); testosterone propionate (100 mg/kg/day; 3 days); N-methyl-N-nitrosourea [MNU; 30 mg/kg; single dose]; and testosterone (subcutaneous implants of 2 pellets containing 40 mg each). Dietary restriction (0% [ad libitum control], 15%, or 30%) was initiated 2 wk post-MNU, and continued until study termination at 12 mo. Dietary restriction induced a rapid suppression of body weight gain but conferred no protection against prostate carcinogenesis. 74% of carcinogen-treated ad libitum controls developed accessory sex gland cancers, versus cancer incidences of 64% and 72% in groups restricted by 15% and 30%, respectively. Similarly, 44% of dietary controls developed cancers limited to the dorsolateral/prostate, versus incidences of 45% and 53% in groups restricted by 15% and 30%. The results of the present study do not support the hypothesis that prostate carcinogenesis can be prevented by reducing caloric intake. Reducing mean body weight by up to 25% through chronic dietary restriction has no effect on the induction of prostate cancers in the Wistar-Unilever rat model.

  7. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D; Miller, Bernard V; Prado, Carla M; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J; Yannai, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5-day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53 ± 6 g/day of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction, leading to 89 ± 6 g/day of fat loss, and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p = 0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with prolonged isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. CONCENTRATION-DEPENDENT LINKAGE OF DIETARY METHIONINE RESTRICTION TO THE COMPONENTS OF ITS METABOLIC PHENOTYPE

    OpenAIRE

    Forney, Laura A.; Wanders, Desiree; Stone, Kirsten P.; Pierse, Alicia; Gettys, Thomas W.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Restricting dietary methionine to 0.17% produces a series of physiological responses through coordinated transcriptional effects in liver and adipose tissue. The goal of the present work was to determine the threshold concentrations above and below 0.17% at which the beneficial responses to 0.17% dietary methionine are preserved. Methods Diets were formulated to restrict methionine to different degrees, followed by evaluation of the transcriptional and physiological responses to the...

  9. Benefits of dietary sodium restriction in the management of chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, Jan A.; Laverman, Gozewijn D.; Navis, Gerjan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review To evaluate the role of restricting dietary sodium intake in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its complications. Recent findings A consistent line of evidence shows that high dietary sodium intake is a determinant of therapy resistance to blockade of the

  10. A role for autophagy in the extension of lifespan by dietary restriction in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malene Hansen

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In many organisms, dietary restriction appears to extend lifespan, at least in part, by down-regulating the nutrient-sensor TOR (Target Of Rapamycin. TOR inhibition elicits autophagy, the large-scale recycling of cytoplasmic macromolecules and organelles. In this study, we asked whether autophagy might contribute to the lifespan extension induced by dietary restriction in C. elegans. We find that dietary restriction and TOR inhibition produce an autophagic phenotype and that inhibiting genes required for autophagy prevents dietary restriction and TOR inhibition from extending lifespan. The longevity response to dietary restriction in C. elegans requires the PHA-4 transcription factor. We find that the autophagic response to dietary restriction also requires PHA-4 activity, indicating that autophagy is a transcriptionally regulated response to food limitation. In spite of the rejuvenating effect that autophagy is predicted to have on cells, our findings suggest that autophagy is not sufficient to extend lifespan. Long-lived daf-2 insulin/IGF-1 receptor mutants require both autophagy and the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO for their longevity, but we find that autophagy takes place in the absence of DAF-16. Perhaps autophagy is not sufficient for lifespan extension because although it provides raw material for new macromolecular synthesis, DAF-16/FOXO must program the cells to recycle this raw material into cell-protective longevity proteins.

  11. Dietary Sodium Restriction and Association with Urinary Marinobufagenin, Blood Pressure, and Aortic Stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, Olga V.; Racine, Matthew L.; Geolfos, Candace J.; Gates, Phillip E.; Chonchol, Michel; Fleenor, Bradley S.; Lakatta, Edward G.; Bagrov, Alexei Y.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Systolic BP and large elastic artery stiffness both increase with age and are reduced by dietary sodium restriction. Production of the natriuretic hormone marinobufagenin, an endogenous α1 Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor, is increased in salt-sensitive hypertension and contributes to the rise in systolic BP during sodium loading. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The hypothesis was that dietary sodium restriction performed in middle-aged/older adults (eight men and three women; 60±2 years) with moderately elevated systolic BP (139±2/83±2 mmHg) would reduce urinary marinobufagenin excretion as well as systolic BP and aortic pulse-wave velocity (randomized, placebo-controlled, and crossover design). This study also explored the associations among marinobufagenin excretion with systolic BP and aortic pulse-wave velocity across conditions of 5 weeks of a low-sodium (77±9 mmol/d) and 5 weeks of a normal-sodium (144±7 mmol/d) diet. Results Urinary marinobufagenin excretion (weekly measurements; 25.4±1.8 versus 30.7±2.1 pmol/kg per day), systolic BP (127±3 versus 138±5 mmHg), and aortic pulse-wave velocity (700±40 versus 843±36 cm/s) were lower during the low- versus normal-sodium condition (all Psodium excretion (slope=0.46, Psodium condition (both Psodium restriction reduces urinary marinobufagenin excretion and that urinary marinobufagenin excretion is positively associated with systolic BP, aortic stiffness (aortic pulse-wave velocity), and endothelial cell expression of the oxidant enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. Importantly, marinobufagenin excretion is positively related to systolic BP over ranges of sodium intake typical of an American diet, extending previous observations in rodents and humans fed experimentally high-sodium diets. PMID:23929930

  12. The thioredoxin TRX-1 regulates adult lifespan extension induced by dietary restriction in Caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fierro-Gonzalez, Juan Carlos; Gonzalez-Barrios, Maria; Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio; Swoboda, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → First in vivo data for thioredoxin in dietary-restriction-(DR)-induced longevity. → Thioredoxin (trx-1) loss suppresses longevity of eat-2 mutant, a genetic DR model. → trx-1 overexpression extends wild-type longevity, but not that of eat-2 mutant. → Longevity by dietary deprivation (DD), a non-genetic DR model, requires trx-1. → trx-1 expression in ASJ neurons of aging adults is increased in response to DD. -- Abstract: Dietary restriction (DR) is the only environmental intervention known to extend adult lifespan in a wide variety of animal models. However, the genetic and cellular events that mediate the anti-aging programs induced by DR remain elusive. Here, we used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to provide the first in vivo evidence that a thioredoxin (TRX-1) regulates adult lifespan extension induced by DR. We found that deletion of the gene trx-1 completely suppressed the lifespan extension caused by mutation of eat-2, a genetic surrogate of DR in the worm. However, trx-1 deletion only partially suppressed the long lifespan caused by mutation of the insulin-like receptor gene daf-2 or by mutation of the sensory cilia gene osm-5. A trx-1::GFP translational fusion expressed from its own promoter in ASJ neurons (Ptrx-1::trx-1::GFP) rescued the trx-1 deletion-mediated suppression of the lifespan extension caused by mutation of eat-2. This rescue was not observed when trx-1::GFP was expressed from the ges-1 promoter in the intestine. In addition, overexpression of Ptrx-1::trx-1::GFP extended lifespan in wild type, but not in eat-2 mutants. trx-1 deletion almost completely suppressed the lifespan extension induced by dietary deprivation (DD), a non-genetic, nutrient-based model of DR in the worm. Moreover, DD upregulated the expression of a trx-1 promoter-driven GFP reporter gene (Ptrx-1::GFP) in ASJ neurons of aging adults, but not that of control Pgpa-9::GFP (which is also expressed in ASJ neurons). We propose that DR activates TRX-1

  13. The thioredoxin TRX-1 regulates adult lifespan extension induced by dietary restriction in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierro-Gonzalez, Juan Carlos [Karolinska Institute, Center for Biosciences at NOVUM, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, S-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden); Gonzalez-Barrios, Maria [Centro Andaluz de Biologia del Desarrollo (CABD-CSIC), Departamento de Fisiologia, Anatomia y Biologia Celular, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, E-41013 Sevilla (Spain); Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio, E-mail: amirviz@upo.es [Centro Andaluz de Biologia del Desarrollo (CABD-CSIC), Departamento de Fisiologia, Anatomia y Biologia Celular, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, E-41013 Sevilla (Spain); Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio/CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, E-41013 Sevilla (Spain); Swoboda, Peter, E-mail: peter.swoboda@ki.se [Karolinska Institute, Center for Biosciences at NOVUM, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, S-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden)

    2011-03-18

    Highlights: {yields} First in vivo data for thioredoxin in dietary-restriction-(DR)-induced longevity. {yields} Thioredoxin (trx-1) loss suppresses longevity of eat-2 mutant, a genetic DR model. {yields} trx-1 overexpression extends wild-type longevity, but not that of eat-2 mutant. {yields} Longevity by dietary deprivation (DD), a non-genetic DR model, requires trx-1. {yields} trx-1 expression in ASJ neurons of aging adults is increased in response to DD. -- Abstract: Dietary restriction (DR) is the only environmental intervention known to extend adult lifespan in a wide variety of animal models. However, the genetic and cellular events that mediate the anti-aging programs induced by DR remain elusive. Here, we used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to provide the first in vivo evidence that a thioredoxin (TRX-1) regulates adult lifespan extension induced by DR. We found that deletion of the gene trx-1 completely suppressed the lifespan extension caused by mutation of eat-2, a genetic surrogate of DR in the worm. However, trx-1 deletion only partially suppressed the long lifespan caused by mutation of the insulin-like receptor gene daf-2 or by mutation of the sensory cilia gene osm-5. A trx-1::GFP translational fusion expressed from its own promoter in ASJ neurons (Ptrx-1::trx-1::GFP) rescued the trx-1 deletion-mediated suppression of the lifespan extension caused by mutation of eat-2. This rescue was not observed when trx-1::GFP was expressed from the ges-1 promoter in the intestine. In addition, overexpression of Ptrx-1::trx-1::GFP extended lifespan in wild type, but not in eat-2 mutants. trx-1 deletion almost completely suppressed the lifespan extension induced by dietary deprivation (DD), a non-genetic, nutrient-based model of DR in the worm. Moreover, DD upregulated the expression of a trx-1 promoter-driven GFP reporter gene (Ptrx-1::GFP) in ASJ neurons of aging adults, but not that of control Pgpa-9::GFP (which is also expressed in ASJ neurons). We propose

  14. Short-term dietary restriction and fasting precondition against ischemia reperfusion injury in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. Mitchell (James); M. Verweij (Marielle); K. Brand (Karl); H.W.M. van de Ven (Marieke); N.N.T. Goemaere (Natascha); S. van den Engel (Sandra); T. Chu (Timothy); F. Forrer (Flavio); C. Müller (Cristina); M. de Jong (Marion); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); R.W.F. de Bruin (Ron)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan and increases resistance to multiple forms of stress, including ischemia reperfusion injury to the brain and heart in rodents. While maximal effects on lifespan require long-term restriction, the kinetics of onset of benefits against acute stress

  15. Effect of a standardised dietary restriction protocol on multiple laboratory strains of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C Grandison

    Full Text Available Outcomes of lifespan studies in model organisms are particularly susceptible to variations in technical procedures. This is especially true of dietary restriction, which is implemented in many different ways among laboratories.In this study, we have examined the effect of laboratory stock maintenance, genotype differences and microbial infection on the ability of dietary restriction (DR to extend life in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. None of these factors block the DR effect.These data lend support to the idea that nutrient restriction genuinely extends lifespan in flies, and that any mechanistic discoveries made with this model are of potential relevance to the determinants of lifespan in other organisms.

  16. Food restriction prevents an age-associated increase in rat liver beta-adrenergic receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dax, E.M.; Ingram, D.K.; Partilla, J.S.; Gregerman, R.I.

    1989-05-01

    In male Wistar rats fed ad libitum (24% protein, 4.5 Kcal/gm), the (/sup 125/I)iodopindolol binding capacity of the beta-adrenergic receptors in liver of 24-month-old animals is 3-4 times greater than that of 6-month-old counterparts. In rats fed the same diet, on alternate days from weaning, the receptor capacity did not increase significantly between 6 and 24 months (10.20 +/- 0.55 vs 9.20 +/- 0.72 fmol/mg) or between 24 and 30 months. This was not due to acute dietary deprivation, as rats food-restricted for only 2 weeks, at 23.5 months of age, also showed elevated receptor capacities compared to 6-month-old ad libitum fed animals. Moreover, intermittent feeding produced no significant effects among 6-month-old animals, whether restricted since weaning or for two weeks prior to sacrifice. Many biochemical parameters that decrease with aging in rats fed ad libitum are prevented by dietary restriction. Our results demonstrate that a reproducible biochemical process that increases with aging is also prevented with dietary restriction. The age-related, liver beta-receptor increase may be a potentially reliable marker for studying biochemical perturbations that modify life span.

  17. Food restriction prevents an age-associated increase in rat liver beta-adrenergic receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dax, E.M.; Ingram, D.K.; Partilla, J.S.; Gregerman, R.I.

    1989-01-01

    In male Wistar rats fed ad libitum (24% protein, 4.5 Kcal/gm), the [ 125 I]iodopindolol binding capacity of the beta-adrenergic receptors in liver of 24-month-old animals is 3-4 times greater than that of 6-month-old counterparts. In rats fed the same diet, on alternate days from weaning, the receptor capacity did not increase significantly between 6 and 24 months (10.20 +/- 0.55 vs 9.20 +/- 0.72 fmol/mg) or between 24 and 30 months. This was not due to acute dietary deprivation, as rats food-restricted for only 2 weeks, at 23.5 months of age, also showed elevated receptor capacities compared to 6-month-old ad libitum fed animals. Moreover, intermittent feeding produced no significant effects among 6-month-old animals, whether restricted since weaning or for two weeks prior to sacrifice. Many biochemical parameters that decrease with aging in rats fed ad libitum are prevented by dietary restriction. Our results demonstrate that a reproducible biochemical process that increases with aging is also prevented with dietary restriction. The age-related, liver beta-receptor increase may be a potentially reliable marker for studying biochemical perturbations that modify life span

  18. Dietary quality, lifestile factors and healthy ageing in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman-Nies, A.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: dietary quality, dietary patterns, lifestyle factors, smoking, physical activity, elderly, mortality, Mediterranean Diet Score, Healthy Diet Indicator, healthy ageing, self-rated health, functional status


    The contribution

  19. A novel dietary restriction method for group-housed rats: weight gain and clinical chemistry characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasanen, I H E; Inhilä, K J; Nevalainen, J I; Väisänen, S B; Mertanen, A M O; Mering, S M; Nevalainen, T O

    2009-04-01

    Laboratory rodents are usually fed ad libitum. Moderate dietary restriction decreases mortality and morbidity compared with ad libitum feeding. There are, however, problems in achieving dietary restriction. Traditional methods of restricted feeding may interfere with the diurnal rhythms of the animals and are not compatible with group-housing of rodents. We have invented a novel method, the diet board, for restricting the feed intake of laboratory rats. The use of the diet board moderately decreased weight gain of rats when compared with ad libitum-fed animals. The diet board retarded skeletal growth only minimally, whereas major differences were found in body fat depositions. Serum free fatty acid, triglyceride and cholesterol values were lower in diet-restricted rats, while the opposite was true for serum creatine kinase. There were no differences in total protein, albumin or alanine aminotransferase. Moreover, differences in interindividual variances in parameters were not detected between the groups; hence this study could not combine the diet board with reduction potential. The diet board provides mild to moderate dietary restriction for group-housed rats and is unlikely to interfere with the diurnal eating rhythm. The diet board can also be seen as a cage furniture item, dividing the open cage space and increasing the structural complexity of the environment. In conclusion, the diet board appears to possess refinement potential when compared with traditional methods of dietary restriction.

  20. Nutritional regimens with periodically recurring phases of dietary restriction extend lifespan in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romey-Glüsing, Renja; Li, Yang; Hoffmann, Julia; von Frieling, Jakob; Knop, Mirjam; Pfefferkorn, Roxana; Bruchhaus, Iris; Fink, Christine; Roeder, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    Nutritional interventions such as caloric and dietary restriction increase lifespan in various animal models. To identify alternative and less demanding nutritional interventions that extend lifespan, we subjected fruit flies ( Drosophila melanogaster) to weekly nutritional regimens that involved alternating a conventional diet with dietary restriction. Short periods of dietary restriction (up to 2 d) followed by longer periods of a conventional diet yielded minimal increases in lifespan. We found that 3 or more days of contiguous dietary restriction (DR) was necessary to yield a lifespan extension similar to that observed with persistent DR. Female flies were more responsive to these interventions than males. Physiologic changes known to be associated with prolonged DR, such as reduced metabolic rates, showed the same time course as lifespan extension. Moreover, concurrent transcriptional changes indicative of reduced insulin signaling were identified with DR. These physiologic and transcriptional changes were sustained, as they were detectable several days after switching to conventional diets. Taken together, diets with longer periods of DR extended lifespan concurrently with physiologic and transcriptional changes that may underlie this increase in lifespan.-Romey-Glüsing, R., Li, Y., Hoffmann, J., von Frieling, J., Knop, M., Pfefferkorn, R., Bruchhaus, I., Fink, C., Roeder, T. Nutritional regimens with periodically recurring phases of dietary restriction extend lifespan in Drosophila.

  1. A naturalistic examination of body checking and dietary restriction in women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol B; Le Grange, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Body checking has been conceptualized as a behavioral manifestation of the core overvaluation of eating, shape, and weight concerns underlying eating disorder psychopathology. Cognitive-behavioral theories suggest that body checking behaviors may function to maintain dietary restriction. The current study examined the association between body checking frequency and dietary restriction among women with anorexia nervosa (AN) in the natural environment. Women (N = 118) with full or partial AN completed baseline clinical interviews and a two-week ecological momentary assessment protocol, during which they reported on body checking behaviors (i.e., checking whether one's thighs touch; checking joints/bones for fat) and dietary restriction (i.e., 8 waking hours without eating; consuming less than 1200 calories per day). Average daily body checking frequency was positively associated with baseline eating disorder symptoms and body mass index. Daily body checking frequency was associated with both forms of dietary restriction on the same day, as well as the following day. Results support the theorized association between body checking and overvaluation of shape and weight, and suggest that targeting such behaviors in treatment may have utility in reducing dietary restriction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Expectancies related to thinness, dietary restriction, eating, and alcohol consumption in women with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Kenneth; Mansour, Sandra; Steiger, Howard

    2009-04-01

    To investigate behavior-outcome expectancies relating to thinness, dietary restriction, eating, and alcohol consumption in women with bulimia nervosa (BN). Women with BN (N = 29), women with BN and a co-morbid lifetime alcohol use disorder (AUD; N = 18), and control women (N = 24), completed interviews and questionnaires assessing eating- and alcohol-related symptoms, as well as questionnaires measuring expectancies relating to thinness, dietary restriction, eating, and alcohol consumption. Compared with the control group, both bulimic groups reported greater positive expectancies relating to thinness, dietary restriction and eating; expectancy endorsements were also predictive of the severity of eating-related symptoms. Compared with the other groups, the bulimic group with comorbid lifetime AUD had elevated positive alcohol-related expectancies, and alcohol expectancy endorsements predicted severity of alcohol-related symptoms. Women with BN endorsed more positive expectancies relating to thinness, dietary restriction, and eating, whereas women with BN and a lifetime comorbid AUD endorsed more positive alcohol expectancies. The results are consistent with expectancy theory in that positive expectancy endorsements were associated with symptom severity in a syndrome-specific manner. Expectancies related to thinness, dietary restriction, eating, and alcohol consumption in women with BN. (c) 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Cardiometabolic and reproductive benefits of early dietary energy restriction and voluntary exercise in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane, Abdoulaye; Kupreeva, Maria; Borthwick, Faye; Proctor, Spencer D; Pierce, W David; Vine, Donna F

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine-metabolic disorders in women of reproductive age characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and cardiometabolic risk. The overweight-obese PCOS phenotype appears to have exacerbated reproductive dysfunction and cardiometabolic risk. In overweight-obese adult women with PCOS, exercise and energy restricted diets have shown limited and inconsistent effects on both cardiometabolic indices and reproductive outcomes. We hypothesized that an early lifestyle intervention involving exercise and dietary energy restriction to prevent or reduce the propensity for adiposity would modulate reproductive indices and cardiometabolic risk in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model. Weanling obese PCOS-prone and Lean-Control JCR:LA-cp rodents were given a chow diet ad libitum or an energy-restricted diet combined with or without voluntary exercise (4  h/day) for 8 weeks. Dietary energy restriction and exercise lowered total body weight gain and body fat mass by 30% compared to free-fed sedentary or exercising obese PCOS-prone animals (Pexercise intensity compared to free-feeding plus exercise conditions. Energy restriction and exercise decreased fasting plasma triglycerides and apoB48 concentrations in obese PCOS-prone animals compared to free-fed and exercise or sedentary groups. The energy restriction and exercise combination in obese PCOS-prone animals significantly increased plasma sex-hormone binding globulin, hypothalamic cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and Kisspeptin mRNA expression to levels of the Lean-Control group, and this was further associated with improvements in estrous cyclicity. The combination of exercise and dietary energy restriction when initiated in early life exerts beneficial effects on cardiometabolic and reproductive indices in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model, and this may be associated with normalization of the hypothalamic neuropeptides, Kisspeptin and CART

  4. Dietary sodium restriction: a neglected therapeutic opportunity in chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humalda, Jelmer K.; Navis, Gerjan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Restriction of dietary sodium is recommended at a population level as well as for groups at high cardiovascular risk, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review addresses recent evidence for the protective effect of dietary sodium restriction in CKD patients specifically. Recent findings Sodium intake in CKD populations is generally high, and often above population average. Recent data demonstrated that moderately lower sodium intake in CKD patients is associated with substantially better long-term outcome of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS)-blockade, in diabetic and nondiabetic CKD, related to better effects of RAAS-blockade on proteinuria, independent of blood pressure. This is in line with better short-term efficacy of RAAS-blockade during moderate sodium restriction in diabetic and nondiabetic CKD. This effect of sodium restriction is likely mediated by its effects on volume status. Sustainable sodium restriction can be achieved by approaches on the basis of behavioral sciences. Summary Moderate restriction of dietary sodium can substantially improve the protective effects of RAAS-blockade in CKD, by specific renal effects apparent from proteinuria reduction. The latter precludes straightforward extrapolation of data from nonrenal populations to CKD. Concerns regarding the adverse effects of a very low sodium intake should not distract from the protective effects of moderate sodium restriction. Prospective studies should assess the efficacy and sustainability of different strategies to target high sodium intake in CKD, along with measures at population level. Video abstract http://links.lww.com/CONH/A14 PMID:25222815

  5. Exercise coupled with dietary restriction reduces oxidative stress in male adolescents with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Feng, Feihu; Xiong, Xiaoling; Li, Rui; Chen, Ning

    2017-04-01

    The increased oxidative stress is usually observed in obese population, but the control of body weight by calorie restriction and/or exercise training can ameliorate oxidative stress. In order to evaluate oxidative stress in response to exercise and dietary restriction in obese adolescents, a total of 20 obese volunteers were enrolled in a 4-week intervention program including exercise training and dietary restriction. Body compositions and blood samples were analysed before and after 4-week intervention, and biomarkers associated with oxidative stress were examined. After 4-week exercise training coupled with dietary restriction, physical composition parameters including body mass, body mass index (BMI), lean body mass, body fat mass and fat mass ratio had obvious reduction by 12.43%, 13.51%, 5.83%, 25.05% and 14.52%, respectively. In addition, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) revealed a remarkable enhancement. On the other hand, protein carbonyls (PC) exhibited an obvious reduction. Moreover, total thiols and nitrites with respect to baseline revealed a reducing trend although no significant difference was observed. Therefore, the 4-week exercise intervention coupled with dietary restriction is benefit for the loss of body weight and the mitigation of oxidative stress in obese population so that it can be a recommendable intervention prescription for the loss of body weight.

  6. The thioredoxin TRX-1 regulates adult lifespan extension induced by dietary restriction in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro-González, Juan Carlos; González-Barrios, María; Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio; Swoboda, Peter

    2011-03-18

    Dietary restriction (DR) is the only environmental intervention known to extend adult lifespan in a wide variety of animal models. However, the genetic and cellular events that mediate the anti-aging programs induced by DR remain elusive. Here, we used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to provide the first in vivo evidence that a thioredoxin (TRX-1) regulates adult lifespan extension induced by DR. We found that deletion of the gene trx-1 completely suppressed the lifespan extension caused by mutation of eat-2, a genetic surrogate of DR in the worm. However, trx-1 deletion only partially suppressed the long lifespan caused by mutation of the insulin-like receptor gene daf-2 or by mutation of the sensory cilia gene osm-5. A trx-1::GFP translational fusion expressed from its own promoter in ASJ neurons (Ptrx-1::trx-1::GFP) rescued the trx-1 deletion-mediated suppression of the lifespan extension caused by mutation of eat-2. This rescue was not observed when trx-1::GFP was expressed from the ges-1 promoter in the intestine. In addition, overexpression of Ptrx-1::trx-1::GFP extended lifespan in wild type, but not in eat-2 mutants. trx-1 deletion almost completely suppressed the lifespan extension induced by dietary deprivation (DD), a non-genetic, nutrient-based model of DR in the worm. Moreover, DD upregulated the expression of a trx-1 promoter-driven GFP reporter gene (Ptrx-1::GFP) in ASJ neurons of aging adults, but not that of control Pgpa-9::GFP (which is also expressed in ASJ neurons). We propose that DR activates TRX-1 in ASJ neurons during aging, which in turn triggers TRX-1-dependent mechanisms to extend adult lifespan in the worm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The clinical efficacy of dietary fat restriction in treatment of dogs with intestinal lymphangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanishi, H; Yoshioka, R; Kagawa, Y; Watari, T

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL), a type of protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), is a dilatation of lymphatic vessels within the gastrointestinal tract. Dietary fat restriction previously has been proposed as an effective treatment for dogs with PLE, but limited objective clinical data are available on the efficacy of this treatment. To investigate the clinical efficacy of dietary fat restriction in dogs with IL that were unresponsive to prednisolone treatment or showed relapse of clinical signs and hypoalbuminemia when the prednisolone dosage was decreased. Twenty-four dogs with IL. Retrospective study. Body weight, clinical activity score, and hematologic and biochemical variables were compared before and 1 and 2 months after treatment. Furthermore, the data were compared between the group fed only an ultra low-fat (ULF) diet and the group fed ULF and a low-fat (LF) diet. Nineteen of 24 (79%) dogs responded satisfactorily to dietary fat restriction, and the prednisolone dosage could be decreased. Clinical activity score was significantly decreased after dietary treatment compared with before treatment. In addition, albumin (ALB), total protein (TP), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration were significantly increased after dietary fat restriction. At 2 months posttreatment, the ALB concentrations in the ULF group were significantly higher than that of the ULF + LF group. Dietary fat restriction appears to be an effective treatment in dogs with IL that are unresponsive to prednisolone treatment or that have recurrent clinical signs and hypoalbuminemia when the dosage of prednisolone is decreased. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Effect of dietary restriction and hay inclusion in the diet of slow-growing broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla P. Picoli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary restriction and inclusion of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. and Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cv Coastal hays in the diets of ISA Label JA57 slow-growing male broilers on performance, gastrointestinal tract characteristics, and economic viability. A total of 272 broilers at 21 days old were distributed in a randomized experimental design with four treatments, four replicates, and 17 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of ad libitum concentrated feed (control intake, feed restriction (80% of the control intake, and feed restrictions with supplementation of alfalfa hay (80% of the control intake+20% alfalfa or Bermudagrass hay (80% control intake+20% Bermuda. Dietary restriction, with and without hay inclusion, negatively affected (P<0.05 the weight gain of the birds; however, feed conversion was improved (P<0.05 for animals that underwent only restricted feeding, which also had the best economic indices. Birds subjected to dietary restriction and inclusion of hays showed changes (P<0.05 in the gastrointestinal organs and intestinal morphology.

  9. Role of Dietary Restriction in the Prevention of Infection in Leukaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-09-28

    Sep 28, 1974 ... to compare the results with the bacterial content of cooked foods as supplied in a general medical ward in our hospital. in order to assess the validity of strict dietary restriction. METHODS. A spot test sample of a variety of cooked food was taken from the food trolley usually used for distribution of meals to the ...

  10. Adipose gene expression response of lean and obese mice to short-term dietary restriction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, Evert M van; Keijer, Jaap; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Opperhuizen, Antoon; Brom, Charissa E van den; Kohl, Thomas; Franssen-van Hal, Nicole L W; Hoebee, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Overweight and obesity lead to higher morbidity risks, which are alleviated even by mild weight loss. To gain insight in the molecular effects of weight loss in adipose tissue, we analyzed the effects of short-term dietary restriction (DR) on mice fed a low-fat diet (lean mice) or a high-fat diet

  11. Extension of Drosophila lifespan by Rhodiola rosea through a mechanism independent from dietary restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel E Schriner

    Full Text Available Rhodiola rosea has been extensively used to improve physical and mental performance and to protect against stress. We, and others, have reported that R. rosea can extend lifespan in flies, worms, and yeast. However, its molecular mechanism is currently unknown. Here, we tested whether R. rosea might act through a pathway related to dietary restriction (DR that can extend lifespan in a range of model organisms. While the mechanism of DR itself is also unknown, three molecular pathways have been associated with it: the silent information regulator 2 (SIR2 proteins, insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS, and the target of rapamycin (TOR. In flies, DR is implemented through a reduction in dietary yeast content. We found that R. rosea extract extended lifespan in both sexes independent of the yeast content in the diet. We also found that the extract extended lifespan when the SIR2, IIS, or TOR pathways were genetically perturbed. Upon examination of water and fat content, we found that R. rosea decreased water content and elevated fat content in both sexes, but did not sensitize flies to desiccation or protect them against starvation. There were some sex-specific differences in response to R. rosea. In female flies, the expression levels of glycolytic genes and dSir2 were down-regulated, and NADH levels were decreased. In males however, R. rosea provided no protection against heat stress and had no effect on the major heat shock protein HSP70 and actually down-regulated the mitochondrial HSP22. Our findings largely rule out an elevated general resistance to stress and DR-related pathways as mechanistic candidates. The latter conclusion is especially relevant given the limited potential for DR to improve human health and lifespan, and presents R. rosea as a potential viable candidate to treat aging and age-related diseases in humans.

  12. Contribution of dietary advanced glycation end products (AGE) to circulating AGE: role of dietary fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kathleen E; Prasad, Chandan; Vijayagopal, Parakat; Juma, Shanil; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Imrhan, Victorine

    2015-12-14

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether macronutrient content (low-fat v. high-fat diet) influences an indicator of advanced glycation end products (AGE), N(ε) carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), in the context of a 1-d, high-AGE diet. The effect of the diets on inflammatory markers was also assessed. A total of nineteen overweight and obese adults (nine men and ten women) without known disease were recruited to participate in a crossover challenge of a high-fat, high-AGE (HFHA) and low-fat, high-AGE (LFHA) diet. In each phase patients had fasting blood drawn, followed by consumption of a high-fat or low-fat breakfast test meal, then three postprandial blood draws at 1, 2 and 3 h after consuming the test meal. After consuming high-AGE meals for the remainder of the day, participants returned the next day for a follow-up analysis. A different pattern in the 3-h post-meal CML and soluble receptor for AGE response to the two diets was observed (P=0·01 and 0·05, respectively). No change in serum CML was observed following consumption of a LFHA breakfast (535 (25th-75th percentile 451-790) to 495 (25th-75th percentile 391-682) ng/ml; P=0·36), whereas a rise in CML occurred after the HFHA breakfast (463 (25th-75th percentile 428-664) to 578 (25th-75th percentile 474-865) ng/ml; P=0·05). High sensitivity C-reactive protein and high molecular weight adiponectin were not affected by either diet. These findings suggest that dietary CML may not be as important in influencing serum CML as other dietary factors. In addition, acute exposure to dietary CML may not influence inflammation in adults without diabetes or kidney disease. This is contrary to previous findings.

  13. Lactobacillus salivarius strain FDB89 induced longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans by dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Liang; Zheng, Xiaonan; Fu, Tianjiao; Guo, Huiyuan; Ren, Fazheng

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we utilized the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to assess potential life-expanding effect of Lactobacillus salivarius strain FDB89 (FDB89) isolated from feces of centenarians in Bama County (Guangxi, China). This study showed that feeding FDB89 extended the mean life span in C. elegans by up to 11.9% compared to that of control nematodes. The reduced reproductive capacities, pharyngeal pumping rate, growth, and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and XTT reduction capacity were also observed in FDB89 feeding worms. To probe the anti-aging mechanism further, we incorporated a food gradient feeding assay and assayed the life span of eat-2 mutant. The results demonstrated that the maximal life span of C. elegans fed on FDB89 was achieved at the concentration of 1.0 mg bacterial cells/plate, which was 10-fold greater than that of C. elegans fed on E. coli OP50 (0.1 mg bacterial cells/plate). However, feeding FDB89 could not further extend the life span of eat-2 mutant. These results indicated that FDB89 modulated the longevity of C. elegans in a dietary restriction-dependent manner and expanded the understanding of anti-aging effect of probiotics.

  14. RELATION BETWEEN GLUCOLIPID PROFILE AND SMALL INTESTINE HISTOLOGICAL PATTERNS IN DIABETIC RATS EXPOSED TO AN INTERMITTENT DIETARY RESTRICTION

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    Noriyuki Hisano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an intermittent and prolonged dietary restriction on biochemical variables and histological small intestinal patterns in 12-month-old male eSMT rats are examined. These spontaneously diabetic animals were separated in two groups after weaning: 10 rats fed ad libitum with standard rat chow and 10 rats fed a restricted diet by deprivation of the same food for 24 hours every 72. At 12 months of age, animals were weighed and euthanized after tail vein bleeding for plasma analysis (glycemia- both fasting and 120 minutes after an oral glucose challenge-, triglyceridemia and total cholesterolemia. Small intestines were removed, weighed and measured in length.Intestinal specimens were fixed, embedded in paraffin, semi serially cut at 6 µm and stained with PAS-Hematoxilyn and Hematoxilyn-Eosin. Histometry was performed through a linear devise attached to ocular lens and lectin histochemistry was accomplished employing Canavalis ensiformis, Dolichos biflorus, Arachis hypogea, Ulex europaeus-I, Triticum vulgaris, Ricinus communis and Soy Bean (Glicine Max Agglutinin. Essentially, eSMT rats, a suitable animal model for studying diabetes and/or its complications, revealed at 12 months of age after undergoing the dietary restriction: 1.- An expected improvement in body weight and determined biochemical variables (fasting and after glucose overload glycemias, triglyceridemia and total cholesterolemia without reaching euglycemic values. 2.- Changes in most of the analyzed histometric patterns with no relevant reflection on morphometric ones, and 3.- No modifications in lectinhistochemical patterns.

  15. Age and disability affect dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartali, Benedetta; Salvini, Simonetta; Turrini, Aida; Lauretani, Fulvio; Russo, Cosimo R; Corsi, Anna M; Bandinelli, Stefania; D'Amicis, Amleto; Palli, Domenico; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide information on dietary intake in the InCHIANTI study population, a representative sample (n = 1453) of persons living in two towns of Tuscany (Italy), including a large number of old and very old individuals (79.5% >65 y old). We also investigated whether difficulties in nutrition-related activities were associated with inadequate intake of selected nutrients. The percentage of persons with an inadequate intake of nutrients according to Italian Recommended Nutrients Levels (LARN) was higher in the older age groups. Older persons tended to adapt their diets in response to individual functional difficulties, often leading to monotonous food consumption and, as a consequence, to inadequate nutrient intakes. Multiple logistic models were used to evaluate whether inadequate intake of selected nutrients could be predicted by nutrition-related difficulties. Reporting difficulties in three or more nutrition-related activities (chewing, self-feeding, shopping for basic necessities, carrying a shopping bag, cooking a warm meal, using fingers to grasp or handle) significantly increased the risk of inadequate intake of energy [odds ratio (OR) = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.9-7.8) and vitamin C (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.2-4.2, after adjustment for energy intake). More attention to functional problems in the elderly population and the provision of formal or informal help to those who have difficulty in purchasing, processing and eating food may reduce, at least in part, the percentage of older persons with poor nutrition.

  16. Discriminating between energetic content and dietary composition as an explanation for dietary restriction effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellers, J.; Ruhe, B.; Visser, B.

    2011-01-01

    A reduction in dietary calories has been shown to prolong life span in a wide variety of taxa, but there has been much debate about confounding factors such as nutritional composition of the diet, or reallocation of nutrients from reduced reproduction. To disentangle the contribution of these

  17. Insulin secretion and signaling in response to dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Kate; Kenny, David A; Kelly, Alan K; Waters, Sinéad M

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine systemic insulin response to a glucose tolerance test (GTT) and transcript abundance of genes of the insulin signaling pathway in skeletal muscle, during both dietary restriction and re-alimentation-induced compensatory growth. Holstein Friesian bulls were blocked to one of two groups: 1) restricted feed allowance for 125 days (period 1) (RES, n = 15) followed by ad libitum feeding for 55 days (period 2) or 2) ad libitum access to feed throughout (periods 1 and 2) (ADLIB, n = 15). On days 90 and 36 of periods 1 and 2, respectively, a GTT was performed. M. longissimus dorsi biopsies were harvested from all bulls on days 120 and 15 of periods 1 and 2, respectively, and RNA-Seq analysis was performed. RES displayed a lower growth rate during period 1 (RES: 0.6 kg/day, ADLIB: 1.9 kg/day; P alimentation (RES: 2.5 kg/day, ADLIB: 1.4 kg/day; P alimentation (P > 0.05). Genes differentially expressed in the insulin signaling pathway suggested a greater sensitivity to insulin in skeletal muscle, with pleiotropic effects of insulin signaling interrupted during dietary restriction. Collectively, these results indicate increased sensitivity to glucose clearance and skeletal muscle insulin signaling during dietary restriction; however, no overall role for insulin was apparent in expressing compensatory growth. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Dietary Restriction Affects Neuronal Response Property and GABA Synthesis in the Primary Visual Cortex.

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    Jinfang Yang

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported inconsistent effects of dietary restriction (DR on cortical inhibition. To clarify this issue, we examined the response properties of neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1 of DR and control groups of cats using in vivo extracellular single-unit recording techniques, and assessed the synthesis of inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in the V1 of cats from both groups using immunohistochemical and Western blot techniques. Our results showed that the response of V1 neurons to visual stimuli was significantly modified by DR, as indicated by an enhanced selectivity for stimulus orientations and motion directions, decreased visually-evoked response, lowered spontaneous activity and increased signal-to-noise ratio in DR cats relative to control cats. Further, it was shown that, accompanied with these changes of neuronal responsiveness, GABA immunoreactivity and the expression of a key GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD67 in the V1 were significantly increased by DR. These results demonstrate that DR may retard brain aging by increasing the intracortical inhibition effect and improve the function of visual cortical neurons in visual information processing. This DR-induced elevation of cortical inhibition may favor the brain in modulating energy expenditure based on food availability.

  19. Dietary Restriction Affects Neuronal Response Property and GABA Synthesis in the Primary Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinfang; Wang, Qian; He, Fenfen; Ding, Yanxia; Sun, Qingyan; Hua, Tianmiao; Xi, Minmin

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported inconsistent effects of dietary restriction (DR) on cortical inhibition. To clarify this issue, we examined the response properties of neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) of DR and control groups of cats using in vivo extracellular single-unit recording techniques, and assessed the synthesis of inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in the V1 of cats from both groups using immunohistochemical and Western blot techniques. Our results showed that the response of V1 neurons to visual stimuli was significantly modified by DR, as indicated by an enhanced selectivity for stimulus orientations and motion directions, decreased visually-evoked response, lowered spontaneous activity and increased signal-to-noise ratio in DR cats relative to control cats. Further, it was shown that, accompanied with these changes of neuronal responsiveness, GABA immunoreactivity and the expression of a key GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD67 in the V1 were significantly increased by DR. These results demonstrate that DR may retard brain aging by increasing the intracortical inhibition effect and improve the function of visual cortical neurons in visual information processing. This DR-induced elevation of cortical inhibition may favor the brain in modulating energy expenditure based on food availability.

  20. Dietary restriction of choline reduces hippocampal acetylcholine release in rats: in vivo microdialysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, A; Suzuki, Y; Umegaki, H; Ikari, H; Tajima, T; Endo, H; Iguchi, A

    2001-12-01

    We fed rats with a diet deficient in choline for 12 weeks and studied how dietary choline deficiency affected their behavior and their ability to release acetylcholine in discrete regions of rat brain using step-through passive avoidance task and in vivo microdialysis. In comparison with the control, rats fed the choline-deficient diet showed poorer retention of nociceptive memory in the passive avoidance task. Average choline level in cerebrospinal fluid in the choline-deficient group was significantly less (33.1%) than that of control rats. In vivo microdialysis showed no difference in the pattern of acetylcholine release enhanced by intraperitoneal administration of scopolamine hydrochloride (2 mg/kg) in the striatum between the two groups, whereas in the hippocampus, the maximum and subsequent increase of acetylcholine from the baseline by scopolamine injection was significantly lower in the choline-deficient group than in the control. From the results of our study, we speculate that long-term dietary restriction of choline can affect extra- and intracellular sources of substrates required for acetylcholine synthesis, and eventually limit the ability to release acetylcholine in the hippocampus. Reduced capacity to release acetylcholine in the hippocampus implies that the mechanism, maintaining acetylcholine synthesis on increased neuronal demand, may vary in discrete regions of the brain in response to dietary manipulation. The vulnerability of the mechanism in the hippocampus to dietary choline restriction is indicated by impaired mnemonic performance we observed.

  1. Biochemical responses to dietary α-linolenic acid restriction proceed differently among brain regions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Daisuke; Yasui, Yuko; Yamada, Kazuyo; Ohara, Naoki; Okuyama, Harumi

    2011-08-01

    Previously, we noted that the dietary restriction of α-linolenic acid (ALA, n-3) for 4 weeks after weaning brought about significant decreases in the BDNF content and p38 MAPK activity in the striatum of mice, but not in the other regions of the brain, compared with an ALA- and linoleic acid (LNA, n-6)-adequate diet. In this study, we examined whether a prolonged dietary manipulation induces biochemical changes in other regions of the brain as well. Mice were fed a safflower oil (SAF) diet (ALA-restricted, LNA-adequate) or a perilla oil (PER) diet (containing adequate amounts of ALA and LNA) for 8 weeks from weaning. The docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) contents and p38 MAPK activities in the cerebral cortex, striatum and hippocampus were significantly lower in the SAF group. The BDNF contents and protein kinase C (PKC) activities in the cerebral cortex as well as in the striatum, but not in the hippocampus, were significantly lower in the SAF group. These data indicate that the biochemical changes induced by the dietary restriction of ALA have a time lag in the striatum and cortex, suggesting that the signal is transmitted through decreased p38 MAPK activity and BDNF content and ultimately decreased PKC activity.

  2. Dietary restrictions in healing among speakers of Iquito, an endangered language of the Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernigan Kevin A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnobotanical research was carried out with speakers of Iquito, a critically endangered Amazonian language of the Zaparoan family. The study focused on the concept of "dieting" (siyan++ni in Iquito, a practice involving prohibitions considered necessary to the healing process. These restrictions include: 1 foods and activities that can exacerbate illness, 2 environmental influences that conflict with some methods of healing (e.g. steam baths or enemas and 3 foods and activities forbidden by the spirits of certain powerful medicinal plants. The study tested the following hypotheses: H1 - Each restriction will correlate with specific elements in illness explanatory models and H2 - Illnesses whose explanatory models have personalistic elements will show a greater number and variety of restrictions than those based on naturalistic reasoning. Methods The work was carried out in 2009 and 2010 in the Alto Nanay region of Peru. In structured interviews, informants gave explanatory models for illness categories, including etiologies, pathophysiologies, treatments and dietary restrictions necessary for 49 illnesses. Seventeen botanical vouchers for species said to have powerful spirits that require diets were also collected. Results All restrictions found correspond to some aspect of illness explanatory models. Thirty-five percent match up with specific illness etiologies, 53% correspond to particular pathophysiologies, 18% correspond with overall seriousness of the illness and 18% are only found with particular forms of treatment. Diets based on personalistic reasoning have a significantly higher average number of restrictions than those based on naturalistic reasoning. Conclusions Dieting plays a central role in healing among Iquito speakers. Specific prohibitions can be explained in terms of specific aspects of illness etiologies, pathophysiologies and treatments. Although the Amazonian literature contains few studies focusing on

  3. School Age Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawing conclusions about the validity of available dietary assessment instruments in school age children is hampered by the differences in instruments, research design, reference methods, and populations in the validation literature.

  4. Dietary -carbamylglutamate and rumen-protected -arginine supplementation ameliorate fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Sun, L W; Wang, Z Y; Deng, M T; Zhang, G M; Guo, R H; Ma, T W; Wang, F

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted with an ovine intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) model to test the hypothesis that dietary -carbamylglutamate (NCG) and rumen-protected -Arg (RP-Arg) supplementation are effective in ameliorating fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes. Beginning on d 35 of gestation, ewes were fed a diet providing 100% of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements, 50% of NRC recommendations (50% NRC), 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 20 g/d RP-Arg (providing 10 g/d of Arg), and 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 5 g/d NCG product (providing 2.5 g/d of NCG). On d 110, maternal, fetal, and placental tissues and fluids were collected and weighed. Ewe weights were lower ( ewes compared with adequately fed ewes. Maternal RP-Arg or NCG supplementation did not alter ( = 0.26) maternal BW in nutrient-restricted ewes. Weights of most fetal organs were increased ( ewes compared with 50% NRC-fed ewes. Supplementation of RP-Arg or NCG reduced ( ewes but had no effect on concentrations of lactate and GH. Maternal RP-Arg or NCG supplementation markedly improved ( ewes. These novel results indicate that dietary NCG and RP-Arg supplementation to underfed ewes ameliorated fetal growth restriction, at least in part, by increasing the availability of AA in the conceptus and provide support for its clinical use to ameliorate IUGR in humans and sheep industry production.

  5. Superimposition of postnatal calorie restriction protects the aging male intrauterine growth- restricted offspring from metabolic maladaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yun; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Garg, Meena; Shin, Bo-Chul; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2012-09-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) results in dysregulated glucose homeostasis and adiposity in the adult. We hypothesized that with aging, these perturbations will wane, and superimposition of postnatal growth restriction (PNGR) on IUGR [intrauterine and postnatal growth restriction (IPGR)] will reverse the residual IUGR phenotype. We therefore undertook hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, energy balance, and physical activity studies during fed, fasted, and refed states, in light and dark cycles, on postweaned chow diet-fed more than 17-month aging male IUGR, PNGR, and IPGR vs. control (CON) rat offspring. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp revealed similar whole-body insulin sensitivity and physical activity in the nonobese IUGR vs. CON, despite reduced heat production and energy expenditure. Compared with CON and IUGR, IPGR mimicking PNGR was lean and growth restricted with increased physical activity, O(2) consumption (VO(2)), energy intake, and expenditure. Although insulin sensitivity was no different in IPGR and PNGR, skeletal muscle insulin-induced glucose uptake was enhanced. This presentation proved protective against the chronologically earlier (5.5 months) development of obesity and dysregulated energy homeostasis after 19 wk on a postweaned high-fat diet. This protective role of PNGR on the metabolic IUGR phenotype needs future fine tuning aimed at minimizing unintended consequences.

  6. Measuring aging rates of mice subjected to caloric restriction and genetic disruption of growth hormone signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Jacob J E; van Heemst, Diana; van Bodegom, David; Bonkowski, Michael S; Sun, Liou Y; Bartke, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Caloric restriction and genetic disruption of growth hormone signaling have been shown to counteract aging in mice. The effects of these interventions on aging are examined through age-dependent survival or through the increase in age-dependent mortality rates on a logarithmic scale fitted to the Gompertz model. However, these methods have limitations that impede a fully comprehensive disclosure of these effects. Here we examine the effects of these interventions on murine aging through the increase in age-dependent mortality rates on a linear scale without fitting them to a model like the Gompertz model. Whereas these interventions negligibly and non-consistently affected the aging rates when examined through the age-dependent mortality rates on a logarithmic scale, they caused the aging rates to increase at higher ages and to higher levels when examined through the age-dependent mortality rates on a linear scale. These results add to the debate whether these interventions postpone or slow aging and to the understanding of the mechanisms by which they affect aging. Since different methods yield different results, it is worthwhile to compare their results in future research to obtain further insights into the effects of dietary, genetic, and other interventions on the aging of mice and other species.

  7. Effects of dietary caffeine on mood when rested and sleep restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jack E; Gregg, M Elizabeth

    2004-07-01

    Prolonged use of caffeine can lead to physical dependence evidenced by characteristic withdrawal symptoms during abstinence. Debate exists as to whether mood enhancement by caffeine represents a net effect or merely the restoration of abstinence-induced mood decrements. One aim of this study was to determine the net effects on mood of dietary caffeine compared with prolonged abstinence. In addition, the study aimed to determine whether caffeine restores mood degraded by a non-caffeine source, namely, sleep restriction. A double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design was employed in which 48 male and female volunteers alternated weekly between ingesting placebo and caffeine (1.75 mg/kg) three times daily for 4 consecutive weeks, while being either rested or sleep restricted. Mood was assessed using a computerized version of the profile of mood states (POMS), giving scores for overall mood and six mood dimensions. Gender had small effects on mood, whereas all mood dimensions were markedly adversely affected by sleep restriction. Caffeine had no significant net enhancing effects on mood when participants were rested, and produced no net restorative effects when mood was degraded by sleep restriction. On the contrary, caffeine-induced decrements in mood were observed during both conditions of rest and sleep restriction. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Dietary and fluid restrictions in CKD: a thematic synthesis of patient views from qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Suetonia C; Hanson, Camilla S; Craig, Jonathan C; Strippoli, Giovanni F M; Ruospo, Marinella; Campbell, Katrina; Johnson, David W; Tong, Allison

    2015-04-01

    Managing the complex fluid and diet requirements of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is challenging for patients. We aimed to summarize patients' perspectives of dietary and fluid management in CKD to inform clinical practice and research. Systematic review of qualitative studies. Adults with CKD who express opinions about dietary and fluid management. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Google Scholar, reference lists, and PhD dissertations were searched to May 2013. Thematic synthesis. We included 46 studies involving 816 patients living in middle- to high-income countries. Studies involved patients treated with facility-based and home hemodialysis (33 studies; 462 patients), peritoneal dialysis (10 studies; 112 patients), either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis (3 studies; 73 patients), kidney transplant recipients (9 studies; 89 patients), and patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD stages 1 to 5 (5 studies; 80 patients). Five major themes were identified: preserving relationships (interference with roles, social limitations, and being a burden), navigating change (feeling deprived, disrupting held truths, breaking habits and norms, being overwhelmed by information, questioning efficacy, and negotiating priorities), fighting temptation (resisting impositions, experiencing mental invasion, and withstanding physiologic needs), optimizing health (accepting responsibility, valuing self-management, preventing disease progression, and preparing for and protecting a transplant), and becoming empowered (comprehending paradoxes, finding solutions, and mastering change and demands). Limited data in non-English languages and low-income settings and for adults with CKD not treated with hemodialysis. Dietary and fluid restrictions are disorienting and an intense burden for patients with CKD. Patient-prioritized education strategies, harnessing patients' motivation to stay well for a transplant or to avoid dialysis, and viewing adaptation to restrictions as a collaborative

  9. Population dietary habits and physical activity modification with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, H; Marrugat, J; Covas, M; Elosua, R; Pena, A; Weinbrenner, T; Fito, M; Vidal, M A; Masia, R

    2004-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the relation between age and both dietary habits and leisure-time physical activity, and to determine nutrient inadequacy of aged groups in our population. Cross-sectional study. A random sample of the 25-74-y-old population of Gerona, Spain. A total of 838 men and 910 women were selected from among the general population according to the 1991 census. Analysis of dietary habits, including amount and type of alcohol consumption, and detailed evaluation of leisure-time physical activity. Nutrient densities of carbohydrates, vitamin B(1), vitamin B(12), vitamin C, vitamin E, folate, potassium, iron, magnesium, copper, and dietary fiber increased significantly (Phabits, characterized through a composite dietary score, with age after adjusting for several confounders both in men and women (P<0.001). This score was composed of folate, vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, dietary fibre, cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, and sodium. In all, 29 and 10% of male and female subjects aged 65-74 y, respectively, reported inadequate intakes of six or more of 16 nutrients. Total leisure-time physical activity increased with age in men (P<0.002), and was not different among female age groups. Dietary behaviours and levels of physical activity spent during leisure time indicate a healthy lifestyle of the aged men and women in the present population. Nutrient inadequacy observed in some aged men and women, however, deserves particular intervention of health-care programmes for this growing part of our society.

  10. Nutrition modulation of human aging: The calorie restriction paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sai Krupa; Balasubramanian, Priya; Weerasekara, Yasoma K

    2017-11-05

    Globally, the aging population is growing rapidly, creating an urgent need to attenuate age-related health conditions, including metabolic disease and disability. A promising strategy for healthy aging based on consistently positive results from studies with a variety of species, including non-human primates (NHP), is calorie restriction (CR), or the restriction of energy intake while maintaining intake of essential nutrients. The burgeoning evidence for this approach in humans is reviewed and the major study to date to address this question, CALERIE (Comprehensive Assessment of the Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy), is described. CALERIE findings indicate the feasibility of CR in non-obese humans, confirm observations in NHP, and are consistent with improvements in disease risk reduction and potential anti-aging effects. Finally, the mechanisms of CR in humans are reviewed which sums up the fact that evolutionarily conserved mechanisms mediate the anti-aging effects of CR. Overall, the prospect for further research in both NHP and humans is highly encouraging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Altered gut microbiota in female mice with persistent low body weights following removal of post-weaning chronic dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Toyomasu, Yoshitaka; Hayashi, Yujiro; Linden, David R; Szurszewski, Joseph H; Nelson, Heidi; Farrugia, Gianrico; Kashyap, Purna C; Chia, Nicholas; Ordog, Tamas

    2016-10-03

    Nutritional interventions often fail to prevent growth failure in childhood and adolescent malnutrition and the mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies revealed altered microbiota in malnourished children and anorexia nervosa. To facilitate mechanistic studies under physiologically relevant conditions, we established a mouse model of growth failure following chronic dietary restriction and examined microbiota in relation to age, diet, body weight, and anabolic treatment. Four-week-old female BALB/c mice (n = 12/group) were fed ad libitum (AL) or offered limited food to abolish weight gain (LF). A subset of restricted mice was treated with an insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) analog. Food access was restored in a subset of untreated LF (LF-RF) and IGF1-treated LF mice (TLF-RF) on day 97. Gut microbiota were determined on days 69, 96-99 and 120 by next generation sequencing of the V3-5 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Microbiota-host factor associations were analyzed by distance-based PERMANOVA and quantified by the coefficient of determination R 2 for age, diet, and normalized body weight change (Δbwt). Microbial taxa on day 120 were compared following fitting with an overdispersed Poisson regression model. The machine learning algorithm Random Forests was used to predict age based on the microbiota. On day 120, Δbwt in AL, LF, LF-RF, and TLF-RF mice was 52 ± 3, -6 ± 1*, 40 ± 3*, and 46 ± 2 % (*, P < 0.05 versus AL). Age and diet, but not Δbwt, were associated with gut microbiota composition. Age explained a larger proportion of the microbiota variability than diet or Δbwt. Random Forests predicted chronological age based on the microbiota and indicated microbiota immaturity in the LF mice before, but not after, refeeding. However, on day 120, the microbiota community structure of LF-RF mice was significantly different from that of both AL and LF mice. IGF1 mitigated the difference from the AL group. Refed groups had a higher

  12. Urinary prostaglandin excretion in pregnancy: the effect of dietary sodium restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delemarre, F M; Thomas, C M; van den Berg, R J; Jongsma, H W; Steegers, E A

    2000-10-01

    Dietary sodium restriction results in activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system. In the non-pregnant situation renin release in response to a low sodium diet is mediated by prostaglandins. We studied the effect of dietary sodium restriction on urinary prostaglandin metabolism in pregnancy. In a randomized, longitudinal study the excretion of urinary metabolites of prostacyclin (6-keto-PGF(1 alpha)and 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1 alpha)) and thromboxane A(2)(TxB(2)and 2,3-dinor-TxB(2)) was determined throughout pregnancy and post partum in 12 women on a low sodium diet and in 12 controls. In pregnancy the excretion of all urinary prostaglandins is increased. The 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha)/ TxB(2)-ratio as well as the 2, 3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1 alpha)/ 2,3-dinor-TxB(2)-ratio did not significantly change in pregnancy. CONCLUISION Prostacyclin and thromboxane do not seem to play an important role in sodium balance during pregnancy. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  13. Cultural factors influencing dietary and fluid restriction behaviour: perceptions of older Chinese patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xiaoshan; Peng, Youqing; Yu, Hai-Ping; Li, Dan

    2017-03-01

    To explore the cultural factors related to dietary and fluid restriction behaviours among older Chinese patients. Excess dietary sodium and fluid intake are risk factors contributing to the worsening and rehospitalisation for heart failure in older patients. Managing the complex fluid and diet requirements of heart failure patients is challenging and is made more complicated by cultural variations in self-management behaviours in response to a health threat. Qualitative study using semi-structured in interviews and framework analysis. The design of this study is qualitative descriptive. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 heart failure patients. Data were analysed through content analysis. Seven cultural themes emerged from the qualitative data: the values placed on health and illness, customary way of life, preference for folk care and the Chinese healthcare system, and factors related to kinship and social ties, religion, economics and education. Dietary change and management in response to illness, including heart failure, is closely related to individuals' cultural background. Healthcare providers should have a good understanding of cultural aspects that can influence patients' conformity to medical recommendations. Heart failure patients need support that considers their cultural needs. Healthcare providers must have a good understanding of the experiences of people from diverse cultural backgrounds. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Components of an Anticancer Diet: Dietary Recommendations, Restrictions and Supplements of the Bill Henderson Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Heilman Bell

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of complementary and alternative medicines including dietary supplements, herbals and special diets to prevent or treat disease continues to be popular. The following paper provides a description of an alternative dietary approach to the self-management and treatment of cancer, the Bill Henderson Protocol (BHP. This diet encourages daily intake of raw foods, a combination of cottage cheese and flaxseed oil and a number of supplements. Some foods and food groups are restricted (e.g., gluten, meat, dairy. Early background theory that contributed to the protocol’s development is presented as is a summary of relevant evidence concerning the anti-cancer fighting properties of the individual components. Supplement intake is considered in relation to daily recommended intakes. Challenges and risks to protocol adherence are discussed. As with many complementary and alternative interventions, clear evidence of this dietary protocol’s safety and efficacy is lacking. Consumers of this protocol may require guidance on the ability of this protocol to meet their individual nutritional needs.

  15. The effect of dietary restriction on reproduction: a meta-analytic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moatt, Joshua P; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Lagisz, Malgorzata; Walling, Craig A

    2016-10-07

    Dietary restriction (DR), a reduction in the amount of food or particular nutrients eaten, is the most consistent environmental manipulation to extend lifespan and protect against age related diseases. Current evolutionary theory explains this effect as a shift in the resolution of the trade-off between lifespan and reproduction. However, recent studies have questioned the role of reproduction in mediating the effect of DR on longevity and no study has quantitatively investigated the effect of DR on reproduction across species. Here we report a comprehensive comparative meta-analysis of the effect of DR on reproduction. In general, DR reduced reproduction across taxa, but several factors moderated this effect. The effect of DR on reproduction was greater in well-studied model species (yeast, nematode worms, fruit flies and rodents) than non-model species. This mirrors recent results for longevity and, for reproduction, seems to result from a faster rate of decline with decreasing resources in model species. Our results also suggested that not all reproductive traits are affected equally by DR. High and moderate cost reproductive traits suffered a significant reduction with DR, but low cost traits, such as ejaculate production, did not. Although the effect of DR on reproduction was stronger in females than males, this sex difference reduced to near zero when accounting for other co-factors such as the costliness of the reproductive trait. Thus, sex differences in the effect of DR on longevity may be due to a failure to expose males to as complete a range of the costs of reproduction as females. We suggest that to better understand the generality of the effect of DR, future studies should attempt to address the cause of the apparent model species bias and ensure that individuals are exposed to as many of the costs of reproduction as possible. Furthermore, our meta-analytic approach reveals a general shortage of DR studies that record reproduction, particularly in

  16. Epigenetic aging signatures in mice livers are slowed by dwarfism, calorie restriction and rapamycin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tina; Tsui, Brian; Kreisberg, Jason F; Robertson, Neil A; Gross, Andrew M; Yu, Michael Ku; Carter, Hannah; Brown-Borg, Holly M; Adams, Peter D; Ideker, Trey

    2017-03-28

    Global but predictable changes impact the DNA methylome as we age, acting as a type of molecular clock. This clock can be hastened by conditions that decrease lifespan, raising the question of whether it can also be slowed, for example, by conditions that increase lifespan. Mice are particularly appealing organisms for studies of mammalian aging; however, epigenetic clocks have thus far been formulated only in humans. We first examined whether mice and humans experience similar patterns of change in the methylome with age. We found moderate conservation of CpG sites for which methylation is altered with age, with both species showing an increase in methylome disorder during aging. Based on this analysis, we formulated an epigenetic-aging model in mice using the liver methylomes of 107 mice from 0.2 to 26.0 months old. To examine whether epigenetic aging signatures are slowed by longevity-promoting interventions, we analyzed 28 additional methylomes from mice subjected to lifespan-extending conditions, including Prop1 df/df dwarfism, calorie restriction or dietary rapamycin. We found that mice treated with these lifespan-extending interventions were significantly younger in epigenetic age than their untreated, wild-type age-matched controls. This study shows that lifespan-extending conditions can slow molecular changes associated with an epigenetic clock in mice livers.

