Sample records for aggressive trimodality therapy

  1. Trimodality therapy in bladder cancer: who, what, and when? (United States)

    Premo, Christopher; Apolo, Andrea B; Agarwal, Piyush K; Citrin, Deborah E


    Radical cystectomy is a standard treatment of nonmetastatic, muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Treatment with trimodality therapy consisting of maximal transurethral resection of the bladder tumor followed by concurrent chemotherapy and radiation has emerged as a method to preserve the native bladder in highly motivated patients. Several factors can affect the likelihood of long-term bladder preservation after trimodality therapy and therefore should be taken into account when selecting patients. New radiation techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy and image-guided radiation therapy may decrease the toxicity of radiotherapy in this setting. Novel chemotherapy regimens may improve response rates and minimize toxicity.

  2. Predictors of Postoperative Complications After Trimodality Therapy for Esophageal Cancer

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    Wang, Jingya [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wei, Caimiao [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tucker, Susan L. [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Myles, Bevan; Palmer, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Swisher, Stephen G. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ajani, Jaffer A. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lin, Steven H., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)


    Purpose: While trimodality therapy for esophageal cancer has improved patient outcomes, surgical complication rates remain high. The goal of this study was to identify modifiable factors associated with postoperative complications after neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2011, 444 patients were treated at our institution with surgical resection after chemoradiation. Postoperative (pulmonary, gastrointestinal [GI], cardiac, wound healing) complications were recorded up to 30 days postoperatively. Kruskal-Wallis tests and χ{sup 2} or Fisher exact tests were used to assess associations between continuous and categorical variables. Multivariate logistic regression tested the association between perioperative complications and patient or treatment factors that were significant on univariate analysis. Results: The most frequent postoperative complications after trimodality therapy were pulmonary (25%) and GI (23%). Lung capacity and the type of radiation modality used were independent predictors of pulmonary and GI complications. After adjusting for confounding factors, pulmonary and GI complications were increased in patients treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) versus intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT; odds ratio [OR], 2.018; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.104-3.688; OR, 1.704; 95% CI, 1.03-2.82, respectively) and for patients treated with 3D-CRT versus proton beam therapy (PBT; OR, 3.154; 95% CI, 1.365-7.289; OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 0.78-3.08, respectively). Mean lung radiation dose (MLD) was strongly associated with pulmonary complications, and the differences in toxicities seen for the radiation modalities could be fully accounted for by the MLD delivered by each of the modalities. Conclusions: The radiation modality used can be a strong mitigating factor of postoperative complications after neoadjuvant chemoradiation.

  3. Trimodality therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma: Results from an EORTC phase II multicentre trial

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    P.E.Y. van Schil (Paul); P. Baas (Paul); R.M. Gaafar (Rabab); A.W.P.M. Maat (Alex); F. Van De Pol (Francien); B. Hasane (B.); H.M. Klomp (Houke); A.M. Abdelrahman (A.); J. Welche (J.); J.P. van Meerbeeck (Jan)


    textabstractThe European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC; protocol 08031) phase II trial investigated the feasibility of trimodality therapy consisting of induction chemotherapy followed by extrapleural pneumonectomy and post-operative radiotherapy in patients with malignant

  4. Trimodal therapy in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus

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    Matuschek C


    Full Text Available Abstract Patients with ESCC (squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus are most commonly diagnosed with locally advanced tumor stages. Early metastatic disease and late diagnosis are common reasons responsible for this tumor's poor clinical outcome. The prognosis of esophageal cancer is very poor because patients usually do not have symptoms in early disease stages. Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus frequently complicates patients with multiple co-morbidities and these patients often require interdisciplinary diagnosis and treatment procedures. At present time, neoadjuvant radiation therapy and chemotherapy followed by surgery are regarded as the international standard of care. Meta-analyses have confirmed that this approach provides the patient with better local tumor control and an increased overall survival rate. It is recommended that patients with positive tumor response to neoadjuvant therapy and who are poor surgical candidates should consider definitive radiochemotherapy without surgery as a treatment option. In future, EGFR antibodies may also be administered to patients during therapy to improve the current treatment effectiveness. Positron-emission tomography proves to be an early response-imaging tool used to evaluate the effect of the neoadjuvant therapy and could be used as a predictive factor for the survival rate in ESCC. The percentage proportions of residual tumor cells in the histopathological analyses represent a gold standard for evaluating the response rate to radiochemotherapy. In the future, early response evaluation and molecular biological tests could be important diagnostic tools in influencing the treatment decisions of ESCC patients.

  5. Standard treatment option in stage III non-small-cell lung cancer: case against trimodal therapy and consolidation drug therapy. (United States)

    Jeremić, Branislav


    Prospective randomized trials and meta-analyses established concurrent radiochemotherapy (RT-CHT) as standard treatment approach in patients with inoperable, locally advanced (stage IIIA and B) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In patients with either clinically (c) or pathologically (p) staged disease (stage IIIA), including those with pN2 disease, trimodal therapy was also frequently practiced in the past and is currently still advocated by large cooperative groups and organizations. Similarly, consolidation CHT provided after concurrent RT-CHT was suggested to be feasible and effective in inoperable stage III NSCLC. Contrasting these practices and suggestions, there is no evidence that trimodal therapy in stage IIIA (clinically or pathologically staged) or consolidation CHT in inoperable stage III NSCLC plays any role in its treatment. In both cases, evidence clearly demonstrates that concurrent RT-CHT is of similar efficacy and less toxic, and it should be considered a standard treatment option for all patients with stage III NSCLC.

  6. Combination Trimodality Therapy Using Vismodegib for Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Face. (United States)

    Block, Alec M; Alite, Fiori; Diaz, Aidnag Z; Borrowdale, Richard W; Clark, Joseph I; Choi, Mehee


    Background. For large basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) of the head and neck, definitive surgery often requires extensive resection and reconstruction that may result in prolonged recovery and limited cosmesis. Vismodegib, a small-molecule inhibitor of the hedgehog pathway, is approved for advanced and metastatic BCCs. We present a case of advanced BCC treated with combination of vismodegib, radiotherapy, and local excision resulting in excellent response and cosmesis. Case Presentation. A 64-year-old gentleman presented with a 5-year history of a 7 cm enlarging right cheek mass, with extensive vascularization, central ulceration, and skin, soft tissue, and buccal mucosa involvement. Biopsy revealed BCC, nodular type. Up-front surgical option involved a large resection and reconstruction. After multidisciplinary discussion, we recommended and he opted for combined modality of vismodegib, radiotherapy, and local excision. The patient tolerated vismodegib well and his right cheek lesion decreased significantly in size. He was then treated with radiotherapy followed by local excision that revealed only focal residual BCC. Currently, he is without evidence of disease and has excellent cosmesis. Conclusions. We report a case of locally advanced BCC treated with trimodality therapy with vismodegib, radiotherapy, and local excision, resulting in excellent outcome and facial cosmesis, without requiring extensive resection or reconstructive surgery.

  7. Combination Trimodality Therapy Using Vismodegib for Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Face

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    Alec M. Block


    Full Text Available Background. For large basal cell carcinomas (BCCs of the head and neck, definitive surgery often requires extensive resection and reconstruction that may result in prolonged recovery and limited cosmesis. Vismodegib, a small-molecule inhibitor of the hedgehog pathway, is approved for advanced and metastatic BCCs. We present a case of advanced BCC treated with combination of vismodegib, radiotherapy, and local excision resulting in excellent response and cosmesis. Case Presentation. A 64-year-old gentleman presented with a 5-year history of a 7 cm enlarging right cheek mass, with extensive vascularization, central ulceration, and skin, soft tissue, and buccal mucosa involvement. Biopsy revealed BCC, nodular type. Up-front surgical option involved a large resection and reconstruction. After multidisciplinary discussion, we recommended and he opted for combined modality of vismodegib, radiotherapy, and local excision. The patient tolerated vismodegib well and his right cheek lesion decreased significantly in size. He was then treated with radiotherapy followed by local excision that revealed only focal residual BCC. Currently, he is without evidence of disease and has excellent cosmesis. Conclusions. We report a case of locally advanced BCC treated with trimodality therapy with vismodegib, radiotherapy, and local excision, resulting in excellent outcome and facial cosmesis, without requiring extensive resection or reconstructive surgery.

  8. Radiation induced chemotherapy sensitization in trimodality therapy of stage 3 non small cell lung cancer. A preliminary report

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    Takita, H. [Millard Fillmore Hospital, Buffalo (United States); Shin, K. H. [CCS Oncology Center, Kenmore, NY, (United States)


    The overall cure rate of locally advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) remains poor. Although there have been encouraging reports of preoperative use of chemotherapy, more recent trend is the trimodal approach of radiation, chemo, and surgical-therapies. With the trimodal therapy, increased tumor response and resectability are reported, however, there are increased treatment related side effects. It was observed that a relatively small dose of radiation given prior to induction chemotherapy greatly enhanced the tumor response to the chemotherapy without increased toxicity. A total of 18 patients (8 3. A and 10 3.B) were initially given 20 Gy of radiation therapy in 10 fractions and then received 2 courses of Taxol combination chemotherapy. The overall response rate was 83% (15/18) and 13 out of 18 patients underwent surgery. There was one postoperative death (not therapy related). It is speculated that the small dose of radiation therapy may have sensitized the tumor to subsequent chemotherapy, and it was suggested a new hypothesis of radiation therapy induced chemotherapy sensitization.

  9. Trimodal Therapy: Combining Hyperthermia with Repurposed Bexarotene and Ultrasound for Treating Liver Cancer. (United States)

    Misra, Santosh K; Ghoshal, Goutam; Gartia, Manas R; Wu, Zhe; De, Arun K; Ye, Mao; Bromfield, Corinne R; Williams, Emery M; Singh, Kuldeep; Tangella, Krishnarao V; Rund, Laurie; Schulten, Klaus; Schook, Lawrence B; Ray, Partha S; Burdette, Everette C; Pan, Dipanjan


    Repurposing of existing cancer drugs to overcome their physical limitations, such as insolubility, represents an attractive strategy to achieve enhanced therapeutic efficacy and broaden the range of clinical applications. Such an approach also promises to offer substantial cost savings in drug development efforts. Here we repurposed FDA-approved topical agent bexarotene (Targretin), currently in limited use for cutaneous manifestations of T-cell lymphomas, and re-engineer it for use in solid tumor applications by forming self-assembling nanobubbles. Physico-chemical characterization studies of the novel prodrug nanobubbles demonstrated their stability, enhanced target cell internalization capability, and highly controlled release profile in response to application of focused ultrasound energy. Using an in vitro model of hepatocellular carcinoma and an in vivo large animal model of liver ablation, we demonstrate the effectiveness of bexarotene prodrug nanobubbles when used in conjunction with catheter-based ultrasound, thereby highlighting the therapeutic promise of this trimodal approach.

  10. Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma (United States)

    ... page: Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma Over one-third ... TUESDAY, Feb. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental gene therapy for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma beat back more ...

  11. Aggressive Adolescents Benefit from Massage Therapy. (United States)

    Diego, Miguel A.; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Shaw, Jon A.; Rothe, Eugenio M.; Castellanos, Daniel; Mesner, Linda


    Seventeen aggressive adolescents were assigned to a massage therapy group or a relaxation therapy group to receive 20-minute therapy sessions, twice a week for five weeks. The massaged adolescents had lower anxiety after the first and last sessions. By the end of the study, they also reported feeling less hostile and they were perceived by their…

  12. Multi-stimuli responsive Cu2S nanocrystals as trimodal imaging and synergistic chemo-photothermal therapy agents (United States)

    Poulose, Aby Cheruvathoor; Veeranarayanan, Srivani; Mohamed, M. Sheikh; Nagaoka, Yutaka; Romero Aburto, Rebeca; Mitcham, Trevor; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Bouchard, Richard R.; Sakamoto, Yasushi; Yoshida, Yasuhiko; Maekawa, Toru; Sakthi Kumar, D.


    A size and shape tuned, multifunctional metal chalcogenide, Cu2S-based nanotheranostic agent is developed for trimodal imaging and multimodal therapeutics against brain cancer cells. This theranostic agent was highly efficient in optical, photoacoustic and X-ray contrast imaging systems. The folate targeted NIR-responsive photothermal ablation in synergism with the chemotherapeutic action of doxorubicin proved to be a rapid precision guided cancer-killing module. The multi-stimuli, i.e., pH-, thermo- and photo-responsive drug release behavior of the nanoconjugates opens up a wider corridor for on-demand triggered drug administration. The simple synthesis protocol, combined with the multitudes of interesting features packed into a single nanoformulation, clearly demonstrates the competing role of this Cu2S nanosystem in future cancer treatment strategies.A size and shape tuned, multifunctional metal chalcogenide, Cu2S-based nanotheranostic agent is developed for trimodal imaging and multimodal therapeutics against brain cancer cells. This theranostic agent was highly efficient in optical, photoacoustic and X-ray contrast imaging systems. The folate targeted NIR-responsive photothermal ablation in synergism with the chemotherapeutic action of doxorubicin proved to be a rapid precision guided cancer-killing module. The multi-stimuli, i.e., pH-, thermo- and photo-responsive drug release behavior of the nanoconjugates opens up a wider corridor for on-demand triggered drug administration. The simple synthesis protocol, combined with the multitudes of interesting features packed into a single nanoformulation, clearly demonstrates the competing role of this Cu2S nanosystem in future cancer treatment strategies. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Methodology and additional experimental results. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07139e

  13. Novel Therapies for Aggressive B-Cell Lymphoma

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    Kenneth A. Foon


    Full Text Available Aggressive B-cell lymphoma (BCL comprises a heterogeneous group of malignancies, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, Burkitt lymphoma, and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL. DLBCL, with its 3 subtypes, is the most common type of lymphoma. Advances in chemoimmunotherapy have substantially improved disease control. However, depending on the subtype, patients with DLBCL still exhibit substantially different survival rates. In MCL, a mature B-cell lymphoma, the addition of rituximab to conventional chemotherapy regimens has increased response rates, but not survival. Burkitt lymphoma, the most aggressive BCL, is characterized by a high proliferative index and requires more intensive chemotherapy regimens than DLBCL. Hence, there is a need for more effective therapies for all three diseases. Increased understanding of the molecular features of aggressive BCL has led to the development of a range of novel therapies, many of which target the tumor in a tailored manner and are summarized in this paper.

  14. Psychomotor therapy and aggression regulation in eating disorders

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    Boerhout, Cees; van Busschbach, Jooske T.; Wiersma, Durk; Hoek, Hans W.


    Eating disorder behaviours can be seen as self-destructive behaviours to a great extent related to inhibited anger expression. However, a treatment protocol targeted at anger and aggression in these disorders is lacking. This paper describes a psychomotor therapy (PMT) model as a body-oriented metho

  15. Aggressiveness


    Stepišnik, Urška


    There are a lot of aspects of aggressiveness and everybody understands and defines it differently. Professionals define aggressiveness as actually inflicting damage to other organism or object6, the reaction which aims in damaging living organism or object. The objectives of aggressive behaviour are physical and mental damage. The difference between aggressiveness and aggression is that the term aggression relates to a momentary reaction, aggressiveness, however, means permanent characteristi...

  16. Influence of reinforcement behavioral therapy and Ellis cognitive therapy on derelict children’s aggression

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    Habibollah Khazaie


    Full Text Available Background: Control of angry in effective manner is very important. In present study we compared the effect of reinforcement behavioral therapy and Ellis cognitive therapy on decreasing of aggression in derelict children aged 10 to 18 years old at hostelry care center of Welfare Organization of Kermanshah. Methods: Fifty-seven out of 89 children (31 male, 26 female was diagnosed as aggressive according to the AGQ results from six hostelry care center of welfare organization of Kermanshah, were selected and participated in the study. Participants allocated in to reinforcement behavioral therapy, Ellis cognitive therapy or control group randomly. Each groups received two hours therapeutic teaching for 10 sessions during 10 weeks. The control group had not been received any intervention. After 10 weeks, the posttest AGQ was performed on participant. The results of pretest and posttest were compared using T-test and ANOVA.Results: The posttest aggression score in reinforcement behavioral therapy group was decreased significantly after intervention (P=0.011. We didn’t find significant differences between pre and post tests aggression score in Ellis cognitive therapy (P=0.258. Result of ANOVA show that there was no significant difference between three group after intervention (P=0.691Conclusion: Reinforcement behavioral therapy and Ellis cognitive therapy did not change the aggression score in derelict children. This may relate to specific hard and stressful life of these children due to ineffectiveness of these short-term methods.

  17. Early aggressive therapy for severe extensive ulcerative colitis

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    De-Jun Cui


    The current ulcerative colitis (UC) treatment algorithm involves a step-up therapeutic strategy, mainly aiming at inducing and maintaining its clinical remission.Although this therapeutic strategy may seem to be cost-efficient and reduce the risk of side effects,recent trials and case reports have shown that topdown therapy using infliximab induces a rapid clinical response, enhances patient quality of life, promotes mucosal healing, reduces surgeries and indirect cost of treatment for patients with severe UC. Moreover,since long-term treatment with infliximab is safe and well tolerated, early aggressive top-down therapeutic strategy may be a more effective approach, at least in a subgroup of severe extensive UC patients.

  18. Gestalt therapy approaches with aggressive children in a day care setting


    Maxey, Win


    This research study was designed to evaluate whether or not Gestalt therapy approaches could be used effectively when intervening with aggressive acts in a day care setting. Five focus children were observed at timed intervals as to whether or not they were aggressive, how the caretaker intervened, and how the children responded to the caretaker intervention. After a baseline of aggressive acts was established, caretakers were trained to use Gestalt therapy interventio...

  19. Radiation therapy in the treatment of aggressive fibromatoses (desmoid tumors). (United States)

    Kiel, K D; Suit, H D


    Twenty-five patients with aggressive fibromatoses (desmoid tumors) have been treated or followed in the Department of Radiation Medicine at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 1972 and 1982. Seventeen patients were treated by radiation, 4 for primary and 13 for recurrent disease. Seven patients were treated in conjunction with surgery. Partial or complete regression was achieved in 76%, and 59% are without evidence of disease (NED) at 9 to 94 months follow-up. Eight of ten patients treated primarily with radiation have achieved complete response without an attempt at resection (five) or have achieved stabilization (three) of their disease after some regression. Consistent complete control was seen with doses above 60 Gy. Periods to 27 months were required to observe complete responses. Only three failures within the radiation field were observed, two after low doses (22 and 24 Gy, respectively). Eight patients were seen after resection but with uncertain or histologically minimum positive margins, and were followed regularly and not treated. One patient has failed to date and is NED after resection. Radiation therapy is recommended in those situations where wide-field resection without significant morbidity is not possible for gross local disease. If minimally positive margins exist after resection in a patient who may be followed carefully, frequent follow-up and prompt treatment at recurrence may be an effective alternative to immediate radiation therapy.

  20. Temozolomide therapy in patients with aggressive pituitary adenomas or carcinomas. (United States)

    Losa, Marco; Bogazzi, Fausto; Cannavo, Salvo; Ceccato, Filippo; Curtò, Lorenzo; De Marinis, Laura; Iacovazzo, Donato; Lombardi, Giuseppe; Mantovani, Giovanna; Mazza, Elena; Minniti, Giuseppe; Nizzoli, Maurizio; Reni, Michele; Scaroni, Carla


    Temozolomide is effective in some patients with progressive pituitary adenoma or carcinoma. We report a survey study of Italian patients treated with Temozolomide because of aggressive pituitary adenoma or carcinoma resistant to standard therapies. Italian endocrinologists were surveyed and asked to participate into the study. A questionnaire was sent to all those who agreed and had used Temozolomide in at least one patient with pituitary tumor. Database was closed in December 2013. A literature review was also performed. Thirty-one patients were included into the analysis. Mean age at start of Temozolomide treatment was 58.3 ± 1.9 years (± standard error). Six of the 31 (19.4%) Italian patients had a pituitary carcinoma. Twenty-five patients (80.6%) had disease control during Temozolomide treatment, while 6 patients (19.4%) had disease progression. Median follow-up after beginning Temozolomide was 43 months. Thirteen patients had tumor growth after stopping Temozolomide. The 2-year progression-free survival was 47.7% (95% CI 29.5-65.9%), while the 2-year disease control duration was 59.1% (95% CI 39.1-79.1%). Eleven patients died of progressive disease and other two patients of unrelated causes. The 2-year and 4-year overall survival rates were 83.9% (95% CI 70.7-97.1%) and 59.6% (95% CI 40.0-79.2%), respectively. Temozolomide is an additional effective therapeutic option for the treatment of aggressive pituitary tumors. The drug is well tolerated and causes few severe adverse effects. Recurrence of the tumor can occur after an initial positive response and usually portends a grim outcome.

  1. Study on the effectiveness of Responsive Aggression Regulation Therapy (Re-ART)

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    Hoogsteder, L.M.; Kuijpers, N.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van Horn, J.E.; Hendriks, J.; Wissink, I.B.


    This article describes a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental study of the effectiveness of Responsive Aggression Regulation Therapy (Re-ART), a Dutch intervention for 16- to 21-year-old juveniles. Re-ART aims to decrease severe aggressive behavior using a cognitive behavioral approach combined wit

  2. Effect of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT on reducing aggression in students

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    Salar Faramarzi


    Full Text Available Background: Students’ aggression at schoolshas attracted the attention of many professionals and researchers. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on the reduction of male secondary students' aggression in Kermanshah. Methods: In this experimental study, a pretest-posttest control group design was used. A total of 400 students were randomly selected from among the high school male students in Kermanshah using multistage sampling. Of these, 40 students who had a higher mean score were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental group underwent with mindfulness-based cognitive therapy once a week for eight sessions. The subjects completed Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire (1992 twice, one before treatment and another after treatment. The data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA. Results: The results of multivariate analysis of covariance showed that after removing the effect of pretest, the experimental group indicated a significant reduction compared to the control group in the total aggression scale (F=1059.531; P<0.001. Also, after removing the effect of the pretest, the experimental group experienced a significant decrease compared to the control group at the micro scales of aggressive feeling (F=639.936; P<0.001, the subscales of aggressive thoughts (F=154.240; P<0.001, and aggressive behaviors (F=502.836; P<0.001,. Conclusion: This study showed that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy reduced aggression in all three components of aggressive behavior, aggressive thoughts and aggressive feelings in the students.

  3. Effecacy of painting therapy in reducing aggression in children with conduct disorder

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    Shahla Jangi Ghoojeh Beigloo


    Full Text Available Background: The present study was carried out to examine the effectiveness of painting therapy in reducing aggression in children with conduct disorder. Methods: This study was a semi-experimental research (pretest-posttest with control group design in which the statistical population consisted of thirty 8-12 year-old children with conduct disorder who were studying in Parsabad city in the academic year of 2013-2014 and were selected through convenience sampling method. Then, they were divided into two equal groups (experimental and control using sample random sampling. The instruments for data collection consisted of Raven's intelligence test, child symptom inventory-4 and Eysenck aggression inventory. The experimental underwent painting therapy for 12 sessions and every session lasted 40 minutes. The obtained data were analyzed by ANCOVA and t-test for dependent and independent groups. Results: There was not a significant difference between the mean aggression scores of experimental group in the post-test and follow up compared with pre-test. Also, a significant difference was reported between the mean aggression scores of experimental and control groups in post-test and follow up phases (P<0.05. Conclusion: Painting therapy is an effective method in reducing aggression in children with conduct disorder.

