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Sample records for agile silicon tracker

  1. First results about on-ground calibration of the silicon tracker for the AGILE satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattaneo, P.W.; Argan, A.; Boffelli, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Buonomo, B.; Chen, A.W.; D'Ammando, F.; Froysland, T.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Gianotti, F.; Giuliani, A.; Longo, F.; Marisaldi, M.; Mazzitelli, G.; Pellizzoni, A.; Prest, M.; Pucella, G.; Quintieri, L.; Rappoldi, A.

    2011-01-01

    The AGILE scientific instrument has been calibrated with a tagged γ-ray beam at the Beam Test Facility (BTF) of the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF). The goal of the calibration was the measure of the Point Spread Function (PSF) as a function of the photon energy and incident angle and the validation of the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of the silicon tracker operation. The calibration setup is described and some preliminary results are presented.

  2. The LHCb Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Adeva, B; Pérez Trigo, E; Rodríguez Pérez, P; Amhis, Y; Bay, A; Blanc, F; Cowan, G; Dupertuis, F; Fave, V; Haefeli, G; Komarov, I; Luisier, J; Märki, R; Muster, B; Nakada, T; Schneider, O; Tobin, M; Tran, M T; Anderson, J; Bursche, A; Chiapolini, N; De Cian, M; Elsasser, Ch; Salzmann, C; Saornil, S; Steiner, S; Steinkamp, O; Straumann, U; Vollhardt, V; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Britsch, M; Schmelling, M; Voss, H; Iakovenko, V; Okhrimenko, O; Pugatch, V

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to perform high-precision measurements of CP violation and search for new physics using the enormous flux of beauty and charm hadrons produced at the LHC. The LHCb detector is a single-arm spectrometer with excellent tracking and particle identification capabilities. The Silicon Tracker is part of the tracking system and measures very precisely the particle trajectories coming from the interaction point in the region of high occupancies around the beam axis. The LHCb Silicon Tracker covers a total sensitive area of about 12 M$^2$ using silicon micro-strip detectors with long readout strips. It consists of one four-layer tracking station before the LHCb dipole magnet and three stations after. The detector has performed extremely well since the start of the LHC operation despite the fact that the experiment is collecting data at instantaneous lum...

  3. The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Azzurri, P

    2005-01-01

    With over 200 square meters of sensitive Silicon and almost 10 million readout channels, the Silicon Strip Tracker of the CMS experiment at the LHC will be the largest Silicon strip detector ever built. The design, construction and expected performance of the CMS Tracker is reviewed in the following.

  4. The LHCb Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Elsasser, Ch; Gallas Torreira, A; Pérez Trigo, A; Rodríguez Pérez, P; Bay, A; Blanc, F; Dupertuis, F; Haefeli, G; Komarov, I; Märki, R; Muster, B; Nakada, T; Schneider, O; Tobin, M; Tran, M T; Anderson, J; Bursche, A; Chiapolini, N; Saornil, S; Steiner, S; Steinkamp, O; Straumann, U; Vollhardt, A; Britsch, M; Schmelling, M; Voss, H; Okhrimenko, O; Pugatch, V

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the LHCb experiment is to study rare heavy quark decays and CP vio- lation with the high rate of beauty and charmed hadrons produced in $pp$ collisions at the LHC. The detector is designed as a single-arm forward spectrometer with excellent tracking and particle identification performance. The Silicon Tracker is a key part of the tracking system to measure the particle trajectories to high precision. This paper reports the performance as well as the results of the radiation damage monitoring based on leakage currents and on charge collection efficiency scans during the data taking in the LHC Run I.

  5. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Haefner, Petra; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT), made up from silicon micro-strip detectors is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, one of the experiments at CERN LHC. The completed SCT is in very good shape: 99.3% of the SCT strips are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications. In the talk the current status of the SCT will be reviewed. We will report on the operation of the detector and observed problems, with stress on the sensor and electronics performance. TWEPP Summary In December 2009 the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recorded the first proton- proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV and this was followed by the unprecedented energy of 7 TeV in March 2010. The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made up from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signal from the strips is processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. Data i...

  6. A silicon tracker for Christmas

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The CMS experiment installed the world’s largest silicon tracker just before Christmas. Marcello Mannelli: physicist and deputy CMS project leader, and Alan Honma, physicist, compare two generations of tracker: OPAL for the LEP (at the front) and CMS for the LHC (behind). There is quite a difference between 1m2 and 205m2.. CMS received an early Christmas present on 18 December when the silicon tracker was installed in the heart of the CMS magnet. The CMS tracker team couldn’t have hoped for a better present. Carefully wrapped in shiny plastic, the world’s largest silicon tracker arrived at Cessy ready for installation inside the CMS magnet on 18 December. This rounded off the year for CMS with a major event, the crowning touch to ten years of work on the project by over five hundred scientists and engineers. "Building a scientific instrument of this size and complexity is a huge technical a...

  7. The DELPHI silicon tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Pernegger, H

    1997-01-01

    The DELPHI collaboration has upgraded the Silicon Vertex Detector in order to cope with the physics requirements for LEP200. The new detector consists of a barrel section with three layers of microstrip detectors and a forward extension made of hybrid pixel and large pitch strip detectors. The layout of the detector and the techniques used for the different parts of the new silicon detector shall be described.

  8. The CMS Silicon Tracker Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Castello, R

    2008-01-01

    The alignment of the Strip and Pixel Tracker of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment, with its large number of independent silicon sensors and its excellent spatial resolution, is a complex and challenging task. Besides high precision mounting, survey measurements and the Laser Alignment System, track-based alignment is needed to reach the envisaged precision.\\\\ Three different algorithms for track-based alignment were successfully tested on a sample of cosmic-ray data collected at the Tracker Integration Facility, where 15\\% of the Tracker was tested. These results, together with those coming from the CMS global run, will provide the basis for the full-scale alignment of the Tracker, which will be carried out with the first \\emph{p-p} collisions.

  9. The LHCb Silicon Tracker Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agari, M. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (Germany); Bauer, C. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (Germany); Baumeister, D. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (Germany); Blouw, J. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (Germany)]. E-mail: Johan.Blouw@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Hofmann, W. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (Germany); Knoepfle, K.T. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (Germany); Loechner, S. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (Germany); Schmelling, M. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (Germany); Pugatch, V. [Kiev Institute for Nuclear Research (Ukraine); Bay, A. [Laboratoire de Physique des Hautes Energies, Ecole Polytechnique de Lausanne (France); Carron, B. [Laboratoire de Physique des Hautes Energies, Ecole Polytechnique de Lausanne (France); Frei, R. [Laboratoire de Physique des Hautes Energies, Ecole Polytechnique de Lausanne (France); Jiminez-Otero, S. [Laboratoire de Physique des Hautes Energies, Ecole Polytechnique de Lausanne (France); Tran, M.-T. [Laboratoire de Physique des Hautes Energies, Ecole Polytechnique de Lausanne (France); Voss, H. [Laboratoire de Physique des Hautes Energies, Ecole Polytechnique de Lausanne (France); Adeva, B. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Esperante, D. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Lois, C. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Vasquez, P. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bernhard, R.P. [Physik-Insitut Universitaet Zuerich (Switzerland); Bernet, R. [Physik-Insitut Universitaet Zuerich (Switzerland); Ermoline, Y. [Physik-Insitut Universitaet Zuerich (Switzerland); Gassner, J. [Physik-Insitut Universitaet Zuerich (Switzerland); Koestner, S. [Physik-Insitut Universitaet Zuerich (Switzerland); Lehner, F.; Needham, M.; Siegler, M.; Steinkamp, O.; Straumann, U.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D. [Physik-Insitut Universitaet Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2006-01-15

    Two silicon strip detectors, the Trigger Tracker(TT) and the Inner Tracker(Italy) will be constructed for the LHCb experiment. Transverse momentum information extracted from the TT will be used in the Level 1 trigger. The IT is part of the main tracking system behind the magnet. Both silicon detectors will be read out using a custom-developed chip by the ASIC lab in Heidelberg. The signal-over-noise behavior and performance of various geometrical designs of the silicon sensors, in conjunction with the Beetle read-out chip, have been extensively studied in test beam experiments. Results from those experiments are presented, and have been used in the final choice of sensor geometry.

  10. The LHCb Silicon Tracker Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agari, M.; Bauer, C.; Baumeister, D.; Blouw, J.; Hofmann, W.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Loechner, S.; Schmelling, M.; Pugatch, V.; Bay, A.; Carron, B.; Frei, R.; Jiminez-Otero, S.; Tran, M.-T.; Voss, H.; Adeva, B.; Esperante, D.; Lois, C.; Vasquez, P.; Bernhard, R.P.; Bernet, R.; Ermoline, Y.; Gassner, J.; Koestner, S.; Lehner, F.; Needham, M.; Siegler, M.; Steinkamp, O.; Straumann, U.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.

    2006-01-01

    Two silicon strip detectors, the Trigger Tracker(TT) and the Inner Tracker(Italy) will be constructed for the LHCb experiment. Transverse momentum information extracted from the TT will be used in the Level 1 trigger. The IT is part of the main tracking system behind the magnet. Both silicon detectors will be read out using a custom-developed chip by the ASIC lab in Heidelberg. The signal-over-noise behavior and performance of various geometrical designs of the silicon sensors, in conjunction with the Beetle read-out chip, have been extensively studied in test beam experiments. Results from those experiments are presented, and have been used in the final choice of sensor geometry

  11. The LHCb silicon tracker project

    CERN Document Server

    Blouw, J

    2004-01-01

    Two silicon strip detectors, the Trigger Tracker(TT) and the Inner Tracker(IT) will be constructed for the LHCb experiment. Transverse momentum information extracted from the TT will be used in the Level 1 trigger. The IT is part of the main tracking system behind the magnet. Both silicon detectors will be read out using a custom-developed chip by the ASIC lab in Heidelberg. The signal-over-noise behavior and performance of various geometrical designs of the silicon sensors, in conjunction with the Beetle read-out chip, have been extensively studied in test beam experiments. Results from those experiments are presented, and have been used in the final choice of sensor geometry.

  12. The DAMPE silicon tungsten tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, Valentina; Asfandiyarov, R; Azzarello, P; Bernardini, P; Bertucci, B; Bolognini, A; Cadoux, F; Caprai, M; Domenjoz, M; Dong, Y; Duranti, M; Fan, R; Franco, M; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gong, K; Guo, D; Husi, C; Ionica, M; Lacalamita, N; Loparco, F; Marsella, G; Mazziotta, M N; Mongelli, M; Nardinocchi, A; Nicola, L; Pelleriti, G; Peng, W; Pohl, M; Postolache, V; Qiao, R; Surdo, A; Tykhonov, A; Vitillo, S; Wang, H; Weber, M; Wu, D; Wu, X; Zhang, F; De Mitri, I; La Marra, D

    2017-01-01

    The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) satellite has been successfully launched on the 17th December 2015. It is a powerful space detector designed for the identification of possible Dark Matter signatures thanks to its capability to detect electrons and photons with an unprecedented energy resolution in an energy range going from few GeV up to 10 TeV. Moreover, the DAMPE satellite will contribute to a better understanding of the propagation mechanisms of high energy cosmic rays measuring the nuclei flux up to 100 TeV. DAMPE is composed of four sub-detectors: a plastic strip scintillator, a silicon-tungsten tracker-converter (STK), a BGO imaging calorimeter and a neutron detector. The STK is made of twelve layers of single-sided AC-coupled silicon micro-strip detectors for a total silicon area of about 7 $m^2$ . To promote the conversion of incident photons into electron-positron pairs, tungsten foils are inserted into the supporting structure. In this document, a detailed description of the STK constructi...

  13. CMS Silicon Strip Tracker Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Agram, Jean-Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST), consisting of 9.6 million readout channels from 15148 modules and covering an area of 198 square meters, needs to be precisely calibrated in order to correctly reconstruct the events recorded. Calibration constants are derived from different workflows, from promptly reconstructed events with particles as well as from commissioning events gathered just before the acquisition of physics runs. The performance of the SST has been carefully studied since the beginning of data taking: the noise of the detector, data integrity, signal-over-noise ratio, hit reconstruction efficiency and resolution have been all investigated with time and for different conditions. In this paper we describe the reconstruction strategies, the calibration procedures and the detector performance results from the latest CMS operation.

  14. Silicon Tracker Design for the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, T.; SLAC

    2005-01-01

    The task of tracking charged particles in energy frontier collider experiments has been largely taken over by solid-state detectors. While silicon microstrip trackers offer many advantages in this environment, large silicon trackers are generally much more massive than their gaseous counterparts. Because of the properties of the machine itself, much of the material that comprises a typical silicon microstrip tracker can be eliminated from a design for the ILC. This realization is the inspiration for a tracker design using lightweight, short, mass-producible modules to tile closed, nested cylinders with silicon microstrips. This design relies upon a few key technologies to provide excellent performance with low cost and complexity. The details of this concept are discussed, along with the performance and status of the design effort

  15. Operation of the CMS Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Strom, Derek

    2012-01-01

    The CMS tracker is the largest silicon detector ever built, covering 200 square meters and providing an average of 14 high-precision measurements per track. The use of tracker data for reconstruction of charged particles and primary and secondary vertices requires fine-grained monitoring and calibration procedures as well as accurate alignment. Results from timing and threshold optimization, gain calibration, and Lorentz angle determination are shown and the impact on resolution and dE/dx measurements is discussed.

  16. GigaTracker, a Thin and Fast Silicon Pixels Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Velghe, Bob; Bonacini, Sandro; Ceccucci, Augusto; Kaplon, Jan; Kluge, Alexander; Mapelli, Alessandro; Morel, Michel; Noël, Jérôme; Noy, Matthew; Perktold, Lukas; Petagna, Paolo; Poltorak, Karolina; Riedler, Petra; Romagnoli, Giulia; Chiozzi, Stefano; Cotta Ramusino, Angelo; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Gianoli, Alberto; Petrucci, Ferruccio; Wahl, Heinrich; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Jarron, Pierre; Marchetto, Flavio; Gil, Eduardo Cortina; Nuessle, Georg; Szilasi, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    GigaTracker, the NA62’s upstream spectrometer, plays a key role in the kinematically constrained background suppression for the study of the K + ! p + n ̄ n decay. It is made of three independent stations, each of which is a six by three cm 2 hybrid silicon pixels detector. To meet the NA62 physics goals, GigaTracker has to address challenging requirements. The hit time resolution must be better than 200 ps while keeping the total thickness of the sensor to less than 0.5 mm silicon equivalent. The 200 μm thick sensor is divided into 18000 300 μm 300 μm pixels bump-bounded to ten independent read-out chips. The chips use an end-of-column architecture and rely on time-over- threshold discriminators. A station can handle a crossing rate of 750 MHz. Microchannel cooling technology will be used to cool the assembly. It allows us to keep the sensor close to 0 C with 130 μm of silicon in the beam area. The sensor and read-out chip performance were validated using a 45 pixel demonstrator with a laser test setu...

  17. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Rosendahl, P L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon microstrip detector part of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Together with the rest for the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) it provides vital precision tracking information of charged particles. In this paper the performance and operational status of the SCT in the last two years of ATLAS data taking are reviewed.

  18. CMS Silicon Strip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Boudoul, Gaelle

    2011-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) of the CMS experiment is, with 9.6 million readout channels, the largest strip tracker ever built. In order to correctly interpret and reconstruct the events recorded it needs to be precisely calibrated, thus ensuring that it fully contributes to the physics research program of the CMS experiment. In 2009 and 2010, the performance of the SST has been carefully studied using cosmic muons and tracks from proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 900 GeV, 2.36 TeV and 7 TeV. In this paper, we present some results of the detector performance.

  19. Performance of the CMS silicon tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Sguazzoni, Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Tracker is the largest Silicon detector ever built, covering 200 square meters and providing an average of 14 high-precision measurements per track. Track reconstruction is based on an iterative algorithm designed to optimize efficiency and estimation of track parameters. The alignment procedures and their performances are presented. Tracking and b-tagging primitives are typically validated by using data-driven methods. Selected examples are discussed. The CMS Tracker is also capable of reliable energy loss measurement and of effective reconstruction of photon conversions and nuclear interactions. Application examples of these features are given.

  20. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Burger, W J

    1999-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is designed as a independent module for installation on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) in the year 2002 for an operational period of three years. The principal scientific objectives are the searches for antimatter and dark matter in cosmic rays. The AMS uses 5.5 m sup 2 of silicon microstrip sensors to reconstruct charged particle trajectories in the field of a permanent magnet. The detector design and construction covered a 3 yr period which terminated with a test flight on the NASA space shuttle Discovery during June 2-12, 1988. In this contribution, we describe the shuttle version of the AMS silicon tracker, including preliminary results of the tracker performance during the flight. (author)

  1. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Nagai, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is one of the key precision tracking devices in the ATLAS experiment at CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The SCT was constructed of 4088 modules for a total of 6.3 million silicon strips and was installed into the ATLAS experiment in 2007. The SCT has been fully operational since then, and achieves a good tracking performance from the startup of the LHC operation.

  2. Alignment procedures for the CMS silicon tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Behr, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    The CMS all-silicon tracker consists of 16588 modules. Therefore its alignment procedures require sophisticated algorithms. Advanced tools of computing, tracking and data analysis have been deployed for reaching the targeted performance. Ultimate local precision is now achieved by the determination of sensor curvatures, challenging the algorithms to determine about 200k parameters simultaneously. Systematic biases in the geometry are controlled by adding further information into the alignment workflow, e.g. the mass of decaying resonances. The orientation of the tracker with respect to the magnetic field of CMS is determined with a stand-alone chi-square minimization procedure. The geometries are finally carefully validated. The monitored quantities include the basic track quantities for tracks from both collisions and cosmic muons and physics observables.

  3. LHCb: The LHCb Silicon Tracker: Running experience

    CERN Multimedia

    Saornil Gamarra, S

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb Silicon Tracker is part of the main tracking system of the LHCb detector at the LHC. It measures very precisely the particle trajectories coming from the interaction point in the region of high occupancies around the beam axis. After presenting our production and comissioning issues in TWEPP 2008, we report on our running experience. Focusing on electronic and hardware issues as well as operation and maintenance adversities, we describe the lessons learned and the pitfalls encountered after three years of successful operation.

  4. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT), comprising of silicon micro-strip detectors is one of the key precision tracking devices in the ATLAS Inner Detector. ATLAS is one of the experiments at CERN LHC. The completed SCT is in very good shapes with 99.3% of the SCT’s 4088 modules (a total of 6.3 million strips) are operational. The noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications. In the talk the current status of the SCT will be reviewed. We will report on the operation of the detector, its performance and observed problems, with stress on the sensor and electronics performance.

  5. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT), comprising of silicon micro-strip detectors is one of the key precision tracking devices in the ATLAS Inner Detector. ATLAS is one of the experiments at CERN LHC. The completed SCT is in very good shapes with 99.3% of the SCT’s 4088 modules (a total of 6.3 million strips) are operational. The noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications. In the talk the current status of the SCT will be reviewed. We will report on the operation of the detector, its performance and observed problems, with stress on the sensor and electronics performance. In December 2009 the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recorded the first proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV and this was followed by the unprecedented energy of 7 TeV in March 2010. The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the strip...

  6. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Chalupkova, I; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel (4 cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each end of the barrel). The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibers. The completed SCT has been installed inside the ATLAS experimental cavern since 2007 and has been operational since then. Calibration data has been taken regularly and analyzed to determine the noise performance of the ...

  7. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    NAGAI, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel (4 cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each end of the barrel). The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibres. The completed SCT has been installed inside the ATLAS experimental cavern since 2007 and has been operational since then. Calibration data has been taken regularly and analysed to determine the noise performance of the ...

  8. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Chalupkova, I; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector (ID) of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules with a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel (4 cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each side of the barrel). The SCT silicon microstrip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ASICs ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibres. SCT has been installed inside the ATLAS experimental cavern since 2007 and has been operational ever since. Calibration data has been taken regularly and analysed to determine the noise performance of the system. ...

  9. The Alignment of the CMS Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Lampen, Pekka Tapio

    2013-01-01

    The CMS all-silicon tracker consists of 16588 modules, embedded in a solenoidal magnet providing a field of B = 3.8 T. The targeted performance requires that the alignment determines the module positions with a precision of a few micrometers. Ultimate local precision is reached by the determination of sensor curvatures, challenging the algorithms to determine about 200k parameters simultaneously, as is feasible with the Millepede II program. The main remaining challenge are global distortions that systematically bias the track parameters and thus physics measurements. They are controlled by adding further information into the alignment workflow, e.g. the mass of decaying resonances or track data taken with B = 0 T. To make use of the latter and also to integrate the determination of the Lorentz angle into the alignment procedure, the alignment framework has been extended to treat position sensitive calibration parameters. This is relevant since due to the increased LHC luminosity in 2012, the Lorentz angle ex...

  10. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Barone, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel (4 cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each end of the barrel). In the talk the current results from the successful operation of the SCT Detector at the LHC and its status after three years of operation will be presented. We will report on the operation of the detector including an overview of the issues we encountered and the observation of significant increases in leakage currents (as expected) from bulk damage due to non-ionising radiation. The main emphasis will be given to the tracking performance of the SCT and the data quality during the >2 ye...

  11. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Barone, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices of the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is constructed of $4088$ silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million channels. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel ($4$ cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each). The current results from the successful operation of the SCT Detector at the LHC and its status after three years of operation will be presented. The operation of the detector including an overview of the main issues encountered is reported. The main emphasis is be given to the tracking performance of the SCT and the data quality during the $>2$ years of data taking of proton-proton collision data at $7$ TeV (and short periods of heavy ion collisions). The SCT has been fully operational throughout a...

  12. The LHCb Silicon Tracker - Control system specific tools and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Adeva, G; Gallas, A; Pazos Alvarez, A; Perez Trigo, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Saborido, J; Amhis, Y; Bay, A; Blanc, F; Bressieux, J; Conti, G; Dupertuis, F; Fave, V; Frei, R; Gauvin, N; Haefeli, G; Keune, A; Luisier, J; Marki, R; Muresan, R; Nakada, T; Needham, M; Knecht, M; Schneider, O; Tran, M; Anderson, J; Buechler, A; Bursche, A; Chiapolini, N; De Cian, M; Elsasser, C; Salzmann, C; Saornil Gamarra, S; Steiner, S; Steinkamp, O; Straumann, U; van Tilburg, J; Tobin, M; Vollhardt, A; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Bauer, C; Britsch, M; Maciuc, F; Schmelling, M; Voss, H; Iakovenko, V; Okhrimenko, O; Pugatch, V

    2014-01-01

    The Experiment Control System (ECS) of the LHCb Silicon Tracker sub-detectors is built on the integrated LHCb ECS framework. Although all LHCb sub-detectors use the same framework and follow the same guidelines, the Silicon Tracker control system uses some interesting additional features in terms of operation and monitoring. The main details are described in this document. Since its design, the Silicon Tracker control system has been continuously evolving in a quite disorganized way. Some major maintenance activities are required to be able to keep improving. A description of those activities can also be found here.

  13. Operation of the CMS silicon strip tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Gotra, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST), comprising 9.6 million readout channels from 15148 modules covering an area of about 200 square meters, needs to be precisely calibrated in order to correctly interpret and reconstruct the events recorded from the detector, ensuring that the SST performance fully meets the physics research program of the CMS experiment. Calibration constants may be derived from promptly reconstructed events as well as from pedestal runs gathered just before the acquisition of physics runs. These calibration procedures were exercised in summer and winter 2009, when the CMS detector was commissioned using cosmic muons and proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energies of 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV. During these data taking periods the performance of the SST was carefully studied: the noise of the detector, the data integrity, the signal-to-noise ratio, the hit reconstruction efficiency, the calibration workflows have been all checked for stability and for different conditions, at the module...

  14. The CMS Inner Tracker Silicon Microstrip Modules: production and test

    CERN Document Server

    Tricomi, Alessia

    2006-01-01

    The Silicon Microstrip Tracker is a key element for the discovery potential of the CMS detectors at LHC. The layout of the Tracker and the main components are described. The status of the construction of the Inner part of the CMS Tracker is reviewed. The construction of such a large scale detector requires an industrial and distributed approach. The procedures followed at each step of the production chain are described and finally the test performed on this subsystem are shown.

  15. The Construction of the CMS Tracker Silicon Strip Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Chiorboli, Massimiliano

    2006-01-01

    The procedures followed for the construction of the Silicon Strip Modules to be used in the CMS Tracker Detector are described. The steps of the production chain are described, and the results are given.

  16. SVT: an online silicon vertex tracker for the CDF upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardi, A.; Belforte, S.; Berryhill, J.

    1997-07-01

    The SVT is an online tracker for the CDF upgrade which will reconstruct 2D tracks using information from the Silicon VerteX detector (SVXII) and Central Outer Tracker (COT). The precision measurement of the track impact parameter will then be used to select and record large samples of B hadrons. We discuss the overall architecture, algorithms, and hardware implementation of the system

  17. Barrel silicon vertex tracker for PHENIX at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Hiroaki

    2005-01-01

    The barrel silicon vertex tracker has been proposed as an upgrade project of the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The prime motivation for this new detector is to provide precision measurements of heavy-quark production (charm and beauty) in A + A, p(d) + A, and polarized p + p collisions. The current design of the silicon vertex tracker comprises a four-layer barrel detector, built from two internal layers of pixel detectors and two external layers of projective 'stripixels' which complement the central spectrometer arms of PHENIX. In this paper, the physics motivation of the silicon vertex tracker upgrade and the concept of the new detector will be discussed. Moreover, the status of the new development and beginning production of the silicon detectors will be presented

  18. The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker: Design and Production Status

    CERN Document Server

    Affolder, A A

    2004-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) will be equipped with 15000 silicon micro-strip detector modules covering a surface of 200 m^2. This paper details the SST layout and updates the status of construction. Progress in the fabrication of module components is detailed, with focus on the front-end hybrid and silicon sensor production. The assembly of over 2200 modules using industrial methods is described; the quality assurance protocols have resulted in modules of extremely high mechanical and electrical quality.

  19. The Data Quality Monitoring for the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, V; Bainbridge, R; Benucci, L; Borgia, M A; Borrello, L; Cole, J; Cripps, N; Delmeire, E; Dero, V; Dutta, S; Giordano, D; Hammad, G H; Hashemi, H; Le Bihan, A C; Le Bourgeois, M; Palmonari, F; Pierro, A; Zito, G

    2009-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST), consisting of more than 10 million channels, is organized in about 15,000 detector modules and it is the largest silicon strip tracker ever built for high energy physics experiments. The Data Quality Monitoring system for the Tracker has been developed within the CMS Software framework. More than 100,000 monitorable quantities need to be managed by the DQM system that organizes them in a hierarchical structure reflecting the detector arrangement in subcomponents and the various levels of data processing. Monitorable quantities computed at the level of individual detectors are processed to extract automatic quality checks and summary results that can be visualized with specialized graphical user interfaces. In view of the great complexity of the CMS Tracker detector the standard visualization tools based on histograms have been complemented with 2 and 3 dimensional graphical images of the subdetector that can show the whole detector down to single channel resolution. The fu...

  20. EMC Diagnosis and Corrective Actions for Silicon Strip Tracker Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteche, F.; /CERN /Imperial Coll., London; Rivetta, C.; /SLAC

    2006-06-06

    The tracker sub-system is one of the five sub-detectors of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment under construction at CERN for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator. The tracker subdetector is designed to reconstruct tracks of charged sub-atomic particles generated after collisions. The tracker system processes analogue signals from 10 million channels distributed across 14000 silicon micro-strip detectors. It is designed to process signals of a few nA and digitize them at 40 MHz. The overall sub-detector is embedded in a high particle radiation environment and a magnetic field of 4 Tesla. The evaluation of the electromagnetic immunity of the system is very important to optimize the performance of the tracker sub-detector and the whole CMS experiment. This paper presents the EMC diagnosis of the CMS silicon tracker sub-detector. Immunity tests were performed using the final prototype of the Silicon Tracker End-Caps (TEC) system to estimate the sensitivity of the system to conducted noise, evaluate the weakest areas of the system and take corrective actions before the integration of the overall detector. This paper shows the results of one of those tests, that is the measurement and analysis of the immunity to CM external conducted noise perturbations.

  1. Simulations of silicon vertex tracker for star experiment at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odyniec, G.; Cebra, D.; Christie, W.; Naudet, C.; Schroeder, L.; Wilson, W. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Liko, D. [Institut fur Hochenenergiephysik, Vienna, (Austria); Cramer, J.; Prindle, D.; Trainor, T. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States); Braithwaite, W. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The first computer simulations to optimize the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) designed for the STAR experiment at RHIC are presented. The physics goals and the expected complexity of the events at RHIC dictate the design of a tracking system for the STAR experiment. The proposed tracking system will consist of a silicon vertex tracker (SVT) to locate the primary interaction and secondary decay vertices and to improve the momentum resolution, and a time projection chamber (TPC), positioned inside a solenoidal magnet, for continuous tracking.

  2. The CMS silicon strip tracker and its electronic readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedl, M.

    2001-05-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, CH) will be the world's biggest accelerator machine when operation starts in 2006. One of its four detector experiments is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), consisting of a large-scale silicon tracker and electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters, all embedded in a solenoidal magnetic field of 4 T, and a muon system surrounding the magnet coil. The Silicon Strip Tracker has a sensitive area of 206m 2 with 10 million analog channels which are read out at the collider frequency of 40 MHz. The building blocks of the CMS Tracker are the silicon sensors, APV amplifier ASICs, supporting front-end ASICs, analog and digital optical links as well as data processors and control units in the back-end. Radiation tolerance, readout speed and the huge data volume are challenging requirements. The charge collection in silicon detectors was modeled, which is discussed as well as the concepts of readout amplifiers with respect to the LHC requirements, including the deconvolution method of fast pulse shaping, electronic noise constraints and radiation effects. Moreover, extensive measurements on prototype components of the CMS Tracker and different versions of the APV chip in particular were performed. There was a significant contribution to the construction of several detector modules, characterized them in particle beam tests and quantified radiation induced effects on the APV chip and on silicon detectors. In addition, a prototype of the analog optical link and the analog performance of the back-end digitization unit were evaluated. The results are very encouraging, demonstrating the feasibility of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker system and motivating progress towards the construction phase. (author)

  3. 3D Silicon Tracker for AFP - From Qualification to Operation

    CERN Document Server

    F\\"orster, Fabian Alexander; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) experiment is a detector located ~210 m away from the ATLAS interaction point on both sides. Its aim is to tag and measure forward protons produced in diffractive events. The detector consists of a 3D silicon pixel tracker, to measure the proton trajectory, as well as a time-of-flight system to suppress pileup-related backgrounds. Each tracker and the ToF system are placed inside a Roman Pot, allowing operation in the vicinity of the LHC beam, up to 2-3 mm. AFP was installed in 2 stages during the LHC technical shutdowns of 2015-2016 and 2016-2017. This presentation will give an overview of the silicon sensor qualification as well as the production, assembly and quality assurance of the tracker modules. The installation, commissioning and operation of the full detector will also be discussed.

  4. Data Quality Monitoring for the CMS Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, S; Mennea, Maria Santa; Zito, G

    2006-01-01

    The CMS silicon tracker, consisting of about 17,000 detector modules and divided into micro-strip and pixel sensors, will be the largest silicon tracker ever realized for high energy physics experiments. The detector performance will be monitored using applications based on the CMS Data Quality Monitoring\\,(DQM) framework and running on the High-Level Trigger Farm as well as local DAQ systems. The monitorable quantities of this large number of modules are divided into hierarchical structures reflecting the detector sections. In addition, they are organized into structures corresponding to the levels of data processing. The information produced are delivered to client applications according to their subscription requests. The client applications summarize and visualize the quantities received. We describe here the functionalities of the CMS tracker DQM applications and report preliminary performance tests.

  5. CMS Silicon Strip Tracker Commissioning and Preliminary Performances

    CERN Document Server

    Palmonari, F M

    2009-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world’s largest silicon microstrip detector. The SST is composed of four subdetectors which were integrated into the Tracker Support Tube (TST) at the CERN Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) in March 2007. After the insertion of the TST into CMS in December 2007, the first data taking of CMS with the SST included took place in July 2008 without magnetic field and one month later with a magnetic field of 3.8 Tesla. The SST was ready for the LHC start-up of September 10, 2008. The main aspects of the SST commissioning and a description of the problems encountered and solved so far are summarized here together with some preliminary performance evaluation.

  6. The STAR silicon vertex tracker: a large area silicon drift detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lynn, D; Beuttenmüller, Rolf H; Caines, H; Chen, W; Dimassimo, D; Dyke, H; Elliot, D; Eremin, V; Grau, M; Hoffmann, G W; Humanic, T; Ilyashenko, Yu S; Kotov, I; Kraner, H W; Kuczewski, P; Leonhardt, B; Li, Z; Liaw, C J; Lo Curto, G; Middelkamp, P; Minor, R; Munhoz, M; Ott, G; Pandey, S U; Pruneau, C A; Rykov, V L; Schambach, J; Sedlmeir, J; Soja, B; Sugarbaker, E R; Takahashi, J; Wilson, K; Wilson, R

    2000-01-01

    The Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC-Silicon Vertex Tracker (STAR-SVT) is a three barrel microvertex detector based upon silicon drift detector technology. As designed for the STAR-SVT, silicon drift detectors (SDDs) are capable of providing unambiguous two-dimensional hit position measurements with resolutions on the order of 20 mu m in each coordinate. Achievement of such resolutions, particularly in the drift direction coordinate, depends upon certain characteristics of silicon and drift detector geometry that are uniquely critical for silicon drift detectors hit measurements. Here we describe features of the design of the STAR-SVT SDDs and the front-end electronics that are motivated by such characteristics.

  7. TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Barth

    2012-01-01

      Strip Tracker In the end of 2011, the Silicon Strip Tracker participated in the very successful heavy-ion collision data-taking. With zero downtime attributed to the Strip Tracker, CMS could achieve the excellent efficiency of 96%. Thus we were able to improve on the already good uptime during pp collisions, and completed an excellent year for the Strip Tracker. The shift of responsibility to raise the high voltages at the declaration of Stable Beams from the Tracker DOC to the central crew went smoothly. The new scheme is working reliably and we improved our automatic DQM and DCS SMS services. With this further improvement we plan to discontinue calling the TK DOC at each Stable Beam; so far the TK DOC personally checked all systems. The biggest effort of this Year-End Technical Stop was a comprehensive evaluation of the C6F14 cooling system performance with respect to future cold operation. The analysis allows a dedicated planning of system refurbishments to be executed during 2012 and LS1....

  8. LHCb: Installation and operation of the LHCb Silicon Tracker detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Esperante Pereira, D

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has been designed to perform high-precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of B hadrons. The construction and installation phases of the Silicon Tracker (ST) of the experiment were completed by early summer 2008. The LHCb Silicon Tracker sums up to a total sensitive area of about 12 m^2 using silicon micro-strip technology and withstands charged particle fluxes of up to 5 x 10^5cm^−2s^−1. We will report on the preparation of the detectors for the first LHC beams. Selected results from the commissioning in LHCb are shown, including the first beam-related events accumulated during LHC injection tests in September 2008. Lessons are drawn from the experience gathered during the installation and commissioning.

  9. Commissioning and Performance of the LHCb Silicon Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    van Tilburg, J; Buechler, A; Bursche , A; Chiapolini, N; Elsaesser, C; Hangartner, V; Salzmann, C; Steiner, S; Steinkamp, O; Staumann, U; Tobin, M; Vollhardt, A; Bay, A; Bettler, M O; Blanc, F; Bressieux, J; Conti, G; Fave, V; Frei, R; Gauvin, N; Gonzalez, R; Haefeli, G; Hicheur, A; Keune, A; Luisier, J; Muresan, R; Nakada, T; Needham, M; Nicolas, L; Knecht, M; Perrin, A; Potterat, C; Schneider, O; Tran, M; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Bauer, C; Britsch, M; Hofmann, W; Maciuc, F; Schmelling, M; Voss, H; Adeva, B; Esperante, D; Fungueiriño Pazos, J; Gallas, A; Pazos-Alvarez, A; Pérez-Trigo, E; Pló Casasús, M; Rogríguez Pérez, P; Saborido, J; Vázquez, P; Iakovenko, V; Okhrimenko, O; Pugatch, V

    2010-01-01

    The LHCb Silicon Tracker is a silicon micro-strip detector with a sensitive area of 12 m$^2$ and a total of 272k readout channels. The Silicon Tracker consists of two parts that use different detector modules. The detector installation was completed by early summer 2008 and the commissioning without beam has reached its finals stage, successfully overcoming most of the encountered problems. Currently, the detector has more than 99% of the channels fully functioning. Commissioning with particles has started using beam-induced events from the LHC injection tests in 2008 and 2009. These events allowed initial studies of the detector performance. Especially, the detector modules could be aligned with an accuracy of about 20 $\\mu$m. Furthermore, with the first beam collisions that took place end of 2009 we could further study the performance and improve the alignment of the detector.

  10. Performance of the CLAS12 Silicon Vertex Tracker modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonioli, M.A.; Boiarinov, S.; Bonneau, P.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eng, B. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Gotra, Y., E-mail: gotra@jlab.org [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Kurbatov, E. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Leffel, M.; Mandal, S.; McMullen, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Merkin, M. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Raydo, B.; Teachey, W. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Tucker, R. [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Ungaro, M.; Yegneswaran, A.; Ziegler, V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2013-12-21

    For the 12 GeV upgrade, the CLAS12 experiment has designed a Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) using single sided microstrip sensors fabricated by Hamamatsu. The sensors have graded angle design to minimize dead areas and a readout pitch of 156μm, with intermediate strip. Double sided SVT module hosts three daisy-chained sensors on each side with a full strip length of 33 cm. There are 512 channels per module read out by four Fermilab Silicon Strip Readout (FSSR2) chips featuring data driven architecture, mounted on a rigid-flex hybrid. Modules are assembled on the barrel using unique cantilevered geometry to minimize the amount of material in the tracking volume. Design and performance of the SVT modules are presented, focusing on results of electrical measurements. -- Highlights: •A Silicon Vertex Tracker has been designed for the central tracker of the CLAS12 experiment. •Using cantilevered module geometry allows minimizing amount of material in the tracking volume. •A dedicated Hybrid Flex Circuit Board has been developed to read out double sided module. •Module performance meets design goals of the CLAS12 Central Tracker.

  11. Operation, calibration and performance of the CMS silicon tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Focardi, Ettore

    2011-01-01

    The CMS tracker is the largest silicon detector ever built, covering an area close to 200 m$^2$ and consisting of 15 148 silicon strip and 1440 silicon pixel modules. The use of tracker data in physics analysis requires fine-grained monitoring and calibration procedures. Results from timing studies, threshold optimization, calibration of gains and Lorentz angle determination are shown and the impact on resolution and dE/dx measurements is discussed. In order to achieve an optimal track-parameter resolution, the position and orientation of its modules need to be determined with a precision of few micro meters and an accurate representation of the distribution of material in the tracker is needed. Results of the alignment of the full tracker are presented, based on the analysis of several million reconstructed tracks recorded during the commissioning of the CMS experiment with cosmic rays and the first proton-proton collisions. They have been validated by several data-driven studies and compared with prediction...

  12. Commissioning and Calibrating the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bainbridge, Robert; Drouhin, F; Fulcher, J; Giassi, A; Gross, L; Mirabito, L; Vintache, D; Wingham, M

    2007-01-01

    The data acquisition system for the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) is based around a custom analogue front-end ASIC, an analogue optical link system and an off-detector VME board that performs digitization, zero-suppression and data formatting. A complex procedure is required to optimally configure, calibrate and synchronize the 107 channels of the SST readout system. We present an overview of this procedure, which will be used to commission and calibrate the SST during the integration, Start-Up and operational phases of the experiment. Recent experiences from the CMS Magnet Test Cosmic Challenge and system tests at the Tracker Integration Facility are also reported.

  13. The CMS silicon strip tracker and its electronic readout

    CERN Document Server

    Friedl, M

    2001-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, CH) will be the world's biggest accelerator machine when operation starts in 2006. One of its four detector experiments is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), consisting of a large-scale silicon tracker and electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters, all embedded in a solenoidal magnetic field of 4T, and a muon system surrounding the magnet coil. The Silicon Strip Tracker has a sensitive area of 206m sup 2 with 10 million analog channels which are read out at the collider frequency of 40 MHz. The building blocks of the CMS Tracker are the silicon sensors, APV amplifier ASICs, supporting front-end ASICs, analog and digital optical links as well as data processors and control units in the back-end. Radiation tolerance, readout speed and the huge data volume are challenging requirements. I have modeled the charge collection in silicon detectors which is discussed as well as the concepts of readout amplifiers with respect to the LHC requirements, including the deconvolut...

  14. ATLAS silicon microstrip Semiconductor Tracker (SCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unno, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Silicon microstrip semiconductor tracking system (SCT) will be in operation in the ATLAS detector in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Challenging issues in the SCT are the radiation tolerance to the fluence of 2x10 14 1-MeV-neutron-equivalent particles/cm 2 at the designed luminosity of 1x10 34 cm -2 /s of the proton-proton collisions and the speed of the electronics to identify the crossing bunches at 25 ns. The developments and the status of the SCT are presented from the point of view of these issues. Series production of the SCT will start in the year 2001 and the SCT will be installed into the ATLAS detector during 2003-2004

  15. The New Silicon Strip Detectors for the CMS Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Dragicevic, Marko

    2010-01-01

    The first introductory part of the thesis describes the concept of the CMS experiment. The tasks of the various detector systems and their technical implementations in CMS are explained. To facilitate the understanding of the basic principles of silicon strip sensors, the subsequent chapter discusses the fundamentals in semiconductor technology, with particular emphasis on silicon. The necessary process steps to manufacture strip sensors in a so-called planar process are described in detail. Furthermore, the effects of irradiation on silicon strip sensors are discussed. To conclude the introductory part of the thesis, the design of the silicon strip sensors of the CMS Tracker are described in detail. The choice of the substrate material and the complex geometry of the sensors are reviewed and the quality assurance procedures for the production of the sensors are presented. Furthermore the design of the detector modules are described. The main part of this thesis starts with a discussion on the demands on the ...

  16. Performance of ALICE silicon tracker detector

    CERN Document Server

    Luparello, G

    2014-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the LHC experiment devoted to the study of the strong interacting matter created in heavy-ion collisions. The ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) consists of six layers of silicon detectors exploiting three different technologies: pixel, drift and strip (from inside to outside). It covers the central pseudorapidity range, j h j < 0 : 9, and its distance from the beam line ranges from r = 3 : 9 cm for the innermost pixel layer up to r = 43 cm for the outermost strip layer. The main tasks of the ITS are to reconstruct the primary and secondary vertices, to track and identify charged particles with a low- p T cutoff and to improve the momentum resolution at high p T . During the operations, the ITS has demonstrated its tracking and vertexing capabilities, which are in excellent agreement with the design values. In these proceedings, after a brief description of the features of the system, the performance during the first three years of data taking at LHC will be presen...

  17. Development and Testing of the AMEGO Silicon Tracker System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Sean; Amego Team

    2018-01-01

    The All-sky Medium Energy Gamma-ray Observatory (AMEGO) is a probe-class mission in consideration for the 2020 decadal review designed to operate at energies from ˜ 200 keV to > 10 GeV. Operating a detector in this energy regime is challenging due to the crossover in the interaction cross-section for Compton scattering and pair production. AMEGO is made of four major subsystems: a plastic anticoincidence detector for rejecting cosmic-ray events, a silicon tracker for measuring the energies of Compton scattered electrons and pair-production products, a CZT calorimeter for measuring the energy and location of Compton scattered photons, and a CsI calorimeter for measuring the energy of the pair-production products at high energies. The tracker comprises layers of dual-sided silicon strip detectors which provide energy and localization information for Compton scattering and pair-production events. A prototype tracker system is under development at GSFC; in this contribution we provide details on the verification, packaging, and testing of the prototype tracker, as well as present plans for the development of the front-end electronics, beam tests, and a balloon flight.

  18. The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker performance using cosmic ray data

    CERN Document Server

    Borrello, L

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker is the largest tracking system based on silicon detector technology ever built for high energy physics experiment. It consists of 24,244 single-sided micro-strip sensors for a total active area of 198 $m^2$ and about 10 million readout channels. The SST was installed inside CMS in December 2007, commissioned during summer 2008 and then it participated along with other CMS subdetectors in several cosmic muon data taking runs. The commissioning strategy, operational experience and detector performance results will be presented.

  19. Monitoring radiation damage in the LHCb Silicon Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Graverini, Elena

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of LHCb is to search for indirect evidence of new physics in decays of heavy hadrons. The LHCb detector is a single-arm forward spectrometer with precise silicon-strip detectors in the regions with highest particle occupancies. The non-uniform exposure of the LHCb sensors makes it an ideal laboratory to study radiation damage effects in silicon detectors. The LHCb Silicon Tracker is composed of an upstream tracker, the TT, and of the inner part of the downstream tracker (IT). Dedicated scans are regularly taken, which allow a precise measurement of the charge collection efficiency (CCE) and the calibration of the operational voltages. The measured evolution of the effective depletion voltage $V_{depl}$ is shown, and compared with the Hamburg model prediction. The magnitudes of the sensor leakage current are also analysed and compared to their expected evolution according to phenomenological models. Our results prove that both the TT and the IT will withstand normal operation until the end of the L...

  20. TRACKER

    CERN Document Server

    D. Strom

    2011-01-01

    Strip Tracker Since the June CMS Week, the Silicon Strip Tracker has had another period of excellent detector operation with more than 97% system uptime. The focus on stable proton physics collection was fruitful, as CMS recorded greater than 5 fb–1 by the completion of the 2011 pp run. Following the November machine development and technical stop, the Strip Tracker now aims to provide the highest quality data during the heavy-ion run. The detector health, measured by the fraction of alive channels, is largely stable at around 97.8%. Recent failures include a TOB control ring, which now requires redundancy, and a TEC control ring with intermittent failures. These will be investigated during the Year-End Technical Stop. Critical services are very stable. The cooling system has a low total leak rate of less than 1 kg per day, and the power supply exchange rate is less than 1 unit per month. Two operational changes recently went into effect to optimise data-taking efficiency: (1) a tripped power su...

  1. TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Demaria

    2011-01-01

    Strip Tracker The Silicon Strip Tracker has maintained excellent operational performance during the 2011 data-taking period. The increase of instantaneous luminosity up to 1033 cm-2s-1 did not introduce any new issues in the detector. The detector has collected high-quality physics data with an uptime greater than 98%. Sources of downtime have been identified and problems were properly addressed. Improved firmware in the Front-End Driver (FED) firmware was deployed to increase the robustness of the readout against spurious extra frames coming from the detector. When a FED detects bad data, it goes into Out-Of-Sync (OOS) status, waits for a L1 resynchronisation command (resync) to clean up the culprit data and restarts. Resync commands are now sent automatically to the Strip Tracker when it signals OOS and, as a result, this source of downtime has been reduced significantly. The dead-time, caused by recoveries from OOS, accounts for less than 0.1%. Downtime was also found to be caused by a FED occasionally ge...

  2. LHCb Silicon Tracker DAQ and DCS Online Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    Buechler, A; Rodriguez, P

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva Switzerland is specialized on precision measurements of b quark decays. The Silicon Tracker (ST) contributes a crucial part in tracking the particle trajectories and consists of two silicon micro-strip detectors, the Tracker Turicensis upstream of the LHCb magnet and the Inner Tracker downstream. The radiation and the magnetic field represent new challenges for the implementation of a Detector Control System (DCS) and the data acquisition (DAQ). The DAQ has to deal with more than 270K analog readout channels, 2K readout chips and real time DAQ at a rate of 1.1 MHz with data processing at TELL1 level. The TELL1 real time algorithms for clustering thresholds and other computations run on dedicated FPGAs that implement 13K configurable parameters per board, in total 1.17 K parameters for the ST. After data processing the total throughput amounts to about 6.4 Gbytes from an input data rate of around ~337 Gbytes per second. A finite state ma...

  3. The silicon microstrip sensors of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ATLAS SCT Collaboration; Spieler, Helmuth G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the AC-coupled, single-sided, p-in-n silicon microstrip sensors used in the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The sensor requirements, specifications and designs are discussed, together with the qualification and quality assurance procedures adopted for their production. The measured sensor performance is presented, both initially and after irradiation to the fluence anticipated after 10 years of LHC operation. The sensors are now successfully assembled within the detecting modules of the SCT, and the SCT tracker is completed and integrated within the ATLAS Inner Detector. Hamamatsu Photonics Ltd. supplied 92.2percent of the 15,392 installed sensors, with the remainder supplied by CiS

  4. CMS Silicon Tracker Module Assembly and Testing at FNAL

    CERN Document Server

    Coppage, Don; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Kahl, William E; Medel, E; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Sogut, Kenan; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Spiegel, Leonard; Ten, Timour Borisovich

    2005-01-01

    This note is intended to provide details on a recent activity at FNAL in which CMS Tracker Outer Barrel modules were assembled and tested as part of a qualification of some of the sensor fabrication lines. At the same time the note serves to document the assembly and testing operations at FNAL for CMS silicon tracker modules. Of the 88 modules produced fo the qualification study at FNAL, one module was outside the mechanical alignment specification. For module bonding an introduced failure rate of 4.0x10^-4 faults per channel was observed. Eighty-five of the modules passed the full set of electrical tests. Two of the failures could be attributed to the sensors and one to a problem with the front-end hybrid. Additionally, a couple of the passed modules drew unusually high leakage currents. The high current modules are discussed in some detail.

  5. Data quality monitoring of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benucci, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Physics and Data Quality Monitoring (DQM) framework aims at providing a homogeneous monitoring environment across various applications related to data taking at the CMS experiment. In this contribution, the DQM system for the Silicon Strip Tracker will be introduced. The set of elements to assess the status of detector will be mentioned, along with the way to identify problems and trace them to specific tracker elements. Monitoring tools, user interfaces and automated software will be briefly described. The system was used during extensive cosmic data taking of CMS in Autumn 2008, where it demonstrated to have a flexible and robust implementation and has been essential to improve the understanding of the detector. CMS Collaboration believes that this tool is now mature to face the forthcoming data-taking era.

  6. Comparison of silicon strip tracker module size using large sensors from 6 inch wafers

    CERN Multimedia

    Honma, Alan

    1999-01-01

    Two large silicon strip sensor made from 6 inch wafers are placed next to each other to simulate the size of a CMS outer silicon tracker module. On the left is a prototype 2 sensor CMS inner endcap silicon tracker module made from 4 inch wafers.

  7. TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    K. Gill and G. Bolla

    2010-01-01

    Silicon strips During the first collisions the strip-Tracker operated with excellent performance and stability. The results obtained were very impressive and this exciting experience marked a fine end to another intense year. Several issues were identified during 2009 operations that could benefit from improvement: to suppress the increased output data volume when in STANDBY state (LV ON, HV OFF), which is due to the larger noise amplitudes when the sensors are unbiased; to reduce the strips configuration time; to increase the stability of the power system, particularly during state transitions, and to decrease the powering up time. The strip-Tracker FEDs now react to changes in the HV conditions of the strips. Upon a transition to STAND-BY, central DAQ starts a PAUSE-RESUME cycle and a flag is issued to the FEDSupervisor. This results in forcing the common mode noise artificially to the maximum value, which effectively suppresses the analogue data output. This forced offset is removed as soon as the strips ...

  8. Performance of the CLAS12 Silicon Vertex Tracker modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonioli, Mary Ann [JLAB; Boiarinov, Serguie; Bonneau, Peter R. [JLAB; Elouadrhiri, Latifa [JLAB; Eng, Brian J. [JLAB; Gotra, Yuri N. [JLAB; Kurbatov, Evgeny O. [Moscow State U.; Leffel, Mindy A. [JLAB; Mandal, Saptarshi [JLAB; McMullen, Marc E. [JLAB; Merkin, Mikhail M. [Moscow State U.; Raydo, Benjamin J. [JLAB; Teachey, Robert W, [JLAB; Tucker, Ross J. [Arizona State U.; Ungaro, Maurizio [JLAB; Yegneswaran, Amrit S. [JLAB; Ziegler, Veronique [JLAB

    2013-12-01

    For the 12 GeV upgrade, the CLAS12 experiment has designed a Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) using single sided microstrip sensors fabricated by Hamamatsu. The sensors have graded angle design to minimize dead areas and a readout pitch of 156{micro}m, with intermediate strip. Double sided SVT module hosts three daisy-chained sensors on each side with a full strip length of 33 cm. There are 512 channels per module read out by four Fermilab Silicon Strip Readout (FSSR2) chips featuring data driven architecture, mounted on a rigid-flex hybrid. Modules are assembled on the barrel using unique cantilevered geometry to minimize the amount of material in the tracking volume. Design and performance of the SVT modules are presented, focusing on results of electrical measurements.

  9. Silicon Sensors for Trackers at High-Luminosity Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Peltola, Timo

    2015-01-01

    The planned upgrade of the LHC accelerator at CERN, namely the high luminosity (HL) phase of the LHC (HL-LHC foreseen for 2023), will result in a more intense radiation environment than the present tracking system was designed for. The required upgrade of the all-silicon central trackers at the ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments will include higher granularity and radiation hard sensors. The radiation hardness of the new sensors must be roughly an order of magnitude higher than the one of LHC detectors. To address this, a massive R&D program is underway within the CERN RD50 collaboration "Development of Radiation Hard Semiconductor Devices for Very High Luminosity Colliders" to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation tolerance. Research topics include the improvement of the intrinsic radiation tolerance of the sensor material and novel detector designs with benefits like reduced trapping probability (thinned and 3D sensors), maximized sensitive area (active edge sensors) and enhanced charge ...

  10. The new silicon strip detectors for the CMS tracker upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragicevic, M.