  17. Dietary patterns for healthier cognitive ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, Agnes A.M.

    2017-01-01

    With ageing of our population and the accompanying increase in the number of people living with dementia, it is important to find modifiable risk factors to postpone the onset of cognitive decline. Diet has been proposed such a modifiable risk factor. To date, numerous studies have been conducted

  18. Effects of Dietary Sodium Restriction in Kidney Transplant Recipients Treated With Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Blockade: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Laura V; Dobrowolski, Linn C; van den Bosch, Jacqueline J O N; Riphagen, Ineke J; Krediet, C T Paul; Bemelman, Frederike J; Bakker, Stephan J L; Navis, Gerjan

    2016-06-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease receiving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade, dietary sodium restriction is an often-used treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure (BP) and albuminuria. Whether these effects extend to kidney transplant recipients is unknown. We therefore studied the effects of dietary sodium restriction on BP and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in kidney transplant recipients receiving RAAS blockade. Two-center randomized crossover trial. Stable outpatient kidney transplant recipients with creatinine clearance > 30mL/min, BP ≥120/80mmHg, receiving stable RAAS blockade therapy. 6-week regular-sodium diet (target, 150mmol/24 h) and a 6-week low-sodium diet (target, 50mmol/24 h). Main outcome parameters were systolic and diastolic BP, UAE, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at the end of each diet period. Dietary adherence was assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. We randomly assigned 23 kidney transplant recipients, of whom 22 (mean age, 58±8 [SD] years; 50% men; mean eGFR, 51±21mL/min/1.73m(2)) completed the study. One patient withdrew from the study because of concerns regarding orthostatic hypotension on the low-sodium diet. Sodium excretion decreased from 164±50mmol/24 h during the regular-sodium diet to 87±55mmol/24 h during the low-sodium diet (mean difference, -77 [95% CI, -110 to -44] mmol/24 h; Padherence to sodium diet was achieved in 86% of patients. In stable kidney transplant recipients receiving RAAS blockade, dietary sodium restriction effectively reduces BP without affecting eGFR. Dietary sodium restriction is relevant to BP management in kidney transplant recipients receiving RAAS blockade. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Short-term dietary restriction and fasting precondition against ischemia reperfusion injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James R; Verweij, Mariëlle; Brand, Karl; van de Ven, Marieke; Goemaere, Natascha; van den Engel, Sandra; Chu, Timothy; Forrer, Flavio; Müller, Cristina; de Jong, Marion; van IJcken, Wilfred; IJzermans, Jan N M; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; de Bruin, Ron W F

    2010-02-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan and increases resistance to multiple forms of stress, including ischemia reperfusion injury to the brain and heart in rodents. While maximal effects on lifespan require long-term restriction, the kinetics of onset of benefits against acute stress is not known. Here, we show that 2-4 weeks of 30% DR improved survival and kidney function following renal ischemia reperfusion injury in mice. Brief periods of water-only fasting were similarly effective at protecting against ischemic damage. Significant protection occurred within 1 day, persisted for several days beyond the fasting period and extended to another organ, the liver. Protection by both short-term DR and fasting correlated with improved insulin sensitivity, increased expression of markers of antioxidant defense and reduced expression of markers of inflammation and insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling. Unbiased transcriptional profiling of kidneys from mice subject to short-term DR or fasting revealed a significant enrichment of signature genes of long-term DR. These data demonstrate that brief periods of reduced food intake, including short-term daily restriction and fasting, can increase resistance to ischemia reperfusion injury in rodents and suggest a rapid onset of benefits of DR in mammals.

  20. Validation of the effects of small differences in dietary metabolizable energy and feed restriction in first-cycle laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, G R; Persia, M E

    2013-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate energy utilization of laying hens fed diets containing 2 ME concentrations, using response criteria including performance, BW, abdominal fat pad, and energy digestibility. The experiment was a 2 × 2 factorial with 2 feeding regimens (ad libitum and restriction fed), and 2 dietary ME levels [2,880 kcal/kg of ME (CON); and 2,790 kcal/kg of ME (LME)]. A total of 60 Hy-Line W36 first-cycle laying hens were fed experimental diets, resulting in 15 individually caged hens for each of the 4 treatments. Hens in the restriction-fed group were fed 90 g of feed per day. The CON diet was formulated to meet or exceed the NRC (1994) recommendations with 2,880 kcal/kg, whereas the LME diet was similar with the exception of a 90 kcal/kg reduction in ME. Hens were fed experimental diets for 12 wk from hen 28 to 39 wk of age. Hen day egg production, weekly feed intake, and every 2 wk, egg weights and egg mass were recorded, whereas hen BW was measured every 4 wk. Excreta samples were collected over the last 5 d of experiment to determine AMEn. Abdominal fat pads were measured individually for all hens at the end of experiment. There were no interactions between feeding regimens and dietary ME levels throughout the experiment. Feed restriction resulted in reductions (P ≤ 0.01) in hen day egg production, BW, and abdominal fat pad, indicating reduced nutrient availability to partition toward production, maintenance, and storage functions. The reduction in energy intake between CON and LME fed birds (90 kcal/kg) did not change the energy partitioned toward production or maintenance, but reduced (P = 0.03) the energy stored (reduced fat pad) of LME-fed hens. These results suggest that energy is used following the pattern of production and maintenance before storage requirements and that fat pad (energy storage) may be the most sensitive indicator of dietary energy status over short-term in Hy-Line W36 laying hens.

  1. Effect of long-term caloric restriction on brain monoamines in aging male and female Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolta, M G; Holson, R; Duffy, P; Hart, R W

    1989-05-01

    The present study examines the changes in central monoamines and their metabolites in aged male and female rats after long-term caloric restriction. Fischer 344 rats of both sexes (n = 5-10/group) were maintained on one of two dietary regimens: ad libitum NIH 31 diet or 60% by weight of the ad lib. intake (restricted), supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Animals received these diets from the age of 14 weeks until killed at 22.25 months of age. Caudate nucleus (CN), hypothalamus (HYPO), olfactory bulb (OB) and nucleus accumbens (NA) were assayed for content of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and its metabolites (dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, DOPAC, and homovanillic acid, HVA) and serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) using HPLC/EC. Relative to the ad lib. group, restricted rats of both sex showed significant decreases in NE content in CN, HYPO and OB. DA and 5-HT content were decreased significantly in the CN and HYPO. No significant changes were found in the levels of DA metabolites in all brain regions studied. While the 5-HIAA level was significantly reduced in the HYPO and NA of the female restricted rats, it was increased several-fold in the OB of the male restricted animals. These preliminary results suggest that long-term caloric restriction alters brain monoamine concentrations, an effect which may in turn modify the normal rate of aging.

  2. Mannan-Binding Lectin Is Involved in the Protection against Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Dietary Restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shushimita Shushimita

    Full Text Available Preoperative fasting and dietary restriction offer robust protection against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/RI in mice. We recently showed that Mannan-binding lectin (MBL, the initiator of the lectin pathway of complement activation, plays a pivotal role in renal I/RI. Based on these findings, we investigated the effect of short-term DR (30% reduction of total food intake or three days of water only fasting on MBL in 10-12 weeks old male C57/Bl6 mice. Both dietary regimens significantly reduce the circulating levels of MBL as well as its mRNA expression in liver, the sole production site of MBL. Reconstitution of MBL abolished the protection afforded by dietary restriction, whereas in the fasting group the protection persisted. These data show that modulation of MBL is involved in the protection against renal I/RI induced by dietary restriction, and suggest that the mechanisms of protection induced by dietary restriction and fasting may be different.

  3. Food cravings discriminate between anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Implications for "success" versus "failure" in dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Silvia; Warren, Cortney S; Rodríguez, Sonia; Fernández, M Carmen; Cepeda-Benito, Antonio

    2009-06-01

    Food cravings are subjective, motivational states thought to induce binge eating among eating disorder patients. This study compared food cravings across eating disorders. Women (N=135) diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, restrictive (ANR) or binge-purging (ANBP) types, or bulimia nervosa, non-purging (BNNP) or purging (BNP) types completed measures of food cravings. Discriminant analysis yielded two statistically significant functions. The first function differentiated between all the four group pairs except ANBP and BNNP, with levels of various food-craving dimensions successively increasing for ANR, ANBP, BNNP, and BNP participants. The second function differentiated between ANBP and BNNP participants. Overall, the functions improved classification accuracy above chance level (44% fewer errors). The findings suggest that cravings are more strongly associated with loss of control over eating than with dietary restraint tendencies.

  4. The Influence of Dietary Fat Source on Life Span in Calorie Restricted Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Domínguez, José A; Ramsey, Jon J; Tran, Dianna; Imai, Denise M; Koehne, Amanda; Laing, Steven T; Griffey, Stephen M; Kim, Kyoungmi; Taylor, Sandra L; Hagopian, Kevork; Villalba, José M; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Navas, Plácido; McDonald, Roger B

    2015-10-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) without malnutrition extends life span in several animal models. It has been proposed that a decrease in the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and especially n-3 fatty acids, in membrane phospholipids may contribute to life span extension with CR. Phospholipid PUFAs are sensitive to dietary fatty acid composition, and thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the influence of dietary lipids on life span in CR mice. C57BL/6J mice were assigned to four groups (a 5% CR control group and three 40% CR groups) and fed diets with soybean oil (high in n-6 PUFAs), fish oil (high in n-3 PUFAs), or lard (high in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids) as the primary lipid source. Life span was increased (p Life span was also increased (p life span in mice on CR, and suggest that a diet containing a low proportion of PUFAs and high proportion of monounsaturated and saturated fats may maximize life span in animals maintained on CR. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Sirtuins as Mediator of the Anti-Ageing Effects of Calorie Restriction in Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Zullo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fighting diseases and controlling the signs of ageing are the major goals of biomedicine. Sirtuins, enzymes with mainly deacetylating activity, could be pivotal targets of novel preventive and therapeutic strategies to reach such aims. Scientific proofs are accumulating in experimental models, but, to a minor extent, also in humans, that the ancient practice of calorie restriction could prove an effective way to prevent several degenerative diseases and to postpone the detrimental signs of ageing. In the present review, we summarize the evidence about the central role of sirtuins in mediating the beneficial effects of calorie restriction in skeletal and cardiac muscle since these tissues are greatly damaged by diseases and advancing years. Moreover, we entertain the possibility that the identification of sirtuin activators that mimic calorie restriction could provide the benefits without the inconvenience of this dietary style.

  6. Effect of dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation on the transcriptional profile of bovine jejunal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Kate; Waters, Sinead M; Cormican, Paul; Kelly, Alan K; Kenny, David A

    2018-01-01

    Compensatory growth (CG), an accelerated growth phenomenon which occurs following a period of dietary restriction is utilised worldwide in animal production systems as a management practise to lower feed costs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of jejunal epithelial to CG in cattle through transcriptional profiling following a period of dietary restriction as well as subsequent re-alimentation induced CG. Sixty Holstein Friesian bulls were separated into two groups; RES and ADLIB, with 30 animals in each. RES animals were offered a restricted diet for 125 days (Period 1) followed by ad libitum feeding for 55 days (Period 2). ADLIB animals had ad libitum access to feed across both periods 1 and 2. At the end of each period, 15 animals from each treatment group were slaughtered, jejunal epithelium collected and RNAseq analysis performed. Animals that were previously diet restricted underwent CG, gaining 1.8 times the rate of their non-restricted counterparts. Twenty-four genes were differentially expressed in RES compared to ADLIB animals at the end of Period 1, with only one gene, GSTA1, differentially expressed between the two groups at the end of Period 2. When analysed within treatment (RES, Period 2 v Period 1), 31 genes were differentially expressed between diet restricted and animals undergoing CG. Dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation were associated with altered expression of genes involved in digestion and metabolism as well as those involved in cellular division and growth. Compensatory growth was also associated with greater expression of genes involved in cellular protection and detoxification in jejunal epithelium. This study highlights some of the molecular mechanisms regulating the response to dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation induced CG in cattle; however the gene expression results suggest that most of the CG in jejunal epithelium had occurred by day 55 of re-alimentation.

  7. Short-term weight loss and hepatic triglyceride reduction: evidence of a metabolic advantage with dietary carbohydrate restriction123

    OpenAIRE

    Browning, Jeffrey D; Baker, Jonathan A; Rogers, Thomas; Davis, Jeannie; Satapati, Santhosh; Burgess, Shawn C

    2011-01-01

    Background: Individuals with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have excess intrahepatic triglycerides. This is due, in part, to increased hepatic synthesis of fat from carbohydrates via lipogenesis. Although weight loss is currently recommended to treat NAFLD, little attention has been given to dietary carbohydrate restriction.

  8. Mannan-binding lectin is involved in the protection against renal ischemia/ reperfusion injury by dietary restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shushimita; P. van der Pol (Pieter); R.W.F. de Bruin (Ron); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan); C. van Kooten (Cees); F.J.M.F. Dor (Frank)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPreoperative fasting and dietary restriction offer robust protection against renal ischemia/ reperfusion injury (I/RI) in mice.We recently showed that Mannan-binding lectin (MBL), the initiator of the lectin pathway of complement activation, plays a pivotal role in renal I/RI. Based on

  9. Target of rapamycin signalling mediates the lifespan-extending effects of dietary restriction by essential amino acid alteration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emran, S.; Yang, M.Y.; He, X.L.; Zandveld, J.; Piper, M.D.W.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR), defined as a moderate reduction in food intake short of malnutrition, has been shown to extend healthy lifespan in a diverse range of organisms, from yeast to primates. Reduced signalling through the insulin/IGF-like (IIS) and Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signalling pathways

  10. Intermittent fasting dissociates beneficial effects of dietary restriction on glucose metabolism and neuronal resistance to injury from calorie intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, R. Michael; Guo, Zhihong; de Cabo, Rafael; Iyun, Titilola; Rios, Michelle; Hagepanos, Adrienne; Ingram, Donald K.; Lane, Mark A.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2003-01-01

    Dietary restriction has been shown to have several health benefits including increased insulin sensitivity, stress resistance, reduced morbidity, and increased life span. The mechanism remains unknown, but the need for a long-term reduction in caloric intake to achieve these benefits has been assumed. We report that when C57BL/6 mice are maintained on an intermittent fasting (alternate-day fasting) dietary-restriction regimen their overall food intake is not decreased and their body weight is maintained. Nevertheless, intermittent fasting resulted in beneficial effects that met or exceeded those of caloric restriction including reduced serum glucose and insulin levels and increased resistance of neurons in the brain to excitotoxic stress. Intermittent fasting therefore has beneficial effects on glucose regulation and neuronal resistance to injury in these mice that are independent of caloric intake. PMID:12724520

  11. Dietary phosphate restriction normalizes biochemical and skeletal abnormalities in a murine model of tumoral calcinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Austin, Anthony M; Gray, Amie K; Allen, Matthew R; Econs, Michael J

    2011-12-01

    Mutations in the GALNT3 gene cause tumoral calcinosis characterized by ectopic calcifications due to persistent hyperphosphatemia. We recently developed Galnt3 knockout mice in a mixed background, which had hyperphosphatemia with increased bone mineral density (BMD) and infertility in males. To test the effect of dietary phosphate intake on their phenotype, Galnt3 knockout mice were generated in the C57BL/6J strain and fed various phosphate diets: 0.1% (low), 0.3% (low normal), 0.6% (normal), and 1.65% (high). Sera were analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, blood urine nitrogen, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, osteocalcin, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b, and fibroblast growth factor 23 (Fgf23). Femurs were evaluated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, dynamic histomorphometry, and/or microcomputed tomography. Galnt3 knockout mice in C57BL/6J had the same biochemical phenotype observed in our previous study: hyperphosphatemia, inappropriately normal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D level, decreased alkaline phosphatase activity, and low intact Fgf23 concentration but high Fgf23 fragments. Skeletal analyses of their femurs revealed significantly high BMD with increased cortical bone area and trabecular bone volume. On all four phosphate diets, Galnt3 knockout mice had consistently higher phosphorus levels and lower alkaline phosphatase and intact Fgf23 concentrations than littermate controls. The low-phosphate diet normalized serum phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and areal BMD but failed to correct male infertility in Galnt3 knockout mice. The high-phosphate diet did not increase serum phosphorus concentration in either mutant or control mice due to a compensatory increase in circulating intact Fgf23 levels. In conclusion, dietary phosphate restriction normalizes biochemical and skeletal phenotypes of Galnt3 knockout mice and, thus, can be an effective therapy for tumoral calcinosis.

  12. Effect of Dietary Restriction and Subsequent Re-Alimentation on the Transcriptional Profile of Bovine Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Kate; Kenny, David A; Cormican, Paul; McCabe, Matthew S; Kelly, Alan K; Waters, Sinead M

    2016-01-01

    Compensatory growth (CG), an accelerated growth phenomenon which occurs following a period of dietary restriction is exploited worldwide in animal production systems as a method to lower feed costs. However the molecular mechanisms regulated CG expression remain to be elucidated fully. This study aimed to uncover the underlying biology regulating CG in cattle, through an examination of skeletal muscle transcriptional profiles utilising next generation mRNA sequencing technology. Twenty Holstein Friesian bulls were fed either a restricted diet for 125 days, with a target growth rate of 0.6 kg/day (Period 1), following which they were allowed feed ad libitum for a further 55 days (Period 2) or fed ad libitum for the entirety of the trial. M. longissimus dorsi biopsies were harvested from all bulls on days 120 and 15 of periods 1 and 2 respectively and RNAseq analysis was performed. During re-alimentation in Period 2, previously restricted animals displayed CG, growing at 1.8 times the rate of the ad libitum control animals. Compensating animals were also more feed efficient during re-alimentation and compensated for 48% of their previous dietary restriction. 1,430 and 940 genes were identified as significantly differentially expressed (Benjamini Hochberg adjusted P < 0.1) in periods 1 and 2 respectively. Additionally, 2,237 genes were differentially expressed in animals undergoing CG relative to dietary restriction. Dietary restriction in Period 1 was associated with altered expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and energy production. CG expression in Period 2 occurred in association with greater expression of genes involved in cellular function and organisation. This study highlights some of the molecular mechanisms regulating CG in cattle. Differentially expressed genes identified are potential candidate genes for the identification of biomarkers for CG and feed efficiency, which may be incorporated into future breeding programmes.

  13. Effect of Dietary Restriction and Subsequent Re-Alimentation on the Transcriptional Profile of Bovine Skeletal Muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Keogh

    Full Text Available Compensatory growth (CG, an accelerated growth phenomenon which occurs following a period of dietary restriction is exploited worldwide in animal production systems as a method to lower feed costs. However the molecular mechanisms regulated CG expression remain to be elucidated fully. This study aimed to uncover the underlying biology regulating CG in cattle, through an examination of skeletal muscle transcriptional profiles utilising next generation mRNA sequencing technology. Twenty Holstein Friesian bulls were fed either a restricted diet for 125 days, with a target growth rate of 0.6 kg/day (Period 1, following which they were allowed feed ad libitum for a further 55 days (Period 2 or fed ad libitum for the entirety of the trial. M. longissimus dorsi biopsies were harvested from all bulls on days 120 and 15 of periods 1 and 2 respectively and RNAseq analysis was performed. During re-alimentation in Period 2, previously restricted animals displayed CG, growing at 1.8 times the rate of the ad libitum control animals. Compensating animals were also more feed efficient during re-alimentation and compensated for 48% of their previous dietary restriction. 1,430 and 940 genes were identified as significantly differentially expressed (Benjamini Hochberg adjusted P < 0.1 in periods 1 and 2 respectively. Additionally, 2,237 genes were differentially expressed in animals undergoing CG relative to dietary restriction. Dietary restriction in Period 1 was associated with altered expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and energy production. CG expression in Period 2 occurred in association with greater expression of genes involved in cellular function and organisation. This study highlights some of the molecular mechanisms regulating CG in cattle. Differentially expressed genes identified are potential candidate genes for the identification of biomarkers for CG and feed efficiency, which may be incorporated into future breeding programmes.

  14. Dietary macronutrients and the aging liver sinusoidal endothelial cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogger, Victoria Carroll; Mohamad, Mashani; Solon-Biet, Samantha Marie; Senior, Alistair M; Warren, Alessandra; O'Reilly, Jennifer Nicole; Tung, Bui Thanh; Svistounov, Dmitri; McMahon, Aisling Clare; Fraser, Robin; Raubenheimer, David; Holmes, Andrew J; Simpson, Stephen James; Le Couteur, David George

    2016-05-01

    Fenestrations are pores within the liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) that line the sinusoids of the highly vascularized liver. Fenestrations facilitate the transfer of substrates between blood and hepatocytes. With pseudocapillarization of the hepatic sinusoid in old age, there is a loss of fenestrations. LSECs are uniquely exposed to gut-derived dietary and microbial substrates delivered by the portal circulation to the liver. Here we studied the effect of 25 diets varying in content of macronutrients and energy on LSEC fenestrations using the Geometric Framework method in a large cohort of mice aged 15 mo. Macronutrient distribution rather than total food or energy intake was associated with changes in fenestrations. Porosity and frequency were inversely associated with dietary fat intake, while fenestration diameter was inversely associated with protein or carbohydrate intake. Fenestrations were also linked to diet-induced changes in gut microbiome, with increased fenestrations associated with higher abundance of Firmicutes and reduced abundance of Bacteroidetes Diet-induced changes in levels of several fatty acids (C16:0, C19:0, and C20:4) were also significantly inversely associated with fenestrations, suggesting a link between dietary fat and modulation of lipid rafts in the LSECs. Diet influences fenestrations and these data reflect both the key role of the LSECs in clearing gut-derived molecules from the vascular circulation and the impact these molecules have on LSEC morphology. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Effects of Dietary Restriction on the Expression of Lipid Metabolism and Growth Hormone Signaling Genes in the Muscle of Korean Cattle Steers

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    H. J. Kang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effects of dietary restriction on growth and the expression of lipid metabolism and growth hormone signaling genes in the longissimus dorsi muscle (LM of Korean cattle. Thirty-one Korean cattle steers (average age 10.5 months were allocated to normal (N; n = 16 or dietary restriction (DR; n = 15 groups. The feeding trial consisted of two stages: for the 8-month growing period, the DR group was fed 80% of the food intake of the normal diet, and for the 6-month growth-finishing period, the DR group was fed a DR total mixed ration with 78.4% of the crude protein and 64% of the net energy for gain of the normal diet. The LM was biopsied 5 months (period 1 [P1] at 15.5 months of age and 14 months (period 2 [P2] at 24.5 months of age after the start of feeding. The mRNA levels were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Body weight, daily feed intake, average daily gain, and feed efficiency were lower in the DR group compared with the normal group at both P1 and P2. At P1, the lipogenic fatty acid synthase (FASN mRNA levels were lower (p<0.05 in the DR group compared with the normal group. The DR group tended (p = 0.06 to have higher of levels of growth hormone receptor (GHR mRNA than the normal group. At P2, the DR group tended to have lower (p = 0.06 androgen receptor (AR mRNA levels than the normal group. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that dietary restriction partially decreases the transcription of lipogenic FASN and growth hormone signaling AR genes, but increases transcription of the GHR gene. These changes in gene transcription might affect body fat accumulation and the growth of the animals.

  16. The Relationship Between Social Support and Adherence of Dietary and Fluids Restrictions among Hemodialysis Patients in Iran

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    Shahnaz Ahrari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patient’s noncompliance dietary and fluids intake can lead to a build-up of toxic fluids and metabolic end-products in the blood stream which may result in an increased morbidity and premature death. The aim of the study is investigate relationship between the social support and adherence to dietary and fluid restrictions in hemodialysis patients. Methods: In this correlational study upon 237 hemodialysis patients, the data was collected with the dialysis diet and fluids non-adherences hemodialysis questionnaire (DDFQ, and the multidimensional scale of perceived Social Support (MSP. Interdialytic weight gain, predialytic serum potassium levels, and predialytic serum phosphate levels was considered as biochemical indicators of dietary and fluid adherence. Data were analyzed by SPSS Ver.11.5. Results: About 41.1% of patients reported non-adherence to diet and 45.2% of them reported non-adherence to fluid. Frequency of non-adherence to fluid was more common in patients. The highest level of perceived support was the family support 11.19 (1.34. There was a significant relationship between social support and adherence to dietary and fluid restrictions. Noncompliances to dietary and fluid restrictions were related to laboratory results. Conclusion: This way those patients who more supported had more adherences of diet and fluid restrictions and had lower level of phosphorus and potassium in laboratory results. Nurses have the main role to identify different methods providing social support for patients, also to encourage the families to support their hemodialysis patients.

  17. The effect of different levels of dietary restriction on glucose homeostasis and metabolic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyi, Stephanie; Jackson, Jordan; Garrett, Karla; Deepa, Sathyaseelan S; Unnikrishnan, Archana

    2018-02-17

    Over the past 50 years, dietary restriction (DR) has been shown to extend the life span of a wide variety of organisms. A hallmark feature of DR is improved glucose homeostasis resulting in increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity of animals ranging from rodents to humans. In this study, we demonstrate the early effects of varying levels of DR on glucose tolerance. Within 10 days of 40% DR, glucose tolerance was significantly improved and by 120 days; 10 and 20% DR also showed enhanced glucose tolerance. All three levels of DR showed reduced adiposity, increased expression of genes involved in fat turnover, and a reduction in the expression for markers of inflammation. Studies have shown that mice fed a DR diet retained metabolic memory in terms of improved glucose tolerance even after DR is discontinued. We show that 40% DR not only has an early effect on glucose tolerance but also maintained it after DR was discontinued for 2 months. Therefore, improvement in glucose tolerance is brought about by all three levels of DR but the metabolic memory is not dose responsive.

  18. Intestinal IRE1 Is Required for Increased Triglyceride Metabolism and Longer Lifespan under Dietary Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Nuno Miguel; Wang, Lifen; Ortega, Mauricio; Deng, Hansong; Katewa, Subhash D; Li, Patrick Wai-Lun; Karpac, Jason; Jasper, Heinrich; Kapahi, Pankaj

    2016-10-25

    Dietary restriction (DR) is one of the most robust lifespan-extending interventions in animals. The beneficial effects of DR involve a metabolic adaptation toward increased triglyceride usage. The regulatory mechanism and the tissue specificity of this metabolic switch remain unclear. Here, we show that the IRE1/XBP1 endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling module mediates metabolic adaptation upon DR in flies by promoting triglyceride synthesis and accumulation in enterocytes (ECs) of the Drosophila midgut. Consistently, IRE1/XBP1 function in ECs is required for increased longevity upon DR. We further identify sugarbabe, a Gli-like zinc-finger transcription factor, as a key mediator of the IRE1/XBP1-regulated induction of de novo lipogenesis in ECs. Overexpression of sugarbabe rescues metabolic and lifespan phenotypes of IRE1 loss-of-function conditions. Our study highlights the critical role of metabolic adaptation of the intestinal epithelium for DR-induced lifespan extension and explores the IRE1/XBP1 signaling pathway regulating this adaptation and influencing lifespan. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Predictors of Dietary Energy Density among Preschool Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilmani N.T. Fernando

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a global problem with many contributing factors including dietary energy density (DED. This paper aims to investigate potential predictors of DED among preschool aged children in Victoria, Australia. Secondary analysis of longitudinal data for 209 mother–child pairs from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial was conducted. Data for predictors (maternal child feeding and nutrition knowledge, maternal dietary intake, home food availability, socioeconomic status were obtained through questionnaires completed by first-time mothers when children were aged 4 or 18 months. Three 24-h dietary recalls were completed when children were aged ~3.5 years. DED was calculated utilizing three methods: “food only”, “food and dairy beverages”, and “food and all beverages”. Linear regression analyses were conducted to identify associations between predictors and these three measures of children’s DED. Home availability of fruits (β: −0.82; 95% CI: −1.35, −0.29, p = 0.002 for DEDfood; β: −0.42; 95% CI: −0.82, −0.02, p = 0.041 for DEDfood+dairy beverages and non-core snacks (β: 0.11; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.20, p = 0.016 for DEDfood; β: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.15, p = 0.010 for DEDfood+dairy beverages were significantly associated with two of the three DED measures. Providing fruit at home early in a child’s life may encourage the establishment of healthful eating behaviors that could promote a diet that is lower in energy density later in life. Home availability of non-core snacks is likely to increase the energy density of preschool children’s diets, supporting the proposition that non-core snack availability at home should be limited.

  20. Caloric restriction and intermittent fasting: Two potential diets for successful brain aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Bronwen; Mattson, Mark P.; Maudsley, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    The vulnerability of the nervous system to advancing age is all too often manifest in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. In this review article we describe evidence suggesting that two dietary interventions, caloric restriction (CR) and intermittent fasting (IF), can prolong the health-span of the nervous system by impinging upon fundamental metabolic and cellular signaling pathways that regulate life-span. CR and IF affect energy and oxygen radical metabolism, and cellular stress response systems, in ways that protect neurons against genetic and environmental factors to which they would otherwise succumb during aging. There are multiple interactive pathways and molecular mechanisms by which CR and IF benefit neurons including those involving insulin-like signaling, FoxO transcription factors, sirtuins and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. These pathways stimulate the production of protein chaperones, neurotrophic factors and antioxidant enzymes, all of which help cells cope with stress and resist disease. A better understanding of the impact of CR and IF on the aging nervous system will likely lead to novel approaches for preventing and treating neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:16899414

  1. Dietary flavonoid intake at midlife and healthy aging in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samieri, Cécilia; Sun, Qi; Townsend, Mary K; Rimm, Eric B; Grodstein, Francine

    2014-12-01

    Dietary flavonoids have been related to lower risks of various chronic diseases, but it is unclear whether flavonoid intake in midlife helps to maintain good health and wellbeing in aging. We examined the relation of flavonoid intake in midlife with the prevalence of healthy aging. We included 13,818 women from the Nurses' Health Study with dietary data and no major chronic diseases in 1984-1986 when they were aged in their late 50s (median age: 59 y); all women provided information on multiple aspects of aging an average of 15 y later. Intakes of 6 major flavonoid subclasses in midlife were ascertained on the basis of averaged intakes of flavonoid-rich foods from 2 food-frequency questionnaires (1984-1986). We defined healthy compared with usual aging as of age 70 y; healthy aging was based on survival to ≥70 y with maintenance of 4 health domains (no major chronic diseases or major impairments in cognitive or physical function or mental health). Of women who survived until ≥70 y of age, 1517 women (11.0%) met our criteria for healthy aging. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of intake, women in the highest quintile of intake of several flavonoid subclasses at midlife had greater odds of healthy aging. After multivariable adjustment, ORs were as follows: flavones, 1.32 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.58); flavanone, 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.53); anthocyanin, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.50); and flavonol, 1.18 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.42) (all P-trend ≤ 0.02). Consistently, greater intakes of major sources of these flavonoids (i.e., oranges, berries, onions, and apples) were associated with increased odds of healthy aging. We showed no association with flavan-3-ol monomers (P-trend = 0.80) or polymers (P-trend = 0.63). Higher intake of flavonoids at midlife, specifically flavones, flavanones, anthocyanins, and flavonols, is associated with greater likelihood of health and wellbeing in individuals surviving to older ages. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Intrauterine growth restriction programs an accelerated age-related increase in cardiovascular risk in male offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira; Backstrom, Miles A.; Carter, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Placental insufficiency programs an increase in blood pressure associated with a twofold increase in serum testosterone in male growth-restricted offspring at 4 mo of age. Population studies indicate that the inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure is amplified with age. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that intrauterine growth restriction programs an age-related increase in blood pressure in male offspring. Growth-restricted offspring retained a significantly higher blood pressure at 12 but not at 18 mo of age compared with age-matched controls. Blood pressure was significantly increased in control offspring at 18 mo of age relative to control counterparts at 12 mo; however, blood pressure was not increased in growth-restricted at 18 mo relative to growth-restricted counterparts at 12 mo. Serum testosterone levels were not elevated in growth-restricted offspring relative to control at 12 mo of age. Thus, male growth-restricted offspring no longer exhibited a positive association between blood pressure and testosterone at 12 mo of age. Unlike hypertension in male growth-restricted offspring at 4 mo of age, inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system with enalapril (250 mg/l for 2 wk) did not abolish the difference in blood pressure in growth-restricted offspring relative to control counterparts at 12 mo of age. Therefore, these data suggest that intrauterine growth restriction programs an accelerated age-related increase in blood pressure in growth-restricted offspring. Furthermore, this study suggests that the etiology of increased blood pressure in male growth-restricted offspring at 12 mo of age differs from that at 4 mo of age. PMID:27147668

  3. Temporary dietary iron restriction affects the process of thrombus resolution in a rat model of deep vein thrombosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Oboshi

    Full Text Available Deep vein thrombosis (DVT is a major cause of pulmonary thromboembolism and sudden death. Thus, it is important to consider the pathophysiology of DVT. Recently, iron has been reported to be associated with thrombotic diseases. Hence, in this study, we investigate the effects of dietary iron restriction on the process of thrombus resolution in a rat model of DVT.We induced DVT in 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats by performing ligations of their inferior venae cavae. The rats were then given either a normal diet (DVT group or an iron-restricted diet (DVT+IR group. Thrombosed inferior venae cavae were harvested at 5 days after ligation.The iron-restricted diet reduced venous thrombus size compared to the normal diet. Intrathrombotic collagen content was diminished in the DVT+IR group compared to the DVT group. In addition, intrathrombotic gene expression and the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 were increased in the DVT+IR group compared to the DVT group. Furthermore, the DVT+IR group had greater intrathrombotic neovascularization as well as higher gene expression levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and tissue-type plasminogen activator than the DVT group. The iron-restricted diet decreased intrathrombotic superoxide production compared to the normal diet.These results suggest that dietary iron restriction affects the process of thrombus resolution in DVT.

  4. Temporary dietary iron restriction affects the process of thrombus resolution in a rat model of deep vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboshi, Makiko; Naito, Yoshiro; Sawada, Hisashi; Hirotani, Shinichi; Iwasaku, Toshihiro; Okuhara, Yoshitaka; Morisawa, Daisuke; Eguchi, Akiyo; Nishimura, Koichi; Fujii, Kenichi; Mano, Toshiaki; Ishihara, Masaharu; Masuyama, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major cause of pulmonary thromboembolism and sudden death. Thus, it is important to consider the pathophysiology of DVT. Recently, iron has been reported to be associated with thrombotic diseases. Hence, in this study, we investigate the effects of dietary iron restriction on the process of thrombus resolution in a rat model of DVT. We induced DVT in 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats by performing ligations of their inferior venae cavae. The rats were then given either a normal diet (DVT group) or an iron-restricted diet (DVT+IR group). Thrombosed inferior venae cavae were harvested at 5 days after ligation. The iron-restricted diet reduced venous thrombus size compared to the normal diet. Intrathrombotic collagen content was diminished in the DVT+IR group compared to the DVT group. In addition, intrathrombotic gene expression and the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 were increased in the DVT+IR group compared to the DVT group. Furthermore, the DVT+IR group had greater intrathrombotic neovascularization as well as higher gene expression levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and tissue-type plasminogen activator than the DVT group. The iron-restricted diet decreased intrathrombotic superoxide production compared to the normal diet. These results suggest that dietary iron restriction affects the process of thrombus resolution in DVT.

  5. Effect of dietary restriction on immune response of laboratory mice divergently selected for basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książek, Aneta; Konarzewski, Marek

    2012-01-01

    To study whether dietary restriction (DR; 70% of ad lib. feeding)-elicited immunosuppression results from the trade-off between the costs of mounting an immune response and the metabolic costs of maintenance, we subjected mice from two divergent lines selected for high basal metabolic rate (H-BMR) and low BMR (L-BMR) to 4 wk of DR and then challenged them with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) antigen. Those line types differ genetically with respect to BMR and to the mass of metabolically expensive internal organs, which are larger in H-BMR mice. In mice of both line types, DR resulted in a significant reduction of body mass, an immune response, and the downsizing of spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, heart, and kidneys but not small intestines. DR resulted in a greater reduction of the spleen and lymph nodes in mice of the H-BMR line type, whereas the thymus was more affected in L-BMR line type. In contrast, immunization resulted in an increase of liver mass in DR mice of both line types. A comparison of the results of current and earlier studies on the same mouse line types suggests that metabolic trade-offs involving the costs of an immune response are more apparent when animals are forced to increase energy demands (e.g., by cold exposure) compared to when energy demands are decreased through DR. Our findings also suggest that divelrgent selection on BMR resulted in between-line-type differences in T-cell- and B-cell-mediated types of an immune response. More generally, our results indicate that production of a wide repertoire of antibodies is not correlated with high BMR.

  6. Effect of moderate dietary restriction on visceral organ weight, hepatic oxygen consumption, and metabolic proteins associated with energy balance in mature pregnant beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, K M; Awda, B J; Fitzsimmons, C; Miller, S P; McBride, B W; Swanson, K C

    2013-09-01

    Twenty-two nonlactating multiparous pregnant beef cows (639 ± 68 kg) were used to investigate the effect of dietary restriction on the abundance of selected proteins regulating cellular energy metabolism. Cows were fed at either 85% (n = 11; LOW) or 140% (n = 11; HIGH) of total NE requirements. The diet consisted of a haylage-based total mixed ration containing 20% wheat straw. Cows were slaughtered by block (predicted date of parturition), beginning 83 d after the initiation of dietary treatments and every week thereafter for 6 wk, such that each block was slaughtered at approximately 250 d of gestation. Tissue samples from liver, kidney, sternomandibularis muscle, ruminal papilli (ventral sac), pancreas, and small intestinal muscosa were collected at slaughter and snap frozen in liquid N2. Western blots were conducted to quantify abundance of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), ATP synthase, ubiquitin, and Na/K+ ATPase for all tissues; PPARγ, PPARγ coactivator 1 α (PGC-1α), and 5´-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the activated form phosphorylated-AMPK (pAMPK) for liver, muscle, and rumen; phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) for liver and kidney; and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) for liver. Statistical analysis was conducted using Proc Mixed in SAS and included the fixed effects of dietary treatment, cow age, block, and the random effect of pen. Dietary treatments resulted in cows fed HIGH having greater (P ≤ 0.04) ADG and final BW than cows fed LOW. Abundance of ubiquitin in muscle was greater (P = 0.009) in cows fed LOW, and PCG-1 α in liver was greater (P = 0.03) in cows fed HIGH. Hepatic O2 consumption was greater in HIGH (P ≤ 0.04). Feed intake can influence the abundance of important metabolic proteins and suggest that protein degradation may increase in muscle from moderately nutrient restricted cows and that energy metabolism in liver increases in cows fed above NE requirements.

  7. Restriction on an energy-dense diet improves markers of metabolic health and cellular aging in mice through decreasing hepatic mTOR activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, Anke; Campbell, Graeme; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Rimbach, Gerald; Huebbe, Patricia

    2015-02-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) on a normal low-fat diet improves metabolic health and may prolong life span. However, it is still uncertain whether restriction of an energy-dense, high-fat diet would also be beneficial and mitigate age-related processes. In the present study, we determined biomarkers of metabolic health, energy metabolism, and cellular aging in obesity-prone mice subjected to 30% DR on a high-fat diet for 6 months. Dietary-restricted mice had significantly lower body weights, less adipose tissue, lower energy expenditure, and altered substrate oxidation compared to their ad libitum-fed counterparts. Hepatic major urinary proteins (Mup) expression, which is linked to glucose and energy metabolism, and biomarkers of metabolic health, including insulin, glucose, cholesterol, and leptin/adiponectin ratio, were likewise reduced in high-fat, dietary-restricted mice. Hallmarks of cellular senescence such as Lamp2a and Hsc70 that mediate chaperone-mediated autophagy were induced and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling mitigated upon high-fat DR. In contrast to DR applied in low-fat diets, anti-oxidant gene expression, proteasome activity, as well as 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation were not changed, suggesting that high-fat DR may attenuate some processes associated with cellular aging without the induction of cellular stress response or energy deprivation.

  8. Long-term Dietary Macronutrients and Hepatic Gene Expression in Aging Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokarn, Rahul; Solon-Biet, Samantha M; Cogger, Victoria C; Cooney, Gregory J; Wahl, Devin; McMahon, Aisling C; Mitchell, James R; Mitchell, Sarah J; Hine, Christopher; de Cabo, Rafael; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J; Le Couteur, David G

    2018-04-23

    Nutrition influences both hepatic function and aging, but mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, the effects of lifelong, ad libitum-fed diets varying in macronutrients and energy on hepatic gene expression were studied. Gene expression was measured using Affymetrix mouse arrays in livers of 46 mice aged 15 months fed one of 25 diets varying in protein, carbohydrates, fat, and energy density from 3 weeks of age. Gene expression was almost entirely influenced by protein intake. Carbohydrate and fat intake had few effects on gene expression compared with protein. Pathways and processes associated with protein intake included those involved with mitochondrial function, metabolic signaling (PI3K-Akt, AMPK, mTOR) and metabolism of protein and amino acids. Protein intake had variable effects on genes associated with regulation of longevity and influenced by caloric restriction. Among the genes of interest with expression that were significantly associated with protein intake are Cth, Gls2, Igf1, and Nnmt, which were increased with higher protein intake, and Igf2bp2, Fgf21, Prkab2, and Mtor, which were increased with lower protein intake. Dietary protein has a powerful impact on hepatic gene expression in older mice, with some overlap with genes previously reported to be involved with regulation of longevity or caloric restriction.

  9. Communication Profile of Primary School-Aged Children with Foetal Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Lea Aulikki; Olsén, Päivi; Mäkikallio, Kaarin; Korkalainen, Noora; Heikkinen, Hanna; Heikkinen, Minna; Yliherva, Anneli

    2017-01-01

    Foetal growth restriction is associated with problems in neurocognitive development. In the present study, prospectively collected cohorts of foetal growth restricted (FGR) and appropriate for gestational age grown (AGA) children were examined at early school-age by using the Children's Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2) to test the hypothesis that…

  10. Nutrition and Healthy Ageing: Calorie Restriction or Polyphenol-Rich “MediterrAsian” Diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Pallauf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet plays an important role in mammalian health and the prevention of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD. Incidence of CVD is low in many parts of Asia (e.g., Japan and the Mediterranean area (e.g., Italy, Spain, Greece, and Turkey. The Asian and the Mediterranean diets are rich in fruit and vegetables, thereby providing high amounts of plant bioactives including polyphenols, glucosinolates, and antioxidant vitamins. Furthermore, oily fish which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids is an important part of the Asian (e.g., Japanese and also of the Mediterranean diets. There are specific plant bioactives which predominantly occur in the Mediterranean (e.g., resveratrol from red wine, hydroxytyrosol, and oleuropein from olive oil and in the Asian diets (e.g., isoflavones from soybean and epigallocatechin gallate from green tea. Interestingly, when compared to calorie restriction which has been repeatedly shown to increase healthspan, these polyphenols activate similar molecular targets such as Sirt1. We suggest that a so-called “MediterrAsian” diet combining sirtuin-activating foods (= sirtfoods of the Asian as well as Mediterranean diet may be a promising dietary strategy in preventing chronic diseases, thereby ensuring health and healthy ageing. Future (human studies are needed which take the concept suggested here of the MediterrAsian diet into account.

  11. Dietary sodium restriction in the prophylaxis of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: effects on the intake of other nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buul, B J; Steegers, E A; Jongsma, H W; Rijpkema, A L; Eskes, T K; Thomas, C M; Baadenhuysen, H; Hein, P R

    1995-07-01

    Dietary sodium restriction is used in the Netherlands in the prophylaxis of preeclampsia. To study the effects of long-term sodium restriction on the intake of other nutrients and the outcome of pregnancy, 68 healthy nulliparous pregnant women were randomly assigned to either a low-sodium diet (20 mmol/24 h) or an unrestricted diet. The diet was consumed between week 14 of gestation and delivery. The dietary intakes of energy, fat, protein, carbohydrate, sodium, potassium, and calcium were estimated with the dietary-history technique. A low-sodium diet reduced the intake of protein (by approximately 15 g/24 h), fat (by 20 g/24 h), and calcium (by 350 mg/24 h) and tended to decrease the energy intake (by approximately 0.7 MJ/24 h). The intakes of carbohydrate and potassium did not differ between the groups. The maternal weight gain was less in the low-sodium group (6.0 +/- 3.7 compared with 11.7 +/- 4.7 kg). Mean birth weight was not significantly different (3.2 +/- 0.5 compared with 3.4 +/- 0.5 kg).

  12. Combined treatment of rapamycin and dietary restriction has a larger effect on the transcriptome and metabolome of liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Wilson C; Bokov, Alex; Gelfond, Jonathan; Yu, Zhen; Zhang, Yiqiang; Doderer, Mark; Chen, Yidong; Javors, Martin; Wood, William H; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G; Richardson, Arlan; Pérez, Viviana I

    2014-04-01

    Rapamycin (Rapa) and dietary restriction (DR) have consistently been shown to increase lifespan. To investigate whether Rapa and DR affect similar pathways in mice, we compared the effects of feeding mice ad libitum (AL), Rapa, DR, or a combination of Rapa and DR (Rapa + DR) on the transcriptome and metabolome of the liver. The principal component analysis shows that Rapa and DR are distinct groups. Over 2500 genes are significantly changed with either Rapa or DR when compared with mice fed AL; more than 80% are unique to DR or Rapa. A similar observation was made when genes were grouped into pathways; two-thirds of the pathways were uniquely changed by DR or Rapa. The metabolome shows an even greater difference between Rapa and DR; no metabolites in Rapa-treated mice were changed significantly from AL mice, whereas 173 metabolites were changed in the DR mice. Interestingly, the number of genes significantly changed by Rapa + DR when compared with AL is twice as large as the number of genes significantly altered by either DR or Rapa alone. In summary, the global effects of DR or Rapa on the liver are quite different and a combination of Rapa and DR results in alterations in a large number of genes and metabolites that are not significantly changed by either manipulation alone, suggesting that a combination of DR and Rapa would be more effective in extending longevity than either treatment alone. © 2013 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The MDT-15 subunit of mediator interacts with dietary restriction to modulate longevity and fluoranthene toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Schleit

    Full Text Available Dietary restriction (DR, the limitation of calorie intake while maintaining proper nutrition, has been found to extend life span and delay the onset of age-associated disease in a wide range of species. Previous studies have suggested that DR can reduce the lethality of environmental toxins. To further examine the role of DR in toxin response, we measured life spans of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans treated with the mutagenic polyaromatic hydrocarbon, fluoranthene (FLA. FLA is a direct byproduct of combustion, and is one of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's sixteen priority environmental toxins. Treatment with 5 µg/ml FLA shortened the life spans of ad libitum fed nematodes, and DR resulted in increased sensitivity to FLA. To determine the role of detoxifying enzymes in the toxicity of FLA, we tested nematodes with mutations in the gene encoding the MDT-15 subunit of mediator, a transcriptional coactivator that regulates genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and detoxification. Mutation of mdt-15 increased the life span of FLA treated animals compared to wild-type animals with no difference observed between DR and ad libitum fed mdt-15 animals. We also examined mutants with altered insulin-IGF-1-like signaling (IIS, which is known to modulate life span and stress resistance in C. elegans independently of DR. Mutation of the genes coding for the insulin-like receptor DAF-2 or the FOXO-family transcription factor DAF16 did not alter the animals' susceptibility to FLA compared to wild type. Taken together, our results suggest that certain compounds have increased toxicity when combined with a DR regimen through increased metabolic activation. This increased metabolic activation appears to be mediated through the MDT-15 transcription factor and is independent of the IIS pathway.

  14. Prolongevity effects of a botanical with oregano and cranberry extracts in Mexican fruit flies: examining interactions of diet restriction and age

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Sige; Carey, James R.; Liedo, Pablo; Ingram, Donald K.; Yu, Binbing

    2011-01-01

    Botanicals rich with phytochemicals have numerous health benefits. Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in diverse species. We previously demonstrated that an oregano–cranberry (OC) mixture can promote longevity in the Mexican Fruit fly (Mexfly, Anastrepha ludens Loew). However, little is known about the interaction between botanicals and DR, and the age-dependent effect of botanicals on lifespan and reproduction. Here we investigated these issues by feeding Mexflies a full or DR diet su...

  15. Dietary Methionine Restriction Alleviates Hyperglycemia in Pigs with Intrauterine Growth Restriction by Enhancing Hepatic Protein Kinase B Signaling and Glycogen Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Zhixiong; Zhang, Hao; Su, Weipeng; Zhou, Le; Wang, Fei; Li, Yue; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2017-10-01

    Background: Individuals with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are prone to developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Dietary methionine restriction (MR) improves insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in individuals with normal birth weight (NBW). Objective: This study investigated the effects of MR on plasma glucose concentration and hepatic and muscle glucose metabolism in pigs with IUGR. Methods: Thirty female NBW and 60 same-sex spontaneous IUGR piglets (Landrace × Yorkshire) were selected. After weaning (day 21), the piglets were fed diets with adequate methionine (NBW-CON and IUGR-CON) or 30% less methionine (IUGR-MR) ( n = 6). At day 180, 1 pig with a body weight near the mean of each replication was selected for biochemical analysis. Results: The IUGR-CON group showed 41.6%, 68.6%, and 67.1% higher plasma glucose concentration, hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity, and glucose-6-phosphatase activity, respectively, than the NBW-CON group ( P glycogen content and glycogen synthase activity were 36.9% and 38.8% lower, respectively, in the IUGR-CON than the NBW-CON group ( P glycogen content and glycogen synthase activity of the IUGR-MR pigs were 62.9% and 50.8% higher than those of the IUGR-CON pigs ( P glycogen synthesis, implying a potential nutritional strategy to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus in IUGR offspring. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Food restriction modulates β-adrenergic-sensitive adenylate cyclase in rat liver during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Adenylate cyclase activities were studied in rat liver during postmaturational aging of male Fischer 344 rats fed ad libitum or restricted to 60% of the ad libitum intake. Catecholamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity increased by 200-300% between 6 and 24-27 mo of age in ad libitum-fed rats, whereas in food-restricted rats catecholamine response increased by only 58-84% between 6 and 30 mo. In ad libitum-fed rats, glucagon-stimulated enzyme activity also increased by 40% between 6 and 12 mo and in restricted rats a similar age-related increase was delayed until 18 mo. β-Adrenergic receptor density increased by 50% between 6 and 24 mo in livers from ad libitum-fed but not food-restricted rats and showed a highly significant correlation with maximal isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity over the postmaturational life span. Age-related increases in unstimulated (basal) adenylate cyclase activity and nonreceptor-mediated enzyme activation were retarded by food restriction. The results demonstrate that food restriction diminishes a marked age-related increase in β-adrenergic-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity of rat liver. Alterations of adrenergic-responsive adenylate cyclase with age and the modulatory effects of food restriction appear to be mediated by changes in both receptor and nonreceptor components of adenylate cyclase

  17. Circadian rhythms, time-restricted feeding, and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoogian, Emily N C; Panda, Satchidananda

    2017-10-01

    Circadian rhythms optimize physiology and health by temporally coordinating cellular function, tissue function, and behavior. These endogenous rhythms dampen with age and thus compromise temporal coordination. Feeding-fasting patterns are an external cue that profoundly influence the robustness of daily biological rhythms. Erratic eating patterns can disrupt the temporal coordination of metabolism and physiology leading to chronic diseases that are also characteristic of aging. However, sustaining a robust feeding-fasting cycle, even without altering nutrition quality or quantity, can prevent or reverse these chronic diseases in experimental models. In humans, epidemiological studies have shown erratic eating patterns increase the risk of disease, whereas sustained feeding-fasting cycles, or prolonged overnight fasting, is correlated with protection from breast cancer. Therefore, optimizing the timing of external cues with defined eating patterns can sustain a robust circadian clock, which may prevent disease and improve prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The influence of electronic cigarette age purchasing restrictions on adolescent tobacco and marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Michael F; Hughes, Jenna M; Faisal, Fatima S

    2016-06-01

    In the United States, many states have established minimum legal purchase ages for electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) to ban adolescent purchases, but these policies may also affect other related substance use. We explore whether ENDS are substitutes or complements for cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and marijuana among adolescents by using variation in state-level implementation of ENDS age purchasing restrictions. We linked data on ENDS age purchasing restrictions to state- and year-specific rates of adolescent tobacco and marijuana use in 2007-2013 from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. This data provides a nationally representative sample of adolescents who attend public and private schools. We performed a fixed effect regression analysis exploring the influence of ENDS age purchasing restrictions on outcomes of tobacco use and marijuana use, controlling for state and year fixed characteristics, age-race cohorts, cigarette excise taxes, and cigarette indoor use restrictions. For cigarette use, we separate our results into cigarette use frequency. We found causal evidence that ENDS age purchasing restrictions increased adolescent regular cigarette use by 0.8 percentage points. ENDS age purchasing restrictions were not associated with cigar use, smokeless tobacco use, or marijuana use. We document a concerning trend of cigarette smoking among adolescents increasing when ENDS become more difficult to purchase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Differences between health and ethical vegetarians. Strength of conviction, nutrition knowledge, dietary restriction, and duration of adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Sarah R; Stallings, Sarah F; Bessinger, Raymond C; Brooks, Gary T

    2013-06-01

    Little research has been published concerning the differences between health oriented and ethically oriented vegetarians. The present study compared differences in conviction, nutrition knowledge, dietary restriction, and duration of adherence to vegetarianism between the two groups. Subjects completed an online survey and were grouped by original reason for becoming vegetarian (n=292, 58 health, 234 ethical), and current reason for remaining vegetarian (n=281, 49 health, 232 ethical). Whether grouped by current or original motivation, ethical vegetarians scored higher on the conviction instrument than health vegetarians and exhibited somewhat greater dietary restriction (significant when grouped by current motivation) and had been vegetarian for longer (significant when grouped by original motivation). Nutrition knowledge did not differ between the two groups. The results suggest that ethical vegetarians could experience stronger feelings of conviction and consume fewer animal products than health vegetarians, and may remain vegetarian longer. More research is necessary to understand how vegetarians' eating behaviors are influenced by their motivational profiles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Angquist, Lars; Banasik, Karina

    2012-01-01

    Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction.......Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction....

  1. Changes in atherogenic dyslipidemia induced by carbohydrate restriction in men are dependent on dietary protein source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangravite, Lara M; Chiu, Sally; Wojnoonski, Kathleen; Rawlings, Robin S; Bergeron, Nathalie; Krauss, Ronald M

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that multiple features of atherogenic dyslipidemia are improved by replacement of dietary carbohydrate with mixed sources of protein and that these lipid and lipoprotein changes are independent of dietary saturated fat content. Because epidemiological evidence suggests that red meat intake may adversely affect cardiovascular disease risk, we tested the effects of replacing dietary carbohydrate with beef protein in the context of high- vs. low-saturated fat intake in 40 healthy men. After a 3-wk baseline diet [50% daily energy (E) as carbohydrate, 13% E as protein, 15% E as saturated fat], participants consumed for 3 wk each in a randomized crossover design two high-beef diets in which protein replaced carbohydrate (31% E as carbohydrate, 31% E as protein, with 10% E as beef protein). The high-beef diets differed in saturated fat content (8% E vs. 15% E with exchange of saturated for monounsaturated fat). Two-week washout periods were included following the baseline diet period and between the randomized diets periods. Plasma TG concentrations were reduced after the 2 lower carbohydrate dietary periods relative to after the baseline diet period and these reductions were independent of saturated fat intake. Plasma total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol as well as apoB concentrations were lower after the low-carbohydrate, low-saturated fat diet period than after the low-carbohydrate, high-saturated fat diet period. Given our previous observations with mixed protein diets, the present findings raise the possibility that dietary protein source may modify the effects of saturated fat on atherogenic lipoproteins.

  2. Family food involvement is related to healthier dietary intake in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Jessica Jarick; Fiese, Barbara H

    2018-03-27

    Children in the United States fall far short of meeting federal dietary recommendations. The unhealthy diets common amongst young children are of crucial public health concern, given that they can inhibit healthy development and are predictive of chronic diseases in adulthood. Research investigating behaviors that are related to dietary habits is crucial to allow a better understanding of the causes of unhealthy dietary practices. Involvement in food preparation is known to be associated with healthy dietary behaviors in school-aged children, but little is known about these behaviors and their correlates in younger children. The present study sought to examine the influences and correlates of involvement in family food preparation in children at ages three and four. Parents of preschool aged children (n = 497) completed surveys including information about demographic background, their children's family food involvement, dietary intake, mealtime routines, and problematic eating behaviors. Data were collected when children were three (wave one of the survey) and four years of age (wave two). Findings from this study indicate that family food involvement at age three is predictive of healthier dietary intake at age four (increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, decreased consumption of fast food). These findings indicate that family food involvement is predictive of healthier dietary behaviors in young children, and that outreach efforts focused on family food involvement in early childhood may improve children's dietary habits. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Olive oil, dietary fat and ageing, a mitochondrial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiles, José L.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Ageing represents a great concern in developed countries because the high number of people included in this group (indeed, a further increase in the rate of old people it is expected in the near future. Another important aspect concerning ageing is the number of pathologies related with this phenomenon like Alzheimer, Parkinson, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. According to the free radical theory of ageing and its further mitochondrial extension, ageing is the result of the oxidative insult to the organism throughout the life. Some of the damages are not entirely repaired and are accumulated, leading to organism malfunction. Such oxidative-stress related events are particularly important in mitochondria and specially at the mitochondrial DNA level (less protected and more prone to oxidation than nuclear DNA and with a not well established repairing system. Such mitochondrial damage directly affects to the cell energy delivery system, being that, at least in part, the explanation for the structural and functional impairments related to age. Oxidative stress is related with the fatty acid composition of membranes. The intake of a type of fat affects in a direct way the fatty acids and antioxidants composition of subcellular membranes (including mitochondrial membranes and in an indirect way the susceptibility of the membrane to oxidation. Thus, if we build specific biological membranes according to particular types of fats, we would be able to positively affect the way and intensity in which different organs would age. This work hypothesis represents a new point of view in the investigation of ageing and might have important consequences. According to the above-mentioned premises, this work reviews the convenience to use virgin olive oil as dietary fat from the point of view of mitochondrial ageing.El envejecimiento preocupa enormemente en los países desarrollados por el alto número de personas incluidas en este grupo de poblaci

  4. Effect of dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation on the transcriptional profile of bovine ruminal epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Keogh

    Full Text Available Compensatory growth (CG is utilised worldwide in beef production systems as a management approach to reduce feed costs. However the underlying biology regulating the expression of CG remains to be fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation induced CG on the global gene expression profile of ruminal epithelial papillae. Holstein Friesian bulls (n = 60 were assigned to one of two groups: restricted feed allowance (RES; n = 30 for 125 days (Period 1 followed by ad libitum access to feed for 55 days (Period 2 or (ii ad libitum access to feed throughout (ADLIB; n = 30. At the end of each period, 15 animals from each treatment were slaughtered and rumen papillae harvested. mRNA was isolated from all papillae samples collected. cDNA libraries were then prepared and sequenced. Resultant reads were subsequently analysed bioinformatically and differentially expressed genes (DEGs are defined as having a Benjamini-Hochberg P value of <0.05. During re-alimentation in Period 2, RES animals displayed CG, growing at 1.8 times the rate of their ADLIB contemporary animals in Period 2 (P < 0.001. At the end of Period 1, 64 DEGs were identified between RES and ADLIB, with only one DEG identified at the end of Period 2. When analysed within RES treatment (RES, Period 2 v Period 1, 411 DEGs were evident. Genes identified as differentially expressed in response to both dietary restriction and subsequent CG included those involved in processes such as cellular interactions and transport, protein folding and gene expression, as well as immune response. This study provides an insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the expression of CG in rumen papillae of cattle; however the results suggest that the role of the ruminal epithelium in supporting overall animal CG may have declined by day 55 of re-alimentation.

  5. Preschool Age Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawing conclusions from the validation studies on preschool populations discussed in this chapter is difficult because of the varied study designs, the relatively small study populations, and limited number of studies on each dietary assessment method.