  4. On the Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Aggression in Addicts

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    mahmood najafy


    Full Text Available : This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on aggression among addicts. Method: A quasi-experimental design along with pre-posttest stages, control group, and follow-up was employed for the conduct of this study. The number of 24 addicts referring to rehabilitation clinics in Tehran was selected as the sample size of this study via convenience sampling method in accordance with the inclusion criteria. These participants were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. In this study, Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire was used for data collection purposes. Results: Data analysis showed that group cognitive-behavioral therapy reduces verbal and physical aggression, anger, and hostility in addicted people. However, this therapy only led to the reduction of verbal aggression, anger, and hostility in addicted people. Conclusion: Since aggression has a high comorbidity with substance abuse, this factor can be as an obstacle to withdrawal. Therefore, it must be considered in addiction treatment.

  5. Schema therapy for aggressive offenders with personality disorders

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    M. Keulen-de Vos; D.P. Bernstein; A. Arntz


    Schema therapy (ST) is increasingly used in personality-disordered (PD) patients. ST is an integrative psychotherapy that blends elements of cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic and experiential approaches. The key concepts in ST are early maladaptive schemas, (dysfunctional) coping styles and schema

  6. High-dose therapy with autologous transplantation for aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: the Bologna experience. (United States)

    Zinzani, Pier Luigi; Tani, Monica; Gabriele, Annalisa; Gherlinzoni, Filippo; De Vivo, Antonello; Ricci, Paolo; Bandini, Giuseppe; Lemoli, Roberto Massimo; Motta, Maria Rosa; Rizzi, Simonetta; Guidice, Valeria; Zompatori, Maurizio; Stefoni, Vittorio; Alinari, Lapo; Musuraca, Gerardo; Marchi, Enrica; Bassi, Simona; Conte, Roberto; Pileri, Stefano; Tura, Sante; Baccarani, Michele


    Patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) who relapse after initial therapy have a poor prognosis and with standard dose salvage therapy the outlook remains poor. In this work we examine the patient characteristics and outcome of patients with aggressive NHL treated with HDT and autologous transplantation at our Institute from 1982 to 1999. A retrospective analysis was performed examining patient characteristics, prior chemotherapy regimens, pretransplant disease status, HDT regimen, source of stem cells, time for hematopietic recovery, complications of transplantation, response rates, overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS). One hundred and thirty-four patients with aggressive NHL were treated with estimated 10-year OS and RFS rates of 50% and 66%, respectively. Disease status (sensitive vs. refractory) pre-HDT was the most powerful predictive parameter for OS and RFS, at both univariate and multivariate analysis. For the entire cohort, transplant-related mortality was only 3.5% without evidence of second malignancies. Our results confirm that HDT with autologous transplantation is associated with a durable RFS in a remarkable proportion of aggressive NHL patients with very low global early and late toxicity. Improved patient selection, transplant timing, ongoing improvements in supportive care, and selected phase III trials should increase outcomes further.

  7. Successful surgical drainage and aggressive medical therapy in a preterm neonate with Bacillus cereus meningitis. (United States)

    Drazin, Doniel; Lehman, Deborah; Danielpour, Moise


    Bacillus cereus meningitis is a rare disease with a very high mortality rate in neonates. The authors present the rare case of a premature infant with B. cereus bacteremia and subsequent intracranial abscesses. In addition to aggressive medical therapy, surgical drainage was performed via a left frontal mini-craniotomy. At 15 months of age, the patient had mild developmental delay, cortical blindness, and sensorineural hearing loss. The clinical case is described and difficulties in the management of B. cereus meningoencephalitis in infants are discussed.

  8. Temozolomide Therapy for Aggressive Pituitary Tumors: Results in a Small Series of Patients from Argentina

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    Oscar D. Bruno


    Full Text Available We evaluated results of temozolomide (TMZ therapy in six patients, aged 34–78 years, presenting aggressive pituitary tumors. In all the patients tested O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT immunoexpression in surgical specimens was absent. Patients received temozolomide 140–320 mg/day for 5 days monthly for at least 3 months. In two patients minimum time for evaluation could not be reached because of death in a 76-year-old man with a malignant prolactinoma and of severe neutro-thrombopenia in a 47-year-old woman with nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma. In two patients (a 34-year-old acromegalic woman and a 39-year-old woman with Nelson’s syndrome no response was observed after 4 and 6 months, respectively, and the treatment was stopped. Conversely, two 52- and 42-year-old women with Cushing’s disease had long-term total clinical and radiological remissions which persisted after stopping temozolomide. We conclude that TMZ therapy may be of variable efficacy depending on—until now—incompletely understood factors. Cooperative work on a greater number of cases of aggressive pituitary tumors should be crucial to establish the indications, doses, and duration of temozolomide administration.

  9. Photodynamic therapy in the treatment of aggressive periodontitis: A systematic review (United States)

    Doufexi, Aikaterini-Ellisavet


    Background Aggressive periodontitis (AgP) is a severe form of periodontal diseases with rapid destruction of the supporting bone around teeth. The efficacy of PDT in suppressing periodontal pathogens may be crucial in adopting new protocols for the treatment of AgP. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to investigate the possible role of PDT in the treatment of AgP as an adjunctive therapy or monotherapy. Material and Methods A systematic search of the literature was performed. Additionally, the references from all the selected full-text studies were searched for relevant articles. Two reviewers screened independently titles and abstracts or full text copies. Quality assessment of all the included studies was held. Results Initial screening of electronic databases yielded 418 potentially relevant publications. After screening of the titles and full-text examination, five studies were included in the systematic review. Four publications evaluated the effects of PDT adjunctive to SRP in patients with AgP: two of them compared the clinical outcomes of SRP and PDT with a control group that received therapy with SRP and antibiotics (metronidazole and amoxicillin); two publications included SRP and PDT in the test group, and SRP alone in the control group. In one study, PDT was tested as a monotherapy compared with SRP alone. Conclusions Within the limitations of this review, PDT may exhibit a beneficial role in the therapy of aggressive periodontitis after repeated applications. In the future, more methodologically sound, long-term randomized clinical trials are needed to be conducted. Key words:Photodynamic therapy, periodontitis, systematic review. PMID:26595837

  10. Creating a Safe Place in the Midst of Aggression: Music Therapy in Child Psychiatry

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    Marieke Degryse


    Full Text Available Working as a music therapist in a psychiatric unit for children with learning disabilities, one is often confronted with a lot of aggression. Most of these children have attachment disorders and severe behavioural problems. By which means can music exist in music therapy within this specific setting? Can we speak of a traumatic nature in music and body? This article will present a case study, where finding a safe place within music therapy is of major importance. Learning and listening to songs can be a necessary way to safeguard control for the client, gain some self-confidence, and create a place for regression. Going through this process in finding a safe and contained place within music therapy, the possibility of playing techniques arises, offering the freedom for exploration and a form of control and predictability. The case study concludes with the importance of playfulness whereby traumatic material can be digested through the music. Also, the role of singing songs in music therapy with this population is highlighted briefly.

  11. Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Children with ADHD, with and without Aggressiveness. (United States)

    Miranda, Ana; Presentacion, Maria Jesus


    Examines the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral self-control therapy on children with ADHD Explores whether the combination of training in self-control with training in anger management has better outcomes on two subgroups of hyperactive children, aggressive (n=16) and nonaggressive (n=16). Overall improvements were found, however improvements of…

  12. Long-Term Follow-Up of a Prospective Trial of Trimodality Therapy of Weekly Paclitaxel, Radiation, and Androgen Deprivation in High-Risk Prostate Cancer With or Without Prior Prostatectomy

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    Hussain, Arif, E-mail: [University of Maryland Greenebaum Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Baltimore VA Medical Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wu, Yin [Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Mirmiran, Alireza [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); DiBiase, Steven [Cooper University Hospital, Camden, NJ (United States); Goloubeva, Olga [University of Maryland Greenebaum Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Bridges, Benjamin [University of Maryland Greenebaum Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Mannuel, Heather [University of Maryland Greenebaum Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Baltimore VA Medical Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Engstrom, Christine [Baltimore VA Medical Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Dawson, Nancy [Lombardi Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C (United States); Amin, Pradip; Kwok, Young [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)


    Purpose: Weekly paclitaxel, concurrent radiation, and androgen deprivation (ADT) were evaluated in patients with high-risk prostate cancer (PC) with or without prior prostatectomy (RP). Methods and Materials: Eligible post-RP patients included: pathological T3 disease, or rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) {>=}0.5 ng/mL post-RP. Eligible locally advanced PC (LAPC) patients included: 1) cT2b-4N0N+, M0; 2) Gleason score (GS) 8-10; 3) GS 7 + PSA 10-20 ng/mL; or 4) PSA 20-150 ng/mL. Treatment included ADT (4 or 24 months), weekly paclitaxel (40, 50, or 60 mg/m{sup 2}/wk), and pelvic radiation therapy (total dose: RP = 64.8 Gy; LAPC = 70.2 Gy). Results: Fifty-nine patients were enrolled (LAPC, n = 29; RP, n = 30; ADT 4 months, n = 29; 24 months, n = 30; whites n = 29, African Americans [AA], n = 28). Baseline characteristics (median [range]) were: age 67 (45-86 years), PSA 5.9 (0.1-92.1 ng/mL), GS 8 (6-9). At escalating doses of paclitaxel, 99%, 98%, and 95% of doses were given with radiation and ADT, respectively, with dose modifications required primarily in RP patients. No acute Grade 4 toxicities occurred. Grade 3 toxicities were diarrhea 15%, urinary urgency/incontinence 10%, tenesmus 5%, and leukopenia 3%. Median follow-up was 75.3 months (95% CI: 66.8-82.3). Biochemical progression occurred in 24 (41%) patients and clinical progression in 11 (19%) patients. The 5- and 7-year OS rates were 83% and 67%. There were no differences in OS between RP and LAPC, 4- and 24-month ADT, white and AA patient categories. Conclusions: In addition to LAPC, to our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate concurrent chemoradiation with ADT in high-risk RP patients. With a median follow-up of 75.3 months, this trial also represents the longest follow-up of patients treated with taxane-based chemotherapy with EBRT in high-risk prostate cancer. Concurrent ADT, radiation, and weekly paclitaxel at 40 mg/m{sup 2}/week in RP patients and 60 mg/m{sup 2}/week in LAPC patients is

  13. Continuous finasteride therapy for benign prostate hypertrophy upgrades both neuroendorcine differentiation and aggressive prostate cancer. (United States)

    Tarle, Marko; Spajic, Borivoj; Kraljic, Ivo; Kusic, Zvonko


    Finasteride has been recognized as a drug suitable for the chemoprevention of prostate cancer (PC) by reducing intracellular dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels. The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) database on continuous finasteride treatment of almost 19 thousands patients indicated the reduction in cancer prevalence by about 25% . However, in this same study more than a twofold increase in high grade aggressive prostate tumors was recorded when compared to controls thus arising serious doubts upon the real benefits of the protocol. Here, our investigation was performed three years on a continuous versus intermittent (six month treatment followed by 6 months resting period) finasteride treatment in 125 BPH patients (pts) each. The overall PC prevalence in both finasteride-treated groups was lower that in untreated controls and thus being in accordance with the PCPT data. However, continuous therapy gave significantly higher incidence in Gleason score (GS)>6 carcinomas compared to intermitted therapy and controls (44.5%, 25% and 18.2% of total acquired PC, respectively). In addition, the acquired elevated chromogranin A (CgA) values were also more than doubled in pts treated continuously compared to the other two groups (13.6%, 5.6% and 6.4%, respectively). Acquired PC GS>6 recorded in pts with a raise in CgA was higher in continuously treated pts (50%) than in the other two studied groups (20% and 25%, respectively). In pts with the retained normal CgA concentration highest PC incidence was found in controls (5.1%) and lower prevalence was recorded in continuously (2.8%) and intermittently treated pts (2.5%) while the respective PC GS>6 incidence was lower in controls than in treated pts. Seemingly, finasteride treatment reduces PC prevalence in pts free of NED but elevates the number of aggressive carcinomas in CgA-positive pts only if continuous treatment is applied. In conclusion, current chemoprevention protocols need to be carefully reconsidered prior to

  14. Prolactinoma ErbB receptor expression and targeted therapy for aggressive tumors. (United States)

    Cooper, Odelia; Mamelak, Adam; Bannykh, Serguei; Carmichael, John; Bonert, Vivien; Lim, Stephen; Cook-Wiens, Galen; Ben-Shlomo, Anat


    As ErbB signaling is a determinant of prolactin synthesis, role of ErbB receptors was tested for prolactinoma outcomes and therapy. The objective of this study was to characterize ErbB receptor expression in prolactinomas and then perform a pilot study treating resistant prolactinomas with a targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). Retrospective analysis of prolactinomas and pilot study for dopamine agonist resistant prolactinomas in tertiary referral center. We performed immunofluorescent staining of a tissue array of 29 resected prolactinoma tissues for EGFR, ErbB2, ErbB3, and ErbB4 correlated with clinical features. Two patients with aggressive resistant prolactinomas enrolled and completed trial. They received lapatinib 1,250 mg daily for 6 months with tumor and hormone assessments. Main outcome measures were positive tumor staining of respective ErbB receptors, therapeutic reduction of prolactin levels and tumor shrinkage. Treated PRL levels and tumor volumes were suppressed in both subjects treated with TKI. EGFR expression was positive in 82 % of adenomas, ErbB2 in 92 %, ErbB3 in 25 %, and ErbB4 in 71 %, with ErbB2 score > EGFR > ErbB4 > ErbB3. Higher ErbB3 expression was associated with optic chiasm compression (p = 0.03), suprasellar extension (p = 0.04), and carotid artery encasement (p = 0.01). Higher DA response rates were observed in tumors with higher ErbB3 expression. Prolactinoma expression of specific ErbB receptors is associated with tumor invasion, symptoms, and response to dopamine agonists. Targeting ErbB receptors may be effective therapy in patients with resistant prolactinomas.

  15. The relationship between the level of program integrity and pre- and post-test changes of Responsive-Aggression Regulation Therapy (Re-ART) Outpatient: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogsteder, L.M.; van Horn, J.E.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Wissink, I.B.; Hendriks, J.


    Responsive-Aggression Regulation Therapy (Re-ART) Outpatient is a cognitive behavioral-based intervention for adolescents and young adults (16-24 years) with severe aggressive behavioral problems. This pilot study (N = 26) examined the level of program integrity (PI; that is, the delivery of the int

  16. Reduction of the treated volume to involved node radiation therapy as part of combined modality treatment for early stage aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhappen, M.H.; Poortmans, P.M.; Raaijmakers, E.; Raemaekers, J.M.M.


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This retrospective study investigated whether focused involved node radiation therapy (INRT) can safely replace involved field RT (IFRT) in patients with early stage aggressive NHL. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included 258 patients with stage I/II aggressive NHL who received com

  17. Combination therapy with mitoxantrone and plasma exchange in aggressive relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: A preliminary clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Tabrizi


    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of mitoxantrone induction therapy in rapidly worsening multiple sclerosis (MS is well established. Plasma exchange is also applied as an adjuvant in exacerbations of relapsing MS. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of combination therapy with mitoxantrone and plasma exchange versus mitoxantrone alone in patients with aggressive MS. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with aggressive relapsing remitting MS were randomly put into two groups. The first group underwent monthly plasma exchange for three successive months, followed by 12 mg/m 2 mitoxantrone at the end of each course and two more doses of 6 mg/m 2 mitoxantrone in 3-month intervals. The second group received the same doses of mitoxantrone only without plasma exchange. At the end of 8 months treatment course, clinical reassessment and neuroimaging was performed and treatment was continued with interferon-β. Results: At the end of induction therapy, Expanded Disability Status Scale score was significantly improved in both groups (P < 0.001. Number of demyelinating and gadolinium-enhancing plaques in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was prominently reduced in group 2 (P ≤ 0.05, but the changes were not statistically significant in group 1, except for juxtacortical plaques. Conclusion: Administration of mitoxantrone as an induction therapy in patients of aggressive relapsing remitting MS results in significant improvement of their clinical state and MRI activity. However, combination of plasma exchange with mitoxantrone gives no more benefits than mitoxantrone alone and sometimes worsens the situation possibly by reduction of mitoxantrone efficacy as a result of plasma exchange.

  18. The Efficacy of Rational-Emotive-Behavioral versus Relaxation Group Therapies in Treatment of Aggression of Offspring of Veterans with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Barekatain


    Full Text Available Background: Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in war veterans has been linked with symptoms in their children, including symptoms resembling those of the traumatized parents, especially aggression. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy in reducing aggressive behaviors of male adolescents whose fathers have war related PTSD. Method: 36 male children (aged 11 19 years whose fathers had PTSD, were randomly assigned into three groups for Rational-Emotive- Behavioral Therapy (REBT, Relaxation Therapy, and Wait-List control group. Each method had a course of ten therapeutic group sessions of 60 minutes once a week. Rates of aggression were assessed by Aggression Questionnaire (AGQ at baseline, end of intervention, and two months later. Results: The difference between AGQ scores of three groups was statistically significant. The behaviors of the three groups were not homogenous across the time (group × time interaction and showed a statistically significant difference. Conclusion: This study revealed that the intervention groups were superior to control group in reduction of aggressive behaviors in male adolescents of war veterans with PTSD. Further studies with greater sample size, prolonged duration of follow up, and multiple assessment procedures may be needed for better conclusions. Key words: Aggression, offspring, PTSD, Group Therapy

  19. The Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study "Extra-Aggression" Score as an Indicator in Cognitive Restructuring Therapy for Male Perpetrators of Domestic Violence (United States)

    Norman, Michael; Ryan, Lawrence J.


    It was hypothesized that male perpetrators of domestic violence in the early stages of a 1-year process of cognitive restructuring therapy would manifest on the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study higher levels of extra-aggressiveness than in later stages of the therapy process. A sample of male batterers in the process of treatment took the…

  20. Cognitive behavioral therapy to reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders. (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Li, Chun; Wang, Hong; Ou, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Song; Wang, Xiao-Ping


    This 9-week study was designed to determine whether a commercial cognitive-behavioral training program could effectively reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders. Sixty-six participants were randomly assigned to receive routine intervention alone (control group) or routine intervention plus Williams LifeSkills Training (WLST group) in a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcome was change scores on the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) from baseline to one week following end of training. Secondary outcomes were change scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (CMHS). There were significant between-group differences in change of MOAS total score (P young male violent offenders.

  1. Radiation therapy in the treatment of aggressive fibromatoses. [X-ray

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    Greenberg, H.M.; Goebel, R.; Weichselbaum, R.R.; Greenberger, J.S.; Chaffey, J.T.; Cassady, J.R.


    Twelve patients with aggressive but histologically benign connective tissue tumors (nine desmoids and three neurofibromas) were treated with either radiation or radiation plus surgery. Long term local control was accomplished in eight of nine desmoid tumors and 2 of 3 neurofibromas. In the successfully treated patients, local control was obtained with minimal long term complications when compared with radical surgical procedures that would have been necessary for cure. Complications of radiotherapy are discussed along with details of radiation treatment.

  2. Trimode Power Converter optimizes PV, diesel and battery energy sources (United States)

    Osullivan, George; Bonn, Russell; Bower, Ward


    Conservatively, there are 100,000 localities in the world waiting for the benefits that electricity can provide, and many of these are in climates where sunshine is plentiful. With these locations in mind a prototype 30 kW hybrid system has been assembled at Sandia to prove the reliability and economics of photovoltaic, diesel and battery energy sources managed by an autonomous power converter. In the Trimode Power Converter the same power parts, four IGBT's with an isolation transformer and filter components, serve as rectifier and charger to charge the battery from the diesel; as a stand-alone inverter to convert PV and battery energy to AC; and, as a parallel inverter with the diesel-generator to accommodate loads larger than the rating of the diesel. Whenever the diesel is supplying the load, an algorithm assures that the diesel is running at maximum efficiency by regulating the battery charger operating point. Given the profile of anticipated solar energy, the cost of transporting diesel fuel to a remote location and a five year projection of load demand, a method to size the PV array, battery and diesel for least cost is developed.