    2010-01-01

    The first introductory part of the thesis describes the concept of the CMS experiment. The tasks of the various detector systems and their technical implementations in CMS are explained. To facilitate the understanding of the basic principles of silicon strip sensors, the subsequent chapter discusses the fundamentals in semiconductor technology, with particular emphasis on silicon. The necessary process steps to manufacture strip sensors in a so-called planar process are described in detail. Furthermore, the effects of irradiation on silicon strip sensors are discussed. To conclude the introductory part of the thesis, the design of the silicon strip sensors of the CMS Tracker are described in detail. The choice of the substrate material and the complex geometry of the sensors are reviewed and the quality assurance procedures for the production of the sensors are presented. Furthermore the design of the detector modules are described. The main part of this thesis starts with a discussion on the demands on the tracker caused by the increase in luminosity which is proposed as an upgrade to the LHC accelerator (sLHC). This chapter motivates the work I have conducted and clarifies why the solutions proposed by myself are important contributions to the upgrade of the CMS tracker. The following chapters present the concepts that are necessary to operate the silicon strip sensors at sLHC luminosities and additional improvements to the construction and quality assurance of the sensors and the detector modules. The most important concepts and works presented in chapters 7 to 9 are: Development of a software framework to enable the flexible and quick design of test structures and sensors. Selecting a suitable sensor material which is sufficiently radiation hard. Design, implementation and production of a standard set of test structures to enable the quality assurance of such sensors and any future developments. Electrical characterisation of the test structures and analysis

  11. Geometry optimization of a barrel silicon pixelated tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Yuan; Wang, Meng; Winter, Marc

    2017-08-01

    We have studied optimization of the design of a barrel-shaped pixelated tracker for given spatial boundaries. The optimization includes choice of number of layers and layer spacing. Focusing on tracking performance only, momentum resolution is chosen as the figure of merit. The layer spacing is studied based on Gluckstern’s method and a numerical geometry scan of all possible tracker layouts. A formula to give the optimal geometry for curvature measurement is derived in the case of negligible multiple scattering to deal with trajectories of very high momentum particles. The result is validated by a numerical scan method, which could also be implemented with any track fitting algorithm involving material effects, to search for the optimal layer spacing and to determine the total number of layers for the momentum range of interest under the same magnetic field. The geometry optimization of an inner silicon pixel tracker proposed for BESIII is also studied by using a numerical scan and these results are compared with Geant4-based simulations. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (U1232202)

  12. ATLAS' inner silicon tracker on track for completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Last week, the team working at the SR1 facility on the inner detector of the ATLAS experiment reached a project milestone after the delivery of the last Semi-conductor Tracker (SCT) barrel to CERN. The third barrel before its insertion into the support structure.The insertion of a completed barrel to its support structure is one of the highlights of the assembly and test sequence of the SCT in SR1. The inner detector will eventually sit in the 2 teslas magnetic field of the ATLAS solenoid, tracking charged particles from proton-proton collisions at the centre of ATLAS. The particles will be measured by a pixel detector (consisting of 3 pixel layers), an SCT (4 silicon strip layers) and a transition radiation tracker (TRT) (consisting of more than 52,000 straw tubes - see Bulletin 14/2005). The SCT has a silicon surface area of 61m2 with about 6 million operational channels so that all tracks can be identified and precisely measured. During 2004 a team of physicists, engineers, and technicians from several...

  13. Large-scale module production for the CMS silicon strip tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Cattai, A

    2005-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) for the CMS experiment at LHC consists of 210 m**2 of silicon strip detectors grouped into four distinct sub-systems. We present a brief description of the CMS Tracker, the industrialised detector module production methods and the current status of the SST with reference to some problems encountered at the factories and in the construction centres.

  14. Silicon photomultiplier arrays for the LHCb scintillating fibre tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Girard, Olivier Goran; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Stramaglia, Maria Elena

    2017-01-01

    For the LHCb detector upgrade in 2019, a large scale scintillating fibre tracker read out with silicon photomultipliers is under construction. The harsh radiation environment (neutron and ionising radiation), the 40MHz read-out rate of the trigger less system and the large detector surface of 320m2 impose many challenges. We present the results from lab tests with 1MeV electrons and from the SPS test facility at CERN for the mulitchannel SiPM array that combines peak photo-detection efficiency of 48% and extremely low correlated noise. The measurements were performed with detectors irradiated with neutrons up to a fluence of 12*1011 neq/cm2 and single photon detection was maintained. First results of the characterization of the pre-series of 500 detectors delivered by Hamamatsu and irradiation studies on a large sample will be included.

  15. Calibration and Monitoring of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker detector

    CERN Document Server

    Giordano, D

    2008-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) is the largest detector of this kind ever built for a high energy physics experiment. It consists of more than ten millions of analog read-out channels, split between 15,148 detector modules. To ensure that the SST performance fully meets the physics requirements of the CMS experiment, the detector is precisely calibrated and constantly monitored to identify, at a very early stage, any possible problem both in the data acquisition and in the reconstruction chain. Due to its high granularity, the operation of the CMS SST is a challenging task. In this paper we describe the reconstruction strategies, the calibration procedures and the data quality monitoring system that the CMS Collaboration has devised to accurately operate the SST detector.

  16. CDF silicon vertex tracker: tevatron run II preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashmanskas, W.; Belforte, S.; Budagov, Yu.

    2002-01-01

    The Online Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) is the unique new trigger processor dedicated to the 2-D reconstruction of charged particle trajectories at Level 2 of the CDF trigger. The SVT has been successfully built, installed and operated during the 2000 and 20001 CDF data taking runs. The performance of the SVT is already very close to the design. The SVT is able to find tracks and calculate their impact parameter with high precision (σ d = 35 μm). It is possible to correct the beam position offset and give the beam position feedback to accelerator in real time. In fact, the beam position is calculated online every few seconds with an accuracy of 1 to 5 μm. The beam position is continuously sent to the accelerator control. By using trigger tracks, parent particles such as K S 's and D 0 's are reconstructed, proving that the SVT is ready to be used for physics studies

  17. Error handling for the CDF Silicon Vertex Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Belforte, S; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Donati, S; Galeotti, S; Giannetti, P; Morsani, F; Punzi, G; Ristori, L; Spinella, F; Zanetti, A M

    2000-01-01

    The SVT online tracker for the CDF upgrade reconstructs two- dimensional tracks using information from the Silicon Vertex detector (SVXII) and the Central Outer Tracker (COT). The SVT has an event rate of 100 kHz and a latency time of 10 mu s. The system is composed of 104 VME 9U digital boards (of 8 different types) and it is implemented as a data driven architecture. Each board runs on its own 30 MHz clock. Since the data output from the SVT (few Mbytes/sec) are a small fraction of the input data (200 Mbytes/sec), it is extremely difficult to track possible internal errors by using only the output stream. For this reason several diagnostic tools have been implemented: local error registers, error bits propagated through the data streams and the Spy Buffer system. Data flowing through each input and output stream of every board are continuously copied to memory banks named Spy Buffers which act as built in logic state analyzers hooked continuously to internal data streams. The contents of all buffers can be ...

  18. TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    E. Butz

    2011-01-01

    The strip tracker took data very efficiently during 2010 with system availabilities of above 97% in the pp running and close to 100% during the heavy-ion running. The number of active channels in the readout is largely stable around 98%. The maintenance and development during the extended technical stop have been focussed on improving the operating conditions of the main silicon strip cooling plants SS1 and SS2, which have been items of concern (see last Bulletin). In order to stabilise and smooth the operation of SS1 and SS2, larger bypass valves and variable frequency drivers (VFDs) have been introduced. Possible noise induced by operation of the VFDs on other parts of CMS has been evaluated and no increased noise has been reported so far. The leak rate of every single line on SS2 was measured with the precise test-rig. Besides the known leaky lines, ten other SS2 lines were measured to leak between 120 g/day and 1200 g/day under the given test conditions, establishin...

  19. TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Yohay and E. Butz

    2013-01-01

      Pixel Tracker Preparation of the newly built Pixel clean room in the radioprotection (RP) zone of SX5 has been proceeding at a steady clip since the beginning of 2013. The clean room is designed to provide a cold, dry, dust-free laboratory environment for storage and repairs of the CMS Pixel detector during LS1 and future LHC shutdown periods. To that end, it is required to have robust temperature and humidity control, standalone DAQ and DCS systems, and space for specialised silicon testing and repair equipment. Good progress has been made in delivering each of these items. The ongoing project of commissioning the clean room HVAC system has been a success so far. The clean room will be kept at 10–20 Pa above atmospheric pressure to ensure that contaminants flow out of the room. There are two operating temperatures for the room: 21°C will be used when the Pixel detector components are under cold storage at subzero temperatures in well-sealed “cold boxes,” ...

  20. Commissioning and first data with the ATLAS silicon microstrip tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohne, Ole Myren

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the CERN large hadron collider (LHC) has started taking data this autumn with the inauguration of the LHC. The semiconductor tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made up from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The completed SCT has recently been installed inside the ATLAS experimental hall. Quick tests were performed last year to verify the connectivity of the electrical and optical services. Problems observed with the heaters for the evaporative cooling system have been resolved. This has enabled extended operation of the full detector under realistic conditions. Calibration data has been taken and analysed to determine the noise performance of the system. In addition, extensive commissioning with cosmic ray events has been performed. The cosmic muon data has been used to align the detector, to check the timing of the front-end electronics as well as to measure the hit efficiency of modules. The current status of the SCT will be reviewed, including results from the latest data-taking periods in autumn 2008, and from the detector alignment. We will report on the commissioning of the detector, including overviews on services, connectivity and observed problems. Particular emphasis will also be placed on the SCT data taken in the latest running period with the entire ATLAS detector participating. The SCT commissioning and running experience will then be used to extract valuable lessons for future silicon strip detector projects.

  1. Construction, Test And Calibration of the GLAST Silicon Tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sgro, C.; Atwood, W.B.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bellazzini, R.; Belli, F.; Bonamente, E.; Borden, T.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Caliandro, G.A.; Cecchi, C.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; De Angelis, A.; Drell, P.; Favuzzi, C.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Germani, S.; /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /UC, Santa Cruz /INFN, Trieste /Rome U.,Tor Vergata /SLAC /INFN, Bari /Bari U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Udine U. /Hiroshima U. /Maryland U., JCA /Tokyo Inst. Tech. /JAXA, Sagamihara /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /NASA, Goddard

    2009-06-05

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope represents a great advance in space application of silicon detectors. With a surface of 80 m{sup 2} and about 1 M readout channels it is the largest silicon tracker ever built for a space experiment. GLAST is an astro-particle mission that will study the mostly unexplored, high energy (20 MeV-300 GeV) spectrum coming from active sources or diffused in the Universe. The detector integration and test phase is complete. The full instrument underwent environmental testing and the spacecraft integration phase has just started: the launch is foreseen in late 2007. In the meanwhile the spare modules are being used for instrument calibration and performance verification employing the CERN accelerator complex. A Calibration Unit has been exposed to photon, electron and hadron beams from a few GeV up to 300 GeV. We report on the status of the instrument and on the calibration campaign.

  2. The Silicon Ministrip Detector of the DELPHI Very Forward Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067985

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this work is the design, test and construction of a new silicon tracking detector for the extreme forward region of the DELPHI experiment at LEP. I joined the Very Forward Tracker (VFT) Ministrip group in 1993, at a time when the upgrade of the DELPHI tracking system was proposed. My first task was to participate in the design of the ministrip detector for the VFT. This included the optimisation of the detector layout in simulations and the study of prototype detectors in the testbeam. In 1994 I became responsible for the tests and assembly' of the VFT ministrip detector at CERN. The main focus of my work was the study of the performance of a large variety of detectors in beam tests. This included the preparation of the test setup, the tests of different detectors and the analysis of the measurements. With these measurements it is possible to compare the advantages and disadvantages of various new layouts for large pitch silicon strip detectors. In particular the signal response and spatial res...

  3. Silicon Sensor Development for the CMS Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Auzinger, Georg; Elliott-Peisert, Anna

    The Large Hadron Collider at the European Council for Nuclear Research in Geneva is scheduled to undergo a major luminosity upgrade after its lifetime of ten years of operation around the year 2020, to maximize its scientific discovery potential. The total integrated luminosity will be increased by a factor of ten, which will dramatically change the conditions under which the four large detectors at the LHC will have to operate. The Compact Muon Solenoid, which has contributed to the recent discovery of a new, Higgs-like boson is one of them. Its innermost part -- the so-called tracker -- is a high-precision instrument that measures the created particles' trajectories by means of silicon detectors. With a total surface of more than 200 square-meters it is the largest device of its kind ever built. The increase in instantaneous luminosity in the upgraded LHC will lead to a dramatically increased track density at the interaction points of the colliding beams and thus also to a much more hostile radiation env...

  4. Error handling for the CDF online silicon vertex tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bari, M; Cerri, A; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Donati, S; Galeotti, S; Giannetti, P; Morsani, F; Punzi, G; Ristori, L; Spinella, F; Zanetti, A M

    2001-01-01

    The online silicon vertex tracker (SVT) is composed of 104 VME 9U digital boards (of eight different types). Since the data output from the SVT (few MB/s) are a small fraction of the input data (200 MB/s), it is extremely difficult to track possible internal errors by using only the output stream. For this reason, several diagnostic tools have been implemented: local error registers, error bits propagated through the data streams, and the Spy Buffer system. Data flowing through each input and output stream of every board are continuously copied to memory banks named spy buffers, which act as built-in logic state analyzers hooked continuously to internal data streams. The contents of all buffers can be frozen at any time (e.g., on error detection) to take a snapshot of all data flowing through each SVT board. The spy buffers are coordinated at system level by the Spy Control Board. The architecture, design, and implementation of this system are described. (4 refs).

  5. Commissioning and Performance of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker with Cosmic Ray Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Dyulendarova, M; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Toteva, Z; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Guan, W; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liu, B; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Ge, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Avila, C; Baquero Ruiz, M; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Reyes Romero, D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Papadakis, A; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Tsiakkouri, D; Zinonos, Z; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Djaoshvili, N; Roinishvili, N; Roinishvili, V; Amaglobeli, N; Adolphi, R; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Braunschweig, W; Edelhoff, M; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Khomich, A; Klein, K; Mohr, N; Ostaptchouk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Actis, O; Altenhöfer, G; Bender, W; Biallass, P; Erdmann, M; Fetchenhauer, G; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hilgers, G; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Kirsch, M; Klimkovich, T; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Philipps, B; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Sowa, M; Steggemann, J; Szczesny, H; Teyssier, D; Zeidler, C; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Kalinin, S; Kress, T; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Tornier, D; Zoeller, M H; Aldaya Martin, M; Behrens, U; Borras, K; Campbell, A; Castro, E; Dammann, D; Eckerlin, G; Flossdorf, A; Flucke, G; Geiser, A; Hatton, D; Hauk, J; Jung, H; Kasemann, M; Katkov, I; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, H; Knutsson, A; Kuznetsova, E; Lange, W; Lohmann, W; Mankel, R; Marienfeld, M; Meyer, A B; Miglioranzi, S; Mnich, J; Ohlerich, M; Olzem, J; Parenti, A; Rosemann, C; Schmidt, R; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Volyanskyy, D; Wissing, C; Zeuner, W D; Autermann, C; Bechtel, F; Draeger, J; Eckstein, D; Gebbert, U; Kaschube, K; Kaussen, G; Klanner, R; Mura, B; Naumann-Emme, S; Nowak, F; Pein, U; Sander, C; Schleper, P; Schum, T; Stadie, H; Steinbrück, G; Thomsen, J; Wolf, R; Bauer, J; Blüm, P; Buege, V; Cakir, A; Chwalek, T; De Boer, W; Dierlamm, A; Dirkes, G; Feindt, M; Felzmann, U; Frey, M; Furgeri, A; Gruschke, J; Hackstein, C; Hartmann, F; Heier, S; Heinrich, M; Held, H; Hirschbuehl, D; Hoffmann, K H; Honc, S; Jung, C; Kuhr, T; Liamsuwan, T; Martschei, D; Mueller, S; Müller, Th; Neuland, M B; 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Ignatenko, M; Jarvis, C; Mumford, J; Plager, C; Rakness, G; Schlein, P; Tucker, J; Valuev, V; Wallny, R; Yang, X; Babb, J; Bose, M; Chandra, A; Clare, R; Ellison, J A; Gary, J W; Hanson, G; Jeng, G Y; Kao, S C; Liu, F; Liu, H; Luthra, A; Nguyen, H; Pasztor, G; Satpathy, A; Shen, B C; Stringer, R; Sturdy, J; Sytnik, V; Wilken, R; Wimpenny, S; Branson, J G; Dusinberre, E; Evans, D; Golf, F; Kelley, R; Lebourgeois, M; Letts, J; Lipeles, E; Mangano, B; Muelmenstaedt, J; Norman, M; Padhi, S; Petrucci, A; Pi, H; Pieri, M; Ranieri, R; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Campagnari, C; D'Alfonso, M; Danielson, T; Garberson, J; Incandela, J; Justus, C; Kalavase, P; Koay, S A; Kovalskyi, D; Krutelyov, V; Lamb, J; Lowette, S; Pavlunin, V; Rebassoo, F; Ribnik, J; Richman, J; Rossin, R; Stuart, D; To, W; Vlimant, J R; Witherell, M; Apresyan, A; Bornheim, A; Bunn, J; Chiorboli, M; Gataullin, M; Kcira, D; Litvine, V; Ma, Y; Newman, H B; Rogan, C; Timciuc, V; Veverka, J; Wilkinson, R; Yang, Y; Zhang, L; Zhu, K; Zhu, R Y; Akgun, B; Carroll, R; Ferguson, T; Jang, D W; Jun, S Y; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Terentyev, N; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Cumalat, J P; Dinardo, M E; Drell, B R; Ford, W T; Heyburn, B; Luiggi Lopez, E; Nauenberg, U; Stenson, K; Ulmer, K; Wagner, S R; Zang, S L; Agostino, L; Alexander, J; Blekman, F; Cassel, D; Chatterjee, A; Das, S; Gibbons, L K; Heltsley, B; Hopkins, W; Khukhunaishvili, A; Kreis, B; Kuznetsov, V; Patterson, J R; Puigh, D; Ryd, A; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W; Teo, W D; Thom, J; Vaughan, J; Weng, Y; Wittich, P; Beetz, C P; Cirino, G; Sanzeni, C; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Afaq, M A; Albrow, M; Ananthan, B; Apollinari, G; Atac, M; Badgett, W; Bagby, L; Bakken, J A; Baldin, B; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Biery, K; Binkley, M; Bloch, I; Borcherding, F; Brett, A M; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Chetluru, V; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Churin, I; Cihangir, S; Crawford, M; Dagenhart, W; Demarteau, M; Derylo, G; Dykstra, D; Eartly, D P; Elias, J E; Elvira, V D; Evans, D; Feng, L; Fischler, M; Fisk, I; Foulkes, S; Freeman, J; Gartung, P; Gottschalk, E; Grassi, T; Green, D; Guo, Y; Gutsche, O; Hahn, A; Hanlon, J; Harris, R M; Holzman, B; Howell, J; Hufnagel, D; James, E; Jensen, H; Johnson, M; Jones, C D; Joshi, U; Juska, E; Kaiser, J; Klima, B; Kossiakov, S; Kousouris, K; Kwan, S; Lei, C M; Limon, P; Lopez Perez, J A; Los, S; Lueking, L; Lukhanin, G; Lusin, S; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Mason, D; McBride, P; Miao, T; Mishra, K; Moccia, S; Mommsen, R; Mrenna, S; Muhammad, A S; Newman-Holmes, C; Noeding, C; O'Dell, V; Prokofyev, O; Rivera, R; Rivetta, C H; Ronzhin, A; Rossman, P; Ryu, S; Sekhri, V; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sfiligoi, I; Sharma, S; Shaw, T M; Shpakov, D; Skup, E; Smith, R P; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Suzuki, I; Tan, P; Tanenbaum, W; Tkaczyk, S; Trentadue, R; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vidal, R; Whitmore, J; Wicklund, E; Wu, W; Yarba, J; Yumiceva, F; Yun, J C; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Barashko, V; Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, R D; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Gartner, J; Holmes, D; Kim, B; Klimenko, S; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Madorsky, A; Matchev, K; Mitselmakher, G; Pakhotin, Y; Piedra Gomez, J; Prescott, C; Rapsevicius, V; Remington, R; Schmitt, M; Scurlock, B; Wang, D; Yelton, J; Ceron, C; Gaultney, V; Kramer, L; Lebolo, L M; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Baer, H; Bertoldi, M; Chen, J; Dharmaratna, W G D; Gleyzer, S V; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Jenkins, M; Johnson, K F; Prettner, E; Prosper, H; Sekmen, S; Baarmand, M M; Guragain, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Mermerkaya, H; Ralich, R; Vodopiyanov, I; Abelev, B; Adams, M R; Anghel, I M; Apanasevich, L; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Callner, J; Castro, M A; Cavanaugh, R; Dragoiu, C; Garcia-Solis, E J; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatian, S; Mironov, C; Shabalina, E; Smoron, A; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Ayan, A S; Bilki, B; Briggs, R; Cankocak, K; Chung, K; Clarida, W; Debbins, P; Duru, F; Ingram, F D; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Parsons, J; Schmidt, I; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Chien, C Y; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Zhang, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Kaadze, K; Liu, A; Maravin, Y; Onoprienko, D; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Bard, R; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kunori, S; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    During autumn 2008, the Silicon Strip Tracker was operated with the full CMS experiment in a comprehensive test, in the presence of the 3.8 T magnetic field produced by the CMS superconducting solenoid. Cosmic ray muons were detected in the muon chambers and used to trigger the readout of all CMS sub-detectors. About 15 million events with a muon in the tracker were collected. The efficiency of hit and track reconstruction were measured to be higher than 99% and consistent with expectations from Monte Carlo simulation. This article details the commissioning and performance of the Silicon Strip Tracker with cosmic ray muons.

  6. Silicon sensor probing and radiation studies for the LHCb silicon tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lois, Cristina

    2006-01-01

    The LHCb Silicon Tracker (ST) will be built using silicon micro-strip technology. A total of 1400 sensors, with strip pitches of approximately 200μm and three different substrate thicknesses, will be used to cover the sensitive area with readout strips up to 38cm in length. We present the quality assurance program followed by the ST group together with the results obtained for the first batches of sensors from the main production. In addition, we report on an investigation of the radiation hardness of the sensors. Prototype sensors were irradiated with 24GeV/c protons up to fluences equivalent to 20 years of LHCb operation. The damage coefficient for the leakage current was studied, and full depletion voltages were determined

  7. Silicon sensor probing and radiation studies for the LHCb Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Adeva, B; Bauer, C; Baumann, G; Bay, A; Bernhard, R P; Bernet, R; Blouw, J; Boeni, D; Buchmann, L; Büchler, A; Carron, B; Chiapolini, N; Dona, P; Eisenring, E; Esperante-Pereira, D; Fauland, P; Frei, R; Gassner, J; Hofmann, W; Jiménez-Otero, S; Köstner, S; Knöpfle, K T; Landwehr, A; Lehner, F; Löchner, S; Lois, C; Mattle, T; Müller, T; Needham, M; Nüesch, S; Perrin, A; Pugatch, V; Pylypchenko, Y; Schmelling, M; Schwingenheuer, B; Steinkamp, O; Straumann, U; Tran, M T; Van Hunen, J J; Vázquez, P; Vervink, K; Vollhardt, A; Voss, H; Volyanskyy, D; Wenger, A

    2005-01-01

    The LHCb Silicon Tracker (ST) will be built using silicon micro-strip technology. A total of 1400 sensors, with strip pitches of approximately 200~$\\mu$m and three different substrate thicknesses, will be used to cover the sensitive area with readout strips up to 38 cm in length. We present the quality assurance program followed by the ST group together with the results obtained for the first batches of sensors from the main production. In addition, we report on an investigation of the radiation hardness of the sensors. Prototype sensors were irradiated with 24~GeV/c protons up to fluences equivalent to 20 years of LHCb operation. The damage coefficient for the leakage current was studied, and full depletion voltages were determined.

  8. Assembly procedure for the silicon pixel ladder for PHENIX silicon vertex tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuki, Y.; Akiba, Y.; En'yo, H.; Fujiwara, K.; Haki, Y.; Hashimoto, K.; Ichimiya, R.; Kasai, M.; Kawashima, M.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Mannel, E.J.; Nakano, K.; Pak, R.; Sekimoto, M.; Sondheim, W.E.; Taketani, A.; Togawa, M.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The silicon vertex tracker (VTX) will be installed in the summer of 2010 to enhance the physics capabilities of the Pioneering High Energy Nuclear Interaction eXperiment (PHENIX) experiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The VTX consists of two types of silicon detectors: a pixel detector and a strip detector. The pixel detector consists of 30 pixel ladders placed on the two inner cylindrical layers of the VTX. The ladders are required to be assembled with high precision, however, they should be assembled in both cost and time efficient manner. We have developed an assembly bench for the ladder with several assembly fixtures and a quality assurance (Q/A) system using a 3D measurement machine. We have also developed an assembly procedure for the ladder, including a method for dispensing adhesive uniformly and encapsulation of bonding wires. The developed procedures were adopted in the assembly of the first pixel ladder and satisfy the requirements.

  9. Interference coupling mechanisms in Silicon Strip Detectors - CMS tracker "wings" A learned lesson for SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Arteche, F; Rivetta, C

    2009-01-01

    The identification of coupling mechanisms between noise sources and sensitive areas of the front-end electronics (FEE) in the previous CMS tracker sub-system is critical to optimize the design and integration of integrated circuits, sensors and power distribution circuitry for the proposed SLHC Silicon Strip Tracker systems. This paper presents a validated model of the noise sensitivity observed in the Silicon Strip Detector-FEE of the CMS tracker that allows quantifying both the impact of the noise coupling mechanisms and the system immunity against electromagnetic interferences. This model has been validated based on simulations using finite element models and immunity tests conducted on prototypes of the Silicon Tracker End-Caps (TEC) and Outer Barrel (TOB) systems. The results of these studies show important recommendations and criteria to be applied in the design of future detectors to increase the immunity against electromagnetic noise.

  10. Reception Test of Petals for the End Cap TEC+ of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bremer, R; Klein, Katja; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Adler, Volker; Adolphi, Roman; Ageron, Michel; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Atz, Bernd; Barvich, Tobias; Baulieu, Guillaume; Beaumont, Willem; Beissel, Franz; Bergauer, Thomas; Berst, Jean-Daniel; Blüm, Peter; Bock, E; Bogelsbacher, F; de Boer, Wim; Bonnet, Jean-Luc; Bonnevaux, Alain; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouhali, Othmane; Braunschweig, Wolfgang; Brom, Jean-Marie; Butz, Erik; Chabanat, Eric; Chabert, Eric Christian; Clerbaux, Barbara; Contardo, Didier; De Callatay, Bernard; Dehm, Philip; Delaere, Christophe; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Dewulf, Jean-Paul; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Didierjean, Francois; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Dragicevic, Marko; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Esser, Hans; Estre, Nicolas; Fahrer, Manuel; Fernández, J; Florins, Benoit; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Flügge, Günter; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Freudenreich, Klaus; Frey, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Furgeri, Alexander; Giraud, Noël; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goorens, Robert; Graehling, Philippe; Grégoire, Ghislain; Gregoriev, E; Gross, Laurent; Hansel, S; Haroutunian, Roger; Hartmann, Frank; Heier, Stefan; Hermanns, Thomas; Heydhausen, Dirk; Heyninck, Jan; Hosselet, J; Hrubec, Josef; Jahn, Dieter; Juillot, Pierre; Kaminski, Jochen; Karpinski, Waclaw; Kaussen, Gordon; Keutgen, Thomas; Klanner, Robert; König, Stefan; Kosbow, M; Krammer, Manfred; Ledermann, Bernhard; Lemaître, Vincent; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Linn, Alexander; Lounis, Abdenour; Lübelsmeyer, Klaus; Lumb, Nicholas; Maazouzi, Chaker; Mahmoud, Tariq; Michotte, Daniel; Militaru, Otilia; Mirabito, Laurent; Müller, Thomas; Neukermans, Lionel; Ollivetto, C; Olzem, Jan; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Pandoulas, Demetrios; Pein, Uwe; Pernicka, Manfred; Perriès, Stephane; Piaseki, C; Pierschel, Gerhard; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Poettgens, Michael; Pooth, Oliver; Rouby, Xavier; Sabellek, Andreas; Schael, Stefan; Schirm, Norbert; Schleper, Peter; Schultz von Dratzig, Arndt; Siedling, Rolf; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stahl, Achim; Steck, Pia; Steinbruck, G; Stoye, Markus; Strub, Roger; Tavernier, Stefaan; Teyssier, Daniel; Theel, Andreas; Trocmé, Benjamin; Udo, Fred; Van der Donckt, M; Van der Velde, C; Van Hove, Pierre; Vanlaer, Pascal; Van Lancker, Luc; Van Staa, Rolf; Vanzetto, Sylvain; Weber, Markus; Weiler, Thomas; Weseler, Siegfried; Wickens, John; Wittmer, Bruno; Wlochal, Michael; De Wolf, Eddi A; Zhukov, Valery; Zoeller, Marc Henning

    2009-01-01

    The silicon strip tracker of the CMS experiment has been completed and was inserted into the CMS detector in late 2007. The largest sub system of the tracker are its end caps, comprising two large end caps (TEC) each containing 3200 silicon strip modules. To ease construction, the end caps feature a modular design: groups of about 20 silicon modules are placed on sub-assemblies called petals and these self-contained elements are then mounted onto the TEC support structures. Each end cap consists of 144 such petals, which were built and fully qualified by several institutes across Europe. From

  11. TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    Frank Hartmann

    2012-01-01

      Strip Tracker In general, the Strip Tracker is operating smoothly with the current peak instantaneous luminosity beyond 6.5E33, high L1 rate and large pile-up. With several improvements in automatic DQM checks and an enhanced SMS and e-mail service system plus additional audio alarms, we have reduced the work-load of our TK DOC and stopped the calls made at the beginning of each fill. We successfully collected more than two million cosmic tracks in peak mode during inter-fill periods before June, fulfilling the request from the Tracker alignment group. Around 500k cosmic tracks were also collected at zero Tesla. All planned special measurements, namely DCU calibration and I-V scans, have been taken during the YETS and other technical stops. A peak-mode run, a delay run and two HV scans have also been taken during early collisions at the initial low-lumi runs as well as during the fill where CMS had a problem with the magnet. The largest source of downtime comes from TIB-2.8.1 a.k.a. FED 101, ...

  12. TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Dirkes

    2010-01-01

    The strip system has generally exhibited stable and high performance operation during the last six months of pp and heavy ion collisions. The up-time during pp collision from June onwards was 99.0% and during the first weeks of heavy-ion running we reached 99.7%. Most of the down-time during the proton runs came from Tracker DAQ problems. Spurious extra events from individual front-end channels caused ‘sync loss draining’ errors at the central DAQ system downstream of the Tracker FEDs. Once the problem was understood, new firmware that detects this error condition was installed on the FEDs. This has reduced the recovery procedure from this particular condition from a full reconfiguration requiring 170 s, to a simple re-synchronisation taking only ~1 s. We have also streamlined the instructions for the central DAQ shifters in order to minimise the time needed to decide the proper reaction to a given problem. The average down-time for problems triggered by the strip tracker DAQ is 395 s. Th...

  13. TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    K. Gill

    2010-01-01

    The Tracker has continued to operate with excellent performance during this first period with 7 TeV collisions. Strips operations have been very smooth. The up-time during collisions was 98.5%, up to end of May, with a large fraction of the down-time coming during the planned fine-timing scan with early 7 TeV collisions. Pixels operations are also going very well, besides problems related to background beam-gas collisions where the particles produced generate very large clusters in the barrel modules. When CMS triggers on these events, the FEDs affected overflow and then timeout. Effort was mobilised very quickly to understand and mitigate this problem, with modifications made to the pixel FED firmware in order to provide automatic recovery. With operations becoming more and more routine at P5, Pixels have begun the transition to centrally attended operation, which means that the P5 shifters will no longer be required to be on duty. The strip-Tracker is also planning to make this transition at the end of Ju...

  14. TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    Bora Akgun

    2013-01-01

    Pixel Tracker Maintenance of the Pixel Tracker has been ongoing since it was extracted from inside CMS and safely stored at low temperatures in Pixel laboratory at Point 5 (see previous Bulletin).    All four half cylinders of the forward Pixel detector (FPIX) have been repaired and the failures have been understood. In October, a team of technicians from Fermilab replaced a total of three panels that were not repairable in place. The replacement of panels is a delicate operation that involves removing the half disks that hold the panels from the half cylinders, removing the damaged panels from the half disks, installing the new panels on the half disks, and finally putting the half disks back into the half cylinders and hooking up the cooling connections. The work was completed successfully. The same team also prepared the installation of the Phase 1 Pixel pilot blade system, installing a third half disk mechanics in the half cylinders; these half disks will host new Phase 1 P...

  15. The Silicon Tracker of the Beam Test Engineering Model of the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    do Couto e Silva, Eduardo

    2000-06-01

    The silicon tracker for the engineering model of the GLAST Large Area Telescope(LAT) has at least two unique features: it employs self triggering readout electronics, dissipating less than 200 mu-W per channel and to date represents the largest surface of silicon microstrip detectors assembled in a tracker (2.7 m{sup 2}). It demonstrates the feasibility of employing this technology for satellite based experiments, in which low power consumption, large effective areas and high reliability are required. This note describes the construction of this silicon tracker, which was installed in a beam test of positrons, hadrons and tagged photons at SLAC in December of 1999 and January of 2000.

  16. Alignment of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker during stand-alone Commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Dragicevic, M; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Hansel, S; Hrubec, J; Krammer, M; Oberegger, M; Pernicka, M; Schmid, S; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Uhl, D; Waltenberger, W; Widl, E; Van Mechelen, P; Cardaci, M; Beaumont, W; de Langhe, E; de Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Hashemi, M; Bouhali, O; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; Dewulf, J P; Elgammal, S; Hammad, G; de Lentdecker, G; Marage, P; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Adler, V; Devroede, O; De Weirdt, S; D'Hondt, J; Goorens, R; Heyninck, J; Maes, J; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Tavernier, S; Van Lancker, L; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Wastiels, C; Bonnet, J L; Bruno, G; De Callatay, B; Florins, B; Giammanco, A; Gregoire, G; Keutgen, Th; Kcira, D; Lemaitre, V; Michotte, D; Militaru, O; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertermont, L; Roberfroid, V; Rouby, X; Teyssier, D; daubie, E; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Engström, P; Härkönen, J; Karimäki, V; Kostesmaa, J; Kuronen, A; Lampén, T; Lindén, T; Luukka, P R; Mäenää, T; Michal, S; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ageron, M; Baulieu, G; Bonnevaux, A; Boudoul, G; Chabanat, E; Chabert, E; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Della Negra, R; Dupasquier, T; Gelin, G; Giraud, N; Guillot, G; Estre, N; Haroutunian, R; Lumb, N; Perries, S; Schirra, F; Trocme, B; Vanzetto, S; Agram, J L; Blaes, R; Drouhin, F; Ernenwein, J P; Fontaine, J C; Berst, J D; Brom, J M; Didierjean, F; Goerlach, U; Graehling, P; Gross, L; Hosselet, J; Juillot, P; Lounis, A; Maazouzi, C; Olivetto, C; Strub, R; Van Hove, P; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Klein, K; Kukulies, C; Olzem, J; Ostapchuk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Beissel, F; Bock, E; Flugge, G; Gillissen, C; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Jahn, D; Kaussen, G; Linn, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Stahl, A; Zoeller, M H; Buhmann, P; Butz, E; Flucke, G; Hamdorf, R; Hauk, J; Klanner, R; Pein, U; Schleper, P; Steinbrück, G; Blüm, P; De Boer, W; Dierlamm, A; Dirkes, G; Fahrer, M; Frey, M; Furgeri, A; Hartmann, F; Heier, S; Hoffmann, K H; Kaminski, J; Ledermann, B; Liamsuwan, T; Müller, S; Müller, Th; Schilling, F P; Simonis, H J; Steck, P; Zhukov, V; Cariola, P; De Robertis, G; Ferorelli, R; Fiore, L; Preda, M; Sala, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Creanza, D; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; Giordano, D; Maggi, G; Manna, N; My, S; Selvaggi, G; Albergo, S; Chiorboli, M; Costa, S; Galanti, M; Giudice, N; Guardone, N; Noto, F; Potenza, R; Saizu, M A; Sparti, V; Sutera, C; Tricomi, A; Tuve, C; Brianzi, M; Civinini, C; Maletta, F; Manolescu, F; Meschini, M; Paoletti, S; Sguazzoni, G; Broccolo, B; Ciulli, V; D'Alessandro, R; Focardi, E; Frosali, S; Genta, C; Landi, G; Lenzi, P; Macchiolo, A; Magini, N; Parrini, G; Scarlini, E; Cerati, G; Azzi, P; Bacchetta, N; Candelori, A; Dorigo, T; Kaminsky, A; Karaevski, S; Khomenkov, V; Reznikov, S; Tessaro, M; Bisello, D; De Mattia, M; Giubilato, P; Loreti, M; Mattiazzo, S; Nigro, M; Paccagnella, A; Pantano, D; Pozzobon, N; Tosi, M; Bilei, G M; Checcucci, B; Fanò, L; Servoli, L; Ambroglini, F; Babucci, E; Benedetti, D; Biasini, M; Caponeri, B; Covarelli, R; Giorgi, M; Lariccia, P; Mantovani, G; Marcantonini, M; Postolache, V; Santocchia, A; Spiga, D; Bagliesi, G; Balestri, G; Berretta, L; Bianucci, S; Boccali, T; Bosi, F; Bracci, F; Castaldi, R; Ceccanti, M; Cecchi, R; Cerri, C; Cucoanes, A S; Dell'Orso, R; Dobur, D; Dutta, S; Giassi, A; Giusti, S; Kartashov, D; Kraan, A; Lomtadze, T; Lungu, G A; Magazzu, G; Mammini, P; Mariani, F; Martinelli, G; Moggi, A; Palla, F; Palmonari, F; Petragnani, G; Profeti, A; Raffaelli, F; Rizzi, D; Sanguinetti, G; Sarkar, S; Sentenac, D; Serban, A T; Slav, A; Soldani, A; Spagnolo, P; Tenchini, R; Tolaini, S; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Vos, M; Zaccarelli, L; Avanzini, C; Basti, A; Benucci, L; Bocci, A; Cazzola, U; Fiori, F; Linari, S; Massa, M; Messineo, A; Segneri, G; Tonelli, G; Azzurri, P; Bernardini, J; Borrello, L; Calzolari, F; Foà, L; Gennai, S; Ligabue, F; Petrucciani, G; Rizzi, A; Yang, Z; Benotto, F; Demaria, N; Dumitrache, F; Farano, R; Borgia, M A; Castello, R; Costa, M; Migliore, E; Romero, A; Abbaneo, D; Abbas, M; Ahmed, I; Akhtar, I; Albert, E; Bloch, C; Breuker, H; Butt, S; Buchmuller, O; Cattai, A; Delaere, C; Delattre, M; Edera, L M; Engstrom, P; Eppard, M; Gateau, M; Gill, K; Giolo-Nicollerat, A S; Grabit, R; Honma, A; Huhtinen, M; Kloukinas, K; Kortesmaa, J; Kottelat, L J; Kuronen, A; Leonardo, N; Ljuslin, C; Mannelli, M; Masetti, L; Marchioro, A; Mersi, S; Michal, S; Mirabito, L; Muffat-Joly, J; Onnela, A; Paillard, C; Pal, I; Pernot, J F; Petagna, P; Petit, P; Piccut, C; Pioppi, M; Postema, H; Ranieri, R; Ricci, D; Rolandi, G; Ronga, F; Sigaud, C; Syed, A; Siegrist, P; Tropea, P; Troska, J; Tsirou, A; Vander Donckt, M; Vasey, F; Alagoz, E; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, V; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, P; Rochet, J; Rommerskirchen, T; Schmidt, A; Steiner, S; Wilke, L; Church, I; Cole, J; Coughlan, J; Gay, A; Taghavi, S; Tomalin, I; Bainbridge, R; Cripps, N; Fulcher, J; Hall, G; Noy, M; Pesaresi, M; Radicci, V; Raymond, D M; Sharp, P; Stoye, M; Wingham, M; Zorba, O; Goitom, I; Hobson, P R; Reid, I; Teodorescu, L; Hanson, G; Jeng, G Y; Liu, H; Pasztor, G; Satpathy, A; Stringer, R; Mangano, B; Affolder, K; Affolder, T; Allen, A; Barge, D; Burke, S; Callahan, D; Campagnari, C; Crook, A; D'Alfonso, M; Dietch, J; Garberson, Jeffrey Ford; Hale, D; Incandela, H; Incandela, J; Jaditz, S; Kalavase, P; Kreyer, S; Kyre, S; Lamb, J; Mc Guinnessr, C; Mills, C; Nguyen, H; Nikolic, M; Lowette, S; Rebassoo, F; Ribnik, J; Richman, J; Rubinstein, N; Sanhueza, S; Shah, Y; Simms, L; Staszak, D; Stoner, J; Stuart, D; Swain, S; Vlimant, J R; White, D; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Bagby, L; Bhat, P C; Burkett, K; Cihangir, S; Gutsche, O; Jensen, H; Johnson, M; Luzhetskiy, N; Mason, D; Miao, T; Moccia, S; Noeding, C; Ronzhin, A; Skup, E; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Tkaczyk, S; Yumiceva, F; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zerev, E; Anghel, I; Bazterra, V E; Gerber, C E; Khalatian, S; Shabalina, E; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Chen, J; Hinchey, C; Martin, C; Moulik, T; Robinson, R; Gritsan, A V; Lae, C K; Tran, N V; Everaerts, P; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Nahn, S; Rudolph, M; Sung, K; Betchart, B; Demina, R; Gotra, Y; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D; Orbaker, D; Christofek, L; Hooper, R; Landsberg, G; Nguyen, D; Narain, M; Speer, T; Tsang, K V

    2009-01-01

    The results of the CMS tracker alignment analysis are presented using the data from cosmic tracks, optical survey information, and the laser alignment system at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. During several months of operation in the spring and summer of 2007, about five million cosmic track events were collected with a partially active CMS Tracker. This allowed us to perform first alignment of the active silicon modules with the cosmic tracks using three different statistical approaches; validate the survey and laser alignment system performance; and test the stability of Tracker structures under various stresses and temperatures ranging from +15C to -15C. Comparison with simulation shows that the achieved alignment precision in the barrel part of the tracker leads to residual distributions similar to those obtained with a random misalignment of 50 (80) microns in the outer (inner) part of the barrel.

  17. A study of the dimensional stability of the AMS silicon tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, W. J.; Perrin, E.; Alcaraz, J.; Azzarello, P.; Babucci, E.; Battiston, R.; Bourquin, M.; Extermann, P.; Hasan, A.; Hofer, H.; Ionica, R.; Levtchenko, P.; Lübelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pohl, M.; Rapin, D.; Shoutko, V.; Siedling, R.; Ulbricht, J.; Vandenhirtz, J.; Viertel, G.; Wallraff, W.; Vité, D.

    2003-10-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is designed as an independent module for installation on the International Space Station (ISS) for an operational period of 3 years. The AMS is the first cosmic ray spectrometer equipped with a large area silicon tracker (>5 m2) . A preliminary version of the detector was flown on the NASA space shuttle Discovery during June 2-12, 1998. Results for the dimensional stability of the silicon tracker planes based on the flight data, and the metrology data recorded before and after the flight, are presented.

  18. Stand-alone Cosmic Muon Reconstruction Before Installation of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Dragicevic, M; Friedl, M; Fruhwirth, R; Hansel, S; Hrubec, J; Krammer, M; Oberegger, M; Pernicka, M; Schmid, S; Stark, RS; Steininger, H; Uhl, D; Waltenberger, W; Widl, E; Van Mechelen, P; Cardaci, M; Beaumont, W; de Langhe, E; de Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Hashemi, M; Bouhali, O; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; Dewulf, J P; Elgammal, S; Hammad, G; de Lentdecker, G; Marage, P; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Adler, V; Devroede, O; De Weirdt, S; D'Hondt, J; Goorens, R; Heyninck, J; Maes, J; Mozer, M; Tavernier, S; Van Lancker, L; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Wastiels, C; Bonnet, J L; Bruno, G; De Callatay, B; Florins, B; Giammanco, A; Gregoire, G; Keutgen, Th; Kcira, D; Lemaitre, V; Michotte, D; Militaru, O; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertermont, L; Roberfroid, V; Rouby, X; Teyssier, D; Daubie, E; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Engstrom, P; Harkonen, J; Karimaki, V; Kostesmaa, J; Kuronen, A; Lampen, T; Linden, T; Luukka, P R; Maenpaa, T; Michal, S; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ageron, M; Baulieu, G; Bonnevaux, A; Boudoul, G; Chabanat, E; Chabert, E; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Della Negra, R; Dupasquier, T; Gelin, G; Giraud, N; Guillot, G; Estre, N; Haroutunian, R; Lumb, N; Perries, S; Schirra, F; Trocme, B; Vanzetto, S; Agram, J L; Blaes, R; Drouhin, F; Ernenwein, J P; Fontaine, J C; Berst, J D; Brom, J M; Didierjean, F; Goerlach, U; Graehling, P; Gross, L; Hosselet, J; Juillot, P; Lounis, A; Maazouzi, C; Olivetto, C; Strub, R; Van Hove, P; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Klein, K; Kukulies, C; Olzem, J; Ostapchuk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Beissel, F; Bock, E; Flugge, G; Gillissen, C; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Jahn, D; Kaussen, G; Linn, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Stahl, A; Zoeller, M H; Buhmann, P; Butz, E; Flucke, G; Hamdorf, R; Hauk, J; Klanner, R; Pein, U; Schleper, P; Steinbruck, G; Blum, P; De Boer, W; Dierlamm, A; Dirkes, G; Fahrer, M; Frey, M; Furgeri, A; Hartmann, F; Heier, S; Hoffmann, K H; Kaminski, J; Ledermann, B; Liamsuwan, T; Muller, S; Muller, Th; Schilling, F P; Simonis, H J; Steck, P; Zhukov, V; Cariola, P; De Robertis, G; Ferorelli, R; Fiore, L; Preda, M; Sala, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Creanza, D; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; Giordano, D; Maggi, G; Manna, N; My, S; Selvaggi, G; Albergo, S; Chiorboli, M; Costa, S; Galanti, M; Giudice, N; Guardone, N; Noto, F; Potenza, R; Saizu, M A; Sparti, V; Sutera, C; Tricomi, A; Tuve, C; Brianzi, M; Civinini, C; Maletta, F; Manolescu, F; Meschini, M; Paoletti, S; Sguazzoni, G; Broccolo, B; Ciulli, V; D'Alessandro, R; Focardi, E; Frosali, S; Genta, C; Landi, G; Lenzi, P; Macchiolo, A; Magini, N; Parrini, G; Scarlini, E; Cerati, G; Azzi, P; Bacchetta, N; Candelori, A; Dorigo, T; Kaminsky, A; Karaevski, S; Khomenkov, V; Reznikov, S; Tessaro, M; Bisello, D; De Mattia, M; Giubilato, P; Loreti, M; Mattiazzo, S; Nigro, M; Paccagnella, A; Pantano, D; Pozzobon, N; Tosi, M; Bilei, G M; Checcucci, B; Fano, L; Servoli, L; Ambroglini, F; Babucci, E; Benedetti, D; Biasini, M; Caponeri, B; Covarelli, R; Giorgi, M; Lariccia, P; Mantovani, G; Marcantonini, M; Postolache, V; Santocchia, A; Spiga, D; Bagliesi, G; Balestri, G; Berretta, L; Bianucci, S; Boccali, T; Bosi, F; Bracci, F; Castaldi, R; Ceccanti, M; Cecchi, R; Cerri, C; Cucoanes, A S; Dell'Orso, R; Dobur, D; Dutta, S; Giassi, A; Giusti, S; Kartashov, D; Kraan, A; Lomtadze, T; Lungu, G A; Magazzu, G; Mammini, P; Mariani, F; Martinelli, G; Moggi, A; Palla, F; Palmonari, F; Petragnani, G; Profeti, A; Raffaelli, F; Rizzi, D; Sanguinetti, G; Sarkar, S; Sentenac, D; Serban, A T; Slav, A; Soldani, A; Spagnolo, P; Tenchini, R; Tolaini, S; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Vos, M; Zaccarelli, L; Avanzini, C; Basti, A; Benucci, L; Bocci, A; Cazzola, U; Fiori, F; Linari, S; Massa, M; Messineo, A; Segneri, G; Tonelli, G; Azzurri, P; Bernardini, J; Borrello, L; Calzolari, F; Foa, L; Gennai, S; Ligabue, F; Petrucciani, G; Rizzi, A; Yang, Z; Benotto, F; Demaria, N; Dumitrache, F; Farano, R; Borgia, M A; Castello, R; Costa, M; Migliore, E; Romero, A; Abbaneo, D; Abbas, M; Ahmed, I; Akhtar, I; Albert, E; Bloch, C; Breuker, H; Butt, S; Buchmuller, O; Cattai, A; Delaere, C; Delattre, M; Edera, L M; Engstrom, P; Eppard, M; Gateau, M; Gill, K; Giolo-Nicollerat, A S; Grabit, R; Honma, A; Huhtinen, M; Kloukinas, K; Kortesmaa, J; Kottelat, L J; Kuronen, A; Leonardo, N; Ljuslin, C; Mannelli, M; Masetti, L; Marchioro, A; Mersi, S; Michal, S; Mirabito, L; Muffat-Joly, J; Onnela, A; Paillard, C; Pal, I; Pernot, J F; Petagna, P; Petit, P; Piccut, C; Pioppi, M; Postema, H; Ranieri, R; Ricci, D; Rolandi, G; Ronga, F; Sigaud, C; Syed, A; Siegrist, P; Tropea, P; Troska, J; Tsirou, A; Vander Donckt, M; Vasey, F; Alagoz, E; Amsler, C; Chiochia, V; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, P; Rochet, J; Rommerskirchen, T; Schmidt, A; Steiner, S; Wilke, L; Church, I; Cole, J; Coughlan, J; Gay, A; Taghavi, S; Tomalin, I; Bainbridge, R; Cripps, N; Fulcher, J; Hall, G; Noy, M; Pesaresi, M; Radicci, V; Raymond, D M; Sharp, P; Stoye, M; Wingham, M; Zorba, O; Goitom, I; Hobson, P R; Reid, I; Teodorescu, L; Hanson, G; Jeng, G Y; Liu, H; Pasztor, G; Satpathy, A; Stringer, R; Mangano, B; Affolder, K; Affolder, T; Allen, A; Barge, D; Burke, S; Callahan, D; Campagnari, C; Crook, A; D'Alfonso, M; Dietch, J; Garberson, Jeffrey Ford; Hale, D; Incandela, H; Incandela, J; Jaditz, S; Kalavase, P; Kreyer, S; Kyre, S; Lamb, J; Mc Guinness, C; Mills, C; Nguyen, H; Nikolic, M; Lowette, S; Rebassoo, F; Ribnik, J; Richman, J; Rubinstein, N; Sanhueza, S; Shah, Y; Simms, L; Staszak, D; Stoner, J; Stuart, D; Swain, S; Vlimant, J R; White, D; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Bagby, L; Bhat, P C; Burkett, K; Cihangir, S; Gutsche, O; Jensen, H; Johnson, M; Luzhetskiy, N; Mason, D; Miao, T; Moccia, S; Noeding, C; Ronzhin, A; Skup, E; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Tkaczyk, S; Yumiceva, F; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zerev, E; Anghel, I; Bazterra, V E; Gerber, C E; Khalatian, S; Shabalina, E; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Chen, J; Hinchey, C; Martin, C; Moulik, T; Robinson, R; Gritsan, A V; Lae, C K; Tran, N V; Everaerts, P; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Nahn, S; Rudolph, M; Sung, K; Betchart, B; Demina, R; Gotra, Y; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D; Orbaker, D; Christofek, L; Hooper, R; Landsberg, G; Nguyen, D; Narain, M; Speer, T; Tsang, K V

    2009-01-01

    The subsystems of the CMS silicon strip tracker were integrated and commissioned at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) in the period from November 2006 to July 2007. As part of the commissioning, large samples of cosmic ray data were recorded under various running conditions in the absence of a magnetic field. Cosmic rays detected by scintillation counters were used to trigger the readout of up to 15% of the final silicon strip detector, and over 4.7 million events were recorded. This document describes the cosmic track reconstruction and presents results on the performance of track and hit reconstruction as from dedicated analyses.

  19. P-Type Silicon Strip Sensors for the Future CMS Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    The Tracker Group of the CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is expected to increase the LHC design luminosity by an order of magnitude. This will require silicon tracking detectors with a significantly higher radiation hardness. The CMS Tracker Collaboration has conducted an irradiation and measurement campaign to identify suitable silicon sensor materials and strip designs for the future outer tracker at CMS. Based on these results, the collaboration has chosen to use n-in-p type strip and macro-pixel sensors and focus further investigations on the optimization of that sensor type. This paper describes the main measurement results and conclusions that motivated this decision.

  20. TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Duggan and L. Demaria

    2012-01-01

    Pixels Tracker With the 2012 proton-proton run almost complete, the pixel detector continues to operate well in an environment with large pile-up and high L1 rate. During this period, the pixel detector has shown excellent stability, with the number of current active channels from each the BPIX and FPIX the same as from the first month of 2012 running, resulting in 96.3% of the detector active. This total includes the recovery of six FPIX channels, temporarily disabled due to an unexpected dependence on the magnetic field. From a dedicated study that identified a small crack in an optical cable connector, a repair was made which restored 120 ROCs in the FPIX. During 2012 there has been a close collaboration of the online operations with the offline studies, resulting in the first dedicated HV bias scans used for the pixel Lorentz Angle measurement. These scans help to better understand this important parameter that changes with temperature, irradiation, and bias voltage. This is in addition to all other s...

  1. TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Dinardo and G. Benelli

    2013-01-01

    Pixel Tracker At the beginning of May, the Pixel detector was successfully extracted from inside CMS. The operation lasted one and a half days each for the forward and barrel Pixel detectors. Everything went smoothly: new people were trained during the exercise and care was taken to minimise radiation exposure – see Image 3.  Lessons learned were noted in an updated written extraction procedure.  Care was also taken to prepare for reinsertion around the new beam pipe next year, with new alignment targets placed on the barrel Pixel detector. All pieces were lifted to the surface and are now safely stored at low temperatures in the dedicated Pixel laboratory at Point 5 (see Image 4 and previous Bulletin). Image 3 (a) and (b): Extracted FPIX and BPIX detector The subsequent maintenance of the forward Pixel detector started on 27 May.  Since then one of four half cylinders has been repaired and, even more importantly, most of the failures have been fully understood. ...