  6. Vasopressin and oxytocin levels during normal pregnancy: effects of chronic dietary sodium restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Post, J. A.; van Buul, B. J.; Hart, A. A.; van Heerikhuize, J. J.; Pesman, G.; Legros, J. J.; Steegers, E. A.; Swaab, D. F.; Boer, K.

    1997-01-01

    Neurohypophysial hormones are thought to be involved in alterations in fluid balance during pregnancy and delivery. In the course of normal pregnancy intravascular volume is increased whereas sodium restriction is thought to reduce plasma volume and cardiac output. In the present study, we measured

  7. Vasopressin and oxytocin levels during normal pregnancy: effects of chronic dietary sodium restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Post, J A; van Buul, B J; Hart, A A; van Heerikhuize, J J; Pesman, G; Legros, J J; Steegers, E A; Swaab, D F; Boer, K

    1997-03-01

    Neurohypophysial hormones are thought to be involved in alterations in fluid balance during pregnancy and delivery. In the course of normal pregnancy intravascular volume is increased whereas sodium restriction is thought to reduce plasma volume and cardiac output. In the present study, we measured the effect of long-term severe sodium restriction on vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) levels during normal pregnancy and after delivery. Fifty-nine healthy nulliparous women were randomized either for a low sodium diet (20 mmol sodium daily) or for a normal diet from week 12 of pregnancy onwards. Circulating plasma levels and urinary excretion of AVP and OT, their neurophysins (Np-AVP and Np-OT) and AVP bound to platelets were determined at regular intervals during pregnancy and after delivery. After completion of the study, women on a sodium-restricted diet were compared with control women on a normal diet using repeated measurement ANOVA with adjustment for potentially confounding variables. After randomization, a reduction in urinary sodium excretion of, on average, 40-82% was found. In general, no effect of sodium restriction could be demonstrated on the various parameters (0.53 sodium restriction compared with non-smokers having a normal diet (P = 0.018). For all parameters, clear changes were found in the course of pregnancy and puerperium (P pregnancy. After birth, free plasma AVP, platelet-bound AVP, OT, osmolality, sodium and potassium increased, while Np-AVP and Np-OT decreased. Although elevated Np-AVP and Np-OT levels during pregnancy seem to indicate increased release of neurohypophysial hormones, pregnancy up to 36 weeks of gestation is accompanied by low circulating AVP and OT levels. Long-term severe sodium restriction diminishes urinary AVP excretion in (non-smoking) pregnant women, without changing circulating levels of AVP and OT, despite the known reduction in circulating volume. The reduced circulating (platelet-bound) AVP levels during pregnancy

  8. The feasibility of age-specific travel restrictions during influenza pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Elson H Y; Cowling, Benjamin J; Cook, Alex R; Wong, Jessica Y T; Lau, Max S Y; Nishiura, Hiroshi

    2011-11-11

    Epidemiological studies have shown that imposing travel restrictions to prevent or delay an influenza pandemic may not be feasible. To delay an epidemic substantially, an extremely high proportion of trips (~99%) would have to be restricted in a homogeneously mixing population. Influenza is, however, strongly influenced by age-dependent transmission dynamics, and the effectiveness of age-specific travel restrictions, such as the selective restriction of travel by children, has yet to be examined. A simple stochastic model was developed to describe the importation of infectious cases into a population and to model local chains of transmission seeded by imported cases. The probability of a local epidemic, and the time period until a major epidemic takes off, were used as outcome measures, and travel restriction policies in which children or adults were preferentially restricted were compared to age-blind restriction policies using an age-dependent next generation matrix parameterized for influenza H1N1-2009. Restricting children from travelling would yield greater reductions to the short-term risk of the epidemic being established locally than other policy options considered, and potentially could delay an epidemic for a few weeks. However, given a scenario with a total of 500 imported cases over a period of a few months, a substantial reduction in the probability of an epidemic in this time period is possible only if the transmission potential were low and assortativity (i.e. the proportion of contacts within-group) were unrealistically high. In all other scenarios considered, age-structured travel restrictions would not prevent an epidemic and would not delay the epidemic for longer than a few weeks. Selectively restricting children from traveling overseas during a pandemic may potentially delay its arrival for a few weeks, depending on the characteristics of the pandemic strain, but could have less of an impact on the economy compared to restricting adult

  9. The feasibility of age-specific travel restrictions during influenza pandemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Elson HY

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have shown that imposing travel restrictions to prevent or delay an influenza pandemic may not be feasible. To delay an epidemic substantially, an extremely high proportion of trips (~99% would have to be restricted in a homogeneously mixing population. Influenza is, however, strongly influenced by age-dependent transmission dynamics, and the effectiveness of age-specific travel restrictions, such as the selective restriction of travel by children, has yet to be examined. Methods A simple stochastic model was developed to describe the importation of infectious cases into a population and to model local chains of transmission seeded by imported cases. The probability of a local epidemic, and the time period until a major epidemic takes off, were used as outcome measures, and travel restriction policies in which children or adults were preferentially restricted were compared to age-blind restriction policies using an age-dependent next generation matrix parameterized for influenza H1N1-2009. Results Restricting children from travelling would yield greater reductions to the short-term risk of the epidemic being established locally than other policy options considered, and potentially could delay an epidemic for a few weeks. However, given a scenario with a total of 500 imported cases over a period of a few months, a substantial reduction in the probability of an epidemic in this time period is possible only if the transmission potential were low and assortativity (i.e. the proportion of contacts within-group were unrealistically high. In all other scenarios considered, age-structured travel restrictions would not prevent an epidemic and would not delay the epidemic for longer than a few weeks. Conclusions Selectively restricting children from traveling overseas during a pandemic may potentially delay its arrival for a few weeks, depending on the characteristics of the pandemic strain, but could have less

  10. Modified lingguizhugan decoction incorporated with dietary restriction and exercise ameliorates hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hypertension in a rat model of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Limei; Wei, Jingjing; Shi, Si; Guo, Kunbin; Wang, Xiangyu; Wang, Qi; Chen, Dingsheng; Li, Weirong

    2017-02-28

    Modified Lingguizhugan Decoction (MLD) came from famous Chinese medicine Linggui Zhugan Decoction. The MLD is used for the treatment of metabolic syndrome in the clinical setting. Our study focuses on the comprehensive treatment of MLD incorporated with dietary restriction and exercise in a rat model of the metabolic syndrome (MS). Rats were divided into five groups: control group (Cont), high-fat diet group (HFD), high-fat diet incorporated with dietary restriction group (HFD-DR), exercise incorporated with dietary restriction group (HFD-DR-Ex) and MLD incorporated with dietary restriction and exercise group (HFD-DR-Ex-MLD). Treatments were conducted for 1 week after feeding high-fat diet for 12 weeks. The effects of treatments on high fat diet-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hepatic injury and insulin resistance in rats of MS were examined. In addition, the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), leptin and protein kinase B (PKB) in rats serum and liver were also examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After a week's intervention by dietary restriction, dietary restriction incorporated with exercise or MLD, compared with HFD rats, the relative weight of liver and fat, levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, free fatty acid, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and alkaline phosphatase, insulin, were significantly decreased (p exercise treatment exhibit effects in alleviating high-fat diet-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hepatic injury and insulin resistance, which are possibly due to the down-regulation of TNF-α, leptin and PKB.

  11. Dietary Phosphate Restriction Normalizes Biochemical and Skeletal Abnormalities in a Murine Model of Tumoral Calcinosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Austin, Anthony M.; Gray, Amie K.; Allen, Matthew R.; Econs, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the GALNT3 gene cause tumoral calcinosis characterized by ectopic calcifications due to persistent hyperphosphatemia. We recently developed Galnt3 knockout mice in a mixed background, which had hyperphosphatemia with increased bone mineral density (BMD) and infertility in males. To test the effect of dietary phosphate intake on their phenotype, Galnt3 knockout mice were generated in the C57BL/6J strain and fed various phosphate diets: 0.1% (low), 0.3% (low normal), 0.6% (normal),...

  12. Effect of dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation on the transcriptional profile of hepatic tissue in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Kate; Kenny, David A; Cormican, Paul; Kelly, Alan K; Waters, Sinead M

    2016-03-17

    Compensatory growth (CG) is an accelerated growth phenomenon observed in animals upon re-alimentation following a period of dietary restriction. It is typically utilised in livestock systems to reduce feed costs during periods of reduced feed availability. The biochemical mechanisms controlling this phenomenon, however, are yet to be elucidated. This study aimed to uncover the molecular mechanisms regulating the hepatic expression of CG in cattle, utilising RNAseq. RNAseq was performed on hepatic tissue of bulls following 125 days of dietary restriction (RES) and again following 55 days of subsequent re-alimentation during which the animals exhibited significant CG. The data were compared with those of control animals offered the same diet on an ad libitum basis throughout (ADLIB). Elucidation of the molecular control of CG may yield critical information on genes and pathways which could be targeted as putative molecular biomarkers for the selection of animals with improved CG potential. Following a period of differential feeding, body-weight and liver weight were 161 and 4 kg higher, respectively, for ADLIB compared with RES animals. At this time RNAseq analysis of liver tissue revealed 1352 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEG) between the two treatments. DEGs indicated down-regulation of processes including nutrient transport, cell division and proliferation in RES. In addition, protein synthesis genes were up-regulated in RES following a period of restricted feeding. The subsequent 55 days of ad libitum feeding for both groups resulted in the body-weight difference reduced to 84 kg, with no difference in liver weight between treatment groups. At the end of 55 days of unrestricted feeding, 49 genes were differentially expressed between animals undergoing CG and their continuously fed counterparts. In particular, hepatic expression of cell proliferation and growth genes were greater in animals undergoing CG. Greater expression of cell cycle and cell

  13. Dietary Restriction Behaviors and Binge Eating in Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder: Trans-diagnostic Examination of the Restraint Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elran-Barak, Roni; Sztainer, Maya; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B; Hill, Laura L; Crosby, Ross D; Powers, Pauline; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    To compare dietary restriction behaviors among adults with eating disorders involving binge eating, including anorexia nervosa-binge/purge subtype (AN-BE/P), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED), and to examine whether dietary restriction behaviors impact binge eating frequency across diagnoses. Participants included 845 treatment seeking adults (M=30.42+10.76years) who met criteria for DSM-5 AN-BE/P (7.3%;n=62), BN (59.7%;n=504), and BED (33.0%;n=279). All participants self-reported their past and current eating disorder symptoms on the Eating Disorder Questionnaire. Adults with AN-BE/P and BN reported significantly more dietary restriction behaviors (e.g. eating fewer meals per day, higher frequency of fasting, consuming small and low calorie meals) in comparison to adults with BED. Adults with AN-BE/P and BN who reported restricting food intake via eating fewer meals per day had more frequent binge eating episodes. However, adults with BN who reported restricting food intake via eating small meals and low calorie meals had less frequent binge eating episodes. This study provides mixed support for the restraint model by suggesting that not all dietary restriction behaviors are associated with higher levels of binge eating. It may be that adults with BN who report a higher frequency of eating small and low calorie meals display more control over their eating in general, and therefore also have lower frequency of binge eating. Clinicians should assess for dietary restriction behaviors at the start of treatment prior to assuming that all forms of strict dieting and weight control behaviors similarly impact binge eating. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Dietary fat and carbohydrates differentially alter insulin sensitivity during caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Erik; Reeds, Dominic N; Finck, Brian N; Mayurranjan, S Mitra; Mayurranjan, Mitra S; Patterson, Bruce W; Klein, Samuel

    2009-05-01

    We determined the effects of acute and chronic calorie restriction with either a low-fat, high-carbohydrate (HC) diet or a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet on hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. Twenty-two obese subjects (body mass index, 36.5 +/- 0.8 kg/m2) were randomized to an HC (>180 g/day) or LC (vs 8.9% +/- 1.4%; P vs 7.2% +/- 1.4%; P vs 7.9% +/- 1.2%; P < .05). Insulin-mediated glucose uptake did not change at 48 hours but increased similarly in both groups after 7% weight loss (48.4% +/- 14.3%; P < .05). In both groups, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase decreased by 29% +/- 13% and phosphorylation of Akt and insulin receptor substrate 1 increased by 35% +/- 9% and 36% +/- 9%, respectively, after 7% weight loss (all P < .05). Moderate calorie restriction causes temporal changes in liver and skeletal muscle metabolism; 48 hours of calorie restriction affects the liver (IHTG content, hepatic insulin sensitivity, and glucose production), whereas moderate weight loss affects muscle (insulin-mediated glucose uptake and insulin signaling).

  15. Dietary calcium intake and sunlight exposure among children aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional rickets can be caused by either or both calcium and vitamin D deficiencies, and can frequently occur in Africa. In Ethiopia, limited evidence exists regarding the calcium intake of children and their sunlight exposure practices. The purpose of this study was to assess information regarding dietary calcium intake and ...

  16. Dietary protein restriction for renal patients: don't forget protein-free foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Claudia; Rossi, Andrea; Innocenti, Maurizio; Ricchiuti, Guido; Bozzoli, Laura; Sbragia, Giulietta; Meola, Mario; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2013-09-01

    The treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) consists of pharmacological, nutritional, and psychological-social approaches. The dietary therapy of CKD, namely a low-protein low-phosphorus diet, plays a crucial role in contributing to delay the onset of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and to protect cardiovascular and nutritional status. The protein-free food products represent a very important tool for the implementation of a low-protein diet to ensure adequate energy supply, reducing the production of nitrogenous waste products. This survey included 100 consecutive CKD patients who were asked their opinion about the use of protein-free foods. Ninety-eight patients (98%) reported a regular daily intake of protein-free pasta (as macaroni, spaghetti, etc.), which was the preferred product consumed. Actually, the taste and texture of protein-free pasta were considered as "good" or "very good" by 70% of patients. Conversely, 43% of CKD patients perceived the taste and texture of protein-free bread as "bad" or "very bad", and 30% found it "acceptable". Therefore, the main concern for the implementation of low-protein diets is the use and palatability of the protein-free products, bread in particular. The use of these products may help in reducing protein, phosphorus, and sodium intake while supplying an adequate energy intake, which represents the basis for a nutritionally safe and successful dietary treatment of advanced CKD patients. Manufacturers and food technology should make more efforts to finding new solutions to improve the taste and texture of protein-free products. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Toxicokinetics of chloral hydrate in ad libitum-fed, dietary-controlled, and calorically restricted male B6C3F1 mice following short-term exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seng, John E.; Agrawal, Nalini; Horsley, Elizabeth T.M.; Leakey, Tatiana I.; Scherer, Erin M.; Xia, Shijun; Allaben, William T.; Leakey, Julian E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Chloral hydrate is widely used as a sedative in pediatric medicine and is a by-product of water chlorination and a metabolic intermediate in the biotransformation of trichloroethylene. Chloral hydrate and its major metabolite, trichloroacetic acid, induce liver tumors in B6C3F 1 mice, a strain that can exhibit high rates of background liver tumor incidence, which is associated with increased body weight. This report describes the influence of diet and body weight on the acute toxicity, hepatic enzyme response, and toxickinetics of chloral hydrate as part of a larger study investigating the carcinogenicity of chloral hydrate in ad libitum-fed and dietary controlled mice. Dietary control involves moderate food restriction to maintain the test animals at an idealized body weight. Mice were dosed with chloral hydrate at 0, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg daily, 5 days/week, by aqueous gavage for 2 weekly dosing cycles. Three diet groups were used: ad libitum, dietary control, and 40% caloric restriction. Both dietary control and caloric restriction slightly reduced acute toxicity of high doses of chloral hydrate and potentiated the induction of hepatic enzymes associated with peroxisome proliferation. Chloral hydrate toxicokinetics were investigated using blood samples obtained by sequential tail clipping and a microscale gas chromatography technique. It was rapidly cleared from serum within 3 h of dosing. Trichloroacetate was the major metabolite in serum in all three diet groups. Although the area under the curve values for serum trichloroacetate were slightly greater in the dietary controlled and calorically restricted groups than in the ad libitum-fed groups, this increase did not appear to completely account for the potentiation of hepatic enzyme induction by dietary restriction

  18. Effect of dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation on the transcriptional profile of bovine ruminal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Kate; Waters, Sinead M; Cormican, Paul; Kelly, Alan K; O'Shea, Emma; Kenny, David A

    2017-01-01

    Compensatory growth (CG) is utilised worldwide in beef production systems as a management approach to reduce feed costs. However the underlying biology regulating the expression of CG remains to be fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation induced CG on the global gene expression profile of ruminal epithelial papillae. Holstein Friesian bulls (n = 60) were assigned to one of two groups: restricted feed allowance (RES; n = 30) for 125 days (Period 1) followed by ad libitum access to feed for 55 days (Period 2) or (ii) ad libitum access to feed throughout (ADLIB; n = 30). At the end of each period, 15 animals from each treatment were slaughtered and rumen papillae harvested. mRNA was isolated from all papillae samples collected. cDNA libraries were then prepared and sequenced. Resultant reads were subsequently analysed bioinformatically and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are defined as having a Benjamini-Hochberg P value of alimentation in Period 2, RES animals displayed CG, growing at 1.8 times the rate of their ADLIB contemporary animals in Period 2 (P alimentation.

  19. The Effect of Moderate Dietary Protein and Phosphate Restriction on Calcium-Phosphate Homeostasis in Healthy Older Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, R F; Biourge, V; Chang, Y; Syme, H M; Elliott, J

    2016-09-01

    Dietary phosphate and protein restriction decreases plasma PTH and FGF-23 concentrations and improves survival time in azotemic cats, but has not been examined in cats that are not azotemic. Feeding a moderately protein- and phosphate-restricted diet decreases PTH and FGF-23 in healthy older cats and thereby slows progression to azotemic CKD. A total of 54 healthy, client-owned cats (≥ 9 years). Prospective double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial. Cats were assigned to test diet (protein 76 g/Mcal and phosphate 1.6 g/Mcal) or control diet (protein 86 g/Mcal and phosphate 2.6 g/Mcal) and monitored for 18 months. Changes in variables over time and effect of diet were assessed by linear mixed models. A total of 26 cats ate test diet and 28 cats ate control diet. There was a significant effect of diet on urinary fractional excretion of phosphate (P = 0.045), plasma PTH (P = 0.005), and ionized calcium concentrations (P = 0.018), but not plasma phosphate, FGF-23, or creatinine concentrations. Plasma PTH concentrations did not significantly change in cats fed the test diet (P = 0.62) but increased over time in cats fed the control diet (P = 0.001). There was no significant treatment effect of the test diet on development of azotemic CKD (3 of 26 (12%) test versus 3 of 28 (11%) control, odds ratio 1.09 (95% CI 0.13-8.94), P = 0.92). Feeding a moderately protein- and phosphate-restricted diet has effects on calcium-phosphate homeostasis in healthy older cats and is well tolerated. This might have an impact on renal function and could be useful in early chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  20. eSports: the new age of dietary supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, José Emídio Tinoco

    2017-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Media Interativos eSports – the competitive form of video gaming – is a growing industry with millions of active players and viewers worldwide. Seen by many as a digital sport, rather than ordinary entertainment, this study explores the definition of eSports and its resemblances with traditional sports. It proposes the possibility of targeting, communicating, market, and selling dietary supplements to digital athletes. The study findings indicate that...

  1. Different modulation by dietary restriction of adipokine expression in white adipose tissue sites in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteve Montserrat

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White adipose tissue (WAT is a disperse organ acting as energy storage depot and endocrine/paracrine controlling factor in the management of energy availability and inflammation. WAT sites response under energy-related stress is not uniform. In the present study we have analyzed how different WAT sites respond to limited food restriction as a way to better understand the role of WAT in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Methods Overweight male rats had their food intake reduced a 40% compared with free-feeding controls. On day ten, the rats were killed; circulating glucose, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, triacylglycerols and other parameters were measured. The main WAT sites were dissected: mesenteric, retroperitoneal, epididymal and subcutaneous inguinal, which were weighed and frozen. Later all subcutaneous WAT was also dissected and weighed. Samples were used for DNA (cellularity analysis and mRNA extraction and semiquantitarive RT-PCR analysis of specific cytokine gene expressions. Results There was a good correlation between serum leptin and cumulative WAT leptin gene mRNA, but not for adiponectin. Food restriction reduced WAT size, but not its DNA content (except for epididymal WAT. Most cytokines were correlated to WAT site weight, but not to DNA. There was WAT site specialization in the differential expression (and probably secretion of adipokines: subcutaneous WAT showed the highest concentration for leptin, CD68 and MCP-1, mesenteric WAT for TNFα (and both tissues for the interleukins 1β and 6; resistin was highly expressed in subcutaneous and retroperitoneal WAT. Conclusion Food restriction induced different patterns for mesenteric and the other WAT sites, which may be directly related to both the response to intestine-derived energy availability, and an inflammatory-related response. However, retroperitoneal WAT, and to a lower extent, subcutaneous and epididymal, reacted decreasing the expression of

  2. Systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary carbohydrate restriction in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snorgaard, Ole; Møller, Grith; Andersen, Henning K

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition therapy is an integral part of selfmanagement education in patients with type 2 diabetes. Carbohydrates with a low glycemic index are recommended, but the ideal amount of carbohydrate in the diet is unclear. We performed a meta-analysis comparing diets containing low...... to moderate amounts of carbohydrate (LCD) (energy percentage below 45%) to diets containing high amounts of carbohydrate (HCD) in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods: We systematically reviewed Cochrane library databases, EMBASE, and MEDLINE in the period 2004–2014 for guidelines, meta...... to moderate carbohydrate diets have greater effect on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes compared with high-carbohydrate diets in the first year of intervention. The greater the carbohydrate restriction, the greater glucose lowering, a relationship that has not been demonstrated earlier. Apart from...

  3. Diet-related restrictive parenting practices. Impact on dietary intake of 2-year-old children and interactions with child characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Stafleu, A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Vries, N.K.de; Thijs, C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between diet-related parenting practices, parental characteristics, child characteristics, and 2-year-old child's dietary intake. Cross-sectional data (N = 2578) originated from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study. Principal component analyses revealed two restrictive

  4. If you can't eat what you like, like what you can: How coeliac disease patients and their families construct dietary restrictions as a matter of choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, M.; te Molder, Hedwig Frederica Maria; Gremmen, B.; van Woerkum, C.

    2013-01-01

    Although it is recognised that a gluten-free diet has many social implications for coeliac disease patients, not much is known about how such patients actually manage these implications in their everyday interactions. This article examines how dietary restrictions are treated by patients and their

  5. Effects of Dietary Sodium Restriction in Kidney Transplant Recipients Treated With Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Blockade: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Laura V.; Dobrowolski, Linn C.; van den Bosch, Jacqueline J. O. N.; Riphagen, Ineke J.; Krediet, C. T. Paul; Bemelman, Frederike J.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Navis, Gerjan

    2016-01-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease receiving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade, dietary sodium restriction is an often-used treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure (BP) and albuminuria. Whether these effects extend to kidney transplant recipients is unknown. We therefore

  6. Effects of Dietary Sodium Restriction in Kidney Transplant Recipients Treated With Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Blockade : A Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Laura V; Dobrowolski, Linn C; van den Bosch, Jacqueline J O N; Riphagen, Ineke J; Krediet, C T Paul; Bemelman, Frederike J; Bakker, Stephan J L; Navis, Gerjan

    BACKGROUND: In patients with chronic kidney disease receiving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade, dietary sodium restriction is an often-used treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure (BP) and albuminuria. Whether these effects extend to kidney transplant recipients is unknown.

  7. Effects of dietary carbohydrate restriction versus low-fat diet on flow-mediated dilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volek, Jeff S; Ballard, Kevin D; Silvestre, Ricardo; Judelson, Daniel A; Quann, Erin E; Forsythe, Cassandra E; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Kraemer, William J

    2009-12-01

    We previously reported that a carbohydrate-restricted diet (CRD) ameliorated many of the traditional markers associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk compared with a low-fat diet (LFD). There remains concern how CRD affects vascular function because acute meals high in fat have been shown to impair endothelial function. Here, we extend our work and address these concerns by measuring fasting and postprandial vascular function in 40 overweight men and women with moderate hypertriacylglycerolemia who were randomly assigned to consume hypocaloric diets (approximately 1500 kcal) restricted in carbohydrate (percentage of carbohydrate-fat-protein = 12:59:28) or LFD (56:24:20). Flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery was assessed before and after ingestion of a high-fat meal (908 kcal, 84% fat) at baseline and after 12 weeks. Compared with the LFD, the CRD resulted in a greater decrease in postprandial triacylglycerol (-47% vs -15%, P = .007), insulin (-51% vs -6%, P = .009), and lymphocyte (-12% vs -1%, P = .050) responses. Postprandial fatty acids were significantly increased by the CRD compared with the LFD (P = .033). Serum interleukin-6 increased significantly over the postprandial period; and the response was augmented in the CRD (46%) compared with the LFD (-13%) group (P = .038). After 12 weeks, peak flow-mediated dilation at 3 hours increased from 5.1% to 6.5% in the CRD group and decreased from 7.9% to 5.2% in the LFD group (P = .004). These findings show that a 12-week low-carbohydrate diet improves postprandial vascular function more than a LFD in individuals with atherogenic dyslipidemia.

  8. Dietary Sodium Restriction Decreases Insulin Secretion Without Affecting Insulin Sensitivity in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Loretta M.; Yu, Chang; Wang, Thomas J.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Interruption of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system prevents incident diabetes in high-risk individuals, although the mechanism remains unclear. Objective: To test the hypothesis that activation of the endogenous renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system or exogenous aldosterone impairs insulin secretion in humans. Design: We conducted a randomized, blinded crossover study of aldosterone vs vehicle and compared the effects of a low-sodium versus a high-sodium diet. Setting: Academic clinical research center. Participants: Healthy, nondiabetic, normotensive volunteers. Interventions: Infusion of exogenous aldosterone (0.7 μg/kg/h for 12.5 h) or vehicle during low or high sodium intake. Low sodium (20 mmol/d; n = 12) vs high sodium (160 mmol/d; n = 17) intake for 5–7 days. Main Outcome Measures: Change in acute insulin secretory response assessed during hyperglycemic clamps while in sodium balance during a low-sodium vs high-sodium diet during aldosterone vs vehicle. Results: A low-sodium diet increased endogenous aldosterone and plasma renin activity, and acute glucose-stimulated insulin (−16.0 ± 5.6%; P = .007) and C-peptide responses (−21.8 ± 8.4%; P = .014) were decreased, whereas the insulin sensitivity index was unchanged (−1.0 ± 10.7%; P = .98). Aldosterone infusion did not affect the acute insulin response (+1.8 ± 4.8%; P = .72) or insulin sensitivity index (+2.0 ± 8.8%; P = .78). Systolic blood pressure and serum potassium were similar during low and high sodium intake and during aldosterone infusion. Conclusions: Low dietary sodium intake reduces insulin secretion in humans, independent of insulin sensitivity. PMID:25029426

  9. Dietary Salt Restriction in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Carlo; Borrelli, Silvio; Provenzano, Michele; De Stefano, Toni; Vita, Carlo; Chiodini, Paolo; Minutolo, Roberto; Nicola, Luca De; Conte, Giuseppe

    2018-06-06

    A clear evidence on the benefits of reducing salt in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is still lacking. Salt restriction in CKD may allow better control of blood pressure (BP) as shown in a previous systematic review while the effect on proteinuria reduction remains poorly investigated. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of low versus high salt intake in adult patients with non-dialysis CKD on change in BP, proteinuria and albuminuria. Eleven RCTs were selected and included information about 738 CKD patients (Stage 1⁻4); urinary sodium excretion was 104 mEq/day (95%CI, 76⁻131) and 179 mEq/day (95%CI, 165⁻193) in low- and high-sodium intake subgroups, respectively, with a mean difference of −80 mEq/day (95%CI from −107 to −53; p <0.001). Overall, mean differences in clinic and ambulatory systolic BP were −4.9 mmHg (95%CI from −6.8 to −3.1, p <0.001) and −5.9 mmHg (95%CI from −9.5 to −2.3, p <0.001), respectively, while clinic and ambulatory diastolic BP were −2.3 mmHg (95%CI from −3.5 to −1.2, p <0.001) and −3.0 mmHg (95%CI from −4.3 to −1.7; p <0.001), respectively. Mean differences in proteinuria and albuminuria were −0.39 g/day (95%CI from −0.55 to −0.22, p <0.001) and −0.05 g/day (95%CI from −0.09 to −0.01, p = 0.013). Moderate salt restriction significantly reduces BP and proteinuria/albuminuria in patients with CKD (Stage 1⁻4).

  10. Effects of a National Information Campaign on Compliance With Age Restrictions for Alcohol Sales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus; van Hoof, Joris Jasper; Baas, N.; de Jong, Menno D.T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of a national information campaign, introduced by the Dutch Food Retail Organization, named “Under 20? Show Your ID!,” on compliance with age restrictions on alcohol sales. The compliance level after the campaign was compared with a baseline compliance, that we

  11. The antecedents and consequences of restrictive age-based ratings in the global motion picture industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, M.A.A.M.; Eliashberg, J.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes one key characteristic shared by a growing number of industries. Specifically, their products and services are continuously monitored and evaluated by local third-party ratings systems. In this study, we focus on understanding the local drivers of restrictive age-based ratings

  12. Restriction of human papillomavirus DNA testing in primary cervical screening to women above age 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Njor, Sisse H; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    Cervical screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is less specific for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (=CIN3) than cytology. The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether a restriction of HPV testing to women aged at least 30 years would eliminate the problem...

  13. Restricting dietary sodium reduces plasma sodium response to exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenders, E E; Franken, C P G; Cotter, J D; Thornton, S N; Rehrer, N J

    2017-11-01

    Exercise-associated hyponatremia can be life-threatening. Excessive hypotonic fluid ingestion is the primary etiological factor but does not explain all variability. Possible effects of chronic sodium intake are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary sodium affects plasma sodium concentration [Na + ] during exercise in the heat, when water intake nearly matches mass loss. Endurance-trained men (n = 9) participated in this crossover experiment. Each followed a low-sodium (lowNa) or high-sodium (highNa) diet for 9 days with 24-h fluid intakes and urine outputs measured before experimental trials (day 10). The trials were ≥2 week apart. Trials comprised 3 h (or if not possible to complete, to exhaustion) cycling (55% VO 2max ; 34 °C, 65% RH) with water intake approximating mass loss. Plasma [Na + ], hematocrit, sweat and urine [Na + ], heart rate, core temperature, and subjective perceptions were monitored. Urine [Na + ] was lower on lowNa 24 h prior to (31 ± 24, 76 ± 30 mmol/L, P = 0.027) and during trials (10 ± 10, 52 ± 32 mmol/L, P = 0.004). Body mass was lower on lowNa (79.6 ± 8.5, 80.5 ± 8.9, P = 0.03). Plasma [Na + ] was lower on lowNa before (137 ± 2, 140 ± 3, P = 0.007) and throughout exercise (P = 0.001). Sweat [Na + ] was unaffected by diet (54.5 ± 40, 54.5 ± 23 mmol/L, P = 0.99). Heart rate and core temperature were higher on lowNa (P ≤ 0.001). Despite decreased urinary sodium losses, plasma sodium was lower on lowNa, with decreased mass indicating (extracellular) water may have been less, explaining greater heart rate and core temperature. General population health recommendations to lower salt intake may not be appropriate for endurance athletes, particularly those training in the heat. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Dietary patterns are associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; García-Guerra, Armando; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2011-09-01

    In Mexico, about one third of school-age population is overweight or obese and the diet is one of the main determinants. The purpose of this study was to identify the dietary patterns of Mexican school-age children and to determine their association with the risk of overweight/obesity. This study included 8252 school-age children who participated in the 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-2006). Dietary data were collected using a 7-day Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Foods were classified into 25 groups and dietary patterns were defined by cluster analysis. Body Mass Index and prevalence of overweight/obesity were calculated. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and overweight/obesity. Five dietary patterns were identified: Rural dietary pattern (high intake of tortilla and legumes), sweet cereal and corn dishes pattern (high intake of sugary cereals, tortilla, and maize products); diverse pattern (intake of several food groups); western pattern (high intake of sweetened beverages, fried snacks, industrial snack cakes, and sugary cereals), and whole milk and sweet pattern (high intake of whole milk and sweets). We found that children with sweet cereal and corn dishes and western dietary patterns showed an association with overweight and obesity (prevalence ratio 1.29 and 1.35, respectively, using as reference the rural dietary pattern). Patterns characterized by high intakes of sugary cereals, sweetened beverages, industrial snack, cakes, whole milk, and sweets were associated with a higher risk of overweight/obesity among in Mexican school-age children.

  15. Development of a Dietary Index to Assess Overall Diet Quality for Chinese School-Aged Children: The Chinese Children Dietary Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guo; Duan, Ruonan; Kranz, Sibylle; Libuda, Lars; Zhang, Lishi

    2016-04-01

    A composite measure of diet quality is preferable to an index of nutrients, food groups, or health-promoting behaviors in dietary assessment. However, to date, such a tool for Chinese children is lacking. Based on the current Chinese Dietary Guidelines and Dietary Reference Intakes, a dietary index for Chinese school-aged children, the Chinese Children Dietary Index was developed to assess overall diet quality among children in South China. Dietary data were recorded using 24-hour recalls among 1,719 children aged 7 to 15 years between March and June 2013. Inactivity data and sociodemographic information were also collected. The Chinese Children Dietary Index included 16 components, which incorporated nutrients, foods/food groups, and health-promoting behaviors. The range of possible Chinese Children Dietary Index scores was 0 to 160, with a higher score indicating better diet quality. Pearson/Spearman correlation was used to assess relative validity using correlations between total Chinese Children Dietary Index score and age, body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)), inactivity, whole-grain intake, frequency of fried-foods intake, nutrient adequacy ratios for energy intake and 12 nutrients not included in the Chinese Children Dietary Index, and the mean adequacy ratio. Finally, a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to indicate the factors correlated with Chinese Children Dietary Index. Mean Chinese Children Dietary Index score of this sample was 88.1 points (range=34.2 to 137.8), the Chinese Children Dietary Index score of girls was higher than that of boys and decreased with higher age. Children with higher Chinese Children Dietary Index had lower body mass index and spent less time being inactive. Positive associations were observed between Chinese Children Dietary Index and the majority of nutrient adequacy ratios and the mean adequacy ratio. Age, paternal educational level, and family size were correlated with Chinese Children Dietary

  16. Dietary quality, lifestyle factors and healthy ageing in Europe: the SENECA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman-Nies, A.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: to identify dietary and lifestyle factors that contribute to healthy ageing. Subjects: for the analyses, data of the longitudinal SENECA study were used. The study population consisted of 1091 men and 1109 women aged 70-75 years from Belgium, France, Denmark, Italy, The Netherlands,

  17. The relationship of major American dietary patterns to age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    We hypothesized that major American dietary patterns are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk. This was a cross-sectional study with 8,103 eyes from 4,088 eligible participants in the baseline Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) were classified into control (n=2,739), early ...

  18. Practical alternatives to chronic caloric restriction for optimizing vascular function with ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Calorie restriction (CR) in the absence of malnutrition exerts a multitude of physiological benefits with ageing in model organisms and in humans including improvements in vascular function. Despite the well‐known benefits of chronic CR, long‐term energy restriction is not likely to be a feasible healthy lifestyle strategy in humans due to poor sustained adherence, and presents additional concerns if applied to normal weight older adults. This review summarizes what is known about the effects of CR on vascular function with ageing including the underlying molecular ‘energy‐ and nutrient‐sensing’ mechanisms, and discusses the limited but encouraging evidence for alternative pharmacological and lifestyle interventions that may improve vascular function with ageing by mimicking the beneficial effects of long‐term CR. PMID:27641062

  19. Indicators of dietary patterns in Danish infants at 9 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is important to increase the awareness of indicators associated with adverse infant dietary patterns to be able to prevent or to improve dietary patterns early on. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between a wide range of possible family and child...... indicators and adherence to dietary patterns for infants aged 9 months. DESIGN: The two dietary patterns 'Family Food' and 'Health-Conscious Food' were displayed by principal component analysis, and associations with possible indicators were analysed by multiple linear regressions in a pooled sample (n=374......) of two comparable observational cohorts, SKOT I and SKOT II. These cohorts comprised infants with mainly non-obese mothers versus infants with obese mothers, respectively. RESULTS: A lower Family Food score indicates a higher intake of liquid baby food, as this pattern shows transition from baby food...

  20. Dietary compound score and risk of age-related macular degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: Because foods provide many nutrients, which may interact with each other to modify risk for multifactorial diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), we sought to develop a composite scoring system to summarize the combined effect of multiple dietary nutrients on AMD risk. Th...

  1. Effect of dietary restriction on metabolic, anatomic and molecular traits in mice depends on the initial level of basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzek, Pawel; Ksiazek, Aneta; Dobrzyn, Agnieszka; Konarzewski, Marek

    2012-09-15

    Dietary restriction (DR)-related delay of ageing is hypothesized to be mediated by the reduction of the metabolic rate (MR). However, studies on the effect of DR on MR have produced equivocal results. We demonstrated that this lack of congruency can be due to a variation in the initial level of MR within a given pool of experimental subjects. We subjected laboratory mice from two line types divergently selected for basal MR (BMR) to 30% DR lasting 6 months to test whether the effect of DR depends on the initial variation in BMR and peak MR. BMR and peak MR were independently affected by DR. The effect of DR was stronger in line types with higher initial levels of MR. Line-type-specific changes in the proportions of body components explained contrasting effects of DR on the mass-corrected BMR, which decreased in the high-BMR line type and did not change in the low-BMR line type. We conclude that the initial variation in MR can significantly affect response to DR. However, we found no association between the level of MR and mechanisms underlying the susceptibility to or protection against oxidative stress.

  2. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemel Michael B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between dairy product or supplemental calcium intake with changes in the plasma lipidome and body composition during energy restriction. A secondary objective of this study was to explore the relationships among calculated macronutrient composition of the energy restricted diet to changes in the plasma lipidome, and body composition during energy restriction. Overweight adults (n = 61 were randomized into one of three intervention groups including a deficit of 500kcal/d: 1 placebo; 2 900 mg/d calcium supplement; and 3 3-4 servings of dairy products/d plus a placebo supplement. Plasma fatty acid methyl esters of cholesterol ester, diacylglycerol, free fatty acids, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and triacylglycerol were quantified by capillary gas chromatography. Results After adjustments for energy and protein (g/d intake, there was no significant effect of treatment on changes in weight, waist circumference or body composition. Plasma lipidome did not differ among dietary treatment groups. Stepwise regression identified correlations between reported intake of monounsaturated fat (% of energy and changes in % lean mass (r = -0.44, P P Conclusions Dairy product consumption or calcium supplementation during energy restriction over the course of 12 weeks did not affect plasma lipids. Independent of calcium and dairy product consumption, short-term energy restriction altered body composition. Reported dietary fat composition of energy restricted diets was associated with the degree of change in body composition in these overweight and obese individuals.

  3. [Effect of poor dietary behaviors on the overweight and obesity of school-aged children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yong; Yun, Chen; Zhao, Ai; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei; Mu, Zhishen

    2014-09-01

    To explore the rate of overweight and obesity, and the association between unhealthy dietary behaviors and overweight and obesity among Chinese school-aged children from 9 areas. By multiple stage stratified cluster sampling, 814 children aged 7 - 12 years old were chosen, provided with questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. According to the definition from Working Group on Obesity in China, children,were divided into different group, univariate logistic regression and multivariate logistic regression were used to analyze the associations between unhealthy dietary behaviors and overweight and obesity. The rates of overweight and obesity of school-aged children were 22. 88% and 9. 90%, respectively. The rates were higher in urban areas, and second-tier cities were similar with first-tier city. Influence factor analysis revealed skipping breakfast behavior was the influence factor (OR =1. 65, Pchildren’s overweight and obesity has been an increasingly serious health problem, which were correlated with genetic factor, environmental factor, and dietary behaviors and so on, poor dietary behavior might be influence factor for overweight and obesity, so it is necessary to provide earlier intervention strategies for parents to promote children’s good dietary habits.

  4. Chronic Caloric Restriction and Exercise Improve Metabolic Conditions of Dietary-Induced Obese Mice in Autophagy Correlated Manner without Involving AMPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxia Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the role of AMPK activation and autophagy in mediating the beneficial effects of exercise and caloric restriction in obesity. Methods. Dietary-induced obesity mice were made and divided into 5 groups; one additional group of normal mice serves as control. Mice in each group received different combinations of interventions including low fat diet, caloric restriction, and exercise. Then their metabolic conditions were assessed by measuring serum glucose and insulin, serum lipids, and liver function. AMPK phosphorylation and autophagy activity were detected by western blotting. Results. Obese mice models were successfully induced by high fat diet. Caloric restriction consistently improved the metabolic conditions of the obese mice, and the effects are more prominent than the mice that received only exercise. Also, caloric restriction, exercise, and low fat diet showed a synergistic effect in the improvement of metabolic conditions. Western blotting results showed that this improvement was not related with the activation of AMPK in liver, skeletal muscle, or heart but correlates well with the autophagy activity. Conclusion. Caloric restriction has more prominent beneficial effects than exercise in dietary-induced obese mice. These effects are correlated with the autophagy activity and may be independent of AMPK activation.

  5. Status of Dietary Intake of Calcium in Women of Reproductive Age in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nighat Yaseen Sofi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium (Ca plays an important role in bone formation. Attaining optimal bone mass and peak bone densities is essential to prevent osteoporotic fractures in future life. In conditions of Ca deficiency, Ca from the bones maintains the blood levels of Ca leading to its depletion in bones. Calcium depletion leads to poor bone density and a higher risk of osteoporosis particularly in women who have repeated episodes of pregnancy and lactation.Aim & Objective: To assess the dietary intake of calcium.Material Methods: the study was conducted among 200 healthy women of reproductive age group of 20-49 years.Result: The dietary intake of calcium was less than the Recommended Dietary Allowances of 600mg/day. Women from upper socioeconomic class had a higher intake of dietary calcium 435±268 mg/day as compared to women from low socioeconomic class with a dietary intake of 295±163 mg/day.Conclusion: The dietary intake of calcium improved with an increase in socioeconomic class.

  6. Effects of calorie restriction plus fish oil supplementation on abnormal metabolic characteristics and the iron status of middle-aged obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, Fasty Arum; Lee, Hsiu-Chuan; Su, Chien-Tien; Guo, Yu-Ru; Tung, Yu-Tang; Huang, Shih-Yi

    2018-02-21

    The increasing prevalence of obesity and sedentary lifestyles has led to a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) worldwide as well as in Taiwan. Middle-aged women are at a greater risk of MetS, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease than men because they have more subcutaneous fat and larger waist circumferences compared with men with equal visceral fat levels. In this study, we investigated the effects of calorie restriction (CR) and fish oil supplementation (CRF) on middle-aged Taiwanese women with MetS. An open-label, parallel-arm, controlled trial was conducted for 12 weeks. A total of 75 eligible participants were randomly assigned to the CR or CRF group. Both the dietary intervention groups were further divided into two age groups: ≤45 and >45 years. Changes in MetS severity, inflammatory status, iron status, and red blood cell fatty acid profile were evaluated. A total of 71 participants completed the trial. Both dietary interventions significantly ameliorated MetS and improved the participants' inflammatory status. CR significantly increased the total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) whereas CRF increased hepcidin levels in women aged >45 years. Furthermore, CRF significantly increased the n-6/n-3 and arachidonic acid/docosahexaenoic acid ratios. Both interventions improved the anthropometric and MetS characteristics, including body weight, blood glucose and triglyceride levels, and the score of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index. In conclusion, the 12-week dietary interventions improved the abnormal metabolic status of middle-aged obese women. CRF was demonstrated to be more effective in ameliorating postprandial glucose level and TIBC in women aged >45 years than in those aged ≤45 years.

  7. Dietary Curcumin Ameliorates Aging-Related Cerebrovascular Dysfunction through the AMPK/Uncoupling Protein 2 Pathway

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    Yunfei Pu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Age-related cerebrovascular dysfunction contributes to stroke, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases. One pathogenic mechanism underlying this effect is increased oxidative stress. Up-regulation of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 plays a crucial role in regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Dietary patterns are widely recognized as contributors to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that dietary curcumin, which has an antioxidant effect, can improve aging-related cerebrovascular dysfunction via UCP2 up-regulation. Methods: The 24-month-old male rodents used in this study, including male Sprague Dawley (SD rats and UCP2 knockout (UCP2-/- and matched wild type mice, were given dietary curcumin (0.2%. The young control rodents were 6-month-old. Rodent cerebral artery vasorelaxation was detected by wire myograph. The AMPK/UCP2 pathway and p-eNOS in cerebrovascular and endothelial cells were observed by immunoblotting. Results: Dietary curcumin administration for one month remarkably restored the impaired cerebrovascular endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in aging SD rats. In cerebral arteries from aging SD rats and cultured endothelial cells, curcumin promoted eNOS and AMPK phosphorylation, up-regulated UCP2 and reduced ROS production. These effects of curcumin were abolished by either AMPK or UCP2 inhibition. Chronic dietary curcumin significantly reduced ROS production and improved cerebrovascular endothelium-dependent relaxation in aging wild type mice but not in aging UCP2-/- mice. Conclusions: Curcumin improves aging-related cerebrovascular dysfunction via the AMPK/UCP2 pathway.

  8. Effects of dietary lipids on renal function of aged rats

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    Valente Gamba C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal aging is accompanied by renal functional and morphological deterioration and dietetic manipulation has been used to delay this age-related decline. We examined the effects of chronic administration of diets containing 5% lipid-enriched diet (LD, w/w on renal function of rats at different ages. Three types of LD were tested: canola oil, fish oil and butter. Mean systemic tail-cuff blood pressure and glycemia remained within the normal range whatever the age and the diet of the animals. Proteinuria began to rise from the 8th month in the groups ingesting LD, while in the control group it increased significantly (above 10 mg/24 h only after the 10th month. With age, a significant and progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR and renal plasma flow was observed in the LD groups but after 6 months of lipid supplementation, the decline in these parameters was more marked in the butter and fish oil groups. By the 18th month, the lowest GFR level was observed in the group ingesting the butter diet (2.93 ± 0.22 vs 5.01 ± 0.21 ml min-1 kg-1 in control, P<0.05. Net acid excretion, evaluated in 9- and 18-month-old rats, was stimulated in the fish oil group when compared both to control and to the other two LD groups. These results suggest that even low levels of LD in a chronic nutritional regimen can modify the age-related changes in renal function and that the impact of different types of lipid-supplemented diets on renal function depends on the kind of lipid present in the diet.

  9. Intermittent fasting dietary restriction regimen negatively influences reproduction in young rats: a study of hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis.

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    Sushil Kumar

    Full Text Available Nutritional infertility is very common in societies where women fail to eat enough to match their energy expenditure and such females often present as clinical cases of anorexia nervosa. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that link energy balance and central regulation of reproduction are still not well understood. Peripheral hormones such as estradiol, testosterone and leptin, as well as neuropeptides like kisspeptin and neuropeptides Y (NPY play a potential role in regulation of reproduction and energy balance with their primary target converging on the hypothalamic median eminence-arcuate region. The present study was aimed to explore the effects of negative energy state resulting from intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR regimen on complete hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis in Wistar strain young female and male rats. Significant changes in body weight, blood glucose, estrous cyclicity and serum estradiol, testosterone and LH level indicated the negative role of IF-DR regimen on reproduction in these young animals. Further, it was elucidated whether serum level of metabolic hormone, leptin plays a mechanistic role in suppressing hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal (HPG axis via energy regulators, kisspeptin and NPY in rats on IF-DR regimen. We also studied the effect of IF-DR regimen on structural remodeling of GnRH axon terminals in median eminence region of hypothalamus along with the glial cell marker, GFAP and neuronal plasticity marker, PSA-NCAM using immunostaining, Western blotting and RT-PCR. Together these data suggest that IF-DR regimen negatively influences reproduction in young animals due to its adverse effects on complete hypothalamus-hypophysial-gonadal axis and may explain underlying mechanism(s to understand the clinical basis of nutritional infertility.

  10. Effects of short-term dietary restriction and glutamine supplementation in vitro on the modulation of inflammatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C de Oliveira, Dalila; Santos, Ed Wilson; Nogueira-Pedro, Amanda; Xavier, José Guilherme; Borelli, Primavera; Fock, Ricardo Ambrósio

    2018-04-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) is a nutritional intervention that exerts profound effects on biochemical and immunologic parameters, modulating some inflammatory properties. Glutamine (GLN) is a conditionally essential amino acid that can modulate inflammatory properties. However, there is a lack of data evaluating the effects of DR and GLN supplementation, especially in relation to inflammatory cytokine production and the expression of transcription factors such as nuclear factor (NF)-κB. We subjected 3-mo-old male Balb/c mice to DR by reducing their food intake by 30%. DR animals lost weight and showed reduced levels of serum triacylglycerols, glucose, cholesterol, and calcium as well as a reduction in bone density. Additionally, blood, peritoneal, and spleen cellularity were reduced, lowering the number of peritoneal F4/80- and CD86-positive cells and the total number of splenic CD4- and CD8-positive cells. The production of interleukin (IL)-10 and the expression of NF-κB in splenic cells were not affected by DR or by GLN supplementation. However, peritoneal macrophages from DR animals showed reduced IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-α production and increased IL-10 production with reduced phosphorylation of NF-κB expression. Additionally, GLN was able to modulate cytokine production by peritoneal cells from the control group, although no effects were observed in cells from the DR group. DR induces biochemical and immunologic changes, in particular by reducing IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-α production by macrophages and clearly upregulating IL-10 production, whereas GLN supplementation did not modify these parameters in cells from DR animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intermittent fasting dietary restriction regimen negatively influences reproduction in young rats: a study of hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sushil; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional infertility is very common in societies where women fail to eat enough to match their energy expenditure and such females often present as clinical cases of anorexia nervosa. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that link energy balance and central regulation of reproduction are still not well understood. Peripheral hormones such as estradiol, testosterone and leptin, as well as neuropeptides like kisspeptin and neuropeptides Y (NPY) play a potential role in regulation of reproduction and energy balance with their primary target converging on the hypothalamic median eminence-arcuate region. The present study was aimed to explore the effects of negative energy state resulting from intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) regimen on complete hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis in Wistar strain young female and male rats. Significant changes in body weight, blood glucose, estrous cyclicity and serum estradiol, testosterone and LH level indicated the negative role of IF-DR regimen on reproduction in these young animals. Further, it was elucidated whether serum level of metabolic hormone, leptin plays a mechanistic role in suppressing hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal (HPG) axis via energy regulators, kisspeptin and NPY in rats on IF-DR regimen. We also studied the effect of IF-DR regimen on structural remodeling of GnRH axon terminals in median eminence region of hypothalamus along with the glial cell marker, GFAP and neuronal plasticity marker, PSA-NCAM using immunostaining, Western blotting and RT-PCR. Together these data suggest that IF-DR regimen negatively influences reproduction in young animals due to its adverse effects on complete hypothalamus-hypophysial-gonadal axis and may explain underlying mechanism(s) to understand the clinical basis of nutritional infertility.

  12. Effects of Caloric Restriction and Exercise Training on Skeletal Muscle Histochemistry in Aging Fischer 344 Rats

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    David T. Lowenthal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of calorie restriction and exercise on hindlimb histochemistry and fiber type in Fischer 344 rats as they advanced from adulthood through senescence. At 10 months of age, animals were divided into sedentary fed ad libitum, exercise (18 m/min, 8% grade, 20 min/day, 5 days/week fed ad libitum, and calorie restricted by alternate days of feeding. Succinic dehydrogenase, myosin adenosine triphosphatase (mATPase at pH 9.4, nicotine adenonine dinucleotide reductase, and Periodic Acid Shiff histochemical stains were performed on plantaris and soleus muscles. The results indicated that aging resulted in a progressive decline in plantaris Type I muscle fiber in sedentary animals, while exercise resulted in maintenance of these fibers. The percent of plantaris Type II fibers increased between 10 and 24 months of age. Exercise also resulted in a small, but significant, increase in the percentage of plantaris Type IIa fibers at 24 months of age. The soleus fiber distribution for Type I fibers was unaffected by increasing age in all groups of animals. The implications of these results suggest the implementation of exercise as a lifestyle modification as early as possible.

  13. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic Acid, the Major Lipid Component of Royal Jelly, Extends the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans through Dietary Restriction and Target of Rapamycin Signaling

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    Yoko Honda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly (RJ produced by honeybees has been reported to possess diverse health-beneficial properties and has been implicated to have a function in longevity across diverse species as well as honeybees. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA, the major lipid component of RJ produced by honeybees, was previously shown to increase the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. The objective of this study is to elucidate signaling pathways that are involved in the lifespan extension by 10-HDA. 10-HDA further extended the lifespan of the daf-2 mutants, which exhibit long lifespan through reducing insulin-like signaling (ILS, indicating that 10-HDA extended lifespan independently of ILS. On the other hand, 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the eat-2 mutants, which show long lifespan through dietary restriction caused by a food-intake defect. This finding indicates that 10-HDA extends lifespan through dietary restriction signaling. We further found that 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the long-lived mutants in daf-15, which encodes Raptor, a target of rapamycin (TOR components, indicating that 10-HDA shared some longevity control mechanisms with TOR signaling. Additionally, 10-HDA was found to confer tolerance against thermal and oxidative stress. 10-HDA increases longevity not through ILS but through dietary restriction and TOR signaling in C. elegans.

  14. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic Acid, the Major Lipid Component of Royal Jelly, Extends the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans through Dietary Restriction and Target of Rapamycin Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yoko; Araki, Yoko; Hata, Taketoshi; Ichihara, Kenji; Ito, Masafumi; Tanaka, Masashi; Honda, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) produced by honeybees has been reported to possess diverse health-beneficial properties and has been implicated to have a function in longevity across diverse species as well as honeybees. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), the major lipid component of RJ produced by honeybees, was previously shown to increase the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. The objective of this study is to elucidate signaling pathways that are involved in the lifespan extension by 10-HDA. 10-HDA further extended the lifespan of the daf-2 mutants, which exhibit long lifespan through reducing insulin-like signaling (ILS), indicating that 10-HDA extended lifespan independently of ILS. On the other hand, 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the eat-2 mutants, which show long lifespan through dietary restriction caused by a food-intake defect. This finding indicates that 10-HDA extends lifespan through dietary restriction signaling. We further found that 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the long-lived mutants in daf-15, which encodes Raptor, a target of rapamycin (TOR) components, indicating that 10-HDA shared some longevity control mechanisms with TOR signaling. Additionally, 10-HDA was found to confer tolerance against thermal and oxidative stress. 10-HDA increases longevity not through ILS but through dietary restriction and TOR signaling in C. elegans.

  15. Adaptação transcultural para o Brasil do Dietary Sodium Restriction Questionnaire (Questionário Restritivo da Dieta de Sódio (DSRQ Adaptación transcultural para Brasil del dietary sodium restriction questionnaire (Cuestionario Restrictivo de la Dieta de Sodio (DSRQ Cross-cultural adaptation into Brazilian portuguese of the Dietary Sodium Restriction Questionnaire (DSRQ

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    Karina Sanches Machado d'Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A restrição de sódio é uma medida não farmacológica frequentemente orientada aos pacientes com Insuficiência Cardíaca (IC. No entanto, a adesão é de baixa prevalência, ficando entre as causas mais frequentes de descompensação da IC. O Dietary Sodium Restriction Questionnaire (DSRQ tem como objetivo identificar fatores que afetam a adesão à restrição dietética de sódio para pacientes com IC. No Brasil, não existem instrumentos que avaliem tais fatores. OBJETIVO: Realizar a adaptação transcultural do DSRQ. MÉTODOS: Estudo metodológico que envolveu as seguintes etapas: tradução, síntese, retrotradução, revisão por um comitê de especialistas, pré-teste da versão final e análise de concordância interobservador. No pré-teste foram avaliados os itens e sua compreensão, além da consistência interna pelo coeficiente alfa de Cronbach. O instrumento foi aplicado por dois pesquisadores simultânea e independentemente, sendo utilizado o teste Kappa para análise da concordância. RESULTADOS: Apenas uma questão sofreu alterações semânticas e/ou culturais maiores. No pré-teste, o alfa de Cronbach obtido para o total foi de 0,77, e para as escalas de Atitude, Norma subjetiva e Controle Comportamental obtiveram-se, respectivamente, 0,66, 0,50 e 0,85. Na etapa de concordância, o Kappa foi calculado para 12 das 16 questões, com valores que variaram de 0,62 a 1,00. Nos itens em que o cálculo não foi possível, a incidência de respostas iguais variou de 95% a 97,5%. CONCLUSÃO: A partir da adaptação transcultural do DSRQ foi possível propor uma versão do questionário para posterior avaliação das propriedades psicométricas.FUNDAMENTO: La restricción de sodio es una medida no farmacológica a menudo dirigida a los pacientes con Insuficiencia Cardíaca (IC. Sin embargo, la adhesión es de baja prevalencia, y queda entre las causas más comunes de descompensación de la IC. El Dietary Sodium

  16. Removing the age restrictions for rotavirus vaccination: a benefit-risk modeling analysis.

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    Manish M Patel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To minimize potential risk of intussusception, the World Health Organization (WHO recommended in 2009 that rotavirus immunization should be initiated by age 15 weeks and completed before 32 weeks. These restrictions could adversely impact vaccination coverage and thereby its health impact, particularly in developing countries where delays in vaccination often occur. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a modeling study to estimate the number of rotavirus deaths prevented and the number of intussusception deaths caused by vaccination when administered on the restricted schedule versus an unrestricted schedule whereby rotavirus vaccine would be administered with DTP vaccine up to age 3 years. Countries were grouped on the basis of child mortality rates, using WHO data. Inputs were estimates of WHO rotavirus mortality by week of age from a recent study, intussusception mortality based on a literature review, predicted vaccination rates by week of age from USAID Demographic and Health Surveys, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS, and WHO-UNICEF 2010 country-specific coverage estimates, and published estimates of vaccine efficacy and vaccine-associated intussusception risk. On the basis of the error estimates and distributions for model inputs, we conducted 2,000 simulations to obtain median estimates of deaths averted and caused as well as the uncertainty ranges, defined as the 5th-95th percentile, to provide an indication of the uncertainty in the estimates. We estimated that in low and low-middle income countries a restricted schedule would prevent 155,800 rotavirus deaths (5th-95th centiles, 83,300-217,700 while causing potentially 253 intussusception deaths (76-689. In contrast, vaccination without age restrictions would prevent 203,000 rotavirus deaths (102,000-281,500 while potentially causing 547 intussusception deaths (237-1,160. Thus, removing the age restrictions would avert an

  17. Dietary restriction causes chronic elevation of corticosterone and enhances stress response in red-legged kittiwake chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Kitaiskaia, E.V.; Wingfield, J.C.; Piatt, John F.

    2001-01-01

    Release of corticosterone in hungry kittiwake chicks facilitates begging and allows them to restore depleted energy reserves by increasing parental food provisioning. However, in order to avoid detrimental effects of chronic elevation of corticosterone, chicks might suppress adrenocortical activity in response to prolonged food shortages. In this study we examined temporal dynamics of corticosterone release in red-legged kittiwake (Rissa brevirostris) chicks exposed to prolonged restrictions in energy content and/or nutritional quality (low versus high lipid content) of their food. Starting at the age of 15 days, chicks were fed either high- or low-lipid fish at 40%, 65%, and 100% of ad libitum energy intake. Body mass measurements and baseline plasma samples were taken on a weekly basis after beginning of the treatment. After 3 weeks of treatment, chicks were exposed to a standardized acute handling and restraint stress protocol, where in addition to a baseline sample, three plasma samples were taken at intervals up to 50 min. We found that food-restricted chicks had lower body mass, chronically (during 2-3 weeks) elevated baseline and higher acute stress-induced levels of corticosterone compared to chicks fed ad libitum. Low lipid content of food further exacerbated these effects. An increase in baseline levels of corticosterone was observed within a week after energy requirements of food-restricted chicks exceeded their daily energy intake. A tendency for suppression of adrenocortical activity was observed in treatments fed low-lipid diets only at the end of the experiment. We suggest that nest-bound chicks, if food-stressed, might suffer deleterious effects of chronic elevation of corticosterone.

  18. Visualization of dietary patterns and their associations with age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    PURPOSE: We aimed to visualize the relationship of predominant dietary patterns and their associations with AMD. METHODS: A total of 8103 eyes from 4088 participants in the baseline Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) were classified into three groups: control (n=2739), early AMD (n=4599), and adv...

