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Sample records for aggressive trimodality therapy

  1. Predictors of trimodality therapy and trends in therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David B; Rice, David C; Niu, Jiangong; Atay, Scott M; Vaporciyan, Ara A; Antonoff, Mara B; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Walsh, Garrett L; Swisher, Stephen G; Roth, Jack A; Tsao, Anne S; Gomez, Daniel R; Giordano, Sharon H; Mehran, Reza J; Sepesi, Boris

    2018-05-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an aggressive and rare malignancy that frequently recurs despite aggressive therapy. We evaluated the frequency of treatment with surgery, radiation or chemotherapy, changes in therapy and survival over time and factors associated with the receipt of trimodality therapy. The National Cancer Database (NCDB) was used to query patients with histologically proven malignant pleural mesothelioma (2004-14). Treatment over time was evaluated using the Armitage trend test. Factors associated with the receipt of trimodality therapy were analysed using logistic regression. Among 20 561 patients, only 4028 (20%) underwent cancer-directed surgery; 533 (2.6%) of whom received trimodality therapy. From 2004 to 2014, the use of surgery with chemotherapy increased 87% (P 26 miles for treatment were more likely to undergo trimodality therapy. Additional factors associated with the receipt of trimodality therapy include age less than 70, Charlson comorbidity score of 0 and presence of private insurance. Many malignant pleural mesothelioma patients are not treated with trimodality therapy, with significant variation in treatment patterns. Referrals to high-volume and specialized centres may help offer more therapeutic options and trial or registry enrolment.

  2. Trimodality therapy in bladder cancer: Who, what and when?

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    Premo, Christopher; Apolo, Andrea B.; Agarwal, Piyush K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Radical cystectomy is a standard treatment for non-metastatic, muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Treatment with trimodality therapy consisting of maximal transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) followed by concurrent chemotherapy and radiation has emerged as a method to preserve the native bladder in highly motivated patients. A number of factors can impact the likelihood of long term bladder preservation after trimodality therapy, and therefore should be taken into account when selecting patients. New radiation techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy and image guided radiation therapy may decrease the toxicity of radiotherapy in this setting, but remain an area of active study. Novel chemotherapy regimens may improve response rates and minimize toxicity. PMID:25882559

  3. Predictors of Postoperative Complications After Trimodality Therapy for Esophageal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jingya; Wei, Caimiao; Tucker, Susan L.; Myles, Bevan; Palmer, Matthew; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Swisher, Stephen G.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing; Lin, Steven H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: While trimodality therapy for esophageal cancer has improved patient outcomes, surgical complication rates remain high. The goal of this study was to identify modifiable factors associated with postoperative complications after neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2011, 444 patients were treated at our institution with surgical resection after chemoradiation. Postoperative (pulmonary, gastrointestinal [GI], cardiac, wound healing) complications were recorded up to 30 days postoperatively. Kruskal-Wallis tests and χ 2 or Fisher exact tests were used to assess associations between continuous and categorical variables. Multivariate logistic regression tested the association between perioperative complications and patient or treatment factors that were significant on univariate analysis. Results: The most frequent postoperative complications after trimodality therapy were pulmonary (25%) and GI (23%). Lung capacity and the type of radiation modality used were independent predictors of pulmonary and GI complications. After adjusting for confounding factors, pulmonary and GI complications were increased in patients treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) versus intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT; odds ratio [OR], 2.018; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.104-3.688; OR, 1.704; 95% CI, 1.03-2.82, respectively) and for patients treated with 3D-CRT versus proton beam therapy (PBT; OR, 3.154; 95% CI, 1.365-7.289; OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 0.78-3.08, respectively). Mean lung radiation dose (MLD) was strongly associated with pulmonary complications, and the differences in toxicities seen for the radiation modalities could be fully accounted for by the MLD delivered by each of the modalities. Conclusions: The radiation modality used can be a strong mitigating factor of postoperative complications after neoadjuvant chemoradiation

  4. Trimodality therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma: Results from an EORTC phase II multicentre trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.Y. van Schil (Paul); P. Baas (Paul); R.M. Gaafar (Rabab); A.W.P.M. Maat (Alex); F. Van De Pol (Francien); B. Hasane (B.); H.M. Klomp (Houke); A.M. Abdelrahman (A.); J. Welche (J.); J.P. van Meerbeeck (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC; protocol 08031) phase II trial investigated the feasibility of trimodality therapy consisting of induction chemotherapy followed by extrapleural pneumonectomy and post-operative radiotherapy in patients with malignant

  5. The Benefit of Chemotherapy in Esophageal Cancer Patients With Residual Disease After Trimodality Therapy.

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    Kim, Grace J; Koshy, Matthew; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Horiba, M Naomi; Edelman, Martin J; Burrows, Whitney M; Battafarano, Richard J; Suntharalingam, Mohan

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to determine the potential benefits of chemotherapy in esophageal cancer patients treated with chemoradiation followed by surgery. At our institution, 145 patients completed trimodality therapy from 1993 to 2009. Neoadjuvant treatment predominantly consisted of 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin with a concurrent median radiation dose of 50.4 Gy. Sixty-two patients received chemotherapy postoperatively. The majority (49/62) received 3 cycles of docetaxel. Within the entire cohort, a 5-year overall survival (OS) benefit was found in those who received postoperative chemotherapy, OS 37.1% versus 18.0% (P=0.024). The response after neoadjuvant chemoradiation was as follows: 33.8% had a pathologic complete response and 62.8% with residual disease. A 5-year OS and cause-specific survival (CSS) advantage were associated with postoperative chemotherapy among those with macroscopic residual disease after neoadjuvant therapy: OS 38.7% versus 13.9% (P=0.016), CSS 42.8% versus 18.8% (P=0.048). This benefit was not seen in those with a pathologic complete response or those with microscopic residual. A stepwise multivariate Cox regression model evaluating the partial response group revealed that postoperative chemotherapy and M stage were independent predictors of overall and CSS. This analysis revealed that patients with gross residual disease after trimodality therapy for esophageal cancer who received postoperative chemotherapy had an improved overall and CSS. These data suggest that patients with residual disease after trimodality therapy and a reasonable performance status may benefit from postoperative chemotherapy. Prospective trials are needed to confirm these results to define the role of postoperative treatment after trimodality therapy.

  6. The clinical efficacy of consolidation chemotherapy for resectable esophageal squamous cell cancer after trimodality therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanan; Cheng, Siguo; Lu, Yufei; Zheng, Xiaoli; Ye, Ke; Ge, Hong

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the clinical outcome of consolidation chemotherapy for resectable esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) after trimodality therapy. From January 2005 to December 2012, a total of 192 consecutive locally advanced ESCC patients who underwent trimodality therapy successfully was included. Grouping was based on the degree of myelosuppression occurred during preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Of the 192 patients, 120 patients underwent trimodality therapy only (TT group), while 72 patients received consolidation chemotherapy additionally after trimodality therapy (TC group). Preoperative chemoradiotherapy included two cycles of chemotherapy concurrently with radiotherapy. The chemotherapy regimen consisted of cisplatin 20 mg/m2/day and fluorouracil 400 mg/m2/day administered intravenously infusion on days 1-5 of a 21 days cycle. Concurrent radiotherapy was delivered in a total of 40 Gy in 20 fractions. All patients underwent surgery successfully. For 72 patients in TC group, additional 1-4 cycles of consolidation chemotherapy were administered, and chemotherapy regimen was as before. The 5-year survival rate was 43.5% in TT group, as compared with 48.8% in TC group. (P = 0.238). The 5.year progression.free survival. (PFS) rates were 34.0% in TT group and 38.8% in TC group. (P = 0.049). Risk reduction in PFS was remarkable for males and those who did not achieve pathologic complete response. (pCR). The incidence rate of disease progression did not differ significantly. (P = 0.200). The addition of consolidation chemotherapy demonstrates no survival benefit for patients with locally advanced ESCC, but PFS is significantly improved, especially for males and those who did not achieve pCR.

  7. Trimodal therapy in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus

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    Matuschek C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patients with ESCC (squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus are most commonly diagnosed with locally advanced tumor stages. Early metastatic disease and late diagnosis are common reasons responsible for this tumor's poor clinical outcome. The prognosis of esophageal cancer is very poor because patients usually do not have symptoms in early disease stages. Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus frequently complicates patients with multiple co-morbidities and these patients often require interdisciplinary diagnosis and treatment procedures. At present time, neoadjuvant radiation therapy and chemotherapy followed by surgery are regarded as the international standard of care. Meta-analyses have confirmed that this approach provides the patient with better local tumor control and an increased overall survival rate. It is recommended that patients with positive tumor response to neoadjuvant therapy and who are poor surgical candidates should consider definitive radiochemotherapy without surgery as a treatment option. In future, EGFR antibodies may also be administered to patients during therapy to improve the current treatment effectiveness. Positron-emission tomography proves to be an early response-imaging tool used to evaluate the effect of the neoadjuvant therapy and could be used as a predictive factor for the survival rate in ESCC. The percentage proportions of residual tumor cells in the histopathological analyses represent a gold standard for evaluating the response rate to radiochemotherapy. In the future, early response evaluation and molecular biological tests could be important diagnostic tools in influencing the treatment decisions of ESCC patients.

  8. Combination Trimodality Therapy Using Vismodegib for Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Face

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    Alec M. Block

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. For large basal cell carcinomas (BCCs of the head and neck, definitive surgery often requires extensive resection and reconstruction that may result in prolonged recovery and limited cosmesis. Vismodegib, a small-molecule inhibitor of the hedgehog pathway, is approved for advanced and metastatic BCCs. We present a case of advanced BCC treated with combination of vismodegib, radiotherapy, and local excision resulting in excellent response and cosmesis. Case Presentation. A 64-year-old gentleman presented with a 5-year history of a 7 cm enlarging right cheek mass, with extensive vascularization, central ulceration, and skin, soft tissue, and buccal mucosa involvement. Biopsy revealed BCC, nodular type. Up-front surgical option involved a large resection and reconstruction. After multidisciplinary discussion, we recommended and he opted for combined modality of vismodegib, radiotherapy, and local excision. The patient tolerated vismodegib well and his right cheek lesion decreased significantly in size. He was then treated with radiotherapy followed by local excision that revealed only focal residual BCC. Currently, he is without evidence of disease and has excellent cosmesis. Conclusions. We report a case of locally advanced BCC treated with trimodality therapy with vismodegib, radiotherapy, and local excision, resulting in excellent outcome and facial cosmesis, without requiring extensive resection or reconstructive surgery.

  9. Nomograms Predicting Response to Therapy and Outcomes After Bladder-Preserving Trimodality Therapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coen, John J., E-mail: jcoen@harthosp.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Paly, Jonathan J.; Niemierko, Andrzej [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kaufman, Donald S. [Department of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Heney, Niall M. [Department of Urology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Spiegel, Daphne Y.; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Zietman, Anthony L.; Shipley, William U. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Selective bladder preservation by use of trimodality therapy is an established management strategy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Individual disease features have been associated with response to therapy, likelihood of bladder preservation, and disease-free survival. We developed prognostic nomograms to predict the complete response rate, disease-specific survival, and likelihood of remaining free of recurrent bladder cancer or cystectomy. Methods and Materials: From 1986 to 2009, 325 patients were managed with selective bladder preservation at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and had complete data adequate for nomogram development. Treatment consisted of a transurethral resection of bladder tumor followed by split-course chemoradiation. Patients with a complete response at midtreatment cystoscopic assessment completed radiation, whereas those with a lesser response underwent a prompt cystectomy. Prognostic nomograms were constructed predicting complete response (CR), disease-specific survival (DSS), and bladder-intact disease-free survival (BI-DFS). BI-DFS was defined as the absence of local invasive or regional recurrence, distant metastasis, bladder cancer-related death, or radical cystectomy. Results: The final nomograms included information on clinical T stage, presence of hydronephrosis, whether a visibly complete transurethral resection of bladder tumor was performed, age, sex, and tumor grade. The predictive accuracy of these nomograms was assessed. For complete response, the area under the receiving operating characteristic curve was 0.69. The Harrell concordance index was 0.61 for both DSS and BI-DFS. Conclusions: Our nomograms allow individualized estimates of complete response, DSS, and BI-DFS. They may assist patients and clinicians making important treatment decisions.

  10. Aggressive Adolescents Benefit from Massage Therapy.

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    Diego, Miguel A.; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Shaw, Jon A.; Rothe, Eugenio M.; Castellanos, Daniel; Mesner, Linda

    2002-01-01

    Seventeen aggressive adolescents were assigned to a massage therapy group or a relaxation therapy group to receive 20-minute therapy sessions, twice a week for five weeks. The massaged adolescents had lower anxiety after the first and last sessions. By the end of the study, they also reported feeling less hostile and they were perceived by their…

  11. Tri-Modality therapy with I-125 brachytherapy, external beam radiation therapy, and short- or long-term hormone therapy for high-risk localized prostate cancer (TRIP: study protocol for a phase III, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial

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    Konaka Hiroyuki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with high Gleason score, elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA level, and advanced clinical stage are at increased risk for both local and systemic relapse. Recent data suggests higher radiation doses decrease local recurrence and may ultimately benefit biochemical, metastasis-free and disease-specific survival. No randomized data is available on the benefits of long-term hormonal therapy (HT in these patients. A prospective study on the efficacy and safety of trimodality treatment consisting of HT, external beam radiation therapy (EBRT, and brachytherapy (BT for high-risk prostate cancer (PCa is strongly required. Methods/Design This is a phase III, multicenter, randomized controlled trial (RCT of trimodality with BT, EBRT, and HT for high-risk PCa (TRIP that will investigate the impact of adjuvant HT following BT using iodine-125 (125I-BT and supplemental EBRT with neoadjuvant and concurrent HT. Prior to the end of September 2012, a total of 340 patients with high-risk PCa will be enrolled and randomized to one of two treatment arms. These patients will be recruited from more than 41 institutions, all of which have broad experience with 125I-BT. Pathological slides will be centrally reviewed to confirm patient eligibility. The patients will commonly undergo 6-month HT with combined androgen blockade (CAB before and during 125I-BT and supplemental EBRT. Those randomly assigned to the long-term HT group will subsequently undergo 2 years of adjuvant HT with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist. All participants will be assessed at baseline and every 3 months for the first 30 months, then every 6 months until 84 months from the beginning of CAB. The primary endpoint is biochemical progression-free survival. Secondary endpoints are overall survival, clinical progression-free survival, disease-specific survival, salvage therapy non-adaptive interval, and adverse events. Discussion To our knowledge, there have

  12. Cisplatin, hyperthermia, and radiation (trimodal therapy) in patients with locally advanced head and neck tumors: A phase I-II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amichetti, M.; Graiff, C.; Fellin, G.; Pani, G.; Bolner, A.; Maluta, S.; Valdagni, R.

    1993-01-01

    Hyperthermia is now being widely used to treat clinical malignancies, especially combined with radiotherapy and more rarely with chemotherapy. The combination of heat, radiation, and chemotherapy (trimodality) can lead to potent interaction. The present Phase I-II study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility and acute toxicity of a combination of cisplantin, hyperthermia, and irradiation in the treatment of superficial cervical nodal metastases from head and neck cancer. Eighteen patients with measurable neck metastases from previously untreated squamous cell head and neck tumors were entered into the trial. Therapy consisted of a conventional irradiation (total dose 70 Gy, 2 Gy five times a week) combined with a weekly administration of 20 mg/m 2 iv of cisplatin and a total of two sessions of local external microwave hyperthermia (desired temperature of 42.5 degrees C for 30 min). Feasibility of the treatment was demonstrated. Acute local toxicity was mild; no thermal blisters or ulcerations were reported and only two patients experienced local pain during hyperthermia. Cutaneous toxicity appeared greater than in previous studies with irradiation plus hyperthermia and irradiation plus cisplatin. Systematic toxicity was moderate with major toxic effects observed in three patients (World Health Organization (WHO) grade 3 anaemia). Even though it was not an aim of the study to evaluate the nodal response, they observed a complete response rate of 72.2% (95% confidence interval 51-93.4%), 16.6% of partial response and 11.1% of no change. The study confirms the feasibility of the combination of cisplantin, heat, and radiation with an acceptable toxicity profile. The trimodal therapy deserves further evaluation as a way to enhance the efficacy of irradiation in the treatment of nodal metastases from head and neck tumors. 43 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Does the quality of radiation therapy (RT) impact upon outcome in the tri-modality treatment of stage IIIA(N2) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)?: Analysis of cancer and leukemia group B (CALGB) protocol 8935

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P.; Herndon, J.; Glicksman, A.; Eaton, W.; Langer, M.; Kass, F.C.; Seagren, S.; Green, M.; Sugarbaker, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The impact of the adequacy of portal fields and the total dose of RT upon pattern of local failure and survival was analyzed. Materials and Methods: Seventy-four patients with pathological stage IIIA(N 2 ) NSCLC were enrolled to a sequential tri-modality protocol consisting of induction chemotherapy [cisplatin(P) at 100 mg/m 2 on days 1,29 and vinblastine(V) 5 mg/m 2 weekly x 5] followed by thoracotomy. Patients with resected disease received an additional two cycles of the same PV followed by thoracic RT. Patients with completely resected disease were treated to 54 Gy while those with incompletely resected disease (i.e., positive margins and/or positive highest sampled mediastinal lymph node) received 59.4 Gy at 1.8 Gy/fraction (fx) once daily. Following protocol therapy, the adequacy of portal fields and total dose of RT was independently peer reviewed by a committee of CALGB Radiation Oncologists under the auspices of the Quality Assurance Review Center (QARC) in Providence, RI. A major deviation was scored if the radiation portal 'cut through' the required target volume and/or if the total radiation dose was greater than +/-10% from the protocol. Results: Thirty-three of 74 patients completed the full adjuvant protocol treatment including post-operative RT. Among patients undergoing complete vs. incomplete resection, no significant difference in 2-year post-RT failure-free survival (FFS) [48% vs. 17%, respectively, p .13] or overall survival (OS) [43% vs. 50%, respectively, p = .27] was evident between the two resection groups. Pattern of first failure among these 33 patients was as follows: Local (L) only = 1(5%), L/Distant (D) 6(28%), D only = 14(67%), p .99). Conclusion: In our study, thoracic RT delivered according to protocol requirements did not affect either pattern of local failure or survival in the tri-modality treatment of pathological stage IIIA(N 2 ) NSCLC. However, these findings could also reflect the sample size of our

  14. Molecular targeted therapies of aggressive thyroid cancer

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    Silvia Martina eFerrari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC that arise from follicular cells account > 90% of thyroid cancer (TC [papillary thyroid cancer (PTC 90%, follicular thyroid cancer (FTC 10%], while medullary thyroid cancer (MTC accounts < 5%. Complete total thyroidectomy is the treatment of choice for PTC, FTC and MTC. Radioiodine is routinely recommended in high-risk patients and considered in intermediate risk DTC patients. DTC cancer cells, during tumor progression, may lose the iodide uptake ability, becoming resistant to radioiodine, with a significant worsening of the prognosis. The lack of specific and effective drugs for aggressive and metastatic DTC and MTC leads to additional efforts towards the development of new drugs.Several genetic alterations in different molecular pathways in TC have been shown in the last decades, associated with TC development and progression. Rearranged during transfection (RET/PTC gene rearrangements, RET mutations, BRAF mutations, RAS mutations, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 angiogenesis pathways are some of the known pathways determinant in the development of TC. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs are small organic compounds inhibiting tyrosine kinases auto-phosphorylation and activation, most of them are multikinase inhibitors. TKIs act on the above-mentioned molecular pathways involved in growth, angiogenesis, local and distant spread of TC. TKIs are emerging as new therapies of aggressive TC, including DTC, MTC and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC, being capable of inducing clinical responses and stabilization of disease. Vandetanib and cabozantinib have been approved for the treatment of MTC, while sorafenib and lenvatinib for DTC refractory to radioiodine. These drugs prolong median progression-free survival, but until now no significant increase has been observed on overall survival; side effects are common. New efforts are made to find new more effective and safe compounds, and to personalize

  15. Therapy for stage I aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke

    2002-01-01

    Although radiotherapy was considered sufficient for stage I and limited stage II aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the past, new data from randomized studies have shown that intensified chemotherapy or combined modality therapy (multiagent chemotherapy followed by involved field radiotherapy) can

  16. Psychomotor therapy and aggression regulation in eating disorders

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    Boerhout, Cees; van Busschbach, Jooske T.; Wiersma, Durk; Hoek, Hans W.

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorder behaviours can be seen as self-destructive behaviours to a great extent related to inhibited anger expression. However, a treatment protocol targeted at anger and aggression in these disorders is lacking. This paper describes a psychomotor therapy (PMT) model as a body-oriented

  17. Is aggressive therapy the answer for all cases of emphysematous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Is aggressive therapy the answer for all cases of emphysematous pyelonephritis: A report of three cases. S Kumar, S Neogi, KK Gautam. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2006-8808.110268.

  18. Value of bimodal (18)F-choline-PET/MRI and trimodal (18)F-choline-PET/MRI/TRUS for the assessment of prostate cancer recurrence after radiation therapy and radical prostatectomy.

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    Paparo, Francesco; Piccardo, Arnoldo; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Romagnoli, Andrea; Piccazzo, Riccardo; Monticone, Michela; Cevasco, Luca; Campodonico, Fabio; Conzi, Giuseppe Maria; Carmignani, Giorgio; Rollandi, Gian Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Between 27% and 53% of all patients who undergo radical prostatectomy (RP) or radiation therapy (RT) as the first-line treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) develop a biochemical recurrence. Imaging plays a pivotal role in restaging by helping to distinguish between local relapse and metastatic disease (i.e., lymph-node and skeletal metastases). At present, the most promising tools for assessing PCa patients with biochemical recurrence are multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) with radio-labeled choline derivatives. The main advantage of mpMRI is its high diagnostic accuracy in detecting local recurrence, while choline-PET/CT is able to identify lymph-node metastases when they are not suspicious on morphological imaging. The most recent advances in the field of fusion imaging have shown that multimodal co-registration, synchronized navigation, and combined interpretation are more valuable than the individual; separate assessment offered by different diagnostic techniques. The objective of the present essay was to describe the value of bimodal choline-PET/mpMRI fusion imaging and trimodal choline-PET/mpMRI/transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) in the assessment of PCa recurrence after RP and RT. Bimodal choline-PET/mpMRI fusion imaging allows morphological, functional, and metabolic information to be combined, thereby overcoming the limitations of each separate imaging modality. In addition, trimodal real-time choline-PET/mpMRI/TRUS fusion imaging may be useful for the planning and real-time guidance of biopsy procedures in order to obtain histological confirmation of the local recurrence.

  19. Aggression

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    Tonnaer, F.; Cima, M.; Arntz, A.R.; Cima, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aggression, violence and deviant behavior are terms frequently used interchangeable, but relate to different theoretical concepts. Therefore, this chapter starts with a definition of aggression. Furthermore, several theories regarding the development of aggression will be presented. According to

  20. Influence of reinforcement behavioral therapy and Ellis cognitive therapy on derelict children’s aggression

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    Habibollah Khazaie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Control of angry in effective manner is very important. In present study we compared the effect of reinforcement behavioral therapy and Ellis cognitive therapy on decreasing of aggression in derelict children aged 10 to 18 years old at hostelry care center of Welfare Organization of Kermanshah. Methods: Fifty-seven out of 89 children (31 male, 26 female was diagnosed as aggressive according to the AGQ results from six hostelry care center of welfare organization of Kermanshah, were selected and participated in the study. Participants allocated in to reinforcement behavioral therapy, Ellis cognitive therapy or control group randomly. Each groups received two hours therapeutic teaching for 10 sessions during 10 weeks. The control group had not been received any intervention. After 10 weeks, the posttest AGQ was performed on participant. The results of pretest and posttest were compared using T-test and ANOVA.Results: The posttest aggression score in reinforcement behavioral therapy group was decreased significantly after intervention (P=0.011. We didn’t find significant differences between pre and post tests aggression score in Ellis cognitive therapy (P=0.258. Result of ANOVA show that there was no significant difference between three group after intervention (P=0.691Conclusion: Reinforcement behavioral therapy and Ellis cognitive therapy did not change the aggression score in derelict children. This may relate to specific hard and stressful life of these children due to ineffectiveness of these short-term methods.

  1. The Microstructural Design of Trimodal Aluminum Composites

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    Jiang, Lin; Ma, Kaka; Yang, Hanry; Li, Meijuan; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2014-06-01

    Trimodal composites, consisting of nanocrystalline or ultrafine grains (UFGs), coarse grains (CGs), and ceramic particles, were originally formulated to achieve combinations of physical and mechanical properties that are unattainable with the individual phases, such as strength, ductility, and high-strain-rate deformation. The concept of a trimodal structure is both scientifically novel as well as technologically promising because it provides multiple controllable degrees of freedom that allow for extensive microstructure design. The UFGs provide efficient obstacles for dislocation movement, such as grain boundaries and other crystalline defects. The size, distribution, and spatial arrangement of the CGs can be controlled to provide plasticity during deformation. The size, morphology, and distribution of the reinforcement particles can be tailored to attain various engineering and physical properties. Moreover, the interfaces that form among the various phases also help determine the overall behavior of the trimodal composites. In this article, a review is provided to discuss the selection and design of each component in trimodal Al composites. The toughening and strengthening mechanisms in the trimodal composite structure are discussed, paying particular attention to strategies that can be implemented to tailor microstructures for optimal mechanical behavior. Recent results obtained with high-performance trimodal Al composites that contain nanometric reinforcements are also discussed to highlight the ability to control particle-matrix interface characteristics. Finally, a perspective is provided on potential approaches that can be explored to develop the next generation of trimodal composites, and interesting scientific paradigms that evolve from the proposed design strategies are discussed.

  2. Aggression control therapy for violent forensic psychiatric patients: method and clinical practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornsveld, R.H.J.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Hollin, C.R.; Kraaimaat, F.W.

    2008-01-01

    Aggression control therapy is based on Goldstein, Gibbs, and Glick's aggression replacement training and was developed for violent forensic psychiatric in- and outpatients (adolescents and adults) with a (oppositional-defiant) conduct disorder or an antisocial personality disorder. First, the

  3. Oncological outcomes from trimodality therapy receiving definitive doses of neoadjuvant chemoradiation (≥60 Gy and factors influencing consideration for surgery in stage III non-small cell lung cancer

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    Melissa A.L. Vyfhuis, MD PhD

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Trimodality treatment significantly improves survival and FFR in patients with LA-NSCLC when definitive doses of radiation with neoadjuvant chemotherapy are employed. We identified important demographic features that predict the use of surgical intervention in patients with stage III NSCLC.

  4. Gestalt therapy approaches with aggressive children in a day care setting

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    Maxey, Win

    1987-01-01

    This research study was designed to evaluate whether or not Gestalt therapy approaches could be used effectively when intervening with aggressive acts in a day care setting. Five focus children were observed at timed intervals as to whether or not they were aggressive, how the caretaker intervened, and how the children responded to the caretaker intervention. After a baseline of aggressive acts was established, caretakers were trained to use Gestalt therapy interventio...

  5. Study on the effectiveness of Responsive Aggression Regulation Therapy (Re-ART)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogsteder, L.M.; Kuijpers, N.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van Horn, J.E.; Hendriks, J.; Wissink, I.B.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental study of the effectiveness of Responsive Aggression Regulation Therapy (Re-ART), a Dutch intervention for 16- to 21-year-old juveniles. Re-ART aims to decrease severe aggressive behavior using a cognitive behavioral approach combined

  6. Study on the Effectiveness of Responsive Aggression Regulation Therapy (Re-ART)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogsteder, L.; Kuijpers, N N; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van Horn, J.; Hendriks, J.; Wissink, I.B.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental study of the effectiveness of Responsive Aggression Regulation Therapy (Re-ART), a Dutch intervention for 16- to 21-year-old juveniles. Re-ART aims to decrease severe aggressive behavior using a cognitive behavioral approach combined

  7. Aggressive conservative therapy for refractory ulcer with diabetes and/or arteriosclerosis.

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    Motomura, Hisashi; Ohashi, Natsuko; Harada, Teruichi; Muraoka, Michinari; Ishii, Masamitsu

    2006-05-01

    A foot ulcer due to diabetes and/or arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) frequently results in an intractable condition that resists treatment. To cope with this condition, we have developed a combination therapy that includes conventional conservative therapy plus surgical therapy. This aggressive conservative therapy using aggressive debridement, trafermin (Fiblast Spray, Kaken, Japan) treatment and vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy was adopted to treat seven patients suffering from diabetes and ASO-related refractory foot ulcer accompanied by bone exposure. With the exception of one patient who died during the treatment, the remaining six patients obtained limb salvage. The mean time to cure was 8.3 months. This approach should be considered before amputation. Some patients may refuse amputation or cannot tolerate highly invasive surgical treatment including tissue transplantation. In such cases, this aggressive conservative therapy can be employed as a highly useful and reproducible technique requiring simple techniques.

  8. [The effect of group-based psychodrama therapy on decreasing the level of aggression in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, Zeynep; Gökçakan, Dan Zafer

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of group-based psychodrama therapy on the level aggression in adolescents. The study included 23 students from Nezihe Yalvac Anatolian Vocational High School of Hotel Management and Tourism that had high aggression scores. Eleven of the participants (6 female, 5 male) constituted the experimental group and 12 (6 male, 6 female) were in the control group. The 34-item Aggression Scale was used to measure level of aggression. We utilized mixed pattern design including experiment-control, pre-test and post test and follow up. The experimental group participated in group-based psychodrama therapy once a week for 90 minutes, for 14 weeks in total. The Aggression Scale was administered to the experimental and control groups before and after treatment; it was additionally administered to the experimental group 16 weeks after treatment. Data were analyzed using ANCOVA and dependent samples t tests. Our analysis shows that group-based psychodrama had an effect on the experimental group in terms of total aggression, anger, hostility, and indirect aggression scores (F=65.109, F=20.175, F=18.593, F=40.987, respectively, Ppsychodrama therapy decreased the level of aggression in the experimental group. Current findings are discussed with reference to the literature. Recommendations for further research and for psychiatric counselors are provided.

  9. A Transgenic Tri-Modality Reporter Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xinrui; Ray, Pritha; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Tong, Ricky; Gong, Yongquan; Sathirachinda, Ataya; Wu, Joseph C.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic mouse with a stably integrated reporter gene(s) can be a valuable resource for obtaining uniformly labeled stem cells, tissues, and organs for various applications. We have generated a transgenic mouse model that ubiquitously expresses a tri-fusion reporter gene (fluc2-tdTomato-ttk) driven by a constitutive chicken β-actin promoter. This "Tri-Modality Reporter Mouse" system allows one to isolate most cells from this donor mouse and image them for bioluminescent (fluc2), fluorescent...

  10. Effect of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT on reducing aggression in students

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    Salar Faramarzi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Students’ aggression at schoolshas attracted the attention of many professionals and researchers. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on the reduction of male secondary students' aggression in Kermanshah. Methods: In this experimental study, a pretest-posttest control group design was used. A total of 400 students were randomly selected from among the high school male students in Kermanshah using multistage sampling. Of these, 40 students who had a higher mean score were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental group underwent with mindfulness-based cognitive therapy once a week for eight sessions. The subjects completed Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire (1992 twice, one before treatment and another after treatment. The data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA. Results: The results of multivariate analysis of covariance showed that after removing the effect of pretest, the experimental group indicated a significant reduction compared to the control group in the total aggression scale (F=1059.531; P<0.001. Also, after removing the effect of the pretest, the experimental group experienced a significant decrease compared to the control group at the micro scales of aggressive feeling (F=639.936; P<0.001, the subscales of aggressive thoughts (F=154.240; P<0.001, and aggressive behaviors (F=502.836; P<0.001,. Conclusion: This study showed that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy reduced aggression in all three components of aggressive behavior, aggressive thoughts and aggressive feelings in the students.

  11. Reinforcement Behavior Therapy by Kindergarten Teachers on Preschool Children’s Aggression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Shahrzad Yektatalab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aggression is a kind of behavior that causes damage or harm to others. The prevalence of aggression is 8–20% in 3–6 years old children. The present study aimed to assess the effect of training kindergarten teachers regarding reinforcement behavior therapy on preschoolers’ aggression. Methods: In this cluster randomized control trial, 14 out of 35 kindergarten and preschool centers of Mohr city, Iran, were chosen using random cluster sampling and then randomly assigned to an intervention and a control group. All 370 kindergarten and preschool children in 14 kindergarten were assessed by preschoolers’ aggression questionnaire and 60 children who obtained a minimum aggression score of 117.48 for girls and 125.77 for boys were randomly selected. The teachers in the intervention group participated in 4 educational sessions on behavior therapy and then practiced this technique under the supervision of the researcher for two months. Preschoolers’ aggression questionnaire was computed in both intervention and control groups before and after a two-month period. Results: The results demonstrated a significant statistical difference in the total aggression score (P=0.01, verbal (P=0.02 and physical (P=0.01 aggression subscales scores in the intervention group in comparison to the control group after the intervention. But the scores of relational aggression (P=0.09 and impulsive anger (P=0.08 subscales were not statistically different in the intervention group compared to the controls. Conclusion: This study highlighted the importance of teaching reinforcement behavior therapy by kindergarten teachers in decreasing verbal and physical aggression in preschoolers.

  12. Arguments against the Aggressive Pursuit of Voice Therapy for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Eric K.

    1989-01-01

    A less aggressive treatment strategy is proposed in the area of children's voice disorders. Speech clinicians are urged not to be over-zealous in imposition of their own voice standards. The potential threat that vocal pathologies hold for children's larynges is felt to be largely over-rated. (Author/JDD)

  13. Mindfulness and Modification Therapy for Behavioral Dysregulation: A Comparison Trial Focused on Substance Use and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wupperman, Peggilee; Cohen, Mia Gintoft; Haller, Deborah L; Flom, Peter; Litt, Lisa C; Rounsaville, Bruce J

    2015-10-01

    Disorders of behavioral dysregulation often involve more than one dsyregulated behavior (e.g., drug abuse and aggression, alcohol abuse and gambling). The high co-occurrence suggests the need of a transdiagnostic treatment that can be customized to target multiple specific behaviors. The current pilot study compared a 20-week, individual transdiagnostic therapy (mindfulness and modification therapy [MMT]) versus treatment as usual (TAU) in targeting alcohol problems, drug use, physical aggression, and verbal aggression in self-referred women. Assessments were administered at baseline, post-intervention, and 2-month follow-up. Wilcoxon signed-ranked tests and multilevel modeling showed that MMT (n = 13) displayed (a) significant and large decreases in alcohol/drug use, physical aggression, and verbal aggression; (b) significantly greater decreases in alcohol/drug use and physical aggression than did TAU (n = 8); and (c) minimal-to-no deterioration of effects at follow-up. Both conditions showed significant decreases in verbal aggression, with no statistically significant difference between conditions. MMT also displayed greater improvements in mindfulness. Preliminary findings support the feasibility and efficacy of MMT in decreasing multiple dysregulated behaviors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Cognitive Behavior Therapy Compare to Campaign Advertisement Programs in Reducing Aggressive Driving Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ina Saraswati; Dyah T Indirasari; Dewi Maulina; Guritnaningsih A Santoso

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of three intervention programs, i.e. CBT (Cognitive Behavior Therapy), humor appeal advertisements (positive ads), and fear appeal advertisements (negative ads) in reducing aggressive driving behavior. 196 young adults age between 18–35 years old, who are considered to be at risk in performing aggressive driving behavior had completed four self report inventories. The four inventories measures perception on traffic conditions, degree of fr...

  15. On the Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Aggression in Addicts

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    mahmood najafy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available : This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on aggression among addicts. Method: A quasi-experimental design along with pre-posttest stages, control group, and follow-up was employed for the conduct of this study. The number of 24 addicts referring to rehabilitation clinics in Tehran was selected as the sample size of this study via convenience sampling method in accordance with the inclusion criteria. These participants were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. In this study, Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire was used for data collection purposes. Results: Data analysis showed that group cognitive-behavioral therapy reduces verbal and physical aggression, anger, and hostility in addicted people. However, this therapy only led to the reduction of verbal aggression, anger, and hostility in addicted people. Conclusion: Since aggression has a high comorbidity with substance abuse, this factor can be as an obstacle to withdrawal. Therefore, it must be considered in addiction treatment.

  16. Schema therapy for aggressive offenders with personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen-de Vos, M.; Bernstein, D.P.; Arntz, A.; Tafrate, R.C.; Mitchell, D.

    2014-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) is increasingly used in personality-disordered (PD) patients. ST is an integrative psychotherapy that blends elements of cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic and experiential approaches. The key concepts in ST are early maladaptive schemas, (dysfunctional) coping styles and schema

  17. Safety and utility of acute electroconvulsive therapy for agitation and aggression in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Deepa; Harper, David G; Achtyes, Eric D; Seiner, Stephen J; Mahdasian, Jack A; Nykamp, Louis J; Adkison, Lesley; Van der Schuur White, Lori; McClintock, Shawn M; Ujkaj, Manjola; Davidoff, Donald A; Forester, Brent P

    2015-03-01

    Agitation and aggression are among the most frequent and disruptive behavioral complications of dementia that contribute to increased cost of care, hospitalization, caregiver burden, and risk of premature institutionalization. This current study examined the safety and efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) as a treatment for behavioral disturbances in dementia. We hypothesized that ECT would result in reduced agitated and aggressive behaviors between baseline and discharge. Twenty-three participants admitted to McLean Hospital (Belmont, MA, USA) and Pine Rest Christian Mental Health Services (Grand Rapids, MI, USA), with a diagnosis of dementia who were referred for ECT to treat agitation and/or aggression, were enrolled in the study. We administered the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory-Short Form, Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home Version, Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, and the Clinical Global Impression Scale at baseline, during, and after the ECT course. Regression analyses revealed a significant decrease from baseline to discharge on the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (F(4,8) = 13.3; p = 0.006) and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (F(4,31) = 14.6; p Electroconvulsive therapy may be a safe treatment option to reduce symptoms of agitation and aggression in patients with dementia whose behaviors are refractory to medication management. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. SAFETY AND UTILITY OF ACUTE ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY FOR AGITATION AND AGGRESSION IN DEMENTIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Deepa; Harper, David G.; Achtyes, Eric D.; Seiner, Stephen J.; Mahdasian, Jack A.; Nykamp, Louis J.; Adkison, Lesley; Van der Schuur White, Lori; McClintock, Shawn M.; Ujkaj, Manjola; Davidoff, Donald A.; Forester, Brent P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Agitation and aggression are among the most frequent and disruptive behavioral complications of dementia that contribute to increased cost of care, hospitalization, caregiver burden, and risk of premature institutionalization. This current study examined the safety and efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) as a treatment for behavioral disturbances in dementia. We hypothesized that ECT would result in reduced agitated and aggressive behaviors between baseline and discharge. Methods Twenty-three participants admitted to McLean Hospital (Belmont, MA) and Pine Rest Christian Mental Health Services (Grand Rapids, MI), with a diagnosis of dementia who were referred for ECT to treat agitation and/or aggression, were enrolled in the study. We administered the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI)-short form, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI)-Nursing Home Version, Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD), and the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI) at baseline, during, and after the ECT course. Results Regression analyses revealed a significant decrease from baseline to discharge on the CMAI (F(4, 8) =13.3; p=0.006) and NPI (F(4, 31)= 14.6; pagitated/aggressive” at baseline to “borderline agitated/aggressive” at discharge. Treatment with ECT was well tolerated by most participants; discontinuation of ECT occurred for two participants due to recurrence of agitation and for three participants due to adverse events. Conclusions ECT may be a safe treatment option to reduce symptoms of agitation and aggression in patients with dementia whose behaviors are refractory to medication management. PMID:24838521

  19. Clinical and Microbiological Effects of Photodynamic Therapy Associated with Non-surgical Treatment in Aggressive Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Chitsazi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of adjunctive photodynamic therapy (PDT in the treatment of aggressive periodontitis. Materials and methods. A total of 24 patients with clinical diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis received scaling and root planing (SRP for periodontal treatment. In a split-mouth design study, the teeth of one quadrant of each arch with ≥4 mm of probing depth were selected randomly for additional treatment with PDT (test group. PDT was performed with a diode laser beam with a wavelength of 670-690 nm and a power of 75 Mw. The control group consisted of selected teeth of the contralateral quadrant (SRP only. Before any treatment, subgingival plaque samples were collected by an endodontic paper cone for microbiological analysis by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detection of Aggregatibacter actinomy-cetecommitans. Clinical parameters including clinical attachment loss (CAL as primary outcome, plaque index (PI, bleed-ing on probing (BOP, probing depth (PD and gingival recession (REC were measured at baseline and after 90 days. Inter-group and intra-group statistical analyses were performed. Results. Treatment groups showed an improvement in all the clinical parameters and a significant reduction in the counts of A. actinomycetecommitans at 90 days compared to baseline (P 0.05. Conclusion. Within the limitations of this study, the results did not show additional benefits from PDT as an adjunctive treatment for patients with aggressive periodontitis.

  20. Amniotic membrane transplantation ineffective as additional therapy in patients with aggressive Mooren's ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallenberg, Maurice; Westekemper, Henrike; Steuhl, Klaus-Peter; Meller, Daniel

    2013-12-17

    Mooren's ulcer is a severe ulcerative inflammation of the cornea. The exact pathogenesis remains unclear. Therefore many therapies of Mooren's ulcer are recommended in literature. To shed more light on the ongoing question of optimal treatment of severe progressive Mooren's ulcer, we here report on a retrospective case series of patients treated with systemic immunosuppressive therapy and additional amniotic membrane transplantation. Medical records from seven patients (eleven eyes), 4 male and 3 female, with severe progressive Mooren's ulcer were analysed retrospectively. The mean follow up was 88.4 ± 80.8 months (range 12-232 month). A HLA-typing was performed in all patients. A systemic immunosuppressive therapy was administered in all patients. The amniotic membrane was transplanted after the base of the ulcer was resected. Multiple amniotic membrane transplantations were necessary in six patients. The visual outcome of all patients was poor. No patient achieved a visual acuity better than 20/630 Snellen chart. Five patients were positive for HLA-DQ2 and four patients were positive for HLA-DR17(3). The aggressive and highly inflammatory form of Mooren's ulcer is difficult to treat and the progression of the disease is hard to influence positively even under systemic immunosuppressive therapy. Therefore, the main intention of therapy is to achieve a stable epithelialized corneal surface without the risk of perforation. Amniotic membrane transplantation is not able to cure severe forms of Mooren's ulcer. However it supports the immunosuppressive therapy in acute situations as in critical corneal thinning.

  1. Empirical Comparison of Three Treatments for Adolescent Males with Physical and Sexual Aggression: Mode Deactivation Therapy, Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Social Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Jennings, Jerry L.; Murphy, Christopher J.; Hunter, Linda A.; Siv, Alexander M.

    2005-01-01

    This research study compared the efficacy of three treatment methodologies for adolescent males in residential treatment with conduct disorders and/or personality dysfunctions and documented problems with physical and sexual aggression. The results showed that Mode Deactivation Therapy, an advanced form of cognitive behavioral therapy based on…

  2. Creating a Safe Place in the Midst of Aggression: Music Therapy in Child Psychiatry

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    Marieke Degryse

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Working as a music therapist in a psychiatric unit for children with learning disabilities, one is often confronted with a lot of aggression. Most of these children have attachment disorders and severe behavioural problems. By which means can music exist in music therapy within this specific setting? Can we speak of a traumatic nature in music and body? This article will present a case study, where finding a safe place within music therapy is of major importance. Learning and listening to songs can be a necessary way to safeguard control for the client, gain some self-confidence, and create a place for regression. Going through this process in finding a safe and contained place within music therapy, the possibility of playing techniques arises, offering the freedom for exploration and a form of control and predictability. The case study concludes with the importance of playfulness whereby traumatic material can be digested through the music. Also, the role of singing songs in music therapy with this population is highlighted briefly.

  3. Music therapy to promote prosocial behaviors in aggressive adolescent boys--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickson, Daphne J; Watkins, William G

    2003-01-01

    This pilot study was undertaken to investigate whether music therapy is effective in promoting prosocial behaviors in aggressive adolescent boys who have social, emotional, and learning difficulties. Fifteen subjects (aged 11-15 years), enrolled at a special residential school in New Zealand, were randomly assigned to music therapy treatment groups (n = 6, n = 5), and a waitlist control group (n = 4). Examination of demographic data identified differences between groups for diagnosis (p =.044), with Group 1 all having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and for age (p =.027), with Group 2 having a mean age 1.38 years older. Measures included parent and teacher versions of the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC-P & DBC-T) (Einfeld & Tonge, 1994; Einfeld, Tonge, & Parmenter, 1998). While no definite treatment effects could be detected, results suggest that a music therapy program promoting autonomy and creativity may help adolescents to interact more appropriately with others in a residential villa setting, but might also lead to a temporary mild increase in disruptive behavior in the classroom. A more highly structured program and smaller group numbers may be advantageous for boys who have ADHD.

  4. Rapid Improvement of thyroid storm-related hemodynamic collapse by aggressive anti-thyroid therapy including steroid pulse

    OpenAIRE

    Kiriyama, Hiroyuki; Amiya, Eisuke; Hatano, Masaru; Hosoya, Yumiko; Maki, Hisataka; Nitta, Daisuke; Saito, Akihito; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Minatsuki, Shun; Sato, Tatsuyuki; Murakami, Haruka; Uehara, Masae; Manaka, Katsunori; Makita, Noriko; Watanabe, Masafumi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Heart failure is relatively common in patients with hyperthyroidism, but thyrotoxic cardiomyopathy with poor left ventricular (LV) systolic function is very rare. Patient concerns: We experienced a representative case of a patient who presented with severe LV dysfunction related to thyroid storm and needed extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) temporally. Diagnosis: Thyrotoxic cardiomyopathy. Interventions and Outcomes: Aggressive antithyroid therapy, including steroi...

  5. Positron emission tomography in patients with aggressive fibromatosis/desmoid tumours undergoing therapy with imatinib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasper, Bernd; Hohenberger, Peter [University of Heidelberg, Sarcoma Unit, ITM - Interdisciplinary Tumor Center Mannheim, Mannheim University Medical Center, Mannheim (Germany); Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia; Strauss, Ludwig G. [German Cancer Research Center, Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    We used {sup 18}F-FDG PET to evaluate the FDG uptake in patients with aggressive fibromatosis (AF, also known as desmoid tumours) undergoing therapy with imatinib (imatinib mesylate, Glivec). The pilot study included nine patients with progressive AF receiving oral treatment with imatinib at a daily dose of 800 mg. Patients were examined using PET prior to the start of therapy and during imatinib treatment. Restaging according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) was performed in parallel using CT and/or MRI and served as reference. The clinical outcomes in nine evaluable patients were as follows: seven patients with stable disease, and two patients with progressive disease. A 27% decrease in the median average standardized uptake value (SUV) of the sequential PET examinations was demonstrated in all evaluable patients with three patients (33%) showing a decrease in SUV of more than 40% (48%, 52% and 54%, respectively); no patient showed a substantial increase in SUV. To our knowledge, this is the first series of AF patients undergoing treatment with imatinib and monitored using sequential PET imaging, that allows detection of SUV changes after imatinib induction, thus helping to decide whether treatment should be continued or not. (orig.)

  6. Androgen-deprivation therapy-induced aggressive prostate cancer with neuroendocrine differentiation

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    Julia Lipianskaya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Most prostate cancers (PCas are classified as acinar type (conventional adenocarcinoma which are composed of tumor cells with luminal differentiation including the expression of androgen receptor (AR and prostate-specific antigen (PSA. There are also scattered neuroendocrine (NE cells in every case of adenocarcinoma. The NE cells are quiesecent, do not express AR or PSA, and their function remains unclear. We have demonstrated that IL8-CXCR2-P53 pathway provides a growth-inhibitory signal and keeps the NE cells in benign prostate and adenocarcinoma quiescent. Interestingly, some patients with a history of adenocarcinoma recur with small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNC after hormonal therapy, and such tumors are composed of pure NE cells that are highly proliferative and aggressive, due to P53 mutation and inactivation of the IL8-CXCR2-P53 pathway. The incidence of SCNC will likely increase due to the widespread use of novel drugs that further inhibit AR function or intratumoral androgen synthesis. A phase II trial has demonstrated that platinum-based chemotherapy may be useful for such therapy-induced tumors.

  7. Long-Term Follow-Up of a Prospective Trial of Trimodality Therapy of Weekly Paclitaxel, Radiation, and Androgen Deprivation in High-Risk Prostate Cancer With or Without Prior Prostatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Arif, E-mail: ahussain@som.umaryland.edu [University of Maryland Greenebaum Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Baltimore VA Medical Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wu, Yin [Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Mirmiran, Alireza [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); DiBiase, Steven [Cooper University Hospital, Camden, NJ (United States); Goloubeva, Olga [University of Maryland Greenebaum Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Bridges, Benjamin [University of Maryland Greenebaum Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Mannuel, Heather [University of Maryland Greenebaum Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Baltimore VA Medical Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Engstrom, Christine [Baltimore VA Medical Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Dawson, Nancy [Lombardi Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C (United States); Amin, Pradip; Kwok, Young [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Weekly paclitaxel, concurrent radiation, and androgen deprivation (ADT) were evaluated in patients with high-risk prostate cancer (PC) with or without prior prostatectomy (RP). Methods and Materials: Eligible post-RP patients included: pathological T3 disease, or rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) {>=}0.5 ng/mL post-RP. Eligible locally advanced PC (LAPC) patients included: 1) cT2b-4N0N+, M0; 2) Gleason score (GS) 8-10; 3) GS 7 + PSA 10-20 ng/mL; or 4) PSA 20-150 ng/mL. Treatment included ADT (4 or 24 months), weekly paclitaxel (40, 50, or 60 mg/m{sup 2}/wk), and pelvic radiation therapy (total dose: RP = 64.8 Gy; LAPC = 70.2 Gy). Results: Fifty-nine patients were enrolled (LAPC, n = 29; RP, n = 30; ADT 4 months, n = 29; 24 months, n = 30; whites n = 29, African Americans [AA], n = 28). Baseline characteristics (median [range]) were: age 67 (45-86 years), PSA 5.9 (0.1-92.1 ng/mL), GS 8 (6-9). At escalating doses of paclitaxel, 99%, 98%, and 95% of doses were given with radiation and ADT, respectively, with dose modifications required primarily in RP patients. No acute Grade 4 toxicities occurred. Grade 3 toxicities were diarrhea 15%, urinary urgency/incontinence 10%, tenesmus 5%, and leukopenia 3%. Median follow-up was 75.3 months (95% CI: 66.8-82.3). Biochemical progression occurred in 24 (41%) patients and clinical progression in 11 (19%) patients. The 5- and 7-year OS rates were 83% and 67%. There were no differences in OS between RP and LAPC, 4- and 24-month ADT, white and AA patient categories. Conclusions: In addition to LAPC, to our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate concurrent chemoradiation with ADT in high-risk RP patients. With a median follow-up of 75.3 months, this trial also represents the longest follow-up of patients treated with taxane-based chemotherapy with EBRT in high-risk prostate cancer. Concurrent ADT, radiation, and weekly paclitaxel at 40 mg/m{sup 2}/week in RP patients and 60 mg/m{sup 2}/week in LAPC patients is

  8. Long-Term Follow-Up of a Prospective Trial of Trimodality Therapy of Weekly Paclitaxel, Radiation, and Androgen Deprivation in High-Risk Prostate Cancer With or Without Prior Prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Arif; Wu, Yin; Mirmiran, Alireza; DiBiase, Steven; Goloubeva, Olga; Bridges, Benjamin; Mannuel, Heather; Engstrom, Christine; Dawson, Nancy; Amin, Pradip; Kwok, Young

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Weekly paclitaxel, concurrent radiation, and androgen deprivation (ADT) were evaluated in patients with high-risk prostate cancer (PC) with or without prior prostatectomy (RP). Methods and Materials: Eligible post-RP patients included: pathological T3 disease, or rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥0.5 ng/mL post-RP. Eligible locally advanced PC (LAPC) patients included: 1) cT2b-4N0N+, M0; 2) Gleason score (GS) 8–10; 3) GS 7 + PSA 10–20 ng/mL; or 4) PSA 20–150 ng/mL. Treatment included ADT (4 or 24 months), weekly paclitaxel (40, 50, or 60 mg/m 2 /wk), and pelvic radiation therapy (total dose: RP = 64.8 Gy; LAPC = 70.2 Gy). Results: Fifty-nine patients were enrolled (LAPC, n = 29; RP, n = 30; ADT 4 months, n = 29; 24 months, n = 30; whites n = 29, African Americans [AA], n = 28). Baseline characteristics (median [range]) were: age 67 (45–86 years), PSA 5.9 (0.1–92.1 ng/mL), GS 8 (6–9). At escalating doses of paclitaxel, 99%, 98%, and 95% of doses were given with radiation and ADT, respectively, with dose modifications required primarily in RP patients. No acute Grade 4 toxicities occurred. Grade 3 toxicities were diarrhea 15%, urinary urgency/incontinence 10%, tenesmus 5%, and leukopenia 3%. Median follow-up was 75.3 months (95% CI: 66.8–82.3). Biochemical progression occurred in 24 (41%) patients and clinical progression in 11 (19%) patients. The 5- and 7-year OS rates were 83% and 67%. There were no differences in OS between RP and LAPC, 4- and 24-month ADT, white and AA patient categories. Conclusions: In addition to LAPC, to our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate concurrent chemoradiation with ADT in high-risk RP patients. With a median follow-up of 75.3 months, this trial also represents the longest follow-up of patients treated with taxane-based chemotherapy with EBRT in high-risk prostate cancer. Concurrent ADT, radiation, and weekly paclitaxel at 40 mg/m 2 /week in RP patients and 60 mg/m 2 /week in LAPC patients is

  9. Treatment-Related Predictive and Prognostic Factors in Trimodality Approach in Stage IIIA/N2 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremić, Branislav; Casas, Francesc; Dubinsky, Pavol; Gomez-Caamano, Antonio; Čihorić, Nikola; Videtic, Gregory; Igrutinovic, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    While there are no established pretreatment predictive and prognostic factors in patients with stage IIIA/pN2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) indicating a benefit to surgery as a part of trimodality approach, little is known about treatment-related predictive and prognostic factors in this setting. A literature search was conducted to identify possible treatment-related predictive and prognostic factors for patients for whom trimodality approach was reported on. Overall survival was the primary endpoint of this study. Of 30 identified studies, there were two phase II studies, 5 "prospective" studies, and 23 retrospective studies. No study was found which specifically looked at treatment-related predictive factors of improved outcomes in trimodality treatment. Of potential treatment-related prognostic factors, the least frequently analyzed factors among 30 available studies were overall pathologic stage after preoperative treatment and UICC downstaging. Evaluation of treatment response before surgery and by pathologic tumor stage after induction therapy were analyzed in slightly more than 40% of studies and found not to influence survival. More frequently studied factors-resection status, degree of tumor regression, and pathologic nodal stage after induction therapy as well as the most frequently studied factor, the treatment (in almost 75% studies)-showed no discernible impact on survival, due to conflicting results. Currently, it is impossible to identify any treatment-related predictive or prognostic factors for selecting surgery in the treatment of patients with stage IIIA/pN2 NSCLC.