  3. CHOP Chemotherapy for Aggressive Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma with and without HIV in the Antiretroviral Therapy Era in Malawi (United States)

    Gopal, Satish; Fedoriw, Yuri; Kaimila, Bongani; Montgomery, Nathan D.; Kasonkanji, Edwards; Moses, Agnes; Nyasosela, Richard; Mzumara, Suzgo; Varela, Carlos; Chikasema, Maria; Makwakwa, Victor; Itimu, Salama; Tomoka, Tamiwe; Kamiza, Steve; Dhungel, Bal M.; Chimzimu, Fred; Kampani, Coxcilly; Krysiak, Robert; Richards, Kristy L.; Shea, Thomas C.; Liomba, N. George


    There are no prospective studies of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) treated with CHOP in sub-Saharan Africa. We enrolled adults with aggressive NHL in Malawi between June 2013 and May 2015. Chemotherapy and supportive care were standardized, and HIV+ patients received antiretroviral therapy (ART). Thirty-seven of 58 patients (64%) were HIV+. Median age was 47 years (IQR 39–56), and 35 (60%) were male. Thirty-five patients (60%) had stage III/IV, 43 (74%) B symptoms, and 28 (48%) performance status ≥2. B-cell NHL predominated among HIV+ patients, and all T-cell NHL occurred among HIV- individuals. Thirty-one HIV+ patients (84%) were on ART for a median 9.9 months (IQR 1.1–31.7) before NHL diagnosis, median CD4 was 121 cells/μL (IQR 61–244), and 43% had suppressed HIV RNA. HIV+ patients received a similar number of CHOP cycles compared to HIV- patients, but more frequently developed grade 3/4 neutropenia (84% vs 31%, p = 0.001), resulting in modestly lower cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin doses with longer intervals between cycles. Twelve-month overall survival (OS) was 45% (95% CI 31–57%). T-cell NHL (HR 3.90, p = 0.017), hemoglobin (HR 0.82 per g/dL, p = 0.017), albumin (HR 0.57 per g/dL, p = 0.019), and IPI (HR 2.02 per unit, p<0.001) were associated with mortality. HIV was not associated with mortality, and findings were similar among patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Twenty-three deaths were from NHL (12 HIV+, 11 HIV-), and 12 from CHOP (9 HIV+, 3 HIV-). CHOP can be safe, effective, and feasible for aggressive NHL in Malawi with and without HIV. PMID:26934054

  4. Rates and Durability of Response to Salvage Radiation Therapy Among Patients With Refractory or Relapsed Aggressive Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

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    Tseng, Yolanda D., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Chen, Yu-Hui [Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Catalano, Paul J. [Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ng, Andrea [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)


    Purpose: To evaluate the response rate (RR) and time to local recurrence (TTLR) among patients who received salvage radiation therapy for relapsed or refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and investigate whether RR and TTLR differed according to disease characteristics. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was performed for all patients who completed a course of salvage radiation therapy between January 2001 and May 2011 at Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. Separate analyses were conducted for patients treated with palliative and curative intent. Predictors of RR for each subgroup were assessed using a generalized estimating equation model. For patients treated with curative intent, local control (LC) and progression-free survival were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method; predictors for TTLR were evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results: Salvage radiation therapy was used to treat 110 patients to 121 sites (76 curative, 45 palliative). Salvage radiation therapy was given as part of consolidation in 18% of patients treated with curative intent. Median dose was 37.8 Gy, with 58% and 36% of curative and palliative patients, respectively, receiving 39.6 Gy or higher. The RR was high (86% curative, 84% palliative). With a median follow-up of 4.8 years among living patients, 5-year LC and progression-free survival for curative patients were 66% and 34%, respectively. Refractory disease (hazard ratio 3.3; P=.024) and lack of response to initial chemotherapy (hazard ratio 4.3; P=.007) but not dose (P=.93) were associated with shorter TTLR. Despite doses of 39.6 Gy or higher, 2-year LC was only 61% for definitive patients with refractory disease or disease that did not respond to initial chemotherapy. Conclusions: Relapsed or refractory aggressive NHL is responsive to salvage radiation therapy, and durable LC can be achieved in some cases. However, refractory disease is associated with a

  5. A trimodality approach in the management of metastatic low-grade epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the bone. (United States)

    Saste, Abhijit; Cabrera Fernandez, Diego Felipe; Gulati, Rohit; Gamalski, Steven


    A 29-year-old man presented with a 2-week history of severe pain in the left foot with no preceding history of trauma. A left foot radiograph demonstrated a cortical lucency in the mid-distal shaft of the third metatarsal bone. MRI of the left foot showed an expansile lesion in the same location. A staging bone scan showed a focal uptake in the known lucency in the left third metatarsal and in the proximal left femur. A subsequent left hip radiograph demonstrated a lucency in the intertrochanteric region. CT scan of the chest, abdomen and pelvis was unremarkable. A biopsy of the left third metatarsal expansile lesion performed during an incision and curettage procedure revealed an epithelioid haemangioma (EHE) of the bone. MRI of the left hip performed in response to the findings on the bone scan showed metastatic disease in the left intertrochanteric region. A prophylactic left hip fixation surgery with an interlocking intramedullary femoral nail was therefore undertaken to avoid a pathological fracture of the left hip from the metastatic disease. Simultaneously, a left hip biopsy was performed, which also revealed an EHE. The patient underwent external beam radiation to the left femoral head and neck. This was followed by fractionated radiosurgery to the left third metatarsal. Once the left foot wound had healed, the patient subsequently received four cycles of doxorubicin and ifosfamide. A restaging positron emission tomography CT carried out after completion of therapy showed no metabolic evidence of residual primary tumour or metastasis. More than 2 years after completing his trimodality therapy, the patient remains fully functional and symptom free.

  6. [Aggressive fibromatoses]. (United States)

    Döhler, J R; Hamelmann, H; Lasson, U


    Benign by nature, aggressive fibromatoses (desmoid fibromas) may represent as difficult therapeutic problems as malignant tumours. When subtotally resected they tend to recur. But spontaneous regression is possible. Expense and limits of their surgical treatment are discussed with reference to seven patients. In five cases primary affliction of bone was evident. There are three reports given in detail: In the first, malignant transformation may be due to radiation therapy and hemipelvectomy could not prevent recurrence. In the second, spontaneous regression of untreated pelvic affection may have occurred. In the third, several resections and amputation of the leg failed to cure congenital infantile fibromatosis.

  7. A Study of Effectiveness of Group Forgiveness Therapy in Reducing Aggression among 11-13 Year Old Male Adolescents in City of Dezful

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sanai Zaker


    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to evaluate effectiveness of group forgiveness therapy in reducing aggression among 11 – 13 year old boys. Methods: This semi experimental study (pretest-posttest design with control group was conducted on 30 students who scored high on Aggression Questionnaire. The sample was selected through cluster sampling assignment and participants were randomly assigned into two experimental and control groups. The experimental group received forgiveness counseling via twelve group sessions of 1 hour duration each. During this period no intervention was given to the control group. Data was analyzed using Kolmogrov-Smironov, Levene F test, and t-test for independent and dependent groups. Results: Statistical analysis, using independent t test for between-group comparison, showed that compared to the control group, aggression both physical and verbal, anger, and hostility in the experimental group significantly decreased. Also result of dependent t test for within-group comparison showed that aggression and its dimensions were significantly decreased after implementing independent variable. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that group forgiveness therapy can significantly reduce aggression.

  8. Role of Maintenance Therapy after High-Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Aggressive Lymphomas: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Taverna, Josephine A; Yun, Seongseok; Jonnadula, Jayasree; Saleh, Ahlam; Riaz, Irbaz Bin; Abraham, Ivo; Yeager, Andrew M; Persky, Daniel O; McBride, Ali; Haldar, Subrata; Anwer, Faiz


    Significant uncertainty exists in regard to the efficacy of maintenance therapy after high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) as well as autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for the treatment of patients with aggressive lymphoma. A systematic review was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of post-ASCT maintenance therapy in patients with relapsed/refractory lymphoma. A comprehensive literature search yielded 4476 studies and a total of 42 studies (11 randomized controlled trials [RCT], 9 retrospective comparative studies, and 22 single-arm studies) were included in the systematic review. There was significant heterogeneity in study design, chemotherapeutic regimens, post-ASCT maintenance strategies, patient enrollment criteria, and study endpoints. Our findings suggest that post-ASCT maintenance immune-targeting strategies, including PD-1/PD-L1 blocking antibodies, rituximab, and brentuximab, may improve progression-free survival but not overall survival. Collectively, the results indicate a need for testing new strategies with well-designed and adequately powered RCTs to better address the role of post-ASCT maintenance in relapsed/refractory lymphomas.

  9. A commentary on TREAT: The trial of early aggressive drug therapy in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baildam Eileen


    Full Text Available Abstract Polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is a category of JIA where multiple joints are affected by chronic inflammation, and where serious and lasting damage to joints is the expected natural history in untreated disease. There is evidence of response to disease-modifying antirheumatic and biologic drugs, but little evidence of permanent remission from any of the existing therapeutic trials. The TREAT trial by Wallace et al., recently published in Arthritis and Rheumatism, used a collaborative multicenter approach to studying early aggressive treatment of polyarticular JIA in an attempt to achieve full clinical inactive disease after 6 months of treatment. The study's main finding that the earlier in the disease course that treatment is started, the better the chance of disease control, has provided evidence that there is a 'window of opportunity' for treating JIA as there is in adult rheumatoid arthritis (RA. The study provides both a platform and an impetus for concentrating future treatment trials on early rather than established disease and investigating a standard of starting treatment within 10 to 12 weeks.

  10. CHOP Chemotherapy for Aggressive Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma with and without HIV in the Antiretroviral Therapy Era in Malawi. (United States)

    Gopal, Satish; Fedoriw, Yuri; Kaimila, Bongani; Montgomery, Nathan D; Kasonkanji, Edwards; Moses, Agnes; Nyasosela, Richard; Mzumara, Suzgo; Varela, Carlos; Chikasema, Maria; Makwakwa, Victor; Itimu, Salama; Tomoka, Tamiwe; Kamiza, Steve; Dhungel, Bal M; Chimzimu, Fred; Kampani, Coxcilly; Krysiak, Robert; Richards, Kristy L; Shea, Thomas C; Liomba, N George


    There are no prospective studies of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) treated with CHOP in sub-Saharan Africa. We enrolled adults with aggressive NHL in Malawi between June 2013 and May 2015. Chemotherapy and supportive care were standardized, and HIV+ patients received antiretroviral therapy (ART). Thirty-seven of 58 patients (64%) were HIV+. Median age was 47 years (IQR 39-56), and 35 (60%) were male. Thirty-five patients (60%) had stage III/IV, 43 (74%) B symptoms, and 28 (48%) performance status ≥ 2. B-cell NHL predominated among HIV+ patients, and all T-cell NHL occurred among HIV- individuals. Thirty-one HIV+ patients (84%) were on ART for a median 9.9 months (IQR 1.1-31.7) before NHL diagnosis, median CD4 was 121 cells/μL (IQR 61-244), and 43% had suppressed HIV RNA. HIV+ patients received a similar number of CHOP cycles compared to HIV- patients, but more frequently developed grade 3/4 neutropenia (84% vs 31%, p = 0.001), resulting in modestly lower cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin doses with longer intervals between cycles. Twelve-month overall survival (OS) was 45% (95% CI 31-57%). T-cell NHL (HR 3.90, p = 0.017), hemoglobin (HR 0.82 per g/dL, p = 0.017), albumin (HR 0.57 per g/dL, p = 0.019), and IPI (HR 2.02 per unit, pMalawi with and without HIV.

  11. Alemtuzumab as rescue therapy in a cohort of 16 aggressive multiple sclerosis patients previously treated by Mitoxantrone: an observational study. (United States)

    Le Page, Emmanuelle; Deburghgraeve, Véronique; Lester, Marie-Antoinette; Cardiet, Isabelle; Leray, Emmanuelle; Edan, Gilles


    Our study aimed to describe safety and neurological impact of alemtuzumab as last-line rescue therapy in aggressive multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, previously treated by Mitoxantrone (MITOX). Between June 2004 and October 2013, 13 patients received alemtuzumab at 20 mg/day and 3 at 12 mg/day for 5 days. EDSS, relapses, secondary progression were prospectively assessed 12 and 6 months before treatment, at baseline and every 3 months. Mean follow-up was 6.2 years [1-10]. Mean age at alemtuzumab start was 40 years [26-49] for 8 Secondary Progressive (SP) and 30 years [26-35] for 8 Relapsing-Remitting (RR) patients. MS duration was 13.7 (± 3) and 8.3 (± 4) years, respectively. During the 12 months before alemtuzumab, annual relapse rate was 0.75 and 3.14, respectively and the 16 patients accumulated 2-30 new gadolinium enhancing lesions. 4 patients (suboptimal responders) received alemtuzumab during MITOX and 12 patients 1-7.8 years after MITOX. Out of 8 SPMS, 2 were disease free up to last visit (4.7 and 8 years), 5 improved or stabilized but only transiently and 1 worsened. Out of 8 RRMS, 1 remained stable up to last visit (8.7 years) despite 1 relapse and active MRI at 18 months and 7 improved (1-4 point EDSS): 4 remained disease free up to last visit (12, 24, 38 months and 7 years), 2 were successfully retreated at 25 and 33 months and 1 worsened progressively 24 months after alemtuzumab. 2 patients developed Grave's disease and 1 hypothyroidism. Alemtuzumab controls aggressive RRMS despite previous use of MITOX.

  12. Vertical sorting in bed forms: flume experiments with a natural and a trimodal sediment mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Astrid; Ribberink, Jan S.; Vriend, de Huib J.


    Two sets of flume experiments were conducted to examine grain size selective transport and vertical sorting in conditions with migrating bed forms and bed load transport. In the two sets of experiments we used a sediment mixture from the river Rhine and a trimodal mixture, respectively. The vertical

  13. Evaluation of Novel Targeted Therapies in Aggressive Biology Sarcoma Patients after progression from US FDA approved Therapies (United States)

    Subbiah, Vivek; Hess, Kenneth R.; Khawaja, Muhammad Rizwan; Wagner, Michael J.; Tang, Chad; Naing, Aung; Fu, Siqing; Janku, Filip; Piha-Paul, Sarina; Tsimberidou, Apostolia M.; Herzog, Cynthia E.; Ludwig, Joseph A.; Patel, Shreyaskumar; Ravi, Vinod; Benjamin, Robert S.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Hong, David S.


    Prognosis of patients with advanced sarcoma after progression from FDA approved therapies remains grim. In this study, clinical outcomes of 100 patients with advanced sarcoma who received treatment on novel targeted therapy trials were evaluated. Outcomes of interest included best response, clinical benefit rate, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Median patient age was 48 years (range 14–80). Patients had received a median of 2 prior lines of systemic treatment. Phase I treatments were anti-VEGF–based (n = 45), mTOR inhibitor–based (n = 15), and anti-VEGF + mTOR inhibitor–based (n = 17) or involved other targets (n = 23). Best responses included partial response (n = 4) and stable disease (n = 57). Clinical benefit rate was 36% (95% confidence interval 27–46%). Median OS was 9.6 months (95% Confidence Interval 8.1–14.2); median PFS was 3.5 months (95% Confidence Interval 2.4–4.7). RMH prognostic score of 2 or 3 was associated with lower median OS (log-rank p-value < 0.0001) and PFS (log-rank p-value 0.0081). Receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy as part of phase I trial was also associated with shorter median OS (log-rank p-value 0.039). Patients with advanced sarcoma treated on phase I clinical trials had a clinical benefit rate of 36% and RMH score predicted survival. PMID:27748430

  14. Mechanistic Insights into Molecular Targeting and Combined Modality Therapy for Aggressive, Localized Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eDal Pra


    Full Text Available Radiation therapy (RT is one of the mainstay treatments for prostate cancer (PCa. The potentially curative approaches can provide satisfactory results for many patients with non-metastatic PCa; however, a considerable number of individuals may present disease recurrence and die from the disease. Exploiting the rich molecular biology of PCa will provide insights into how the most resistant tumor cells can be eradicated to improve treatment outcomes. Important for this biology-driven individualized treatment is a robust selection procedure. The development of predictive biomarkers for RT efficacy is therefore of utmost importance for a clinically exploitable strategy to achieve tumor-specific radiosensitization. This review highlights the current status and possible opportunities in the modulation of four key processes to enhance radiation response in PCa by targeting the: I. androgen signaling pathway; II. hypoxic tumor cells and regions; III. DNA damage response (DDR pathway; and IV. abnormal extra/intra-cell signaling pathways. In addition, we discuss how and which patients should be selected for biomarker-based clinical trials exploiting and validating these targeted treatment strategies with precision RT to improve cure rates in non-indolent, localized PCa.

  15. Evaluation of Local and Systemic Levels of Interleukin-17, Interleukin-23, and Myeloperoxidase in Response to Periodontal Therapy in Patients with Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis. (United States)

    Cifcibasi, E; Koyuncuoglu, C; Ciblak, M; Badur, S; Kasali, K; Firatli, E; Cintan, S


    We aimed to investigate serum and gingival crevicular fluid levels of myeloperoxidase, interleukin-17, and interleukin-23 before and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy in generalized aggressive periodontitis patients and compare to those in healthy controls. Interleukin-17, interleukin-23, and myeloperoxidase levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in gingival crevicular fluid and serum samples taken from 19 systemically healthy generalized aggressive periodontitis patients and 22 healthy controls. In addition, the levels of IL-17, IL-23, and myeloperoxidase were reassessed at 3 months after periodontal therapy in the generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP) group. Periodontal clinical parameters were also evaluated at baseline and 3 months post-therapy. The investigated molecule levels in serum decreased significantly at 3 months as a result of the therapy (p = 0.014 for IL-17, p = 0.000 for IL-23, and p = 0.001 for myeloperoxidase (MPO)). Significant reductions were also observed in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) IL-17, IL-23, and MPO levels at 3 months after therapy (p = 0.000 for all molecules). However, the GCF levels of IL-17, IL-23, and MPO in GAP patients were still higher than those in the controls at 3 months (p = 0.001). A significant decrease in the local and systemic levels of IL-17, IL-23, and MPO based on the therapy might indicate the role of these mediators for tissue destruction in periodontal tissues.

  16. Phase diagram of the classical Heisenberg model in a trimodal random field distribution (United States)

    Santos-Filho, A.; Albuquerque, D. F. de; Santos-Filho, J. B.; Batista, T. S. Araujo


    The classical spin 1 / 2 Heisenberg model on a simple cubic lattice, with fluctuating bond interactions between nearest neighbors and in the presence of a random magnetic field, is investigated by effective field theory based on two-spin cluster. The random field is drawn from the asymmetric and anisotropic trimodal probability distribution. The fluctuating bond is extracted from the symmetric and anisotropic bimodal probability. We estimate the transition temperatures, and the phase diagram in the Tc- h, Tc- p and Tc - α planes. We observe that the temperature of the tricritical point decreases with the increase of disorder in exchange interactions until the system ceases to display tricritical behavior. The disorder of the interactions and reentrant phenomena depends on the trimodal distribution of the random field.

  17. Trimodal spectroscopy as a tool for detecting cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions in vivo (United States)

    Georgakoudi, Irene; Sheets, Ellen E.; Crum, Christopher P.; Mueller, Markus G.; Backman, Vadim; Feld, Michael S.


    Using intrinsic fluorescence, diffuse reflectance and light scattering spectroscopy we extracted quantitative biochemical and morphological information in vivo about the bulk tissue and the epithelial cell nuclei of ectocervical sites from 44 patients. Significant changes were observed in tissue morphology and biochemistry between normal, squamous metaplastic and squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) sites. The combined use of all three spectroscopic techniques (tri-modal spectroscopy) yielded superior results for detecting SILs than any one of the techniques alone.

  18. Effect of Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy on Interleukin-29 Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid of Chronic Periodontitis and Aggressive Periodontitis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Shivaprasad


    Full Text Available Recently discovered interleukin 29 (IL-29 has antiviral properties and its production is induced by herpes viruses. This study was aimed at analyzing the effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on IL-29 levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients. A total of 60 participants were divided into healthy group (group 1; n = 20, chronic periodontitis group (group 2; n = 20, and aggressive periodontitis group (group 3; n = 20. GCF samples collected from each subject at baseline and 6–8 weeks after scaling and root planing were quantified for IL-29 levels using ELISA. The mean IL-29 concentration in GCF was found to be highest in group 3 (92.37 pg/μl. The mean IL-29 level in group 1 and group 2 was 36.88 pg/μl and 69.35 pg/μl respectively. After scaling and root planing, the mean concentration of IL-29 in GCF was increased to 85.99 pg/μl in group 2 and to 114.64 pg/μl in group 3. Results of the present study indicate that antiviral IL-29 level was highest in GCF of aggressive periodontitis patients and least in subjects with healthy periodontium, while that of chronic periodontitis lying in between. After non-surgical periodontal therapy, IL-29 levels increased both in chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients and deserve further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent in treating periodontitis.

  19. Critical Properties of Mixed Ising Spin System with Different Trimodal Transverse Fields in the Presence of Single-Ion Anisotropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qiang; YAN Shi-Lei


    Within the framework of an effective field approximation, the effects of single-ion anisotropy and different trimodal transverse fields of two sublattices on the critical properties of the mixed spin-1/2 and spin-1 Ising system are investigated on the simple cubic lattice. A smaller single-ion anisotropy can magnify magnetic ordering phases and a larger one can depress magnetic ordering phase for T-Ω1/2 space at low temperatures, while a smaller single-ion anisotropy can hardly change the value of critical transverse field for T-Ω1 space. On the other hand, influences of two different trimodal transverse fields concentrations on tricritical points and magnetic ordering phases take on some interesting results in T-D space. The main reason comes from the common action of single-ion anisotropy, different transverse fields and two trimodal distributions.

  20. Simultaneous trimodal MR-PET-EEG imaging for the investigation of resting state networks in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuner, Irene [RWTH Aachen (Germany); Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine - 4, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Mauler, Joerg; Arrubla, Jorge; Kops, Elena Rota; Tellmann, Lutz; Scheins, Jurgen; Herzog, Hans [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine - 4, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Langen, Karl Josef; Shah, Jon [RWTH Aachen (Germany)


    Glucose is the principal source of energy for the brain and its relationship to neuronal activity are poorly understood. The human brain uses 80% of its energy for ongoing neural activity that occurs in isolation from any particular stimulus. A promising tool for the investigation of glucose metabolism and its relationship to neuronal activity is simultaneous trimodal MR-PET-EEG data imaging. We here demonstrate the first in vivo human trimodal data at 3T. In one session MR, FDG-PET and EEG data were recorded simultaneously at a 3T hybrid MR-BrainPET scanner (Siemens, Germany) equipped with a 32 channel MR-compatible EEG system (Brain Products, Germany) in 11 healthy volunteers (11 males, mean age: 25.2 years SD: 1.2). MR and EEG data acquisition MP-RAGE (TR = 2250 ms, TE= 3.03 ms, 176 sagittal slices. 1 mm, GRAPPA factor 2. MR-based attenuation correction of PET data via UTE: flip angle=15. Two different echo times TE1=0.07 and TE2=2.46 ms, TR=200 ms. EPI sequence (TR: 2.2 s, TE: 30 ms, FOV: 200 mm, 165 volumes, The subjects were requested to close their eyes and relax EEG data were recorded using a 32-channel MR compatible EEG system. App. 200 MBq/μmol FDG were injected, data were acquired in list mode and iteratively reconstructed with all necessary corrections into 153 slices with 256 x 256 voxels sized 1.25 mm{sup 3}. The trimodal approach, recording PET data, MR data and EEG data simultaneously was successful. The high neuronal activity of the structures within the default mode network occurs on the basis of a high glucose consumption rate within the default node network. The activity of the default mode is not tied to a special EEG frequency band.

  1. Aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Lindsay, W.R.; Lang, R.; Sigafoos, J.; Deb, S.; Wiersma, J.; Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Marschik, P.B.; O’Reilly, M.F.; Lancioni, G.E.


    Aggressive behavior is common in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs), and it is most often targeted for intervention. Psychological, contextual, and biological risk factors may contribute to the risk of aggressive behavior. Risk factors are gender (males), level of ID

  2. Signaling aggression. (United States)

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T


    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds.

  3. Trimodal Porous Hierarchical SSZ-13 Zeolite with Improved Catalytic Performance in the Methanol-to-Olefins Reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Xiaochun; Hofmann, Jan P.; Mezari, Brahim; Kosinov, Nikolay; Wu, Leilei; Qian, Qingyun; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; Asahina, Shunsuke; Ruiz-Martinez, Javier; Hensen, Emiel J. M.


    Chabazite zeolites with trimodal porosity (native micropores of the CHA framework, an additional network of larger micropores of ∼0.5 nm, and mesopores) were synthesized by adding diquarternary ammonium-type surfactant C22–4–4 cations and fluoride anions in the synthesis of SSZ-13 zeolite. The hiera

  4. Locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the rectum presenting with necrotising fasciitis of the perineum: successful management with early aggressive surgery and multimodal therapy. (United States)

    Ferreira, Luís; Alexandrino, Henrique; Soares Leite, Júlio; Castro Sousa, Francisco


    Colorectal cancer is a common malignant neoplasm and its treatment usually involves surgery associated, in some cases, depending on the staging, with chemoradiotherapy. Necrotising fasciitis of the perineum is a highly lethal infection of the perineum, perirectal tissues and genitals, requiring emergency surgical debridement, broad-spectrum antibiotics and control of sepsis. We present the case of a 59-year-old man with necrotising fasciitis of the perineum as the first clinical manifestation of locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the rectum, in which successful management consisted of early and aggressive surgical debridement, followed by multimodal therapy with curative intent. 2 years and 6 months after surgery the patient is well, with no evidence of local or systemic relapse.