  2. The silicon sensors for the Inner Tracker of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Krammer, Manfred

    2004-01-01

    The Inner Tracker of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment, at present under construction, will consist of more than 24000 silicon strip sensors arranged in 10 central concentric layers and 2 multiplied by 9 discs at both ends. The total sensitive silicon area will be about 200 m**2. The silicon sensors are produced in various thicknesses and geometries. Each sensor has 512 or 768 implanted strips which will allow the measurement of the position of traversing high-energy charged particles. This paper gives a short overview of the CMS tracker system. Subsequently, the design of the silicon sensors is explained with special emphasis on the radiation hardness and on the high-voltage stability of the sensors. Two companies share the production of these sensors. The quality of the sensors is extensively checked by several laboratories associated with CMS. Important electrical parameters are measured on the sensors themselves. In addition, dedicated test structures designed by CMS allow the monitoring of many ...

  3. The BaBar silicon vertex tracker, performance and running experience

    CERN Document Server

    Re, V; Bozzi, C; Carassiti, V; Cotta-Ramusino, A; Piemontese, L; Breon, A B; Brown, D; Clark, A R; Goozen, F; Hernikl, C; Kerth, L T; Gritsan, A; Lynch, G; Perazzo, A; Roe, N A; Zizka, G; Roberts, D; Schieck, J; Brenna, E; Citterio, M; Lanni, F; Palombo, F; Ratti, L; Manfredi, P F; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bosi, F; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ceccanti, M; Forti, F; Gagliardi, D J; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Mammini, P; Morganti, M; Morsani, F; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Profeti, A; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Simi, G; Triggiani, G; Walsh, J; Burchat, Patricia R; Cheng, C; Kirkby, D; Meyer, T I; Roat, C; Bóna, M; Bianchi, F; Gamba, D; Trapani, P; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Lanceri, L; Pompili, A; Poropat, P; Rashevskaia, I; Vuagnin, G; Burke, S; Callahan, D; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Hale, D; Hart, P; Kuznetsova, N; Kyre, S; Levy, S; Long, O; May, J; Mazur, M; Richman, J; Verkerke, W; Witherell, M; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Frey, A; Grillo, A A; Grothe, M; Johnson, R P; Kröger, W; Lockman, W S; Pulliam, T; Rowe, W; Schmitz, R E; Seiden, A; Spencer, E N; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Wilder, M; Wilson, M; Charles, E; Elmer, P; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Scott, I; Zobernig, H

    2002-01-01

    The Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) of the BaBar experiment at the PEP-II asymmetric B factory is a five-layer double-sided, AC-coupled silicon microstrip detector. It represents the crucial element to precisely measure the decay position of B mesons and extract time-dependent CP asymmetries. The SVT architecture is shown and its performance is described, with emphasis on hit resolutions and efficiencies.

  4. The design and construction of the BaBar silicon vertex tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bozzi, C; Ramusino, A C; Dittongo, S; Folegani, M; Piemontese, L; Abbott, B K; Breon, A B; Clark, A R; Dow, S; Fan, Q; Goozen, F; Hernikl, C; Karcher, A; Kerth, L T; Kipnis, I; Kluth, S; Lynch, G; Levi, M; Luft, P; Luo, L; Nyman, M A; Pedrali-Noy, M; Roe, N A; Zizka, G; Roberts, D; Barni, D; Brenna, E; Defendi, I; Forti, A C; Giugni, D; Lanni, F; Palombo, F; Vaniev, V; Leona, A; Mandelli, E; Manfredi, P F; Perazzo, A; Re, V; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bosi, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Dutra, F; Forti, F; Gagliardi, D; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Mammini, P; Morganti, M; Morsani, F; Paoloni, E; Profeti, A; Rama, M; Rampino, G; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Simi, G; Triggiani, G; Tritto, S; Vitale, R; Burchat, Patricia R; Cheng, C; Kirkby, D; Meyer, T; Roat, C; Bóna, M; Bianchi, F; Daudo, F; Girolamo, B D; Gamba, D; Giraudo, G; Grosso, P; Romero, A; Smol, A; Trapani, P; Zanin, D; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Pompili, A; Poropat, P; Prest, M; Rastelli, C; Vallazza, E; Vuagnin, G; Hast, C; Potter, E P; Sharma, V; Burke, S; Callahan, D; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Eppich, A; Hale, D; Hall, K; Hart, P; Kuznetsova, N; Kyre, S; Levy, S; Long, O; May, J; Richman, J; Verkerke, W; Witherell, M; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Frey, A; Grillo, A; Grothe, M; Johnson, R; Kröger, W; Lockman, W; Pulliam, T; Rowe, W; Schmitz, R; Seiden, A; Spencer, E; Turri, M; Wilder, M; Charles, E; Elmer, P; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Scott, I; Walsh, J; Zobernig, H

    2000-01-01

    The Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) of the BaBar experiment at the PEP-II asymmetric B factory consists of five layers of double-sided, AC-coupled silicon strip detectors. The detectors are readout with a custom IC, capable of simultaneous acquisition, digitization and transmission of data. The SVT geometry is shown and the construction phases of its modules are described in detail, with emphasis on the bending procedures needed for the arch-modules of the outer layers.

  5. The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker from integration to start-up

    CERN Document Server

    Ciulli, V

    2008-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) integration has been completed. After an extensive period of testing with cosmic muons the detector is ready for the final installation inside the CMS magnet. This paper will review the integration procedures and the tests completed to ensure that SST performs according to specifications.

  6. Preliminary results from the GLAST silicon tracker beam test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germani, Stefano [INFN sez.Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, 06123, Perugia (Italy)], E-mail: stefano.germani@pg.infn.it

    2007-12-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is a pair-conversion gamma-ray detector designed to explore the gamma-ray universe in the 20 MeV-300 GeV energy band. The Tracker subsystem of the LAT will perform tracking of electrons and positrons to determine the origin of the gamma-ray. The LAT instrument, the Calibration Unit (CU) and the beamtest performed at CERN during the summer 2006 are described in this paper.

  7. Preliminary Results From the GLAST Silicon Tracker Beam Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germani, Stefano; /INFN, Perugia

    2009-05-12

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is a pair-conversion gamma-ray detector designed to explore the gamma-ray universe in the 20 MeV-300 GeV energy band. The Tracker subsystem of the LAT will perform tracking of electrons and positrons to determine the origin of the gamma-ray. The LAT instrument, the Calibration Unit (CU) and the beamtest performed at CERN during the summer 2006 are described in this paper.

  8. Demonstration of a compact wavelength tracker using a tunable silicon resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jifang; Cai, Hong; Gu, Yuandong; Liu, Aiqun

    2014-10-06

    Here, we demonstrate a chip-scale integrated optical wavelength tracker with fast response and compact format. By exploiting the electro-optic(EO) effect on a thermally controlled silicon micro-ring resonator filter, the proposed tracker can operate over a wide wavelength range according to the thermo-optic (TO) effect; meanwhile, the tracker's response speed is greatly improved through the EO effect (i.e. tracking within 1 ns), as compared to the traditional TO controlled methods (typical ~10 μs). With the integration of a photodiode onto the photonics chip, the compact chip is with a footprint of 0.5 mm × 1.5 mm. This tracker has potential applications for wavelength tacking in advanced DWDM network systems, tunable laser sources, and high performance optical sensors.

  9. The silicon microstrip sensors of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ahmad, A.; Albrechtskirchinger, Z.; Allport, P.; Böhm, Jan; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Šťastný, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 578, - (2007), s. 98-118 ISSN 0168-9002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * SCT * silicon * microstrip * module * LHC Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.114, year: 2007

  10. Alignment of the CMS Silicon Tracker during Commissioning with Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

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Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Ayan, A S; Bilki, B; Briggs, R; Cankocak, K; Chung, K; Clarida, W; Debbins, P; Duru, F; Ingram, F D; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Parsons, J; Schmidt, I; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Chien, C Y; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Zhang, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Kaadze, K; Liu, A; Maravin, Y; Onoprienko, D; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Bard, R; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kunori, S; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The CMS silicon tracker, consisting of 1440 silicon pixel and 15148 silicon strip detector modules, has been aligned using more than three million cosmic ray charged particles, with additional information from optical surveys. The positions of the modules were determined with respect to cosmic ray trajectories to a precision of 3-4 microns RMS in the barrel and 3-14 microns RMS in the endcap in the most sensitive coordinate. The results have been validated by several methods, including the laser alignment system, and compared with predictions obtained from simulation. Correlated systematic effects have been investigated. The track parameter resolutions obtained with this alignment are close to the design performance.

  11. Integration of the End Cap TEC+ of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Volker; Ageron, Michel; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Atz, Bernd; Barvich, Tobias; Baulieu, Guillaume; Beaumont, Willem; Beissel, Franz; Bergauer, Thomas; Berst, Jean-Daniel; Blüm, Peter; Bock, E; Bogelsbacher, F; de Boer, Wim; Bonnet, Jean-Luc; Bonnevaux, Alain; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouhali, Othmane; Braunschweig, Wolfgang; Bremer, R; Brom, Jean-Marie; Butz, Erik; Chabanat, Eric; Chabert, Eric Christian; Clerbaux, Barbara; Contardo, Didier; De Callatay, Bernard; Dehm, Philip; Delaere, Christophe; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Dewulf, Jean-Paul; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Didierjean, Francois; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Dragicevic, Marko; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Esser, Hans; Estre, Nicolas; Fahrer, Manuel; Feld, Lutz; Fernández, J; Florins, Benoit; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Flügge, Günter; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Freudenreich, Klaus; Frey, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Furgeri, Alexander; Giraud, Noël; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goorens, Robert; Graehling, Philippe; Grégoire, Ghislain; Gregoriev, E; Gross, Laurent; Hansel, S; Haroutunian, Roger; Hartmann, Frank; Heier, Stefan; Hermanns, Thomas; Heydhausen, Dirk; Heyninck, Jan; Hosselet, J; Hrubec, Josef; Jahn, Dieter; Juillot, Pierre; Kaminski, Jochen; Karpinski, Waclaw; Kaussen, Gordon; Keutgen, Thomas; Klanner, Robert; Klein, Katja; König, Stefan; Kosbow, M; Krammer, Manfred; Ledermann, Bernhard; Lemaître, Vincent; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Linn, Alexander; Lounis, Abdenour; Lübelsmeyer, Klaus; Lumb, Nicholas; Maazouzi, Chaker; Mahmoud, Tariq; Michotte, Daniel; Militaru, Otilia; Mirabito, Laurent; Müller, Thomas; Neukermans, Lionel; Ollivetto, C; Olzem, Jan; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Pandoulas, Demetrios; Pein, Uwe; Pernicka, Manfred; Perriès, Stephane; Piaseki, C; Pierschel, Gerhard; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Poettgens, Michael; Pooth, Oliver; Rouby, Xavier; Sabellek, Andreas; Schael, Stefan; Schirm, Norbert; Schleper, Peter; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Schultz von Dratzig, Arndt; Siedling, Rolf; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stahl, Achim; Steck, Pia; Steinbruck, G; Stoye, Markus; Strub, Roger; Tavernier, Stefaan; Teyssier, Daniel; Theel, Andreas; Trocmé, Benjamin; Udo, Fred; Van der Donckt, M; Van der Velde, C; Van Hove, Pierre; Vanlaer, Pascal; Van Lancker, Luc; Van Staa, Rolf; Vanzetto, Sylvain; Weber, Markus; Weiler, Thomas; Weseler, Siegfried; Wickens, John; Wittmer, Bruno; Wlochal, Michael; De Wolf, Eddi A; Zhukov, Valery; Zoeller, Marc Henning

    2009-01-01

    The silicon strip tracker of the CMS experiment has been completed and inserted into the CMS detector in late 2007. The largest sub-system of the tracker is its end cap system, comprising two large end caps (TEC) each containing 3200 silicon strip modules. To ease construction, the end caps feature a modular design: groups of about 20 silicon modules are placed on sub-assemblies called petals and these self-contained elements are then mounted into the TEC support structures. Each end cap consists of 144 petals, and the insertion of these petals into the end cap structure is referred to as TEC integration. The two end caps were integrated independently in Aachen (TEC+) and at CERN (TEC--). This note deals with the integration of TEC+, describing procedures for end cap integration and for quality control during testing of integrated sections of the end cap and presenting results from the testing.

  12. Development of a new Silicon Tracker at CMS for Super-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Pesaresi, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Tracking is an essential requirement for any high energy particle physics experiment. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) employs an all silicon tracker, the largest of its kind, for the precise measurement of track momentum and vertex position. With approximately 10 million detector channels in the strip tracker alone, the analogue non-sparsified readout system has been designed to handle the large data volumes generated at the 100 kHz Level 1 (L1) trigger rate. Fluctuations in the event rate are controlled using buffers whose occupancies are constantly monitored to prevent overflows, otherwise causing loss of synchronisation and data. The status of the tracker is reported by the APV emulator (APVe), which has now been successfully commissioned within the silicon strip tracker readout system. The APVe plays a crucial role in the synchronisation of the tracker by deterministic calculation of the front end buffer occupancy and by monitoring the status of the Front End Dr...

  13. Electrical production testing of the D0 Silicon microstrip tracker detector modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D0, SMT Production Testing Group; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    The D0 Silicon Microstrip Tracker (SMT) is the innermost system of the D0 detector in Run 2. It consists of 912 detector units, corresponding to 5 different types of assemblies, which add up to a system with 792,576 readout channels. The task entrusted to the Production Testing group was to thoroughly debug, test and grade each detector module before its installation in the tracker. This note describes the production testing sequence and the procedures by which the detector modules were electrically tested and characterized at the various stages of their assembly.

  14. Silicon strip prototypes for the ATLAS Upgrade tracker of the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Díez, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the integration structures for the silicon strips tracker of the ATLAS detector for the Phase-II upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), also referred to as High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). Silicon strip sensors are arranged in highly modular structures, called `staves' and `petals'. This paper focuses on the prototyping effort developed by the strips tracker barrel community, as well as on the description of one of the latest stave prototypes. This new prototype is composed of a particular core structure, in which a shield-less bus tape is embedded in between carbon fiber lay-ups. Electrical and thermal performances of the prototype are presented, as well as a description of the assembly procedures and tools.

  15. Commissioning the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker prior to Operations with Cosmic Ray Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Stringer, R

    2009-01-01

    During autumn 2008, the Silicon Strip Tracker was operated with the full CMS experiment in a comprehensive test, in the presence of the 3.8~T magnetic field produced by the CMS superconducting solenoid. This note details the detector commissioning phase just prior to this data-taking exercise and the procedures used to optimise the performance of the Silicon Strip Tracker. The number of detector modules used during the test corresponds to 98.0\\% of the total system. The ten million channels of the SST readout system were calibrated and synchronised with cosmic ray muon data using automated procedures. Excellent hit and track reconstruction efficiencies were observed, which demonstrate the quality of the SST detector and the precision of the calibration procedures.

  16. Test of CMS tracker silicon detector modules with the ARC readout system

    CERN Document Server

    Axer, M; Flügge, G; Franke, T; Hegner, B; Hermanns, T; Kasselmann, S T; Mnich, J; Nowack, A; Pooth, O; Pottgens, M

    2004-01-01

    The CMS tracker will be equipped with 16,000 silicon microstrip detector modules covering a surface of approximately 220 m**2. For quality control, a compact and inexpensive DAQ system is needed to monitor the mass production in industry and in the CMS production centres. To meet these requirements a set-up called APV Readout Controller (ARC) system was developed and distributed among all collaborating institutes to perform full readout tests of hybrids and modules at each production step. The system consists of all necessary hardware components, C++ based readout software using LabVIEW **1 Lab VIEW is a product of National Instruments, Austin, USA. as graphical user interface and provides full database connection to track every single module component during the production phase. Two preseries of Tracker End Cap (TEC) silicon detector modules have been produced by the TEC community and tested with the ARC system at Aachen. The results of the second series are presented.

  17. Design and test of a prototype silicon detector module for ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker endcaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, A.G.; Donega, M.; D'Onofrio, M.

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) will be a central part of the tracking system of the ATLAS experiment. The SCT consists of four concentric barrels of silicon detectors as well as two silicon endcap detectors formed by nine disks each. The layout of the forward silicon detector module presented in this paper is based on the approved layout of the silicon detectors of the SCT, their geometry and arrangement in disks, but uses otherwise components identical to the barrel modules of the SCT. The module layout is optimized for excellent thermal management and electrical performance, while keeping the assembly simple and adequate for a large scale module production. This paper summarizes the design and layout of the module and present results of a limited prototype production, which has been extensively tested in the laboratory and testbeam. The module design was not finally adopted for series production because a dedicated forward hybrid layout was pursued

  18. Studies for the Commissioning of the CERN CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Christoph; Abbaneo, Duccio; Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    In 2008 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will start producing proton-proton collisions of unprecedented energy. One of its main experiments is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), a general purpose detector, optimized for the search of the Higgs boson and super symmetric particles. The discovery potential of the CMS detector relies on a high precision tracking system, made of a pixel detector and the largest silicon strip Tracker ever built. In order to operate successfully a device as complex as the CMS silicon strip Tracker, and to fully exploit its potential, the properties of the hardware need to be characterized as precisely as possible, and the reconstruction software needs to be commissioned with physics signals. A number of issues were identified and studied to commission the detector, some of which concern the entire Tracker, while some are specific to the Tracker Outer Barrel (TOB): - the time evolution of the signals in the readout electronics need to be precisely measured and correctly simulate...

  19. Managing Bias Leakage Currents and High Data Rates in the BABAR Silicon Vertex Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Garra-Tico, J; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Curry, S; Kirkby, D; Burke, S; Callahan, D; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Hale, D; Kyre, S; Richman, J; Beck, T; Eisner, A M; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Winstrom, L; Brown, D; Dardin, S; Goozen, F; Kerth, L T; Lynch, G; Roe, N A; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Lae, C K; Roberts, D; Simi, G; Tuggle, J; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Ratti, L; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bosi, F; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ceccanti, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Mammini, P; Manfredi, P F; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M; Morganti, M; Morsani, F; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Profeti, A; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J; Elmer, P; Long, O; Charles, E; Perazzo, A; Burchat, P; Edwards, A J; Miyashita, T S; Majewski, S; Petersen, B A; Bona, M; Bianchi, F; Gamba, D; Trapani, P; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Dittongo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J

    2008-01-01

    The silicon vertex tracker at the BABAR experiment is the primary device used in measuring the distance between B0 and meson decay vertices for the extraction of CP asymmetries. It consists of five layers of double-sided, AC-coupled silicon modules, read out by custom integrated circuits. It has run well consistently for eight years. I report on three years of experience in managing problematic bias leakage currents in the fourth layer. In addition, I report on recent success in decreasing the data acquisition time by reducing the readout window.

  20. Electrical results of double-sided silicon strip modules for the ATLAS Upgrade Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Cadoux, F; Clark, A; Ferrere, D; Ikegami, Y; Hara, K; La Marra, D; Pelleriti, G; Pohl, M; Takubo, Y; Terada, S; Unno, Y; Weber, M

    2012-01-01

    A double-sided silicon strip module has been designed for the short-strip barrel region of the future ATLAS inner tracker for the High Luminosity LHC. University of Geneva and KEK have produced first module prototypes with common components and similar assembly procedures and jigs. This note reports on the electrical performance of the modules tested. The data acquisition system is described. Results from individual and combined module readout are shown.

  1. Tests of Silicon Detector Modules for the Tracker End Cap with the ARC System

    CERN Document Server

    Axer, Markus; Flügge, Günter; Franke, Torsten; Kasselmann, Stefan; Mnich, Joachim; Poettgens, Michael; Pooth, Oliver; Schulte, Reiner

    2003-01-01

    During the production phase of the CMS silicon strip detector modules the ARC (APV Readout Controller) system will be used as a readout system for testing purposes. The first ten TEC (tracker end cap) modules built have been tested using the ARC system. After a description of the test environment and the test procedures the results for the so-called expressline modules are summarized.

  2. Thermal Conductivity Measurement of the Silicon Sensor Support Frames of the CMS Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Clerbaux, Barbara; Van der Velde, C; Vancaldenhoven, M; Van Lancker, Luc

    2005-01-01

    The silicon sensor support elements of the CMS tracker detector are made of carbon fiber, epoxy resin and/or graphite material. A function of the supports is to remove heat generated in the sensors and in the frontend electronics. In this note we present the results of studies we have performed of the thermal conductivity of these support elements. Results are presented for various production batches.

  3. Commissioning of the LHCb Silicon Tracker using data from the LHC injection tests

    CERN Document Server

    Knecht, M; Blanc, F; Bettler, M-O; Conti, G; Fave, V; Frei, R; Gauvin, N; Haefeli, G; Keune, A; Luisier, J; Muresan, R; Nakada, T; Needham, M; Nicolas, L; Perrin, A; Potterat, C; Schneider, O; Tran, M; Bauer, C; Britsch, M; Hofmann, W; Maciuc, F; Schmelling, M; Voss, H; Anderson, J; Buechler, A; Chiapolini, N; Hangartner, V; Salzmann, C; Steiner, S; Steinkamp, O; Van Tilburg, J; Tobin, M; Vollhardt, A; Adeva, B; Fungueiri no Pazos, J; Gallas, A; Pazos-Alvarez, A; Pérez-Trigo, E; Pló-Casasus, M; Rodriguez Perez, P; Saborido, J; Vázquez, P; Iakovenko, V; Okhrimenko, O; Pugatch, V

    2011-01-01

    LHCb is a single-arm forward spectrometer dedicated to the study of the CP-violation and rare decays in the b-quark sector. An efficient and high precision tracking system is a key requirement of the experiment. The LHCb Silicon Tracker Project consists of two sub-detectors that make use of silicon micro-strip technology: the Tracker Turicensis located upstream of the spectrometer magnet and the Inner Tracker which covers the innermost part of the tracking stations after the magnet. In total an area of 12 m^2 is covered by silicon. In September 2008 and June 2009, injection tests from the SPS to the LHC were performed. Bunches of order 5x10^9 protons were dumped onto a beam stopper (TED) located upstream of LHCb. This produced a spray of ~10 GeV muons in the LHCb detector. Though the occupancy in this environment is relatively large, these TED runs have allowed a first space and time alignment of the tracking system. Results of these studies together and the overall detector performance obtained in the TED ru...

  4. A bipolar analog front-end integrated circuit for the SDC silicon tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipnis, I.; Spieler, H.; Collins, T.

    1993-11-01

    A low-noise, low-power, high-bandwidth, radiation hard, silicon bipolar-transistor full-custom integrated circuit (IC) containing 64 channels of analog signal processing has been developed for the SDC silicon tracker. The IC was designed and tested at LBL and was fabricated using AT ampersand T's CBIC-U2, 4 GHz f T complementary bipolar technology. Each channel contains the following functions: low-noise preamplification, pulse shaping and threshold discrimination. This is the first iteration of the production analog IC for the SDC silicon tracker. The IC is laid out to directly match the 50 μm pitch double-sided silicon strip detector. The chip measures 6.8 mm x 3.1 mm and contains 3,600 transistors. Three stages of amplification provide 180 mV/fC of gain with a 35 nsec peaking time at the comparator input. For a 14 pF detector capacitance, the equivalent noise charge is 1300 el. rms at a power consumption of 1 mW/channel from a single 3.5 V supply. With the discriminator threshold set to 4 times the noise level, a 16 nsec time-walk for 1.25 to 10fC signals is achieved using a time-walk compensation network. Irradiation tests at TRIUMF to a Φ=10 14 protons/cm 2 have been performed on the IC, demonstrating the radiation hardness of the complementary bipolar process

  5. Production and performance of the silicon sensor and custom readout electronics for the PHENIX FVTX tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapustinsky, Jon S.

    2010-01-01

    The Forward Silicon Vertex Tracker (FVTX) upgrade for the PHENIX detector at RHIC will extend the vertex capability of the central PHENIX Silicon Vertex Tracker (VTX). The FVTX is designed with adequate spatial resolution to separate decay muons coming from the relatively long-lived heavy quark mesons (Charm and Beauty), from prompt particles and the longer-lived pion and kaon decays that originate at the primary collision vertex. These heavy quarks can be used to probe the high-density medium that is formed in Au+Au collisions at RHIC. The FVTX is designed as two endcaps. Each endcap comprises four silicon disks covering opening angles from 10 o to 35 o to match the existing muon arm acceptance. Each disk consists of p-on-n, silicon wedges, with ac-coupled mini-strips on 75 μm radial pitch and projective length in the phi direction that increases with radius. A custom front-end chip, the FPHX, has been designed for the FVTX. The chip combines fast trigger capability with data push architecture in a low-power design.

  6. New technologies of silicon position-sensitive detectors for future tracker systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bassignana, Daniela; Lozano, M

    In view of the new generation of high luminosity colliders, HL-LHC and ILC, a farther investigation of silicon radiation detectors design and technology is demanded, in order to satisfy the stringent requirements of the experiments at such sophisticated machines. In this thesis, innovative technologies of silicon radiation detectors for future tracking systems are proposed. Three dierent devices have been studied and designed with the help of dierent tools for computer simulations. They have been manufactured in the IMB-CNM clean room facilities in Barcelona and characterized with proper experimental set-ups in order to test the detectors capabilities and the quality and suitability of the technologies used for their fabrication. The rst technology deals with the upgrade of dedicated sensors for laser alignment systems in future tracker detectors. The design and technology of common single-sided silicon microstrip detectors have been slightly modied in order to improve IR light transmittance of the devices. T...

  7. Alignment procedures for the CMS Silicon Tracker detector during pp collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Castello, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The CMS all-silicon tracker consists of 16588 modules: aligning them with the desired precision of a few micrometers is only feasible using track based alignment procedures. Ultimate precision is now achieved by the determination of sensor curvatures in addition to the local translation and rotation of modules in space. This challenges the alignment algorithms to determine about 200 000 parameters simultaneously. This is achieved using a standalone algorithm exploiting a global fit approach, interfaced with CMS software. The alignment of the detector is also monitored using its built in Laser Alignment System. The main remaining challenge for the alignment are global distortions that systematically bias the track parameters and thus physics measurements. These distortions are controlled by adding further information into the alignment workflow, e.g. the mass of decaying resonances. The orientation of the tracker with respect to the magnetic field of CMS is determined with a stand-alone chi-square minimizatio...

  8. The Silicon Microstrip Sensors of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, A; Allport, P P; Alonso, J; Andricek, L; Apsimon, R J; Barr, A J; Bates, R L; Beck, G A; Bell, P J; Belymam, A; Benes, J; Berg, C M; Bernabeu, J; Bethke, S; Bingefors, N; Bizzell, J P; Bohm, J; Brenner, R; Brodbeck, T J; Bruckman De Renstrom, P; Buttar, C M; Campbell, D; Carpentieri, C; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Charlton, D G; Casse, G-L; Chilingarov, A; Cindro, V; Ciocio, A; Civera, J V; Clark, A G; Colijn, A-P; Costa, M J; Dabrowski, W; Danielsen, K M; Dawson, I; Demirkoz, B; Dervan, P; Dolezal, Z; Dorholt, O; Duerdoth, I P; Dwuznik, M; Eckert, S; Ekelöf, T; Eklund, L; Escobar, C; Fasching, D; Feld, L; Ferguson, D P S; Ferrere, D; Fortin, R; Foster, J M; Fox, H; French, R; Fromant, B P; Fujita, K; Fuster, J; Gadomski, S; Gallop, B J; Garcia, C; Garcia-Navarro, J E; Gibson, M D; Gonzalez, S; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Goodrick, M J; Gornicki, E; Green, C; Greenall, A; Grigson, C; Grillo, A A; Grosse-Knetter, J; Haber, C; Handa, T; Hara, K; Harper, R S; Hartjes, F G; Hashizaki, T; Hauff, D; Hessey, N P; Hill, J C; Hollins, T I; Holt, S; Horazdovsky, T; Hornung, M; Hovland, K M; Hughes, G; Huse, T; Ikegami, Y; Iwata, Y; Jackson, J N; Jakobs, K; Jared, R C; Johansen, L G; Jones, R W L; Jones, T J; de Jong, P; Joseph, J; Jovanovic, P; Kaplon, J; Kato, Y; Ketterer, C; Kindervaag, I M; Kodys, P; Koffeman, E; Kohriki, T; Kohout, Z; Kondo, T; Koperny, S; van der Kraaij, E; Kral, V; Kramberger, G; Kudlaty, J; Lacasta, C; Limper, M; Linhart, V; Llosa, G; Lozano, M; Ludwig, I; Ludwig, J; Lutz, G; Macpherson, A; McMahon, S J; Macina, D; Magrath, C A; Malecki, P; Mandic, I; Marti-Garcia, S; Matsuo, T; Meinhardt, J; Mellado, B; Mercer, I J; Mikestikova, M; Mikuz, M; Minano, M; Mistry, J; Mitsou, V; Modesto, P; Mohn, B; Molloy, S D; Moorhead, G; Moraes, A; Morgan, D; Morone, M C; Morris, J; Moser, H-G; Moszczynski, A; Muijs, A J M; Nagai, K; Nakamura, Y; Nakano, I; Nicholson, R; Niinikoski, T; Nisius, R; Ohsugi, T; O'Shea, V; Oye, O K; Parzefall, U; Pater, J R; Pernegger, H; Phillips, P W; Posisil, S; Ratoff, P N; Reznicek, P; Richardson, J D; Richter, R H; Robinson, D; Roe, S; Ruggiero, G; Runge, K; Sadrozinski, H F W; Sandaker, H; Schieck, J; Seiden, A; Shinma, S; Siegrist, J; Sloan, T; Smith, N A; Snow, S W; Solar, M; Solberg, A; Sopko, B; Sospedra, L; Spieler, H; Stanecka, E; Stapnes, S; Stastny, J; Stelzer, F; Stradling, A; Stugu, B; Takashima, R; Tanaka, R; Taylor, G; Terada, S; Thompson, R J; Titov, M; Tomeda, Y; Tovey, D R; Turala, M; Turner, P R; Tyndel, M; Ullan, M; Unno, Y; Vickey, T; Vos, M; Wallny, R; Weilhammer, P; Wells, P S; Wilson, J A; Wolter, M; Wormald, M; Wu, S L; Yamashita, T; Zontar, D; Zsenei, A

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the AC-coupled, single-sided, p-in-n silicon microstrip sensors used in the SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The sensor requirements, specifications and designs are discussed, together with the qualification and quality assurance procedures adopted for their production. The measured sensor performance is presented, both initially and after irradiation to the fluence anticipated after 10 years of LHC operation. The sensors are now successfully assembled within the detecting modules of the SCT, and the SCT tracker is completed and integrated within the ATLAS Inner Detector. Hamamatsu Photonics Ltd supplied 92.2% of the 15,392 installed sensors, with the remainder supplied by CiS.

  9. In-flight operations and status of the AMS-02 silicon tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosi, G; Battiston, R; Bertucci, b B; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Crispoltoni, M; Delgado, C; Duranti, M; Donnini, F; D'Urso, D; Fiandrini, cE; Formato, V; Graziani, M; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Ionica, M; Kanishchev, K; Nozzoli, F; Oliva, c A; Paniccia, M; Pizzolotto, C; Pohl, c M; Qin, X; Rapin, d D; Saouter, P; Tomassetti, N; Vitale, V; Vitillo, c S; Wu, X; Zhang, Z; Zuccon, P

    2016-01-01

    The AMS-02 detector is a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer operating on the International Space Station since May 2011. More than 60 billion events have been collected by the instrument as of today. One of the key subdetectors of AMS-02 is the microstrip silicon Tracker, designed to precisely measure the trajectory and absolute charge of cosmic rays in the GeV-TeV energy range. In addition, with the magnetic field, is also measuring the particle magnetic rigidity, defined as R = pc/Ze, and the sign of the charge. This report presents the Tracker on-line operations and calibration during the first four years of data taking in space. The track reconstruction efficiency and the resolution will be also reviewed.

  10. Construction of the new silicon microstrips tracker for the Phase-II ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Zhijun; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The inner detector of the present ATLAS detector has been designed and developed to function in the environment of the present Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the next-generation tracking detector proposed for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the so-called ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade, the particle densities and radiation levels will be higher by as much as a factor of ten. The new detectors must be faster, they need to be more highly segmented, and covering more area. They also need to be more resistant to radiation, and they require much greater power delivery to the front-end systems. For those reasons, the inner tracker of the ATLAS detector must be redesigned and rebuilt completely. The design of the ATLAS Upgrade inner tracker (ITk) has already been defined. It consists of several layers of silicon particle detectors. The innermost layers will be composed of silicon pixel sensors, and the outer layers will consist of silicon microstrip sensors. This paper will focus on the latest research and development act...

  11. Experience in the assembly of the large area silicon tracker for the AMS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionica, Maria

    2003-11-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), installed on the International Space Station will provide precise measurements of the cosmic ray spectra in the GeV to TeV energy range, and will search for cosmological antimatter and dark matter. A first version of the detector was operated successfully during a precursor flight on the space shuttle Discovery in June 1998 (STS-91). The magnetic spectrometer uses a large area (7.2 m2) silicon microstrip detector providing 10 μm spatial resolution for the bending coordinate. Here we briefly report on the design of the AMS tracker, its construction status and some innovative assembly techniques we have developed.

  12. The SuperB Silicon Vertex Tracker and 3D vertical integration

    CERN Document Server

    Re, Valerio

    2011-01-01

    The construction of the SuperB high luminosity collider was approved and funded by the Italian government in 2011. The performance specifications set by the target luminosity of this machine (> 10^36 cm^-2 s^-1) ask for the development of a Silicon Vertex Tracker with high resolution, high tolerance to radiation and excellent capability of handling high data rates. This paper reviews the R&D activity that is being carried out for the SuperB SVT. Special emphasis is given to the option of exploiting 3D vertical integration to build advanced pixel sensors and readout electronics that are able to comply with SuperB vertexing requirements.

  13. The Implementation of the power supply system of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    OpenAIRE

    Paoletti, S

    2007-01-01

    The power supply system of the silicon strip tracker of the CMS experiment provides HV bias and LV power to the 15000 modules of the detector, arranged into 1944 “power groups” and 256 “control rings”. Around 1200 power supply modules, disposed on 29 racks, operate in a “hostile” radiation and magnetic field environment, 10 m away from the beam crossing region. They power the detector through≃ 50 m long custom-designed “Low Impedance” cables, adopting the sensing wire technique to compensate ...

  14. Commissioning, operation and performance of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker detector

    CERN Document Server

    Demina, Regina

    2009-01-01

    The CMS silicon strip tracker is the largest device of this type ever built for detection of charge particles produced in beam-beam collisions. There are 24244 single-sided micro-strip sensors covering an active area of over 200 square meters, and nearly 10 millions channels to be read out. The detector was installed inside CMS in December 2007, and it was commissioned during the summer 2008. Since then it integrated several global CMS cosmic muons data taking and performances were measured. The commissioning strategy, operational experience learned during the data taking period, and detector performance results will be presented.

  15. arXiv Charge reconstruction study of the DAMPE Silicon-Tungsten Tracker with ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Qiao, Rui; Guo, Dong-Ya; Zhao, Hao; Wang, Huan-Yu; Gong, Ke; Zhang, Fei; Wu, Xin; Azzarello, Phillip; Tykhonov, Andrii; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Gallo, Valentina; Ambrosi, Giovanni; Mazziotta, Nicola; De Mitri, Ivan

    The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is one of the four satellites within Strategic Pioneer Research Program in Space Science of the Chinese Academy of Science (CAS). DAMPE can detect electrons, photons in a wide energy range (5 GeV to 10 TeV) and ions up to iron (100GeV to 100 TeV). Silicon-Tungsten Tracker (STK) is one of the four subdetectors in DAMPE, providing photon-electron conversion, track reconstruction and charge identification for ions. Ion beam test was carried out in CERN with 60GeV/u Lead primary beams. Charge reconstruction and charge resolution of STK detectors were investigated.

  16. Pin Photodiodes for Radiation Monitoring and Protection in the Babar Silicon Vertex Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, T. I.

    We discuss the design, implementation and performance of the radiation monitoring and protection system used by the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) in the BaBar detector. Using 12 reverse-biased PIN photodiodes mounted around the beampipe near the IP, we are able to provide instantaneous radiation dose rates, absorbed dose integrals, and active protection that aborts the circulating beams in the PEP-II storage ring when radiation levels exceed user-defined thresholds. The systems has reliably protected the SVT from excessive radiation damage and has also served as a key diagnostic tool in understanding radiation backgrounds at PEP-II.

  17. Embolization of carotid-cavernous fistula using a silicone balloon and a tracker-catheter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Yong; Cho, Kil Ho; Park, Bok Hwan

    1992-01-01

    With the recent introduction and development of the detachable balloon system, it has become the treatment of choice in the management of carotid cavernous fistulas(CCFs). But, since most delivery systems for embolization of CCF mainly depend on flow guidance for balloon delivery, in case of small fistula, pseudo aneurysm and arterialized venous collaterals, failure of balloon embolization can occur. To overcome these limitation, the authors designed and used a new versatile, steerable, and flow-guided detachable balloon system by using a Tracker catheter system with silicone or latex balloons. Using this maneuver, we could get successful fistula occlusion in 7 out of 8 patients (silicone balloon). But in one case, we had to occlude the internal carotid artery at the fistula site, proximal and distal cervical portions of the internal carotid artery. This balloon delivery system proved to provide high selectivity for fistula and relatively ease of handing

  18. First prototype of a silicon tracker using an artificial retina for fast track finding

    CERN Document Server

    Neri, N.; Caponio, F.; Citterio, M.; Coelli, S.; Fu, J.; Geraci, A.; Monti, M.; Petruzzo, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Marino, P.; Morello, M.J.; Piucci, A.; Punzi, G.; Spinella, F.; Stracka, S.; Walsh, J.; Ristori, L.; Tonelli, D.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the R\\&D for a first prototype of a silicon tracker based on an alternative approach for fast track finding. The working principle is inspired from neurobiology, in particular by the processing of visual images by the brain as it happens in nature. It is based on extensive parallelisation of data distribution and pattern recognition. In this work we present the design of a practical device that consists of a telescope based on single-sided silicon detectors; we describe the data acquisition system and the implementation of the track finding algorithms using available digital logic of commercial FPGA devices. Tracking performance and trigger capabilities of the device are discussed along with perspectives for future applications.

  19. The effect of highly ionising particles on the CMS silicon strip tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Bergauer, T; Bouhali, O; Clerbaux, B; De Langhe, E; De Lentdecker, G; De Wolf, E; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Hrubec, Josef; Krammer, Manfred; Pernicka, Manfred; Tasevsky, M; Waltenberger, W

    2005-01-01

    Inelastic nuclear collisions of hadrons incident on silicon sensors can generate secondary highly ionising particles (HIPs) and deposit as much energy within the sensor bulk as several hundred minimum ionising particles. The large signals generated by these 'HIP events' can momentarily saturate the APV25 front-end readout chip for the silicon strip tracker (SST) sub-detector of the compact muon solenoid (CMS) experiment, resulting in deadtime in the detector readout system. This paper presents studies of this phenomenon through simulation, laboratory measurements and dedicated beam tests. A proposed change to a front-end component to reduce the APV25 sensitivity to HIP events is also examined. The results are used to infer the expected effect on the performance of the CMS SST at the future large hadron collider. The induced inefficiencies are at the percent level and will have a negligible effect on the physics performance of the SST.

  20. Development of fluorocarbon evaporative cooling recirculators and controls for the ATLAS inner silicon tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bayer, C; Bonneau, P; Bosteels, Michel; Burckhart, H J; Cragg, D; English, R; Hallewell, G D; Hallgren, Björn I; Ilie, S; Kersten, S; Kind, P; Langedrag, K; Lindsay, S; Merkel, M; Stapnes, Steinar; Thadome, J; Vacek, V

    2000-01-01

    We report on the development of evaporative fluorocarbon cooling recirculators and their control systems for the ATLAS inner silicon tracker. We have developed a prototype circulator using a dry, hermetic compressor with C/sub 3/F/sup 8/ refrigerant, and have prototyped the remote-control analog pneumatic links for the regulation of coolant mass flows and operating temperatures that will be necessary in the magnetic field and radiation environment around ATLAS. pressure and flow measurement and control use 150+ channels of standard ATLAS LMB ("Local Monitor Board") DAQ and DACs on a multi-drop CAN network administered through a BridgeVIEW user interface. A hardwired thermal interlock system has been developed to cut power to individual silicon modules should their temperatures exceed safe values. Highly satisfactory performance of the circulator under steady state, partial-load and transient conditions was seen, with proportional fluid flow tuned to varying circuit power. Future developments, including a 6 kW...

  1. Silicon sensor prototypes for the Phase II upgrade of the CMS tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergauer, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.bergauer@oeaw.ac.at

    2016-09-21

    The High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) has been identified as the highest priority program in High Energy Physics in the mid-term future. It will provide the experiments an additional integrated luminosity of about 2500 fb{sup −1} over 10 years of operation, starting in 2025. In order to meet the experimental challenges of unprecedented p–p luminosity, especially in terms of radiation levels and occupancy, the CMS collaboration will need to replace its entire strip tracker by a new one. In this paper the baseline layout option for this new Phase-II tracker is shown, together with two variants using a tilted barrel geometry or larger modules from 8-inch silicon wafers. Moreover, the two module concepts are discussed, which consist either of two strip sensors (2S) or of one strip and one pixel sensor (PS). These two designs allow p{sub T} discrimination at module level enabling the tracker to contribute to the L1 trigger decision. The paper presents testing results of the macro-pixel-light sensor for the PS module and shows the first electrical characterization of unirradiated, full-scale strip sensor prototypes for the 2S module concept, both on 6- and 8-inch wafers.

  2. MEG II drift chamber characterization with the silicon based cosmic ray tracker at INFN Pisa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, M., E-mail: marco.venturini@pi.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Baldini, A.M. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Baracchini, E. [ICEPP, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Cei, F.; D' Onofrio, A. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, dell' Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dussoni, S.; Galli, L.; Grassi, M. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Nicolò, D. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, dell' Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Signorelli, G. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    High energy physics experiments at the high intensity frontier place ever greater demands on detectors, and in particular on tracking devices. In order to compare the performance of small size tracking prototypes, a high resolution cosmic ray tracker has been assembled to provide an external track reference. It consists of four spare ladders of the external layers of the Silicon Vertex Tracker of the BaBar experiment. The test facility, operating at INFN Sezione di Pisa, provides the detector under test with an external track with an intrinsic resolution of 15–30 μm. The MEG II tracker is conceived as a unique volume wire drift chamber filled with He–isobutane 85–15%. The ionization density in this gas mixture is about 13 clusters/cm and this results in a non-negligible bias of the impact parameters for tracks crossing the cell close to the anode wire. We present the telescope performance in terms of tracking efficiency and resolution and the results of the characterization of a MEG II drift chamber prototype.

  3. The Compact Muon Solenoid silicon tracker testing of hybrids, modules and substructures at operating temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Pottgens, M

    2004-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of two general purpose detectors which are foreseen to operate at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which is presently being built at the European laboratory for particle physics (CERN) in Switzerland. The central tracker of CMS consists of a pixel system, which is located close to the interaction point and a silicon strip tracker (SST) which instruments the intermediate and outer region. The SST is composed of 15148 silicon microstrip detector modules which contain the read-out electronics (hybrids) and sensors. These modules will be assembled into substructures with control electronics and optics for transmitting data. The substructures will be integrated into the subsystems of the SST. The SST will be operated for up to ten years in the harsh radiation environment of the LHC. The lifetime of the SST will be extended by operating the detector at lowered temperature. The sensors, which are very delicate parts in respect to radiation damage, will be operated at a maximum ...

  4. The Phase-2 Upgrade of the Silicon Strip Tracker of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kuehn, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) performs extremely well in operation. About 26 fb-1 of data have been collected at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV in 2011 and at 8 TeV in 2012. Meanwhile, a phased upgrade of the LHC is planned and in about ten years from now the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is foreseen. By luminosity levelling and a ten times higher LHC design luminosity the delivery of about 3000 fb-1 is envisaged. To cope with the severe radiation dose and high particle rates, an upgrade of several detector components of the ATLAS experiment is required. The inner detector and transition radiation tracker will be replaced by an all silicon tracking detector. The report focuses on the Phase-2 upgrade of the ATLAS silicon strip detector. It gives an overview of the concept and highlight technology choices for the upgrade strip tracker. The developments towards low mass and modular double-sided structures for the barrel and forward region are discussed. The current status of prototyping, assembly procedures a...

  5. LHCb: The LHCb Silicon Tracker - Control system specific tools and challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    Saornil Gamarra, S

    2013-01-01

    The experiment control system of the LHCb experiment is continuously evolving and improving. The guidelines and structure initially defined are kept, and more common tools are made available to all sub-detectors. Although the main system control is mostly integrated and actions are executed in common for the whole LHCb experiment, there is some degree of freedom for each sub-system to implement the control system using these tools or by creating new ones. The implementation of the LHCb Silicon Tracker control system was extremely disorganized and with little documentation. This was due to either lack of time and manpower, and/or to limited experience and specifications. Despite this, the Silicon Tracker control system has behaved well during the first LHC run. It has continuously evolved since the start of operation and been adapted to the needs of operators with very different degrees of expertise. However, improvements and corrections have been made on a best effort basis due to time constraints placed by t...

  6. RFP for the italien satellite AGILE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch; Jørgensen, John Leif; Riis, Troels

    1999-01-01

    The document descibes the ASC Star Tracker (performance, functionality, requirements etc.) to the Italian satellite AGILE.......The document descibes the ASC Star Tracker (performance, functionality, requirements etc.) to the Italian satellite AGILE....

  7. ATLAS Tracker Upgrade: Silicon Strip Detectors and Modules for the SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Minano, M

    2010-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN by a factor ten, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC or sLHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for sLHC operation. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. Extensive R&D programmes are underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. In parallel, new front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics will be shown.

  8. ATLAS Tracker Upgrade: Silicon Strip Detectors for the sLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Koehler, M

    2010-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN by a factor ten, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC or sLHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for sLHC operation. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. Extensive R&D programmes are underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. In parallel, new front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics will be shown. A key issue ...

  9. Atlas Tracker Upgrade: Silicon Strip Detectors and Modules for the SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Minano, M

    2010-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN by a significant factor, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for Super-LHC operation. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will imply a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. Extensive R&D programmes are underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. In parallel, new front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics will be shown.

  10. ATLAS Tracker Upgrade: Silicon Strip Detectors and Modules for the sLHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, Michel; Minano Moya, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN by a factor ten, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC or sLHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for sLHC operation. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. Extensive R programmes are underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. In parallel, new front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics will be shown. (authors)

  11. Real time tracker based upon local hit correlation circuit for silicon strip sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, Niklaus, E-mail: niklaus.lehmann@cern.ch [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Pirrami, Lorenzo [University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland, Boulevard de Pérolles 80 – CP 32, CH-1705 Fribourg (Switzerland); Blue, Andrew [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Diez, Sergio [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Dressnandt, Nandor [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Duner, Silvan [University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland, Boulevard de Pérolles 80 – CP 32, CH-1705 Fribourg (Switzerland); Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Haber, Carl [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Halgeri, Amogh; Keener, Paul [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Keller, John [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Newcomer, Mitchell [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Pasner, Jacob [University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Peschke, Richard [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Risbud, Amar [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ropraz, Eric; Stalder, Jonas [University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland, Boulevard de Pérolles 80 – CP 32, CH-1705 Fribourg (Switzerland); Wang, Haichen [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-01-11

    For the planned high luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a significant performance improvement of the detectors is required, including new tracker and trigger systems that makes use of charged track information early on. In this note we explore the principle of real time track reconstruction integrated in the readout electronics. A prototype was built using the silicon strip sensor for the ATLAS phase-II upgrade. The real time tracker is not the baseline for ATLAS but is nevertheless of interest, as the upgraded trigger design has not yet been finalized. For this, a new readout scheme in parallel with conventional readout, called the Fast Cluster Finder (FCF), was included in the latest prototype of the ATLAS strip detector readout chip (ABC130). The FCF is capable of finding hits within 6 ns and transmitting the found hit information synchronously every 25 ns. Using the FCF together with external correlation logic makes it possible to look for pairs of hits consistent with tracks from the interaction point above a transverse momentum threshold. A correlator logic finds correlations between two closely spaced parallel sensors, a “doublet”, and can generate information used as input to a lowest level trigger decision. Such a correlator logic was developed as part of a demonstrator and was successfully tested in an electron beam. The results of this test beam experiment proved the concept of the real time track vector processor with FCF.

  12. The rad-hard readout system of the BaBar silicon vertex tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, V.; DeWitt, J.; Dow, S.; Frey, A.; Johnson, R. P.; Kroeger, W.; Kipnis, I.; Leona, A.; Luo, L.; Mandelli, E.; Manfredi, P. F.; Nyman, M.; Pedrali-Noy, M.; Poplevin, P.; Perazzo, A.; Roe, N.; Spencer, N.

    1998-02-01

    This paper discusses the behaviour of a prototype rad-hard version of the chip developed for the readout of the BaBar silicon vertex tracker. A previous version of the chip, implemented in the 0.8 μm HP rad-soft version has been thoroughly tested in the recent times. It featured outstanding noise characteristics and showed that the specifications assumed as target for the tracker readout were met to a very good extent. The next step was the realization of a chip prototype in the rad-hard process that will be employed in the actual chip production. Such a prototype is structurally and functionally identical to its rad-soft predecessor. However, the process parameters being different, and not fully mastered at the time of design, some deviations in the behaviour were to be expected. The reasons for such deviations have been identified and some of them were removed by acting on the points that were left accessible on the chip. Other required small circuit modifications that will not affect the production schedule. The tests done so far on the rad-hard chip have shown that the noise behaviour is very close to that of the rad-soft version, that is fully adequate for the vertex detector readout.

  13. Performance of silicon pixel detectors at small track incidence angles for the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viel, Simon; Banerjee, Swagato; Brandt, Gerhard; Carney, Rebecca; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Hard, Andrew Straiton; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kashif, Lashkar; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Rieger, Julia; Wolf, Julian; Wu, Sau Lan; Yang, Hongtao

    2016-01-01

    In order to enable the ATLAS experiment to successfully track charged particles produced in high-energy collisions at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, the current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by the Inner Tracker (ITk), entirely composed of silicon pixel and strip detectors. An extension of the tracking coverage of the ITk to very forward pseudorapidity values is proposed, using pixel modules placed in a long cylindrical layer around the beam pipe. The measurement of long pixel clusters, detected when charged particles cross the silicon sensor at small incidence angles, has potential to significantly improve the tracking efficiency, fake track rejection, and resolution of the ITk in the very forward region. The performance of state-of-the-art pixel modules at small track incidence angles is studied using test beam data collected at SLAC and CERN. - Highlights: • Extended inner pixel barrel layers are proposed for the ATLAS ITk upgrade. • Test beam results at small track incidence angles validate this ATLAS ITk design. • Long pixel clusters are reconstructed with high efficiency at low threshold values. • Excellent angular resolution is achieved using pixel cluster length information.

  14. Performance of silicon pixel detectors at small track incidence angles for the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viel, Simon, E-mail: sviel@lbl.gov [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Banerjee, Swagato [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States of America (United States); Brandt, Gerhard; Carney, Rebecca; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Hard, Andrew Straiton; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kashif, Lashkar [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States of America (United States); Pranko, Aliaksandr [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Rieger, Julia [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); II Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität, Göttingen (Germany); Wolf, Julian [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Wu, Sau Lan; Yang, Hongtao [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States of America (United States)

    2016-09-21

    In order to enable the ATLAS experiment to successfully track charged particles produced in high-energy collisions at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, the current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by the Inner Tracker (ITk), entirely composed of silicon pixel and strip detectors. An extension of the tracking coverage of the ITk to very forward pseudorapidity values is proposed, using pixel modules placed in a long cylindrical layer around the beam pipe. The measurement of long pixel clusters, detected when charged particles cross the silicon sensor at small incidence angles, has potential to significantly improve the tracking efficiency, fake track rejection, and resolution of the ITk in the very forward region. The performance of state-of-the-art pixel modules at small track incidence angles is studied using test beam data collected at SLAC and CERN. - Highlights: • Extended inner pixel barrel layers are proposed for the ATLAS ITk upgrade. • Test beam results at small track incidence angles validate this ATLAS ITk design. • Long pixel clusters are reconstructed with high efficiency at low threshold values. • Excellent angular resolution is achieved using pixel cluster length information.

  15. Production and Quality Assurance of Detector Modules for the LHCb Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Volyanskyy, D; Agari, M; Bauer, C; Blouw, J; Hofmann, W; Löchner, S; Maciuc, F; Schmelling, M; Smale, N; Schwingenheuer, B; Voss, H; Borysova, M; Ohrimenko, O; Pugatch, V; Yakovenko, V; Bay, A; Bettler, M O; Fauland, P; Frei, R; Nicolas, L; Knecht, M; Perrin, A; Schneider, O; Tran, M T; Van Hunen, J; Vervink, K; Adeva, B; Esperante-Pereira, D; Gallas, A; Fungueirino-Pazos, J L; Lois, C; Pazos-Alvarez, A; Pérez-Trigo, E; Pló-Casasus, M; Vázquez, P; Bernhard, R P; Bernet, R; Gassner, J; Köstner, S; Lehner, F; Needham, M; Sakhelashvili, T; Steiner, S; Straumann, U; Van Tilburg, J; Vollhardt, A; Wenger, A

    2007-01-01

    The LHCb experiment, which is currently under construction at the Large Hadron Collider~(CERN, Geneva), is designed to study $CP$ violation and find rare decays in the $B$ meson system. To achieve the physics goals the LHCb detector must have excellent tracking performance. An important element of the LHCb tracking system is the Silicon Tracker, which covers a sensitive surface of about 12~m$^2$ with silicon microstrip detectors and includes about 272k readout channels. It uses up to 132~cm long detector modules with readout strips of up to 38~cm in length and up to 57~cm long Kapton interconnects in between sensors and readout hybrids. The production of detector modules has been completed recently and the detector is currently under installation. A rigorous quality assurance programme has been performed to ensure that the detector modules meet the mechanical and electrical requirements and study their various characteristics. In this paper, the detector design, the module production steps, and the module qua...