  10. Homeopathy and Isopathy in the periodontal maintenance therapy of aggressive periodontitis patients - doi:10.5020/18061230.2007.p243

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edivaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal maintenance care is an essential part of periodontal therapy for patients diagnosed with Aggressive Periodontitis, being, however, hard to instruct and to motivate these patients to follow a careful and effective program of maintenance for all their lives. A literature review was done, by means of relevant papers published on the last four decades, pointing out the importance of individual susceptibility for the appearance of aggressive periodontitis and to discuss the importance of a maintenance therapy on its treatment, applying Homeopathy and Isopathy. Homeopathy consists on a complex therapeutic system mainly based on the “Law of Similarity”, that is, the illness may be healed by drugs that produce similar symptoms in a healthy organism and, in this conception, the disease is understood as an energetic unbalance, in which internal and external factors acting on the subject’s susceptibility are considered and can be expressed by an individual symptomathology that goes from the rational sphere to the somatic sphere. On the other hand, Isopathy is the method of treatment with therapeutic agent, which actions on a healthy subject consist on pharmacodynamic manifestations similar to those observed in a sick person. Based on these concepts, the authors establish a hypothesis of the effectiveness of Homeopathy and Isopathy, the latter through auto-medications or auto-biotherapies, that are products which the active principal is obtained from the patient himself (gingival tissue and secretions, and that may be used as auxiliary treatments in the maintenance therapy of Aggressive Periodontitis.

  11. Non-surgical periodontal therapy decreases serum elastase levels in aggressive but not in chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickholz, Peter; Siegelin, Yasemin; Scharf, Susanne; Schacher, Beate; Oremek, Gerhard M; Sauer-Eppel, Hildegund; Schubert, Ralf; Wohlfeil, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Assessment of the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy (SRP) on serum inflammatory parameters in patients with untreated aggressive (AgP) and chronic (ChP) periodontitis. Overall, 31 ChP and 29 AgP were examined clinically prior to and 12 weeks after SRP (subgingival scaling of all pockets within 2 days) with systemic antibiotics for patients positive for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (14 AgP, 9 ChP). Blood was sampled prior to, one day, 6, and 12 weeks after the first SRP visit. Serum elastase, C-reactive protein (CRP), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), interleukin (IL) 6, 8, and leukocyte counts were assessed. At baseline, serum elastase, CRP, and LBP were significantly (p < 0.01) higher in AgP than ChP. Serum elastase, CRP, LBP, and IL-6 were significantly (p < 0.001) elevated one day after scaling in both groups. Both groups showed significant clinical improvement (p < 0.001). A significant difference was observed regarding change of serum elastase 12 weeks after SRP between AgP and ChP (p = 0.015). Multiple regression analysis revealed AgP, African origin, and bleeding on probing to be associated with more pronounced elastase reduction. CRP reduction was associated with African origin, systemic antibiotics, and baseline probing pocket depth. SRP results in serum elastase reduction in AgP but not in ChP. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Combination therapy with mitoxantrone and plasma exchange in aggressive relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: A preliminary clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Tabrizi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of mitoxantrone induction therapy in rapidly worsening multiple sclerosis (MS is well established. Plasma exchange is also applied as an adjuvant in exacerbations of relapsing MS. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of combination therapy with mitoxantrone and plasma exchange versus mitoxantrone alone in patients with aggressive MS. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with aggressive relapsing remitting MS were randomly put into two groups. The first group underwent monthly plasma exchange for three successive months, followed by 12 mg/m 2 mitoxantrone at the end of each course and two more doses of 6 mg/m 2 mitoxantrone in 3-month intervals. The second group received the same doses of mitoxantrone only without plasma exchange. At the end of 8 months treatment course, clinical reassessment and neuroimaging was performed and treatment was continued with interferon-β. Results: At the end of induction therapy, Expanded Disability Status Scale score was significantly improved in both groups (P < 0.001. Number of demyelinating and gadolinium-enhancing plaques in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was prominently reduced in group 2 (P ≤ 0.05, but the changes were not statistically significant in group 1, except for juxtacortical plaques. Conclusion: Administration of mitoxantrone as an induction therapy in patients of aggressive relapsing remitting MS results in significant improvement of their clinical state and MRI activity. However, combination of plasma exchange with mitoxantrone gives no more benefits than mitoxantrone alone and sometimes worsens the situation possibly by reduction of mitoxantrone efficacy as a result of plasma exchange.

  13. Trimode optimizes hybrid power plants. Final report: Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Sullivan, G.A.; O`Sullivan, J.A. [Abacus Controls, Inc., Somerville, NJ (United States)

    1998-07-01

    In the Phase 2 project, Abacus Controls Inc. did research and development of hybrid systems that combine the energy sources from photovoltaics, batteries, and diesel-generators and demonstrated that they are economically feasible for small power plants in many parts of the world. The Trimode Power Processor reduces the fuel consumption of the diesel-generator to its minimum by presenting itself as the perfect electrical load to the generator. A 30-kW three-phase unit was tested at Sandia National Laboratories to prove its worthiness in actual field conditions. The use of photovoltaics at remote locations where reliability of supply requires a diesel-generator will lower costs to operate by reducing the run time of the diesel generator. The numerous benefits include longer times between maintenance for the diesel engine and better power quality from the generator. 32 figs.

  14. The Efficacy of Rational-Emotive-Behavioral versus Relaxation Group Therapies in Treatment of Aggression of Offspring of Veterans with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Barekatain

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in war veterans has been linked with symptoms in their children, including symptoms resembling those of the traumatized parents, especially aggression. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy in reducing aggressive behaviors of male adolescents whose fathers have war related PTSD. Method: 36 male children (aged 11 19 years whose fathers had PTSD, were randomly assigned into three groups for Rational-Emotive- Behavioral Therapy (REBT, Relaxation Therapy, and Wait-List control group. Each method had a course of ten therapeutic group sessions of 60 minutes once a week. Rates of aggression were assessed by Aggression Questionnaire (AGQ at baseline, end of intervention, and two months later. Results: The difference between AGQ scores of three groups was statistically significant. The behaviors of the three groups were not homogenous across the time (group × time interaction and showed a statistically significant difference. Conclusion: This study revealed that the intervention groups were superior to control group in reduction of aggressive behaviors in male adolescents of war veterans with PTSD. Further studies with greater sample size, prolonged duration of follow up, and multiple assessment procedures may be needed for better conclusions. Key words: Aggression, offspring, PTSD, Group Therapy

  15. From Violent Rap to Lovely Blues: The Transformation of Aggressive Behavior through Vocal Music Therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meadows, Tony; Uhlig, S.

    2011-01-01

    The voice as a primary therapeutic instrument will be addressed in this chapter. Through vocal expression, chaos can be transformed into order – crying into singing, aggressive shouting into the structure of a rap song. This transformation of emotions demonstrates the ability to change behavior and

  16. Late small bowel toxicity after aggressive abdominopelvic intensity modulated radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ling, BA

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: It may be possible with IMRT to deliver high doses to small volumes of small bowel with low rates of significant long-term complications. Further studies should explore tolerable dose-volume relationships in cases in which aggressive abdominal or pelvic treatment may be warranted to treat the underlying malignancy.

  17. Cognitive behavioral therapy to reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Li, Chun; Wang, Hong; Ou, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Song; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    This 9-week study was designed to determine whether a commercial cognitive-behavioral training program could effectively reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders. Sixty-six participants were randomly assigned to receive routine intervention alone (control group) or routine intervention plus Williams LifeSkills Training (WLST group) in a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcome was change scores on the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) from baseline to one week following end of training. Secondary outcomes were change scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (CMHS). There were significant between-group differences in change of MOAS total score (P behavior in young male violent offenders. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Reduction in arterial wall strain with aggressive lipid-lowering therapy in patients with carotid artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong, Li Zhi [School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China); Tang, T Y; Gillard, J H [School of Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Fan, Jiang; Yun, Zhang [Qilu Hospital, Shandong Univ., Jinan (China)

    2011-05-15

    Inflammation and biomechanical factors have been associated with the development of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. Lipid-lowering therapy has been shown to be effective in stabilizing them by reducing plaque inflammation. Its effect on arterial wall strain, however, remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of high- and low-dose lipid-lowering therapy using an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, atorvastatin, on arterial wall strain. Forty patients with carotid stenosis >40% were successfully followed up during the Atorvastatin Therapy: Effects on Reduction Of Macrophage Activity (ATHEROMA; ISRCTN64894118) Trial. All patients had plaque inflammation as shown by intraplaque accumulation of ultrasmall super paramagnetic particles of iron oxide on magnetic resonance imaging at baseline. Structural analysis was performed and change of strain was compared between high- and low-dose statin at 0 and 12 weeks. There was no significant difference in strain between the 2 groups at baseline (P=0.6). At 12 weeks, the maximum strain was significantly lower in the 80-mg group than in the 10-mg group (0.085{+-}0.033 vs. 0.169{+-}0.084; P=0.001). A significant reduction (26%) of maximum strain was observed in the 80-mg group at 12 weeks (0.018{+-}0.02; P=0.01). Aggressive lipid-lowering therapy is associated with a significant reduction in arterial wall strain. The reduction in biomechanical strain may be associated with reductions in plaque inflammatory burden. (author)

  19. The amygdala in schizophrenia: a trimodal magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalus, Peter; Slotboom, Johannes; Gallinat, Jürgen; Wiest, Roland; Ozdoba, Christoph; Federspiel, Andrea; Strik, Werner K; Buri, Caroline; Schroth, Gerhard; Kiefer, Claus

    2005-03-03

    In schizophrenic psychoses, structural and functional alterations of the amygdala have been demonstrated by several neuroimaging studies. However, postmortem examinations on the brains of schizophrenics did not confirm the volume changes reported by volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. In order to address these contradictory findings and to further elucidate the possibly underlying pathophysiological process of the amygdala, we employed a trimodal MRI design including high-resolution volumetry, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and quantitative magnetization transfer imaging (qMTI) in a sample of 14 schizophrenic patients and 14 matched controls. Three-dimensional MRI volumetry revealed a significant reduction of amygdala raw volumes in the patient group, while amygdala volumes normalized for intracranial volume did not differ between the two groups. The regional diffusional anisotropy of the amygdala, expressed as inter-voxel coherence (COH), showed a marked and significant reduction in schizophrenics. Assessment of qMTI parameters yielded significant group differences for the T2 time of the bound proton pool and the T1 time of the free proton pool, while the semi-quantitative magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) did not differ between the groups. The application of multimodal MRI protocols is diagnostically relevant for the differentiation between schizophrenic patients and controls and provides a new strategy for the detection and characterization of subtle structural alterations in defined regions of the living brain.

  20. Rates and Durability of Response to Salvage Radiation Therapy Among Patients With Refractory or Relapsed Aggressive Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, Yolanda D.; Chen, Yu-Hui; Catalano, Paul J.; Ng, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the response rate (RR) and time to local recurrence (TTLR) among patients who received salvage radiation therapy for relapsed or refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and investigate whether RR and TTLR differed according to disease characteristics. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was performed for all patients who completed a course of salvage radiation therapy between January 2001 and May 2011 at Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. Separate analyses were conducted for patients treated with palliative and curative intent. Predictors of RR for each subgroup were assessed using a generalized estimating equation model. For patients treated with curative intent, local control (LC) and progression-free survival were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method; predictors for TTLR were evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results: Salvage radiation therapy was used to treat 110 patients to 121 sites (76 curative, 45 palliative). Salvage radiation therapy was given as part of consolidation in 18% of patients treated with curative intent. Median dose was 37.8 Gy, with 58% and 36% of curative and palliative patients, respectively, receiving 39.6 Gy or higher. The RR was high (86% curative, 84% palliative). With a median follow-up of 4.8 years among living patients, 5-year LC and progression-free survival for curative patients were 66% and 34%, respectively. Refractory disease (hazard ratio 3.3; P=.024) and lack of response to initial chemotherapy (hazard ratio 4.3; P=.007) but not dose (P=.93) were associated with shorter TTLR. Despite doses of 39.6 Gy or higher, 2-year LC was only 61% for definitive patients with refractory disease or disease that did not respond to initial chemotherapy. Conclusions: Relapsed or refractory aggressive NHL is responsive to salvage radiation therapy, and durable LC can be achieved in some cases. However, refractory disease is associated with a

  1. A tri-modality image fusion method for target delineation of brain tumors in radiotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Guo

    Full Text Available To develop a tri-modality image fusion method for better target delineation in image-guided radiotherapy for patients with brain tumors.A new method of tri-modality image fusion was developed, which can fuse and display all image sets in one panel and one operation. And a feasibility study in gross tumor volume (GTV delineation using data from three patients with brain tumors was conducted, which included images of simulation CT, MRI, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET examinations before radiotherapy. Tri-modality image fusion was implemented after image registrations of CT+PET and CT+MRI, and the transparency weight of each modality could be adjusted and set by users. Three radiation oncologists delineated GTVs for all patients using dual-modality (MRI/CT and tri-modality (MRI/CT/PET image fusion respectively. Inter-observer variation was assessed by the coefficient of variation (COV, the average distance between surface and centroid (ADSC, and the local standard deviation (SDlocal. Analysis of COV was also performed to evaluate intra-observer volume variation.The inter-observer variation analysis showed that, the mean COV was 0.14(± 0.09 and 0.07(± 0.01 for dual-modality and tri-modality respectively; the standard deviation of ADSC was significantly reduced (p<0.05 with tri-modality; SDlocal averaged over median GTV surface was reduced in patient 2 (from 0.57 cm to 0.39 cm and patient 3 (from 0.42 cm to 0.36 cm with the new method. The intra-observer volume variation was also significantly reduced (p = 0.00 with the tri-modality method as compared with using the dual-modality method.With the new tri-modality image fusion method smaller inter- and intra-observer variation in GTV definition for the brain tumors can be achieved, which improves the consistency and accuracy for target delineation in individualized radiotherapy.

  2. Reduction in arterial wall strain with aggressive lipid-lowering therapy in patients with carotid artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhi Yong; Tang, T.Y.; Gillard, J.H.; Jiang Fan; Zhang Yun

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation and biomechanical factors have been associated with the development of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. Lipid-lowering therapy has been shown to be effective in stabilizing them by reducing plaque inflammation. Its effect on arterial wall strain, however, remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of high- and low-dose lipid-lowering therapy using an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, atorvastatin, on arterial wall strain. Forty patients with carotid stenosis >40% were successfully followed up during the Atorvastatin Therapy: Effects on Reduction Of Macrophage Activity (ATHEROMA; ISRCTN64894118) Trial. All patients had plaque inflammation as shown by intraplaque accumulation of ultrasmall super paramagnetic particles of iron oxide on magnetic resonance imaging at baseline. Structural analysis was performed and change of strain was compared between high- and low-dose statin at 0 and 12 weeks. There was no significant difference in strain between the 2 groups at baseline (P=0.6). At 12 weeks, the maximum strain was significantly lower in the 80-mg group than in the 10-mg group (0.085±0.033 vs. 0.169±0.084; P=0.001). A significant reduction (26%) of maximum strain was observed in the 80-mg group at 12 weeks (0.018±0.02; P=0.01). Aggressive lipid-lowering therapy is associated with a significant reduction in arterial wall strain. The reduction in biomechanical strain may be associated with reductions in plaque inflammatory burden. (author)

  3. A commentary on TREAT: The trial of early aggressive drug therapy in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baildam Eileen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is a category of JIA where multiple joints are affected by chronic inflammation, and where serious and lasting damage to joints is the expected natural history in untreated disease. There is evidence of response to disease-modifying antirheumatic and biologic drugs, but little evidence of permanent remission from any of the existing therapeutic trials. The TREAT trial by Wallace et al., recently published in Arthritis and Rheumatism, used a collaborative multicenter approach to studying early aggressive treatment of polyarticular JIA in an attempt to achieve full clinical inactive disease after 6 months of treatment. The study's main finding that the earlier in the disease course that treatment is started, the better the chance of disease control, has provided evidence that there is a 'window of opportunity' for treating JIA as there is in adult rheumatoid arthritis (RA. The study provides both a platform and an impetus for concentrating future treatment trials on early rather than established disease and investigating a standard of starting treatment within 10 to 12 weeks.

  4. Temozolomide therapy for aggressive pituitary Crooke's cells corticotropinoma causing Cushing's Disease: A case report with literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilis-Januszewska, Aleksandra; Wilusz, Małgorzata; Pantofliński, Jacek; Turek-Jabrocka, Renata; Sokołowski, Grzegorz; Sowa-Staszczak, Anna; Kluczyński, Łukasz; Pach, Dorota; Zieliński, Grzegorz; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja

    2018-01-10

    AbstractContext: Aggressive pituitary tumours causing Cushing's Disease are very rare, difficult to treat, and usually resistant to conventional therapy. There is growing evidence for the use of temozolomide (TZM), an alkylating chemotherapeutic agent, as first line chemotherapy in tumours resistant to repeated neurosurgery, radiotherapy and adrenalectomy. To present the response to TMZ in a rare case of an aggressive pituitary tumour in the course of Cushing's Disease and to review the literature referring to similar cases. In this report, we present the case of a 61 year old male patient who was diagnosed with Cushing's Disease in the course of a pituitary invasive macroadenoma in 2011. The patient underwent 4 transphenoidal non-radical neurosurgeries (2012,2013) with rapid tumour progression, repeated non-radical bilateral adrenalectomy (2012, 2013) and stereotactic radiotherapy, and gamma knife surgery (2013, 2015). Histopathological examination revealed macroadenoma with high cell polymorphism and the presence of Crooke's cells, Ki-<2%. Since 2015 the patient has been treated with 6 cycles of TMZ (320 mg per day for 5 consecutive days, 28-day cycle) with clinical and biochemical improvement and stabilized tumour size and no side effects. TMZ was continued for up to 9 cycles with a stable serum level of cortisol and ACTH being observed. However, clinical symptoms like headaches, visual field impairment, and finally hearing loss started to progress from the eighth cycle. After the ninth cycle of TMZ, there was a sudden increase in the size of the tumour, impairment of the cortisol and ACTH level, marked deterioration of the clinical status with the recurrence of severe headaches, narrowing of the visual field and hearing loss. At the beginning of 2016, a sudden clinical status and sight deterioration, strong headaches, drop of the right eyelid with widening of the pupil were observed. The patient died in February 2016. The case of our patient suggests that the

  5. Mortality after acute trauma: Progressive decreasing rather than a trimodal distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Negoi

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: The trimodal time distribution of mortality remains a milestone in trauma education and research. Nevertheless, it must be questioned in the modern and very efficient trauma systems, but still very actual for developing trauma care systems. In conclusion, the pattern of mortality due to major trauma seems decreasing continuously with time rather than presenting high peaks of frequency at some moments.

  6. Clinical Evaluation of Endoscopic Trimodal Imaging for the Detection and Differentiation of Colonic Polyps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Frank J. C.; Fockens, Paul; van Eeden, Susanne; Kara, Mohammed A.; Hardwick, James C. H.; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Dekker, Evelien

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims: Endoscopic trimodal imaging (ETMI) incorporates high-resolution endoscopy (HRE) and autofluorescence imaging (AFI) for adenoma detection, and narrow-band imaging (NBI) for differentiation of adenomas from nonneoplastic polyps. The aim of this study was to compare AFI with HRE for

  7. Animal-assisted therapy with chronic psychiatric inpatients: equine-assisted psychotherapy and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurenberg, Jeffry R; Schleifer, Steven J; Shaffer, Thomas M; Yellin, Mary; Desai, Prital J; Amin, Ruchi; Bouchard, Axel; Montalvo, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Animal-assisted therapy (AAT), most frequently used with dogs, is being used increasingly as an adjunctive alternative treatment for psychiatric patients. AAT with larger animals, such as horses, may have unique benefits. In this randomized controlled study, equine and canine forms of AAT were compared with standard treatments for hospitalized psychiatric patients to determine AAT effects on violent behavior and related measures. The study included 90 patients with recent in-hospital violent behavior or highly regressed behavior. Hospitalization at the 500-bed state psychiatric hospital was two months or longer (mean 5.4 years). Participants were randomly selected to receive ten weekly group therapy sessions of standardized equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP), canine-assisted psychotherapy (CAP), enhanced social skills psychotherapy, or regular hospital care. Participants' mean age was 44, 37% were female, 76% had diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and 56% had been committed involuntarily for civil or forensic reasons. Violence-related incident reports filed by staff in the three months after study intake were compared with reports two months preintake. Interventions were well tolerated. Analyses revealed an intervention group effect (F=3.00, df=3 and 86, p=.035); post hoc tests showed specific benefits of EAP (p<.05). Similar AAT effects were found for the incidence of 1:1 clinical observation (F=2.70, df=3 and 86, p=.051); post hoc tests suggested benefits of CAP (p=.058) as well as EAP (p=.082). Covariance analyses indicated that staff can predict which patients are likely to benefit from EAP (p=.01). AAT, and perhaps EAP uniquely, may be an effective therapeutic modality for long-term psychiatric patients at risk of violence.

  8. Aggressive B cell Lymphoma: Optimal Therapy for MYC-positive, Double-Hit, and Triple-Hit DLBCL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunleavy, Kieron

    2015-12-01

    Approximately 10% of cases of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) harbor a MYC rearrangement and this has been associated with an inferior outcome following standard therapy across many different studies. Double-hit and triple-hit lymphomas harbor concurrent rearrangements of MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 and are also associated with a very aggressive course and poor clinical outcome. It is unclear and there is lack of consensus on how these diseases should be approached therapeutically. They are characterized typically by high tumor proliferation and likely require Burkitt lymphoma-type strategies and several retrospective studies suggest that more intensive approaches than rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) may be beneficial. One challenge in this respect is that most patients with these diseases are older than 60 years and generally have poor tolerability of regimens typically used in Burkitt lymphoma. Dose-adjusted EPOCH-R is an alternative effective immunochemotherapy platform for DLBCL and is effective in Burkitt lymphoma, and retrospective studies suggest that it is effective and feasible in patients with DLBCL that harbors a MYC rearrangement with or without a BCL-2 translocation (double-hit). A multicenter study of this approach in MYC-rearranged DLBCL is ongoing and preliminary results are very encouraging. There is a lack of consensus on the role of consolidation stem cell transplantation in patients who achieve a good response to initial therapy but at this point in time, no (retrospective) studies have demonstrated any benefit. These diseases are also associated with a high rate of CNS involvement and progression and checking for cerebrospinal fluid by cytology and flow cytometry at initial diagnosis should be considered. In summary, based on retrospective data and preliminary prospective data (as more mature data is awaited), while Burkitt-type regimens may be feasible in young patients, DA-EPOCH-R is a

  9. Reduction of the treated volume to involved node radiation therapy as part of combined modality treatment for early stage aggressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhappen, Marieke H.; Poortmans, Philip M.P.; Raaijmakers, Esther; Raemaekers, John M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: This retrospective study investigated whether focused involved node radiation therapy (INRT) can safely replace involved field RT (IFRT) in patients with early stage aggressive NHL. Patients and methods: We included 258 patients with stage I/II aggressive NHL who received combined modality treatment (87%) or primary RT alone (13%). RT consisted of a total dose of 30–40 Gy in 15–20 fractions IFRT or INRT. We compared survival, relapse pattern, radiation-related toxicity and quality of life for both RT techniques. Results: Type of RT was not related to the outcome in either the uni- or multivariate survival analysis. Relapses developed in 59 of 252 patients (23%) of which 47 (80%) were documented as distant recurrence only. Failure of the INRT technique was noted in one patient. There was no significant difference in acute radiation-related toxicity between RT-groups but IFRT showed a significantly higher incidence of higher grade toxicities. Patients treated with INRT had a significantly better physical functioning and global quality of life compared to the IFRT group. Conclusions: Given the retrospective nature of this study, no solid conclusions can be drawn. However, in view of the equivalent efficacy and more favorable toxicity profile, the replacement of IFRT by INRT in combination with chemo-(immuno)-therapy looks very attractive for patients with early stage aggressive NHL

  10. Microstructure, cold workability and strain hardening behavior of trimodaled AA 6061-TiO2 nanocomposite prepared by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivasankaran, S.; Sivaprasad, K.; Narayanasamy, R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Trimodaled composites consisting of UFG and CG matrix phases and ceramic phase were produced successfully. → Cold deformation behavior was investigated. → The 15% CG trimodaled composite yielded a high compressive strength of 935 MPa. → The 30% CG composite exhibited higher ductility while maintaining strength and toughness. - Abstract: In the present work, the improvement of compressive ductility while maintaining high strength and toughness for nanocrystalline materials by cold upsetting (incremental loads) of bulk trimodaled composite was studied. Mechanically alloyed nanocrystalline (NC) AA 6061 alloy powders reinforced with nano TiO 2 were blended with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 wt.% coarse grain (CG) elemental powders related to AA 6061 alloy composition to produce trimodal microstructure. The synthesized composite preforms were characterized by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The room temperature compressive deformation behavior was evaluated under triaxial stress state condition. With increasing percentage of CG phase in the nanocomposite, the gradual improvement in compressive ductility was observed at the cost of a small amount of strength but it favored the ease of deformation. The 15% CG trimodal composite exhibited an extremely high compressive strength of 935 MPa due to non-coalescence of individual CG particles and effective load transfer occurred in multi scale microstructures. But the 30% CG trimodal composite showed an incremental compressive ductility of around 16% while sacrificing a small amount of strength (845 MPa) and this composite displayed improved toughness (area under true effective stress and true effective strain curve) of over 600% than nanocomposite (0% CG). Also, the percentage cold workability of 30% CG composite was six times higher than that of 0% CG composite. Hence, the 30% CG trimodal composite was observed to be the good one as

  11. Efficacy and toxicity of replication-competent adenovirus-mediated double suicide gene therapy in combination with radiation therapy in an orthotopic mouse prostate cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freytag, Svend O.; Paielli, Dell; Wing, Mark; Rogulski, Ken; Brown, Steve; Kolozsvary, Andy; Seely, John; Barton, Ken; Dragovic, Alek; Kim, Jae Ho

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of replication-competent adenovirus-mediated double suicide gene therapy in an adjuvant setting with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in an experimental prostate cancer model in preparation for a Phase I clinical study in humans. Methods: For efficacy studies, i.m. DU145 and intraprostatic LNCaP C4-2 tumors were established in immune-deficient mice. Tumors were injected with the lytic, replication-competent Ad5-CD/TKrep adenovirus containing a cytosine deaminase (CD)/herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-1 TK) fusion gene. Two days later, mice were administered 1 week of 5-fluorocytosine + ganciclovir (GCV) prodrug therapy and fractionated doses of EBRT (trimodal therapy). Tumor control rate of trimodal therapy was compared to that of EBRT alone. For toxicology studies, immune-competent male mice received a single intraprostatic injection (10 10 vp) of the replication-competent Ad5-CD/TKrep adenovirus. Two days later, mice were administered 4 weeks of 5-fluorocytosine + GCV prodrug therapy and 56 Gy EBRT to the pelvic region. The toxicity of trimodal therapy was assessed by histopathologic analysis of major organs and clinical chemistries. Results: In both the i.m. DU145 and intraprostatic LNCaP C4-2 tumor models, trimodal therapy significantly improved primary tumor control beyond that of EBRT alone. In the DU145 model, trimodal therapy resulted in a tumor growth delay (70 days) that was more than twice that (32 days) of EBRT alone. Whereas EBRT failed to eradicate DU145 tumors, trimodal therapy resulted in 25% tumor cure. In the LNCaP C4-2 tumor model, EBRT slowed the growth of intraprostatic tumors, but resulted in no tumor cures, and 57% of the mice developed retroperitoneal lymph node metastases at 3 months. By contrast, trimodal therapy resulted in 44% tumor cure and reduced significantly the percentage (13%) of lymph node metastases relative to EBRT alone. Overall

  12. Head-to-head comparison of aggressive conventional therapy and three biological treatments and comparison of two de-escalation strategies in patients who respond to treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glinatsi, Daniel; Heiberg, Marte S; Rudin, Anna

    2017-01-01

    -label, assessor-blinded, phase 4 study, 800 patients with early RA (symptom duration less than 24 months) are randomized 1:1:1:1 to one of four different treatment arms: (1) aggressive csDMARD therapy with methotrexate + sulphasalazine + hydroxychloroquine + i.a. glucocorticoids (arm 1A) or methotrexate...... + prednisolone p.o. (arm 1B), (2) methotrexate + certolizumab-pegol, (3) methotrexate + abatacept, or (4) methotrexate + tocilizumab. The primary clinical endpoint is the proportion of patients reaching Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) remission at week 24. Patients in stable remission over 24 consecutive...

  13. Effect of Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy on Interleukin-29 Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid of Chronic Periodontitis and Aggressive Periodontitis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Shivaprasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently discovered interleukin 29 (IL-29 has antiviral properties and its production is induced by herpes viruses. This study was aimed at analyzing the effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on IL-29 levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients. A total of 60 participants were divided into healthy group (group 1; n = 20, chronic periodontitis group (group 2; n = 20, and aggressive periodontitis group (group 3; n = 20. GCF samples collected from each subject at baseline and 6–8 weeks after scaling and root planing were quantified for IL-29 levels using ELISA. The mean IL-29 concentration in GCF was found to be highest in group 3 (92.37 pg/μl. The mean IL-29 level in group 1 and group 2 was 36.88 pg/μl and 69.35 pg/μl respectively. After scaling and root planing, the mean concentration of IL-29 in GCF was increased to 85.99 pg/μl in group 2 and to 114.64 pg/μl in group 3. Results of the present study indicate that antiviral IL-29 level was highest in GCF of aggressive periodontitis patients and least in subjects with healthy periodontium, while that of chronic periodontitis lying in between. After non-surgical periodontal therapy, IL-29 levels increased both in chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients and deserve further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent in treating periodontitis.

  14. Simultaneous trimodal MR-PET-EEG imaging for the investigation of resting state networks in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuner, Irene [RWTH Aachen (Germany); Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine - 4, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Mauler, Joerg; Arrubla, Jorge; Kops, Elena Rota; Tellmann, Lutz; Scheins, Jurgen; Herzog, Hans [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine - 4, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Langen, Karl Josef; Shah, Jon [RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2015-05-18

    Glucose is the principal source of energy for the brain and its relationship to neuronal activity are poorly understood. The human brain uses 80% of its energy for ongoing neural activity that occurs in isolation from any particular stimulus. A promising tool for the investigation of glucose metabolism and its relationship to neuronal activity is simultaneous trimodal MR-PET-EEG data imaging. We here demonstrate the first in vivo human trimodal data at 3T. In one session MR, FDG-PET and EEG data were recorded simultaneously at a 3T hybrid MR-BrainPET scanner (Siemens, Germany) equipped with a 32 channel MR-compatible EEG system (Brain Products, Germany) in 11 healthy volunteers (11 males, mean age: 25.2 years SD: 1.2). MR and EEG data acquisition MP-RAGE (TR = 2250 ms, TE= 3.03 ms, 176 sagittal slices. 1 mm, GRAPPA factor 2. MR-based attenuation correction of PET data via UTE: flip angle=15. Two different echo times TE1=0.07 and TE2=2.46 ms, TR=200 ms. EPI sequence (TR: 2.2 s, TE: 30 ms, FOV: 200 mm, 165 volumes, The subjects were requested to close their eyes and relax EEG data were recorded using a 32-channel MR compatible EEG system. App. 200 MBq/μmol FDG were injected, data were acquired in list mode and iteratively reconstructed with all necessary corrections into 153 slices with 256 x 256 voxels sized 1.25 mm{sup 3}. The trimodal approach, recording PET data, MR data and EEG data simultaneously was successful. The high neuronal activity of the structures within the default mode network occurs on the basis of a high glucose consumption rate within the default node network. The activity of the default mode is not tied to a special EEG frequency band.

  15. Simultaneous trimodal MR-PET-EEG imaging for the investigation of resting state networks in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuner, Irene; Mauler, Joerg; Arrubla, Jorge; Kops, Elena Rota; Tellmann, Lutz; Scheins, Jurgen; Herzog, Hans; Langen, Karl Josef; Shah, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is the principal source of energy for the brain and its relationship to neuronal activity are poorly understood. The human brain uses 80% of its energy for ongoing neural activity that occurs in isolation from any particular stimulus. A promising tool for the investigation of glucose metabolism and its relationship to neuronal activity is simultaneous trimodal MR-PET-EEG data imaging. We here demonstrate the first in vivo human trimodal data at 3T. In one session MR, FDG-PET and EEG data were recorded simultaneously at a 3T hybrid MR-BrainPET scanner (Siemens, Germany) equipped with a 32 channel MR-compatible EEG system (Brain Products, Germany) in 11 healthy volunteers (11 males, mean age: 25.2 years SD: 1.2). MR and EEG data acquisition MP-RAGE (TR = 2250 ms, TE= 3.03 ms, 176 sagittal slices. 1 mm, GRAPPA factor 2. MR-based attenuation correction of PET data via UTE: flip angle=15. Two different echo times TE1=0.07 and TE2=2.46 ms, TR=200 ms. EPI sequence (TR: 2.2 s, TE: 30 ms, FOV: 200 mm, 165 volumes, The subjects were requested to close their eyes and relax EEG data were recorded using a 32-channel MR compatible EEG system. App. 200 MBq/μmol FDG were injected, data were acquired in list mode and iteratively reconstructed with all necessary corrections into 153 slices with 256 x 256 voxels sized 1.25 mm 3 . The trimodal approach, recording PET data, MR data and EEG data simultaneously was successful. The high neuronal activity of the structures within the default mode network occurs on the basis of a high glucose consumption rate within the default node network. The activity of the default mode is not tied to a special EEG frequency band.

  16. Aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Lindsay, W.R.; Lang, R.B.; Sigafoos, J.; Deb, S.; Wiersma, J.; Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Marschik, P.B.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lancioni, G.E.; Singh, N.N.

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is common in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs), and it is most often targeted for intervention. Psychological, contextual, and biological risk factors may contribute to the risk of aggressive behavior. Risk factors are gender (males), level of

  17. Signaling aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Rationale and Design of Randomized Evaluation of Aggressive or Moderate Lipid Lowering Therapy with Pitavastatin in Coronary Artery Disease (REAL-CAD) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Katsumi; Kimura, Takeshi; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Daida, Hiroyuki; Iimuro, Satoshi; Iwata, Hiroshi; Ozaki, Yukio; Sakuma, Ichiro; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Hibi, Kiyoshi; Hiro, Takafumi; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro; Hokimoto, Seiji; Ohashi, Yasuo; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Saito, Yasushi; Matsuzaki, Masunori; Nagai, Ryozo

    2018-03-30

    Large-scale clinical trials in patients in Western countries with coronary artery disease (CAD) have found that aggressive lipid-lowering therapy using high-dose statins reduces cardiovascular (CV) events further than low-dose statins. However, such evidence has not yet been fully established in Asian populations, including in Japan. The Randomized Evaluation of Aggressive or Moderate Lipid-Lowering Therapy with Pitavastatin in Coronary Artery Disease (REAL-CAD) study addresses whether intensification of statin therapy improves clinical outcomes in Japanese patients with CAD.REAL-CAD is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint, physician-initiated phase 4 trial in Japan. The study will recruit up to 12,600 patients with stable CAD. Patients are assigned to receive either pitavastatin 1 mg/day or pitavastatin 4 mg/day. LDL-C levels are expected to reach approximate mean values of 100 mg/dL in the low-dose pitavastatin group and 80 mg/dL in the high-dose group. The primary endpoint is the time to occurrence of a major CV event, including CV death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal ischemic stroke, and unstable angina requiring emergency hospitalization during an average of 5 years. The large number of patients and the long follow-up period in the REAL-CAD study should ensure that there is adequate power to definitively determine if reducing LDL-C levels to approximately 80 mg/dL by high-dose statin can provide additional clinical benefit.After the study is completed, we will have categorical evidence on the optimal statin dose and target LDL-C level for secondary prevention in Japanese patients.

  19. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.

  20. Treating Comorbid Anxiety and Aggression in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Karyn; Hunt, Caroline; Heriot, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that targeted both anxious and aggressive behaviors in children with anxiety disorders and comorbid aggression by parent report. Method: The effects of a cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention targeting comorbid anxiety and aggression problems were compared…

  1. Tumor bulk as a prognostic factor for the management of localized aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a survey of the Japan lymphoma radiation therapy group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiko; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Isobe, Kouichi; Hirota, Saeko; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Sasai, Keisuke; Hayabuchi, Naofumi

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the prognostic factors that specifically predict survival rates of patients with localized aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Methods and Materials: The survey was carried out at 25 radiation oncology institutions in Japan in 1998. The 5-year event-free (EFS) and overall survival rates (OAS) were calculated, and univariate and multivariate analyses were done to identify which of the following factors, namely, gender, age, performance status (PS), serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, Stage (I vs. II), tumor bulk (maximum diameter), and treatment, were significant from the viewpoint of prognosis. Results: A total of 1141 patients with Stage I and II NHL were treated by the Japanese Lymphoma Radiation Therapy Group between 1988 and 1992. Of them, 787 patients, who were treated using definitive radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy for intermediate- and high-grade lymphomas in working formulation, constituted the core of this study. Primary tumors arose mainly from extranodal organs (71%) in the head and neck (Waldeyer's ring: 36% and sinonasal cavities: 9%). The factors associated with poorer prognosis were age over 60 years old (p < 0.0001), radiation therapy alone (p < 0.0001), PS = 2-4 (p = 0.0011), (sex male, p = 0.0078), a bulky tumor more than 6 cm in maximum diameter (p 0.0088), elevated LDH (p = 0.0117), and stage II (p = 0.0642). A median dose of 42 Gy was delivered mainly to the involved fields. Short-course chemotherapy was provided in 549 (70%) patients. The 5-year OAS and EFS rates for all patients were 71% and 67%, respectively. According to the stage-modified International Prognostic Index, the 5-year EFS of the patients with risk factors from 0 to 1 was 76%, 61% for patients with two risk factors, and 26% for patients with three or more risk factors. Conclusion: Extranodal presentation, especially Waldeyer's ring and sinonasal cavities, is encountered more frequently in Japan than in Western countries. Tumor bulk is

  2. Uni-, bi- and tri-modal warning signals: effects of temporal parameters and sensory modality on perceived urgency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus; Toet, Alexander; Janssen, Joris B.

    Multi-sensory warnings can potentially enhance risk communication. Hereto we investigated how temporal signal parameters affect perceived urgency within and across modalities. In an experiment, 78 observers rated the perceived urgency of uni-, bi-, and/or tri-modal stimuli as function of 25

  3. Uni-, bi- and tri-modal warning signals : Effects of temporal parameters and sensory modality on perceived urgency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Toet, A.; Janssen, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-sensory warnings can potentially enhance risk communication. Hereto we investigated how temporal signal parameters affect perceived urgency within and across modalities. In an experiment, 78 observers rated the perceived urgency of uni-, bi-, and/or tri-modal stimuli as function of 25

  4. Vertical sorting in bed forms - flume experiments with a natural and a tri-modal sediment mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Astrid; Ribberink, Jan S.; de Vriend, Huib J.

    2003-01-01

    Two sets of flume experiments were conducted to examine grain size selective transport and vertical sorting in conditions with migrating bed forms and bed load transport. In the two sets of experiments we used a sediment mixture from the river Rhine and a trimodal mixture, respectively. The vertical

  5. Early aggressive intra-venous pulse cyclophosphamide therapy for interstitial lung disease in a patient with systemic sclerosis. A case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Peshin, R

    2009-06-01

    Interstitial lung disease is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). There are currently no recommended guidelines for management of these patients. This is probably due to the rarity of this condition, as well as clinical trials with only a small number of cases. There are published case report and case series along with the two main trials, viz. Scleroderma Lung Study and the Fibrosing Alveolitis Study, but again, there is no consensus on treatment protocols. In this report, we present a case of aggressive interstitial lung disease in a patient with SSc, which improved dramatically on treatment with intra-venous cyclophosphamide and high dose prednisolone therapy.

  6. Endoscopic Tri-Modal Imaging (ETMI With Optical Magnification in the Detection of Barrett's Early Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmed S. Sami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Early lesion detection and characterisation is vital to ensure accurate management in patients with gastrointestinal neoplasia. Endoscopic Tri-modal Imaging (ETMI technology has been shown to improve the targeted detection of early dysplastic lesions in Barrett's Oesophagus, but these results were not confirmed in non-expert hands [1]. This technology incorporates high resolution while light endoscopy (HRE, Auto Fluorescence Imaging (AFI and Narrow Band Imaging (NBI in one endoscope. The mucosa is first inspected with HRE, and then AFI is switched on to help in highlighting any suspicious areas in the mucosa [2]. These areas can be further examined by switching to NBI mode with magnification which helps to characterise mucosal patterns and identify early neoplasia [3].

  7. Strain-induced grain growth of cryomilled nanocrystalline Al in trimodal composites during forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, B.; Simkin, B.; Majumdar, B.; Smith, C.; Bergh, M. van den; Cho, K.; Sohn, Y.H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Grain growth of cryomilled nanocrystalline aluminum during hot forging. ► Use of hollow cone dark field imaging technique in TEM for grain size measurement. ► Grain growth model of strain, strain rate and temperature for forging optimization. - Abstract: Grain growth of nanocrystalline aluminum ( nc Al) in trimodal Al metal-matrix-composites (MMCs) during hot forging was investigated. The nc Al phase formed through cryomilling of inert gas-atomized powders in liquid nitrogen has an average grain size down to 21 nm, exhibits excellent thermal stability. However, substantial grain growth of nc Al up to 63 nm was observed when the Al MMCs were thermo-mechanically processed even at relatively low temperatures. Grain growth of the cryomilled nc Al phase in trimodal Al MMCs after hot forging was documented with respect to temperature ranging from 175 °C to 287 °C, true strain ranging from 0.4 to 1.35 and strain rate ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 s −1 . Hollow cone dark field imaging technique was employed to provide statistically confident measurements of nc Al grain size that ranged from 21 to 63 nm. An increase in forging temperature and an increase in true strain were correlated with an increase in grain size of nc Al. Results were correlated to devise a phenomenological grain growth model for forging that takes strain, strain rate and temperature into consideration. Activation energy for the grain growth during thermo-mechanical hot-forging was determined to be 35 kJ/mol, approximately a quarter of activation energy for bulk diffusion of Al and a half of activation energy for static recrystallization.

  8. Trimodal distribution of ozone and water vapor in the UT/LS during boreal summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkerton, T. J.

    2004-12-01

    The relation of ozone and water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) is strongly influenced by the off-equatorial Asian and North American monsoons in boreal summer. Both regions experience hydration, presumably as a result of deep convection. This behavior contrasts sharply with the apparent dehydrating influence of near-equatorial deep convection in boreal winter. There is also a striking difference in ozone between Asia and North America in boreal summer. Over Asia, ozone concentrations are low, evidently a result of ubiquitous deep convection and the vertical transport of ozone-poor air, while over North America, ozone concentrations are much higher. Since deep convection also occurs in the North American monsoon, it appears that the difference in ozone concentration between Asia and North America in boreal summer reflects a differing influence of the large-scale circulation in the two regions: specifically, (i) isolation of the Tibetan anticyclone versus (ii) the intrusion of filaments of ozone-rich air from the stratosphere over North America. During boreal summer, as in winter, near-equatorial concentrations of ozone and water vapor are low near the equator. The result of these geographical variations is a trimodal distribution of ozone and water-vapor correlation. Our talk reviews the observational evidence of this trimodal distribution and possible dynamical and microphysical causes, focusing primarily on the quality and possible sampling bias of satellite and aircraft measurements. A key issue is the ability of HALOE to sample areas of ubiquitous deep convection. Other issues include the vertical structure of tracer anomalies, isentropic stirring in the UT/LS, horizontal transport of biomass burning products lofted by deep convection, and connections to the moist phase of the tropical `tape recorder' signal in water vapor.

  9. A tri-modal molecular imaging agent for sentinel lymph node mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Zhengtao; Hoh, Carl K.; Hall, David J.; Vera, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We report an “instant kit” method to radiolabel fluorescent-tilmanocept with 68 Ga and 99m Tc for tri-modal molecular imaging of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). Methods: Solutions of sodium acetate, 68 GaCl 3 and Na 99m TcO 4 were added successively to a “kit vial” containing lyophilized 800CW-tilmanocept, SnCl 2 , trehalose and ascorbic acid. After a 30-min incubation, the pH was neutralized with PBS. No purification was required. Radiochemical and fluorescence purity was measured by HPLC and ITLC techniques. In vitro stability was measured by standing gel chromatography (SGC) and ITLC by a 100-fold dilution 0.25 h after radiolabeling. In vivo stability was measured by SGC and ITLC after an 11 h incubation in human plasma. A dose (0.1 nmol, ~ 1 MBq 68 Ga, ~ 25 MBq 99m Tc) was injected to the footpad of 4 mice. Popliteal SLNs were imaged by PET and fluorescence imaging systems at 0.5, 24, 48, 72 h, then excised and assayed for 99m Tc. Results: Radiochemical and fluorescent purity exceeded 98%. The in vitro stability assay demonstrated high irreversibility of both radiolabels and the fluorescent label, and in vivo stability assay demonstrated high stability of the technetium and fluorescent labels to plasma metabolism. Popliteal SLNs were identified by PET and fluorescence imaging within 0.5 h of injection. SLN fluorescence intensity remained constant for 72 h, when ~ 1% of the injected dose resided in the SLN. Conclusions: Fluorescent-labeled tilmanocept can be radiolabeled with 68 Ga and 99m Tc by the sequential addition of each generator eluate to a lyophilized kit. The resulting tri-modal agent provides: PET images for pre-operative SLN mapping, fluorescence imaging up to 72 hours after injection, and quantitative radiometric measurement of SLN accumulation after excision.

  10. Intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy as an adjunct to laser photocoagulation for severe aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sengul Ozdek

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The association of IVB and laser ablation might decrease the progression rate in severe AP-ROP. Prompt regression of iris neovascularization encourages its use in cases with pupillary rigidity to allow for laser treatment. When used as a salvage therapy it may not change the overall result dramatically.

  11. RKIP inhibition in cervical cancer is associated with higher tumor aggressive behavior and resistance to cisplatin therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Martinho

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide, being high-risk group the HPV infected, the leading etiological factor. The raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP has been associated with tumor progression and metastasis in several human neoplasms, however its role on cervical cancer is unclear. In the present study, 259 uterine cervix tissues, including cervicitis, cervical intraepithelial lesions and carcinomas, were analyzed for RKIP expression by immunohistochemistry. We found that RKIP expression was significantly decreased during malignant progression, being highly expressed in non-neoplastic tissues (54% of the samples; 73/135, and expressed at low levels in the cervix invasive carcinomas (∼15% (19/124. Following in vitro downregulation of RKIP, we observed a viability and proliferative advantage of RKIP-inhibited cells over time, which was associated with an altered cell cycle distribution and higher colony number in a colony formation assay. An in vitro wound healing assay showed that RKIP abrogation is associated with increased migratory capability. RKIP downregulation was also associated with an increased vascularization of the tumors in vivo using a CAM assay. Furthermore, RKIP inhibition induced cervical cancer cells apoptotic resistance to cisplatin treatment. In conclusion, we described that RKIP protein is significantly depleted during the malignant progression of cervical tumors. Despite the lack of association with patient clinical outcome, we demonstrate, in vitro and in vivo, that loss of RKIP expression can be one of the factors that are behind the aggressiveness, malignant progression and chemotherapy resistance of cervical cancer.

  12. The phase diagrams and compensation behaviors of mixed spin Blume-Capel model in a trimodal magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.F. [Department of Physics, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Yan, S.L. [Department of Physics, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Jiangsu Key Loboratory of Film Materials, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215006 (China); CCAST (World Laboratory), PO Box 8730, Beijing 100080 (China)], E-mail: slyan@suda.edu.cn

    2008-04-07

    The phase diagrams and compensation behaviors of mixed spin-1/2 and spin-1 Blume-Capel model in a trimodal magnetic field are investigated in the framework of the effective field theory on simple cubic lattice. The change of negative crystal field and trimodal concentration can affect the TCP, the second-order phase and the magnetic field degeneration at ground state in T-H space. In T-D space, the trajectory of the TCP takes on the acre curve and there exist the two TCPs under certain condition. In addition to giving one or two compensation temperature points in M-T space, the mixed spin Blume-Capel model also provides one or two novel compensation magnetic field points in M-H space. Some results are not revealed in previous works.

  13. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  14. Very Late Local Relapse of Ewing's Sarcoma of the Head and Neck treated with Aggressive Multimodal Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Thariat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma's relapse rarely occurs more than two years after the initial diagnosis. We report the case of a 26-year-old man with a history of Ewing's sarcoma of the left maxillary sinus at the age of 10 who presented with a very late local relapse, 16 years after the first occurrence of disease. Ultimate control was achieved after multimodal therapy including surgery, high-dose chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. This report indicates that local relapses of Ewing's sarcoma can be treated with curative intent in selected cases.

  15. Induction chemotherapy vs post-operative adjuvant therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulli, Giuseppe; Faccioli, Eleonora; Bellini, Alice; Mammana, Marco; Rea, Federico

    2017-08-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive neoplasia. Multidisciplinary treatments, including the association of induction and/or adjuvant therapeutic regimens with surgery, have been reported to give encouraging results. Current therapeutic options are not well standardized yet, especially regarding the best association between surgery and medical treatments. The present review aims to assess safety, efficacy and outcomes of different therapies for MPM. Areas covered: This article focuses on the multimodality treatment of mesothelioma. A systematic review was performed by using electronic databases to identify studies that considered induction and adjuvant approaches in MPM therapy in a multidisciplinary setting, including surgery. Endpoints included overall survival, disease free survival, disease recurrence, and complications. Expert commentary: This systematic review offers a comprehensive view of current multidisciplinary therapeutic strategies for MPM, suggesting that multimodality therapy offers acceptable outcomes with better results reported for trimodality approaches. Individualization of care for each patient is fundamental in choosing the most appropriate treatment. The growing complexity of treatment protocols mandates that MPM patients be referred to specialized Centers, in which every component of the interdisciplinary team can provide the necessary expertise and quality of care.

  16. Studies on composite solid propellant with tri-modal ammonium perchlorate containing an ultrafine fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Suresh Babu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Composite solid propellant is prepared using tri-modal Ammonium perchlorate (AP containing coarse, fine and ultrafine fractions of AP with average particle size (APS 340, 40 and 5 μm respectively, in various compositions and their rheological, mechanical and burn rate characteristics are evaluated. The optimum combination of AP coarse to fine to ultrafine weight fraction was obtained by testing of series of propellant samples by varying the AP fractions at fixed solid loading. The concentration of aluminium was maintained constant throughout the experiments for ballistics requirement. The propellant formulation prepared using AP with coarse to fine to ultrafine ratio of 67:24:9 has lowest viscosity for the propellant paste and highest tensile strength due to dense packing as supported by the literature. A minimum modulus value was also observed at 9 wt. % of ultrafine AP concentration indicates the maximum solids packing density at this ratio of AP fractions. The burn rate is evaluated at different pressures to obtain pressure exponent. Incorporation of ultrafine fraction of AP in propellant increased burn rate without adversely affecting the pressure exponent. Higher solid loading propellants are prepared by increased AP concentration from 67 to 71 wt. % using AP with coarse to fine to ultrafine ratio of 67:24:9. Higher solid content up to 89 wt. % was achieved and hence increased solid motor performance. The unloading viscosity showed a trend with increased AP content and the propellant couldn't able to cast beyond 71 wt. % of AP. Mechanical properties were also studied and from the experiments noticed that % elongation decreased with increased AP content from 67 to 71 wt.%, whereas tensile strength and modulus increased. Burn rate increased with increased AP content and observed that pressure exponent also increased and it is high for the propellant containing with 71 wt.% of AP due to increased oxidiser to fuel ratio. Catalysed

  17. Nonlinear Trimodal Regression Analysis of Radiodensitometric Distributions to Quantify Sarcopenic and Sequelae Muscle Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Árnadóttir, Í.; Gíslason, M. K.; Carraro, U.