  19. Balanced Caloric Restriction Minimizes Changes Caused by Aging on the Colonic Myenteric Plexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Renata de Britto; Stabille, Sandra Regina; de Faria, Haroldo Garcia; Pereira, Joice Naiara Bertaglia; Guimarães, Juliana Plácido; Marinsek, Gabriela Pustiglione; de Souza, Romeu Rodrigues

    2018-05-04

    Aging can promote significant morphofunctional changes in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Regulation of GIT motility is mainly controlled by the myenteric neurons of the enteric nervous system. Actions that aim at decreasing the aging effects in the GIT include those related to diet, with caloric restriction (CR). The CR is achieved by controlling the amount of food or by manipulating the components of the diet. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate different levels of CR on the plasticity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate- (NADPH-) reactive myenteric neurons in the colon of Wistar rats during the aging process using ultrastructural (transmission electron microscopy) and morphoquantitative analysis. Wistar male rats (Rattus norvegicus) were distributed into 4 groups (n = 10/group): C, 6-month-old animals; SR, 18-month-old animals fed a normal diet; CRI, 18-month-old animals fed a 12% CR diet; CRII, 18-month-old animals fed a 31% CR diet. At 6 months of age, animals were transferred to the laboratory animal facility, where they remained until 18 months of age. Animals of the CRI and CRII groups were submitted to CR for 6 months. In the ultrastructural analysis, a disorganization of the periganglionar matrix with the aging was observed, and this characteristic was not observed in the animals that received hypocaloric diet. It was observed that the restriction of 12.5% and 31% of calories in the diet minimized the increase in density and cell profile of the reactive NADPH neurons, increased with age. This type of diet may be adapted against gastrointestinal disturbances that commonly affect aging individuals.

  20. Changes in Atherogenic Dyslipidemia Induced by Carbohydrate Restriction in Men Are Dependent on Dietary Protein Source1234

    OpenAIRE

    Mangravite, Lara M.; Chiu, Sally; Wojnoonski, Kathleen; Rawlings, Robin S.; Bergeron, Nathalie; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that multiple features of atherogenic dyslipidemia are improved by replacement of dietary carbohydrate with mixed sources of protein and that these lipid and lipoprotein changes are independent of dietary saturated fat content. Because epidemiological evidence suggests that red meat intake may adversely affect cardiovascular disease risk, we tested the effects of replacing dietary carbohydrate with beef protein in the context of high- vs. low-saturated fat intake i...

  1. Age-related differences in norepinephrine kinetics: Effect of posture and sodium-restricted diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supiano, M.A.; Linares, O.A.; Smith, M.J.; Halter, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    We used compartmental analysis to study the influence of age on the kinetics of norepinephrine (NE) distribution and metabolism. Plasma NE and [3H]NE levels were measured in 10 young (age 19-33 yr) and 13 elderly (age 62-73 yr) subjects in the basal supine position, during upright posture, and after 1 wk of a sodium-restricted diet. We found that the basal supine release rate of NE into the extravascular compartment, which is the site of endogenous NE release (NE2), was significantly increased in the elderly group (young, 9.6 +/- 0.5; elderly, 12.3 +/- 0.8 nmol.min-1.m-2; means +/- SE; P = 0.016), providing direct evidence for an age-related increase in sympathetic nervous system (SNS) tone. Although upright posture led to a greater increase in plasma NE in the young (0.90 +/- 0.07 to 2.36 +/- 0.16 nM) than in the elderly (1.31 +/- 0.11 to 2.56 +/- 0.31 nM; age group-posture interaction, P = 0.02), the increase in NE2 was similar between the young (9.6 +/- 0.6 to 16.2 +/- 1.5 nmol.min-1.m-2) and the elderly (11.6 +/- 1.4 to 16.1 +/- 2.4 nmol.min-1.m-2; posture effect, P = 0.001; age group-posture interaction, P = 0.15). Thus the increase in SNS tone resulting from upright posture was similar in young and elderly subjects. Plasma NE levels increased similarly in both groups after a sodium-restricted diet (diet effect, P = 0.001; age group-diet interaction, P = 0.23). However, NE2 did not increase significantly in either group (diet effect, P = 0.26), suggesting that SNS tone did not increase after a sodium-restricted diet. Compartmental analysis provides a description of age-related differences in NE kinetics, including an age-related increase in the extravascular NE release rate

  2. THE EFFECT OF RESTRICTED FEEDING AND DIFFERENT OF SLAUGHTERING AGE ON PRODUCTION OF REX RABBIT PELT

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    Y. Yurniati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the interaction between slaughter age and restricted feed, aswell as the influence of each factor on the production of rex rabbits pelt. Randomized Block Designwith Factorial was used in this experiment with the first factor was 3 levels of restricted feedingtreatment where the amount of feed as follow: P1= 100 % from the total feed requirement, P2 = 80%from total feed requirement and P3 = 60% from the total feed requirement. Feed was given in the amountof rabbits requirement, in which 100% of the total requirement was calculated based on body weight(6.7% of body weight in dry matter basis, and second factor was 3 levels of slaughter age (U1= 120 d,U2= 150 d, U3= 180 d and each treatment was repeated 6 times. The data were analyzed by Anova,and analyzing between the treatments used Contrast Orthogonal. The variable measured were peltproduction (weight pelt, width pelt, thickness dermis and epidermis of Rex rabbit. There was aninteraction betwen slaughtered age and the amount of feed given to Rex rabbits. Feeding 80% from thetotal feed requirement and the slaughtered age at 150 d were the most efficient in producing pelt of Rexrabbits, with weight 261.0 ± 30.33 g, width 928.0 ± 75.5 cm2, and epidermal thickness 32.50 ± 1.1μ,and dermis 2685.50 ± 15.0 μ.

  3. Low-Fat Diet With Caloric Restriction Reduces White Matter Microglia Activation During Aging

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    Zhuoran Yin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rodent models of both aging and obesity are characterized by inflammation in specific brain regions, notably the corpus callosum, fornix, and hypothalamus. Microglia, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system, are important for brain development, neural support, and homeostasis. However, the effects of diet and lifestyle on microglia during aging are only partly understood. Here, we report alterations in microglia phenotype and functions in different brain regions of mice on a high-fat diet (HFD or low-fat diet (LFD during aging and in response to voluntary running wheel exercise. We compared the expression levels of genes involved in immune response, phagocytosis, and metabolism in the hypothalamus of 6-month-old HFD and LFD mice. We also compared the immune response of microglia from HFD or LFD mice to peripheral inflammation induced by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Finally, we investigated the effect of diet, physical exercise, and caloric restriction (40% reduction compared to ad libitum intake on microglia in 24-month-old HFD and LFD mice. Changes in diet caused morphological changes in microglia, but did not change the microglia response to LPS-induced systemic inflammation. Expression of phagocytic markers (i.e., Mac-2/Lgals3, Dectin-1/Clec7a, and CD16/CD32 in the white matter microglia of 24-month-old brain was markedly decreased in calorically restricted LFD mice. In conclusion, LFD resulted in reduced activation of microglia, which might be an underlying mechanism for the protective role of caloric restriction during aging-associated decline.

  4. Low-Fat Diet With Caloric Restriction Reduces White Matter Microglia Activation During Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhuoran; Raj, Divya D; Schaafsma, Wandert; van der Heijden, Roel A; Kooistra, Susanne M; Reijne, Aaffien C; Zhang, Xiaoming; Moser, Jill; Brouwer, Nieske; Heeringa, Peter; Yi, Chun-Xia; van Dijk, Gertjan; Laman, Jon D; Boddeke, Erik W G M; Eggen, Bart J L

    2018-01-01

    Rodent models of both aging and obesity are characterized by inflammation in specific brain regions, notably the corpus callosum, fornix, and hypothalamus. Microglia, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system, are important for brain development, neural support, and homeostasis. However, the effects of diet and lifestyle on microglia during aging are only partly understood. Here, we report alterations in microglia phenotype and functions in different brain regions of mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) or low-fat diet (LFD) during aging and in response to voluntary running wheel exercise. We compared the expression levels of genes involved in immune response, phagocytosis, and metabolism in the hypothalamus of 6-month-old HFD and LFD mice. We also compared the immune response of microglia from HFD or LFD mice to peripheral inflammation induced by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Finally, we investigated the effect of diet, physical exercise, and caloric restriction (40% reduction compared to ad libitum intake) on microglia in 24-month-old HFD and LFD mice. Changes in diet caused morphological changes in microglia, but did not change the microglia response to LPS-induced systemic inflammation. Expression of phagocytic markers (i.e., Mac-2/Lgals3, Dectin-1/Clec7a, and CD16/CD32) in the white matter microglia of 24-month-old brain was markedly decreased in calorically restricted LFD mice. In conclusion, LFD resulted in reduced activation of microglia, which might be an underlying mechanism for the protective role of caloric restriction during aging-associated decline.

  5. Aging and calorie restriction regulate the expression of miR-125a-5p and its target genes Stat3, Casp2 and Stard13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makwana, Kuldeep; Patel, Sonal Arvind; Velingkaar, Nikkhil; Ebron, Jey Sabith; Shukla, Girish C; Kondratov, Roman V Kondratov V

    2017-07-31

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a dietary intervention known to delay aging. In order, to understand molecular mechanisms of CR, we analyzed the expression of 983 MicroRNAs (miRNAs) in the liver of female mice after 2 years of 30% CR using micro-array. 16 miRNAs demonstrated significant changes in their expression upon CR in comparison with age-matched control. mmu-miR-125a-5p (miR-125a-5p) was significantly upregulated upon CR, and in agreement with this, the expression of mRNAs for its three predicted target genes: Stat3, Casp2, and Stard13 was significantly downregulated in the liver of CR animals. The expression of precursor miRNA for miR-125a-5p was also upregulated upon CR, which suggests its regulation at the level of transcription. Upon aging miR-125a-5p expression was downregulated while the expression of its target genes was upregulated. Thus, CR prevented age-associated changes in the expression of miR-125a-5p and its targets. We propose that miR-125a-5p dependent downregulation of Stat3, Casp2, and Stard13 contributes to the calorie restriction-mediated delay of aging.

  6. Accumulation of long-chain glycosphingolipids during aging is prevented by caloric restriction.

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    María José Hernández-Corbacho

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease are major causes of morbidity and mortality that are seen far more commonly in the aged population. Interestingly, kidney function declines during aging even in the absence of underlying renal disease. Declining renal function has been associated with age-related cellular damage and dysfunction with reports of increased levels of apoptosis, necrosis, and inflammation in the aged kidney. Bioactive sphingolipids have been shown to regulate these same cellular processes, and have also been suggested to play a role in aging and cellular senescence.We hypothesized that alterations in kidney sphingolipids play a role in the declining kidney function that occurs during aging. To begin to address this, the sphingolipid profile was measured in young (3 mo, middle aged (9 mo and old (17 mo C57BL/6 male mice. Interestingly, while modest changes in ceramides and sphingoid bases were evident in kidneys from older mice, the most dramatic elevations were seen in long-chain hexosylceramides (HexCer and lactosylceramides (LacCer, with C14- and C16-lactosylceramides elevated as much as 8 and 12-fold, respectively. Increases in long-chain LacCers during aging are not exclusive to the kidney, as they also occur in the liver and brain. Importantly, caloric restriction, previously shown to prevent the declining kidney function seen in aging, inhibits accumulation of long-chain HexCer/LacCers and prevents the age-associated elevation of enzymes involved in their synthesis. Additionally, long-chain LacCers are also significantly elevated in human fibroblasts isolated from elderly individuals.This study demonstrates accumulation of the glycosphingolipids HexCer and LacCer in several different organs in rodents and humans during aging. In addition, data demonstrate that HexCer and LacCer metabolism is regulated by caloric restriction. Taken together, data suggest that HexCer/LacCers are important mediators of cellular

  7. Social-cognitive predictors of low-income parents' restriction of screen time among preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampard, Amy M; Jurkowski, Janine M; Davison, Kirsten K

    2013-10-01

    Parents' rules regarding child television, DVD, video game, and computer use (screen time) have been associated with lower screen use in children. This study aimed to identify modifiable correlates of this behavior by examining social-cognitive predictors of parents' restriction of child screen time. Low-income parents (N = 147) of preschool-aged children (2-6 years) completed self-administered questionnaires examining parent and child screen time, parent restriction of screen time, self-efficacy to restrict screen time, and beliefs about screen time. Structural equation modeling results indicated that greater self-efficacy to restrict screen time (β = .29, p = .016) and greater perceived importance of restricting child screen use (β = .55, p < .001) were associated with greater restriction of child screen use, after controlling for parent screen time. Family-based interventions that consider broader attitudinal factors around child screen time may be necessary to engage parents in restricting screen use.

  8. Effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding on hepatic metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance in KK mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takeshi; Kim, Hyoun-ju; Hirako, Satoshi; Nakasatomi, Maki; Chiba, Hiroshige; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil intake on glucose and lipid metabolism in female KK mice with high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Mice were fed a lard/safflower oil (LSO50) diet consisting of 50 energy% (en%) lard/safflower oil as the fat source for 12 weeks. Then, the mice were fed various fat energy restriction (25 en% fat) diets - LSO, FO2.5, FO12.5 or FO25 - containing 0, 2.5, 12.5, or 25 en% fish oil, respectively, for 9 weeks. Conversion from a HF diet to each fat energy restriction diet significantly decreased final body weights and visceral and subcutaneous fat mass in all fat energy restriction groups, regardless of fish oil contents. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups, but not in the LSO group. Although plasma insulin levels did not differ among groups, the blood glucose areas under the curve in the oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed fatty acid synthase mRNA levels significantly decreased in the FO25 group, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. These results demonstrate that body weight gains were suppressed by dietary fat energy restriction even in KK mice with HF diet-induced obesity. We also suggested that the combination of fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding decreased fat droplets and ameliorated hepatic hypertrophy and insulin resistance with suppression of de novo lipogenesis in these mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary fatty acids and lipoproteins on progression of age-related macular degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montserrat-de la Paz, S.; Naranjo, M.C.; Bermúdez, B.; López, S.; Abia, R.; Muriana, F.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a medical condition of central loss vision and blindness. Numerous studies have revealed that changes on certain dietary fatty acids (FAs) could have useful for AMD management. This review summarizes the effects of dietary omega-3 long-chain PUFAs, MUFAs, and SFAs, and lipoproteins on AMD. Findings are consistent with the beneficial role of dietary omega-3 long-chain PUFAs, while the effects of dietary MUFAs and SFAs appeared to be ambiguous with respect to the possible protection from MUFAs and to the possible adverse impact from SFAs on AMD. Some of the pathological mechanisms associated with lipoproteins on AMD share those observed previously in cardiovascular diseases. It was also noticed that the effects of FAs in the diet and lipoprotein on AMD could be modulated by genetic variants. From a population health perspective, the findings of this review are in favour of omega-3 long-chain FAs recommendations in a preventive and therapeutic regimen to attain lower AMD occurrence and progression rates. Additional long-term and short-term nutrigenomic studies are required to clearly establish the role and the relevance of interaction of dietary FAs, lipoproteins, and genes in the genesis and progression of AMD. [es

  10. Dietary fatty acids and lipoproteins on progression of age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Montserrat-de la Paz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a medical condition of central loss vision and blindness. Numerous studies have revealed that changes on certain dietary fatty acids (FAs could have useful for AMD management. This review summarizes the effects of dietary omega-3 long-chain PUFAs, MUFAs, and SFAs, and lipoproteins on AMD. Findings are consistent with the beneficial role of dietary omega-3 long-chain PUFAs, while the effects of dietary MUFAs and SFAs appeared to be ambiguous with respect to the possible protection from MUFAs and to the possible adverse impact from SFAs on AMD. Some of the pathological mechanisms associated with lipoproteins on AMD share those observed previously in cardiovascular diseases. It was also noticed that the effects of FAs in the diet and lipoprotein on AMD could be modulated by genetic variants. From a population health perspective, the findings of this review are in favour of omega-3 long-chain FAs recommendations in a preventive and therapeutic regimen to attain lower AMD occurrence and progression rates. Additional long-term and short-term nutrigenomic studies are required to clearly establish the role and the relevance of interaction of dietary FAs, lipoproteins, and genes in the genesis and progression of AMD.

  11. Smoking and dietary inadequacy among Inuvialuit women of child bearing age in the Northwest Territories, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolahdooz Fariba

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal Canadians is higher than non-Aboriginal Canadians, a behavior that also tends to alter dietary patterns. Compared with the general Canadian population, maternal smoking rates are almost twice as high. The aim of this study was to compare dietary adequacy of Inuvialuit women of childbearing age comparing smokers versus non-smokers. Research methods & procedures A cross-sectional study, where participants completed a culturally specific quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Non-parametric analysis was used to compare mean nutrient intake, dietary inadequacy and differences in nutrient density among smokers and non-smokers. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed for key nutrients inadequacy and smoking status. Data was collected from three communities in the Beaufort Delta region of the Northwest Territories, Canada from randomly selected Inuvialuit women of childbearing age (19-44 years. Results Of 92 participants, 75% reported being smokers. There were no significant differences in age, BMI, marital status, education, number of people in household working and/or number of self employed, and physical activity between smokers and non-smokers. Non-parametric analysis showed no differences in nutrient intake between smokers and non-smokers. Logistic regression however revealed there was a positive association between smoking and inadequacies of vitamin C (OR = 2.91, 95% CI, 1.17-5.25, iron (OR = 3.16, 95% CI, 1.27-5.90, and zinc (OR = 2.78, 95% CI, 1.12-4.94. A high percentage of women (>60%, regardless of smoking status, did not meet the dietary recommendations for fiber, vitamin D, E and potassium. Conclusions This study provides evidence of inadequate dietary intake among Inuvialuit of childbearing age regardless of smoking behavior.

  12. 42 CFR 435.230 - Aged, blind, and disabled individuals in States that use more restrictive requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aged, blind, and disabled individuals in States... Coverage of the Aged, Blind, and Disabled § 435.230 Aged, blind, and disabled individuals in States that... for aged, blind, and disabled SSI recipients using more restrictive requirements than those used under...

  13. The success of dietary protein restriction in alkaptonuria patients is age-dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, V.; Carbasius Weber, E. C.; de Klerk, J. B.; Bakker, H. D.; Smit, G. P.; Huijbers, W. A.; Duran, M.; Poll-The, B. T.

    1998-01-01

    Alkaptonuria is characterized by an increased urinary excretion of homogentisic acid, pigmentation of cartilage and connective tissues, and ultimately the development of inflammatory arthropathy. Various diets low in protein have been designed to decrease homogentisic acid excretion and to prevent

  14. Effects of dietary selenium supply and timing of nutrient restriction during gestation on maternal growth and body composition of pregnant adolescent ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, D B; Reed, J J; Borowicz, P P; Taylor, J B; Reynolds, L P; Neville, T L; Redmer, D A; Vonnahme, K A; Caton, J S

    2009-02-01

    The objectives were to examine effects of dietary Se supplementation and nutrient restriction during defined periods of gestation on maternal adaptations to pregnancy in primigravid sheep. Sixty-four pregnant Western Whiteface ewe lambs were assigned to treatments in a 2 x 4 factorial design. Treatments were dietary Se [adequate Se (ASe; 3.05 microg/kg of BW) vs. high Se (HSe; 70.4 microg/kg of BW)] fed as Se-enriched yeast, and plane of nutrition [control (C; 100% of NRC requirements) vs. restricted (R; 60% of NRC requirements]. Selenium treatments were fed throughout gestation. Plane of nutrition treatments were applied during mid (d 50 to 90) and late gestation (d 90 to 130), which resulted in 4 distinct plane of nutrition treatments [treatment: CC (control from d 50 to 130), RC (restricted from d 50 to 90, and control d 90 to 130), CR (control from d 50 to 90, and restricted from d 90 to 130), and RR (restricted from d 50 to 130)]. All of the pregnant ewes were necropsied on d 132 +/- 0.9 of gestation (length of gestation approximately 145 d). Nutrient restriction treatments decreased ewe ADG and G:F, as a result, RC and CR ewes had similar BW and maternal BW (MBW) at necropsy, whereas RR ewes were lighter than RC and CR ewes. From d 90 to 130, the HSe-CC ewes had greater ADG (Se x nutrition; P = 0.05) than did ASe-CC ewes, whereas ADG and G:F (Se x nutrition; P = 0.08) were less for HSe-RR ewes compared with ASe-RR ewes. The CR and RR treatments decreased total gravid uterus weight (P = 0.01) as well as fetal weight (P = 0.02) compared with RC and CC. High Se decreased total (g; P = 0.09) and relative heart mass (g/kg of MBW; P = 0.10), but increased total and relative mass of liver (P RC. Total small intestine mass was similar between RC and CC ewes, but was markedly reduced (P RC than for CR ewes. Increased Se decreased jejunal DNA concentration (P = 0.07), total jejunal cell number (P = 0.03), and total proliferating jejunal cell number (P = 0.05) compared

  15. Caloric restriction increases ketone bodies metabolism and preserves blood flow in aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Xiaoli; Watts, Lora

    2015-07-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase the life span and health span of a broad range of species. However, CR effects on in vivo brain functions are far from explored. In this study, we used multimetric neuroimaging methods to characterize the CR-induced changes of brain metabolic and vascular functions in aging rats. We found that old rats (24 months of age) with CR diet had reduced glucose uptake and lactate concentration, but increased ketone bodies level, compared with the age-matched and young (5 months of age) controls. The shifted metabolism was associated with preserved vascular function: old CR rats also had maintained cerebral blood flow relative to the age-matched controls. When investigating the metabolites in mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle, we found that citrate and α-ketoglutarate were preserved in the old CR rats. We suggest that CR is neuroprotective; ketone bodies, cerebral blood flow, and α-ketoglutarate may play important roles in preserving brain physiology in aging. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Short-term meal replacements followed by dietary macronutrient restriction enhance weight loss in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lisa J; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M; Wittert, Gary A; Williams, Gemma; Norman, Robert J

    2006-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common condition in women, improves with weight loss. Meal replacements in short-term weight loss and strategies for weight maintenance have not been investigated in PCOS. We compared in overweight women with PCOS the effects of meal replacements in short-term weight-loss and longer-term carbohydrate- or fat-restriction strategies on weight maintenance and improvements in reproductive and metabolic variables. Overweight women with PCOS (n = 43; x +/- SD age: 32.1 +/- 5.2 y; weight: 96.1 +/- 18.4 kg) followed an 8-wk weight-loss regimen (2 meal replacements/d, 4904.4 +/- 127 kJ; phase 1) and then a 6-mo weight-maintenance carbohydrate- (weight (5.6 +/- 2.4 kg), waist circumference (6.1 +/- 2.5 cm), body fat (4.1 +/- 2.2 kg), insulin (2.8 +/- 1.1 mU/L), total testosterone (0.3 +/- 0.7 nmol/L), and free androgen index (3.1 +/- 4.6) occurred; these changes were sustained during phase 2. No significant differences between diet groups were seen for any variables. At 6 mo, both approaches resulted in a net weight loss of 4.7 +/- 4.6 kg. Improvements in menstrual cyclicity occurred for 16 (57.1%) of 28 subjects. Meal replacements are an effective strategy for the short-term management of PCOS. Advice on moderate fat or carbohydrate restriction was equally effective in maintaining weight reduction and improving reproductive and metabolic variables.

  17. Gender difference of metabolic syndrome and its association with dietary diversity at different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xu; Xu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Hui

    2017-09-26

    Previous research indicated that dietary diversity had favorable association with metabolic syndrome (MetS), and it has not been investigated in China. Adults (aged 18+) with complete dietary and biochemical data were collected from 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey ( n =4308). Dietary diversity was measured by modified Dietary Diversity Score (DDS). MetS was defined by the harmonized criteria. The association between DDS and MetS was investigated by multivariable adjusted logistic regression. An inverse-U shape relationship between MetS risk and age was detected for both genders, and female were more vulnerable than male at old times. More diversified diet decreased the risk of MetS for young female (≥18 & ≤45), similar trends were detected in serum TGs, abdominal adiposity, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose (all P 60) and male adults (>45&≤60). Greater DDS was associated with higher serum TGs, and lower HDL-C level for male adults, higher blood pressure for old men, but lower blood pressure and fasting blood glucose in young men (all P <0.05). Male adults and old female had the highest risk of getting MetS. More diversified diet decreased MetS risk for young female, but increased the risk for male adults and old female.

  18. Television viewing associated with adverse dietary outcomes in children ages 2-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, C; Ward, D; White, M

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to systematically review the evidence for the association between television viewing and diet in children ages 2-6. Data sources included PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, ERIC, SportDISCUS, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science and hand searches of reference lists of relevant articles. Twelve studies were reviewed in which the relationship between television viewing and diet was assessed in children between the ages of 2 and 6. All but one study reported significant relationship between television viewing time and adverse dietary outcomes. Parent-reported television viewing time was used to assay child television viewing in all included studies. Food frequency survey was the most frequent method of dietary assessment, and parent served as proxies for children in all studies. Lower fruit and/or vegetable intake was the most frequently reported dietary outcome, followed by increased energy intake with increased television viewing. The majority of studies reported adverse dietary outcomes with as little as 1 h of daily television exposure. While these results are consistent with recommendations from child health advocates to limit television viewing in young children, they also suggest that further efforts to limit television viewing in young children may be needed to aid in obesity prevention. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  19. Validation of a Dietary Screening Tool in a Middle-Aged Appalachian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Ventura Marra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Proactive nutrition screening is an effective public health strategy for identifying and targeting individuals who could benefit from making dietary improvements for primary and secondary prevention of disease. The Dietary Screening Tool (DST was developed and validated to assess nutritional risk among rural older adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility and validity of the DST to identify nutritional risk in middle-aged adults. This cross-sectional study in middle-aged adults (45–64 year olds, n = 87 who reside in Appalachia, examined nutritional status using an online health survey, biochemical measures, anthropometry, and three representative 24-h dietary recalls. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI was calculated to describe overall diet quality. Adults identified by the DST with a nutrition risk had lower HEI scores (50 vs. 64, p < 0.001 and were much more likely to also be considered at dietary risk by the HEI (OR 11.6; 3.2–42.6 when compared to those not at risk. Those at risk had higher energy-adjusted total fat, saturated fat, and added sugar intakes and lower intakes of dietary fiber, and several micronutrients than those classified as not at risk by the DST. Similarly, the at-risk group had significantly lower serum levels of α-carotene, β-carotene, cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin but did not differ in retinol or methylmalonic acid compared with those not at risk. The DST is a valid tool to identify middle-aged adults with nutritional risk.

  20. Cardiac remodelling in a baboon model of intrauterine growth restriction mimics accelerated ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Anderson H; Li, Cun; Li, Jinqi; Huber, Hillary F; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Clarke, Geoffrey D

    2017-02-15

    Rodent models of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) successfully identify mechanisms that can lead to short-term and long-term detrimental cardiomyopathies but differences between rodent and human cardiac physiology and placental-fetal development indicate a need for models in precocial species for translation to human development. We developed a baboon model for IUGR studies using a moderate 30% global calorie restriction of pregnant mothers and used cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate offspring heart function in early adulthood. Impaired diastolic and systolic cardiac function was observed in IUGR offspring with differences between male and female subjects, compared to their respective controls. Aspects of cardiac impairment found in the IUGR offspring were similar to those found in normal controls in a geriatric cohort. Understanding early cardiac biomarkers of IUGR using non-invasive imaging in this susceptible population, especially taking into account sexual dimorphisms, will aid recognition of the clinical presentation, development of biomarkers suitable for use in humans and management of treatment strategies. Extensive rodent studies have shown that reduced perinatal nutrition programmes chronic cardiovascular disease. To enable translation to humans, we developed baboon offspring cohorts from mothers fed ad libitum (control) or 70% of the control ad libitum diet in pregnancy and lactation, which were growth restricted at birth. We hypothesized that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) offspring hearts would show impaired function and a premature ageing phenotype. We studied IUGR baboons (8 male, 8 female, 5.7 years), control offspring (8 male, 8 female, 5.6 years - human equivalent approximately 25 years), and normal elderly (OLD) baboons (6 male, 6 female, mean 15.9 years). Left ventricular (LV) morphology and systolic and diastolic function were evaluated with cardiac MRI and normalized to body surface area. Two-way ANOVA by group

  1. Seasonality affects dietary diversity of school-age children in northern Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Razak Abizari

    Full Text Available Dietary diversity score (DDS is relatively easy to measure and is shown to be a very useful indicator of the probability of adequate micronutrient intake. Dietary diversity, however, is usually assessed during a single period and little is known about the effect of seasonality on it. This study investigates whether dietary diversity is influenced by seasonality.Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in two different seasons-dry season (October 2010 and rainy season (May 2011 among the same school-age children (SAC in two rural schools in northern Ghana. The study population consisted of 228 school-age children. A qualitative 24-hour dietary recall was conducted in both seasons. Based on 13 food groups, a score of 1 was given if a child consumed a food item belonging to a particular food group, else 0. Individual scores were aggregated into DDS for each child. Differences in mean DDS between seasons were compared using linear mixed model analysis.The dietary pattern of the SAC was commonly plant foods with poor consumption of animal source foods. The mean DDS was significantly higher (P < 0.001 in the rainy season (6.95 ± 0.55 compared to the dry season (6.44 ± 0.55 after adjusting for potential confounders such as age, sex, occupation (household head and mother and education of household head. The difference in mean DDS between dry and rainy seasons was mainly due to the difference in the consumption of Vitamin A-rich fruits and vegetables between the seasons. While vitamin A-rich fruits (64.0% vs. 0.9%; P < 0.0001 and vitamin A rich dark green leafy vegetables (52.6% vs. 23.3%, P < .0001 were consumed more during the rainy season than the dry season, more children consumed vitamin A-rich deep yellow, orange and red vegetables during the dry season than during the rainy season (73.7% vs. 36.4%, P <0.001.Seasonality has an effect on DDS and may affect the quality of dietary intake of SAC; in such a context, it would be useful to measure DDS

  2. Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products and Cardiometabolic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luévano-Contreras, Claudia; Gómez-Ojeda, Armando; Macías-Cervantes, Maciste Habacuc; Garay-Sevilla, Ma Eugenia

    2017-08-01

    This report analyzes emerging evidence about the role of dietary advanced glycation end products (AGEs) as a cardiometabolic risk factor. Two important aspects are discussed: First, the modulation of AGE load by dietary AGEs; second, if the evidence of clinical and observational studies is enough to make dietary recommendations towards lowering AGE intake. Clinical studies in subjects with diabetes mellitus have shown that high intake of dietary AGEs increases inflammation markers, oxidative stress, and could impair endothelial function. In subjects at risk for cardiometabolic diseases (with overweight, obesity, or prediabetes), dietary AGE restriction decreases some inflammatory molecules and improves insulin sensitivity. However, studies in healthy subjects are limited, and not all of the studies have shown a decrease in circulating AGEs. Therefore, it is still unclear if dietary AGEs represent a health concern for people potentially at risk for cardiometabolic diseases. The evidence shows that dietary AGEs are bioavailable and absorbed, and the rate of excretion depends on dietary intake. The metabolic fate of most dietary AGEs remains unknown. Regardless, most studies have shown that by diminishing AGE intake, circulating levels will also decrease. Thus, dietary AGEs can modulate the AGE load at least in patients with DM, overweight, or obesity. Studies with specific clinical outcomes and large-scale observational studies are needed for a better risk assessment of dietary AGEs and to establish dietary recommendations accordingly.

  3. Accelerated ageing and renal dysfunction links lower socioeconomic status and dietary phosphate intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Ruth; Christensen, Kelly; Mohammed, Suhaib; McGuinness, Dagmara; Cooney, Josephine; Bakshi, Andisheh; Demou, Evangelia; MacDonald, Ewan; Caslake, Muriel; Stenvinkel, Peter; Shiels, Paul G

    2016-05-01

    We have sought to explore the impact of dietary Pi intake on human age related health in the pSoBid cohort (n=666) to explain the disparity between health and deprivation status in this cohort. As hyperphosphataemia is a driver of accelerated ageing in rodent models of progeria we tested whether variation in Pi levels in man associate with measures of biological ageing and health. We observed significant relationships between serum Pi levels and markers of biological age (telomere length (p=0.040) and DNA methylation content (p=0.028), gender and chronological age (p=0.032). When analyses were adjusted for socio-economic status and nutritional factors, associations were observed between accelerated biological ageing (telomere length, genomic methylation content) and dietary derived Pi levels among the most deprived males, directly related to the frequency of red meat consumption. Accelerated ageing is associated with high serum Pi levels and frequency of red meat consumption. Our data provide evidence for a mechanistic link between high intake of Pi and age-related morbidities tied to socio-economic status.

  4. Orthomolecular medicine: the therapeutic use of dietary supplements for anti-aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Dietary supplements at high doses as part of medical therapy have been controversial, but the evidence suggests that they play a significant role in prevention and treatment of diseases as well as protection from accelerated aging that results from oxygen free-radical damage, inflammation, and glycation. This literature review examines several supplements that have documented roles in medical therapy, including vitamins C and E, coenzyme Q10, alpha-lipoic acid, chromium, L-carnitine, and quercetin. The evidence shows benefits in diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, congestive heart failure, age-related deterioration of brain function and vision, and immune function, as well as other age-related health problems.

  5. Reduced Insulin/Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Signaling and Dietary Restriction Inhibit Translation but Preserve Muscle Mass in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depuydt, Geert; Xie, Fang; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Shanmugam, Nilesh; Smolders, Arne; Dhondt, Ineke; Brewer, Heather M.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Braeckman, Bart P.

    2013-09-03

    Reduced signaling through the C. elegans insulin/IGF1 like tyrosine kinase receptor daf2 and dietary restriction via bacterial dilution are two well-characterized lifespan-extending interventions that operate in parallel or through (partially) independent mechanisms. Using accurate mass and time tag LCMS/MS quantitative proteomics we detected that the abundance of a large number of ribosomal subunits is decreased in response to dietary restriction as well as in the daf2(e1370) insulin/IGF1 receptor mutant. In addition, general protein synthesis levels in these long-lived worms are repressed. Surprisingly, ribosomal transcript levels were not correlated to actual protein abundance, suggesting that posttranscriptional regulation determines ribosome content. Proteomics also revealed increased presence of many structural muscle cell components in long-lived worms, which appears to result from prioritized preservation of muscle cell volume in nutrient-poor conditions or low insulin-like signaling. Activation of DAF16, but not diet-restriction, stimulates mRNA expression of muscle-related genes to prevent muscle atrophy. Important daf2 specific proteome changes include overexpression of aerobic metabolism enzymes and a general activation of stress responsive and immune defense systems, while increased abundance of many protein subunits of the proteasome core complex is a DR-specific characteristic.

  6. Self-monitoring urinary salt excretion in adults: A novel education program for restricting dietary salt intake

    OpenAIRE

    YASUTAKE, KENICHIRO; SAWANO, KAYOKO; YAMAGUCHI, SHOKO; SAKAI, HIROKO; AMADERA, HATSUMI; TSUCHIHASHI, TAKUYA

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the usefulness of the self-monitoring of urinary salt excretion for educating individuals about the risk of excessive dietary salt intake. The subjects were 30 volunteers (15 men and 15 women) not consuming anti-hypertensive medication. The subjects measured urinary salt excretion at home for 4 weeks using a self-monitoring device. Blood pressure (BP), anthropometric variables and nutritional variables (by a dietary-habits questionnaire) were measured before and af...

  7. Impact of caloric and dietary restriction regimens on markers of health and longevity in humans and animals: a summary of available findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir Mohammad M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Considerable interest has been shown in the ability of caloric restriction (CR to improve multiple parameters of health and to extend lifespan. CR is the reduction of caloric intake - typically by 20 - 40% of ad libitum consumption - while maintaining adequate nutrient intake. Several alternatives to CR exist. CR combined with exercise (CE consists of both decreased caloric intake and increased caloric expenditure. Alternate-day fasting (ADF consists of two interchanging days; one day, subjects may consume food ad libitum (sometimes equaling twice the normal intake; on the other day, food is reduced or withheld altogether. Dietary restriction (DR - restriction of one or more components of intake (typically macronutrients with minimal to no reduction in total caloric intake - is another alternative to CR. Many religions incorporate one or more forms of food restriction. The following religious fasting periods are featured in this review: 1 Islamic Ramadan; 2 the three principal fasting periods of Greek Orthodox Christianity (Nativity, Lent, and the Assumption; and 3 the Biblical-based Daniel Fast. This review provides a summary of the current state of knowledge related to CR and DR. A specific section is provided that illustrates related work pertaining to religious forms of food restriction. Where available, studies involving both humans and animals are presented. The review includes suggestions for future research pertaining to the topics of discussion.

  8. Impact of caloric and dietary restriction regimens on markers of health and longevity in humans and animals: a summary of available findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanowski, John F; Canale, Robert E; Marshall, Kate E; Kabir, Mohammad M; Bloomer, Richard J

    2011-10-07

    Considerable interest has been shown in the ability of caloric restriction (CR) to improve multiple parameters of health and to extend lifespan. CR is the reduction of caloric intake - typically by 20 - 40% of ad libitum consumption - while maintaining adequate nutrient intake. Several alternatives to CR exist. CR combined with exercise (CE) consists of both decreased caloric intake and increased caloric expenditure. Alternate-day fasting (ADF) consists of two interchanging days; one day, subjects may consume food ad libitum (sometimes equaling twice the normal intake); on the other day, food is reduced or withheld altogether. Dietary restriction (DR) - restriction of one or more components of intake (typically macronutrients) with minimal to no reduction in total caloric intake - is another alternative to CR. Many religions incorporate one or more forms of food restriction. The following religious fasting periods are featured in this review: 1) Islamic Ramadan; 2) the three principal fasting periods of Greek Orthodox Christianity (Nativity, Lent, and the Assumption); and 3) the Biblical-based Daniel Fast. This review provides a summary of the current state of knowledge related to CR and DR. A specific section is provided that illustrates related work pertaining to religious forms of food restriction. Where available, studies involving both humans and animals are presented. The review includes suggestions for future research pertaining to the topics of discussion.

  9. Impact of caloric and dietary restriction regimens on markers of health and longevity in humans and animals: a summary of available findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Considerable interest has been shown in the ability of caloric restriction (CR) to improve multiple parameters of health and to extend lifespan. CR is the reduction of caloric intake - typically by 20 - 40% of ad libitum consumption - while maintaining adequate nutrient intake. Several alternatives to CR exist. CR combined with exercise (CE) consists of both decreased caloric intake and increased caloric expenditure. Alternate-day fasting (ADF) consists of two interchanging days; one day, subjects may consume food ad libitum (sometimes equaling twice the normal intake); on the other day, food is reduced or withheld altogether. Dietary restriction (DR) - restriction of one or more components of intake (typically macronutrients) with minimal to no reduction in total caloric intake - is another alternative to CR. Many religions incorporate one or more forms of food restriction. The following religious fasting periods are featured in this review: 1) Islamic Ramadan; 2) the three principal fasting periods of Greek Orthodox Christianity (Nativity, Lent, and the Assumption); and 3) the Biblical-based Daniel Fast. This review provides a summary of the current state of knowledge related to CR and DR. A specific section is provided that illustrates related work pertaining to religious forms of food restriction. Where available, studies involving both humans and animals are presented. The review includes suggestions for future research pertaining to the topics of discussion. PMID:21981968

  10. Orthomolecular medicine: the therapeutic use of dietary supplements for anti-aging

    OpenAIRE

    Janson, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Dietary supplements at high doses as part of medical therapy have been controversial, but the evidence suggests that they play a significant role in prevention and treatment of diseases as well as protection from accelerated aging that results from oxygen free-radical damage, inflammation, and glycation. This literature review examines several supplements that have documented roles in medical therapy, including vitamins C and E, coenzyme Q10, alpha-lipoic acid, chromium, L-carnitine, and quer...

  11. The Effect of Activity Restriction on Infant's Birth Weight and Gestational Age at Birth: PRAMS Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Abeer

    2018-01-01

    Activity restriction is extensively prescribed for pregnant women with major comorbidities despite the lack of evidence to support its effectiveness in preventing preterm birth or low birth weight. To determine the moderation effect of home activity restriction for more than a week on infant's birth weight and gestational age at birth for high-risk women with obstetrical and medical comorbidities. A secondary analysis of 2004-2008 New York Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System was conducted with 1426 high-risk women. High-risk group included 41% of women treated with activity restriction and 59% of those not treated with activity restriction. Women with preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM) who were treated with activity restriction had a lower infant birth weight ( b = -202.85, p = ≤.001) and gestational age at birth ( b = -.91, p = ≤.001) than those without activity restriction. However, women with preterm labor and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy who were not treated with activity restriction had lower infant gestational age at birth ( b = -96, p = ≤.01) and ( b = -92, p = ≤.001), respectively, compared to those who were treated with activity restriction. Findings suggest a contrary effect of activity restriction on infants born to women with PPROM, which is a major reason for prescribing activity restriction. The current study results may trigger the need to conduct randomized control trials to determine the effect of severity of activity restriction on maternal and infant outcomes.

  12. No impact of dietary iodine restriction in short term development of hypothyroidism following fixed dose radioactive iodine therapy for Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jubbin Jagan; Stephen, Charles; Paul, Thomas V; Thomas, Nihal; Oommen, Regi; Seshadri, Mandalam S

    2015-01-01

    The increased incidence of autoimmune thyroid disease with increasing dietary iodine intake has been demonstrated both epidemiologically and experimentally. The hypothyroidism that occurs in the first year following radioactive iodine therapy is probably related to the destructive effects of the radiation and underlying ongoing autoimmunity. To study the outcomes at the end of six months after fixed dose I, (131)therapy for Graves' disease followed by an iodine restricted diet for a period of six months. Consecutive adult patients with Graves' disease planned for I(131) therapy were randomized either to receive instructions regarding dietary iodine restriction or no advice prior to fixed dose (5mCi) I(131) administration. Thyroid functions and urinary iodine indices were evaluated at 3(rd) and 6(th) month subsequently. Forty seven patients (13M and 34F) were assessed, 2 were excluded, 45 were randomized (Cases 24 and Controls 21) and 39 patients completed the study. Baseline data was comparable. Median urinary iodine concentration was 115 and 273 μg/gm creat (p = 0.00) among cases and controls respectively. Outcomes at the 3(rd) month were as follows (cases and controls); Euthyroid (10 and 6: P = 0.24), Hypothyroid (3 and 5: P = 0.38) and Hyperthyroid (7 and 8: P = 0.64). Outcomes at the end of six months were as follows (cases and controls); Euthyroid (10 and 5: P = 0.12), Hypothyroid (3 and 5: P = 0.38) and Hyperthyroid (7 and 9: P = 0.43). Of the hypothyroid patients 5 (cases 1 and controls 4: P = 0.13) required thyroxine replacement. There was no statistical significant difference in the outcome of patients with dietary iodine restriction following I(131) therapy for Graves' disease.

  13. Effects of long-term heat stress and dietary restriction on the expression of genes of steroidogenic pathway and small heat-shock proteins in rat testicular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkaya, F; Atli, M O; Guzeloglu, A; Kayis, S A; Yildirim, M E; Kurar, E; Yilmaz, R; Aydilek, N

    2017-08-01

    The aim was to investigate the effects of long-term heat stress and dietary restriction on the expression of certain genes involving in steroidogenic pathway and small heat-shock proteins (sHSPs) in rat testis. Sprague Dawley rats (n = 24) were equally divided into four groups. Group I and II were kept at an ambient temperature of 22°C, while Groups III and IV were reared at 38°C for 9 weeks. Feed was freely available for Group I and Group III, while Group II and Group IV were fed 60% of the diet consumed by their ad libitum counterparts. At the end of 9 weeks, testicles were collected under euthanasia. Total RNA was isolated from testis tissue samples. Expression profiles of the genes encoding androgen-binding protein, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, androgen receptor, luteinising hormone receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cyclooxygenase-2 and sHSP genes were assessed at mRNA levels using qPCR. Long-term heat stress decreased the expression of StAR and HspB10 genes while dietary restriction upregulated StAR gene expression. The results suggested that long-term heat stress negatively affected the expression of StAR and HspB10 genes and the dietary restriction was able to reverse negative effect of heat stress on the expression of StAR gene in rat testis. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Skeletal Muscle CAP Expression Increases after Dietary Restriction and Aerobic Training in Women with a History of Gestational Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alice S; Serra, Monica C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose is to determine the effects of 6 months caloric restriction and aerobic training (3x/wk) (CR+AEX) on c-CBL associated protein (CAP) gene expression in women with a history of GDM. CAP is involved in cell signaling and protein ubiquitination, and is linked to the development of insulin resistance. Obese (BMI=32 ± 1 kg/m 2 , % fat=46 ± 2, X ± SEM), sedentary (VO2 max=21.2 ± 1.2 ml/kg/min), women aged 52 ± 2 years participated in 6 months D+WL (n=10) with body composition, fitness (VO2 max), and glucose tolerance testing. Insulin sensitivity was assessed during the last 30 min of 2-hour hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps (40 mU.m -2 .min -1 ) pre and post interventions. Vastus lateralis skeletal muscle biopsies (n=7) were conducted and CAP, GLUT4 and glycogen synthase (GS) gene expression measured by RT-PCR. No change in FFM by DXA was observed, but body weight decreased 8% with losses of total body fat mass (Prestriction and aerobic training in women with a history of gestational diabetes.

  15. Cranberry interacts with dietary macronutrients to promote healthy aging in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cecilia; Yolitz, Jason; Alberico, Thomas; Laslo, Mara; Sun, Yaning; Wheeler, Charles T; Sun, Xiaoping; Zou, Sige

    2014-08-01

    Botanicals possess numerous bioactivities, and some promote healthy aging. Dietary macronutrients are major determinants of life span. The interaction between botanicals and macronutrients that modulates life span is not well understood. Here, we investigated the effect of a cranberry-containing botanical on life span and the influence of macronutrients on the longevity-related effect of cranberry in Drosophila. Flies were supplemented with cranberry on three dietary conditions: standard, high sugar-low protein, and low sugar-high protein diets. We found that cranberry slightly extended life span in males fed with the low sugar-high protein diet but not with other diets. Cranberry extended life span in females fed with the standard diet and more prominently the high sugar-low protein diet but not with the low sugar-high protein diet. Life-span extension was associated with increased reproduction and higher expression of oxidative stress and heat shock response genes. Moreover, cranberry improved survival of sod1 knockdown and dfoxo mutant flies but did not increase wild-type fly's resistance to acute oxidative stress. Cranberry slightly extended life span in flies fed with a high-fat diet. These findings suggest that cranberry promotes healthy aging by increasing stress responsiveness. Our study reveals an interaction of cranberry with dietary macronutrients and stresses the importance of considering diet composition in designing interventions for promoting healthy aging. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2013.

  16. [Differences in dietary habits and food preferences of adults depending on the age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamska, Edyta; Ostrowska, Lucyna; Adamska, Ewelina; Maliszewska, Katarzyna; Citko, Anna; Waszczeniuk, Magdalena; Przystupa, Wojciech; Majewski, Radosław; Wasilewska, Anna; Milewski, Robert; Krytowski, Adam; Górska, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Changes in the structure and functioning of the body occur with age. Also nutrition is continually modified. Eating habits may affect favorably or unfavorably on the process of aging and the functioning of various tissues, organs and the whole body. The purpose of the study was to evaluate dietary habits and food preferences of patients in different age groups. In the studied groups also body mass index (BMI) and body fat content were analyzed. 237 people (133 women and 104 men, age 18-79 years) were examined. The participants completed questionnaires of the frequency of food consumption and food preferences. The height, weight, body mass index (BMI), the percentage of body fat (BIA) were also measured. For statistical analysis the assessment of correlation Spearman's rank order and nonparametric ANOVA rank Kruskal-Wallis were used. With age, the frequency of milk (p habits vary depending on age and may be one of the elements affecting the increase in BMI, body fat content, bone mass loss and increased risk of metabolic disorders. The observed changes in dietary habits can contribute to the development of dyslipidemia, glucose dysmetabolism and arterial hypertension, especially in the presence of overweight and obesity.

  17. The ageing phenome: caloric restriction and hormones promote neural cell survival, growth, and de-differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timiras, Paola S; Yaghmaie, Farzin; Saeed, Omar; Thung, Elaine; Chinn, Garrett

    2005-01-01

    The phenome represents the observable properties of an organism that have developed under the continued influences of both genome and environmental factors. Phenotypic properties are expressed through the functions of cells, organs and body systems that operate optimally, close to equilibrium. In complex organisms, maintenance of the equilibrium is achieved by the interplay of several regulatory mechanisms. In the elderly, dynamic instability may lead to progressive loss of normal function, failure of adaptation and increased pathology. Extensive research (reported elsewhere in this journal) has demonstrated that genetic manipulations of endocrine signaling in flies, worms and mice increase longevity. Another effective strategy for prolonging the lifespan is caloric restriction: in data presented here, the persistence of estrogen-sensitive cells in the hypothalamus of caloric restricted 22-month-old female mice, may explain the persistence of reproductive function at an age, when reproductive function has long ceased in ad libitum fed controls. Still another strategy utilizes the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to promote in vitro proliferation of neuroglia, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Their subsequent de-differentiation generates immature precursor cells potentially capable of differentiating into neuroblasts and neurons. These and other examples suggest that, in terms of functional outcomes, "the genome proposes but the phenome disposes".

  18. Food restriction increases long-term memory persistence in adult or aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhati, F; Patti, C L; Zanin, K A; Lopes-Silva, L B; Ceccon, L M B; Hollais, A W; Bizerra, C S; Santos, R; Tufik, S; Frussa-Filho, R

    2014-04-03

    Food restriction (FR) seems to be the unique experimental manipulation that leads to a remarkable increase in lifespan in rodents. Evidences have suggested that FR can enhance memory in distinct animal models mainly during aging. However, only few studies systemically evaluated the effects FR on memory formation in both adult (3-month-old) and aged (18-24-month-old) mice. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute (12h) or repeated (12h/day for 2days) FR protocols on learning and memory of adult and aged mice evaluated in the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (PM-DAT), an animal model that concurrently (but independently) evaluates learning and memory, anxiety and locomotion. We also investigated the possible role of FR-induced stress by the corticosterone concentration in adult mice. Male mice were kept at home cage with food ad libitum (CTRL-control condition) or subjected to FR during the dark phase of the cycle for 12h/day or 12h/2days. The FR protocols were applied before training, immediately after it or before testing. Our results demonstrated that only FR for 2days enhanced memory persistence when applied before training in adults and before testing in aged mice. Conversely, FR for 2days impaired consolidation and exerted no effects on retrieval irrespective of age. These effects do not seem to be related to corticosterone concentration. Collectively, these results indicate that FR for 2days can promote promnestic effects not only in aged mice but also in adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Intelligence level and structure in school age children with fetal growth restriction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Ma, Hong-Wei; Tian, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Fang

    2009-10-01

    To study the intelligence level and structure in school age children with fetal growth restriction (FGR). The intelligence levels were tested by the Wechsler Children Scales of Intelligence (C-WISC) in 54 children with FGR and in 84 normal children. The full intelligence quotient (FIQ), verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) in the FGR group were 105.9+/-10.3, 112.4+/-11.2 and 97.1+/-10.6 respectively, and they all were in a normal range. But the PIQ was significantly lower than that in the control group (104.8+/-10.5; pintelligence level of children with FGR is normal, but there are imbalances in the intelligence structure and dysfunctions in performance ability related to right cerebral hemisphere. Performance trainings should be done from the infancy in children with FGR.

  20. Relationship between the effect of dietary fat on swimming endurance and energy metabolism in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guihua; Shirai, Nobuya; Suzuki, Hiramitsu

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different dietary fats on alterations in endurance, energy metabolism, and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and minerals in mice. Male mice (aged 58 weeks) were fed diets containing 6% safflower oil, fish oil, or lard for 12 weeks. Swimming time to exhaustion, energy metabolism, and plasma IL-6 levels were subsequently determined. Mice fed safflower oil exhibited a marked increase in swimming time compared to the baseline level. Mice fed lard exhibited a significant decrease in swimming time, while mice on a fish oil diet exhibited a small decrease in swimming time. The final swimming time of mice fed safflower oil was significantly longer than that of animals fed lard. This improvement in endurance with dietary safflower oil was accompanied by decreased accumulation of lactate and less glycogen depletion during swimming. In the safflower oil group, muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity increased significantly after swimming, while the plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentration decreased significantly. A trend to increased plasma IL-6 levels was observed in sedentary animals on a safflower oil diet compared to those on a lard diet. These results suggest that dietary safflower oil improves the swimming endurance of aged mice to a greater extent than lard, and that this effect appears to involve glycogen sparing through increased fatty acid utilization. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Effect of dietary fiber, genetic strain and age on the digestive metabolism of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RV Krás

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 360 male broilers, out of which 240 of a fast-growing strain (Cobb500, and 120 of a slow-growing strain (Label Rouge, were used to evaluate the effect of dietary fiber on digesta transit time and digestive metabolism during the period of 1 to 42 days of age. A completely randomized experimental design with a 3x2 factorial arrangement was applied, consisting of three groups of birds (slow-growing - SG; fast-growing fed ad libitum - FGAL; and fast-growing pair-fed with SG broilers - FGPF and two iso-protein diets (a 3100 kcal ME/kg low-fiber diet - LFD- and a 2800 kcal ME/kg high-fiber diet - HFD- with 14% wheat bran and 4% oat hulls. HFD-fed birds presented lower ME retention (p < 0.001 and lower dry matter metabolizability (DMM (p < 0.001, which is possibly related to the shorter digesta transit time observed in these birds (p < 0.001. DMM was reduced with age, whereas metabolizable energy remained almost constant (p < 0.001 independently of strain. This may be related to the increase in feed intake as birds age. The slow-growing strain did not present better utilization of the high-fiber diet as compared to the fast-growing strain in none of the analyzed ages, even though showing a significant better use of fiber and dietary energy from 31 days of age.

  2. Dietary Components Affect the Plasma and Tissue Levels of Lutein in Aged Rats with Lutein Deficiency--A Repeated Gavage and Dietary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshappa, Mamatha Bangera; Ranganathan, Arunkumar; Bhatiwada, Nidhi; Talahalli, Ramprasad Ravichandra; Vallikannan, Baskaran

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the influence of selected dietary components on plasma and tissue response of repeated micellar and dietary lutein in aged rats with lutein deficiency. In repeated (16 d) gavage study, micellar lutein was co-ingested with either phosphatidylcholine (PC), lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lysoPC), β-carotene, dietary fiber or vegetable fat (3% soybean oil). In dietary study, rats were fed (4 wk) semi-synthetic diet either with lutein + PC, lutein + dietary fiber or B. alba (lutein source) + PC. The post-prandial plasma and tissue response of lutein was measured by HPLC. Results showed that micellar fat, PC and lysoPC significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased the lutein levels in plasma (31.1%, 26.8%, and 34.9%), liver (27.4%, 29.5%, and 8.6%), and eyes (63.5%, 90.2%, and 86%) compared to the control group (group gavaged micelles with no dietary components studied). Similarly, dietary study showed an enhanced plasma, liver, and eye lutein levels by 44.8%, 24.1%, and 42.0% (lutein + PC group) and 51.7%, 39.8%, and 31.7% (B.alba + PC group), respectively compared to control. The activity of antioxidant enzymes in plasma and liver of both the studies were also affected compared to control. Result reveals, that PC enhance the intestinal absorption of both micellar and dietary lutein which is either in free or bound form with food matrices in aged rats with lutein deficiency. Hence, PC at a concentration used in this study can be considered to improve the lutein bioavailability in lutein deficiency. Lutein and zeaxanthin are macular pigments acquired mostly from greens, that play an significant role in protecting vision from Age related macular degeneration (AMD). However, their biological availability is poor and affected by dietary components. This study demonstrates the positive influence of dietary PC and lyso PC in improving intestinal uptake of lutein. Our previous and present finding shows there is a possibility of developing functional

  3. Decision-making patterns for dietary supplement purchases among women aged 25 to 45 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carla K; Russell, Teri; Kissling, Grace

    2003-11-01

    Women frequently consume dietary supplements but the criteria used to select supplements have received little investigation. This research identified the decision-making criteria used for dietary supplements among women aged 25 to 45 years who consumed a supplement at least four times per week. Participants (N=51) completed an in-store shopping interview that was audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed qualitatively for the criteria used to make supplement selections. Qualitative analysis revealed 10 key criteria and the number of times each person used each criterion was quantified. Cluster analysis identified five homogeneous subgroups of participants based on the criteria used. These included brand shopper, bargain shopper, quality shopper, convenience shopper, and information gatherer. Supplement users vary in the criteria used to make point-of-purchase supplement selections. Dietetics professionals can classify supplement users according to the criteria used to tailor their nutrition counseling and better meet the educational needs of consumers.

  4. Indicators of dietary patterns in Danish infants at 9 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B B; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2015-01-01

    responsibilities and fathers in the labour market compared to being a student, A lower Health-Conscious Food pattern score indicates a less healthy diet. A lower infant Health-Conscious Food pattern score was associated with a higher maternal BMI, a greater number of children in the household, a higher BMI z...... indicators and adherence to dietary patterns for infants aged 9 months. DESIGN: The two dietary patterns 'Family Food' and 'Health-Conscious Food' were displayed by principal component analysis, and associations with possible indicators were analysed by multiple linear regressions in a pooled sample (n=374......) of two comparable observational cohorts, SKOT I and SKOT II. These cohorts comprised infants with mainly non-obese mothers versus infants with obese mothers, respectively. RESULTS: A lower Family Food score indicates a higher intake of liquid baby food, as this pattern shows transition from baby food...

  5. Dietary phosphorus restriction in dialysis patients: potential impact of processed meat, poultry, and fish products as protein sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Richard A; Mehta, Ojas

    2009-07-01

    Dietary intake of phosphorus is derived largely from protein sources and is a critical determinant of phosphorus balance in patients with chronic kidney disease. Information about the phosphorus content of prepared foods generally is unavailable, but it is believed to contribute significantly to the phosphorus burden of patients with chronic kidney disease. Analysis of dietary components. We measured the phosphorus content of 44 food products, including 30 refrigerated or frozen precooked meat, poultry, and fish items, generally national brands. Measured and reported phosphorus content of foods. Phosphorus by using Association of Analytical Communities official method 984.27; protein by using Association of Analytical Communities official method 990.03. We found that the ratio of phosphorus to protein content in these items ranged from 6.1 to 21.5 mg of phosphorus per 1 g of protein. The mean ratio in the 19 food products with a label listing phosphorus as an additive was 14.6 mg/g compared with 9.0 mg/g in the 11 items without listed phosphorus. The phosphorus content of only 1 precooked food product was available in a widely used dietary database. Results cannot be extrapolated to other products. Manufacturers also may alter the phosphorus content of foods at any time. Protein content was not directly measured for all foods. Better reporting of phosphorus content of foods by manufacturers could result in improved dietary phosphorus control without risk of protein malnutrition.

  6. Design of a randomized controlled clinical trial assessing dietary sodium restriction and hemodialysis-related symptom profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya N. Clark-Cutaia

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: Curbing dietary sodium intake may lead to improvement in intradialytic symptom amelioration and potential for better long-term outcomes. Generating empirical support will be critical to ascertain, and espouse, the appropriate level of sodium intake for patients receiving HD.

  7. The efficacy of the appetite suppressant, diethylpropion, is dependent on both when it is given (day vs. night) and under conditions of high fat dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanasundar, B; Solorio, Jessica; Perez, Claudia I; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos; Simon, Sidney A; Gutierrez, Ranier

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a public health problem caused by excessive consumption of high caloric diets and/or lack of physical activity. Although treatments for obesity include low caloric diets and exercise programs, these activities frequently are supplemented with appetite suppressants. For the short-term treatment of weight loss, diethylpropion (DEP) is a commonly used appetite suppressant. However, little is known with regard to how to improve its weight loss efficacy. We therefore evaluated, in rats, two administration protocols where the animals received daily injections of DEP. First, when these nocturnal animals were normally active (at night) and when they were normally inactive (daytime), and second, with or without high fat dietary restriction (HFDR). We observed that DEP induced a greater weight-loss administered when the animals were in their active phase than in their inactive phase. Moreover, DEP's administration during the inactive phase (and to a lesser degree in the active phase) promotes the consumption of food during normal sleeping time. In addition, we found that DEP-induced weight loss under ad libitum access to a HF diet, but its efficacy significantly improved under conditions of HFDR. In summary, the efficacy of DEP, and presumably other like appetite suppressants, is enhanced by carefully controlling the time it is administered and under dietary restriction of HF diets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Green Tea Polyphenols, Mimicking the Effects of Dietary Restriction, Ameliorate High-Fat Diet-Induced Kidney Injury via Regulating Autophagy Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies reveal that Western dietary patterns contribute to chronic kidney disease, whereas dietary restriction (DR or dietary polyphenols such as green tea polyphenols (GTPs can ameliorate the progression of kidney injury. This study aimed to investigate the renal protective effects of GTPs and explore the underlying mechanisms. Sixty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: standard diet (STD, DR, high-fat diet (HFD, and three diets plus 200 mg/kg(bw/day GTPs, respectively. After 18 weeks, HFD group exhibited renal injuries by increased serum cystatin C levels and urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activity, which can be ameliorated by GTPs. Meanwhile, autophagy impairment as denoted by autophagy-lysosome related proteins, including LC3-II, Beclin-1, p62, cathepsin B, cathepsin D and LAMP-1, was observed in HFD group, whereas DR or GTPs promoted renal autophagy activities and GTPs ameliorated HFD-induced autophagy impairment. In vitro, autophagy flux suppression was detected in palmitic acid (PA-treated human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2, which was ameliorated by epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG. Furthermore, GTPs (or EGCG elevated phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in the kidneys of HFD-treated rats and in PA-treated HK-2 cells. These findings revealed that GTPs mimic the effects of DR to induce autophagy and exert a renal protective effect by alleviating HFD-induced autophagy suppression.