  16. Integration of the End Cap TEC+ of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bremer, Richard; Feld, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    At the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) ne ar Geneva the new proton-proton collider ring LHC and the experiments that will be operated a t this accelerator are currently being finalised. Among these experiments is the multi-purpose det ector CMS whose aim it is to discover and investigate new physical phenomena that might become ac cessible by virtue of the high center- of-mass energy and luminosity of the LHC. Two of the most inte nsively studied possibilities are the discovery of the Higgs Boson and of particles from the spectr um of supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model. CMS is the first large experiment of high- energy particle physics whose inner tracking system is exclusively instrumented with silicon d etector modules. This tracker comprises 15 148 silicon strip modules enclosing the interaction poin t in 10–12 layers. The 1. Physikalisches Institut B of RWTH Aachen was deeply involved in the completi on of the end caps of the tracking system. The institute played a leading...

  17. First-year experience with the Ba Bar silicon vertex tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bozzi, C; Cotta-Ramusino, A; Dittongo, S; Folegani, M; Piemontese, L; Abbott, B K; Breon, A B; Clark, A R; Dow, S; Fan, Q; Goozen, F; Hernikl, C; Karcher, A; Kerth, L T; Kipnis, I; Kluth, S; Lynch, G; Levi, M; Luft, P; Luo, L; Nyman, M A; Pedrali-Noy, M; Roe, N A; Zizka, G; Roberts, D; Schieck, J; Barni, D; Brenna, E; Defendi, I; Forti, A C; Giugni, D; Lanni, F; Palombo, F; Vaniev, V; Leona, A; Mandelli, E; Manfredi, P F; Perazzo, A; Re, V; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bosi, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Gagliardi, D; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Mammini, P; Morganti, M; Morsani, F; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Profeti, A; Rama, M; Rampino, G; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Simi, G; Triggiani, G; Tritto, S; Vitale, R; Walsh, J; Burchat, Patricia R; Cheng, C; Kirkby, D; Meyer, T; Roat, C; Bóna, M; Bianchi, F; Daudo, F; Di Girolamo, B; Gamba, D; Giraudo, G; Grosso, P; Romero, A; Smol, A; Trapani, P; Zanin, D; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Rashevskaia, I; Lanceri, L; Pompili, A; Poropat, P; Prest, M; Rastelli, C; Vallazza, E; Vuagnin, G; Hast, C; Potter, E P; Sharma, V; Burke, S; Callahan, D; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Eppich, A; Hale, D; Hall, K; Hart, P; Kuznetsova, N; Kyre, S; Levy, S; Long, O; May, J; Richman, J; Verkerke, W; Witherell, M; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Frey, A; Grillo, A; Grothe, M; Johnson, R; Kröger, W; Lockman, W; Pulliam, T; Rowe, W; Schmitz, R; Seiden, A; Spencer, E; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Wilder, M; Charles, E; Elmer, P; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Scott, I; Zobernig, H

    2001-01-01

    Within its first year of operation, the BaBar Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) has accomplished its primary design goal, measuring the z vertex coordinate with sufficient accuracy as to allow the measurement of the time-dependent CP asymmetry in the neutral B-meson system. The SVT consists of five layers of double-sided, AC-coupled silicon-strip detectors of 300 mu m thickness with a readout strip pitch of 50-210 mu m and a stereo angle of 90 deg. between the strips on the two sides. Detector alignment and performance with respect to spatial resolution and efficiency in the reconstruction of single hits are discussed. In the day-to-day operation of the SVT, radiation damage and protection issues were of primary concern. The SVT is equipped with a dedicated system (SVTRAD) for radiation monitoring and protection, using reverse-biased photodiodes. The evolution of the SVTRAD thresholds on the tolerated radiation level is described. Results on the first-year radiation exposure as measured with the SVTRAD system and ...

  18. Testbeam evaluation of silicon strip modules for ATLAS Phase - II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Blue, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration; Ai, Xiaocong; Allport, Phillip; Arling, Jan-Hendrik; Atkin, Ryan Justin; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Carli, Ina; Casse, Gianluigi; Chen, Liejian; Chisholm, Andrew; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Cunningham, William Reilly; Dervan, Paul; Diez Cornell, Sergio; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dopke, Jens; Dreyer, Etienne; Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan Linus Roderik; Escobar, Carlos; Fabiani, Veronica; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Fernandez Tejero, Javier; Fleta Corral, Maria Celeste; Gallop, Bruce; Garcia-Argos, Carlos; Greenall, Ashley; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Greig, Graham George; Guescini, Francesco; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hauser, Marc Manuel; Huang, Yanping; Hunter, Robert Francis Holub; Keller, John; Klein, Christoph; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Kotek, Zdenek; Kroll, Jiri; Kuehn, Susanne; Lee, Steven Juhyung; Liu, Yi; Lohwasser, Kristin; Meszarosova, Lucia; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mi\\~nano Moya, Mercedes; Mori, Riccardo; Moser, Brian; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Peschke, Richard; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Phillips, Peter William; Poley, Anne-luise; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Ravotti, Federico; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC with 10 years of operation at instantaneous luminosities of \\mbox{$7.5\\times10^{34}\\;\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}\\mathrm{s}^{-1}$}. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over $1x10^{15}$ 1 MeV neutron equivalent per $cm^{2}$ in the ATLAS Strips system. The silicon strip tracker exploits the concept of modularity. Fast readout electronics, deploying 130nm CMOS front-end electronics are glued on top of a silicon sensor to make a module. The radiation hard n-in-p micro-strip sensors used have been developed by the ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor collaboration and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. A series of tests were performed at the DESY-II test beam facility to investigate the detailed performance of a strip module with both 2.5cm and 5cm length strips before irradiation. The DURANTA telescope was used to obtain a pointing...

  19. Integration of the end cap TEC+ of the CMS silicon strip tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremer, Richard

    2008-04-28

    CMS is the first large experiment of high-energy particle physics whose inner tracking system is exclusively instrumented with silicon detector modules. This tracker comprises 15 148 silicon strip modules enclosing the interaction point in 10-12 layers. The 1. Physikalisches Institut B of RWTH Aachen was deeply involved in the completion of the end caps of the tracking system. The institute played a leading role in the end cap design, produced virtually all support structures and several important electrical components, designed and built the laser alignment system of the tracker, performed system tests and finally integrated one of the two end caps in Aachen. This integration constitutes the central part of the present thesis work. The main focus was on the development of methods to recognise defects early in the integration process and to assert the detector's functionality. Characteristic quantities such as the detector noise or the optical gain of the readout chain were determined during integration as well as during a series of tests performed after transport of the end cap from Aachen to CERN. The procedures followed during the mechanical integration of the detector and during the commissioning of integrated sectors are explained, and the software packages developed for quality assurance are described. In addition, results of the detector readout are presented. During the integration phase, sub-structures of the end cap - named petals - were subjected to a reception test which has also been designed and operated as part of this thesis work. The test setup and software developed for the test are introduced and an account of the analysis of the recorded data is given. Before the end cap project entered the production phase, a final test beam experiment was performed in which the suitability of a system of two fully equipped petals for operation at the LHC was checked. The measured ratio of the signal induced in the silicon sensors by minimal ionising

  20. The development of a high-resolution scintillating fiber tracker with silicon photomultiplier readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roper Yearwood, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    In this work I present the design and test results for a novel, modular tracking detector from scintillating fibers which are read out by silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays. The detector modules consist of 0.25 mm thin scintillating fibers which are closely packed in five-layer ribbons. Two ribbons are fixed to both sides of a carbon-fiber composite structure. Custom made SiPM arrays with a photo-detection efficiency of about 50% read out the fibers. Several 860 mm long and 32 mm wide tracker modules were tested in a secondary 12 GeV/c beam at the PS facilities, CERN in November of 2009. During this test a spatial resolution better than 0.05 mm at an average light yield of about 20 photons for a minimum ionizing particle was determined. This work details the characterization of scintillating fibers and silicon photomultipliers of different make and model. It gives an overview of the production of scintillating fiber modules. The behavior of detector modules during the test-beam is analyzed in detail and different options for the front-end electronics are compared. Furthermore, the implementation of the proposed tracking detector from scintillating fibers within the scope of the PERDaix experiment is discussed. The PERDaix detector is a permanent magnet spectrometer with a weight of 40 kg. It consists of 8 tracking detector layers from scintillating fibers, a time-of-flight detector from plastic scintillator bars with silicon photomultiplier readout and a transition radiation detector from an irregular fleece radiator and Xe/CO 2 filled proportional counting tubes. The PERDaix detector was launched with a helium balloon within the scope of the ''Balloon-Experiments for University Students'' (BEXUS) program from Kiruna, Sweden in November 2010. For a few hours PERDaix reached an altitude of 33 km and measured cosmic rays. In May 2011, the PERDaix detector was characterized during a test-beam at the PS-facilities at CERN. This work introduces methods for event

  1. Integration of the end cap TEC+ of the CMS silicon strip tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremer, Richard

    2008-01-01

    CMS is the first large experiment of high-energy particle physics whose inner tracking system is exclusively instrumented with silicon detector modules. This tracker comprises 15 148 silicon strip modules enclosing the interaction point in 10-12 layers. The 1. Physikalisches Institut B of RWTH Aachen was deeply involved in the completion of the end caps of the tracking system. The institute played a leading role in the end cap design, produced virtually all support structures and several important electrical components, designed and built the laser alignment system of the tracker, performed system tests and finally integrated one of the two end caps in Aachen. This integration constitutes the central part of the present thesis work. The main focus was on the development of methods to recognise defects early in the integration process and to assert the detector's functionality. Characteristic quantities such as the detector noise or the optical gain of the readout chain were determined during integration as well as during a series of tests performed after transport of the end cap from Aachen to CERN. The procedures followed during the mechanical integration of the detector and during the commissioning of integrated sectors are explained, and the software packages developed for quality assurance are described. In addition, results of the detector readout are presented. During the integration phase, sub-structures of the end cap - named petals - were subjected to a reception test which has also been designed and operated as part of this thesis work. The test setup and software developed for the test are introduced and an account of the analysis of the recorded data is given. Before the end cap project entered the production phase, a final test beam experiment was performed in which the suitability of a system of two fully equipped petals for operation at the LHC was checked. The measured ratio of the signal induced in the silicon sensors by minimal ionising particles

  2. Silicon photomultiplier arrays - a novel photon detector for a high resolution tracker produced at FBK-irst, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greim, R.; Gast, H.; Kirn, T.; Olzem, J.; Yearwood, G. Roper; Schael, S.; Zimmermann, N.; Ambrosi, G.; Azzarello, P.; Battiston, R.; Piemonte, C.

    2009-01-01

    A silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) array has been developed at FBK-irst [Piemonte C., Nucl. Instrum. Methods A, 568 (2006) 224; Piemonte C. et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., 54 (2007) 236] having 32 channels and a dimension of 8.0x1.1mm 2 . Each 250 μm wide channel is subdivided into 5x22 rectangularly arranged pixels. These sensors are developed to read out a modular high resolution scintillating fiber tracker. Key properties like breakdown voltage, gain and photon detection efficiency (PDE) are found to be homogeneous over all 32 channels of an SiPM array. This could make scintillating fiber trackers with SiPM array readout a promising alternative to available tracker technologies, if noise properties and the PDE are improved.

  3. Silicon photomultiplier arrays - a novel photon detector for a high resolution tracker produced at FBK-irst, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greim, R.; Gast, H.; Kirn, T.; Olzem, J.; Yearwood, G. Roper; Schael, S.; Zimmermann, N. [I. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Ambrosi, G.; Azzarello, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Battiston, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Piemonte, C. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler - Istituto per la Ricerca Scientifica e tecnologica, 38050 Trento (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    A silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) array has been developed at FBK-irst [Piemonte C., Nucl. Instrum. Methods A, 568 (2006) 224; Piemonte C. et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., 54 (2007) 236] having 32 channels and a dimension of 8.0x1.1mm{sup 2}. Each 250 mum wide channel is subdivided into 5x22 rectangularly arranged pixels. These sensors are developed to read out a modular high resolution scintillating fiber tracker. Key properties like breakdown voltage, gain and photon detection efficiency (PDE) are found to be homogeneous over all 32 channels of an SiPM array. This could make scintillating fiber trackers with SiPM array readout a promising alternative to available tracker technologies, if noise properties and the PDE are improved.

  4. PROPOSAL FOR A SILICON VERTEX TRACKER (VTX) FOR THE PHENIX EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AKIBA,Y.

    2004-10-01

    We propose the construction of a Silicon Vertex Tracker (VTX) for the PHENIX experiment at RHIC. The VTX will substantially enhance the physics capabilities of the PHENIX central arm spectrometers. Our prime motivation is to provide precision measurements of heavy-quark production (charm and beauty) in A+A, p(d)+A, and polarized p+p collisions. These are key measurements for the future RHIC program, both for the heavy ion program as it moves from the discovery phase towards detailed investigation of the properties of the dense nuclear medium created in heavy ion collisions, and for the exploration of the nucleon spin-structure functions. In addition, the VTX will also considerably improve other measurements with PHENIX. The main physics topics addressed by the VTX are: (1) Hot and dense strongly interacting matter--(a) Potential enhancement of charm production, (b) Open beauty production, (c) Flavor dependence of jet quenching and QCD energy loss, (d) Accurate charm reference for quarkonium, (e) Thermal dilepton radiation, (f) High p{sub T} phenomena with light flavors above 10-15 GeV/c in p{sub T}, and (g) Upsilon spectroscopy in the e{sup +}e{sup -} decay channel. (2) Gluon spin structure of the nucleon--(a) {Delta}G/G with charm, (b) {Delta}G/G with beauty, and (c) x dependence of {Delta}G/G with {gamma}-jet correlations. (3) Nucleon structure in nuclei--Gluon shadowing over broad x-range.

  5. A combined ultrasonic flow meter and binary vapour mixture analyzer for the ATLAS silicon tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, R; Berry, S; Berthoud, J; Bitadze, A; Bonneau, P; Botelho-Direito, J; Bousson, N; Boyd, G; Bozza, G; Da Riva, E; Degeorge, C; DiGirolamo, B; Doubek, M; Giugni, D; Godlewski, J; Hallewell, G; Katunin, S; Lombard, D; Mathieu, M; McMahon, S; Nagai, K; Perez-Rodriguez, E; Rossi, C; Rozanov, A; Vacek, V; Vitek, M; Zwalinski, L

    2013-01-01

    An upgrade to the ATLAS silicon tracker cooling control system may require a change from C3F8 (octafluoro-propane) evaporative coolant to a blend containing 10-25% of C2F6 (hexafluoro-ethane). Such a change will reduce the evaporation temperature to assure thermal stability following radiation damage accumulated at full LHC luminosity. Central to this upgrade is a new ultrasonic instrument in which sound transit times are continuously measured in opposite directions in flowing gas at known temperature and pressure to deduce the C3F8/C2F6 flow rate and mixture composition. The instrument and its Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) software are described in this paper. Several geometries for the instrument are in use or under evaluation. An instrument with a pinched axial geometry intended for analysis and measurement of moderate flow rates has demonstrated a mixture resolution of 3.10-3 for C3F8/C2F6 molar mixtures with 20%C2F6, and a flow resolution of 2% of full scale for mass flows up to 30gs-...

  6. Silicon Sensors for High-Luminosity Trackers - RD50 Collaboration Status Report

    CERN Document Server

    Kuehn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The revised schedule for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) upg rade foresees a significant increase of the luminosity of the LHC by upgrading towards the HL-LHC ( High Luminosity-LHC). The final upgrade is planned for around the year 2023, followed by the HL-LHC running. This is motivated by the need to harvest the maximum physics potenti al from the machine. It is clear that the high integrated luminosity of 3000 fb − 1 will result in very high radiation levels, which manifest a serious challenge for the detectors. This is espe cially true for the tracking detectors installed close to the interaction point. For HL-LHC, all-s ilicon central trackers are being studied in ATLAS, CMS and LHCb, with extremely radiation hard silico n sensors to be employed in the innermost layers. Within the RD50 Collaboration, a massive R&D; program is underway, with an open cooperation across experimental boundaries to deve lop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation tolerance. This report presents several researc h topics...

  7. Diagnostic analysis of silicon strips detector readout in the ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker module production

    CERN Document Server

    Ciocio, Alessandra

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) Collaboration is currently in the production phase of fabricating and testing silicon strips modules for the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider being built at the CERN laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland. A small but relevant percentage of ICs developed a new set of defects after being mounted on hybrids that were not detected in the wafer screening. To minimize IC replacement and outright module failure, analysis methods were developed to study IC problems during the production of SCT modules. These analyses included studying wafer and hybrid data correlations to finely tune the selection of ICs and tests to utilize the ability to adjust front-end parameters of the IC in order to reduce the rejection and replacement rate of fabricated components. This paper will discuss a few examples of the problems encountered during the production of SCT hybrids and modules in the area of ICs performance, and will demonstrate the value of the flexibility built into the ABCD3T ...

  8. Silicon strip prototypes for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS tracker for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00474514

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the integration structures for the silicon strips tracker of the ATLAS detector proposed for the Phase-II upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), also referred to as High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). In this proposed detector Silicon strip sensors are arranged in highly modular structures, called `staves' and `petals'. This paper presents performance results from the latest prototype stave built at Berkeley. This new, double-sided prototype is composed of a specialized core structure, in which a shield-less bus tape is embedded in between carbon fiber lay-ups. A detailed description of the prototype and its electrical performance are discussed in detail.

  9. Irradiation study of different silicon materials for the CMS tracker upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erfle, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    Around 2022, an upgrade of the LHC collider complex is planned to significantly increase the luminosity (the High Luminosity LHC, HL-LHC). This means that the experiments have to cope with a higher number of collisions per bunch crossing and survive in a radiation environment much harsher than that at the present LHC. Especially the tracking detectors have to be improved for the HL-LHC. The increased number of tracks requires an increase of the number of readout channels while the higher radiation makes new sensor materials necessary. Within CMS, a measurement campaign was initiated to study the performance of different silicon materials in a corresponding radiation environment. To simulate the expected radiation the samples were irradiated with neutrons and with protons with two different energies. Radiation damage can be divided in two categories. First, ionizing energy loss in the surface isolation layers of the sensor leads to a change of the concentration of charged states in the sensor surface and therefore alters the distribution of the electrical fields in the sensor. Second, non-ionizing energy loss in the bulk of the sensor material leads to a variety of defects in the silicon lattice. Electrically active defects can influence the material properties. The three properties under investigation are the reverse current, the full depletion voltage and the charge collection. While the reverse current and full depletion voltage influence the power dissipation and the noise of the detector, the charge collection directly influences the measurement. The material properties were studied using pad and strip sensor. The structures were electrically characterized before and after irradiation with different fluences of neutrons and protons, corresponding to the expected fluences at different radii of the outer tracker after 3000 fb -1 . The charge collection measurements were mainly performed using the ALiBaVa readout system and the charge was induced with

  10. Validation of Kalman Filter alignment algorithm with cosmic-ray data using a CMS silicon strip tracker endcap

    CERN Document Server

    Sprenger, D; Adolphi, R; Brauer, R; Feld, L; Klein, K; Ostaptchuk, A; Schael, S; Wittmer, B

    2010-01-01

    A Kalman Filter alignment algorithm has been applied to cosmic-ray data. We discuss the alignment algorithm and an experiment-independent implementation including outlier rejection and treatment of weakly determined parameters. Using this implementation, the algorithm has been applied to data recorded with one CMS silicon tracker endcap. Results are compared to both photogrammetry measurements and data obtained from a dedicated hardware alignment system, and good agreement is observed.

  11. HELIX128S-2 - A readout chip for the silicon vertex detector and inner tracker detector of HERA-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trunk, U.; Fallot-Burghardt, W.; Sexauer, E.; Knoepfle, K-T.; Hofmann, W.; Cuje, M.; Glass, B.; Feuerstack-Raible, M.; Eisele, F.; Straumann, U.

    1998-01-01

    HERA-B is a fixed target experiment at the HERA proton storage ring dedicated to examine CP-violation in the B-Meson system. Based on the RD20-FElix concept a readout chip has been designed in AMS's 0.8 μm CMOS process for the HERA-B silicon vertex and inner tracker (MSGC) detectors. Various test chips have been submitted and successfully tested since '95, thus enabling the submission of a fully integrated 128 channel version in April '97. Design features of this chip (HELIX128S-2) and test results of its predecessor HELIX128 are presented

  12. Design and performance of the ABCD chip for the binary readout of silicon strip detectors in the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Dabrowski, W; Buttar, C M; Cindro, V; Clarks, A G; Dawson, I; Dorfan, D; Dubbs, T; Falconer, N; French, M; Greenall, A; Grillo, A A; Happer, R; Jarron, Pierre; Kaplon, J; Kudlaty, J; Kramberger, G; Lacasta, C; La Marra, D; Macina, Daniela; Mandic, I; Mikuz, M; Meddeler, G; Milgrome, O; Niggli, H; Phillips, P W; Roe, S; Smith, A; Spieler, H; Spencer, E; Szczygiel, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Wolter, M; Zsenei, A

    2000-01-01

    The ABCD design is a single chip implementation of the binary readout architecture for silicon strip detectors in the ATLAS semiconductor tracker. The prototype chip has been manufactured successfully in the DMILL process. In the paper we present the design of the chip and the measurement results. The basic analogue performance of the ABCD design has been evaluated using a prototype SCT module equipped with the ABCD chips. The digital performance has been evaluated using a general purpose IC tester. The measurements confirmed that all blocks of the ABCD design are fully functional and the chips meet all basic requirements of the SCT. (7 refs).

  13. INNER TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sharp

    The CMS Inner Tracking Detector continues to make good progress. The Objective for 2007 is to deliver to CMS a completed, installed, commissioned and calibrated Tracking System (Silicon Strip and Pixels) aligned to < 100µ in April 2008 ready for the first physics collisions at LHC. On 21 March 2007, the integration of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker was completed with the successful integration of TEC- into the Tracker Support Tube (TST). Since then ~25% of the complete Tracker Systems has been commission at the TIF at both room temperature and operating temperature (-100 C), and the Tracker Community has gained very valuable experience in operating, calibrating and aligning the Tracker at the TIF before it is prepared for transportation to P5 in July 2007. The CMS Pixel System continues to make good progress. Module and Plaquette production is very well advanced. The first 25% of the Forward Pixel detector (Fpix) was delivered to CERN in April and the second 25% will shipped to CERN on 19 ...

  14. PROPOSAL FOR A SILICON VERTEX TRACKER (VTX) FOR THE PHENIX EXPERIMENT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AKIBA,Y.

    2004-03-30

    We propose the construction of a Silicon Vertex Tracker (VTX) for the PHENIX experiment at RHIC. The VTX will substantially enhance the physics capabilities of the PHENIX central arm spectrometers. Our prime motivation is to provide precision measurements of heavy-quark production (charm and beauty) in A+A, p(d)+A, and polarized p+p collisions. These are key measurements for the future RHIC program, both for the heavy ion program as it moves from the discovery phase towards detailed investigation of the properties of the dense nuclear medium created in heavy ion collisions, and for the exploration of the nucleon spin-structure functions. In addition, the VTX will also considerably improve other measurements with PHENIX. The main physics topics addressed by the VTX are: (1) Hot and dense strongly interacting matter--Potential enhancement of charm production; Open beauty production; Flavor dependence of jet quenching and QCD energy loss; Accurate charm reference for quarkonium; Thermal dilepton radiation; High p{sub T} phenomena with light flavors above 10-15 GeV/c in p{sub T}; and Upsilon spectroscopy in the e{sup +}e{sup -} decay channel. (2) Gluon spin structure of the nucleon--{Delta}G/G with charm; {Delta}G/G with beauty; and x dependence of {Delta}G/G with {gamma}-jet correlations. (3) Nucleon structure in nuclei--Gluon shadowing over broad x-range. With the present PHENIX detector, heavy-quark production has been measured indirectly through the observation of single electrons. These measurements are inherently limited in accuracy by systematic uncertainties resulting from the large electron background from Dalitz decays and photon conversions. In particular, the statistical nature of the analysis does not allow for a model-independent separation of the charm and beauty contributions. The VTX detector will provide vertex tracking with a resolution of <50 {micro}m over a large coverage both in rapidity (|{eta}| < 1.2) and in azimuthal angle ({Delta}{phi} {approx

  15. Radiation Hard GaNFET High Voltage Multiplexing (HV Mux) for the ATLAS Upgrade Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Lynn, David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The outer radii of the inner tracker (ITk) for the Phase-II Upgrade of the ATLAS experiment will consist of groups of silicon strip sensors mounted on common support structures. Lack of space creates a need to remotely disable a failing sensor from the common HV bus. We have developed circuitry consisting of a GaNFET transistor and a HV Multiplier circuit to disable a failed sensor. We will present two variants of the HV Mux circuitry and show irradiation results on individual components with an emphasis on the GaNFET results. We will also discuss the reliability of the HV Mux circuitry and show plans to ensure reliability during production.

  16. Evaluation of the performance of irradiated silicon strip sensors for the forward detector of the ATLAS Inner Tracker Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, R., E-mail: riccardo.mori@physik.uni-freiburg.de [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Allport, P.P.; Baca, M.; Broughton, J.; Chisholm, A.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Pyatt, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Wilson, J.A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Kierstead, J.; Kuczewski, P.; Lynn, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physics Department and Instrumentation Division, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Arratia-Munoz, M.I.; Hommels, L.B.A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Ullan, M.; Fleta, C.; Fernandez-Tejero, J. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Campus UAB-Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Bloch, I.; Gregor, I.M.; Lohwasser, K. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hambrug (Germany); and others

    2016-09-21

    The upgrade to the High-Luminosity LHC foreseen in about ten years represents a great challenge for the ATLAS inner tracker and the silicon strip sensors in the forward region. Several strip sensor designs were developed by the ATLAS collaboration and fabricated by Hamamatsu in order to maintain enough performance in terms of charge collection efficiency and its uniformity throughout the active region. Of particular attention, in the case of a stereo-strip sensor, is the area near the sensor edge where shorter strips were ganged to the complete ones. In this work the electrical and charge collection test results on irradiated miniature sensors with forward geometry are presented. Results from charge collection efficiency measurements show that at the maximum expected fluence, the collected charge is roughly halved with respect to the one obtained prior to irradiation. Laser measurements show a good signal uniformity over the sensor. Ganged strips have a similar efficiency as standard strips.

  17. Wavelength-agile near-IR optical parametric oscillator using a deposited silicon waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Yao; Foster, Mark A; Foster, Amy C

    2015-06-15

    Using a deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) waveguide, we demonstrate ultra-broad bandwidth (60 THz) parametric amplification via four-wave mixing (FWM), and subsequently achieve the first silicon optical parametric oscillator (OPO) at near-IR wavelengths. Utilization of the time-dispersion-tuned technique provides an optical source with active wavelength tuning over 42 THz with a fixed pump wave.

  18. Prototyping of Silicon Strip Detectors for the Inner Tracker of the ALICE Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokolov, Oleksiy

    2006-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN will study heavy ion collisions at a center-of-mass energy 5.5∼TeV per nucleon. Particle tracking around the interaction region at radii r<45 cm is done by the Inner Tracking System (ITS), consisting of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors. The outer two layers of

  19. Test-beam evaluation of heavily irradiated silicon strip modules for ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Blue, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC with 10 years of operation at instantaneous luminosities of 7.5x1034cm−2s−1. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1x1015 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2 in the ATLAS Strips system. The silicon strip tracker exploits the concept of modularity. Fast readout electronics, deploying 130nm CMOS front-end electronics are glued on top of a silicon sensor to make a module. The radiation hard n-in-p micro-strip sensors used have been developed by the ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor collaboration and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. A series of tests were performed at the DESY-II and CERN SPS test beam facilities to investigate the detailed performance of a strip module with both 2.5cm and 5cm length strips before and after irradiation with 8x1014neqcm−2 protons and a total ionising dose of 37.2MRad. The DURA...

  20. A Combined On-Line Acoustic Flowmeter and Fluorocarbon Coolant Mixture Analyzer for The ATLAS Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bitadze, A.; Bates, R.; Battistin, M.; Berry, S.; Bonneau, P.; Botelho-Direito, J.; DiGirolamo, B.; Godlewski, J.; Perez-Rodriguez, E.; Zwalinski, L.; Bousson, N.; Hallewell, G.; Mathieu, M.; Rozanov, A.; Boyd, G.; Doubek, M.; Vacek, V.; Vitek, M.; Egorov, K.; Katunin, S.; McMahon, S.; Nagai, K.

    2011-01-01

    An upgrade to the ATLAS silicon tracker cooling control system may require a change from C3F8 (octafluoro-propane) to a blend containing 10-30% of C2F6 (hexafluoro-ethane) to reduce the evaporation temperature and better protect the silicon from cumulative radiation damage with increasing LHC luminosity. Central to this upgrade is a new acoustic instrument for the real-time measurement of the C3F8/C2F6 mixture ratio and flow. The instrument and its Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) software are described in this paper. The instrument has demonstrated a resolution of 3.10-3 for C3F8/C2F6 mixtures with ~20%C2F6, and flow resolution of 2% of full scale for mass flows up to 30gs-1. In mixtures of widely-differing molecular weight (mw), higher mixture precision is possible: a sensitivity of < 5.10-4 to leaks of C3F8 into the ATLAS pixel detector nitrogen envelope (mw difference 160) has been seen. The instrument has many potential applications, including the analysis of mixtures of hydrocarbons,...

  1. Quality Assurance and Performance Tests of Silicon Detector Modules for the CMS/Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Dragicevic, Marko

    2005-01-01

    After providing a short overview of the LHC accelerator, the CMS experiment and it’s various detector systems, we will have an in-depth look on silicon semiconductor particle detectors. Various important aspects like theoretical principles, radiation damage and actual design considerations are discussed and the quality assurance scheme for the sensor and module production is introduced. A strong emphasis is made on the ARC module teststand which was set up and operated be the author. Another important aspect in establishing a good quality assurance scheme is flexibility and keeping an eye on the unexpected. At one such occasion, the author had to gather custom made test equipment, to investigate certain effects in silicon sensors manufactured by ST Microelectronics. Conclusions from these measurement could only be drawn very cautiously, as the manufacturing process and many of its subtle changes, remained a well kept secret of the company. Nevertheless, the investigations proofed to be useful and ST Microel...

  2. Silicon Strip detectors for the ATLAS End-Cap Tracker at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00232570

    Inside physics programme of the LHC different experiment upgrades are foreseen. After the phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS detector the luminosity will be increased up to 5-7.5x10E34 cm-2s-1. This will mean a considerable increase in the radiation levels, above 10E16 neq/cm2 in the inner regions. This thesis is focused on the development of silicon microstrip detectors enough radiation hard to cope with the particle fluence expected at the ATLAS detector during HL-LHC experiment. In particular on the electrical characterization of silicon sensors for the ATLAS End-Caps. Different mechanical and thermal tests are shown using a Petal core as well as the electrical characterization of the silicon sensors that will be used with the Petal structure. Charge collection efficiency studies are carried out on sensors with different irradiation fluences using the ALiBaVa system and two kinds of strips connection are also analized (DC and AC ganging) with a laser system. The Petalet project is presented and the electrical c...

  3. Prototyping of Silicon Strip Detectors for the Inner Tracker of the ALICE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolov, Oleksiy

    2006-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN will study heavy ion collisions at a center-of-mass energy 5.5∼TeV per nucleon. Particle tracking around the interaction region at radii r<45 cm is done by the Inner Tracking System (ITS), consisting of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors. The outer two layers of the ITS use double-sided silicon strip detectors. This thesis focuses on testing of these detectors and performance studies of the detector module prototypes at the beam test. Silicon strip detector layers will require about 20 thousand HAL25 front-end readout chips and about 3.5 thousand hybrids each containing 6 HAL25 chips. During the assembly procedure, chips are bonded on a patterned TAB aluminium microcables which connect to all the chip input and output pads, and then the chips are assembled on the hybrids. Bonding failures at the chip or hybrid level may either render the component non-functional or deteriorate its the performance such that it can not be used for the module production. After each bond...

  4. ATLAS semiconductor tracker installed into its barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS silicon tracker is installed in the silicon tracker barrel. Absolute precision was required in this operation to ensure that the tracker was inserted without damage through minimal clearance. The installation was performed in a clean room on the CERN site so that no impurities in the air would contaminate the tracker's systems.

  5. Progress on DC-DC Converters for a Silicon Tracker for the sLHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Dhawan, S; Chen, H; Khanna, R; Kierstead, J; Lanni, F; Lynn, D; Musso, C; Rescia, S; Smith, H; Tipton, P; M. Weber, M

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for DC-DC converters which can operate in the extremely harsh environment of the sLHC Si Tracker. The environment requires radiation qualification to a total ionizing radiation dose of 50 Mrad and a displacement damage fluence of 5 x 1014 /cm2 of 1 MeV equivalent neutrons. In addition a static magnetic field of 2 Tesla or greater prevents the use of any magnetic components or materials. In February 2007 an Enpirion EN5360 was qualified for the sLHC radiation dosage but the converter has an input voltage limited to a maximum of 5.5V. From a systems point of view this input voltage was not sufficient for the application. Commercial LDMOS FETs have developed using a 0.25 μm process which provided a 12 volt input and were still radiation hard. These results are reported here and in previous papers. Plug in power cards with ×10 voltage ratio are being developed for testing the hybrids with ABCN chips. These plug-in cards have air coils but use commercial chips that are not designed to be radiatio...

  6. The heart of ATLAS Commissioning and performance of the ATLAS silicon tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Magrath, Caroline Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been built under the french-swiss border near Geneva, Switzerland. Two opposing beams of protons will collide with a centre of mass energy of 14 TeV, an energy seven million times that of the first accelerator. The LHC takes particle physics research to a new frontier. On September 10th 2008, the first single pilot beam of $2 x 10^9$ protons was circulated successfully through the entire LHC, with an injection energy of 0.45 TeV. The first collisions are expected in Summer 2009. One of the experiments designed to search for new particle phenomena is the ATLAS experiment. This is a general purpose detector capable of detecting and measuring the broadest range of particle signals. At the heart of the ATLAS detector lies the SemiConductor Tracker (SCT). It is a central part of the inner detector providing precision measurements of particle trajectories over a large $\\eta$ range. The work presented in this thesis focuses on the performance and commissioning of the SCT detector....

  7. Upgrade of the ATLAS Silicon Tracker for the sLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Minano, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    While the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will start taking data this year, scenarios for a machine upgrade to achieve a much higher luminosity are being developed. In the current planning, it is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the LHC at CERN around 2016 by about an order of magnitude, with the upgraded muchine dubbed Super-LHC or SLHC. As radiation damage scales with integrated luminosity, the particle physics experiments at the SLHC will need to be equipped with a new generation of radiation-hard detectors. This is of particular importance for the semiconductor tracking detectors located close to the LHC interaction region, where the higest radiation doses occur. The ATLAS experiment will require a new particle tracking system for SLHC operation. In order to cope with the increase in background events by about one order of magnitude at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector with enhanced radiation hardness is being designed. The new silicon strip detector will use significantly shorter stri...

  8. LHCb Upstream Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Gandini, P

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb upgrade requires replacing the silicon strip tracker between the vertex locator (VELO) and the magnet. A new design has been developed and tested based on the "stave" concept planned for the ATLAS upgrade

  9. LHCb Upstream Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Gandini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb upgrade requires replacing the silicon strip tracker between the vertex locator (VELO) and the magnet. A new design has been developed and tested based on the "stave" concept planned for the ATLAS upgrade.

  10. Irradiation study of different silicon materials for the CMS tracker upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Erfle, Joachim; Hansen, Wolfgang; Garutti, Erika

    Around 2022, an upgrade of the LHC collider complex is planned to significantly increase the luminosity (the High Luminosity LHC, HL-LHC). This means that the experiments have to cope with a higher number of collisions per bunch crossing and survive in a radiation environment much harsher than that at the present LHC. Especially the tracking detectors have to be improved for the HL-LHC. The increased number of tracks requires an increase of the number of readout channels while the higher radiation makes new sensor materials necessary. Within CMS, a measurement campaign was initiated to study the performance of different silicon materials in a corresponding radiation environment. To simulate the expected radiation the samples were irradiated with neutrons and with protons with two different energies. Radiation damage can be divided in two categories. First, ionizing energy loss in the surface isolation layers of the sensor leads to a change of the concentration of charged states in the sensor surface and there...

  11. Agile Mythbusting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    does not fit all Scrum : The most adopted Agile method Scaling Agile Methods: Going beyond the team level methods Challenges to Agile Adoption: What’s...Arsenal Lapham, Wrubel Jan 2015 © 2015 Carnegie Mellon University. Myth: You Must Choose Agile or Waterfall – you can’t do both What about “water- scrum ...used in multiple environments, including DoD programs.1 1Start with “ Agile EVM in Scrum Projects” from AGILE 2006 to get started learning about Agile

  12. INNER TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    Peter Sharp

    In March the Silicon Strip Detector had been successfully connected to the PP1 patch panels on the CMS Cryostat, and every thing had been prepared to check out the Tracker and commission it with CMS with the ambition of joining the CMS Global Cosmic Run in April.  There followed serious problems with the cooling plant which through tremendous effort have been overcome and recently allowed commissioning of the tracker to proceed. In November 2007 there had been a failure of the heat exchanger in one of the seven cooling plants in the UXC cavern. After an analysis of the failure it was decided to replace this heat exchanger with a well-proven commercial heat exchanger and to re-commission the system. Re-commissioning the system proved to be more difficult than anticipated as on May 8 there was a second failure of a heat exchanger, in the main chiller plant in the USC service cavern. The analysis of the failure showed it was very similar to the previous failure. It was decided to replace all the heat ...

  13. Silicon tracker end cap of the CMS experiment at LHC and study of the discovery potential for resonances decaying in top quark pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabert, E.

    2008-10-01

    The first part of this thesis is dedicated to the integration of one silicon tracker end cap of the CMS experiment. The procedures implemented and the tests that led to the qualification of the detection system are presented in this document. The first chapter is an introduction to the LHC and to the CMS experiment. The second chapter is dedicated to the CMS tracker, that is a detector made up of silicon micro-stripe whose purpose is to reconstruct the tracks of charged-particles, to measure their momentum, to reconstruct vertex and to contribute to the tagging of heavy flavour quarks. The third chapter presents the integration of one of the tracker end caps. The second part of this thesis is dedicated to the search for new physics in the top quark sector. One of the most promising channel is to look for a resonance in the invariant mass distribution of top quark pairs. The fourth chapter is a theoretical introduction to this work, the standard model is introduced and the top quarks physics as well as tt-bar resonances are highlighted. The fifth chapter describes the tools used to analyse data, all the data come from simulations. The search for tt-bar resonances is presented in the last chapter. This search involves a method to select right events, a strategy to reduce background noise and a method for the reconstruction of the events. A kinematical adjustment is made to identify the right combinations of jets and to improve the experimental resolution on the invariant mass. The full simulation analysis in the 'lepton + jets' channel shows that at the TeV scale, processes from a few hundred fb to one pb could be observed in the early years of data taking

  14. Measurement of the Inclusive $b$-jet cross section in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at CDF RunII and Development of silicon microstrip detectors for the ATLAS silicon tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Onofrio, Monica [Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland)

    2005-01-01

    In the past twenty years, the study of events with bottom quark has led to many important Tevatron results- as the discovery of the top quark- and it will be as well crucial at the LHC for the search of new physics phenomena. This analysis exploits the good tracking capabilities of the detector and relies on b-jet identification made by secondary vertex reconstruction. The study of the Inner Tracker system performance and in particular the Semi conductor Tracker (SCT), can be considered one of the fundamental issues in the construction of the apparatus. The second part of this thesis work reports some of the crucial tests performed during the development of the silicon microstrip detectors composing the SCT.

  15. LHCb: LHCb Upstream Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Manning Jr, P; Stone, S

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb upgrade requires replacing the silicon strip tracker between the vertex locator and the magnet. A new design has been developed and tested based on the "stave" concept planned for the ATLAS upgrade. We will describe the new detector being constructed and show its improved performance in charged particle tracking and triggering.

  16. Design and performance of the ABCD3TA ASIC for readout of silicon strip detectors in the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Campabadal, F.; Fleta, C.; Key, M.; Böhm, Jan; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Šťastný, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 552, - (2005), s. 292-328 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04LA212 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : front-end electronics * binary readout * silicon strip detectors * application specific integrated circuits * quality assurance Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.224, year: 2005

  17. Agility Measures: Engineering Agile Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goranson, H

    1997-01-01

    ...) and managed by the U.S. Air Force's Manufacturing Technology Directorate. The objective of this project was to discover, understand and usefully describe formal, quantitative based metrics associated with agility in the virtual enterprise...

  18. The "Silicon Wheel" prototype for the barrel of the silicon tracker deep inside the CMS detector at CERN'S future LHC proton collider

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1997-01-01

    Elements on a specially designed structure will track the emerging particles close to the beam pipe. The supporting structure is made out of special carbon fibre discs holding 112 detector modules (448 individual silicon detectors). The modules are arranged to provide three detection points per track and are distributed in seven layers on a spiral geometry to leave enough room for cables, cooling tubes, etc. The inner radius of the wheel is 20.5 cm; the overall diameter is 80 The prototype is a combined CMS silicon community effort; the main participating institutions were: Aachen (Germany), Bari (Italy), CERN, Florence (Italy), Imperial College (UK), Oulu (Finland), Padova, Perugia, Pisa (Italy), Rutherford Laboratory

  19. COTS Fusion Tracker Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gertz, J

    2002-01-01

    .... This effort included cataloging the companies that have available ATC fusion trackers, acquiring executable tracker images from as many as possible of these trackers, running the commercial tracker...

  20. Trapping in irradiated p-on-n silicon sensors at fluences anticipated at the HL-LHC outer tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W.; Dragicevic, M.; Friedl, M.; Fruehwirth, R.; Hoch, M.; Hrubec, J.; Krammer, M.; Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Alderweireldt, S.; Beaumont, W.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Barria, P.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dobur, D.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Lenzi, Th.; Leonard, A.; Maerschalk, Th.; Mohammadi, A.; Pernie, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Zenoni, F.; Zeid, S.Abu; Blekman, F.; De Bruyn, I.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Tavernier, S.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G.; Van Parijs, I.; Strom, D.A.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; De Callatay, B.; Delaere, C.; Pree, T.Du; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jez, P.; Michotte, D.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pagano, D.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Marono, M.Vidal; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G.H.; Harkonen, J.; Lampen, T.; Luukka, P.R.; Maenpaa, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuovinen, E.; Eerola, P.; Tuuva, T.; Beaulieu, G.; Boudoul, G.; Combaret, C.; Contardo, D.; Gallbit, G.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sabes, D.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Zoccarato, Y.; Agram, J.L.; Conte, E.; Fontaine, J.Ch.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bonnin, C.; Brom, J.M.; Chabert, E.; Charles, L.; Goetzmann, Ch.; Gross, L.; Hosselet, J.; Mathieu, C.; Richer, M.; Skovpen, K.; Pistone, C.; Fluegge, G.; Kuensken, A.; Geisler, M.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Autermann, C.; Edelhoff, M.; Esser, H.; Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Pierschel, G.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Schwering, G.; Wittmer, B.; Wlochal, M.; Zhukov, V.; Bartosik, N.; Behr, J.; Burgmeier, A.; Calligaris, L.; Dolinska, G.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Fluke, G.; Garcia, J.Garay; Gizhko, A.; Hansen, K.; Harb, A.; Hauk, J.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Maser, H.; Mittag, G.; Muhl, C.; Mussgiller, A.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Schroeder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Zuber, A.; Biskop, H.; Blobel, V.; Buhmann, P.; Centis-Vignali, M.; Draeger, A.R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Junkes, A.; Lapsien, T.; Mattig, S.; Matysek, M.; Perieanu, A.; Poehlsen, J.; Poehlsen, T.; Scharf, Ch.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, A.; Sola, V.; Steinbruck, G.; Wellhausen, J.; Barvich, T.; Barth, Ch.; Boegelspacher, F.; De Boer, W.; Butz, E.; Casele, M.; Colombo, F.; Dierlamm, A.; Eber, R.; Freund, B.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, Th.; Heindl, S.; Hoffmann, K.H.; Husemann, U.; Kornmeyer, A.; Mallows, S.; Muller, Th.; Nuernberg, A.; Printz, M.; Simonis, H.J.; Steck, P.; Weber, M.; Weiler, Th.; Bhardwaj, A.; Kumar, A.; Ranjan, K.; Bakhshiansohl, H.; Behnamian, H.; Khakzad, M.; Naseri, M.; Cariola, P.; De Robertis, G.; Fiore, L.; Franco, M.; Loddo, F.; Sala, G.; Silvestris, L.; Creanza, D.; De Palma, M.; Maggi, G.; My, S.; Selvaggi, G.; Albergo, S.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Giordano, F.; Di Mattia, A.; Potenza, R.; Saizu, M.A.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Brianzi, M.; Ciaranfi, R.; Civinini, C.; Gallo, E.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Ciulli, V.; D'Alessandro, R.; Gonzi, S.; Gori, V.; Focardi, E.; Lenzi, P.; Scarlini, E.; Tropiano, A.; Viliani, L.; Ferro, F.; Robutti, E.; Lo Vetere, M.; Gennai, S.; Malvezzi, S.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Pedrini, D.; Dinardo, M.; Fiorendi, S.; Manzoni, R.A.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Dall'Osso, M.; Dorigo, T.; Giubilato, P.; Pozzobon, N.; Tosi, M.; Zucchetta, A.; De Canio, F.; Gaioni, L.; Manghisoni, M.; Nodari, B.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Comotti, D.; Ratti, L.; Bilei, G.M.; Bissi, L.; Checcucci, B.; Magalotti, D.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Servoli, L.; Storchi, L.; Biasini, M.; Conti, E.; Ciangottini, D.; Fano, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Passeri, D.; Placidi, P.; Salvatore, M.; Santocchia, A.; Solestizi, L.A.; Spiezia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Arezzini, S.; Bagliesi, G.; Basti, A.; Boccali, T.; Bosi, F.; Castaldi, R.; Ciampa, A.; Ciocci, M.A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fedi, G.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M.T.; Lomtadze, T.; Magazzu, G.; Mazzoni, E.; Minuti, M.; Moggi, A.; Moon, C.S.; Morsani, F.; Palla, F.; Palmonari, F.; Raffaelli, F.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A.T.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P.G.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Rizzi, A.; Tonelli, G.; Calzolari, F.; Donato, S.; Fiori, F.; Ligabue, F.; Vernieri, C.; Demaria, N.; Rivetti, A.; Bellan, R.; Casasso, S.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Migliore, E.; Monteil, E.; Musich, M.; Pacher, L.; Ravera, F.; Romero, A.; Solano, A.; Trapani, P.; Jaramillo Echeverria, R.; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Moya, D.; F. Gonzalez Sanchez, J.; Munoz Sanchez, F.J.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L.; Abbaneo, D.; Ahmed, I.; Albert, E.; Auzinger, G.; Berruti, G.; Bianchi, G.; Blanchot, G.; Breuker, H.; Ceresa, D.; Christiansen, J.; Cichy, K.; Daguin, J.; D'Alfonso, M.; D'Auria, A.; Detraz, S.; De Visscher, S.; Deyrail, D.; Faccio, F.; Felici, D.; Frank, N.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Harris, P.; Honma, A.; Kaplon, J.; Kornmayer, A.; Kottelat, L.; Kovacs, M.; Mannelli, M.; Marchioro, A.; Marconi, S.; Martina, S.; Mersi, S.; Michelis, S.; Moll, M.; Onnela, A.; Pakulski, T.; Pavis, S.; Peisert, A.; Pernot, J.F.; Petagna, P.; Petrucciani, G.; Postema, H.; Rose, P.; Rzonca, M.; Stoye, M.; Tropea, P.; Troska, J.; Tsirou, A.; Vasey, F.; Vichoudis, P.; Verlaat, B.; Zwalinski, L.; Bachmair, F.; Becker, R.; Bani, L.; di Calafiori, D.; Casal, B.; Djambazov, L.; Donega, M.; Dunser, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Horisberger, U.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marionneau, M.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Perrozzi, L.; Roeser, U.; Rossini, M.; Starodumov, A.; Takahashi, M.; Wallny, R.; Amsler, C.; Bosiger, K.; Caminada, L.; Canelli, F.; Chiochia, V.; De Cosa, A.; Galloni, C.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Lange, C.; Maier, R.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Robmann, P.; Taroni, S.; Yang, Y.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Kaestli, H.C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Meier, B.; Rohe, T.; Streuli, S.; Chen, P.H.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W.S.; Lu, R.S.; Moya, M.; Wilken, R.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Jacob, J.; El Nasr-Storey, S.Seif; Cole, J.; Hobson, P.; Leggat, D.; Reid, I.D.; Teodorescu, L.; Bainbridge, R.; Dauncey, P.; Fulcher, J.; Hall, G.; Magnan, A.M.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, D.M.; Uchida, K.; Coughlan, J.A.; Harder, K.; Ilic, J.; Tomalin, I.R.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Narain, M.; Nelson, J.; Sagir, S.; Speer, T.; Swanson, J.; Tersegno, D.; Watson-Daniels, J.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Flores, C.; Lander, R.; Pellett, D.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Squires, M.; Thomson, J.; Yohay; Burt, K.; Ellison, J.; Hanson, G.; Malberti, M.; Olmedo, M.; Cerati, G.; Sharma, V.; Vartak, A.; Yagil, A.; Della Porta, G.Zevi; Dutta, V.; Gouskos, L.; Incandela, J.; Kyre, S.; McColl, N.; Mullin, S.; White, D.; Cumalat, J.P.; Ford, W.T.; Gaz, A.; Krohn, M.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S.R.; Baldin, B.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J.; Cheung, H.; Chramowicz, J.; Christian, D.; Cooper, W.E.; Deptuch, G.; Derylo, G.; Gingu, C.; Gruenendahl, S.; Hasegawa, S.; Hoff, J.; Howell, J.; Hrycyk, M.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Jung, A.; Joshi, U.; Kahlid, F.; Lei, C.M.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Los, S.; Matulik, M.; Merkel, P.; Nahn, S.; Prosser, A.; Rivera, R.; Shenai, A.; Spiegel, L.; Tran, N.; Uplegger, L.; Voirin, E.; Yin, H.; Adams, M.R.; Berry, D.R.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, O.; Gerber, C.E.; Hofman, D.J.; Kapustka, B.K.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, D.I.; Trauger, H.; Turner, P.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; I.I.I.; Bortoletto, D.; Bubna, M.; Hinton, N.; Jones, M.; Miller, D.H.; Shi, X.; Tan, P.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Gray, J.; Majumder, D.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Ivanov, A.; Makouski, M.; Skhirtladze, N.; Taylor, R.; Anderson, I.; Fehling, D.; Gritsan, A.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Nash, K.; Osherson, M.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Acosta, J.G.; Cremaldi, L.M.; Oliveros, S.; Perera, L.; Summers, D.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D.R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Hahn, K.; Sevova, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Bartz, E.; Duggan, D.; Halkiadakis, E.; Lath, A.; Park, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Stone, R.; Walker, M.; Malik, S.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J.E.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alexander, J.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Kaufman, G.; Mirman, N.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Skinnari, L.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Winstrom, L.; Akgun, B.; Ecklund, K.M.; Nussbaum, T.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Demina, R.; Hindrichs, O.; Petrillo, G.; Eusebi, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Perloff, A.; Ulmer, K.A.; Delannoy, A.G.; D'Angelo, P.; Johns, W.

    2016-04-22

    The degradation of signal in silicon sensors is studied under conditions expected at the CERN High-Luminosity LHC. 200 $\\mu$m thick n-type silicon sensors are irradiated with protons of different energies to fluences of up to $3 \\cdot 10^{15}$ neq/cm$^2$. Pulsed red laser light with a wavelength of 672 nm is used to generate electron-hole pairs in the sensors. The induced signals are used to determine the charge collection efficiencies separately for electrons and holes drifting through the sensor. The effective trapping rates are extracted by comparing the results to simulation. The electric field is simulated using Synopsys device simulation assuming two effective defects. The generation and drift of charge carriers are simulated in an independent simulation based on PixelAV. The effective trapping rates are determined from the measured charge collection efficiencies and the simulated and measured time-resolved current pulses are compared. The effective trapping rates determined for both electrons and holes...

  1. Agile Walker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Reuven

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the Agile Walker is to improve the outdoor mobility of healthy elderly people with some mobility limitations. It is a newly developed, all-terrain walker, equipped with an electric drive system and speed control that can assists elderly people to walk outdoors or to hike. The walker has a unique product design with an attractive look that will appeal to "active-agers" population. This paper describes product design requirements and the development process of the Agile Walker, its features and some preliminary testing results.

  2. Agile Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Senta; Harris, Jim

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the art-historical canon, however it is construed, has little relevance to the selection of objects for museum-based teaching. Their contention is that all objects are fundamentally agile and capable of interrogation from any number of disciplinary standpoints, and that the canon of museum education,…

  3. Agile attitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis; Eriksen, Kaare; Tollestrup, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the growing number of hybrid products with extensive software and service components, this paper reviews four representative agile methods from the domain of software for their applicability to both the industrial design education and practice. The review is based on a comparative an...... development teams and their own domain of physical product development....

  4. Measurement of the deep-inelastic ep scattering cross section using the Backward Silicon Tracker at the H1 detector at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkadov, V.V.

    2000-11-01

    A measurements of the inclusive cross section for the deep-inelastic scattering of positrons off protons is presented at four momentum transfers squared 1.5 ≤ Q 2 ≤ 15 GeV 2 in the Bjorken x range between 0.000024 and 0.075. The analysis is based on data collected by the H1 experiment at HERA in the year 1997 taken during a special minimum bias run for low Q 2 values. A backward silicon tracker (BST) has been used in this measurement for the first time. Use of this new detector component, as presented in this thesis, led to an extension of the kinematical region of the measurement towards high values of inelasticity y at low Q 2 as well as towards the low y region which overlaps with fixed target experiments. The precision of the measurement is for the first time dominated by the systematic uncertainties. These are of the order of 3% as compared to typically 1-2% statistical accuracy. Part of the results presented in this analysis has been included into H1 publication. (orig.)