    2016-01-01

    Muscle degeneration has been consistently identified as an independent risk factor for high mortality in both aging populations and individuals suffering from neuromuscular pathology or injury. While there is much extant literature on its quantification and correlation to comorbidities, a quantitative gold standard for analyses in this regard remains undefined. Herein, we hypothesize that rigorously quantifying entire radiodensitometric distributions elicits more muscle quality information than average values reported in extant methods. This study reports the development and utility of a nonlinear trimodal regression analysis method utilized on radiodensitometric distributions of upper leg muscles from CT scans of a healthy young adult, a healthy elderly subject, and a spinal cord injury patient. The method was then employed with a THA cohort to assess pre- and postsurgical differences in their healthy and operative legs. Results from the initial representative models elicited high degrees of correlation to HU distributions, and regression parameters highlighted physiologically evident differences between subjects. Furthermore, results from the THA cohort echoed physiological justification and indicated significant improvements in muscle quality in both legs following surgery. Altogether, these results highlight the utility of novel parameters from entire HU distributions that could provide insight into the optimal quantification of muscle degeneration. PMID:28115982

  18. Nonlinear Trimodal Regression Analysis of Radiodensitometric Distributions to Quantify Sarcopenic and Sequelae Muscle Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Edmunds

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle degeneration has been consistently identified as an independent risk factor for high mortality in both aging populations and individuals suffering from neuromuscular pathology or injury. While there is much extant literature on its quantification and correlation to comorbidities, a quantitative gold standard for analyses in this regard remains undefined. Herein, we hypothesize that rigorously quantifying entire radiodensitometric distributions elicits more muscle quality information than average values reported in extant methods. This study reports the development and utility of a nonlinear trimodal regression analysis method utilized on radiodensitometric distributions of upper leg muscles from CT scans of a healthy young adult, a healthy elderly subject, and a spinal cord injury patient. The method was then employed with a THA cohort to assess pre- and postsurgical differences in their healthy and operative legs. Results from the initial representative models elicited high degrees of correlation to HU distributions, and regression parameters highlighted physiologically evident differences between subjects. Furthermore, results from the THA cohort echoed physiological justification and indicated significant improvements in muscle quality in both legs following surgery. Altogether, these results highlight the utility of novel parameters from entire HU distributions that could provide insight into the optimal quantification of muscle degeneration.

  19. Trimodal Mixed Mode Chromatography That Enables Efficient Offline Two-Dimensional Peptide Fractionation for Proteome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peng; Petzoldt, Svenja; Wilhelm, Mathias; Zolg, Daniel Paul; Zheng, Runsheng; Sun, Xuefei; Liu, Xiaodong; Schneider, Günter; Huhmer, Andreas; Kuster, Bernhard

    2017-09-05

    Offline two-dimensional chromatography is a common means to achieve deep proteome coverage. To reduce sample complexity and dynamic range and to utilize mass spectrometer (MS) time efficiently, high chromatographic resolution of and good orthogonality between the two dimensions are needed. Ion exchange and high pH reversed phase chromatography are often used for this purpose. However, the former requires desalting to be MS-compatible, and the latter requires fraction pooling to create orthogonality. Here, we report an alternative first-dimension separation technique using a commercial trimodal phase incorporating polar embedded reversed phase, weak anion exchange, and strong cation exchange material. The column is capable of retaining polar and nonpolar peptides alike without noticeable breakthrough. It allows separating ordinary and TMT-labeled peptides under mild acidic conditions using an acetonitrile gradient. The direct MS compatibility of solvents and good orthogonality to online coupled C18 columns enable a straightforward workflow without fraction pooling and desalting while showing comparable performance to the other techniques. The method scales from low to high microgram sample quantity and is amenable to full automation. To demonstrate practical utility, we analyzed the proteomes of 10 human pancreatic cancer cell lines to a depth of >8,700 quantified proteins.

  20. Trends in intensity modulated radiation therapy use for locally advanced rectal cancer at National Comprehensive Cancer Network centers

    OpenAIRE

    Marsha Reyngold, MD, PhD; Joyce Niland, PhD; Anna ter Veer, MS; Tanios Bekaii-Saab, MD; Lily Lai, MD; Joshua E. Meyer, MD; Steven J. Nurkin, MD, MS; Deborah Schrag, MD, MPH; John M. Skibber, MD, FACS; Al B. Benson, MD; Martin R. Weiser, MD; Christopher H. Crane, MD; Karyn A. Goodman, MD, MS

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been rapidly incorporated into clinical practice because of its technological advantages over 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (CRT). We characterized trends in IMRT utilization in trimodality treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer at National Comprehensive Cancer Network cancer centers between 2005 and 2011. Methods and materials: Using the prospective National Comprehensive Cancer Network Colorectal Cancer Database, ...

  1. Clinical and microbiological effects of mechanical instrumentation and local antimicrobials during periodontal supportive therapy in aggressive periodontitis patients: smoker versus non-smoker patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnelli, Maria Elena; Farina, Roberto; Cucchi, Alessandro; Trombelli, Leonardo

    2010-11-01

    To compare the clinical and microbiological effects of ultrasonic mechanical instrumentation (UMI) associated to home-care use of amine fluoride/stannous fluoride (AmF/SnF(2) )-containing mouthrinse and toothpaste in smoker and non-smoker patients affected by generalized aggressive periodontitis (G-AgP) during a recall session of supportive periodontal therapy (SPT). Thirteen smokers and 25 non-smokers G-AgP patients enrolled in an SPT programme received a single session of UMI associated with home-care use of AmF/SnF(2) -containing mouthrinse and toothpaste. Clinical and microbiological parameters were assessed pre-treatment, at 6 and 12 weeks post-treatment. In both groups, UMI plus AmF/SnF(2) -implemented oral hygiene use determined a significant decrease of total bacterial counts, with non-smokers exhibiting a lower count compared with smokers at 12 weeks. No significant differences were observed between smokers and non-smokers in the counts of total pathogens and red complex species at each observation interval. Clinically, a significant reduction of supragingival plaque, gingival inflammation and probing pocket depth was similarly observed in both groups. A combined mechanical/chemical plaque control approach based on UMI and the use of AmF/SnF(2) agents resulted in the reduction of supragingival plaque deposits, gingival inflammation and subgingival periodontal pathogens in G-AgP patients during SPT, with no substantial difference between smokers and non-smokers. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. The General Aggression Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, Johnie J.; Anderson, Craig A.; Bushman, Brad J.

    The General Aggression Model (GAM) is a comprehensive, integrative, framework for understanding aggression. It considers the role of social, cognitive, personality, developmental, and biological factors on aggression. Proximate processes of GAM detail how person and situation factors influence

  3. Adlerian Therapy with Aggressive Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizer, Betty

    Alfred Adler devised a theory that was holistic, social, teleological, and phenomenological. Adler believed that the basis of problems with children originated in the child's inability to cooperate with society, feelings of inferiority, and a lack of a goal in life. Adler felt the child's life should be examined through the child's eyes.…

  4. Unsaturated hydraulic properties of Sphagnum moss and peat reveal trimodal pore-size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Tobias K. D.; Iden, Sascha C.; Durner, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    In ombrotrophic peatlands, the moisture content of the vadose zone (acrotelm) controls oxygen diffusion rates, redox state, and the turnover of organic matter. Whether peatlands act as sinks or sources of atmospheric carbon thus relies on variably saturated flow processes. The Richards equation is the standard model for water flow in soils, but it is not clear whether it can be applied to simulate water flow in live Sphagnum moss. Transient laboratory evaporation experiments were conducted to observe evaporative water fluxes in the acrotelm, containing living Sphagnum moss, and a deeper layer containing decomposed moss peat. The experimental data were evaluated by inverse modeling using the Richards equation as process model for variably-saturated flow. It was tested whether water fluxes and time series of measured pressure heads during evaporation could be simulated. The results showed that the measurements could be matched very well providing the hydraulic properties are represented by a suitable model. For this, a trimodal parametrization of the underlying pore-size distribution was necessary which reflects three distinct pore systems of the Sphagnum constituted by inter-, intra-, and inner-plant water. While the traditional van Genuchten-Mualem model led to great discrepancies, the physically more comprehensive Peters-Durner-Iden model which accounts for capillary and noncapillary flow, led to a more consistent description of the observations. We conclude that the Richards equation is a valid process description for variably saturated moisture fluxes over a wide pressure range in peatlands supporting the conceptualization of the live moss as part of the vadose zone.

  5. Clinical evaluation of endoscopic trimodal imaging for the detection and differentiation of colonic polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Frank J C; Fockens, Paul; Van Eeden, Susanne; Kara, Mohammed A; Hardwick, James C H; Reitsma, Johannes B; Dekker, Evelien

    2009-03-01

    Endoscopic trimodal imaging (ETMI) incorporates high-resolution endoscopy (HRE) and autofluorescence imaging (AFI) for adenoma detection, and narrow-band imaging (NBI) for differentiation of adenomas from nonneoplastic polyps. The aim of this study was to compare AFI with HRE for adenoma detection and to assess the diagnostic accuracy of NBI for differentiation of polyps. This was a randomized trial of tandem colonoscopies. The study was performed at the Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam. One hundred patients underwent colonoscopy with ETMI. Each colonic segment was examined twice for polyps, once with HRE and once with AFI, in random order per patient. All detected polyps were assessed with NBI for pit pattern and with AFI for color, and subsequently removed. Histopathology served as the gold standard for diagnosis. The main outcome measures of this study were adenoma miss-rates of AFI and HRE, and diagnostic accuracy of NBI and AFI for differentiating adenomas from nonneoplastic polyps. Among 50 patients examined with AFI first, 32 adenomas were detected initially. Subsequent inspection with HRE identified 8 additional adenomas. Among 50 patients examined with HRE first, 35 adenomas were detected initially. Successive AFI yielded 14 additional adenomas. The adenoma miss-rates of AFI and HRE therefore were 20% and 29%, respectively (P = .351). The sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of NBI for differentiation were 90%, 70%, and 79%, respectively; corresponding figures for AFI were 99%, 35%, and 63%, respectively. The overall adenoma miss-rate was 25%; AFI did not significantly reduce the adenoma miss-rate compared with HRE. Both NBI and AFI had a disappointing diagnostic accuracy for polyp differentiation, although AFI had a high sensitivity.

  6. A bioscaffolding strategy for hierarchical zeolites with a nanotube-trimodal network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guannan; Huang, Haibo; Yu, Bowen; Wang, Yun; Tao, Jiawei; Wei, Yingxu; Li, Shougui; Liu, Zhongmin; Xu, Yan; Xu, Ruren

    2016-02-01

    Hierarchical zeolite monoliths with multimodal porosity are of paramount importance as they open up new horizons for advanced applications. So far, hierarchical zeolites based on nanotube scaffolds have never been reported. Inspired by the organization of biominerals, we have developed a novel precursor scaffolding-solid phase crystallization strategy for hierarchical zeolites with a unique nanotube scaffolding architecture and nanotube-trimodal network, where biomolecular self-assembly (BSA) provides a scaffolding blueprint. By vapor-treating Sil-1 seeded precursor scaffolds, zeolite MFI nanotube scaffolds are self-generated, during which evolution phenomena such as segmented voids and solid bridges are observed, in agreement with the Kirkendall effect in a solid-phase crystallization system. The nanotube walls are made of intergrown single crystals rendering good mechanical stability. The inner diameter of the nanotube is tunable between 30 and 90 nm by varying the thickness of the precursor layers. Macropores enclosed by cross-linked nanotubes can be modulated by the choice of BSA. Narrow mesopores are formed by intergrown nanocrystals. Hierarchical ZSM-5 monoliths with nanotube (90 nm), micropore (0.55 nm), mesopore (2 nm) and macropore (700 nm) exhibit superior catalytic performance in the methanol-to-hydrocarbon (MTH) conversion compared to conventional ZSM-5. BSA remains intact after crystallization, allowing a higher level of organization and functionalization of the zeolite nanotube scaffolds. The current work may afford a versatile strategy for hierarchical zeolite monoliths with nanotube scaffolding architectures and a nanotube-multimodal network leading to self-supporting and active zeolite catalysts, and for applications beyond.

  7. Performance evaluation of a compact PET/SPECT/CT tri-modality system for small animal imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Qingyang; Wang, Shi; Ma, Tianyu; Wu, Jing; Liu, Hui; Xu, Tianpeng; Xia, Yan; Fan, Peng; Lyu, Zhenlei; Liu, Yaqiang

    2015-01-01

    PET, SPECT and CT imaging techniques are widely used in preclinical small animal imaging applications. In this paper, we present a compact small animal PET/SPECT/CT tri-modality system. A dual-functional, shared detector design is implemented which enables PET and SPECT imaging with a same LYSO ring detector. A multi-pinhole collimator is mounted on the system and inserted into the detector ring in SPECT imaging mode. A cone-beam CT consisting of a micro focus X-ray tube and a CMOS detector is implemented. The detailed design and the performance evaluations are reported in this paper. In PET imaging mode, the measured NEMA based spatial resolution is 2.12 mm (FWHM), and the sensitivity at the central field of view (CFOV) is 3.2%. The FOV size is 50 mm (∅)×100 mm (L). The SPECT has a spatial resolution of 1.32 mm (FWHM) and an average sensitivity of 0.031% at the center axial, and a 30 mm (∅)×90 mm (L) FOV. The CT spatial resolution is 8.32 lp/mm @10%MTF, and the contrast discrimination function value is 2.06% with 1.5 mm size cubic box object. In conclusion, a compact, tri-modality PET/SPECT/CT system was successfully built with low cost and high performance

  8. CONCEPT ANALYSIS: AGGRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jianghong

    2004-01-01

    The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of ...

  9. Phase II study of a trimodal preoperative treatment followed by radical surgery or radiotherapy in non-resectable cervical cancer ≥ Figo IIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, C.; Gellermann, J.; Jungnickel, K.; Kuemmel, S.; Hildebrandt, B.; Wust, P

    2005-01-01

    10 %. A neo-adjuvant trimodal treatment consisting of radiochemotherapy with weekly regional hyperthermia indicates a possible benefit for primarily non-resectable cervical cancer in FIGO IIB-IVA, reducing tumor volume, thus promoting the resection of cervical cancer, and leading to a possible curative potential in the standard therapy of cervical cancer. (author)

  10. Mesoporous ethanesilica materials with bimodal and trimodal pore-size distributions synthesised in the presence of cobalt ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alufelwi M. Tshavhungwe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous organosilica materials containing ethane groups in their framework were formed with two and three pore sizes (i.e. bimodal and trimodal pores when synthesised by the sol-gel method in the presence of cobalt ions. The compounds 1,2-bistrimethoxysilylethane and tetraethylorthosilicate were used as silicon sources and the reactions were done in the presence of a surfactant, which served as a template. Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy revealed that organic functional groups were incorporated into the ethanesilica. Powder X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption data indicated that the mesophase and textural properties (surface area, pore volume, pore diameter of the materials were dependent on the ageing temperature, the amount/ratio of silica precursors and cobalt ion incorporation. Secondary mesopores were drastically reduced by changing the ratio of silicon precursors.

  11. Aggression in Psychiatric Wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidhjelm, Jacob; Sestoft, Dorte; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2016-01-01

    Health care workers are often exposed to violence and aggression in psychiatric settings. Short-term risk assessments, such as the Brøset Violence Checklist (BVC), are strong predictors of such aggression and may enable staff to take preventive measures against aggression. This study evaluated...

  12. Nurses' experience and attitudes towards inpatient aggression on psychiatric wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Tomagová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the incidence rate of forms of inpatient aggression towards nurses who working on psychiatric wards; to identify their attitude to patient aggression, to the factors that condition the occurrence and management of aggression. To determine the differences between nurses in relation to educational training aimed at the issue of patient aggression. Design: Quantitative cross-sectional study. Methods: Selection of respondents was deliberate. The sample comprised 223 nurses with an average of 21.27 (± 11.41 years of clinical practice. Data collection was implemented by means of the self-assessment scales: Violence and Aggression of Patients Scale (VAPS, Attitude Towards Aggression Scale (ATAS, The Management of Aggression and Violence Attitude Scale-Likert (MAVAS-L. Results: 98.58% experienced inpatient aggression in the course of the previous year. Negative attitudes to patient aggression predominated in the sample. Nurses expressed strongest agreement with the idea that internal factors foster patient aggression. Regarding methods of aggression management, nurses expressed strongest agreement with the use of medical therapy and restraints. They held a neutral attitude towards the use of non-physical methods. The age of nurses had an effect on how strongly they agreed with the importance of internal factors in prompting patient aggression and with the use of medical therapy and restraints. Conclusion: A high percentage of nurses have had personal experience of various forms of patient aggression. Negative attitudes to aggression predominated in our sample of nurses, emphasizing the influence of internal factors. The attitude of nurses towards patient aggression influences the selection of aggression management strategies.

  13. Relational aggression in marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jason S; Nelson, David A; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Harper, James M; Ashton, Ruth Hagmann; Jensen, Alexander C

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from developmental theories of relational aggression, this article reports on a study designed to identify if spouses use relationally aggressive tactics when dealing with conflict in their marriage and the association of these behaviors with marital outcomes. Using a sample of 336 married couples (672 spouses), results revealed that the majority of couples reported that relationally aggressive behaviors, such as social sabotage and love withdrawal, were a part of their marital dynamics, at least to some degree. Gender comparisons of partner reports of their spouse's behavior revealed that wives were significantly more likely to be relationally aggressive than husbands. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that relational aggression is associated with lower levels of marital quality and greater marital instability for both husbands and wives. Implications are drawn for the use of relational aggression theory in the future study of couple conflict and marital aggression. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Hearing regulates Drosophila aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteven, Marijke; Vanden Broeck, Lies; Geurten, Bart; Zwarts, Liesbeth; Decraecker, Lisse; Beelen, Melissa; Göpfert, Martin C; Heinrich, Ralf; Callaerts, Patrick

    2017-02-21

    Aggression is a universal social behavior important for the acquisition of food, mates, territory, and social status. Aggression in Drosophila is context-dependent and can thus be expected to involve inputs from multiple sensory modalities. Here, we use mechanical disruption and genetic approaches in Drosophila melanogaster to identify hearing as an important sensory modality in the context of intermale aggressive behavior. We demonstrate that neuronal silencing and targeted knockdown of hearing genes in the fly's auditory organ elicit abnormal aggression. Further, we show that exposure to courtship or aggression song has opposite effects on aggression. Our data define the importance of hearing in the control of Drosophila intermale aggression and open perspectives to decipher how hearing and other sensory modalities are integrated at the neural circuit level.

  15. Focus on aggressive behaviour in mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Enrico; Carlone, Cristiano; Silvestrini, Cristiana; Nicolò, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Aggression is a behaviour with evolutionary origins, but in today’s society it is often both destructive and maladaptive. Increase of aggressive behaviour has been observed in a number of serious mental illnesses, and it represents a clinical challenge for mental healthcare provider. These phenomena can lead to harmful behaviours, including violence, thus representing a serious public health concern. Aggression is often a reason for psychiatric hospitalization, and it often leads to prolonged hospital stays, suffering by patients and their victims, and increased stigmatization. Moreover, it has an effect on healthcare use and costs in terms of longer length of stay, more readmissions and higher drug use. In this review, based on a selective search of 2010-2016 pertinent literature on PubMed, we analyze and summarize information from original articles, reviews, and book chapters about aggression and psychiatric disorders, discussing neurobiological basis and therapy of aggressive behaviour. A great challenge has been revealed regarding the neurobiology of aggression, and an integration of this body of knowledge will ultimately improve clinical diagnostics and therapeutic interventions. The great heterogeneity of aggressive behaviour still hampers our understanding of its causal mechanisms. Still, over the past years, the identification of specific subtypes of aggression has released possibilities for new and individualized treatment approaches. Neuroimaging studies may help to further elucidate the interrelationship between neurocognitive functioning, personality traits, and antisocial and violent behaviour. Recent studies point toward manipulable neurobehavioral targets and suggest that cognitive, pharmacological, neuromodulatory, and neurofeedback treatment approaches can be developed to ameliorate urgency and aggression in schizophrenia. These combined approaches could improve treatment efficacy. As current pharmacological and therapeutic interventions are

  16. The General Aggression Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Johnie J; Anderson, Craig A; Bushman, Brad J

    2018-02-01

    The General Aggression Model (GAM) is a comprehensive, integrative, framework for understanding aggression. It considers the role of social, cognitive, personality, developmental, and biological factors on aggression. Proximate processes of GAM detail how person and situation factors influence cognitions, feelings, and arousal, which in turn affect appraisal and decision processes, which in turn influence aggressive or nonaggressive behavioral outcomes. Each cycle of the proximate processes serves as a learning trial that affects the development and accessibility of aggressive knowledge structures. Distal processes of GAM detail how biological and persistent environmental factors can influence personality through changes in knowledge structures. GAM has been applied to understand aggression in many contexts including media violence effects, domestic violence, intergroup violence, temperature effects, pain effects, and the effects of global climate change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Aggressive combination therapy with intraarticular glucocorticoid injections and conventional DMARDs in early rheumatoid arthritis Two Year Clinical and Radiographic Results From The CIMESTRA Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, Merete; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Junker, Peter

    2008-01-01

    of the 2nd year of the randomized, controlled double-blind CIMESTRA study. METHODS: 160 patients with early RA (any swollen joint in combination with step-up treatment with either methotrexate and placebo...... years, and the radiographic erosive progression was minimal. Addition of cyclosporine during the first 76 weeks resulted in significantly better ACR20 and ACR50 responses, but did not have any additional effect on remission rate and radiographic outcome.......OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether clinical and radiographic disease control can be achieved and maintained in patients with early, active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during the 2nd year of aggressive treatment with conventional DMARD and intraarticular corticosteroid. This paper presents the results...

  18. Prospective Evaluation of Self-Reported Aggression in Transgender Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defreyne, Justine; T'Sjoen, Guy; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Brewin, Nicola; Arcelus, Jon

    2018-05-01

    Although research on the relation between testosterone and aggression in humans is inconclusive, guidelines (including the World Professional Association for Transgender Health Standards of Care, edition 7) have warned for an increase in aggression in transgender men taking testosterone treatment. To investigate the association between levels of testosterone and aggression in treatment-seeking transgender people and explore the role of mental health psychopathology (anxiety and depressive symptoms) and social support in aggression in this population. Every transgender person invited for assessment at a national transgender health clinic in the United Kingdom during a 3-year period (2012-2015) completed self-report measures for interpersonal problems, including levels of aggression (Inventory of Interpersonal Problems [IIP-32]), symptoms of anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), and experiences of transphobia before and 1 year after the initiation of gender-affirming hormonal therapy. Correlations between prospective scores for the IIP-32 factor "too aggressive" and prospective levels of sex steroids, prospective psychological (HADS), and baseline psychosocial measurements were tested. Prospective scores for the factor "too aggressive" were not correlated to prospective serum testosterone levels. Results of 140 people (56 transgender men, 84 transgender women) were analyzed. A prospective increase in scores for the factor "too aggressive" of the IIP-32 in transgender men 1 year after being treated with testosterone treatment or a decrease of the IIP-32 aggression scores in transgender women 1 year after gender-affirming hormonal therapy was not found. However, a positive correlation was found between increasing HADS anxiety scores and increasing scores for the IIP-32 "too aggressive" score in the entire study population and a positive correlation with lower support

  19. The perception of aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, G; Dassen, T; Moorer, P

    1997-01-01

    Several academic and clinical disciplines are involved in clarifying the concept of aggression by formulating operational and descriptive definitions. In the present paper the validity of the definitions of aggression, reported by nurses in an earlier qualitative study, is examined, using a survey

  20. Trimodality strategy for treating malignant pleural mesothelioma: results of a feasibility study of induction pemetrexed plus cisplatin followed by extrapleural pneumonectomy and postoperative hemithoracic radiation (Japan Mesothelioma Interest Group 0601 Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Seiki; Okada, Morihito; Tanaka, Fumihiro; Yamanaka, Takeharu; Soejima, Toshinori; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Tsujimura, Tohru; Fukuoka, Kazuya; Yokoi, Kohei; Nakano, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a prospective multi-institutional study to determine the feasibility of trimodality therapy (TMT) comprising induction chemotherapy followed by extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) and radiation therapy in Japanese patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Major eligibility criteria were histologically confirmed diagnosis of MPM, including clinical subtypes T0-3, N0-2, M0 disease; no prior treatment for the disease; age 20-75 years; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1; predicted postoperative forced expiratory volume >1000 ml in 1 s; written informed consent. Treatment methods comprised induction chemotherapy using pemetrexed (500 mg/m(2)) plus cisplatin (60 mg/m(2)) for three cycles, followed by EPP and postoperative hemithoracic radiation therapy (54 Gy). Primary endpoints were macroscopic complete resection (MCR) rate for EPP and treatment-related mortality for TMT. Forty-two eligible patients were enrolled: median age 64.5 (range 43-74) years; M:F = 39:3, clinical stage I:II:III = 14:13:15; histological type epithelioid were sarcomatoid; biphasic; others = 28:1:9:4. Of 42 patients, 30 completed EPP with MCR and 17 completed TMT. The trial met the primary endpoints, with an MCR rate of 71 % (30/42) and treatment-related mortality of 9.5 % (4/42). Overall median survival time and 2-year survival rate for 42 registered patients were 19.9 months and 42.9 %, respectively. Two-year relapse-free survival rate of 30 patients who completed EPP with MCR was 37.0 %. This phase II study met the predefined primary endpoints, but its risk/benefit ratio was not satisfactory.

  1. Alcohol, aggression, and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Škrila

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between alcohol and aggression has long been recognized, but the systematic research to understand the causal basis for this relationship and the processes that underlie it has only been undertaken in the past 25 years. In the article the most important mechanisms, by which alcohol affects behavior, are explained. Aggression in persons with alcohol dependence and the connection between antisocial (dissocial personality disorder, alcohol and aggression are described. In addition different forms of aggression or violence, that have been committed under the influence of alcohol, such as inter-partner violence, sexual assault, child abuse, crime and traffic accidents are described.Conclusions: The research findings can be used in the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related aggression.

  2. Mitochondrial mutations drive prostate cancer aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, Julia F.; Sabelnykova, Veronica Y.; Weischenfeldt, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear mutations are well known to drive tumor incidence, aggression and response to therapy. By contrast, the frequency and roles of mutations in the maternally inherited mitochondrial genome are poorly understood. Here we sequence the mitochondrial genomes of 384 localized prostate cancer...... in prostate cancer, and suggest interplay between nuclear and mitochondrial mutational profiles in prostate cancer....

  3. Trimodal nanoelectrode array for precise deep brain stimulation: prospects of a new technology based on carbon nanofiber arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Andrews, R J

    2007-01-01

    Although deep brain stimulation (DBS) has recently been shown to be effective for neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, there are many limitations of the current technology: the large size of current microelectrodes (approximately 1 mm diameter); the lack of monitoring of local brain electrical activity and neurotransmitters (e.g. dopamine in Parkinson's disease); the open-loop nature of the stimulation (i.e. not guided by brain electrochemical activity). Reducing the size of the monitoring and stimulating electrodes by orders of magnitude (to the size of neural elements) allows remarkable improvements in both monitoring (spatial resolution, temporal resolution, and sensitivity) and stimulation. Carbon nanofiber nanoelectrode technology offers the possibility of trimodal arrays (monitoring electrical activity, monitoring neurotransmitter levels, precise stimulation). DBS can then be guided by changes in brain electrical activity and/or neurotransmitter levels (i.e. closed-loop DBS). Here, we describe the basic manufacture and electrical characteristics of a prototype nanoelectrode array for DBS, as well as preliminary studies with electroconductive polymers necessary to optimize DBS in vivo. An approach such as the nanoelectrode array described here may offer a generic electrical-neural interface for use in various neural prostheses.

  4. Genetics of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholt, Robert R H; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2012-01-01

    Aggression mediates competition for food, mating partners, and habitats and, among social animals, establishes stable dominance hierarchies. In humans, abnormal aggression is a hallmark of neuropsychiatric disorders and can be elicited by environmental factors acting on an underlying genetic susceptibility. Identifying the genetic architecture that predisposes to aggressive behavior in people is challenging because of difficulties in quantifying the phenotype, genetic heterogeneity, and uncontrolled environmental conditions. Studies on mice have identified single-gene mutations that result in hyperaggression, contingent on genetic background. These studies can be complemented by systems genetics approaches in Drosophila melanogaster, in which mutational analyses together with genome-wide transcript analyses, artificial selection studies, and genome-wide analysis of epistasis have revealed that a large segment of the genome contributes to the manifestation of aggressive behavior with widespread epistatic interactions. Comparative genomic analyses based on the principle of evolutionary conservation are needed to enable a complete dissection of the neurogenetic underpinnings of this universal fitness trait.

  5. Dental onlay bridge-like prosthesis in three koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus): the use of Premise trimodal composite to prevent interproximal Eucalyptus spp. retention and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sean M; Pye, Geoffrey W; Fagan, David A

    2014-06-01

    Three koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) presented with moderate to severe interproximal space accumulation with Eucalyptus spp. at the San Diego Zoo. Premise trimodal composite was used to create dental onlay bridge-like prostheses to eliminate open, enlarged interproximal spaces. The prostheses prevented further leaf material accumulation within the interproximal spaces and consequently reduced periodontal disease. Aesthetically, the prosthesis replicates normal tooth coloration and appearance and wears at a similar rate to surrounding teeth. Prosthetic repair or replacement may be required, so periodic examination every 3-6 mo is recommended.

  6. Trimodal endoscopic imaging for the detection and differentiation of colorectal adenomas: a prospective single-centre clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondano, Gianluca; Bianco, Maria Antonia; Sansone, Stefano; Prisco, Antonio; Meucci, Costantino; Garofano, Maria Lucia; Cipolletta, Livio

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate an endoscopic trimodal imaging (ETMI) system (high resolution, autofluorescence, and NBI) in the detection and differentiation of colorectal adenomas. A prospective randomised trial of tandem colonoscopies was carried out using the Olympus XCF-FH260AZI system. Each colonic segment was examined twice for lesions, once with HRE and once with AFI, in random order per patient. All detected lesions were assessed with NBI for pit pattern and with AFI for colour. All lesions were removed and sent for histology. Any lesion identified on the second examination was considered as missed by the first examination. Outcome measures are adenoma miss rates of AFI and HRE, and diagnostic accuracy of NBI and AFI for differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic lesions. Ninety-four patients underwent colonoscopy with ETMI (47 in each group). Among 47 patients examined with AFI first, 31 adenomas in 15 patients were detected initially [detection rate 0.66 (0.52-0.75)]. Subsequent HRE inspection identified six additional adenomas. Among 47 patients examined with HRE first, 29 adenomas in 14 patients were detected initially [detection rate 0.62 (0.53-0.79)]. Successive AFI yielded seven additional adenomas. Adenoma miss rates of AFI and HRE were 14% and 16.2%, respectively (p = 0.29). Accuracy of AFI alone for differentiation was lower than NBI (63% vs. 80%, p HRE. AFI alone had a disappointing accuracy for adenoma differentiation, which could be improved by combination of AFI and NBI.

  7. Determinants of Aggressive Tax Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays examining determinants of aggressive tax avoidance. The first essay “Measuring the Aggressive Part of International Tax Avoidance”, co-authored with Prof. Dr. Michael Overesch, proposes a new measure that isolates the additional or even aggressive part in international tax avoidance and analyzes the determinants of aggressive tax avoidance of multinational enterprises. The second essay “Capital Injections and Aggressive Tax Planning - Can Banks Have It All...

  8. Oxytocin and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Trynke R; Neumann, Inga D

    2017-09-02

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has a solid reputation as a facilitator of social interactions such as parental and pair bonding, trust, and empathy. The many results supporting a pro-social role of OT have generated the hypothesis that impairments in the endogenous OT system may lead to antisocial behavior, most notably social withdrawal or pathological aggression. If this is indeed the case, administration of exogenous OT could be the "serenic" treatment that psychiatrists have for decades been searching for.In the present review, we list and discuss the evidence for an endogenous "hypo-oxytocinergic state" underlying aggressive and antisocial behavior, derived from both animal and human studies. We furthermore examine the reported effects of synthetic OT administration on aggression in rodents and humans.Although the scientific findings listed in this review support, in broad lines, the link between a down-regulated or impaired OT system activity and increased aggression, the anti-aggressive effects of synthetic OT are less straightforward and require further research. The rather complex picture that emerges adds to the ongoing debate questioning the unidirectional pro-social role of OT, as well as the strength of the effects of intranasal OT administration in humans.

  9. Adolescents’ Aggression to Parents: Longitudinal Links with Parents’ Physical Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Gayla; Baucom, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether parents’ previous physical aggression (PPA) exhibited during early adolescence is associated with adolescents’ subsequent parent-directed aggression even beyond parents’ concurrent physical aggression (CPA); to investigate whether adolescents’ emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning child-to-parent aggression moderate associations. Methods Adolescents (N = 93) and their parents participated in a prospective, longitudinal study. Adolescents and parents reported at waves 1–3 on four types of parents’ PPA (mother-to-adolescent, father-to-adolescent, mother-to-father, father-to-mother). Wave 3 assessments also included adolescents’ emotion dysregulation, attitudes condoning aggression, and externalizing behaviors. At waves 4 and 5, adolescents and parents reported on adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression, property damage, and verbal aggression, and on parents’ CPA Results Parents’ PPA emerged as a significant indicator of adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0–1.55; p = .047), property damage (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.1–1.5, p = .002), and verbal aggression (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.15–1.6, p controlling for adolescents’ sex, externalizing behaviors, and family income. When controlling for parents’ CPA, previous mother-to-adolescent aggression still predicted adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 1.82–17.0, p = .003), and father-to-mother aggression predicted adolescents’ parent-directed verbal aggression (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.0–3.3, p = .036). Emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning aggression did not produce direct or moderated effects. Conclusions Adolescents’ parent-directed aggression deserves greater attention in discourse about lasting, adverse effects of even minor forms of parents’ physical aggression. Future research should investigate parent-directed aggression as an early

  10. Adolescents' aggression to parents: longitudinal links with parents' physical aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Gayla; Baucom, Brian R

    2014-11-01

    To investigate whether parents' previous physical aggression (PPA) exhibited during early adolescence is associated with adolescents' subsequent parent-directed aggression even beyond parents' concurrent physical aggression (CPA) and to investigate whether adolescents' emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning child-to-parent aggression moderate associations. Adolescents (N = 93) and their parents participated in a prospective longitudinal study. Adolescents and parents reported at waves 1-3 on four types of parents' PPA (mother to adolescent, father to adolescent, mother to father, and father to mother). Wave 3 assessments also included adolescents' emotion dysregulation, attitudes condoning aggression, and externalizing behaviors. At waves 4 and 5, adolescents and parents reported on adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression, property damage, and verbal aggression and on parents' CPA. Parents' PPA emerged as a significant indicator of adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.55; p = .047), property damage (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5, p = .002), and verbal aggression (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.15-1.6, p controlling for adolescents' sex, externalizing behaviors, and family income. When controlling for parents' CPA, previous mother-to-adolescent aggression still predicted adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 1.82-17.0, p = .003), and father-to-mother aggression predicted adolescents' parent-directed verbal aggression (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.0-3.3, p = .036). Emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning aggression did not produce direct or moderated the effects. Adolescents' parent-directed aggression deserves greater attention in discourse about lasting, adverse effects of even minor forms of parents' physical aggression. Future research should investigate parent-directed aggression as an early signal of aggression into adulthood. Copyright © 2014 Society for

  11. Aggression at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Annie

    Very few international and no Danish studies investigating the consequences of exposure to both physical and psychological aggression at work have been published. The aim of the present thesis is therefore to investigate the prevalence and consequences of different forms of physical...... and psychological aggression. Four papers are included in the thesis and they address the prevalence and long-term consequences of physical and psychological aggression in the form of nasty teasing and violence and/or threats of violence and short-term consequences of bullying at work including physiological stress...... response in victims. It was also an aim of the thesis to study whether aspects of the work environment, social climate and personal dispositions would mediate potential relationships between exposure to bullying, nasty teasing or violence and different health effects and stress reactions.      The study...

  12. A Tri-modal 2024 Al -B4C composites with super-high strength and ductility: Effect of coarse-grained aluminum fraction on mechanical behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Abdollahi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ultrafine grained 2024 Al alloy based B4C particles reinforced composite was produced by mechanical milling and hot extrusion. Mechanical milling was used to synthesize the nanostructured Al2024 in attrition mill under argon atmosphere up to 50h. A similar process was used to produce Al2024-5%wt. B4C composite powder. To produce trimodal composites, milled powders were combined with coarse grained aluminum in 30 and 50 wt% and then were exposed to hot extrusion at 570°C. The microstructure of hot extruded samples were studied by optical microscope, Transmission electron microscope (TEM and scanning electron microscope (SEM equipped with EDS spectroscopy. The mechanical properties of samples were compared by using tensile, compression and hardness tests. The results showed that the strength, after 50 h milling and addition of 5wt% B4C, increased from 340 to 582 MPa and the hardness increased from 87 HBN to 173 HBN, but the elongation decreased from 14 to 0.5%. By adding the coarse-grained aluminum powder, the strength and hardness decreased slightly, but the increases in return. Ductility increase is the result of increase in dislocation movements and strength increase is the result of restriction in plastic deformation by nanostructured regions. Furthermore, the strength and hardness of trimodal composites were higher, but their ductility was lower.

  13. Aggressive and acute periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albandar, Jasim M

    2014-06-01

    genetic profile, currently do not exist. Genetic markers have the potential to be implemented as screening tools to identify subjects at risk. This approach may significantly enhance treatment outcome through the early detection and treatment of affected subjects, as well as using future approaches based on gene therapy. At present, the treatment of this disease is directed toward elimination of the subgingival bacterial load and other local risk factors. Adjunctive use of appropriate systemic antibiotics is recommended and may contribute to a longer suppression of the microbial infection. Other aggressive forms of periodontal diseases occur in patients who are affected with certain systemic diseases, including the leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome, Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome, Chediak-Higashi syndrome and Down syndrome. Management of the periodontal component of these diseases is very challenging. Acute gingival and periodontal lesions include a group of disorders that range from nondestructive to destructive forms, and these lesions are usually associated with pain and are a common reason for emergency dental consultations. Some of these lesions may cause a rapid and severe destruction of the periodontal tissues and loss of teeth. Oral infections, particularly acute infections, can spread to extra-oral sites and cause serious medical complications, and even death. Hence, prompt diagnosis and treatment are paramount. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Endoscopic tri-modal imaging for detection of early neoplasia in Barrett's oesophagus: a multi-centre feasibility study using high-resolution endoscopy, autofluorescence imaging and narrow band imaging incorporated in one endoscopy system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curvers, W. L.; Singh, R.; Song, L.-M. Wong-Kee; Wolfsen, H. C.; Ragunath, K.; Wang, K.; Wallace, M. B.; Fockens, P.; Bergman, J. J. G. H. M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diagnostic potential of endoscopic tri-modal imaging and the relative contribution of each imaging modality (i.e. high-resolution endoscopy (HRE), autofluorescence imaging (AFI) and narrow-band imaging (NBI)) for the detection of early neoplasia in Barrett's oesophagus.

  15. Diet, Nutrition, and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Diana H.; Pease, Susan E.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the theoretical and methodological issues related to diet and aggressive behavior. Clinical evidence indicates that, for some persons, diet may be associated with, or exacerbate, such conditions as learning disability, poor impulse control, intellectual deficits, a tendency toward violence, hyperactivity, and alcoholism and/or drug abuse,…

  16. Aggression Against Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy Tyushka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Review Essay: Of Thomas D. Grant. Aggression Against Ukraine: Territory, Responsibility, and International Law. Palgrave Macmillan, 2015. xxx, 283 pp. Treaties and Other International Texts. Cases. Municipal Instruments and Other State Documents. Abbreviations. Notes. Bibliography. Index. $105.50, cloth.

  17. Relational Aggression among Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  18. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results

  19. Witz, Lust und Aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med forholdet mellem vits, lyst og aggression med udgangspunkt i lysten ved aggressiv litterær humor, eksemplificeret ved tekststeder fra Shakespeares Hamlet. Der argumenteres for, at aggressionen eller angrebet er et fælles centralt aspekt ved Sigmund Freuds og Friedrich...

  20. Relational Aggression and Physical Aggression among Adolescent Cook Islands Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.

    2016-01-01

    Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…

  1. Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

  2. Identifying aggressive prostate cancer foci using a DNA methylation classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundbjerg, Kamilla; Chopra, Sameer; Alemozaffar, Mehrdad; Duymich, Christopher; Lakshminarasimhan, Ranjani; Nichols, Peter W; Aron, Manju; Siegmund, Kimberly D; Ukimura, Osamu; Aron, Monish; Stern, Mariana; Gill, Parkash; Carpten, John D; Ørntoft, Torben F; Sørensen, Karina D; Weisenberger, Daniel J; Jones, Peter A; Duddalwar, Vinay; Gill, Inderbir; Liang, Gangning

    2017-01-12

    Slow-growing prostate cancer (PC) can be aggressive in a subset of cases. Therefore, prognostic tools to guide clinical decision-making and avoid overtreatment of indolent PC and undertreatment of aggressive disease are urgently needed. PC has a propensity to be multifocal with several different cancerous foci per gland. Here, we have taken advantage of the multifocal propensity of PC and categorized aggressiveness of individual PC foci based on DNA methylation patterns in primary PC foci and matched lymph node metastases. In a set of 14 patients, we demonstrate that over half of the cases have multiple epigenetically distinct subclones and determine the primary subclone from which the metastatic lesion(s) originated. Furthermore, we develop an aggressiveness classifier consisting of 25 DNA methylation probes to determine aggressive and non-aggressive subclones. Upon validation of the classifier in an independent cohort, the predicted aggressive tumors are significantly associated with the presence of lymph node metastases and invasive tumor stages. Overall, this study provides molecular-based support for determining PC aggressiveness with the potential to impact clinical decision-making, such as targeted biopsy approaches for early diagnosis and active surveillance, in addition to focal therapy.

  3. Aggression and self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Fleischmann, Otakar

    2008-01-01

    In the research we focus on problems of self-esteem and aggress. The aim was to discover and describe if by university students an important relation between self-esteem and aggress exists, if there are some differences in self-esteem and aggress between women and men and individuals with pedagogical and non-pedagogical professional polarization. The self-esteem was followed on different levels- general, low, medium and high level as well as aggress levels. Besides general aggress we followed...

  4. Individualizing management of aggressive fibromatoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spear, Matthew A.; Jennings, L. Candace; Mankin, Henry J.; Spiro, Ira J.; Springfield, Dempsy S.; Gebhardt, Mark C.; Rosenberg, Andrew E.; Efird, James T.; Suit, Herman D.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To examine prognostic indicators in aggressive fibromatoses that may be used to optimize case-specific management strategy. Methods and Materials: One hundred and seven fibromatoses presenting between 1971 and 1992 were analyzed. The following treatment modalities were utilized: (a) surgery alone for 51 tumors; (b) radiation alone for 15 tumors; and (c) radiation and surgery (combined modality) for 41 tumors. Outcome analysis was based on 5-year actuarial local control rates. Results: Control rates among surgery, radiation therapy, and combined modality groups were 69%, 93%, and 72%. Multivariate analysis identified age 60 Gy was seen in patients with unresected or gross residual disease. Of the patients, 23 with disease involving the plantar region had a control rate of 62%, with significantly worse outcomes in children. Conclusions: These results are consistent with those found in the relevent literature. They support primary resection with negative margins when feasible. Radiation is a highly effective alternative in situations where surgery would result in major functional or cosmetic defects. When negative surgical margins are not achieved in recurrent tumors, radiation is recommended. Perioperative radiation should be considered in other high-risk groups (recurrent disease, positive margins, and plantar tumors in young patients). Doses of 60-65 Gy for gross disease and 50-60 Gy for microscopic residual are recommended. Observation may be considered for primary tumors with disease remaining in situ when they are located such that progression would not cause significant morbidity. Although plantar lesions in children may represent a group at high risk for recurrence or aggressive behavior, the greater potential for radiation-induced morbidity in this group must also temper its use. Given the inconsistent nature and treatment response of this tumor, it is fundamental that treatment recommendations should be made based on the risk:benefit analysis for

  5. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents), Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control. PMID:18955314

  6. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-Esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ae-Na Choi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents, Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control.

  7. THE GIFT OF AGGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Socorro Lacerda Lima

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available On the context of Tupinambá war, bodies, trophies, women, children, names, words, identities, aggressions, offenses, and a lot more richness material that from the changing elements moving on permanently among enemy groups. But on the contrary, the potlatch held on the American northwest, where the alliance establishes a mutual relation of favors between not enemy groups. On the context of Tupi war, the changing system is based exactly in a hostile relation among opposite groups. The aim of the present article is to establish a parallel between anthropophagic complexes of Tupinambá Indians and established potlatch on the American’s northwest societies analyzed by Marcel Mauss.

  8. The nature of human aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, John

    2009-01-01

    Human aggression is viewed from four explanatory perspectives, derived from the ethological tradition. The first consists of its adaptive value, which can be seen throughout the animal kingdom, involving resource competition and protection of the self and offspring, which has been viewed from a cost-benefit perspective. The second concerns the phylogenetic origin of aggression, which in humans involves brain mechanisms that are associated with anger and inhibition, the emotional expression of anger, and how aggressive actions are manifest. The third concerns the origin of aggression in development and its subsequent modification through experience. An evolutionary approach to development yields conclusions that are contrary to the influential social learning perspective, notably that physical aggression occurs early in life, and its subsequent development is characterized by learned inhibition. The fourth explanation concerns the motivational mechanisms controlling aggression: approached from an evolutionary background, these mechanisms range from the inflexible reflex-like responses to those incorporating rational decision-making.

  9. Psychopathological risk factors for partner aggression in a community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Factores de riesgo psicopatológicos para la agresión en la pareja en una muestra comunitaria Psychopathological risk factors for partner aggression in a community sample; Cuenca

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the predictive value of certain psychopathological variables for physical aggression, from the developmental and dyadic perspectives, in a sample of 2,032 heterosexual couples from the Madrid Region, through the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS-2. The results showed a higher prevalence of psychological aggression than of physical aggression, and significant differences in low level physical aggression in the case of women, 13% vs. 10%, chi;2(1, N=4.064=7.43, p less than.001. The results confirm that symptoms of hostility, impulsive, borderline, and antisocial personality traits, alcohol consumption, and the experience of victimization have a greater impact on younger men and women (18-29 years. The implications of the results for prevention of partner violence and for couple therapy are discussed.

  10. Insecure attachment behavior and partner violence: incorporating couple perceptions of insecure attachment and relational aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Megan; Sandberg, Jonathan G; Bradford, Angela B; Brown, Andrew

    2014-10-01

    Intimate partner violence and insecure attachment are therapeutically relevant concepts when working with couples. The link between attachment and intimate partner violence has been examined in the literature, but an area of aggression that often goes unexamined is relational aggression, or using third parties as a means of being aggressive toward a partner. We asked how participants' attachment behaviors were related to their own and partners' relational and physical aggression. We used structural equation modeling to estimate actor-partner interdependence among these relationships in 644 heterosexual couples. Results indicated significant partner paths from attachment to relational aggression, as well as significant actor paths between relational aggression and physical aggression. Implications were discussed. Data for this study were collected from the RELATE assessment. © 2014 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  11. Aggression in children and youth towards crime.

    OpenAIRE

    ŠTEFFLOVÁ, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with aggressive children and youth, which leads to crime. It deals with the causes of aggression, factors that influence aggression, but also the type of aggression. The practical part contains specific case studies of individuals whose aggression was one of the causes of crime.

  12. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  13. Treatment of impulsive aggression in correctional settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Deborah; Sampl, Susan; Kesten, Karen L; Zhang, Wanli; Trestman, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the implementation of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy-Corrections Modified (DBT-CM) for difficult to manage, impulsive and/or aggressive correctional populations. Participants were English-speaking women (n = 18) and men (n = 45) of diverse cultural backgrounds between the ages of 16 and 59 years old retained in state-run prisons in Connecticut. Following consent, and a psychological assessment battery, twice-weekly DBT-CM groups were held over 16 weeks followed by random assignment to DBT coaching or case management condition, with sessions taking place individually for eight weeks. Data analysis. A mixed effects regression model was used to test the hypotheses: participants will show decreased aggression, impulsivity, and psychopathology, as well as improved coping, after completing the DBT-CM groups; and will show greater reduction in targeted behaviors than those receiving case management at the six month and 12 month follow-up assessment periods. Significant reduction in targeted behavior was found from baseline to following the 16 week DBT-CM skills treatment groups. Both case management and DBT coaching were significant at 12 month follow-up. A significant difference was found for adult men and women. The study supports the value of DBT-CM for management of aggressive behaviors in prison settings. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Longitudinal heritability of childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porsch, R.M.P.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Cherny, S.S.; Krapohl, E.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Loukola, A.; Korhonen, T.; Pulkkinen, L.; Corley, R.P.; Rhee, S.; Kaprio, J.; Rose, R.; Hewitt, J.K.; Sham, P.; Plomin, R.; Boomsma, D.I.; Bartels, M.

    2016-01-01

    The genetic and environmental contributions to the variation and longitudinal stability in childhood aggressive behavior were assessed in two large twin cohorts, the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR), and the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS; United Kingdom). In NTR, maternal ratings on aggression

  15. [Neurochemistry of impulsiveness and aggression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetulani, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Aggression is the most frequent social reaction among animals and men, and plays an important role in survival of the fittest. The change of social conditions in the course of development of human civilisation rendered some forms of aggression counter-adaptive, but the neurobiological mechanism of expression of aggression have not fundamentally changed in the last stages of human evolution. The two different kinds of aggression: emotional, serving mainly as a threat, and rational, predatory, serving for the attainment of goal in the most effective way, have different anatomical and neurobiological background and reciprocally inhibit each other. Aggression is modulated by several neurotransmitter and hormonal systems, of which the key role is seemingly played by testosterone, a hormone involved in domination behaviour, and serotonin, whose deficit results in increased impulsiveness.

  16. False memories for aggressive acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Aggressiveness and intelligence in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Munique de Souza Siqueira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the aggressiveness and intelligence in adolescence, and to verify if exists association through these variables. The aggressiveness is inherent in human nature and collaborates in the construction of personality by influencing the behaviors positively or negatively. Intelligence refers to the cognitive skill that every individual has and contributes to the establishment of social relations. As a teenager the aggressiveness and the intelligence become more evident due to change in this phase of development. The sample of 35 adolescents of both sexes participated in this survey. The instruments used were the batch of reasoning tests – BPR-5 and the Aggressiveness scale for children and young people. The results indicated that there is no relationship between aggression and intelligence. However, based on the literature these variables interrelate. Therefore, it is suggested that this research be expanded with the use of other psychological instruments.

  18. Trans fat consumption and aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice A Golomb

    Full Text Available Dietary trans fatty acids (dTFA are primarily synthetic compounds that have been introduced only recently; little is known about their behavioral effects. dTFA inhibit production of omega-3 fatty acids, which experimentally have been shown to reduce aggression. Potential behavioral effects of dTFA merit investigation. We sought to determine whether dTFA are associated with aggression/irritability. METHODOLGY/PRINICPAL FINDINGS: We capitalized on baseline dietary and behavioral assessments in an existing clinical trial to analyze the relationship of dTFA to aggression. Of 1,018 broadly sampled baseline subjects, the 945 adult men and women who brought a completed dietary survey to their baseline visit are the target of this analysis. Subjects (seen 1999-2004 were not on lipid medications, and were without LDL-cholesterol extremes, diabetes, HIV, cancer or heart disease. Outcomes assessed adverse behaviors with impact on others: Overt Aggression Scale Modified-aggression subscale (primary behavioral endpoint; Life History of Aggression; Conflict Tactics Scale; and self-rated impatience and irritability. The association of dTFA to aggression was analyzed via regression and ordinal logit, unadjusted and adjusted for potential confounders (sex, age, education, alcohol, and smoking. Additional analyses stratified on sex, age, and ethnicity, and examined the prospective association. Greater dTFA were strongly significantly associated with greater aggression, with dTFA more consistently predictive than other assessed aggression predictors. The relationship was upheld with adjustment for confounders, was preserved across sex, age, and ethnicity strata, and held cross-sectionally and prospectively.This study provides the first evidence linking dTFA with behavioral irritability and aggression. While confounding is always a concern in observational studies, factors including strength and consistency of association, biological gradient, temporality, and

  19. Aggressive Erotica and Violence against Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnerstein, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Examines the effects of aggressive-erotic stimuli on male aggression toward females. Male subjects' deliveries of electric shocks to males or females after viewing either a neutral, erotic, or aggressive-erotic film were measured. (Author/SS)

  20. Recurrent Aggressive Angiomyxoma*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelene Suassuna Silvestre de Alencar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: aggressive angiomyxoma is a highly aggressive, rare neoplasm of the mesen- chymal tissue with a high recurrence rate. It represents an important differential diagnosis of pelvic tumors in women of reproductive age. This study aims to describe a case of ag- gressive angiomyxoma.Case report: woman, 37 years old, complained about a bulge on the right perianal region, and anal itching and burning, bleeding, tenesmus and incontinence. The proctologic examina- tion confirmed the perianal bulge and extrinsic compression of the posterior wall of the rectum. Computed tomography (CT of the pelvis showed a well-defined pelvic mass ex- tending to the right rectal area. Exploratory laparotomy showed a mass of fibro elastic con- sistency adjacent to the pelvic organs and closely attached to the distal rectum, and per- formed a resection of the pelvic tumor afterward. Anatomopathological analysis revealed an aggressive angiomyxoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the pelvis showed signs of recurrence in the pelvic cavity on the right side of the rectum. A surgical procedure was performed to resect the lesion. After an asymptomatic period, the MRI showed solid growths located in the right ischiorectal fossa. A new surgical procedure identified only retention cysts in the pelvis and right ischiorectal fossa, only lysis of adhesions was per- formed. The patient is currently undergoing follow-up without disease recurrence. Resumo: Introdução: o angiomixoma agressivo é uma rara neoplasia do tecido mesenquimal de gran- de agressividade e alta taxa de recorrência. Representa um importante diagnóstico diferen- cial de tumorações pélvicas de mulheres em idade reprodutiva. Este estudo objetiva relatar um caso de angiomixoma agressivo.Relato de caso: mulher, 37 anos, com queixa de abaulamento em região perianal direita, além de prurido e ardor anal, sangramento, tenesmo e incontinência anal. Exame procto- lógico confirmou o abaulamento

  1. Aggression Can be Contagious: Longitudinal Associations between Proactive Aggression and Reactive Aggression Among Young Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Daniel J.; Richmond, Ashley; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin’s reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin’s proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child’s level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child’s proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay. PMID:25683448

  2. Outcome of coronary plaque burden: a 10-year follow-up of aggressive medical management

    OpenAIRE

    Achenbach Stephan; Rumberger John A; Mohlenkamp Stefan; Lau Chu-Pak; Goh Victor K; Budoff Matthew J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The effect of aggressive medical therapy on quantitative coronary plaque burden is not generally known, especially in ethnic Chinese. Aims We reasoned that Cardiac CT could conveniently quantify early coronary atherosclerosis in our patient population, and hypothesized that serial observation could differentiate the efficacy of aggressive medical therapy regarding progression and regression of the atherosclerotic process, as well as evaluating the additional impact of life...