  5. Early aggressive intra-venous pulse cyclophosphamide therapy for interstitial lung disease in a patient with systemic sclerosis. A case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Peshin, R


    Interstitial lung disease is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). There are currently no recommended guidelines for management of these patients. This is probably due to the rarity of this condition, as well as clinical trials with only a small number of cases. There are published case report and case series along with the two main trials, viz. Scleroderma Lung Study and the Fibrosing Alveolitis Study, but again, there is no consensus on treatment protocols. In this report, we present a case of aggressive interstitial lung disease in a patient with SSc, which improved dramatically on treatment with intra-venous cyclophosphamide and high dose prednisolone therapy.

  6. Tri-modal Person Re-identification with RGB, Depth and Thermal Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Bahnsen, Chris; Moeslund, Thomas B.;


    Person re-identification is about recognizing people who have passed by a sensor earlier. Previous work is mainly based on RGB data, but in this work we for the first time present a system where we combine RGB, depth, and thermal data for re-identification purposes. First, from each of the three...... modalities, we obtain some particular features: from RGB data, we model color information from different regions of the body, from depth data, we compute different soft body biometrics, and from thermal data, we extract local structural information. Then, the three information types are combined in a joined...... classifier. The tri-modal system is evaluated on a new RGB-D-T dataset, showing successful results in re-identification scenarios....

  7. Strain-induced grain growth of cryomilled nanocrystalline Al in trimodal composites during forging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, B. [Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center, and Department of Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Simkin, B.; Majumdar, B. [Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Department, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Smith, C.; Bergh, M. van den [DWA Aluminum Composites, Chatsworth, CA 91311 (United States); Cho, K. [Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Sohn, Y.H., E-mail: [Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center, and Department of Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grain growth of cryomilled nanocrystalline aluminum during hot forging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of hollow cone dark field imaging technique in TEM for grain size measurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grain growth model of strain, strain rate and temperature for forging optimization. - Abstract: Grain growth of nanocrystalline aluminum ({sup nc}Al) in trimodal Al metal-matrix-composites (MMCs) during hot forging was investigated. The {sup nc}Al phase formed through cryomilling of inert gas-atomized powders in liquid nitrogen has an average grain size down to 21 nm, exhibits excellent thermal stability. However, substantial grain growth of {sup nc}Al up to 63 nm was observed when the Al MMCs were thermo-mechanically processed even at relatively low temperatures. Grain growth of the cryomilled {sup nc}Al phase in trimodal Al MMCs after hot forging was documented with respect to temperature ranging from 175 Degree-Sign C to 287 Degree-Sign C, true strain ranging from 0.4 to 1.35 and strain rate ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 s{sup -1}. Hollow cone dark field imaging technique was employed to provide statistically confident measurements of {sup nc}Al grain size that ranged from 21 to 63 nm. An increase in forging temperature and an increase in true strain were correlated with an increase in grain size of {sup nc}Al. Results were correlated to devise a phenomenological grain growth model for forging that takes strain, strain rate and temperature into consideration. Activation energy for the grain growth during thermo-mechanical hot-forging was determined to be 35 kJ/mol, approximately a quarter of activation energy for bulk diffusion of Al and a half of activation energy for static recrystallization.

  8. Clinical appearance and treatment of aggressive fibromatoses (desmoid-tumors). Klinik und Therapie der aggressiven Fibromatose (Desmoide)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, W. (Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Strahlentherapie); Weidmann, B. (Staedtisches Krankenhaus Leverkusen (Germany). Medizinische Klinik 3); Schmidberger, H. (Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Strahlentherapie); Niederle, N. (Staedtisches Krankenhaus Leverkusen (Germany). Medizinische Klinik 3); Seeber, S. (Westdeutsches Tumorzentrum, Essen (Germany). Innere Klinik und Poliklinik); Bamberg, M. (Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Strahlentherapie)


    After surgical excision adjuvant therapy of desmoid tumors is necessary in such cases, where a radical excision with a wide margin is not possible, or must be doubted or after the surgical excision of a locally recurrent tumor. Radiation doses of 50 to 60 Gy reduce the risk of local recurrence of desmoid tumors to 18%. In such cases, where surgery and radiotherapy have been leading to incomplete responses, systemic therapy with hormons, with alkylating agents or with prostaglandin antagonists is possible. The published data on therapeutic responses to the treatment of desmoid tumors are scarce. We are reporting on seven of our own cases, treated with surgery and radiotherapy (four) or with a combination of surgery, radiotherapy, hormons and chemotherapy (three). (orig./MG)

  9. Fear and aggression in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzunova Krasimira


    Full Text Available In this review, the concepts of fear, phobia and aggression in dogs were precisely defined, as well as their underlying causes. The behavioural activities specific for these conditions were indicated. The accompanying symptoms were consistently explained. The causes that the development of pathological fear leads to aggression in dogs as well as the ex various therapy options depending on the clinical signs were presented.

  10. RKIP inhibition in cervical cancer is associated with higher tumor aggressive behavior and resistance to cisplatin therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Martinho

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide, being high-risk group the HPV infected, the leading etiological factor. The raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP has been associated with tumor progression and metastasis in several human neoplasms, however its role on cervical cancer is unclear. In the present study, 259 uterine cervix tissues, including cervicitis, cervical intraepithelial lesions and carcinomas, were analyzed for RKIP expression by immunohistochemistry. We found that RKIP expression was significantly decreased during malignant progression, being highly expressed in non-neoplastic tissues (54% of the samples; 73/135, and expressed at low levels in the cervix invasive carcinomas (∼15% (19/124. Following in vitro downregulation of RKIP, we observed a viability and proliferative advantage of RKIP-inhibited cells over time, which was associated with an altered cell cycle distribution and higher colony number in a colony formation assay. An in vitro wound healing assay showed that RKIP abrogation is associated with increased migratory capability. RKIP downregulation was also associated with an increased vascularization of the tumors in vivo using a CAM assay. Furthermore, RKIP inhibition induced cervical cancer cells apoptotic resistance to cisplatin treatment. In conclusion, we described that RKIP protein is significantly depleted during the malignant progression of cervical tumors. Despite the lack of association with patient clinical outcome, we demonstrate, in vitro and in vivo, that loss of RKIP expression can be one of the factors that are behind the aggressiveness, malignant progression and chemotherapy resistance of cervical cancer.

  11. Very Late Local Relapse of Ewing's Sarcoma of the Head and Neck treated with Aggressive Multimodal Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Thariat


    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma's relapse rarely occurs more than two years after the initial diagnosis. We report the case of a 26-year-old man with a history of Ewing's sarcoma of the left maxillary sinus at the age of 10 who presented with a very late local relapse, 16 years after the first occurrence of disease. Ultimate control was achieved after multimodal therapy including surgery, high-dose chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. This report indicates that local relapses of Ewing's sarcoma can be treated with curative intent in selected cases.

  12. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  13. Trimodal nanoporous silica as a support for amine-based CO2 adsorbents: Improvement in adsorption capacity and kinetics (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Bhattacharjee, Samiran


    A trimodal nanoporous silica (TS) having unique trimodal pore structure viz., internal mesopores, textural mesopores and interconnected macropores, has been functionalized with amine using two different methods covalent grafting and wet impregnation. Both were studied as nanocomposite sorbents for CO2 capture. The effects of the amine loading, immobilization processes and the type of support were investigated. Commercially available silica gel (SG) with a purely mesoporous structure was studied as the support for the amine in order to compare differences in pore structure and amine loading with differences in CO2 adsorption capacity and kinetics. Amine-grafted TS exhibited much faster CO2 adsorption kinetics at 35 °C than amine-grafted SG. At the same amine loading, amine-impregnated TS showed higher CO2 adsorption capacity and faster CO2 adsorption kinetics than amine-impregnated SG. The CO2 adsorption capacity of amine-impregnated TS increased as the amine loading increased until 70%, with the highest value of 172 mg/g, while the amine-impregnated SG reached the highest CO2 adsorption capacity of only 78 mg/g at 40% amine loading. More importantly, amine-impregnated as-prepared TS exhibited even higher CO2 capture capacity than amine-impregnated TS when the amine loading was below 60%. Results suggest that amine-modified trimodal nanoporous silica sorbents meet the challenges of current CO2 capture technology.

  14. Mortality after acute trauma:progressive decreasing rather than a trimodal distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ionut Negoi; Sorin Paun; Sorin Hostiuc; Bogdan Stoica; Ioan Tanase; Ruxandra Irina Negoi; Gabriel Constantinescu; Mircea Beuran


    Objective: To characterize the pattern of mortality for major trauma patients. Methods: Retrospective study of major trauma patients admitted in a Level I trauma center, during the latest 5 years was conducted. Selection criteria included (1) injury severity score (ISS)> 16 and (2) in-hospital death. Results: There were 47 patients, with a mean age of 37.2 ± 19.9 years. The mean ISS was 37.6 ± 12.7 and the mean revised trauma score was 4.5 ± 2.2. Computed tomography scan on admission was done in 18 (38%) patients, 20% being hemodynamically unstable (P =0.001). The diagnostic peritoneal lavage was performed in 10 (22%) cases, 23.3% being hemodynamically unstable (P > 0.05). The mean number of intraabdominal injuries was 3. The need for transfusion was 8.2 ± 6.7 units. The mean time to death was 4.9 days. Early death was secondary to hemorrhagic shock (HS) (ISS = 35.2 ± 15.9, P > 0.05, revised trauma score =3.74 ± 2.70, P = 0.008) and multiple organ failure (ISS = 36.6 ± 14.1, P > 0.05, revised trauma score = 5.94 ± 1.34, P = 0.008) was the cause for later mortality. Combined liver and splenic injuries were found in 13 cases, with secondary death through HS in 5 and multiple system organ failure (MSOF) in 8 cases. Combined liver, splenic and kidney injuries were found in 5 cases (cause of death: HS 2 cases, MSOF 3 cases). A total of 14 patients had associated head, thorax, abdomen and extremity trauma (cause of death: cerebral trauma 6 cases, MSOF 5 cases, HS 2 cases); 5 patients had thorax and abdomen trauma (cause of death: HS 5 cases);8 patients had thorax, abdomen and extremity trauma (cause of death: MSOF 5 cases, HS 3 cases); 3 patients had abdomen and extremity trauma (HS 2 cases). We did not find a trimodal time distribution for mortality. Conclusions: The trimodal time distribution of mortality remains a milestone in trauma education and research. Nevertheless, it must be questioned in the modern and very efficient trauma systems, but still very

  15. Microstructure, cold workability and strain hardening behavior of trimodaled AA 6061-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite prepared by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivasankaran, S., E-mail: [Department of Production Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015, Tamil Nadu (India); Sivaprasad, K., E-mail: [Advanced Materials Processing Laboratory, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015, Tamil Nadu (India); Narayanasamy, R., E-mail: [Department of Production Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015, Tamil Nadu (India)


    Highlights: {yields} Trimodaled composites consisting of UFG and CG matrix phases and ceramic phase were produced successfully. {yields} Cold deformation behavior was investigated. {yields} The 15% CG trimodaled composite yielded a high compressive strength of 935 MPa. {yields} The 30% CG composite exhibited higher ductility while maintaining strength and toughness. - Abstract: In the present work, the improvement of compressive ductility while maintaining high strength and toughness for nanocrystalline materials by cold upsetting (incremental loads) of bulk trimodaled composite was studied. Mechanically alloyed nanocrystalline (NC) AA 6061 alloy powders reinforced with nano TiO{sub 2} were blended with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 wt.% coarse grain (CG) elemental powders related to AA 6061 alloy composition to produce trimodal microstructure. The synthesized composite preforms were characterized by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The room temperature compressive deformation behavior was evaluated under triaxial stress state condition. With increasing percentage of CG phase in the nanocomposite, the gradual improvement in compressive ductility was observed at the cost of a small amount of strength but it favored the ease of deformation. The 15% CG trimodal composite exhibited an extremely high compressive strength of 935 MPa due to non-coalescence of individual CG particles and effective load transfer occurred in multi scale microstructures. But the 30% CG trimodal composite showed an incremental compressive ductility of around 16% while sacrificing a small amount of strength (845 MPa) and this composite displayed improved toughness (area under true effective stress and true effective strain curve) of over 600% than nanocomposite (0% CG). Also, the percentage cold workability of 30% CG composite was six times higher than that of 0% CG composite. Hence, the 30% CG trimodal composite was

  16. Micro-strain Evolution and Toughening Mechanisms in a Trimodal Al-Based Metal Matrix Composite (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzheng; Topping, Troy D.; Yang, Hanry; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Schoenung, Julie M.; Nutt, Steven R.


    A trimodal metal matrix composite (MMC) based on AA (Al alloy) 5083 (Al-4.4Mg-0.7Mn-0.15Cr wt pct) was synthesized by cryomilling powders followed by compaction of blended powders and ceramic particles using two successive dual mode dynamic forgings. The microstructure consisted of 66.5 vol pct ultrafine grain (UFG) region, 30 vol pct coarse grain (CG) region and 3.5 vol pct reinforcing boron carbide particles. The microstructure imparted high-tensile yield strength (581 MPa) compared to a conventional AA 5083 (242 MPa) and enhanced ductility compared to 100 pct UFG Al MMC. The deformation behavior of the heterogeneous structure and the effects of CG regions on crack propagation were investigated using in situ scanning electron microscopy micro-tensile tests. The micro-strain evolution measured using digital image correlation showed early plastic strain localization in CG regions. Micro-voids due to the strain mismatch at CG/UFG interfaces were responsible for crack initiation. CG region toughening was realized by plasticity-induced crack closure and zone shielding of disconnected micro-cracks. However, these toughening mechanisms did not effectively suppress its brittle behavior. Further optimization of the CG distribution (spacing and morphology) is required to achieve toughness levels required for structural applications.

  17. Aggressive Fibromatosis: Imaging Diagnosis and Clinical Therapy%侵袭性纤维瘤病的影像诊断及临床治疗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑德春; 陈韵彬; 陈英; 曹喜生; 张和军


    目的 探讨侵袭性纤维瘤病的影像特点及临床治疗.材料与方法 回顾性分析30例病理证实的侵袭性纤维瘤病MRI和CT表现、病理特征及临床治疗手段及预后.30例中,头颈部3例,胸部6例,腹部12例,四肢及臀部9例.结果 20例进行MRI检查病例中,术前检查11例,术后复发9例;T1WI呈等信号或稍低信号,T2WI和DWI呈不均匀高信号,内见片状或星芒状低信号区,注入GdDTPA增强后见明显强化,内部见范围不等的轻度或无强化低信号区,形态呈椭圆形或分叶形,边界清楚.10例行术前CT检查,平扫呈不均匀稍低密度,增强后呈不均匀轻度强化多见,少数呈不均匀明显强化.常规病理示肿瘤由成纤维细胞、纤维细胞和胶原纤维束组成为特征,免疫组化Vim、Bcl-2、CD99、SMA、CD34等阳性.共29例手术,25例完全切除,2例术后残留,2例无法切除;8例行术后补充放疗.结论 侵袭性纤维瘤的MRI和CT表现具有特征性,治疗的共识是手术辅以放疗或药物治疗.%Objective To investigate imaging characteristic and clinical therapy of aggressive fibromatosis. Material and Methods Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography findings, hisopathological feature, clinical therapy and related prognosis of 30 patients with aggressive fibromatosis proved pathologically were analyzed retrospectively. Results Among 30 cases, the amount which located in head and neck region, thorax, abdomen, hip and limbs region were 3,6,12 and 9 respectively. Twenty were scanned with MRI, and 10 were scanned with CT£?In those with MRI data, eleven were diagnosed preoperative examination and nine were recurrence diseases after one or more resection. On MRI, homogeneous isointensity or mild hyperintensity on T1WI images and heterogenous high signal on T2WI or DWI images were seen. All lesions enhanced obviously after administration of gadolinium, while hyperintensity area in lesions seen on Tl WI and T2WI usually appeared

  18. Antibiotics in the management of aggressive periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinaya Prakasam


    Full Text Available Aggressive periodontitis, although not rare, is a fairly unknown condition. Little is known about its optimal management. While majority of patients with common forms of periodontal disease respond predictably well to conventional therapy (oral hygiene instructions (OHI, non-surgical debridement, surgery, and Supportive Periodontal therapy (SPT, patients diagnosed with aggressive form of periodontal disease often do not respond predictably/favorably to conventional therapy owing to its complex multi-factorial etiology. Protocols for treating aggressive periodontitis are largely empirical. There is compelling evidence that adjunctive antibiotic treatment frequently results in more favorable clinical response than conventional therapy alone. This article mainly focuses on the role of adjunct use of pharmacological agents in improving the prognosis and treatment outcome of aggressive periodontitis patients.

  19. A Trimodality Comparison of Volumetric Bone Imaging Technologies. Part I: Short-term Precision and Validity (United States)

    Wong, Andy K. O.; Beattie, Karen A.; Min, Kevin K. H.; Webber, Colin E.; Gordon, Christopher L.; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Cheung, Angela M. W.; Adachi, Jonathan D.


    In vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and peripheral magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI) modalities can measure apparent bone microstructure at resolutions 200 μm or higher. However, validity and in vivo test-retest reproducibility of apparent bone microstructure have yet to be determined on 1.0 T pMRI (196 μm) and pQCT (200 μm). This study examined 67 women with a mean age of 74 ± 9 yr and body mass index of 27.65 ± 5.74 kg/m2, demonstrating validity for trabecular separation from pMRI, cortical thickness, and bone volume fraction from pQCT images compared with high-resolution pQCT (hr-pQCT), with slopes close to unity. However, because of partial volume effects, cortical and trabecular thickness of bone derived from pMRI and pQCT images matched hr-pQCT more only when values were small. Short-term reproducibility of bone outcomes was highest for bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and densitometric variables and lowest for trabecular outcomes measuring microstructure. Measurements at the tibia for pQCT images were more precise than at the radius. In part I of this 3-part series focused on trimodality comparisons of precision and validity, it is shown that pQCT images can yield valid and reproducible apparent bone structural outcomes, but because of longer scan time and potential for more motion, the pMRI protocol examined here remains limited in achieving reliable values. PMID:25129405

  20. Adlerian Therapy with Aggressive Children. (United States)

    Kizer, Betty

    Alfred Adler devised a theory that was holistic, social, teleological, and phenomenological. Adler believed that the basis of problems with children originated in the child's inability to cooperate with society, feelings of inferiority, and a lack of a goal in life. Adler felt the child's life should be examined through the child's eyes.…

  1. Performance evaluation of a compact PET/SPECT/CT tri-modality system for small animal imaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Qingyang [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Shi [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Ma, Tianyu, E-mail: [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Wu, Jing; Liu, Hui; Xu, Tianpeng; Xia, Yan; Fan, Peng; Lyu, Zhenlei; Liu, Yaqiang [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China)


    PET, SPECT and CT imaging techniques are widely used in preclinical small animal imaging applications. In this paper, we present a compact small animal PET/SPECT/CT tri-modality system. A dual-functional, shared detector design is implemented which enables PET and SPECT imaging with a same LYSO ring detector. A multi-pinhole collimator is mounted on the system and inserted into the detector ring in SPECT imaging mode. A cone-beam CT consisting of a micro focus X-ray tube and a CMOS detector is implemented. The detailed design and the performance evaluations are reported in this paper. In PET imaging mode, the measured NEMA based spatial resolution is 2.12 mm (FWHM), and the sensitivity at the central field of view (CFOV) is 3.2%. The FOV size is 50 mm (∅)×100 mm (L). The SPECT has a spatial resolution of 1.32 mm (FWHM) and an average sensitivity of 0.031% at the center axial, and a 30 mm (∅)×90 mm (L) FOV. The CT spatial resolution is 8.32 lp/mm @10%MTF, and the contrast discrimination function value is 2.06% with 1.5 mm size cubic box object. In conclusion, a compact, tri-modality PET/SPECT/CT system was successfully built with low cost and high performance.

  2. Mesoporous ethanesilica materials with bimodal and trimodal pore-size distributions synthesised in the presence of cobalt ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alufelwi M. Tshavhungwe


    Full Text Available Mesoporous organosilica materials containing ethane groups in their framework were formed with two and three pore sizes (i.e. bimodal and trimodal pores when synthesised by the sol-gel method in the presence of cobalt ions. The compounds 1,2-bistrimethoxysilylethane and tetraethylorthosilicate were used as silicon sources and the reactions were done in the presence of a surfactant, which served as a template. Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy revealed that organic functional groups were incorporated into the ethanesilica. Powder X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption data indicated that the mesophase and textural properties (surface area, pore volume, pore diameter of the materials were dependent on the ageing temperature, the amount/ratio of silica precursors and cobalt ion incorporation. Secondary mesopores were drastically reduced by changing the ratio of silicon precursors.

  3. Aggression in Psychiatric Wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidhjelm, Jacob; Sestoft, Dorte; Skovgaard, Lene Theil


    Health care workers are often exposed to violence and aggression in psychiatric settings. Short-term risk assessments, such as the Brøset Violence Checklist (BVC), are strong predictors of such aggression and may enable staff to take preventive measures against aggression. This study evaluated...

  4. Orthodontic Management in Aggressive Periodontitis (United States)

    Bhattarai, Bhagabat


    Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis. PMID:28299350

  5. Manual ventilation therapy and aggressive potassium supplementation in the management of respiratory failure secondary to severe hypokalaemia in a cat with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. (United States)

    Daste, Thomas; Dossin, Olivier; Reynolds, Brice S; Aumann, Marcel


    A domestic shorthair cat was referred for progressive muscle weakness and dyspnoea. The cat had a 2-month history of severe weight loss, small intestinal diarrhoea, polyphagia and polyuria/polydipsia. Biochemical analysis and venous blood gas evaluation revealed severe hypokalaemia [1.7 mmol/l; reference interval (RI): 3.5-5.1 mmol/l] and hypoventilation (partial pressure of carbon dioxide = 68 mmHg; RI: 34-38 mmHg). Aggressive potassium supplementation was initiated. The cat was manually ventilated until serum potassium increased to 3 mmol/l. A diagnosis of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) was made based on clinical signs and serum feline trypsin-like immunoreactivity (0.1 μg/l; RI: 12-82 μg/l). Medical management of the EPI resulted in clinical recovery.

  6. Early childhood aggression


    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes


    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results showed an early childhood aggression curve, with increasing rates of aggression in the second year of life and decreasing rates in the fourth year. One-year stabilities were moderate for 12-month-olds ...

  7. Aggressive Fibromatosis in Neck.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita Kabdwal


    Full Text Available Aggressive fibromatosis (AF is a locally aggressive infiltrative low-grade benign tumor that accounts for approximately less than 3% of all soft tissue tumors. In the head and neck region this tumor tends to be more aggressive and associated with significant morbidity. Aggressive surgery is a viable management option and may be successfully used as a single modality treatment, or in combination with radiotherapy. We report a rare case of AF in a 38 year old female, who presented with a painless mass over the left supraclavicular fossa, extending inferiorly into the thoracic inlet, which was excised successfully in toto with the help of cardiothoracic vascular surgeon (CTVS.