  5. Development of trigger software for the silicon and fibre trackers and a study of B meson lifetimes for the D0 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illingworth, Robert Arthur [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-01-01

    The D0 detector has recently undergone a major upgrade to maximize its potential to fully exploit Run II at the Tevatron 2 TeV proton-antiproton collider. The upgrade includes a completely new central tracking system with an outer scintillating fiber tracker and an inner silicon vertex detector. This thesis describes the development of the software to ''unpack'' the raw data from the central tracking detectors into a useful form, and the development of the Level 3 trigger algorithms to cluster the hit information from these detectors. One of the many areas of physics that is being studied by the D0 experiment is the physics of B mesons, particularly that involving CP violation. The second part of the thesis details a constrained mass fitting tool written to aid the reconstruction of B particles, and a Monte Carlo study into measuring the lifetime of B+ and B0 mesons. This thesis lays the foundations for the means by which physics is extracted from the vast amount of Tevatron data--the trigger--and illustrates how analyses will proceed through the key reconstruction of heavy quarks.

  6. INNER TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    Karl Gill

    A series of important milestones have been passed during the last 3 months. With the delivery of refurbished cooling systems, pixels and strip systems have been brought back into operation after long shutdowns. Pixels has been operating since reinsertion of FPIX in April, and has been running at 4°C since May 16 when the bulkhead thermal screen was commissioned. More recently, on June 10 the Strip Tracker was powered up in its entirety, with cooling fluid circulating at 4°C, allowing commissioning of the Strip Tracker to proceed at full speed. The full Tracker is well on course to be ready for CRAFT, with Strip Tracker readout operation in ‘peak’ mode remaining also on track to be ready for beam operations in the Autumn in ‘deconvolution’ readout mode. The main Tracker activity during the shutdown was the cooling plant refurbishment for Strips and Pixels systems. The objectives were to reduce the serious leaks observed in 2008 and improve the longevity...

  7. INNER TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    K. Gill.

    The clear highlight of recent months was switching on the Tracker to capture the first LHC collisions with 450GeV beams. This was during the first trial run of the LHC on 23rd November. On that day, the Tracker Outer Barrel (TOB) was powered and the detector performance was excellent, in accord with our expectations. Since then, the full Tracker, strips and pixels, has been powered up during “quiet” beam periods when there was judged to be little risk of damage due to sudden beam losses. All Tracker systems performed very well, considering the beam and trigger conditions in place, and we now eagerly anticipate the first collisions with stable beams. Besides this very intense and exciting recent period there has been a lot of other activity in the last 6 months. The full Tracker participated in CRAFT09 and operations of all systems went very smoothly for both pixels and strips, validating all the meticulous work that had taking place during the long shutdown, the subsequent re-commissionin...

  8. INNER TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    K. Gill

    During the winter shutdown several parts of the Tracker system are undergoing maintenance, revision or upgrade. The main items are the revision of the strips and pixels cooling plants, removal and maintenance of FPIX, sealing of Tracker patch-panels and the bulkhead, integration of strips and pixels DCS, and further development of the DAQ, Online and commissioning software and firmware. The revision of the cooling system involves the complete replacement of the tanks, distribution lines, valves and manifolds on the SS1 and SS2 strip tracker (182 circuits) and pixels (36 circuits) cooling plants. The objectives are to eliminate the large leaks experienced during 2008 operations and to assure the long-term reliability of the cooling systems. Additional instrumentation is being added to provide more detailed monitoring of the performance of the cooling system. This work is proceeding smoothly under close supervision. Procurements are almost completed and the quality of delivered parts and the subsequent assembl...

  9. LHCb upstream tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Artuso, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The detector for the LHCb upgrade is designed for 40MHz readout, allowing the experiment to run at an instantaneous luminosity of 2x10^33 cm$^2$s$^-1$. The upgrade of the tracker subsystem in front of the dipole magnet, the Upstream Tracker, is crucial for charged track reconstruction and fast trigger decisions based on a tracking algorithm involving also vertex detector information. The detector consists of 4 planes with a total area of about 8.5m$^2$, made of single sided silicon strip sensors read-out by a novel custom-made ASIC (SALT). Details on the performance of prototype sensors, front-end electronics, near-detector electronics and mechanical components are presented.

  10. CMS tracker observes muons

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A computer image of a cosmic ray traversing the many layers of the TEC+ silicon sensors. The first cosmic muon tracks have been observed in one of the CMS tracker endcaps. On 14 March, a sector on one of the two large tracker endcaps underwent a cosmic muon run. Since then, thousands of tracks have been recorded. These data will be used not only to study the tracking, but also to exercise various track alignment algorithms The endcap tested, called the TEC+, is under construction at RWTH Aachen in Germany. The endcaps have a modular design, with silicon strip modules mounted onto wedge-shaped carbon fibre support plates, so-called petals. Up to 28 modules are arranged in radial rings on both sides of these plates. One eighth of an endcap is populated with 18 petals and called a sector. The next major step is a test of the first sector at CMS operating conditions, with the silicon modules at a temperature below -10°C. Afterwards, the remaining seven sectors have to be integrated. In autumn 2006, TEC+ wil...

  11. INNER TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sharp

    The last three months have been very productive for the CMS Tracking Systems. By the September CMS Week, the complete Tracking System (silicon strips and pixel detectors) had been prepared for recording the first collisions from the LHC. After the events of 19 September, the focus of activity became the collection of a substantial data set of cosmic triggers with the CMS Magnet at 3.8T in the CMS CRAFT Global Run. During the four weeks of the CRAFT run, the complete Tracking Systems were available for data taking for 96% of the time, collecting ~290 million triggers which have in turn delivered ~8.5 million events with at least one reconstructed track in the silicon strip detector and ~100 K tracks in the pixel detector. Throughout the run, ~98% of the silicon strips and ~97% of the pixels collected data. The main causes of the 4% ‘down time’ during the four-week run were cooling problems associated with the high leak rate from the silicon strip cooling plants. The power, DAQ, DCS and ...

  12. Agile Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene

    2014-01-01

    When you have stable and non-ambiguous requirements then a classic contract for IS between a supplier and a public sector institution based on a requirements specification may be well suited. However, if you have to accept many changes or have ambiguous requirements then you may end up...... with “endless” re-negotiation of the requirements; you need a more flexible way to develop IS. A new way of coping with many changes is to use an agile development approach and a fixed budget and resources contract. This paper presents an example case. We analyse the case and design a guideline for how...... to implement a fixed budget and resources contract in the public sector. The guideline includes elements to cope with challenges in a tender process such as transparency, criteria for supplier selection, and live assessment of resource skills and capabilities, as well as achieving the flexibility for change...

  13. CMS Tracker commissioning and first operation experience

    CERN Document Server

    Delaere, C

    2007-01-01

    The CMS silicon strip tracker is the largest device of its type ever built. There are 24244 single-sided micro-strip sensors covering an active area of nearly 200 square meters. After a short introduction on the tracker, the program at the CMS tracker integration facility will be described. The strategy and results from the commissioning will be presented together with results on low-level detector performance. The general experience gained by operating the Tracker at different temperatures will be presented. This includes hardware aspects, acquisition software and infrastructures choices, or distributed data processing.

  14. INNER TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    Peter Sharp

    The last three months have been very productive for the CMS Tracking Systems. At the June CMS Week the Cooling System problems had delayed the commissioning of the Silicon Strip detector. These problems were successfully solved, and after a little over three weeks of commissioning a large fraction of the Silicon Strip detector was able to join the CMS Cruzet 3 Global Run (8 July). In addition on the Monday (14 July) following the end of the Global Run, the first preliminary results from both the reconstruction and alignment of Cosmic Tracks were presented to CMS. Starting in the week beginning 21 July both the Barrel and Forward Pixel Detectors were installed into CMS, connected to the pre-installed services and  commissioning was started. Since then all of the tracking Systems have been continuously commissioned and the focus has been on solving a number of small problems, and on calibrating the detectors and synchronizing the detectors with the CMS Trigger. More than 99% of the Silicon Strip Tr...

  15. Agile Metrics: Progress Monitoring of Agile Contractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    epic. The short timeframe is usually called an itera- tion or, in Scrum -based teams, a sprint; multiple iterations make up a release [Lapham 2011...9769 [Rawsthorne 2012] Rawsthorne, Dan. Monitoring Scrum Projects with AgileEVM and Earned Business Value Metrics (EBV). 2012. http...AgileEVM – Earned Value Manage- ment in Scrum Projects.” Presented at Agile2006, 23-28 July 2006. [USAF 2008] United States Air Force. United

  16. Agile practice guide

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Agile Practice Guide – First Edition has been developed as a resource to understand, evaluate, and use agile and hybrid agile approaches. This practice guide provides guidance on when, where, and how to apply agile approaches and provides practical tools for practitioners and organizations wanting to increase agility. This practice guide is aligned with other PMI standards, including A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) – Sixth Edition, and was developed as the result of collaboration between the Project Management Institute and the Agile Alliance.

  17. Agility Quotient (AQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    agility is worth our attention. AQ can be patterned after the Intelligence Quotient (IQ). IQ is a score that is associated with educational potential...19 th ICCRTS “C2 Agility: Lessons Learned from Research and Operations” Track 1 Paper 072 Agility Quotient (AQ) David S. Alberts Institute...00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Agility Quotient (AQ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  18. Testing in agile projects

    OpenAIRE

    Košťál, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    This thesis deals with the description of software testing in agile projects. Unlike the traditionally managed projects, testing in agile projects is not a discrete phase. In agile managed projects, testing is integrated into the entire development process. Testing takes place continuously throughout the project to ensure frequent delivery of valuable software in short development cycles. The aim of this diploma thesis is to create a comprehensive description of software testing in agile proj...

  19. Last ATLAS transition radiation tracker module installed

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS transition radiation tracker consists of 96 modules and will join the pixel detector and silicon tracker at the heart of the experiment to map the trajectories of particles and identify electrons produced when proton beams collide. In the last image the team responsible for assembly are shown from left to right: Kirill Egorov (Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute), Pauline Gagnon (Indiana University), Ben Legeyt (University of Pennsylvania), Chuck Long (Hampton University), John Callahan (Indiana University) and Alex High (University of Pennsylvania).

  20. CMS Tracker Model

    CERN Multimedia

    Model of the tracking detector for the CMS experiment at the LHC. This object is a mock-up of an early design of the CMS Tracker mechanics. It is a segment of a “Wheel” to support Micro-Strip Gas Chamber (MSGC) detector modules on the outer layers and silicon-strip detector modules in the innermost layers. The particularity of that design is that modules are organised in spirals, along which power and optical cables and cooling pipes were planned to be routed. Some of such spirals are illustrated in the mock-up by the colors of the modules. With the detector development it became, however, evident that the silicon detectors would need to be operated in LHC experiments in cold temperatures, while the MSGC could stay in normal room-temperature. That split in two temperatures lead to separating those two detector types by a thermal barrier and therefore jeopardizing the idea of using common, vertical Wheels with services arranged along spirals.

  1. Agile practice guide (English)

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This practice guide provides guidance on when, where, and how to apply agile approaches and provides practical tools for practitioners and organizations wanting to increase agility. This practice guide is aligned with other PMI standards, including A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) - Sixth Edition, and was developed as the result of collaboration between the Project Management Institute and the Agile Alliance.

  2. Trust in agile teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Gitte; Fransgård, Mette; Skalkam, Signe

    2012-01-01

    of the problems of DSD. However important incompatibilities between the challenges of DSD and the key tenets of agility exist and achieving a beneficially balanced agile practice in DSD can be difficult. Trust could be the key to this, since trust is crucial for the necessary corporate behavior that leads to team...... of trust then it is difficult if not impossible to develop a balanced agile DSD practice....

  3. LHCb Upgrade: Scintillating Fibre Tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and to read out the data at 40 MHz using a trigger-less read-out system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with higher occupancy. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. The SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). State-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays are being developed to read out the fibres and a custom ASIC will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. The evolution of the design since the Technical Design Report in 2014 and the latest R & D results are presented.

  4. Agile risk management

    CERN Document Server

    Moran, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This work is the definitive guide for IT managers and agile practitioners. It elucidates the principles of agile risk management and how these relate to individual projects. Explained in clear and concise terms, this synthesis of project risk management and agile techniques is illustrated using the major methodologies such as XP, Scrum and DSDM.Although the agile community frequently cites risk management, research suggests that risk is often narrowly defined and, at best, implicitly treated, which in turn leads to an inability to make informed decisions concerning risk and reward and a poor u

  5. Agile software development

    CERN Document Server

    Stober, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Software Development is moving towards a more agile and more flexible approach. It turns out that the traditional 'waterfall' model is not supportive in an environment where technical, financial and strategic constraints are changing almost every day. But what is agility? What are today's major approaches? And especially: What is the impact of agile development principles on the development teams, on project management and on software architects? How can large enterprises become more agile and improve their business processes, which have been existing since many, many years? What are the limit

  6. First half of CMS inner tracker barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The first half of the CMS inner tracker barrel is seen in this image consisting of three layers of silicon modules which will be placed at the centre of the CMS experiment at the LHC in CERN. Laying close to the interaction point of the 14 TeV proton-proton collisions, the silicon used here must be able to survive high doses of radiation and a 4 T magnetic field without damage.

  7. Autonomous Star Tracker Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Kilsgaard, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances.......Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances....

  8. CMS tracker slides into centre stage

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As preparations for the magnet test and cosmic challenge get underway, a prototype tracker has been carefully inserted into the centre of CMS. The tracker, in its special platform, is slowly inserted into the centre of CMS. The CMS prototype tracker to be used for the magnet test and cosmic challenge coming up this summer has the same dimensions -2.5 m in diameter and 6 m in length- as the real one and tooling exactly like it. However, the support tube is only about 1% equipped, with 2 m2 of silicon detectors installed out of the total 200 m2. This is already more than any LEP experiment ever used and indicates the great care needed to be taken by engineers and technicians as these fragile detectors were installed and transported to Point 5. Sixteen thousand silicon detectors with a total of about 10 million strips will make up the full tracker. So far, 140 modules with about 100 000 strips have been implanted into the prototype tracker. These silicon strips will provide precision tracking for cosmic muon...

  9. Quality assurance for CMS Tracker LV and HV Power Supplies

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Marco; Sertoli, M; Trapani, P; Periale, L; Isabella, L; Landi, C; Lucchesi, A

    2007-01-01

    This work describes the quality assurance measurements that have been carried out on about 2000 Power Supply Units produced in CAEN technology for the CMS Silicon Tracker Detector. The automate procedure and the characteristics of the dedicated Test Fixture developed for this activity are described in details. Magnetic field tolerance and radiation hardness of Tracker power supply units is also discussed at length.

  10. CMS Tracker alignment and material budget measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Migliore, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Tracker consists of 1440 pixel modules and 15 148 strip modules covering an area of about 200 square meters. To achieve an optimal track-parameter resolution, the position and orientation of the modules must be determined with a precision of a few microns and an accurate representation of the distribution of material in the Tracker is needed. Results of the alignment of the Tracker are presented, based on the analysis of data from cosmic ray muons and proton-proton collisions. The alignment is validated by data-driven studies and compared with predictions from a detailed detector simulation. Reconstructed photon conversions and nuclear interactions are used to evaluate the material in the Tracker.

  11. Patterns for agility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iacob, Maria Eugenia; Lankhorst, M.M.; Schrier, A.; Lankhorst, M.

    2012-01-01

    The use of patterns is an important practice in the agile software development community. There are many sources for patterns. In this chapter, we will examine several pattern collections and explore their potential contribution to system agility. We illustrate our pattern approach by a detailed

  12. Battlespace Agility 101

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Dr. William

    2012-01-01

    This brief by Ph.D. William Mitchell presents the methodology Target Network Modelling (TNM) and describes how it can be used to make units more agile in the battlespace.......This brief by Ph.D. William Mitchell presents the methodology Target Network Modelling (TNM) and describes how it can be used to make units more agile in the battlespace....

  13. Agile Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biju, Soly Mathew

    2008-01-01

    Many software development firms are now adopting the agile software development method. This method involves the customer at every level of software development, thus reducing the impact of change in the requirement at a later stage. In this article, the principles of the agile method for software development are explored and there is a focus on…

  14. Agile modeling practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Baojie

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the Unified Process and Agile Modeling is attracting people's attention for having integrated theory and maneuver ability. Based on the practice of China North Nuclear PWR's production and quality MIS project, the paper introduces Unified Process and Agile Modeling at first, then scratch the application of scientific idea to soft project for reference by similar projects afterwards. (author)

  15. C2 Agility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Dr. William; Alberts, David S.; Bernier, Francois

    Agility is the capability to successfully effect, cope with, and/or exploit changes in circumstances. While other factors will also influence outcomes, C2 Agility enables entities to effectively and efficiently employ the resources they have in a timely manner in a variety of missions and circums...

  16. Agility Into Victory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhlin, Jonas Alastair

    This paper will investigate how the three core concepts of command and control agility can increase the chance for a successful outcome in military operations and what elements that should be strengthen within a military organization in order to achieve an agile approach to command and control. T...

  17. Agile distributed software development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, John Stouby; Mathiassen, Lars; Aaen, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    While face-to-face interaction is fundamental in agile software development, distributed environments must rely extensively on mediated interactions. Practicing agile principles in distributed environments therefore poses particular control challenges related to balancing fixed vs. evolving quality...... requirements and people vs. process-based collaboration. To investigate these challenges, we conducted an in-depth case study of a successful agile distributed software project with participants from a Russian firm and a Danish firm. Applying Kirsch’s elements of control framework, we offer an analysis of how...... in conjunction with informal roles and relationships such as clan-like control inherent in agile development. Overall, the study demonstrates that, if appropriately applied, communication technologies can significantly support distributed, agile practices by allowing concurrent enactment of both formal...

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on leakage current in CMOS read-out chips for the ATLAS upgrade silicon strip tracker at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Lynn, Dave; Kierstead, James; Kuczewski, Philip; van Nieuwenhuizen, Gerrit J; Rosin, Guy; Tricoli, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    The increase of the leakage current of NMOS transistors in detector readout chips in certain 130 nm CMOS technologies during exposure to ionising radiation needs special consideration in the design of detector systems, as this can result in a large increase of the supply current and power dissipation. As part of the R&D; program for the upgrade of the ATLAS inner detector tracker for the High Luminosity upgrade of the LHC at CERN, a dedicated set of irradiations have been carried out with the $^60$Co gamma-ray source at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. Measurements will be presented that characterise the increase in the digital leakage current in the 130 nm-technology ABC130 readout chips. The variation of the current as a function of time and total ionising dose has been studied under various conditions of dose rate, temperature and power applied to the chip. The range of variation of dose rates and temperatures has been set to be close to those expected at the High Luminosity LHC, i.e. in the range 0...

  19. The CMS tracker control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierlamm, A.; Dirkes, G. H.; Fahrer, M.; Frey, M.; Hartmann, F.; Masetti, L.; Militaru, O.; Shah, S. Y.; Stringer, R.; Tsirou, A.

    2008-07-01

    The Tracker Control System (TCS) is a distributed control software to operate about 2000 power supplies for the silicon modules of the CMS Tracker and monitor its environmental sensors. TCS must thus be able to handle about 104 power supply parameters, about 103 environmental probes from the Programmable Logic Controllers of the Tracker Safety System (TSS), about 105 parameters read via DAQ from the DCUs in all front end hybrids and from CCUs in all control groups. TCS is built on top of an industrial SCADA program (PVSS) extended with a framework developed at CERN (JCOP) and used by all LHC experiments. The logical partitioning of the detector is reflected in the hierarchical structure of the TCS, where commands move down to the individual hardware devices, while states are reported up to the root which is interfaced to the broader CMS control system. The system computes and continuously monitors the mean and maximum values of critical parameters and updates the percentage of currently operating hardware. Automatic procedures switch off selected parts of the detector using detailed granularity and avoiding widespread TSS intervention.

  20. The CMS tracker control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierlamm, A; Dirkes, G H; Fahrer, M; Frey, M; Hartmann, F; Masetti, L; Militaru, O; Shah, S Y; Stringer, R; Tsirou, A

    2008-01-01

    The Tracker Control System (TCS) is a distributed control software to operate about 2000 power supplies for the silicon modules of the CMS Tracker and monitor its environmental sensors. TCS must thus be able to handle about 10 4 power supply parameters, about 10 3 environmental probes from the Programmable Logic Controllers of the Tracker Safety System (TSS), about 10 5 parameters read via DAQ from the DCUs in all front end hybrids and from CCUs in all control groups. TCS is built on top of an industrial SCADA program (PVSS) extended with a framework developed at CERN (JCOP) and used by all LHC experiments. The logical partitioning of the detector is reflected in the hierarchical structure of the TCS, where commands move down to the individual hardware devices, while states are reported up to the root which is interfaced to the broader CMS control system. The system computes and continuously monitors the mean and maximum values of critical parameters and updates the percentage of currently operating hardware. Automatic procedures switch off selected parts of the detector using detailed granularity and avoiding widespread TSS intervention

  1. The Rare Decays $B^0_{(s)}\\to\\mu^+\\mu^-$ and $Z$ Boson Production at LHCb and Radiation Damage in its Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Elsasser, Christian; Müller, Katharina; Steinkamp, Olaf; Baudis, Laura

    The LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is dedicated to the study of physics involving beauty and charm quarks. Its detector $-$ designed as a single-arm forward spectrometer $-$ uses tracking stations upstream and downstream of a dipole magnet to measure the trajectories and the momenta of charged particles. Parts of this tracking system are built from silicon micro-strip detectors. This thesis describes the monitoring of the radiation damage in these detectors using leakage current measurements and so-called Charge Collection Efficiency scans performed in regular intervals during data taking. The results of this monitoring during the first LHC data taking period from 2010 to 2013 are presented and predictions for the future evolution of the detector ageing are discussed. A main goal of LHCb is the measurement of rare decays. As these decays are heavily suppressed in the Standard Model, their properties, for example the branching fraction, angular distributions or $CP$ asymmetries, can be significan...

  2. Agile project management. A case study on agile practices

    OpenAIRE

    Henriksen, André

    2016-01-01

    In project management and particularly software project management, there has been a shift from traditional plan based project management to the agile event driven project management style. Agile project management has for some time been viewed as the new big change that will revolutionize the software industry. The concept of agile has been around for some time, and although knowledge and usage are increasing, agile is not always the answer. Understanding when to use agile and which succ...

  3. Improving Agile Software Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Gitte

    2006-01-01

    agile and innovative, while striving for certification according to traditional rational SPI norms? This paper reports from a action research project in a small agile Danish firm (Techsoft) conducting a improvement initiative. The firm had just been met by the demand for a CMMI level-3 certification...... from their new multinational owners. In the project we experimented to reach a less centralized and control centered SPI approach trying to meet the agile culture of the firm both within diagnosing, improvement planning, process design and evaluation eventhough the goal was applying to the norm. After...

  4. Agile Software Development

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Rhonda

    2009-01-01

    One of the most noticeable changes to software process thinking in the last ten years has been the appearance of the word ‘agile’ (Fowler, 2005). In the Information Technology (IT) industry Agile Software Development, or simply Agile is used to refer to a family of lightweight development approaches that share a common set of values and principles1 focused around adapting to change and putting people first (Fowler, 2005). Such Agile methods2 provide an alternative to the well-established Wate...

  5. Agile IT Security Implementation Methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Laskowski, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    The book is a tutorial that goes from basic to professional level for Agile IT security. It begins by assuming little knowledge of agile security. Readers should hold a good knowledge of security methods and agile development. The book is targeted at IT security managers, directors, and architects. It is useful for anyone responsible for the deployment of IT security countermeasures. Security people with a strong knowledge of agile software development will find this book to be a good review of agile concepts.

  6. Agility: Agent - Ility Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Craig

    2002-01-01

    ...., object and web technologies). The objective of the Agility project is to develop an open agent grid architecture populated with scalable, deployable, industrial strength agent grid components, targeting the theme 'agents for the masses...

  7. The LHCb Inner Tracker Module Production Steps and Quality Assurance

    CERN Document Server

    Bettler, M O; Esperante, D; Fauland, P; van Hunen, J; Knecht, M; Koestner, S; Tran, M T; Perez Trigo, E; Vazquez, P; Voss, H

    2010-01-01

    This note describes the various production step for the LHCb Inner Tracker silicon modules. We quickly sketch where the various items are produced and mention their acceptance criteria where applicable. A detail description is given of the various production and testing steps of the silicon detector modules in Lausanne and at CERN.

  8. Beam-induced radiation in the compact muon solenoid tracker at the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The intense radiation environment at the Large Hadron Collider, CERN at a design energy of s = 14 TeV and a luminosity of 1034 cm−2S−1 poses unprecedented challenges for safe operation and performance quality of the silicon tracker detectors in the CMS and ATLAS experiments. The silicon trackers are crucial for the ...

  9. The agile edge managing projects effectively using agile scrum

    CERN Document Server

    Vanderjack, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This concise book is an effective source for understanding Agile Scrum development; why we use it and how it works. It will explain how work gets done in manageable iterations (sprints) and the team meetings that keep work on track (ceremonies). Also, since risk is a constant threat to any team-based project, managing risk in an Agile Scrum environment is specii cally discussed. This book is for: New Agile Scrum team members. Team leaders - this book describes the foundation of Agile Scrum, which can save time getting team members on the same page. Trainer/Educator of Agile Scrum - this book clearly defines Agile Scrum in a structured way so that students can learn how to effectively serve on an Agile team to improve their marketability. If you need to know Agile Scrum, this book will show you how to own it.

  10. Agile anywhere essays on agile projects and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Hazzan, Orit

    2014-01-01

    The message conveyed in this work is that agility can be implemented anywhere. Accordingly, ten guidelines are presented for the adoption of agility to enable us to cope with changes in our lives, in our teams, and in our organizations. Since the authors advocate agility, the content is presented in the form of concise standalone chapters, allowing the reader to focus on the specific topic they wish to adopt in order to become agile.

  11. The 2003 Tracker Inner Barrel Beam Test

    CERN Document Server

    Boccali, Tommaso; Borrello, Laura; Carrone, Enzo; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; De Filippis, Nicola; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Drouhin, Frédéric; Dutta, Suchandra; Giammanco, Andrea; Giassi, Alessandro; Giordano, Domenico; Kaminski, A; Macchiolo, Anna; Marchettini, Cristiano; Meschini, Marco; Mirabito, Laurent; My, Salvatore; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Paoletti, Simone; Radicci, Valeria; Ranieri, Riccardo; Segneri, Gabriele; Siegrist, Patrice; Silvestris, Lucia; Tricomi, Alessia; Tsirou, Andromachi; Verdini, Piero Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    Before starting the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) mass production, where the quality control tests can only be done on single components, an extensive collection of activities aiming at validating the tracker system functionality has been performed. In this framework, a final component prototype of the Inner Barrel part (TIB) of the SST has been assembled and tested in the INFN laboratories and then moved to CERN to check its behaviour in a 25~ns LHC-like particle beam. A set of preproduction single-sided silicon microstrip modules was mounted on a mechanical structure very similar to a sector of the third layer of the TIB and read out using a system functionally identical to the final one. In this note the system setup configuration is fully described and the results of the test, concerning both detector performance and system characteristics, are presented and discussed.

  12. Alignment strategy for the CMS Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, M

    2008-01-01

    The CMS Tracker measures the momentum of charged particles created in proton-proton interactions with 14\\,TeV nominal center-of-mass energy close to the interaction region. Its excellent single-point position resolution of 9--60\\,$\\mu$m\\ is far below typical construction tolerances, and together with its high granularity renders the alignment a demanding task, which needs to aim at micro-meter level precision. A strategy to align the CMS tracker with its 15\\,148 silicon strip and 1\\,440 silicon pixel modules, starting from survey measurements during construction, incorporating information from the laser hardware monitoring system and finally using collision and non-collision tracks for highest precision has been developed and is detailed in this article.

  13. Adopting to Agile Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linkevics Gusts

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agile software development can be made successful, but there is no well-defined way how to achieve this. The problem is that the successful adoption of agile methods and practices is a complex process and this process should be customizable for a particular organization or a team. This research focuses on identification of agile methods and practices. Result of the research is the ranking of agile methods, practices and their usage trends. As some terms of agile software development are interpreted differently in different organizations and teams, terminology used is analyzed. Results of the research can be used as a reference material for those who are planning to adopt agile methods or are looking for the next agile practice to implement. Results will be used for the development of an expert system to support agile adoption.

  14. The ATLAS semiconductor tracker (SCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS detector (CERN,LHCC,94-43 (1994)) is designed to study a wide range of physics at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at luminosities up to 10 34 cm -2 s -1 with a bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz. The Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) forms a key component of the Inner Detector (vol. 1, ATLAS TDR 4, CERN,LHCC 97-16 (1997); vol. 2, ATLAS TDR 5, CERN,LHCC 97-17 (1997)) which is situated inside a 2 T solenoid field. The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) utilises 4088 silicon modules with binary readout mounted on carbon fibre composite structures arranged in the forms of barrels in the central region and discs in the forward region. The construction of the SCT is now well advanced. The design of the SCT modules, services and support structures will be briefly outlined. A description of the various stages in the construction process will be presented with examples of the performance achieved and the main difficulties encountered. Finally, the current status of the construction is reviewed

  15. The ATLAS semiconductor tracker (SCT)

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, J N

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS detector (CERN/LHCC/94-43 (1994)) is designed to study a wide range of physics at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at luminosities up to 10**3**4 cm**-**2 s**-**1 with a bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz. The Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) forms a key component of the Inner Detector (vol. 1, ATLAS TDR 4, CERN/LHCC 97-16 (1997); vol. 2, ATLAS TDR 5, CERN/LHCC 97-17 (1997)) which is situated inside a 2 T solenoid field. The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) utilises 4088 silicon modules with binary readout mounted on carbon fibre composite structures arranged in the forms of barrels in the central region and discs in the forward region. The construction of the SCT is now well advanced. The design of the SCT modules, services and support structures will be briefly outlined. A description of the various stages in the construction process will be presented with examples of the performance achieved and the main difficulties encountered. Finally, the current status of the construction is reviewed.

  16. Inserting Agility in System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Agile IT Acquisition, IT Box, Scrum Inserting Agility in System Development Matthew R. Kennedy and Lt Col Dan Ward, USAF With the fast-paced nature... Scrum is a process to manage a product, eXtreme Program- ming (XP) is an agile development methodology focused on software development as a whole. XP...249 A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University http://www.dau.mil Keywords: Agile , Systems Engineering, Information Technology (IT), DoD

  17. Optical Airborne Tracker System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Airborne Tracker System (OATS) is an airborne dual-axis optical tracking system capable of pointing at any sky location or ground target.  The objectives...

  18. Tracker Performance Metric

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olson, Teresa; Lee, Harry; Sanders, Johnnie

    2002-01-01

    .... We have developed the Tracker Performance Metric (TPM) specifically for this purpose. It was designed to measure the output performance, on a frame-by-frame basis, using its output position and quality...

  19. Agile software development

    CERN Document Server

    Dingsoyr, Torgeir; Moe, Nils Brede

    2010-01-01

    Agile software development has become an umbrella term for a number of changes in how software developers plan and coordinate their work, how they communicate with customers and external stakeholders, and how software development is organized in small, medium, and large companies, from the telecom and healthcare sectors to games and interactive media. Still, after a decade of research, agile software development is the source of continued debate due to its multifaceted nature and insufficient synthesis of research results. Dingsoyr, Dyba, and Moe now present a comprehensive snapshot of the kno

  20. Measuring process flexibility and agility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Y.; Janssen, M.

    2010-01-01

    In their attempt to improve their systems and architectures, organizations need to be aware of the types of flexibility and agility and the current level of each type of flexibility and agility. Flexibility is the general ability to react to changes, whilst agility is the speed in responding to

  1. An agile implementation of SCRUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Michele

    Is Agile a way to cut corners? To some, the use of an Agile Software Development Methodology has a negative connotation - “ Oh, you're just not producing any documentation” . So can a team with no experience in Agile successfully implement and use SCRUM?

  2. Assessing the value of an agile coach in agile method adoption

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Rory V.; Duckonova, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    peer-reviewed This paper explores the value of Agile Coaching for companies adopting agile methods.in order to assist those who are adopting agile methods to decide on using or not using an Agile Coach by examining the value they can bring to companies adopting agile methods. In our research we surveyed three distinct groups: companies that used an Agile Coach for agile adoption, companies that adopted agile on their own and Agile Coaches themselves without the help of an...

  3. Data acquisition software for the CMS strip tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bainbridge, R; Cripps, N; Fulcher, J; Radicci, V; Wingham, M; Baulieu, G; Bel, S; Delaere, C; Drouhin, F; Gill, K; Mirabito, L; Cole, J; Jesus, A C A; Giassi, A; Giordano, D; Gross, L; Hahn, K; Mersi, S; Nikolic, M; Tkaczyk, S

    2008-01-01

    The CMS silicon strip tracker, providing a sensitive area of approximately 200 m 2 and comprising 10 million readout channels, has recently been completed at the tracker integration facility at CERN. The strip tracker community is currently working to develop and integrate the online and offline software frameworks, known as XDAQ and CMSSW respectively, for the purposes of data acquisition and detector commissioning and monitoring. Recent developments have seen the integration of many new services and tools within the online data acquisition system, such as event building, online distributed analysis, an online monitoring framework, and data storage management. We review the various software components that comprise the strip tracker data acquisition system, the software architectures used for stand-alone and global data-taking modes. Our experiences in commissioning and operating one of the largest ever silicon micro-strip tracking systems are also reviewed

  4. The Agility Imperative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Dr. William

    in information transfer that has affected how humans fundamentally organise and develop ideas. The military cannot avoid the impact of these developments and the challenges they present. By the end of 2013 the agility imperative will likely stand out as one of the defining characteristics necessary for military...

  5. The LHCb Upstream Tracker Project

    CERN Document Server

    Steinkamp, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb detector performs searches for New Physics in CP-violating observables and rare heavy-quark decays at the LHC. A comprehensive upgrade is planned for the long shutdown of the LHC in 2018/19. A goal of this upgrade is to abolish hardware triggers and read out the full detector at 40 MHz. This requires to replace the existing TT station upstream of the LHCb magnet by a new silicon micro-strip detector, the Upstream Tracker (UT). The UT will have a new front-end chip compatible with 40 MHz readout, silicon sensors with improved radiation hardness, finer readout granularity, and improved acceptance coverage at small polar angles. The outer region of each detection layer will be covered by p-in-n sensors with 10 cm long strips and a pitch of about 180 mum, while n-in-p sensors with half the pitch and strip length will be employed in the regions of highest particle density close to the beam pipe. The innermost sensors will have a circular cutout to optimize the forward acceptance. The front-end chip is bei...

  6. CLAS12 Silicon Vertex Tracker Module Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soha, Aria [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Eng, Brian [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gotra, Yuri [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Boiarinov, Sergei [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-09-11

    This is a technical scope of work (TSW) between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and the experimenters of CLAS12 collaboration who have committed to participate in beam tests to be carried out during the 2013-2014 Fermilab Test Beam Facility program.

  7. Miniature Laser Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Charles S.

    2003-09-09

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  8. AGILE DATA CENTER AT ASDC AND AGILE HIGHLIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta Pittori

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present an overview of the main AGILE Data Center activities and the AGILE scientific highlights during the first 5 years of operations. AGILE is an ASI space mission in joint collaboration with INAF, INFN and CIFS, dedicated to the observation of the gamma-ray Universe. The AGILE satellite was launched on April 23rd, 2007, and is devoted to gamma-ray astrophysics in the 30MeV ÷ 50 GeV energy range, with simultaneous X-ray imaging capability in the 18 ÷ 60 keV band. Despite the small size and budget, AGILE has produced several important scientific results, including the unexpected discovery of strong and rapid gamma-ray flares from the Crab Nebula over daily timescales. This discovery won AGILE PI and the AGILE Team the prestigious Bruno Rossi Prize for 2012, an international award in the field of high energy astrophysics. Thanks to its sky monitoring capability and fast ground segment alert system, AGILE is substantially improving our knowledge of the gamma-ray sky, also making a crucial contribution to the study of the terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs detected in the Earth atmosphere. The AGILE Data Center, part of the ASI Science Data Center (ASDC located in Frascati, Italy, is in charge of all the science oriented activities related to the analysis, archiving and distribution of AGILE data.

  9. Model of CMS Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Breuker

    1999-01-01

    A full scale CMS tracker mock-up exposed temporarily in the hall of building 40. The purpose of the mock-up is to study the routing of services, assembly and installation. The people in front are only a small fraction of the CMS tracker collaboration. Left to right : M. Atac, R. Castaldi, H. Breuker, D. Pandoulas,P. Petagna, A. Caner, A. Carraro, H. Postema, M. Oriunno, S. da Mota Silva, L. Van Lancker, W. Glessing, G. Benefice, A. Onnela, M. Gaspar, G. M. Bilei

  10. Search for WW and WZ production in lepton, neutrino plus jets final states at CDF Run II and Silicon module production and detector control system for the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sfyrla, Anna [Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland)

    2008-03-10

    In the first part of this work, we present a search for WW and WZ production in charged lepton, neutrino plus jets final states produced in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions with √s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron, using 1.2 fb-1 of data accumulated with the CDF II detector. This channel is yet to be observed in hadron colliders due to the large singleWplus jets background. However, this decay mode has a much larger branching fraction than the cleaner fully leptonic mode making it more sensitive to anomalous triple gauge couplings that manifest themselves at higher transverse W momentum. Because the final state is topologically similar to associated production of a Higgs boson with a W, the techniques developed in this analysis are also applicable in that search. An Artificial Neural Network has been used for the event selection optimization. The theoretical prediction for the cross section is σWW/WZtheory x Br(W → ℓv; W/Z → jj) = 2.09 ± 0.14 pb. They measured NSignal = 410 ± 212(stat) ± 102(sys) signal events that correspond to a cross section σWW/WZ x Br(W → ℓv; W/Z → jj) = 1.47 ± 0.77(stat) ± 0.38(sys) pb. The 95% CL upper limit to the cross section is estimated to be σ x Br(W → ℓv; W/Z → jj) < 2.88 pb. The second part of the present work is technical and concerns the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) assembly phase. Although technical, the work in the SCT assembly phase is of prime importance for the good performance of the detector during data taking. The production at the University of Geneva of approximately one third of the silicon microstrip end-cap modules is presented. This collaborative effort of the university of Geneva group that lasted two years, resulted in 655 produced modules, 97% of which were good modules, constructed within the mechanical and electrical specifications and delivered in the SCT collaboration for assembly on the end-cap disks. The SCT end-caps and barrels

  11. Agile & Distributed Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene

    2011-01-01

    Scrum has gained surprising momentum as an agile IS project management approach. An obvious question is why Scrum is so useful? To answer that question we carried out a longitudinal study of a distributed project using Scrum. We analyzed the data using coding and categorisation and three carefully...... and coordination mechanisms by allowing both local and global articulation of work in the project. That is why Scrum is especially useful for distributed IS project management and teamwork....

  12. Operation and performance of the CMS tracker

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00043437

    2014-01-01

    The CMS silicon tracker consists of two tracking devices utilizing semiconductor technology: the inner pixel and the outer strip detectors. They operate in a high-occupancy and high-radiation environment presented by particle collisions in the LHC. The tracker detectors occupy the region around the center of CMS, where the LHC beams collide, between 4 cm and 110 cm in radius and up to 280 cm along the beam axis. The pixel detector consists of 66 million pixels, covering about 1 m2 total area. It is surrounded by the strip tracker with 10 million read-out channels covering about 200 m2 total area. The proceedings describe the operational experience collected during the first three years of LHC running. Results include operational challenges encountered during data taking that influence the active fraction and read-out efficiency of the detectors. Details are given about the performance of the tracker at high occupancy with respect to local observables such as signal to noise ratio and hit reconstruction effici...

  13. Teaching Astronomy Using Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang; Brown, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    A recent paper in this journal presented a set of innovative uses of video analysis for introductory physics using Tracker. In addition, numerous other papers have described how video analysis can be a meaningful part of introductory courses. Yet despite this, there are few resources for using video analysis in introductory astronomy classes. In…

  14. Rotational Dynamics with Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadkhong, T.; Rajsadorn, R.; Jannual, P.; Danworaphong, S.

    2012-01-01

    We propose the use of Tracker, freeware for video analysis, to analyse the moment of inertia ("I") of a cylindrical plate. Three experiments are performed to validate the proposed method. The first experiment is dedicated to find the linear coefficient of rotational friction ("b") for our system. By omitting the effect of such friction, we derive…

  15. MediaTracker system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, D.M.; Strittmatter, R.B.; Abeyta, J.D.; Brown, J.; Marks, T. Jr.; Martinez, B.J.; Jones, D.B.; Hsue, W.

    2004-01-01

    The initial objectives of this effort were to provide a hardware and software platform that can address the requirements for the accountability of classified removable electronic media and vault access logging. The Media Tracker system software assists classified media custodian in managing vault access logging and Media Tracking to prevent the inadvertent violation of rules or policies for the access to a restricted area and the movement and use of tracked items. The MediaTracker system includes the software tools to track and account for high consequence security assets and high value items. The overall benefits include: (1) real-time access to the disposition of all Classified Removable Electronic Media (CREM), (2) streamlined security procedures and requirements, (3) removal of ambiguity and managerial inconsistencies, (4) prevention of incidents that can and should be prevented, (5) alignment with the DOE's initiative to achieve improvements in security and facility operations through technology deployment, and (6) enhanced individual responsibility by providing a consistent method of dealing with daily responsibilities. In response to initiatives to enhance the control of classified removable electronic media (CREM), the Media Tracker software suite was developed, piloted and implemented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory beginning in July 2000. The Media Tracker software suite assists in the accountability and tracking of CREM and other high-value assets. One component of the MediaTracker software suite provides a Laboratory-approved media tracking system. Using commercial touch screen and bar code technology, the MediaTracker (MT) component of the MediaTracker software suite provides an efficient and effective means to meet current Laboratory requirements and provides new-engineered controls to help assure compliance with those requirements. It also establishes a computer infrastructure at vault entrances for vault access logging, and can accommodate

  16. MediaTracker system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, D. M. (Dana M.); Strittmatter, R. B. (Richard B.); Abeyta, J. D. (Joline D.); Brown, J. (John); Marks, T. (Thomas), Jr.; Martinez, B. J. (Benny J.); Jones, D. B. (Dana Benelli); Hsue, W.

    2004-01-01

    The initial objectives of this effort were to provide a hardware and software platform that can address the requirements for the accountability of classified removable electronic media and vault access logging. The Media Tracker system software assists classified media custodian in managing vault access logging and Media Tracking to prevent the inadvertent violation of rules or policies for the access to a restricted area and the movement and use of tracked items. The MediaTracker system includes the software tools to track and account for high consequence security assets and high value items. The overall benefits include: (1) real-time access to the disposition of all Classified Removable Electronic Media (CREM), (2) streamlined security procedures and requirements, (3) removal of ambiguity and managerial inconsistencies, (4) prevention of incidents that can and should be prevented, (5) alignment with the DOE's initiative to achieve improvements in security and facility operations through technology deployment, and (6) enhanced individual responsibility by providing a consistent method of dealing with daily responsibilities. In response to initiatives to enhance the control of classified removable electronic media (CREM), the Media Tracker software suite was developed, piloted and implemented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory beginning in July 2000. The Media Tracker software suite assists in the accountability and tracking of CREM and other high-value assets. One component of the MediaTracker software suite provides a Laboratory-approved media tracking system. Using commercial touch screen and bar code technology, the MediaTracker (MT) component of the MediaTracker software suite provides an efficient and effective means to meet current Laboratory requirements and provides new-engineered controls to help assure compliance with those requirements. It also establishes a computer infrastructure at vault entrances for vault access logging, and can

  17. Line-focus sun trackers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, R.

    1980-05-01

    Sun trackers have been a troublesome component for line-focus concentrating collector systems. The problems have included poor accuracy, component failures, false locks on clouds, and restricted tracker operating ranges. In response to these tracking difficulties, a variety of improved sun trackers have been developed. A testing program is underway at SERI to determine the tracking accuracy of this new generation of sun trackers. The three major types of trackers are defined, some recent sun tracker developments are described, and the testing that is underway is outlined.

  18. Strategi Bersaing dengan Agile Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidah Tussifah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Competitive advantage now increasingly rests upon a dynamic capability to compete successfully in an environment of frequent, challenging and unpredictable change. The agile manufacturing a recently popularized concept has been advocated as the 21st century manufacturing paradigm. In adopting and developing the key elements of agile manufactruring, there is requirement for enterprises to overcome the philosophical challenges of a shift from mass/lean production to the customization of agility. Beside that, enterprises should explore the key success factors to support succesfull agile implementation.

  19. User-Centered Agile Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    With the introduction and popularization of Agile methods of software development, existing relationships and working agreements between user experience groups and developers are being disrupted. Agile methods introduce new concepts: the Product Owner, the Customer (but not the user), short iterations, User Stories. Where do UX professionals fit in this new world? Agile methods also bring a new mindset -- no big design, no specifications, minimal planning -- which conflict with the needs of UX design. This lecture discusses the key elements of Agile for the UX community and describes strategie

  20. Agile Project Management For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Layton, Mark C

    2012-01-01

    Be flexible and faster with Agile project management As mobile and web technologies continue to evolve rapidly, there is added pressure to develop and implement software projects in weeks instead of months. Agile Project Management For Dummies can make that happen. This is the first book to provide a simple, step-by-step guide to Agile Project Management approaches, tools, and techniques. With the fast pace of mobile and web technology development, software project development must keep pace; Agile Project Management enables developers to complete and implement projects more quickly and this b

  1. Agile foundations principles, practices and frameworks

    CERN Document Server

    Measey, Peter; Gray, Alex; Levy, Richard; Oliver, Les; Roberts, Barbara; Short, Michael; Wilmshurst, Darren; Wolf, Lazaro

    2015-01-01

    Agile practices transform the way organisations carry out business and respond to change. But to realise success, an Agile mindset needs to be adopted throughout an organisation. This book gives a comprehensive introduction to Agile principles and methodologies.

  2. The NA62 GigaTracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglieri Rinella, G.; Alvarez Feito, D.; Arcidiacono, R.; Biino, C.; Bonacini, S.; Ceccucci, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Gil, E. Cortina; Ramusino, A. Cotta; Degrange, J.; Fiorini, M.; Gamberini, E.; Gianoli, A.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Mapelli, A.; Marchetto, F.; Minucci, E.; Morel, M.; Noël, J.; Noy, M.; Perktold, L.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Petagna, P.; Petrucci, F.; Poltorak, K.; Romagnoli, G.; Ruggiero, G.; Velghe, B.; Wahl, H.

    2017-02-01

    The GigaTracker is a hybrid silicon pixel detector built for the NA62 experiment aiming at measuring the branching fraction of the ultra-rare kaon decay K+ →π+ ν ν bar at the CERN SPS. The detector has to track particles in a beam with a flux reaching 1.3 MHz/mm2 and provide single-hit timing with 200 ps RMS resolution for a total material budget of less than 0.5% X0 per station. The tracker comprises three 60.8 mm×27 mm stations installed in vacuum (∼10-6 mbar) and cooled with liquid C6F14 circulating through micro-channels etched inside a few hundred micron thick silicon plates. Each station is composed of a 200 μm thick silicon sensor read out by 2×5 custom 100 μm thick ASICs, called TDCPix. Each chip contains 40×45 asynchronous pixels, 300 μm×300 μm each and is instrumented with 100 ps bin time-to-digital converters. In order to cope with the high rate, the TDCPix is equipped with four 3.2 Gb/s serialisers sending out the data. We will describe the detector and the results from the 2014 and 2015 NA62 runs.

  3. The NA62 GigaTracker

    CERN Document Server

    Aglieri Rinella, G; Arcidiacono, R; Biino, C; Bonacini, S; Ceccucci, A; Chiozzi, S; Cortina Gil, E; Cotta Ramusino, A; Degrange, J; Fiorini, M; Gamberini, E; Gianoli, A; Kaplon, J; Kluge, A; Mapelli, A; Marchetto, F; Minucci, E; Morel, M; Noël, J; Noy, M; Perktold, L; Perrin-Terrin, M; Petagna, P; Petrucci, F; Poltorak, K; Romagnoli, G; Ruggiero, G; Velghe, B; Wahl, H

    2016-01-01

    The GigaTracker is a hybrid silicon pixel detector built for the NA62 experiment aiming at measuring the branching fraction of the ultra-rare kaon decay K+→π+νν¯ at the CERN SPS. The detector has to track particles in a beam with a flux reaching 1.3 MHz/mm2 and provide single-hit timing with 200 ps RMS resolution for a total material budget of less than 0.5% X0 per station. The tracker comprises three 60.8 mm×27 mm stations installed in vacuum (∼10$^{−6}$mbar) and cooled with liquid C6F14 circulating through micro-channels etched inside a few hundred micron thick silicon plates. Each station is composed of a 200 μm thick silicon sensor read out by 2×5 custom 100 μm thick ASICs, called TDCPix. Each chip contains 40×45 asynchronous pixels, 300 μm×300 μm each and is instrumented with 100 ps bin time-to-digital converters. In order to cope with the high rate, the TDCPix is equipped with four 3.2 Gb/s serialisers sending out the data. We will describe the detector and the results from the 2014 an...

  4. The NA62 GigaTracker

    CERN Document Server

    Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    The GigaTracker is an hybrid silicon pixel detector built for the NA62 experiment aiming at measuring the branching fraction of the ultra-rare kaon decay K + ! p + n ̄ n at the CERN SPS. The detector has to track particles in a beam with a flux reaching 1.3 MHz/mm 2 and provide single-hit timing with 200ps RMS resolution for a total material budget of less than 1.5 X 0 . The tracker comprises three 60.8mm 27mm stations installed in vacuum ( 10$^{-6}$ mbar) and cooled with liquid C 6 F 14 circulating through micro-channels etched inside few hundred of microns thick silicon plates. Each station is composed of a 200 m m thick silicon sensor readout by 2 x 5 cus- tom 100 m m thick ASIC, called TDCPix. Each chip contains 40 x 45 asynchronous pixels, each 300 m m x 300 m m and is instrumented with 100ps bin time-to-digital converters. In order to cope with the high rate, the TDCPix is equipped with four 3.2Gb/s serialisers sending out the data. We will describe the detector and the results from the 2014 NA62 ru...

  5. Two ATLAS trackers become one

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS inner detector barrel comes one step closer to completion as the semiconductor tracker is merged with the transition radiation tracker. ATLAS collaborators prepare for the insertion of the semiconductor tracker (SCT, behind) into the transition radiation tracker (TRT, in front). Some had hoped it would fall on Valentine's Day. But despite the slight delay, Friday 17 February was lovingly embraced as 'Conception Day,' when dozens of physicists and engineers from the international collaboration gathered to witness the insertion of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker into the transition radiation tracker, a major milestone in the assembly of the experiment's inner detector. With just millimeters of room for error, the cylindrical trackers were slid into each other as inner detector integration coordinator Heinz Pernegger issued commands and scientists held out flashlights, lay on their backs and stood on ladders to take careful measurements. Each tracker is the result of about 10 years of international ...

  6. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chasman, C.; Beavis, D.; Debbe, R.; Lee, J.H.; Levine, M.J.; Videbaek, F.; Xu, Z.; Kleinfelder, S.; Li, S.; Cendejas, R.; Huang, H.; Sakai, S.; Whitten, C.; Joseph, J.; Keane, D.; Margetis, S.; Rykov, V.; Zhang, W.M.; Bystersky, M.; Kapitan, J.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Baudot, J.; Hu-Guo, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Winter, M.; Kelsey, J.; Milner, R.; Plesko, M.; Redwine, R.; Simon, F.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Anderssen, E.; Dong, X.; Greiner, L.; Matis, H.S.; Morgan, S.; Ritter, H.G.; Rose, A.; Sichtermann, E.; Singh, R.P.; Stezelberger, T.; Sun, X.; Thomas, J.H.; Tram, V.; Vu, C.; Wieman, H.H.; Xu, N.; Hirsch, A.; Srivastava, B.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Bichsel, H.

    2008-01-01

    The STAR Collaboration proposes to construct a state-of-the-art microvertex detector, the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT), utilizing active pixel sensors and silicon strip technology. The HFT will significantly extend the physics reach of the STAR experiment for precision measurement of the yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. This will be accomplished through topological identification of D mesons by reconstruction of their displaced decay vertices with a precision of approximately 50 mu m in p+p, d+A, and A+A collisions. The HFT consists of 4 layers of silicon detectors grouped into two sub-systems with different technologies, guaranteeing increasing resolution when tracking from the TPC and the Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) towards the vertex of the collision. The Intermediate Silicon Tracker (IST), consisting of two layers of single-sided strips, is located inside the SSD. Two layers of Silicon Pixel Detector (PIXEL) are inside the IST. The PIXEL detectors have the resolution necessary for a precision measurement of the displaced vertex. The PIXEL detector will use CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS), an innovative technology never used before in a collider experiment. The APS sensors are only 50 mu m thick and at a distance of only 2.5 cm from the interaction point. This opens up a new realm of possibilities for physics measurements. In particular, a thin detector (0.28percent radiation length per layer) in STAR makes it possible to do the direct topological reconstruction of open charm hadrons down to very low pT by the identification of the charged daughters of the hadronic decay

  7. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chasman, C.; Beavis, D.; Debbe, R.; Lee, J.H.; Levine, M.J.; Videbaek, F.; Xu, Z.; Kleinfelder, S.; Li, S.; Cendejas, R.; Huang, H.; Sakai, S.; Whitten, C.; Joseph, J.; Keane, D.; Margetis, S.; Rykov, V.; Zhang, W.M.; Bystersky, M.; Kapitan, J.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Baudot, J.; Hu-Guo, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Winter, M.; Kelsey, J.; Milner, R.; Plesko, M.; Redwine, R.; Simon, F.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Anderssen, E.; Dong, X.; Greiner, L.; Matis, H.S.; Morgan, S.; Ritter, H.G.; Rose, A.; Sichtermann, E.; Singh, R.P.; Stezelberger, T.; Sun, X.; Thomas, J.H.; Tram, V.; Vu, C.; Wieman, H.H.; Xu, N.; Hirsch, A.; Srivastava, B.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Bichsel, H.