  9. Calorie restriction: A new therapeutic intervention for age-related dry eye disease in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Okada, Naoko; Ogawa, Yoko; Murat, Dogru; Nakamura, Shigeru; Nakashima, Hideo; Shimmura, Shigeto; Shinmura, Ken; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    A decrease in lacrimal gland secretory function is closely related to aging and leads to an increased prevalence of dry eye syndrome. Since calorie restriction (CR) is considered to prevent functional decline of various organs due to aging, we hypothesized that CR could prevent age-related lacrimal dysfunction. Six-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were randomly divided into ad libitum (AL) and CR (-35%) groups. After 6 months of CR, tear function was examined under conscious state. After euthanasia, lacrimal glands were subjected to histological examination, tear protein secretion stimulation test with Carbachol, and assessment of oxidative stress with 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) antibodies. CR significantly improved tear volume and tended to increase tear protein secretion volume after stimulation with Carbachol compared to AL. The acinar unit density was significantly higher in the CR rats compared to AL rats. Lacrimal glands in the CR rats showed a lesser degree of interstitial fibrosis. CR reduced the concentration of 8-OHdG and the extent of staining with HNE in the lacrimal gland, compared to AL. Furthermore, our electron microscopic observations showed that mitochondrial structure of the lacrimal gland obtained from the middle-aged CR rats was preserved in comparison to the AL rats. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that CR may attenuate oxidative stress related damage in the lacrimal gland with preservation of lacrimal gland functions. Although molecular mechanism(s) by which CR maintains lacrimal gland function remains to be resolved, CR might provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treating dry eye syndrome.

  10. Calorie restriction: A new therapeutic intervention for age-related dry eye disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Okada, Naoko; Ogawa, Yoko; Murat, Dogru; Nakamura, Shigeru; Nakashima, Hideo; Shimmura, Shigeto; Shinmura, Ken; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2010-07-09

    A decrease in lacrimal gland secretory function is closely related to aging and leads to an increased prevalence of dry eye syndrome. Since calorie restriction (CR) is considered to prevent functional decline of various organs due to aging, we hypothesized that CR could prevent age-related lacrimal dysfunction. Six-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were randomly divided into ad libitum (AL) and CR (-35%) groups. After 6months of CR, tear function was examined under conscious state. After euthanasia, lacrimal glands were subjected to histological examination, tear protein secretion stimulation test with Carbachol, and assessment of oxidative stress with 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) antibodies. CR significantly improved tear volume and tended to increase tear protein secretion volume after stimulation with Carbachol compared to AL. The acinar unit density was significantly higher in the CR rats compared to AL rats. Lacrimal glands in the CR rats showed a lesser degree of interstitial fibrosis. CR reduced the concentration of 8-OHdG and the extent of staining with HNE in the lacrimal gland, compared to AL. Furthermore, our electron microscopic observations showed that mitochondrial structure of the lacrimal gland obtained from the middle-aged CR rats was preserved in comparison to the AL rats. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that CR may attenuate oxidative stress related damage in the lacrimal gland with preservation of lacrimal gland functions. Although molecular mechanism(s) by which CR maintains lacrimal gland function remains to be resolved, CR might provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treating dry eye syndrome. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Calorie restriction: A new therapeutic intervention for age-related dry eye disease in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Okada, Naoko; Ogawa, Yoko [Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Murat, Dogru [Department of Ocular Surface and Visual Optics, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nakamura, Shigeru; Nakashima, Hideo [Research Center, Ophtecs Corporation, Hyogo (Japan); Shimmura, Shigeto [Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Shinmura, Ken [Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Tsubota, Kazuo, E-mail: tsubota@sc.itc.keio.ac.jp [Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-07-09

    A decrease in lacrimal gland secretory function is closely related to aging and leads to an increased prevalence of dry eye syndrome. Since calorie restriction (CR) is considered to prevent functional decline of various organs due to aging, we hypothesized that CR could prevent age-related lacrimal dysfunction. Six-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were randomly divided into ad libitum (AL) and CR (-35%) groups. After 6 months of CR, tear function was examined under conscious state. After euthanasia, lacrimal glands were subjected to histological examination, tear protein secretion stimulation test with Carbachol, and assessment of oxidative stress with 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) antibodies. CR significantly improved tear volume and tended to increase tear protein secretion volume after stimulation with Carbachol compared to AL. The acinar unit density was significantly higher in the CR rats compared to AL rats. Lacrimal glands in the CR rats showed a lesser degree of interstitial fibrosis. CR reduced the concentration of 8-OHdG and the extent of staining with HNE in the lacrimal gland, compared to AL. Furthermore, our electron microscopic observations showed that mitochondrial structure of the lacrimal gland obtained from the middle-aged CR rats was preserved in comparison to the AL rats. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that CR may attenuate oxidative stress related damage in the lacrimal gland with preservation of lacrimal gland functions. Although molecular mechanism(s) by which CR maintains lacrimal gland function remains to be resolved, CR might provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treating dry eye syndrome.

  12. Carbohydrate restriction and dietary cholesterol modulate the expression of HMG-CoA reductase and the LDL receptor in mononuclear cells from adult men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volek Jeff S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The liver is responsible for controlling cholesterol homeostasis in the body. HMG-CoA reductase and the LDL receptor (LDL-r are involved in this regulation and are also ubiquitously expressed in all major tissues. We have previously shown in guinea pigs that there is a correlation in gene expression of HMG-CoA reductase and the LDL-r between liver and mononuclear cells. The present study evaluated human mononuclear cells as a surrogate for hepatic expression of these genes. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate restriction with low and high cholesterol content on HMG-CoA reductase and LDL-r mRNA expression in mononuclear cells. All subjects were counseled to consume a carbohydrate restricted diet with 10–15% energy from carbohydrate, 30–35% energy from protein and 55–60% energy from fat. Subjects were randomly assigned to either EGG (640 mg/d additional dietary cholesterol or SUB groups [equivalent amount of egg substitute (0 dietary cholesterol contributions per day] for 12 weeks. At the end of the intervention, there were no changes in plasma total or LDL cholesterol (LDL-C compared to baseline (P > 0.10 or differences in plasma total or LDL-C between groups. The mRNA abundance for HMG-CoA reductase and LDL-r were measured in mononuclear cells using real time PCR. The EGG group showed a significant decrease in HMG-CoA reductase mRNA (1.98 ± 1.26 to 1.32 ± 0.92 arbitrary units P

  13. Behavioural changes are a major contributing factor in the reduction of sarcopenia in caloric-restricted ageing mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norren, van K.; Rusli, F.; Dijk, van M.; Lute, C.; Nagel, J.C.; Dijk, F.J.; Dwarkasing, J.T.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Luiking, Y.; Witkamp, R.F.; Müller, M.R.; Steegenga, W.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background - In rodent models, caloric restriction (CR) with maintenance of adequate micronutrient supply has been reported to increase lifespan and to reduce age-induced muscle loss (sarcopenia) during ageing. In the present study, we further investigated effects of CR on the onset and severity of

  14. Placental Dysfunction Underlies Increased Risk of Fetal Growth Restriction and Stillbirth in Advanced Maternal Age Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Samantha C; Heazell, Alexander E P; Dilworth, Mark R; Mills, Tracey A; Jones, Rebecca L

    2017-08-29

    Pregnancies in women of advanced maternal age (AMA) are susceptible to fetal growth restriction (FGR) and stillbirth. We hypothesised that maternal ageing is associated with utero-placental dysfunction, predisposing to adverse fetal outcomes. Women of AMA (≥35 years) and young controls (20-30 years) with uncomplicated pregnancies were studied. Placentas from AMA women exhibited increased syncytial nuclear aggregates and decreased proliferation, and had increased amino acid transporter activity. Chorionic plate and myometrial artery relaxation was increased compared to controls. AMA was associated with lower maternal serum PAPP-A and sFlt and a higher PlGF:sFlt ratio. AMA mice (38-41 weeks) at E17.5 had fewer pups, more late fetal deaths, reduced fetal weight, increased placental weight and reduced fetal:placental weight ratio compared to 8-12 week controls. Maternofetal clearance of 14 C-MeAIB and 3 H-taurine was reduced and uterine arteries showed increased relaxation. These studies identify reduced placental efficiency and altered placental function with AMA in women, with evidence of placental adaptations in normal pregnancies. The AMA mouse model complements the human studies, demonstrating high rates of adverse fetal outcomes and commonalities in placental phenotype. These findings highlight placental dysfunction as a potential mechanism for susceptibility to FGR and stillbirth with AMA.

  15. Association of major dietary patterns with socioeconomic factors among rural school-aged children in Bijar, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The identification of major dietary patterns using factor analysis can provide information about health status of children by obtaining an overall picture of the person's diet. The aim of this study was to determine major dietary patterns and to identify socioeconomic factors affecting them in school age children in rural areas of Bijar, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 255 rural school age children living rural areas of Bijar were selected by simple random sampling. Dietary intakes during the past year and assessment of socioeconomic information were examined. Dietary patterns were determined using factor analysis and their relation to socioeconomic factors was investigated. Results: Three major dietary patterns," traditional", "modern" and "mixed", were identified. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnic and energy intake, Age of mother (b= 0.03, CI=0.00_0.05 was positively associated and age of father (b= -0.03, CI=-0.05_-0.01, laboring Job for father (b= -0.24, CI=-0.44_-0.03 and higher education of parents (b= -0.20, CI=-0.35_-0.05 were negatively associated with traditional dietary pattern. In addition, higher education of parents (b= 0.27, CI=0.11_0.44 was positively associated and age of mother (b= -0.03, CI=-0.06_0.00 was negatively associated with mixed dietary pattern. Conclusion: Some socio-economic variables such as maternal age, parental education, parental occupation and economic conditions can have effect on major dietary patterns among rural children.

  16. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401 and females (1507 aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use, physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p p p p Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

  17. Gender Difference on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ya-Qun; Li, Fan; Meng, Pai; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu-Guang; Chen, Bo

    2016-07-23

    Dietary patterns are linked to obesity, but the gender difference in the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. We explored this gender difference in a middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai. Residents (n = 2046; aged ≥45 years; 968 men and 1078 women) who participated in the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey were studied. Factor analysis of data from four periods of 24-h dietary recalls (across 2012-2014) identified dietary patterns. Height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate the body mass index. A log binominal model examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity, stratified by gender. Four dietary patterns were identified for both genders: rice staple, wheat staple, snacks, and prudent patterns. The rice staple pattern was associated positively with abdominal obesity in men (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.358; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.132-1.639; p = 0.001), but was associated negatively with general obesity in women (PR = 0.745; 95% CI: 0.673-0.807; p = 0.031). Men in the highest quartile of the wheat staple pattern had significantly greater risk of central obesity (PR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.094-1.627; p = 0.005). There may be gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and obesity in middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai, China.

  18. Can we use the epigenetic bioactivity of caloric restriction and phytochemicals to promote healthy ageing?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Christodoulou, M.S.; Thomas, A.; Poulain, S.; Vidakovic, M.; Lahtela-Kakkonen, M.; Matulis, D.; Bertrand, P.; Bártová, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 12 (2014), s. 1804-1820 ISSN 2040-2503 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : CORONARY- HEART - DISEASE * LIFE-SPAN * DIETARY POLYPHENOLS Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.495, year: 2014

  19. Calorie restriction hysteretically primes aging Saccharomyces cerevisiae toward more effective oxidative metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich B Tahara

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction (CR is an intervention known to extend the lifespan of a wide variety of organisms. In S. cerevisiae, chronological lifespan is prolonged by decreasing glucose availability in the culture media, a model for CR. The mechanism has been proposed to involve an increase in the oxidative (versus fermentative metabolism of glucose. Here, we measured wild-type and respiratory incompetent (ρ(0 S. cerevisiae biomass formation, pH, oxygen and glucose consumption, and the evolution of ethanol, glycerol, acetate, pyruvate and succinate levels during the course of 28 days of chronological aging, aiming to identify metabolic changes responsible for the effects of CR. The concomitant and quantitative measurements allowed for calculations of conversion factors between different pairs of substrates and products, maximum specific substrate consumption and product formation rates and maximum specific growth rates. Interestingly, we found that the limitation of glucose availability in CR S. cerevisiae cultures hysteretically increases oxygen consumption rates many hours after the complete exhaustion of glucose from the media. Surprisingly, glucose-to-ethanol conversion and cellular growth supported by glucose were not quantitatively altered by CR. Instead, we found that CR primed the cells for earlier, faster and more efficient metabolism of respiratory substrates, especially ethanol. Since lifespan-enhancing effects of CR are absent in respiratory incompetent ρ(0 cells, we propose that the hysteretic effect of glucose limitation on oxidative metabolism is central toward chronological lifespan extension by CR in this yeast.

  20. Dietary polyphenol supplementation prevents alterations of spatial navigation in middle-aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien eBensalem

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial learning and memory deficits associated with hippocampal synaptic plasticity impairments are commonly observed during aging. Besides, the beneficial role of dietary polyphenols has been suggested as potential functional food candidates to prevent this memory decline. Indeed, polyphenols could potentiate the signaling pathways of synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory. In this study, spatial learning deficits of middle-aged mice were first highlighted and characterized according to navigation patterns in the Morris water maze task. An eight-week polyphenol-enriched diet, containing a polyphenol-rich extract from grape and blueberry (PEGB (from the Neurophenols Consortium with high contents of flavonoids, stilbenes and phenolic acids, was then successful in reversing these age-induced effects. The use of spatial strategies was indeed delayed with aging whereas a polyphenol supplementation could promote the occurrence of spatial strategies. These behavioral results were associated with neurobiological changes: while the expression of hippocampal CaMKII mRNA levels was reduced in middle-aged animals, the polyphenol-enriched diet could rescue them. Besides, an increased expression of NGF mRNA levels was also observed in supplemented adult and middle-aged mice. Thus these data suggest that supplementation with polyphenols could be an efficient nutritional way to prevent age-induced cognitive decline.

  1. Role of Dietary Protein and Muscular Fitness on Longevity and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Barbara; Volaklis, Konstantinos; Fuchs, Dietmar; Burtscher, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Muscle atrophy is an unfortunate effect of aging and many diseases and can compromise physical function and impair vital metabolic processes. Low levels of muscular fitness together with insufficient dietary intake are major risk factors for illness and mortality from all causes. Ultimately, muscle wasting contributes significantly to weakness, disability, increased hospitalization, immobility, and loss of independence. However, the extent of muscle wasting differs greatly between individuals due to differences in the aging process per se as well as physical activity levels. Interventions for sarcopenia include exercise and nutrition because both have a positive impact on protein anabolism but also enhance other aspects that contribute to well-being in sarcopenic older adults, such as physical function, quality of life, and anti-inflammatory state. The process of aging is accompanied by chronic immune activation, and sarcopenia may represent a consequence of a counter-regulatory strategy of the immune system. Thereby, the kynurenine pathway is induced, and elevation in the ratio of kynurenine to tryptophan concentrations, which estimates the tryptophan breakdown rate, is often linked with inflammatory conditions and neuropsychiatric symptoms. A combined exercise program consisting of both resistance-type and endurance-type exercise may best help to ameliorate the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, to prevent muscle aging comorbidities, and to improve physical performance and quality of life. In addition, the use of dietary protein supplementation can further augment protein anabolism but can also contribute to a more active lifestyle, thereby supporting well-being and active aging in the older population.

  2. Dietary acid load, trabecular bone integrity, and mineral density in an ageing population: the Rotterdam study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, E A L; Koromani, F; Hofman, A; Uitterlinden, A G; Franco, O H; Rivadeneira, F; Kiefte-de Jong, J C

    2017-08-01

    We studied the relation between a diet that is high in acid-forming nutrients (e.g. proteins) and low in base-forming nutrients (e.g. potassium) and bone structure. We showed a negative relation, which was more prominent if proteins were of animal rather than of vegetable origin and if intake of dietary fibre was high. Studies on dietary acid load (DAL) and fractures have shown inconsistent results. Associations between DAL, bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone integrity might play a role in these inconsistencies and might be influenced by renal function and dietary fibre intake. Therefore, our aim was to study (1) associations of DAL with BMD and with the trabecular bone score (TBS) and (2) the potential influence of renal function and dietary fibre in these associations. Dutch individuals aged 45 years and over (n = 4672) participating in the prospective cohort of the Rotterdam study were included. Based on food frequency questionnaires, three indices of DAL were calculated: the net endogenous acid production (NEAP) and the ratios of vegetable or animal protein and potassium (VegPro/K and AnPro/K). Data on lumbar spinal TBS and BMD were derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements. Independent of confounders, NEAP and AnPro/K, but not VegPro/K, were associated with low TBS (standardized β (95%) = -0.04 (-0.07, -0.01) and -0.08 (-0.11, -0.04)) but not with BMD. Associations of AnPro/K and VegPro/K with TBS were non-linear and differently shaped. Unfavourable associations between NEAP, BMD and TBS were mainly present in subgroups with high fibre intake. High NEAP was associated with low TBS. Associations of AnPro/K and VegPro/K and TBS were non-linear and differently shaped. No significant associations of DAL with BMD were observed, nor was there any significant interaction between DAL and renal function. Mainly in participants with high intake of dietary fibre, DAL might be detrimental to bone.

  3. Lifelong dietary intervention does not affect hematopoietic stem cell function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazare, Seka; Ausema, Albertina; Reijne, Aaffien C; van Dijk, Gertjan; van Os, Ronald; de Haan, Gerald

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) undergo a profound functional decline during normal aging. Because caloric or dietary restriction has been shown to delay multiple aspects of the aging process in many species, we explored the consequences of lifelong caloric restriction, or conversely, lifelong

  4. Prolongevity effects of a botanical with oregano and cranberry extracts in Mexican fruit flies: examining interactions of diet restriction and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Sige; Carey, James R; Liedo, Pablo; Ingram, Donald K; Yu, Binbing

    2012-04-01

    Botanicals rich with phytochemicals have numerous health benefits. Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in diverse species. We previously demonstrated that an oregano-cranberry (OC) mixture can promote longevity in the Mexican Fruit fly (Mexfly, Anastrepha ludens Loew). However, little is known about the interaction between botanicals and DR, and the age-dependent effect of botanicals on lifespan and reproduction. Here we investigated these issues by feeding Mexflies a full or DR diet supplemented with or without 2% OC. Lifespan and daily egg production of individual flies were recorded. The effect of short-term OC supplementation was evaluated by implementing the supplementation at three age intervals-young, middle, and old age. We found that OC increased lifespan of Mexflies on the full or DR diet when compared to their respective controls. OC increased reproduction of females on the full diet and, to a lesser extent, on the DR diet. Short-term OC supplementation was not sufficient to extend lifespan for males at all three age intervals nor for females at young and old age intervals. However, OC supplementation at the middle age interval was sufficient to extend lifespan in females, while only OC supplementation at the young age interval increased reproduction in females. Our findings suggest that OC extends lifespan and promotes reproduction partly through DR-independent pathways, and short-term supplementation have varied impact on longevity and reproduction. This also suggests a positive interaction between non-genetic interventions in promoting longevity and provides guidance for using botanicals as aging interventions in humans.

  5. Impact of Age, Caloric Restriction, and Influenza Infection on Mouse Gut Microbiome: An Exploratory Study of the Role of Age-Related Microbiome Changes on Influenza Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Jenna M. Bartley; Jenna M. Bartley; Xin Zhou; Xin Zhou; George A. Kuchel; George A. Kuchel; George M. Weinstock; George M. Weinstock; Laura Haynes; Laura Haynes

    2017-01-01

    Immunosenescence refers to age-related declines in the capacity to respond to infections such as influenza (flu). Caloric restriction represents a known strategy to slow many aging processes, including those involving the immune system. More recently, some changes in the microbiome have been described with aging, while the gut microbiome appears to influence responses to flu vaccination and infection. With these considerations in mind, we used a well-established mouse model of flu infection t...

  6. Self-monitoring urinary salt excretion in adults: A novel education program for restricting dietary salt intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutake, Kenichiro; Sawano, Kayoko; Yamaguchi, Shoko; Sakai, Hiroko; Amadera, Hatsumi; Tsuchihashi, Takuya

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the usefulness of the self-monitoring of urinary salt excretion for educating individuals about the risk of excessive dietary salt intake. The subjects were 30 volunteers (15 men and 15 women) not consuming anti-hypertensive medication. The subjects measured urinary salt excretion at home for 4 weeks using a self-monitoring device. Blood pressure (BP), anthropometric variables and nutritional variables (by a dietary-habits questionnaire) were measured before and after the measurement of urinary salt excretion. Statistical analyses were performed, including paired t-tests, Chi-square test, Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression analysis. In all subjects, the average urinary salt excretion over 4 weeks was 8.05±1.61 g/day and the range (maximum-minimum value) was 5.58±2.15 g/day. Salt excretion decreased significantly in weeks 3 and 4 (Pself-monitoring device appears to be an effective educational tool for improving the quality of life of healthy adults.

  7. Prolonged calorie restriction downregulates skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling independent of dietary protein intake and associated microRNA expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee M Margolis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Short-term (5-10 days calorie restriction (CR downregulates muscle protein synthesis, with consumption of a high protein-based diet attenuating this decline. Benefit of increase protein intake is believed to be due to maintenance of amino acid-mediated anabolic signaling through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1, however, there is limited evidence to support this contention. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of prolonged CR and high protein diets on skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling and expression of associated microRNA (miR. 12-wk old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL or calorie restricted (CR; 40% adequate (10%, AIN-93M or high (32% protein milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Body composition was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle protein content was calculated from muscle homogenate protein concentrations expressed relative to fat-free mass to estimate protein content. Western blot and RT-qPCR were used to determine mTORC1 signaling and mRNA and miR expression in fasted mixed gastrocnemius. Independent of dietary protein intake, muscle protein content was 38% lower (P < 0.05 in CR compared to AL. Phosphorylation and total Akt, mTOR, rpS6 and p70S6K were lower (P < 0.05 in CR versus AL, and total rpS6 was associated with muscle protein content (r = 0.64, r2 = 0.36. Skeletal muscle miR expression was not altered by either energy or protein intake. This study provides evidence that chronic CR attenuates muscle protein content by downregulating mTORC1 signaling. This response is independent of skeletal muscle miR and dietary protein.

  8. The hepatic transcriptome of young suckling and aging intrauterine growth restricted male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freije, William A; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Lee, Regina; Shin, Bo-Chul; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2015-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction leads to the development of adult onset obesity/metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, dyslipidemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/steatohepatitis. Continued postnatal growth restriction has been shown to ameliorate many of these sequelae. To further our understanding of the mechanism of how intrauterine and early postnatal growth affects adult health we have employed Affymetrix microarray-based expression profiling to characterize hepatic gene expression of male offspring in a rat model of maternal nutrient restriction in early and late life. At day 21 of life (p21) combined intrauterine and postnatal calorie restriction treatment led to expression changes in circadian, metabolic, and insulin-like growth factor genes as part of a larger transcriptional response that encompasses 144 genes. Independent and controlled experiments at p21 confirm the early life circadian, metabolic, and growth factor perturbations. In contrast to the p21 transcriptional response, at day 450 of life (d450) only seven genes, largely uncharacterized, were differentially expressed. This lack of a transcriptional response identifies non-transcriptional mechanisms mediating the adult sequelae of intrauterine growth restriction. Independent experiments at d450 identify a circadian defect as well as validate expression changes to four of the genes identified by the microarray screen which have a novel association with growth restriction. Emerging from this rich dataset is a portrait of how the liver responds to growth restriction through circadian dysregulation, energy/substrate management, and growth factor modulation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Dietary patterns as identified by factor analysis and colorectal cancer among middle-aged Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Andrew; Rastogi, Tanuja; Wirfält, Elisabet; Mitrou, Panagiota N; Reedy, Jill; Subar, Amy F; Kipnis, Victor; Mouw, Traci; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Leitzmann, Michael; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2008-07-01

    Although diet has long been suspected as an etiological factor for colorectal cancer, studies of single foods and nutrients have provided inconsistent results. We used factor analysis methods to study associations between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer in middle-aged Americans. Diet was assessed among 293,615 men and 198,767 women in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. Principal components factor analysis identified 3 primary dietary patterns: a fruit and vegetables, a diet foods, and a red meat and potatoes pattern. State cancer registries identified 2151 incident cases of colorectal cancer in men and 959 in women between 1995 and 2000. Men with high scores on the fruit and vegetable pattern were at decreased risk [relative risk (RR) for quintile (Q) 5 versus Q1: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.93; P for trend = 0.004]. Both men and women had a similar risk reduction with high scores on the diet food factor: men (RR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.72, 0.94; P for trend = 0.001) and women (RR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.71, 1.07; P for trend = 0.06). High scores on the red meat factor were associated with increased risk: men (RR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.35; P for trend = 0.14) and women (RR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.20, 1.83; P for trend = 0.0002). These results suggest that dietary patterns characterized by a low frequency of meat and potato consumption and frequent consumption of fruit and vegetables and fat-reduced foods are consistent with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer.

  10. Assessing dietary exposure to cadmium in a metal recycling community in Vietnam: Age and gender aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minh, Ngo Duc; Hough, Rupert Lloyd; Thuy, Le Thi; Nyberg, Ylva; Mai, Le Bach; Vinh, Nguyen Cong; Khai, Nguyen Manh; Öborn, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    This study estimates the dietary exposure to cadmium (Cd), and associated potential health risks, for individuals living and working in a metal recycling community (n = 132) in Vietnam in comparison to an agricultural (reference) community (n = 130). Individual-level exposure to Cd was estimated through analysis of staple foodstuffs combined with information from a food frequency questionnaire. Individual-level exposure estimates were compared with published ‘safe’ doses to derive a Hazard Quotient (HQ) for each member of the study population. Looking at the populations as a whole, there were no significant differences in the diets of the two villages. However, significantly more rice was consumed by working age adults (18–60 years) in the recycling village compared to the reference village (p 3), while 20% of adult participants from the reference village had an HQ > 1. We found an elevated health risk from dietary exposure to Cd in the metal recycling village compared to the reference community. WHO standard of 0.4 mg Cd/kg rice may not be protective where people consume large amounts of rice/have relatively low body weight. - Highlights: ► First individual-level risk assessment of cadmium in recycling villages of Vietnam. ► Dietary analysis undertaken for a recycling community and an agricultural community. ► No significant differences were found between the diets of the two populations. ► 87% of people in the recycling community had elevated health risk. ► WHO standard (0.4 mg Cd/kg rice) may not be protective for rice-based cultures.

  11. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Abahussain, Nada A; Al-Sobayel, Hana I; Qahwaji, Dina M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2011-12-21

    Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401) and females (1507) aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use), physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females) of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p sedentary, much less physically active, especially with vigorous physical activity, and there were fewer days per week when they consumed breakfast, fruit, milk and diary products, sugar-sweetened drinks, fast foods and energy drinks than did males. However, the females' intake of French fries and potato chips, cakes and donuts, and candy and chocolate was significantly (p intake of breakfast, vegetables and fruit. Physical activity had a significant (p intake but not with sedentary behaviors. The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among

  12. Effects of Dietary Fructose Restriction on Liver Fat, De Novo Lipogenesis, and Insulin Kinetics in Children With Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Noworolski, Susan M; Erkin-Cakmak, Ayca; Korn, Natalie J; Wen, Michael J; Tai, Viva W; Jones, Grace M; Palii, Sergiu P; Velasco-Alin, Moises; Pan, Karen; Patterson, Bruce W; Gugliucci, Alejandro; Lustig, Robert H; Mulligan, Kathleen

    2017-09-01

    Consumption of sugar is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular disease. The conversion of fructose to fat in liver (de novo lipogenesis [DNL]) may be a modifiable pathogenetic pathway. We determined the effect of 9 days of isocaloric fructose restriction on DNL, liver fat, visceral fat (VAT), subcutaneous fat, and insulin kinetics in obese Latino and African American children with habitual high sugar consumption (fructose intake >50 g/d). Children (9-18 years old; n = 41) had all meals provided for 9 days with the same energy and macronutrient composition as their standard diet, but with starch substituted for sugar, yielding a final fructose content of 4% of total kilocalories. Metabolic assessments were performed before and after fructose restriction. Liver fat, VAT, and subcutaneous fat were determined by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. The fractional DNL area under the curve value was measured using stable isotope tracers and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Insulin kinetics were calculated from oral glucose tolerance tests. Paired analyses compared change from day 0 to day 10 within each child. Compared with baseline, on day 10, liver fat decreased from a median of 7.2% (interquartile range [IQR], 2.5%-14.8%) to 3.8% (IQR, 1.7%-15.5%) (P fructose restriction decreased liver fat, VAT, and DNL, and improved insulin kinetics in children with obesity. These findings support efforts to reduce sugar consumption. ClinicalTrials.gov Number: NCT01200043. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary carbohydrates impair the protective effect of protein restriction against diabetes in NZO mice used as a model of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeger, Thomas; Castaño-Martinez, Teresa; Werno, Martin W; Japtok, Lukasz; Baumeier, Christian; Jonas, Wenke; Kleuser, Burkhard; Schürmann, Annette

    2018-06-01

    Low-protein diets are well known to improve glucose tolerance and increase energy expenditure. Increases in circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) have been implicated as a potential underlying mechanism. We aimed to test whether low-protein diets in the context of a high-carbohydrate or high-fat regimen would also protect against type 2 diabetes in New Zealand Obese (NZO) mice used as a model of polygenetic obesity and type 2 diabetes. Mice were placed on high-fat diets that provided protein at control (16 kJ%; CON) or low (4 kJ%; low-protein/high-carbohydrate [LP/HC] or low-protein/high-fat [LP/HF]) levels. Protein restriction prevented the onset of hyperglycaemia and beta cell loss despite increased food intake and fat mass. The effect was seen only under conditions of a lower carbohydrate/fat ratio (LP/HF). When the carbohydrate/fat ratio was high (LP/HC), mice developed type 2 diabetes despite the robustly elevated hepatic FGF21 secretion and increased energy expenditure. Prevention of type 2 diabetes through protein restriction, without lowering food intake and body fat mass, is compromised by high dietary carbohydrates. Increased FGF21 levels and elevated energy expenditure do not protect against hyperglycaemia and type 2 diabetes per se.

  14. Dietary sources of polyphenols in the Mediterranean healthy Eating, Aging and Lifestyle (MEAL) study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godos, Justyna; Marventano, Stefano; Mistretta, Antonio; Galvano, Fabio; Grosso, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the dietary intake and major food sources of polyphenols in the Mediterranean healthy Eating, Aging and Lifestyles (MEAL) study cohort. A total of 1937 individuals (18 + y) of urban population of Catania, Italy, completed a validated 110-item food frequency questionnaire; Phenol-Explorer database was used to estimate polyphenol intake. Mean intake of polyphenols was 663.7 mg/d; the most abundant classes were phenolic acids (362.7 mg/d) and flavonoids (258.7 mg/d). The main dietary sources of total polyphenols were nuts, followed by tea and coffee as source of flavanols and hydroxycinnamic acids, respectively, fruits (i.e. cherries were sources of anthocyanins and citrus fruits of flavanones) and vegetables (i.e. artichokes and olives were sources of flavones and spinach and beans of flavonols); chocolate, red wine and pasta contributed to flavanols and tyrosols, respectively. These findings will be useful to assess the potential benefits of foods with high polyphenol content.

  15. Dietary influences on cognitive function with aging: from high-fat diets to healthful eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Matthew D; Greenwood, Carol E

    2007-10-01

    Human epidemiologic studies provide convincing evidence that dietary patterns practiced during adulthood are important contributors to age-related cognitive decline and dementia risk. Diets high in fat, especially trans and saturated fats, adversely affect cognition, while those high in fruits, vegetables, cereals, and fish are associated with better cognitive function and lower risk of dementia. While the precise physiologic mechanisms underlying these dietary influences are not completely understood, modulation of brain insulin activity and neuroinflammation likely contribute. Not surprisingly, deficits in cognitive functions, especially those dependent on the medial temporal lobes, are apparent in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Special care in food selection at meals should be exercised by those with T2DM since ingestion of rapidly absorbed, high-glycemic index carbohydrate foods further impairs medial temporal lobe function, with food-induced increases in oxidative stress and cytokine release likely explaining the association between food ingestion and reduction in cognitive function in those with T2DM.

  16. Impact of Age, Caloric Restriction, and Influenza Infection on Mouse Gut Microbiome: An Exploratory Study of the Role of Age-Related Microbiome Changes on Influenza Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna M. Bartley

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Immunosenescence refers to age-related declines in the capacity to respond to infections such as influenza (flu. Caloric restriction represents a known strategy to slow many aging processes, including those involving the immune system. More recently, some changes in the microbiome have been described with aging, while the gut microbiome appears to influence responses to flu vaccination and infection. With these considerations in mind, we used a well-established mouse model of flu infection to explore the impact of flu infection, aging, and caloric restriction on the gut microbiome. Young, middle-aged, and aged caloric restricted (CR and ad lib fed (AL mice were examined after a sublethal flu infection. All mice lost 10–20% body weight and, as expected for these early time points, losses were similar at different ages and between diet groups. Cytokine and chemokine levels were also similar with the notable exception of IL-1α, which rose more than fivefold in aged AL mouse serum, while it remained unchanged in aged CR serum. Fecal microbiome phyla abundance profiles were similar in young, middle-aged, and aged AL mice at baseline and at 4 days post flu infection, while increases in Proteobacteria were evident at 7 days post flu infection in all three age groups. CR mice, compared to AL mice in each age group, had increased abundance of Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia at all time points. Interestingly, principal coordinate analysis determined that diet exerts a greater effect on the microbiome than age or flu infection. Percentage body weight loss correlated with the relative abundance of Proteobacteria regardless of age, suggesting flu pathogenicity is related to Proteobacteria abundance. Further, several microbial Operational Taxonomic Units from the Bacteroidetes phyla correlated with serum chemokine/cytokines regardless of both diet and age suggesting an interplay between flu-induced systemic inflammation and gut microbiota. These

  17. Associations of Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy with Offspring Adiposity from Birth Until 54 Months of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Wei Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most studies linking maternal diet with offspring adiposity have focused on single nutrients or foods, but a dietary pattern approach is more representative of the overall diet. We thus aimed to investigate the relations between maternal dietary patterns and offspring adiposity in a multi-ethnic Asian mother–offspring cohort in Singapore. We derived maternal dietary patterns using maternal dietary intake information at 26–28 weeks of gestation, of which associations with offspring body mass index (BMI, abdominal circumference (AC, subscapular skinfold (SS, and triceps skinfold (TS were assessed using longitudinal data analysis (linear mixed effects (LME and multiple linear regression at ages 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 54 months. Three dietary patterns were derived: (1 vegetables-fruit-and-white rice (VFR; (2 seafood-and-noodles (SfN; and (3 pasta-cheese-and-bread (PCB. In the LME model adjusting for potential confounders, each standard deviation (SD increase in maternal VFR pattern score was associated with 0.09 mm lower offspring TS. Individual time-point analysis additionally revealed that higher VFR score was generally associated with lower postnatal offspring BMI z-score, TS, SS, and sum of skinfolds (SS + TS at ages 18 months and older. Maternal adherence to a dietary pattern characterized by higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of fast food was associated with lower offspring adiposity.

  18. The associations between feeding difficulties and behaviours and dietary patterns at 2 years of age: the ALSPAC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the dietary patterns of toddlers. This period of life is important for forming good dietary habits later in life. Using dietary data collected via food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at 2 years of age, we examined the dietary patterns of children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Principal component analysis was performed for 9599 children and three patterns were extracted: 'family foods' associated with traditional British family foods such as meat, fish, puddings, potatoes and vegetables; 'sweet and easy' associated with foods high in sugar (sweets, chocolate, fizzy drinks, flavoured milks) and foods requiring little preparation (crisps, potatoes, baked beans, peas, soup); 'health conscious' associated with fruit, vegetables, eggs, nuts and juices. We found clear associations between dietary pattern scores and socio-demographic variables, with maternal education being the most important. Higher levels of education were associated with higher scores on both the 'family foods' and the 'health conscious' patterns, and decreased scores on the 'sweet and easy' pattern. Relationships were evident between dietary pattern scores and various feeding difficulties and behaviours. Notably, children who were introduced late to lumpy (chewy) solids (after 9 months) scored lower on both the 'family foods' and the 'health conscious' patterns. Further analyses are required to determine the temporal relationship between perceived feeding difficulties and behaviours, and it will be important to assess the contribution of the age of introduction to lumpy solids to these relationships. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Dietary Chromium Restriction of Pregnant Mice Changes the Methylation Status of Hepatic Genes Involved with Insulin Signaling in Adult Male Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Sun, Xiaofang; Xiao, Xinhua; Zheng, Jia; Li, Ming; Yu, Miao; Ping, Fan; Wang, Zhixin; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Xiaojing

    2017-01-01

    Maternal undernutrition is linked with an elevated risk of diabetes mellitus in offspring regardless of the postnatal dietary status. This is also found in maternal micro-nutrition deficiency, especial chromium which is a key glucose regulator. We investigated whether maternal chromium restriction contributes to the development of diabetes in offspring by affecting DNA methylation status in liver tissue. After being mated with control males, female weanling 8-week-old C57BL mice were fed a control diet (CON, 1.19 mg chromium/kg diet) or a low chromium diet (LC, 0.14 mg chromium/kg diet) during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, some offspring were shifted to the other diet (CON-LC, or LC-CON), while others remained on the same diet (CON-CON, or LC-LC) for 29 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, and oral glucose tolerance test was performed to evaluate the glucose metabolism condition. Methylation differences in liver from the LC-CON group and CON-CON groups were studied by using a DNA methylation array. Bisulfite sequencing was carried out to validate the results of the methylation array. Maternal chromium limitation diet increased the body weight, blood glucose, and serum insulin levels. Even when switched to the control diet after weaning, the offspring also showed impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. DNA methylation profiling of the offspring livers revealed 935 differentially methylated genes in livers of the maternal chromium restriction diet group. Pathway analysis identified the insulin signaling pathway was the main process affected by hypermethylated genes. Bisulfite sequencing confirmed that some genes in insulin signaling pathway were hypermethylated in livers of the LC-CON and LC-LC group. Accordingly, the expression of genes in insulin signaling pathway was downregulated. There findings suggest that maternal chromium restriction diet results in glucose intolerance in male offspring through alterations in DNA methylation which

  20. Dietary Chromium Restriction of Pregnant Mice Changes the Methylation Status of Hepatic Genes Involved with Insulin Signaling in Adult Male Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    Full Text Available Maternal undernutrition is linked with an elevated risk of diabetes mellitus in offspring regardless of the postnatal dietary status. This is also found in maternal micro-nutrition deficiency, especial chromium which is a key glucose regulator. We investigated whether maternal chromium restriction contributes to the development of diabetes in offspring by affecting DNA methylation status in liver tissue. After being mated with control males, female weanling 8-week-old C57BL mice were fed a control diet (CON, 1.19 mg chromium/kg diet or a low chromium diet (LC, 0.14 mg chromium/kg diet during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, some offspring were shifted to the other diet (CON-LC, or LC-CON, while others remained on the same diet (CON-CON, or LC-LC for 29 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, and oral glucose tolerance test was performed to evaluate the glucose metabolism condition. Methylation differences in liver from the LC-CON group and CON-CON groups were studied by using a DNA methylation array. Bisulfite sequencing was carried out to validate the results of the methylation array. Maternal chromium limitation diet increased the body weight, blood glucose, and serum insulin levels. Even when switched to the control diet after weaning, the offspring also showed impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. DNA methylation profiling of the offspring livers revealed 935 differentially methylated genes in livers of the maternal chromium restriction diet group. Pathway analysis identified the insulin signaling pathway was the main process affected by hypermethylated genes. Bisulfite sequencing confirmed that some genes in insulin signaling pathway were hypermethylated in livers of the LC-CON and LC-LC group. Accordingly, the expression of genes in insulin signaling pathway was downregulated. There findings suggest that maternal chromium restriction diet results in glucose intolerance in male offspring through alterations in DNA

  1. Gut microbiota modify risk for dietary glycemia-induced age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Sheldon; Taylor, Allen

    2018-03-21

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness world-wide. Although the etiology of AMD is multifactorial, diet and nutrition have strong epidemiologic associations with disease onset and progression. Recent studies indicate a role for gut microbiota in development of AMD in mouse models and in some forms of human AMD. We previously found that consuming lower glycemia diets is associated with protection against AMD in humans and switching from higher to lower glycemia diets arrests AMD phenotypes in mice. Gut microbiota populations and circulating microbial cometabolites were altered in response to dietary carbohydrates, indicating a gut-retina axis. Here we explore additional gut microbiota-AMD interactions that point toward pathogenic roles for some gut microbiota families, including Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae, and individual members of Turicibacteraceae, Clostridiaceae, and Mogibacteriaceae. We also speculate on potential mechanisms by which gut microbiota influence AMD, with the objective of devising new AMD diagnoses and treatments.

  2. Age dependent values of dietary intake for assessing human exposures to environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupp, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Detailed information concerning human food consumption patterns necessary for relating pollutant body burdens to environmental contamination levels was compiled to be used in lieu of site-specific data for calculating health impacts arising from the ingestion of food containing various levels of such pollutants as radionuclides, toxic heavy metals, insecticides and many others. This paper examines available data on human food consumption rates and estimates dietary intake rates by individuals of various ages. Ingestion parameters include intake rates of water and other beverages, milk, vegetables, fruits, meat, poultry, grain and fish. Information was analyzed from documented surveys of individuals within households and from interviews and personal communications. Although average intake rates are often the only data reported in the literature, ranges as well as averages are included in this paper whenever possible. Various results are tabulated including per capita food consumption in 1955 and 1965 and changes in per capita consumption as well as changes by urbanization. Details of milk consumption are presented by selected sex-age groups. Solid food intake is given by age group. Market basket quantities of foods consumed daily are also tabulated. (author)

  3. Age group and sex do not influence responses of vitamin K biomarkers to changes in dietary vitamin K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Jennifer T; Fu, Xueyan; Saltzman, Edward; Al Rajabi, Ala; Dallal, Gerard E; Gundberg, Caren M; Booth, Sarah L

    2012-05-01

    Inadequate vitamin K intake has been associated with abnormal soft tissue calcification. Older adults may have insufficient intakes of vitamin K and respond less to vitamin K supplementation compared with younger adults. However, little is known about the determinants that influence the response to vitamin K supplementation. Our primary objective was to assess dietary and nondietary determinants of vitamin K status in healthy younger and older adults. In a nonrandomized, nonmasked study, 21 younger (18-40 y) and 21 older (55-80 y) men and women consumed a baseline diet (200 μg phylloquinone/d) for 5 d, a phylloquinone-restricted diet (10 μg phylloquinone/d) for 28 d, and a phylloquinone-supplemented diet (500 μg phylloquinone/d) for 28 d. Changes in vitamin K status markers in response to vitamin K depletion and repletion were studied and the influences of BMI, body fat, and circulating TG were assessed by including them as covariates in the model. Despite baseline differences in measures of vitamin K status, plasma phylloquinone tended to increase (P = 0.07) and the percentage of uncarboxylated osteocalcin and uncarboxylated prothrombin both improved with phylloquinone supplementation (P vitamin K metabolite, was greater among younger adults in response to depletion than in older adults (P = 0.012), regardless of sex. Adiposity measures and circulating TG did not predict response of any measures. In conclusion, poor vitamin K status can be similarly improved with vitamin K supplementation, regardless of age group or sex.

  4. Prefrontal cortex, caloric restriction and stress during aging: studies on dopamine and acetylcholine release, BDNF and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Arco, Alberto; Segovia, Gregorio; de Blas, Marta; Garrido, Pedro; Acuña-Castroviejo, Dario; Pamplona, Reinald; Mora, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether long-term caloric restriction during the life span of the rat changes the effects of an acute mild stress on the release of dopamine and acetylcholine in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and on working memory performance. Spontaneous motor activity was also monitored and levels of BDNF measured in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus. Male Wistar rats (3 months of age) were housed during 3, 12, 21 and 27 months (6, 15, 24 and 30 months of age at the end of housing) in caloric restriction (CR; 40% food intake restriction) or control conditions. After behavioural testing, animals were further subdivided into two other groups. In one of the groups BDNF protein levels were determined. In the other group rats were implanted with guide cannulas into the PFC to perform microdialysis experiments. In CR rats the release of dopamine produced by handling stress did not differ from the response found in control rats of 6, 15 and 24 months of age. The release of acetylcholine was not changed at the ages of 6 and 15 months but reduced at the age of 24 months. Stress did not change dopamine or acetylcholine release in CR and control rats of 30 months of age. BDNF levels were increased in the hippocampus and amygdala, but not in the PFC, of 6 and 15 months CR rats. Spontaneous motor activity was increased in all groups of CR rats. Age, however, decreased motor activity in CR and control rats. Both experimental groups showed similar working memory performance in a delayed alternation task in basal conditions and after a situation of acute stress. These results suggest that CR does not modify the function of the PFC in response to an acute stress nor the changes found as a result of the normal process of aging. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fetal Growth Restriction with Brain Sparing: Neurocognitive and Behavioral Outcomes at 12 Years of Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, Fenny; Aarnoudse-Moens, Cornelieke S. H.; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M.; Ganzevoort, Wessel; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To study neurocognitive functions and behavior in children with a history of fetal growth restriction (FGR) with brain sparing. We hypothesized that children with FGR would have poorer outcomes on these domains. Study design Subjects were 12-year-old children with a history of FGR born to

  6. Dietary intake in Australian children aged 4-24 months: consumption of meat and meat alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauch, Chelsea Emma; Perry, R A; Magarey, A M; Daniels, L A

    2015-06-14

    Meat/meat alternatives (M/MA) are key sources of Fe, Zn and protein, but intake tends to be low in young children. Australian recommendations state that Fe-rich foods, including M/MA, should be the first complementary foods offered to infants. The present paper reports M/MA consumption of Australian infants and toddlers, compares intake with guidelines, and suggests strategies to enhance adherence to those guidelines. Mother-infant dyads recruited as part of the NOURISH and South Australian Infants Dietary Intake studies provided 3 d of intake data at three time points: Time 1 (T1) (n 482, mean age 5·5 (SD 1·1) months), Time 2 (T2) (n 600, mean age 14·0 (SD 1·2) months) and Time 3 (T3) (n 533, mean age 24 (SD 0·7) months). Of 170 infants consuming solids and aged greater than 6 months at T1, 50 (29%) consumed beef, lamb, veal (BLV) or pork on at least one of 3 d. Commercial infant foods containing BLV or poultry were the most common form of M/MA consumed at T1, whilst by T2 BLV mixed dishes (including pasta bolognaise) became more popular and remained so at T3. The processed M/MA increased in popularity over time, led by pork (including ham). The present study shows that M/MA are not being eaten by Australian infants or toddlers regularly enough; or in adequate quantities to meet recommendations; and that the form in which these foods are eaten can lead to smaller M/MA serve sizes and greater Na intake. Parents should be encouraged to offer M/MA in a recognisable form, as one of the first complementary foods, in order to increase acceptance at a later age.

  7. Assessing dietary exposure to cadmium in a metal recycling community in Vietnam: Age and gender aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minh, Ngo Duc [Vietnamese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Soils and Fertilizers Research Institute (SFRI), Tu Liem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hough, Rupert Lloyd, E-mail: rupert.hough@hutton.ac.uk [The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Thuy, Le Thi [Vietnamese Academy of Agriculture Science, Institute of Agricultural Environment (IAE), Tu Liem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nyberg, Ylva [Department of Crop Production Ecology, PO Box 7043, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Mai, Le Bach [National Institute of Nutrition, 48b Tang Bat Ho, Hoan Kiem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Vinh, Nguyen Cong [Vietnamese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Soils and Fertilizers Research Institute (SFRI), Tu Liem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Khai, Nguyen Manh [Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Ha Noi University of Science (HUS-VNU), 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Oeborn, Ingrid [Department of Crop Production Ecology, PO Box 7043, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-02-01

    This study estimates the dietary exposure to cadmium (Cd), and associated potential health risks, for individuals living and working in a metal recycling community (n = 132) in Vietnam in comparison to an agricultural (reference) community (n = 130). Individual-level exposure to Cd was estimated through analysis of staple foodstuffs combined with information from a food frequency questionnaire. Individual-level exposure estimates were compared with published 'safe' doses to derive a Hazard Quotient (HQ) for each member of the study population. Looking at the populations as a whole, there were no significant differences in the diets of the two villages. However, significantly more rice was consumed by working age adults (18-60 years) in the recycling village compared to the reference village (p < 0.001). Rice was the main staple food with individuals consuming 461 {+-} 162 g/d, followed by water spinach (103 {+-} 51 kg/d). Concentrations of Cd in the studied foodstuffs were elevated in the metal recycling village. Values of HQ exceeded unity for 87% of adult participants of the metal recycling community (39% had a HQ > 3), while 20% of adult participants from the reference village had an HQ > 1. We found an elevated health risk from dietary exposure to Cd in the metal recycling village compared to the reference community. WHO standard of 0.4 mg Cd/kg rice may not be protective where people consume large amounts of rice/have relatively low body weight. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First individual-level risk assessment of cadmium in recycling villages of Vietnam. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dietary analysis undertaken for a recycling community and an agricultural community. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant differences were found between the diets of the two populations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 87% of people in the recycling community had elevated health risk. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer WHO standard (0.4 mg Cd/kg rice) may

  8. [PREDICTORS OF WEIGHT LOSS AND FAT IN THE DIETARY MANAGEMENT: SEX, AGE, BMI AND CONSULTING ASSISTANCE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig García-Galbis, Manuel; Rizo Baeza, Mercedes; Cortés Castell, Ernesto

    2015-09-01

    WL%: percentage of weight loss; % FL: percentage fat loss; PNLWF: patients who lose weight or fat; PLWF: patients who lose weight and fat. assess whether the% WL and FL% in the dietary treatment was affected by gender, age, BMI and assistance to the query. 4,700 consultations, 670 patients (BMI ≥25), in the south-east of Spain (2006-12). Balanced and hypo-caloric diet was used. Two types of patients: PNLWF and PLWF (91.9%). in PLWF, men and those attending a greater number of occasions to the consultation have shown a greater loss against women (%FL: 23.0 vs 14.3%, p = 0.000; %WL: 7.7 vs 6.6%, p = 0.020), and those who attend less frequently (%FL: 19.1 vs 7.3%, p = 0.000; %WL: 7.8 vs 2.9%, p = 0.000). Multinomial regression analysis (PNLWF / PLWF) indicates that only attend more than one and a half to the consultation is a factor in the loss, OR 8.3 (IC 95% 4.5-15.1; p = 0.000). the body fat measurement provides additional information lost weight; Most patients attend more than six weeks, obtained a high %FL; attendance is a predictor of loss; the %FL indicates that the dietary management plays a major role in the resolution of this pathology; It is recommended to design practical schemes of action process nutritionists according to the IMCI and variable. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Dietary Calcium Levels on Productive Performance, Eggshell Quality and Overall Calcium Status in Aged Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. An

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of diets with varying levels of calcium on egg production, shell quality and overall calcium status in aged laying hens. A total of five hundred 70-wk-old Hy-Line Brown layers were divided five groups and fed one of the five experimental diets with 3.5%, 3.8%, 4.1%, 4.4%, or 4.7% Ca, for 10 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production and egg weight among groups. The cracked eggs were linearly reduced as dietary Ca levels increased to 4.7% (p<0.01. A significant linear improvement for eggshell strength and thickness were determined with increasing dietary Ca levels (p<0.01. The contents of serum Ca and phosphorus were not affected by dietary Ca levels. With increase in dietary Ca levels, the tibial breaking strength slightly increased. There were no significant differences in the tibial contents of ash, Ca and phosphorus among groups. In conclusion, eggshell quality, as measured by appearance, strength and thickness of eggshell, were influenced by dietary Ca content as expected (p<0.05. These results suggested that aged laying hens require relatively higher level of Ca than required levels from current Korean feeding standards for poultry.

  10. Associations between dietary patterns, physical activity (leisure-time and occupational) and television viewing in middle-aged French adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charreire, Hélène; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Bertrais, Sandrine; Simon, Chantal; Chaix, Basile; Weber, Christiane; Touvier, Mathilde; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2011-03-01

    Diet and physical activity are considered to be major components of a healthy lifestyle. However, few studies have examined in detail the relationships between specific types of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and diet in adults. The objective of the present study was to assess differential relationships between dietary patterns, leisure-time and occupational physical activities and time spent watching television (TV), as an indicator of sedentary behaviour, in middle-aged French subjects. We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from 1359 participants in the SUpplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants study, who completed a detailed physical activity questionnaire and at least six 24 h dietary records. Sex-specific dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis; their relationships with leisure-time and occupational physical activities and TV viewing were assessed using ANCOVA, after adjustment for age, educational level and smoking status. Three dietary patterns were identified in each sex. After adjustment for potential confounders, leisure-time physical activity was positively associated with a 'healthy' food pattern in both men (P for trend trend trend convenience' pattern in men and with a 'alcohol-appetiser' pattern in women. In conclusion, identification of relationships between dietary patterns, physical activity and sedentary behaviour can enable identification of different types of lifestyle and should help to target at-risk groups in nutrition prevention programmes.

  11. Dietary Tocotrienol/γ-Cyclodextrin Complex Increases Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and ATP Concentrations in the Brains of Aged Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Schloesser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain aging is accompanied by a decrease in mitochondrial function. In vitro studies suggest that tocotrienols, including γ- and δ-tocotrienol (T3, may exhibit neuroprotective properties. However, little is known about the effect of dietary T3 on mitochondrial function in vivo. In this study, we monitored the effect of a dietary T3/γ-cyclodextrin complex (T3CD on mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels in the brain of 21-month-old mice. Mice were fed either a control diet or a diet enriched with T3CD providing 100 mg T3 per kg diet for 6 months. Dietary T3CD significantly increased mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels compared to those of controls. The increase in MMP and ATP due to dietary T3CD was accompanied by an increase in the protein levels of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM. Furthermore, dietary T3CD slightly increased the mRNA levels of superoxide dismutase, γ-glutamyl cysteinyl synthetase, and heme oxygenase 1 in the brain. Overall, the present data suggest that T3CD increases TFAM, mitochondrial membrane potential, and ATP synthesis in the brains of aged mice.

  12. Effects of age and caloric restriction in the vascular response of renal arteries to endothelin-1 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Sara; García-Villalón, Angel Luis; Rubio, Carmen; Carrascosa, Jose Ma; Monge, Luis; Fernández, Nuria; Martín-Carro, Beatriz; Granado, Miriam

    2017-02-01

    Cardiovascular alterations are the most prevalent cause of impaired physiological function in aged individuals with kidney being one the most affected organs. Aging-induced alterations in renal circulation are associated with a decrease in endothelium-derived relaxing factors such as nitric oxide (NO) and with an increase in contracting factors such as endothelin-1(ET-1). As caloric restriction (CR) exerts beneficial effects preventing some of the aging-induced alterations in cardiovascular system, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of age and caloric restriction in the vascular response of renal arteries to ET-1 in aged rats. Vascular function was studied in renal arteries from 3-month-old Wistar rats fed ad libitum (3m) and in renal arteries from 8-and 24-month-old Wistar rats fed ad libitum (8m and 24m), or subjected to 20% caloric restriction during their three last months of life (8m-CR and 24m-CR). The contractile response to ET-1 was increased in renal arteries from 8m and 24m compared to 3m rats. ET-1-induced contraction was mediated by ET-A receptors in all experimental groups and also by ET-B receptors in 24m rats. Caloric restriction attenuated the increased contraction to ET-1 in renal arteries from 8m but not from 24m rats possibly through NO release proceeding from ET-B endothelial receptors. In 24m rats, CR did not attenuate the aging-increased response of renal arteries to ET-1, but it prevented the aging-induced increase in iNOS mRNA levels and the aging-induced decrease in eNOS mRNA levels in arterial tissue. In conclusion, aging is associated with an increased response to ET-1 in renal arteries that is prevented by CR in 8m but not in 24m rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. ROLE OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION IN PREVENTING PROGRESSION OF AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Ermakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a chronic, progressive, degenerative eye disease affecting the central retina. It is the leading cause of blindness among individuals of 65 years and older. In the early stage patients have drusen and/or alterations of pigmentation in the macular region. This disease can progress to geographic atrophy and/or choroidal neovascularization. It has been shown that oxidative stress and hypoxia are important in the pathogenesis of AMD. Patients may gain some visual improvement with inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor, but complete restoration of visual function is achieved only in small cases. No effective therapies are known for atrophic AMD. Many large observational studies have shown that dietary antioxidant supplementation is beneficial in preventing the progression of AMD from early to late stages. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS demonstrated that daily oral supplementation with vitamins C (500 mg and E (400 IU, beta carotene (15 mg, zinc (80 mg and copper (2 mg reduced the risk of progression to advanced AMD by 25% at 5 years. In primary analyses AREDS II failed to show further reduce of this risk by addition of lutein (10 mg and zeaxanthin (2mg, or/and omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids [docosahexaenoic acid (350 mg DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid 650 mg (EPA] to the AREDS formulation. But there was no true placebo group. The simultaneous administration of beta carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin may suppress tissue level of the both laters because of competitive absorption of carotenoids. Subgroup analyses revealed that dietary supplementation with lutein, zeaxanthin and AREDS formulation without beta carotene may reduce the risk of progression to advanced AMD.The LUNA (Lutein nutrition effects measured by autofluorescence study demonstrated that supplementation with lutein (12 mg, zeaxanthin (1 mg, vitamin C (120 mg, vitamin E (17,6 mg, zinc (10 mg, selenium (40 mg resulted

  14. Making healthy food choices using nutrition facts panels. The roles of knowledge, motivation, dietary modifications goals, and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisa M Soederberg; Cassady, Diana L

    2012-08-01

    Nutrition facts panels (NFPs) contain a rich assortment of nutrition information and are available on most food packages. The importance of this information is potentially even greater among older adults due to their increased risk for diet-related diseases, as well as those with goals for dietary modifications that may impact food choice. Despite past work suggesting that knowledge and motivation impact attitudes surrounding and self-reported use of NFPs, we know little about how (i.e., strategies used) and how well (i.e., level of accuracy) younger and older individuals process NFP information when evaluating healthful qualities of foods. We manipulated the content of NFPs and, using eye tracking methodology, examined strategies associated with deciding which of two NFPs, presented side-by-side, was healthier. We examined associations among strategy use and accuracy as well as age, dietary modification status, knowledge, and motivation. Results showed that, across age groups, those with dietary modification goals made relatively more comparisons between NFPs with increasing knowledge and motivation; but that strategy effectiveness (relationship to accuracy) depended on age and motivation. Results also showed that knowledge and motivation may protect against declines in accuracy in later life and that, across age and dietary modification status, knowledge mediates the relationship between motivation and decision accuracy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Age-dependent alterations of glucose clearance and homeostasis are temporally separated and modulated by dietary fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Mads Thue Fejerskov; Pærregaard, Simone I.; Søgaard, Ida

    2018-01-01

    Diet- and age-dependent changes in glucose regulation in mice occur, but the temporal development, mechanisms and influence of dietary fat source remain to be defined. We followed metabolic changes in three groups of mice including a low-fat diet (LFD) reference group and two high-fat, high-sucro...

  16. Dietary patterns and relationship to obesity-related health outcomes and mortality in adults 75 years of age or greater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The prevalence of obesity-related adverse health outcomes is increasing among older adults. Because it is thought that nutrition plays an important role in successful aging, there has been considerable interest in the association between dietary patterns of older adults and obesity-relat...

  17. Making Healthy Food Choices Using Nutrition Facts Panels: The Roles of Knowledge, Motivation, Dietary Modifications Goals, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, Diana L.