  8. Aggressive local therapy combined with systemic chemotherapy provides long-term control in grade II stage 2 canine mast cell tumour: 21 cases (1999-2012). (United States)

    Lejeune, A; Skorupski, K; Frazier, S; Vanhaezebrouck, I; Rebhun, R B; Reilly, C M; Rodriguez, C O


    This retrospective case series evaluates the outcome of 21 dogs with grade II stage 2 mast cell tumour (MCT) treated with adequate local therapy and adjuvant systemic chemotherapy (prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU). The median survival for all dogs was 1359 days (range, 188-2340). Median disease-free interval was 2120 days (149-2325 days). Dogs treated with surgery and chemotherapy had shorter survival (median, 1103 days; 188-2010 days) than those that underwent surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy as part of their treatment (median, 2056 days; 300-2340 days). Two patients had local recurrence in the radiation field and four patients had de novo MCT. Distant metastasis was not observed in any dogs. The results of this study suggest that, in the presence of loco-regional lymph node metastasis in grade II MCT, the use of prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU after adequate local-regional therapy can provide a median survival in excess of 40 months.

  9. Humor, Aggression, and Aging. (United States)

    Barrick, Ann Louise; And Others

    Although humor is an important phenomenon in human interactions, it has rarely been studied in the elderly. An understanding of responses to humor in aggressive cartoons as a function of advancing age would provide information regarding both the development of humor and the negative (aggressive) emotional experiences of the elderly. This study was…

  10. Serotonin and Aggression. (United States)

    Brown, Serena-Lynn; And Others


    Decreased serotonin function has consistently been shown to be highly correlated with impulsive aggression across a number of different experimental paradigms. Such lowered serotonergic indices appear to correlate with the dimension of aggression dyscontrol and/or impulsivity rather than with psychiatric diagnostic categories per se. Implications…

  11. Training Aggressive Adolescents in Prosocial Behavior (United States)

    Goldstein, Arnold P.; And Others


    Structured Learning Therapy (SLT) teaches aggressive adolescents prosocial skills (negotiation, self-relaxation, and anger control) by modeling, role playing, social reinforcement, and transfer of training. This article summarizes initial application of SLT with psychiatric clients, includes guidelines for improving trainee-trainer-treatment…

  12. Brief Report: Comparative Effects of Antecedent Exercise and Lorazepam on the Aggressive Behavior of an Autistic Man. (United States)

    Allison, David B.; And Others


    This case study of a 24-year-old man with autistic disorder and mental retardation who exhibited aggression found that antecedent exercise significantly decreased aggression; drug therapy with an anxiolytic (lorazepam) alone had no significant effect on aggression; and exercise plus medication decreased aggression to a somewhat lesser degree than…

  13. Parents’ Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers


    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla


    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents’ responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents’ actual marital aggression. The study included 118 9−10 year old children, and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with same-sex parents’ actual marital aggression. For children with mothers who exhibit low actual marital aggression, mothers’ aggressive solutions to hypothetical...

  14. Desdiferenciação do câncer da próstata após terapia antiandrogênica Prostate cancer dedifferentiation following antiandrogen therapy: a morphological finding or an increased tumor aggressiveness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Moritz


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O bloqueio androgênico neo-adjuvante em câncer da próstata produz involução do volume tumoral sem melhorar a evolução desses pacientes. Uma das explicações para esse fenômeno é a aquisição de comportamento mais agressivo pelas células tumorais remanescentes que, morfologicamente, apresentam aspecto mais indiferenciado após o bloqueio androgênico. Os objetivos do presente estudo foram avaliar a freqüência de desdiferenciação celular após tratamento antiandrog��nico e definir se a neoplasia remanescente apresenta sinais de maior agressividade biológica. MÉTODOS: Trinta pacientes portadores de câncer da próstata localmente avançado foram submetidos a tratamento antiandrogênico neo-adjuvante por quatro meses, seguido de prostatectomia radical. Foram comparados os escores de Gleason da biópsia e do espécime cirúrgico. Ademais, mediu-se o índice de proliferação celular, determinado por imunohistoquímica para o PCNA, sendo considerados positivos os testes com reação nuclear intensa. A porcentagem de núcleos positivos, determinada em 500 células, foi confrontada com as diversas categorias do escore de Gleason do espécime cirúrgico. RESULTADOS: Em 11 espécimes cirúrgicos (37% o escore de Gleason foi igual ou menor que o encontrado na biópsia, enquanto em 19 (63% o escore cirúrgico foi maior que o da biópsia (p 0,05. A mediana dos índices de proliferação celular foi de 9% para tumores confinados à glândula ou ao espécime e de 17% para os extraprostáticos (pBACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant androgen deprivation in prostate cancer induces tumor volume regression but does not improve outcome of the patient. A possible explanation for this phenomenon could be an increase of the residual tumor aggressiveness brought about by antiandrogen therapy. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of tumor dedifferentiation following androgen blockade in prostate cancer and to determine if the

  15. Aggressive Fibromatosis: Evidence for a Stable Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Mitchell


    Full Text Available Purpose. Aggressive fibromatosis (AF is an uncommon locally infiltrating benign disease of soft tissue for which treatment comprises complete surgical resection. Radiotherapy can be given postoperatively if the margin is incompletely resected. If the tumour is inoperable radiotherapy provides an alternative treatment. Hormone therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy have also been used for unresectable or recurrent disease. All treatment modalities carry an associated morbidity. We believe that the natural history of aggressive fibromatosis may include a period of stable disease without progression, during which time, treatment is not always necessary.

  16. Pirfenidone enhances the efficacy of combined radiation and sunitinib therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seo-Hyun; Nam, Jae-Kyung; Jang, Junho; Lee, Hae-June, E-mail:; Lee, Yoon-Jin, E-mail:


    Radiotherapy is a widely used treatment for many tumors. Combination therapy using anti-angiogenic agents and radiation has shown promise; however, these combined therapies are reported to have many limitations in clinical trials. Here, we show that radiation transformed tumor endothelial cells (ECs) to fibroblasts, resulting in reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) response and increased Snail1, Twist1, Type I collagen, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β release. Irradiation of radioresistant Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumors greater than 250 mm{sup 3} increased collagen levels, particularly in large tumor vessels. Furthermore, concomitant sunitinib therapy did not show a significant difference in tumor inhibition versus radiation alone. Thus, we evaluated multimodal therapy that combined pirfenidone, an inhibitor of TGF-induced collagen production, with radiation and sunitinib treatment. This trimodal therapy significantly reduced tumor growth, as compared to radiation alone. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that radiation-induced collagen deposition and tumor microvessel density were significantly reduced with trimodal therapy, as compared to radiation alone. These data suggest that combined therapy using pirfenidone may modulate the radiation-altered tumor microenvironment, thereby enhancing the efficacy of radiation therapy and concurrent chemotherapy. - Highlights: • Radiation changes tumor endothelial cells to fibroblasts. • Radio-resistant tumors contain collagen deposits, especially in tumor vessels. • Pirfenidone enhances the efficacy of combined radiation and sunitinib therapy. • Pirfenidone reduces radiation-induced collagen deposits in tumors.

  17. Evaluation of Two Treatments for Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Preschool (United States)

    Whitaker, Regina Navonne


    Previous research has indicated that preschoolers identified for aggressive behavior would benefit from family, group, or individual therapy. However, there remains an important gap in the current literature regarding treatments for aggressive behavior based on the subtype of aggression. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine if 2…

  18. Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom (United States)

    Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.


    Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…

  19. Aggressive periodontitis: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhavi Joshipura


    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to highlight the current etiological and therapeutic concepts of aggressive periodontitis which is rapidly progressing and aggressive in nature. It leads to destruction of periodontal tissues and loss of teeth. We need advanced diagnostic techniques to learn about current disease activity and rate of progression. We also require strategies to keep the disease under control with proper maintenance regime and prevent tooth loss, because it can result into complicated prosthetic rehabilitation in a very young patient. The evidence suggests that aggressive periodontitis is influenced by microbiological, genetic, and host factors. This paper reviews clinical, microbiological, immunological, and genetic aspects of pathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis, as well as diagnostic criteria of the disease and appropriate nonsurgical and surgical treatment options.

  20. Aggression And Attachment Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Verma


    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of the present study is to examine the factors related aggression in Iranian and Indian school children. Method: Attachment security (dependency, availability, and total considered as the variable. The KSS questionnaire was administrated students in the 5th grade; 300 were Iranian and 300 were Indian consisted of 150 boys and 150 girls. Results: Attachment security demonstrated significant negative correlations with aggression in the boys, girls and the total Iranian sample. The dependency on mothers was the only case with insignificant correlation.In the Indian sample, attachment security was also found to be significantly negatively correlated with aggression. The only exception was the correlation between mother's availability and aggression in girls, which was not significant Conclusion: It is important that parents treat their children in a tender, manner so that a secure attachment develop between them.

  1. Aggressive therapy of congestive heart failure and associated chronic renal failure with medications and correction of anemia stops or slows the progression of both diseases. (United States)

    Silverberg, D S; Wexler, D; Blum, M; Sheps, D; Schwartz, D; Yachnin, T; Baruch, R; Tchebiner, J; Zubkov, A; Shaked, M; Steinbruch, S; Keren, G; Iaina, A


    The prevalence of congestive heart failure (CHF) is increasing rapidly in the community. We and others have shown that the prevalence and severity of both anemia and chronic renal failure (CRF) increase steadily with increasing severity of CHF. We have also shown that CHF patients may be resistant to standard drug therapy for CHF as long as the associated anemia is not corrected, and that correction of the anemia with subcutaneous erythropoietin and intravenous iron sucrose (Venofer: Vifor International, St. Gallen, Switzerland) may improve both the CHF and CRF and markedly reduce hospitalizations without causing side effects. We report here our experience with correcting anemia in this manner in 126 cases of anemic-resistant CHF patients. As in our previous studies, correction of the anemia improved both CHF and CRF, and reduced hospitalizations. Our studies suggest that correction of even mild anemia in CHF may be an important addition to the treatment of patients with the combination of CHF and CRF.

  2. Fatal persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and vascular graft infections complicated with the formation of multiple abscesses despite aggressive medical therapy (United States)

    Shiba, Mikio; Maeda, Hideaki; Shiono, Motomi


    A 40-year-old man underwent ascending aorta replacement for an acute type A aortic dissection. After the operations, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was identified in sputum and blood cultures. Although anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus drugs were administered, most of the intermittent blood cultures remained positive. The focus of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection was not evident in the early stages, and no specific symptoms such as abscess or endocarditis were observed. However, abscesses in the brain, mediastinum and spleen were found 3 years after the operation. The minimum inhibitory concentration of vancomycin gradually increased from 1 to 4 µg/mL during the course of treatment. This case provides evidence for a potential role of combination therapy. PMID:27489691

  3. Fatal persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and vascular graft infections complicated with the formation of multiple abscesses despite aggressive medical therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikio Shiba


    Full Text Available A 40-year-old man underwent ascending aorta replacement for an acute type A aortic dissection. After the operations, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was identified in sputum and blood cultures. Although anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus drugs were administered, most of the intermittent blood cultures remained positive. The focus of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection was not evident in the early stages, and no specific symptoms such as abscess or endocarditis were observed. However, abscesses in the brain, mediastinum and spleen were found 3 years after the operation. The minimum inhibitory concentration of vancomycin gradually increased from 1 to 4 µg/mL during the course of treatment. This case provides evidence for a potential role of combination therapy.

  4. Establishment of a trimodality analytical platform for tracing, imaging and quantification of gold nanoparticles in animals by radiotracer techniques. (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Hung; Lin, Fong-Sian; Liao, Wei-Neng; Liang, Sanching L; Chen, Min-Hua; Chen, Yo-Wen; Lin, Wan-Yu; Hsu, Ming-Hua; Wang, Mei-Ya; Peir, Jinn-Jer; Chou, Fong-In; Chen, Ching-Ya; Chen, Sih-Yu; Huang, Su-Chin; Yang, Mo-Hsiung; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan; Hwu, Yeukuang; Yang, Chung-Shi; Chen, Jen-Kun


    This study aims to establish a (198)Au-radiotracer technique for in vivo tracing, rapid quantification, and ex vivo visualization of PEGylated gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in animals, organs and tissue dissections. The advantages of GNPs lie in its superior optical property, biocompatibility and versatile conjugation chemistry, which are promising to develop diagnostic probes and drug delivery systems. (198)Au is used as a radiotracer because it simultaneously emits beta and gamma radiations with proper energy and half-life; therefore, (198)Au can be used for bioanalytical purposes. The (198)Au-tagged radioactive gold nanoparticles ((198)Au-GNPs) were prepared simply by irradiating the GNPs in a nuclear reactor through the (197)Au(n,γ)(198)Au reaction and subsequently the (198)Au-GNPs were subjected to surface modification with polyethylene glycol to form PEGylated (198)Au-GNPs. The (198)Au-GNPs retained physicochemical properties that were the same as those of GNP before neutron irradiation. Pharmacokinetic and biodisposition studies were performed by intravenously injecting three types of (198)Au-GNPs with or without PEGylation into mice; the γ radiation in blood specimens and dissected organs was then measured. The (198)Au-radiotracer technique enables rapid quantification freed from tedious sample preparation and shows more than 95% recovery of injected GNPs. Clinical gamma scintigraphy was proved feasible to explore spatial- and temporal-resolved biodisposition of (198)Au-GNPs in living animals. Moreover, autoradiography, which recorded beta particles from (198)Au, enabled visualizing the heterogeneous biodisposition of (198)Au-GNPs in different microenvironments and tissues. In this study, the (198)Au-radiotracer technique facilitated creating a trimodality analytical platform for tracing, quantifying and imaging GNPs in animals.

  5. Neoadjuvant irinotecan, cisplatin, and concurrent radiation therapy with celecoxib for patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer


    Cleary, James M.; Mamon, Harvey J.; Szymonifka, Jackie; Bueno, Raphael; Choi, Noah; Donahue, Dean M.; Fidias, Panos M.; Gaissert, Henning A.; Jaklitsch, Michael T.; Kulke, Matthew H.; Lynch, Thomas P.; Mentzer, Steven J.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Swanson, Richard S.; Wain, John


    Background: Patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer who are treated with trimodality therapy have a high recurrence rate. Preclinical evidence suggests that inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) increases the effectiveness of chemoradiation, and observational studies in humans suggest that COX-2 inhibition may reduce esophageal cancer risk. This trial tested the safety and efficacy of combining a COX2 inhibitor, celecoxib, with neoadjuvant irinotecan/cisplatin chemoradiation. Methods...

  6. Aggressive lymphoma in the elderly. (United States)

    Lichtman, S M


    Persons 65 years of age and older are the fastest growing segment of the United States population. Over the next 30 years they will comprise approximately 20% of the population. There will be a parallel rise in the number of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Age has long been known to be an adverse prognostic factor. Clinical trials of older patients are complicated by the effect of comorbid illness, particularly its effect on overall survival. CHOP (cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin, vincristine, prednisone) remains the standard therapy for all patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. There are a number of regimens which may be beneficial for older patients with significant comorbidity and poor performance status. The randomized trials in the elderly has reaffirmed CHOP and emphasize the need for adequate dosing, maintaining schedule and anthracyclines. Relapsed patients have a poor prognosis but selected fit older patients may benefit from aggressive reinduction regimens and possibly bone marrow transplantation. Future research should include defining the role of comorbidity, measurement of organ dysfunction and assessment of performance status with geriatric functional scales. New drug treatments should also be explored.

  7. Aggression patterns and speciation. (United States)

    Nevo, E; Naftali, G; Guttman, R


    The evolutionary significance of interspecific aggression as a factor in speciation was tested among three chromosome forms of the actively speciating fossorial rodent Spalax ehrenbergi in Israel. Laboratory experiments testing intra- and interspecific aggression were conducted on 48 adult animals from 10 populations comprising three chromosome forms with 2n = 52, 58, and 60. Twelve agonistic, motivational-conflict, and territorial behavioral variables were recorded during 72 combats involving homo- and heter-ogametic encounters between opponents. Analysis of the data matrix was carried out by the nonmetric multivariate Smallest Space Analysis (SSA-II). The results indicate that (a) aggression patterns, involving agonistic conflict and territorial variables, are higher in heterogametic encounters than in homogametic ones; and (b) aggression is higher between contiguous chromosome forms (2n = 58-60, and 2n = 52-58) than between noncontiguous ones (2n = 52-60). Both a and b suggest that high interspecific aggression appears to be adaptively selected at final stages of speciation in mole rats as a premating isolating mechanism which reinforces species identification and establishes parapatric distributions between the evolving species. PMID:1059109

  8. Multifunctional gold nanocomposites designed for targeted CT/MR/optical trimodal imaging of human non-small cell lung cancer cells (United States)

    Chen, Jingwen; Sun, Yingqi; Chen, Qian; Wang, Le; Wang, Suhe; Tang, Yun; Shi, Xiangyang; Wang, Han


    Multifunctional gold nanocomposites, which were designed as dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles functionalized with gadolinium, cyanine dye (Cy5.5), and folic acid, were synthesized to be used as the first dendrimer-based clinical nanoprobes for targeted X-ray computed tomography/magnetic resonance/optical trimodal imaging in vitro and in vivo of human non-small cell cancer cells.Multifunctional gold nanocomposites, which were designed as dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles functionalized with gadolinium, cyanine dye (Cy5.5), and folic acid, were synthesized to be used as the first dendrimer-based clinical nanoprobes for targeted X-ray computed tomography/magnetic resonance/optical trimodal imaging in vitro and in vivo of human non-small cell cancer cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis and characterization data of the nanoprobes; biocompatibility results; confirmation of the tumor cell uptake of the nanoprobes in vitro and in vivo; biodistribution results in vivo. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03143a

  9. A Tri-modal 2024 Al -B4C composites with super-high strength and ductility: Effect of coarse-grained aluminum fraction on mechanical behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Abdollahi


    Full Text Available In this study, ultrafine grained 2024 Al alloy based B4C particles reinforced composite was produced by mechanical milling and hot extrusion. Mechanical milling was used to synthesize the nanostructured Al2024 in attrition mill under argon atmosphere up to 50h. A similar process was used to produce Al2024-5%wt. B4C composite powder. To produce trimodal composites, milled powders were combined with coarse grained aluminum in 30 and 50 wt% and then were exposed to hot extrusion at 570°C. The microstructure of hot extruded samples were studied by optical microscope, Transmission electron microscope (TEM and scanning electron microscope (SEM equipped with EDS spectroscopy. The mechanical properties of samples were compared by using tensile, compression and hardness tests. The results showed that the strength, after 50 h milling and addition of 5wt% B4C, increased from 340 to 582 MPa and the hardness increased from 87 HBN to 173 HBN, but the elongation decreased from 14 to 0.5%. By adding the coarse-grained aluminum powder, the strength and hardness decreased slightly, but the increases in return. Ductility increase is the result of increase in dislocation movements and strength increase is the result of restriction in plastic deformation by nanostructured regions. Furthermore, the strength and hardness of trimodal composites were higher, but their ductility was lower.

  10. Microbiology of aggressive periodontitis. (United States)

    Könönen, Eija; Müller, Hans-Peter


    For decades, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been considered the most likely etiologic agent in aggressive periodontitis. Implementation of DNA-based microbiologic methodologies has considerably improved our understanding of the composition of subgingival biofilms, and advanced open-ended molecular techniques even allow for genome mapping of the whole bacterial spectrum in a sample and characterization of both the cultivable and not-yet-cultivable microbiota associated with periodontal health and disease. Currently, A. actinomycetemcomitans is regarded as a minor component of the resident oral microbiota and as an opportunistic pathogen in some individuals. Its specific JP2 clone, however, shows properties of a true exogenous pathogen and has an important role in the development of aggressive periodontitis in certain populations. Still, limited data exist on the impact of other microbes specifically in aggressive periodontitis. Despite a wide heterogeneity of bacteria, especially in subgingival samples collected from patients, bacteria of the red complex in particular, and those of the orange complex, are considered as potential pathogens in generalized aggressive periodontitis. These types of bacterial findings closely resemble those found for chronic periodontitis, representing a mixed polymicrobial infection without a clear association with any specific microorganism. In aggressive periodontitis, the role of novel and not-yet-cultivable bacteria has not yet been elucidated. There are geographic and ethnic differences in the carriage of periodontitis-associated microorganisms, and they need to be taken into account when comparing study reports on periodontal microbiology in different study populations. In the present review, we provide an overview on the colonization of potential periodontal pathogens in childhood and adolescence, and on specific microorganisms that have been suspected for their role in the initiation and progression of aggressive

  11. Aggressive and acute periodontal diseases. (United States)

    Albandar, Jasim M


    genetic profile, currently do not exist. Genetic markers have the potential to be implemented as screening tools to identify subjects at risk. This approach may significantly enhance treatment outcome through the early detection and treatment of affected subjects, as well as using future approaches based on gene therapy. At present, the treatment of this disease is directed toward elimination of the subgingival bacterial load and other local risk factors. Adjunctive use of appropriate systemic antibiotics is recommended and may contribute to a longer suppression of the microbial infection. Other aggressive forms of periodontal diseases occur in patients who are affected with certain systemic diseases, including the leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome, Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome, Chediak-Higashi syndrome and Down syndrome. Management of the periodontal component of these diseases is very challenging. Acute gingival and periodontal lesions include a group of disorders that range from nondestructive to destructive forms, and these lesions are usually associated with pain and are a common reason for emergency dental consultations. Some of these lesions may cause a rapid and severe destruction of the periodontal tissues and loss of teeth. Oral infections, particularly acute infections, can spread to extra-oral sites and cause serious medical complications, and even death. Hence, prompt diagnosis and treatment are paramount.

  12. Are female CFOs less tax aggressive? Evidence from tax aggressiveness


    Francis , Bill B; Hasan, Iftekhar; Wu,Qiang; YAN Meng


    This paper investigates the effect of CFO gender on corporate tax aggressiveness. Focusing on firms that experience a male-to-female CFO transition, the paper compares those firms’ degree of tax aggressiveness during the pre- and post-transition periods. Using the probability of tax sheltering, the predicted unrecognized tax benefits, and the discretionary permanent book-tax differences to measure tax aggressiveness, we find that female CFOs are associated with less tax aggressiveness as comp...

  13. Witz, Lust und Aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk


    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med forholdet mellem vits, lyst og aggression med udgangspunkt i lysten ved aggressiv litterær humor, eksemplificeret ved tekststeder fra Shakespeares Hamlet. Der argumenteres for, at aggressionen eller angrebet er et fælles centralt aspekt ved Sigmund Freuds og Friedrich...

  14. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes


    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results show

  15. Relational Aggression among Students (United States)

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.


    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  16. Aggressive malignant phyllodes tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Roberts


    Conclusion: Despite biopsy proven malignant phyllodes tumor, it was near impossible to predict such a rapid course of disease progression in our patient. Our case illustrates the unpredictable nature of this disease in general and it possibly sheds light on a variant of the disease which had undergone an aggressive transformation.