  3. Novel tri-modal defect structure in Nb-doped MOCVD Y Ba2Cu3O7: a paradigm for pinning landscape control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aytug, Tolga; Zuev, Yuri; Specht, Eliot D; Parans Paranthaman, M; Maroni, Victor A; Miller, Dean J; Chen, Zhijun; Jeremy Kropf, A; Zaluzec, Nestor J

    2012-01-01

    Immobilization of vortices, or flux pinning, is both an enduring scientific issue and one of the most important problems in optimizing high temperature superconductors (HTSs) for commercial use. Here, we demonstrate a practical approach to the creation of a multi-modal flux pinning landscape in Y Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) films employing an industrially scalable metal–organic chemical vapor deposition technique. Through controlled additions of Nb, we have achieved a novel distribution of crystallographic defects that immobilize (pin) vortices in the YBCO matrix. That is, with only the addition of a single dopant element, a tri-modal, non-superconducting defect structure is induced that threads through the YBCO matrix laterally (parallel to the ab planes of YBCO), vertically (parallel to the YBCO c-axis), and isotropically in the form of random spherical defects. For optimally doped samples, the influence of these multi-modal nanocrystalline defect structures on the flux pinning properties manifests itself as a significant improvement in the critical current density (J c ) for all magnetic field orientations. The results demonstrate the possibility of achieving an ideal flux pinning landscape (from an orientation and strength viewpoint), which permits the design of HTS wires with fully-tunable properties by processes suitable for large-scale manufacturing. (paper)

  4. Multifunctional BaYbF5: Gd/Er upconversion nanoparticles for in vivo tri-modal upconversion optical, X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolong; Yi, Zhigao; Xue, Zhenluan; Zeng, Songjun; Liu, Hongrong

    2017-06-01

    Development of high-quality upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) with combination of the merits of multiple molecular imaging techniques, such as, upconversion luminescence (UCL) imaging, X-ray computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, could significantly improve the accuracy of biological diagnosis. In this work, multifunctional BaYbF 5 : Gd/Er (50:2mol%) UCNPs were synthesized via a solvothermal method using oleic acid (OA) as surface ligands (denoted as OA-UCNPs). The OA-UCNPs were further treated by diluted HCl to form ligand-free UCNPs (LF-UCNPs) for later bioimaging applications. The cytotoxicity assay in HeLa cells shows low cell toxicity of these LF-UCNPs. Owing to the efficient UCL of BaYbF 5 : Gd/Er, the LF-UCNPs were successfully used as luminescent bioprobe in UCL bioimaging. And, X-ray CT imaging reveals that BaYbF 5 : Gd/Er UCNPs can act as potential contrast agents for detection of the liver and spleen in the live mice owing to the high-Z elements (e.g., Ba, Yb, and Gd) in host matrix. Moreover, with the addition of Gd, the as-designed UCNPs exhibit additional positive contrast enhancement in T 1 -weighted MR imaging. These findings demonstrate that BaYbF 5 : Gd/Er UCNPs are potential candidates for tri-modal imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Aggressive behavior prevention in a dance duet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Gant

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the features of aggression and the main directions of prevention of aggressive forms of behavior, among athletes engaged in sports dancing in the preliminary basic training. Material & Methods: analysis of scientific and methodological literature, "Personal aggressiveness and conflictness". Results: a theoretical analysis of the problem of aggressive behavior in sports dance duets. Level of aggressiveness of athletes of sports dances at the stage of preliminary basic training is determined. Reasons for the formation of aggressive behavior among young athletes are revealed. Areas of preventive and psychocorrectional work with aggressive athletes are singled out. Conclusion: a high level of aggression was detected in 19 (31,67% of the study participants. Determinants of aggressive behavior in sport ballroom pair appear particularly family upbringing style and pedagogical activity of the trainer. Correction of aggressive behavior of young athletes should have a complex systemic character and take into account the main characterological features of aggressive athletes.

  6. Aggressive Angiomyxoma Involving Penis and Urethra - A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Shivashankar; Gengan, Devakannan; Walling, Sashi T

    2017-07-01

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare benign mesenchymal stromal tumour, characterized by locally infiltrative nature and a tendency for recurrence. Only a few cases of penile involvement have been reported in the literature so far. We report a case of aggressive penile angiomyxoma in a sixty-two-year-old obese, diabetic male patient. He presented with obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and diffuse enlargement of the penis and scrotum. He was managed with excision, reduction scrotoplasty, internal urethrotomy, followed by Leuprolide therapy for prevention of recurrence. He is on follow up for 20 months without recurrence and obstructive symptoms.

  7. Aggressive Angiomyxoma Involving Penis and Urethra – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivashankar Damodaran

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare benign mesenchymal stromal tumour, characterized by locally infiltrative nature and a tendency for recurrence. Only a few cases of penile involvement have been reported in the literature so far. We report a case of aggressive penile angiomyxoma in a sixty-two-year-old obese, diabetic male patient. He presented with obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS and diffuse enlargement of the penis and scrotum. He was managed with excision, reduction scrotoplasty, internal urethrotomy, followed by Leuprolide therapy for prevention of recurrence. He is on follow up for 20 months without recurrence and obstructive symptoms.

  8. Risking Aggression: Reply to Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Borer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In his paper, “Is There an ‘Anomalous’ Section of the Laffer Curve?”, Walter Block describes some situations in which it appears that a libertarian should violate the non-aggression principle. To rectify this, Block proposes a different perspective on libertarianism which he calls punishment theory. This paper argues that no new theory is needed, as the non-aggression principle can be used to resolve theapparent conundrums.

  9. Risking Aggression: Reply to Block

    OpenAIRE

    Kris Borer

    2010-01-01

    In his paper, “Is There an ‘Anomalous’ Section of the Laffer Curve?”, Walter Block describes some situations in which it appears that a libertarian should violate the non-aggression principle. To rectify this, Block proposes a different perspective on libertarianism which he calls punishment theory. This paper argues that no new theory is needed, as the non-aggression principle can be used to resolve theapparent conundrums.

  10. Mathematical Model of Age Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Golovinski, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    We formulate a mathematical model of competition for resources between representatives of different age groups. A nonlinear kinetic integral-differential equation of the age aggression describes the process of redistribution of resources. It is shown that the equation of the age aggression has a stationary solution, in the absence of age-dependency in the interaction of different age groups. A numerical simulation of the evolution of resources for different initial distributions has done. It ...

  11. Expression and/or activity of the SVCT2 ascorbate transporter may be decreased in many aggressive cancers, suggesting potential utility for sodium bicarbonate and dehydroascorbic acid in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2013-10-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimer transcription factor whose elevated activity in many cancers helps them to survive under hypoxic conditions and enhances their capacity to grow invasively, establish metastases, and survive chemo- or radiotherapy. Optimal intracellular levels of ascorbate suppress the level and transcriptional activity of HIF-1under normoxic or mildly hypoxic conditions by supporting the activity of proly and asparagyl hydroxylases that target HIF-1alpha. High intracellular ascorbate can also work in various ways to down-regulate activation of NF-kappaB which, like HIF-1 is constitutively active in many cancers and promotes aggressive behavior - in part by promoting transcription of HIF-1alpha. Yet recent evidence suggests that, even in the context of adequate ascorbate nutrition, the intracellular ascorbate content of many aggressive cancers may be supoptimal for effective HIF-1 control. This likely reflects low expression or activity of the SVCT2 ascorbate transporter. The expression of SVCT2 in cancers has so far received little study; but the extracellular acidity characteristic of many tumors would be expected to reduce the activity of this transporter, which has a mildly alkaline pH optimum. Unfortunately, since SVCT2 has a high affinity for ascorbate, and its activity is nearly saturated at normal healthy serum levels of this vitamin, increased oral administration of ascorbate would be unlikely to have much impact on the intracellular ascorbate content of tumors. However, cancers in which HIF-1 is active express high levels of glucose transporters such as GLUT-1, and these transporters can promote influx of dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) via facilitated diffusion; once inside the cell, DHA is rapidly reduced to ascorbate, which effectively is "trapped" within the cell. Hence, episodic intravenous infusions of modest doses of DHA may have potential for optimizing the intracellular ascorbate content of cancers, potentially

  12. Adolescents' Social Reasoning about Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Tisak, Marie S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined early adolescents' reasoning about relational aggression, and the links that their reasoning has to their own relationally aggressive behavior. Thinking about relational aggression was compared to thinking about physical aggression, conventional violations, and personal behavior. In individual interviews, adolescents (N = 103) rated…

  13. Do Teachers Misbehave? Aggression in School Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing research on school aggression, significant gaps remain in the authors' knowledge of team aggression, since most studies have mainly explored aggression on the part of students. The purpose of this paper is to focus on understanding the phenomenon of workplace aggression in school teams. Specifically, the purpose of the…

  14. Sensory modulation intervention and behaviour support modification for the treatment of severe aggression in Huntington's disease. A single case experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Caroline A; Brown, Anahita

    2017-09-01

    Aggression is common in Huntington's disease. However, at present there are no standard guidelines for managing aggression in Huntington's sufferers due to a lack of empirical research. This paper presents a case study of the treatment of very high levels of aggression with sensory modulation and behaviour support intervention in a Huntington's sufferer. The client exhibited a range of aggressive behaviours, including physical aggression to people, furniture and objects, and verbal aggression. Following an eight week baseline phase, five weeks of sensory modulation intervention were employed. A behaviour support plan was then implemented as an adjunct to the sensory intervention, with aggressive behaviour systematically audited for a further 11 weeks. The results indicate a significant reduction in reported levels of aggression during the combined sensory modulation and behaviour support phase, compared to both the baseline and the sensory modulation therapy alone phases. This case study highlights the efficacy non-pharmacological interventions may have for reducing aggression in HD.

  15. Aggression in Women: Behavior, Brain and Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Denson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We review the literature on aggression in women with an emphasis on laboratory experimentation and hormonal and brain mechanisms. Women tend to engage in more indirect forms of aggression (e.g., spreading rumors than other types of aggression. In laboratory studies, women are less aggressive than men, but provocation attenuates this difference. In the real world, women are just as likely to aggress against their romantic partner as men are, but men cause more serious physical and psychological harm. A very small minority of women are also sexually violent. Women are susceptible to alcohol-related aggression, but this type of aggression may be limited to women high in trait aggression. Fear of being harmed is a robust inhibitor of direct aggression in women. There are too few studies and most are underpowered to detect unique neural mechanisms associated with aggression in women. Testosterone shows the same small, positive relationship with aggression in women as in men. The role of cortisol is unclear, although some evidence suggests that women who are high in testosterone and low in cortisol show heightened aggression. Under some circumstances, oxytocin may increase aggression by enhancing reactivity to provocation and simultaneously lowering perceptions of danger that normally inhibit many women from retaliating. There is some evidence that high levels of estradiol and progesterone are associated with low levels of aggression. We highlight that more gender-specific theory-driven hypothesis testing is needed with larger samples of women and aggression paradigms relevant to women.

  16. [Therapeutic Aggressiveness and Liquid Oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barón Duarte, F J; Rodríguez Calvo, M S; Amor Pan, J R

    2017-01-01

    Aggressiveness criteria proposed in the scientific literature a decade ago provide a quality judgment and are a reference in the care of patients with advanced cancer, but their use is not generalized in the evaluation of Oncology Services. In this paper we analyze the therapeutic aggressiveness, according to standard criteria, in 1.001 patients with advanced cancer who died in our Institution between 2010 and 2013. The results seem to show that aggressiveness at the end of life is present more frequently than experts recommend. About 25% of patients fulfill at least one criterion of aggressiveness. This result could be explained by a liquid Oncology which does not prioritize the patient as a moral subject in the clinical appointment. Medical care is oriented to necessities and must be articulated in a model focused on dignity and communication. Its implementation through Advanced Care Planning, consideration of patient's values and preferences, and Limitation of therapeutic effort are ways to reduce aggressiveness and improve clinical practice at the end of life. We need to encourage synergic and proactive attitudes, adding the best of cancer research with the best clinical care for the benefit of human being, moral subject and main goal of Medicine.

  17. Multifunctional BaYbF{sub 5}: Gd/Er upconversion nanoparticles for in vivo tri-modal upconversion optical, X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaolong; Yi, Zhigao; Xue, Zhenluan; Zeng, Songjun, E-mail: songjunz@hunnu.edu.cn; Liu, Hongrong, E-mail: hrliu@hunnu.edu.cn

    2017-06-01

    Development of high-quality upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) with combination of the merits of multiple molecular imaging techniques, such as, upconversion luminescence (UCL) imaging, X-ray computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, could significantly improve the accuracy of biological diagnosis. In this work, multifunctional BaYbF{sub 5}: Gd/Er (50:2 mol%) UCNPs were synthesized via a solvothermal method using oleic acid (OA) as surface ligands (denoted as OA-UCNPs). The OA-UCNPs were further treated by diluted HCl to form ligand-free UCNPs (LF-UCNPs) for later bioimaging applications. The cytotoxicity assay in HeLa cells shows low cell toxicity of these LF-UCNPs. Owing to the efficient UCL of BaYbF{sub 5}: Gd/Er, the LF-UCNPs were successfully used as luminescent bioprobe in UCL bioimaging. And, X-ray CT imaging reveals that BaYbF{sub 5}: Gd/Er UCNPs can act as potential contrast agents for detection of the liver and spleen in the live mice owing to the high-Z elements (e.g., Ba, Yb, and Gd) in host matrix. Moreover, with the addition of Gd, the as-designed UCNPs exhibit additional positive contrast enhancement in T{sub 1}-weighted MR imaging. These findings demonstrate that BaYbF{sub 5}: Gd/Er UCNPs are potential candidates for tri-modal imaging. - Graphical abstract: Multifunctional BaYbF{sub 5}: Gd/Er upconversion nanoparticles with efficient upconversion emission, high absorption coefficient, predominant paramagnetic behavior, and low biological toxicity were demonstrated for tri-modality in vivo UCL, CT and MR imaging. Display Omitted - Highlights: • The multifunctional UCNPs with high monodispersity were synthesized. • The UCNPs present large r{sub 1} value and binary CT contrast agents. • These UCNPs were demonstrated as optimal probes for tri-modal bioimaging.

  18. Immediate placement and restoration of implants in the aesthetic zone with a trimodal approach: soft tissue alterations and its relation to gingival biotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Gustavo; Rioboo, María; Fábrega, Javier G

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the soft tissue changes around implants in the aesthetic zone, placed under a trimodal approach (immediate post-extraction placement, flapless, and immediate provisional restoration) and its relationship to gingival/periodontal biotype of the patient. The sample consisted of 14 patients from two private practices that were in need of a tooth extraction in the anterior maxillary region (cuspid to cuspid) and were candidates to a replacement with a dental implant. An initial measurement (baseline) of the position or the mesial and distal papillae and gingival zenith was made at this time, with a rigid dental-supported stent and an electronic precision caliper, able to the second tenth of a millimeter; after careful tooth extraction, the periodontal thickness, at a point 5 mm apical to de gingival buccal margin, with an analogical thickness gauge, able to one tenth of a millimeter. Once the implant was inserted an immediate provisional restoration was delivered. To evaluate the soft tissue changes measurements were repeated at 3, 6, and 12 months. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the changes in the gingival margin around the implant restorations and to identify a possible correlation to patient's periodontal thickness. All 14 patients received Straumann (®) implants (9 Tissue Level [TL] Regular Neck [RN], 2 TL Narrow Neck [NN], 2 Bone Level [BL] Narrow Crossfit [NC], and 1 BL Regular Crossfit [RC]). All implants integrated and none had any biological complications. Three provisional restorations presented screw loosening and retightened once and one loss retention and was recemented once. In one patient, with a severe bruxing habit, the final restoration suffered screw loosening and was retightened. Of the final restorations, 12 were screw-retained and 2 cemented on custom-made Zirconia abutments. A mean recession of the buccal margin of 0.45 mm was recorded at 12 months ( ± 0.25 mm). An acceptable

  19. Therapy of Lies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Conversion therapy comes in many forms, ranging from informal chats with counselors to aggressive physical coercion, but all are based on the belief that a gay male or a lesbian can be changed "back" to heterosexual behavior. It is not just alarmed parents who turn to this therapy. Many LGBT individuals seek out such treatment in an effort to…

  20. Massage Therapy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Massage therapy has been notably effective in preventing prematurity, enhancing growth of infants, increasing attentiveness, decreasing depression and aggression, alleviating motor problems, reducing pain, and enhancing immune function. This review covers massage therapy research from the last decade, as an update to the American Psychologist 1998…

  1. Behavioral Interventions for Anger, Irritability, and Aggression in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhodolsky, Denis G; Smith, Stephanie D; McCauley, Spencer A; Ibrahim, Karim; Piasecka, Justyna B

    2016-02-01

    Anger, irritability, and aggression are among the most common reasons for child mental health referrals. This review is focused on two forms of behavioral interventions for these behavioral problems: Parent management training (PMT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). First, we provide an overview of anger/irritability and aggression as the treatment targets of behavioral interventions, followed by a discussion of the general principles and techniques of these treatment modalities. Then we discuss our current work concerning the transdiagnostic approach to CBT for anger, irritability, and aggression. PMT is aimed at improving aversive patterns of family interactions that engender children's disruptive behavior. CBT targets deficits in emotion regulation and social problem-solving that are associated with aggressive behavior. Both forms of treatment have received extensive support in randomized controlled trials. Given that anger/irritability and aggressive behavior are common in children with a variety of psychiatric diagnoses, a transdiagnostic approach to CBT for anger and aggression is described in detail. PMT and CBT have been well studied in randomized controlled trials in children with disruptive behavior disorders, and studies of transdiagnostic approaches to CBT for anger and aggression are currently underway. More work is needed to develop treatments for other types of aggressive behavior (e.g., relational aggression) that have been relatively neglected in clinical research. The role of callous-unemotional traits in response to behavioral interventions and treatment of irritability in children with anxiety and mood disorders also warrants further investigation.

  2. Social Information Processing, Experiences of Aggression in Social Contexts, and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Lösel, Friedrich; Bliesener, Thomas; Bender, Doris

    2013-01-01

    This study examines social information processing and experiences of aggression in social contexts as predictors of different forms of aggressive behavior. A sample of 102 boys (aggressive, average, competent, and victimized students) was investigated with a prospective design in Grade 7/8 and again in Grade 9/10. Results show an aggressive-impulsive response repertoire strongly predicted self-reported and teacher-reported physical aggression, verbal aggression, violent offenses, general aggr...

  3. Aggressive behaviour in sport: An application of the Aggression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well established in literature that aggressive behaviour continues to be prevalent in many sporting activities despite the potential positive contribution that sport has made to athletes, society, universities and economies. The main aim of this study was to assess the application of an adapted version of the original ...

  4. Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawver, Timothy; Blankenship, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Play therapy is a treatment modality in which the therapist engages in play with the child. Its use has been documented in a variety of settings and with a variety of diagnoses. Treating within the context of play brings the therapist and the therapy to the level of the child. By way of an introduction to this approach, a case is presented of a six-year-old boy with oppositional defiant disorder. The presentation focuses on the events and interactions of a typical session with an established patient. The primary issues of the session are aggression, self worth, and self efficacy. These themes manifest themselves through the content of the child’s play and narration of his actions. The therapist then reflects these back to the child while gently encouraging the child toward more positive play. Though the example is one of nondirective play therapy, a wide range of variation exists under the heading of play therapy. PMID:19724720

  5. MANIFESTATIONS OF AGGRESSIVE ATYPICAL KAPOSI'S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... weight loss (86.8%), skin nodules (86.4%) and diarrhoea (55.3%). Virtually, all occupational groups were affected, with students, civil servants and businessmen topping the list. Key Words: Atypical Aggressive Kaposi's sarcoma, HIV infection. African Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Microbiology Jan 2004 Vol.5 No.1 ...

  6. Aggressive angiomyxoma of the thigh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffernan, E.J.; Alkubaidan, F.O.; Munk, P.L. [Vancouver General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hayes, M.M. [BC Cancer Agency, Department of Pathology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Clarkson, P.W. [BC Cancer Agency, Department of Surgery, Radiation Oncology and Developmental Radiotherapeutics, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare tumour that typically occurs in the perineum in women of reproductive age. A small number of cases occurring in men have been reported, all of which were located in the low pelvis, perineum or scrotum. While benign, the tumour is locally infiltrative and consequently has a high rate of local recurrence following surgery; therefore, accurate pre-operative diagnosis is important. The characteristic location of these tumours in the low pelvis or perineum has led to speculation that aggressive angiomyxomas arise from a mesenchymal cell that is unique to the perineum. We describe a case of aggressive angiomyxoma arising in the thigh of a 54-year-old man, which we believe is the first reported instance of this rare neoplasm occurring remote from the pelvis or perineum in a male patient. Cross-sectional imaging demonstrated a well-defined mass that had low density on CT and high intensity on fluid-sensitive MR sequences. Biopsy was non-diagnostic and excision was performed. At histological analysis, the tumour exhibited the characteristic features of aggressive angiomyxoma, with bland spindle cells and large, hyalinised blood vessels in a hypocellular myxoid matrix. Extensive immunohistochemical staining further supported the diagnosis. While the imaging features of these tumours are non-specific and suggestive of myxoid neoplasms, the diagnosis should be considered whenever biopsy of a myxoid-appearing mass yields hypocellular, non-diagnostic material, despite adequate sampling. (orig.)

  7. Relationship between boys' normative beliefs about aggression and their physical, verbal, and indirect aggressive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Si Huan; Ang, Rebecca P

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of general normative beliefs about aggression and specific normative beliefs about retaliatory aggression in predicting physical, verbal, and indirect aggressive behaviors. Two hundred and forty-nine Grade 4 and Grade 5 boys completed the Normative Beliefs about Aggression Scale (NOBAGS) and provided self-reports on the frequency of their physical, verbal, and indirect aggressive behaviors. A series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that general normative beliefs about aggression contributed significantly in predicting all three types of aggressive behaviors. When general normative beliefs about aggression were controlled for, specific normative beliefs about retaliatory aggression against males but not specific normative beliefs about retaliatory aggression against females, contributed significantly to predict physical, verbal, and indirect aggressive behaviors. Implications for intervention programs are discussed.

  8. Nonsurgical treatment of aggressive fibromatosis in the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, C.B. Jr.; Shagets, F.W.; Mansfield, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis is a poorly defined, locally aggressive, yet histologically benign fibroblastic proliferative lesion that may occur in the head and neck. The lesion is highly cellular and locally infiltrative and has a propensity to invade and erode bone, compromising vital structures within the head and neck. However, it is not a true malignancy because it does not have malignant cytologic characteristics nor does it metastasize. We present two cases of aggressive fibromatosis occurring in young adult men. The first case involved a rapidly enlarging mass of the anterior maxilla that involved the upper lip, nasal alae, nasal septum, inferior turbinates, and hard palate. The patient underwent incisional biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. Because of difficulty in determining the actual margins of this extensive lesion and the significant morbidity that would have resulted from surgical resection, we elected to treat this patient with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The second case was an extensive lesion involving the right temporal bone, pterygomaxillary space, and infratemporal, temporal, and middle cranial fossae. Incisional biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. Because of the lack of functional and cosmetic deficits and the unavoidable morbidity of a surgical resection, this patient was treated with radiation therapy. Although wide field resection is the most satisfactory form of treatment, in situations in which this modality would result in unacceptable morbidity or if surgical margins are positive, then radiation therapy and chemotherapy should be considered. Support for these therapeutic modalities is found in larger series of cases outside the head and neck

  9. A concept analysis of relational aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, M M

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to conduct a concept analysis of the phenomenon of relational aggression. With the increases in violence among our youth, the topic of aggression, and more specifically relational aggression, has gained an increasing interest. Discussion of relational aggression is imperative because it lends credence to a type of aggression not readily studied in previous decades. A new understanding of relational aggression will aide in future nursing and multidisciplinary research studies and will guide health promotion interventions to alleviate the consequences of relational aggression for adolescent girls. Therefore, with an increased knowledge about the consequences of relational aggression the nurse can provide appropriate nursing interventions to combat the detriment associated with it.

  10. 4. Relational Aggression in Adolescents at Selected

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    relational aggression and the psychological well- being of perpetrators. ... Difficulties Questionnaire - Youth version. Results: Results from ... INTRODUCTION: School bullying and aggression among children and ... social isolation and lower self esteem than their peers. .... significant moderate positive relationship between.

  11. Psychological features of aggression in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    .O. Kuznetsova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of empirical study of the psychological characteristics of aggression and frustration response in adolescents with different types of socialization. We describe the qualitative and quantitative aspects of aggression in adolescence. We show the nature of the relationship of a aggressiveness features with type of socialization in adolescents. The described study involved 125 male adolescents aged 13-14 years, enrolled in the VIII grade (56 cadets and 69 students. We used methods of testing, survey, subjective scaling. In cadets, we found elevated rates of aggression and hostility, the prevalence of physical aggression, high scores on Irritation, Verbal aggression and Suspicion, as well as the prevalence in situations of frustration of extrapunitive reactions with “fixation on self-defense”. In the group of students of secondary school, the levels of aggression and hostility an on upper limit of test norms, impunitive reactions, indirect aggression, guilt, constructive reaction with “fixation on meeting needs” prevail.

  12. From provocation to aggression: the neural network

    OpenAIRE

    Repple, J.; Pawliczek, C.M.; Voss, B.; Siegel, S.; Schneider, F.; Kohn, N.; Habel, U.

    2017-01-01

    Background In-vivo observations of neural processes during human aggressive behavior are difficult to obtain, limiting the number of studies in this area. To address this gap, the present study implemented a social reactive aggression paradigm in 29 healthy men, employing non-violent provocation in a two-player game to elicit aggressive behavior in fMRI settings. Results Participants responded more aggressively after high provocation reflected in taking more money from their opponents. Compar...

  13. Aggressive priming online: Facebook adverts can prime aggressive cognitions

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Through the process of priming, incidental stimuli in our environments can influence our thoughts, feelings and behavior. This may be true of incidental stimuli in online environments, such as adverts on websites. Two experiments (N=325, N=331) showed that the mere presence of advertisements with violent content on a simulated Facebook page induced higher levels of aggression-related cognition in comparison to non-violent adverts (d=0.56 , d=0.71). In a subsequent word recognition task, parti...

  14. Genetic contributions to subtypes of aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, R.S.L.; Bartels, M.; Hoekstra, R.A.; Hudziak, J.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2005-01-01

    Boys and girls may display different styles of aggression. The aim of this study was to identify subtypes of aggression within the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) aggression scale, and determine their characteristics for both sexes. Maternal CBCL ratings of 7449 7-year-old twin pairs were analyzed

  15. Relational Aggression among Middle School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallape, Aprille

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates that define relational aggression among middle school girls, the relationships among these factors, and the association between the correlates of relational aggression and the type of relational aggression (e.g., verbal, withdrawal) exhibited among middle school girls. The findings of this…

  16. Male teachers' experiences of own aggression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    male teachers' own aggression in the Gert Sibande district in Mpumalanga province .... aggression is viewed as a response to a perceived threat. ... sive behaviour develops through emulating the aggressive actions or behaviour others ..... them (the young teachers) it is more acceptable that the children talk softly and move.

  17. Psychiatric nurses' experiences with inpatient aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, H.; Bowers, L.; Oud, N.; Jansen, G.

    2005-01-01

    Using a survey instrument, the experiences of psychiatric nurses with inpatient aggression were investigated in East London, U.K. On this "Perceptions of Prevalence Of Aggression Scale" (POPAS), annual experiences with 15 types of disruptive and aggressive behavior were rated anonymously. Staff

  18. Aggression in adolescents: characteristics and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić-Dimitrijević, Radmila; Lazić, Dijana; Nenadović, Milutin; Djokić-Pjescić, Katarina; Klidonas, Nikolaos; Stefanović, Vesna

    2011-12-01

    Vulnerability of young people and frustration of their basic biological, emotional, cognitive and social needs can induce a series of psycho-pathological manifestations, including aggression. Aim of this study is to examine the manifestations of aggressiveness in young people and to establish the difference between aggressive responses of two age groups; adolescents aged 16-19 years and older adolescents aged 20-26 years. The sample consists of 100 young people aged 16-19 years (46 adolescents) and 20-26 years (54 adolescents). For the purposes of this study, we have constructed a questionnaire in which we entered the data obtained on the basis of a standard psychiatric examination, auto- and hetero-anamnesis data, and data obtained using the standard battery of psychological tests. Statistically significant association was found between verbal aggression and physical aggression (p = 0.002), verbal aggression and suicide attempts (p = 0.02), verbal aggression and substance abuse (p = 0.009), verbal aggression and low frustration tolerance (LFT) (p = 0.007), suicide attempt and LFT (p = 0.052). The younger group was significantly more verbally aggressive compared to the older group (p = 0.01). Verbal aggression, which was significantly associated with physical aggression, suicide attempts, substance abuse and LFT, indicates the need for timely interventions for the prevention of more serious and malignant forms of aggression.

  19. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Subjective aggression during alcohol and cannabis intoxication before and after aggression exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa Fernandes Perna, E B; Theunissen, E L; Kuypers, K P C; Toennes, S W; Ramaekers, J G

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol and cannabis use have been implicated in aggression. Alcohol consumption is known to facilitate aggression, whereas a causal link between cannabis and aggression has not been clearly demonstrated. This study investigated the acute effects of alcohol and cannabis on subjective aggression in alcohol and cannabis users, respectively, following aggression exposure. Drug-free controls served as a reference. It was hypothesized that aggression exposure would increase subjective aggression in alcohol users during alcohol intoxication, whereas it was expected to decrease subjective aggression in cannabis users during cannabis intoxication. Heavy alcohol (n = 20) and regular cannabis users (n = 21), and controls (n = 20) were included in a mixed factorial study. Alcohol and cannabis users received single doses of alcohol and placebo or cannabis and placebo, respectively. Subjective aggression was assessed before and after aggression exposure consisting of administrations of the point-subtraction aggression paradigm (PSAP) and the single category implicit association test (SC-IAT). Testosterone and cortisol levels in response to alcohol/cannabis treatment and aggression exposure were recorded as secondary outcome measures. Subjective aggression significantly increased following aggression exposure in all groups while being sober. Alcohol intoxication increased subjective aggression whereas cannabis decreased the subjective aggression following aggression exposure. Aggressive responses during the PSAP increased following alcohol and decreased following cannabis relative to placebo. Changes in aggressive feeling or response were not correlated to the neuroendocrine response to treatments. It is concluded that alcohol facilitates feelings of aggression whereas cannabis diminishes aggressive feelings in heavy alcohol and regular cannabis users, respectively.

  1. Normative Beliefs and Relational Aggression: An Investigation of the Cognitive Bases of Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Nicole E.; Nixon, Charisse L.

    2005-01-01

    The relations between normative beliefs about different forms of aggression and corresponding aggressive behaviors were investigated in 2 studies of adolescents. In Study 1, we revised an instrument designed to assess normative beliefs about aggression to include beliefs about the acceptability of relational aggression, and we examined the…

  2. Iodinated oil-loaded, fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography/fluorescence trimodal imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sihan Xue,1 Yao Wang,1 Mengxing Wang,2 Lu Zhang,1 Xiaoxia Du,2 Hongchen Gu,1 Chunfu Zhang1,31School of Biomedical Engineering and Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 2Shanghai Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, 3State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Shanghai Cancer Institute, School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: In this study, a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI/computed tomography (CT/fluorescence trifunctional probe was prepared by loading iodinated oil into fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (i-fmSiO4@SPIONs. Fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (fmSiO4@SPIONs were prepared by growing fluorescent dye-doped silica onto superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs directed by a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide template. As prepared, fmSiO4@SPIONs had a uniform size, a large surface area, and a large pore volume, which demonstrated high efficiency for iodinated oil loading. Iodinated oil loading did not change the sizes of fmSiO4@SPIONs, but they reduced the MRI T2 relaxivity (r2 markedly. I-fmSiO4@SPIONs were stable in their physical condition and did not demonstrate cytotoxic effects under the conditions investigated. In vitro studies indicated that the contrast enhancement of MRI and CT, and the fluorescence signal intensity of i-fmSiO4@SPION aqueous suspensions and macrophages, were intensified with increased i-fmSiO4@SPION concentrations in suspension and cell culture media. Moreover, for the in vivo study, the accumulation of i-fmSiO4@SPIONs in the liver could also be detected by MRI, CT, and fluorescence imaging. Our study demonstrated that i-fmSiO4@SPIONs had great potential for MRI/C/fluorescence trimodal imaging.Keywords: multifunctional probe, SPIONs, mesoporous silica

  3. Aggression By Whom–Aggression Toward Whom: Behavioral Predictors of Same- and Other-Gender Aggression in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanish, Laura D.; Sallquist, Julie; DiDonato, Matthew; Fabes, Richard A.; Martin, Carol Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed girls’ and boys’ dominance-related behaviors (aggressive, commanding, submissive, and neutral behaviors) as they naturally occurred during interactions with male and female peers and evaluated the possibility that such behaviors elicit aggression from peers. Using a focal observational procedure, young girls’ and boys’ (N = 170; 54% boys) naturally occurring dominance-related behaviors and male and female peers’ aggressive responses to those behaviors were recorded multiple times each week across the academic year. Findings suggested that same-gender aggression occurred at similar rates as other-gender aggression once tendencies toward gender segregated play were controlled. Additionally, there were both gender-based similarities and differences in children’s use of dominance-related behaviors in peer interactions and as antecedents for peers’ aggression. The findings have implications for the literatures on aggression and gendered peer interactions. PMID:22369337

  4. Neurogenetics of aggressive behavior: studies in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Aki; Miczek, Klaus A

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is observed in many animal species, such as insects, fish, lizards, frogs, and most mammals including humans. This wide range of conservation underscores the importance of aggressive behavior in the animals' survival and fitness, and the likely heritability of this behavior. Although typical patterns of aggressive behavior differ between species, there are several concordances in the neurobiology of aggression among rodents, primates, and humans. Studies with rodent models may eventually help us to understand the neurogenetic architecture of aggression in humans. However, it is important to recognize the difference between the ecological and ethological significance of aggressive behavior (species-typical aggression) and maladaptive violence (escalated aggression) when applying the findings of aggression research using animal models to human or veterinary medicine. Well-studied rodent models for aggressive behavior in the laboratory setting include the mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus), hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), and prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). The neural circuits of rodent aggression have been gradually elucidated by several techniques, e.g., immunohistochemistry of immediate-early gene (c-Fos) expression, intracranial drug microinjection, in vivo microdialysis, and optogenetics techniques. Also, evidence accumulated from the analysis of gene-knockout mice shows the involvement of several genes in aggression. Here, we review the brain circuits that have been implicated in aggression, such as the hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and olfactory system. We then discuss the roles of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), excitatory and inhibitory amino acids in the brain, as well as their receptors, in controlling aggressive behavior, focusing mainly on recent findings. At the end of this chapter, we discuss how genes can be identified that underlie individual

  5. Implicit cognitive aggression among young male prisoners: Association with dispositional and current aggression.

    OpenAIRE

    Ireland, Jane Louise; Adams, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The current study explores associations between implicit and explicit aggression in young adult male prisoners, seeking to apply the Reflection-Impulsive Model and indicate parity with elements of the General Aggression Model and Social Cognition. Implicit cognitive aggressive processing is not an area that has been examined among prisoners. Two hundred and sixty two prisoners completed an implicit cognitive aggression measure (PUZZLE Test) and explicit aggression measures, covering current b...

  6. Social intelligence, empathy, and aggressive behavior: Is a stereotype of aggressive individual as socially incompetent inaccurate?

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Vidmar; Andreja Avsec

    2012-01-01

    In the present research, which was carried out on 187 high school students (86 girls and 101 boys), we examined to what extent different aspects of social intelligence contribute to indirect and direct aggression and to what extent empathy can act as a mitigator of aggression. We used The Aggression Questionnaire to measure physical aggression, IAS-A (which includes Social Exclusion, Use of Malicious Humour and Guilt Induction sub-scales) to measure indirect aggression, TSIS (which includes S...

  7. Discourses of aggression in forensic mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berring, Lene Lauge; Pedersen, Liselotte; Buus, Niels

    2015-01-01

    aggression is communicated in forensic mental health nursing records. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the discursive practices used by forensic mental health nursing staff when they record observed aggressive incidents. Textual accounts were extracted from the Staff Observation Aggression Scale......Managing aggression in mental health hospitals is an important and challenging task for clinical nursing staff. A majority of studies focus on the perspective of clinicians, and research mainly depicts aggression by referring to patient-related factors. This qualitative study investigates how...

  8. Human-directed aggression in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Terry Marie

    2008-09-01

    Feline aggression-between cats or directed at humans-is, after inappropriate elimination and urine-marking behaviors, the second most common reason cats are seen by behavioral specialists. For diagnosis and treatment it is important to determine the motivation for the aggression. The more common causes for human-directed aggression in cats include play, fear, petting intolerance, and redirected aggression. Other causes include pain and maternal behavior. Sexually motivated and status related aggression are much more rare. Treatment includes a combination of behavioral modification, environmental modification, and, in some cases, medication.

  9. Imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeyadevan, N.N.; Sohaib, S.A.A.; Thomas, J.M.; Jeyarajah, A.; Shepherd, J.H.; Fisher, C.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To describe the imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma in a rare benign mesenchymal tumour most frequently arising from the perineum in young female patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of patients with aggressive angiomyxoma who were referred to our hospital. The imaging features were correlated with clinical information and pathology in all patients. RESULTS: Four CT and five MR studies were available for five patients (all women, mean age 39, range 24-55). Three patients had recurrent tumour at follow-up. CT and MR imaging demonstrated a well-defined mass-displacing adjacent structures. The tumour was of low attenuation relative to muscle on CT. On MR, the tumour was isointense relative to muscle on T1-weighted image, hyperintense on T2-weighted image and enhanced avidly after gadolinium contrast with a characteristic 'swirled' internal pattern. MR imaging demonstrates the extent of the tumour and its relation to the pelvic floor. Recurrent tumour has a similar appearance to the primary lesion. CONCLUSION: The MR appearances of aggressive angiomyxomas are characteristic, and the diagnosis should be considered in any young woman presenting with a well-defined mass arising from the perineum. Jeyadevan, N. N. etal. (2003). Clinical Radiology58, 157--162

  10. Drivers’ Age, Gender, Driving Experience, and Aggressiveness as Predictors of Aggressive Driving Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perepjolkina Viktorija

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a growing interest in the problem of aggressive driving. In the presentstudy two demographic variables (gender and age, two non-psychological driving-experiencerelated variables (annual mileage and legal driving experience in years and aggressiveness asa personality trait (including behavioural and affective components as psychological variableof individual differences were examined as potential predictors of aggressive driving. The aimof the study was to find out the best predictors of aggressive driving behaviour. The study wasbased on an online survey, and 228 vehicle drivers in Latvia participated in it. The questionnaireincluded eight-item Aggressive Driving Scale (Bone & Mowen, 2006, short Latvian versionof the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ; Buss & Perry, 1992, and questions gainingdemographic and driving experience information. Gender, age and annual mileage predictedaggressive driving: being male, young and with higher annual driving exposure were associatedwith higher scores on aggressive driving. Dispositional aggressiveness due to anger componentwas a significant predictor of aggressive diving score. Physical aggression and hostility wereunrelated to aggressive driving. Altogether, the predictors explained a total of 28% of thevariance in aggressive driving behaviour. Findings show that dispositional aggressiveness,especially the anger component, as well as male gender, young age and higher annual mileagehas a predictive validity in relation to aggressive driving. There is a need to extend the scope ofpotential dispositional predictors pertinent to driving aggression.

  11. Cruel intentions on television and in real life: can viewing indirect aggression increase viewers' subsequent indirect aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were shown an indirect, direct, or no-aggression video and their subsequent indirect aggression was measured by negative evaluation of a confederate and responses to a vignette. Participants viewing indirect or direct aggression gave a more negative evaluation of and less money to a confederate than participants viewing no-aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave less money to the confederate than those viewing direct aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave more indirectly aggressive responses to an ambiguous situation and participants viewing direct aggression gave more directly aggressive responses. This study provides the first evidence that viewing indirect aggression in the media can have an immediate impact on subsequent aggression.

  12. Aggression

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Robert; Brennan, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Genes interact with the environment, experience, and biology of the brain to shape an animal's behavior. This latest volume in Advances in Genetics, organized according to the most widely used model organisms, describes the latest genetic discoveries in relation to neural circuit development and activity. Explores the latest topics in neural circuits and behavior research in zebrafish, drosophila, C.elegans, and mouse models Includes methods for testing with ethical, legal, and social implications Critically analyzes future prospects.

  13. Longitudinal Relations between Beliefs Supporting Aggression,Anger Regulation, and Dating Aggression among Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Terri N; Garthe, Rachel C; Goncy, Elizabeth A; Carlson, Megan M; Behrhorst, Kathryn L

    2017-05-01

    Dating aggression occurs frequently in early to mid-adolescence and has negative repercussions for psychosocial adjustment and physical health. The patterns of behavior learned during this developmental timeframe may persist in future dating relationships, underscoring the need to identify risk factors for this outcome. The current study examined longitudinal relations between beliefs supporting aggression, anger regulation, and dating aggression. Participants were 176 middle school students in sixth, seventh, and eighth grade (50 % female; 82 % African American). No direct effects were found between beliefs supporting reactive or proactive aggression and dating aggression. Beliefs supporting reactive aggression predicted increased rates of anger dysregulation, and beliefs supporting proactive aggression led to subsequent increases in anger inhibition. Anger dysregulation and inhibition were associated with higher frequencies of dating aggression. An indirect effect was found for the relation between beliefs supporting reactive aggression and dating aggression via anger dysregulation. Another indirect effect emerged for the relation between beliefs supporting proactive aggression and dating aggression through anger inhibition. The study's findings suggested that beliefs supporting proactive and reactive aggression were differentially related to emotion regulation processes, and identified anger dysregulation and inhibition as risk factors for dating aggression among adolescents.

  14. "Primary" aggressive chondroblastoma of the humerus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alva N Kishore

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chondroblastomas are rare epiphyseal bone tumors. Very few cases with extra-cortical aggressive soft tissue invasion or metastasis are reported. Case presentation We report a 28 year-old adult male who presented with a large swelling over the left shoulder region. Pre-operative imaging revealed a large tumor arising from upper end of humerus with extensive soft tissue involvement necessitating a fore-quarter amputation. Patient received adjuvant radiation. Conclusions This patient is one of the largest chondroblastomas to be reported. Although chondroblastomas are typically benign, rarely they can be locally aggressive or metastatic. Early diagnosis and institution of proper primary therapy would prevent mutilating surgeries and recurrences.

  15. The passive-aggressive organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert S; Norton, David P

    2005-10-01

    Passive-aggressive organizations are friendly places to work: People are congenial, conflict is rare, and consensus is easy to reach. But, at the end of the day, even the best proposals fail to gain traction, and a company can go nowhere so imperturbably that it's easy to pretend everything is fine. Such companies are not necessarily saddled with mulishly passive-aggressive employees. Rather, they are filled with mostly well-intentioned people who are the victirms of flawed processes and policies. Commonly, a growing company's halfhearted or poorly thought-out attempts to decentralize give rise to multiple layers of managers, whose authority for making decisions becomes increasingly unclear. Some managers, as a result, hang back, while others won't own up to the calls they've made, inviting colleagues to second-guess or overturn the decisions. In such organizations, information does not circulate freely, and that makes it difficult for workers to understand the impact of their actions on company performance and for managers to correctly appraise employees' value to the organization. A failure to accurately match incentives to performance stifles initiative, and people do just enough to get by. Breaking free from this pattern is hard; a long history of seeing corporate initiatives ignored and then fade away tends to make people cynical. Often it's best to bring in an outsider to signal that this time things will be different. He or she will need to address every obstacle all at once: clarify decision rights; see to it that decisions stick; and reward people for sharing information and adding value, not for successfully negotiating corporate politics. If those steps are not taken, it's only a matter of time before the diseased elements of a passive-aggressive organization overwhelm the remaining healthy ones and drive the company into financial distress.

  16. Aggressive surgical management of craniopharyngiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manmohan Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment of craniopharyngiomas is challenging and despite advancements it continues to pose a challenge. Proponents of subtotal resection in conjunction with radiotherapy argue that this less aggressive approach can yield appropriate results with the lower morbidity. On the contrary, other argument is that gross total resection is superior. Though surgical management of craniopharyngioma is challenging due to its location and important surrounding neurovascular structures, optimal surgical results can be expected following radical surgical excision. Radical excision of craniopharyngiomas is associated with excellent long-term recurrence free survival. Radiation induced long-term complications can be altogether avoided by excising these tumors completely.

  17. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041

  18. Aggression and Brain Asymmetries: A Theoretical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rohlfs , Paloma; Ramirez, J. Martin

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between aggression and brain asymmetries has not been studied enough. The association between both concepts can be approached from two different perspectives. One perspective points to brain asymmetries underlying the emotion of anger and consequently aggression in normal people. Another one is concerned with the existence of brain asymmetries in aggressive people (e.g., in the case of suicides or psychopathies). Research on emotional processing points out the confusion betw...

  19. Neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal cancer. Indication and efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Ken; Hamaguchi, Tetsuya; Yamada, Yasuhide; Shirao, Kuniaki; Shimada, Yasuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Some approaches such as adjuvant chemotherapy, neoadjuvant chemotherapy and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy have been tried to improve the efficacy of treatment for resectable esophageal cancer patients. The usefullness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, has remained a matter of controversy. However, there is a report from JCOG9907 in Japan that two courses of neoadjuvant 5-fluorouracil/cisplatin (5-FU/CDDP) improved the survival of esophageal squamous cell cancer patients. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy has not had a consistent evaluation because of the varying results of each trial. But from the results of meta-analysis and CALGB9781, the neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy called ''trimodality therapy'' has been a standard treatment in the United States. We should evaluate whether there would be similar effectiveness in Japan, where the histology and operative approach are different. Some approaches such as DNA microarray and proteomics, which can predict the treatment effect, are being tried. (author)

  20. [Neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal cancer - indication and efficacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ken; Hamaguchi, Tetsuya; Yamada, Yasuhide; Shirao, Kuniaki; Shimada, Yasuhiro

    2007-10-01

    Some approaches such as adjuvant chemotherapy, neoadjuvant chemotherapy and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy have been tried to improve the efficacy of treatment for resectable esophageal cancer patients. The usefullness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, has remained a matter of controversy. However, there is a report from JCOG9907 in Japan that two courses of neoadjuvant 5-FU/CDDP improved the survival of esophageal squamous cell cancer patients. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy has not had a consistent evaluation because of the varying results of each trial. But from the results of meta-analysis and CALGB9781, the neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy called "trimodality therapy" has been a standard treatment in the United States. We should evaluate whether there would be similar effectiveness in Japan, where the histology and operative approach are different. Some approaches such as DNA microarray and proteomics, which can predict the treatment effect, are being tried.

  1. Effects of Cognitive Behaviour and Social Learning Therapies On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and Social Learning ... After exposure to intervention therapies, the results showed that there was significant difference in the post-test aggression scores of participants.

  2. Nanoparticles for hyperthermic therapy: synthesis strategies and applications in glioblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verma, Jyoti; Lal, Sumit; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor in humans. Current GBM treatment includes surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, sometimes supplemented with novel therapies. Despite recent advances, survival of GBM patients remains poor.

  3. The effect of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in reducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in reducing aggression in patients with ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on ...

  4. [Lorenz was right, or does aggressive energy accumulate?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudriavtseva, N N

    2004-06-01

    Evidence supporting the fact that inherited mechanisms of regulation of aggressive behavior as a result of a repeated experience of aggression ending in victories are transformed into pathological mechanisms based on accumulation of neurochemical shifts in the brain, enhancing aggressiveness, and forming aggressive motivation in aggressive winners. This confirms the concept by Lorenz on the existence of a mechanism (but not instinct) of a spontaneous accumulation of aggressive energy that needs a discharge and formation of permanent attraction to manifestation of aggression.

  5. Exposure to nature counteracts aggression after depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; She, Yihan; Colarelli, Stephen M; Fang, Yuan; Meng, Hui; Chen, Qiuju; Zhang, Xin; Zhu, Hongwei

    2018-01-01

    Acts of self-control are more likely to fail after previous exertion of self-control, known as the ego depletion effect. Research has shown that depleted participants behave more aggressively than non-depleted participants, especially after being provoked. Although exposure to nature (e.g., a walk in the park) has been predicted to replenish resources common to executive functioning and self-control, the extent to which exposure to nature may counteract the depletion effect on aggression has yet to be determined. The present study investigated the effects of exposure to nature on aggression following depletion. Aggression was measured by the intensity of noise blasts participants delivered to an ostensible opponent in a competition reaction-time task. As predicted, an interaction occurred between depletion and environmental manipulations for provoked aggression. Specifically, depleted participants behaved more aggressively in response to provocation than non-depleted participants in the urban condition. However, provoked aggression did not differ between depleted and non-depleted participants in the natural condition. Moreover, within the depletion condition, participants in the natural condition had lower levels of provoked aggression than participants in the urban condition. This study suggests that a brief period of nature exposure may restore self-control and help depleted people regain control over aggressive urges. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Gibbon Aggression During Introductions: An International Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harl, Heather; Stevens, Lisa; Margulis, Susan W; Petersen, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding the prevalence of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). In this study, an online survey was developed to quantify and collect contextual details regarding the frequency and types of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). Nineteen percent of institutions (17 institutions) reported observing aggression, and 6 of these institutions recorded multiple instances of aggression, though a vast majority of these cases resulted in mild injuries or none at all. The female was the primary aggressor in 23% of cases, the male was the primary aggressor in 58% of cases, and both were the primary aggressor in 1 case. Although these aggressive interactions were often not associated with a known cause, 27% of cases were associated with food displacement. In most cases, management changes, including trying new pairings, greatly reduced situational aggression, suggesting that individual personalities may play a factor in aggression. These data begin to explain the extent of aggression observed in captive gibbons; future studies will address possible correlations with aggression and introduction techniques.

  7. Genetic background of aggressive behaviour in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Stanisław Proskura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The background of aggression is very complicated and the basis of its occurrence has not been well explained yet. It is thought that tendency to aggressiveness is an effect of both environmental and genetic factors. Aggression is a very undesirable behavioural trait in dogs living with humans. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between two polymorphisms: DRD4 intron II VNTR and C/T substitution in exon I HTR2B genes and aggressive behaviour in dogs. The VNTR polymorphism in the DRD4 gene was detected by agarose gel electrophoresis following PCR amplification, whereas C/T substitution in the HTR2B gene was analysed using amplification created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction (ACRS-PCR. A total of 121 dogs of several breeds were analyzed. All animals were classified based on a veterinary interview and observation in two groups: aggressive (n = 21 and non-aggressive (n = 100. Significant differences in DRD4 genotype frequencies between aggressive and non-aggressive dogs were observed (P DRD4 gene with the occurrence of aggressive behaviour in dogs. Moreover, the findings give good justification for further research aimed at evaluation of the possibility of using this genetic marker in Marker-assisted Selection.

  8. Psychophysiology of proactive and reactive relational aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Holterman, Leigh Ann; Breslend, Nicole L; Sullivan, Alexandra

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the joint effects of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity to social and non-social stressors on proactive (i.e., goal-directed, unemotional) and reactive (i.e., emotional, impulsive) functions of relational aggression. Two hundred and forty-seven (M age =18.77years) participants completed a series of stressor tasks while their sympathetic arousal (i.e., skin conductance) and parasympathetic arousal (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia) were assessed. Participants also provided self-reports of their aggressive behavior. In the standardized social stressor only, physiological reactivity was related to aggression, such that respiratory sinus arrhythmia augmentation predicted proactive relational aggression whereas heightened skin conductance reactivity predicted reactive relational aggression. Finally, in the context of low skin conductance reactivity, respiratory sinus arrhythmia augmentation was related to heightened proactive and reactive aggression, whereas respiratory sinus arrhythmia withdrawal was protective. Results suggest that the benefits hypothesized to accompany respiratory sinus arrhythmia withdrawal may only occur among individuals with low "fight or flight" stress responses. Findings extend research on the physiological indicators of aggression to relational aggression, and highlight the importance of assessing functions of aggression, as well as physiological reactivity to multiple stressors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Physical aggressive resident behavior during hygienic care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell Miller, M

    1997-05-01

    Management of aggressive behavior has been identified as a concern for nursing staff who provide institutional care for cognitively impaired elderly. The Omnibus Reconciliation Act (OBRA '87) mandates a trial reduction in the use of chemical and physical restraints, and the development of nursing interventions for the management of behavioral disorders of institutionalized cognitively impaired elderly. Most skilled nursing facilities, however, are limited in their ability to provide environmental and behavioral programs to manage aggressive patient behavior. For the purposes of this study, physically aggressive behavior was identified as threatened or actual aggressive patient contact which has taken place between a patient and a member of the nursing staff. This study explored the nursing staff's responses to patient physical aggression and the effects that physical aggression had on them and on nursing practice from the perspective of the nursing staff. Nursing staff employed on one Dementia Special Care Unit (DSCU) were invited to participate. Interviews with nursing staff were analyzed using qualitative descriptive methods described by Miles and Huberman (1994). Nursing staff reported that they were subjected to aggressive patient behaviors ranging from verbal threats to actual physical violence. Nursing staff reported that showering a resident was the activity of daily living most likely to provoke patient to staff physical aggression. The findings revealed geropsychiatric nursing practices for the management of physically aggressive residents, and offered recommendations for improving the safety of nursing staff and residents on a secured DSCU.