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition facts panels (NFPs) contain a rich assortment of nutrition information and are available on most food packages. The importance of this information is potentially even greater among older adults due to their increased risk for diet-related diseases, as well as those with goals for dietary modifications that may impact food choice. Despite past work suggesting that knowledge and motivation impact attitudes surrounding and self-reported use of NFPs, we know little about how (i.e., strategies used) and how well (i.e., level of accuracy) younger and older individuals process NFP information when evaluating healthful qualities of foods. We manipulated the content of NFPs and, using eye tracking methodology, examined strategies associated with deciding which of two NFPs, presented side-by-side, was healthier. We examined associations among strategy use and accuracy as well as age, dietary modification status, knowledge, and motivation. Results showed that, across age groups, those with dietary modification goals made relatively more comparisons between NFPs with increasing knowledge and motivation; but that strategy effectiveness (relationship to accuracy) depended on age and motivation. Results also showed that knowledge and motivation may protect against declines in accuracy in later life and that, across age and dietary modification status, knowledge mediates the relationship between motivation and decision accuracy. PMID:22524999

  18. Involvement of a gut-retina axis in protection against dietary glycemia induced age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the major cause of blindness in developed nations. AMD is characterized by retinal pigmented epithelial cell (RPE) dysfunction and loss of photoreceptor cells. Epidemiologic studies indicate important contributions of dietary patterns on risk for AMD, but th...

  19. Cfh genotype interacts with dietary glycemic index to modulate age-related macular degeneration-like features in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide. Genetics and diet contribute to the relative risk for developing AMD, but their interactions are poorly understood. Genetic variations in Complement Factor H (CFH), and dietary glycemic index (GI) are major ris...

  20. Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and body composition of the child at age 6 y: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Marion; Leermakers, Elisabeth Tm; Jaddoe, Vincent Wv; Steegers, Eric Ap; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2015-10-01

    Maternal diet during pregnancy may affect body composition of the offspring later in life, but evidence is still scarce. We aimed to examine whether maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy are associated with body composition of the child at age 6 y. This study was performed among 2695 Dutch mother-child pairs from a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life onward. Maternal diet was assessed in early pregnancy by a 293-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Vegetable, fish, and oil; nuts, soy, and high-fiber cereals; and margarine, snacks, and sugar dietary patterns were derived from principal component analysis. We measured weight and height of the child at age 6 y at the research center. Total body fat and regional fat mass percentages of the child were assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In the crude models, statistically significant associations were found for higher adherence to the vegetable, fish, and oil dietary pattern and the nuts, soy, and high-fiber cereals dietary pattern with lower body mass index, lower fat mass index, and lower risk of being overweight, but none of these associations remained significant after adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. We found no associations between the margarine, snacks, and sugar dietary pattern and any of the outcomes. Our results suggest that the associations between maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and body composition of the child at age 6 y are to a large extent explained by sociodemographic and lifestyle factors of mother and child. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Effect of age on the occurrence of muscle fiber degeneration associated with myopathies in broiler chickens submitted to feed restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaelli, G; Piccirillo, A; Birolo, M; Bertotto, D; Gratta, F; Ballarin, C; Vascellari, M; Xiccato, G; Trocino, A

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate muscle fiber degeneration (MFD) associated with white striping and wooden breast, pectoralis major of 192 broilers differing for genotype (standard vs. high breast yield), gender, and feeding regime (ad libitum vs. restricted rate 80% from 13 to 21 d of age) were sampled at 14, 21, 28, 35, and 46 d of age for histological analyses by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining to evaluate tissue morphology, Masson's trichrome to identify collagen presence, and Oil red and Nile blue for lipid presence. Microvessels (diameter ≤15 μm), nuclei positive to anti-cleaved lamin A and monoclonal proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) antisera were counted to assess apoptotic and regenerative processes, respectively. Significant differences were found according to feeding system, age, and their interactions. The frequency of chickens with MFD was higher with ad libitum than restricted feeding (75.0% vs. 62.5%; P = 0.01) and increased with age (18.8%, 28.1%, 75.1%, 96.9%, and 96.9% at 14, 21, 28, 35, and 46 d). However, at 14 d a similar frequency (18.8%) was found in all broilers; at 21 d, MFD occurred more in broilers fed ad libitum than in those under restriction (50.0% vs. 6.3%; P < 0.01); at 28 d differences were reduced (87.5% vs. 62.5%; P  = 0.10) to disappear by 35 (100% and 93.8%) and 46 d (96.9% and 96.9%). The number of microvessels decreased with age (20.7 to 9.46; P < 0.001) and the number of nuclei positive to the anti-cleaved lamin A antibody increased. At histology, MFD at 46 d corresponded to loss of typical cross striations, massive necrotic process, degenerating fibers surrounded by inflammatory cells, scattered fibers in an abundant collagen-rich connective tissue, numerous adipose cells; necrotic fibers showed a high percentage of apoptotic nuclei, and regenerating fibers appeared positive to anti-PCNA antibody. In conclusion, MFD soon occurred after 2 wk of growth and increased dramatically within 28 d. Early feed restriction

  2. Dietary Patterns in Relation to Cardiovascular Disease Incidence and Risk Markers in a Middle-Aged British Male Population: Data from the Caerphilly Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, Elly; Markey, Oonagh; Geleijnse, Johanna; Givens, David; Lovegrove, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Dietary behaviour is an important modifiable factor in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. The study aimed to identify dietary patterns (DPs) and explore their association with CVD incidence and risk markers. A follow-up of 1838 middle-aged men, aged 47–67 years recruited into the Caerphilly

  3. Dietary Calcium Intake in Sample of School Age Children in City of Rabat, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Bouziani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important mineral playing a vital role to maintain bone health. Calcium intake is considered as one of the most important determinants to assess the calcium status and to evaluate the calcium deficiency in the human body. Our study aims at estimating calcium intake in a sample of children and adolescent to be used in the global strategy to reduce calcium deficiency disorders in Morocco. Thus, 131 children and adolescents were recruited from public schools at Rabat and its regions in the framework of a descriptive cross-sectional study. For each participant, anthropometric parameters were measured. Calcium status was assessed by 24 h dietary recall. Food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate children’s nutritional habits and to assess the consumption of calcium-rich food. Overall, the mean calcium intake was 522.0 ± 297.0 mg/day, and 85.5% of subjects highlighted calcium deficiency, with no significant difference between boys and girls. Calcium intake was significantly different according to age groups, and high consumption of calcium was found in subjects aged from 14 to 18 years (776.86 ±290.07 mg/day, giving evidence of the low calcium status of the studied population. Daily food intake and food frequency analysis showed that bread, vegetables, and fruits are the most consumed food and the main source of daily calcium intake. Consumption of dairy products, considered as the best source of calcium, is lower and represents only 14% of total calcium intake. Our study clearly showed that calcium status is very lower in Moroccan children and adolescents and a large proportion of this population have inadequate calcium intake. Hence, there’s an urgent need of specific strategies, including children sensitisation and nutritional education, to increase calcium intake and therefore reduce calcium deficiency disorders impacting the whole body during childhood and in adult age.

  4. Seasonality affects dietary diversity of school-age children in northern Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abizari, Abdul Razak; Azupogo, Fusta; Nagasu, Miwako; Creemers, Noortje; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Dietary diversity score (DDS) is relatively easy to measure and is shown to be a very useful indicator of the probability of adequate micronutrient intake. Dietary diversity, however, is usually assessed during a single period and little is known about the effect of

  5. Dietary intake in asylum seeker children in The Netherlands, strongly related to age and origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga-Boelen, A. A. M.; Wiegersma, P. A.; Bijleveld, C. M. A.

    Objective: To monitor the dietary intake of energy, macro- and micronutrients in asylum seeker children. Design and setting: Cross-sectional study in three asylum seeker centres in The Netherlands. Subjects: Hundred and sixteen children 2-12 years old (86% of the study cohort) provided a dietary

  6. The relationship between a low grain intake dietary pattern and impulsive behaviors in middle-aged Japanese people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuhito Toyomaki

    Full Text Available Several studies indicate that dietary habits are associated with mental health. We are interested in identifying not a specific single nutrient/food group but the population preferring specific food combinations that can be related to mental health. Very few studies have examined relationships between dietary patterns and multifaceted mental states using cluster analysis. The purpose of this study was to investigate population-level dietary patterns associated with mental state using cluster analysis. We focused on depressive state, sleep quality, subjective well-being, and impulsive behaviors using rating scales. Two hundred and seventy-nine Japanese middle-aged people participated in the present study. Dietary pattern was estimated using a brief self-administered diet-history questionnaire (the BDHQ. We conducted K-means cluster analysis using thirteen BDHQ food groups: milk, meat, fish, egg, pulses, potatoes, green and yellow vegetables, other vegetables, mushrooms, seaweed, sweets, fruits, and grain. We identified three clusters characterized as "vegetable and fruit dominant," "grain dominant," and "low grain tendency" subgroups. The vegetable and fruit dominant group showed increases in several aspects of subjective well-being demonstrated by the SF-8. Differences in mean subject characteristics across clusters were tested using ANOVA. The low frequency intake of grain group showed higher impulsive behavior, demonstrated by BIS-11 deliberation and sum scores. The present study demonstrated that traditional Japanese dietary patterns, such as eating rice, can help with beneficial changes in mental health.

  7. Associations of dietary patterns with bone mass, muscle strength and balance in a cohort of Australian middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feitong; Wills, Karen; Laslett, Laura L; Oldenburg, Brian; Jones, Graeme; Winzenberg, Tania

    2017-10-01

    Influences of dietary patterns on musculoskeletal health are poorly understood in middle-aged women. This cross-sectional analysis from a cohort of 347 women (aged 36-57 years) aimed to examine associations between dietary patterns and musculoskeletal health outcomes in middle-aged women. Diet was measured by the Cancer Council of Victoria FFQ. Total body bone mineral content (TB BMC), femoral neck and lumbar spine bone density (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), lower limbs muscle strength (LMS) and balance tests (timed up and go test, step test, functional reach test (FRT) and lateral reach test) were also measured. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns and scores for each pattern generated using factor loadings with absolute values ≥0·20. Associations between food pattern scores and musculoskeletal outcomes were assessed using multivariable linear regression. Three dietary patterns were identified: 'Healthy' (high consumption of a plant-based diet - vegetables, legumes, fruit, tomatoes, nuts, snacks, garlic, whole grains and low intake of high-fat dairy products), 'high protein, high fat' (red meats, poultry, processed meats, potatoes, cruciferous and dark-yellow vegetables, fish, chips, spirits and high-fat dairy products) and 'Processed foods' (high intakes of meat pies, hamburgers, beer, sweets, fruit juice, processed meats, snacks, spirits, pizza and low intake of cruciferous vegetables). After adjustment for confounders, Healthy pattern was positively associated with LMS, whereas Processed foods pattern was inversely associated with TB BMC and FRT. The associations were not significant after accounting for multiple comparisons. There were no associations with any other outcomes. These results suggest that maintaining a healthy diet could contribute to bone acquisition, muscle strength and balance in adult life. However, while they provide some support for further investigating dietary strategies for prevention of age

  8. Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Geraldine Huini; Toh, Jia Ying; Aris, Izzuddin M; Chia, Ai-Ru; Han, Wee Meng; Saw, Seang Mei; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Lee, Yung Seng; Kramer, Michael S; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2016-06-15

    Little is known about the dietary patterns of Asian infants in the first year of life, nor of their associations with maternal socio-demographic factors. Based on the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother-offspring cohort, cross-sectional dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis using 24-h recalls and food diaries of infants at 6-, 9- and 12-months of age. Dietary pattern trajectories were modeled by mapping similar dietary patterns across each age using multilevel mixed models. Associations with maternal socio-demographic variables, collected through questionnaires during pregnancy, were assessed using general linear models. In n = 486 infants, four dietary pattern trajectories were established from 6- to 12-months. Predominantly breastmilk: mainly breastmilk and less formula milk, rice porridge, vegetables, fruits and low-fat fish and meat, Easy-to-prepare foods: infant cereals, juices, cakes and biscuits and Noodles (in soup) and seafood: noodle and common accompaniments. In adjusted models, higher maternal education attainment was correlated with higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk, but lowest education attainment increased its adherence over time. Older mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods, but younger mothers had increased adherence over time. Chinese mothers had higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk but greater adherence to GUIDELINES over time, while Indian mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods but greater adherence to Predominantly breastmilk with time (p dietary patterns established during weaning are strongly influenced by maternal socio-demographic factors and remain stable over the first year of life.

  9. Neuroinflammation and aging: influence of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layé Sophie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune system of the brain is principally composed of microglial cells and astrocytes, which, once activated, protect neurons against noxious agents or lesions. Activated glial cells produce inflammatory cytokines that act specifically through receptors expressed in the brain, leading to the development of altered emotional and cognitive behavior. These behavioral alterations cease along with the synthesis of brain cytokines. When the level of expression of these cytokines remains high, they become toxic to neurons possibly leading to neuronal death, as observed in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. Omega-3 (n-3 type polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are essential nutrients and fundamental components of neuronal and glial cell membranes. Additionally, they have immunomodulatory properties. They accumulate in the brain during the perinatal period in a dietary supply-dependant fashion. Their brain levels diminish with age, but can be corrected by a diet enriched in n-3 PUFAs. The increasing exposure of the population to diets unbalanced in n-3 PUFAs could contribute to the deleterious effect of inflammatory cytokines in the brain.

  10. Hormone Responses to an Acute Bout of Low Intensity Blood Flow Restricted Resistance Exercise in College-Aged Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eonho Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the acute hormone response to exercise differed between low intensity blood flow restricted resistance exercise and traditional high-intensity resistance exercise in college-aged women. A total of 13 healthy women (aged 18-25 yrs, who were taking oral contraceptives, volunteered for this randomized crossover study. Subjects performed a session of low intensity blood flow restricted resistance exercise (BFR (20% of 1-RM, 1 set 30 reps, 2 sets 15 reps and a session of traditional high intensity resistance exercise without blood flow restriction (HI (3 sets of 10 repetitions at 80% of 1-RM on separate days. Fasting serum cortisol and growth hormone (GH and blood lactate responses were measured in the morning pre and post exercise sessions. GH (Change: HI: 6.34 ± 1.72; BFR: 4.22 ± 1.40 ng·mL-1 and cortisol (Change: HI: 4.46 ± 1.53; BFR: 8.10 ± 2.30 ug·dL-1 significantly (p < 0.05 increased immediately post exercise for both protocols compared to baseline and there were no significant differences between the protocols for these responses. In contrast, blood lactate levels (HI: 7.35 ± 0.45; BFR: 4.02 ± 0.33 mmol·L-1 and ratings of perceived exertion were significantly (p < 0.01 higher for the HI protocol. In conclusion, acute BFR restricted resistance exercise stimulated similar increases in anabolic and catabolic hormone responses in young women.

  11. The roles of age at puberty and energy restriction in sow reproductive longevity: a genomic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 50% of sows are culled annually with more than one third due to poor fertility. Our research demonstrated that age at puberty is an early pre-breeding indicator of reproductive longevity. Age at puberty can be measured early in life, has a moderate heritability and is negatively correl...

  12. Dietary and Physical Activity/Inactivity Factors Associated with Obesity in School-Aged Children123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-01-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8–10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA. PMID:22798003

  13. Dietary calcium intake and risk of obesity in school girls aged 8-10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehnoosh Samadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some studies have demonstrated the role of calcium in reducing body mass index (BMI or fat mass. Though, BMI does not provide very valid information about changes in body fat mass, Fat Mass Index (FMI relates body fat mass to height and allows comparing body fat mass of individuals at different heights. This study investigated the possible association between dietary calcium intake (CI and other nutritional factors and weight status of girls aged 8-10 years. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 110 girls aged 8-10 with FMI at or above 7.2 kg/m 2 as cases and 307 girls with FMI less than 7.2 kg/m 2 as controls were recruited through multistage cluster random sampling. FMI at or above 7.2 kg/m 2 was considered as the cutoff point for obesity. Body fat mass was assessed by a stand on bio impedance analyzer. In order to assess CI, participants were asked to complete a validated food frequency questionnaire. Results: Mean and standard deviation of CI in the case group was significantly lower than the control group 649 ± 103 and 951 ± 152 mg/d, respectively ( P < 0.01. After Adjustment for total energy intake, the percentage of energy from fat, carbohydrate and protein in quartiles of physical activity, inverse association between CI and obesity was significant and in the highest quartile of physical activity the association was weaker. By further adjustment for the effect of fruits and vegetable intake inverse association between CI and obesity became weaker but yet was significant. Conclusion: The inverse relationship between CI and FMI remained significant even after controlling for confounding factors. FMI may be more accurate, compared to BMI, in showing the association between CI and obesity.

  14. Effects of aging and calorie restriction on the global gene expression profiles of mouse testis and ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Dan L

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aging of reproductive organs is not only a major social issue, but of special interest in aging research. A long-standing view of 'immortal germ line versus mortal soma' poses an important question of whether the reproductive tissues age in similar ways to the somatic tissues. As a first step to understand this phenomenon, we examine global changes in gene expression patterns by DNA microarrays in ovaries and testes of C57BL/6 mice at 1, 6, 16, and 24 months of age. In addition, we compared a group of mice on ad libitum (AL feeding with a group on lifespan-extending 40% calorie restriction (CR. Results We found that gene expression changes occurred in aging gonads, but were generally different from those in somatic organs during aging. For example, only two functional categories of genes previously associated with aging in muscle, kidney, and brain were confirmed in ovary: genes associated with complement activation were upregulated, and genes associated with mitochondrial electron transport were downregulated. The bulk of the changes in gonads were mostly related to gonad-specific functions. Ovaries showed extensive gene expression changes with age, especially in the period when ovulation ceases (from 6 to 16 months, whereas testes showed only limited age-related changes. The same trend was seen for the effects of CR: CR-mediated reversal of age-associated gene expression changes, reported in somatic organs previously, was limited to a small number of genes in gonads. Instead, in both ovary and testis, CR caused small and mostly gonad-specific effects: suppression of ovulation in ovary and activation of testis-specific genes in testis. Conclusion Overall, the results are consistent with unique modes of aging and its modification by CR in testis and ovary.

  15. Dietary broccoli mildly improves neuroinflammation in aged mice but does not reduce lipopolysaccharide-induced sickness behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Brigitte E; Chen, Yung-Ju; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Johnson, Rodney W

    2014-11-01

    Aging is associated with oxidative stress and heightened inflammatory response to infection. Dietary interventions to reduce these changes are therefore desirable. Broccoli contains glucoraphanin, which is converted to sulforaphane (SFN) by plant myrosinase during cooking preparation or digestion. Sulforaphane increases antioxidant enzymes including NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase and heme oxygenase I and inhibits inflammatory cytokines. We hypothesized that dietary broccoli would support an antioxidant response in brain and periphery of aged mice and inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and sickness. Young adult and aged mice were fed control or 10% broccoli diet for 28 days before an intraperitoneal LPS injection. Social interactions were assessed 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours after LPS, and mRNA was quantified in liver and brain at 24 hours. Dietary broccoli did not ameliorate LPS-induced decrease in social interactions in young or aged mice. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression was unaffected by broccoli consumption but was induced by LPS in brain and liver of adult and aged mice. In addition, IL-1β was elevated in brain of aged mice without LPS. Broccoli consumption decreased age-elevated cytochrome b-245 β, an oxidative stress marker, and reduced glial activation markers in aged mice. Collectively, these data suggest that 10% broccoli diet provides a modest reduction in age-related oxidative stress and glial reactivity, but is insufficient to inhibit LPS-induced inflammation. Thus, it is likely that SFN would need to be provided in supplement form to control the inflammatory response to LPS. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Low-Fat Diet With Caloric Restriction Reduces White Matter Microglia Activation During Aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Zhuoran; Raj, Divya D.; Schaafsma, Wandert; van der Heijden, Roel A.; Kooistra, Susanne M.; Reijne, Aaffien C.; Zhang, Xiaoming; Moser, Jill; Brouwer, Nieske; Heeringa, Peter; Yi, Chun-Xia; van Dijk, Gertjan; Laman, Jon D.; Boddeke, Erik W. G. M.; Eggen, Bart J. L.

    2018-01-01

    Rodent models of both aging and obesity are characterized by inflammation in specific brain regions, notably the corpus callosum, fornix, and hypothalamus. Microglia, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system, are important for brain development, neural support, and homeostasis.

  17. Lifestyle and nutrition, caloric restriction, mitochondrial health and hormones: Scientific interventions for anti-aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Vitetta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Luis Vitetta1, Bill Anton21Unit of Health Integration, School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Australia; 2Path Lab, Melbourne, AustraliaAbstract: Aging is a universal process to all life forms. The most current and widely accepted definition for aging in humans is that there is a progressive loss of function and energy production that is accompanied by decreasing fertility and increasing mortality with advancing age. The most obvious and commonly recognised consequence of aging and energy decline is a decrease in skeletal muscle function which affects every aspect of human life from the ability to play games, walk and run to chew, swallow and digest food. There is hence a recognised overall decline of an individuals’ fitness for the environment that they occupy. In Westernised countries this decline is gradual and the signs become mostly noticeable after the 5th decade of life and henceforth, where the individual slowly progresses to death over the next three to four decades. Given that the aging process is slow and gradual, it presents with opportunities and options that may ameliorate and improve the overall functional capacity of the organism. Small changes in function may be more amenable and likely to further slow down and possibly reverse some of the deleterious effects of aging, rather, than when the incremental changes are large. This overall effect may then translate into a significant compression of the deleterious aspects of human aging with a resultant increase in human life expectancy.Keywords: human aging, life expectancy, lifespan, energy

  18. Dietary Risk Factors by Race/Ethnicity, Age-Group, and Gender in a Representative Sample of US Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, J A; Huffman, F G

    2017-01-01

    To explore the relationships among ethnicity/race, gender, demographics, age-group and dietary health in a nationally representative sample of older adults. Cross-sectional study. Data for this study were collected by interview in the mobile examination centers from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011 - 2012. U.S. representative sample of adults aged 55 years and older (N = 1860) from five ethnic/racial groups. All participants read, understood, and signed informed consent forms under data collection procedures by trained individuals. Sociodemographics were collected by trained interviewers using a general questionnaire. Food groups were determined by 24-hour recall using the validated USDA Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Data were presented by cross-tabulation and logistic regression to investigate relationships among race/ethnicity, gender, and age groups. Over 70% of older adults failed to consume 2.75 cups of combined fruits and vegetables. Other Hispanics (Hispanics excluding Mexican Americans) had higher Odds of sugar-containing food consumption compared to non-Hispanic Whites (adjusted model). Being older and female were protective factors for over-consumption of sugar. Older Americans are not meeting dietary guidelines and there are differences by gender and ethnicity. Since diet has been associated with quality of life and medical costs, public health interventions can benefit by knowing age-, gender- and racial/ethnic- specific dietary behaviors.

  19. Influence of Physical Exercise and Food Restriction on the Biomechanical Properties of the Femur of Ageing Male Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Skalicky, Monika; Viidik, Andrus

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary running in wheels as well as food reduction increase the life spans of rats. Disparate parameters such as the collagen biomarker of ageing and the development of kidney pathologies are decreased by voluntary exercise. There are few reports on the influence of physical exercise...... were used: baseline (BL), voluntarily running in wheels (RW), food restriction to attain pair weight with RW animals (PW), forced running in treadmills (TM), and sedentary controls (SE). The biomechanical properties of femoral neck, diaphysis, and distal metaphysis were measured. RESULTS: While...

  20. Metabolic Regulation of Methionine Restriction in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Ren, Wenkai; Chen, Shuai; Li, Yuying; Han, Hui; Gao, Jing; Liu, Gang; Wu, Xin; Li, Tiejun; Kim, Sung Woo; Yin, Yulong

    2018-03-30

    Although the effects of dietary methionine restriction have been investigated in the physiology of aging and diseases related to oxidative stress, the relationship between methionine restriction and the development of metabolic disorders has not been explored extensively. This review summarizes studies of the possible involvement of dietary methionine restriction in improving insulin resistance, glucose homeostasis, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism, the pentose phosphate pathway, and inflammation, with an emphasis on the fibroblast growth factor 21 and protein phosphatase 2A signals and autophagy in diabetes. Diets deficient in methionine may be a useful nutritional strategy in patients with diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Dietary intake and metabolic control of children aged six to ten with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intake of children with type 1 diabetes and about how this compares to the dietary ... achieving a balance between food intake, insulin levels and energy ..... South African Health Review: Chronic conditions in children. In: Ijumba P, Padarath A, ...

  2. Integrating spot short-term measurements of carbon emissions and backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate intake in lactating dairy cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A B D; Utsumi, S A; Dorich, C D; Brito, A F

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to use spot short-term measurements of CH4 (QCH4) and CO2 (QCO2) integrated with backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate dry matter intake (DMI) in lactating dairy cows. Twelve multiparous cows averaging 173±37d in milk and 4 primiparous cows averaging 179±27d in milk were blocked by days in milk, parity, and DMI (as a percentage of body weight) and, within each block, randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: ad libitum intake (AL) or restricted intake (RI=90% DMI) according to a crossover design. Each experimental period lasted 22d with 14d for treatments adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. Diets contained (dry matter basis): 40% corn silage, 12% grass-legume haylage, and 48% concentrate. Spot short-term gas measurements were taken in 5-min sampling periods from 15 cows (1 cow refused sampling) using a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system (GreenFeed, C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD) with intervals of 12h between the 2daily samples. Sampling points were advanced 2h from a day to the next to yield 16 gas samples per cow over 8d to account for diurnal variation in QCH4 and QCO2. The following equations were used sequentially to estimate DMI: (1) heat production (MJ/d)=(4.96 + 16.07 ÷ respiratory quotient) × QCO2; respiratory quotient=0.95; (2) metabolizable energy intake (MJ/d)=(heat production + milk energy) ± tissue energy balance; (3) digestible energy (DE) intake (MJ/d)=metabolizable energy + CH4 energy + urinary energy; (4) gross energy (GE) intake (MJ/d)=DE + [(DE ÷ in vitro true dry matter digestibility) - DE]; and (5) DMI (kg/d)=GE intake estimated ÷ diet GE concentration. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) and Fit Model procedure in JMP (α=0.05; SAS Institute Inc.). Cows significantly differed in DMI measured (23.8 vs. 22.4kg/d for AL and RI, respectively). Dry matter intake estimated using QCH4 and QCO2 coupled with

  3. Association of Dietary Patterns with Components of Metabolic Syndrome and Inflammation among Middle-Aged and Older Adults with Metabolic Syndrome in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Syauqy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the correlation of dietary patterns with components of metabolic syndrome (MetS and inflammation among middle-aged and older adults with MetS in Taiwan. This cross-sectional study used data from the Mei Jau International Health Management Institution in Taiwan between 2004 and 2013. A total of 26,016 subjects aged 35 years and above were selected for analysis. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation. Three dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis. High intake of a meat–instant food dietary pattern (rich in animal protein, saturated fat, sweets, sodium, and food additives was positively associated with components of MetS and C-reactive protein (CRP, while high intake of a vege–seafood dietary pattern (rich in dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and unsaturated fat or a cereal–dairy dietary pattern (rich in dietary fiber, antioxidants, phytochemicals, complex carbohydrate, prebiotics, and probiotics was inversely associated with components of MetS and CRP. Our findings suggested that intake of a vege–seafood dietary pattern or a cereal–dairy dietary pattern decreased the risk of developing MetS and inflammation among middle-aged and older adults with MetS.

  4. Vitamin E supplementation and pneumonia risk in males who initiated smoking at an early age: effect modification by body weight and dietary vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaprio Jaakko

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We had found a 14% higher incidence of pneumonia with vitamin E supplementation in a subgroup of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC Study cohort: participants who had initiated smoking by the age of 20 years. In this study, we explored the modification of vitamin E effect by body weight, because the same dose could lead to a greater effect in participants with low body weight. Methods The ATBC Study recruited males aged 50–69 years who smoked at least 5 cigarettes per day at the baseline; it was conducted in southwestern Finland in 1985–1993. The current study was restricted to 21,657 ATBC Study participants who initiated smoking by the age of 20 years; the median follow-up time was 6.0 years. The hospital-diagnosed pneumonia cases were retrieved from the national hospital discharge register (701 cases. Results Vitamin E supplementation had no effect on the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight in a range from 70 to 89 kg (n = 12,495, risk ratio (RR = 0.99 (95% CI: 0.81 to 1.22. Vitamin E increased the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight less than 60 kg (n = 1054, RR = 1.61 (1.03 to 2.53, and in participants with body weight over 100 kg (n = 1328, RR = 2.34 (1.07 to 5.08. The harm of vitamin E supplementation was restricted to participants with dietary vitamin C intake above the median. Conclusion Vitamin E supplementation may cause harmful effects on health in certain groups of male smokers. The dose of vitamin E used in the ATBC Study, 50 mg/day, is substantially smaller than conventional vitamin E doses that are considered safe. Our findings should increase caution towards taking vitamin E supplements. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342992.

  5. Ethnicity and socioeconomic status are related to dietary patterns at age 5 in the Amsterdam born children and their development (ABCD) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Viyan; Engberink, Marielle F; van Eijsden, Manon; Nicolaou, Mary; Dekker, Louise H; Verhoeff, Arnoud P; Weijs, Peter J M

    2018-01-08

    Health inequalities are already present at young age and tend to vary with ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). Diet is a major determinant of overweight, and studying dietary patterns as a whole in relation to overweight rather than single nutrients or foods has been suggested. We derived dietary patterns at age 5 and determined whether ethnicity and SES were both related to these dietary patterns. We analysed 2769 validated Food Frequency Questionnaires filled in by mothers of children (5.7 ± 0.5y) in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) cohort. Food items were reduced to 41 food groups. Energy adjusted intake per food group (g/d) was used to derive dietary patterns using Principal Component Analysis and children were given a pattern score for each dietary pattern. We defined 5 ethnic groups (Dutch, Surinamese, Turkish, Moroccan, other ethnicities) and 3 SES groups (low, middle, high, based on maternal education). Multivariate ANOVA, with adjustment for age, gender and maternal age, was used to test potential associations between ethnicity or SES and dietary pattern scores. Post-hoc analyses with Bonferroni adjustment were used to examine differences between groups. Principal Component Analysis identified 4 dietary patterns: a snacking, full-fat, meat and healthy dietary pattern, explaining 21% of the variation in dietary intake. Ethnicity was related to the dietary pattern scores (p pattern, whereas Turkish children scored high on full-fat and Surinamese children on the meat pattern. SES was related to the snacking, full-fat and meat patterns (p pattern and low on the full-fat pattern. This study indicates that both ethnicity and SES are relevant for dietary patterns at age 5 and may enable more specific nutrition education to specific ethnic and low socioeconomic status target groups.

  6. Dietary habits and lifestyle in school-aged children from Bucharest, Romania

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    Anca Pantea Stoian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study evaluated the difference between boys and girls in terms of nutritional status, lifestyle, and dietary habits during school life. Materials and Methods. A descriptive and observational study was conducted in 2016, in which 251 children, aged 7-17, from 3 elementary schools and a high school inBucharest,Romania, were evaluated. A questionnaire was used to assess food behavior, eating, and lifestyle habits. Results. Boys had a significantly higher waist circumference (71.18±9 than girls (67.46±9.91 (p=0.004. Thus 27% of boys were overweight or obese compared with only 22% of the girls. Differences were also seen between the two groups in terms of main meals and snacks and following a rhythm of meals: a statistically significant percentage of girls (36.3% skip breakfast, while most boys (63.8% take a food package to school. A total of 23.8% of the boys and 24% of the girls state that they eat while sitting in front of the computer or TV. Conclusions. We found that boys are more overweight or obese than girls. Obesity in the pediatric population of Romania could be explained by the country’s emergence from communism 25 years ago, pattern typical of all Eastern European countries and which currently involve an overexposure of people to fast food, fizzy drinks and sweets, as well as to a high consumption of salt and food additives. Unbalanced and highly caloric food had been preferable to healthy food in the last period. Leisure time is rather spent in front of the TV, tablet, detrimental to rational physical exercise, recreational sports or hiking. The family environment is very important and all our actions should be focused on continuous education about the risks of unhealthy food and a sedentary lifestyle.

  7. Dietary adequacy and alcohol consumption of Inuvialuit women of child-bearing age in the Northwest Territories, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahdooz, F; Spearing, K; Corriveau, A; Sharma, S

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies highlight a possible association between alcohol-drinking patterns and dietary inadequacies, which may have negative implications, particularly for women of child-bearing age. The present study aimed to compare dietary adequacy among alcohol drinkers versus nondrinkers in Inuvialuit women of child-bearing age. A cross-sectional survey of 92 randomly selected women of childbearing age (19-44 years) was conducted in three communities in the Northwest Territories of Arctic Canada, using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Data were analysed to compare mean daily energy and nutrient intakes, dietary adequacy and nutrient densities (per 4184 kJ) between alcohol drinkers and nondrinkers, as well as heavy drinkers and nonheavy drinkers, using the nonparametric Wilcoxen rank sum test. The response rate was between 65% and 85% depending on the community sampled. Of the study participants, 54% (n = 49) were drinkers and 46% (n = 42) were nondrinkers. Of the drinkers, 45% (n = 22) were heavy drinkers. Mean energy intakes were high among all women, although they were significantly higher among drinkers [17,179 kJ (4106 kcal)] compared to nondrinkers [13,317 kJ (3183 kcal)]. There were no significant differences in nutrient intake between the two groups; however, drinkers had a lower nutrient density for most nutrients. Heavy drinkers had a significantly lower nutrient density for all nutrients, except protein, iron, and vitamins B6 , C and D, compared to nonheavy drinkers. The findings of the present study provide evidence of inadequate dietary intake among Inuvialuit of child-bearing age, regardless of alcohol-drinking behaviour. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  8. Association of Dietary Habits and Interest for Food and Science versus Weight Status in Children Aged 8 to 18 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderhulst, Els; Faik, Aicha; Vansintejan, Johan; Van Rossem, Inès; Devroey, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    Introduction. This study aims to describe the association between dietary habits and weight status and the interest in food and science. Methods. We examined in a cross-sectional study 525 children aged between 8 and 18 years, who attended the Brussels Food Fair or the Belgian Science Day in 2013. They were divided into three groups: special interest in science, special interest in food, and a general control group. They completed a questionnaire, and body parameters were measured. The weight...

  9. Compliance With Legal Age Restrictions on Adolescent Alcohol Sales for Alcohol Home Delivery Services (AHDS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, Joris Jasper; van den Wildenberg, Esther; de Bruijn, Dorien

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Alcohol availability is an important predictor of alcohol use in adolescents and its negative consequences. Within this study, we zoomed in on availability through alcohol home delivery services (AHDS) by measuring compliance with the legal age limit in this sector. Methods: Two methods

  10. MMP2-A2M interaction increases ECM accumulation in aged rat kidney and its modulation by calorie restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Mok; Chung, Ki Wung; Jeong, Hyeong Oh; Lee, Bonggi; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, June Whoun; Kim, Seong Min; Yu, Byung Pal; Chung, Hae Young

    2018-01-01

    Age-associated renal fibrosis is related with renal function decline during aging. Imbalance between accumulation and degradation of extracellular matrix is key feature of fibrosis. In this study, RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) results based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) data were analyzed to identify key proteins that change during aging and calorie restriction (CR). Among the changed genes, A2M and MMP2, which are known to interact, exhibited the highest between centrality (BC) and degree values when analyzed by protein–protein interaction (PPI). Both mRNA and protein levels of MMP2 and A2M were increased during aging. Furthermore, the interaction between MMP2 and A2M was verified by immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry. MMP2 activity was further measured under the presence or absence of A2M-MMP2 interaction. MMP2 activity, which was increased under the absence of A2M-MMP2 interaction, was significantly decreased under the presence of interactions in aged kidney. We further hypothesized that the interaction between A2M-MMP2 played a role in the inactivation of MMP2 leading to accumulation of ECM including collagen type I and IV. Aged kidney showed highly accumulated MMP2 substrate proteins despite of increased MMP2 protein expression and CR blunted these accumulation. Additional in vivo analysis revealed that the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 transcriptional factor was significantly increased thus increasing A2M expression during aging. STAT3 activating cytokines were also highly increased in aged kidney. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that A2M-MMP2 interaction has a role in age-associated renal ECM accumulation and in the suppression such fibrosis by CR. PMID:29464020

  11. Foetal growth restriction is associated with poor reading and spelling skills at eight years to 10 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Lea; Korkalainen, Noora; Mäkikallio, Kaarin; Olsén, Päivi; Laukkanen-Nevala, Päivi; Yliherva, Anneli

    2018-01-01

    Foetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with communication problems, which might lead to poor literacy skills. The reading and spelling skills of eight- to 10-year-old FGR children born at 24-40 gestational weeks were compared with those of their gestational age-matched, appropriately grown (AGA) peers. A prospectively collected cohort of 37 FGR and 31 AGA children was recruited prenatally at a Finnish tertiary care centre during 1998-2001. The children's reading and spelling skills were assessed using standardised tests for Finnish-speaking second and third graders. Significantly more children performed below the 10th percentile normal values for reading and spelling skills in the FGR group than in the AGA group. At nine years of age, the FGR children had significantly poorer performance in word reading skills and reading fluency, reading accuracy and reading comprehension than the AGA controls. No between-group differences were detected at eight years of age. FGR is associated with poor performance in reading and spelling skills. A third of the FGR children performed below the 10th percentile normal values at nine years of age. These results indicate a need to continuously evaluate linguistic and literacy skills as FGR children age to ensure optimal support. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Assessing Restrictiveness: A Closer Look at the Foster Care Placements and Perceptions of Youth With and Without Disabilities Aging Out of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Miranda; Dalton, Lawrence D.; Powers, Laurie E.; Geenen, Sarah; Orozco, Claudia Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the experience of restrictiveness among transition-aged youth with disabilities in foster care. Utilizing a sample of 207 youth, placement types were explored for differences in disability status, race and sex. Further, youth perceptions of restriction around communication, movement around one’s home, and access to the community were examined for youth receiving special education services (SPED), youth receiving developmental disability services (DD), and youth without disabilities. Youth with disabilities were more likely to be placed in more restrictive placement types and had significantly higher levels of perceived restriction around communication, movement, and community when compared to youth without disabilities. Additionally, males with disabilities experienced higher levels of restrictiveness, particularly those who received DD services, while White youth with disabilities also experienced greater community restrictiveness. PMID:24489523

  13. Reversing the Negative Genomic Effects of Aging with Short-Term Calorie Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Spindler

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available According to government figures, total health care spending in the U.S. in 1999 was $1.316 trillion. The government projects an increase in health care costs to $2.176 trillion by 2008. If we project this growth rate to 2020, health care costs will reach $4.009 trillion. Today, people often spend more health care dollars during the last year of their lives than in all previous years combined. Medical treatment in the last few years of life is usually very expensive and often futile. With the baby-boom generation now moving through middle age, the prescription for the U.S. health care system will be disastrous unless we learn how to keep people healthier longer. This dramatic increase in health care costs leaves us with only one acceptable alternative to rationed health care or financial ruin — to discover interventions that make people functionally younger, healthier, and less susceptible to debilitating, age-related diseases.

  14. Associations between parental feeding practices, problem food behaviours and dietary intake in New Zealand overweight children aged 4-8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haszard, Jillian J; Skidmore, Paula M L; Williams, Sheila M; Taylor, Rachael W

    2015-04-01

    Parents report that children's eating behaviours are a major barrier to providing them with a healthy diet. Links between problem eating behaviours and parental feeding practices are not well established and have not previously been examined in overweight children. The aim of the present study was to assess associations between problem food behaviours, dietary intake and parental feeding practices of overweight children aged 4-8 years. Participants were recruited for a lifestyle intervention (n 203). At baseline, children's BMI was measured and parents completed comprehensive questionnaires about the feeding practices they used, the problem food behaviours their children exhibited and the foods their child consumed. A fussy eating scale was developed and associations were determined using correlations and regression analysis, including interactions. Dunedin, New Zealand. Overweight children aged 4-8 years. Healthy eating guidance and monitoring by parents were related to the consumption of fewer unhealthy foods (B=-0·4, P=0·001 and B=-0·4, Pfoods (B = 0·5, Pfood intake less (Pfood-restrictive parents ate more fruit and vegetables (B=2·9, Pfood environment might be beneficial for the diet and food behaviours of young overweight children.

  15. Fisetin as a caloric restriction mimetic protects rat brain against aging induced oxidative stress, apoptosis and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sandeep; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Garg, Geetika; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2018-01-15

    In the present study, attempts have been made to evaluate the potential role of fisetin, a caloric restriction mimetic (CRM), for neuroprotection in D-galactose (D-gal) induced accelerated and natural aging models of rat. Fisetin was supplemented (15mg/kg b.w., orally) to young, D-gal induced aged (D-gal 500mg/kg b.w subcutaneously) and naturally aged rats for 6weeks. Standard protocols were employed to measure pro-oxidants, antioxidants and mitochondrial membrane potential in brain tissues. Gene expression analysis with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to assess the expression of autophagy, neuronal, aging as well as inflammatory marker genes. We have also evaluated apoptotic cell death and synaptosomal membrane-bound ion transporter activities in brain tissues. Our data demonstrated that fisetin significantly decreased the level of pro-oxidants and increased the level of antioxidants. Furthermore, fisetin also ameliorated mitochondrial membrane depolarization, apoptotic cell death and impairments in the activities of synaptosomal membrane-bound ion transporters in aging rat brain. RT-PCR data revealed that fisetin up-regulated the expression of autophagy genes (Atg-3 and Beclin-1), sirtuin-1 and neuronal markers (NSE and Ngb), and down-regulated the expression of inflammatory (IL-1β and TNF-α) and Sirt-2 genes respectively in aging brain. The present study suggests that fisetin supplementation may provide neuroprotection against aging-induced oxidative stress, apoptotic cell death, neuro-inflammation, and neurodegeneration in rat brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of dietary, social, and lifestyle determinants of accelerated aging and its common clinical presentation: A survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarakoon, S M S; Chandola, H M; Ravishankar, B

    2011-07-01

    Aging is unavoidable and natural phenomenon of life. Modern gerontologists are realizing the fact that aging is a disease, which Ayurveda had accepted as natural disease since long. Rate of aging is determined by one's biological, social, lifestyle, and psychological conditions and adversity of which leads to accelerated form of aging (Akalaja jara or premature aging). The aim of this study is to identify potential factors that may accelerate aging in the context of dietry factors, lifestyle and mental makeup. The 120 diagnosed subjects of premature-ageing of 30-60 years were randomly selected in the survey study. Premature ageing was common among females (75.83%), in 30-40 age group (70%), 86.67% were married, had secondary level of education (36.66%), house-views (61.67%), belongs top middle class (58.33%) and engaged in occupations that dominating physical labour (88.33%). The maximum patients are constipated (60%), had mandagni (80%), vata-kapha prakriti (48.33%), rajasika prakriti (58.33%), madhyama vyayama shakti (73.33%), and madhyama jarana shakti (85.83%). Collectively, 43.33% patients were above normal BMI. The more patients had anushna (38.33%) and vishamasana dietary pattern (25.83%), consumed Lavana (88.33%) and Amla rasa (78.33%) in excess on regular basis. Some patients had addicted to tobacco (11.67%) and beetle chewing (5.83%). The maximum patients had no any exercise (79.17%) and specific hobby (79.17%) in their leisure times. Analyzing Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Rating Scales revealed that 39.80%, 37.86%, 33.98%, 24.27% and 18.44% patients had insomnia, depression, tension, GIT symptoms and anxious mood respectively. These data suggest that certain social, dietary and lifestyle factors contribute towards accelerated ageing among young individuals.

  17. Dietary patterns, gender, and weight status among middle-aged and older adults in Taiwan: a cross-sectional study

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    Miriam Adoyo Muga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet has been associated with differences in weight and nutritional status of an individual. The prevalence of overweight and obesity increased among adults in Taiwan. Hence, we examined the relationship between dietary patterns and weight status by gender among middle-aged and older adults in Taiwan. Methods The cross-sectional data of 62,965 participants aged ≥40 years were retrieved from the Mei Jau health screening institutions’ database collected from 2001 and 2010. Diet information was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire, while the dietary patterns were derived using principal component analysis before summing up and dividing into quintiles of consumption. The association between dietary patterns and weight status among adult men and women was explored using multinomial logistic regression models. Three models were analyzed before stratifying data by gender. Results Two dietary patterns were derived with one reflecting a high consumption of vegetables and fruits (vegetable-fruit dietary pattern and the other a high consumption of meat and processed foods (meat-processed dietary pattern. After adjustment, highest consumption of vegetables and fruits (Q5 reduced the likelihood of being overweight (OR = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85–0.97 or obese (OR = 0.85; 95% CI, 0.78–0.92, while highest consumption of meat and processed foods increased the likelihood of being overweight (OR = 1.50; 95% CI, 1.40–1.59 or obese (OR = 1.94; 95% CI, 1.79–2.10. Women were less likely to be overweight or obese with the highest intake of fruits and vegetables (Q5 while both genders were more likely to be overweight or obese with high consumption of meat and processed foods. Conclusions High intake of vegetables and fruits is associated with lower odds of being overweight or obese, especially among women. But, high intake of meat and processed foods is associated with higher odds of overweight and obesity in both

  18. Compliance with WHO IYCF Indicators and Dietary Intake Adequacy in a Sample of Malaysian Infants Aged 6–23 Months

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    Geok Lin Khor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The 2010 World Health Organisation (WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF indicators are useful for monitoring feeding practices. Methods: A total sample of 300 subjects aged 6 to 23 months was recruited from urban suburbs of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya. Compliance with each IYCF indicator was computed according to WHO recommendations. Dietary intake based on two-day weighed food records was obtained from a sub-group (N = 119 of the total sample. The mean adequacy ratio (MAR value was computed as an overall measure of dietary intake adequacy. Contributions of core IYCF indicators to MAR were determined by multinomial logistic regression. Results: Generally, the subjects showed high compliance for (i timely introduction of complementary foods at 6 to 8 months (97.9%; (ii minimum meal frequency among non-breastfed children aged 6 to 23 months (95.2%; (iii consumption of iron-rich foods at 6 to 23 months (92.3%; and minimum dietary diversity (78.0%. While relatively high proportions achieved the recommended intake levels for protein (87.4% and iron (71.4%, lower proportions attained the recommendations for calcium (56.3% and energy (56.3%. The intake of micronutrients was generally poor. The minimum dietary diversity had the greatest contribution to MAR (95% CI: 3.09, 39.87 (p = 0.000 among the core IYCF indicators. Conclusion: Malaysian urban infants and toddlers showed moderate to high compliance with WHO IYCF indicators. The robustness of the analytical approach in this study in quantifying contributions of IYCF indicators to MAR should be further investigated.

  19. Compliance with WHO IYCF Indicators and Dietary Intake Adequacy in a Sample of Malaysian Infants Aged 6-23 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Geok Lin; Tan, Sue Yee; Tan, Kok Leong; Chan, Pauline S; Amarra, Maria Sofia V

    2016-12-01

    The 2010 World Health Organisation (WHO) Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators are useful for monitoring feeding practices. A total sample of 300 subjects aged 6 to 23 months was recruited from urban suburbs of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya. Compliance with each IYCF indicator was computed according to WHO recommendations. Dietary intake based on two-day weighed food records was obtained from a sub-group ( N = 119) of the total sample. The mean adequacy ratio (MAR) value was computed as an overall measure of dietary intake adequacy. Contributions of core IYCF indicators to MAR were determined by multinomial logistic regression. Generally, the subjects showed high compliance for (i) timely introduction of complementary foods at 6 to 8 months (97.9%); (ii) minimum meal frequency among non-breastfed children aged 6 to 23 months (95.2%); (iii) consumption of iron-rich foods at 6 to 23 months (92.3%); and minimum dietary diversity (78.0%). While relatively high proportions achieved the recommended intake levels for protein (87.4%) and iron (71.4%), lower proportions attained the recommendations for calcium (56.3%) and energy (56.3%). The intake of micronutrients was generally poor. The minimum dietary diversity had the greatest contribution to MAR (95% CI: 3.09, 39.87) ( p = 0.000) among the core IYCF indicators. Malaysian urban infants and toddlers showed moderate to high compliance with WHO IYCF indicators. The robustness of the analytical approach in this study in quantifying contributions of IYCF indicators to MAR should be further investigated.

  20. Dietary cholesterol and fats at a young age : do they influence cholesterol metabolism in adult life?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmerman, A.M.; Vonk, R.J.; Niezen-Koning, K.; Berger, R.; Fernandes, J.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of dietary cholesterol and fats on cholesterol metabolism later in life were studied in Mongolian gerbils. Three groups were given a basic diet with soybean oil, palm kernel oil amounting to 8.75% (w/w), or the basic diet only. In three other groups, cholesterol (0.05%) was added to the

  1. Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in adolescents aged 14-18 y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Taryn J; Tripkovic, Laura; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescents are a population group at high risk of low vitamin D status, yet the evidence base for establishing dietary vitamin D requirements remains weak. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to establish the distribution of vitamin D intakes required to maintain serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)...

  2. Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in white children aged 4-8 y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Charlotte; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Hauger, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children in northern latitudes are at high risk of vitamin D deficiency during winter because of negligible dermal vitamin D3 production. However, to our knowledge, the dietary requirement for maintaining the nutritional adequacy of vitamin D in young children has not been investigate...

  3. Low Dietary Diversity and Intake of Animal Source Foods among School Aged Children in Libo Kemkem and Fogera Districts, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Herrador

    Full Text Available A low dietary diversity score (DDS and low consumption of food from animal sources (ASF are among the factors related to malnutrition in school-aged children living in Libo Kemkem and Fogera (Ethiopia.This study aimed to identify associated determinants for low dietary diversity and lack of consumption of ASF.In 2009, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in May, at the end of the lean season. Socio-demographic characteristics and diet habits were collected from 886 school-aged children. Additionally, 516 children from rural sites were followed up in the post-harvest season, in December of the same year. Bivariate and multivariable statistical methods were employed to assess low DDS and ASF intake and their association with different factors.Up to 80% and 60% of school-aged children living in rural and urban sites, respectively, ate ≤ 3 food groups the day before the survey. The percentage of children consuming ASF was significantly higher in urban settings (64% vs 18%. In the rural areas, if the head of the household was male (OR: 1.91; 95%CI: 1.00-3.65 and older than 40 years (OR: 1.56; 95%CI: 1.02-2.38 the child had a lower DDS in the lean season, while differences by socioeconomic indexes were observed in the post-harvest season. Males took more ASF than females in rural settings (OR: 1.73; 95%CI: 1.14-2.62 and differences by socioeconomic indexes were observed in both settings in the lean season, though not in post-harvest survey.The findings of this study revealed that the diet among school-aged children in Libo Kemkem and Fogera districts lacked diversity, and that the intake of foods from animal sources was low, especially among rural girls. To effectively tackle malnutrition, dietary diversification strategies oriented to the local needs are recommended.

  4. Effect of Short-term Quercetin, Caloric Restriction and Combined Treatment on Age-related Oxidative Stress Markers in the Rat Cerebral Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alugoju, Phaniendra; Swamy, Vkd Krishan; Periyasamy, Latha

    2018-03-14

    Aging is characterized by gradual accumulation of macromolecular damage leading to progressive loss of physiological function and increased susceptibility to diverse diseases. Effective anti-aging strategies involving caloric restriction or antioxidant supplementation are receiving growing attention to attenuate macromolecular damage in age associated pathology. In the present study, we for the first time investigated the effect of quercetin, caloric restriction and combined treatment (caloric restriction with quercetin) on oxidative stress parameters, acetylcholinesterase and ATPases enzyme activities in the cerebral cortex of aged male Wistar rats. 21 months aged rats were divided into four groups (n=6-8) such as group 1-fed ad libitum (AL); group 2-quercetin supplementation of 50 mg/kg b.w/day for 45 days fed ad libitum (QUER); group 3: caloric restricted (CR) (fed 40% reduced AL for 45 days); group 4-fed 40% CR and 50 mg/kg b.w/day QUER for 45 days (CR + QUER). Group 5-three month age old rats served as young control (YOUNG). Our results demonstrate that combined treatment of caloric restriction and quercetin significantly improved the age associated decline in the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes [such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and glutathione (GSH) content and attenuated elevated levels of protein carbonyl content (PCC), lipid peroxidation, lipofuscin, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nitric oxide (NO). Furthermore, it is also observed that combined treatment ameliorated age associated alterations in acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) such as Na+/K+-ATPase and Ca+2-ATPase (but not Mg+2- ATPase) enzyme activities. Finally, we conclude that combined treatment of caloric restriction and quercetin (but not either treatment alone) in late life is an effective anti-aging therapy to counteract the age related accumulation of oxidative macromolecular damage

  5. Association of dietary factors with presence and severity of tinnitus in a middle-aged UK population.

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    Abby McCormack

    Full Text Available The impact of dietary factors on tinnitus has received limited research attention, despite being a considerable concern among people with tinnitus and clinicians. The objective was to examine the link between dietary factors and presence and severity of tinnitus.This study used the UK Biobank resource, a large cross-sectional study of adults aged 40-69. 171,722 eligible participants were asked questions specific to tinnitus (defined as noises such as ringing or buzzing in the head or ears. Dietary factors included portions of fruit and vegetables per day, weekly fish consumption (oily and non-oily, bread type, cups of caffeinated coffee per day, and avoidance of dairy, eggs, wheat and sugar. We controlled for lifestyle, noise exposure, hearing, personality and comorbidity factors.Persistent tinnitus, defined as present at least a lot of the time, was elevated with increased: (i fruit/vegetable intake (OR = 1.01 per portion/day, (ii bread (wholemeal/wholegrain, OR = 1.07; other bread, 1.20 and (iii dairy avoidance (OR = 1.27. Persistent tinnitus was reduced with: (i fish consumption (non-oily, OR = 0.91; oily, 0.95, (ii egg avoidance (OR = 0.87 and (iii caffeinated coffee consumption (OR = 0.99 per cup/day. Reports of “bothersome” tinnitus (moderate-severe handicap reduced with wholemeal/wholegrain bread intake (OR = 0.86 [corrected].Reports of less frequent transient tinnitus increased with dairy avoidance (OR = 1.18 and decreased with caffeinated coffee (OR = 0.98 per cup/day and brown bread (OR = 0.94.This is the first population study to report the association between dietary factors and tinnitus. Although individually dietary associations are mostly modest, particular changes in diet, such as switching between foodstuffs, may result in stronger associations. These findings offer insights into possible dietary associations with tinnitus, and this may be useful when discussing management options in

  6. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aweke Kebede

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F in drinking water (~5 mg F/L. The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60 and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220. Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed.

  7. The Effects of Dietary Macronutrient Balance on Skin Structure in Aging Male and Female Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Aisling C.; Ruohonen, Kari; Raubenheimer, David; Ballard, J. William O.; Le Couteur, David G.; Nicholls, Caroline; Li, Zhe; Maitz, Peter K. M.; Wang, Yiwei; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition influences skin structure; however, a systematic investigation into how energy and macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate and fat) affects the skin has yet to be conducted. We evaluated the associations between macronutrients, energy intake and skin structure in mice fed 25 experimental diets and a control diet for 15 months using the Geometric Framework, a novel method of nutritional analysis. Skin structure was associated with the ratio of dietary macronutrients eaten, not energy intake, and the nature of the effect differed between the sexes. In males, skin structure was primarily associated with protein intake, whereas in females carbohydrate intake was the primary correlate. In both sexes, the dermis and subcutaneous fat thicknesses were inversely proportional. Subcutaneous fat thickness varied positively with fat intake, due to enlarged adipocytes rather than increased adipocyte number. We therefore demonstrated clear interactions between skin structure and macronutrient intakes, with the associations being sex-specific and dependent on dietary macronutrient balance. PMID:27832138

  8. Dietary sodium intake is associated with total fluid and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in US children and adolescents aged 2–18 y: NHANES 2005–2008123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Wright, Jacqueline D; Liu, Kiang; Nowson, Caryl A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Increasing dietary sodium drives the thirst response. Because sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are frequently consumed by children, sodium intake may drive greater consumption of SSBs and contribute to obesity risk. Objective: We examined the association between dietary sodium, total fluid, and SSB consumption in a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents aged 2–18 y. Design: We analyzed cross-sectional data from NHANES 2005–2008. Dietary sodium, fluid, and SSB intakes were assessed with a 24-h dietary recall. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess associations between sodium, fluid, and SSBs adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnic group, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES), and energy intake. Results: Of 6400 participants, 51.3% (n = 3230) were males, and the average (±SEM) age was 10.1 ± 0.1 y. The average sodium intake was 3056 ± 48 mg/d (equivalent to 7.8 ± 0.1 g salt/d). Dietary sodium intake was positively associated with fluid consumption (r = 0.42, P sodium is positively associated with fluid consumption and predicted SSB consumption in consumers of SSBs. The high dietary sodium intake of US children and adolescents may contribute to a greater consumption of SSBs, identifying a possible link between dietary sodium intake and excess energy intake. PMID:23676421

  9. Dietary sodium intake is associated with total fluid and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in US children and adolescents aged 2-18 y: NHANES 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Wright, Jacqueline D; Liu, Kiang; Nowson, Caryl A; Loria, Catherine M

    2013-07-01

    Increasing dietary sodium drives the thirst response. Because sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are frequently consumed by children, sodium intake may drive greater consumption of SSBs and contribute to obesity risk. We examined the association between dietary sodium, total fluid, and SSB consumption in a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents aged 2-18 y. We analyzed cross-sectional data from NHANES 2005-2008. Dietary sodium, fluid, and SSB intakes were assessed with a 24-h dietary recall. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess associations between sodium, fluid, and SSBs adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnic group, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES), and energy intake. Of 6400 participants, 51.3% (n = 3230) were males, and the average (±SEM) age was 10.1 ± 0.1 y. The average sodium intake was 3056 ± 48 mg/d (equivalent to 7.8 ± 0.1 g salt/d). Dietary sodium intake was positively associated with fluid consumption (r = 0.42, P sodium is positively associated with fluid consumption and predicted SSB consumption in consumers of SSBs. The high dietary sodium intake of US children and adolescents may contribute to a greater consumption of SSBs, identifying a possible link between dietary sodium intake and excess energy intake.

  10. A social marketing theory-based diet-education program for women ages 54 to 83 years improved dietary status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sarah L; Taylor, Martha L

    2009-12-01

    Social Marketing Theory is a comprehensive approach of program development encompassing the needs and preferences of the intended audience. It was hypothesized a Social Marketing Theory-based, registered dietitian-led, in-home, cardiovascular disease-targeted diet-education program would improve the dietary status of community-residing older women. Using a randomized control group design, this 90-day program in two North Carolina counties included 58 women (30 control; 28 intervention) ages 54 to 83 years. Data were collected using the Mini Nutritional Assessment, three 3-day food records, and program evaluations. The intervention group received two individual registered dietitian-led in-home education sessions and the control group received education material mailings (Visits 2 and 3). Pretested education materials were used. Visits/mailings were scheduled 28 to 30 days apart. Variables measured included cardiovascular disease-related dietary practices and dietary status (Mini Nutritional Assessment). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired sample t tests, multivariant analyses, and independent t tests. Intervention and control Mini Nutritional Assessment scores improved (P=0.0001). Intervention subjects consumed more fiber than control (P=0.013) and reduced sodium intake (P=0.02). Controls reduced energy (P=0.01) and cholesterol intakes (P=0.029), likely because of the decreased food intake. The majority (n=51, 87.9%) rated the program as good to excellent and almost all (n=55, 94.8%) would recommend the program to a friend. The most popular features of the program were the individualized sessions (n=20, 34.5%) and diet analyses (n=11, 19%). These results suggest that cardiovascular disease diet-education materials utilizing Social Marketing Theory principles can lead to improved dietary status among community-residing older women.

  11. Contribution of Beverage Selection to the Dietary Quality of the Packed Lunches Eaten by Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Palafox, Maria Jose; Ranjit, Nalini; Sweitzer, Sara J; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E; Briley, Margaret E; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2018-02-16

    Sweet drinks early in life could predispose to lifelong consumption, and the beverage industry does not clearly define fruit drinks as part of the sweet drink category. To ascertain the relationship between beverage selection and dietary quality of the lunches packed for preschool-aged children evaluated using the Healthy Eating Index-2010. Foods packed by parents (n=607) were observed at 30 early care and education centers on two nonconsecutive days. Three-level regression models were used to examine the dietary quality of lunches by beverage selection and the dietary quality of the lunch controlling for the nutrient composition of the beverage by removing it from the analysis. Fruit drinks were included in 25% of parent-packed lunches, followed by 100% fruit juice (14%), milk (14%), and flavored milk (3.7%). Lunches with plain milk had the highest Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (59.3) followed by lunches with 100% fruit juice (56.9) and flavored milk (53.2). Lunches with fruit drinks had the lowest Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores at 48.6. After excluding the nutrient content of the beverage, the significant difference between lunches containing milk and flavored milk persisted (+5.5), whereas the difference between fruit drinks and 100% fruit juice did not. Dietary quality is associated with the type of beverage packed and these differences hold when the lunch is analyzed without the nutrient content of the beverage included. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ara Jo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30–49 years females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (MEOHP. Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for those who consumed ≤100 g. These results suggest that, in Korean women of reproductive age, some foods such as beverages and egg may be associated with body burdens of BPA, MnBP, MEHHP and MEOHP.