  17. Aggressiveness and Disobedience (United States)

    Vaaland, Grete Sorensen; Idsoe, Thormod; Roland, Erling


    This study aims to conceptualize disobedient pupil behavior within the more general framework of antisocial behavior and to reveal how two forms of aggressiveness are related to disobedience. Disobedience, in the context of this article, covers disruptive pupil behavior or discipline problems when the pupil is aware of breaking a standard set by…

  18. Serotonin and Aggressiveness in Chickens (United States)

    Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...

  19. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-Esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ae-Na Choi


    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents, Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control.

  20. [Aggressive fibromatoses in orthopedics]. (United States)

    Adler, C P; Stock, D


    Aggressive fibromatoses which may develop either in soft tissue or in the bone present considerable problems for the pathologist trying to establish a diagnosis as well as for the radiologist and surgeon. In radiographs, a destruction of the soft and osseous tissue is seen which suggests a malignant tumor. Histologically a monomorphic connective tissue prevails in the biopsy showing no essential signs of malignancy. Under pathoanatomical aspects often a benign proliferation of the connective tissue is assumed. Surgically the tumor may either be removed in a too radical and mutilating way, or the excision may remain incomplete. Two cases of desmoplastic bone fibroma (aggressive fibromatosis in the ulna and in the sacrum) are described in which the complete tumor removal led to healing, whereas the incomplete excision of the tumor resulted in recurrences. Aggressive fibromatosis represents a semimalignant tumor which has a locally destructive and invasive growth tendency but does not metastasize. The various fibromatoses are defined with regard to their biological growth tendency and the therapeutic consequences are discussed.

  1. Intensive Insulin Therapy: Tight Blood Sugar Control (United States)

    ... insulin therapy can help you achieve desired blood sugar control and what intensive insulin therapy requires of ... aggressive treatment approach designed to control your blood sugar levels. Intensive insulin therapy requires close monitoring of ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Socorro Lacerda Lima


    Full Text Available On the context of Tupinambá war, bodies, trophies, women, children, names, words, identities, aggressions, offenses, and a lot more richness material that from the changing elements moving on permanently among enemy groups. But on the contrary, the potlatch held on the American northwest, where the alliance establishes a mutual relation of favors between not enemy groups. On the context of Tupi war, the changing system is based exactly in a hostile relation among opposite groups. The aim of the present article is to establish a parallel between anthropophagic complexes of Tupinambá Indians and established potlatch on the American’s northwest societies analyzed by Marcel Mauss.

  3. Aggression can be contagious: Longitudinal associations between proactive aggression and reactive aggression among young twins. (United States)

    Dickson, Daniel J; Richmond, Ashley D; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel


    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin's reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin's reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin's proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin's proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child's level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child's proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay.

  4. Aggressive fibromatosis of anterior maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi C Shetty


    Full Text Available Aggressive fibromatosis is a comparitively rare tumor with unpredictable growth and varying local recurrence rates. It does not develop distant metastases but locally it shows an aggressive and infiltrative behavior. Clinically, aggressive fibromatosis manifests as a painless, firm, often rapidly enlarging mass, fixed to underlying bone or soft tissue. It is never encapsulated. Histologically, it is rich in collagen and fibroblastic cells that are devoid of hyperchromatic or atypical nuclei, but with more variable cellularity in different tumor sections.

  5. Television viewing, aggression, and ethnicity. (United States)

    Harris, M B


    For 416 college students, questioned about their experiences with aggression and television viewing, only very weak correlations between preference for violent shows and aggression were observed. Black males watched significantly more television than other respondents. These findings suggest that the frequently reported correlation between viewing televised violence and aggression may not appear when sex, ethnicity, and education are controlled in a sample of young adults.

  6. Aggressiveness of childern at lower primary school




    The bachelor theses deals with the issue of aggression and aggressiveness of children at lower primary school. The teoretical part is aimed at description of the basic terms and at characteristics of aggression and aggressiveness. In detail it is focused on aggression´s manifestation and factors that influence children´s aggressiveness. Among other things prevention and correction of these issues are suggested. The practical part is analysing presence of aggression among children at the fourt...

  7. Aggression in Psychoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Volavka


    Full Text Available Most individuals diagnosed with a mental illness are not violent, but some mentally ill patients commit violent acts. PubMed database was searched for articles published between 1980 and November 2013 using the combination of key words “schizophrenia” or “bipolar disorder” with “aggression” or “violence.” In comparison with the general population, there is approximately a twofold increase of risk of violence in schizophrenia without substance abuse comorbidity and ninefold with such comorbidity. The risk in bipolar disorder is at least as high as in schizophrenia. Most of the violence in bipolar disorder occurs during the manic phase. Violence among adults with schizophrenia may follow two distinct pathways: one associated with antisocial conduct and another associated with the acute psychopathology, particularly anger and delusions. Clozapine is the most effective treatment of aggressive behavior in schizophrenia. Emerging evidence suggests that olanzapine may be the second most effective treatment. Treatment nonadherence greatly increases the risk of violent behavior, and poor insight as well as hostility is associated with nonadherence. Nonpharmacological methods of treatment of aggression in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are increasingly important. Cognitive behavioral approaches appear to be effective in cases where pharmacotherapy alone is not sufficient.

  8. Temozolomide in aggressive pituitary adenomas and carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon D. Ortiz


    Full Text Available Temozolomide is an alkylating agent used in the treatment of gliomas and, more recently, aggressive pituitary adenomas and carcinomas. Temozolomide methylates DNA and, thereby, has antitumor effects. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, a DNA repair enzyme, removes the alkylating adducts that are induced by temozolomide, thereby counteracting its effects. A Medline search for all of the available publications regarding the use of temozolomide for the treatment of pituitary tumors was performed. To date, 46 cases of adenohypophysial tumors that were treated with temozolomide, including 30 adenomas and 16 carcinomas, have been reported. Eighteen of the 30 (60% adenomas and 11 of the 16 (69% carcinomas responded favorably to treatment. One patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and an aggressive prolactin-producing adenoma was also treated and demonstrated a good response. No significant complications have been attributed to temozolomide therapy. Thus, temozolomide is an effective treatment for the majority of aggressive adenomas and carcinomas. Evidence indicates that there is an inverse correlation between levels of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase immunoexpression and therapeutic response. Alternatively, high-level O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase immunoexpression correlates with an unfavorable response. Here, we review the use of temozolomide for treating pituitary neoplasms.

  9. How goal-fulfillment decreases aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denzler, M.; Förster, J.; Liberman, N.


    We suggest that the goal to aggress increases accessibility of aggressive thoughts, and that after goal-fulfillment, accessibility of aggressive content is reduced. Experiment 1 showed an increase in accessibility of aggression after imagining an aggression-eliciting situation compared to non-aggres

  10. Aggression in children and youth towards crime.




    This thesis deals with aggressive children and youth, which leads to crime. It deals with the causes of aggression, factors that influence aggression, but also the type of aggression. The practical part contains specific case studies of individuals whose aggression was one of the causes of crime.

  11. Aggression at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Annie

    Very few international and no Danish studies investigating the consequences of exposure to both physical and psychological aggression at work have been published. The aim of the present thesis is therefore to investigate the prevalence and consequences of different forms of physical...... response in victims. It was also an aim of the thesis to study whether aspects of the work environment, social climate and personal dispositions would mediate potential relationships between exposure to bullying, nasty teasing or violence and different health effects and stress reactions.      The study...... populations came from two Danish surveys and one Swedish. One of the Danish sur­veys was the Danish Work Environment Co­hort Study, which includes three cross-sec­tio­nal samples of 5,940, 5,652, and 5,636 employees each representative for the Danish labour for­ce in 1990, 1995 and 2000 respectively, and two...

  12. The Neurobiology of Impulsive Aggression. (United States)

    Blair, Robert J R


    This selective review provides a model of the neurobiology of impulsive aggression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. It is argued that prototypical cases of impulsive aggression, those associated with anger, involve the recruitment of the acute threat response system structures; that is, the amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. It is argued that whether the recruitment of these structures results in impulsive aggression or not reflects the functional roles of ventromedial frontal cortex and dorsomedial frontal and anterior insula cortex in response selection. It is also argued that impulsive aggression may occur because of impaired decision making. The aggression may not be accompanied by anger, but it will reflect disrupted evaluation of the rewards/benefits of the action.

  13. Aggressiveness and intelligence in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Munique de Souza Siqueira


    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the aggressiveness and intelligence in adolescence, and to verify if exists association through these variables. The aggressiveness is inherent in human nature and collaborates in the construction of personality by influencing the behaviors positively or negatively. Intelligence refers to the cognitive skill that every individual has and contributes to the establishment of social relations. As a teenager the aggressiveness and the intelligence become more evident due to change in this phase of development. The sample of 35 adolescents of both sexes participated in this survey. The instruments used were the batch of reasoning tests – BPR-5 and the Aggressiveness scale for children and young people. The results indicated that there is no relationship between aggression and intelligence. However, based on the literature these variables interrelate. Therefore, it is suggested that this research be expanded with the use of other psychological instruments.

  14. Trans fat consumption and aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice A Golomb

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary trans fatty acids (dTFA are primarily synthetic compounds that have been introduced only recently; little is known about their behavioral effects. dTFA inhibit production of omega-3 fatty acids, which experimentally have been shown to reduce aggression. Potential behavioral effects of dTFA merit investigation. We sought to determine whether dTFA are associated with aggression/irritability. METHODOLGY/PRINICPAL FINDINGS: We capitalized on baseline dietary and behavioral assessments in an existing clinical trial to analyze the relationship of dTFA to aggression. Of 1,018 broadly sampled baseline subjects, the 945 adult men and women who brought a completed dietary survey to their baseline visit are the target of this analysis. Subjects (seen 1999-2004 were not on lipid medications, and were without LDL-cholesterol extremes, diabetes, HIV, cancer or heart disease. Outcomes assessed adverse behaviors with impact on others: Overt Aggression Scale Modified-aggression subscale (primary behavioral endpoint; Life History of Aggression; Conflict Tactics Scale; and self-rated impatience and irritability. The association of dTFA to aggression was analyzed via regression and ordinal logit, unadjusted and adjusted for potential confounders (sex, age, education, alcohol, and smoking. Additional analyses stratified on sex, age, and ethnicity, and examined the prospective association. Greater dTFA were strongly significantly associated with greater aggression, with dTFA more consistently predictive than other assessed aggression predictors. The relationship was upheld with adjustment for confounders, was preserved across sex, age, and ethnicity strata, and held cross-sectionally and prospectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides the first evidence linking dTFA with behavioral irritability and aggression. While confounding is always a concern in observational studies, factors including strength and consistency of association

  15. Aggressive combination therapy with intra-articular glucocorticoid injections and conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs in early rheumatoid arthritis: second-year clinical and radiographic results from the CIMESTRA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, M.L.; Stengaard-Pedersen, K.; Junker, P.;


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether clinical and radiographic disease control can be achieved and maintained in patients with early, active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during the second year of aggressive treatment with conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and intra-articular c......OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether clinical and radiographic disease control can be achieved and maintained in patients with early, active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during the second year of aggressive treatment with conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and intra......% in monotherapy), but hypertension was not more prevalent. CONCLUSION: Continuous methotrexate and intra-articular corticosteroid treatment resulted in excellent clinical response and disease control at 2 years, and the radiographic erosive progression was minimal. Addition of ciclosporine during the first 76...

  16. Children's social cognition about proactive aggression. (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Killen, Melanie; Duffy, Amanda


    In this study, 6- and 9-year-old children (N=258) observed two instances of proactive aggression (one relational and the other direct aggression) that were committed by members of a group toward out-group members. Participants were either members of the group or independent observers. Analyses of participants' social cognition about the aggressor and the aggression (cause of aggression, moral judgment of aggression, attitudes toward the aggressor, and exclusion of the aggressor) indicated that, overall, group members were more positive toward aggressors than were independent observers. Although intergroup competition was perceived to be the cause of the aggression, participants disapproved of both types of aggression (especially direct aggression), disapproval increased with age, and girls disapproved of relational aggression more than did boys. Group members' social cognition about the aggressor and the aggression comprised a coherent cognitive process for both types of aggression, but the observers' process was simpler and differed by aggression type.

  17. Involvement in internet aggression during early adolescence. (United States)

    Werner, Nicole E; Bumpus, Matthew F; Rock, Daquarii


    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were themselves targets of Internet aggression. Offline relational aggression and beliefs supportive of relational and physical aggression also predicted concurrent involvement in Internet aggression. We used longitudinal data (N = 150; 51% female) to distinguish between youth who were aggressive in traditional contexts only (i.e., school) from those who were aggressive both online and offline. These results indicated that youth who were aggressive both online and offline were older at the initial assessment, were targets of Internet aggression, and held beliefs more supportive of relational aggression than youth who were aggressive offline only. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  18. [The effect of media violence on aggression: is aggressive behavior mediated by aggressive cognitions and emotions?]. (United States)

    Yukawa, S; Yoshida, F


    This study investigated whether cognitions and emotions elicited by media violence mediate aggressive behavior. Eighty undergraduates, 40 men and 40 women, participated in the experiment. First, subjects were exposed to one of four violent videos which varied in levels of violence and entertainment. Subjects' heart rate and eyeblink rate were continuously recorded while they watched the video. After watching it, subjects described their thoughts which occurred while watching it and rated their affective reactions to it. Finally, their aggressive behavior was measured. Results showed that (1) videos high in violence elicited more aggressive thoughts, more thoughts of negative affect, stronger negative affects, and stronger empty-powerless affects, whereas videos high in entertainment elicited stronger positive affects; (2) no significant differences were found among the videos in terms of physiological reactions and aggressive behavior; and (3) cognitions and emotions elicited by media violence did not mediate aggressive behavior.

  19. From aggressiveness to creativity. (United States)

    Mrevlje, Gorazd V


    Psychology has a long tradition of considering human creativity as a distinct human characteristic and a special kind of human activity. After explaining the key motives for such an attitude, the author discusses those forms of healthy aggressiveness that stand out as necessary and constitutive elements of the creative process. Taking the well-known statement of C. G. Jung's 'The person who does not build (create), will demolish and destroy' as a starting point, the author compares the basic premises for understanding the process of human creativity, at the same time drawing on Freud's psychology of the individual and Jung's principle of the collective unconscious as well as his notion of 'complexes'. In doing so, the author somewhat boldly paraphrases Jung's dictum: 'In order to be creative, rather than just constructive, one must occasionally also destroy'. With reference to Wallas, Taylor and Neumann (Wallas 1926; Taylor 1959;;Neumann 2001), the author goes on to explore those concepts which help us to investigate the phenomenon of human creativity, drawing distinctions between emergent, expressive, productive, inventive and innovative creativity. The second part of the article discusses the importance of intelligence, originality, nonconformity, subversiveness and free-mindedness for the creative process of human beings. The author concludes with a further explanation of Erich Neumann's argument that human creativity cannot be understood solely as a result of sociogenetic factors, and argues that it is only by taking into consideration Jung's perception of creativity that a global ontological understanding of these processes can be achieved.

  20. ``Aggressive`` renal angiomyolipoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cittadini, G. Jr. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Pozzi Mucelli, F. [Univ. of Trieste (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Danza, F.M. [Catholic Sacro Cuore Univ., Rome (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Derchi, L.E. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Pozzi Mucelli, R.S. [Univ. of Trieste (Italy). Dept. of Radiology


    We describe the US and CT examinations of 4 patients with renal angiomyolipoma with an `aggressive` appearance, and review the literature. The imaging findings in 4 patients with benign renal angiomyolipomas associated with thrombosis of the renal vein and/or inferior vena cava are presented. CT demonstrated fat densities within both tumor and thrombus. In one patient, small lymph nodes with low density internal areas were detected in the para-aortic region. When considering our patients together with those reported in the literature, we found that most angiomyolipomas with venous invasion were large and centrally located within the kidney. Venous thrombosis was observed in 9 lesions of the right kidney, and in only 4 of the left one. One patient only had symptoms due to the thrombus; 10 had problems due to the tumor; and 3 were asymptomatic. Only 4 patients with pararenal enlarged lymph nodes have been reported on in the imaging literature. Fat-containing nodes were detected by CT in one case only; the others had enlarged nodes of soft-tissue density. In one patient the diagnosis of hamartomatous lymph node invasion was established by angiography. In patients with renal angiomyolipoma, demonstration of both fatty thrombus and the fatty infiltration of lymph nodes of the renal hilum cannot be regarded as an indication of malignancy, but only of local aggessive behavior. Conservative treatment seems possible. Detection of enlarged lymph nodes of soft tissue density may cause difficult diagnostic problems, with the diagnosis addressed only by the presence of associated lesions. (orig./MG).

  1. Childhood adversity, mental ill-health and aggressive behavior in an African orphanage: Changes in response to trauma-focused therapy and the implementation of a new instructional system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schauer Elisabeth


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of orphans in Sub-Saharan Africa is constantly rising. While it is known that family or community care is preferable over institutional care of African orphans, little is known about the quality of care in orphanages and possibilities of improvement. Study 1 Methods Exposure to traumatic stress, experiences of violence in the home, school and orphanage, as well as mental ill-health and aggression of 38 children (mean age of M = 8.64 years living in an orphanage in rural Tanzania were assessed at two time points. The severity of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD, depressive symptoms, and internalizing and externalizing problems were used as indicators of mental ill-health. Results Violence experienced in the orphanage correlated more strongly with all indicators of mental ill-health than violence in the former home, school or neighborhood at time point 1. Additionally, violence experienced in the orphanage had a positive relationship with the aggressive behavior of the children at time point 2. Study 2 Methods With the help of the pre-post assessment of Study 1, the implementation of a new instructional system and psychotherapeutic treatment (KIDNET for trauma-related illness were evaluated. Results In response to both, a change in the instructional system and psychotherapeutic treatment of PTSD, a massive decline in experienced violence and in the severity of PTSD-symptoms was found, whereas depressive symptoms and internalizing and externalizing problems exhibited little change. Conclusions These studies show that violence, especially in the orphanage, can severely contribute to mental ill-health in orphans and that mental health can be improved by implementing a new instructional system and psychotherapeutic treatment in an orphanage. Moreover, the results indicate that the experience of violence in an orphanage also plays a crucial role in aggressive behavior of the orphans.

  2. Genetics of Aggression in Voles


    Gobrogge, Kyle L.; Wang, Zuoxin


    Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are socially monogamous rodents that form pair bonds—a behavior composed of several social interactions including attachment with a familiar mate and aggression toward conspecific strangers. Therefore, this species has provided an excellent opportunity for the study of pair bonding behavior and its underlying neural mechanisms. In this chapter, we discuss the utility of this unique animal model in the study of aggression and review recent findings illustra...

  3. Expression and/or activity of the SVCT2 ascorbate transporter may be decreased in many aggressive cancers, suggesting potential utility for sodium bicarbonate and dehydroascorbic acid in cancer therapy. (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F


    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimer transcription factor whose elevated activity in many cancers helps them to survive under hypoxic conditions and enhances their capacity to grow invasively, establish metastases, and survive chemo- or radiotherapy. Optimal intracellular levels of ascorbate suppress the level and transcriptional activity of HIF-1under normoxic or mildly hypoxic conditions by supporting the activity of proly and asparagyl hydroxylases that target HIF-1alpha. High intracellular ascorbate can also work in various ways to down-regulate activation of NF-kappaB which, like HIF-1 is constitutively active in many cancers and promotes aggressive behavior - in part by promoting transcription of HIF-1alpha. Yet recent evidence suggests that, even in the context of adequate ascorbate nutrition, the intracellular ascorbate content of many aggressive cancers may be supoptimal for effective HIF-1 control. This likely reflects low expression or activity of the SVCT2 ascorbate transporter. The expression of SVCT2 in cancers has so far received little study; but the extracellular acidity characteristic of many tumors would be expected to reduce the activity of this transporter, which has a mildly alkaline pH optimum. Unfortunately, since SVCT2 has a high affinity for ascorbate, and its activity is nearly saturated at normal healthy serum levels of this vitamin, increased oral administration of ascorbate would be unlikely to have much impact on the intracellular ascorbate content of tumors. However, cancers in which HIF-1 is active express high levels of glucose transporters such as GLUT-1, and these transporters can promote influx of dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) via facilitated diffusion; once inside the cell, DHA is rapidly reduced to ascorbate, which effectively is "trapped" within the cell. Hence, episodic intravenous infusions of modest doses of DHA may have potential for optimizing the intracellular ascorbate content of cancers, potentially

  4. Music, Substance Use, and Aggression (United States)

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Grube, Joel W.; Waiters, Elizabeth D.


    Objective This study investigated whether young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and from a sample of community college students aged 15-25 (N = 1056; 43% male). A structural equation modeling method was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music, alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors, taking into account respondents’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking. Results Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. Additionally, alcohol and illicit drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables such as sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. Conclusion The findings suggest that young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Conversely, music listening preference may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. Alternatively, substance use, aggression and music preference are independent constructs, but share common “third factors.” PMID:16608146

  5. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation. (United States)

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan


    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression.

  6. Adolescents' Social Reasoning about Relational Aggression (United States)

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Tisak, Marie S.


    We examined early adolescents' reasoning about relational aggression, and the links that their reasoning has to their own relationally aggressive behavior. Thinking about relational aggression was compared to thinking about physical aggression, conventional violations, and personal behavior. In individual interviews, adolescents (N = 103) rated…

  7. Do Teachers Misbehave? Aggression in School Teams (United States)

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit


    Purpose: Despite growing research on school aggression, significant gaps remain in the authors' knowledge of team aggression, since most studies have mainly explored aggression on the part of students. The purpose of this paper is to focus on understanding the phenomenon of workplace aggression in school teams. Specifically, the purpose of the…

  8. Aggressive Periodontitis – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki


    Full Text Available Aggressive periodontitis which is an uncommon condition is characterized by severe loss of attachment and destruction of alveolar bone around one or more permanent teeth during the period of pubescence. Aggressive periodontitis have localized and generalized forms. It is currently believed that combination of bacteriologic, immunologic and hereditary factors are of major importance in the etiology of this disease. The case was of a 14 - year old female and his clinical and radiographic findings were typical for generalized aggressive periodontitis. Treatment consisted of thorough training in techniques of plaque control, scaling and root planning and administration of tetracycline 250 mg every six hours for three weeks, as well as combined surgery and antibiotic therapy. But both failed to cure or control the disease mostly because of the non-cooperation with the oral hygiene instructions. 

  9. Sensory modulation intervention and behaviour support modification for the treatment of severe aggression in Huntington's disease. A single case experimental design. (United States)

    Fisher, Caroline A; Brown, Anahita


    Aggression is common in Huntington's disease. However, at present there are no standard guidelines for managing aggression in Huntington's sufferers due to a lack of empirical research. This paper presents a case study of the treatment of very high levels of aggression with sensory modulation and behaviour support intervention in a Huntington's sufferer. The client exhibited a range of aggressive behaviours, including physical aggression to people, furniture and objects, and verbal aggression. Following an eight week baseline phase, five weeks of sensory modulation intervention were employed. A behaviour support plan was then implemented as an adjunct to the sensory intervention, with aggressive behaviour systematically audited for a further 11 weeks. The results indicate a significant reduction in reported levels of aggression during the combined sensory modulation and behaviour support phase, compared to both the baseline and the sensory modulation therapy alone phases. This case study highlights the efficacy non-pharmacological interventions may have for reducing aggression in HD.