    2008-02-25

    The STAR Collaboration proposes to construct a state-of-the-art microvertex detector,the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT), utilizing active pixel sensors and silicon strip technology. The HFT will significantly extend the physics reach of the STAR experiment for precision measurement of the yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. This will be accomplished through topological identification of D mesons by reconstruction of their displaced decay vertices with a precision of approximately 50 mu m in p+p, d+A, and A+A collisions. The HFT consists of 4 layers of silicon detectors grouped into two sub-systems with different technologies, guaranteeing increasing resolution when tracking from the TPC and the Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) towards the vertex of the collision. The Intermediate Silicon Tracker (IST), consisting of two layers of single-sided strips, is located inside the SSD. Two layers of Silicon Pixel Detector (PIXEL) are inside the IST. The PIXEL detectors have the resolution necessary for a precision measurement of the displaced vertex. The PIXEL detector will use CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS), an innovative technology never used before in a collider experiment. The APSsensors are only 50 mu m thick and at a distance of only 2.5 cm from the interaction point. This opens up a new realm of possibilities for physics measurements. In particular, a thin detector (0.28percent radiation length per layer) in STAR makes it possible to do the direct topological reconstruction of open charm hadrons down to very low pT by the identification of the charged daughters of the hadronic decay.

  8. Simulation studies for the ATLAS upgrade Strip tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jike; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    ATLAS is making extensive efforts towards preparing a detector upgrade for the High luminosity operations of the LHC (HL-LHC), which will commence operation in ~10 years. The current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by a all-silicon tracker (comprising an inner Pixel tracker and outer Strip tracker). The software currently used for the new silicon tracker is broadly inherited from that used for the LHC Run 1 and 2, but many new developments have been made to better fulfil the future detector and operation requirements. One aspect in particular which will be highlighted is the simulation software for the Strip tracker. The available geometry description software (including the detailed description for all the sensitive elements, the services, etc.) did not allow for accurate modeling of the planned detector design. A range of sensors/layouts for the Strip tracker are being considered and must be studied in detailed simulations in order to assess the performance and ascertain that requirements are met. For...

  9. CMS Tracker Visualisation

    CERN Document Server

    Mennea, Maria Santa; Zito, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    To provide improvements in the performance of existing tracker data visualization tools in IGUANA, a 2D visualisation software has been developed, using the object oriented paradigm and software engineering techniques. We have designed 2D graphics objects and some of them have been implemented. The access to the new objects is made in ORCA plugin of IGUANA CMS. A new tracker object oriented model has been designed for developing these 2D graphics objects. The model consists of new classes which represent all its components (layers, modules, rings, petals, rods).The new classes are described here. The last part of this document contains a user manual of the software and will be updated with new releases.

  10. Layout and prototyping of the new ATLAS Inner Tracker for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Ankush; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The current inner tracker of the ATLAS experiment is foreseen to be replaced at the High Luminosity era of the LHC to cope with the occuring increase in occupancy, bandwidth and radiation damage. It will be replaced by an all-silicon system, the Inner Tracker (ITk). This new tracker will have both silicon pixel and silicon strip sub-systems aiming to provide tracking coverage up to |η|<4. For a high tracking performance are radiation hard and high-rate capable silicon sensors and readout electronics important. Moreover, services and stable, low mass mechanical structures are essential and give challenges to the system design. In this talk first the tracker layout and challenges, second possible solutions to these challenges will be discussed. The layouts under considerations and their technical realizations in terms of mechanics of local supports will be presented.

  11. Operation and performance of the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Barlow, N; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) is a crucial component of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is a silicon microstrip device, design to measure the trajectories of charged particles produced in pp collisions. In this talk I will briefly describe the design of the SCT, and various aspects of its performance during LHC Run 1.

  12. Upgrading the ATLAS barrel tracker for the super-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    It has been proposed to increase the luminosity of the large hadron collider (LHC) at CERN by an order of magnitude, with the upgraded machine dubbed super-LHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for this high-luminosity operation due to radiation damage and event density. In order to cope with the order of magnitude increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all-silicon tracker is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current silicon tracker in order to minimize the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation-hard silicon detectors is required. An R and D program is underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. New front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges facing the sensors and the cooling and mechanical support will be discussed. A possible tracker layout will be described.

  13. Performance of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Alpigiani, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    We report the operation and performance of the ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) functioning in a high luminosity and high radiation environment. The SCT is part of the inner tracking system of the ATLAS experiment at CERN and is constructed of 4088 modules assembled from silicon-strip sensors for a total of 6.3 million channels more than 99 % of which were fully functional throughout all data taking periods. Noise occupancy and hit efficiency as well as the Lorentz angle and radiation damage measurements will be discussed in details.

  14. CMS Tracker Alignment Performance Results Summer 2016

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The tracking system of the CMS detector provides excellent resolution for charged particle tracks and an efficient way of tagging jets. In order to reconstruct good quality tracks, the position and orientation of each silicon pixel and strip modules need to be determined with a precision of several micrometers. The performance of the CMS tracker alignment in 2016 using cosmic-ray data recorded at 0 T magnetic field and proton-proton collision data recorded at 3.8 T magnetic field has been studied. The data-driven validation of the results are presented. The time-dependent movement of the pixel detector's large-scale structure is demonstrated.

  15. The CMS Si-Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Sguazzoni, Giacomo

    2004-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at LHC features the largest Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) ever build. This device is immersed in a 4T magnetic field and, in conjunction with a Pixel system, it allows the momentum of the charged particles to be measured and the heavy-flavour final states to be tagged despite the hostile radiation environment. The impact of operating conditions and physics requirements on the SST layout and design choices is discussed and the expected performances are reviewed. The SST collaboration is now facing the production of the ~15000 modules and their assembly into the SST substructures. A status is given.

  16. The CMS Si-strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Sguazzoni, Giacomo

    2004-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at LHC features the largest Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) ever build. This device is immersed in a 4T magnetic field and, in conjunction with a Pixel system, it allows the momentum of the charged particles to be measured and the heavy-flavour final states to be tagged despite the hostile radiation environment. The impact of operating conditions and physics requirements on the SST layout and design choices is discussed and the expected performances are reviewed. The SST collaboration is now facing the production of the ~15000 modules and their assembly into the SST substructures. A status is given.

  17. ATLAS Tracker and Pixel Operational Experience

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00222525; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The tracking performance of the ATLAS detector relies critically on the silicon and gaseous tracking subsystems that form the ATLAS Inner Detector. Those subsystems have undergone significant hardware and software upgrades to meet the challenges imposed by the higher collision energy, pile-up and luminosity that are being delivered by the LHC during Run2. The key status and performance metrics of the Pixel Detector and the Semi Conductor Tracker, are summarised, and the operational experience and requirements to ensure optimum data quality and data taking efficiency are described.

  18. Agile Walking Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimer, Stanley J.; Lisec, Thomas R.; Spiessbach, Andrew J.; Waldron, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed agile walking robot operates over rocky, sandy, and sloping terrain. Offers stability and climbing ability superior to other conceptual mobile robots. Equipped with six articulated legs like those of insect, continually feels ground under leg before applying weight to it. If leg sensed unexpected object or failed to make contact with ground at expected point, seeks alternative position within radius of 20 cm. Failing that, robot halts, examines area around foot in detail with laser ranging imager, and replans entire cycle of steps for all legs before proceeding.

  19. Agile Project Portfolio Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper Rank; Riis, Jens Ove; Mikkelsen, Hans

    2005-01-01

    This paper will provide a preliminary introduction to the application of Agile Thinking in management of project portfolio and company development. At any point in time, companies have a crowd of development initiatives spread around the organisation and managed at different levels...... in the managerial hierarchy. They compete for resources and managerial attention, and they often take too long time - and some do not survive in the rapid changing context. Top man¬agers ask for speed, flexibility and effectiveness in the portfolio of development activities (projects). But which competencies...

  20. Agile Infrastructure Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, P.; Ascenso, J.; Fedorko, I.; Fiorini, B.; Paladin, M.; Pigueiras, L.; Santos, M.

    2014-06-01

    At the present time, data centres are facing a massive rise in virtualisation and cloud computing. The Agile Infrastructure (AI) project is working to deliver new solutions to ease the management of CERN data centres. Part of the solution consists in a new "shared monitoring architecture" which collects and manages monitoring data from all data centre resources. In this article, we present the building blocks of this new monitoring architecture, the different open source technologies selected for each architecture layer, and how we are building a community around this common effort.

  1. Agile infrastructure monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, P; Ascenso, J; Fedorko, I; Fiorini, B; Paladin, M; Pigueiras, L; Santos, M

    2014-01-01

    At the present time, data centres are facing a massive rise in virtualisation and cloud computing. The Agile Infrastructure (AI) project is working to deliver new solutions to ease the management of CERN data centres. Part of the solution consists in a new 'shared monitoring architecture' which collects and manages monitoring data from all data centre resources. In this article, we present the building blocks of this new monitoring architecture, the different open source technologies selected for each architecture layer, and how we are building a community around this common effort.

  2. When Agile meets the Enterprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waardenburg, G.; van Vliet, H.

    2013-01-01

    Context: While renowned agile methods like XP and Scrum were initially intended for projects with small teams, traditional enterprise environments, i.e. environments where plan-driven development is prevalent, have also become attracted by the promises of a faster time to market through agility.

  3. Performance studies of the CMS Strip Tracker before installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; et al.

    2009-06-01

    In March 2007 the assembly of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. Nearly 15% of the detector was instrumented using cables, fiber optics, power supplies, and electronics intended for the operation at the LHC. A local chiller was used to circulate the coolant for low temperature operation. In order to understand the efficiency and alignment of the strip tracker modules, a cosmic ray trigger was implemented. From March through July 4.5 million triggers were recorded. This period, referred to as the Sector Test, provided practical experience with the operation of the Tracker, especially safety, data acquisition, power, and cooling systems. This paper describes the performance of the strip system during the Sector Test, which consisted of five distinct periods defined by the coolant temperature. Significant emphasis is placed on comparisons between the data and results from Monte Carlo studies.

  4. Performance studies of the CMS Strip Tracker before installation

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Wolfgang; Dragicevic, Marko; Friedl, Markus; Fruhwirth, R; Hansel, S; Hrubec, Josef; Krammer, Manfred; Oberegger, Margit; Pernicka, Manfred; Schmid, Siegfried; Stark, Roland; Steininger, Helmut; Uhl, Dieter; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Widl, Edmund; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Cardaci, Marco; Beaumont, Willem; de Langhe, Eric; de Wolf, Eddi A; Delmeire, Evelyne; Hashemi, Majid; Bouhali, Othmane; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; Dewulf, Jean-Paul; Elgammal, Sherif; Hammad, Gregory Habib; de Lentdecker, Gilles; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Adler, Volker; Devroede, Olivier; De Weirdt, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Goorens, Robert; Heyninck, Jan; Maes, Joris; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Lancker, Luc; Van Mulders, Petra; Villella, Ilaria; Wastiels, C; Bonnet, Jean-Luc; Bruno, Giacomo; De Callatay, Bernard; Florins, Benoit; Giammanco, Andrea; Gregoire, Ghislain; Keutgen, Thomas; Kcira, Dorian; Lemaitre, Vincent; Michotte, Daniel; Militaru, Otilia; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertermont, L; Roberfroid, Vincent; Rouby, Xavier; Teyssier, Daniel; Daubie, Evelyne; Anttila, Erkki; Czellar, Sandor; Engstrom, Pauli; Harkonen, J; Karimaki, V; Kostesmaa, J; Kuronen, Auli; Lampen, Tapio; Linden, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Maenpaa, T; Michal, Sebastien; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Ageron, Michel; Baulieu, Guillaume; Bonnevaux, Alain; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chabanat, Eric; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Dupasquier, Thierry; Gelin, Georges; Giraud, Noël; Guillot, Gérard; Estre, Nicolas; Haroutunian, Roger; Lumb, Nicholas; Perries, Stephane; Schirra, Florent; Trocme, Benjamin; Vanzetto, Sylvain; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Blaes, Reiner; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Berst, Jean-Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Didierjean, Francois; Goerlach, Ulrich; Graehling, Philippe; Gross, Laurent; Hosselet, J; Juillot, Pierre; Lounis, Abdenour; Maazouzi, Chaker; Olivetto, Christian; Strub, Roger; Van Hove, Pierre; Anagnostou, Georgios; Brauer, Richard; Esser, Hans; Feld, Lutz; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Kukulies, Christoph; Olzem, Jan; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Pandoulas, Demetrios; Pierschel, Gerhard; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schwering, Georg; Sprenger, Daniel; Thomas, Maarten; Weber, Markus; Wittmer, Bruno; Wlochal, Michael; Beissel, Franz; Bock, E; Flugge, G; Gillissen, C; Hermanns, Thomas; Heydhausen, Dirk; Jahn, Dieter; Kaussen, Gordon; Linn, Alexander; Perchalla, Lars; Poettgens, Michael; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Buhmann, Peter; Butz, Erik; Flucke, Gero; Hamdorf, Richard Helmut; Hauk, Johannes; Klanner, Robert; Pein, Uwe; Schleper, Peter; Steinbruck, G; Blum, P; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Fahrer, Manuel; Frey, Martin; Furgeri, Alexander; Hartmann, Frank; Heier, Stefan; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Kaminski, Jochen; Ledermann, Bernhard; Liamsuwan, Thiansin; Muller, S; Muller, Th; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Steck, Pia; Zhukov, Valery; Cariola, P; De Robertis, Giuseppe; Ferorelli, Raffaele; Fiore, Luigi; Preda, M; Sala, Giuliano; Silvestris, Lucia; Tempesta, Paolo; Zito, Giuseppe; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Giordano, Domenico; Maggi, Giorgio; Manna, Norman; My, Salvatore; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Albergo, Sebastiano; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Galanti, Mario; Giudice, Nunzio; Guardone, Nunzio; Noto, Francesco; Potenza, Renato; Saizu, Mirela Angela; Sparti, V; Sutera, Concetta; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Brianzi, Mirko; Civinini, Carlo; Maletta, Fernando; Manolescu, Florentina; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Broccolo, B; Ciulli, Vitaliano; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Genta, Chiara; Landi, Gregorio; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Macchiolo, Anna; Magini, Nicolo; Parrini, Giuliano; Scarlini, Enrico; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Candelori, Andrea; Dorigo, Tommaso; Kaminsky, A; Karaevski, S; Khomenkov, Volodymyr; Reznikov, Sergey; Tessaro, Mario; Bisello, Dario; De Mattia, Marco; Giubilato, Piero; Loreti, Maurizio; Mattiazzo, Serena; Nigro, Massimo; Paccagnella, Alessandro; Pantano, Devis; Pozzobon, Nicola; Tosi, Mia; Bilei, Gian Mario; Checcucci, Bruno; Fano, Livio; Servoli, Leonello; Ambroglini, Filippo; Babucci, Ezio; Benedetti, Daniele; Biasini, Maurizio; Caponeri, Benedetta; Covarelli, Roberto; Giorgi, Marco; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Marcantonini, Marta; Postolache, Vasile; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiga, Daniele; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Balestri, Gabriele; Berretta, Luca; Bianucci, S; Boccali, Tommaso; Bosi, Filippo; Bracci, Fabrizio; Castaldi, Rino; Ceccanti, Marco; Cecchi, Roberto; Cerri, Claudio; Cucoanes, Andi Sebastian; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Dobur, Didar; Dutta, Suchandra; Giassi, Alessandro; Giusti, Simone; Kartashov, Dmitry; Kraan, Aafke; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Lungu, George-Adrian; Magazzu, Guido; Mammini, Paolo; Mariani, Filippo; Martinelli, Giovanni; Moggi, Andrea; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Petragnani, Giulio; Profeti, Alessandro; Raffaelli, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Domenico; Sanguinetti, Giulio; Sarkar, Subir; Sentenac, Daniel; Serban, Alin Titus; Slav, Adrian; Soldani, A; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tolaini, Sergio; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vos, Marcel; Zaccarelli, Luciano; Avanzini, Carlo; Basti, Andrea; Benucci, Leonardo; Bocci, Andrea; Cazzola, Ugo; Fiori, Francesco; Linari, Stefano; Massa, Maurizio; Messineo, Alberto; Segneri, Gabriele; Tonelli, Guido; Azzurri, Paolo; Bernardini, Jacopo; Borrello, Laura; Calzolari, Federico; Foa, Lorenzo; Gennai, Simone; Ligabue, Franco; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Rizzi, Andrea; Yang, Zong-Chang; Benotto, Franco; Demaria, Natale; Dumitrache, Floarea; Farano, R; Borgia, Maria Assunta; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Migliore, Ernesto; Romero, Alessandra; Abbaneo, Duccio; Abbas, M; Ahmed, Ijaz; Akhtar, I; Albert, Eric; Bloch, Christoph; Breuker, Horst; Butt, Shahid Aleem; Buchmuller, Oliver; Cattai, Ariella; Delaere, Christophe; Delattre, Michel; Edera, Laura Maria; Engstrom, Pauli; Eppard, Michael; Gateau, Maryline; Gill, Karl; Giolo-Nicollerat, Anne-Sylvie; Grabit, Robert; Honma, Alan; Huhtinen, Mika; Kloukinas, Kostas; Kortesmaa, Jarmo; Kottelat, Luc-Joseph; Kuronen, Auli; Leonardo, Nuno; Ljuslin, Christer; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Marchioro, Alessandro; Mersi, Stefano; Michal, Sebastien; Mirabito, Laurent; Muffat-Joly, Jeannine; Onnela, Antti; Paillard, Christian; Pal, Imre; Pernot, Jean-Francois; Petagna, Paolo; Petit, Patrick; Piccut, C; Pioppi, Michele; Postema, Hans; Ranieri, Riccardo; Ricci, Daniel; Rolandi, Gigi; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Sigaud, Christophe; Syed, A; Siegrist, Patrice; Tropea, Paola; Troska, Jan; Tsirou, Andromachi; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Vasey, François; Alagoz, Enver; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Rochet, Jacky; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Schmidt, Alexander; Steiner, Stefan; Wilke, Lotte; Church, Ivan; Cole, Joanne; Coughlan, John A; Gay, Arnaud; Taghavi, S; Tomalin, Ian R; Bainbridge, Robert; Cripps, Nicholas; Fulcher, Jonathan; Hall, Geoffrey; Noy, Matthew; Pesaresi, Mark; Radicci, Valeria; Raymond, David Mark; Sharp, Peter; Stoye, Markus; Wingham, Matthew; Zorba, Osman; Goitom, Israel; Hobson, Peter R; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Haidong; Pasztor, Gabriella; Satpathy, Asish; Stringer, Robert; Mangano, Boris; Affolder, K; Affolder, T; Allen, Andrea; Barge, Derek; Burke, Samuel; Callahan, D; Campagnari, Claudio; Crook, A; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Dietch, J; Garberson, Jeffrey; Hale, David; Incandela, H; Incandela, Joe; Jaditz, Stephen; Kalavase, Puneeth; Kreyer, Steven Lawrence; Kyre, Susanne; Lamb, James; Mc Guinness, C; Mills, C; Nguyen, Harold; Nikolic, Milan; Lowette, Steven; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rubinstein, Noah; Sanhueza, S; Shah, Yousaf Syed; Simms, L; Staszak, D; Stoner, J; Stuart, David; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; White, Dean; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Bagby, Linda; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Burkett, Kevin; Cihangir, Selcuk; Gutsche, Oliver; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Mark; Luzhetskiy, Nikolay; Mason, David; Miao, Ting; Moccia, Stefano; Noeding, Carsten; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Skup, Ewa; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Yumiceva, Francisco; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Zerev, E; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Khalatian, S; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Chen, Jie; Hinchey, Carl Louis; Martin, Christophe; Moulik, Tania; Robinson, Richard; Gritsan, Andrei; Lae, Chung Khim; Tran, Nhan Viet; Everaerts, Pieter; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Nahn, Steve; Rudolph, Matthew; Sung, Kevin; Betchart, Burton; Demina, Regina; Gotra, Yury; Korjenevski, Sergey; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Christofek, Leonard; Hooper, Ryan; Landsberg, Greg; Nguyen, Duong; Narain, Meenakshi; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang

    2009-01-01

    In March 2007 the assembly of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. Nearly 15% of the detector was instrumented using cables, fiber optics, power supplies, and electronics intended for the operation at the LHC. A local chiller was used to circulate the coolant for low temperature operation. In order to understand the efficiency and alignment of the strip tracker modules, a cosmic ray trigger was implemented. From March through July 4.5 million triggers were recorded. This period, referred to as the Sector Test, provided practical experience with the operation of the Tracker, especially safety, data acquisition, power, and cooling systems. This paper describes the performance of the strip system during the Sector Test, which consisted of five distinct periods defined by the coolant temperature. Significant emphasis is placed on comparisons between the data and results from Monte Carlo studies.

  5. Operation and Performance of the CMS Outer Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Butz, Erik Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker with its more than 15000 silicon modules and 200\\,m$^2$ of active silicon area has been running together with the other subsystems of CMS for several years. We present the performance of the detector in the LHC Run 2 data taking. Results for signal-to-noise, hit efficiency and single hit resolution will be presented. We review the behavior of the system when running at beyond-design instantaneous luminosity and describe challenges observed under these conditions. The evolution of detector parameters under the influence of radiation damage will be presented and compared to simulations.

  6. CMS tracker visualization tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennea, M.S.; Osborne, I.; Regano, A.; Zito, G.

    2005-01-01

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking

  7. CMS tracker visualization tools

    CERN Document Server

    Zito, G; Osborne, I; Regano, A

    2005-01-01

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking.

  8. CMS tracker visualization tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennea, M.S. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin' e INFN sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173 - 70126 Bari (Italy); Osborne, I. [Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Regano, A. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin' e INFN sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173 - 70126 Bari (Italy); Zito, G. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin' e INFN sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173 - 70126 Bari (Italy)]. E-mail: giuseppe.zito@ba.infn.it

    2005-08-21

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking.

  9. CMS outer tracker detector upgrade plans.

    CERN Document Server

    Eckstein, Doris

    2014-01-01

    With the upgrade of the LHC to the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), also the tracker system of the CMS experiment will have to be upgraded. It is planned to use information from the tracker in the first level trigger of CMS. For this purpose CMS plans to introduce $p_T$ modules which will provide trigger capability. The luminosity increase by a factor of five in the HL-LHC compared to the design luminosity will lead to higher occupancy and radiation levels in the sensors. In order to cope with these, the strip granularity will be significantly increased and the sensors of the upgraded tracker will have to be cooled to a temperature of -20$^{\\circ}$C. Moreover, the sensor material and design have to be chosen carefully in order to withstand the anticipated radiation. This paper introduces the concept of the $p_T$ module and gives an overview of the ongoing R\\&D activities concerning the silicon sensor material.

  10. The ATLAS Fast Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Volpi, Guido; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The use of tracking information at the trigger level in the LHC Run II period is crucial for the trigger an data acquisition (TDAQ) system. The tracking precision is in fact important to identify specific decay products of the Higgs boson or new phenomena, a well as to distinguish the contributions coming from many contemporary collisions that occur at every bunch crossing. However, the track reconstruction is among the most demanding tasks performed by the TDAQ computing farm; in fact, full reconstruction at full Level-1 trigger accept rate (100 KHz) is not possible. In order to overcome this limitation, the ATLAS experiment is planning the installation of a specific processor: the Fast Tracker (FTK), which is aimed at achieving this goal. The FTK is a pipeline of high performance electronic, based on custom and commercial devices, which is expected to reconstruct, with high resolution, the trajectories of charged tracks with a transverse momentum above 1 GeV, using the ATLAS inner tracker information. Patte...

  11. Novel Micromegas trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatie, Franck

    2017-09-01

    The latest development in Micromegas trackers includes the Micromegas Vertex Tracker (MVT) soon to be installed in Jefferson Lab Hall B, in the CLAS12 central tracking system. The MVT is composed of 6 cylindrical layers and 6 flat disks of resistive bulk Micromegas detectors. They have been designed to withstand the high particle flux environment and the high magnetic field using a low material budget of less than 0.5% of a radiation length per detector. The MVT is read out using front-end electronics based on the ``Dream'' Asic developed at CEA Saclay/Irfu. The low material budget requirements and very stringent space restrictions of the central tracking system surrounded by a 5T solenoid prevent the use of on-detector frontend electronics. The ability of the Dream chip to work with high-capacitance detectors allows deploying the electronics some 2 m away using flat micro-coaxial cables. After a short introduction to Micromegas detectors and the state-of-the-art achievements in this technology, I will focus on the CLAS12 MVT detector system, from the fabrication techniques to the readout electronics. Possible future developments will briefly be presented as well.

  12. The ATLAS Semiconductor tracker: operations and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Pani, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Tracker After more than 3 years of successful operation at the LHC, we report on the operation and performance of the Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) functioning in a high luminosity, high radiation environment. The SCT is part of the ATLAS experiment at CERN and is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel (4 cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each end of the barrel). The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals are processed in the front-end ABCD3TA ASICs, which use a binary readout architecture. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibers. We find 99.3% of the SCT modules are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications; the alignment is very cl...

  13. Aircraft agility maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Eugene M.; Thompson, Brian G.

    1992-01-01

    A new dynamic model for aircraft motions is presented. This model can be viewed as intermediate between a point-mass model, in which the body attitude angles are control-like, and a rigid-body model, in which the body-attitude angles evolve according to Newton's Laws. Specifically, consideration is given to the case of symmetric flight, and a model is constructed in which the body roll-rate and the body pitch-rate are the controls. In terms of this body-rate model a minimum-time heading change maneuver is formulated. When the bounds on the body-rates are large the results are similar to the point-mass model in that the model can very quickly change the applied forces and produce an acceleration to turn the vehicle. With finite bounds on these rates, the forces change in a smooth way. This leads to a measurable effect of agility.

  14. Frequency agile solar radiotelescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Tim S.

    2003-02-01

    The Frequency Agile Solar Radiotelescope (FASR) is a solar-dedicated, ground based, interferometric array optimized to perform broadband imaging spectroscopy from ~ 0.1-30+ GHz. It will do so with the angular, spectral, and temporal resolution required to exploit radio emission from the Sun as a diagnostic of the wide variety of astrophysical processes that occur there. FASR represents a major advance over existing radioheliographs, and is expected to remain the world's premier solar radio instrument for two decades or more after completion. FASR will be a versatile and powerful instrument, providing unique data to a broad users community. Solar, solar-terrestrial, and space physicists will exploit FASR to attack a broad science program, including problems of fundamental interest: coronal magnetography, solar flares and particle acceleration, drivers of space weather, and the thermal structure and dynamics of the solar atmosphere. A design study and implementation planning are underway. Recent progress is reviewed here.

  15. The Art of Agile Development

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, James

    2008-01-01

    Plenty of books describe what agile development is or why it helps software projects succeed, but very few combine information for developers, managers, testers, and customers into a single package that they can apply directly. This book provides a gestalt view of the agile development process that serves as a comprehensive introduction for non-technical readers, along with hands-on technical practices for programmers and developers. The book also tackles the people aspect of Extreme Programming.

  16. Factors in Agile Methods Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Abdalhamid

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors that can affect the process of adopting Agile methods during software developing. This paper illustrates the critical factors in Agile methods adoption in software organizations. To present the success and failure factors, an exploratory study is carried out among the critical factors of success and failure from existing studies. Dimensions and Factors are introduced utilizing success and failure dimensions. The mind map was used to clarify these factors.

  17. Optimising agile social media analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kober, Thomas; Weir, David

    2015-01-01

    Agile social media analysis involves building bespoke, one-off classification pipelines tailored to the analysis of specific datasets. In this study we investigate how the DUALIST architecture can be optimised for agile social media analysis. We evaluate several semi-supervised learning algorithms in conjunction with a Na ̈ıve Bayes model, and show how these modifications can improve the performance of bespoke classifiers for a variety of tasks on a large range of datasets.

  18. Operational Agility (La Maniabilite Operationnelle)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    this. each Chapter or Section is self -contained. tiih its own conclusions and reconmmcndations. In developing the subject of Operational Agility a set...Subsystem designers of agile fighten utst seek to minimise each of these time delays while .alidng car to not sb-pimise any ridividutal e. It is...communicated to the pilot, sensory satuaion can occur, drving T. up. The foregoing total system perspective is intended to set the framework for a discussion of

  19. Tools for Supporting Distributed Agile Project Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Maurer, Frank; Morgan, Robert; Oliveira, Josyleuda

    Agile project planning plays an important part in agile software development. In distributed settings, project planning is severely impacted by the lack of face-to-face communication and the inability to share paper index cards amongst all meeting participants. To address these issues, several distributed agile planning tools were developed. The tools vary in features, functions and running platforms. In this chapter, we first summarize the requirements for distributed agile planning. Then we give an overview on existing agile planning tools. We also evaluate existing tools based on tool requirements. Finally, we present some practical advices for both designers and users of distributed agile planning tools.

  20. What Does an Agile Coach Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Rachel; Pullicino, James

    The surge in Agile adoption has created a demand for project managers rather than direct their teams. A sign of this trend is the ever-increasing number of people getting certified as scrum masters and agile leaders. Training courses that introduce agile practices are easy to find. But making the transition to coach is not as simple as understanding what agile practices are. Your challenge as an Agile Coach is to support your team in learning how to wield their new Agile tools in creating great software.

  1. The ATLAS semiconductor tracker: operations and performance

    CERN Document Server

    D'Auria, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. The SCT is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel (4 cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each end of the barrel). The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar {it p}-in-{it n} technology. The signals are processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in binary readout mode. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibres. We find 99.3% of the SCT modules are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications. In the talk the current results from the successful operation of the SCT Detector at the LHC and its status af...

  2. Readout of silicon strip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Dabrowski, W

    2003-01-01

    Various architectural and technological options of readout electronics for silicon strip detectors in vertex and tracking applications are discussed briefly. The ABCD3T ASIC for the readout of silicon strip detectors in the ATLAS semiconductor tracker is presented. The architecture of the chip, some design issues and radiation effects are discussed.

  3. The STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker PXL detector readout electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schambach, J.; Contin, G.; Greiner, L.; Stezelberger, T.; Vu, C.; Sun, X.; Szelezniak, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) is a recently installed micro-vertex detector upgrade to the STAR experiment at RHIC, consisting of three subsystems with various technologies of silicon sensors arranged in 4 concentric cylinders. The two innermost layers of the HFT close to the beam pipe, the Pixel ('PXL') subsystem, employ CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) technology that integrate the sensor, front-end electronics, and zero-suppression circuitry in one silicon die. This paper presents selected characteristics of the PXL detector part of the HFT and the hardware, firmware and software associated with the readout system for this detector

  4. First cosmic rays seen in the CMS Tracker Endcap

    CERN Multimedia

    Lutz Feld, RWTH Aachen

    2006-01-01

    On March 14, 2006, first cosmic muon tracks have been measured in the Tracker EndCap TEC+ of the CMS silicon strip tracker. The end caps have silicon strip modules mounted onto wedge-shaped carbon fiber support plates called petals. Up to 28 modules are arranged in radial rings on both sides of these plates. One eighth of an end cap (called sector) is populated with 18 petals. The TEC+ endcap is currently being integrated at RWTH Aachen. 400 silicon modules with a total of 241664 channels, corresponding to one eighth of the endcap, are read-out simultaneously by final power supply and DAQ components. On the left is the TEC+ in Aachen, whilst on the right is a computer image of a cosmic ray traversing the many layers of silicon sensors. To understand the response to real particles, basic functionality testing was followed by a cosmic muon run. A total of 400 silicon strip modules are read out with a channel inefficiency of below 1% and a common mode noise of only 25% of the intrinsic noise.

  5. A Data Formatter for the ATLAS Fast Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Liu, Ted; Okumura, Y; Penning, B

    2012-01-01

    The Fast TracKer (FTK) is an upgrade to the ATLAS level-2 trigger. The FTK system will reconstruct tracks using data from the inner Pixel and SCT silicon detector modules at trigger rates up to 100 kHz. We present an overview of the Data Formatter system, which is designed to remap, share and reformat the Pixel and SCT module data to match the geometry of the FTK trigger towers.

  6. Integrated CMOS sensor technologies for the CLIC tracker

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)754303

    2017-01-01

    Integrated technologies are attractive candidates for an all silicon tracker at the proposed future multi-TeV linear e+e- collider CLIC. In this context CMOS circuitry on a high resistivity epitaxial layer has been studied using the ALICE Investigator test-chip. Test-beam campaigns have been performed to study the Investigator performance and a Technology Computer Aided Design based simulation chain has been developed to further explore the sensor technology.

  7. The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker: operations and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Pani, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    After more than 3 years of successful operation at 2 the LHC, we report on the operation and performance of the Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) functioning in a high luminosity, 4 high radiation environment. The SCT is part of the inner tracking system of the ATLAS 6 experiment at CERN and is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. We find 99.3% of the 8 SCT modules are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications; the alignment is very close to 10 the ideal to allow on-line track reconstruction and invariant mass determination. We will report on the operation and performance 12 of the detector including an overview of the issues encountered. The observables employed to monitor online and offline the 14 quality and the performance of the data acquired by the SCT will be described and discussed.

  8. CMS Tracker Alignment Performance Results 2016

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The tracking system of the CMS detector provides excellent resolution for charged particle tracks and an efficient way of tagging jets. In order to reconstruct good quality tracks, the position and orientation of each silicon pixel and strip module needs to be determined with a precision of several micrometers. The presented alignment results are derived following a global (Millepede-II) and a local (HipPy) fit approach. The performance of the CMS tracker alignment in 2016 using cosmic-ray data and the complete set of proton-proton collision data recorded at 3.8 T magnetic field has been studied. The data-driven validation of the results are shown. The time-dependent movement of the pixel detector's large-scale structure is demonstrated.

  9. The CMS Tracker Readout Front End Driver

    CERN Document Server

    Foudas, C.; Ballard, D.; Church, I.; Corrin, E.; Coughlan, J.A.; Day, C.P.; Freeman, E.J.; Fulcher, J.; Gannon, W.J.F.; Hall, G.; Halsall, R.N.J.; Iles, G.; Jones, J.; Leaver, J.; Noy, M.; Pearson, M.; Raymond, M.; Reid, I.; Rogers, G.; Salisbury, J.; Taghavi, S.; Tomalin, I.R.; Zorba, O.

    2004-01-01

    The Front End Driver, FED, is a 9U 400mm VME64x card designed for reading out the Compact Muon Solenoid, CMS, silicon tracker signals transmitted by the APV25 analogue pipeline Application Specific Integrated Circuits. The FED receives the signals via 96 optical fibers at a total input rate of 3.4 GB/sec. The signals are digitized and processed by applying algorithms for pedestal and common mode noise subtraction. Algorithms that search for clusters of hits are used to further reduce the input rate. Only the cluster data along with trigger information of the event are transmitted to the CMS data acquisition system using the S-LINK64 protocol at a maximum rate of 400 MB/sec. All data processing algorithms on the FED are executed in large on-board Field Programmable Gate Arrays. Results on the design, performance, testing and quality control of the FED are presented and discussed.

  10. Piloted simulator assessments of agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Edward T.

    1990-01-01

    NASA has utilized piloted simulators for nearly two decades to study high-angle-of-attack flying qualities, agility, and air-to-air combat. These studies have included assessments of an F-16XL aircraft equipped with thrust vectoring, an assessment of the F-18 HARV maneuvering requirements to assist in thrust vectoring control system design, and an agility assessment of the F-18. The F-18 agility assessment was compared with in-flight testing. Open-loop maneuvers such as 180-deg rolls to measure roll rate showed favorable simulator/in-flight comparison. Closed-loop maneuvers such as rolls to 90 deg with precision stops or certain maximum longitudinal pitching maneuvers showed poorer performance due to reduced aggressiveness of pilot inputs in flight to remain within flight envelope limits.

  11. Collaborative Environment and Agile Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan GHILIC-MICU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over time, information and communications technology development has made a direct impact on human activity in the individual context as well as familial, economic and social. This has laid the premise for adoption of new and modern paradigms in individual and organizational activity management. The evolutionary climax of the social universe is called nowadays knowledge society. The knowledge society succeeds the information society, emphasizing the development of the opportunities brought by collaborative work environment and agile approach. In this paper we will highlight the use of collaborative environment in agile software development, as an instrument for managing organizations in knowledge society. Thus, we will emphasize the paradigms of agile testing, validation and verification in collaborative environment.

  12. The ATLAS SemiConductorTracker

    CERN Document Server

    Mikuz, M

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is presented. About 16000 silicon micro-strip sensors with a total active surface of over 60 m /sup 2/ and with 6.3 million read-out channels are built into 4088 modules arranged into four barrel layers and nine disks covering each of the forward regions up to an eta of 2.5. Challenges are imposed by the hostile radiation environment with particle fluences up to 2*10 /sup 14/ cm/sup -2/ 1 MeV neutron NIEL equivalent and 100 kGy TID, the 25 ns LHC bunch crossing time and the need for a hermetic, lightweight tracker. The solution adopted is carefully designed strip detectors operated at -7 degrees C, biased up to 500 V and read out by binary rad-hard fast BiCMOS electronics. A zero-CTE carbon fibre structure provides mechanical support. 30 kW of power are supplied on aluminium/Kapton tapes and cooled by C/sub 3/F/sub 8/ evaporative cooling. Data and commands are transferred by optical links. Prototypes of detector modules have been built, irradiated to the maximum expected ...

  13. The Upgrade of the CMS Outer Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069790

    2016-03-14

    During the high luminosity phase of the LHC starting around 2025 (HL-LHC), the machine is expected to deliver an instantaneous luminosity of $5\\cdot10^{34}$~cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. A total of 3000~fb$^{-1}$ of data is foreseen to be delivered, hereby increasing the physics potential of the LHC experiments significantly. However, this fivefold increase in luminosity compared to the design luminosity of the LHC will lead to a higher track multiplicity in the silicon tracking detectors of the experiments, and to severe radiation levels. In order to maintain physics capability, CMS will build a completely new tracking detector comprising a pixel detector and an outer tracker. Furthermore, information from the outer tracker will be used in the first level trigger of CMS to ensure a sufficient trigger rejection. For this purpose, CMS will use so-called p$_{T}$ modules which will provide a momentum measurement at the module level. These modules consist of two back-to-back strip sensors for the outer layers, and a st...

  14. Challenges of Best Agile Management Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Kulesovs, Ivans; Korkkinen, Max

    2013-01-01

    Agile software development and Agile leadership are widespread topics nowadays. Management 3.0 framework is a new framework for Agile leadership implementation within the software development organization. We have performed research that should answer such question as, what are the difficulties related to and the best practices of Agile leadership implementation in software development organizations through the prism of Management 3.0 framework views. In order to do this we have performed the...

  15. The Collected Works of Tracker

    OpenAIRE

    Galbraith, R.

    2017-01-01

    This book contains six articles written by Rex Galbraith under the pen name Tracker “Your man at the microscope”. They first appeared in the 1990s in On Track, the newsletter of the International Fission Track Community.

  16. User-centered agile method

    CERN Document Server

    Deuff, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Agile development methods began to emerge around 20 years ago. However, it was not until the early 2000s that they began to be widely used in industry. This growth was often due to the advent of Internet services requiring faster cycles of development in order to heighten the rate at which an ever-greater number of functionalities were made available. In parallel, user-centered design (UCD) methods were also becoming more and more widely used: hence, user-centered design and agile methods were bound to cross paths, at least in the telecoms industry! During this period, in the field of telec

  17. Everything you want to know about Agile

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Jamie Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Everything you want to know about Agile comprehensively addresses the issues that IT departments face when they try to implement Agile approaches within the constraints of their traditional organizations, including existing project frameworks, budgeting structures, contracts and corporate reporting.  It is an essential resource for IT departments that want to deliver successful Agile results, even in the most challenging environments.

  18. Agile Learning: Sprinting through the Semester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Guido

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces agile learning, a novel pedagogical approach that applies the processes and principles of agile software development to the context of learning. Agile learning is characterized by short project cycles, called sprints, in which a usable deliverable is fully planned, designed, built, tested, reviewed, and launched. An…

  19. Usability Evaluation Method for Agile Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Masood Butt

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Agile methods are the best fit for tremendously growing software industry due to its flexible and dynamic nature. But the software developed using agile methods do meet the usability standards? To answer this question we can see that majority of agile software development projects currently involve interactive user interface designs, which can only be possible by following User Centered Design (UCD in agile methods. The question here is, how to integrate UCD with agile models. Both Agile models and UCD are iterative in nature but agile models focus on coding and development of software; whereas, UCD focuses on user interface of the software. Similarly, both of them have testing features where the agile model involves automated tested code while UCD involves an expert or a user to test the user interface. In this paper, a new agile usability model is proposed and the evaluation is of the proposed model is presented by practically implementing it in three real life projects. . Key results from these projects clearly show: the proposed agile model incorporates usability evaluation methods, improves the relationship between usability experts to work with agile software experts; in addition, allows agile developers to incorporate the result from UCD into subsequent interactions.

  20. Leading change with Agile : How Agile Project Management can affect an organisation’s growth prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Yliperttula, Oula

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate if implementing agile methods can lead change in an organisation, if Agile Project Management can help the company grow and what are the consequences of applying agile methods to companies’ project management processes. As businesses seek for agility and strive for a more unique competitive advantage, being organisationally agile (able to adapt to changing market conditions and reacting to changing stakeholder requirements) is important. This pape...

  1. Hyperspectral Imager-Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurok, Llya

    2013-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Imager-Tracker (HIT) is a technique for visualization and tracking of low-contrast, fast-moving objects. The HIT architecture is based on an innovative and only recently developed concept in imaging optics. This innovative architecture will give the Light Prescriptions Innovators (LPI) HIT the possibility of simultaneously collecting the spectral band images (hyperspectral cube), IR images, and to operate with high-light-gathering power and high magnification for multiple fast- moving objects. Adaptive Spectral Filtering algorithms will efficiently increase the contrast of low-contrast scenes. The most hazardous parts of a space mission are the first stage of a launch and the last 10 kilometers of the landing trajectory. In general, a close watch on spacecraft operation is required at distances up to 70 km. Tracking at such distances is usually associated with the use of radar, but its milliradian angular resolution translates to 100- m spatial resolution at 70-km distance. With sufficient power, radar can track a spacecraft as a whole object, but will not provide detail in the case of an accident, particularly for small debris in the onemeter range, which can only be achieved optically. It will be important to track the debris, which could disintegrate further into more debris, all the way to the ground. Such fragmentation could cause ballistic predictions, based on observations using high-resolution but narrow-field optics for only the first few seconds of the event, to be inaccurate. No optical imager architecture exists to satisfy NASA requirements. The HIT was developed for space vehicle tracking, in-flight inspection, and in the case of an accident, a detailed recording of the event. The system is a combination of five subsystems: (1) a roving fovea telescope with a wide 30 field of regard; (2) narrow, high-resolution fovea field optics; (3) a Coude optics system for telescope output beam stabilization; (4) a hyperspectral

  2. Grounding, Shielding and Power Distribution for the LHCb Silicon Tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, C; Frei, R; Straumann, U; Vázquez, P; Vollhardt, A

    2005-01-01

    This note lists the relevant items for power and grounding, it explains the sensitive detector input signal circuits and describes the grounding, power distribution and line filtering measures applied to each of the electrical units of the LHCb silicon tracking system. This note deals with both silicon sub-projects, the Inner Tracker (IT) and the Trigger Tracker (TT).

  3. Design and Test Beam Performance of Substructures of the CMS Tracker End Caps

    CERN Document Server

    Brauer, Richard

    2005-01-01

    With its total active silicon area of about 200 squaremetres and more than 15000 silicon modules the silicon strip tracker of the CMS experiment at the LHC will be the largest silicon strip detector ever built. While the performance of single silicon modules has already been tested extensively in various test beam experiments, the performance of larger integrated substructures also had to be studied with a particle beam before launching mass production, in order to ensure the envisaged performance of the overall system. In May/June 2004 the performance of a system of two petals of the tracker end caps (TEC), which represents about 1% of the full TEC and forms an autonomous unit in terms of data acquisition, has been studied in a test beam experiment at CERN. In this document the test beam experiment is described and results are presented.

  4. Pro Agile NET Development with Scrum

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Jerrel; Millett, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM guides you through a real-world ASP.NET project and shows how agile methodology is put into practice. There is plenty of literature on the theory behind agile methodologies, but no book on the market takes the concepts of agile practices and applies these in a practical manner to an end-to-end ASP.NET project, especially the estimating, requirements and management aspects of a project. Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM takes you through the initial stages of a project - gathering requirements and setting up an environment - through to the development a

  5. Agile Software Development: An Introduction and Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingsøyr, Torgeir; Dybå, Tore; Moe, Nils Brede

    Agile software development is an important topic in software engineering and information systems. This chapter provides a characterization and definition of agile software development, an overview of research through a summary of existing overview studies, an analysis of the research literature so far, and an introduction to the main themes of this book. The first part of the book provides foundations and background of agile development. The second part describes findings from studies of agile methods in practice. The third part identifies principal challenges and discusses new frontiers that agile development methods will meet in the future.

  6. The Challenges of Becoming Agile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis; Dowlen, Chris

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade agile methods have been a vast success in the domain of software development. This paper investigates whether these methods can be successfully transferred to the domain of physical product development in order to address the fundamental challenges of increased marked speed...

  7. AGILE DRAFTING OF OUTSOURCING CONTRACTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Storgaard, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    and in several parallel tracks using different competencies. By the use of an illustrative case-study, this paper explores how scrum can be applied to enhance the process of drafting outsourcing contracts. The analysis indicates that the use of an agile method, such as Scrum, can be beneficial in this context...

  8. MAD for visual tracker fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stefan; Krah, Sebastian B.; Hübner, Wolfgang; Arens, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Existing tracking methods vary strongly in their approach and therefore have different strengths and weaknesses. For example, a single tracking algorithm may be good at handling variations in illumination, but does not cope well with deformation. Hence, their failures can occur on entirely different time intervals on the same sequence. One possible solution for overcoming limitations of a single tracker and for benefitting from individual strengths, is to run a set of tracking algorithms in parallel and fuse their outputs. But in general, tracking algorithms are not designed to receive feedback from a higher level fusion strategy or require a high degree of integration between individual levels. Towards this end, we introduce a fusion strategy serving the purpose of online single object tracking, for which no knowledge about individual tracker characteristics is needed. The key idea is to combine several independent and heterogeneous tracking approaches and to robustly identify an outlier subset based on the "Median Absolute Deviations" (MAD) measure. The MAD fusion strategy is very generic and only requires frame-based object bounding boxes as input. Thus, it can work with arbitrary tracking algorithms. Furthermore, the MAD fusion strategy can also be applied for combining several instances of the same tracker to form a more robust ensemble for tracking an object. The evaluation is done on public available datasets. With a set of heterogeneous, commonly used trackers we show that the proposed MAD fusion strategy improves the tracking results in comparison to a classical combination of parallel trackers and that the tracker ensemble helps to deal with the initialization uncertainty of a single tracker.

  9. Design of the new ATLAS Inner Tracker for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In the high luminosity era of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), the instantaneous luminosity is expected to reach unprecedented values, resulting in about 200 proton-proton interactions in a typical bunch crossing. To cope with this high rate, the ATLAS Inner Detector is being completely redesigned, and will be replaced by an all-silicon system, the Inner Tracker (ITk). This new tracker will have both silicon pixel and silicon strip sub-systems. The components of the Inner Tracker will have to be resistant to the large radiation dose from the particles produced in HL-LHC collisions, and have low mass and sufficient sensor granularity to ensure a good tracking performance over the pseudorapidity range |η|<4. In this talk, first the challenges and second possible solutions to these challenges will be discussed, i.e. designs under consideration for the pixel and strip modules, and the mechanics of local supports in the barrel and endcaps.

  10. Design of the new ATLAS Inner Tracker for the High Luminosity LHC era

    CERN Document Server

    Vickey, Trevor; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In the high luminosity era of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), the instantaneous luminosity is expected to reach unprecedented values, resulting in about 200 proton-proton interactions in a typical bunch crossing. To cope with this high rate, the ATLAS Inner Detector is being completely redesigned, and will be replaced by an all-silicon system, the Inner Tracker (ITk). This new tracker will have both silicon pixel and silicon strip sub-systems. The components of the Inner Tracker will have to be resistant to the large radiation dose from the particles produced in HL-LHC collisions, and have low mass and sufficient sensor granularity to ensure a good tracking performance over the pseudorapidity range |η|<4. In this talk, first the challenges and second possible solutions to these challenges will be discussed, i.e. designs under consideration for the pixel and strip modules, and the mechanics of local supports in the barrel and endcaps.

  11. Star trackers for attitude determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebe, Carl Christian

    1995-01-01

    One problem comes to all spacecrafts using vector information. That is the problem of determining the attitude. This paper describes how the area of attitude determination instruments has evolved from simple pointing devices into the latest technology, which determines the attitude by utilizing...... a CCD camera and a powerful microcomputer. The instruments are called star trackers and they are capable of determining the attitude with an accuracy better than 1 arcsecond. The concept of the star tracker is explained. The obtainable accuracy is calculated, the numbers of stars to be included...... in the star catalogue are discussed and the acquisition of the initial attitude is explained. Finally the commercial market for star trackers is discussed...

  12. CMS RPC tracker muon reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, J.; Kim, M. S.; Ban, Y.; Cai, J.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Qian, S.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Zhang, F.; Choi, Y.; Kim, D.; Choi, S.; Hong, B.; Kang, J. W.; Kang, M.; Kwon, J. H.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S. K.; Park, S. K.; Pant, L. M.; Mohanty, A. K.; Chudasama, R.; Singh, J. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Mehta, A.; Kumar, R.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Costantini, S.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Ocampo, A.; Poyraz, D.; Salva, S.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Doninck, W. V.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro, L.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Avila, C.; Ahmad, A.; Muhammad, S.; Shoaib, M.; Hoorani, H.; Awan, I.; Ali, I.; Ahmed, W.; Asghar, M. I.; Shahzad, H.; Sayed, A.; Ibrahim, A.; Ali, S.; Ali, R.; Radi, A.; Elkafrawy, T.; Sharma, A.; Colafranceschi, S.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Colaleo, A.; Iaselli, G.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Piccolo, D.; Paolucci, P.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Merola, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, O. M.; Braghieri, A.; Montagna, P.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vitulo, P.; Vai, I.; Magnani, A.; Dimitrov, A.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Stoykova, S.; Hadjiiska, R.; Ibargüen, H. S.; Morales, M. I. P.; Bernardino, S. C.; Bagaturia, I.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Crotty, I.

    2014-10-01

    A new muon reconstruction algorithm is introduced at the CMS experiment. This algorithm reconstructs muons using only the central tracker and the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC). The aim of this work is to study how a muon reconstructed only with tracker and RPC information would perform compared to the standard muon reconstruction of the CMS detector. The efficiencies to reconstruct and identify a RPC muon with a transverse momentum greater than 20 GeV/c are measured. The probabilities to misidentify hadrons as muons at low transverse momentum are also reported. These probabilities are compared to the standard muon identification used at CMS.