  13. Development of a bioassay to screen for chemicals mimicking the anti-aging effects of calorie restriction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Takuya, E-mail: takuya@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Investigative Pathology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Tomoshi [Division of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8501 (Japan); Komatsu, Toshimitsu; Mori, Ryoichi; Hayashi, Hiroko [Department of Investigative Pathology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Shimano, Hitoshi [Department of Internal Medicine (Endocrinology and Metabolism), Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Spindler, Stephen R. [Department of Biochemistry, Room 5478, Boyce Hall, University of California - Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Shimokawa, Isao [Department of Investigative Pathology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} We identified four sequence motifs lying upstream of putative pro-longevity genes. {yields} One of these motifs binds to HNF-4{alpha}. {yields} HNF-4{alpha}/PGC-1{alpha} could up-regulate the transcription of a reporter gene linked to this motif. {yields} The reporter system described here could be used to screen candidate anti-aging molecules. -- Abstract: Suppression of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I pathway in Ames dwarf (DF) mice, and caloric restriction (CR) in normal mice extends lifespan and delays the onset of age-related disorders. In combination, these interventions have an additive effect on lifespan in Ames DF mice. Therefore, common signaling pathways regulated by DF and CR could have additive effects on longevity. In this study, we tried to identity the signaling mechanism and develop a system to assess pro-longevity status in cells and mice. We previously identified genes up-regulated in the liver of DF and CR mice by DNA microarray analysis. Motif analysis of the upstream sequences of those genes revealed four major consensus sequence motifs, which have been named dwarfism and calorie restriction-responsive elements (DFCR-REs). One of the synthesized sequences bound to hepatocyte nuclear factor-4{alpha} (HNF-4{alpha}), an important transcription factor involved in liver metabolism. Furthermore, using this sequence information, we developed a highly sensitive bioassay to identify chemicals mimicking the anti-aging effects of CR. When the reporter construct, containing an element upstream of a secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) gene, was co-transfected with HNF-4{alpha} and its regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {gamma} coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}), SEAP activity was increased compared with untransfected controls. Moreover, transient transgenic mice established using this construct showed increased SEAP activity in CR mice compared with ad libitum-fed mice. These data

  14. Association between Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study from 2003 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muga, Miriam Adoyo; Owili, Patrick Opiyo; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Rau, Hsiao-Hsien; Chao, Jane C-J

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of mortality and loss of disability-adjusted life years in developed countries. This study derived a dietary pattern using an a priori method and additionally derived dietary patterns using a posteriori methods, and assessed the relationship with CVD risk factors in Taiwanese middle-aged and elderly adults. Methods Cross-sectional analyses of 62,965 subjects aged 40 years and above from the Mei Jau (MJ) database collected between 2003 and 2012 in Taiwan. Diet was assessed using a 22 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Using this information, three dietary patterns were generated. The a priori diet was labeled the Taiwanese dietary pattern and was derived using hypothesized effect of 22 food groups, while two a posteriori dietary patterns, “vegi-fruits” and “meat-processed”, were derived using principal component analysis. The association between dietary patterns and a range of CVD risk factors (i.e. blood lipids, blood glucose and C-reactive protein) was evaluated using linear regression. Results The results showed that high intake (Q5, quintile 5) of Taiwanese diet was negatively associated with CVD risk factors at (p dietary pattern (Q5) was negatively associated with CVD risk factors (p dietary pattern (Q5) was positively associated with CVD risk factors (p dietary patterns and CVD risk factors, while a positive association was found between meat-processed dietary pattern and CVD risk factors. The findings suggested that a diet rich in vegetables and fruits has a beneficial effect in the management of CVD risk factors. PMID:27366909

  15. Dietary intake patterns of children aged 6 years and their association with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, early feeding practices and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Pozza Santos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary intake patterns of children from the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study have been described at 12, 24 and 48 months of age, but there is no information about dietary patterns of these children at 6 years. Then, we aimed to identify and describe dietary intake patterns of children aged 6 years as well as to assess their association with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, early feeding practices and BMI z-score at 6 years. Methods We used principal components analysis to identify dietary intake patterns of 3,427 children from the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study. We used multiple linear regression models to evaluate whether socioeconomic and demographic characteristics (socioeconomic position, mother’s age at birth, and child’s sex and skin colour, early feeding practices (exclusive breastfeeding duration and age of introduction of complementary foods, and BMI z-score at 6 years were associated with dietary intake patterns. Results We identified seven dietary components of children’s dietary intake patterns, namely: fruits and vegetables, snacks and treats, coffee and bread, milk, cheese and processed meats, rice and beans and carbohydrates. Dietary patterns were socially patterned, since six dietary components were associated with socioeconomic position. Moreover, high intake of snacks and treats and less fruits and vegetables were associated with children born to teenage mothers, with those exclusively breastfed for less than one month, and with those who started on complementary feeding before 4 months. Finally, overweight and obese children at 6 years presented lower intake of four out of seven dietary components, but we need to be cautious in interpretation due to limitations on food consumption reporting and due to possible reverse causality. Conclusion Dietary intake patterns in children are strongly influenced by socioeconomic characteristics. Other factors such as younger maternal

  16. Differential vulnerability of gray matter and white matter to intrauterine growth restriction in preterm infants at 12 months corrected age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Nelly; Junqué, Carme; Figueras, Francesc; Sanz-Cortes, Magdalena; Bargalló, Núria; Arranz, Angela; Donaire, Antonio; Figueras, Josep; Gratacos, Eduard

    2014-01-30

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with a high risk of abnormal neurodevelopment. Underlying neuroanatomical substrates are partially documented. We hypothesized that at 12 months preterm infants would evidence specific white-matter microstructure alterations and gray-matter differences induced by severe IUGR. Twenty preterm infants with IUGR (26-34 weeks of gestation) were compared with 20 term-born infants and 20 appropriate for gestational age preterm infants of similar gestational age. Preterm groups showed no evidence of brain abnormalities. At 12 months, infants were scanned sleeping naturally. Gray-matter volumes were studied with voxel-based morphometry. White-matter microstructure was examined using tract-based spatial statistics. The relationship between diffusivity indices in white matter, gray matter volumes, and perinatal data was also investigated. Gray-matter decrements attributable to IUGR comprised amygdala, basal ganglia, thalamus and insula bilaterally, left occipital and parietal lobes, and right perirolandic area. Gray-matter volumes positively correlated with birth weight exclusively. Preterm infants had reduced FA in the corpus callosum, and increased FA in the anterior corona radiata. Additionally, IUGR infants had increased FA in the forceps minor, internal and external capsules, uncinate and fronto-occipital white matter tracts. Increased axial diffusivity was observed in several white matter tracts. Fractional anisotropy positively correlated with birth weight and gestational age at birth. These data suggest that IUGR differentially affects gray and white matter development preferentially affecting gray matter. At 12 months IUGR is associated with a specific set of structural gray-matter decrements. White matter follows an unusual developmental pattern, and is apparently affected by IUGR and prematurity combined. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nutritional and Hormonal Status of Premature Infants Born with Intrauterine Growth Restriction at the Term Corrected Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaeva, I A; Namazova-Baranova, L S; Bombardirova, E P; Okuneva, M V

    Inadequate nutrition supply during the period of intrauterine growth and the first year of life leads to persistent metabolic changes and provokes development of various diseases. Тo compare physical development, body composition, and hormonal status (insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), somatotropic hormone (STH), C-Peptide, cortisol) indices in premature infants born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) at the term corrected age with the same indices in mature infants with IUGR and premature infants with weight appropriate for their gestational age (GA). А crossover study of anthropometric measures, body composition and growth hormones changes assessment was carried out. It included 140 premature infants with weight appropriate for their GA, 58 premature infants with IUGR and 64 mature infants with IUGR. Anthropometric measures were assessed with Fenton and Anthro growth charts (WHO, 2009); body composition was studied with the air plethysmography method (РЕA POD, LMi, USA). Level of hormones in blood serum was assessed with biochemical methods. It is found that anthropometric measures in premature infants with weight appropriate for their GA and premature infants with IUGR at the term corrected age did not have any significant differences while premature infants with IUGR tended to have lower weight. Studying body composition we found that both groups of premature infants had slightly higher level of fat mass in comparison with mature infants. High concentration of insulin, cortisol, IGF-1, and C-peptide was found in premature and mature infants with IUGR. Instead, lower levels of STH was found in infants with IUGR. Formula fed premature infants (comparing to breastfed ones) had higher levels of fat mass, insulin, IGF-1, and C-peptide. Mature infants with IUGR did not tend to have the correlation between levels of fat mass, insulin, IGF-1, C-peptide, and type of feeding. Not only insufficient intrauterine growth but also nutrition pattern

  18. Capability poverty by deficits in net dietary intake at early age – neglected by the Rangarajan poverty line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per A Eklund

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Rangarajan Expert Group set up to improve the methodology for measuring poverty fails to: (i shift from uncertain assessments of calorie - consumption poverty to use of ‘direct’ determinants of deficits in net dietary intake, indicating risk of capability poverty; [1,2] (ii include vegetables and fruit as an additional food category; and (iii consider inequity in child nutritional outcomes.  The 2014 poverty line includes raised expenditure on calories, meat, protein and fats and four non-food categories. The report avoids the issue of disparities in social protection that drive capability poverty. It concludes that its normative food basket does offer “a basis for optimism on associated nutrition-status outcomes”. Rationale: Inferior nutrition status, compounded in the lowest wealth groups, argues for use of ‘direct’ indicators of net deficits in nutritional intake in poverty assessments, such as the growth curve of children and measurements of anaemia. [3,4] Objective: Where, and how, do diseases and poor nutrients, contribute to rising deficits in net dietary intake? In 20 of 106 districts, in six states, from the 2002-04 LDHS-2 to the 2011 Hungama survey, child underweight (<-2SD, 5y increased by more than 5 percentage points. [5] Why? Methods and results: Literature confirms socio-economic rationale of addressing capability poverty indicated by child chronic undernutrition. [6,7,8] Iron-poor vegetarian diets, limited coverage of iron supplementation to young children and of food fortification in low-income settings, argue for raised intake of fruit and vegetables. [9] Conclusion: Capability poverty, driven by nutritional deficits at early age, perpetuates socio-economic disparities. Will location-specific determinants be addressed of rising deficits in net dietary intake at early age? Will iron - rich vegetables and fruits become an additional food group in a revised poverty line? 

  19. Dietary patterns of obese and normal-weight women of reproductive age in urban slum areas in Central Jakarta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulia; Khusun, Helda; Fahmida, Umi

    2016-07-01

    Developing countries including Indonesia imperatively require an understanding of factors leading to the emerging problem of obesity, especially within low socio-economic groups, whose dietary pattern may contribute to obesity. In this cross-sectional study, we compared the dietary patterns and food consumption of 103 obese and 104 normal-weight women of reproductive age (19-49 years) in urban slum areas in Central Jakarta. A single 24-h food recall was used to assess energy and macronutrient intakes (carbohydrate, protein and fat) and calculate energy density. A principal component analysis was used to define the dietary patterns from the FFQ. Obese women had significantly higher intakes of energy (8436·6 (sd 2358·1) v. 7504·4 (sd 1887·8) kJ (2016·4 (sd 563·6) v. 1793·6 (sd 451·2) kcal)), carbohydrate (263·9 (sd 77·0) v. 237·6 (sd 63·0) g) and fat (83·11 (sd 31·3) v. 70·2 (sd 26·1) g) compared with normal-weight women; however, their protein intake (59·4 (sd 19·1) v. 55·9 (sd 18·5) g) and energy density (8·911 (sd 2·30) v. 8·58 (sd 1·88) kJ/g (2·13 (sd 0·55) v. 2·05 (sd 0·45) kcal/g)) did not differ significantly. Two dietary patterns were revealed and subjectively named 'more healthy' and 'less healthy'. The 'less healthy' pattern was characterised by the consumption of fried foods (snacks, soyabean and roots and tubers) and meat and poultry products, whereas the more healthy pattern was characterised by the consumption of seafood, vegetables, eggs, milk and milk products and non-fried snacks. Subjects with a high score for the more healthy pattern had a lower obesity risk compared with those with a low score. Thus, obesity is associated with high energy intake and unhealthy dietary patterns characterised by consumption of oils and fats through fried foods and snacks.

  20. Resistance exercise and aerobic exercise when paired with dietary energy restriction both reduce the clinical components of metabolic syndrome in previously physically inactive males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potteiger, Jeffrey A; Claytor, Randal P; Hulver, Mathew W; Hughes, Michael R; Carper, Michael J; Richmond, Scott; Thyfault, John P

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare resistance exercise training (RT) to aerobic exercise training (AE) on the clinical risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) in physically inactive overweight males (age 27-48 years). Subjects with at least one risk factor for MetSyn performed RT (n = 13, age 35.1 ± 4.7 years, BMI 31.2 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)) or AE (n = 9, age 37.6 ± 4.9 years, BMI, 31.2 ± 3.2 kg/m(2)) for 6 months. Training frequency and exercise session duration were equal and by 3 months the subjects exercised 4 day/week for 45 min/session. Blood lipids and glucose, waist circumference, and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were measured at 0, 3, and 6 months. A MetSyn z score was calculated for each subject from triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, fasting glucose, waist circumference, and MAP. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. No significant differences existed between RT and AE groups at 0 month. AE showed a significant reduction in MetSyn z score from 0 (0.91 ± 3.57) to 6 months (-1.35 ± 2.95), while RT approached significance (p = 0.07) from 0 (0.09 ± 2.62) to 6 months (-1.30 ± 2.22). Triglycerides (mmol/L) significantly decreased in AE from 0 (1.93 ± 0.90) to 6 months (1.41 ± 0.70). Waist circumference (cm) significantly decreased in AE from 0 (106.8 ± 7.3) to 6 months (101.2 ± 6.5), and in RT from 0 (108.4 ± 9.0) to 6 months (105.7 ± 7.0). MAP (mmHg) decreased in RT from 0 (93.8 ± 5.8) to 6 months (87.5 ± 6.1) and in AE from 0 (97.6 ± 7.0) to 6 months (91.3 ± 6.8). With equal training frequency and exercise session duration, both RT and AE training, when paired with energy restriction improve the clinical risk factor profile for MetSyn.

  1. Dietary Intake of Alpha-Linolenic Acid Is Not Appreciably Associated with the Risk of Ischemic Stroke among Middle-Aged Danish Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Christian S; Venø, Stine K; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

    2018-01-01

    a median of 13.5 y of follow-up. In multivariable analyses using restricted cubic splines adjusting for traditional risk factors for ischemic stroke, we observed no clear associations between dietary intake of ALA and the risk of total ischemic stroke or any of its subtypes including ischemic stroke due...... and women. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03258983....

  2. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF DIETARY AND EXERCISE HABITS AS CO-RELATES OF HYPERTENSION IN PERSON AGED 45 AND ABOVE IN AGRA DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    Renu Agrawal; Mridul Chaturvedi; Sujan Singh; Subhash Chandra Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Background: Due to changing lifestyle in Indian population prevalence of hypertension is increasing which needs modification in dietary and exercise habit of the general population. Objective: A study was designed to correlate dietary and exercise habits with hypertension in general population. Material and methods: Present study is a community based cross sectional study among persons aged more than 45 years in Agra district using PPS multi stage simple random sampling technique with a samp...

  3. [Long-term outcome in context of intra uterine growth restriction and/or small for gestational age newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoin, G; Flamant, C

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate long-term outcome after history of intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) and/or birth small for gestational age (SGA). This systematic evidence review is based on Pubmed search, Cochrane library and experts recommendations. Neurodevelopmental evaluation at 2 years is lower in those infants, born premature or not. SGA is associated with a high risk of minor cognitive deficiencies, hyperactivity or attention deficit disorders at 5 years or scholar difficulties at 8 years. Those infants are at high risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Most of them will catch up at 6 months for weight and 12 months for height. Even if IUGR is associated with high risk of bronchodysplasia, up to this day, the review of literature did not permit to evaluate respiratory outcome. Adults born SGA have good quality of live and normal professional insertion. One cohort study and more and more animal studies suggest potential trans generational effects. Infants born SGA and/or with history of IUGR are at high risk of minor cognitive deficiencies and scholar difficulties. They are also at high risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. However, prematurity seems to have a higher effect than IUGR and/or SGA on long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Associations between neural injury markers of intrauterine growth-restricted infants and neurodevelopment at 2 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarico, E; Llurba, E; Cabero, L; Sánchez, O; Valls, A; Martín-Ancel, A; Cardenas, D; Gómez Roig, M D

    2018-04-18

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between brain injury biomarkers in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) infants (S100B and neuron-specific enolase (NSE)) and neurodevelopment at 2 years of age. This prospective case-control study was a cooperative effort among Spanish Maternal and Child Health Network (Retic SAMID) hospitals. At inclusion, biometry for estimated fetal weight and feto-placental Doppler variables were measured for each infant. Maternal venous blood and fetal umbilical arterial blood samples were collected at the time of delivery and neural injury markers S100B and NSE concentrations were measured. Neurodevelopment was evaluated at 2 years of age using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition (Bayley-III). Fifty six pregnancies were included. Thirty-one infants were classified as IUGR and 25 as non-IUGR. Neurodevelopmental evaluation at 2 years of age indicated that there were no between-group differences for any of the tests. For all patients in both groups, we found statistically significant inverse relationships between the concentrations of NSE in the cord blood and the results of the cognitive test (r = -271, p = .042), fine motor subtest (r = -280, p = .036), and social-emotional test (r = -349, p = .015). We also found statistically significant differences between the concentrations of S100B in the cord blood and the results of the cognitive test (r = -306, p = .022) and expressive communication subtest (r = -304, p = .023). For the IUGR group, we found a significant inverse relationship between the concentrations of S100B in the maternal serum and the results of adaptive behavior test (p < .05). In the non-IUGR group, we found statistically significant inverse relationships between the concentration of NSE in the cord blood and the results of the fine motor subtest (r = -446, p = .025) and social-emotional test (r = -489, p = .021

  5. Alleviation of senescence and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in aging kidney by short-term caloric restriction and caloric restriction mimetics via modulation of AMPK/mTOR signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dan; Cai, Guang-Yan; Ning, Yi-Chun; Wang, Jing-Chao; Lv, Yang; Hong, Quan; Cui, Shao-Yuan; Fu, Bo; Guo, Ya-Nan; Chen, Xiang-Mei

    2017-03-07

    Renal fibrosis contributes to declining renal function in the elderly. What is unclear however, is whether epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to this age-related renal fibrosis. Here, we analyzed indicators of EMT during kidney aging and investigated the protective effects and mechanisms of short-term regimens of caloric restriction (CR) or caloric restriction mimetics (CRMs), including resveratrol and metformin. High glucose was used to induce premature senescence and EMT in human primary proximal tubular cells (PTCs) in vitro. To test the role of AMPK-mTOR signaling, siRNA was used to deplete AMPK. Cellular senescence and AMPK-mTOR signaling markers associated with EMT were detected. CR or CRMs treatment alleviated age-related EMT in aging kidneys, which was accompanied by activation of AMPK-mTOR signaling. High glucose induced premature senescence and EMT in PTCs in vitro, which was accompanied by down-regulation of AMPK/mTOR signaling. CRMs alleviated high glucose-induced senescence and EMT via stimulation of AMPK/mTOR signaling. Activation of AMPK/mTOR signaling protected PTCs from high glucose-induced EMT and cellular senescence. Short-term regimens of CR and CRMs alleviated age-related EMT via AMPK-mTOR signaling, suggesting a potential approach to reducing renal fibrosis during aging.

  6. Effects of chronic vs. intermittent calorie restriction on mammary tumor incidence and serum adiponectin and leptin levels in MMTV-TGF-α mice at different ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    DOGAN, SONER; ROGOZINA, OLGA P.; LOKSHIN, ANNA E.; GRANDE, JOSEPH P.; CLEARY, MARGOT P.

    2010-01-01

    Calorie restriction prevents mammary tumor (MT) development in rodents. Usually, chronic calorie restriction (CCR) has been implemented. In contrast, intermittent calorie restriction (ICR) has been less frequently used. Recent studies indicate that when a direct comparison of the same degree of CCR vs. ICR was made using MMTV-TGF-α mice which develop MTs in the second year of life, ICR provided greater protection than CCR in delaying MT detection and reducing tumor incidence. Adiponectin and leptin are two adipocytokines secreted from adipose tissue which have opposite effects on many physiological functions, including proliferation of human breast cancer cells. A recent study indicated that a low adiponectin/leptin ratio was associated with breast cancer. We evaluated the relationship of adiponectin and leptin to MT development in MMTV-TGF-α calorie-restricted mice at several ages. Mice were enrolled at 10 weeks of age and subjected to 25% caloric reduction implemented either chronically or intermittently. Mice were euthanized at designated time points up to 74 weeks of age. Serum samples were collected to measure adiponectin and leptin concentrations. Both CCR and ICR mice had significantly reduced MT incidence. For the groups studied, serum leptin increased over time, while there was a trend for an increase in serum adiponectin levels in ad libitum and ICR mice, with no change in CCR mice between 10 and 74 weeks of age. The adiponectin/leptin ratio was significantly reduced as mice aged, but this ratio in ICR mice was significantly higher than that for ad libitum and CCR mice. No correlation was noted between serum adiponectin and leptin. These findings demonstrate that intermittent calorie restriction delays the early development of MTs. This delay was associated with reduced serum leptin levels following the restriction phases of the protocol. Additionally, serum leptin levels correlated with body weight and body fat in the groups studied. PMID:22966277

  7. A New Approach to Assess Lifetime Dietary Patterns Finds Lower Consumption of Animal Foods with Aging in a Longitudinal Analysis of a Health-Oriented Adventist Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marcia C. T.; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Mashchak, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Life-course diet patterns may impact risk of disease, but little is known about dietary trends with aging. In a retrospective longitudinal analysis we estimated lifetime intake of animal products and adherence to vegetarian dietary patterns among 51,082 Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) subjects using data from a reliable life-course dietary (meats, dairy, eggs) questionnaire. Results showed a marked tendency to consume fewer animal products (in total) in older years and to reduce consumption of meat, poultry and fish, but not eggs or dairy. Among the 29% of elderly subjects who during their lifetime kept the same dietary pattern (LTS) were: LTS-vegans (1.1%), LTS-lacto-ovo vegetarians (31.2%), LTS-pesco vegetarians (0.49%), LTS-semi vegetarians (3.7%), and LTS-non-vegetarians (63.5%). Among the 71% of switchers were “Converters” (59.7%) who moved towards and “Reverters” (9.1%) who moved away from vegetarian diets, and Multiverters (31.2%), who had moved in both directions. LTS-non-vegetarians, and also reverters, were more overweight and showed a less healthy lifestyle than others. We conclude that the dietary patterns are dynamic with strong trends to reduce animal foods and to adopt more vegetarian patterns with aging. The disease experience of subjects with different lifetime dietary patterns can be compared. PMID:29027960

  8. Dietary quality and its structural relationships among equivalent income, emotional well-being, and a five-year subjective health in Japanese middle-aged urban dwellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Sayuri; Fujii, Nobuya; Furuhata, Tadashi; Sakurai, Naoko; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Hoshi, Tanji

    2015-01-01

    Although dietary quality in middle-age and the prime age of a person's work career might be determined by positive emotional well-being based on socioeconomic status (SES), causation among determinants of dietary quality still remains unclear. Our purpose was to elucidate the structural relationships among five-year prior dietary quality, equivalent income, emotional well-being, and a five-year subjective health by sex and age group separately. In 2003, 10,000 middle-aged urban dwellers aged 40-64 years, who lived in ward A in the Tokyo metropolitan area, were randomly selected and a questionnaire survey was conducted by mail. In 2008, we made a follow-up survey for dwellers, and were able to gather their survival status. A total of 2507, middle-aged men (n = 1112) and women (n = 1395), were examined at baseline. We created three latent variables for a structural equation modeling (SEM), five-year subjective health reported in 2003 and in 2008, dietary quality of principle food groups diversity and eating behavior in 2003, and emotional well-being constructed by enjoyment & ikigai (meaning of life) and by close people in 2003. Equivalent income in 2003 was calculated as SES indicator. In the SEM analysis of both men and women, there was an indirect effect of the equivalent income on dietary quality and on five-year subjective health, via emotional well-being explained by ikigai and having comforting people close to the individuals, significantly. There tended to be a larger direct effect of emotional well-being on the dietary quality in men than in women, and also a larger effect accompanying with aging. In women, there was a large direct effect of equivalent income on dietary quality than in men. When examined comprehensively, there appeared to be a larger effect of five-year prior equivalent income on subjective health during five-year in men than in women. This study suggests that it is necessary to support the improvement of dietary quality in middle

  9. The Effects of Gender and Age on Repetitive and/or Restricted Behaviors and Interests in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Johnny L.; Tureck, Kimberly; Horovitz, Max

    2011-01-01

    Frequency of repetitive and/or restricted behaviors and interests (RRBIs) was assessed in 140 adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and severe or profound intellectual disability (ID). The associations of gender and age range were analyzed with RRBI frequency which was obtained using the Stereotypies subscale of the "Diagnostic…

  10. Long-term multi-species Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium dietary supplement enhances memory and changes regional brain metabolites in middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, Caroline; Li, Jia V; Marchesi, Julian R; Plummer, Sue; Garaiova, Iveta; Good, Mark A

    2017-10-01

    Ageing is associated with changes in the gut microbiome that may contribute to age-related changes in cognition. Previous work has shown that dietary supplements with multi-species live microorganisms can influence brain function, including induction of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and production of brain derived neurotrophic factor, in both young and aged rodents. However, the effect of such dietary supplements on memory processes has been less well documented, particularly in the context of aging. The main aim of the present study was to examine the impact of a long-term dietary supplement with a multi-species live Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria mixture (Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL60, L. acidophilus CUL21, Bifidobacterium bifidum CUL20 and B. lactis CUL34) on tests of memory and behavioural flexibility in 15-17-month-old male rats. Following behavioural testing, the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex was extracted and analysed ex vivo using 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) spectroscopy to examine brain metabolites. The results showed a small beneficial effect of the dietary supplement on watermaze spatial navigation and robust improvements in long-term object recognition memory and short-term memory for object-in-place associations. Short-term object novelty and object temporal order memory was not influenced by the dietary supplement in aging rats. 1 H NMR analysis revealed diet-related regional-specific changes in brain metabolites; which indicated changes in several pathways contributing to modulation of neural signaling. These data suggest that chronic dietary supplement with multi-species live microorganisms can alter brain metabolites in aging rats and have beneficial effects on memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Epigenomic maintenance through dietary intervention can facilitate DNA repair process to slow down the progress of premature aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shampa; Sinha, Jitendra Kumar; Raghunath, Manchala

    2016-09-01

    DNA damage caused by various sources remains one of the most researched topics in the area of aging and neurodegeneration. Increased DNA damage causes premature aging. Aging is plastic and is characterised by the decline in the ability of a cell/organism to maintain genomic stability. Lifespan can be modulated by various interventions like calorie restriction, a balanced diet of macro and micronutrients or supplementation with nutrients/nutrient formulations such as Amalaki rasayana, docosahexaenoic acid, resveratrol, curcumin, etc. Increased levels of DNA damage in the form of double stranded and single stranded breaks are associated with decreased longevity in animal models like WNIN/Ob obese rats. Erroneous DNA repair can result in accumulation of DNA damage products, which in turn result in premature aging disorders such as Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. Epigenomic studies of the aging process have opened a completely new arena for research and development of drugs and therapeutic agents. We propose here that agents or interventions that can maintain epigenomic stability and facilitate the DNA repair process can slow down the progress of premature aging, if not completely prevent it. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(9):717-721, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  12. Basal and β-Adrenergic Cardiomyocytes Contractility Dysfunction Induced by Dietary Protein Restriction is Associated with Downregulation of SERCA2a Expression and Disturbance of Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+ Regulation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlete R. Penitente

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mechanisms responsible for the cardiac dysfunction associated with dietary protein restriction (PR are poorly understood. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of PR on calcium kinetics, basal and β-adrenergic contractility in murine ventricular cardiomyocytes. Methods: After breastfeeding male Fisher rats were distributed into a control group (CG, n = 20 and a protein-restricted group (PRG, n = 20, receiving isocaloric diets for 35 days containing 15% and 6% protein, respectively. Biometric and hemodynamic variables were measured. After euthanasia left ventricles (LV were collected for histopathological evaluation, SERCA2a expression, cardiomyocytes contractility and Ca2+sparks analysis. Results: PRG animals showed reduced general growth, increased heart rate and arterial pressure. These animals presented extracellular matrix expansion and disorganization, cardiomyocytes hypotrophy, reduced amplitudes of shortening and maximum velocity of contraction and relaxation at baseline and after β-adrenergic stimulation. Reduced SERCA2a expression as well as higher frequency and lower amplitude of Ca2+sparks were observed in PRG cardiomyocytes. Conclusion: The observations reveal that protein restriction induces marked myocardial morphofunctional damage. The pathological changes of cardiomyocyte mechanics suggest the potential involvement of the β-adrenergic system, which is possibly associated with changes in SERCA2a expression and disturbances in Ca2+ intracellular kinetics.

  13. Nutritional adequacy of dietary intake in women with anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the establishment of dietary treatment. Design: Women, aged 19 to 30 years, with both restricting and binge purge types of AN, participating in an ecological momentary assessment study, completed three nonc...

  14. A Healthy Dietary Pattern at Midlife, Combined with a Regulated Energy Intake, Is Related to Increased Odds for Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, Karen E; Lassale, Camille; Andreeva, Valentina A; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the long-term impact of overall dietary patterns (DPs) on healthy aging (HA), and current findings are inconsistent. Our study's objective was to investigate the association between empirically derived DPs in midlife and HA after 13 y of follow-up. Baseline dietary data from repeated 24-h dietary records (on average, 10 records per participant) of a subsample of the SU.VI.MAX (SUpplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux AntioXydants) study allowed extraction of 2 DPs with the use of principal components analysis on 37 food groups. HA was assessed in 2007-2009 among 2796 participants of the SU.VI.MAX study aged 45-60 y at baseline (1994-1995), who were initially free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. HA was defined as not developing any major chronic disease, good physical and cognitive functioning, no limitations in instrumental activities of daily living, no depressive symptoms, no health-related limitations in social life, good overall self-perceived health, and no function-limiting pain. The association between DPs (in tertiles) and HA was evaluated by using multivariable logistic regression, and a potential interaction with energy intake was investigated. A "Western" and a "healthy" DP were identified. After adjustment for a large number of potential confounders, there was no significant association between the Western DP and HA. Moreover, the healthy pattern was not associated with HA among subjects with high (i.e., greater than or equal to the median) energy intake. Among subjects with low (i.e., less than the median) energy intake, on the other hand, higher scores on the healthy DP were related to higher odds of HA (OR for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.00; P-trend = 0.01). Adherence to a healthy diet in midlife that provides micronutrients, fiber, and antioxidants while regulating energy intake may help to promote HA. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. The health gains and cost savings of dietary salt reduction interventions, with equity and age distributional aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhung Nghiem

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A “diet high in sodium” is the second most important dietary risk factor for health loss identified in the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. We therefore aimed to model health gains and costs (savings of salt reduction interventions related to salt substitution and maximum levels in bread, including by ethnicity and age. We also ranked these four interventions compared to eight other modelled interventions. Methods A Markov macro-simulation model was used to estimate QALYs gained and net health system costs for four dietary sodium reduction interventions, discounted at 3 % per annum. The setting was New Zealand (NZ (2.3 million adults, aged 35+ years which has detailed individual-level administrative cost data. Results The health gain was greatest for an intervention where most (59 % of the sodium in processed foods was replaced by potassium and magnesium salts. This intervention gained 294,000 QALYs over the remaining lifetime of the cohort (95 % UI: 238,000 to 359,000; 0.13 QALY per 35+ year old. Such salt substitution also produced the highest net cost-savings of NZ$ 1.5 billion (US$ 1.0 billion (95 % UI: NZ$ 1.1 to 2.0 billion. All interventions generated relatively larger per capita QALYs for men vs women and for the indigenous Māori population vs non-Māori (e.g., 0.16 vs 0.12 QALYs per adult for the 59 % salt substitution intervention. Of relevance to workforce productivity, in the first 10 years post-intervention, 22 % of the QALY gain was among those aged <65 years (and 37 % for those aged <70. Conclusions The benefits are consistent with the international literature, with large health gains and cost savings possible from some, but not all, sodium reduction interventions. Health gain appears likely to occur among working-age adults and all interventions contributed to reducing health inequalities.

  16. Whole Grain Compared with Refined Wheat Decreases the Percentage of Body Fat Following a 12-Week, Energy-Restricted Dietary Intervention in Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mette; Toubro, Søren; Jensen, Morten Georg

    2012-01-01

    ) with whole-grain wheat (WW) for 12 wk on body weight and composition after a 2-wk run-in period of consumption of RW-containing food intake. In this open-label randomized trial, 79 overweight or obese postmenopausal women were randomized to an energy-restricted diet (deficit of approximately 1250 k...

  17. Dietary sodium content, mortality, and risk for cardiovascular events in older adults: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeropoulos, Andreas P; Georgiopoulou, Vasiliki V; Murphy, Rachel A; Newman, Anne B; Bauer, Douglas C; Harris, Tamara B; Yang, Zhou; Applegate, William B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2015-03-01

    Additional information is needed about the role of dietary sodium on health outcomes in older adults. To examine the association between dietary sodium intake and mortality, incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), and incident heart failure (HF) in older adults. We analyzed 10-year follow-up data from 2642 older adults (age range, 71-80 years) participating in a community-based, prospective cohort study (inception between April 1, 1997, and July 31, 1998). Dietary sodium intake at baseline was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. We examined sodium intake as a continuous variable and as a categorical variable at the following levels: less than 1500 mg/d (291 participants [11.0%]), 1500 to 2300 mg/d (779 participants [29.5%]), and greater than 2300 mg/d (1572 participants [59.5%]). Adjudicated death, incident CVD, and incident HF during 10 follow-up years. Analysis of incident CVD was restricted to 1981 participants without prevalent CVD at baseline. The mean (SD) age of participants was 73.6 (2.9) years, 51.2% were female, 61.7% were of white race, and 38.3% were black. After 10 years, 881 participants had died, 572 had developed CVD, and 398 had developed HF. In adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models, sodium intake was not associated with mortality (hazard ratio [HR] per 1 g, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.98-1.09; P = .27). Ten-year mortality was nonsignificantly lower in the group receiving 1500 to 2300 mg/d (30.7%) than in the group receiving less than 1500 mg/d (33.8%) and the group receiving greater than 2300 mg/d (35.2%) (P = .07). Sodium intake of greater than 2300 mg/d was associated with nonsignificantly higher mortality in adjusted models (HR vs 1500-2300 mg/d, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.99-1.35; P = .07). Indexing sodium intake for caloric intake and body mass index did not materially affect the results. Adjusted HRs for mortality were 1.20 (95% CI, 0.93-1.54; P = .16) per milligram per kilocalorie and 1.11 (95% CI, 0.96-1.28; P = .17) per

  18. Associations between Dietary Fiber Intake in Infancy and Cardiometabolic Health at School Age: The Generation R Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaëlle M. A. van Gijssel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fiber (DF intake may be beneficial for cardiometabolic health. However, whether this already occurs in early childhood is unclear. We investigated associations between DF intake in infancy and cardiometabolic health in childhood among 2032 children participating in a population-based cohort in The Netherlands. Information on DF intake at a median age of 12.9 months was collected using a food-frequency questionnaire. DF was adjusted for energy intake using the residual method. At age 6 years, body fat percentage, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and blood pressure were assessed and expressed in age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores (SDS. These five factors were combined into a cardiometabolic risk factor score. In models adjusted for several parental and child covariates, a higher DF intake was associated with a lower cardiometabolic risk factor score. When we examined individual cardiometabolic factors, we observed that a 1 g/day higher energy-adjusted DF intake was associated with 0.026 SDS higher HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.009, 0.042, and 0.020 SDS lower triglycerides (95% CI −0.037, −0.003, but not with body fat, insulin, or blood pressure. Results were similar for DF with and without adjustment for energy intake. Our findings suggest that higher DF intake in infancy may be associated with better cardiometabolic health in later childhood.

  19. Pathological Outcomes in Kidney and Brain in Male Fischer Rats Given Dietary Ochratoxin A, Commencing at One Year of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantle, Peter G.; Nolan, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    Malignant renal carcinoma, manifest in morbid ageing rats, is the striking component of an otherwise silent response after about nine months of exposure to ochratoxin A in the first year of life (daily intake ~100-250 µg/kg body weight). Reasons for the long latency are unclear, as is whether there would be a similar carcinogenic response if toxin exposure started at one year of age. Therefore, 24 male Fischer rats were given 100 µg ochratoxin A as a daily dietary contaminant for 35 weeks from age 50 weeks. Plasma ochratoxin A concentration reached a maximum value of ~8 µg/mL within one month of starting the toxin regimen. No renal carcinomas occurred. Four renal adenomas, two of which were only microscopic, were found among the six rats surviving for 110 weeks. The findings raise new questions about a difference between young adults and mature adults in sensitivity of male rats to the ochratoxin A-induced DNA damage necessary for renal carcinogenesis. A pilot histological study of perfuse-fixed brains of the toxin-treated rats showed no gross abnormalities, correlating with the consistent absence of behavioral or neurological disorders from chronic ochratoxin A exposure regimens in the range 100-250 µg/kg/day during the second half of life. Reasoned questioning concerning ochratoxin A as a neurotoxic mycotoxin is made. PMID:22069628

  20. Pathological Outcomes in Kidney and Brain in Male Fischer Rats Given Dietary Ochratoxin A, Commencing at One Year of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G. Mantle

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Malignant renal carcinoma, manifest in morbid ageing rats, is the striking component of an otherwise silent response after about nine months of exposure to ochratoxin A in the first year of life (daily intake ~100–250 µg/kg body weight. Reasons for the long latency are unclear, as is whether there would be a similar carcinogenic response if toxin exposure started at one year of age. Therefore, 24 male Fischer rats were given 100 µg ochratoxin A as a daily dietary contaminant for 35 weeks from age 50 weeks. Plasma ochratoxin A concentration reached a maximum value of ~8 µg/mL within one month of starting the toxin regimen. No renal carcinomas occurred. Four renal adenomas, two of which were only microscopic, were found among the six rats surviving for 110 weeks. The findings raise new questions about a difference between young adults and mature adults in sensitivity of male rats to the ochratoxin A-induced DNA damage necessary for renal carcinogenesis. A pilot histological study of perfuse-fixed brains of the toxin-treated rats showed no gross abnormalities, correlating with the consistent absence of behavioral or neurological disorders from chronic ochratoxin A exposure regimens in the range 100–250 µg/kg/day during the second half of life. Reasoned questioning concerning ochratoxin A as a neurotoxic mycotoxin is made.

  1. Comparison of the Block Kid's Food Frequency Questionnaire with a 24 h dietary recall methodology among Hmong-American children, 9-18 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulasi-Pokhriyal, Urvashi; Smith, Chery

    2013-01-28

    Hmong are one of the immigrant Asian subgroups with increasing rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and CVD. Despite their population growth in the USA and declining health status, no research has investigated the appropriateness of dietary assessment measures, including FFQ and 24 h dietary recalls among Hmong. The present study compared the nutrient information obtained through a 24 h dietary recall method with that collected using the Block Kid's Food Frequency Questionnaire (Block FFQ) among Hmong-American children (n 335) of 9-18 years of age. For this purpose, two 24 h dietary recalls were collected during non-consecutive days and averaged for comparison. The Block FFQ was administered on the day of the second 24 h recall and the two methodologies were also compared using t tests. Among all children, Block FFQ nutrient estimates for vitamin A, vitamin C and food group servings for vegetables and fruits were significantly higher than those assessed through the 24 h dietary recalls (Pfood group servings for grains and meat and beans were significantly higher among all participants when assessed through the 24 h dietary recalls than through the Block FFQ (Pfood options otherwise missed in the Block FFQ. We recommend the modification of the current Block FFQ to appropriately reflect cultural food/beverage items of the population in interest.

  2. THE QUOTA RULE (AGE RESTRICTION IN THE THIRD LEAGUE IN TERMS OF ACTORS (DRAMATIS PERSONAE IN FOOTBALL

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    Mert Kerem Zelyurt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2016 it was seen that the “quota rule” (age restriction which was put into practice in 2009 for the 3. League football teams in order to enable young players to have a better chance in squads and bring these players to the national teams have been changed because of not getting the desired results. In the study, the effects of 2009 quota rule which was established as a legal obligation to the football teams were examined in the extent of players, coaches, and the club managers (dramatis personae. The study was designed as “Semi-structured in-depth interview” (Qualitative Method method. According to “Theoretical Sampling Method” the sample of the study was formed through 6 players, 4 club managers and 5 coaches all of which are active in the third football league. The interviews recorded in February 2017 and May 2017, which vary from 6 minutes to 29 minutes in length according to the samples, were converted into text and categorized under 4 themes in findings section. The themes are: 1. being dropped out of squad 2. Problems relating the squads and the quality of the football 3.The problem of player training in the third league for the national team and transfer mobility to upper leagues 4. The fall in wages, the problem of becoming unemployed and being obliged to play in the amateur football league. As it can be concluded from the themes which frame the narrations by the samples including different experiences considering their status and roles in terms of quota rule practice; some outcomes during the period in which the rule had been practiced (particularly due to the version before the change were witnessed such as the deterioration in the quality of football, technical problems relating squads, the problem of vertical and horizontal professional mobility of the players and the fall in wages. In the last instance; it can be concluded that it is necessary to analyze legal sanctions relating a multivariate and intricate field such

  3. Sociodemographic and dietary profile of 4,471 childbearing-age women planning a pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuervo, Marta; Goni, Leticia; Santiago, Susana; Zazpe, Itziar; García, Aquilino; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2014-02-01

    The maintenance of healthy lifestyles is of great importance to prevent pregnancy-related diseases at early stages. For this reason, the knowledge of the overall wellbeing of women at childbearing-age is necessary to provide appropriate advice to maintain or improve the nutritional status. The aim of this research was to assess the lifestyles of childbearing-age women planning a pregnancy and to examine the difference between primiparae and multiparae women on these lifestyles. This cross-sectional survey involved 4,471 Spanish women at childbearing-age that were planning a pregnancy. Information was collected through a questionnaire by community health professionals. The profile of childbearing-age recruited women planning a pregnancy were in her early thirties (31.4 ± 4.8 years) and 72.5% were seeking for her first baby. They had a good self-perception of their nutritional and health status and followed a balanced diet. Interestingly, primiparae women had lower risk of health complications but they were greater consumers of tobacco and alcohol (p pregnancies underlying modifiable or preventable factors. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Maintenance of a healthy trajectory of the intestinal microbiome during aging: A dietary approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candela, M.; Biagi, E.; Brigidi, P.; O'Toole, P.W.; Vos, de W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Sharing an intense transgenomic metabolism with the host, the intestinal microbiota is an essential factor for several aspects of the human physiology. However, several age-related factors, such as changes diet, lifestyle, inflammation and frailty, force the deterioration of this intestinal

  5. Family food involvement and frequency of family dinner meals among Australian children aged 10-12years. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Rebecca M; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David A; Campbell, Karen J; Pearson, Natalie; Timperio, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Involvement in meal preparation and eating meals with the family are associated with better dietary patterns in adolescents, however little research has included older children or longitudinal study designs. This 3-year longitudinal study examines cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between family food involvement, family dinner meal frequency and dietary patterns during late childhood. Questionnaires were completed by parents of 188 children from Greater Melbourne, Australia at baseline in 2002 (mean age=11.25years) and at follow-up in 2006 (mean age=14.16years). Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify dietary patterns. Factor analysis (FA) was used to determine the principal factors from six indicators of family food involvement. Multiple linear regression models were used to predict the dietary patterns of children and adolescents at baseline and at follow-up, 3years later, from baseline indicators of family food involvement and frequency of family dinner meals. PCA revealed two dietary patterns, labeled a healthful pattern and an energy-dense pattern. FA revealed one factor for family food involvement. Cross-sectionally among boys, family food involvement score (β=0.55, 95% CI: 0.02, 1.07) and eating family dinner meals daily (β=1.11, 95% CI: 0.27, 1.96) during late childhood were positively associated with the healthful pattern. Eating family dinner meals daily was inversely associated with the energy-dense pattern, cross-sectionally among boys (β=-0.56, 95% CI: -1.06, -0.06). No significant cross-sectional associations were found among girls and no significant longitudinal associations were found for either gender. Involvement in family food and eating dinner with the family during late childhood may have a positive influence on dietary patterns of boys. No evidence was found to suggest the effects on dietary patterns persist into adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of caloric and dietary restriction regimens on markers of health and longevity in humans and animals: a summary of available findings

    OpenAIRE

    Trepanowski, John F; Canale, Robert E; Marshall, Kate E; Kabir, Mohammad M; Bloomer, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Considerable interest has been shown in the ability of caloric restriction (CR) to improve multiple parameters of health and to extend lifespan. CR is the reduction of caloric intake - typically by 20 - 40% of ad libitum consumption - while maintaining adequate nutrient intake. Several alternatives to CR exist. CR combined with exercise (CE) consists of both decreased caloric intake and increased caloric expenditure. Alternate-day fasting (ADF) consists of two interchanging days; one...

  7. Dietary Diversity and Meal Frequency Practices among Infant and Young Children Aged 6–23 Months in Ethiopia: A Secondary Analysis of Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melkam Aemro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Appropriate complementary feeding practice is essential for growth and development of children. This study aimed to assess dietary diversity and meal frequency practice of infants and young children in Ethiopia. Methods. Data collected in the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS from December 2010 to June 2011 were used for this study. Data collected were extracted, arranged, recoded, and analyzed by using SPSS version 17. A total of 2836 children aged 6–23 months were used for final analysis. Both bivariate and multivariate analysis were done to identify predictors of feeding practices. Result. Children with adequate dietary diversity score and meal frequency were 10.8% and 44.7%, respectively. Children born from the richest households showed better dietary diversity score (OR = 0.256. Number of children whose age less than five years was important predictor of dietary diversity (OR = 0.690. Mothers who had exposure to media were more likely to give adequate meal frequency to their children (OR = 0.707. Conclusion. Dietary diversity and meal frequency practices were inadequate in Ethiopia. Wealth quintile, exposure to media, and number of children were affecting feeding practices. Improving economic status, a habit of eating together, and exposure to media are important to improve infant feeding practices in Ethiopia.

  8. Infant emotional distress, maternal restriction at a home meal, and child BMI gain through age 6years in the Colorado Adoption Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittner, James B; Johnson, Cassandra; Tripicchio, Gina; Faith, Myles S

    2016-04-01

    Infant temperament and parental feeding practices may be risk factors for childhood obesity, however most studies have relied upon parent-report assessments. We tested whether infant emotional distress and maternal restrictive feeding at 12-months of age, assessed observationally at a home feeding interaction, predicted child BMI through age 6years. We conducted a prospective observational study of 86 children (34 girls and 52 boys, from 55 adoptive and 31 non-adoptive families) enrolled in the Colorado Adoption Project. Mother-infant feeding interactions were video-recorded during a home snack or meal at year 1, and child anthropometrics (length or height, and weight) were assessed at years 1 through 6. The main outcome measures were child weight-for-length at year 1 and body mass index (BMI: kg/m(2)) at years 2-6. Results of generalized linear models indicated that greater infant emotional distress at 12-months predicted greater increases in child weight status through age 6years, B=0.62 and odds ratio (OR)=1.87. In separate analyses, restrictive feeding interacted with child sex in predicting weight status trajectories (p=.012). Male infants whose mothers displayed any compared to no restriction at year 1 showed a downward BMI trajectory from 2 to 6years; for female infants, exposure to any compared to no restriction prompts predicted increasing BMI from 4 to 6years. In sum, early obesity prevention strategies should pay greater attention to infant temperament, especially distress and negative affect, and how parents respond to such cues. Additionally, 'responsive feeding' strategies that provide an alternative to restriction warrant greater research during infancy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Dietary lactoferrin alleviates age-related lacrimal gland dysfunction in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoko Kawashima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Decrease in lacrimal gland secretory function is related to age-induced dry eye disease. Lactoferrin, the main glycoprotein component of tears, has multiple functions, including anti-inflammatory effects and the promotion of cell growth. We investigated how oral administration of lactoferrin affects age-related lacrimal dysfunction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Twelve-month-old male C57BL/6Cr Slc mice were randomly divided into a control fed group and an oral lactoferrin treatment group. Tear function was measured at a 6-month time-point. After euthanasia, the lacrimal glands were subjected to histological examination with 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG antibodies, and serum concentrations of 8-OHdG and hexanoyl-lysine adduct (HEL were evaluated. Additionally, monocyte chemotactic protein-1(MCP-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α gene expression levels were determined by real-time PCR. The volume of tear secretion was significantly larger in the treated group than in the control. Lactoferrin administration reduced inflammatory cell infiltration and the MCP-1 and TNF-α expression levels. Serum concentrations of 8-OHdG and HEL in the lactoferrin group were lower than those in the control group and were associated with attenuated 8-OHdG immunostaining of the lacrimal glands. CONCLUSION: Oral lactoferrin administration preserves lacrimal gland function in aged mice by attenuating oxidative damage and suppressing subsequent gland inflammation.

  10. Dietary supplementation with fruit polyphenolics ameliorates age-related deficits in behavior and neuronal markers of inflammation and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Galli, Rachel L; Meterko, Vanessa; Carey, Amanda; Bielinski, Donna F; McGhie, Tony; Joseph, James A

    2005-03-01

    Dietary supplementation with fruit or vegetable extracts can ameliorate age-related declines in measures of learning, memory, motor performance, and neuronal signal transduction in a rat model. To date, blueberries have proved most effective at improving measures of motor performance, spatial learning and memory, and neuronal functioning in old rats. In an effort to further characterize the bioactive properties of fruits rich in color and correspondingly high in anthocyanins and other polyphenolics, 19-month-old male Fischer rats were fed a well-balanced control diet, or the diet supplemented with 2% extract from either blueberry, cranberry, blackcurrant, or Boysenberry fruit for eight weeks before testing began. The blackcurrant and cranberry diets enhanced neuronal signal transduction as measured by striatal dopamine release, while the blueberry and cranberry diets were effective in ameliorating deficits in motor performance and hippocampal HSP70 neuroprotection; these changes in HSP70 were positively correlated with performance on the inclined screen. It appears that the polyphenols in blueberries and cranberries have the ability to improve muscle tone, strength and balance in aging rats, whereas polyphenols in blueberries, cranberries and blackcurrants have the ability to enhance neuronal functioning and restore the brain's ability to generate a neuroprotective response to stress.

  11. Inadequate Iodine Intake in Population Groups Defined by Age, Life Stage and Vegetarian Dietary Practice in a Norwegian Convenience Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Johansen, Nina Cathrine; Nyheim, Kristine Aastad; Erlund, Iris; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Henjum, Sigrun

    2018-02-17

    Inadequate iodine intake has been identified in populations considered iodine replete for decades. The objective of the current study is to evaluate urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and the probability of adequate iodine intake in subgroups of the Norwegian population defined by age, life stage and vegetarian dietary practice. In a cross-sectional survey, we assessed the probability of adequate iodine intake by two 24-h food diaries and UIC from two fasting morning spot urine samples in 276 participants. The participants included children ( n = 47), adolescents ( n = 46), adults ( n = 71), the elderly ( n = 23), pregnant women ( n = 45), ovo-lacto vegetarians ( n = 25), and vegans ( n = 19). In all participants combined, the median (95% CI) UIC was 101 (90, 110) µg/L, median (25th, 75th percentile) calculated iodine intake was 112 (77, 175) µg/day and median (25th, 75th percentile) estimated usual iodine intake was 101 (75, 150) µg/day. According to WHOs criteria for evaluation of median UIC, iodine intake was inadequate in the elderly, pregnant women, vegans and non-pregnant women of childbearing age. Children had the highest (82%) and vegans the lowest (14%) probability of adequate iodine intake according to reported food and supplement intakes. This study confirms the need for monitoring iodine intake and status in nationally representative study samples in Norway.

  12. Metformin and dietary advice to improve insulin sensitivity and promote gestational restriction of weight among pregnant women who are overweight or obese: the GRoW Randomised Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Jodie M; Grivell, Rosalie M; Deussen, Andrea R; Dekker, Gustaaf; Louise, Jennie; Hague, William

    2016-11-21

    Obesity is a significant global health problem, with approximately 50% of women entering pregnancy having a body mass index greater than or equal to 25 kg/m 2 . Obesity during pregnancy is associated with a well-recognised increased risk of adverse health outcomes both for the woman and her infant. Currently available data from large scale randomised trials and systematic reviews highlight only modest effects of antenatal dietary and lifestyle interventions in limiting gestational weight gain, with little impact on clinically relevant pregnancy outcomes. Further information evaluating alternative strategies is required. The aims of this randomised controlled trial are to assess whether the use of metformin as an adjunct therapy to dietary and lifestyle advice for overweight and obese women during pregnancy is effective in improving maternal, fetal and infant health outcomes. Design: Multicentre randomised, controlled trial. Women with a singleton, live gestation between 10 +0 -20 +0 weeks who are obese or overweight (defined as body mass index greater than or equal to 25 kg/m 2 ), at the first antenatal visit. Trial Entry & Randomisation: Eligible, consenting women will be randomised between 10 +0 and 20 +0 weeks gestation using an online computer randomisation system, and randomisation schedule prepared by non-clinical research staff with balanced variable blocks. Stratification will be according to maternal BMI at trial entry, parity, and centre where planned to give birth. Treatment Schedules: Women randomised to the Metformin Group will receive a supply of 500 mg oral metformin tablets. Women randomised to the Placebo Group will receive a supply of identical appearing and tasting placebo tablets. Women will be instructed to commence taking one tablet daily for a period of one week, increasing to a maximum of two tablets twice daily over four weeks and then continuing until birth. Women, clinicians, researchers and outcome assessors will be blinded to the

  13. Social-Cognitive Predictors of Low-Income Parents' Restriction of Screen Time among Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampard, Amy M.; Jurkowski, Janine M.; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2013-01-01

    Parents' rules regarding child television, DVD, video game, and computer use (screen time) have been associated with lower screen use in children. This study aimed to identify modifiable correlates of this behavior by examining social-cognitive predictors of parents' restriction of child screen time. Low-income parents ("N" = 147) of…

  14. Use of a Computerized Tracking System to Monitor and Provide Feedback on Dietary Goals for Calorie-Restricted Diets: The POUNDS LOST Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D.; LeBlanc, Eric; Allen, H. Raymond; Karabetian, Christy; Sacks, Frank; Bray, George; Williamson, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    The use of self-monitoring as a tool to facilitate behavioral modification is common in many lifestyle-based weight loss interventions. Electronic tracking programs, including computer-based systems and smart phone applications, have been developed to allow individuals to self-monitor their behavior digitally. These programs offer an advantage over traditional self-report modalities in that they can provide users with direct feedback about dietary and/or physical activity adherence levels and thereby assist them in real-time decision making. This article describes the use of an Internet-based computerized tracking system (CTS) that was developed specifically for the POUNDS LOST study, a 2-year randomized controlled trial designed to test the efficacy of four macronutrient diets for weight and fat reduction in healthy, overweight men and women (body mass index range = 25.0–39.9 kg/m2). The CTS served many functions in this study, including data collection, dietary and exercise assessment and feedback, messaging system, and report generation. Across all groups, participants with high usage of the CTS during the initial 8 weeks lost greater amounts of weight than participants with low usage (8.7% versus 5.5% of initial body weight, respectively; p < .001) at week 32. Rates of CTS utilization were highest during the first year of this 2-year intervention, and utilization of the CTS declined steadily over time. The unique features of the CTS combined with technological developments, such as smart phone applications, offer significant potential to improve the user’s self-monitoring experience and adherence to health promotion programs designed specifically for individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:23063049

  15. Dietary habits of partly breast-fed and completely weaned infants at 9 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondolf, Ulla Holmboe; Tetens, Inge; Fleischer Michaelsen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To test whether there are differences in diet diversity between children still being partly breast-fed at 9 months and those completely weaned at the same age. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Cross-sectional study (SKOT cohort) in the area of Copenhagen, Denmark. Subjects...... found for absolute intakes of foods between feeding groups, although fatty spread had significantly higher intake rates and consumption (P50?031) among partly breast-fed compared with completely weaned infants. Conclusions: At 9 months the infants partly breast-fed did not eat a less diversified diet...

  16. Dietary intake and main food sources of vitamin D as a function of age, sex, vitamin D status, body composition, and income in an elderly German cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Jungert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elderly subjects are at risk of insufficient vitamin D status mainly because of diminished capacity for cutaneous vitamin D synthesis. In cases of insufficient endogenous production, vitamin D status depends on vitamin D intake. Objective: The purpose of this study is to identify the main food sources of vitamin D in elderly subjects and to analyse whether contributing food sources differ by sex, age, vitamin D status, body mass index (BMI, or household income. In addition, we analysed the factors that influence dietary vitamin D intake in the elderly. Design and subjects: This is a cross-sectional study in 235 independently living German elderly aged 66–96 years (BMI=27±4 kg/m2. Vitamin D intake was assessed by a 3-day estimated dietary record. Results: The main sources of dietary vitamin D were fish/fish products followed by eggs, fats/oils, bread/bakery products, and milk/dairy products. Differences in contributing food groups by sex, age, vitamin D status, and BMI were not found. Fish contributed more to vitamin D intake in subjects with a household income of <1,500 €/month compared to subjects with higher income. In multiple regression analysis, fat intake and frequency of fish consumption were positive determinants of dietary vitamin D intake, whereas household income and percentage total body fat negatively affected vitamin D intake. Other parameters, including age, sex, physical activity, smoking, intake of energy, milk, eggs and alcohol, showed no significant association with vitamin D intake. Conclusion: Low habitual dietary vitamin D intake does not affect vitamin D status in summer, and fish is the major contributor to vitamin D intake independent of sex, age, vitamin D status, BMI, and the income of subjects.

  17. Reprint of: A parallel randomized trial on the effect of a healthful diet on inflammageing and its consequences in European elderly people: Design of the NU-AGE dietary intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, A.M.; Santoro, A.; Pini, E.; Cevenini, E.; Ostan, R.; Pietruszka, B.; Rolf, K.; Cano, N.; Caille, A.; Lyon-Belgy, N.; Fairweather-Tait, S.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Franceschi, C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The proportion of European elderly is expected to increase to 30% in 2060. Combining dietary components may modulate many processes involved in ageing. So, it is likely that a healthful diet approach might have greater favourable impact on age-related decline than individual dietary

  18. A parallel randomized trial on the effect of a healthful diet on inflammageing and its consequences in European elderly people: Design of the NU-AGE dietary intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, A.M.; Santoro, A.; Pini, E.; Cevenini, E.; Ostan, R.; Pietruszka, B.; Rolf, K.; Cano, R.; Caille, A.; Lyon-Belgy, N.; Fairweather-Tait, S.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Franceschi, C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The proportion of European elderly is expected to increase to 30% in 2060. Combining dietary components may modulate many processes involved in ageing. So, it is likely that a healthful diet approach might have greater favourable impact on age-related decline than individual dietary

  19. Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich chicks as affected by dietary protein levels during 2–9 weeks of age

    OpenAIRE

    Kh.M. Mahrose; A.I. Attia; I.E. Ismail; D.E. Abou-Kassem; M.E. Abd El-Hack

    2015-01-01

    The present work was conducted to examine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels (18, 21 and 24%) on growth performance (Initial and final body weight, daily body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio) during 2-9 weeks of age and certain body measurements (body height, tibiotarsus length and tibiotarsus girth) at 9 weeks of age. A total of 30 African Black unsexed ostrich chicks were used in the present study in simple randomized design. The res...

  20. Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich chicks as affected by dietary protein levels during 2-9 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrose, Kh M; Attia, A I; Ismail, I E; Abou-Kassem, D E; El-Hack, M E Abd

    2015-01-01

    The present work was conducted to examine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels (18, 21 and 24%) on growth performance (Initial and final body weight, daily body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio) during 2-9 weeks of age and certain body measurements (body height, tibiotarsus length and tibiotarsus girth) at 9 weeks of age. A total of 30 African Black unsexed ostrich chicks were used in the present study in simple randomized design. The results of the present work indicated that initial and final live body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion of ostrich chicks were insignificantly affected by dietary protein level used. Protein efficiency ratio was high in the group of chicks fed diet contained 18% CP. Results obtained indicated that tibiotarsus girth was decreased (P≤0.01) with the increasing dietary protein level, where the highest value of tibiotarsus girth (18.38 cm) was observed in chicks fed 18% dietary protein level. Body height and tibiotarsus length were not significantly different. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that ostrich chicks (during 2-9 weeks of age) could grow on diets contain lower levels of CP (18%).