  10. [Pro-aggressive effect of diazepam in male mice with repeated experience of aggression]. (United States)

    Grigor'eva, A E; Smagin, D A; Bondar', N P; Galiamina, A G; Kudriavtseva, N N


    Previous studies have reported that repeated experience of aggression is attended with the development of increased anxiety in male mice. The paper aimed to investigate effect of anxiolytic, diazepam, on the level of anxiety and aggression in these animals. The drug was chronically administrated for two weeks at the process of aggression experience acquisition. It was shown that diazepam decreased anxiety but didn't influence aggression level assessed by total time of attacks. However, diazepam decreased demonstration of aggressive grooming in part of aggressive males. Group of diazepam-treated aggressive males which displayed aggressive grooming didn't differ in level of anxiety and aggression in saline-treated male mice. Diazepam had anxiolytic and pro-aggressive effects in male mice without demonstrating aggressive grooming. Thus, we can conclude that anxiolytic effect of diazepam is accompanied with increased aggression as side effect in some male mice which have repeated experience of aggression.

  11. Therapy of Lies (United States)

    Price, Sean


    Conversion therapy comes in many forms, ranging from informal chats with counselors to aggressive physical coercion, but all are based on the belief that a gay male or a lesbian can be changed "back" to heterosexual behavior. It is not just alarmed parents who turn to this therapy. Many LGBT individuals seek out such treatment in an effort to…

  12. Massage Therapy Research (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria


    Massage therapy has been notably effective in preventing prematurity, enhancing growth of infants, increasing attentiveness, decreasing depression and aggression, alleviating motor problems, reducing pain, and enhancing immune function. This review covers massage therapy research from the last decade, as an update to the American Psychologist 1998…

  13. Genetic contributions to subtypes of aggression



    Boys and girls may display different styles of aggression. The aim of this study was to identify subtypes of aggression within the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) aggression scale, and determine their characteristics for both sexes. Maternal CBCL ratings of 7449 7-year-old twin pairs were analyzed using principal components analyses to identify subtypes of aggression, and structural equation modeling to carry out genetic analyses. Two aggression subtypes were identified: relational and direct...

  14. Key concepts in glioblastoma therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartek, Jiri; Ng, Kimberly; Bartek, Jiri;


    Glioblastoma is the most common form of primary brain cancer and remains one of the most aggressive forms of human cancer. Current standard of care involves maximal surgical resection followed by concurrent therapy with radiation and the DNA alkylating agent temozolomide. Despite this aggressive...

  15. Self-Consciousness, Self-Report of Aggressiveness, and Aggression (United States)

    Scheier, Michael F.; And Others


    Private self-consciousness consists of attending to one's thoughts, feelings, and motives. Public self-consciousness consists of attending to oneself as a social object. The effect of dispositional self-consciousness on the accuracy of self-reports was studied in research on aggression. (Editor)

  16. Identification of Novel, Inherited Genetic Markers for Aggressive PCa in European and African Americans Using Whole Genome Sequencing (United States)


    spondylitis (Szczypiorska 2011), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (Hinks 2011), and psoriasis (Trembath 2010). More importantly, genetic variants located on...evasion by tumor cells which in turn accelerate tumor progression. More experimental efforts are needed to pinpoint the biological implication of...identified variants can provide more insight into the etiology of aggressive PCa and provide potential effective targets for therapy of aggressive

  17. Biochemistry and Aggression: Psychohematological Model. (United States)

    Foster, Hilliard G., Jr.; Spitz, Reuben T.


    Examines biochemical measures in a population of forensic psychiatric inpatients. Regression equations utilizing chemical and biological variables were developed and evaluated to determine their value in predicting the severity and frequency of aggression. Findings strongly suggest the presence of specific biochemical alteration among those…

  18. Enrichment and aggression in primates. (United States)

    Honess, P E; Marin, C M


    There is considerable evidence that primates housed under impoverished conditions develop behavioural abnormalities, including, in the most extreme example, self-harming behaviour. This has implications for all contexts in which primates are maintained in captivity from laboratories to zoos since by compromising the animals' psychological well-being and allowing them to develop behavioural abnormalities their value as appropriate educational and research models is diminished. This review examines the extensive body of literature documenting attempts to improve living conditions with a view to correcting behavioural abnormalities and housing primates in such a way that they are encouraged to exhibit a more natural range and proportion of behaviours, including less self-directed and social aggression. The results of housing, feeding, physical, sensory and social enrichment efforts are examined with specific focus on their effect on aggressive behaviour and variation in their use and efficacy. It is concluded that while inappropriate or poorly distributed enrichment may encourage aggressive competition, enrichment that is species, sex, age and background appropriate can dramatically reduce aggression, can eliminate abnormal behaviour and substantially improve the welfare of primates maintained in captivity.

  19. Teachers' Reactions to Children's Aggression (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Pickering, Kaye


    Drawing on social schema theory (Fiske & Taylor, 1991) and social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), this study examined the impact on teachers' reactions to children's aggression of three variables, two of which were related to the aggressors and one was related to the teachers. Experienced female elementary school teachers (N=90) each read…

  20. Narrative Development in Aggressive Boys. (United States)

    Cole, Doris


    A study analyzed the oral narrative abilities in Caucasian males (ages 8-13) identified as aggressive. The boys were asked to construct an oral narrative based on a wordless picture book. Subjects provided fewer pieces of information to create the setting of the story for listeners than did controls. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  1. Aggressive periodontitis: The unsolved mystery. (United States)

    Clark, Danielle; Febbraio, Maria; Levin, Liran


    Aggressive periodontal disease is an oral health mystery. Our current understanding of this disease is that specific bacteria invade the oral cavity and the host reacts with an inflammatory response leading to mass destruction of the alveolar bone. Aggressive periodontal disease is typically observed in a population under the age of 30 and occurs so rapidly that it is difficult to treat. Unfortunately, the consequence of this disease frequently involves tooth extractions. As a result, the aftermath is chewing disability and damage to self-esteem due to an altered self-image. Furthermore, patients are encumbered by frequent dental appointments which have an economic impact in regards to both personal financial strain and absent days in the workplace. Aggressive periodontal disease has a tremendous effect on patients' overall quality of life and needs to be investigated more extensively in order to develop methods for earlier definitive diagnosis and effective treatments. One of the mysteries of aggressive periodontal disease is the relatively nominal amount of plaque present on the tooth surface in relation to the large amount of bone loss. There seems to be a hidden factor that lies between the response by the patient's immune system and the bacterial threat that is present. A better mechanistic understanding of this disease is essential to provide meaningful care and better outcomes for patients.

  2. A Conceptualization of Aggressive Communication. (United States)

    Infante, Dominic A.

    Interpersonal communication can be viewed in terms of an aggressive-nonaggressive continuum. Past research has often focused on nonaggressive forms of interpersonal communication, such as understanding how people get to know one another, how trust and intimacy develop, and the role of self-disclosure in relationship development. However,…

  3. Personal standards for judging aggression by a relationship partner: How much aggression is too much? (United States)

    Arriaga, Ximena B; Capezza, Nicole M; Daly, Christine A


    What determines whether people tolerate partner aggression? This research examined how norms, relationship experiences, and commitment predict personal standards for judging aggressive acts by a partner. Studies 1a and 1b (n = 689) revealed that experiencing aggression in a current relationship and greater commitment predicted greater tolerance for common partner aggression. Study 2 longitudinally tracked individuals who had never experienced partner aggression (n = 52). Once aggression occurred, individuals adopted more tolerant standards, but only if they were highly committed. Study 3 involved experimentally manipulating the relevance of partner aggression among individuals who reported current partner aggression (n = 73); they were more tolerant of aggressive acts imagined to occur by their partner (vs. the same acts by a stranger), but only if they were highly committed. Personal standards for judging partner aggression are dynamic. They shift toward greater tolerance when committed people experience aggression in a current relationship.

  4. Psychological features of aggression in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    .O. Kuznetsova


    Full Text Available We present the results of empirical study of the psychological characteristics of aggression and frustration response in adolescents with different types of socialization. We describe the qualitative and quantitative aspects of aggression in adolescence. We show the nature of the relationship of a aggressiveness features with type of socialization in adolescents. The described study involved 125 male adolescents aged 13-14 years, enrolled in the VIII grade (56 cadets and 69 students. We used methods of testing, survey, subjective scaling. In cadets, we found elevated rates of aggression and hostility, the prevalence of physical aggression, high scores on Irritation, Verbal aggression and Suspicion, as well as the prevalence in situations of frustration of extrapunitive reactions with “fixation on self-defense”. In the group of students of secondary school, the levels of aggression and hostility an on upper limit of test norms, impunitive reactions, indirect aggression, guilt, constructive reaction with “fixation on meeting needs” prevail.

  5. Female Aggression and Violence: A Case Study (United States)

    Martin, Penelope E.


    Aggression and violence among adolescent females has received extension attention throughout the nation. Girls often employ relationally aggressive behaviors to resolve conflict, which often leads to physical aggression. The purpose of this study was to examine a girl fight from multiple perspectives to gain a better understanding of the causes…

  6. Contexts and predictability of aggression in chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, F.B.M. de; Hoekstra, J.A.


    Reasons for aggression may be deduced from the situations preceding aggressive behaviour. This we may call the retrospective approach. In addition to results from this conventional procedure the present paper investigates the predictability of aggressive behaviour. In this so-called anticipatory app

  7. Neurobiology of escalated aggression and violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miczek, Klaus A.; de Almeida, Rosa M. M.; Kravitz, Edward A.; Rissman, Emilie F.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Raine, Adrian


    Psychopathological violence in criminals and intense aggression in fruit flies and rodents are studied with novel behavioral, neurobiological, and genetic approaches that characterize the escalation from adaptive aggression to violence. One goal is to delineate the type of aggressive behavior and it

  8. Cervical necrotizing fasciitis as a complication of acute epiglottitis managed with minimally aggressive surgical intervention: Case report. (United States)

    Gollapalli, Rajesh Babu; Naiman, Ana Nusa; Merry, David


    Cervical necrotizing fasciitis secondary to epiglottitis is rare. The standard treatment of this severe condition has long been early and aggressive surgical debridement and adequate antimicrobial therapy. We report the case of an immunocompetent 59-year-old man who developed cervical necrotizing fasciitis as a complication of acute epiglottitis. We were able to successfully manage this patient with conservative surgical treatment (incision and drainage, in addition to antibiotic therapy) that did not involve aggressive debridement.

  9. Social Aggression on Television and Its Relationship to Children's Aggression in the Classroom (United States)

    Martins, Nicole; Wilson, Barbara J.


    A survey was conducted with over 500 children in grades K-5 to examine whether exposure to socially aggressive content was related to children's use of social aggression. The results of the survey revealed a significant relationship between exposure to televised social aggression and increased social aggression at school, but only for girls and…

  10. Examining the Mediating Effect of Self-Efficacy on Approval of Aggression and Proactive Aggression (United States)

    Hadley, Jade; Mowbray, Tony; Jacobs, Nicky


    Proactive aggression (PA) is goal-directed, hostile social behavior that has been linked to detrimental outcomes. It has been theorized that adolescents who believe aggression is a normal and acceptable social response (approval of aggression) are more likely to show PA. Confidence in one's ability to behave aggressively (self-efficacy about…

  11. Read anything mean lately? associations between reading aggression in books and aggressive behavior in adolescents. (United States)

    Stockdale, Laura A; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Padilla-Walker, Laura M


    Although there have been hundreds of studies on media violence, few have focused on literature, with none examining novels. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine whether reading physical and relational aggression in books was associated with aggressive behavior in adolescents. Participants consisted of 223 adolescents who completed a variety of measures detailing their media use and aggressive behavior. A non-recursive structural equation model revealed that reading aggression in books was positively associated with aggressive behavior, even after controlling for exposure to aggression in other forms of media. Associations were only found for congruent forms of aggression. Implications regarding books as a form of media are discussed.

  12. Workplace aggression: beginning a dialogue. (United States)

    McLemore, Monica R


    The June 2005 Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing editorial titled "Communication: Whose Problem Is It?" (Griffin-Sobel, 2005) was written to begin a dialogue about a phenomenon frequently experienced yet rarely discussed: workplace aggression, also known as disruptive behavior. Prompted by a groundbreaking study published in the American Journal of Nursing by Rosenstein and O'Daniel (2005), the editorial challenged oncology nurses to begin to fix problems of communication. After reflecting on both of the articles and considering my own experience as a nurse manager, clinician, and scholar, I decided to explore the topic as it relates to nurse-to-nurse workplace aggression. The following is a summary of interviews with nurse managers, nurse practitioners, and nurse scientists about root causes and effective strategies to manage these sometimes complicated situations. This article is meant to continue the dialogue about the very sensitive issue. Confidentiality has been maintained, and I welcome your comments.

  13. Imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeyadevan, N.N.; Sohaib, S.A.A.; Thomas, J.M.; Jeyarajah, A.; Shepherd, J.H.; Fisher, C


    AIM: To describe the imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma in a rare benign mesenchymal tumour most frequently arising from the perineum in young female patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of patients with aggressive angiomyxoma who were referred to our hospital. The imaging features were correlated with clinical information and pathology in all patients. RESULTS: Four CT and five MR studies were available for five patients (all women, mean age 39, range 24-55). Three patients had recurrent tumour at follow-up. CT and MR imaging demonstrated a well-defined mass-displacing adjacent structures. The tumour was of low attenuation relative to muscle on CT. On MR, the tumour was isointense relative to muscle on T1-weighted image, hyperintense on T2-weighted image and enhanced avidly after gadolinium contrast with a characteristic 'swirled' internal pattern. MR imaging demonstrates the extent of the tumour and its relation to the pelvic floor. Recurrent tumour has a similar appearance to the primary lesion. CONCLUSION: The MR appearances of aggressive angiomyxomas are characteristic, and the diagnosis should be considered in any young woman presenting with a well-defined mass arising from the perineum. Jeyadevan, N. N. etal. (2003). Clinical Radiology58, 157--162.

  14. Rural neighborhoods and child aggression. (United States)

    Bowen, Natasha K; Wretman, Christopher J


    Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to evaluate the direct and mediated effects of a neighborhood risk factor (negative teen behaviors) on the parent-report aggressive behavior of 213 students in grades 3 through 5 attending a school in a low-income, rural community. Contagion and social control hypotheses were examined as well as hypotheses about whether the neighborhood served as a microsystem or exosystem for rural pre-adolescents. Analyses took into account the clustering of students and ordinal nature of the data. Findings suggest that rural neighborhoods may operate as both a microsystem and exosystem for children, with direct contagion effects on their aggressive behaviors as well as indirect social control effects through parenting practices. Direct effects on aggression were also found for parenting practices and child reports of friends' negative behaviors. Pre-adolescence may be a transitional stage, when influences of the neighborhood on child behavior begin to compete with influences of caregivers. Findings can inform the timing and targets of violence prevention in rural communities.

  15. Cruel intentions on television and in real life: can viewing indirect aggression increase viewers' subsequent indirect aggression? (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike


    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were shown an indirect, direct, or no-aggression video and their subsequent indirect aggression was measured by negative evaluation of a confederate and responses to a vignette. Participants viewing indirect or direct aggression gave a more negative evaluation of and less money to a confederate than participants viewing no-aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave less money to the confederate than those viewing direct aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave more indirectly aggressive responses to an ambiguous situation and participants viewing direct aggression gave more directly aggressive responses. This study provides the first evidence that viewing indirect aggression in the media can have an immediate impact on subsequent aggression.

  16. [Pharmacological treatment of syndromes of aggressivity]. (United States)

    Itil, T M


    In the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior, four major groups of drugs emerged: 1. Major tranquilizers in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior associated with psychotic syndromes. 2. Anti-epileptic drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and barbiturates in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior within the epileptic syndrome. 3. Psychostimulants in the treatment of aggressive behavior of adolescents and children within behavior disturbances. 4. Anti-male hormones such as cyproterone acetate in the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior associated with pathological sexual hyperactivity. Whereas each category of drug is predominantly effective in one type of aggressive syndrome, it may also be effective in other conditions as well. Aggression as a result of a personality disorder is most difficult to treat with drugs.

  17. Precarious manhood and displays of physical aggression. (United States)

    Bosson, Jennifer K; Vandello, Joseph A; Burnaford, Rochelle M; Weaver, Jonathan R; Arzu Wasti, S


    The results of three experiments demonstrate that physically aggressive displays are part of men's cultural script for restoring threatened gender status. In Studies 1 and 2, challenges to men's gender status elicited heightened physically aggressive displays, including punching a pad with greater force and selecting an aggressive boxing activity over a nonaggressive puzzle activity. Study 3 established that a public display of aggressive readiness reduced men's anxiety-related cognitions in the wake of a gender threat. This suggests that aggressive displays may function to downregulate negative affect when manhood has been threatened. The discussion considers past research on gender and physical aggression in light of the authors' thesis that manhood, relative to womanhood, is culturally defined as a precarious status that must be actively, even aggressively, defended.

  18. "Primary" aggressive chondroblastoma of the humerus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alva N Kishore


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chondroblastomas are rare epiphyseal bone tumors. Very few cases with extra-cortical aggressive soft tissue invasion or metastasis are reported. Case presentation We report a 28 year-old adult male who presented with a large swelling over the left shoulder region. Pre-operative imaging revealed a large tumor arising from upper end of humerus with extensive soft tissue involvement necessitating a fore-quarter amputation. Patient received adjuvant radiation. Conclusions This patient is one of the largest chondroblastomas to be reported. Although chondroblastomas are typically benign, rarely they can be locally aggressive or metastatic. Early diagnosis and institution of proper primary therapy would prevent mutilating surgeries and recurrences.

  19. Bibliotherapy: an indirect approach to treatment of childhood aggression. (United States)

    Shechtman, Z


    The process of group therapy with five aggressive young boys, utilizing bibliotherapy as its primary mode of intervention, was investigated and is illustrated in this paper. The rationale for using affective bibliotherapy in a group context is given, the content of the program is described, and the process is fully displayed. The effectiveness of the treatment was studied in a single-subject design, comparing treatment children with their matched counterparts. Results pointed to reduced aggression of all the five treatment students, compared with no change in the control children, by self- and teacher report. In addition, results based on an analysis of transcripts showed increased constructive behavior in group for all participants. Although these results should not be generalized, they suggest an interesting line of research for future investigation.

  20. Female alcohol consumption, motivations for aggression and aggressive incidents in licensed premises. (United States)

    Newberry, Michelle; Williams, Nikki; Caulfield, Laura


    Research into the relationship between alcohol and aggression has previously focused on men. However, in recent years there has been an increase in binge drinking and violent crime among women, behaviours which have been labelled 'ladette' culture in the UK. The current study advances the literature in this area by investigating the relationship between alcohol consumption and aggressive behaviour of females in licensed premises, including the type of aggression and motivations for aggressive incidents. Ninety-three female university students completed the Student Alcohol Questionnaire (SAQ; Engs, 2002), the Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) and a questionnaire developed to measure self-reported aggressive incidents. Females who had been involved in an aggressive incident reported spending more time on average in licensed premises per week and higher levels of aggression as well as consuming significantly more alcohol on the day of the incident than females who had not been involved in an aggressive incident. Contrary to expectations, however, those who had been involved in an aggressive incident did not report drinking more beer (a male-orientated drink) than those who had not. Verbally aggressive incidents were reported more than physically aggressive incidents, and aggression was commonly motivated by an emotional reaction or to address a grievance. The finding that average alcohol consumption per week was significantly associated with female aggression in licensed premises highlights the importance of developing interventions to reduce alcohol consumption among young females.

  1. Intergroup Biases in Fear-induced Aggression (United States)

    Mifune, Nobuhiro; Simunovic, Dora; Yamagishi, Toshio


    Using a recently created preemptive strike game (PSG) with 176 participants, we investigated if the motivations of spite and/or fear promotes aggression that requires a small cost to the aggressor and imposes a larger cost on the opponent, and confirmed the earlier finding that fear does but spite does not promote intergroup aggression when the groups are characterized as minimal groups; additionally, the rate of intergroup aggression did not vary according to the group membership of the opponent. The PSG represents a situation in which both the motivations of spite and of fear can logically drive players to choose an option of aggression against an opponent. Participants decide whether or not to attack another participant, who also has the same capability. The decision is made in real time, using a computer. We discuss theoretical implications of our findings on the evolutionary foundations of intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression. The evolutionary model of intergroup aggression, or the parochial altruism model, posits that intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression have co-evolved, and thus it predicts both intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression to emerge even in a minimal group devoid of a history of intergroup relationships. The finding that only intragroup cooperation but not intergroup aggression emerged in the minimal group experiments strongly suggests that intergroup aggression involves a psychological mechanism that is independent from that of intragroup cooperation. We further discuss the implications of these findings on real-world politics and military strategy. PMID:28174553

  2. Aggressive angiomyxoma: irradiation for recurrent disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhomberg, W.; Alton, R.; Kompatscher, P. [Landeskrankenhaus Feldkirch (Austria). Abt. fuer Radioonkologie; Jasarevic, Z.; Breitfellner, G. [Landeskrankenhaus Feldkirch (Austria). Abt. fuer Pathologie; Beer, G. [Landeskrankenhaus Feldkirch (Austria). Abt. fuer Plastische Chirurgie


    Background: Aggressive angiomyxoma (AAM) is a tumor of the soft tissues predominantly occurring in the genital and pelvic area with a strong propensity to local recurrences. The entity was first described in 1983. The tumor is regarded as low-grade sarcoma by some authors; its cause and pathogenesis are presently unknown. Patient and method: This is a case report on a 27-year-old man who underwent 4 surgical procedures of the left lower extremity because of a recurrent soft tissue neoplasm, initially (August 1993) diagnosed as a myxolipoma. The patient suffered from recurrences in February 1995, September 1996 and February 1998. The diagnosis was revised at the time of the latest recurrence. A palliative resection with macroscopic residuals left was performed in February 1998, followed by a radiation therapy with 56 Gy total dose and a concomitant administration of the radiosensitizer razoxane per os. The single radiation doses were 200 cGy 5 times a week. Results: The small residuals of the tumor obviously regressed although an objective response could not be shown because the lesion was not clearly measurable. A follow-up 2 years after the radiation treatment revealed no recurrence. The time of the local control achieved as yet is already longer than any former time to regrowth between the surgical procedures. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of a therapeutic irradiation of a recurrent aggressive angiomyxoma. Conclusion: Radiation therapy combined with the sensitizer razoxane is able to control a recurrent AAM for an unknown time. It remains open whether a radiation treatment alone would have had a similar effect. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund: Das aggressive Angiomyxom (AAM) ist ein 1983 erstmals beschriebener Weichteiltumor, der vorwiegend in der Becken- und Genitalregion auftritt und eine starke Neigung zur lokalen Rezidivierung hat. Der Tumor wird von einigen Autoren als Low-grade-Sarkom eingestuft, seine Entstehungsursache ist unbekannt

  3. Calpains: markers of tumor aggressiveness? (United States)

    Roumes, Hélène; Leloup, Ludovic; Dargelos, Elise; Brustis, Jean-Jacques; Daury, Laetitia; Cottin, Patrick


    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) are soft-tissue sarcoma commonly encountered in childhood. RMS cells can acquire invasive behavior and form metastases. The metastatic dissemination implicates many proteases among which are mu-calpain and m-calpain. Study of calpain expression and activity underline the deregulation of calpain activity in RMS. Analysis of kinetic characteristics of RMS cells, compared to human myoblasts LHCN-M2 cells, shows an important migration velocity in RMS cells. One of the major results of this study is the positive linear correlation between calpain activity and migration velocity presenting calpains as a marker of tumor aggressiveness. The RMS cytoskeleton is disorganized. Specifying the role of mu- and m-calpain using antisense oligonucleotides led to show that both calpains up-regulate alpha- and beta-actin in ARMS cells. Moreover, the invasive behavior of these cells is higher than that of LHCN-M2 cells. However, it is similar to that of non-treated LHCN-M2 cells, when calpains are inhibited. In summary, calpains may be involved in the anarchic adhesion, migration and invasion of RMS. The direct relationship between calpain activity and migration velocities or invasive behavior indicates that calpains could be considered as markers of tumor aggressiveness and as potential targets for limiting development of RMS tumor as well as their metastatic behavior.