  13. Track Reconstruction with Cosmic Ray Data at the Tracker Integration Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Wolfgang; Dragicevic, Marko; Friedl, Markus; Fruhwirth, R; Hansel, S; Hrubec, Josef; Krammer, Manfred; Oberegger, Margit; Pernicka, Manfred; Schmid, Siegfried; Stark, Roland; Steininger, Helmut; Uhl, Dieter; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Widl, Edmund; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Cardaci, Marco; Beaumont, Willem; de Langhe, Eric; de Wolf, Eddi A; Delmeire, Evelyne; Hashemi, Majid; Bouhali, Othmane; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; Elgammal, J.-P. Dewulf. S; Hammad, Gregory Habib; de Lentdecker, Gilles; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Adler, Volker; Devroede, Olivier; De Weirdt, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Goorens, Robert; Heyninck, Jan; Maes, Joris; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Lancker, Luc; Van Mulders, Petra; Villella, Ilaria; Wastiels, C; Bonnet, Jean-Luc; Bruno, Giacomo; De Callatay, Bernard; Florins, Benoit; Giammanco, Andrea; Gregoire, Ghislain; Keutgen, Thomas; Kcira, Dorian; Lemaitre, Vincent; Michotte, Daniel; Militaru, Otilia; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertermont, L; Roberfroid, Vincent; Rouby, Xavier; Teyssier, Daniel; Daubie, Evelyne; Anttila, Erkki; Czellar, Sandor; Engstrom, Pauli; Harkonen, J; Karimaki, V; Kostesmaa, J; Kuronen, Auli; Lampen, Tapio; Linden, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Maenpaa, T; Michal, Sebastien; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Ageron, Michel; Baulieu, Guillaume; Bonnevaux, Alain; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chabanat, Eric; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Dupasquier, Thierry; Gelin, Georges; Giraud, Noël; Guillot, Gérard; Estre, Nicolas; Haroutunian, Roger; Lumb, Nicholas; Perries, Stephane; Schirra, Florent; Trocme, Benjamin; Vanzetto, Sylvain; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Blaes, Reiner; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Berst, Jean-Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Didierjean, Francois; Goerlach, Ulrich; Graehling, Philippe; Gross, Laurent; Hosselet, J; Juillot, Pierre; Lounis, Abdenour; Maazouzi, Chaker; Olivetto, Christian; Strub, Roger; Van Hove, Pierre; Anagnostou, Georgios; Brauer, Richard; Esser, Hans; Feld, Lutz; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Kukulies, Christoph; Olzem, Jan; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Pandoulas, Demetrios; Pierschel, Gerhard; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schwering, Georg; Sprenger, Daniel; Thomas, Maarten; Weber, Markus; Wittmer, Bruno; Wlochal, Michael; Beissel, Franz; Bock, E; Flugge, G; Gillissen, C; Hermanns, Thomas; Heydhausen, Dirk; Jahn, Dieter; Kaussen, Gordon; Linn, Alexander; Perchalla, Lars; Poettgens, Michael; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Buhmann, Peter; Butz, Erik; Flucke, Gero; Hamdorf, Richard Helmut; Hauk, Johannes; Klanner, Robert; Pein, Uwe; Schleper, Peter; Steinbruck, G; Blum, P; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Fahrer, Manuel; Frey, Martin; Furgeri, Alexander; Hartmann, Frank; Heier, Stefan; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Kaminski, Jochen; Ledermann, Bernhard; Liamsuwan, Thiansin; Muller, S; Muller, Th; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Steck, Pia; Zhukov, Valery; Cariola, P; De Robertis, Giuseppe; Ferorelli, Raffaele; Fiore, Luigi; Preda, M; Sala, Giuliano; Silvestris, Lucia; Tempesta, Paolo; Zito, Giuseppe; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Giordano, Domenico; Maggi, Giorgio; Manna, Norman; My, Salvatore; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Albergo, Sebastiano; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Galanti, Mario; Giudice, Nunzio; Guardone, Nunzio; Noto, Francesco; Potenza, Renato; Saizu, Mirela Angela; Sparti, V; Sutera, Concetta; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Brianzi, Mirko; Civinini, Carlo; Maletta, Fernando; Manolescu, Florentina; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Broccolo, B; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Focardi, R. D'Alessandro. E; Frosali, Simone; Genta, Chiara; Landi, Gregorio; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Macchiolo, Anna; Magini, Nicolo; Parrini, Giuliano; Scarlini, Enrico; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Candelori, Andrea; Dorigo, Tommaso; Kaminsky, A; Karaevski, S; Khomenkov, Volodymyr; Reznikov, Sergey; Tessaro, Mario; Bisello, Dario; De Mattia, Marco; Giubilato, Piero; Loreti, Maurizio; Mattiazzo, Serena; Nigro, Massimo; Paccagnella, Alessandro; Pantano, Devis; Pozzobon, Nicola; Tosi, Mia; Bilei, Gian Mario; Checcucci, Bruno; Fano, Livio; Servoli, Leonello; Ambroglini, Filippo; Babucci, Ezio; Benedetti, Daniele; Biasini, Maurizio; Caponeri, Benedetta; Covarelli, Roberto; Giorgi, Marco; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Marcantonini, Marta; Postolache, Vasile; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiga, Daniele; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Balestri, Gabriele; Berretta, Luca; Bianucci, S; Boccali, Tommaso; Bosi, Filippo; Bracci, Fabrizio; Castaldi, Rino; Ceccanti, Marco; Cecchi, Roberto; Cerri, Claudio; 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Tropea, Paola; Troska, Jan; Tsirou, Andromachi; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Vasey, François; Alagoz, Enver; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Rochet, Jacky; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Schmidt, Alexander; Steiner, Stefan; Wilke, Lotte; Church, Ivan; Cole, Joanne; Coughlan, John A; Gay, Arnaud; Taghavi, S; Tomalin, Ian R; Bainbridge, Robert; Cripps, Nicholas; Fulcher, Jonathan; Hall, Geoffrey; Noy, Matthew; Pesaresi, Mark; Radicci, Valeria; Raymond, David Mark; Sharp, Peter; Stoye, Markus; Wingham, Matthew; Zorba, Osman; Goitom, Israel; Hobson, Peter R; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Haidong; Pasztor, Gabriella; Satpathy, Asish; Stringer, Robert; Mangano, Boris; Affolder, K; Affolder, T; Allen, Andrea; Barge, Derek; Burke, Samuel; Callahan, D; Campagnari, Claudio; Crook, A; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Dietch, J; Garberson, Jeffrey; Hale, David; Incandela, H; Incandela, Joe; Jaditz, Stephen; Kalavase, Puneeth; Kreyer, Steven Lawrence; Kyre, Susanne; Lamb, James; Mc Guinness, C; Mills, C; Nguyen, Harold; Nikolic, Milan; Lowette, Steven; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rubinstein, Noah; Sanhueza, S; Shah, Yousaf Syed; Simms, L; Staszak, D; Stoner, J; Stuart, David; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; White, Dean; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Bagby, Linda; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Burkett, Kevin; Cihangir, Selcuk; Gutsche, Oliver; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Mark; Luzhetskiy, Nikolay; Mason, David; Miao, Ting; Moccia, Stefano; Noeding, Carsten; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Skup, Ewa; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Yumiceva, Francisco; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Zerev, E; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Khalatian, S; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Chen, Jie; Hinchey, Carl Louis; Martin, Christophe; Moulik, Tania; Robinson, Richard; Gritsan, Andrei; Lae, Chung Khim; Tran, Nhan Viet; Everaerts, Pieter; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Nahn, Steve; Rudolph, Matthew; Sung, Kevin; Betchart, Burton; Demina, Regina; Gotra, Yury; Korjenevski, Sergey; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Christofek, Leonard; Hooper, Ryan; Landsberg, Greg; Nguyen, Duong; Narain, Meenakshi; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang

    2008-01-01

    The subsystems of the CMS silicon strip tracker were integrated and commissioned at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) in the period from November 2006 to July 2007. As part of the commissioning, large samples of cosmic ray data were recorded under various running conditions in the absence of a magnetic field. Cosmic rays detected by scintillation counters were used to trigger the readout of up to 15\\,\\% of the final silicon strip detector, and over 4.7~million events were recorded. This document describes the cosmic track reconstruction and presents results on the performance of track and hit reconstruction as from dedicated analyses.

  14. Systems engineering agile design methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the paradigm of the engineering design process. The authors discuss agile systems and engineering design. The book captures the entire design process (functionbases), context, and requirements to affect real reuse. It provides a methodology for an engineering design process foundation for modern and future systems design. This book captures design patterns with context for actual Systems Engineering Design Reuse and contains a new paradigm in Design Knowledge Management.

  15. The CMS Outer Tracker for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dierlamm, Alexander Hermann

    2018-01-01

    The LHC is planning an upgrade program, which will bring the luminosity to about $5-7\\times10^{34}$~cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ in 2026, with a goal of an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{-1}$ by the end of 2037. This High Luminosity LHC scenario, HL-LHC, will require a preparation program of the LHC detectors known as Phase-2 Upgrade. The current CMS Tracker is already running beyond design specifications and will not be able to cope with the HL-LHC radiation conditions. CMS will need a completely new Tracker in order to fully exploit the highly demanding operating conditions and the delivered luminosity. The new Outer Tracker system is designed to provide robust tracking as well as Level-1 trigger capabilities using closely spaced modules composed of silicon macro-pixel and/or strip sensors. Research and development activities are ongoing to explore options and develop module components and designs for the HL-LHC environment. The design choices for the CMS Outer Tracker Upgrade are discussed along with some highlig...

  16. Four-cell solar tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Forty cm Sun tracker, consisting of optical telescope and four solar cells, stays pointed at Sun throughout day for maximum energy collection. Each solar cell generates voltage proportional to part of solar image it receives; voltages drive servomotors that keep image centered. Mirrored portion of cylinder extends acquisition angle of device by reflecting Sun image back onto solar cells.

  17. Mind the tracker you wear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goyal, Rohit; Dragoni, Nicola; Spognardi, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    a concern among consumers, because of the sensitive information these devices deal with, like sleeping patterns, eating habits, heart rate and so on. In this paper, we analyse the key security and privacy features of two entry level health trackers from leading vendors (Jawbone and Fitbit), exploring...

  18. An Investigation of Agility Issues in Scrum Teams Using Agility Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikkarainen, Minna; Wang, Xiaofeng

    Agile software development methods have emerged and become increasingly popular in recent years; yet the issues encountered by software development teams that strive to achieve agility using agile methods are yet to be explored systematically. Built upon a previous study that has established a set of indicators of agility, this study investigates what issues are manifested in software development teams using agile methods. It is focussed on Scrum teams particularly. In other words, the goal of the chapter is to evaluate Scrum teams using agility indicators and therefore to further validate previously presented agility indicators within the additional cases. A multiple case study research method is employed. The findings of the study reveal that the teams using Scrum do not necessarily achieve agility in terms of team autonomy, sharing, stability and embraced uncertainty. The possible reasons include previous organizational plan-driven culture, resistance towards the Scrum roles and changing resources.

  19. Conceptualizing Interpersonal Relationships in Agile IS Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Sabine; Matook, Sabine

    Agile information systems development (ISD) is a people-centered approach that emphasizes frequent interaction and genuine co-operation between customers and developers. While business relationships are the norm in the workplace, agile ISD leads to the creation of close interpersonal relationships....... Drawing on relationship theory and friendship literature we propose a theoretical framework of three types of workplace relationships. The framework is used for deriving theoretical preconceptions about agile relationships and their impact on the agile ISD team’s ability to deliver valuable, working...... software frequently. We also present the interpretive approach we will apply. An understanding of the relationship specific aspects of agile ISD as well as of the importance and impact of certain relationship characteristics can help explain why some agile projects succeed, while others fail...

  20. A qualitative case study on agile practices and project success in agile software projects

    OpenAIRE

    Henriksen, André; Pedersen, Sven Arne R

    2017-01-01

    In project management, and particularly software project management, there has been a shift from traditional plan based project management, to the agile event driven project management style. This paper identifies some of the most important agile practices a team should use, to succeed in an agile software project. Four participants in two different projects were interviewed. 53 often used practices were identified. 15 were found to be especially relevant in agile software project...

  1. Agile Maturity Model (AMM): A Software Process Improvement framework for Agile Software Development Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Chetankumar Patel; Muthu Ramachandran

    2009-01-01

    Agile software development methodologies have introduced best practices into software development. However we need to adopt and monitor those practices continuously to maximize its benefits. Our research has focused on adaptability, suitability and software maturity model called Agile Maturity Model (AMM) for agile software development environments. This paper introduces a process of adaptability assessment, suitability assessment, and improvement framework for assessing and improving agile b...

  2. Paradoxical Leadership to Enable Strategic Agility

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, M. W.; Andriopoulos, C.; Smith, W. K.

    2014-01-01

    Strategic agility evokes contradictions, such as stability-flexibility, commitment-change, and established routines-novel approaches. These competing demands pose challenges that require paradoxical leadership—practices seeking creative, both/and solutions that can enable fast-paced, adaptable decision making. Why is managing paradox critical to strategic agility? And which practices enable leaders to effectively manage tensions? This article describes the paradoxical nature of strategic agil...

  3. Teamwork in Distributed Agile Software Development

    OpenAIRE

    Gurram, Chaitanya; Bandi, Srinivas Goud

    2013-01-01

    Context: Distributed software development has become a most desired way of software development. Application of agile development methodologies in distributed environments has taken a new trend in developing software due to its benefits of improved communication and collaboration. Teamwork is an important concept that agile methodologies facilitate and is one of the potential determinants of team performance which was not focused in distributed agile software development. Objectives: This res...

  4. Model for Agile Software Development Performance Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Žabkar, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Agile methodologies have been in use for more than ten years and during this time they proved to be efficient, even though number of empirical research is scarce, especially regarding agile software development performance monitoring. The most popular agile framework Scrum is using only one measure of performance: the amount of work remaining for implementation of User Story from the Product Backlog or for implementation of Task from the Sprint Backlog. In time the need for additional me...

  5. Research on Evaluation on Agility of Agile Supply Chain Network Based on Complex Network Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Ru Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper tries to add the network structure factors of agile supply chain network into agility evaluation. The paper firstly presents three concepts including node strength centrality, betweenness centrality, and network centrality. They are used to calculate the weight of node enterprises in the agile supply chain network. And then, a series of agility indicators are designed to evaluate agility of agile supply chain network. AHP is used to calculate the weight of the indicators. Next, these indicators are used to get initial agility evaluation matrix by means of Delphi method, Data Mining, and so forth. Then FCE is used to calculate the membership degree on agility of node enterprises by combining the evaluation matrix with the weight of indicators. Last, the evaluation result of comprehensive agility of agile supply chain network is calculated on the basis of considering the weight of node enterprises. This method can reflect the effect which the network structure of supply chain network makes on the agility of the supply chain network. It is a complement to the current evaluation methods of agility.

  6. The Translation and Adaptation of Agile Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to use translation theory to develop a framework (called FTRA) that explains how companies adopt agile methods in a discourse of fragmentation and articulation. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative multiple case study of six firms using the Scrum agile...... Framing agile adaption with translation theory surfaces how the discourse between translocal (global) and local practice yields the social construction of agile methods. This result contrasts the more functionalist engineering perspective and privileges changeability over performance. Originality...

  7. Documenting Software Architectures in an Agile World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clements, Paul

    2003-01-01

    This report compares the Software Engineering Institute's Views and Beyond approach for documenting software architectures with the documentation philosophy embodied in agile software-development methods...

  8. Agile Objects: Component-Based Inherent Survivability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chien, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a framework called Agile Objects which leverages component object models and enables the construction of survivable systems that support increased application survivability through elusive technologies...

  9. INDIVIDUALS PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT IN AGILE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aref Al-Heyasi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many organizations in the last years have been shifting to Agile, especially in software development sector, to deliver their projects. Rapid changes in demands, requirements, technologies, and regulations have made it more important for organizations to respond quickly and effectively. Agile provides the flexibility to reconfigure strategies, processes, people, and technologies toward value creation. Agile promises to deliver value through small, potentially shippable product features developed within short iterations. In Agile, there is no one manager who makes all the decisions alone, but all team members participate in making important project decisions. Agile believes that teamwork is essential to deliver high-quality software. The unique characteristics of the team in Agile make it hard to fit with standard HR processes like annual individual performance reviews. This paper introduces the individual performance management in Agile environment and how the annual performance appraisal might not fit with Agile and discusses the alternatives to make a convenient performance evaluation for agile team members.

  10. The ATLAS semi-conductor tracker operation and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, D.

    2013-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The SCT was installed and commissioned within ATLAS in 2007, and has been used to exploit fully the physics potential of the LHC since the first proton–proton collisions at 7 TeV were delivered in 2009. In this paper, its operational status throughout data taking up to the end of 2011 is presented, and its tracking performance is reviewed. -- Highlights: ► The operation and performance of the ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is reviewed. ► More than 99% of the SCT strips have remained operational in all data taking periods so far. ► Tracking performance indicators have met or exceeded design specifications. ► Radiation damage effects match closely expectations from delivered fluence.

  11. Operation and performance of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernabéu, José; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Branchini, Paolo; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christidi, Ilektra-Athanasia; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Dwuznik, Michal; Dyndal, Mateusz; Ebke, Johannes; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; Garcia Argos, Carlos; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodrick, Maurice; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Grybel, Kai; Guan, Liang; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageboeck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Heisterkamp, Simon; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Ivarsson, Jenny; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubik, Petr; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Moeller, Victoria; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newcomer, Mitchel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petteni, Michele; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pieron, Jacek Piotr; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Rick; Sherwood, Peter; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snow, Joel; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sorin, Veronica; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tamsett, Matthew; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Berg, Richard; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warren, Matthew; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    The semiconductor tracker is a silicon microstrip detector forming part of the inner tracking system of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The operation and performance of the semiconductor tracker during the first years of LHC running are described. More than 99% of the detector modules were operational during this period, with an average intrinsic hit efficiency of (99.74 +/- 0.04)%. The evolution of the noise occupancy is discussed, and measurements of the Lorentz angle, delta-ray production and energy loss presented. The alignment of the detector is found to be stable at the few-micron level over long periods of time. Radiation damage measurements, which include the evolution of detector leakage currents, are found to be consistent with predictions and are used in the verification of radiation background simulations.

  12. The CMS Tracker alignment in p-p collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Bhardwaj, Ashutosh

    2012-01-01

    The CMS all-silicon tracker consists of 16588 modules. Aligning these with the desired precision of a few micrometers is only feasible using track based alignment procedures. Ultimate local precision is now achieved by the determination of sensor curvatures. This leads to about 200 000 parameters to be calculated simultaneously. The Millepede II program interfaced with CMS software is optimized to provide solution in one step. The main remaining challenges are systematic distortions in the achieved geometry that are systematically biasing the track parameters like the track momenta. These distortions are controlled by adding further information into the alignment workflow, e.g. the mass of decaying resonances. In addition, the orientation of the tracker with respect to the magnetic field of CMS is determined with a stand-alone chi-square minimization procedure. The geometries are finally carefully validated. The monitored quantities include the basic track quantities for tracks from both collisions and cosmic...

  13. Agile! the good, the hype and the ugly

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Here is the ideal introduction to agile development. The book details agile principles, roles, managerial practices, technical practices and artifacts, offering a complete review that will help readers master all the important agile ideas.

  14. Inner tracker design studies for a large gaseous tracker detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, E.; Ha, H.; Park, S. K.; Choi, J. H. [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y. I. [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-15

    Experiments at the future linear collider project may answer long-standing questions in elementary particle physics and cosmology, such as what the origin of particle mass is, whether the concept of space-time should be extended, and how the universe was created. We present the technology choice, the optimization process, and the expected performance of the inner trackers currently proposed in the large-detector concept for the future linear collider project.

  15. A CONCEPT OF SOLAR TRACKER SYSTEM DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Meita Rumbayan *, Muhamad Dwisnanto Putro

    2017-01-01

    Improvement of solar panel efficiency is an ongoing research work recently. Maximizing the output power by integrating with the solar tracker system becomes a interest point of the research. This paper presents the concept in designing a solar tracker system applied to solar panel. The development of solar panel tracker system design that consist of system display prototype design, hardware design, and algorithm design. This concept is useful as the control system for solar tracker to improve...

  16. Evaluation of the Agility Level of the Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linkevics Gusts

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Organizations and teams are switching to agile methodology more and more often. The problem lies in the fact that organizations and teams are not certain at which agility level they currently are and at which agility domains they fail. This research focuses on creating a new method and tool for evaluation of the agility level of the company. The proposed method is based on the agility model of the company with agility domains, subdomains and attributes. Expert evaluation of domains, subdomains and attributes is the core of this method. The result of this research is the agility assessment method and blueprint of the architecture for the agility evaluation tool.

  17. Mechanical stability of the CMS Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    reconstructs the absolute position of individual detector modules with a similar accuracy but after days of data taking. During the long term operation at fixed temperature of +4$^o$C in years 2011--2013 the alignment of tracker components was stable within 10 microns. Temperature variations in the Tracker volume are found to cause the displacements of tracker structures of abou...

  18. Monitoring the hard X-ray sky with SuperAGILE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feroci, M.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Donnarumma, I.; Evangelista, Y.; Lapshov, I.; Lazzarotto, F.; Pacciani, L.; Rapisarda, M.; Soffitta, P.; di Persio, G.; Frutti, M.; Mastropietro, M.; Morelli, E.; Porrovecchio, G.; Rubini, A.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Boffelli, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Caraveo, P.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Chen, A. W.; Cocco, V.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Paris, G.; Di Cocco, G.; Fanari, G.; Ferrari, A.; Fiorini, M.; Fornari, F.; Fuschino, F.; Froysland, T.; Galli, M.; Gasparrini, D.; Gianotti, F.; Giommi, P.; Giuliani, A.; Labanti, C.; Liello, F.; Lipari, P.; Longo, F.; Mattaini, E.; Marisaldi, M.; Mauri, A.; Mauri, F.; Mereghetti, S.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Pellizzoni, A.; Perotti, F.; Piano, G.; Picozza, P.; Pilia, M.; Pittori, C.; Pontoni, C.; Preger, B.; Prest, M.; Primavera, R.; Pucella, G.; Rappoldi, A.; Rossi, E.; Sabatini, S.; Santolamazza, P.; Tavani, M.; Stellato, S.; Tamburelli, F.; Traci, A.; Trifoglio, M.; Trois, A.; Vallazza, E.; Vercellone, S.; Verrecchia, F.; Vittorini, V.; Zambra, A.; Zanello, D.; Salotti, L.

    2010-02-01

    Context. SuperAGILE is the hard X-ray monitor of the AGILE gamma ray mission, in orbit since 23 April 2007. It is an imaging experiment based on a set of four independent silicon strip detectors, equipped with one-dimensional coded masks, operating in the nominal energy range 18-60 keV. Aims: The main goal of SuperAGILE is the observation of cosmic sources simultaneously with the main gamma-ray AGILE experiment, the Gamma Ray Imaging Detector (GRID). Given its ~steradian-wide field of view and its ~15 mCrab day-sensitivity, SuperAGILE is also well suited to the long-term monitoring of Galactic compact objects and the detection of bright transients. Methods: The SuperAGILE detector properties and design allow for a 6 arcmin angular resolution in each of the two independent orthogonal projections of the celestial coordinates. Photon by photon data are continuously available by means of experiment telemetry, and are used to derive images and fluxes of individual sources, with integration times depending on the source intensity and position in the field of view. Results: We report on the main scientific results achieved by SuperAGILE over its first two years in orbit, until April 2009. The scientific observations started in mid-July 2007, with the science verification phase, continuing during the complete AGILE Cycle 1 and the first ~half of Cycle 2. Despite the largely non-uniform sky coverage, due to the pointing strategy of the AGILE mission, a few tens of Galactic sources were monitored, sometimes for unprecedently long continuous periods, leading to the detection also of several bursts and outbursts. Approximately one gamma ray burst per month was detected and localized, allowing for prompt multiwavelength observations. A few extragalactic sources in bright states were occasionally detected as well. The light curves of sources measured by SuperAGILE are made publicly available on the web in almost real-time. To enable a proper scientific use of these, we provide

  19. Cross-coupled doa trackers

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Neira, Ana Isabel; Lagunas Hernandez, Miguel A.; Kirlin, R L

    1997-01-01

    A new robust, low complexity algorithm for multiuser tracking is proposed, modifying the two-stage parallel architecture of the estimate-maximize (EM) algorithm. The algorithm copes with spatially colored noise, large differences in source powers, multipath, and crossing trajectories. Following a discussion on stability, the simulations demonstrate an asymptotic and tracking behavior that neither the EM nor a nonparallelized tracker can emulate. Peer Reviewed

  20. Silicon strip detector qualification for the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaussen, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    To provide the best spatial resolution for the particle trajectory reconstruction and a very fast readout, the inner tracking system of CMS is build up of silicon detectors with a pixel tracker in the center surrounded by a strip tracker. The silicon strip tracker consists of so-called modules representing the smallest detection unit of the tracking device. These modules are mounted on higher-level structures called shells in the tracker inner barrel (TIB), rods in the tracker outer barrel (TOB), disks in the tracker inner disks (TID) and petals in the tracker end caps (TEC). The performance of the participating two shells of the TIB, four rods of the TOB and two petals of the TEC (representing about 1% of the final strip tracker) could be studied in different magnetic fields over a period of approximately two month using cosmic muon signals. The last test before inserting the tracker in the CMS experiment was the Tracker Slice Test performed in spring/summer 2007 at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN after installing all subdetectors in the tracker support tube. Approximately 25% of the strip tracker +z side was powered and read out using a cosmic ray trigger built up of scintillation counters. In total, about 5 million muon events were recorded under various operating conditions. These events together with results from commissioning runs were used to study the detector response like cluster charges, signal-to-noise ratios and single strip noise behaviour as well as to identify faulty channels which turned out to be in the order of a few per mille. The performance of the silicon strip tracker during these different construction stages is discussed in this thesis with a special emphasis on the tracker end caps. (orig.)

  1. Silicon strip detector qualification for the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaussen, Gordon

    2008-10-06

    To provide the best spatial resolution for the particle trajectory reconstruction and a very fast readout, the inner tracking system of CMS is build up of silicon detectors with a pixel tracker in the center surrounded by a strip tracker. The silicon strip tracker consists of so-called modules representing the smallest detection unit of the tracking device. These modules are mounted on higher-level structures called shells in the tracker inner barrel (TIB), rods in the tracker outer barrel (TOB), disks in the tracker inner disks (TID) and petals in the tracker end caps (TEC). The performance of the participating two shells of the TIB, four rods of the TOB and two petals of the TEC (representing about 1% of the final strip tracker) could be studied in different magnetic fields over a period of approximately two month using cosmic muon signals. The last test before inserting the tracker in the CMS experiment was the Tracker Slice Test performed in spring/summer 2007 at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN after installing all subdetectors in the tracker support tube. Approximately 25% of the strip tracker +z side was powered and read out using a cosmic ray trigger built up of scintillation counters. In total, about 5 million muon events were recorded under various operating conditions. These events together with results from commissioning runs were used to study the detector response like cluster charges, signal-to-noise ratios and single strip noise behaviour as well as to identify faulty channels which turned out to be in the order of a few per mille. The performance of the silicon strip tracker during these different construction stages is discussed in this thesis with a special emphasis on the tracker end caps. (orig.)

  2. Activity trackers: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeon; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The wearable consumer health devices can be mainly divided into activity trackers, sleep trackers, and stress management devices. These devices are widely advertised to provide positive effects on the user's daily behaviours and overall heath. However, objective evidence supporting these claims appears to be missing. The goal of this study was to review available evidence pertaining to performance of activity trackers. A comprehensive review of available information has been conducted for seven representative devices and the validity of marketing claims was assessed. The device assessment was based on availability of verified output metrics, theoretical frameworks, systematic evaluation, and FDA clearance. The review identified critical absence of supporting evidence of advertised functions and benefits for the majority of the devices. Six out of seven devices did not provide any information on sensor accuracy and output validity at all. Possible underestimation or overestimation of specific health indicators reported to consumers was not clearly disclosed to the public. Furthermore, significant limitations of these devices which can be categorized into user restrictions, user responsibilities and company disclaimers could not be easily found or comprehended by unsophisticated users and may represent a serious health hazard.

  3. Agile Project Management with Scrum

    CERN Document Server

    Schwaber, Ken

    2009-01-01

    The rules and practices for Scrum-a simple process for managing complex projects-are few, straightforward, and easy to learn. But Scrum's simplicity itself-its lack of prescription-can be disarming, and new practitioners often find themselves reverting to old project management habits and tools and yielding lesser results. In this illuminating series of case studies, Scrum co-creator and evangelist Ken Schwaber identifies the real-world lessons-the successes and failures-culled from his years of experience coaching companies in agile project management. Through them, you'll understand how to

  4. The ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT), is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The SCT was installed and commissioned within ATLAS in 2007, and has been has been used to fully exploit the physics potential of the LHC since the first proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV were delivered in 2009. In this paper, its operational status throughout data taking up to the end of 2011 is presented, and its tracking performance is reviewed.

  5. Production of the CMS Tracker End Cap sub-structures

    CERN Document Server

    Fontaine, Jean-Charles

    2007-01-01

    The production and qualification of the 288 petals needed to build both CMS Tracker End Caps (TECs) is summarized. There will be first a description of a petal, integrating many components, the most important ones being the silicon modules. The organization of the production, involving 7 Institutes all over Europe, will then be explained. The petal assembly and testing procedure will be quickly described. The quality assurance put in place at each production step has resulted in a very high petal quality, as some overall plots will attest. Finally some details about part failures will be given.

  6. Teaching Agile Software Development: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devedzic, V.; Milenkovic, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the authors' experience of teaching agile software development to students of computer science, software engineering, and other related disciplines, and comments on the implications of this and the lessons learned. It is based on the authors' eight years of experience in teaching agile software methodologies to various groups…

  7. An Agile Course-Delivery Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capellan, Mirkeya

    2009-01-01

    In the world of software development, agile methodologies have gained popularity thanks to their lightweight methodologies and flexible approach. Many advocates believe that agile methodologies can provide significant benefits if applied in the educational environment as a teaching method. The need for an approach that engages and motivates…

  8. Agile Manifesto for Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, Timothy C.; Salzarulo, Peter A.; Cosmah, Michelle L.; Forren, John; Gannod, Gerald; Havelka, Douglas; Hulshult, Andrea R.; Merhout, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    A group of faculty members representing six colleges at a public university formed a learning community to study the Agile Way of Working--a method of workplace collaboration widely used in software development--and to determine whether the concepts, practices, and benefits of Agile are applicable to higher education settings. After more than two…

  9. AGILE Highlights after Six Years in Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta Pittori

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AGILE is an ASI space mission in collaboration with INAF, INFN and CIFS, dedicated to the observation of the gamma-ray Universe in the 30 MeV - 50 GeV energy range, with simultaneous X-ray imaging capability in the 18-60 keV band. The AGILE satellite was launched on April 23rd, 2007, and produced several important scientic results, among which the unexpected discovery of strong ares from the Crab Nebula. This discovery won to the AGILE PI and the AGILE Team the Bruno Rossi Prize for 2012 by the High Energy Astrophysics division of the American Astronomical Society. Thanks to its sky monitoring capability and fast ground segment alert system, AGILE detected many Galactic and extragalactic sources: among other results AGILE discovered gamma-ray emission from the microquasar Cygnus X-3, detected many bright blazars, discovered several new gamma-ray pulsars, and discovered emission up to 100 MeV from Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes. We present an overview of the main AGILE Data Center activities and the AGILE scientic highlights after 6 years of operations.

  10. Applying Lean on Agile Scrum Development Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    SurendRaj Dharmapal; K. Thirunadana Sikamani

    2015-01-01

    This journal introduces the reader to Agile and Lean concepts and provides a basic level of understanding of each process. This journal will also provide a brief background about applying Lean concepts on each phase of agile scrum methodology and summarize their primary business advantages for delivering value to customer.

  11. Agile Values and Their Implementation in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Schön

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Today agile approaches are often used for the development of digital products. Since their development in the 90s, Agile Methodologies, such as Scrum and Extreme Programming, have evolved. Team collaboration is strongly influenced by the values and principles of the Agile Manifesto. The values and principles described in the Agile Manifesto support the optimization of the development process. In this article, the current operation is analyzed in Agile Product Development Processes. Both, the cooperation in the project team and the understanding of the roles and tasks will be analyzed. The results are set in relation to the best practices of Agile Methodologies. A quantitative questionnaire related to best practices in Agile Product Development was developed. The study was carried out with 175 interdisciplinary participants from the IT industry. For the evaluation of the results, 93 participants were included who have expertise in the subject area Agile Methodologies. On one hand, it is shown that the collaborative development of product-related ideas brings benefits. On the other hand, it is investigated which effect a good understanding of the product has on decisions made during the implementation. Furthermore, the skillset of product managers, the use of pair programming, and the advantages of cross-functional teams are analyzed.

  12. Application of agile methodologies in software development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Aca D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the potentials for the development of software using agile methodologies. Special consideration is devoted to the potentials and advantages of use of the Scrum methodology in the development of software and the relationship between the implementation of agile methodologies and the software development projects.

  13. Developer Stories: Improving Architecture in Agile Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Gitte; Jensen, Rolf Njor; Platz, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Within the field of Software Engineering emergence of agile methods has been a hot topic since the late 90s. eXtreme Programming (XP) ([1]) was one of the first agile methods and is one of the most well-known. However research has pointed to weaknesses in XP regarding supporting development...

  14. Intrafirm knowledge transfer of agile software practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heeager, Lise Tordrup; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2017-01-01

    Agile software practices are widely used in a great variety of organizations, and the shift from traditional plan-driven approaches entails a redefinition of processes in these organizations. Intrafirm knowledge transfer of agile software practices between projects is a key concern...

  15. arXiv Mechanical stability of the CMS strip tracker measured with a laser alignment system

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, Albert M; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Strauss, Josef; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Dvornikov, Oleg; Makarenko, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Zykunov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Alderweireldt, Sara; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Cimmino, Anna; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Schöfbeck, Robert; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Komm, Matthias; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Beliy, Nikita; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Tongguang; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Ruan, Manqi; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Susa, Tatjana; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Tsiakkouri, Demetra; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Kucher, Inna; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Davignon, Olivier; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Miné, Philippe; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sabes, David; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Lomidze, David; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Verlage, Tobias; Albert, Andreas; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hamer, Matthias; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Flügge, Günter; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baur, Sebastian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Freund, Benedikt; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Filipovic, Nicolas; Pasztor, Gabriella; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Bahinipati, Seema; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Choudhury, Somnath; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Malhotra, Shivali; 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Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Strom, Derek; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; De Nardo, Guglielmo; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Maron, Gaetano; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Michelotto, Michele; Montecassiano, Fabio; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Fallavollita, Francesco; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Lee, Ari; Kim, Hyunchul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Lee, Haneol; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Carpinteyro, Severiano; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Calpas, Betty; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Chtchipounov, Leonid; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Sulimov, Valentin; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kaminskiy, Alexandre; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Blinov, Vladimir; Skovpen, Yuri; Shtol, Dmitry; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Barrio Luna, Mar; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Suárez Andrés, Ignacio; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Curras, Esteban; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; Chen, Yi; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Roeck, Albert; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Duggan, Daniel; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Everaerts, Pieter; Fartoukh, Stephane; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Gulhan, Doga; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kieseler, Jan; Kirschenmann, Henning; Knünz, Valentin; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Verweij, Marta; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Schönenberger, Myriam; Starodumov, Andrei; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Seitz, Claudia; Yang, Yong; Zucchetta, Alberto; Candelise, Vieri; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Fiori, Francesco; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Tsai, Jui-fa; Asavapibhop, Burin; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Cerci, Salim; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Futyan, David; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Lane, Rebecca; Laner, Christian; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Penning, Bjoern; Pesaresi, Mark; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Scott, Edward; Seez, Christopher; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Bartek, Rachel; Dominguez, Aaron; Buccilli, Andrew; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Cutts, David; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Jesus, Orduna; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Spencer, Eric; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Shi, Mengyao; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tos, Kyle; Tripathi, Mani; Bachtis, Michail; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Bouvier, Elvire; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Si, Weinan; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Amin, Nick; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Ovcharova, Ana; Qu, Huilin; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Bendavid, Joshua; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Duarte, Javier; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Weinberg, Marc; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Apresyan, Artur; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cremonesi, Matteo; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Magini, Nicolo; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strait, James; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Wu, Yujun; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Shchutska, Lesya; Sperka, David; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bein, Samuel; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Santra, Arka; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Castle, James; Forthomme, Laurent; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Apyan, Aram; Azzolini, Virginia; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bi, Ran; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hsu, Dylan; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Tatar, Kaya; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Malta Rodrigues, Alan; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Nguyen, Duong; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kumar, Ajay; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Rupprecht, Nathaniel; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Cooperstein, Stephane; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Lange, David; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mei, Kelvin; Ojalvo, Isabel; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Tully, Christopher; Malik, Sudhir; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Folgueras, Santiago; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Shi, Xin; Sun, Jian; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Foerster, Mark; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Juska, Evaldas; Kamon, Teruki; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Gurpinar, Emine; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2017-04-21

    The CMS tracker consists of 206 m$^2$ of silicon strip sensors assembled on carbon fibre composite structures and is designed for operation in the temperature range from $-25$ to $+25^\\circ$C. The mechanical stability of tracker components during physics operation was monitored with a few $\\mu$m resolution using a dedicated laser alignment system as well as particle tracks from cosmic rays and hadron-hadron collisions. During the LHC operational period of 2011-2013 at stable temperatures, the components of the tracker were observed to experience relative movements of less than 30$ \\mu$m. In addition, temperature variations were found to cause displacements of tracker structures of about 2$\\mu$m/$^\\circ$C, which largely revert to their initial positions when the temperature is restored to its original value.

  16. Agile manufacturing from a statistical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterling, R.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). New Initiatives Dept.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of agile manufacturing is to provide the ability to quickly realize high-quality, highly-customized, in-demand products at a cost commensurate with mass production. More broadly, agility in manufacturing, or any other endeavor, is defined as change-proficiency; the ability to thrive in an environment of unpredictable change. This report discusses the general direction of the agile manufacturing initiative, including research programs at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the Department of Energy, and other government agencies, but focuses on agile manufacturing from a statistical perspective. The role of statistics can be important because agile manufacturing requires the collection and communication of process characterization and capability information, much of which will be data-based. The statistical community should initiate collaborative work in this important area.

  17. Some Findings Concerning Requirements in Agile Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Pilar; Yagüe, Agustín; Alarcón, Pedro P.; Garbajosa, Juan

    Agile methods have appeared as an attractive alternative to conventional methodologies. These methods try to reduce the time to market and, indirectly, the cost of the product through flexible development and deep customer involvement. The processes related to requirements have been extensively studied in literature, in most cases in the frame of conventional methods. However, conclusions of conventional methodologies could not be necessarily valid for Agile; in some issues, conventional and Agile processes are radically different. As recent surveys report, inadequate project requirements is one of the most conflictive issues in agile approaches and better understanding about this is needed. This paper describes some findings concerning requirements activities in a project developed under an agile methodology. The project intended to evolve an existing product and, therefore, some background information was available. The major difficulties encountered were related to non-functional needs and management of requirements dependencies.

  18. CT-assisted agile manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, James H.; Yancey, Robert N.

    1996-11-01

    The next century will witness at least two great revolutions in the way goods are produced. First, workers will use the medium of virtual reality in all aspects of marketing, research, development, prototyping, manufacturing, sales and service. Second, market forces will drive manufacturing towards small-lot production and just-in-time delivery. Already, we can discern the merging of these megatrends into what some are calling agile manufacturing. Under this new paradigm, parts and processes will be designed and engineered within the mind of a computer, tooled and manufactured by the offspring of today's rapid prototyping equipment, and evaluated for performance and reliability by advanced nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and sophisticated computational models. Computed tomography (CT) is the premier example of an NDE method suitable for future agile manufacturing activities. It is the only modality that provides convenient access to the full suite of engineering data that users will need to avail themselves of computer- aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, and computer- aided engineering capabilities, as well as newly emerging reverse engineering, rapid prototyping and solid freeform fabrication technologies. As such, CT is assured a central, utilitarian role in future industrial operations. An overview of this exciting future for industrial CT is presented.

  19. The CMS Tracker performances using cosmic ray data

    CERN Document Server

    Ciulli, Vitaliano

    2009-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) consists of 25000 silicon microstrip sensors covering an area of 210~m$^2$ and 10 million readout channels. Starting from December 2007 the SST has been inserted and connected inside the CMS experiment and since summer 2008 it has been commissioned using cosmic muons with and without magnetic field. During these data taking the performance of the SST have been carefully studied: the noise of the detector, together with its correlations with the strip length and the temperature, the data integrity, the S/N ratio, the hit reconstruction efficiency have been all monitored with time and for different conditions, at the full detector granularity. In this presentation an overview of the SST monitoring workflow and the detector performance results will be given.

  20. Agile Contracts: Designing an Agile Team Selection Guideline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Lene; Pries-Heje, Jan

    2014-01-01

    When you have stable and non-ambiguous requirements then a classic contract for IS between a supplier and a public sector institution based on a requirements specification may be well suited. However, if you have to accept many changes or have ambiguous requirements then you may end up...... with “endless” re-negotiation of the requirements; you need a more flexible way to develop IS. A new way of coping with many changes is to use an agile development approach and a fixed budget and resources contract. This paper presents an example case. We analyse the case and design a guideline for how...... to implement a fixed budget and resources contract in the public sector. The guideline includes elements to cope with challenges in a tender process such as transparency, criteria for supplier selection, and live assessment of resource skills and capabilities, as well as achieving the flexibility for change...

  1. The silicon drift vertex detector for the STAR experiment at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, S U; Beuttenmüller, Rolf H; Caines, H; Chen, W; Dimassimo, D; Dyke, H; Elliot, D; Eremin, V; Grau, M; Hoffmann, G W; Humanic, T; Ilyashenko, Yu S; Kotov, I; Kraner, H W; Kuczewski, P; Leonhardt, B; Li, Z; Liaw, C J; Lo Curto, G; Middelkamp, P; Minor, R; Munhoz, M; Ott, G; Pruneau, C A; Rykov, V L; Schambach, J; Sedlmeir, J; Soja, B; Sugarbaker, E R; Takahashi, J; Wilson, K; Wilson, R

    2002-01-01

    The current status of the STAR Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) is presented. The performance of the Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) is discussed. Results for a recent 15 layer SDD tracker which prototypes all components of the SVT are presented. The enhanced physics capabilities of the STAR detector due to the addition of the SVT are addressed.

  2. Development of scintillating fiber tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Shuzo; Kawai, Toshihide; Kozaki, Tetsuo

    1995-01-01

    In order to use thin scintillating fiber (diameter 500 micron) as a particle tracking detector, we have developed a method to construct precise multi-layer scintillating fiber sheets. We have also developed dedicated machines for this purpose. This paper presents the details of the method and the machines. Using these machines, we have produced fiber sheets for CERN WA95/CHORUS, which intend to detect a neutrino oscillation in the νμ-ντ channel using Hybrid Emulsion Set-up. Fiber Trackers are used as a vertex detector which support the neutrino event location in the nuclear emulsion target. (author)

  3. The OPERA experiment Target Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, T; Borer, K.; Campagne, Jean-Eric; Con-Sen, N.; de La Taille, C.; Dick, N.; Dracos, M.; Gaudiot, G.; Goeltzenlichter, T.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grapton, J.-N.; Guyonnet, J.-L.; Hess, M.; Igersheim, R.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kocher, H.; Krasnoperov, A.; Krumstein, Z.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Moser, U.; Nozdrin, A.; Olchevski, A.; Porokhovoi, S.; Raux, L.; Sadovski, A.; Schuler, J.; Schutz, H.-U.; Schwab, C.; Smolnikov, A.; Van Beek, G.; Vilain, P.; Walchli, T.; Wilquet, G.; Wurtz, J.

    2007-01-01

    The main task of the Target Tracker detector of the long baseline neutrino oscillation OPERA experiment is to locate in which of the target elementary constituents, the lead/emulsion bricks, the neutrino interactions have occurred and also to give calorimetric information about each event. The technology used consists in walls of two planes of plastic scintillator strips, one per transverse direction. Wavelength shifting fibres collect the light signal emitted by the scintillator strips and guide it to both ends where it is read by multi-anode photomultiplier tubes. All the elements used in the construction of this detector and its main characteristics are described.

  4. A new strips tracker for the upgraded ATLAS ITk detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, C.

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS detector has been designed and developed to function in the environment of the present Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the next-generation tracking detector proposed for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the so-called ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade, the fluences and radiation levels will be higher by as much as a factor of ten. The new sub-detectors must thus be faster, of larger area, more segmented and more radiation hard while the amount of inactive material should be minimized and the power supply to the front-end systems should be increased. For those reasons, the current inner tracker of the ATLAS detector will be fully replaced by an all-silicon tracking system that consists of a pixel detector at small radius close to the beam line and a large area strip tracker surrounding it. This document gives an overview of the design of the strip inner tracker (Strip ITk) and summarises the intensive R&D activities performed over the last years by the numerous institutes within the Strips ITk collaboration. These studies are accompanied with a strong prototyping effort to contribute to the optimisation of the Strip ITk's structure and components. This effort culminated recently in the release of the ATLAS Strips ITk Technical Design Report (TDR).

  5. Vertex and Tracker Research and Development for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Munker, M

    2017-01-01

    Challenging detector requirements are imposed by the physics goals at the future multi-TeV e+e− Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). A single point resolution of 3 μm for the vertex detector and 7 μm for the tracker is required. Moreover, the CLIC vertex detector and tracker need to be extremely light weighted with a material budget of 0.2%X0 per layer in the vertex detector and 1 - 2%X0 in the tracker. A fast time slicing of 10 ns is further required to suppress background from beam-beam interactions. A wide range of sensor and readout ASIC technologies are investigated within the CLIC silicon pixel R&D; effort. Various hybrid planar sensor assemblies with a pixel size of 25 × 25 μm2 and 55 × 55 μm2 have been produced and characterised by laboratory measurements and during test-beam campaigns. Experimental and simulation results for thin (50 μm- 500 μm) slim edge and active-edge planar, and High-Voltage CMOS sensors hybridised to various readout ASICs (Timepix, Timepix3, CLICpix) are presented.

  6. Characterization of irradiated test structures for the CMS tracker upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutzer, Bernhard

    2013-12-01

    The CMS collaboration is currently conducting a campaign to identify radiation-hard materials for an upgrade of the CMS tracker. This upgrade is needed to be able to cope with the higher radiation background of the future HL-LHC; additionally the performance of the current tracker will be significantly degraded at the time of the upgrade, requiring a replacement. Several different test structures (TSs) and sensors have been designed for a 6 in. wafer layout. These wafers were produced by an industrial supplier (Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.) and differ by their bulk material (Float Zone, Magnetic Czochralski and CVD-Epi), thickness (from 50 μm to 320 μm) and N-P type doping. These TSs consist of different microelectronic devices including diodes, resistors or MOS structures. They enable the extraction of parameters which are not accessible in a silicon detector and allow the assessment of the quality of the sensors produced on the same wafer. The TSs have been irradiated with protons and neutrons to emulate the radiation damage caused by the particle fluence inside the future CMS tracker after 10 years of operation. This contribution will present measurements of non-irradiated and irradiated test structures at different fluences. The changes of the properties of the microelectronic devices will be discussed as well as the design of the TSs.

  7. Opening up the Agile Innovation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conboy, Kieran; Donnellan, Brian; Morgan, Lorraine; Wang, Xiaofeng

    The objective of this panel is to discuss how firms can operate both an open and agile innovation process. In an era of unprecedented changes, companies need to be open and agile in order to adapt rapidly and maximize their innovation processes. Proponents of agile methods claim that one of the main distinctions between agile methods and their traditional bureaucratic counterparts is their drive toward creativity and innovation. However, agile methods are rarely adopted in their textbook, "vanilla" format, and are usually adopted in part or are tailored or modified to suit the organization. While we are aware that this happens, there is still limited understanding of what is actually happening in practice. Using innovation adoption theory, this panel will discuss the issues and challenges surrounding the successful adoption of agile practices. In addition, this panel will report on the obstacles and benefits reported by over 20 industrial partners engaged in a pan-European research project into agile practices between 2006 and 2009.

  8. The Optical Links of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Abdesselam, A; Apsimon, R; Band, C; Barr, C; Batchelor, L; Bates, R; Bell, P; Bernabeu, J; Bizzell, J; Brenner, R; Brodbeck, T; Bruckman De Renstrom, P; Buttar, C; Carter, J; Charlton, D; Cheplakov, A; Chilingarov, A; Chu, M-L; Colijn, A-P; Dawson, I; Demirkõz, B; de Jong, P; Dervan, P; Dolezal, Z; Dowell, J; Escobar, P; Spencer, E; Ekelöf, T J C; Eklund, L; Ferrere, D; Fraser, T; French, M; French, R; Fuster, J; Gallop, B; García, C; Goodrick, M; Greenall, A; Grillo, A; Grosse-Knetter, J; Hartjes, F; Hessey, N; Hill, J C; Homer, J; Hou, L; Hughes, G; Ikegami, Y; Issever, C; Jackson, J; Jones, M; Jones, T J; Jovanovic, P; Koffeman, E; Kodys, P; Kohriki, T; Lee, S-C; Lester, C; Limper, M; Lindsay, S W; Lozano, M; Macwaters, C; Magrath, C; Mahout, G; Mandic, I; Matheson, J; McMahon, T; Mikulec, B; Muijs, A; Morrissey, M; Nichols, A; Nickerson, R; O'Shea, V; Pagenis, S; Parker, M; Pater, J; Perrin, E; Pernegger, H; Peeters, S; Phillips, P; Postranecky, M; Robinson, D; Robson, A; Rudge, A; Sandaker, H; Sedlak, K; Smith, N A; Stapnes, S; Stugu, B; Teng, P K; Terada, S; Tricoli, A; Tyndel, M; Ujiie, N; Ullán, M; Unno, Y; van der Kraaij, E; Van Vulpen, I; Viehhauser, G; Vossebeld, J H; Warren, M; Wastie, R; Weidberg, A; Wells, P; White, D; Wilson, J

    2007-01-01

    Optical links are used for the readout of the 4088 silicon microstrip modules that make up the SemiConductor Tracker of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The optical link requirements are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the very demanding environment at the LHC. The on-detector components have to operate in high radiation levels for 10 years, with no maintenance, and there are very strict requirements on power consumption, material and space. A novel concept for the packaging of the on-detector optoelectronics has been developed to meet these requirements. The system architecture, including its redundancy features, is explained and the critical on-detector components are described. The results of the extensive Quality Assurance performed during all steps of the assembly are discussed. Optical links are used for the readout of the 4088 silicon microstrip modules that make up the SemiConductor Tracker of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The optical ...

  9. A new strips tracker for the upgraded ATLAS ITk detector

    CERN Document Server

    David, Claire; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The inner detector of the present ATLAS detector has been designed and developed to function in the environment of the present Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the next-generation tracking detector proposed for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the so-called ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade, the particle densities and radiation levels will be higher by as much as a factor of ten. The new detectors must be faster, they need to be more highly segmented, and covering more area. They also need to be more resistant to radiation, and they require much greater power delivery to the front-end systems. At the same time, they cannot introduce excess material which could undermine performance. For those reasons, the inner tracker of the ATLAS detector must be redesigned and rebuilt completely. The design of the ATLAS Upgrade inner tracker (ITk) has already been defined. It consists of several layers of silicon particle detectors. The innermost layers will be composed of silicon pixel sensors, and the outer layers will consist of s...

  10. ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Tojo, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT), comprising of silicon micro-strip detectors is one of the key precision tracking devices in the ATLAS Inner Detector. ATLAS is one of the experiments at CERN LHC. The completed SCT is in very good shapes with 99.3% of the SCT’s 4088 modules (a total of 6.3 million strips) are operational. The noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications. In the talk the current status of the SCT will be reviewed. We will report on the operation of the detector, its performance and observed problems, with stress on the sensor and electronics performance. In December 2009 the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recorded the first proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV and this was followed by the unprecedented energy of 7 TeV in March 2010. The Semi- Conductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the stri...

  11. The Challenges of Becoming Agile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis

    for development teams – and it is the point of departure for this research project. Heavy up-front planning represents a long management tradition in product development environments throughout the world. Gantt charts and Stage-Gate process models have become widely known industry standards and best practices....... However, the basic concept of these defined process control models, which can be summarised as “plan your work and work your plan”, often seems inappropriate when applied to development activities with just a small amount of uncertainty attached. This research project therefore seeks to investigate...... the use of a radically different and empirically based process control model originating from the domain of software development, namely the process framework called Scrum. Scrum as a process framework is often identified with the overall development paradigm coined as Agile Development and during...

  12. Desarrollo de un circuito Agility urbano

    OpenAIRE

    FÉREZ NAVARRO, MARIO

    2018-01-01

    [ES] El proyecto trata sobre el diseño de un circuito Agility urbano. Este proyecto está compuesto por once obstáculos para la práctica de ejercicio y adiestramiento canino. En su diseño han intervenido expertos en AGILITY a nivel internacional y se han aunado alguna las bases del reglamento oficial para la práctica de AGILITY, con las exigencias y condicionantes del uso urbano, teniendo en cuenta tres premisas básicas como son: seguridad y bienestar animal, funcionalidad, diseño y durabilida...

  13. Quantitative Assessment of the IT Agile Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orłowski Cezary

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the quantitative perspective of the agile transformation processes in IT organisations. The phenomenon of agile transformation becomes a complex challenge for an IT organisation since it has not been analysed in detail so far. There is no research on the readiness of IT organisations to realise agile transformation processes. Such processes also prove to have uncontrolled character. Therefore, to minimise the risk of failure referring to the realisation of transformation processes, it is necessary to monitor them. It is also necessary to identify and analyse such processes to ensure their continuous character.

  14. Developing communications requirements for Agile Product Realization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsythe, C.; Ashby, M.R.

    1994-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has undertaken the Agile Product Realization for Innovative electroMEchanical Devices (A-PRIMED) pilot project to develop and implement technologies for agile design and manufacturing of electrochemical components. Emphasis on information-driven processes, concurrent engineering and multi-functional team communications makes computer-supported cooperative work critical to achieving significantly faster product development cycles. This report describes analyses conducted in developing communications requirements and a communications plan that addresses the unique communications demands of an agile enterprise.

  15. The CMS inner tracker -- transition from LHC Run~I to Run~II and first experience of Run~II

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2091649

    2015-01-01

    The CMS silicon pixel and strip trackers provide high efficiency charged particle reconstruction and superb momentum resolution over three decades in energy, and thus play a key role in the CMS physics program. The readiness of the silicon tracking detectors for LHC Run~II data taking is presented in this paper. In light of improvements to the tracker operating environment and repairs of defective pixel channels during the first LHC long shutdown, the Run~II tracker is expected to have a larger yield of active channels than during Run~I and to continue to perform well at the foreseen luminosities.

  16. Small star trackers for modern space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouzmin, Vladimir; Jushkov, Vladimir; Zaikin, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    Based on experience of many years creation of spacecrafts' star trackers with diversified detectors (from the first star trackers of 60's to tens versions of star trackers in the following years), using technological achievements in the field of optics and electronics the NPP "Geofizika-Cosmos" has provided celestial orientation for all the space vehicles created in Russia and now has developed a series of new star trackers with CCD matrix and special processors, which are able to meet needs in celestial orientation of the modern spacecrafts for the nearest 10-15 years. In the given article the main characteristics and description of some star trackers' versions are presented. The star trackers have various levels of technical characteristics and use both combined (Russian and foreign) procurement parts, and only national (Russian) procurement parts for the main units.

  17. The construction and space qualification of the control electronics for the tracker detector cooling system of the AMS-02 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menichelli, M.; Accardo, L.; Alberti, G.; Bardet, M.; Battiston, R.; Blasko, S.; He, Z.; Koutsenko, V.; Lebedev, A.; Ni, J.; Papi, A.; Pauw, A.; Van Ess, J.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zwartbol, T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the control electronics for the silicon tracker cooling system in the AMS-02 apparatus. It also contains a brief description of the cooling system itself necessary for the description of the electronics. The tracker cooling system includes a set of various sensors and actuators which are necessary for bringing the tracker detector to a uniform temperature at which it can operate correctly. In order to test the system performing the various qualification activities we have built also an Electronic Ground support equipment (EGSE). The EGSE should simulate the behaviour of all sensors and actuators previously mentioned.

  18. Progress on the Assembly of the Silicon Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Tyndel, M.

    Two important milestones have been achieved in the last month with the assembly of the first (and innermost) of the four SCT barrels ("Barrel 3") at Oxford and the first of the nine Endcap-C discs ("Disc 9C") at Liverpool. In both cases the assembly went smoothly and with impressive efficiency. The measured performance of the assembled modules is excellent with no signs of any damage during assembly and no signs of coherent noise. Left: the last module being added by the robot to Barrel 3 at Oxford. Right: Disc 9C fully assembled with 52 modules at Liverpool. As the modules are mounted a full characterisation of their performance is carried out and compared with reference measurements taken in the laboratory. The table below shows the average noise of the modules mounted on Barrel 3. A detailed analysis shows that >99% of the 590,000 channels on Barrel 3 are fully within specification. Online display showing the average noise for each of the 384 barrel modules. The SCT needs to be operated at ...

  19. Barriers to Achieving Mentally Agile Junior Leaders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blocker, Marlon D

    2009-01-01

    ... that concept into clear, simple language to subordinates. How is it possible that the Army is still seeking the agile leaders it requires after our most senior leadership identified their need over eight years ago...