  1. Analyses of Selenotranscriptomes and Selenium Concentrations in Response to Dietary Selenium Deficiency and Age Reveal Common and Distinct Patterns by Tissue and Sex in Telomere-Dysfunctional Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Zhang, Li; Zeng, Huawei; Wu, Ryan Ty; Wu, Tung-Lung; Cheng, Wen-Hsing

    2017-10-01

    Background: The hierarchies of tissue selenium distribution and selenotranscriptomes are thought to critically affect healthspan and longevity. Objective: We determined selenium status and selenotranscriptomes in response to long-term dietary selenium deficiency and age in tissues of male and female mice. Methods: Weanling telomerase RNA component knockout C57BL/6 mice were fed a selenium-deficient (0.03 mg Se/kg) Torula yeast-based AIN-93G diet or a diet supplemented with sodium selenate (0.15 mg Se/kg) until age 18 or 24 mo. Plasma, hearts, kidneys, livers, and testes were collected to assay for selenotranscriptomes, selected selenoproteins, and tissue selenium concentrations. Data were analyzed with the use of 2-factor ANOVA (diet × age) in both sexes. Results: Dietary selenium deficiency decreased ( P ≤ 0.05) selenium concentrations (65-72%) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) 3 (82-94%) and selenoprotein P (SELENOP) (17-41%) levels in the plasma of both sexes of mice and mRNA levels (9-68%) of 4, 4, and 12 selenoproteins in the heart, kidney, and liver of males, respectively, and 5, 16, and 14 selenoproteins, respectively, in females. Age increased selenium concentrations and SELENOP levels (27% and 30%, respectively; P ≤ 0.05) in the plasma of males only but decreased (12-46%; P selenium deficiency and age in ≥1 tissue or sex, or both. Dietary selenium deficiency upregulated (40-160%; P ≤ 0.05) iodothyronine deiodinase 2 ( Dio2 ) and selenoprotein N ( Selenon ) in the kidneys of males. Age upregulated (11-44%; P selenium status and selenotranscriptomes because of dietary selenium deficiency and age. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Effects of dietary energy and lysine levels on growth performance and carcass yields of Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Z G; Rasolofomanana, T J; Tang, J; Jiang, Y; Xie, M; Yang, P L; Hou, S S

    2017-09-01

    A 2 × 6 factorial experiment, using 2 dietary apparent metabolizable energy (AME) levels (2,750 and 3,050 Kcal/kg) and 6 supplemental lysine (Lys) levels (0, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, 0.40, and 0.50%), was conducted to study the effects of dietary energy and lysine levels on growth performance and carcass yields of Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 d of age. A total of 576 one-day-old male White Pekin ducks was randomly allotted to 12 dietary treatments, each containing 6 replicate pens with 8 birds per pen. At 21 d of age, body weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain were measured, and then 2 ducks selected randomly from each pen were slaughtered to evaluate the yields of abdominal fat, breast meat, and leg meat. As a result, birds that were fed basal diets with no Lys supplementation showed growth depression, and significant positive effects of dietary Lys supplementation on body weight gain (P 0.05), but feed intake (P = 0.001) and feed/gain (P = 0.009) decreased significantly between the groups. Dietary Lys levels influenced the yields of breast (P ducks significantly (P = 0.004). According to the broken-line regression analysis, Lys requirements of Pekin ducks for weight gain at 2,750 and 3,050 Kcal of AME/kg were 0.94 and 0.98%, respectively. It suggested that Lys requirement was higher at 3,050 Kcal of AME/kg than at 2,750 Kcal of AME/kg. Dietary energy content determined feed intake of the ducks, and high-energy diets will require a higher amino acid concentration to compensate for a lower feed intake. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Association of Dietary Habits and Interest for Food and Science versus Weight Status in Children Aged 8 to 18 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhulst, Els; Faik, Aicha; Vansintejan, Johan; Van Rossem, Inès; Devroey, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to describe the association between dietary habits and weight status and the interest in food and science. We examined in a cross-sectional study 525 children aged between 8 and 18 years, who attended the Brussels Food Fair or the Belgian Science Day in 2013. They were divided into three groups: special interest in science, special interest in food, and a general control group. They completed a questionnaire, and body parameters were measured. The weight status of the children was identified using the growth charts and the calculated BMI. In total, 525 children were included: 290 children in the reference group, 194 in the food group, and 41 in the science group. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 28% in the general control group, 14% in the food group, and 15% in the science group. Breakfast and dinner were skipped more often by children with overweight or obesity. Children from the food and science groups had more sweets and meat, had less fruit, and skipped less meals. In our study, 28% of the reference group had overweight or obesity. The children with special interest in food or science differed from the control group.

  4. Metabolic and growth response of mink (Neovison vison) kits until 10 weeks of age when exposed to different dietary protein provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Caroline; Fink, Rikke; Matthiesen, Connie Marianne Frank

    2012-01-01

    to solid feed. The capacity to regulate the rate of gluconeogenesis was even more limited in young mink kits than in adult dams. However, young mink kits can regulate protein oxidation in response to dietary protein supply, probably by adapting the size of the liver and kidneys to the level of protein......Growth performance and metabolism were investigated in mink kits (n = 210) exposed to the same dietary treatment as their dams (n = 30), i.e. high (HP; 61% of metabolisable energy, ME), medium (MP; 48% of ME) or low (LP; 30% of ME) protein supply, from birth until 10 weeks of age. The kits were...... the heaviest. After transition to solid feed MP kits weighed most at nine weeks of age (p age, the kits fed the LP diet retained less (p

  5. Age and body weight effects on glucose and insulin tolerance in colony cats maintained since weaning on high dietary carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, R C; Cave, N J; Ganjam, V K; Turner, J B M; Biourge, V C

    2010-12-01

    High dietary carbohydrate is suggested to promote development of diabetes mellitus in cats. Glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion were assessed in young [0.8-2.3 (median = 1.1) years, n = 13] and mature [4.0-7.0 (median 5.8) years, n = 12] sexually intact females of a large (n ≅ 700) feline colony in which only dry-type diets (35% metabolizable energy as carbohydrate) were fed from weaning. Insulin sensitivity was assessed from the 'late-phase' (60-120 min) plasma insulin response of intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs) and from fractional change in glycaemia from baseline 15 min after an insulin bolus (0.1 U/kg, i.v.). Insulin secretion was assessed from the 'early-phase' (0-15 min) plasma insulin response of IVGTTs. Compared to the young cats, the mature cats had greater body weights [2.3-3.8 (median = 2.9) vs. 3.0-6.3 (median = 4.0) kg, p < 0.01], greater late-phase insulin responses (p < 0.05), lower insulin-induced glycaemic changes (p = 0.06), lower early-phase insulin responses (p < 0.05), and non-significantly different rates of glucose disposal. The late-phase insulin response was correlated with body weight and age (p < 0.05). When group assignments were balanced for body weight, the age-group differences and correlations became non-significant. The findings indicate that body weight gain is more likely than dry-type diets to induce the pre-diabetic conditions of insulin resistance and secretion dysfunction. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Differences in preschool-age children's dietary intake between meals consumed at childcare and at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Sisson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Preschool children need optimal nutrition, including a variety of nutrient-dense foods, for growth and development. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in foods and nutrients consumed at childcare and home environments. Children ages 3-to-5 years (n = 90, 3.8 ± 0.7 years; 56% female from 16 childcare centers participated in this cross-sectional study from 2011 to 2014. Lunches at childcare were observed for two days; three days of dinners at home were reported by caregivers. Nutrient-dense and energy-dense foods were counted and nutrient content of meals was determined using FoodWorks®. More servings of fruit (0.92 ± 0.82 vs. 0.15 ± 0.26; p ≤ 0.0001, vegetables (1.47 ± 1.43 vs. 0.62 ± 0.60; p ≤ 0.0001, and low-fat dairy (0.83 ± 0.32 vs. 0.07 ± 0.19; p ≤ 0.0001 were consumed at childcare than at home. More servings of high-fat, high-sugar foods (0.08 ± 0.18 vs. 0.43 ± 0.39, p ≤ 0.0001 and sugary drinks (0.22 ± 0.41 vs. 0.39 ± 0.35. p ≤ 0.001 were consumed at home than at childcare. There were no differences between environments in whole-grains, high-fat meats, or high-fat high-sugar condiments consumed. On average, children consumed 333.0 ± 180.3 kcal at childcare and 454.7 ± 175.3 at home (p ≤ 0.0001. There were no differences in macronutrient profiles or in iron, zinc, folate, or vitamin B6 intake. More calcium (86.2 ± 44.6 vs. 44.6 ± 22.2 mg/kcal, p ≤ 0.0001 and vitamin A/kcal (56.1 ± 36.9 vs. 26.5 ± 24.2 RAE/kcal, p ≤ 0.0001 were consumed at childcare than at home. Preschool children are consuming more nutrient-dense foods and a more servings of fruit and vegetables at childcare during lunch than at home during dinner. Childcare and parents should work together to provide early and consistent exposure to nutrient-rich foods to ensure optimal nutrition for developing children.

  7. Effects of reduced dietary energy and amino acid density on Pectoralis major myopathies in broiler chickens at 36 and 49 days of age1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloche, K J; Fancher, B I; Emmerson, D A; Bilgili, S F; Dozier, W A

    2018-05-01

    Two experiments (Exp) were conducted to determine if reductions in the incidence and severity of wooden breast (WB) and white striping (WS) may be obtained by reducing dietary nutrient density. In each Exp, Yield Plus × Ross 708 male broiler chicks were placed into 63 pens (22 birds/pen). All birds received an identical prestarter diet until 7 d of age, after which time each pen was randomly assigned to 1 of the following 7 dietary treatments (TRT) for the starter (8 to 14 d), grower (15 to 24 d), finisher 1 (Exp 1: 26 to 35 d; Exp 2: 26 to 42 d), and withdrawal (Exp 2: 43 to 48 d) phases: 1) 100% of primary breeder recommendations for digestible amino acid and metabolizable energy density throughout Exp; 2) 95% of TRT 1 until 14 d of age, then as TRT 1; 3) 95% of TRT 1 until 24 d of age, then as TRT 1; 4) 95% of TRT 1 throughout Exp; 5) 90% of TRT 1 until 14 d of age, then as TRT 1; 6) 90% of TRT 1 until 24 d of age, then as TRT 1; 7) 90% of TRT 1 throughout Exp. At 36 d (Exp 1) and 49 d (Exp 2), 18 birds per pen were processed and evaluated for WS and WB. In Exp 1, reduced dietary density in the starter phase (TRT 2 and TRT 5) resulted in increased (P ≤ 0.05) incidences of severe WB (32.9% and 34.7%) relative to TRT 1 (18.2%). In Exp 2, broilers assigned to TRT 7 had reduced (P 36.5%; WS: 64.5%). In both Exp, plasma creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase increased (P ≤ 0.05) with increasing scores for WB and WS. Reducing dietary nutrient density from 8 to 14 d may exacerbate fillet myopathies in broilers reared to 35 d of age. Although reducing dietary energy and amino acid density to 90% of recommendations from 1 to 48 d reduced the severity of myopathies, these reductions occurred with compromises in live performance. Altogether, these results indicated that concurrent manipulation of dietary amino acid and energy density is not a viable practical solution for breast myopathies.

  8. Attachment, invasion, chemotaxis, and proteinase expression of B16-BL6 melanoma cells exhibiting a low metastatic phenotype after exposure to dietary restriction of tyrosine and phenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenkott, C E; Huijzer, J C; Cardeiro, D J; Elstad, C A; Meadows, G G

    1996-03-01

    We previously reported that low levels of tyrosine (Tyr) and phenylalanine (Phe) alter the metastatic phenotype of B16-BL6 (BL6) murine melanoma and select for tumor cell populations with decreased lung colonizing ability. To more specifically characterize the effects of Tyr and Phe restriction on the malignant phenotype of BL6, we investigated in vitro attachment, invasion, proteinase expression, and chemotaxis of high and low metastatic BL6 variants. High metastatic variant cells were isolated from subcutaneous tumors of mice fed a nutritionally complete diet (ND cells) and low metastatic variant cells were isolated from mice fed a diet restricted in Tyr and Phe (LTP cells). Results indicate that attachment to reconstituted basement membrane (Matrigel) was significantly reduced in LTP cells as compared to ND cells. Attachment to collagen IV, laminin, and fibronectin were similar between the two variants. Invasion through Matrigel and growth factor-reduced Matrigel were significantly decreased in LTP cells as compared to ND cells. Zymography revealed the presence of M(r) 92,000 and M(r) 72,000 progelatinases, tissue plasminogen activator, and urokinase plasminogen activator in the conditioned medium of both variants; however, there were no differences in activity of these secreted proteinases between the two variants. Growth of the variants on growth factor-reduced Matrigel similarly induced expression of the M(r) 92,000 progelatinase. The variants exhibited similar chemotactic responses toward laminin. However, the chemotactic response toward fibronectin by LTP cells was significantly increased. MFR5, a monoclonal antibody which selectively blocks function of the alpha 5 chain of the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin, VLA-5, decreased the chemotactic response toward fibronectin of ND cells by 37%; the chemotactic response by LTP cells was reduced by 49%. This effect was specific for fibronectin-mediated chemotaxis since the chemotaxis toward laminin and invasion through

  9. Dietary Intakes of EPA and DHA Omega-3 Fatty Acids among US Childbearing-Age and Pregnant Women: An Analysis of NHANES 2001-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiying; Fulgoni, Victor L; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Mitmesser, Susan Hazels

    2018-03-28

    The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommend that the general population should consume about 8 ounces (oz.) per week of a variety of seafood, providing approximately 250 mg per day of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and that pregnant and lactating women should consume 8–12 oz. per week of seafood. We determined the usual intakes, percentage not meeting recommendations, and trends in EPA and DHA intakes among childbearing-age and pregnant women (15–44 years of age) using the NHANES cycles 2001–2002 through 2013–2014. For the childbearing-age women, the mean usual intake of seafood was 0.44 ± 0.02 oz. equivalent per day and 100% of the population was below the DGA recommendation. Mean usual intakes of EPA, DHA, and combined EPA and DHA from foods and dietary supplements combined were 26.8 ± 1.4, 62.2 ± 1.9, and 88.1 ± 3.0 mg per day, respectively. Over 95% of the sample did not meet the daily intakes of 250 mg EPA and DHA. Similar results were observed for pregnant women. After controlling for covariates, there were slight but significant increases in EPA and DHA intakes from foods and dietary supplements over the 14-year span among childbearing-age ( p = 0.005) and pregnant women ( p = 0.002). It was estimated that a majority of U.S. childbearing-age and pregnant women consumed significantly lower amounts of seafood than what the DGA recommends, which subsequently leads to low intakes of EPA and DHA; in addition, dietary supplement use has not eliminated the nutrient shortfall.

  10. Association between Dietary Vitamin C Intake and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study among Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Lei, Guang-Hua; Fu, Lei; Zeng, Chao; Yang, Tuo; Peng, Shi-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most prevalent chronic liver disease all over the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD. Subjects were diagnosed with NAFLD by abdominal ultrasound examination and the consumption of alcohol was less than 40g/day for men or less than 20g/day for women. Vitamin C intake was classified into four categories according to the quartile distribution in the study population: ≤74.80 mg/day, 74.81-110.15 mg/day, 110.16-146.06 mg/day, and ≥146.07 mg/day. The energy and multi-variable adjusted odds ratio (OR), as well as their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI), were used to determine the relationship between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD through logistic regression. The present cross-sectional study included 3471 subjects. A significant inverse association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD was observed in the energy-adjusted and the multivariable model. The multivariable adjusted ORs (95%CI) for NAFLD were 0.69 (95%CI: 0.54-0.89), 0.93 (95%CI: 0.72-1.20), and 0.71 (95%CI: 0.53-0.95) in the second, third and fourth dietary vitamin C intake quartiles, respectively, compared with the lowest (first) quartile. The relative odds of NAFLD was decreased by 0.71 times in the fourth quartile of dietary vitamin C intake compared with the lowest quartile. After stratifying data by sex or the status of obesity, the inverse association remained valid in the male population or non-obesity population, but not in the female population or obesity population. There might be a moderate inverse association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD in middle-aged and older adults, especially for the male population and non-obesity population.

  11. Prevention of neuromusculoskeletal frailty in slow-aging ames dwarf mice: longitudinal investigation of interaction of longevity genes and caloric restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oge Arum

    Full Text Available Ames dwarf (Prop1 (df/df mice are remarkably long-lived and exhibit many characteristics of delayed aging and extended healthspan. Caloric restriction (CR has similar effects on healthspan and lifespan, and causes an extension of longevity in Ames dwarf mice. Our study objective was to determine whether Ames dwarfism or CR influence neuromusculoskeletal function in middle-aged (82 ± 12 weeks old or old (128 ± 14 w.o. mice. At the examined ages, strength was improved by dwarfism, CR, and dwarfism plus CR in male mice; balance/ motor coordination was improved by CR in old animals and in middle-aged females; and agility/ motor coordination was improved by a combination of dwarfism and CR in both genders of middle-aged mice and in old females. Therefore, extension of longevity by congenital hypopituitarism is associated with improved maintenance of the examined measures of strength, agility, and motor coordination, key elements of frailty during human aging, into advanced age. This study serves as a particularly important example of knowledge related to addressing aging-associated diseases and disorders that results from studies in long-lived mammals.

  12. Prevention of neuromusculoskeletal frailty in slow-aging ames dwarf mice: longitudinal investigation of interaction of longevity genes and caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arum, Oge; Rasche, Zachary Andrew; Rickman, Dustin John; Bartke, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Ames dwarf (Prop1 (df/df) ) mice are remarkably long-lived and exhibit many characteristics of delayed aging and extended healthspan. Caloric restriction (CR) has similar effects on healthspan and lifespan, and causes an extension of longevity in Ames dwarf mice. Our study objective was to determine whether Ames dwarfism or CR influence neuromusculoskeletal function in middle-aged (82 ± 12 weeks old) or old (128 ± 14 w.o.) mice. At the examined ages, strength was improved by dwarfism, CR, and dwarfism plus CR in male mice; balance/ motor coordination was improved by CR in old animals and in middle-aged females; and agility/ motor coordination was improved by a combination of dwarfism and CR in both genders of middle-aged mice and in old females. Therefore, extension of longevity by congenital hypopituitarism is associated with improved maintenance of the examined measures of strength, agility, and motor coordination, key elements of frailty during human aging, into advanced age. This study serves as a particularly important example of knowledge related to addressing aging-associated diseases and disorders that results from studies in long-lived mammals.

  13. Combined moderate and high intensity exercise with dietary restriction improves cardiac autonomic function associated with a reduction in central and systemic arterial stiffness in obese adults: a clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study aimed to assess the effects of exercise with dietary restriction on cardiac autonomic activity, arterial stiffness, and cardiovascular biomarkers in obese individuals. Methods Seventeen obese adults completed an 8-week exercise and dietary program. Anthropometry, body composition, and multiple biochemical markers were measured. We used carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, central blood pressure, and augmentation index (AIx to assess arterial stiffness. To determine cardiac autonomic activity, heart rate variability (HRV was analyzed by standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN, square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal-to-normal intervals (RMSSD, total power (TF, low-frequency power in normalized units (LFnu, high-frequency power in normalized units (HFnu, and low-frequency power/high-frequency power (LF/HF. Results Following the exercise and diet intervention, obese subjects had significant reductions in body weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, brachial systolic blood pressure, and resting heart rate, and they had shown improvements in blood chemistry markers such as lipid profiles, insulin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. There was a significant reduction in both cfPWV and baPWV following the intervention when compared to baseline levels. Moreover, the AIx and aortic systolic blood pressure were significantly reduced after the intervention. The diet and exercise intervention significantly increased cardiac autonomic modulation (determined by improved SDNN, RMSSD, TP LF, HF, and LF/HF, which was partly due to changes in heart rate, insulin resistance, and the inflammatory pattern. Furthermore, we observed a correlation between enhanced cardiac autonomic modulation (LF/HF and decreased arterial stiffness, as measured by central cfPWV and systemic baPWV. Discussion An 8-week combined intervention of diet and

  14. Variation in gene expression in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of gilts with differences in pubertal status and subjected to dietary energy restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the earliest indicators of sow reproductive longevity is the age at which a gilt expresses puberty. Genetic variants and nutrition could contribute to differences in puberty onset and reproductive longevity. Some of the regulatory sequence variants responsible for the differences in gene expr...

  15. School-age effects of the newborn individualized developmental care and assessment program for preterm infants with intrauterine growth restriction: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnulty, Gloria; Duffy, Frank H; Kosta, Sandra; Weisenfeld, Neil I; Warfield, Simon K; Butler, Samantha C; Alidoost, Moona; Bernstein, Jane Holmes; Robertson, Richard; Zurakowski, David; Als, Heidelise

    2013-02-19

    The experience in the newborn intensive care nursery results in premature infants' neurobehavioral and neurophysiological dysfunction and poorer brain structure. Preterms with severe intrauterine growth restriction are doubly jeopardized given their compromised brains. The Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program improved outcome at early school-age for preterms with appropriate intrauterine growth. It also showed effectiveness to nine months for preterms with intrauterine growth restriction. The current study tested effectiveness into school-age for preterms with intrauterine growth restriction regarding executive function (EF), electrophysiology (EEG) and neurostructure (MRI). Twenty-three 9-year-old former growth-restricted preterms, randomized at birth to standard care (14 controls) or to the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (9 experimentals) were assessed with standardized measures of cognition, achievement, executive function, electroencephalography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The participating children were comparable to those lost to follow-up, and the controls to the experimentals, in terms of newborn background health and demographics. All outcome measures were corrected for mother's intelligence. Analysis techniques included two-group analysis of variance and stepwise discriminate analysis for the outcome measures, Wilks' lambda and jackknifed classification to ascertain two-group classification success per and across domains; canonical correlation analysis to explore relationships among neuropsychological, electrophysiological and neurostructural domains at school-age, and from the newborn period to school-age. Controls and experimentals were comparable in age at testing, anthropometric and health parameters, and in cognitive and achievement scores. Experimentals scored better in executive function, spectral coherence, and cerebellar volumes. Furthermore, executive function, spectral coherence

  16. Trial Protocol: randomised controlled trial of the effects of very low calorie diet, modest dietary restriction, and sequential behavioural programme on hunger, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers stopping smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycett, Deborah; Hajek, Peter; Aveyard, Paul

    2010-10-07

    Weight gain accompanies smoking cessation, but dieting during quitting is controversial as hunger may increase urges to smoke. This is a feasibility trial for the investigation of a very low calorie diet (VLCD), individual modest energy restriction, and usual advice on hunger, ketosis, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers trying to quit. This is a 3 armed, unblinded, randomized controlled trial in overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2), daily smokers (CO > 10 ppm); with at least 30 participants in each group. Each group receives identical behavioural support and NRT patches (25 mg(8 weeks),15 mg(2 weeks),10 mg(2 weeks)). The VLCD group receive a 429-559 kcal/day liquid formula beginning 1 week before quitting and continuing for 4 weeks afterwards. The modest energy restricted group (termed individual dietary and activity planning(IDAP)) engage in goal-setting and receive an energy prescription based on individual basal metabolic rate(BMR) aiming for daily reduction of 600 kcal. The control group receive usual dietary advice that accompanies smoking cessation i.e. avoiding feeling hungry but eating healthy snacks. After this, the VLCD participants receive IDAP to provide support for changing eating habits in the longer term; the IDAP group continues receiving this support. The control group receive IDAP 8 weeks after quitting. This allows us to compare IDAP following a successful quit attempt with dieting concurrently during quitting. It also aims to prevent attrition in the unblinded, control group by meeting their need for weight management. Follow-up occurs at 6 and 12 months.Outcome measures include participant acceptability, measured qualitatively by semi-structured interviewing and quantitatively by recruitment and attrition rates. Feasibility of running the trial within primary care is measured by interview and questionnaire of the treatment providers. Adherence to the VLCD is verified by the presence of urinary ketones measured weekly. Daily

  17. Trial Protocol: Randomised controlled trial of the effects of very low calorie diet, modest dietary restriction, and sequential behavioural programme on hunger, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers stopping smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajek Peter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight gain accompanies smoking cessation, but dieting during quitting is controversial as hunger may increase urges to smoke. This is a feasibility trial for the investigation of a very low calorie diet (VLCD, individual modest energy restriction, and usual advice on hunger, ketosis, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers trying to quit. Methods This is a 3 armed, unblinded, randomized controlled trial in overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2, daily smokers (CO > 10 ppm; with at least 30 participants in each group. Each group receives identical behavioural support and NRT patches (25 mg(8 weeks,15 mg(2 weeks,10 mg(2 weeks. The VLCD group receive a 429-559 kcal/day liquid formula beginning 1 week before quitting and continuing for 4 weeks afterwards. The modest energy restricted group (termed individual dietary and activity planning(IDAP engage in goal-setting and receive an energy prescription based on individual basal metabolic rate(BMR aiming for daily reduction of 600 kcal. The control group receive usual dietary advice that accompanies smoking cessation i.e. avoiding feeling hungry but eating healthy snacks. After this, the VLCD participants receive IDAP to provide support for changing eating habits in the longer term; the IDAP group continues receiving this support. The control group receive IDAP 8 weeks after quitting. This allows us to compare IDAP following a successful quit attempt with dieting concurrently during quitting. It also aims to prevent attrition in the unblinded, control group by meeting their need for weight management. Follow-up occurs at 6 and 12 months. Outcome measures include participant acceptability, measured qualitatively by semi-structured interviewing and quantitatively by recruitment and attrition rates. Feasibility of running the trial within primary care is measured by interview and questionnaire of the treatment providers. Adherence to the VLCD is verified by the presence of

  18. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in middle-aged adults: A large population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sangah; Saito, Eiko; Sawada, Norie; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Nanri, Akiko; Shimazu, Taichi; Yamaji, Taiki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2018-06-01

    A finding between dietary pattern and cancer may provide visions beyond the assessment of individual foods or nutrients. We examined the influence of dietary pattern with colorectal cancer (CRC) among a Japanese population. A total of 93,062 subjects (43,591 men, 49,471 women) who participated in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study were followed from 1995-1998 to the end of 2012, during which 2482 cases of CRC (1514 men, 968 women) were newly identified. Dietary data was obtained from a validated food-frequency questionnaire between 1995 and 1998. Three dietary pattern was derived from principal components factor: prudent, westernized, and traditional pattern. After controlled for potential confounders, the prudent pattern showed a decreased association of CRC risk in men (HR for highest quintile vs lowest: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.72-1.00; P trend cancer (P trend cancer in women (P trend pattern showed a significant positive linear trend for colon (P trend cancer (P trend dietary pattern on the overall or any specific sites risk of CRC. A prudent dietary pattern showed an inverse association with CRC risk in men, and a westernized pattern was related with a higher risk of colon and distal cancer in women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and Validation of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Dietary Intake of Turkish School-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güneş Fatma Esra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ on the dietary intake of Turkish school-aged children. Fifty randomly selected students aged 7–12 from urban areas of Istanbul were included in this study. An FFQ, containing a list of 138 frequently consumed foods was developed. Dietary records (DRs including three days, and FFQs were collected during autumn and spring. Daily consumption of each food group was assessed and the nutrient compositions of diet were calculated. The Pearson correlation coefficient, weighted kappa, the Bland-Altman scatter plots between averages of the reported (FFQ and the references method (DR were used as validity coefficient.

  20. Dietary nitrate improves age-related hypertension and metabolic abnormalities in rats via modulation of angiotensin II receptor signaling and inhibition of superoxide generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hezel, M.; Peleli, Maria; Liu, M.

    2016-01-01

    . Finally, nitrate treatment in aged rats normalized the gene expression profile of ANG II receptors (AT1A, AT2, AT1A/AT2 ratio) in the renal and cardiovascular systems without altering plasma levels of renin or ANG II. Our results show that boosting the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway can partly compensate...... that increased angiotensin II (ANG II) signaling is also implicated in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction and hypertension by accelerating formation of reactive oxygen species. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that dietary nitrate supplementation could reduce blood pressure and improve...... glucose tolerance in aged rats, via attenuation of NADPH oxidase activity and ANG II receptor signaling. Dietary nitrate supplementation for two weeks reduced blood pressure (10–15 mmHg) and improved glucose clearance in old, but not in young rats. These favorable effects were associated with increased...

  1. Factors Related to the Accuracy of Self-Reported Dietary Intake of Children Aged 6 to 12 Years Elicited with Interviews: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Stefanie J; Skouteris, Helen; Powell, Martine B; Watson, Brittany

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between children's dietary consumption and health is important. As such, it is crucial to explore factors related to the accuracy of children's reports of what they consumed. The objective was to evaluate factors related to the accuracy of self-reported dietary intake information elicited by interview methods from children aged 6 to 12 years. A systematic review of English articles using PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, PsycEXTRA, PsycBOOKS, CINAHL Complete, Global Health, and MEDLINE Complete was performed. Search terms included interview, diet, children, and recall; studies were limited to those published from 1970 onward. Additional studies were identified using the reference lists of published articles. Studies that assessed children's dietary intake using direct observation, doubly labeled water, or the double-portion method and compared it with their recall of that intake (unassisted by parents) using an interview were included. The 45 studies that met the inclusion criteria showed that specific interview techniques designed to enhance children's recall accuracy had little effect. Rather, the timing of the interview appeared most important: The shorter the retention interval between children's consumption and their recall, the more accurate their memories. Children's age, body mass index, social desirability, food preferences, and cognitive ability were also related to accuracy. Factors related to the accuracy of children's dietary reporting should be taken into consideration when asking about consumption. Further research is required to examine whether other interview techniques, such as those developed to enhance children's recall of repeated staged events, can improve children's dietary reporting accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Development and validation testing of a short nutrition questionnaire to identify dietary risk factors in preschoolers aged 12–36 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamh Rice

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although imbalances in dietary intakes can have short and longer term influences on the health of preschool children, few tools exist to quickly and easily identify nutritional risk in otherwise healthy young children. Objectives: To develop and test the validity of a parent-administered questionnaire (NutricheQ as a means of evaluating dietary risk in young children (12–36 months. Design: Following a comprehensive development process and internal reliability assessment, the NutricheQ questionnaire was validated in a cohort of 371 Irish preschool children as part of the National Preschool Nutrition Survey. Dietary risk was rated on a scale ranging from 0 to 22 from 11 questions, with a higher score indicating higher risk. Results: Children with higher NutricheQ scores had significantly (p<0.05 lower mean daily intakes of key nutrients such as iron, zinc, vitamin D, riboflavin, niacin, folate, phosphorous, potassium, carotene, retinol, and dietary fibre. They also had lower (p<0.05 intakes of vegetables, fish and fish dishes, meat and infant/toddler milks and higher intakes of processed foods and non-milk beverages, confectionery, sugars and savoury snack foods indicative of poorer dietary quality. Areas under the curve values of 84.7 and 75.6% were achieved for ‘medium’ and ‘high’ dietary risk when compared with expert risk ratings indicating good consistency between the two methods. Conclusion: NutricheQ is a valid method of quickly assessing dietary quality in preschoolers and in identifying those at increased nutritional risk.In ContextAnalysis of data from national food and nutrition surveys typically identifies shortfalls in dietary intakes or quality of young children. This can relate to intakes of micronutrients such as iron or vitamin D as well as to the balance of macronutrients they consume (e.g. fat or sugar. Alongside this lie concerns regarding overweight and obesity and physical inactivity. This combination of

  3. The Dual Burden of Malnutrition and Associated Dietary and Lifestyle Habits among Lebanese School Age Children Living in Orphanages in North Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germine El-Kassas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood is a crucial period affecting physical and intellectual development. Although children living in orphanages are among the most vulnerable groups at risk of malnutrition, there is scarcity of data concerning their nutritional status in Lebanon. To investigate these data, a cross-sectional survey was conducted including a sample of 153 institutionalized children aged 5–14 years from all orphanages in Tripoli. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric, clinical, and dietary tools. Interpretation of anthropometric data showed that 13.8% were stunted while the prevalence of overweight/obesity was 9.2% according to the World Health Organization (WHO reference criteria. Physical signs suggesting nutritional deficiencies were detected in about 25% of the sample. Dietary intake evaluation showed that about half of the participants had inadequate dietary intakes of proteins, fruits, and vegetables and 92% had inadequate milk and dairy intakes recommended for their age specific needs. Multivariate regression analysis revealed statistically significant positive association of age, skipping breakfast, and increased screen time with stunting while it showed statistically significant negative association of inadequate protein intake with overweight/obesity. The coexistence of under- and overnutrition among institutionalized children calls for implementation of comprehensive intervention strategies committed to reducing undernutrition while simultaneously preventing overnutrition through improving diet quality and physical activity of these children.

  4. The Dual Burden of Malnutrition and Associated Dietary and Lifestyle Habits among Lebanese School Age Children Living in Orphanages in North Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kassas, Germine; Ziade, Fouad

    2017-01-01

    Childhood is a crucial period affecting physical and intellectual development. Although children living in orphanages are among the most vulnerable groups at risk of malnutrition, there is scarcity of data concerning their nutritional status in Lebanon. To investigate these data, a cross-sectional survey was conducted including a sample of 153 institutionalized children aged 5-14 years from all orphanages in Tripoli. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric, clinical, and dietary tools. Interpretation of anthropometric data showed that 13.8% were stunted while the prevalence of overweight/obesity was 9.2% according to the World Health Organization (WHO) reference criteria. Physical signs suggesting nutritional deficiencies were detected in about 25% of the sample. Dietary intake evaluation showed that about half of the participants had inadequate dietary intakes of proteins, fruits, and vegetables and 92% had inadequate milk and dairy intakes recommended for their age specific needs. Multivariate regression analysis revealed statistically significant positive association of age, skipping breakfast, and increased screen time with stunting while it showed statistically significant negative association of inadequate protein intake with overweight/obesity. The coexistence of under- and overnutrition among institutionalized children calls for implementation of comprehensive intervention strategies committed to reducing undernutrition while simultaneously preventing overnutrition through improving diet quality and physical activity of these children.

  5. Protein restriction and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Ren, Wenkai; Huang, Xingguo; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2018-03-26

    Protein restriction without malnutrition is currently an effective nutritional intervention known to prevent diseases and promote health span from yeast to human. Recently, low protein diets are reported to be associated with lowered cancer incidence and mortality risk of cancers in human. In murine models, protein restriction inhibits tumor growth via mTOR signaling pathway. IGF-1, amino acid metabolic programing, FGF21, and autophagy may also serve as potential mechanisms of protein restriction mediated cancer prevention. Together, dietary intervention aimed at reducing protein intake can be beneficial and has the potential to be widely adopted and effective in preventing and treating cancers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of dietary protein restriction on the secretory dynamics of 1 alpha-hydroxycorticosterone and urea in the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula: a possible role for 1 alpha-hydroxycorticosterone in sodium retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, K J; O'Toole, L B; Hazon, N

    1993-08-01

    The putative osmoregulatory role of the unique elasmobranch corticosteroid, 1 alpha-hydroxycorticosterone (1 alpha-OH-B), was investigated using dietary protein restriction as a means of limiting urea biosynthetic ability. Groups of dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) were adapted to either a high or a low protein diet (HPD and LPD respectively) and the secretory dynamics of urea and 1 alpha-OH-B were determined following acclimation to normal (100%), 130% and 50% sea water. In normal sea water, LPD fish showed significantly decreased blood production of urea compared with fish fed a HPD (P strategy adopted by these animals was the retention of high plasma concentrations of Na+ and Cl-, which increased plasma osmolality and tended to decrease osmotic water loss. Concomitant with the increased ion concentrations, plasma 1 alpha-OH-B concentration was also greatly elevated in LPD fish indicating that the steroid may be acting to minimize Na+ (and Cl-) excretion at osmoregulatory sites such as the rectal gland, kidney and gills. This and a previous study have also demonstrated that 1 alpha-OH-B concentration is elevated in 50% sea water. Decreases in plasma Na+ concentration are tolerated down to 75% sea water, whereafter Na+ is preferentially retained and further decreases in osmolality are achieved by reductions in plasma urea concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Caloric restriction counteracts age-related changes in the activities of sorbitol metabolizing enzymes from mouse liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, Kevork; Ramsey, Jon J.; Weindruch, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The influence of caloric restriction (CR) on hepatic sorbitol-metabolizing enzyme activities was investigated in young and old mice. Aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities were significantly lower in old CR mice than in old controls. Young CR mice showed decreased aldose reductase activity and a trend towards decreased sorbitol dehydrogenase when compared to controls. Metabolites of the pathway, namely sorbitol, glucose and fructose were decreased by CR in young and old mice. Pyruvate levels were decreased by CR in both young and old mice, while lactate decreased only in old CR. Malate levels increased in old CR but remained unchanged in young CR, when compared with controls. Accordingly, the lactae/pyruvate and malate/pyruvate ratios in young and old CR mice were increased, indicating increased NADH/NAD and NADPH/NADP redox couples, respectively. The results indicate that decreased glucose levels under CR conditions lead to decreased sorbitol pathway enzyme activities and metabolite levels, and could contribute to the beneficial effects of long-term CR through decreased sorbitol levels and NADPH sparing. PMID:18953666

  8. Effects of castration age, dietary protein level and lysine/methionine ratio on animal performance, carcass and meat quality of Friesian steers intensively reared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, I N; Campo, M M; Muela, E; Valero, M V; Catalan, O; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C

    2014-09-01

    The effects of castration age, dietary protein level and the dietary lysine/methionine (lys/met) ratio on animal performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality were studied in 64 intensively reared Friesian steers. Animals underwent castration procedures at 15 days old or at 5 months old. Dietary treatments started at 90 days old, with eight animals from each castration age randomly allocated to each treatment: 14.6% v. 16.8% CP (DM basis), and 3.0 v. 3.4 lys/met, on a 2×2×2 design. The recommended ratio of 3.0 was reached with supplementation of protected methionine. Steers were slaughtered at 443.5±26.2 kg live weight when they reached 12 months old approximately. Average daily gain, cold carcass weight or carcass classification were not affected by any studied effect. Muscle moisture (P=0.024), C18:2n-6 percentage (P=0.047), polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid (P=0.049) and n-6/n-3 (P=0.003) were higher in late castrated animals. Both high levels of dietary protein (P=0.008) and lys/met ratio (P=0.048) increased the percentage of muscle in the carcass. A level of 16.8% of CP in the diet also increased the percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids in the intramuscular fat (P=0.032), whereas a ratio lys/met of 3.4 decreased the percentage of saturated fatty acids (P=0.028). Thus, it is recommended using diets with a high protein level (16.8%) and a high lys/met ratio (3.4) in animals slaughtered at a young age, in order to obtain carcasses with high muscle content without negatively affecting productive traits or intramuscular fat composition.

  9. Strong influence of dietary intake and physical activity on body fatness in elderly Japanese men: age-associated loss of polygenic resistance against obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanisawa, Kumpei; Ito, Tomoko; Sun, Xiaomin; Ise, Ryuken; Oshima, Satomi; Cao, Zhen-Bo; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Tanaka, Masashi; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2014-09-01

    Genome-wide association studies identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with body mass index (BMI) in middle-aged populations; however, it is unclear whether these SNPs are associated with body fatness in elderly people. We examined the association between genetic risk score (GRS) from BMI-associated SNPs and body fatness in elderly Japanese men. We also examined the contribution of GRS, dietary macronutrient intake, and physical activity to body fatness by different age groups. GRS was calculated from 10 BMI-associated SNPs in 84 middle-aged (30-64 years) and 97 elderly (65-79 years) Japanese men; subjects were divided into low, middle, and high GRS groups. Dietary macronutrient intake was assessed using a questionnaire, and physical activity was evaluated using both a questionnaire and an accelerometer. The middle-aged individuals with a high GRS had greater BMI; waist circumference; and total abdominal fat, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat areas than the middle-aged individuals with low GRS, whereas the indicators were not different between the GRS groups in elderly individuals. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that GRS was the strongest predictor of BMI, total abdominal fat, and visceral fat in the middle-aged group, whereas fat, alcohol, and protein intakes or vigorous-intensity physical activity were more strongly associated with these indicators than was GRS in the elderly group. These results suggest that GRS from BMI-associated SNPs is not predictive of body fatness in elderly Japanese men. The stronger contribution of dietary macronutrient intake and physical activity to body fatness may attenuate the genetic predisposition in elderly men.

  10. Effects of Running Wheel Activity and Dietary HMB and β-alanine Co-Supplementation on Muscle Quality in Aged Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, D W; Acksel, C; McCorkle, K W; Edens, N K; Garvey, S M

    2017-01-01

    Loss of skeletal muscle function is linked to increased risk for loss of health and independence in older adults. Dietary interventions that can enhance aging muscle function, alone or in combination with exercise, may offer an effective way to reduce these risks. The goal of this study was to evaluate the muscular effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and beta-alanine (β-Ala) co-supplementation in aged Sprague-Dawley rats with voluntary access to running wheels (RW). Aged (20 months) rats were housed with ad libitum access to RW while on a purified diet for 4 weeks, then balanced for RW activity and assigned to either a control or an experimental diet (control + HMB and β-Ala) for the next 4 weeks (n = 10/group). At the end of the study, we assessed muscle size, in situ force and fatigability in the medial gastrocnemius muscles, as well as an array of protein markers related to various age- and activity-responsive signaling pathways. Dietary HMB+β-Ala did not improve muscle force or fatigue resistance, but a trend for increased muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) was observed (P = 0.077). As a result, rats on the experimental diet exhibited reduced muscle quality (force/CSA; P = 0.032). Dietary HMB+β-Ala reduced both the abundance of PGC1-α (P = 0.050) and the ratio of the lipidated to non-lipidated forms of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta (P = 0.004), markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy, respectively. Some alterations in myostatin signaling also occurred in the dietary HMB+β-Ala group. There was an unexpected difference (P = 0.046) in RW activity, which increased throughout the study in the animals on the control diet, but not in animals on the experimental diet. These data suggest that the short-term addition of dietary HMB+β-Ala to modest physical activity provided little enhancement of muscle function in this model of uncomplicated aging.

  11. Use and Factors Associated With Herbal/Botanical and Nonvitamin/Nonmineral Dietary Supplements Among Women of Reproductive Age: An Analysis of the Infant Feeding Practices Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynska, Katarzyna; Filippelli, Amanda C; Sadikova, Ekaterina; Low Dog, Tieraona; Gardiner, Paula

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about the changes in prevalence of dietary supplement use in pregnancy, postpartum, and in a comparison group of nonpregnant women. We conducted a secondary analysis of the Infant Feeding Practices II study. The purpose of this study is to report the prevalence of herbal or botanical and nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplement use by US women with respect to demographic, behavioral, and health factors. We compared pregnant and postpartum women to a comparison group of nonpregnant women who had not given birth in the past 12 months. Our main outcome was the prevalence of dietary supplements. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with herbal or botanical and nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplement use during reproductive age, pregnancy, and postpartum. The total sample included 1444 women assessed during the prenatal period, 1422 from the postpartum period, and 1517 women in a comparison group. In terms of herb or botanical use, 15% of the prenatal group, 16% of the postpartum group, and 22% of the comparison group reported using herbs or botanicals. The most frequently used nonvitamin, nonmineral supplement was omega-3 fatty acid. Among the total prenatal group and comparison group, women eating 5 or more servings of fruits or vegetables were less likely to report using herbs or botanicals. Women in the comparison group self-identifying as black were 4 times as likely to report using herbs or botanicals compared to participants self-identifying as white. In addition, women identifying as a race other than white were almost twice as likely to report herb or botanical use across all study groups. This is one of the rare studies that shows the changing prevalence of herbs or botanicals and nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplement use in women in the reproductive stage of their lives. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  12. Influence of marine sources on 14C ages : isotopic data from Watom Island, Papua New Guinea inhumations and pig teeth in light of new dietary standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavan Athfield, N.R.; Green, R.C.; Craig, J.; McFadgen, B.; Bickler, S.

    2008-01-01

    Gauging the effect of 14 C-depleted marine foods on radiocarbon ages requires an accurate assessment of the likely proportion of marine foods in the diet. Several factors must be considered, including region-specific δ 13 C, δ 15 N and δ 34 S data values (regional stable isotope values can differ from global averages), temporal variations in δ 13 C which offset values in modern dietary standards by up to 1.5 permille, and that modelling which considers only 13 C may overestimate the contribution of various dietary sources. Here, we compare previous calculations by linear interpolation of δ 13 C and a complex computer simulation of marine contribution to the diet of inhumations from the SAC archaeological site Watom Island, Papua New Guinea, with the ISOSOURCE mixing model and a revised database of regional dietary sources and their isotopic values, to estimate marine diet contributions and radiocarbon offsets for burials from the SAC site. Though different estimates of marine contribution to diet do not significantly alter previous calibrations of radiocarbon ages for the inhumations, the new ISOSOURCE calculations challenge the idea of excessive exploitation of marine resources and support evidence for arboriculture and horticulture being a major component in Lapita diet. (author). 87 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs

  13. AgeFactDB—the JenAge Ageing Factor Database—towards data integration in ageing research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hühne, Rolf; Thalheim, Torsten; Sühnel, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    AgeFactDB (http://agefactdb.jenage.de) is a database aimed at the collection and integration of ageing phenotype data including lifespan information. Ageing factors are considered to be genes, chemical compounds or other factors such as dietary restriction, whose action results in a changed lifespan or another ageing phenotype. Any information related to the effects of ageing factors is called an observation and is presented on observation pages. To provide concise access to the complete information for a particular ageing factor, corresponding observations are also summarized on ageing factor pages. In a first step, ageing-related data were primarily taken from existing databases such as the Ageing Gene Database—GenAge, the Lifespan Observations Database and the Dietary Restriction Gene Database—GenDR. In addition, we have started to include new ageing-related information. Based on homology data taken from the HomoloGene Database, AgeFactDB also provides observation and ageing factor pages of genes that are homologous to known ageing-related genes. These homologues are considered as candidate or putative ageing-related genes. AgeFactDB offers a variety of search and browse options, and also allows the download of ageing factor or observation lists in TSV, CSV and XML formats. PMID:24217911

  14. Intermittent food restriction initiated late in life prolongs lifespan and retards the onset of age-related markers in the annual fish Nothobranchius guentheri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Du, Xiaoyuan; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Su; Su, Feng; Zhang, Shicui

    2017-06-01

    Two of the most studied and widely accepted conjectures on possible aging mechanisms are the oxidative stress hypothesis and the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling (IIS) pathway. Intermittent fasting (IF) is known to modulate aging and to prolong lifespan in a variety of organisms, but the mechanisms are still under debate. In this study, we first demonstrated that late-onset two consecutive days a week fasting, a form of IF, termed intermittent food restriction (IFR), exhibited a time-dependent effect, and long-term late-onset IFR extended the mean lifespan and maximum lifespan by approximately 3.5 and 3 weeks, respectively, in the annual fish Nothobranchius guentheri. We also showed that IFR reduced the accumulation of lipofuscin in the gills and the protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation levels in the muscles. Moreover, IFR was able to enhance the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the fish. Finally, IFR was also able to decelerate the decrease of SirT1 and Foxo3A, but accelerate the decrease of IGF-1. Collectively, our findings suggest that late-onset IFR can retard the onset of age-related markers, and prolong the lifespan of the aging fish, via a synergistic action of an anti-oxidant system and the IIS pathway. It also proposes that the combined assessment of anti-oxidant system and IIS pathway will contribute to providing a more comprehensive view of anti-aging process.

  15. A systematic review of the effect of dietary exposure that could be achieved through normal dietary intake on learning and performance of school-aged children of relevance to UK schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ells, Louisa J; Hillier, Frances C; Shucksmith, Janet; Crawley, Helen; Harbige, Laurence; Shield, Julian; Wiggins, Andy; Summerbell, Carolyn D

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the present review was to perform a systematic in-depth review of the best evidence from controlled trial studies that have investigated the effects of nutrition, diet and dietary change on learning, education and performance in school-aged children (4-18 years) from the UK and other developed countries. The twenty-nine studies identified for the review examined the effects of breakfast consumption, sugar intake, fish oil and vitamin supplementation and 'good diets'. In summary, the studies included in the present review suggest there is insufficient evidence to identify any effect of nutrition, diet and dietary change on learning, education or performance of school-aged children from the developed world. However, there is emerging evidence for the effects of certain fatty acids which appear to be a function of dose and time. Further research is required in settings of relevance to the UK and must be of high quality, representative of all populations, undertaken for longer durations and use universal validated measures of educational attainment. However, challenges in terms of interpreting the results of such studies within the context of factors such as family and community context, poverty, disease and the rate of individual maturation and neurodevelopment will remain. Whilst the importance of diet in educational attainment remains under investigation, the evidence for promotion of lower-fat, -salt and -sugar diets, high in fruits, vegetables and complex carbohydrates, as well as promotion of physical activity remains unequivocal in terms of health outcomes for all schoolchildren.

  16. The effect of dietary protein and lysine on egg quality and production of laying hens during 28-42 weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mohammadi Emarat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and lysine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets consisted of 3 levels of protein (14, 15 and 16% and 5 levels of lysine (0.71, 0.74, 0.77, 0.80 and 0.83 % in a 35 factorial arrangement were provided. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 12 birds, during four periods of 4 weeks (28-44wks of age. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed consumption determined for each period. Eggs from each replicate were weighed at the end of three consecutive days of each period and six eggs were used to measure the egg quality characteristics. Although the feed intake did not affected by dietary protein but the egg production, egg mass and feed conversion were improved significantly (p

  17. Dietary Patterns in Relation to Cardiovascular Disease Incidence and Risk Markers in a Middle-Aged British Male Population: Data from the Caerphilly Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elly Mertens

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary behaviour is an important modifiable factor in cardiovascular disease (CVD prevention. The study aimed to identify dietary patterns (DPs and explore their association with CVD incidence and risk markers. A follow-up of 1838 middle-aged men, aged 47–67 years recruited into the Caerphilly Prospective Cohort Study at phase 2 (1984–1988 was undertaken. Principal component analysis identified three DPs at baseline, which explained 24.8% of the total variance of food intake. DP1, characterised by higher intakes of white bread, butter, lard, chips and sugar-sweetened beverages and lower intake of wholegrain bread, was associated with higher CVD (HR 1.35: 95% CI: 1.10, 1.67 and stroke (HR 1.77; 95% CI: 1.18, 2.63 incidence. DP3, characterised by higher intakes of sweet puddings and biscuits, wholegrain breakfast cereals and dairy (excluding cheese and butter and lower alcohol intake, was associated with lower CVD (HR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.93, coronary heart disease (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.90 and stroke (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.99 incidence and a beneficial CVD profile at baseline, while DP1 with an unfavourable profile, showed no clear associations after 12 years follow-up. Dietary pattern 2 (DP2, characterised by higher intake of pulses, fish, poultry, processed/red meat, rice, pasta and vegetables, was not associated with the aforementioned outcomes. These data may provide insight for development of public health initiatives focussing on feasible changes in dietary habits.

  18. Dietary patterns among girls aged 16–18 years old according to their body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Dmitruk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study has been aimed at evaluating dietary patterns of girls aged 16–18 years old in groups identified according to measures such as their body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. Material and methods: The study covered a total of 151 girls aged 16–18 years old from selected higher secondary schools in Biała Podlaska, Poland. Based on height, weight, waist and hip circumference measurements, body mass index was calculated for each of the participants of the study, allowing to identify two groups: group 1 with normal index and group 2 with overweight or obesity. Also, to determine the type of obesity in the overweight and obese respondents, their waist-to-hip ratio was calculated, identifying the subgroup of girls with abdominal obesity. The respondents’ dietary patterns were identified with the use of a diagnostic survey. The statistical significance of the differences between the participants with normal body mass index and the overweight and obese respondents (including those with abdominal obesity was tested with the chi-square test. Results: Numerous nutritional mistakes/unhealthy dietary patterns were identified in the studied group, largely involving the overweight and obese girls, including those with abdominal obesity. The respondents whose body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio were too high ate fewer meals per day, skipped breakfast more frequently, had their last meal of the day later than 8 p.m., reported less frequent fish and wholemeal bread intake, as opposed to more frequent fast food, sweets and sweetened beverages intake. Conclusion: The unhealthy dietary patterns found in the population of girls with high body mass index and abdominal obesity highlight the need for education in the scope of healthy nutrition aimed both at overweight/obese individuals and their families.

  19. Dietary patterns and diet quality among diverse older adults: The University of Alabama at Birmingham study of aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: To characterize dietary patterns among a diverse sample of older adults (= 65 years). Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Five counties in west central Alabama. Participants: Community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries (N=416; 76.8 ± 5.2 years, 56% female, 39% African American) in the Univer...

  20. Dietary Glycemic Index during Pregnancy Is Associated with Biomarkers of the Metabolic Syndrome in Offspring at Age 20 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Inge; Granström, Charlotta; Haldorsson, Thorhallur

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that metabolic syndrome is rooted in fetal life with a potential key role of nutrition during pregnancy. The objective of the study was to assess the possible associations between the dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) during pregnancy and biomarkers...

  1. Meal frequency and dietary diversity feeding practices among children 6-23 months of age in Wolaita Sodo town, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Tefera Chane; Workie, Shimelash Bitew; Yimer, Tesfa Mekonen; Mersha, Wubalem Fekadu

    2017-05-19

    Child feeding practices are multidimensional, and they change rapidly within short age intervals. Suboptimal complementary feeding practices contribute to a rapid increase in the prevalence of undernutrition in children in the age of 6-23 months. Information on child feeding practices among urban resident is limited in Ethiopia. The aim was to measure minimum meal frequency and dietary diversity and associated factors among children 6-23 months of age in Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out to select 623 mothers/caregivers with 6-23 months of children reside in Wolaita Sodo town using systematic sampling from March 02 to 20, 2015. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to gather information on socio-demographic, child feeding practices and health-related characteristics. Data were entered to Epi-Data version 3.02 and transported to SPSS version 21 for further analysis. Binary logistic regression was used to see the association between the outcome variables and explanatory variables, and multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictors of minimum dietary diversity and meal frequency. The study revealed that the percentage of 6-23 months of children who meet the recommended level of minimum dietary diversity and meal frequency were 27.3 and 68.9%, respectively. Mothers/caregivers who were housewives and government employees feed their children more diversified foods as compared to mothers who were private workers. As compared to children 17-23 months of age, children in the age group of 6-8 and 9-11 months had better probability to meet minimum dietary diversity. Government-employed and illiterate mothers were less likely to feed their children to fulfil the minimum requirement of meal frequency. Children in the age of 9-11 months were also less likely to be fed frequently. Even though the study showed better progress as compared to the national prevalence of complementary

  2. Infant wellbeing at 2 years of age in the Growth Restriction Intervention Trial (GRIT): multicentred randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J G; Hornbuckle, J; Vail, A; Spiegelhalter, D J; Levene, M

    Although delivery is widely used for preterm babies failing to thrive in utero, the effect of altering delivery timing has never been assessed in a randomised controlled trial. We aimed to compare the effect of delivering early with delaying birth for as long as possible. 548 pregnant women were recruited by 69 hospitals in 13 European countries. Participants had fetal compromise between 24 and 36 weeks, an umbilical-artery doppler waveform recorded, and clinical uncertainty about whether immediate delivery was indicated. Before birth, 588 babies were randomly assigned to immediate delivery (n=296) or delayed delivery until the obstetrician was no longer uncertain (n=292). The main outcome was death or disability at or beyond 2 years of age. Disability was defined as a Griffiths developmental quotient of 70 or less or the presence of motor or perceptual severe disability. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. This trial has been assigned the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number ISRCTN41358726. Primary outcomes were available on 290 (98%) immediate and 283 (97%) deferred deliveries. Overall rate of death or severe disability at 2 years was 55 (19%) of 290 immediate births, and 44 (16%) of 283 delayed births. With adjustment for gestational age and umbilical-artery doppler category, the odds ratio (95% CrI) was 1.1 (0.7-1.8). Most of the observed difference was in disability in babies younger than 31 weeks of gestation at randomisation: 14 (13%) immediate versus five (5%) delayed deliveries. No important differences in the median Griffiths developmental quotient in survivors was seen. The lack of difference in mortality suggests that obstetricians are delivering sick preterm babies at about the correct moment to minimise mortality. However, they could be delivering too early to minimise brain damage. These results do not lend support to the idea that obstetricians can deliver before terminal hypoxaemia to improve brain development.

  3. Association between Dietary Vitamin C Intake and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study among Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wei

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has become one of the most prevalent chronic liver disease all over the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD.Subjects were diagnosed with NAFLD by abdominal ultrasound examination and the consumption of alcohol was less than 40g/day for men or less than 20g/day for women. Vitamin C intake was classified into four categories according to the quartile distribution in the study population: ≤74.80 mg/day, 74.81-110.15 mg/day, 110.16-146.06 mg/day, and ≥146.07 mg/day. The energy and multi-variable adjusted odds ratio (OR, as well as their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI, were used to determine the relationship between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD through logistic regression.The present cross-sectional study included 3471 subjects. A significant inverse association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD was observed in the energy-adjusted and the multivariable model. The multivariable adjusted ORs (95%CI for NAFLD were 0.69 (95%CI: 0.54-0.89, 0.93 (95%CI: 0.72-1.20, and 0.71 (95%CI: 0.53-0.95 in the second, third and fourth dietary vitamin C intake quartiles, respectively, compared with the lowest (first quartile. The relative odds of NAFLD was decreased by 0.71 times in the fourth quartile of dietary vitamin C intake compared with the lowest quartile. After stratifying data by sex or the status of obesity, the inverse association remained valid in the male population or non-obesity population, but not in the female population or obesity population.There might be a moderate inverse association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD in middle-aged and older adults, especially for the male population and non-obesity population.

  4. Dietary calcium intake and higher body mass index in Mexican adults aged 20 to 59 years old: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Efraín Flores-Aldana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although energy balance is the main factor that regulates body weight, recent studies suggest that calcium metabolism can modify the energy balance and help regulate body weight. Objective. To evaluate the association between the calcium intake in the diet and high body mass index in Mexican adults in the 20-59 age group. Material and methods. A cross-sectional secondary analytical study was conducted based on the 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutritional Survey (ENSANUT 2006. Food intake questionnaires applied to 16,494 adults were analyzed. After removing biologically implausible values or incomplete information, we arrived at a final sample of 15,662 adults grouped according to their body mass index. Linear regression was used to assess association between daily dietary calcium intake and body mass index. Results. There was an inverse association between dietary calcium consumption and a high body mass index. The mean calcium intake in subjects with normal body mass index was 903.9 mg/day versus 832.0 mg/day in obese subjects (p < 0.0001. Conclusion. The study corroborates existing evidence of an inverse association between the dietary calcium intake and a high body mass index.

  5. Dietary Balance Index-07 and the Risk of Anemia in Middle Aged and Elderly People in Southwest China: A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A balanced diet is essential to achieve and maintain good health. In this study, we assessed diet quality of middle aged and elderly people based on Chinese Diet Balance Index-07 (DBI-07 and explored the associations between DBI-07 and anemia. Data analyzed for this study was from the 2010–2012 National Nutrition and Health Survey in Yunnan province, southwest China (n = 738, aged 50–77 years. Dietary recalls over there consecutive days were done in a face-to-face interview. The scores of DBI-07 for each component and three DBI-07 indicators ((Lower Bound Score (LBS, Higher Bound Score (HBS, Diet Quality Distance (DQD were calculated according to compliance with the Dietary Guidelines for Chinese residents. Hemoglobin (Hb concentration was determined using the cyanmethemoglobin method. Univariate and multivariate linear regression models were used to explore the associations between DBI-07 indicators and anemia, as well as scores of DBI-07 components and Hb level. The sample included 336 men and 402 women. Inadequate intakes of vegetables, fruits, dairy, soybean, eggs, fish and excessive intakes of cereals, meat, cooking oil, salt were both common. 91.3% of the participants had moderate or high levels of inadequate food intake, while 37.7% had moderate or high levels of excessive food intake. The mean Hb was 14.2 ± 1.7 g/dL, with a prevalence of anemia of 13.0%. Subjects with high LBS and DQD were more likely to be anemic (all p < 0.05. After adjustment for potential confounders, there were positive correlations between Hb level and the intakes of vegetables and soybean (βvegetables = 1.04, p < 0.01; βsoybean = 0.82, p = 0.04. In conclusion, dietary imbalance and anemia are common in middle aged and elderly population in southwest China and inadequate intakes of vegetables and soybean may increase the risk of anemia.

  6. Dietary adequacy of vitamin D and calcium among Inuit and Inuvialuit women of child-bearing age in Arctic Canada: a growing concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Kolahdooz

    Full Text Available Arctic populations are at an increased risk of vitamin D inadequacy due to geographic latitude and a nutrition transition. This study aimed to assess the adequacy of dietary vitamin D and calcium among women of child-bearing age in Arctic Canada.Th