  10. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  11. [Motives and interpersonal functions of aggression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohbuchi, K

    1987-06-01

    In this review, the author theoretically and empirically examined motives and interpersonal functions of aggression. A factor-analysis of Averill's questionnaire items on anger revealed that motives involved in aggressive responses were clustered into two groups: the hostile and the instrumental. It was also clarified that an individual is likely to engage in aggression particularly when some hostile motives are evoked. Concerning the interpersonal functions, the author proposed that aggression might serve four principal goals. (1) Aggression can be generated as an avoidance response to an aversive stimulus, such as frustration, annoyance, or pain, and so on. It depends on the severity of the stimulus. It was however emphasized that aggression is also mediated by social cognition, such as an attribution of intent to a harm-doer. (2) Aggression can be used as a means of coercing the other person into doing something. An individual is likely to use such a power strategy if he/she is lacking in self-confidence or a perspective for influencing the target person by more peaceful strategies. (3) Aggression can be interpreted as a punishment when it is directed toward a transgressor. In this case, aggression is motivated by restoration of a social justice, and thus its intensity is determined by the perceived moral responsibility of the transgressor. Further, it was indicated that aggression is intensified if it is justified as a sanctional conduct against the immoral. (4) Aggression can be also evoked when an individual's social identity is threatened. It was suggested that impression management motives are involved in aggression by an unexpected finding that the presence of audience or the identifiability rather facilitated retaliative aggression. The aggression-inhibition effect of apology was also explained in terms of impression management. In conclusion, it was presented that aggression is a behavioral strategy as an attempt to resolve interpersonal conflicts

  12. Video media-induced aggressiveness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Michael Steven

    2013-09-01

    Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented.

  13. Aggression-related brain function assessed with the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm in fMRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Anine P; Cunha-Bang, Sofi da; Carré, Justin M

    2017-01-01

    The Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) measures aggressive behavior in response to provocations. The aim of the study was to implement the PSAP in a functional neuroimaging environment (fMRI) and evaluate aggression-related brain reactivity including response to provocations and associa......The Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) measures aggressive behavior in response to provocations. The aim of the study was to implement the PSAP in a functional neuroimaging environment (fMRI) and evaluate aggression-related brain reactivity including response to provocations...... and associations with aggression within the paradigm. Twenty healthy participants completed two 12-min PSAP sessions within the scanner. We evaluated brain responses to aggressive behavior (removing points from an opponent), provocations (point subtractions by the opponent), and winning points. Our results showed...... with the involvement of these brain regions in emotional and impulsive behavior. Striatal reactivity may suggest an involvement of reward during winning and stealing points....

  14. Aggression in children with behavioural/emotional difficulties: seeing aggression on television and video games

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrofan, O.; Paul, M.; Weich, S.; Spencer, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mental health professionals are often asked to give advice about managing children’s aggression.\\ud Good quality evidence on contributory environmental factors such as seeing aggression on television and in video\\ud games is relatively lacking, although societal and professional concerns are high. This study investigated possible\\ud associations between seeing aggression in such media and the aggressive behaviour of children attending\\ud specialist outpatient child and adolescent ...

  15. Beyond the Positive Reinforcement of Aggression: Peers' Acceptance of Aggression Promotes Aggression via External Control Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Janis; Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Being surrounded by peers who are accepting of aggression is a significant predictor of the development and persistence of aggression in childhood and adolescence. Whereas past research has focused on social reinforcement mechanisms as the underlying processes, the present longitudinal study analysed the role of external control beliefs as an…

  16. Media depictions of physical and relational aggression: connections with aggression in young adults' romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Tew, Emily; Meng, K Nathan; Olsen, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Various studies have found that viewing physical or relational aggression in the media can impact subsequent engagement in aggressive behavior. However, this has rarely been examined in the context of relationships. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the connection between viewing various types of aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression against a romantic partner. A total of 369 young adults completed a variety of questionnaires asking for their perpetration of various forms of relationship aggression. Participants' exposure to both physical and relational aggression in the media was also assessed. As a whole, we found a relationship between viewing aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression; however, this depended on the sex of the participant and the type of aggression measured. Specifically, exposure to physical violence in the media was related to engagement in physical aggression against their partner only for men. However, exposure to relational aggression in the media was related to romantic relational aggression for both men and women.

  17. Behavioural strategies of aggressive and non-aggressive male mice in response to inescapable shock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benus, R.F.; Bohus, B.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Oortmerssen, G.A. van

    1990-01-01

    The effect of exposure to inescapable long-duration shocks of moderate intensity on intershock activity and on subsequent escape or avoidance performance was studied in aggressive and non-aggressive male mice. The activity of the non-aggressive mice was severely suppressed during the inescapable

  18. Competitive Aggression without Interaction: Effects of Competitive versus Cooperative Instructions on Aggressive Behavior in Video Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A.; Morrow, Melissa

    1995-01-01

    Extended and tested Deutsch's theory of competition effects. Predicted that people view competitive situations as inherently more aggressive than cooperative ones. Predicted that leading people to think of an aggressive situation in competitive terms would increase aggressive behavior. Increase of kill ratio occurred in absence of changes in…

  19. Relational and Overt Aggression in Urban India: Associations with Peer Relations and Best Friends' Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Raja, Radhi

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the associations between relational and overt aggression and social status, and tested whether the peer correlates of aggression vary as a function of best friends' aggression during early adolescence in urban India. One hundred and ninety-four young adolescents from primarily middle-to-upper-class families in Surat, India…

  20. Role Stress and Aggression among Young Adults: The Moderating Influences of Gender and Adolescent Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruth X.; Kaplan, Howard B.

    2004-01-01

    Using data provided by a panel of non-Hispanic white respondents, this study explored whether aggressive response to severe role stress during early adulthood depends on gender and on an adolescent history of aggression. Logistic regression analysis yielded these findings: Men who reported aggression during early adolescence were significantly…

  1. "Blurred lines?" Sexual aggression and barroom culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Wayne Osgood, D; Abbey, Antonia; Parks, Michael; Flynn, Andrea; Dumas, Tara; Wells, Samantha

    2014-05-01

    Meeting potential sexual/romantic partners for mutual pleasure is one of the main reasons young adults go to bars. However, not all sexual contacts are positive and consensual, and aggression related to sexual advances is a common experience. Sometimes such aggression is related to misperceptions in making and receiving sexual advances while other times aggression reflects intentional harassment or other sexually aggressive acts. This study uses objective observational research to assess quantitatively gender of initiators and targets and the extent that sexual aggression involves intentional aggression by the initiator, the nature of responses by targets, and the role of third parties and intoxication. We analyzed 258 aggressive incidents involving sexual advances observed as part of a larger study on aggression in large capacity bars and clubs, using variables collected as part of the original research (gender, intoxication, intent) and variables coded from narrative descriptions (invasiveness, persistence, targets' responses, role of third parties). Hierarchical linear modeling analyses were used to account for nesting of incidents in evening and bars. Ninety percent of incidents involved male initiators and female targets, with almost all incidents involving intentional or probably intentional aggression. Targets mostly responded nonaggressively, usually using evasion. Staff rarely intervened; patron third parties intervened in 21% of incidents, usually to help the target but sometimes to encourage the initiator. initiators' level of invasiveness was related to intoxication of the targets, but not their own intoxication, suggesting intoxicated women were being targeted. Sexual aggression is a major problem in bars often reflecting intentional sexual invasiveness and unwanted persistence rather than misperceptions in sexual advances. Prevention needs to focus on addressing masculinity norms of male patrons and staff who support sexual aggression and better

  2. Lithium in the treatment of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheard, M H

    1975-02-01

    Lithium has become a widely accepted treatment for manic-depressive psychosis. It is dramatically effective for many cases of mania and is useful in the prevention of manic and depressive episodes. Hyperaggressiveness and hypersexuality are frequent components of manic-depressive illness and abate under the influence of lithium. A brief review is presented of the behavioral and biochemical pharmacology of lithium. This documents the inhibitory role which lithium can play in several examples of animal aggressive behavior including pain-elicited aggression, mouse killing in rats, isolation-induced aggression in mice, p-chlorophenylalanine-induced aggression in rats, and hypothalamically induced aggression in cats. The use of lithium to control human aggressive behavior has resulted in controversial findings. In epileptic conditions, improvement has been reported in interseizure aggressivity, but other reports indicate the possibility of increased seizures. Improvement in aggressive behavior in childhood has occasionally been reported as well as in emotionally unstable character disorders in young female patients. Te was a single blind study and the other a large but uncontrolled study. Both studies reported an improvement in aggressiveness as indicated by fewer recorded reports (tickets) for fighting. The final study reported is a study of 12 male delinquents age 16 to 23. They received lithium or placebo for 4 months inside an institution and then a trial of lithium for 1 to 12 months on an outpatient basis. Analysis of results in terms of the number of aggressive antisocial acts showed fewer serious aggressive episodes when the lithium level was between 0.6 and 1 meq/liter than when it was between 0.0 and 0.6 meq/liter. These results must be viewed with caution and are only suggestive since the study was not double blind.

  3. Aggressive and multifocal pulmonary inflammatory myofiberblastic tumor in young woman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yang Sean; Chung, Myung Hee; Kim, Hyun Jung; Park, Ki Hoon; Kim, Jeanna; Kwon, Soon Suck; Yoo, Won Jong

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of pulmonary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) showing aggressive and unusually rapid progression. A 27-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency room due to dry cough, fever and blood-tinged sputum that lasted one week. Initial chest radiograph and computed tomography scan revealed multifocal pulmonary nodules, which subsequently progressed into large necrotic masses within two months. She underwent a fine needle biopsy of the largest mass in the right middle lung zone which revealed inflammatory myofibroblastic cells consistent with IMT. The masses showed complete regression after six months of corticosteroid therapy. This unusual clinical manifestation could help explain the reactive inflammatory nature associated with IMTs

  4. Aggressive and multifocal pulmonary inflammatory myofiberblastic tumor in young woman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yang Sean; Chung, Myung Hee; Kim, Hyun Jung; Park, Ki Hoon; Kim, Jeanna; Kwon, Soon Suck; Yoo, Won Jong [Bucheon St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    We report a case of pulmonary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) showing aggressive and unusually rapid progression. A 27-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency room due to dry cough, fever and blood-tinged sputum that lasted one week. Initial chest radiograph and computed tomography scan revealed multifocal pulmonary nodules, which subsequently progressed into large necrotic masses within two months. She underwent a fine needle biopsy of the largest mass in the right middle lung zone which revealed inflammatory myofibroblastic cells consistent with IMT. The masses showed complete regression after six months of corticosteroid therapy. This unusual clinical manifestation could help explain the reactive inflammatory nature associated with IMTs.

  5. Maxillary sinus carcinoma: result of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, H.; Horiuchi, J.; Suzuki, S.; Shioda, S.; Enomoto, S.

    1984-01-01

    This hundred and sixteen patients with carcinoma of the maxillary sinus received primary therapy consisting of external beam irradiation alone or in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy at the Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital, between 1953 and 1982. In our institution, methods of treating cancer of the maxillary sinus have been changed from time to time and showed different control rates and clinical courses. An actuarial 10-year survival rate of 21% has been obtained by the megavoltage irradiation alone as well as 34% actuarial 10-year survival rate by megavoltage irradiation with surgery. After the introduction of conservative surgery followed by conventional trimodal combination therapy, the local control rate has been improved. The amount of functional, cosmetic, and brain damages have been remarkably decreased by this mode of therapy. The actuarial five year survival rate was 67%. In addition, along with the improvement of the local control rate, the control of nodal and distant organ metastases have been emerging as one of the important contributions to the prognosis of this disease

  6. Modified Aggressive Packet Combining Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.

    2010-06-01

    In this letter, a few schemes are presented to improve the performance of aggressive packet combining scheme (APC). To combat error in computer/data communication networks, ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request) techniques are used. Several modifications to improve the performance of ARQ are suggested by recent research and are found in literature. The important modifications are majority packet combining scheme (MjPC proposed by Wicker), packet combining scheme (PC proposed by Chakraborty), modified packet combining scheme (MPC proposed by Bhunia), and packet reversed packet combining (PRPC proposed by Bhunia) scheme. These modifications are appropriate for improving throughput of conventional ARQ protocols. Leung proposed an idea of APC for error control in wireless networks with the basic objective of error control in uplink wireless data network. We suggest a few modifications of APC to improve its performance in terms of higher throughput, lower delay and higher error correction capability. (author)

  7. Rapid onset aggressive vertebral haemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nicholas K; Doorenbosch, Xenia; Christie, John G

    2011-03-01

    Vertebral haemangiomas are generally benign asymptomatic vascular tumours seen commonly in the adult population. Presentations in paediatric populations are extremely rare, which can result in rapid onset of neurological symptoms. We present a highly unusual case of an aggressive paediatric vertebral haemangioma causing significant cord compression. A 13-year-old boy presented with only 2 weeks duration of progressive gait disturbance, truncal ataxia and loss of bladder control. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine revealed a large vascular epidural mass extending between T6 and T8 vertebral bodies. Associated displacement and compression of the spinal cord was present. A highly vascular bony lesion was found during surgery. Histopathology identified this tumour to be a vertebral haemangioma. We present an extremely unusual acute presentation of a paediatric vertebral haemangioma. This study highlights the need for early diagnosis, MRI for investigation and urgent surgical management. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  8. Children's Moral Reasoning regarding Physical and Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.; Galotti, Kathleen M.

    2006-01-01

    Elementary school children's moral reasoning concerning physical and relational aggression was explored. Fourth and fifth graders rated physical aggression as more wrong and harmful than relational aggression but tended to adopt a moral orientation about both forms of aggression. Gender differences in moral judgments of aggression were observed,…

  9. Desensitization to media violence: links with habitual media violence exposure, aggressive cognitions, and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content.

  10. Treatment of Aggressive NK-Cell Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Anders Kindberg; Jensen, Paw; Johansen, Preben

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive NK-cell leukemia is a rare malignancy with neoplastic proliferation of natural killer cells. It often presents with constitutional symptoms, a rapid declining clinical course, and a poor prognosis with a median survival of a few months. The disease is usually resistant to cytotoxic...... literature concerning treatment of aggressive NK-cell leukemia....

  11. Normative Beliefs Regarding Aggression in Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David A.; Springer, Melanie M.; Nelson, Larry J.; Bean, Nathaniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined the nature of aggression in emerging adulthood (ages 18-25), a unique developmental period wherein relationships become increasingly important and intimate. Consistent with a greater emphasis on relationships, relationally manipulative forms of aggression may be particularly salient during this time period. Based on…

  12. Relational Aggression and Victimization in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy

    2013-01-01

    For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…

  13. The Barrier within: Relational Aggression among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Relational aggression among women presents an overlooked barrier to women's quest for advancement in the workplace. Although research on women's leadership extols their ability to collaborate and form lasting, supportive relationships, one cannot assume that all women are supportive of other women. Research reveals that relational aggression,…

  14. Hurt people hurt people : Ostracism and aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, D.; Wesselmann, E..D.; Williams, K.D.

    2018-01-01

    Because ostracism hurts, it can trigger aggression. Guided by the theoretical framework of the temporal need-threat model of ostracism, we review the existing research that investigates this ostracism-aggression link over the last two decades. Both correlational and experimental research have

  15. How Food Controls Aggression in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Rod S.; Eyjólfsdóttir, Eyrún; Shin, Euncheol; Perona, Pietro; Anderson, David J.

    2014-01-01

    How animals use sensory information to weigh the risks vs. benefits of behavioral decisions remains poorly understood. Inter-male aggression is triggered when animals perceive both the presence of an appetitive resource, such as food or females, and of competing conspecific males. How such signals are detected and integrated to control the decision to fight is not clear. For instance, it is unclear whether food increases aggression directly, or as a secondary consequence of increased social interactions caused by attraction to food. Here we use the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate the manner by which food influences aggression. We show that food promotes aggression in flies, and that it does so independently of any effect on frequency of contact between males, increase in locomotor activity or general enhancement of social interactions. Importantly, the level of aggression depends on the absolute amount of food, rather than on its surface area or concentration. When food resources exceed a certain level, aggression is diminished, suggestive of reduced competition. Finally, we show that detection of sugar via Gr5a+ gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) is necessary for food-promoted aggression. These data demonstrate that food exerts a specific effect to promote aggression in male flies, and that this effect is mediated, at least in part, by sweet-sensing GRNs. PMID:25162609

  16. Psychiatric diagnosis and aggression before acute hospitalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colasanti, A; Natoli, A; Moliterno, D; Rossattini, M; De Gaspari, I F; Mauri, M C

    2008-09-01

    To examine the predictors of aggressive behaviours occurring before acute hospitalisation. We analysed 350 acute admissions to a psychiatric ward during a 12-month period. The diagnoses were formulated according to the DSM IV axis I and II criteria. Aggressive behaviours occurring in the week before admission were retrospectively assessed using the modified overt aggression scale. The patients' clinical and sociodemographic variables, concurrent drug or alcohol abuse, and admission status were recorded at the time of admission. Aggressive and violent behaviours were highly prevalent, respectively, in 45% and 33% of the cases. Violence before admission was independently associated with drug abuse, involuntary admission status, and severe psychopathology. A diagnosis of a psychotic disorder did not increase the risk of aggression or violence, compared to the other psychiatric diagnoses. Personality disorders were significantly more associated to aggressive behaviours than psychotic disorders. The diagnosis of psychotic disorder is a poor predictor of aggression in a sample of psychiatric patients. Other clinical and non-clinical variables are associated to aggression before hospitalisation: they include drug abuse, involuntary admission status, general severity of symptoms, and diagnosis of personality disorder.

  17. Psychiatric nurses' experiences with inpatient aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, H.L.I.; Bowers, L.; Oud, N.E.; Jansen, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Using a survey instrument, the experiences of psychiatric nurses with inpatienaggression were investigated in East London, U.K. On this Perceptions of Prevalence Of Aggression Scale (POPAS), annual experiences with 15 types of disruptive and aggressive behavior were rated anonymously. Staff members

  18. Aggressive fibromatosis of the mandible in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartoris, D.J.; Parker, B.R.; Arkoff, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis, or infantile fibrosarcoma, is an uncommon form of juvenile fibromatosis which rarely involves the head and neck. Skeletal involvement is infrequently demonstrated by radiography in this condition. Two unusual cases with similar radiographic changes in the mandible are presented, a situation not previously described. Clinical, pathologic, and radiographic features of aggressive fibromatosis are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Understanding aggressive behaviour across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Lewis, G; Evans, L

    2013-03-01

    Aggressive behaviour is the observable manifestation of aggression and is often associated with developmental transitions and a range of medical and psychiatric diagnoses across the lifespan. As healthcare professionals involved in the medical and psychosocial care of patients from birth through death, nurses frequently encounter - and may serve as - both victims and perpetrators of aggressive behaviour in the workplace. While the nursing literature has continually reported research on prevention and treatment approaches, less emphasis has been given to understanding the aetiology, including contextual precipitants of aggressive behaviour. This paper provides a brief review of the biological, social and environmental risk factors that purportedly give rise to aggressive behaviour. Further, many researchers have focused specifically on aggressive behaviour in adolescence and adulthood. Less attention has been given to understanding the aetiology of such behaviour in young children and older adults. This paper emphasizes the unique risk factors for aggressive behaviour across the developmental spectrum, including childhood, adolescence, adulthood and late life. Appreciation of the risk factors of aggressive behaviour, and, in particular, how they relate to age-specific manifestations, can aid nurses in better design and implementation of prevention and treatment programmes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.

  20. Aggressive fibromatosis - impact of prognostic variables on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the impact of prognostic variables on local control in patients with aggressive fibromatosis treated with or without radiation. Materials and methods. Forty-two patients presenting to the combined sarcoma clinic at Johannesburg Hospital with aggressive fibromatosis from 1990 to 2003 were analysed ...

  1. Blood-based biomarkers of aggressive prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Men Long Liong

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Prostate cancer is a bimodal disease with aggressive and indolent forms. Current prostate-specific-antigen testing and digital rectal examination screening provide ambiguous results leading to both under-and over-treatment. Accurate, consistent diagnosis is crucial to risk-stratify patients and facilitate clinical decision making as to treatment versus active surveillance. Diagnosis is currently achieved by needle biopsy, a painful procedure. Thus, there is a clinical need for a minimally-invasive test to determine prostate cancer aggressiveness. A blood sample to predict Gleason score, which is known to reflect aggressiveness of the cancer, could serve as such a test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood mRNA was isolated from North American and Malaysian prostate cancer patients/controls. Microarray analysis was conducted utilizing the Affymetrix U133 plus 2·0 platform. Expression profiles from 255 patients/controls generated 85 candidate biomarkers. Following quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis, ten disease-associated biomarkers remained for paired statistical analysis and normalization. RESULTS: Microarray analysis was conducted to identify 85 genes differentially expressed between aggressive prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥8 and controls. Expression of these genes was qRT-PCR verified. Statistical analysis yielded a final seven-gene panel evaluated as six gene-ratio duplexes. This molecular signature predicted as aggressive (ie, Gleason score ≥8 55% of G6 samples, 49% of G7(3+4, 79% of G7(4+3 and 83% of G8-10, while rejecting 98% of controls. CONCLUSION: In this study, we have developed a novel, blood-based biomarker panel which can be used as the basis of a simple blood test to identify men with aggressive prostate cancer and thereby reduce the overdiagnosis and overtreatment that currently results from diagnosis using PSA alone. We discuss possible clinical uses of the panel to identify men more likely to benefit from

  2. Protection of nuclear facilities against outer aggressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aussourd, P.; Candes, P.; Le Quinio, R.

    1976-01-01

    The various types of outer aggressions envisaged in safety analysis for nuclear facilities are reviewed. These outer aggressions are classified as natural and non-natural phenomena, the latter depending on the human activities in the vicinity of nuclear sites. The principal natural phenomena able to constitute aggressions are atmospheric phenomena (strong winds, snow storms, hail, frosting mists), hydrologie phenomena such as tides, surges, flood, low waters, and geologic phenomena such as earthquakes. Artificial phenomena are concerned with aircraft crashes, projectiles, fire, possible ruptures of dams, and intentional human aggressions. The protection against intentional human aggressions is of two sorts: first, the possibility of access to the installations mostly sensitive to sabotage are to be prevented or reduced, secondly redundant circuits and functions must be separated for preventing their simultaneous destruction in the case when sabotage actors have reach the core of the facility [fr

  3. Are Aggressive Cartoons Really Funnier? A Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Stieger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research has found that more aggressive cartoons are perceived as funnier. The current study (N = 106; 16 cartoons examined this finding in more detail by additionally including painfulness and cleverness rankings of cartoons, and by examining possible moderating effects of different humor styles, self-esteem (explicit, implicit, and social desirability. Aggressive or painful cartoons were not perceived to be funnier, but were rated as having a cleverer punch line. Effects were only weakly correlated with participants’ humor styles, but were independent of self-esteem and social desirability. This suggests that aggressive cartoons are not in general perceived to be funnier than non-aggressive ones, and that there may be other moderators influencing this effect (e.g., the type of cartoons, definition of aggression and funniness, cultural aspects.

  4. Bullying: a stepping stone to dating aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Wendy L; Pepler, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is the use of power and aggression to control and distress another. In this paper, we review research to explore whether the lessons learned in bullying provide a stepping stone to aggressive behavior in dating relationships. We start by considering definitions and a relationship framework with which to understand both bullying and dating aggression. We consider bullying from a developmental-contextual perspective and consider risk factors associated with the typical developmental patterns for bullying and dating aggression, including developmental and sociodemographic, individual attributes, and family, peer group, community, and societal relationship contexts that might lead some children and youths to follow developmental pathways that lead to bullying and dating aggression. We conclude by discussing implications for intervention with a review of evidence-based interventions.

  5. Psychotic experiences and aggression inoutpatients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Tsirigotis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Some authors report that aggressive behaviour in schizophrenia is of heterogeneous sources, for example, aggression may be an impulsive action and even deliberate behaviour designed to intimidate others. Violence and aggressive behaviour may also be associated with psychotic experiences, such as delusions or hallucinations. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between psychotic experiences and the intensiveness of hostility and aggression in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Material and method: Seventy outpatients (35 men and 35 women with paranoid schizophrenia were examined. Relevant scales, subscales and indices of the Polish version of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI were used. Results: The analysis of correlation and the factor analysis revealed a number of statistically significant correlations between the scores of the scales assessing psychotic experiences and those assessing the intensiveness of hostility and aggression. Conclusions: The results of this study confirm the presence of a number of relationships between psychotic experiences and felt hostility and aggression. Psychotic symptoms and indices of aggressiveness created five factors: “psychoticism,” “hostility,” “psychopathic aggression,” “poignancy,” “persecutory ideas.” Important for the felt hostility and aggressiveness in patients turned out to be experienced anxiety about their mental health because of the sense of the unreality of what is going on and because of the sense of alienation of their own thoughts. Another important factor turned out to be a sense of being wronged by life, misunderstood by others, and the belief that people have a grudge and try to harm. In contrast, characteristics, attitudes and behaviour which are the opposite of paranoid disorders, i.e. faith in people and optimistic attitude towards them, are an important factor for the inhibition of aggression.

  6. Aggressive Regimens for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Reduce Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Molly F.; Appleton, Sasha C.; Mitnick, Carole D.; Furin, Jennifer J.; Bayona, Jaime; Chalco, Katiuska; Shin, Sonya; Murray, Megan; Becerra, Mercedes C.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Recurrent tuberculosis disease occurs within 2 years in as few as 1% and as many as 29% of individuals successfully treated for multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis. A better understanding of treatment-related factors associated with an elevated risk of recurrent tuberculosis after cure is urgently needed to optimize MDR tuberculosis therapy. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among adults successfully treated for MDR tuberculosis in Peru. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to examine whether receipt of an aggressive MDR tuberculosis regimen for ≥18 months following sputum conversion from positive to negative was associated with a reduced rate of recurrent tuberculosis. Results. Among 402 patients, the median duration of follow-up was 40.5 months (interquartile range, 21.2–53.4). Receipt of an aggressive MDR tuberculosis regimen for ≥18 months following sputum conversion was associated with a lower risk of recurrent tuberculosis (hazard ratio, 0.40 [95% confidence interval, 0.17–0.96]; P = .04). A baseline diagnosis of diabetes mellitus also predicted recurrent tuberculosis (hazard ratio, 10.47 [95% confidence interval, 2.17–50.60]; P = .004). Conclusions. Individuals who received an aggressive MDR tuberculosis regimen for ≥18 months following sputum conversion experienced a lower rate of recurrence after cure. Efforts to ensure that an aggressive regimen is accessible to all patients with MDR tuberculosis, such as minimization of sequential ineffective regimens, expanded drug access, and development of new MDR tuberculosis compounds, are critical to reducing tuberculosis recurrence in this population. Patients with diabetes mellitus should be carefully managed during initial treatment and followed closely for recurrent disease. PMID:23223591

  7. When do normative beliefs about aggression predict aggressive behavior? An application of I3 theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Bin; Nie, Yan-Gang; Boardley, Ian D; Dou, Kai; Situ, Qiao-Min

    2015-01-01

    I(3) theory assumes that aggressive behavior is dependent on three orthogonal processes (i.e., Instigator, Impellance, and Inhibition). Previous studies showed that Impellance (trait aggressiveness, retaliation tendencies) better predicted aggression when Instigator was strong and Inhibition was weak. In the current study, we predicted that another Impellance (i.e., normative beliefs about aggression) might predict aggression when Instigator was absent and Inhibition was high (i.e., the perfect calm proposition). In two experiments, participants first completed the normative beliefs about aggression questionnaire. Two weeks later, participants' self-control resources were manipulated either using the Stroop task (study 1, N = 148) or through an "e-crossing" task (study 2, N = 180). Afterwards, with or without being provoked, participants played a game with an ostensible partner where they had a chance to aggress against them. Study 1 found that normative beliefs about aggression negatively and significantly predicted aggressive behavior only when provocation was absent and self-control resources were not depleted. In Study 2, normative beliefs about aggression negatively predicted aggressive behavior at marginal significance level only in the "no-provocation and no-depletion" condition. In conclusion, the current study provides partial support for the perfect calm proposition and I(3) theory. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Pathways to romantic relational aggression through adolescent peer aggression and heavy episodic drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodin, Erica M; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena; Caldeira, Valerie; Homel, Jacqueline; Leadbeater, Bonnie

    2016-11-01

    Adolescent peer aggression is a well-established correlate of romantic relational aggression; however, the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Heavy episodic drinking (or "binge" alcohol use) was examined as both a prior and concurrent mediator of this link in a sample of 282 12-18 year old interviewed four times over 6 years. Path analyses indicated that early peer relational and physical aggression each uniquely predicted later romantic relational aggression. Concurrent heavy episodic drinking fully mediated this effect for peer physical aggression only. These findings highlight two important mechanisms by which peer aggression may increase the risk of later romantic relational aggression: a direct pathway from peer relational aggression to romantic relational aggression and an indirect pathway through peer physical aggression and concurrent heavy episodic drinking. Prevention programs targeting romantic relational aggression in adolescence and young adulthood may benefit from interventions that target multiple domains of risky behavior, including the heavy concurrent use of alcohol. Aggr. Behav. 42:563-576, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Aggression-related alcohol expectancies and barroom aggression among construction tradespeople.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Smith, Georgia; Burn, Michele; Litherland, Steven; Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn; Miller, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship of barroom aggression with both general and barroom-specific alcohol expectancies. The present study investigated these associations in a rarely studied and high-risk population: construction tradespeople. Male construction tradespeople (n = 211) aged 18-35 years (M = 21.91, SD = 4.08 years) participated in a face-to-face questionnaire assessing general and barroom-specific alcohol expectancies and perpetration of physical and verbal barroom aggression as well as control variables, age, alcohol consumption and trait aggression. Sequential logistic regression analyses revealed that general alcohol-aggression expectancies of courage or dominance were not predictive of either verbal or physical barroom aggression after controlling for age, alcohol consumption and trait aggression. However, barroom-specific alcohol expectancies were associated with both verbal and physical barroom aggression, with positive associations found for expected hyper-emotionality and protective effects for expected cognitive impairment. In a population where rates of risky drinking and barroom aggression are high, specific expectations about the effects of drinking in bars may influence subsequent aggressive behaviour in bars. [Zinkiewicz L, Smith G, Burn M, Litherland S, Wells S, Graham K, Miller P. Aggression-related alcohol expectancies and barroom aggression among construction tradespeople. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:549-556]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  10. The influence of classroom aggression and classroom climate on aggressive-disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Duane E; Bierman, Karen L; Powers, C J

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that early classroom experiences influence the socialization of aggression. Tracking changes in the aggressive behavior of 4,179 children from kindergarten to second-grade (ages 5-8), this study examined the impact of 2 important features of the classroom context--aggregate peer aggression and climates characterized by supportive teacher-student interactions. The aggregate aggression scores of children assigned to first-grade classrooms predicted the level of classroom aggression (assessed by teacher ratings) and quality of classroom climate (assessed by observers) that emerged by the end of Grade 1. Hierarchical linear model analyses revealed that first-grade classroom aggression and quality of classroom climate made independent contributions to changes in student aggression, as students moved from kindergarten to second grade. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  11. The relationships among perceived peer acceptance of sexual aggression, punishment certainty, and sexually aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Emily; Peterson, Zoë D

    2013-12-01

    Researching the correlates of men's sexually aggressive behavior (i.e., verbal coercion and rape) is critical to both understanding and preventing sexual aggression. This study examined 120 men who completed an anonymous online questionnaire. The study aimed to determine the relative importance of two potential correlates of men's self-reported use of sexual aggression: (a) perceptions that male peers use and support sexual aggression and (b) perceptions of punishment likelihood associated with sexual aggression. Results revealed that perceptions of male friends' acceptance of sexual aggression were strongly associated with individual men's reports of using verbal coercion and rape. Perceptions of punishment likelihood were negatively correlated with verbal coercion but not with rape through intoxication and force. Implications for sexual aggression prevention are discussed.

  12. Aggression on inpatient units: Clinical characteristics and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  13. Verbal versus Physical Aggression in Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Look, Amy E.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) is the only adult psychiatric diagnosis for which pathological aggression is primary. DSM-IV criteria focused on physical aggression, but DSM-5 allows for an IED diagnosis in the presence of frequent verbal aggression with or without concurrent physical aggression. It remains unclear how individuals with verbal aggression differ from those with physical aggression with respect to cognitive-affective deficits and psychosocial functioning. The current study...

  14. Patient aggression perceived by community support workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Christopher; Hannah, Annette; Swain, Nicola; Gray, Andrew; Coverdale, John; Oud, Nico

    2009-12-01

    Objective: Aggression by patients is a known risk factor for hospital workers. Within New Zealand, the bulk of ongoing care for physical and mental disabilities and health issues is not hospital based, but contracted to various non-governmental agencies. The rate of client aggression towards care workers from these organizations, to our knowledge, has not been assessed. Method: Two hundred and forty-two support workers in non-governmental agencies caring for people with disabilities responded to an anonymous mailed survey on client aggression, personal distress, and communication style. Results: Most support workers did experience verbal forms of aggression or destructive behaviour, fewer experienced physical aggression, and a minority were injured, sexually harassed, stalked or harassed by means of formal complaint. The median total violence score was five (interquartile range 12.25). A higher total violence score (using the POPAS-NZ) was associated with age and gender, the primary disability of clients, and the numbers of hours worked. The length of time worked was not associated with total violence risk. Communication style, after correcting for other factors, was a predictor of aggression. Almost 6% of care workers reported distress symptoms at a level associated with clinically significant stress reactions. Conclusions: Patient aggression is common among care workers, and can cause distress in the minority. We suggest that further research to clarify risk factors and develop interventions for care workers is needed.

  15. Health Care Workers' Experiences of Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Katelyn; Oram, Joanne; Tinson, Helen; Shum, David

    2017-10-01

    To identify the prevalence of patient aggression against health care workers, the consequences and coping mechanisms. Retrospective cross-sectional design. 50 participants comprised 37 nurses, 1 ward staff, 12 allied health staff employed in two brain injury wards with experience ranging from 3months to 34years. Neurosciences and Brain Injury Rehabilitation wards of a metropolitan tertiary hospital in Brisbane. Researcher designed self-report questionnaire. 98% of respondents had experienced aggression during their health care careers with an average of 143.93 events. Physical injuries had been sustained by 40% of staff, psychological injury by 82%, but only 12% sought treatment. Verbal aggression related to receiving a psychological injury (r=0.305, paggression made it more likely the person would also experience the other types of aggression. Verbal aggression was correlated with physical aggression (r=0.429, paggression (r=0.286, paggression was correlated with non-verbal aggression (r=0.333, paggression is prevalent and of serious concern for staff working in hospital settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Affective Dependence and Aggression: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Petruccelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Emotionally dependent subjects may engage in controlling, restrictive, and aggressive behaviours, which limit their partner’s autonomy. The underlying causes of such behaviours are not solely based on levels of aggression, but act as a mean of maintaining the subject’s own sense of self-worth, identity, and general functioning. Objective. The aim of the paper is to explore the correlation between affective dependency and reactive/proactive aggression and to evaluate individual differences as predisposing factors for aggressive behaviour and emotional dependency. Methods. The Spouse-Specific Dependency Scale (SSDS and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ were administered to a sample of 3375 subjects. Results. In the whole sample, a positive correlation between emotional dependency and proactive aggression was identified. Differences with regard to sex, age group, and geographical distribution were evidenced for the scores of the different scales. Conclusion. A fundamental distinction between reactive and proactive aggression was observed, anchoring proactive aggression more strictly to emotional dependency. Sociocultural and demographical variables, together with the previous structuring of attachment styles, help to determine the scope, frequency, and intensity of the demands made to the partner, as well as to feed the fears of loss, abandonment, or betrayal.

  17. Affective dependence and aggression: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruccelli, Filippo; Diotaiuti, Pierluigi; Verrastro, Valeria; Petruccelli, Irene; Federico, Roberta; Martinotti, Giovanni; Fossati, Andrea; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Janiri, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Emotionally dependent subjects may engage in controlling, restrictive, and aggressive behaviours, which limit their partner's autonomy. The underlying causes of such behaviours are not solely based on levels of aggression, but act as a mean of maintaining the subject's own sense of self-worth, identity, and general functioning. The aim of the paper is to explore the correlation between affective dependency and reactive/proactive aggression and to evaluate individual differences as predisposing factors for aggressive behaviour and emotional dependency. The Spouse-Specific Dependency Scale (SSDS) and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ) were administered to a sample of 3375 subjects. In the whole sample, a positive correlation between emotional dependency and proactive aggression was identified. Differences with regard to sex, age group, and geographical distribution were evidenced for the scores of the different scales. A fundamental distinction between reactive and proactive aggression was observed, anchoring proactive aggression more strictly to emotional dependency. Sociocultural and demographical variables, together with the previous structuring of attachment styles, help to determine the scope, frequency, and intensity of the demands made to the partner, as well as to feed the fears of loss, abandonment, or betrayal.

  18. Aggressive laryngeal fibromatosis: A case report and brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enam Murshed Khan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a rare case of aggressive fibromatosis of the larynx occurring in a 72-year-old man. The lesion manifested with complaints of dyspnea and stridor. A computerized tomographic scan of the neck revealed irregular polypoidal growth invading right vocal cord, crossing midline. A malignant tumor was suspected. Although several laryngoscopy-driven biopsies were negative for malignancy, total laryngectomy was done since the lesion was not deemed amenable to conservative therapy. Tissue sections featured a moderately cellular lesion composed of spindle cells with bland, elongated nuclei, enmeshed in a variably collagenized ground substance. The spindle cells were immunopositive for vimentin and negative for cytokeratins, PGP-9.5, smooth muscle antigen, CD68, desmin, and S-100 protein and Ki-67 of 4%. No further therapy was administered. Based on the available literature, our data confirm that aggressive laryngeal fibromatosis in adult patients is a locally infiltrating disease. Total laryngectomy with clear margins is needed as to avoid the high risk of local recurrence.

  19. Sleep and aggression in substance-abusing adolescents: results from an integrative behavioral sleep-treatment pilot program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Patricia L; Bootzin, Richard R; Smith, Leisha; Cousins, Jennifer; Cameron, Michael; Stevens, Sally

    2006-04-01

    To examine whether change in total sleep time during an integrative, behavioral sleep intervention is associated with aggression. Specifically, we tested whether adolescents who reported experiencing aggressive thoughts or actions after treatment had worse treatment trajectories (e.g., less total sleep time across treatment) than adolescents with no aggressive thoughts or actions after treatment. Nonpharmacologic open trial with 9 weeks of weekly assessment. University of Arizona Sleep Research Laboratory Twenty-three adolescents recently treated for substance abuse in outpatient community centers. Six-week integrative, behavioral sleep intervention. Weekly sleep-summary indexes were calculated from daily sleep diaries and entered as dependent variables in a series of growth-curve analyses. Statistically significant Session x Post-treatment Aggressive Ideation interactions emerged when predicting changes in total sleep time, gamma13 = 9.76 (SE = 4.12), p aggressive ideation and the frequency of substance use, as assessed at baseline. A similar pattern of results was seen for self-reported aggressive actions occurring during conflicts. These pilot data suggest that inadequate sleep in substance-abusing adolescents may contribute to the experiencing of aggressive thoughts and actions. Limitations include a small sample size and a restricted assessment of aggression. Nonetheless, these findings lend preliminary support to the breadth of therapeutic effectiveness of an integrative, behavioral sleep-therapy program for adolescents with a history of substance abuse and related behaviors.

  20. Agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression: the mediating effect of trait aggressivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cameron A; Parrott, Dominic J; Giancola, Peter R

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the mediating effect of trait aggressivity on the relation between agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression in a laboratory setting. Participants were 116 healthy male social drinkers between 21 and 30 years of age. Agreeableness and trait aggressivity were measured using the Big Five Inventory and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, respectively. Following the consumption of an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, participants completed a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm, in which electric shocks were received from and administered to a fictitious opponent during a competitive task. Aggression was operationalized as the proportion of the most extreme shocks delivered to the fictitious opponent under conditions of low and high provocation. Results indicated that lower levels of agreeableness were associated with higher levels of trait aggressivity. In turn, higher levels of trait aggressivity predicted extreme aggression in intoxicated, but not sober, participants under low, but not high, provocation. Findings highlight the importance of examining determinants of intoxicated aggression within a broader theoretical framework of personality.

  1. Aggression in children with behavioural/emotional difficulties: seeing aggression on television and video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofan, Oana; Paul, Moli; Weich, Scott; Spencer, Nicholas

    2014-11-18

    Mental health professionals are often asked to give advice about managing children's aggression. Good quality evidence on contributory environmental factors such as seeing aggression on television and in video games is relatively lacking, although societal and professional concerns are high. This study investigated possible associations between seeing aggression in such media and the aggressive behaviour of children attending specialist outpatient child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS). In this mixed methods study, forty-seven British children aged 7-11 years with behavioural/emotional difficulties attending CAMHS and their carers participated in a survey; twenty purposively-selected children and a parent/carer of theirs participated in a qualitative study, involving semi-structured interviews, analysed using the Framework Analysis Approach; findings were integrated. Children attending CAMHS exhibit clinically significant aggression, of varying types and frequency. They see aggression in multiple real and virtual settings. Verbal aggression was often seen, frequently exhibited and strongly associated with poor peer relationships and low prosocial behaviour. Children did not think seeing aggression influences their own behaviour but believed it influences others. Carers regarded aggression as resulting from a combination of inner and environmental factors and seeing aggression in real-life as having more impact than television/video games. There is yet no definitive evidence for or against a direct relationship between aggression seen in the media and aggression in children with behavioural/emotional difficulties. Future research should take an ecological perspective, investigating individual, developmental and environmental factors. Carers, professional organisations and policy makers should address aggression seen in all relevant area of children's lives, primarily real-life and secondly virtual environments.

  2. Aggressive malignant abdominal mesothelioma: Clinical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hassan, Ahmad M.; Al-Saigh, Abdulrehman A.

    2004-01-01

    A 32-year-old Filipino female, working as an x-ray technician, presented to the Emergency Room (ER) with acute abdominal pain for one day. The pain was mainly on the left side and left hypochondrium. She had recurring abdominal pain before but not significant to worry her. She also complained of abdominal distension, which she noticed one week ago. Abdominal examination revealed fullness in the left hypochondrium with marked tenderness but negative rebound. Abdominal ultrasound (US) showed a huge mass mainly in the left hypochondrium. The origin of the mass cannot be identified by US. A computerized tomography scan showed a mass in the left side of the abdomen crossing the midline with a necrotic centre. The hospital course of the patient runs smoothly, and she was discharged after 7-days and referred to an Oncology Center. Abdominal mesothelioma is a neoplasm arising from the mesothelial surface lining the abdominal cavity. It is less frequent than that of the pleura. It is a rapidly growing and fatal malignancy with a median survival of less than 1-year. The relation between pleural malignant mesothelioma and asbestos is well recognized since it was described in 19602 but implication of asbestos exposure in the etiology of the peritoneal type is less obvious. This patient history is giving no obvious exposure to asbestos but as she is working in the Radiology Department as an x-ray technician she is well exposed to x-ray, but the effect of radioactivity on induction of mesothelioma is still disputed.4 There are several reports linking malignant mesothelioma to radioactivity due to radiation therapy.The fibrous mesothelioma (sarcomatous), as in this case, which is difficult to diagnose microscopically, looks like a fibroma, unless helped by tissue culture. The treatment options of malignant mesothelioma include surgery, intraperitoneal chemotherapy and whole abdominal radiation or multimodality therapy, which were suggested that might prolong the survival in

  3. Efficacy therapy in a nonsurgical periodontal treatment in aggressive periodontitisno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Garcia-Madueño

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available La terapia periodontal no quirúrgica es la clave para el control y el mantenimiento de la enfermedad periodontal logrando evitar la fase quirúrgica en muchos casos. Paciente de sexo masculino de 46 años de edad con diagnóstico de periodontitis agresiva generalizada se realizó el control mecánico de placa bacteriana, motivación e instrucción de higiene oral, raspado y alisado radicular manual por cuadrantes, clorhexidina al 0.12% en colutorio 15 ml por 30s dos veces al día por siete días; se complementó con terapia antibiótica sistémica clindamicina de 300mg tres veces al día por siete días. Durante un año de seguimiento con tratamiento periodontal de soporte se observó una reducción de los parámetros clínicos como sangrado al sondaje, disminución de la perdida de inserción y estabilidad del nivel óseo.

  4. [First-line treatment of lymphomas of "high grade malignancy" or "aggressive lymphomas"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, F

    2001-11-01

    Main strategies used as first line treatment of aggressive lymphoma are the subject of this review. The evolution of histopathlogical classifications is reviewed and the concept of aggressive lymphoma is given. General principles of chemotherapy treatment and main prognostic factors that direct therapeutic decisions are described. The treatment modalities of localized and advanced disease are detailed, as well as the role of high-dose therapy with hematopoietic support. Finally, the major impact of immunotherapy based on the monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody is envisaged.

  5. Differential diagnosis and management of human-directed aggression in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Diane; Dehasse, Joel

    2003-03-01

    Human-directed aggression in cats should be evaluated as a multifactorial problem. It results from the combined actions of heredity, environment, learning, human social requirements (or needs), client interactions, lack of understanding of normal feline behavior, unrealistic client expectations, and lack of meeting the cat's basic ethologic needs. Managing human-directed aggression in cats encompasses the use of environmental modification, therapies, and, when and if needed, regulatory drugs so as to increase learning capabilities and adaptation and decrease danger to the human victims.

  6. Ploidy, cytokinetics, and histology features of aggressive versus less aggressive uterine cervical squamous cell carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.S.; Peters, L.J.; Adelson, M.; Williamson, K.D.; Sneige, N.; Katz, R.L.; Freedman, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors are investigating the interrelationships of flow cytometric measured ploidy, S-fraction with histology features of uterine cervical squamous cell cancers in an attempt to identify aggressive, high risk tumors and less aggressive tumors. Experimentally, pre-radiotherapy biopsy specimens are being studied using flow ploidy and cell-cycle analysis and microscopic scoring for histology features. The results to date for some 200 patients indicate that there are identifyable aggressive tumors, at high risk for 2 yr local control within each stage of disease and differentiation category (WD, MD, PD). These aggressive tumors usually have high degree DNA abnormalities (triploid or greater), high proliferative activity (%S≥20) compared to the less aggressive tumors characterized by diploid/near diploid DNA content, low to moderate %S (2-19, mean 12). Expression of high S-fraction appears to reflect high growth activity or growth potential and characterizes the aggressive tumors

  7. Comparative Analysis of Personality Structures of the Perpetrators of Aggressive and Non-aggressive Offense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikova A.S.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available problem of the emergence of aggressive behavior is seen through the analysis of the relationship of proagressive and inhibiting aggression personality structures. The study involved 54 men serving sentences for criminal offenses, of which 24 were accused for violent offenses and 30 - for offenses without resorting to violence. We used questionnaires to study the proagressive and deterring aggression personality structures. Statistical analysis was performed to reveal significant differences between groups and to determine correlations. On this basis, the correlations were interpreted with the help of not only quantitative but also qualitative analysis. The results showed no significant differences in the level of expression of aggression and aggression inhibitors between treatment groups, but we identified qualitative differences in the structural analysis of data from individual psychological characteristics that are expected to distinguish aggressive offenders from the perpetrators without violence.

  8. Neurogenetics of aggressive behavior: studies in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Christina S; Driscoll, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior can have adaptive value in certain environmental contexts, but when extreme or executed inappropriately, can also lead to maladaptive outcomes. Neurogenetic studies performed in nonhuman primates have shown that genetic variation that impacts reward sensitivity, impulsivity, and anxiety can contribute to individual differences in aggressive behavior. Genetic polymorphisms in the coding or promoter regions of the Mu-Opioid Receptor (OPRM1), Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH), Monoamine Oxidase A (MAOA), Dopamine D4 Receptor (DRD4), and Serotonin Transporter (SLC6A4) genes have been shown to be functionally similar in humans and rhesus macaques and have been demonstrated to contribute to individual differences in aggression. This body of literature suggests mechanisms by which genetic variation that promotes aggressivity could simultaneously increase evolutionary success while making modern humans more vulnerable to psychopathology.

  9. [Aggression and mobbing among correctional officers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merecz-Kot, Dorota; Cebrzyńska, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    The paper addresses the issue of violence among correctional officers. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of exposure to violence in this professional group. The study comprised the sample of 222 correctional officers who voluntary and anonymously fulfilled the MDM questionnaire. The MDM Questionnaire allows for assessing exposure to aggression and mobbing at work. Preliminary assessment of exposure to single aggressive acts and mobbing shows a quite alarming tendency--around one third of subjects under the study experienced repetitive aggressive acts from coworkers and/or superiors. The problem of organizational aggression in correctional institutions should be recognized in details to develop effective preventive measures against violent behaviors occurring at work.

  10. Order Aggressiveness and Order Book Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony D. Hall; Nikolaus Hautsch

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study the determinants of order aggressiveness and traders' order submission strategy in an open limit order book market. Using order book data from the Australian Stock Exchange, we model traders' aggressiveness in market trading, limit order trading as well as in order cancellations on both sides of the market using a six-dimensional autoregressive intensity model. The information revealed by the open order book plays an important role in explaining the degree of order agg...

  11. Simulation of electromagnetic aggression on components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adoun, G.; Coumar, O.

    1997-01-01

    Numerical simulation techniques can be used for studying the behaviour of electronic components exposed to electromagnetic aggression. This article discusses CW analysis on a CMOS-technology logic NAND gate under electromagnetic aggression of different amplitudes (2.5 V 5 V), frequencies (100 MHz and 1 GHz) and phase. Numerical simulations were conducted using three codes: Spice code was used for solving electronic circuits, and the Atlas and Dessis codes were used for examining internal component behaviour. (authors)

  12. Predictors of Video Game Console Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Bean, Anthony Martin; Ferro, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the aggression levels of college students found in the Northeastern part of the United States following exposure to video games. The 59 participants played their assigned game, Mortal Kombat on Nintendo Wii or Halo 2 on the Xbox, for 45 minutes with a partner. The researchers employed twelve t-tests (alpha adjusted to .004) and three multiple linear regressions to explore the difference of aggression levels in gender, violent video game, and predictors o...

  13. Prevalence of mobile dependency and adolescence aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyebeh Khazaie; Alireza Saadatjoo; Samaneh Dormohamadi; Mansooreh Soleimani; Marzieh Toosinia; Fatemeh Mullah Hassan Zadeh

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Various studies indicate that increasing and complicating use of cell phones in all age groups and in both sexes is associated with aggression. Despite the widespread use of mobile phones in Iran, psychological and behavioral effects of addiction to it and the consequences have not been investigated yet. The present study aimed at determining prevalence of mobile dependency and its relationship with aggression during adolescence in Birjand in 2011. Materials and Methods...

  14. [Injury pattern caused by aggressive inline skating].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgert, R E; Besch, L; Behnke, B; Egbers, H-J

    2004-12-01

    In order to evaluate the special injury pattern of aggressive inline skating, a field study was conducted in a local, non-commercial skate park equipped with all the typical features like ramps, halfpipes, gully areas. 66 unselected aggressive inline skaters were randomly enrolled and interviewed concerning their skating habits and their skating injury history. Average age was 15 (10 to 41) years, skating was performed since 2.1 (0.1 to 6) years, as aggressive skating since 1.3 (0.1 to 4) years. Medical treatment in a doctor's practice or in a hospital had been necessary in 66 cases, averaging 1.4 times per skater and year, averaging one injury per 586 hours of aggressive skating. The injury pattern reflected the regions typically injured in fitness skating, too, with a higher percentage of injuries concerning knee, tibia and ankle region. The use of protective devices varied from 41 % (wrist guards) to 94 % (knee pads), with an average of 69 %. Only 32 % of skaters wore all protective devices. As the personal thrill is an important motivation for aggressive skating, safer skating campaigns are quite unlikely to decrease the risk of injury in aggressive skaters.

  15. Everyday marital conflict and child aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Papp, Lauren M

    2004-04-01

    Children's immediate aggressive responding to exposure to marital conflict was examined. Participants were 108 families with 8- to 16-year-old children (53 boys, 55 girls), with diary records of children's reactions to marital conflict in the home completed by 103 mothers (n = 578 records) and 95 fathers (n = 377 records) during a 15-day period. Child responses to analog presentations of marital conflict tactics were also obtained. Exposure to destructive conflict tactics and negative parental emotionality increased the likelihood of aggressive behavior in children when they witnessed marital conflict, whereas constructive conflict tactics and positive parental emotionality decreased the probability of aggression. Conflict topics presumed to be threatening to the child (child- or marital-related) also heightened the likelihood of aggression. Aggressive responding to conflict in both home and laboratory predicted externalizing behavior problems. Fathers' and mothers' separate diary reports, and child responses to analog presentation of conflict, provided generally consistent findings. An exposure hypothesis for marital conflict as an influence on child aggression is discussed.

  16. Social intelligence, empathy, and aggressive behavior: Is a stereotype of aggressive individual as socially incompetent inaccurate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vidmar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, which was carried out on 187 high school students (86 girls and 101 boys, we examined to what extent different aspects of social intelligence contribute to indirect and direct aggression and to what extent empathy can act as a mitigator of aggression. We used The Aggression Questionnaire to measure physical aggression, IAS-A (which includes Social Exclusion, Use of Malicious Humour and Guilt Induction sub-scales to measure indirect aggression, TSIS (which includes Social Information Processing, Social Skills and Social Awareness sub-scales to measure social intelligence and IRI (Perspective Taking and Empathic Concern sub-scales. The results confirmed our expectations that the cognitive aspect of empathy acts as an inhibitor of both direct and indirect aggression. The relationship between the ability of processing social information and indirect aggresssion was positive, whereas the relationship between social awareness and indirect aggression was negative, which shows that the relationships between various aspects of social intelligence and aggression are complex. People who have a high degree of social intelligence but do not have the tendency to take the other's perspective can use their abilities (especially social information processing to performn less evident and less prosecuted forms of aggressive behaviour which still have deleterious effects on interpersonal relationships.