  20. Test Methods for Robot Agility in Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Anthony; Harrison, William; Schlenoff, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The paper aims to define and describe test methods and metrics to assess industrial robot system agility in both simulation and in reality. The paper describes test methods and associated quantitative and qualitative metrics for assessing robot system efficiency and effectiveness which can then be used for the assessment of system agility. The paper describes how the test methods were implemented in a simulation environment and real world environment. It also shows how the metrics are measured and assessed as they would be in a future competition. The test methods described in this paper will push forward the state of the art in software agility for manufacturing robots, allowing small and medium manufacturers to better utilize robotic systems. The paper fulfills the identified need for standard test methods to measure and allow for improvement in software agility for manufacturing robots.

  1. Agile Control of Military Operations (JFACC)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Logan, David

    2001-01-01

    ... readily adapted in the presence of contingencies. The primary benefit of this technology is agile and stable control of distributed and dynamic military operations conducted in inherently uncertain, hostile, and rapidly changing environments...

  2. Open System of Agile Ground Stations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is an opportunity to build the HETE-2/TESS network of ground stations into an innovative and powerful Open System of Agile Stations, by developing a low-cost...

  3. Project Management Tools for Agile Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra MIHALACHE

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century started as the era of agile methods and technologies which combine adaptable and highly flexible methods designed to help teams to develop applications faster and safer. The challenge is to adapt just enough technology to enhance the performance of teams which are using agile methods and to avoid going back to weak workflow ideas of the industrial era. In this paper, I will present some relevant agile tools that could improve every software development project and I will also mention the features and criteria used for evaluating currently existing tools. Finally, I will propose a classification model to the appropriate agile tool selection, but keep in mind that in order to be successful, organizations and teams do need to deal first with the issues that accompany product complexity and growing teams.

  4. Agile Software Management for Successful Open Source Software Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, L. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), is the world leader industry consortium advancing geospatial technologies to help solve global challenges. The OGC brings the geospatial community together to advance standards, best practices and tools to improve sharing of geospatial data. The OGC Compliance program provides a free online testing facility [1], a process for certification [2] of compliant products, and coordination of a vibrant community of developers. The OGC testing facility is based on TEAM Engine, an open source software that is used by OGC and other geospatial communities to test web services, schemas, data and clients. The tests, which are also open source, are encoded in an XSLT like language called Compliance Testing language (CTL) and TestNG, a Java testing framework. TEAM Engine and related projects, as well as, each test have their own GitHub repository. The OGC Compliance program currently has more than 50 repositories. Releases of new revisions of tests and TEAM Engine are done every month, following a time boxed model. GitHub issue trackers are also use due to the easiness and close integration to the source code. However, GitHub issue trackers lack of the ability to order issues following an Agile methodology. Modern project management systems use a Kanban [3] approach to manage issues in a more efficient and focused way. About 10 organizations support the compliance program. A developer of an organization can take the lead of one or more projects and can participate on issues in other projects. However, coordinating the work to be done by one developer can be challenging due to the developer's participation in different projects and the difficulty of using a Kanban [3] approach directly from GitHub. This talk will provide a practical insight to manage projects using the Agile and Kanban methodologies when multiple developers participate in multiple GitHub projects. The ideas discussed in this talk will help organizations create more efficiently

  5. Key performance indicators in agile software development

    OpenAIRE

    Mannila, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    The background of the study was an organisation's need to have new ideas to measure a development team performance and the organisation’s performance in work efficiency and quality. The target was to define working and need based agile software development key performance indicators for the organisation. The study was implemented by evaluating agile software development related books and internet sources to identify recommended key performance indicators and select some of them for the or...

  6. Agile Systems Engineering-Kanban Scheduling Subsection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-10

    Agile Systems Engineering – Kanban Scheduling Subsection Technical Report SERC-2017-TR-104 March 10, 2017 Principal Investigator: Dr...scheduling systems based on explicit, transparent, and continuously updated value of work [6], [7], [8]. This Kanban -based Scheduling System Network (KSSN...and literature searches. • RT-35/35A, Agile-Lean Software Engineering (ALSE) Evaluating Kanban in SE, focused on using pull scheduling techniques

  7. A 128-channel event driven readout ASIC for the R3B tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.; Bell, S.; Morrissey, Q.; Prydderch, M.; Church, I.; Lazarus, I.; Kogimtzis, M.; Pucknell, V.; Labiche, M.; Thornhill, J.; Borri, M.

    2016-01-01

    R 3 B is a detector with high efficiency, acceptance, and resolution for kinematically complete measurements of reactions with high-energy radioactive beams. Detectors track and identify radioactive beams into and out of a reaction target. Three layers of double-sided stereoscopic silicon strips form the tracker detector which must provide precise tracking and vertex determination and in addition include energy and multiplicity measurements. The R 3 B ASIC has been manufactured and is intended for processing and digitising signals generated by ionising particles passing through the tracker. The ASIC processes signals and provides spatial, energy and time measurements

  8. Tracking parameter simulation for the Turkish accelerator center particle factory tracker system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapan, I., E-mail: ilhan@uludag.edu.tr; Pilicer, E.; Pilicer, F.B.

    2016-09-21

    The silicon tracker part of the Turkish Accelerator Center super charm particle factory detector was designed for effectively tracking charged particles with momentum values up to 2.0 GeV/c. In this work, the FLUKA simulation code has been used to estimate the track parameters and their resolutions in the designed tracker system. These results have been compared with those obtained by the tkLayout software package. The simulated track parameter resolutions are compatible with the physics goals of the tracking detector.

  9. SuperAGILE Services at ASDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preger, B.; Verrecchia, F.; Pittori, C.; Antonelli, L. A.; Giommi, P.; Lazzarotto, F.; Evangelista, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The Italian Space Agency Science Data Center (ASDC) is a facility with several responsibilities including support to all the ASI scientific missions as for management and archival of the data, acting as the interface between ASI and the scientific community and providing on-line access to the data hosted. In this poster we describe the services that ASDC provides for SuperAGILE, in particular the ASDC public web pages devoted to the dissemination of SuperAGILE scientific results. SuperAGILE is the X-Ray imager onboard the AGILE mission, and provides the scientific community with orbit-by-orbit information on the observed sources. Crucial source information including position and flux in chosen energy bands will be reported in the SuperAGILE public web page at ASDC. Given their particular interest, another web page will be dedicated entirely to GRBs and other transients, where new event alerts will be notified and where users will find all the available informations on the GRBs detected by SuperAGILE

  10. Sun tracker for clear or cloudy weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D. R.; White, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    Sun tracker orients solar collector so that they absorb maximum possible sunlight without being fooled by bright clouds, holes in cloud cover, or other atmospheric conditions. Tracker follows sun within 0.25 deg arc and is accurate within + or - 5 deg when sun is hidden.

  11. Scintillating fibre (SciFi) tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Caraban Gonzalez, Noemi

    2017-01-01

    128 modules – containing 11 000 km of scintillating fibres – will make up the new SciFi tracker, which will replace the outer and inner trackers of the LHCb detector as part of the experiment’s major upgrade during Long Shutdown 2 (LS2)

  12. Rosetta Star Tracker and Navigation Camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Gøsta

    1998-01-01

    Proposal in response to the Invitation to Tender (ITT) issued by Matra Marconi Space (MSS) for the procurement of the ROSETTA Star Tracker and Navigation Camera.......Proposal in response to the Invitation to Tender (ITT) issued by Matra Marconi Space (MSS) for the procurement of the ROSETTA Star Tracker and Navigation Camera....

  13. Measuring the agility of omnichannel operations: an agile marketing maturity model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogveld, M.; Koster, J.M.D.

    2016-01-01

    Agile is a widely accepted approach for software development. The deployment of agile in marketing practice is proliferating and appears also relevant for the dynamics and complexity of omnichannel operations. However, prior literature research showed that no well-founded method is available for

  14. Effect of Exercise Program Speed, Agility, and Quickness (SAQ) in Improving Speed, Agility, and Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, K.; Kusnanik, N. W.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of speed, agility and quickness training program to increase in speed, agility and acceleration. This study was conducted at 26 soccer players and divided into 2 groups with 13 players each group. Group 1 was given SAQ training program, and Group 2 conventional training program for 8 weeks. This study used a quantitative approach with quasi-experimental method. The design of this study used a matching-only design. Data was collected by testing 30-meter sprint (speed), agility t-test (agility), and run 10 meters (acceleration) during the pretest and posttest. Furthermore, the data was analyzed using paired sample t-test and independent t-test. The results showed: that there was a significant effect of speed, agility and quickness training program in improving in speed, agility and acceleration. In summary, it can be concluded that the speed, agility and quickness training program can improve the speed, agility and acceleration of the soccer players.

  15. Software ``Best'' Practices: Agile Deconstructed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Steven

    Software “best” practices depend entirely on context - in terms of the problem domain, the system constructed, the software designers, and the “customers” ultimately deriving value from the system. Agile practices no longer have the luxury of “choosing” small non-mission critical projects with co-located teams. Project stakeholders are selecting and adapting practices based on a combina tion of interest, need and staffing. For example, growing product portfolios through a merger or the acquisition of a company exposes legacy systems to new staff, new software integration challenges, and new ideas. Innovation in communications (tools and processes) to span the growth and contraction of both information and organizations, while managing the adoption of changing software practices, is imperative for success. Traditional web-based tools such as web pages, document libraries, and forums are not suf ficient. A blend of tweeting, blogs, wikis, instant messaging, web-based confer encing, and telepresence creates a new dimension of communication “best” practices.

  16. The ATLAS Tracker Upgrade: Short Strips Detectors for the SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Soldevila, U; Lacasta, C; Marti i García, S; Miñano, M

    2009-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN around 2018 by about an order of magnitude, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC or sLHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for SLHC operation. In order to cope with the order of magnitude increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. A massive R&D programme is underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. New front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics ...

  17. ATLAS Fast Tracker Simulation Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Adelman, Jahred; The ATLAS collaboration; Borodin, Mikhail; Chakraborty, Dhiman; García Navarro, José Enrique; Golubkov, Dmitry; Kama, Sami; Panitkin, Sergey; Smirnov, Yuri; Stewart, Graeme; Tompkins, Lauren; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Volpi, Guido

    2015-01-01

    To deal with Big Data flood from the ATLAS detector most events have to be rejected in the trigger system. the trigger rejection is complicated by the presence of a large number of minimum-bias events – the pileup. To limit pileup effects in the high luminosity environment of the LHC Run-2, ATLAS relies on full tracking provided by the Fast TracKer (FTK) implemented with custom electronics. The FTK data processing pipeline has to be simulated in preparation for LHC upgrades to support electronics design and develop trigger strategies at high luminosity. The simulation of the FTK - a highly parallelized system - has inherent performance bottlenecks on general-purpose CPUs. To take advantage of the Grid Computing power, the FTK simulation is integrated with Monte Carlo simulations at the Production System level above the ATLAS workload management system PanDA. We report on ATLAS experience with FTK simulations on the Grid and next steps for accommodating the growing requirements for resources during the LHC R...

  18. The ATLAS Fast Tracker system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00353645; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    From 2010 to 2012 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) operated at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and 8 TeV, colliding bunches of particles every 50 ns. During operation, the ATLAS trigger system has performed efficiently contributing to important results, including the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012. The LHC restarted in 2015 and will operate for four years at a center of mass energy of 13 TeV and bunch crossing of 50 ns and 25 ns. These running conditions result in the mean number of overlapping proton-proton interactions per bunch crossing increasing from 20 to 60. The Fast Tracker (FTK) system is designed to deliver full event track reconstruction for all tracks with transverse momentum above 1 GeV at a Level-1 rate of 100 kHz with an average latency below 100 microseconds. This will allow the trigger to utilize tracking information from the entire detector at an earlier event selection stage than ever before, allowing for more efficient event rejection. To achieve this goal the system uses a parallel ...

  19. The Fast TracKer

    CERN Document Server

    Potamianos, Karolos Jozef; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Fast Tracker (FTK) is a hardware upgrade to the ATLAS trigger and data acquisition system providing global track reconstruction to the High-Level Trigger (HLT) with the goal to improve pile-up rejection. The FTK processes incoming data from the Pixel and SCT detectors (part of the Inner Detector, ID) at up to 100 kHz using custom electronic boards. ID hits are matched to pre-defined track patterns stored in associative memory (AM) on custom ASICs and data routing, reduction and parameter extraction is achieved with processing on FPGAs. With 8000 AM chips and 2000 FPGAs, the FTK provides enough resources to reconstruct tracks with transverse momentum greater than 1 GeV/c in the whole tracking volume with an average latency below 100 microseconds at collisions intensities expected in Runs II and III of the LHC. The tracks will be available at the beginning of the trigger selection process, which allows development of pile-up resilient triggering strategies to identify b-quarks and tau-leptons, as well as pr...

  20. Exploring the quality of latest sensor prototypes for the CMS Tracker Phase II Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    König, A., E-mail: axel.koenig@oeaw.ac.at

    2017-02-11

    The luminosity of the LHC will be increased by a factor of five to seven after the third long shutdown (LS3) scheduled in the mid of the next decade. The significant increase in luminosity along with the limitations of the current Tracker require a complete renewal of the CMS Outer Tracker, the Tracker Phase-2 Upgrade, during the LS3. New types of modules called PS and 2S modules are foreseen offering enhanced functionality and radiation hardness. Milestones in sensor R&D for the 2S modules as well as first characterization results are presented. AC-coupled silicon strip sensors of two vendors, produced on 6-inch as well as on 8-inch wafers, are considered which both are in n-on-p technology. Global as well as single strip parameters were measured providing insights into the quality of the sensors.

  1. Module production of the one-arm AFP 3D pixel tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, S.; Chmeissani, M.; Dorholt, O.; Förster, F.; Lange, J.; Lopez Paz, I.; Manna, M.; Pellegrini, G.; Quirion, D.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rohne, O.; Stugu, B.

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector is designed to identify events in which one or two protons emerge intact from the LHC collisions. AFP will consist of a tracking detector, to measure the momentum of the protons, and a time of flight system to reduce the background from multiple proton-proton interactions. Following an extensive qualification period, 3D silicon pixel sensors were selected for the AFP tracker. The sensors were produced at CNM (Barcelona) during 2014. The tracker module assembly and quality control was performed at IFAE during 2015. The assembly of the first AFP arm and the following installation in the LHC tunnel took place in February 2016. This paper reviews the fabrication process of the AFP tracker focusing on the pixel modules.

  2. Fighter agility metrics. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liefer, Randall K.

    1990-01-01

    Fighter flying qualities and combat capabilities are currently measured and compared in terms relating to vehicle energy, angular rates and sustained acceleration. Criteria based on these measurable quantities have evolved over the past several decades and are routinely used to design aircraft structures, aerodynamics, propulsion and control systems. While these criteria, or metrics, have the advantage of being well understood, easily verified and repeatable during test, they tend to measure the steady state capability of the aircraft and not its ability to transition quickly from one state to another. Proposed new metrics to assess fighter aircraft agility are collected and analyzed. A framework for classification of these new agility metrics is developed and applied. A complete set of transient agility metrics is evaluated with a high fidelity, nonlinear F-18 simulation. Test techniques and data reduction methods are proposed. A method of providing cuing information to the pilot during flight test is discussed. The sensitivity of longitudinal and lateral agility metrics to deviations from the pilot cues is studied in detail. The metrics are shown to be largely insensitive to reasonable deviations from the nominal test pilot commands. Instrumentation required to quantify agility via flight test is also considered. With one exception, each of the proposed new metrics may be measured with instrumentation currently available.

  3. Physical demand of seven closed agility drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Mark; Rosalie, Simon; Netto, Kevin

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to quantify the demand of seven generic, closed agility drills. Twenty males with experience in invasion sports volunteered to participate in this study. They performed seven, closed agility drills over a standardised 30-m distance. Physical demand measures of peak velocity, total foot contacts, peak impacts, completion time, and maximum heart rate were obtained via the use of wearable sensor technologies. A subjective rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was also obtained. All measures, with the exception of maximum heart rates and RPE were able to delineate drills in terms of physical and physiological demand. The findings of this study exemplify the differences in demand of agility-type movements. Drill demand was dictated by the type of agility movement initiated with the increase in repetitiveness of a given movement type also contributing to increased demand. Findings from this study suggest agility drills can be manipulated to vary physical and physiological demand. This allows for the optimal application of training principles such as overload, progression, and periodisation.

  4. Ranking agility factors affecting hospitals in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdi Talarposht

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Agility is an effective response to the changing and unpredictable environment and using these changes as opportunities for organizational improvement. Objective: The aim of the present study was to rank the factors affecting agile supply chain of hospitals of Iran. Methods: This applied study was conducted by cross sectional-descriptive method at some point of 2015 for one year. The research population included managers, administrators, faculty members and experts were selected hospitals. A total of 260 people were selected as sample from the health centers. The construct validity of the questionnaire was approved by confirmatory factor analysis test and its reliability was approved by Cronbach's alpha (α=0.97. All data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Chi-square and Friedman tests. Findings: The development of staff skills, the use of information technology, the integration of processes, appropriate planning, and customer satisfaction and product quality had a significant impact on the agility of public hospitals of Iran (P<0.001. New product introductions had earned the highest ranking and the development of staff skills earned the lowest ranking. Conclusion: The new product introduction, market responsiveness and sensitivity, reduce costs, and the integration of organizational processes, ratings better to have acquired agility hospitals in Iran. Therefore, planners and officials of hospitals have to, through the promotion quality and variety of services customer-oriented, providing a basis for investing in the hospital and etc to apply for agility supply chain public hospitals of Iran.

  5. Silicon strip detector qualification for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kaußen, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the four experiments being installed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which is located at the european organization for nuclear research CERN in Geneva. This proton-proton collider will explore a new energy regime of up to 14TeV center-of-mass energy. To provide the best spatial resolution for the particle trajectory reconstruction and a very fast readout, the inner tracking system of CMS is build up of silicon detectors with a pixel tracker in the center surrounded by a strip tracker. The silicon strip tracker consists of so-called modules representing the smallest detection unit of the tracking device. These modules are mounted on higher-level structures called shells in the tracker inner barrel (TIB), rods in the tracker outer barrel (TOB), disks in the tracker inner disks (TID) and petals in the tracker end caps (TEC). The entire strip tracker spans an active area of about 198m2 and consists of approximately 16000 modules. Before the silicon sensors were assembl...

  6. Embedding reflection and learning into agile software development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babb, Jeffry; Hoda, Rashina; Nørbjerg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical underpinnings of agile methods emphasize regular reflection as a means to sustainable development pace and continuous learning, but in practice, high iteration pressure can diminish reflection opportunities. The Reflective Agile Learning Model (REALM) combines insights and results...

  7. Understanding Organizational Agility: A Work-Design Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holsapple, Clyde W; Li, Xun

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a unified theoretical model of organizational agility and investigates the attributes of knowledge-intensive work-design systems, which contribute to achieving and sustaining organizational agility...

  8. Agile Service Development: A Rule-Based Method Engineering Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Martijn Zoet; Stijn Hoppenbrouwers; Inge van de Weerd; Johan Versendaal

    2011-01-01

    Agile software development has evolved into an increasingly mature software development approach and has been applied successfully in many software vendors’ development departments. In this position paper, we address the broader agile service development. Based on method engineering principles we

  9. Results of agile project management implementation in software engineering companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suetin Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Agile project management methodologies, tools and techniques have been becoming more and more popular among Russian and foreign software companies. Though the agile software project management methodologies appear to be more flexible and sound alternative to traditional project management approaches, the practice of agile project management implementation needs more research. The article presents the research on the practical results of agile project management implementation in Russian software engineering companies. The survey-based study covers 8 companies and 35 their projects managed with the help of agile methodologies. In contrast to some optimistic researchers of agile practices, the research findings show that in the investigated projects agile project management led to the deterioration of cost and schedule performance. However, the quality, both perceived by clients and assessed by internal technical analysts, improved after the implementation of agile software project management practices.

  10. An investigation of fighter aircraft agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valasek, John; Downing, David R.

    1993-01-01

    This report attempts to unify in a single document the results of a series of studies on fighter aircraft agility funded by the NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility and conducted at the University of Kansas Flight Research Laboratory during the period January 1989 through December 1993. New metrics proposed by pilots and the research community to assess fighter aircraft agility are collected and analyzed. The report develops a framework for understanding the context into which the various proposed fighter agility metrics fit in terms of application and testing. Since new metrics continue to be proposed, this report does not claim to contain every proposed fighter agility metric. Flight test procedures, test constraints, and related criteria are developed. Instrumentation required to quantify agility via flight test is considered, as is the sensitivity of the candidate metrics to deviations from nominal pilot command inputs, which is studied in detail. Instead of supplying specific, detailed conclusions about the relevance or utility of one candidate metric versus another, the authors have attempted to provide sufficient data and analyses for readers to formulate their own conclusions. Readers are therefore ultimately responsible for judging exactly which metrics are 'best' for their particular needs. Additionally, it is not the intent of the authors to suggest combat tactics or other actual operational uses of the results and data in this report. This has been left up to the user community. Twenty of the candidate agility metrics were selected for evaluation with high fidelity, nonlinear, non real-time flight simulation computer programs of the F-5A Freedom Fighter, F-16A Fighting Falcon, F-18A Hornet, and X-29A. The information and data presented on the 20 candidate metrics which were evaluated will assist interested readers in conducting their own extensive investigations. The report provides a definition and analysis of each metric; details

  11. Cloud Computing and Agile Organization Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan GHILIC-MICU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 3rd millennium economy, defined by globalization and continuous reduction of natural resources, the economic organization becomes the main actor in the phenomenon of transfor-mation and adaptation to new conditions. Even more, the economic environment, which is closely related to the social environment, undergoes complex metamorphoses, especially in the management area. In this dynamic and complex social and environmental context, the econom-ic organization must possess the ability to adapt, becoming a flexible and agile answer to new market opportunities. Considering the spectacular evolution of information and communica-tions technology, one of the solutions to ensure organization agility is cloud computing. Just like the development of any science requires adaptation to theories and instruments specific to other fields, a cloud computing paradigm for the agile organization must appeal to models from management, cybernetics, mathematics, structuralism and information theory (or information systems theory.

  12. Construction and Calibration of the Laser Alignment System for the CMS Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Adolphi, Roman

    2006-01-01

    The CMS detector (Compact Muon Solenoid) is under construction at one of the four proton-proton interaction points of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research (Geneva, Switzerland). The inner tracking system of the CMS experiment consisting of silicon detectors will have a diameter of 2.4 m and a length of 5.4 m representing the largest silicon tracker ever. About 15000 silicon strip modules create an active silicon area of 200 m2 to detect charged particles from proton collisions. They are placed on a rigid carbon fibre structure, providing stability within the working conditions of a 4 T solenoid magnetic field at −10oC. Knowledge of the position of the silicon detectors at the level of 100 μm is needed for an efficient pattern recognition of charged particle tracks. Metrology methods are used to survey tracker subdetectors and the integrated Laser Alignment System (LAS) provides absolute positioning of support structure elements to better than 100 μm. Rela...

  13. Optical readout and control systems for the CMS tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Troska, Jan K; Faccio, F; Gill, K; Grabit, R; Jareno, R M; Sandvik, A M; Vasey, F

    2003-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Experiment will be installed at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2007. The readout system for the CMS Tracker consists of 10000000 individual detector channels that are time-multiplexed onto 40000 unidirectional analogue (40 MSample /s) optical links for transmission between the detector and the 65 m distant counting room. The corresponding control system consists of 2500 bi-directional digital (40 Mb/s) optical links based as far as possible upon the same components. The on-detector elements (lasers and photodiodes) of both readout and control links will be distributed throughout the detector volume in close proximity to the silicon detector elements. For this reason, strict requirements are placed on minimal package size, mass, power dissipation, immunity to magnetic field, and radiation hardness. It has been possible to meet the requirements with the extensive use of commercially available components with a minimum of customization. The project has now entered its vol...

  14. Test beam results of LHCb scintillating fibre tracker prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, Sebastian; Comerma, Albert; Gerick, David; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Kecke, Matthieu; Leverington, Blake; Mazorra de Cos, Jose; Mitzel, Dominik; Neuner, Max; Uwer, Ulrich; Han, Xiaoxue [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: LHCb-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    During the Long Shutdown 2 of the LHC, the LHCb detector will undergo a major upgrade to meet the challenges of running at a higher luminosity. The current Inner and Outer Tracking system will not be sufficient to deal with the envisaged increased detector occupancy and higher radiation levels and will be replaced by a single tracking detector based on 0.250 mm diameter plastic scintillating fibres. The fibres are wound to multilayer ribbons 2.4 m long and read out by 128 channel silicon photomultiplier arrays. The Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) tracker will cover a total active area of 360 m{sup 2}, arranged in 12 layers. The performances of prototype modules having 6 and 8 layers of fibre have been tested at the SPS at CERN. This talk focuses on basic properties of the prototype modules such as spatial resolution, single hit efficiency and light yield measured during the test beam campaigns in 2015.

  15. Aging studies for the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT)

    CERN Document Server

    Åkesson, T; Bondarenko, V; Capéans-Garrido, M; Catinaccio, A; Cwetanski, Peter; Danielsson, H; Dittus, F; Dolgoshein, B A; Dressnandt, N; Ebenstein, W L; Eerola, Paule Anna Mari; Farthouat, Philippe; Fedin, O; Froidevaux, D; Gavrilenko, I; Grichkevitch, Y; Gagnon, P; Hajduk, Z; Keener, P T; Kekelidze, G D; Konovalov, S; Kowalski, T; Kramarenko, V A; Laritchev, A; Lichard, P; Lundberg, B; Luehring, F C; Markina, I; Manara, A; McFarlane, K; Mitsou, V; Muraviev, S; Newcomer, F M; Ogren, H; Oh, S H; Olszowska, J; Peshekhonov, V D; Rembser, C; Romaniouk, A; Rhone, O; Rust, D R; Shchegelskii, V; Shmeleva, A; Smirnov, S; Smirnova, L N; Sosnovtsev, V V; Sutchkov, S; Tartarelli, F; Tikhomirov, V; Van Berg, R; Vassilieva, L; Wang, C; Williams, H H

    2003-01-01

    A summary of the aging and material validation studies carried out for the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is presented. Particular emphasis is put on the different phenomena observed in straw tubes operating with the chosen Xe/CF//4/CO//2 mixture. The most serious effects observed are silicon deposition on the anode wire and damage of the anode wire gold plating. Etching phenomena and active radical effects are also discussed. With a careful choice of all materials and components, and with good control of the water contamination in the active gas, the ATLAS TRT will operate reliably for 10 years at the LHC design luminosity. To demonstrate this fully, more work is still needed on the gas system purification elements, in particular to understand their interplay with the active species containing fluorine created in the avalanche process under irradiation.

  16. PEOPLE FACTORS IN AGILE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Vikash Lalsing; Somveer Kishnah; Sameerchand Pudaruth

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of Agile Methods, many software organisations are moving away fromtraditional methods to adopt Agile development methodologies. Instead of being predictive, Agile israther adaptive and people-focussed. It advocates a small and collaborative team that work closelytogether. But team size is a factor that is in turn constrained by people factors. When implementingAgile, these key factors are often overlooked. This study aims at identifying the underlying peoplefact...

  17. Balancing Agility and Discipline in a Medical Device Software Organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Hugh, Martin; McCaffery, Fergal; Fitzgerald, Brian; Klass-Jan, Stol; Casey, Valentine; Coady, Garret

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed Agile development techniques are becoming increasingly popular in the generic software development industry as they appear to offer solutions to the problems associated with following a plan-driven Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC). However, agile methods may not be suited to all industries or organisations. For agile methods to succeed, an organisation must be structured in a way to accommodate agile methods. Medical device software development organisations are bound b...

  18. A Systematic Literature Review of Agile Maturity Model Research

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan Henriques; Maureen Tanner

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aim/Purpose: A commonly implemented software process improvement framework is the capability maturity model integrated (CMMI). Existing literature indicates higher levels of CMMI maturity could result in a loss of agility due to its organizational focus. To maintain agility, research has focussed attention on agile maturity models. The objective of this paper is to find the common research themes and conclusions in agile maturity model research. Methodology: This research adop...

  19. Adapting Configuration Management for Agile Teams Balancing Sustainability and Speed

    CERN Document Server

    Moreira, Mario E

    2009-01-01

    Adapting Configuration Management for Agile Teams provides very tangible approaches on how Configuration Management with its practices and infrastructure can be adapted and managed in order to directly benefit agile teams. Written by Mario E. Moreira, author of Software Configuration Management Implementation Roadmap , columnist for CM Crossroads online community and writer for the Agile Journal, this unique book provides concrete guidance on tailoring CM for Agile projects without sacrificing the principles of Configuration Management.

  20. Agile Software Development in Defense Acquisition: A Mission Assurance Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    24 Source: [Guano 2008] ^ AER0SPACE The Life Cycle Perspective of Agile Software Development 26 (A) AEROSPACE Agile Life Cycle Example: Scrum ...Acquisition? • Why are we even asking the question? - Quotes from the November 14-15, 2011 National Defense Industry Association (NDIA) Agile Scrum ...Solution Framework) for Agile Development [MSF 2006] Scrum [Schwaber 1995] 82 (g) AEROSPACE Use of Trademarks, Service Marks, and Trade Names Use

  1. An Investigation of Team Effectiveness in Agile Software Development

    OpenAIRE

    Haraldsen, Lars Martin Riiser

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Agile teamwork has been widely used and accepted in today's industry of software development. The methods in agile teamwork claim to improve performance and predictability, and has during the past years become the target for an emerging area of research. The majority of the existing studies concerning agile teamwork mainly focus around eXtreme Programming (XP). Abstract This report is one of few that discuss teamwork in software development having the agile methodology Scrum in the...

  2. Technical Design Report for the ATLAS Inner Tracker Strip Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Collaboration, ATLAS

    2017-01-01

    This is the first of two Technical Design Report documents that describe the upgrade of the central tracking system for the ATLAS experiment for the operation at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) starting in the middle of 2026. At this time the LHC will have been upgraded to reach a peak instantaneous luminosity of 7.5x10^34 cm^[-2]s^[-1], which corresponds to approximately 200 inelastic proton-proton collisions per beam crossing. The new Inner Tracker (ITk) will be operational for more than ten years, during which ATLAS aims to accumulate a total data set of 3,000 fb^[-1]. Meeting these requirements presents a unique challenge for the design of an all-silicon tracking system that consists of a pixel detector at small radius close to the beam line and a large-area strip tracking detector surrounding it. This document presents in detail the requirements of the new tracker, its layout and expected performance including the results of several benchmark physics studies at the highest numbers of collisions per beam...

  3. The control system for the CMS tracker front-end

    CERN Document Server

    Drouhin, F; Ljuslin, C; Maazouzi, C; Marchiero, A; Marinelli, N; Paillard, C; Siegrist, P; Tsirou, A L; Verdini, P G; Walsham, P; Zghiche, A

    2002-01-01

    The CMS Tracker uses complex, programmable embedded electronics for the readout of the Silicon sensors, for the control of the working point of the optical transmitters, for the phase adjustment of the 40 MHz LHC clock and for the monitoring of the voltages, currents and temperatures. In order to establish reliable, noise-free communication with the outside world the control chain has been designed to operate over a ribbon of optical fibers. The optical links, the Front End Controller board that carries their support electronics, the Clocking and Control Unit module receiving the signals over the high-speed link and fanning them out to the front- ends have recently become available. A multi-layered software architecture to handle these devices, and the front-ends, in a way transparent to the end-user, interfaced to an Oracle database for the retrieval of the parameters to be downloaded with the intent of building and operating a small-scale prototype of the control system for the CMS Tracker. The paper descri...

  4. SciFi - A large Scintillating Fibre Tracker for LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Quagliani, Renato

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and to read out the data at 40MHz using a trigger-less read-out system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with higher occupancy. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. Concept, design and operational parameters are driven by the challenging LHC environment including significant ionising and neutron radiation levels. Over a total active surface of 360 m2 the SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres (Ø 0.25 mm) read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). State-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays are being developed to read out the fibres and a custom ASIC will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. The project is now at the transition from R&D to series production. We will present the evolution of the design a...

  5. The Associative Memory System Infrastructure of the ATLAS Fast Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00525014; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Associative Memory (AM) system of the Fast Tracker (FTK) processor has been designed to perform pattern matching using the hit information of the ATLAS experiment silicon tracker. The AM is the heart of FTK and is mainly based on the use of ASICs (AM chips) designed on purpose to execute pattern matching with a high degree of parallelism. It finds track candidates at low resolution that are seeds for a full resolution track fitting. The AM system implementation is based on a collection of boards, named “Serial Link Processor” (AMBSLP), since it is based on a network of 900 2 Gb/s serial links to sustain huge data traffic. The AMBSLP has high power consumption (~250 W) and the AM system needs custom power and cooling. This presentation reports on the integration of the AMBSLP inside FTK, the infrastructure needed to run and cool the system which foresees many AMBSLPs in the same crate, the performance of the produced prototypes tested in the global FTK integration, an important milestone to be satisfie...

  6. The ATLAS tracker strip detector for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cormier, Kyle James Read; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    As part of the ATLAS upgrades for the High Luminsotiy LHC (HL-LHC) the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) will be replaced by a new Inner Tracker (ITk). The ITk will consist of two main components: semi-conductor pixels at the innermost radii, and silicon strips covering larger radii out as far as the ATLAS solenoid magnet including the volume currently occupied by the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT). The primary challenges faced by the ITk are the higher planned read out rate of ATLAS, the high density of charged particles in HL-LHC conditions for which tracks need to be resolved, and the corresponding high radiation doses that the detector and electronics will receive. The ITk strips community is currently working on designing and testing all aspects of the sensors, readout, mechanics, cooling and integration to meet these goals and a Technical Design Report is being prepared. This talk is an overview of the strip detector component of the ITk, highlighting the current status and the road ahead.

  7. Input Mezzanine Card for the Fast Tracker at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Iizawa, Tomoya; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Fast Tracker (FTK) is an integral part of trigger upgrade program for the ATLAS experiment. At LHC Run 2, which started operations in June 2015 at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, the luminosity could reach up to 2*1034 cm-2s-1 and an average of 40-50 simultaneous proton collisions per beam crossing will be expected. The higher luminosity demands a more sophisticated trigger system with increased use of tracking information. The Fast Tracker is a highly-parallel hardware system that rapidly finds and reconstructs tracks in the ATLAS inner-detector at the triggering stage. This paper focuses on the FTK Input Mezzanine Board that is input module of entire system. The functions of this board are to receive the insertable b-layer, pixel and micro-strip data from the ATLAS Silicon read-out drivers, perform clustering, and forward the data to its mother board. Mass production and quality control tests of Mezzanine Boards were completed, and staged installation and commissioning are ongoing. Details of its fun...

  8. Talkootyö agility-seuroissa

    OpenAIRE

    Laitala, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    Suomen agilityliitto on suomalaisten agilityä harrastavien yhdistysten muodostama liitto, jonka jäsenseurojen toiminta ei olisi mahdollista ilman talkootyöntekijöitä. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää, mikä motivoi agility-seurojen jäseniä osallistumaan talkootyöhön ja miten heitä voitaisiin sitouttaa toimintaan entistä paremmin. Toteutetun kyselytutkimuksen avulla selvitettiin myös jäsenien omia toiveita sekä ideoita seurojen talkootoiminnan kehittämiseksi. Työn teoriaosuudessa kes...

  9. Analyzing effective elements in agile supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Jamshidi Navid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Agile supply chain plays an important role on having efficient production planning. There are different factors affecting the efficiency of a supply chain and the attempt of this paper is to find the most important elements in agile supply chain. The proposed model of this paper gathers decision makers' opinions and based on DEMATEL technique determines the most important items. The preliminary results of this survey indicate that we could divide the factors into four groups and two elements including automation and utilization of technical tools of relations and information play the most important roles among other factors.

  10. Agile project management managing for success

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A

    2015-01-01

    Management and enables them to deal with the demands and complexities of modern, agile systems/software/hardware development teams. The book examines the project/program manager beyond the concepts of leadership and aims to connect to employees' sense of identity. The text examines human psychological concepts such as "locus of control," which will help the manager understand their team members' view and how best to manage their "world" contributions. The authors cover new management tools and philosophies for agile systems/software/hardware development teams, with a specific focus on how this

  11. Agile Preparation within a Traditional Project Management Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Jeffrey P.; McDaniel, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Agile software approaches have seen a steady rise over a decade and a half, but agile's place in the information systems (IS) undergraduate curriculum is far from settled. While agile concepts may arguably be taught in multiple places in the IS curriculum, this paper argues for its inclusion in a project management course. This paper builds on…

  12. Agile Development and Software Architecture: Understanding Scale and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    Scrum Team A Scrum Team B Temporary sprint team 26 Agile Development and Software Architecture Robert L. Nord, SSTC, April 2012 © 2012 Carnegie...2012 Carnegie Mellon University Agile Development and Software Architecture: Understanding Scale and Risk Software Engineering Institute Carnegie... Agile Development and Software Architecture Robert L. Nord, SSTC, April 2012 © 2012 Carnegie Mellon University The challenge -1 Tradeoffs and their

  13. Agile project management with GreenHopper 6 blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Malik, Jaibeer

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial-based approach.This book is of great help for agile teams who are already using or planning to use the GreenHopper tooling system to execute agile projects. It suits all roles in an agile project including system administrators, stakeholders, product owners, scrum masters, and team members. Fundamental knowledge of JIRA is essential.

  14. CarbonTracker CT2007B release

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CarbonTracker is an open product of the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory using data from the Global Monitoring Division greenhouse gas observational network and...

  15. Work on the ATLAS semiconductor tracker barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    Precision work is performed on the semiconductor tracker barrel of the ATLAS experiment. All work on these delicate components must be performed in a clean room so that impurities in the air, such as dust, do not contaminate the detector. The semiconductor tracker will be mounted in the barrel close to the heart of the ATLAS experiment to detect the path of particles produced in proton-proton collisions.

  16. Silicone metalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

    2008-12-09

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  17. The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluge, A.; Rinella, G. Aglieri; Anelli, G.; Antinori, F.; Badala, A.; Burns, M.; Cali, I.A.; Campbell, M.; Caselle, M.; Ceresa, S.; Chochula, P.; Dima, R.; Elias, D.; Fabris, D.; Fini, R.A.; Formenti, F.; Krivda, M.; Lenti, V.; Librizzi, F.; Manzari, V.

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the two innermost layers of the ALICE inner tracker system. It contains 9.8x10 6 pixels with a material budget of less than 1% of X 0 per layer. It is based on hybrid pixel technology. The space and material budget constraints have severe impact on the design. The ALICE SPD detector system components are discussed

  18. Development of Agile Practices in Romanian Software Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard BUDACU

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Agile Software Development (ASD promotes flexibility to change and emphasis the importance of individuals and interactions in producing software. The study presents the development of agile practices in Romanian software community. A literature review is conducted and the main agile methods are described. The characteristics of Romanian ICT sector is presented in relation with agile methodology. Practices are identified by a survey and an analysis on the groups of interests formed on Meetup website is performed. Future directions and development of agile practices is evaluated.

  19. Agility and Appropriateness: Matching Shift to Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    he/she finds references across many disciplines, from health through technology to management to semiotic systems. In all cases, the distinguishing...politicized to concentrate on the military tasks at hand; overall, the Army was ponderous to move and slow to fight.35 Using the language of agility, the

  20. Legal Knowledge and Agility in Public Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.

    2013-01-01

    To address agility in public administration, we have developed a knowledge acquisition infrastructure for legal knowledge, based on an implementation-oriented conceptualization of the legal system. Our objective is to reframe legal knowledge as a knowledge source in a design-oriented task ontology,

  1. Management of Innovative Projects through Agile Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Bucea-Manea-Tonis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of the globalization and the evolution of internet and technologies, nowadays the innovation is associated with open collaboration conducted by a legal framework. The paper analyses the methods that allow a better management for innovative projects and focuses on agile projects within a technological network.

  2. Lean and Agile: An Epistemological Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browaeys, Marie-Joelle; Fisser, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to contribute to the discussion of treating the concepts of lean and agile in isolation or combination by presenting an alternative view from complexity thinking on these concepts, considering an epistemological approach to this topic. Design/methodology/approach: The paper adopts an epistemological approach, using…

  3. Silicon strip detectors for the ATLAS HL-LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Sevilla, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The LHC upgrade is foreseen to increase the ATLAS design luminosity by a factor ten, implying the need to build a new tracker suited to the harsh HL-LHC conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation doses. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. To successfully face the increased radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is being designed. We give an overview of the ATLAS tracker upgrade project, in particular focusing on the crucial innermost silicon strip layers. Results from a wide range of irradiated silicon detectors for the strip region of the future ATLAS tracker are presented. Layout concepts for lightweight yet mechanically very rigid detector modules with high service integration are shown.

  4. Comparison of a new test for agility and skill in soccer with other agility tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Mehmet; Yapıcı, Hakan; Yoncalık, Oğuzhan; Celik, Serkan

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was both to develop a novel test to measure run, shuttle run and directional change agility, and soccer shots on goal with decision making and to compare it with other agility tests. Multiple comparisons and assessments were conducted, including test-retest, Illinois, Zig-Zag, 30 m, Bosco, T-drill agility, and Wingate peak power tests. A total of 113 Turkish amateur and professional soccer players and tertiary-level students participated in the study. Test-retest and inter-tester reliability testing measures were conducted with athletes. The correlation coefficient of the new test was .88, with no significant difference (p> 0.01> 0.01) between the test results obtained in the first and second test sessions. The results of an analysis of variance revealed a significant (p agility and power test results for soccer players. The new agility and skill test is an acceptable and reliable test when considering test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability. The findings in this study suggest that the novel soccer-specific agility and shooting test can be utilized in the testing and identification of soccer players' talents.

  5. Performance and Operation Experience of the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Gallop, B J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    We report on the operation and performance of the ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT), which has been functioning for 3 years in a high luminosity, high radiation environment. The SCT is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules, for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module operates as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel, made of 4 cylinders, and two end-cap systems made of 9 disks. The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals are processed in the front-end ABCD3TA ASICs, which use a binary readout architecture. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibres. We find 99.3% of the SCT modules are operational, the noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications; the alignment is very close to the ideal to allow on-line track reconstruction and invariant mass determination. We will report on the operation an...

  6. Performance and operation experience of the Atlas Semiconductor Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Z; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    We report on the operation and performance of the ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT), which has been functioning for 3 years in the high luminosity, high radiation environment of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. We’ll also report on the few improvements of the SCT foreseen for the high energy run of the LHC. The SCT is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules, for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module operates as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel, made of 4 cylinders, and two end-cap systems made of 9 disks. The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals are processed in the front-end ABCD3TA ASICs, which use a binary readout architecture. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibres. We find 99.3% of the SCT modules are operational, the noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications; the alig...

  7. Performance and operation of the semiconductor tracker (SCT)

    CERN Document Server

    Dervan, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    After more than 3 years of successful operation at the LHC, we report on the operation and performance of the ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) functioning in a high luminosity, high radiation environment. The SCT is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules, for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel (4 cylinders) and two end-cap systems (9 disks on each end of the barrel). The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals are processed in the front-end ABCD3TA ASICs, which use a binary readout architecture. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibres. We find 99.3% of the SCT modules are operational and the hit efficiency exceeds the design specifications. We will report on the operation and performance of the detector, including an ove...

  8. Performance and Operation Experience of the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Gallop, B J

    2014-01-01

    We report on the operation and performance of the ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT), which has been functioning for 3 years in a high luminosity, high radiation environment. The SCT is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules, for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module operates as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The modules are mounted into two types of structures: one barrel, made of 4 cylinders, and two end-cap systems made of 9 disks. The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals are processed in the front-end ABCD3TA ASICs, which use a binary readout architecture. Data is transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibres. We find $99.3\\%$ of the SCT modules are operational, the noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications; the alignment is very close to the ideal to allow on-line track reconstruction and invariant mass determination. We will report on the operation...

  9. The Phase II ATLAS Pixel Upgrade: The Inner Tracker (ITk)

    CERN Document Server

    Flick, Tobias; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced during the LHC Phase II shutdown (foreseen to take place around 2025) by an all-silicon detector called the ITk (Inner Tracker). The pixel detector will comprise the five innermost layers, and will be instrumented with new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the HL-LHC environment, which will be severe in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total surface area of silicon in the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m^2, depending on the final layout choice, which is expected to take place in early 2017. Four layout options are being investigated at the moment, two with forward coverage to eta < 3.2 and two to eta < 4. For each coverage option, a layout with long barrel staves and a layout with novel inclined support structures in the barrel-endcap overlap region are considered. All potential layouts include modules mounted on ring-shaped supports in the endcap regions. Support...

  10. A Systematic Literature Review of Agile Maturity Model Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan Henriques

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim/Purpose: A commonly implemented software process improvement framework is the capability maturity model integrated (CMMI. Existing literature indicates higher levels of CMMI maturity could result in a loss of agility due to its organizational focus. To maintain agility, research has focussed attention on agile maturity models. The objective of this paper is to find the common research themes and conclusions in agile maturity model research. Methodology: This research adopts a systematic approach to agile maturity model research, using Google Scholar, Science Direct, and IEEE Xplore as sources. In total 531 articles were initially found matching the search criteria, which was filtered to 39 articles by applying specific exclusion criteria. Contribution:: The article highlights the trends in agile maturity model research, specifically bringing to light the lack of research providing validation of such models. Findings: Two major themes emerge, being the coexistence of agile and CMMI and the development of agile principle based maturity models. The research trend indicates an increase in agile maturity model articles, particularly in the latter half of the last decade, with concentrations of research coinciding with version updates of CMMI. While there is general consensus around higher CMMI maturity levels being incompatible with true agility, there is evidence of the two coexisting when agile is introduced into already highly matured environments. Future Research:\tFuture research direction for this topic should include how to attain higher levels of CMMI maturity using only agile methods, how governance is addressed in agile environments, and whether existing agile maturity models relate to improved project success.

  11. Analyzing Virtual Physics Simulations with Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Tom

    2017-12-01

    In the physics teaching community, Tracker is well known as a user-friendly open source video analysis software, authored by Douglas Brown. With this tool, the user can trace markers indicated on a video or on stroboscopic photos and perform kinematic analyses. Tracker also includes a data modeling tool that allows one to fit some theoretical equations of motion onto experimentally obtained data. In the field of particle mechanics, Tracker has been effectively used for learning and teaching about projectile motion, "toss up" and free-fall vertical motion, and to explain the principle of mechanical energy conservation. Also, Tracker has been successfully used in rigid body mechanics to interpret the results of experiments with rolling/slipping cylinders and moving rods. In this work, I propose an original method in which Tracker is used to analyze virtual computer simulations created with a physics-based motion solver, instead of analyzing video recording or stroboscopic photos. This could be an interesting approach to study kinematics and dynamics problems in physics education, in particular when there is no or limited access to physical labs. I demonstrate the working method with a typical (but quite challenging) problem in classical mechanics: a slipping/rolling cylinder on a rough surface.

  12. Star Tracker Performance Estimate with IMU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot D.; Swank, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    A software tool for estimating cross-boresight error of a star tracker combined with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) was developed to support trade studies for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communication project (iROC) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center. Typical laser communication systems, such as the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) and the Laser Communication Relay Demonstration (LCRD), use a beacon to locate ground stations. iROC is investigating the use of beaconless precision laser pointing to enable laser communication at Mars orbits and beyond. Precision attitude knowledge is essential to the iROC mission to enable high-speed steering of the optical link. The preliminary concept to achieve this precision attitude knowledge is to use star trackers combined with an IMU. The Star Tracker Accuracy (STAcc) software was developed to rapidly assess the capabilities of star tracker and IMU configurations. STAcc determines the overall cross-boresight error of a star tracker with an IMU given the characteristic parameters: quantum efficiency, aperture, apparent star magnitude, exposure time, field of view, photon spread, detector pixels, spacecraft slew rate, maximum stars used for quaternion estimation, and IMU angular random walk. This paper discusses the supporting theory used to construct STAcc, verification of the program and sample results.

  13. The outer tracker of HERA-B

    CERN Document Server

    Hohlmann, M

    2001-01-01

    The outer tracker of the HERA-B experiment at DESY is a gaseous detector that provides tracking of charged particles over a large volume in a high-rate, hadronic environment. The radiation load at 40 MHz interaction rate is comparable to what will be encountered by large trackers in future LHC experiments. The outer tracker allows pattern recognition for event reconstruction, momentum measurement, and highly selective triggering on dileptons from J/ psi decays. Its wire-chamber modules comprise 110,000 honeycomb drift cells of up to 4.5 m length operating with an Ar/CF/sub 4//CO/sub 2/ gas mixture. The detector was fully installed in January 2000 and is currently operating in HERA-B's first physics run. During detector development different types of severe aging effects were observed. The solutions to the aging problems, detector construction, and detector performance during the early commissioning phase are discussed. (0 refs).

  14. Towards seamless workflows in agile data science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J. F.; Robertson, J.

    2017-12-01

    Agile workflows are a response to projects with requirements that may change over time. They prioritise rapid and flexible responses to change, preferring to adapt to changes in requirements rather than predict them before a project starts. This suits the needs of research very well because research is inherently agile in its methodology. The adoption of agile methods has made collaborative data analysis much easier in a research environment fragmented across institutional data stores, HPC, personal and lab computers and more recently cloud environments. Agile workflows use tools that share a common worldview: in an agile environment, there may be more that one valid version of data, code or environment in play at any given time. All of these versions need references and identifiers. For example, a team of developers following the git-flow conventions (github.com/nvie/gitflow) may have several active branches, one for each strand of development. These workflows allow rapid and parallel iteration while maintaining identifiers pointing to individual snapshots of data and code and allowing rapid switching between strands. In contrast, the current focus of versioning in research data management is geared towards managing data for reproducibility and long-term preservation of the record of science. While both are important goals in the persistent curation domain of the institutional research data infrastructure, current tools emphasise planning over adaptation and can introduce unwanted rigidity by insisting on a single valid version or point of truth. In the collaborative curation domain of a research project, things are more fluid. However, there is no equivalent to the "versioning iso-surface" of the git protocol for the management and versioning of research data. At CSIRO we are developing concepts and tools for the agile management of software code and research data for virtual research environments, based on our experiences of actual data analytics projects in the

  15. The results of the irradiations of microstrip detectors for the ATLAS tracker (SCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervan, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) of ATLAS will operate in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which will reach luminosities of 10 34 cm 2 s -1 . Silicon single-sided microstrip detectors will be used for particle tracking. Due to the proximity to the beam, the silicon detectors need to withstand damage from ionising radiation (10 Mrad total dose) and from non-ionising radiation such as neutrons (2x10 14 1 MeV equivalent neutrons/cm 2 total fluence). The final characteristics of the silicon SCT detectors which are needed to operate under LHC conditions and the conclusions reached after various years of test irradiation studies will be reported. The integration and performance of these detectors in complete SCT modules is also discussed

  16. Upgrade Planning for the ATLAS Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Allport, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    “A series of upgrades leading to those required for the HL-LHC phase ff ATLAS is described with emphasis on those relating to the tracking part of the experiment. Aspects of the proposed ATLAS HL-LHC tracker layout and recent results on prototyping performance are presented. The wider context of ATLAS Upgrade planning is also briefly discussed along with current understanding of scheduling. The expected performance of the upgraded tracker in the presence of high pile-up is shown to motivate the baseline detector choices although possible alternative layouts are also mentioned.”

  17. Silicon strip detectors for the LHCb experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Steinkamp, O

    2005-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is a single-arm magnetic spectrometer. Silicon micro-strip detectors are employed in a significant fraction of the tracking system. The Vertex Locator consists of 21 detector stations that operate inside the LHC beam pipe and are separated from the beam vacuum by a thin aluminium foil. The Silicon Tracker is a large-surface silicon micro-strip detector that covers the full acceptance of the experiment in a single tracking station upstream of the spectrometer magnet and the...

  18. Sandia Agile MEMS Prototyping, Layout Tools, Education and Services Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schriner, H.; Davies, B.; Sniegowski, J.; Rodgers, M.S.; Allen, J.; Shepard, C.

    1998-05-01

    Research and development in the design and manufacture of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is growing at an enormous rate. Advances in MEMS design tools and fabrication processes at Sandia National Laboratories` Microelectronics Development Laboratory (MDL) have broadened the scope of MEMS applications that can be designed and manufactured for both military and commercial use. As improvements in micromachining fabrication technologies continue to be made, MEMS designs can become more complex, thus opening the door to an even broader set of MEMS applications. In an effort to further research and development in MEMS design, fabrication, and application, Sandia National Laboratories has launched the Sandia Agile MEMS Prototyping, Layout Tools, Education and Services Program or SAMPLES program. The SAMPLES program offers potential partners interested in MEMS the opportunity to prototype an idea and produce hardware that can be used to sell a concept. The SAMPLES program provides education and training on Sandia`s design tools, analysis tools and fabrication process. New designers can participate in the SAMPLES program and design MEMS devices using Sandia`s design and analysis tools. As part of the SAMPLES program, participants` designs are fabricated using Sandia`s 4 level polycrystalline silicon surface micromachine technology fabrication process known as SUMMiT (Sandia Ultra-planar, Multi-level MEMS Technology). Furthermore, SAMPLES participants can also opt to obtain state of the art, post-fabrication services provided at Sandia such as release, packaging, reliability characterization, and failure analysis. This paper discusses the components of the SAMPLES program.

  19. Agile: From Software to Mission Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Jay; Shirley, Mark; Hobart, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    To maximize efficiency and flexibility in Mission Operations System (MOS) design, we are evolving principles from agile and lean methods for software, to the complete mission system. This allows for reduced operational risk at reduced cost, and achieves a more effective design through early integration of operations into mission system engineering and flight system design. The core principles are assessment of capability through demonstration, risk reduction through targeted experiments, early test and deployment, and maturation of processes and tools through use.

  20. Cognitive Agility Measurement in a Complex Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    adaptive learning using the components of cognitive agility and measuring them with psychological tests and an interactive computer game. Among his...attention improves under stress: Implications for theories of social cognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 85(2), 231–248. Donders, F. C...and Psychology , 18(5), 459– 482. doi:10.1002/cne.920180503 Zelinsky, G. J. (2008). A theory of eye movements during target acquisition. Psychological