  17. Relational Aggression and Prosocial Behaviours in Australian Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swit, Cara; McMaugh, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Relational aggression is a subtle form of aggressive behaviour that uses dyadic relationships and manipulation as a vehicle of harm. Little is known about relational aggression in preschool-age children in cultural contexts outside the United States. This study examined relationally aggressive behaviours and prosocial behaviours in Australian…

  18. Relational Aggression in Middle Childhood: Predictors and Adolescent Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Susan J.; Campbell, Susan B.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pierce, Kim M.; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in the level and developmental course of relational aggression in middle childhood, as well as early predictors and outcomes of relational aggression, after controlling for concurrent physical aggression. Relational (RAgg) and Physical aggression (PAgg) scores for 558 boys and 545 girls at the ages of eight…

  19. Relational Aggression and Academic Performance in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between relational aggression and school performance, this study examined the relative and combined associations among relational aggression, overt aggression, and victimization and children's academic performance. Additionally this study examined the relative associations among relational and overt aggression and…

  20. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dopaminergic system regulates aggression in humans and other mammals. To investigate if birds with genetic propensity for high and low aggressiveness may exhibit distinctly different aggressive mediation via dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor pathways, two high aggressive (DXL and LGPS) and one lo...

  1. Identifying cognitive predictors of reactive and proactive aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, S.; Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.R.; Cima, M.; Schumann, T.; Dambacher, F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify implicit cognitive predictors of aggressive behavior. Specifically, the predictive value of an attentional bias for aggressive stimuli and automatic association of the self and aggression was examined for reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in a

  2. Genetic mapping of canine fear and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Isain; Serpell, James A; Alvarez, Carlos E

    2016-08-08

    Fear/anxiety and anger/aggression greatly influence health, quality of life and social interactions. They are a huge burden to wellbeing, and personal and public economics. However, while much is known about the physiology and neuroanatomy of such emotions, little is known about their genetics - most importantly, why some individuals are more susceptible to pathology under stress. We conducted genomewide association (GWA) mapping of breed stereotypes for many fear and aggression traits across several hundred dogs from diverse breeds. We confirmed those findings using GWA in a second cohort of partially overlapping breeds. Lastly, we used the validated loci to create a model that effectively predicted fear and aggression stereotypes in a third group of dog breeds that were not involved in the mapping studies. We found that i) known IGF1 and HMGA2 loci variants for small body size are associated with separation anxiety, touch-sensitivity, owner directed aggression and dog rivalry; and ii) two loci, between GNAT3 and CD36 on chr18, and near IGSF1 on chrX, are associated with several traits, including touch-sensitivity, non-social fear, and fear and aggression that are directed toward unfamiliar dogs and humans. All four genome loci are among the most highly evolutionarily-selected in dogs, and each of those was previously shown to be associated with morphological traits. We propose that the IGF1 and HMGA2 loci are candidates for identical variation being associated with both behavior and morphology. In contrast, we show that the GNAT3-CD36 locus has distinct variants for behavior and morphology. The chrX region is a special case due to its extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD). Our evidence strongly suggests that sociability (which we propose is associated with HS6ST2) and fear/aggression are two distinct GWA loci within this LD block on chrX, but there is almost perfect LD between the peaks for fear/aggression and animal size. We have mapped many canine fear and

  3. Understanding maladaptive responses to rejection: Aggression with an audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBono, Amber; Layton, Rebekah L; Freeman, Nicholas; Muraven, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Logically, responding aggressively to rejection is maladaptive because one is unlikely to seek a relationship with an aggressor. We predict that when concealed, the illogical aggressive response to rejection is more likely, whereas when the rejected individuals' aggressive responses are perceived as public, the aggressive acts may be reduced. Participants were rejected by others (Experiment 1) or were either accepted or rejected during an online ball-tossing game (Experiment 2) and were then given an opportunity to aggress publicly or privately. Across experiments, when the opportunity to aggress was made public, rejected participants exhibited less aggressive behavior. When concerned about the perception of their public aggressive responses by others, rejected individuals' aggressive responses diminished compared with those whose actions were private. Crucially, this extended to aggression visible only to neutral others, suggesting that effects cannot solely be due to fear of retribution.

  4. Effects of Viewing Relational Aggression on Television on Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing "relational aggression" on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of…

  5. Aggressive and Nonaggressive Children's Moral Judgments and Moral Emotion Attributions in Situations Involving Retaliation and Unprovoked Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated 7- and 9-year-old children's moral understanding of retaliation as compared to unprovoked aggression with regard to their aggressive behavior status. Based on peer ratings, 48 children were selected as overtly aggressive and 91 as nonaggressive. Their moral understanding of retaliation and unprovoked aggression was…

  6. Kindergarten children’s genetic vulnerabilities interact with friends’ aggression to promote children’s own aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lier, P.A.C.; Boivin, M.E.; Vitaro, F.; Brendgen, M.; Koot, H.M.; Dionne, G.; Tremblay, R.E.; Pérusse, D.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. METHOD: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as

  7. Relational aggression among boys: blind spots and hidden dramas

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, Ingunn Marie; Lyng, Selma Therese

    2016-01-01

    Although boys too are involved in relational aggression, their experiences are overshadowed by the focus on relational aggression among girls. This paradox mirrors the empirical puzzle that forms the starting point for this article: while teachers saw relational aggression as a ‘girl problem’, we found a vast undercurrent of relational aggression among boys. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork and interviews with staff and students in Norwegian schools, we ask how boys’ relational aggression ca...

  8. The Aggression-Inhibiting and Aggression-Facilitating Influence of Heightened Sexual Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Robert A.; Bell, Paul A.

    Eighty-six undergraduate males participated in an experiment designed to investigate the impact of various types of erotic stimuli upon aggression. On the basis of previous research, it was hypothesized that exposure to mild erotic stimuli would tend to inhibit subsequent aggression, while exposure to more arousing stimuli of this type would…

  9. Intra- Versus Intersex Aggression: Testing Theories of Sex Differences Using Aggression Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfer, Ralf; Hewstone, Miles

    2015-08-01

    Two theories offer competing explanations of sex differences in aggressive behavior: sexual-selection theory and social-role theory. While each theory has specific strengths and limitations depending on the victim's sex, research hardly differentiates between intrasex and intersex aggression. In the present study, 11,307 students (mean age = 14.96 years; 50% girls, 50% boys) from 597 school classes provided social-network data (aggression and friendship networks) as well as physical (body mass index) and psychosocial (gender and masculinity norms) information. Aggression networks were used to disentangle intra- and intersex aggression, whereas their class-aggregated sex differences were analyzed using contextual predictors derived from sexual-selection and social-role theories. As expected, results revealed that sexual-selection theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intrasex aggression, whereas social-role theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intersex aggression. Findings suggest the value of explaining sex differences separately for intra- and intersex aggression with a dual-theory framework covering both evolutionary and normative components. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Associations between Verbal Reasoning, Normative Beliefs about Aggression, and Different Forms of Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikas, Eve; Peets, Katlin; Tropp, Kristiina; Hinn, Maris

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of sex, verbal reasoning, and normative beliefs on direct and indirect forms of aggression. Three scales from the Peer Estimated Conflict Behavior Questionnaire, Verbal Reasoning tests, and an extended version of Normative Beliefs About Aggression Scale were administered to 663 Estonian…

  11. Behavioural strategies of aggressive and non-aggressive male mice in active shock avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benus, R.F.; Bohus, B.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Oortmerssen, G.A. van

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis, partly based on findings in social interactions, that aggressive mice generally adopt an active behavioural strategy (cf. fight-flight) in threatening situations, while non-aggressive ones generally assume a passive strategy (cf. conservation-withdrawal) was tested using a two-way

  12. The Relationship between Unstable Self-Esteem and Aggression: Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunju J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether the instability of self-esteem (i.e., a high intraindividual variability in self-esteem) is differentially associated with different types of aggressive behavior by using a sample of 235 preadolescent children. Self-esteem was measured four times for four consecutive days, and proactive and reactive aggressive behaviors…

  13. The psychopharmacology of aggressive behavior: a translational approach: part 2: clinical studies using atypical antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comai, Stefano; Tau, Michael; Pavlovic, Zoran; Gobbi, Gabriella

    2012-04-01

    Patients experiencing mental disorders are at an elevated risk for developing aggressive behavior. In the past 10 years, the psychopharmacological treatment of aggression has changed dramatically owing to the introduction of atypical antipsychotics on the market and the increased use of anticonvulsants and lithium in the treatment of aggressive patients.This review (second of 2 parts) uses a translational medicine approach to examine the neurobiology of aggression, discussing the major neurotransmitter systems implicated in its pathogenesis (serotonin, glutamate, norepinephrine, dopamine, and γ-aminobutyric acid) and the neuropharmacological rationale for using atypical antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and lithium in the therapeutics of aggressive behavior. A critical review of all clinical trials using atypical antipsychotics (aripiprazole, clozapine, loxapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone, and amisulpride), anticonvulsants (topiramate, valproate, lamotrigine, and gabapentin), and lithium are presented. Given the complex, multifaceted nature of aggression, a multifunctional combined therapy, targeting different receptors, seems to be the best strategy for treating aggressive behavior. This therapeutic strategy is supported by translational studies and a few human studies, even if additional randomized, double-blind, clinical trials are needed to confirm the clinical efficacy of this framework.

  14. Oil and resource-backed aggression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    A common misperception about oil politics is that it has a uniform, monolithic effect on policy development. This paper argues that in fact the net political effect of oil varies dramatically depending on the nature of the petrostate. It shows that oil income, when combined with revolutionary governments in petrostates, generates strong incentives for foreign policy aggression and international conflict. The aggressiveness of petro-revolutionary states is shown to have consequences in both military and economic spheres of international relations. Militarily, the aggressiveness of this type of state leads to a high rate of armed conflicts. Economically, the aggressiveness of petro-revolutionary states shapes global oil markets and international economic relations. The argument is tested using statistical analysis of international conflicts and economic sanctions. The policy implications are then considered, focusing on the negative global impacts of dependence on oil consumption. - Research highlights: → A radical reconsideration of the link between oil and international conflict is needed. → Resource-backed aggression, not resource-competition, is the major source of conflict. → Petro-revolutionary states instigate 250% more military conflicts than typical states. → Petro-revolutionary states are also more frequently targeted for economic sanctions.

  15. Do children with aggressive behavior have temporal lobe changes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.T.; Mishkin, F.; Goldberg, M.

    2002-01-01

    Aggressive behavior and mood disorders may afflict children. One problem is the lack of objective data to arrive at a specific clinical diagnosis. Abnormalities in neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid have been reported to play an important role in the onset of these disorders. We studied 8 patients, 3 girls and 5 boys, ages ranging from 6 to 12, referred to us with the diagnosis of ADHD or autism and reported as having temper problems by their families. These patients were injected with a dose of Tc-99m HMPAO calculated according to patient age and weight and were imaged 1 hour later using a Picker camera with Fan Beam collimators. We analyzed the brain SPECT using 3D as well as the traditional transverse, coronal and sagittal images. With the help of surface rendered 3D images with a cut off of 88% (high) and 60-65% (lower value depending on the patient RCBF value), we observed increased perfusion or activation of either or both right and left temporal lobes in all 8 of the patients. This pattern was not seen in children whose parents did not report temper problems. Increase in perfusion to the temporal lobes may indicate an association with oppositional or aggressive behavior that may be amenable to treatment. Brain SPECT may be useful not only in early diagnosis, but also in guiding appropriate therapy

  16. Do children with aggressive behavior have temporal lobe changes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C T; Mishkin, F; Goldberg, M [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Aggressive behavior and mood disorders may afflict children. One problem is the lack of objective data to arrive at a specific clinical diagnosis. Abnormalities in neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid have been reported to play an important role in the onset of these disorders. We studied 8 patients, 3 girls and 5 boys, ages ranging from 6 to 12, referred to us with the diagnosis of ADHD or autism and reported as having temper problems by their families. These patients were injected with a dose of Tc-99m HMPAO calculated according to patient age and weight and were imaged 1 hour later using a Picker camera with Fan Beam collimators. We analyzed the brain SPECT using 3D as well as the traditional transverse, coronal and sagittal images. With the help of surface rendered 3D images with a cut off of 88% (high) and 60-65% (lower value depending on the patient RCBF value), we observed increased perfusion or activation of either or both right and left temporal lobes in all 8 of the patients. This pattern was not seen in children whose parents did not report temper problems. Increase in perfusion to the temporal lobes may indicate an association with oppositional or aggressive behavior that may be amenable to treatment. Brain SPECT may be useful not only in early diagnosis, but also in guiding appropriate therapy.

  17. Management Strategies for Aggressive Cushing's Syndrome: From Macroadenomas to Ectopics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozza, Carlotta; Graziadio, Chiara; Giannetta, Elisa; Lenzi, Andrea; Isidori, Andrea M.

    2012-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare but severe clinical condition represented by an excessive endogenous cortisol secretion and hence excess circulating free cortisol, characterized by loss of the normal feedback regulation and circadian rhythm of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis due to inappropriate secretion of ACTH from a pituitary tumor (Cushing's disease, CD) or an ectopic source (ectopic ACTH secretion, EAS). The remaining causes (20%) are ACTH independent. As soon as the diagnosis is established, the therapeutic goal is the removal of the tumor. Whenever surgery is not curative, management of patients with CS requires a major effort to control hypercortisolemia and associated symptoms. A multidisciplinary approach that includes endocrinologists, neurosurgeons, oncologists, and radiotherapists should be adopted. This paper will focus on traditional and novel medical therapy for aggressive ACTH-dependent CS. Several drugs are able to reduce cortisol levels. Their mechanism of action involves blocking adrenal steroidogenesis (ketoconazole, metyrapone, aminoglutethimide, mitotane, etomidate) or inhibiting the peripheral action of cortisol through blocking its receptors (mifepristone “RU-486”). Other drugs include centrally acting agents (dopamine agonists, somatostatin receptor agonists, retinoic acid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ “PPAR-γ” ligands) and novel chemotherapeutic agents (temozolomide and tyrosine kinase inhibitors) which have a significant activity against aggressive pituitary or ectopic tumors. PMID:22934113

  18. Management Strategies for Aggressive Cushing's Syndrome: From Macroadenomas to Ectopics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta Pozza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cushing’s syndrome (CS is a rare but severe clinical condition represented by an excessive endogenous cortisol secretion and hence excess circulating free cortisol, characterized by loss of the normal feedback regulation and circadian rhythm of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis due to inappropriate secretion of ACTH from a pituitary tumor (Cushing’s disease, CD or an ectopic source (ectopic ACTH secretion, EAS. The remaining causes (20% are ACTH independent. As soon as the diagnosis is established, the therapeutic goal is the removal of the tumor. Whenever surgery is not curative, management of patients with CS requires a major effort to control hypercortisolemia and associated symptoms. A multidisciplinary approach that includes endocrinologists, neurosurgeons, oncologists, and radiotherapists should be adopted. This paper will focus on traditional and novel medical therapy for aggressive ACTH-dependent CS. Several drugs are able to reduce cortisol levels. Their mechanism of action involves blocking adrenal steroidogenesis (ketoconazole, metyrapone, aminoglutethimide, mitotane, etomidate or inhibiting the peripheral action of cortisol through blocking its receptors (mifepristone “RU-486”. Other drugs include centrally acting agents (dopamine agonists, somatostatin receptor agonists, retinoic acid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ “PPAR-γ” ligands and novel chemotherapeutic agents (temozolomide and tyrosine kinase inhibitors which have a significant activity against aggressive pituitary or ectopic tumors.

  19. Perpetration of Alcohol-Related Aggression by Male and Female College Students: An Examination of Overt and Relational Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kirsten; Forbes, Sarah; Thyne, Maree

    2017-03-01

    Existing literature exemplifies the relationship between alcohol and overt aggression, especially for adult males. Less clear is the relationship between alcohol and aggression among male and female college students, in particular, the nature of this aggression and the co-occurrence of drinking and aggression on the same day (temporal proximity). This study examines the chronic and temporal nature of males' and females' alcohol-related aggression among college students. Two hundred fourteen students completed a web-based 7-day event-level survey measuring alcohol consumption and perpetration of physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, and relational aggression over 4 weeks, resulting in 4,256 observations (days). The global analysis revealed students who are heavy drinkers are more likely to perpetrate all four forms of aggression, whereas the event-level analysis revealed that specific forms of aggression are associated with drinking at the time, while other forms were not linked to drinking occasions. Cross-tabulation revealed males and females were more likely to use verbal and physical aggression when drinking. For females, drinking was also associated with relational aggression and anger. Despite often being overlooked in research on aggression during emerging adulthood, relational aggression was prevalent. Discrepancies between the global and temporal analysis revealed factors other than alcohol might explain the relationship between chronic alcohol consumption and specific forms of aggression. This is one of the first event-level studies to show the temporal relationship between alcohol and relational aggression. The distinctions in the current study, exemplifying the diversity of alcohol-related aggression, are critical for understanding aggressive behavior, potential gender differences, and for developing interventions. The temporal relationship between alcohol and aggression suggests health interventions should target drinking and aggression

  20. A Two-Week Psychosocial Intervention Reduces Future Aggression and Incarceration in Clinically Aggressive Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Ashley D; Emerson, Erin M; Hartmann, William E; Zinbarg, Richard E; Donenberg, Geri R

    2017-12-01

    There is a largely unmet need for evidence-based interventions that reduce future aggression and incarceration in clinically aggressive juvenile offenders serving probation. We addressed this gap using a group randomized controlled trial. Offenders both with and without clinical aggression were included, enabling comparison of intervention effects. Juveniles 13 to 17 years old (N = 310, mean = 16 years, 90% African-American, 66% male) on probation were assigned to a 2-week intervention targeting psychosocial factors implicated in risky behavior (e.g., learning strategies to manage "hot" emotions that prompt risk taking) or to an equally intensive health promotion control. Participants completed aggression measures at baseline, 6-, and 12-month follow-up and reported on incarceration at 12 months. Spline regression tested symptom change. Among clinically aggressive offenders (n = 71), the intervention arm showed significantly greater reductions in aggression over the first 6 months compared with controls. Juveniles from the intervention no longer met clinical criteria, on average, but clinically significant symptoms persisted in the control group. By 12 months, participants from the intervention appeared to maintain treatment gains, but their symptom levels no longer differed significantly from those in the control. However, the intervention group was nearly 4 times less likely than controls to report incarceration. Intervention effects were significantly stronger for offenders with clinical than with nonclinical (n = 239) baseline aggression. A 2-week intervention expedited improvements in aggression and reduced incarceration in clinically aggressive juvenile offenders. The findings underscore the importance of directing intervention resources to the most aggressive youth. Clinical trial registration information-PHAT Life: Preventing HIV/AIDS Among Teens in Juvenile Justice (PHAT Life); http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT02647710. Copyright © 2017 American

  1. Digit Ratio (2D:4D, Aggression, and Testosterone in Men Exposed to an Aggressive Video Stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam P. Kilduff

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The relative lengths of the 2nd and 4th digits (2D:4D is a negative biomarker for prenatal testosterone, and low 2D:4D may be associated with aggression. However, the evidence for a 2D:4D-aggression association is mixed. Here we test the hypothesis that 2D:4D is robustly linked to aggression in “challenge” situations in which testosterone is increased. Participants were exposed to an aggressive video and a control video. Aggression was measured after each video and salivary free testosterone levels before and after each video. Compared to the control video, the aggressive video was associated with raised aggression responses and a marginally significant increase in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was negatively correlated with aggression after the aggressive video and the strength of the correlation was higher in those participants who showed the greatest increases in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was also negatively correlated to the difference between aggression scores in the aggressive and control conditions. The control video did not influence testosterone concentrations and there were no associations between 2D:4D and aggression. We conclude that 2D:4D moderates the impact of an aggressive stimulus on aggression, such that an increase in testosterone resulting from a “challenge” is associated with a negative correlation between 2D:4D and aggression.

  2. Aggressiveness index of Apis Mellifera (Hymenoptera: Aapidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennyfer Insuasty Torres

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An index measuring the aggressiveness among ten colonies of Apis mellifera was elaborated based on the third generation synthetic indices by Charum et al. (1999. The index values are subject to a fixed parameter used as the beginning or standard value, and correspond to the aggressive features of some Africans colonies studied by Rothenbuler et al. (1968. In the ten colonies the index values are notably smaller than those of African colonies and are biased to the lowest values. This indicates, that neither of the colonies presents an extreme aggressive behavior and it is possible that they have not Africans genotypes. These results are an indirect proof of the index. Nevertheless, it could be improved by the introduction of other factors such as, climate and colony management.

  3. Order aggressiveness and order book dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Anthony D.; Hautsch, Nikolaus

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study the determinants of order aggressiveness and traders’ order submission strategy in an open limit order book market. Applying an order classification scheme, we model the most aggressive market orders, limit orders as well as cancellations on both sides of the market...... employing a six-dimensional autoregressive conditional intensity model. Using order book data from the Australian Stock Exchange, we find that market depth, the queued volume, the bid-ask spread, recent volatility, as well as recent changes in both the order flow and the price play an important role...... in explaining the determinants of order aggressiveness. Overall, our empirical results broadly confirm theoretical predictions on limit order book trading. However, we also find evidence for behavior that can be attributed to particular liquidity and volatility effects...

  4. Focal therapy in prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, W.

    2016-01-01

    Interesting developments took place in the treatment of prostate cancer including focal therapy for less aggressive organ-confined prostate cancer. Fortunately, curative treatment is often still an option for patients suffering from the lower staged tumors. In carefully selected patients, the

  5. Aggressiveness, violence, homicidality, homicide, and Lyme disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bransfield RC

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Robert C Bransfield Department of Psychiatry, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ, USA Background: No study has previously analyzed aggressiveness, homicide, and Lyme disease (LD. Materials and methods: Retrospective LD chart reviews analyzed aggressiveness, compared 50 homicidal with 50 non-homicidal patients, and analyzed homicides. Results: Most aggression with LD was impulsive, sometimes provoked by intrusive symptoms, sensory stimulation or frustration and was invariably bizarre and senseless. About 9.6% of LD patients were homicidal with the average diagnosis delay of 9 years. Postinfection findings associated with homicidality that separated from the non-homicidal group within the 95% confidence interval included suicidality, sudden abrupt mood swings, explosive anger, paranoia, anhedonia, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle, disinhibition, nightmares, depersonalization, intrusive aggressive images, dissociative episodes, derealization, intrusive sexual images, marital/family problems, legal problems, substance abuse, depression, panic disorder, memory impairments, neuropathy, cranial nerve symptoms, and decreased libido. Seven LD homicides included predatory aggression, poor impulse control, and psychosis. Some patients have selective hyperacusis to mouth sounds, which I propose may be the result of brain dysfunction causing a disinhibition of a primitive fear of oral predation.Conclusion: LD and the immune, biochemical, neurotransmitter, and the neural circuit reactions to it can cause impairments associated with violence. Many LD patients have no aggressiveness tendencies or only mild degrees of low frustration tolerance and irritability and pose no danger; however, a lesser number experience explosive anger, a lesser number experience homicidal thoughts and impulses, and much lesser number commit homicides. Since such large numbers are affected by LD, this small percent can be highly significant. Much of the

  6. Behavioral aggressiveness in boys with sexual precocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Kulshreshtha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some boys with sexual precocity are known to have behavioral problems like increased physical and verbal aggression and school and social maladjustments. It is believed to be due to premature androgen exposure. However, it is not clear why only some develop this problem, difference in etiology could be one explanation. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess behavioral aggression in boys with sexual precocity due to different disorders. Materials and Methods: Seven children, ages three to seven years, were enrolled for this study. Two were diagnosed to have congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, three had testotoxicosis, while two had central precocious puberty. Parents of children with precocious puberty underwent the (CASP questionnaire (children′s aggression scale-parent version. Results: Testosterone levels were high in all patients. Parents denied any history of physical or verbal aggression in the two boys with CAH. Their CASP rating was 0. In contrast, the CASP ratings in the two boys with testotoxicosis and the two with precocious puberty for five domains ranged from 3.1 - 24.2, 2.6 - 8.3,1-5.6,0 - 7.1, and 0 - 1, respectively. In the present study, increased aggression was seen among all the patients with testotoxicosis and both with precocious puberty. In contrast, there were no symptoms of either increased verbal or physical aggression in either of the two patients with CAH. Conclusions: The hormonal milieu in the boys with CAH versus those with sexual precocity due to other causes differed in terms of cortisol and androgen precursors. The androgen excess in CAH children was a consequence of cortisol deficiency. It is possible that cortisol sufficiency is required for androgen-mediated behavioral effects.

  7. Aggressiveness, violence, homicidality, homicide, and Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bransfield, Robert C

    2018-01-01

    No study has previously analyzed aggressiveness, homicide, and Lyme disease (LD). Retrospective LD chart reviews analyzed aggressiveness, compared 50 homicidal with 50 non-homicidal patients, and analyzed homicides. Most aggression with LD was impulsive, sometimes provoked by intrusive symptoms, sensory stimulation or frustration and was invariably bizarre and senseless. About 9.6% of LD patients were homicidal with the average diagnosis delay of 9 years. Postinfection findings associated with homicidality that separated from the non-homicidal group within the 95% confidence interval included suicidality, sudden abrupt mood swings, explosive anger, paranoia, anhedonia, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle, disinhibition, nightmares, depersonalization, intrusive aggressive images, dissociative episodes, derealization, intrusive sexual images, marital/family problems, legal problems, substance abuse, depression, panic disorder, memory impairments, neuropathy, cranial nerve symptoms, and decreased libido. Seven LD homicides included predatory aggression, poor impulse control, and psychosis. Some patients have selective hyperacusis to mouth sounds, which I propose may be the result of brain dysfunction causing a disinhibition of a primitive fear of oral predation. LD and the immune, biochemical, neurotransmitter, and the neural circuit reactions to it can cause impairments associated with violence. Many LD patients have no aggressiveness tendencies or only mild degrees of low frustration tolerance and irritability and pose no danger; however, a lesser number experience explosive anger, a lesser number experience homicidal thoughts and impulses, and much lesser number commit homicides. Since such large numbers are affected by LD, this small percent can be highly significant. Much of the violence associated with LD can be avoided with better prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of LD.

  8. Aggressive Posterior Retinopathy of Prematurity in a Premature Male Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A premature male infant was born at 30 weeks’ gestation with a birth weight of 1,700 g in a rural hospital. He was diagnosed with respiratory distress syndrome and received continuous positive airway pressure treatment for 26 days. At 26 days after birth, the patient was transferred to our hospital for further evaluation and management. A comprehensive eye examination revealed a stage 3 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP involving zone 2 in both eyes. The patient was recommended to a provincial-level eye hospital for emergency laser therapy. Five months after birth, the feedback from the eye hospital showed that the patient had a high risk of blindness in both eyes. Our case report shows that delaying first screening examination increases the possibility of developing aggressive posterior ROP in infants with ROP. Doctors in rural hospitals should be aware of this possibility and trained for early screening and treatment in high-risk infants.

  9. When customers exhibit verbal aggression, employees pay cognitive costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaeli, Anat; Erez, Amir; Ravid, Shy; Derfler-Rozin, Rellie; Treister, Dorit Efrat; Scheyer, Ravit

    2012-09-01

    In 4 experimental studies, we show that customer verbal aggression impaired the cognitive performance of the targets of this aggression. In Study 1, customers' verbal aggression reduced recall of customers' requests. Study 2 extended these findings by showing that customer verbal aggression impaired recognition memory and working memory among employees of a cellular communication provider. In Study 3, the ability to take another's perspective attenuated the negative effects of customer verbal aggression on participants' cognitive performance. Study 4 linked customer verbal aggression to quality of task performance, showing a particularly negative influence of aggressive requests delivered by high-status customers. Together, these studies suggest that the effects of even minor aggression from customers can strongly affect the immediate cognitive performance of customer service employees and reduce their task performance. The implications for research on aggression and for the practice of customer service are discussed.

  10. Boys’ and Girls’ Relational and Physical Aggression in Nine Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Di Giunta, Laura; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Distinguishing between relational and physical aggression has become a key feature of many developmental studies in North America and Western Europe, but very little information is available on relational and physical aggression in more diverse cultural contexts. This study examined the factor structure of, associations between, and gender differences in relational and physical aggression in China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. Children ages 7–10 years (N = 1,410) reported on their relationally and physically aggressive behavior. Relational and physical aggression shared a common factor structure across countries. In all nine countries, relational and physical aggression were significantly correlated (average r = .49). Countries differed in the mean levels of both relational and physical aggression that children reported using and with respect to whether children reported using more physical than relational aggression or more relational than physical aggression. Boys reported being more physically aggressive than girls across all nine countries; no consistent gender differences emerged in relational aggression. Despite mean-level differences in relational and physical aggression across countries, the findings provided support for cross-country similarities in associations between relational and physical aggression as well as links between gender and aggression.

  11. Neuromodulation can reduce aggressive behavior elicited by violent video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Paolo; Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Romero Lauro, Leonor J; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara; Bushman, Brad J

    2017-04-01

    Research has shown that exposure to violent media increases aggression. However, the neural underpinnings of violent-media-related aggression are poorly understood. Additionally, few experiments have tested hypotheses concerning how to reduce violent-media-related aggression. In this experiment, we focused on a brain area involved in the regulation of aggressive impulses-the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC). We tested the hypothesis that brain polarization through anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over rVLPFC reduces aggression related to violent video games. Participants (N = 79) were randomly assigned to play a violent or a nonviolent video game while receiving anodal or sham stimulation. Afterward, participants aggressed against an ostensible partner using the Taylor aggression paradigm (Taylor Journal of Personality, 35, 297-310, 1967), which measures both unprovoked and provoked aggression. Among those who received sham stimulation, unprovoked aggression was significantly higher for violent-game players than for nonviolent-game players. Among those who received anodal stimulation, unprovoked aggression did not differ for violent- and nonviolent-game players. Thus, anodal stimulation reduced unprovoked aggression in violent-game players. No significant effects were found for provoked aggression, suggesting tit-for-tat responding. This experiment sheds light on one possible neural underpinning of violent-media-related aggression-the rVLPFC, a brain area involved in regulating negative feelings and aggressive impulses.

  12. Boys’ and Girls’ Relational and Physical Aggression in Nine Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Di Giunta, Laura; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Distinguishing between relational and physical aggression has become a key feature of many developmental studies in North America and Western Europe, but very little information is available on relational aggression in more diverse cultural contexts. This study examined the factor structure of, gender differences in, and associations between relational and physical aggression in China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. Children ages 7 to 10 years (N = 1410) reported on their relationally and physically aggressive behavior. Relational and physical aggression shared a common factor structure across countries. Unsurprisingly, boys reported being more physically aggressive than girls across all nine countries; surprisingly, there were no significant gender differences in relational aggression. In all nine countries, relational and physical aggression were significantly correlated (average r = .49). The countries differed significantly in the mean levels of both relational and physical aggression that children reported using and with respect to whether children reported using more physical than relational aggression or more relational than physical aggression. Despite mean level differences in relational and physical aggression across countries, the findings provided support for cross-country similarities in associations between relational and physical aggression, as well as links between gender and aggression. PMID:23935227

  13. [Managing aggression and violence associated with psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallikainen, Tero; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila

    2015-01-01

    Risk for violence in psychosis is associated with the subject's history of early-onset antisocial behavior, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, lack of insight, and non-adherence to antipsychotic medication. These risk factors can be managed by effective treatment for psychosis, with the exception of predatory antisocial aggression. Generally, this group of patients is at considerable risk for untreated conditions. There is, however, no pharmacological treatment indicated solely for aggression. Physical violence can often be avoided by alertness and risk monitoring, and by attentive customer service skills. Safety at work is our shared responsibility.

  14. Risperidone added to parent training and stimulant medication: effects on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and peer aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D; Arnold, L Eugene; Molina, Brooke S G; Findling, Robert L; Bukstein, Oscar G; Brown, Nicole V; McNamara, Nora K; Rundberg-Rivera, E Victoria; Li, Xiaobai; Kipp, Heidi L; Schneider, Jayne; Farmer, Cristan A; Baker, Jennifer L; Sprafkin, Joyce; Rice, Robert R; Bangalore, Srihari S; Butter, Eric M; Buchan-Page, Kristin A; Hurt, Elizabeth A; Austin, Adrienne B; Grondhuis, Sabrina N; Aman, Michael G

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to expand on our prior research into the relative efficacy of combining parent training, stimulant medication, and placebo (Basic therapy) versus parent training, stimulant, and risperidone (Augmented therapy) by examining treatment effects for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and peer aggression, symptom-induced impairment, and informant discrepancy. Children (6-12 years of age; N = 168) with severe physical aggression, ADHD, and co-occurring ODD/CD received an open trial of parent training and stimulant medication for 3 weeks. Participants failing to show optimal clinical response were randomly assigned to Basic or Augmented therapy for an additional 6 weeks. Compared with Basic therapy, children receiving Augmented therapy experienced greater reduction in parent-rated ODD severity (p = .002, Cohen's d = 0.27) and peer aggression (p = .02, Cohen's d = 0.32) but not ADHD or CD symptoms. Fewer children receiving Augmented (16%) than Basic (40%) therapy were rated by their parents as impaired by ODD symptoms at week 9/endpoint (p = .008). Teacher ratings indicated greater reduction in ADHD severity (p = .02, Cohen's d = 0.61) with Augmented therapy, but not for ODD or CD symptoms or peer aggression. Although both interventions were associated with marked symptom reduction, a relatively large percentage of children were rated as impaired for at least 1 targeted disorder at week 9/endpoint by parents (Basic 47%; Augmented 27%) and teachers (Basic 48%; Augmented 38%). Augmented therapy was superior to Basic therapy in reducing severity of ADHD and ODD symptoms, peer aggression, and symptom-induced impairment, but clinical improvement was generally context specific, and effect sizes ranged from small to moderate. Clinical trial registration information-Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression (The TOSCA Study); http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT00796302

  15. Situation determinanty of display of aggression in sporting activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maystruk V.V.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Situation pre-conditions of development of aggression are considered. Aggression within the limits of rules of competitions is the important element of successful activity of sportsman. Aspiring to victory requires a sporting aggressiveness. Sport is a comfortable model for the scientific experimental study of the phenomenon of aggression. Existing is studied типологии of aggressiveness in sporting activity. A reactive and instrumental aggressiveness is selected. Primary objective of first consists in causing of physical or psychological trauma. A friend is pursued by a purpose is a receipt of victory and not causing of harm to the competitor.

  16. Alzheimer's aggression: influences on caregiver coping and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Scott E; Little, Kristina G; Gough, Heather R; Spurlock, Wanda J

    2011-04-01

    This study assessed impact of Alzheimer's patients' aggressive behavior (AD aggression) on caregiver coping strategies (task-, emotion-, and avoidance-focused) and caregiver resilience, and examined whether coping strategy moderated the AD aggression-caregiver resilience relationship. Informal caregivers across Louisiana (N = 419) completed surveys with measures of demographics, AD aggression, caregiver coping strategies, and caregiver resilience. Task-focused coping positively related to resilience. Aggression negatively predicted caregiver resilience. Emotion- and avoidance-focused coping strategies separately interacted with aggression and increased its negative relationship to caregiver resilience. Task-focused coping showed no moderation. Implications for social work professionals are discussed.

  17. Treatment of a Periodontic-Endodontic Lesion in a Patient with Aggressive Periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Fahmy, Mina D.; Luepke, Paul G.; Ibrahim, Mohamed S.; Guentsch, Arndt

    2016-01-01

    Case Description. This case report describes the successful management of a left mandibular first molar with a combined periodontic-endodontic lesion in a 35-year-old Caucasian woman with aggressive periodontitis using a concerted approach including endodontic treatment, periodontal therapy, and a periodontal regenerative procedure using an enamel matrix derivate. In spite of anticipated poor prognosis, the tooth lesion healed. This case report also discusses the rationale behind different tr...

  18. An Aggressive Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma of the Prostate in a Japanese Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Hashimoto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC of the prostate is rare, with approximately 100 case reports to date. Here we report a very aggressive case of SRCC of the prostate in a Japanese man. The patient received estramustine, docetaxel, and carboplatin combination chemotherapy, followed by TS-1 and CPT-11 combination therapy. Unfortunately, the disease progressed, and he died of general metastatic disease treated over 16 month with systemic chemotherapy.

  19. In vivo efficacy of the Bcl-2 antagonist ABT-737 against aggressive Myc-driven lymphomas

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Kylie D.; Vandenberg, Cassandra J.; Scott, Clare L.; Wei, Andrew H.; Cory, Suzanne; Huang, David C. S.; Roberts, Andrew W.

    2008-01-01

    Deregulated Myc expression drives many human cancers, including Burkitt's lymphoma and a highly aggressive subset of diffuse large cell lymphomas. Myc-driven tumors often display resistance to chemotherapeutics because of acquisition of mutations that impair the apoptosis pathway regulated by the Bcl-2 protein family. Given the need to identify new therapies for such lymphomas, we have evaluated the efficacy of ABT-737, a small molecule that mimics the action of the BH3-only proteins, natural...

  20. The relation between sleep and violent aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Jeanine

    2017-01-01

    Good sleep is important for our emotional stability and aggression control. Although most people do not become violent after a period of poor sleep, this may be different for certain vulnerable individuals. Forensic psychiatric patients may represent a group of such individuals. We studied patients

  1. Sequelae of Aggression in Acutely Suicidal Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C. R.; Washburn, Jason J.; Feingold, Alan; Kramer, Anne C.; Ivey, Asha Z.; King, Cheryl A.

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of aggression on problem course and suicide risk were examined in 270 acutely suicidal adolescents (ages 12-17 years; 184 girls). Participants were assessed during psychiatric hospitalization (T1), 6-months post-hospitalization (T2), and 15 or more months post-hospitalization (T3). Study variables included self- and…

  2. Aggression, anger and violence in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Masango

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the roots of aggression, anger and violence in South Africa and the rest of the world. The paper is divided into four parts: Aggression, Anger, Catharsis and Violence. As a result of violence against other human beings, especially women and children, a profound respect for human dignity has been lost. People have become extremely aggressive. The last few decades have created a culture of violence because of the suppression or oppression of feelings. The article argues that frustration yields anger that leads to violent acts. The root cause of violence is frustration, which finally (if not attended to produces anger, anxiety, conflict and the eruption of violence. Suicide bombers in Palestine and other parts of the world demonstrate this type of aggression, anger and violence. Anger, on the one hand, is a good defense mechanism. It helps people cope with frustration. Violence, on the other hand, is used as a means of dominance, especially against women and children. In a political situation it is used as a means of changing social structures.

  3. Aggressive behavior in the genus Gallus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Queiroz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of the production system in the poultry industry and the vertical integration of the poultry agribusiness have brought profound changes in the physical and social environment of domestic fowls in comparison to their ancestors and have modified the expression of aggression and submission. The present review has covered the studies focusing on the different aspects linked to aggressiveness in the genus Gallus. The evaluated studies have shown that aggressiveness and subordination are complex behavioral expressions that involve genetic differences between breeds, strains and individuals, and differences in the cerebral development during growth, in the hormonal metabolism, in the rearing conditions of individuals, including feed restriction, density, housing type (litter or cage, influence of the opposite sex during the growth period, existence of hostile stimuli (pain and frustration, ability to recognize individuals and social learning. The utilization of fighting birds as experimental material in the study of mechanisms that have influence on the manifestation of aggressiveness in the genus Gallus might comparatively help to elucidate important biological aspects of such behavior.

  4. The evolution of humor from male aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuster S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sam ShusterNewcastle University, Newcastle Upon Type, NE1 7RU, UKAbstract: The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer's sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15–69 years, with 2–40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection.Keywords: humor evolution, male aggressive behavior

  5. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  6. Peer Group Influences on Adolescent Dating Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Jennifer; Friedlander, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The peer group is a critical social context for dating and romantic relationships. Peer groups provide opportunities to meet potential dating partners and set norms for acceptable dating behaviors. This article explores how peer groups influence dating and dating aggression, as well as how they can be used in prevention efforts. It also reviews…

  7. Subtypes of aggression in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Sune; Forth, Adelle; Kongerslev, Mickey

    2013-01-01

    Research has repeatedly demonstrated that schizophrenia has a small but significant association with violence. It is further recognised that a subgroup of people with such links also have personality disorders, but the extent to which type of violence or aggression varies according to subgroup is...

  8. Multi-modal aggression detection in trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.

    2009-01-01

    In many public places multiple sensing devices, such as cameras, are installed to help prevent unwanted situations such as aggression and violence. At the moment, the best solution to reach a safe environment requires human operators to monitor the camera images and take appropriate actions when

  9. Observing Aggression of Teachers in School Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    To fill the gap in theoretical and empirical knowledge on workplace aggression by teachers working in teams, this study explored its components, its targets, and its contextual determinants. Data were collected through three observations at different schools and at different times on 29 math, homeroom, language, and science studies teams.…

  10. Male Teachers' Experiences of Own Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Johan; Myburgh, Chris; Poggenpoel, Marie

    2013-01-01

    We describe an exploratory, descriptive, and contextual study on the lived experiences of 17 male teachers' own aggression in the Gert Sibande district in Mpumalanga province. Individual phenomenological interviews were used to collect data from these volunteers for this qualitative research. The data were analysed by means of an open coding…

  11. Physical Dating Aggression Growth during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2010-01-01

    The development of Physical Dating Aggression from the age of 16 to 18 years was investigated in relation to time-invariant predictors (gender, parental education, family composition, number of partners) and to time-varying effects of delinquent behavior and perception of victimization by the partner. The sample consisted of 181 adolescents with a…

  12. Everyday Marital Conflict and Child Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Papp, Lauren M.

    2004-01-01

    Children's immediate aggressive responding to exposure to marital conflict was examined. Participants were 108 families with 8- to 16-year-old children (53 boys, 55 girls), with diary records of children's reactions to marital conflict in the home completed by 103 mothers (n = 578 records) and 95 fathers (n = 377 records) during a 15-day period.…

  13. Violent Comic Books Influence Relational Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsh, Steven J.; Olczak, Paul V.

    This paper assesses the impact that reading violent comic books has on hostile attributional bias using relationally aggressive scenarios. College students (N=85) read either very violent or mildly violent comic books. Participants rated the comic books on levels of violence, humor, interest level, and overall likeability. They also read five…

  14. Aggression Replacement Training and Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, A. Mark; Oliver, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression Replacement Training (ART) was developed by the late Arnold Goldstein of Syracuse University to teach positive alternatives to children and youth with emotional and behavioral problems (Glick & Gibbs, 2011; Goldstein, Glick, & Gibbs, 1998). ART provides cognitive, affective, and behavioral interventions to build competence in…

  15. Sexual victimization, partner aggression and alcohol consumption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the relationship sexual victimization (both childhood sexual victimization and adult sexual victimization), aggression and alcohol consumption. The data for this research is from the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: an International Study (GENACIS). A random sample of 2070 adults (53.8% males and ...

  16. Psychological Determinants of Aggressive Behaviour among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed at investigating the psychological determinants of aggressive behaviour among adolescents in secondary schools in Awka South L.G.A. of Anambra State. Three research questions and three null hypotheses guided the study. Expost facto design was adopted for the study. The population of the study ...

  17. Vertebral Hemangiomas - Aggressive Forms | Allali | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical imaging allows both diagnosis and evaluation of their aggressivity. Objective To assess the role of radiology, embolisation, percutaneous vertebroplasty, radiotherapy and surgery in the diagnosis and treatment of vertebral hemangiomas. Methods We report our experience of five patients who had an average age of ...

  18. Medical Art Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgul Aydin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Art therapy is a form of expressive therapy that uses art materials. Art therapy combines traditional psychotherapeutic theories and techniques with an understanding of the psychological aspects of the creative process, especially the affective properties of the different art materials. Medical art therapy has been defined as the clinical application of art expression and imagery with individuals who are physically ill, experiencing physical trauma or undergoing invasive or aggressive medical procedures such as surgery or chemotherapy and is considered as a form of complementary or integrative medicine. Several studies have shown that patients with physical illness benefit from medical art therapy in different aspects. Unlike other therapies, art therapy can take the patients away from their illness for a while by means of creative activities during sessions, can make them forget the illness or lost abilities. Art therapy leads to re-experiencing normality and personal power even with short creative activity sessions. In this article definition, influence and necessity of medical art therapy are briefly reviewed.

  19. Combination of Intravitreal Ranibizumab and Laser Photocoagulation for Aggressive Posterior Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágata Mota

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report on 2 cases of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (ROP treated with intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis® and laser photocoagulation. Methods: Two premature females, born at 25 and 26 weeks’ gestation with a birth weight of 530 and 550 g, respectively, with aggressive posterior ROP received combined treatment with laser photocoagulation and intravitreal ranibizumab (0.3 mg [30 µl] to each eye. Structural outcomes were evaluated by indirect ophthalmoscopy and documented by retinography. Results: An intravitreal injection was made at 34 weeks of postmenstrual age in the first case, followed by laser photocoagulation 1 week later. There was a partial regression of ROP with treatment. Five weeks later, neovascularization regrowth with bleeding in both eyes (intraretinal and subhyaloid occurred and retreatment with combined therapy was performed. In the second case, single therapy with laser photocoagulation was made at 34 weeks of postmenstrual age. In spite of the confluent photocoagulation in the avascular area, progression to 4A ROP stage occurred 1 week later. Both eyes were retreated 1 week later with intravitreal ranibizumab and laser photocoagulation. Treatment resulted in ROP regression in both cases. There were no signs of systemic or ocular adverse side effects. Conclusion: The cases presented show that combination therapy of indirect laser photocoagulation and intravitreal ranibizumab can be effective in the management of aggressive posterior ROP. Further investigation on anti-VEGF safety in premature infants is necessary . Additional studies are needed to define the role of anti-VEGF in ROP treatment.

  20. Prognostic value of comorbidity for auto-SCT eligibility and outcome in relapsed or refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plattel, W. J.; Kluin-Nelemans, H. C.; de Bock, G. H.; van Imhoff, G. W.

    Salvage reinduction therapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and auto-SCT is the treatment of choice for fit patients with refractory or relapsed aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). We assessed the prognostic value of comorbidity at the time of relapse to predict receipt of auto-SCT

  1. Aggressive periodontitis: case definition and diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albandar, Jasim M

    2014-06-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is a destructive disease characterized by the following: the involvement of multiple teeth with a distinctive pattern of periodontal tissue loss; a high rate of disease progression; an early age of onset; and the absence of systemic diseases. In some patients periodontal tissue loss may commence before puberty, whereas in most patients the age of onset is during or somewhat after the circumpubertal period. Besides infection with specific microorganisms, a host predisposition seems to play a key role in the pathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis, as evidenced by the familial aggregation of the disease. In this article we review the historical background of the diagnostic criteria of aggressive periodontitis, present a contemporary case definition and describe the clinical parameters of the disease. At present, the diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis is achieved using case history, clinical examination and radiographic evaluation. The data gathered using these methods are prone to relatively high measurement errors. Besides, this diagnostic approach measures past disease history and may not reliably measure existing disease activity or accurately predict future tissue loss. A diagnosis is often made years after the onset of the disease, partly because current assessment methods detect established disease more readily and reliably than they detect incipient or initial lesions where the tissue loss is minimal and usually below the detection threshold of present examination methods. Future advancements in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease may contribute to an earlier diagnosis. Insofar, future case definitions may involve the identification of key etiologic and risk factors, combined with high-precision methodologies that enable the early detection of initial lesions. This may significantly enhance the predictive value of these tests and detect cases of aggressive periodontitis before significant tissue loss develops. © 2014

  2. Verbal Aggressiveness Among Physicians and Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Jenny Lynn; Hosseini, Motahar; Kamangar, Farin; Levien, David H; Rowland, Pamela A; Kowdley, Gopal C; Cunningham, Steven C

    2016-01-01

    To better understand verbal aggressiveness among physicians and trainees, including specialty-specific differences. The Infante Verbal Aggressiveness Scale (IVAS) was administered as part of a survey to 48 medical students, 24 residents, and 257 attending physicians. The 72 trainees received the IVAS and demographic questions, whereas the attending physicians received additional questions regarding type of practice, career satisfaction, litigation, and personality type. The IVAS scores showed high reliability (Cronbach α = 0.83). Among all trainees, 56% were female with mean age 28 years, whereas among attending physicians, 63% were male with mean age 50 years. Average scores of trainees were higher than attending physicians with corresponding averages of 1.88 and 1.68, respectively. Among trainees, higher IVAS scores were significantly associated with male sex, non-US birthplace, choice of surgery, and a history of bullying. Among attending physicians, higher IVAS scores were significantly associated with male sex, younger age, self-reported low-quality of patient-physician relationships, and low enjoyment talking to patients. General surgery and general internal medicine physicians were significantly associated with higher IVAS scores than other specialties. General practitioners (surgeons and medical physicians) had higher IVAS scores than the specialists in their corresponding fields. No significant correlation was found between IVAS scores and threats of legal action against attending physicians, or most personality traits. Additional findings regarding bullying in medical school, physician-patient interactions, and having a method to deal with inappropriate behavior at work were observed. Individuals choosing general specialties display more aggressive verbal communication styles, general surgeons displaying the highest. The IVAS scoring system may identify subgroups of physicians with overly aggressive (problematic) communication skills and may provide a

  3. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH activity does not select for cells with enhanced aggressive properties in malignant melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Prasmickaite

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma is an exceptionally aggressive, drug-resistant and heterogeneous cancer. Recently it has been shown that melanoma cells with high clonogenic and tumourigenic abilities are common, but markers distinguishing such cells from cells lacking these abilities have not been identified. There is therefore no definite evidence that an exclusive cell subpopulation, i.e. cancer stem cells (CSC, exists in malignant melanoma. Rather, it is suggested that multiple cell populations are implicated in initiation and progression of the disease, making it of importance to identify subpopulations with elevated aggressive properties. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In several other cancer forms, Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH, which plays a role in stem cell biology and resistance, is a valuable functional marker for identification of cells that show enhanced aggressiveness and drug-resistance. Furthermore, the presence of ALDH(+ cells is linked to poor clinical prognosis in these cancers. By analyzing cell cultures, xenografts and patient biopsies, we showed that aggressive melanoma harboured a large, distinguishable ALDH(+ subpopulation. In vivo, ALDH(+ cells gave rise to ALDH(- cells, while the opposite conversion was rare, indicating a higher abilities of ALDH(+ cells to reestablish tumour heterogeneity with respect to the ALDH phenotype. However, both ALDH(+ and ALDH(- cells demonstrated similarly high abilities for clone formation in vitro and tumour initiation in vivo. Furthermore, both subpopulations showed similar sensitivity to the anti-melanoma drugs, dacarbazine and lexatumumab. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that ALDH does not distinguish tumour-initiating and/or therapy-resistant cells, implying that the ALDH phenotype is not associated with more-aggressive subpopulations in malignant melanoma, and arguing against ALDH as a "universal" marker. Besides, it was shown that the ability to reestablish tumour heterogeneity is not

  4. Biological treatment of acute agitation or aggression with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder in the inpatient setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correll, Christoph U; Yu, Xin; Xiang, Yutao; Kane, John M; Masand, Prakash

    2017-05-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorders are chronic illnesses that commonly present with symptoms of acute agitation and aggression. These symptoms must be managed rapidly to prevent potential harm to the patient and others, including their caregivers, peers, and health care workers. A number of treatment options are available to clinicians to manage acute agitation and aggression, including non-pharmacologic behavioral and environmental de-escalation strategies, as well as biological treatment options such as pharmacologic agents and electroconvulsive therapy. We summarize the available biological treatment options for patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder presenting with acute agitation or aggression in the inpatient setting, focusing on antipsychotics. The following searches were used in PubMed to obtain the most relevant advances in treating schizophrenia or bipolar disorder with acute agitation and aggression: (agitation, agitated, aggression, aggressive, hostile, hostility, violent, or violence) and (schizophr*, psychosis, psychot*, psychos*, mania, manic, or bipolar) and (*pharmacologic, antipsychotic*, neuroleptic*, antiepileptic*, anti-seizure*, mood stabilizer*, lithium, benzodiazepine*, beta blocker, beta-blocker, alpha2, alpha-2, *histamine*, electroconvulsive, ECT, shock, or transcranial). Individual searches were performed for each drug class. The studies were limited to peer-reviewed, English-language, and human studies. Most were placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or meta-analyses. Among pharmacologic agents, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, and lithium have been studied in randomized trials. Some typical and, more recently, atypical antipsychotics are available as both oral and short-acting intramuscular (IM) formulations, with 1 typical antipsychotic also available as an inhalable formulation. Among the pharmacologic agents studied in RCTs, atypical antipsychotics have the best evidence to support

  5. Male aggression and mating opportunity in a poeciliid fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Male aggression and mating opportunity in a poeciliid fish. ... the strength of which can be assessed using repeatability of aggressive behaviour. ... A surprising finding highlighted by this study was the contradictory results for consistency in ...

  6. Prevalence and correlates of aggression among psychiatric in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: A total of 300 subjects satisfied the inclusion criteria, but only 298 were assessed because two ... The prevalence of aggression in this study was 19.5%. ... Most of the aggressive behavior occurred without provocation (63.3%).

  7. Appetitive Aggression in Women: Comparing Male and Female War Combatants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danie eMeyer-Parlapanis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Appetitive aggression refers to positive feelings being associated with the perpetration of violent behavior and has been shown to provide resilience against the development of PTSD in combatants returning from the battlefield. Until this point, appetitive aggression has been primarily researched in males. This study investigates appetitive aggression in females. Female and male combatants and civilians from Burundi were assessed for levels of appetitive aggression. In contrast to non-combatants, no sex difference in appetitive aggression could be detected for combatants. Furthermore, each of the female and male combatant groups displayed substantially higher levels of appetitive aggression than each of the male and female civilian control groups. This study demonstrates that in violent contexts, such as armed conflict, in which individuals perpetrate numerous aggressive acts against others, the likelihood for an experience of appetitive aggression increases- regardless of whether the individuals are male or female.

  8. Individual and peer group normative beliefs about relational aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Nicole E; Hill, Laura G

    2010-01-01

    Studies show that children who use relational aggression process social information in unique ways; however, findings have been inconsistent and limited by methodological weaknesses. This short-term longitudinal study examined developmental changes in 245 (49% female; ages 8-13) 3rd through 8th graders' normative beliefs about relational aggression and tested the hypothesis that individual and classroom-level norms predict relational aggression 1 year later. Results showed that the transition to middle school was marked by increased approval of relational aggression, and individual norms predicted future relational aggression. Importantly, a contextual model showed that students in peer groups highly supportive of relational aggression became increasingly aggressive. Findings extend social information processing theories of relational aggression to focus on the role of peer group cognitions.

  9. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  10. Patient aggression towards different professional groups of healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Kowalczuk

    2017-03-01

    Nurses are most exposed to different forms of patient aggression, with verbal attacks being most prevalent. Nurses employed at inpatient healthcare units experienced aggression more frequently than those working in outpatient healthcare units.

  11. Patient aggression in psychiatric services: the experience of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aggression is often the focus of many research reports.1-4. Attitudes are ... Objective: Aggression is a common feature in psychiatric in-patient units in Africa. The attitudes ..... qualitative study focusing on the characterization and perception of.

  12. Individual coping characteristics, aggressiveness and fighting strategies in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, J.E.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Schrama, J.W.; Wiegant, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    Individual pigs, Sus scrofa, differ considerably in how aggressive they are during encounters with unfamiliar conspecifics. We examined whether individual coping characteristics of pigs were predictive of aggression during social encounters and the resulting social status. Piglets were subjected to

  13. Personality correlates of revenge-seeking: Multidimensional links to physical aggression, impulsivity, and aggressive pleasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, David S; DeWall, C Nathan

    2018-05-01

    People differ in how much they seek retribution for interpersonal insults, slights, rejections, and other antagonistic actions. Identifying individuals who are most prone towards such revenge-seeking is a theoretically-informative and potentially violence-reducing endeavor. However, we have yet to understand the extent to which revenge-seeking individuals exhibit specific features of aggressiveness, impulsivity, and what motivates their hunt for retribution. Toward this end, we conducted three studies (total N = 673), in which revenge-seeking was measured alongside these other constructs. Analyses repeatedly demonstrated that revenge-seeking was associated with greater physical (but not verbal) aggressiveness, anger, and hostility. Revenge-seeking's link to physical aggression was partially accounted for by impulses toward enjoying aggression and the tendency to use aggression to improve mood. Dominance analyses revealed that sadism explained the most variance in revenge-seeking. Revenge-seeking was associated with greater impulsive responses to negative and positive affect, as well as greater premeditation of behavior. These findings paint a picture of revenge-seekers as physically aggressive curators of anger, whose retributive acts are performed with planned malice and motivated by the act's entertaining and therapeutic qualities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Sensation Seeking or Empathy? Physically Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Antisocial Behaviors (ASBs Amongst University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Eman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has linked anti-social behavior (ASB to subtypes of empathy and also to sensation seeking, but there is limited research on the relative roles of empathy subtypes and sensation seeking traits in predicting ASB subtypes. The current study therefore investigated the relationship between sensation seeking, the three subtypes of empathy (emotional reactivity, cognitive empathy and social skills and the two subtypes of ASB (physically aggressive and non-aggressive. An online survey consisting of Demographic Variables Questionnaire, Brief Sensation Seeking Scale, Empathy Quotient and the Antisocial Behavior Measure was sent to student volunteers, leading to a total of 537 respondents. Empathy alone accounted for a relatively modest proportion of the total variance in the ASBs, with emotional reactivity being the only significant predictor. Adding sensation seeking to the regression led to a marked improvement in prediction for non-aggressive ASB and a slight but significant improvement for physically aggressive ASB. Sensation seeking, emotional reactivity and social skills (but not cognitive empathy contributed unique variance for both ASB subtypes. The greatest variance for physically aggressive and non-aggressive ASB were accounted for by emotional reactivity and sensation seeking, respectively. The results indicate that both sensation seeking and sub-types of empathy are important in predicting ASBs. This has theoretical implications for different personality models and has practical implications for the development of preventive measures to avoid such behaviors.

  15. Brain structures and neurotransmitters regulating aggression in cats: implications for human aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, T R; Siegel, A

    2001-01-01

    1. Violence and aggression are major public health problems. 2. The authors have used techniques of electrical brain stimulation, anatomical-immunohistochemical techniques, and behavioral pharmacology to investigate the neural systems and circuits underlying aggressive behavior in the cat. 3. The medial hypothalamus and midbrain periaqueductal gray are the most important structures mediating defensive rage behavior, and the perifornical lateral hypothalamus clearly mediates predatory attack behavior. The hippocampus, amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, septal area, cingulate gyrus, and prefrontal cortex project to these structures directly or indirectly and thus can modulate the intensity of attack and rage. 4. Evidence suggests that several neurotransmitters facilitate defensive rage within the PAG and medial hypothalamus, including glutamate, Substance P, and cholecystokinin, and that opioid peptides suppress it; these effects usually depend on the subtype of receptor that is activated. 5. A key recent discovery was a GABAergic projection that may underlie the often-observed reciprocally inhibitory relationship between these two forms of aggression. 6. Recently, Substance P has come under scrutiny as a possible key neurotransmitter involved in defensive rage, and the mechanism by which it plays a role in aggression and rage is under investigation. 7. It is hoped that this line of research will provide a better understanding of the neural mechanisms and substrates regulating aggression and rage and thus establish a rational basis for treatment of disorders associated with these forms of aggression.

  16. Facing Aggression: Cues Differ for Female versus Male Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Geniole, Shawn N.; Keyes, Amanda E.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Carr?, Justin M.; McCormick, Cheryl M.

    2012-01-01

    The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judge...

  17. Definition of aggressive periodontitis in periodontal research. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramírez, Valeria; Hach, Maria; López, Rodrigo

    2018-01-01

    . Consequently, considerable variation in the understanding of aggressive periodontitis can be anticipated. AIM: To systematically asses, the definitions of aggressive periodontitis reported in original periodontal research. METHODS: A systematic review of original research on aggressive periodontitis published.......7% of the publications no information is provided as to how the cases were defined. Many combinations of criteria for case definition were found. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed significant heterogeneity in the understanding and use of the term aggressive periodontitis in original research and poor documentation...

  18. Lateralisation of aggressive displays in a tephritid fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Romano, Donato; Stefanini, Cesare; Messing, Russell H.; Canale, Angelo

    2015-02-01

    Lateralisation (i.e. different functional and/or structural specialisations of the left and right sides of the brain) of aggression has been examined in several vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. In this study, we investigated lateralisation of aggressive displays (boxing with forelegs and wing strikes) in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. We attempted to answer the following questions: (1) do medflies show lateralisation of aggressive displays at the population-level; (2) are there sex differences in lateralisation of aggressive displays; and (3) does lateralisation of aggression enhance fighting success? Results showed left-biased population-level lateralisation of aggressive displays, with no consistent differences among sexes. In both male-male and female-female conflicts, aggressive behaviours performed with left body parts led to greater fighting success than those performed with right body parts. As we found left-biased preferential use of body parts for both wing strikes and boxing, we predicted that the left foreleg/wing is quicker in exploring/striking than the right one. We characterised wing strike and boxing using high-speed videos, calculating mean velocity of aggressive displays. For both sexes, aggressive displays that led to success were faster than unsuccessful ones. However, left wing/legs were not faster than right ones while performing aggressive acts. Further research is needed on proximate causes allowing enhanced fighting success of lateralised aggressive behaviour. This is the first report supporting the adaptive role of lateralisation of aggressive displays in insects.

  19. Parental Influences on the Prevalence and Development of Child Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Klaus; Metzner, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    The development of aggressiveness between 5 and 17 years and some parental influences on this development were analyzed using data from Germany. International studies have shown a "camel humps" curve, i.e., a peak of aggression of children (primarily boys) between 2 and 4 years and a second peak of antisocial or aggressive behavior of…

  20. Amygdala reactivity to fearful faces correlates positively with impulsive aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Fisher, Patrick M; Hjordt, Liv V

    2018-01-01

    Facial expressions robustly activate the amygdala, a brain structure playing a critical role in aggression. Whereas previous studies suggest that amygdala reactivity is related to various measures of impulsive aggression, we here estimate a composite measure of impulsive aggression and evaluate...

  1. Relational Aggression among Boys: Blind Spots and Hidden Dramas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Ingunn Marie; Lyng, Selma Therese

    2018-01-01

    Although boys too are involved in relational aggression, their experiences are overshadowed by the focus on relational aggression among girls. This paradox mirrors the empirical puzzle that forms the starting point for this article: while teachers saw relational aggression as a 'girl problem', we found a vast undercurrent of relational aggression…

  2. Girls Just Being Girls? Mediating Relational Aggression and Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radliff, Kisha M.; Joseph, Laurice M.

    2011-01-01

    Although physical aggression has received much attention in the literature, relational aggression has only been explored in the past decade or so. This is problematic given that relational aggression is increasingly prevalent among middle school girls and has become a cause for alarm, as this phenomenon leads to several negative psychological,…

  3. Relational Aggression in School Settings: Definition, Development, Strategies, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Alicia L.; Frey, Andy J.; Walker, Hill M.

    2015-01-01

    Relational aggression (RA) is a nonphysical form of aggression whereby the perpetrator's goal is to inflict or threaten damage to relationships, including harm to the target child's social standing or reputation. This form of aggression may result in long-term psychological harm to victims. This article defines RA, summarizes its development, and…

  4. Attentional Processes in Children's Overt and Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Darin J.; Foster, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined attention and memory processes assumed by the social information-processing model to be biased in aggressive children. We also explored whether similar biases were associated with overt and relational aggression. A total of 96 fourth through sixth graders saw videos of overtly and relationally aggressive child actors and…

  5. The Implications of Relational Aggression toward Females Pursuing Educational Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryier, Kimberly J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the existence and implications of relational aggression toward female educational administrators. This qualitative study examined the impacts of relational aggression toward ten female superintendents, their observations of relational aggression in the workplace, strategies to overcome relational…

  6. A Link between Mothers' Disciplinary Strategies and Children's Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Marlene J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the association between maternal disciplinary strategies and children's level of relational aggression, and then compares these associations with those found with overt aggression. Eighty-two 4th graders (aged 9-11 years) completed peer nomination measures of relational and overt aggression, and their mothers completed a…

  7. Relational Aggression in Adolescents at Selected Schools in Lusaka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: School bullying and aggression among children and adolescents have been a source of concern for many researchers globally in the past few decades. Limited research exists regarding relational aggression, largely because research has focused historically on direct verbal and physical aggression, which is ...

  8. Neuromodulation can reduce aggressive behavior elicited by violent video games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riva, Paolo; Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Romero Lauro, Leonor J.; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara; Bushman, Brad J.

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown that exposure to violent media increases aggression. However, the neural underpinnings of violent-media-related aggression are poorly understood. Additionally, few experiments have tested hypotheses concerning how to reduce violent-media-related aggression. In this experiment, we

  9. Child Abuse and Aggression among Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Connor, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical…

  10. Parent-Child Interaction, Television Violence, and Aggression of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eron, Leonard D.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews findings of two longitudinal studies on development of aggression. Observes that the process by which children learn violence from television is circular: i.e., aggressive children are unpopular and consequently spend less time with peers and more time watching television, which in turn, assures them that aggressive behavior is…

  11. Aggressive desmoid fibromatosis: First case in a Rwandan child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Desmoid tumours are a rare group of locally aggressive, non-malignant tumours of broblastic origin that can result in signicant morbidity due to local invasion. Facial involvement in children with aggressive bromatosis is uncommon. We present the case of a 14-month-old Rwandan child with an aggressive desmoid tumour ...

  12. An investigation of the mechanism underlying teacher aggression : Testing I3 theory and the General Aggression Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montuoro, Paul; Mainhard, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Background: Considerable research has investigated the deleterious effects of teachers responding aggressively to students who misbehave, but the mechanism underlying this dysfunctional behaviour remains unknown. Aims: This study investigated whether the mechanism underlying teacher aggression

  13. The observation of early childhood physical aggression: A psychometric study of the system for coding early physical aggression (SCEPA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesman, J.; Alink, L.R.A.; van Zeijl, J.; Stolk, M.N.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; Juffer, F.; Koot, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the reliability and (convergent and discriminant) validity of an observational measure of physical aggression in toddlers and preschoolers, originally developed by Keenan and Shaw [1994]. The observation instrument is based on a developmental definition of aggression. Physical

  14. Partner aggression among men and women in substance use disorder treatment: correlates of psychological and physical aggression and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermack, Stephen T; Murray, Regan L; Walton, Maureen A; Booth, Brenda A; Wryobeck, John; Blow, Frederic C

    2008-11-01

    This study examined intimate partner aggression in a sample of 489 participants enrolled in substance use disorder treatment, and expands on prior research by including measures of various forms of aggression, a mixed gender sample (76% men, 24% women), and measurement of several potential risk domains. Aggression measures included both participant-partner and partner-to-participant psychological aggression, physical aggression and injury. Analyses focused on the role of distal and proximal risk factors, including demographics, history of childhood physical and sexual abuse, and family history of problems with alcohol, drugs and depression, as well as recent substance use and symptoms of depression. Overall rates of participant-partner psychological aggression (77%), physical aggression (54%) and injuring partners (33%) were high, as were rates of partner-to-participant psychological aggression (73%), physical aggression (51%), and injury (33%). Several distal (family history variables, physical abuse) and proximal factors (binge drinking, several different drugs, depressive symptoms) were bivariately related to most of the aggression measures. However, according to multivariate analyses predicting aggression and injury measures, binge drinking and cocaine use were the drugs significantly associated with most measures, depression symptoms also were related to most aggression and injury measures, and a history of reported childhood physical abuse was related to all frequency of aggression and injury measures among those reporting such behaviors. Overall, the high rates of aggression among both men and women observed in this study further illustrate the need for interventions targeting substance use and aggression, and for further research regarding the inter-relationships among substance, aggression and depressive symptoms.

  15. The relationship between adult reactive and proactive aggression, hostile interpretation bias, and antisocial personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbestael, J.; Cima, M.J.; Arntz, A.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive aggression (RA) refers to angry responses to provocation or frustration, while proactive aggression (PA) denotes nonemotional, instrumental, and unprovoked aggression. The current study examined personality-related and cognitive correlates of both aggressive types. Respectively, the

  16. A cross-lagged structural equation model of relational aggression, physical aggression, and peer status in a Chinese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Banny, Adrienne M; Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined the associations among relational aggression, physical aggression, and peer status (i.e., acceptance, rejection, and perceived popularity) across three time points, six months apart, in a Taiwanese sample. Participants were 198 fifth grade students (94 girls and 104 boys; Mean age = 10.35 years) from Taipei, Taiwan. Study variables were assessed using peer nomination procedure. Results from the cross-lagged structural equation models demonstrated that there were longitudinal associations between relational aggression and each of the peer status constructs while only one longitudinal association was found for physical aggression such that physical aggression positively predicted subsequent peer rejection. The longitudinal associations did not vary with gender. Results also showed high stabilities of relational aggression, physical aggression, and the three peer status constructs over 1 year as well as high concurrent association between relational and physical aggression. In addition, relational aggression and physical aggression were concurrently related to less acceptance, more rejection, and less perceived popularity, especially at the outset of the study. Findings of this study demonstrated both similarities and differences in relation to previous literature in primarily Western cultures. This study also highlights the bidirectional and complex nature of the association between aggression and peer status, which appears to depend on the form of aggression and on the particular indicator of peer status under study. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Emotionsregulationsstrategien und aggressives Verhalten im Kindergartenalter

    OpenAIRE

    Helmsen, Johanna; Petermann, Franz

    2010-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Studie (N = 193) wurde untersucht, ob sich körperlich und relational aggressive Kinder im Kindergartenalter (mittleres Alter: 55 Monate) in ihren Emotionsregulationsstrategien von ihren unauffälligen Altersgenossen unterscheiden. Zur Erhebung der Emotionsregulation wurde eine strukturierte, videografierte Verhaltensbeobachtung durchgeführt, in der gezielt Frustration ausgelöst wurde. Anschließend wurden Regulationsstrategien in sieben verschiedenen Kategorien ausgewertet. ...

  18. Social behavior and aggressive problems of cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell-Davis, S L; Barry, K; Wolfe, R

    1997-05-01

    Cats form social groups in which individuals recognize each other, and the cohesiveness of the group is maintained by a variety of amicable behaviors. Agonistic behavior may occur between group members and between group members and nongroup members. Within the domestic environment, agonistic behavior may become a problem when it is directed at housemates or humans. Differential diagnosis and treatment of various problems of aggressive behavior are discussed.

  19. Callous-unemotional traits, proactive aggression, and treatment outcomes of aggressive children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blader, Joseph C; Pliszka, Steven R; Kafantaris, Vivian; Foley, Carmel A; Crowell, Judith A; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Sauder, Colin L; Margulies, David M; Sinha, Christa; Sverd, Jeffrey; Matthews, Thomas L; Bailey, Brigitte Y; Daviss, W Burleson

    2013-12-01

    Stimulant treatment improves impulse control among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Decreased aggression often accompanies stimulant pharmacotherapy, suggesting that impulsiveness is integral to aggressive behavior in these children. However, children with high callous-unemotional (CU) traits and proactive aggression may benefit less from ADHD pharmacotherapy, because their aggressive behavior seems more purposeful and deliberate. This study's objective was to determine whether pretreatment CU traits and proactive aggression affect treatment outcomes among aggressive children with ADHD receiving stimulant monotherapy. We implemented a stimulant optimization protocol with 160 children 6 to 13 years of age (mean [SD] age of 9.31 [2.02] years; 78.75% male) with ADHD, oppositional defiant or conduct disorder, and significant aggressive behavior. Family-focused behavioral intervention was provided concurrently. The primary outcome was the Retrospective Modified Overt Aggression Scale. The Antisocial Process Screening Device and the Aggression Scale, also completed by parents, measured CU traits and proactive aggression, respectively. Analyses examined moderating effects of CU traits and proactive aggression on outcomes. In all, 82 children (51%) experienced remission of aggressive behavior. Neither CU traits nor proactive aggression predicted remission (CU traits: odds ratio [OR] = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.80-1.11; proactive aggression, OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.86-1.29). Children whose overall aggression remitted showed decreases in CU traits (effect size = -0.379, 95% CI = -0.60 to -0.16) and proactive aggression (effect size = -0.463, 95% CI = -0.69 to -0.23). Findings suggest that pretreatment CU traits and proactive aggression do not forecast worse outcomes for aggressive children with ADHD receiving optimized stimulant pharmacotherapy. With such treatment, CU traits and proactive aggression may decline alongside other behavioral improvements

  20. Do children with aggressive behavior have temporal lobe changes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Carmen; Godberg, Michael

    2003-01-01

    lobes may be associated with oppositional or aggressive behavior. They suggest that Brain SPECT with images displayed to emphasize the presence of regions of increased blood flow may be useful in objectively confirming the presence of mood disorders and perhaps in guiding appropriate therapy (Au)

  1. BRCA1-IRIS Overexpression Promotes Formation of Aggressive Breast Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yoshiko; Luk, Hugh; Horio, David; Miron, Penelope; Griswold, Michael; Iglehart, Dirk; Hernandez, Brenda; Killeen, Jeffrey; ElShamy, Wael M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Women with HER2+ or triple negative/basal-like (TN/BL) breast cancers succumb to their cancer rapidly due, in part to acquired Herceptin resistance and lack of TN/BL-targeted therapies. BRCA1-IRIS is a recently discovered, 1399 residue, BRCA1 locus alternative product, which while sharing 1365 residues with the full-length product of this tumor suppressor gene, BRCA1/p220, it has oncoprotein-like properties. Here, we examine whether BRCA1-IRIS is a valuable treatment target for HER2+ and/or TN/BL tumors. Methodology/Principal Findings Immunohistochemical staining of large cohort of human breast tumor samples using new monoclonal anti-BRCA1-IRIS antibody, followed by correlation of BRCA1-IRIS expression with that of AKT1, AKT2, p-AKT, survivin and BRCA1/p220, tumor status and age at diagnosis. Generation of subcutaneous tumors in SCID mice using human mammary epithelial (HME) cells overexpressing TERT/LT/BRCA1-IRIS, followed by comparing AKT, survivin, and BRCA1/p220 expression, tumor status and aggressiveness in these tumors to that in tumors developed using TERT/LT/RasV12-overexpressing HME cells. Induction of primary and invasive rat mammary tumors using the carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU), followed by analysis of rat BRCA1-IRIS and ERα mRNA levels in these tumors. High BRCA1-IRIS expression was detected in the majority of human breast tumors analyzed, which was positively correlated with that of AKT1-, AKT2-, p-AKT-, survivin, but negatively with BRCA1/p220 expression. BRCA1-IRIS-positivity induced high-grade, early onset and metastatic HER2+ or TN/BL tumors. TERT/LT/BRCA1-IRIS overexpressing HME cells formed invasive subcutaneous tumors that express high AKT1, AKT2, p-AKT and vimentin, but no CK19, p63 or BRCA1/p220. NMU-induced primary and invasive rat breast cancers expressed high levels of rat BRCA1-IRIS mRNA but low levels of rat ERα mRNA. Conclusion/Significance BRCA1-IRIS overexpression triggers aggressive breast tumor formation

  2. Limbic control of aggression in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, R E; Stark-Adamec, C I

    1983-01-01

    Over a decade of work by Flynn and colleagues has delineated a network of limbic circuits which function to modulate the expression of predatory aggression and defence in the cat, and aspects of this work are reviewed. In particular, Flynn's work revealed a circuit involving the basomedial amygdala which functions to suppress attack, and at the same time facilitates defence. A second circuit, involving the ventral hippocampus, is involved in attack facilitation. Studies relating stable differences in excitability in these two circuits to developmentally determined behavioural dispositions toward aggression or defence are summarized. Finally, the impact of experimentally induced limbic seizures on interictally maintained expression of aggression and defence behaviourally, and on limbic excitability are reviewed. Taken together, the data indicate that the behavioural balance of attack and defence is under the tonic control of opponent limbic circuits, which are themselves biased in a measureable manner. Developmental studies indicate that adult defensiveness is determined early in life, so early as to suggest some pre-programmed neuro-developmental process. Experimentally induced seizures alter behaviour lastingly, producing an increase in defensive disposition. At the same time there is an equally lasting potentiation of interictal transmission of neural activity from the amygdala to the hypothalamus. Moreover, seizures may reduce interictal transmission of activity through the ventral hippocampus by potentiating recurrent inhibition. These effects of seizures are of interest since seizures reproduce naturally occurring differences in limbic excitability seen in naturally defensive cats.

  3. The evolution of humor from male aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, Sam

    2012-01-01

    The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer's sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15-69 years, with 2-40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection.

  4. Aggression and substance abuse in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunebaum, Michael F; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Nichols, C Matthew; Caldeira, Nathilee A; Sher, Leo; Dervic, Kanita; Burke, Ainsley K; Mann, J John; Oquendo, Maria A

    2006-10-01

    The goal of this retrospective study was to examine factors differentiating persons with bipolar disorder who did or did not have comorbid lifetime substance use disorders (SUD) at an index assessment. We also explored the chronology of onset of mood and SUD. We studied 146 subjects with DSM-defined bipolar disorder. Subgroups with and without lifetime SUD were compared on demographic and clinical measures. Substance abuse disorders in this bipolar sample were associated with male sex, impulsive-aggressive traits, comorbid conduct and Cluster B personality disorders, number of suicide attempts and earlier age at onset of a first mood episode. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, male sex and aggression and possibly earlier age at mood disorder onset were associated with SUD. In those with or without SUD, the first mood episode tended to be depressive and to precede the onset of SUD. In persons with bipolar disorder, an earlier age of onset and aggressive traits appear to be factors associated with later development of comorbid SUD.

  5. Preemptive strikes: Fear, hope, and defensive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, Nir

    2017-02-01

    Preemptive strikes are costly and harmful. Existing models of defensive aggression focus narrowly on the role fear plays in motivating preemptive strikes. Theoretically integrating the literatures on conflict, decision making, and emotion, the current research investigated how specific emotions associated with certainty or uncertainty, including fear, anger, disgust, hope, and happiness, influence preemptive strikes. Study 1 demonstrated that hope negatively predicts defensive exits from relationships in choice dilemmas. Studies 2 and 3 experimentally manipulated risk of being attacked in an incentivized, interactive decision making task-the Preemptive Strike Game. Risk of being attacked fueled preemptive strikes; reduced feelings of hope partially mediated this effect in Study 3. Studies 4 and 5 investigated preemptive strikes under uncertainty (rather than risk). In Study 4, reasoning about the factors that make one trustful of others curbed preemptive strikes; cogitating about the factors that underlie discrete emotions, however, did not influence defensive aggression. Study 5 demonstrated that the valence and uncertainty appraisals of incidental emotions interact in shaping preemptive strikes. Specifically, recalling an autobiographical emotional experience that produced hope significantly decreased attack rates relative to fear, happiness, and a control condition. Fear, anger, disgust, and happiness were either unrelated to preemptive strikes or showed inconsistent relationships with preemptive strikes across the 5 studies. These findings shed light on how emotions shape defensive aggression, advance knowledge on strategic choice under risk and uncertainty, and demonstrate hope's positive effects on social interactions and relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Female impulsive aggression: a sleep research perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nina; Tani, Pekka; Putkonen, Hanna; Sailas, Eila; Takala, Pirjo; Eronen, Markku; Virkkunen, Matti

    2009-01-01

    The rate of violent crimes among girls and women appears to be increasing. One in every five female prisoners has been reported to have antisocial personality disorder. However, it has been quite unclear whether the impulsive, aggressive behaviour among women is affected by the same biological mechanisms as among men. Psychiatric sleep research has attempted to identify diagnostically sensitive and specific sleep patterns associated with particular disorders. Most psychiatric disorders are typically characterized by a severe sleep disturbance associated with decreased amounts of slow wave sleep (SWS), the physiologically significant, refreshing part of sleep. Among men with antisocial behaviour with severe aggression, on the contrary, increased SWS has been reported, reflecting either specific brain pathology or a delay in the normal development of human sleep patterns. In our preliminary study among medication-free, detoxified female homicidal offenders with antisocial personality disorder, the same profound abnormality in sleep architecture was found. From the perspective of sleep research, the biological correlates of severe impulsive aggression seem to share similar features in both sexes.

  7. Suicidality and aggression during antidepressant treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Tarang; Guski, Louise Schow; Freund, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study serious harms associated with selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors.Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality and suicidality. Secondary outcomes were aggressive behaviour and akathisia. DATA SOURCES: Clinical...... for any of the trials. Differences in mortality (all deaths were in adults, odds ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval 0.40 to 4.06), suicidality (1.21, 0.84 to 1.74), and akathisia (2.04, 0.93 to 4.48) were not significant, whereas patients taking antidepressants displayed more aggressive behaviour (1.......93, 1.26 to 2.95). For adults, the odds ratios were 0.81 (0.51 to 1.28) for suicidality, 1.09 (0.55 to 2.14) for aggression, and 2.00 (0.79 to 5.04) for akathisia. The corresponding values for children and adolescents were 2.39 (1.31 to 4.33), 2.79 (1.62 to 4.81), and 2.15 (0.48 to 9.65). In the summary...

  8. Family Mode Deactivation Therapy in a Residential Setting: Treating Adolescents with Conduct Disorder and Multi-Axial Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Zeiter, J. Scott; Houston, Marsha Ann

    2008-01-01

    Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT) has been shown to be an effective treatment for a variety of adolescent disorders including emotional dysregulation, behavioral dysregulation, physical aggression, sexual aggression, and many harmful symptoms of anxiety and traumatic stress. MDT Family Therapy has been effective in reducing family disharmony in case…

  9. Aggressive behavior during the first 24 hours of psychiatric admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Crestani Calegaro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between aggression in the first 24 hours after admission and severity of psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients.METHODS: This cross-sectional study included psychiatric patients admitted to Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria, in Santa Maria, southern Brazil, from August 2012 to January 2013. At their arrival at the hospital, patients were interviewed to fill in the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS form, and any aggressive episodes in the first 24 hours after admission were recorded using the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare patients according to aggressiveness: aggressive versus non-aggressive, hostile versus violent, and aggressive against others only versus self-aggressive.RESULTS: The sample was composed of 110 patients. Aggressive patients in general had higher BPRS total scores (p = 0.002 and individual component scores, and their results showed more activation (p < 0.001 and thinking disorders (p = 0.009, but less anxious-depression (p = 0.008. Violent patients had more severe psychomotor agitation (p = 0.027, hallucinations (p = 0.017 and unusual thought content (p = 0.020. Additionally, self-aggressive patients had more disorientation (p = 0.011 and conceptual disorganization (p = 0.007.CONCLUSIONS: Aggression in psychiatric patients in the first 24 hours after admission is associated with severity of psychopathology, and severity increases with severity of patient psychosis and agitation.

  10. Longitudinal effects of increases and decreases in intimate partner aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammett, Julia F; Karney, Benjamin R; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2018-04-01

    Interventions aimed at reducing interpartner aggression assume that within-couple declines in aggression enhance individual and relational outcomes, yet reductions in aggression may fail to yield these benefits when other risk-generating mechanisms remain intact. The present study evaluates this possibility by investigating whether naturally observed within-couple changes in aggression are associated with improved individual and relational outcomes in the manner assumed by intervention programs. Drawing upon 4 waves of data collected at 9-month intervals from a community sample of 431 newlywed couples (76% Hispanic) living in low-income neighborhoods, Actor-Partner-Interdependence Modeling (APIM) and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) indicated that levels of aggression at the outset of marriage had limited associations with later outcomes. Changes in aggression, however, were associated with subsequent marital outcomes, such that decreases in aggression were beneficial and increases in aggression were costly. Individuals who experienced increases in aggression worsened in their observed communication over time and reported greater increases in stress. Reports of stress early in marriage predicted escalations in aggression over time. Thus, helping couples to contain increases in aggression might be particularly consequential for their well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Reducing proactive aggression through non-invasive brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmann, Teresa; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Sack, Alexander T.

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive behavior poses a threat to human collaboration and social safety. It is of utmost importance to identify the functional mechanisms underlying aggression and to develop potential interventions capable of reducing dysfunctional aggressive behavior already at a brain level. We here experimentally shifted fronto-cortical asymmetry to manipulate the underlying motivational emotional states in both male and female participants while assessing the behavioral effects on proactive and reactive aggression. Thirty-two healthy volunteers received either anodal transcranial direct current stimulation to increase neural activity within right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, or sham stimulation. Aggressive behavior was measured with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm. We revealed a general gender effect, showing that men displayed more behavioral aggression than women. After the induction of right fronto-hemispheric dominance, proactive aggression was reduced in men. This study demonstrates that non-invasive brain stimulation can reduce aggression in men. This is a relevant and promising step to better understand how cortical brain states connect to impulsive actions and to examine the causal role of the prefrontal cortex in aggression. Ultimately, such findings could help to examine whether the brain can be a direct target for potential supportive interventions in clinical settings dealing with overly aggressive patients and/or violent offenders. PMID:25680991

  12. Does Humor Explain Why Relationally Aggressive Adolescents Are Popular?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Etkin, Rebecca G.

    2013-01-01

    The association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence is well established. Yet, little is known about why, exactly, relationally aggressive young adolescents are able to achieve and maintain high popular status among peers. The present study investigated the mediating role of humor in the association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence. Also considered was whether the association between relational aggression and humor varies according to adolescents’ gender and their friends’ levels of relational aggression. Participants were 265 sixth-grade students (48% female; 41% racial/ethnic minority; Mage = 12.04 years) who completed peer nomination and friendship measures in their classrooms at two time points (Wave 1: February; Wave 2: May). The results indicated that Wave 1 relational aggression was related to Wave 1 and 2 popularity indirectly through Wave 1 humor, after accounting for the effects of Wave 1 physical aggression, ethnicity, and gender. Additional analyses showed that relational aggression and humor were related significantly only for boys and for young adolescents with highly relationally aggressive friends. The results support the need for further research on humor and aggression during early adolescence and other mechanisms by which relationally aggressive youth achieve high popular status. PMID:24136377

  13. Inpatient verbal aggression: content, targets and patient characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, D; Bowers, L

    2013-04-01

    Verbally aggressive behaviour on psychiatric wards is more common than physical violence and can have distressing consequences for the staff and patients who are subjected to it. Previous research has tended to examine incidents of verbal aggression in little detail, instead combining different types of aggressive behaviour into a single measure. This study recruited 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards. Data were collected from nursing and medical records for the first 2 weeks of admission. Incidents of verbal aggression were categorized and associations with patient characteristics examined. There were 1398 incidents of verbal aggression in total, reported for half the sample. Types of verbal aggression were, in order of prevalence: abusive language, shouting, threats, expressions of anger and racist comments. There were also a large number of entries in the notes which did not specify the form of verbal aggression. Staff members were the most frequent target of aggression. A history of violence and previous drug use were consistently associated with verbal aggression. However, there were also some notable differences in patient variables associated with specific types of verbal aggression. Future studies should consider using multidimensional measures of verbal aggression. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.

  14. The Relationship Between Emotion Regulation, Executive Functioning, and Aggressive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Sarah R; Ewing, Scott T; Stiver, Jordan T; Bloch, Lian

    2015-06-30

    Emotion regulation deficits and executive functioning deficits have independently been shown to increase vulnerability toward engaging in aggressive behaviors. The effects of these risk factors, however, have not been evaluated in relation to one another. This study evaluated the degree to which each was associated with aggressive behaviors in a sample of 168 undergraduate students. Executive functioning (cognitive inhibition and mental flexibility) was assessed with a Stroop-like neuropsychological task. Emotion regulation and aggressive behaviors were assessed via self-report inventories. Results showed main effects for both emotion regulation and executive functioning, as well as a significant interaction, indicating that those who scored lowest in both domains reported engaging in aggressive behaviors the most frequently. When different types of aggression were examined, this interaction was only significant for acts of physical aggression, not for acts of verbal aggression. Therefore, for physical aggression, emotion regulation and executive functioning exerted a moderating effect on one another. The implications are that, at least for acts of physical aggression, relatively strong capabilities in either domain may buffer against tendencies to engage in aggressive behaviors. Thus, both emotion regulation skills and executive functioning abilities may be valuable targets for interventions aiming to reduce aggressive behaviors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Aggression and anxiety: social context and neurobiological links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga D Neumann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathologies such as anxiety- and depression-related disorders are often characterized by impaired social behaviours including excessive aggression and violence. Excessive aggression and violence likely develop as a consequence of generally disturbed emotional regulation, such as abnormally high or low levels of anxiety. This suggests an overlap between brain circuitries and neurochemical systems regulating aggression and anxiety. In this review, we will discuss different forms of male aggression, rodent models of excessive aggression, and neurobiological mechanisms underlying male aggression in the context of anxiety. We will summarize our attempts to establish an animal model of high and abnormal aggression using rats selected for high (HAB versus low (LAB anxiety-related behaviour. Briefly, male LAB rats and, to a lesser extent, male HAB rats show high and abnormal forms of aggression compared with non-selected (NAB rats, making them a suitable animal model for studying excessive aggression in the context of extremes in innate anxiety. In addition, we will discuss differences in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, brain arginine vasopressin, and the serotonin systems, among others, which contribute to the distinct behavioural phenotypes related to aggression and anxiety. Further investigation of the neurobiological systems in animals with distinct anxiety phenotypes might provide valuable information about the link between excessive aggression and disturbed emotional regulation, which is essential for understanding the social and emotional deficits that are characteristic of many human psychiatric disorders.

  16. Media Violence and Other Aggression Risk Factors in Seven Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A; Suzuki, Kanae; Swing, Edward L; Groves, Christopher L; Gentile, Douglas A; Prot, Sara; Lam, Chun Pan; Sakamoto, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukiko; Krahé, Barbara; Jelic, Margareta; Liuqing, Wei; Toma, Roxana; Warburton, Wayne A; Zhang, Xue-Min; Tajima, Sachi; Qing, Feng; Petrescu, Poesis

    2017-07-01

    Cultural generality versus specificity of media violence effects on aggression was examined in seven countries (Australia, China, Croatia, Germany, Japan, Romania, the United States). Participants reported aggressive behaviors, media use habits, and several other known risk and protective factors for aggression. Across nations, exposure to violent screen media was positively associated with aggression. This effect was partially mediated by aggressive cognitions and empathy. The media violence effect on aggression remained significant even after statistically controlling a number of relevant risk and protective factors (e.g., abusive parenting, peer delinquency), and was similar in magnitude to effects of other risk factors. In support of the cumulative risk model, joint effects of different risk factors on aggressive behavior in each culture were larger than effects of any individual risk factor.

  17. Longitudinal Associations between Depression and Aggression in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain-Arcaro, Christine; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2017-07-01

    Due to the longstanding and detrimental effects of engaging in aggressive behaviour and of experiencing symptoms of internalizing problems in children and adolescents, there is an increasing interest in identifying the temporal sequence between these 2 problems with previous research yielding inconsistent findings. Therefore, the longitudinal links between relational aggression, physical aggression, and depression were examined across 7 years in a sample of 643 children (54 % girls) aged 10 at Time 1. Three models were compared- (1) the failure model, in which aggression predicted depression, (2) the acting out model, in which depression predicted aggression, and (3) a reciprocal model, in which both aggression and depression shared a reciprocal relation over time. Cross-lagged path analyses using structural equation modeling supported the failure model (i.e., engaging in relational and physical aggression predicts subsequent depressive symptoms). Findings were similar for boys and girls. These findings add to the literature suggesting that externalizing problems precede internalizing problems.

  18. Medea: Aggression im Dienste weiblicher Subjektivierung Medea: How aggression works for female subjugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Gsell

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Aggression wurde in der Geschlechterforschung bisher meist nicht nur unter negativen Vorzeichen – nämlich als zerstörerische und fehlgeleitete Kraft – thematisiert und mit Gewalt in eins gesetzt, sondern darüberhinaus fast ausschließlich mit Männlichkeit konnotiert. Nur langsam setzt sich demgegenüber die Einsicht durch, dass Aggression zunächst einmal eine grundsätzlich positive Kraft ist, derer es zur Subjektivierung und Erlangung von Selbstbestimmung bedarf. Damit scheint nun auch eine fruchtbare Auseinandersetzung mit Weiblichkeit und Aggression möglich geworden zu sein. Ein lehrreicher Beitrag dazu ist Roxana Hidalgos Medea-Studie, gerade weil sie die eigentlich heiklen Fragen weder stellt noch beantwortet.So far, gender studies have tended to thematise aggression not only as a destructive, misdirected force, but one that is regarded almost without exception as masculine. Slowly, though, understanding is growing that aggresion should be viewed in principle as a positive force that is vital for the process of gaining subjectivity and self-determination. This insight seems to have opened the potential to discuss femininity and aggression in new and fruitful ways. Roxana Hidalgos’s study of Medea is an instructive contribution to this discussion – especially/above all because the author neither asks nor answers the really tricky questions.

  19. Compulsive Addiction-like Aggressive Behavior in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Sam A; Heins, Conor; Venniro, Marco; Caprioli, Daniele; Zhang, Michelle; Epstein, David H; Shaham, Yavin

    2017-08-15

    Some people are highly motivated to seek aggressive encounters, and among those who have been incarcerated for such behavior, recidivism rates are high. These observations echo two core features of drug addiction: high motivation to seek addictive substances, despite adverse consequences, and high relapse rates. Here we used established rodent models of drug addiction to determine whether they would be sensitive to "addiction-like" features of aggression in CD-1 mice. In experiments 1 and 2, we trained older CD-1 mice to lever press for opportunities to attack younger C57BL6/J mice. We then tested them for relapse to aggression seeking after forced abstinence or punishment-induced suppression of aggression self-administration. In experiment 3, we trained a large cohort of CD-1 mice and tested them for choice-based voluntary suppression of aggression seeking, relapse to aggression seeking, progressive ratio responding, and punishment-induced suppression of aggression self-administration. We then used cluster analysis to identify patterns of individual differences in compulsive "addiction-like" aggressive behavior. In experiments 1 and 2, we observed strong motivation to acquire operant self-administration of opportunities to aggress and relapse vulnerability during abstinence. In experiment 3, cluster analysis of the aggression-related measures identified a subset of "addicted" mice (∼19%) that exhibited intense operant-reinforced attack behavior, decreased likelihood to select an alternative reinforcer over aggression, heightened relapse vulnerability and progressive ratio responding, and resilience to punishment-induced suppression of aggressive behavior. Using procedures established to model drug addiction, we showed that a subpopulation of CD-1 mice demonstrate "addiction-like" aggressive behavior, suggesting an evolutionary origin for compulsive aggression. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Do aggressive people play violent computer games in a more aggressive way? Individual difference and idiosyncratic game-playing experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Liu, Ming; Mou, Yi

    2008-04-01

    ABSTRACT This study investigates whether individual difference influences idiosyncratic experience of game playing. In particular, we examine the relationship between the game player's physical-aggressive personality and the aggressiveness of the player's game playing in violence-oriented video games. Screen video stream of 40 individual participants' game playing was captured and content analyzed. Participants' physical aggression was measured before the game play. The results suggest that people with more physical-aggressive personality engage in a more aggressive style of playing, after controlling the differences of gender and previous gaming experience. Implications of these findings and direction for future studies are discussed.

  1. A preliminary investigation of a new pictorial method of measuring aggression-supportive cognition among young aggressive males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Jade N; Gannon, Theresa A; Gilchrist, Elizabeth

    2010-04-01

    A new pictorial assessment was developed to measure aggression-supportive cognitions among young aggressive male students. The assessment was comprised of 17 watercolor ambiguous sketches that could be interpreted in either an aggressive or a benign manner (e.g., two young people facing each other with their arms folded). The results showed that high trait aggressive male students were more likely to make hostile attributions of the pictures, providing significantly more themes of entitlement and power in the stories they generated about the pictures. Aggressive male students also endorsed significantly more aggression-supportive cognitions on a self-report measure and provided some supporting qualitative accounts of physically aggressive encounters. The results of this study are discussed and evaluated with reference to future work with young violent adolescents.

  2. 68Ga-PSMA and 11C-Choline comparison using a tri-modality PET/CT-MRI (3.0 T) system with a dedicated shuttle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Omar; Dos Santos, Gerardo; García Fontes, Margarita; Balter, Henia; Engler, Henry

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively compare the detection rate of 68 Ga-PSMA versus 11 C-Choline in men with prostate cancer with biochemical recurrence and to demonstrate the added value of a tri-modality PET/CT-MRI system. We analysed 36 patients who underwent both 11 C-Choline PET/CT and 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT scanning within a time window of 1-2 weeks. Additionally, for the 68 Ga-PSMA scan, we used a PET/CT-MRI (3.0 T) system with a dedicated shuttle, acquiring MRI images of the pelvis. Both scans were positive in 18 patients (50%) and negative in 8 patients (22%). Nine patients were positive with 68 Ga-PSMA alone (25%) and one with 11 C-Choline only (3%). The median detected lesion per patient was 2 for 68 Ga-PSMA (range 0-93) and 1 for 11 C-Choline (range 0-57). Tumour to background ratios in all concordant lesions ( n  = 96) were higher for 68 Ga-PSMA than for 11 C-Choline (110.3 ± 107.8 and 27.5 ± 17.1, mean ± S.D., for each tracer, respectively P  = 0.0001). The number of detected lesions per patient was higher for 11 C-Choline in those with PSA ≥ 3.3 ng/mL, while the number of detected lesions was independent of PSA levels for 68 Ga-PSMA using the same PSA cut-off value. Metastatic pelvic lesions were found in 25 patients (69%) with 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT, in 18 (50%) with 11 C-Choline PET/CT and in 21 (58%) with MRI (3.0 T). MRI was very useful in detecting recurrence in cases classified as indeterminate by means of PET/CT alone at prostate bed. In patients with prostate cancer with biochemical recurrence 68 Ga-PSMA detected more lesions per patient than 11 C-Choline, regardless of PSA levels. PET/CT-MRI (3.0 T) system is a feasible imaging modality that potentially adds useful relevant information with increased accuracy of diagnosis.

  3. Effect of naloxone on food competition aggression in food-restricted high and low aggression pigeons (Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fachinelli C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effect of the opiate receptor antagonist naloxone on aggression, emotion, feeder control, and eating behavior in high and low aggression female pigeons maintained at 80% of their normal weight and exposed to food competition interactions. Pigeons were divided into pairs by previously ranked high aggression (total time spent in offensive aggression exceeding 60 s/5 min; N = 6 pairs and low aggression females (time spent in offensive aggression less than 10 s/5 min; N = 6 pairs. A pigeon in each pair received an sc dose of naloxone (1 mg kg-1 ml saline-1 and the other animal received the vehicle. Trials (10 min were performed 30 min after the naloxone/vehicle administration. The naloxone group of high aggression pigeons showed lower scores of total time spent in offensive aggression (control: 98.6 ± 12.0; naloxone: 46.8 ± 6.6 s; P < 0.05 and higher scores of time spent in emotional responses (control: 3.5 ± 0.6; naloxone: 10.8 ± 2.4 s; P < 0.05 than controls. The other behaviors scored, feeder control and eating behavior, were not affected in this group. The naloxone group of low aggression pigeons, however, showed higher scores of offensive aggression than their controls (5.3 ± 1.3; naloxone: 28.7 ± 8.0 s; P < 0.05. The present results suggest that opiate receptor mechanisms are implicated in offensive aggression responses in high and low aggression pigeons. However, as reported for brain 5-hydroxytryptamine manipulation and GABA-A-benzodiazepine receptor manipulation, the effect of the opiate receptor antagonist on food competition aggression in pigeons was related to their pretreatment level of aggression.

  4. Clinicopathologic features of aggressive meningioma emphasizing the role of radiotherapy in treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engenhart-Cabillic, R.; Henzel, M. [Philipps Univ., Marburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology; Farhoud, A.; Sure, U.; Heinze, S.; Bertalanffy, H. [Philipps Univ., Marburg (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Mennel, H.D. [Philipps Univ., Marburg (Germany). Dept. of Neuropathology

    2006-11-15

    Background and Purpose: Although meningiomas are typically benign, they occasionally behave in an aggressive fashion and carry a less favorable prognosis. The aim of this study was to review the clinical, radiologic and histopathologic features of these aggressive variants as well as the outcome after multimodality therapy. Patients and Methods: 16 patients with atypical meningiomas (n=11) and anaplastic meningiomas (n=5) were treated in the Departments of Neurosurgery and Radiation Oncology at the University Hospital of Philipps University Marburg, Germany, between 1997 and 2003. Tumor grading was based on new WHO criteria. There were eleven men and five women with a mean age of 54 years. The median follow-up period was 34 months. Results: A total of 24 surgical procedures were performed for these 16 patients. Only seven patients underwent postoperative fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. Patients with atypical meningioma received radiotherapy only for the recurrent disease. Six patients (37.5%) experienced tumor recurrence after a mean period of 27.2 months in spite of gross total resection. Radiographic findings suggestive of aggressiveness were observed mostly with WHO grade III meningiomas. By comparing the proliferation rate in four cases with atypical meningioma operated twice, the recurrent tumor had a higher proliferation rate than the first tumor in three cases. A special proliferation pattern was noticed in MIB-1 with anaplastic meningiomas. The mean overall survival period was 66.5 months. There was no mortality among patients with atypical meningioma, while four out of five patients with anaplastic meningioma died during follow-up. Conclusion: Considering the higher rate of recurrence in aggressive meningiomas even after radical surgical excision and the possibility that the recurrent tumor is more aggressive than the original one, surgery should be combined with postoperative fractionated radiotherapy to improve local tumor control. The peculiar

  5. Aggressive regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis decrease all-cause mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole D Mitnick

    Full Text Available A better understanding of the composition of optimal treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is essential for expanding universal access to effective treatment and for developing new therapies for MDR-TB. Analysis of observational data may inform the definition of an optimized regimen.This study assessed the impact of an aggressive regimen-one containing at least five likely effective drugs, including a fluoroquinolone and injectable-on treatment outcomes in a large MDR-TB patient cohort.This was a retrospective cohort study of patients treated in a national outpatient program in Peru between 1999 and 2002. We examined the association between receiving an aggressive regimen and the rate of death.In total, 669 patients were treated with individualized regimens for laboratory-confirmed MDR-TB. Isolates were resistant to a mean of 5.4 (SD 1.7 drugs. Cure or completion was achieved in 66.1% (442 of patients; death occurred in 20.8% (139. Patients who received an aggressive regimen were less likely to die (crude hazard ratio [HR]: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.44,0.89, compared to those who did not receive such a regimen. This association held in analyses adjusted for comorbidities and indicators of severity (adjusted HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.43,0.93.The aggressive regimen is a robust predictor of MDR-TB treatment outcome. TB policy makers and program directors should consider this standard as they design and implement regimens for patients with drug-resistant disease. Furthermore, the aggressive regimen should be considered the standard background regimen when designing randomized trials of treatment for drug-resistant TB.

  6. Clinical Case Report on Treatment of Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis: 5-Year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai-Fang; Ho, Ya-Ping; Ho, Kun-Yen; Wu, Yi-Min; Wang, Wen-Chen; Chou, Yu-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    Generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) is a distinct type of periodontal disease associated with considerably more rapid periodontal tissue destruction than chronic periodontitis. This study presents the 5-year follow-up of a patient with GAgP. A 29-year-old man reported experiencing increasing gingival recession. He was treated using cause-related therapy, provisional splints, and flap surgery combined with allograft grafting and was followed up for 5 years. This case study shows that elimination of infectious microorganisms and meticulous long-term maintenance provide an effective treatment modality for aggressive periodontitis cases. This treatment modality can restore the masticatory function and provide the GAgP patient with improved quality of life.

  7. Parental attitudes and aggression in the Emo subculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chęć, Magdalena; Potemkowski, Andrzej; Wąsik, Marta; Samochowiec, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    A better functioning of adolescents involves proper relationships with parents, whereas negative relationships lead to aggressive behaviour. Young members of Emo subculture, characterised by deep emotional sensitivity, are particularly vulnerable to parental influence. The aim was to specify a relationship between parental attitudes and aggression among adolescents from the Emo subculture in comparison with a control group. 3,800 lower secondary school students took part in the introductory research. A target group constituted 41 people from the Emo subculture as well as a control group involving 48 people. A screening survey, the Parental Attitudes Scale, the Aggression Questionnaire and the author's questionnaire including questions concerning the functioning in the Emo subculture were used in the study. The results obtained in the research study suggest that there is a relationship between the indicated improper parental attitudes and aggressive behaviour among adolescents from the Emo subculture in comparison with the control group. In the Emo subculture, teenagers'aggressive behaviour is related to improper parental attitudes. It has been stated that mother's attitudes, irrespective of subculture, are much more strongly associated with the aggression among adolescents than father's attitudes. Moreover, aggressive behaviour in the Emo subculture occurs when father displays an excessively demanding attitude. A reduction of the level of almost all kinds of aggression manifested among teenagers from the Emo subculture is associated with mothers' attitude of acceptance. Mothers' autonomous attitude leads to an increase in the aggression in this group, whereas an inconsistent attitude of mothers fosters an increase in aggression among all teenagers.

  8. College students' behavioral reactions upon witnessing relational peer aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ji-In; Bellmore, Amy

    2014-01-01

    With a sample of 228 college students (82.5% females) from the Midwestern United States, individual factors that contribute to emerging adults' behavioral responses when witnessing relational aggression among their peers were explored. The experience of witnessing relational aggression was found to be systematically associated with college students' behavioral responses to relational aggression through two social cognitive processes: normative beliefs about relational aggression and susceptibility to peer influence. The experience of witnessing relational aggression was associated with defending behavior through normative beliefs about relational aggression and both assisting and reinforcing behavior through normative beliefs about relational aggression and susceptibility to peer influence. The experience of witnessing relational aggression was also associated with onlooking behavior through normative beliefs about relational aggression. The findings indicate that exposure to relational aggression as a witness may influence witness responses because of the way such exposure may shape specific social cognitions. The potential for using the study findings for promoting effective witness interventions among college students is discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Popularity differentially predicts reactive and proactive aggression in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltz, Sabine; Cillessen, Antonius H N; van den Berg, Yvonne H M; Gommans, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that peer popularity is associated with aggressive behavior. However, it is not yet clear whether popularity is uniquely related to different functions of aggression. In this study, we examined associations between peer-perceived popularity, and reactive and proactive aggression using a cross-sectional and a longitudinal design. Yearly sociometric measures of popularity, and reactive and proactive aggression were gathered from 266 seventh and eight grade adolescents (Mage grade 7 = 12.80, SDage  = .40). Popularity was positively correlated with proactive aggression and negatively correlated with reactive aggression, both concurrently as over time. Curvilinear trends indicated that a significant minority of low versus high popular adolescents showed both functions of aggression. Somewhat stronger effects of popularity on proactive aggression were found for boys than girls. Stably popular adolescents showed the highest levels of proactive aggression, whereas stably unpopular youth showed the highest levels of reactive aggression. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A social work study on aggressive behavior among Iranian students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive behavior has many bad effects on people's health care and lifestyle and any attempt to find the main issues influencing aggressive behavior among young students could help setup appropriate programs to control and possibly reduce aggressive attitudes. The proposed study of this paper performs an empirical study to find out the relationship between aggressive behavior and other important factors such as gender, age, etc. The survey uses a well-known questionnaire introduced by Buss and Perry (The aggression questionnaire, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 452-459, 1992. The survey distributes 50 questionnaire consists of different questions based on Likert scale among 25 female and 25 male students. The questionnaire consists of various questions including anger, physical aggression, verbal aggression and hostility. The results indicate that while there is no meaningful difference between aggression attitudes of female and male students (with p-value<0.001, the aggressive attitudes increases among older male students but this aggressive reduces among female students as they get older.

  11. EEG does not predict response to valproate treatment of aggression in patients with borderline and antisocial personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Roy R; Struve, Frederick A; Patrick, Gloria

    2003-04-01

    Previous investigations of the role of EEG in predicting response of aggressive patients to valproate therapy have yielded mixed results. In this study of borderline and antisocial personality disorder patients hospitalized with aggressive behavior, EEGs were obtained prior to treatment with valproate. Eight of 22 (36.4%) patients subsequently responsive to valproate had nonepileptiform EEG abnormalities, while 5 of 20 (25%) patients not responsive to valproate had nonepileptiform EEG abnormalities. Although more of the valproate responders than nonresponders had EEG abnormalities, the presence of nonepileptiform EEG abnormalities was not a statistically significant (X2 = 0.213, df = 1, p = 0.64) predictor of valproate response in personality disorder patients with aggression.

  12. Children's exposure to violent political conflict stimulates aggression at peers by increasing emotional distress, aggressive script rehearsal, and normative beliefs favoring aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesmann, L Rowell; Dubow, Eric F; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha F; Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Shikaki, Khalil

    2017-02-01

    We examine the hypothesis that children's exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence over the course of a year stimulates their increased aggression toward their own in-group peers in subsequent years. In addition, we examine what social cognitive and emotional processes mediate these effects and how these effects are moderated by gender, age, and ethnic group. To accomplish these aims, we collected three waves of data from 901 Israeli and 600 Palestinian youths (three age cohorts: 8, 11, and 14 years old) and their parents at 1-year intervals. Exposure to ethnic-political violence was correlated with aggression at in-group peers among all age cohorts. Using a cross-lagged structural equation model from Year 1 to Year 3, we found that the relation between exposure and aggression is more plausibly due to exposure to ethnic-political violence stimulating later aggression at peers than vice versa, and this effect was not moderated significantly by gender, age cohort, or ethnic group. Using three-wave structural equation models, we then showed that this effect was significantly mediated by changes in normative beliefs about aggression, aggressive script rehearsal, and emotional distress produced by the exposure. Again the best fitting model did not allow for moderation by gender, age cohort, or ethnic group. The findings are consistent with recent theorizing that exposure to violence leads to changes both in emotional processes promoting aggression and in the acquisition through observational learning of social cognitions promoting aggression.

  13. RESEARCH OF FRUIT CONSERVES’ CORROSIVE AGGRESSIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kuznecova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion of metal canning containers is one of the obstacles in spreading its application for packing of food. Particularly aggressive to the metal container is fruit canned medium, containing organic acids.The basic material for the production of metal canning container is white tinplate. The main advantage of white tinplate is the tin compounds are harmless to human organism. For this reason, a white badge is used widely, usually used for production of canning containers, packaging beverages. Despite the fact that recently often used containers made of aluminum badge (foil, the basic material for manufacturing metal canning containers is steel white tinplate.Now applied for coating paints and varnishes do not provide anti-corrosion protection of inner surface of metal containers during storage. Preserving of canned fruit quality in metal containers is largely defined corrosion resistance of the containers. This is due to the fact that the metal transition to canned fruit in due courses of corrosion processes is lowering the nutritional value and deterioration taste of the product, and while allocation of hydrogen is accompanied by swelling and destruction of metal containers.We have investigated a number of anti-corrosion coatings based on Fe-Cr and Fe-Sn-Ti of their behavior in aggressive mediums canned fruit. For the purpose of modeling such mediums the solutions of most widespread organic acids were used. The research allowed conclude, that in surface solid solutions Fe-Sn-Ti increase the corrosion resistance of carbon steel in aqueous solutions of malic, citric and tartaric acids. This implies that the surface solid solutions’ formation can significantly improve corrosion resistance in aggressive canning mediums.

  14. Aggression in schools: Cyberbullying and gender issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Drishti; Kishore, Jugal; Sharma, Nandini; Duggal, Mona

    2017-10-01

    Due to increasing internet and mobile penetration, children in India are at risk of cyberbullying. A survey of 174 middle graders in Delhi showed that, of total, 8% indulged in cyberbullying and 17% reported being victimized by such acts. However, prevalence of in-person bullying, fighting and victimization by either was 16%, 12% and 17% respectively. Males were more likely to bully and fight in-person than females. They were also more likely to be victims of both online and offline aggression. Interwoven modes of bullying along with safe use of technology need to be understood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma: an aggressive variant of chondrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharath, Gangadhara; Burrah, Rajaram; Shivakumar, Kuppuswamy; Manjunath, Suraj; Bhanumathi, Rao

    2015-02-01

    Dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas are a rare and aggressive subtype of chondrosarcoma with a bimorphic pattern on histopathology. Rib is a rare site of dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma. Diagnosis of this subtype preoperatively can be challenging. Treatment options for dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma are limited because they are chemoresistant, and therefore adequate surgery forms the main stay of treatment. We present our experience with a dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma of the rib, and discuss the management of this rare entity. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Target Tracking and Interception by Aggressive Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    flat disc) of equal surface area . When aggressive bees are offered a choice between a hemispherical sphere and a flat disc (of equal diameter or...equal surface area ), the bees display a greater frequency of attacks toward the 3-D target when it has the same diameter as the 2-D target, but a...as 107  those carrying pollen on their hind legs. The bees were anesthetized in a refrigerator for 20-108  30 min, after which they were taken out

  17. Nuclear Regulatory Commission: more aggressive leadership needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staats, E.B.

    1980-01-01

    The Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 which established the Nuclear Regulatory Commission required GAO to evaluate the Commission's performance by January 18, 1980. This report responds to that requirement. GAO concluded that, although improvements have been made, the Commission's nuclear regulatory performance can be characterized best as slow, indecisive, cautious - in a word, complacent. This has largely resulted from a lack of aggressive leadership as evidenced by the Commissioners' failure to establish regulatory goals, control policymaking, and most importantly, clearly define their roles in nuclear regulation

  18. Radiotherapy in the management of aggressive fibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atahan, I.L.; Akyol, F.; Zorlu, F.; Guerkaynak, M.

    1989-01-01

    Four case reports are summarised concerning the management of aggressive fibromatosis in children and adolescents up to the age of 15. It was concluded that radiotherapy should be reserved for recurrences or inoperable cases. A dose of 5000-6000 cGy in 25-30 fractions depending on age of patient, site, and size of tumour is necessary, since most surgical recurrences appear in 12 months, all cases with positive surgical margins should receive doses in the range 4000-4500 cGy for microscopic disease. Radiotherapy-chemotherapy combinations can also be used. (UK)

  19. Clinical features and prognostic factors for survival in patients with poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma and comparison to the patients with the aggressive variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Tae-Sik; Kim, Tae-Yong; Kim, Kyung-Won

    2007-01-01

    We performed this study to compare the clinicopathologic features and outcomes between the patients with poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) and the patients with the aggressive variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). To evaluate the prognostic factors for survival of the patients with PDTC, we selected 49 patients with PDTC and 23 patients with the aggressive variants of PTC from three hospitals during the recent 15 years. The five-year survival rate and clinicopathologic features of the patients with PDTC were not different from those of the patients with the aggressive variants of PTC. Univariate analysis revealed the significant poor prognostic factors for survival of the patients with PDTC and the aggressive variants of PTC as follows: an age more than 45 years, a tumor size larger than 4 cm, the presence of tumor invasion to extrathyroidal tissue or the trachea, the presence of cervical lymph node invasion, the presence of distant metastasis, the absence of high-dose radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy, and tumor, nodes and metastasis (TNM) stage II, III and IV. Distant metastasis and high-dose RAI therapy were independent significant predictors for survival of the patients with PDTC and the aggressive variants of PTC on multivariate analysis. However, distant metastasis was the only independent significant predictors for survival of the patients with PDTC excluding patients with the aggressive variants of PTC. (author)

  20. Aggression and violence around the world: A model of CLimate, Aggression, and Self-control in Humans (CLASH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lange, Paul A M; Rinderu, Maria I; Bushman, Brad J

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide there are substantial differences within and between countries in aggression and violence. Although there are various exceptions, a general rule is that aggression and violence increase as one moves closer to the equator, which suggests the important role of climate differences. While this pattern is robust, theoretical explanations for these large differences in aggression and violence within countries and around the world are lacking. Most extant explanations focus on the influence of average temperature as a factor that triggers aggression (The General Aggression Model), or the notion that warm temperature allows for more social interaction situations (Routine Activity Theory) in which aggression is likely to unfold. We propose a new model, CLimate, Aggression, and Self-control in Humans (CLASH), that helps us to understand differences within and between countries in aggression and violence in terms of differences in climate. Lower temperatures, and especially larger degrees of seasonal variation in climate, call for individuals and groups to adopt a slower life history strategy, a greater focus on the future (vs. present), and a stronger focus on self-control. The CLASH model further outlines that slow life strategy, future orientation, and strong self-control are important determinants of inhibiting aggression and violence. We also discuss how CLASH differs from other recently developed models that emphasize climate differences for understanding conflict. We conclude by discussing the theoretical and societal importance of climate in shaping individual and societal differences in aggression and violence.

  1. Developmental Trajectories of Peer-Reported Aggressive Behavior: The Role of Friendship Understanding, Friendship Quality, and Friends’ Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; McDonald, Kristina; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate developmental trajectories in peer-reported aggressive behavior across the transition from elementary-to-middle school, and whether aggressive behavior trajectories were associated with friendship quality, friends’ aggressive behavior, and the ways in which children think about their friendships. Method Participants included a community sample of 230 5th grade children who were assessed when they made a transition from elementary-to-middle school (6th grade). Peer nominations were used to assess the target child’s and friend’s aggressive behavior. Self- and friend reports were used to measure friendship quality; friendship understanding was assessed via a structured interview. Results General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) revealed three distinct trajectories of peer-reported aggressive behavior across the school transition: low-stable, decreasing, and increasing. Adolescents’ understanding of friendship formation differentiated the decreasing from the low-stable aggressive behavior trajectories, and the understanding of friendship trust differentiated the increasing from the low-stable aggressive and decreasing aggressive behavior trajectories. Conclusions The findings indicated that a sophisticated understanding of friendship may serve as a protective factor for initially aggressive adolescents as they transition into middle school. Promoting a deepened understanding of friendship relations and their role in one’s own and others’ well-being may serve as an important prevention and intervention strategy to reduce aggressive behavior. PMID:26688775

  2. Developmental Trajectories of Peer-Reported Aggressive Behavior: The Role of Friendship Understanding, Friendship Quality, and Friends' Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; McDonald, Kristina; Rubin, Kenneth H; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2015-10-01

    To investigate developmental trajectories in peer-reported aggressive behavior across the transition from elementary-to-middle school, and whether aggressive behavior trajectories were associated with friendship quality, friends' aggressive behavior, and the ways in which children think about their friendships. Participants included a community sample of 230 5 th grade children who were assessed when they made a transition from elementary-to-middle school (6 th grade). Peer nominations were used to assess the target child's and friend's aggressive behavior. Self- and friend reports were used to measure friendship quality; friendship understanding was assessed via a structured interview. General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) revealed three distinct trajectories of peer-reported aggressive behavior across the school transition: low-stable, decreasing, and increasing. Adolescents' understanding of friendship formation differentiated the decreasing from the low-stable aggressive behavior trajectories, and the understanding of friendship trust differentiated the increasing from the low-stable aggressive and decreasing aggressive behavior trajectories. The findings indicated that a sophisticated understanding of friendship may serve as a protective factor for initially aggressive adolescents as they transition into middle school. Promoting a deepened understanding of friendship relations and their role in one's own and others' well-being may serve as an important prevention and intervention strategy to reduce aggressive behavior.

  3. The socializing effect of classroom aggression on the development of aggression and social rejection: A two-wave multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlf, Helena; Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined the moderating effect of classroom aggression on the development of individual aggression and on the path from individual aggression to social rejection over time. The study included 1,284 elementary school children and consisted of two data waves 10months apart. At both time points, teachers assessed the children's physical and relational aggression and their social rejection status. Multi-level analyses revealed that the classroom level of relational aggression moderated the link between individual relational aggression at T1 and T2 (b=-0.18, 95% CI [-0.32, -0.05], psocial rejection (b=-0.12, 95% CI [-0.23, -0.003], psocial rejection in classrooms with a low level of relational aggression. Children were mainly influenced by their same-gender peers. Boys as a group had a greater influence than girls on their peers of either gender in the domain of relational aggression, whereas girls as a group had a greater influence in the domain of physical aggression. The contributions of analyzing cross-level interaction to understanding the developmental patterns of aggression and social rejection in middle childhood are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cool and hot executive function as predictors of aggression in early childhood: Differentiating between the function and form of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Sarah E; Monks, Claire P; Tsermentseli, Stella

    2016-06-01

    Executive function (EF) has been implicated in childhood aggression. Understanding of the role of EF in aggression has been hindered, however, by the lack of research taking into account the function and form of aggression and the almost exclusive focus on cool EF. This study examined the role of cool and hot EF in teacher reported aggression, differentiating between reactive and proactive as well as physical and relational aggression. Children (N = 106) completed laboratory tasks measuring cool (inhibition, planning, working memory) and hot EF (affective decision-making, delay of gratification). Cool, but not hot, EF significantly contributed to understanding of childhood aggression. Inhibition was a central predictor of childhood aggression. Planning and working memory, in contrast, were significant independent predictors of proactive relational aggression only. Added to this, prosocial behaviour moderated the relationship between working memory and reactive relational aggression. This study therefore suggests that cool EF, particularly inhibition, is associated with childhood aggression across the different functions and forms. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Social learning requires plasticity enhanced by fluoxetine through prefrontal Bdnf-TrkB signaling to limit aggression induced by post-weaning social isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemori, Juzoh; Tóth, Máté; Biró, László; Miskolczi, Christina; Balázsfi, Diána; Zelena, Dóra; Castrén, Eero

    2017-01-01

    Escalated or abnormal aggression induced by early adverse experiences is a growing issue of social concern and urges the development of effective treatment strategies. Here we report that synergistic interactions between psychosocial and biological factors specifically ameliorate escalated aggression induced by early adverse experiences. Rats reared in isolation from weaning until early adulthood showed abnormal forms of aggression and social deficits that were temporarily ameliorated by re-socialization, but aggression again escalated in a novel environment. We demonstrate that when re-socialization was combined with the antidepressant fluoxetine, which has been shown to reactivate juvenile-like state of plasticity, escalated aggression was greatly attenuated, while neither treatment alone was effective. Early isolation induced a permanent, re-socialization resistant reduction in Bdnf expression in the amygdala and the infralimbic cortex. Only the combined treatment of fluoxetine and re-socialization was able to recover Bdnf expression via epigenetic regulation. Moreover, the behavior improvement after the combined treatment was dependent on TrkB activity. Combined treatment specifically strengthened the input from the ventral hippocampus to the mPFC suggesting that this pathway is an important mediator of the beneficial behavioral effects of the combined psychosocial and pharmacological treatment of abnormal aggression. Our findings suggest that synergy between pharmacological induction of plasticity and psychosocial rehabilitation could enhance the efficacy of therapies for pathological aggression. PMID:28685757

  6. Violent Video Games and Children’s Aggressive Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Milani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The literature provides some evidence that the use of violent video games increases the risk for young people to develop aggressive cognitions and even behaviors. We aimed to verify whether exposure to violent video games is linked to problems of aggression in a sample of Italian children. Four questionnaires were administered to 346 children between 7 and 14 years of age, attending primary and secondary schools in Northern Italy. Variables measured were externalization, quality of interpersonal relationships, aggression, quality of coping strategies, and parental stress. Participants who preferred violent games showed higher scores for externalization and aggression. The use of violent video games and age were linked to higher levels of aggression, coping strategies, and the habitual video game weekly consumption of participants. Our data confirm the role of violent video games as risk factors for problems of aggressive behavior and of externalization in childhood and early adolescence.

  7. Social Control of Hypothalamus-Mediated Male Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Taehong; Yang, Cindy F; Chizari, M Delara; Maheswaranathan, Niru; Burke, Kenneth J; Borius, Maxim; Inoue, Sayaka; Chiang, Michael C; Bender, Kevin J; Ganguli, Surya; Shah, Nirao M

    2017-08-16

    How environmental and physiological signals interact to influence neural circuits underlying developmentally programmed social interactions such as male territorial aggression is poorly understood. We have tested the influence of sensory cues, social context, and sex hormones on progesterone receptor (PR)-expressing neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) that are critical for male territorial aggression. We find that these neurons can drive aggressive displays in solitary males independent of pheromonal input, gonadal hormones, opponents, or social context. By contrast, these neurons cannot elicit aggression in socially housed males that intrude in another male's territory unless their pheromone-sensing is disabled. This modulation of aggression cannot be accounted for by linear integration of environmental and physiological signals. Together, our studies suggest that fundamentally non-linear computations enable social context to exert a dominant influence on developmentally hard-wired hypothalamus-mediated male territorial aggression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. FINANCIAL REPORTING AND CORPORATE TAX AGGRESSIVENESS: IMPACT ON FIRM VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agusti R.R.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the market response to the aggressiveness of financial reporting and tax reporting conducted by the company. Investor’s response is reflected in the market value of the company's stock. This study is an explanatory research using quantitative approach. Research’s sample is a manufacturing company listed on the Indonesian stock exchanges from 2005 to 2015. The data were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. The data show that majority of sample companies’ fall into the category of middle tax aggressiveness. Research’s findings are both aggressive financial reporting and tax aggressiveness has a negative relationship with the market value of the company. However, only aggressive financial reporting that has a significant influence on the firm value. Based on these results it is concluded that tax aggressiveness does not directly affect the market in making decisions to assess the company's stock.

  9. Violent images, anger and physical aggression among male forensic inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Stine Bjerrum; Gondan, Matthias; Novaco, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The present study of forensic hospital patients examined whether their imagination of violence is related to self-reported anger, psychological distress, and to staff observations of aggressive behaviour in hospital. In view of the relevance of psychological trauma for anger and aggression......, we further investigate whether the associations of imagined violence to anger and aggression are stronger when the patient has trauma-related intrusion symptoms. Methods. Participating male forensic inpatients (N = 54) were individually tested and followed-up for five months. Aggressive episodes were...... measured using the Staff Observation Aggression Scale–Revised. Results. Patients who imagine violence, compared to those who do not, were higher in psychological distress (anger, symptoms of PTSD, psychosis, depression, and anxiety), and displayed more aggressive acts both retrospectively and during...

  10. The mainstreaming of verbally aggressive online political behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchirillo, Vincent; Hmielowski, Jay; Hutchens, Myiah

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the relationship between verbal aggression and uncivil media attention on political flaming. More specifically, this paper examines whether the use of uncivil media programming is associated with the perceived acceptability and intention to engage in aggressive online discussions (i.e., online political flaming) and whether this relationship varies by verbal aggression. The results show that individuals less inclined to engage in aggressive communication tactics (i.e., low in verbal aggression) become more accepting of flaming and show greater intention to flame as their attention to uncivil media increases. By contrast, those with comparatively higher levels of verbal aggression show a decrease in acceptance and intention to flame as their attention to these same media increases.

  11. Aggressive Behavior in Dutch Forensic Psychiatric Inpatients: Determinants of reactive aggression and their consequences for treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Zwets (Almar)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe first goal of the current research project was to get more insight in the determinants of reactive aggression, namely psychopathy, as measured with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), and implicit attitudes toward violence. The second goal was was to investigate the

  12. Facing Aggression: Cues Differ for Female versus Male Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniole, Shawn N.; Keyes, Amanda E.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Carré, Justin M.; McCormick, Cheryl M.

    2012-01-01

    The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F1,36 = 7.43, p = 0.01). In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait) and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively) and masculinity (negatively) ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as “honest signals”. PMID:22276184

  13. Facing aggression: cues differ for female versus male faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn N Geniole

    Full Text Available The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio, is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F(1,36 = 7.43, p = 0.01. In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively and masculinity (negatively ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as "honest signals".

  14. Facing aggression: cues differ for female versus male faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniole, Shawn N; Keyes, Amanda E; Mondloch, Catherine J; Carré, Justin M; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2012-01-01

    The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F(1,36) = 7.43, p = 0.01). In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait) and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively) and masculinity (negatively) ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as "honest signals".

  15. Pengaruh Ukuran Perusahaan terhadap Aggressive Tax Avoidance di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    M. Khoiru Rusydi

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to empirically examine the effect of firm size (Firm Size) against aggressive tax avoidance (aggressive tax avoidance) in Indonesia. The method in use is descriptive quantitative with panel data of financial statements of listed companies on the Stock Exchange in the period 2010-2012 which regresswith Eviews program. The results of this study indicate that company size has no effect on aggressive tax avoidance in Indonesia, which means that the behavior of firms in Indonesia f...

  16. Boys’ and Girls’ Relational and Physical Aggression in Nine Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Di Giunta, Laura; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario

    2012-01-01

    Distinguishing between relational and physical aggression has become a key feature of many developmental studies in North America and Western Europe, but very little information is available on relational aggression in more diverse cultural contexts. This study examined the factor structure of, gender differences in, and associations between relational and physical aggression in China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. Children ages 7 to...

  17. Quetiapine modulates functional connectivity in brain aggression networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, Martin; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Schwenzer, Michael; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Sarkheil, Pegah; Weber, René; Mathiak, Klaus

    2013-07-15

    Aggressive behavior is associated with dysfunctions in an affective regulation network encompassing amygdala and prefrontal areas such as orbitofrontal (OFC), anterior cingulate (ACC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In particular, prefrontal regions have been postulated to control amygdala activity by inhibitory projections, and this process may be disrupted in aggressive individuals. The atypical antipsychotic quetiapine successfully attenuates aggressive behavior in various disorders; the underlying neural processes, however, are unknown. A strengthened functional coupling in the prefrontal-amygdala system may account for these anti-aggressive effects. An inhibition of this network has been reported for virtual aggression in violent video games as well. However, there have been so far no in-vivo observations of pharmacological influences on corticolimbic projections during human aggressive behavior. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, quetiapine and placebo were administered for three successive days prior to an fMRI experiment. In this experiment, functional brain connectivity was assessed during virtual aggressive behavior in a violent video game and an aggression-free control task in a non-violent modification. Quetiapine increased the functional connectivity of ACC and DLPFC with the amygdala during virtual aggression, whereas OFC-amygdala coupling was attenuated. These effects were observed neither for placebo nor for the non-violent control. These results demonstrate for the first time a pharmacological modification of aggression-related human brain networks in a naturalistic setting. The violence-specific modulation of prefrontal-amygdala networks appears to control aggressive behavior and provides a neurobiological model for the anti-aggressive effects of quetiapine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Personality and attempted suicide. Analysis of anger, aggression and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giegling, Ina; Olgiati, Paolo; Hartmann, Annette M; Calati, Raffaella; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Rujescu, Dan; Serretti, Alessandro

    2009-12-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, mortality from suicide being approximately 2%. Attempted suicide appears to be a major risk factor for suicide completion. Anger, aggression and impulsivity are personality traits associated with suicide attempt. In this study we analysed a part of a previously reported sample in order to test anger, impulsivity and temperament/character scales as predictors of aggression and self-aggression in suicide attempters and to compare anger- and aggression-related traits between impulsive and premeditated suicide attempts as well as between violent and non-violent suicide methods. One-hundred-eleven consecutively admitted inpatients with a lifetime history of attempted suicide were assessed for anger (State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, STAXI), aggression (Questionnaire for Measuring Factors of Aggression, FAF) and temperament/character (Temperament and Character Inventory, TCI). Higher aggression scores, as measured by FAF, were predicted by being male, meeting criteria for borderline personality disorder and having higher angry temperament scores as assessed by STAXI; low cooperativeness was also associated with aggression but not after controlling for STAXI scales. TCI dimensions associated with self-aggression were high harm avoidance, high impulsivity and low self-directedness; state anger, inwardly directed anger and inhibition of aggression were also predictors of self-aggression. In conclusion, impulsivity and harm avoidance have emerged as temperament dimensions independently associated with self-aggressive tendencies in personality. Such interactions could explain the correlation between temperament and suicidality but further research is needed. Anger and self-directedness appear to have some effects on suicide attempt.

  19. Management compensation, monitoring and aggressive corporate tax planning

    OpenAIRE

    Steinhoff, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    The empirical literature shows that management incentives often reduce corporate tax aggressiveness. Focussing on the riskiness of tax aggressiveness this paper offers one explanation for the observed negative relation. Using an agency framework, I analyze the manager's choice of effort dedication in other tasks and her explicit choice of the firm's tax risk. I show that corporate tax aggressiveness may decrease with compensation incentives. By choosing the tax risk, the manager (partly) dete...

  20. The protection of nuclear installations from outside aggressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aussourd, P.; Candes, P.; Le Quinio, R.

    1976-01-01

    When selecting a site for a nuclear power station, the possibility of outside natural aggressions from atmospheric, hydrologic or seismic origin should be carefully considered. The site being chosen, outside natural or non-natural aggressions which are linked to it, such as plane crashes, projectiles, fires, bursting of dams, deliberate human aggressions... should be thoroughly appraised to take them into account when designing the future plant [fr

  1. Factors Affecting Aggression in South Korean Middle School Students

    OpenAIRE

    MiJeong Park, PhD, RN; Jihea Choi, PhD, RN, CPNP; Seung-Joo Lim, PhD, RN

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study was undertaken to assess levels of aggression, and to determine factors affecting aggression among South Korean middle school students. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted using self-report questionnaires. The participants were 340 girls and boys from two middle schools and 302 questionnaires were used for the final data analysis. Aggression, academic stress, depression, self esteem, decision-making competency, and happiness were measured. Data were analyzed using...

  2. Factors Affecting Aggression in South Korean Middle School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MiJeong Park, PhD, RN

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Findings indicate that depression, academic stress, and grade (second grade influence aggression. To decrease aggressive behavior, it is necessary to provide systematic and political programs in schools and local communities that can ameliorate negative emotional factors like depression and academic stress. Additionally, development of positive factors such as self esteem, decision-making skills, and happiness in middle school students is important to reduce aggression.

  3. Minimally-aggressive gestational trophoblastic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Laurence A

    2012-04-01

    We have previously defined a new syndrome "Minimally-aggressive gestational trophoblastic neoplasms" in which choriocarcinoma or persistent hydatidiform mole has a minimal growth rate and becomes chemorefractory. Previously we described a new treatment protocol, waiting for hCG rise to >3000 mIU/ml and disease becomes more advanced, then using combination chemotherapy. Initially we found this treatment successful in 8 of 8 cases, here we find this protocol appropriate in a further 16 cases. Initially we used hyperglycosylated hCG, a limited availability test, to identify this syndrome. Here we propose also using hCG doubling rate to detect this syndrome. Minimally aggressive gestational trophoblastic disease can be detected by chemotherapy resistance or low hyperglycosylated hCG, disease by hyperglycosylated hCG and by hCG doubling test. All were recommended to hold off further chemotherapy until hCG >3000mIU/ml. One case died prior to the start of the study, one case withdrew because of a lung nodule and one withdrew refusing the suggested combination chemotherapy. The remaining 16 women were all successfully treated. A total of 8 plus 16 or 24 of 24 women were successfully treated using the proposed protocol, holding back on chemotherapy until hCG >3000mIU/ml. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The evolutionary psychology of women's aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary researchers have identified age, operational sex ratio and high variance in male resources as factors that intensify female competition. These are discussed in relation to escalated intrasexual competition for men and their resources between young women in deprived neighbourhoods. For these women, fighting is not seen as antithetical to cultural conceptions of femininity, and female weakness is disparaged. Nonetheless, even where competitive pressures are high, young women's aggression is less injurious and frequent than young men's. From an evolutionary perspective, I argue that the intensity of female aggression is constrained by the greater centrality of mothers, rather than fathers, to offspring survival. This selection pressure is realized psychologically through a lower threshold for fear among women. Neuropsychological evidence is not yet conclusive but suggests that women show heightened amygdala reactivity to threatening stimuli, may be better able to exert prefrontal cortical control over emotional behaviour and may consciously register fear more strongly via anterior cingulate activity. The impact of testosterone and oxytocin on the neural circuitry of emotion is also considered.

  5. Analysis of complex networks using aggressive abstraction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin.; Willard, Gerald

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler (but equivalent) representation, the required analysis is performed using the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit abstractions that are simultaneously dramatically simplifying and property preserving we call these aggressive abstractions -- and which can therefore be analyzed using the proposed approach. We then introduce and develop two forms of aggressive abstraction: 1.) finite state abstraction, in which dynamical networks with uncountable state spaces are modeled using finite state systems, and 2.) onedimensional abstraction, whereby high dimensional network dynamics are captured in a meaningful way using a single scalar variable. In each case, the property preserving nature of the abstraction process is rigorously established and efficient algorithms are presented for computing the abstraction. The considerable potential of the proposed approach to complex networks analysis is illustrated through case studies involving vulnerability analysis of technological networks and predictive analysis for social processes.

  6. Prenatal androgen exposure and children's aggressive behavior and activity level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Debra; Pasterski, Vickie; Neufeld, Sharon; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L; Hines, Melissa

    2017-11-01

    Some human behaviors, including aggression and activity level, differ on average for males and females. Here we report findings from two studies investigating possible relations between prenatal androgen and children's aggression and activity level. For study 1, aggression and activity level scores for 43 girls and 38 boys, aged 4 to 11years, with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, a genetic condition causing increased adrenal androgen production beginning prenatally) were compared to those of similarly-aged, unaffected relatives (41 girls, 31 boys). Girls with CAH scored higher on aggression than unaffected girls, d=0.69, and unaffected boys scored higher on activity level than unaffected girls, d=0.50. No other group differences were significant. For study 2, the relationship of amniotic fluid testosterone to aggression and activity level was investigated in typically-developing children (48 girls, 44 boys), aged 3 to 5years. Boys scored higher than girls on aggression, d=0.41, and activity level, d=0.50. However, amniotic fluid testosterone was not a significant predictor of aggression or activity level for either sex. The results of the two studies provide some support for an influence of prenatal androgen exposure on children's aggressive behavior, but not activity level. The within-sex variation in amniotic fluid testosterone may not be sufficient to allow reliable assessment of relations to aggression or activity level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Exposure to violent video games increases automatic aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Eric; Swanson, Jane

    2004-02-01

    The effects of exposure to violent video games on automatic associations with the self were investigated in a sample of 121 students. Playing the violent video game Doom led participants to associate themselves with aggressive traits and actions on the Implicit Association Test. In addition, self-reported prior exposure to violent video games predicted automatic aggressive self-concept, above and beyond self-reported aggression. Results suggest that playing violent video games can lead to the automatic learning of aggressive self-views.

  8. The theory of planned behavior, materialism, and aggressive driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrat, Kalanit; Shoham, Aviv

    2013-10-01

    Aggressive driving is a growing problem worldwide. Previous research has provided us with some insights into the characteristics of drivers prone to aggressiveness on the road and into the external conditions triggering such behavior. Little is known, however, about the personality traits of aggressive drivers. The present study proposes planned behavior and materialism as predictors of aggressive driving behavior. Data was gathered using a questionnaire-based survey of 220 individuals from twelve large industrial organizations in Israel. Our hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. Our results indicate that while planned behavior is a good predictor of the intention to behave aggressively, it has no impact on the tendency to behave aggressively. Materialism, however, was found to be a significant indicator of aggressive driving behavior. Our study is based on a self-reported survey, therefore might suffer from several issues concerning the willingness to answer truthfully. Furthermore, the sampling group might be seen as somewhat biased due to the relatively high income/education levels of the respondents. While both issues, aggressive driving and the theory of planned behavior, have been studied previously, the linkage between the two as well as the ability of materialism to predict aggressive behavior received little attention previously. The present study encompasses these constructs providing new insights into the linkage between them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mother-infant attachment styles as a predictor of aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozita Amani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Aggression is a phenomenon that causes irreversible damage to a community. Psychodynamic theory suggests that aggression is rooted in early relationships with family members, especially mother. According to this theory, infant-mother relationship is a major predictor of an individual’s behavior from childhood to adulthood. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between mother-infant attachment styles and aggression. Methods:This study was conducted on 150 university students (75 female, 75 male randomly selected from Bu-Ali Sina University in Hamadan, Iran. Data were collected via demographic questionnaires, Persian version of Adult Attachment Inventory (AAS (Hazen and Shaver and Ahvaz Aggression Inventory (AAI. Data analysis was performed using Pearson correlation and regression analysis. Results: According to our findings, secure mother-infantattachment had a significant negative correlation with aggression. In addition, ambivalent mother-infantattachment had a significant positive correlation with aggression, while avoidant attachment style had no significant correlation with aggression. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, secure attachment of mother with infant could reduce aggression during adulthood. On the other hand, ambivalent attachment between mother and infant could clearly increase the risk of aggression. Therefore, it is recommended to train different attachment styles to pregnant women  through related workshops during pregnancy in order to prevent ambivalent mother-infant attachment.

  10. Pengaruh Ukuran Perusahaan terhadap Aggressive Tax Avoidance di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khoiru Rusydi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to empirically examine the effect of firm size (Firm Size against aggressive tax avoidance (aggressive tax avoidance in Indonesia. The method in use is descriptive quantitative with panel data of financial statements of listed companies on the Stock Exchange in the period 2010-2012 which regresswith Eviews program. The results of this study indicate that company size has no effect on aggressive tax avoidance in Indonesia, which means that the behavior of firms in Indonesia for more aggressive tax avoidance do not affect the size of the company.

  11. Real-time hostile attribution measurement and aggression in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaros, Anna; Lochman, John E; Rosenbaum, Jill; Jimenez-Camargo, Luis Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Hostile attributions are an important predictor of aggression in children, but few studies have measured hostile attributions as they occur in real-time. The current study uses an interactive video racing game to measure hostile attributions while children played against a presumed peer. A sample of 75 children, ages 10-13, used nonverbal and verbal procedures to respond to ambiguous provocation by their opponent. Hostile attributions were significantly positively related to parent-rated reactive aggression, when controlling for proactive aggression. Hostile attributions using a nonverbal response procedure were negatively related to proactive aggression, when controlling for reactive aggression. Results suggest hostile attributions in real-time occur quickly and simultaneously with social interaction, which differs from the deliberative, controlled appraisals measured with vignette-based instruments. The relation between real-time hostile attributions and reactive aggression could be accounted for by the impulsive response style that is characteristic of reactive aggression, whereas children exhibiting proactive aggression may be more deliberate and intentional in their responding, resulting in a negative relation with real-time hostile attributions. These findings can be used both to identify children at risk for aggression and to enhance preventive interventions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. An aggressive osteoblastoma in the left iliac bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Joon; Yang, Seoung Oh; Jo, Han Gi; Cho, Chul Koo; Ro, In Woo

    1986-01-01

    Osteoblastoma is an uncommon primary neoplasm of bone, accounting for 1% of primary bone tumors. Osteoblastomas are benign bone tumors, but recurrences and malignant transformation of osteoblastoma were reported. So Jaffe and Dorf-man proposed the term of 'aggressive osteoblastoma' in which the tumor had intermediate biological natures among the osteoblastomas. Aggressive osteoblastoma is very rare and biological, pathological features of it is different from the conventional osteoblastoma. We experienced one case of aggressive osteoblastoma in the left ilium and describes the radiological, pathological findings of an aggressive osteoblastoma with review of the literatures.

  13. Neural correlates of proactive and reactive aggression in adolescent twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaling; Joshi, Shantanu H; Jahanshad, Neda; Thompson, Paul M; Baker, Laura A

    2017-05-01

    Verbal and physical aggression begin early in life and steadily decline thereafter in normal development. As a result, elevated aggressive behavior in adolescence may signal atypical development and greater vulnerability for negative mental and health outcomes. Converging evidence suggests that brain disturbances in regions involved in impulse control, emotional regulation, and sensation seeking may contribute to heightened aggression. However, little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying subtypes of aggression (i.e., proactive and reactive aggression) and whether they differ between males and females. Using a sample of 106 14-year-old adolescent twins, this study found that striatal enlargement was associated with both proactive and reactive aggression. We also found that volumetric alterations in several frontal regions including smaller middle frontal and larger orbitofrontal cortex were correlated with higher levels of aggression in adolescent twins. In addition, cortical thickness analysis showed that thickness alterations in many overlapping regions including middle frontal, superior frontal, and anterior cingulate cortex and temporal regions were associated with aggression in adolescent twins. Results support the involvement of fronto-limbic-striatal circuit in the etiology of aggression during adolescence. Aggr. Behav. 43:230-240, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Vertebral column aggressive osteoblastoma: two cases report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabedotti, Ismail Fernando; Sabedotti, Valdir

    2007-01-01

    Osteoblastoma is a bone neoplasy that in most circumstances present a low aggressive aspect on radiographic studies, but in some cases may acquire an aggressive pattern, rupturing the bone cortex and invading nearby structures. Most cases occur on the vertebral column, especially at the posterior arch and occasionally involving the vertebral body. Differential diagnosis of the aggressive form is made with osteosarcomas. This review reports two cases of osteoblastomas involving vertebral column, with an aggressive pattern on radiologic studies, and their histologic confirmation. (author)

  15. Multivariate differential analyses of adolescents' experiences of aggression in families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Myburgh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggression is part of South African society and has implications for the mental health of persons living in South Africa. If parents are aggressive adolescents are also likely to be aggressive and that will impact negatively on their mental health. In this article the nature and extent of adolescents' experiences of aggression and aggressive behaviour in the family are investigated. A deductive explorative quantitative approach was followed. Aggression is reasoned to be dependent on aspects such as self-concept, moral reasoning, communication, frustration tolerance and family relationships. To analyse the data from questionnaires of 101 families (95 adolescents, 95 mothers and 91 fathers Cronbach Alpha, various consecutive first and second order factor analyses, correlations, multiple regression, MANOVA, ANOVA and Scheffè/ Dunnett tests were used. It was found that aggression correlated negatively with the independent variables; and the correlations between adolescents and their parents were significant. Regression analyses indicated that different predictors predicted aggression. Furthermore, differences between adolescents and their parents indicated that the experienced levels of aggression between adolescents and their parents were small. Implications for education are given.

  16. "Just how graphic are graphic novels?" An examination of aggression portrayals in manga and associations with aggressive behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Callister, Mark; Stockdale, Laura; Coutts, Holly; Collier, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Manga, a type of graphic novel, represent a widely popular literary genre worldwide and are one of the fastest growing areas of the publishing arena aimed at adolescents in the United States. However, to our knowledge, there has been almost no empirical research examining content or effects of reading manga. This article consists of 2 studies. Study 1 represents a content analysis of aggressive behavior in best-selling manga aimed at adolescents. Results revealed that aggression was common and was often portrayed in ways that may influence subsequent behavior. Study 2 examined the relationship between reading manga and aggressive behavior in 223 adolescents. Manga readers were more physically aggressive than non-manga readers and also reported more peer relationships with lonely individuals and smaller groups. In addition, reading manga with particularly high levels of aggression was associated with physical aggression even after controlling for media violence exposure in other media. Implications regarding these findings are discussed.

  17. Political skill: A proactive inhibitor of workplace aggression exposure and an active buffer of the aggression-strain relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiqing E; Yang, Liu-Qin; Spector, Paul E

    2015-10-01

    In the current study we examined the role of 4 dimensions of political skill (social astuteness, interpersonal influence, networking ability, and apparent sincerity) in predicting subsequent workplace aggression exposure based on the proactive coping framework. Further, we investigated their buffering effects on the negative outcomes of experienced workplace aggression based on the transactional stress model. Data were collected from nurses at 3 time points: before graduation (Time 1, n = 346), approximately 6 months after graduation (Time 2, n = 214), and approximately 12 months after graduation (Time 3, n = 161). Results showed that Time 1 interpersonal influence and apparent sincerity predicted subsequent physical aggression exposure. Exposure to physical and/or psychological workplace aggression was related to increased anger and musculoskeletal injury, and decreased job satisfaction and career commitment. Further, all dimensions of political skill but networking ability buffered some negative effects of physical aggression, and all dimensions but social astuteness buffered some negative effects of psychological aggression. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The Aggression Observation Short Form Identified Episodes Not Reported on the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidhjelm, Jacob; Sestoft, Dorte; Bjørner, Jakob Bue

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the underreporting of violence and aggression on the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised (SOAS-R) when compared to a simpler assessment: the Aggression Observation Short Form (AOS). During a period of one year, two open and two closed wards gathered...... for open wards and for patients with short admission lengths. Standard instruments such as the SOAS-R underreport aggressive episodes by 45% or more. Underreporting can be reduced by introducing shorter instruments, but it cannot be completely eliminated....

  19. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J

    2001-09-01

    Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior.

  20. Treatment of a Periodontic-Endodontic Lesion in a Patient with Aggressive Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Mina D; Luepke, Paul G; Ibrahim, Mohamed S; Guentsch, Arndt

    2016-01-01

    Case Description. This case report describes the successful management of a left mandibular first molar with a combined periodontic-endodontic lesion in a 35-year-old Caucasian woman with aggressive periodontitis using a concerted approach including endodontic treatment, periodontal therapy, and a periodontal regenerative procedure using an enamel matrix derivate. In spite of anticipated poor prognosis, the tooth lesion healed. This case report also discusses the rationale behind different treatment interventions. Practical Implication. Periodontic-endodontic lesions can be successfully treated if dental professionals follow a concerted treatment protocol that integrates endodontic and periodontic specialties. General dentists can be the gatekeepers in managing these cases.

  1. Treatment of a Periodontic-Endodontic Lesion in a Patient with Aggressive Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina D. Fahmy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case Description. This case report describes the successful management of a left mandibular first molar with a combined periodontic-endodontic lesion in a 35-year-old Caucasian woman with aggressive periodontitis using a concerted approach including endodontic treatment, periodontal therapy, and a periodontal regenerative procedure using an enamel matrix derivate. In spite of anticipated poor prognosis, the tooth lesion healed. This case report also discusses the rationale behind different treatment interventions. Practical Implication. Periodontic-endodontic lesions can be successfully treated if dental professionals follow a concerted treatment protocol that integrates endodontic and periodontic specialties. General dentists can be the gatekeepers in managing these cases.

  2. Proton Therapy for Skull Base Chordomas: An Outcome Study from the University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Deraniyagala, Rohan L.; Yeung, Daniel; Mendenhall, William M.; Li, Zuofeng; Morris, Christopher G.; Mendenhall, Nancy P.; Okunieff, Paul; Malyapa, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Skull base chordoma is a rare, locally aggressive tumor located adjacent to critical structures. Gross total resection is difficult to achieve, and proton therapy has the conformal advantage of delivering a high postoperative dose to the tumor bed. We present our experience using proton therapy to treat 33 patients with skull base chordomas.

  3. On aggressiveness and violence in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flechner, Silvia

    2005-10-01

    When considering aggressiveness and violence during adolescence, we must take into account multiple senses, which range from the healthy assertion of one's own space before others to the repetition of traumatic violent experiences such as the violation of bodily and spatial-temporal boundaries. The author presents a survey of the views of different authors within psychoanalytical literature which allows us to question these terms, and turn then to the exploration of clinical practice. In studying the latter, acting out is brought to the fore, noting that not every adolescent act connotes a risk. The acts tackled in this case are those that, owing to their characteristics, may often endanger the very life of the adolescent. The author presents clinical material that focuses on adolescent acting out, highlighting the question of how to create, through the transference-countertransference axis, a space within the analytic session where the patient's capacity to think may be incorporated, thus allowing the anticipation of action.

  4. Gender, the Perception of Aggression, and the Overestimation of Gender Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Williams, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Investigated how gender of the aggressor, target, and observer would influence perception and evaluation of aggression. New Zealand college students read vignettes describing aggressive acts. Overall, they rated women's aggression as more acceptable than men's aggression. Men considered aggression more acceptable, because they considered the act…

  5. Cognitive Tempo, Violent Video Games, and Aggressive Behavior in Young Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, A. Roland; Gross, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    Assesses interpersonal aggression and aggression toward inanimate objects in a free-play setting where children played video games. Results indicated that subjects who played video games with aggressive content exhibited more object aggression during free-play and more interpersonal aggression during the frustrating situation than youngsters who…

  6. Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis and Its Treatment Options: Case Reports and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Roshna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized aggressive periodontitis results in rapid destruction of the periodontium and can lead to early tooth loss in the affected individuals if not diagnosed early and treated appropriately. The diagnostic features of the disease are characteristic, but the clinical presentation and patterns of destructions may vary between patients. Successful management of the disease is challenging especially if diagnosed at advanced stages of the disease, but not impossible with the current therapeutic choices for the disease. A vast array of treatment modalities is available which can be employed in the treatment of generalized aggressive periodontitis with varying success rates, but a definite guideline for the management is yet to be formulated. However, with the exponential rate of developments in periodontal research, regenerative therapy, tissue engineering, and genetic technologies, the future seems promising in regard to options at managing the disease. This paper attempts to describe the clinical and radiographic diagnostic features and the current treatment options along with a suggested protocol for comprehensive management of generalized aggressive periodontitis patients with case reports and a brief review.

  7. Periodontal parameters following orthodontic treatment in patients with aggressive periodontitis: A before-after clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorsand, Afshin; Paknejad, Mojgan; Yaghobee, Siamak; Ghahroudi, Amir Alireza Rasouli; Bashizadefakhar, Hourieh; Khatami, Masoomeh; Shirazi, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Background: The success of combined periodontal and orthodontic approach in the treatment of aggressive periodontitis patients with the pathologic extruded anterior teeth is a main concern and stability of the treatment results is an important factor to evaluate the treatment. The present study investigated the periodontal parameters at the end of the orthodontic treatment in patients with the aggressive periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Eight patients with an aggressive periodontal disease, extruded maxillary incisors, infrabony defects and probing depth of ≥5 mm were enrolled in this clinical trial (before, after). After periodontal therapy, orthodontic treatment was carried out for intrusion and alignment of teeth. Plaque index (PI), probing pocket depth (PPD), distance between incisal edge and interdental papilla, root length (RL), and defect dimensions (depth and width) were examined at the end of treatment and three as well as 6 months afterward. The data were subjected to repeated measure ANOVA test. P orthodontic approach would be a successful treatment with acceptable stability in the case of regular follow-up visits and controlled oral hygiene habits. PMID:24379862

  8. Therapy of Ewing's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunst, J.; Sauer, R.

    1993-01-01

    Therapy of Ewing's sarcoma requires a qualified clinical, radiological, and pathohistological diagnosis and, in particular, an optimal therapy by an experienced team of oncological specialists. Important prognostic factors are the presence of hematogenous metastases at diagnosis, the initial tumor volume, the response to chemotherapy, and adequate local therapy. Presently, cure rates of more than 60% can be achieved for localized Ewing's sarcoma by combination of local therapy and chemotherapy. The four-drug combination VACA (vincristin, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, adriamycin) can be considered as cytostatic gold standard. More aggressive regimens (VAIA, EVAIA, autologous bone marrow transplant) may be beneficial in subgroups and are under investigation. Concerning local therapy adequate radiotherapy plays a major role and achieves the same survival rates as radical surgery, comparable patient selection provided. Several factors have impact on radiotherapeutic results, especially total dose (45 Gy large volume, 55 Gy to the primary tumor), target volume (safety margin at least 2 cm according to the pretreatment volume, at least 5 cm in proximal and distal extension of long bones), timing of radiotherapy (as early as possible) and quality of treatment. Radiotherapy as sole local treatment is indicated in inoperable lesions (spine, sacrum, skull) and in small, good-responding tumors. High-risk patients should receive combined radiotherapeutic-surgical treatment, preferably as pre-operative irradiation. The value of hyperfractionation is not yet proven despite theoretical advantages. (orig.) [de

  9. Relational Aggression in Sibling and Peer Relationships during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Crick, Nicki R.; Stauffacher, Kirstin

    2006-01-01

    The role of siblings ("N" = 50) in the display of physical and relational aggression among peers during early childhood was explored. Specifically, sibling pairs' rates of physical and relational aggression were assessed in their independent social contexts. Findings indicated low to moderate levels of intercorrelation between physical and…

  10. Does brief Aikido training reduce aggression of youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delva-Tauiliili, J

    1995-02-01

    Over 2 1/2 weeks, 21 youth trained in beginning principles of Aikido were not rated lower on the Teachers' Self-control Rating Scale and on aggressive behavior than 21 students on a waiting list for a class; however, the several methodological limitations suggested conclusions on the effects of brief Aikido training on youths' aggressive behaviors are premature.

  11. Relations between Childraising Styles and Aggressiveness in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Torre-Cruz, M. J.; García-Linares, M. C.; Casanova-Arias, P. F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Physical and aggressive behavior which children and adolescents show toward peers is associated to parenting styles. The aim of this research was to examine the relation between perceived parenting styles (from mothers and fathers) and the level of physical and verbal aggressive behavior, anger and hostility showed towards the peers.…

  12. Parent-child interactions and relational aggression in peer relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michiels, Daisy; Grietens, Hans; Onghena, Patrick; Kuppens, Sofie

    2008-01-01

    The major aim of this review is to propose new ways of thinking about the role of parents in the development and course of children's relationally aggressive behavior. An important theoretical framework from which to start thinking about linkages between parenting and relational aggression is

  13. Epilepsy, Antiepileptic Drugs, and Aggression: An Evidence-Based Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besag, Frank; Ettinger, Alan B.; Mula, Marco; Gobbi, Gabriella; Comai, Stefano; Aldenkamp, Albert P.; Steinhoff, Bernhard J.

    2016-01-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have many benefits but also many side effects, including aggression, agitation, and irritability, in some patients with epilepsy. This article offers a comprehensive summary of current understanding of aggressive behaviors in patients with epilepsy, including an evidence-based review of aggression during AED treatment. Aggression is seen in a minority of people with epilepsy. It is rarely seizure related but is interictal, sometimes occurring as part of complex psychiatric and behavioral comorbidities, and it is sometimes associated with AED treatment. We review the common neurotransmitter systems and brain regions implicated in both epilepsy and aggression, including the GABA, glutamate, serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline systems and the hippocampus, amygdala, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and temporal lobes. Few controlled clinical studies have used behavioral measures to specifically examine aggression with AEDs, and most evidence comes from adverse event reporting from clinical and observational studies. A systematic approach was used to identify relevant publications, and we present a comprehensive, evidence-based summary of available data surrounding aggression-related behaviors with each of the currently available AEDs in both adults and in children/adolescents with epilepsy. A psychiatric history and history of a propensity toward aggression/anger should routinely be sought from patients, family members, and carers; its presence does not preclude the use of any specific AEDs, but those most likely to be implicated in these behaviors should be used with caution in such cases. PMID:27255267

  14. Social Anxiety and Aggression in Behaviorally Disordered Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ketty P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-nine boys in classes for students with behavioral disturbances were given questionnaires on trait anxiety, social anxiety, empathy, depression, and self-esteem, while teachers rated their aggression. Results showed that anxiety and empathy scores were not correlated with aggression, while social anxiety was positively correlated with trait…

  15. Peer Tutoring and Gorgias: Acknowledging Aggression in the Writing Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokser, Julie A.

    2001-01-01

    Continues a discussion of critiquing peer tutoring groups by underscoring a typically unacknowledged component: the way in which an emphasis on "peerness" disguises the inherent aggression in tutoring relationships. Defines "peerness" as a complicated relation that involves power and aggression as well as equality. (SG)

  16. Pazopanib, a promising option for the treatment of aggressive fibromatosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szucs, Z.; Messiou, C.; Wong, H.H.; Hatcher, H.; Miah, A.; Zaidi, S.; Graaf, W.T.A. van der; Judson, I.; Jones, R.L.; Benson, C.

    2017-01-01

    Desmoid tumour/aggressive fibromatosis (DT/AF) is a rare soft-tissue neoplasm that is locally aggressive but does not metastasize. There is no standard systemic treatment for symptomatic patients, although a number of agents are used. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have recently been reported to show

  17. Family Conflict and Childhood Aggression: The Role of Child Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiho; Raishevich, Natoshia; Scarpa, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Family conflict and childhood anxiety has been implicated in the development of aggressive behaviors, but the nature of these relationships has not been fully explored. Thus, the present study examined the role of anxiety in moderating the relationship between family conflict and childhood aggression in 50 children aged 7 to 13 years.…

  18. Relational Aggression: The Voices of Primary School Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Johan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore and describe primary school learners' experiences of relational aggression at school. This was done within a qualitative research design with a phenomenological approach. In order to give a voice to primary school learners' lived experiences of relational aggression, 25 individual interviews were conducted…

  19. Relational Aggression, Victimization, and Language Development: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Godleski, Stephanie A.

    2007-01-01

    This review explores the development of relational aggression and relational victimization among peers, with specific emphasis on clinical implications for speech-language pathologists. Developmental manifestations of relational aggression and victimization are reviewed from early childhood through emerging adulthood. The concurrent and…

  20. Televised relational and physical aggression and children's hostile intent attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Nicole

    2013-12-01

    An experiment was conducted with 150 children (mean age=10.1years) in third to fifth grades to test whether exposure to different forms of aggression in the media affected hostile attributional biases in response to different forms of provocation scenarios. Children were randomly assigned to watch a clip containing physical aggression, relational aggression, or no aggression. After exposure, children were asked to respond to a series of written provocation scenarios where a character caused some form of harm (instrumental or relational) to a target person, but the intent of the provocateur was ambiguous. Results revealed that exposure to relationally aggressive portrayals resulted in a hostile attributional bias in response to relational scenarios, whereas exposure to portrayals of physical aggression was associated with a hostile attributional bias in response to instrumental scenarios. Moreover, these biases were shown to be specific to the exposure condition (physical or relational) and not simply associated with exposure to aggression in general. The findings are discussed in terms of the general aggression model and children's social information processing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.