  4. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou (United States)

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.


    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  5. [Motives and interpersonal functions of aggression]. (United States)

    Ohbuchi, K


    In this review, the author theoretically and empirically examined motives and interpersonal functions of aggression. A factor-analysis of Averill's questionnaire items on anger revealed that motives involved in aggressive responses were clustered into two groups: the hostile and the instrumental. It was also clarified that an individual is likely to engage in aggression particularly when some hostile motives are evoked. Concerning the interpersonal functions, the author proposed that aggression might serve four principal goals. (1) Aggression can be generated as an avoidance response to an aversive stimulus, such as frustration, annoyance, or pain, and so on. It depends on the severity of the stimulus. It was however emphasized that aggression is also mediated by social cognition, such as an attribution of intent to a harm-doer. (2) Aggression can be used as a means of coercing the other person into doing something. An individual is likely to use such a power strategy if he/she is lacking in self-confidence or a perspective for influencing the target person by more peaceful strategies. (3) Aggression can be interpreted as a punishment when it is directed toward a transgressor. In this case, aggression is motivated by restoration of a social justice, and thus its intensity is determined by the perceived moral responsibility of the transgressor. Further, it was indicated that aggression is intensified if it is justified as a sanctional conduct against the immoral. (4) Aggression can be also evoked when an individual's social identity is threatened. It was suggested that impression management motives are involved in aggression by an unexpected finding that the presence of audience or the identifiability rather facilitated retaliative aggression. The aggression-inhibition effect of apology was also explained in terms of impression management. In conclusion, it was presented that aggression is a behavioral strategy as an attempt to resolve interpersonal conflicts

  6. Video media-induced aggressiveness in children. (United States)

    Cardwell, Michael Steven


    Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented.

  7. Physical aggressive resident behavior during hygienic care. (United States)

    Farrell Miller, M


    Management of aggressive behavior has been identified as a concern for nursing staff who provide institutional care for cognitively impaired elderly. The Omnibus Reconciliation Act (OBRA '87) mandates a trial reduction in the use of chemical and physical restraints, and the development of nursing interventions for the management of behavioral disorders of institutionalized cognitively impaired elderly. Most skilled nursing facilities, however, are limited in their ability to provide environmental and behavioral programs to manage aggressive patient behavior. For the purposes of this study, physically aggressive behavior was identified as threatened or actual aggressive patient contact which has taken place between a patient and a member of the nursing staff. This study explored the nursing staff's responses to patient physical aggression and the effects that physical aggression had on them and on nursing practice from the perspective of the nursing staff. Nursing staff employed on one Dementia Special Care Unit (DSCU) were invited to participate. Interviews with nursing staff were analyzed using qualitative descriptive methods described by Miles and Huberman (1994). Nursing staff reported that they were subjected to aggressive patient behaviors ranging from verbal threats to actual physical violence. Nursing staff reported that showering a resident was the activity of daily living most likely to provoke patient to staff physical aggression. The findings revealed geropsychiatric nursing practices for the management of physically aggressive residents, and offered recommendations for improving the safety of nursing staff and residents on a secured DSCU.

  8. Agreeableness and Alcohol-Related Aggression: The Mediating Effect of Trait Aggressivity


    Miller, Cameron A.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Giancola, Peter R.


    This study investigated the mediating effect of trait aggressivity on the relation between agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression in a laboratory setting. Participants were 116 healthy male social drinkers between 21 and 30 years of age. Agreeableness and trait aggressivity were measured using the Big Five Inventory and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, respectively. Following the consumption of an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, participants completed a modified version ...

  9. Aggression in children with behavioural/emotional difficulties: seeing aggression on television and video games


    Mitrofan, Oana; Paul, Moli; Weich, Scott; Spencer, Nicholas


    Background Mental health professionals are often asked to give advice about managing children’s aggression. Good quality evidence on contributory environmental factors such as seeing aggression on television and in video games is relatively lacking, although societal and professional concerns are high. This study investigated possible associations between seeing aggression in such media and the aggressive behaviour of children attending specialist outpatient child and adolescent mental health...

  10. Aggression in children with behavioural/emotional difficulties : seeing aggression on television and video games


    Mitrofan, Oana; Paul, Moli; Weich, Scott; Spencer, Nick


    Background:\\ud Mental health professionals are often asked to give advice about managing children’s aggression. Good quality evidence on contributory environmental factors such as seeing aggression on television and in video games is relatively lacking, although societal and professional concerns are high. This study investigated possible associations between seeing aggression in such media and the aggressive behaviour of children attending specialist outpatient child and adolescent mental he...

  11. Nuclear morphometry identifies a distinct aggressive cellular phenotype in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. (United States)

    Glazer, Evan S; Bartels, Peter H; Prasad, Anil R; Yozwiak, Michael L; Bartels, Hubert G; Einspahr, Janine G; Alberts, David S; Krouse, Robert S


    By identifying aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) in patients who are at high risk for recurrences or second primaries after resection, intensive surveillance and therapy may decrease morbidity and mortality. We investigated the role of nuclear morphometry (karyometry) in differentiating between aggressive and nonaggressive cSCC. We retrospectively analyzed cSCC lesions from 40 male patients. Twenty-two patients had evidence of aggressive cSCC (local/regional recurrence or a second primary cSCC), and 18 patients were identified with similar ages and sites of disease as control patients with nonaggressive cSCC (no evidence of recurrence, metastasis, or second primary). We carried out karyometric analysis to identify nuclear features that discriminate between aggressive and nonaggressive cSCC nuclei. We used statistically significant differences (Kruskal-Wallis test, P < 0.0001) to compose a quantitative aggressive classification score (proportion of aggressive nuclei from 0% to 100%). For comparisons, we used Fisher's exact test or Student's t test. The mean age was 79 ± 7 years for aggressive cSCC and 80 ± 9 years for nonaggressive cSCC (P = 0.66). We analyzed a mean of 96 nuclei in each group. The mean classification score for aggressive cSCC was significantly higher (69% ± 6%) than for nonaggressive cSCC (28% ± 5%, P = 0.00002). Overall, the classification score accurately categorized 80% of our patients (P = 0.0004). In most patients, karyometry differentiated between aggressive and nonaggressive cSCC. We found that classification scores, which provide information on individual lesions, could be used for risk stratification.

  12. Aggressive and multifocal pulmonary inflammatory myofiberblastic tumor in young woman

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    Choi, Yang Sean; Chung, Myung Hee; Kim, Hyun Jung; Park, Ki Hoon; Kim, Jeanna; Kwon, Soon Suck; Yoo, Won Jong [Bucheon St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)


    We report a case of pulmonary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) showing aggressive and unusually rapid progression. A 27-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency room due to dry cough, fever and blood-tinged sputum that lasted one week. Initial chest radiograph and computed tomography scan revealed multifocal pulmonary nodules, which subsequently progressed into large necrotic masses within two months. She underwent a fine needle biopsy of the largest mass in the right middle lung zone which revealed inflammatory myofibroblastic cells consistent with IMT. The masses showed complete regression after six months of corticosteroid therapy. This unusual clinical manifestation could help explain the reactive inflammatory nature associated with IMTs.

  13. Treatment of Aggressive Prolactin-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas with Adjuvant Temozolomide Chemotherapy: A Review. (United States)

    Moisi, Marc; Cruz, Aurora S; Benkers, Tara; Rostad, Steven; Broyles, Frances Broyles; Yuen, Kevin; Mayberg, Marc


    Most prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas demonstrate slow growth and are effectively managed with medical/surgical therapy. Rarely, these tumors can behave aggressively with rapid growth and invasion of local tissues, and are refractory to medical, surgical, or radio-surgical therapies. We report a case of a prolactin-secreting adenoma in a young woman, which became progressively aggressive and refractory to usual treatment modalities, but responded to treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide. In addition, we review the literature for treatment of refractory adenomas with temozolomide. The clinical and pathologic characteristics of aggressive prolactin-secreting adenomas are reviewed, as well as their response to dopamine agonists, surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy.

  14. Physiological Arousal, Exposure to a Relatively Lengthy Aggressive Film, and Aggressive Behavior. (United States)

    Thomas, Margaret Hanratty


    Studied male students who viewed an aggressive television program or a neutral one. Half of the students were then angered by a confederate. Results indicated angered men who had seen the aggressive film were most aggressive and exhibited the lowest average pulse rates both before and after shock delivery. (Author/JAC)

  15. Relational and Overt Aggression in Urban India: Associations with Peer Relations and Best Friends' Aggression (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Raja, Radhi


    This study explored the associations between relational and overt aggression and social status, and tested whether the peer correlates of aggression vary as a function of best friends' aggression during early adolescence in urban India. One hundred and ninety-four young adolescents from primarily middle-to-upper-class families in Surat, India…

  16. Daily associations among anger experience and intimate partner aggression within aggressive and nonaggressive community couples. (United States)

    Crane, Cory A; Testa, Maria


    Anger is an empirically established precipitant to aggressive responding toward intimate partners. The current investigation examined the effects of anger, as experienced by both partners, as well as gender and previous aggression, on in vivo intimate-partner aggression (IPA) using a prospective daily diary methodology. Participants (N = 118 couples) individually provided 56 consecutive, daily reports of affective experience and partner aggression. Multilevel models were estimated using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) framework to analyze the daily associations between anger and partner-aggression perpetration among participating men and women, as moderated by aggression history. Results revealed that both actor and partner anger were generally associated with subsequently reported daily conflict. Further, increases in daily partner anger were associated with corresponding increases in partner aggression among both women who reported high levels of anger and men, regardless of their own anger experience. Increases in actor anger were associated with increases in daily partner aggression only among previously aggressive women. Previously aggressive men and women consistently reported greater perpetration than their nonaggressive counterparts on days of high levels of actors' anger experiences. Results emphasize the importance of both actor and partner factors in partner aggression and suggest that female anger may be a stronger predictor of both female-to-male and male-to-female partner aggression than male anger, when measured at the daily level.

  17. How Collaborative Is Structural Family Therapy? (United States)

    Hammond, Ryan T.; Nichols, Michael P.


    In response to the charge by "collaborative" therapies, such as solution focused and narrative, that structural family therapy is an aggressive, confrontational, and impositional approach, this investigation examines the role of therapist empathy in creating a collaborative partnership in structural family therapy. Twenty-four videotaped therapy…

  18. Desensitization to media violence: links with habitual media violence exposure, aggressive cognitions, and aggressive behavior. (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja


    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content.

  19. Blood-based biomarkers of aggressive prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Men Long Liong

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Prostate cancer is a bimodal disease with aggressive and indolent forms. Current prostate-specific-antigen testing and digital rectal examination screening provide ambiguous results leading to both under-and over-treatment. Accurate, consistent diagnosis is crucial to risk-stratify patients and facilitate clinical decision making as to treatment versus active surveillance. Diagnosis is currently achieved by needle biopsy, a painful procedure. Thus, there is a clinical need for a minimally-invasive test to determine prostate cancer aggressiveness. A blood sample to predict Gleason score, which is known to reflect aggressiveness of the cancer, could serve as such a test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood mRNA was isolated from North American and Malaysian prostate cancer patients/controls. Microarray analysis was conducted utilizing the Affymetrix U133 plus 2·0 platform. Expression profiles from 255 patients/controls generated 85 candidate biomarkers. Following quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis, ten disease-associated biomarkers remained for paired statistical analysis and normalization. RESULTS: Microarray analysis was conducted to identify 85 genes differentially expressed between aggressive prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥8 and controls. Expression of these genes was qRT-PCR verified. Statistical analysis yielded a final seven-gene panel evaluated as six gene-ratio duplexes. This molecular signature predicted as aggressive (ie, Gleason score ≥8 55% of G6 samples, 49% of G7(3+4, 79% of G7(4+3 and 83% of G8-10, while rejecting 98% of controls. CONCLUSION: In this study, we have developed a novel, blood-based biomarker panel which can be used as the basis of a simple blood test to identify men with aggressive prostate cancer and thereby reduce the overdiagnosis and overtreatment that currently results from diagnosis using PSA alone. We discuss possible clinical uses of the panel to identify men more likely to benefit from

  20. How food controls aggression in Drosophila.

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    Rod S Lim

    Full Text Available How animals use sensory information to weigh the risks vs. benefits of behavioral decisions remains poorly understood. Inter-male aggression is triggered when animals perceive both the presence of an appetitive resource, such as food or females, and of competing conspecific males. How such signals are detected and integrated to control the decision to fight is not clear. For instance, it is unclear whether food increases aggression directly, or as a secondary consequence of increased social interactions caused by attraction to food. Here we use the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate the manner by which food influences aggression. We show that food promotes aggression in flies, and that it does so independently of any effect on frequency of contact between males, increase in locomotor activity or general enhancement of social interactions. Importantly, the level of aggression depends on the absolute amount of food, rather than on its surface area or concentration. When food resources exceed a certain level, aggression is diminished, suggestive of reduced competition. Finally, we show that detection of sugar via Gr5a+ gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs is necessary for food-promoted aggression. These data demonstrate that food exerts a specific effect to promote aggression in male flies, and that this effect is mediated, at least in part, by sweet-sensing GRNs.

  1. The Prevention of Social Aggression among Girls (United States)

    Cappella, Elise; Weinstein, Rhona


    This study represents the first systematic attempt to examine a theory-based program designed to reduce girls' social aggression and increase positive leadership among peers. Fifth-grade girls from six public schools were randomly assigned within classrooms to the social aggression prevention program (SAPP) and the comparison reading clubs. A…

  2. Treatment of Aggressive NK-Cell Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Anders Kindberg; Jensen, Paw; Johansen, Preben;


    Aggressive NK-cell leukemia is a rare malignancy with neoplastic proliferation of natural killer cells. It often presents with constitutional symptoms, a rapid declining clinical course, and a poor prognosis with a median survival of a few months. The disease is usually resistant to cytotoxic...... literature concerning treatment of aggressive NK-cell leukemia....

  3. Involvement in Internet Aggression during Early Adolescence (United States)

    Werner, Nicole E.; Bumpus, Matthew F.; Rock, Daquarii


    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were…

  4. The Barrier within: Relational Aggression among Women (United States)

    Brock, Barbara L.


    Relational aggression among women presents an overlooked barrier to women's quest for advancement in the workplace. Although research on women's leadership extols their ability to collaborate and form lasting, supportive relationships, one cannot assume that all women are supportive of other women. Research reveals that relational aggression,…

  5. Assessing aggressiveness quickly and efficiently: the Spanish adaptation of Aggression Questionnaire-refined version. (United States)

    Gallardo-Pujol, David; Kramp, Uwe; García-Forero, Carlos; Pérez-Ramírez, Meritxell; Andrés-Pueyo, Antonio


    The assessment of aggressiveness and the prediction of aggression has become a relevant research and applied topic in Psychiatry and Psychology. There have been many attempts in order to get a fast and reliable tool to measure aggression. Buss and Durkee started the pathway, and recently Bryant and Smith developed a tool with an enormous potential, a fast-applicable, reliable and valid test. We herein report a Spanish adaptation of this test and we show that aggressiveness can be measured rapidly, and in a simple, valid and reliable way across different populations. We focus on the discriminant capacity of this test to detect aggressive individuals.

  6. Are Aggressive Cartoons Really Funnier? A Replication

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    Stefan Stieger


    Full Text Available Research has found that more aggressive cartoons are perceived as funnier. The current study (N = 106; 16 cartoons examined this finding in more detail by additionally including painfulness and cleverness rankings of cartoons, and by examining possible moderating effects of different humor styles, self-esteem (explicit, implicit, and social desirability. Aggressive or painful cartoons were not perceived to be funnier, but were rated as having a cleverer punch line. Effects were only weakly correlated with participants’ humor styles, but were independent of self-esteem and social desirability. This suggests that aggressive cartoons are not in general perceived to be funnier than non-aggressive ones, and that there may be other moderators influencing this effect (e.g., the type of cartoons, definition of aggression and funniness, cultural aspects.

  7. 持续肾脏替代治疗侵袭性NK/T细胞淋巴瘤并发急性肿瘤溶解综合征1例并文献复习%Continuous renal replacement therapy on acute tumor lysis syndrome in an aggressive NK/T cell lymphoma:A case report and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芯仪; 吴俣


    Objective:To improve the recognition of acute tumor lysis syndrome (ATLS) and to explore the role of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in its emergency.Method:A case of ATLS in an aggressive NK/T cell lymphoma was emergently cured by CRRT.Result:After CRRT,the patient with heart failure symptoms quickly eased,urine output increased,potassium and metabolic acidosis were corrected promptly,and renal function improved quickly.Conclusion:ATLS patients should be considered early CRRT if efficacy of drugs is poor.In ATLS patients of unstable hemodynamics and intolerance for routine hemodialysis,CRRT should be a superior option.%目的:提高对急性肿瘤溶解综合征(ATLS)的认识和探讨持续肾脏替代治疗(CRRT)在其急救中的作用.方法:对1例侵袭性NK/T细胞淋巴瘤化疗后并发ATLS患者,采用CRRT救治.结果:通过CRRT,患者心力衰竭症状很快得到缓解,尿量增多,高钾、代谢性酸中毒及时得到纠正,肾功能也很快得到改善,疗效显著.结论:对于ATLS患者,如果药物疗效欠佳,应及早考虑CRRT;如果患者血流动力学不稳定,不能耐受普通血液透析治疗,CRRT应成为优先考虑的治疗选择.

  8. Pathways to romantic relational aggression through adolescent peer aggression and heavy episodic drinking. (United States)

    Woodin, Erica M; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena; Caldeira, Valerie; Homel, Jacqueline; Leadbeater, Bonnie


    Adolescent peer aggression is a well-established correlate of romantic relational aggression; however, the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Heavy episodic drinking (or "binge" alcohol use) was examined as both a prior and concurrent mediator of this link in a sample of 282 12-18 year old interviewed four times over 6 years. Path analyses indicated that early peer relational and physical aggression each uniquely predicted later romantic relational aggression. Concurrent heavy episodic drinking fully mediated this effect for peer physical aggression only. These findings highlight two important mechanisms by which peer aggression may increase the risk of later romantic relational aggression: a direct pathway from peer relational aggression to romantic relational aggression and an indirect pathway through peer physical aggression and concurrent heavy episodic drinking. Prevention programs targeting romantic relational aggression in adolescence and young adulthood may benefit from interventions that target multiple domains of risky behavior, including the heavy concurrent use of alcohol. Aggr. Behav. 42:563-576, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Psychometric Properties of the Situation and Aggressive Behavior Inventory and the Motives for Aggression Inventory

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    Maribel Montejo Hernández


    Full Text Available Psychometric properties of the Situation and Aggressive Behavior Inventory and the Motives for Aggression Inventory were examined in a sample of 373 students of Medicine and Psychology in the city of Tunja in Colombia. In the Situation and Aggressive Behavior Inventory, most common aggressive behaviors were verbal aggression and attitudes or rage gestures, with physical aggression, verbal aggression and threatening showing the highest correlations; most common situation were study problems, family and interpersonalrelations, and familiar or personal economy, no high correlationswere found among situations or situations with behaviors. In the Motives for Aggression Inventory, most common motives were rage, emotional discomfort, self-defense and defending values. A ronbach´s Alpha of 0.91 was obtained. Both of the questionnaires showed a single dimension (construct validity and satisfactory divergent validity, with the Psychopathy subscale of the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire by Krug (1987, and convergent validity, with the Aggression Questionnaire by Buss and Perry (1992. Homogeneity coefficients were appropriated. Motives in the IMA, specially the pleasure of being aggressive, getting what you want, somethingmakes you feel bad, and valuing aggressive persons, were predictors of the behaviors in the ISCA.

  10. The importance of narcissism in predicting proactive and reactive aggression in moderately to highly aggressive children. (United States)

    Barry, Tammy D; Thompson, Alice; Barry, Christopher T; Lochman, John E; Adler, Kristy; Hill, Kwoneathia


    The present study examined the importance of psychopathy-linked narcissism in predicting proactive and reactive aggression and conduct problems in a group of 160 moderately to highly aggressive children (mean age of 10 years, 9 months). Children's self-report of self-esteem and parent and teacher report of dimensions of psychopathy [narcissism, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and impulsivity], proactive and reactive aggression, and conduct problems were collected. Composites of parent and teacher ratings of children's behavior were used. Consistent with the study's hypotheses, narcissism predicted unique variance in both proactive and reactive aggression, even when controlling for other dimensions of psychopathy, demographic variables associated with narcissism, and the alternative subtype of aggression. As hypothesized, impulsivity was significantly associated with only reactive aggression. CU traits were not related to proactive or reactive aggression once the control variables were entered. All dimensions of psychopathy predicted unique variance in conduct problems. Consistent with prediction, narcissism was not significantly related to general self-esteem, providing support that narcissism and self-esteem are different constructs. Furthermore, narcissism and self-esteem related differentially to proactive aggression, reactive aggression, and conduct problems. Furthermore, narcissism but not self-esteem accounted for unique variance in aggression and conduct problems. The importance of narcissism in the prediction of aggressive behaviors and clinical implications are discussed.

  11. The influence of classroom aggression and classroom climate on aggressive-disruptive behavior. (United States)

    Thomas, Duane E; Bierman, Karen L; Powers, C J


    Research suggests that early classroom experiences influence the socialization of aggression. Tracking changes in the aggressive behavior of 4,179 children from kindergarten to second-grade (ages 5-8), this study examined the impact of 2 important features of the classroom context--aggregate peer aggression and climates characterized by supportive teacher-student interactions. The aggregate aggression scores of children assigned to first-grade classrooms predicted the level of classroom aggression (assessed by teacher ratings) and quality of classroom climate (assessed by observers) that emerged by the end of Grade 1. Hierarchical linear model analyses revealed that first-grade classroom aggression and quality of classroom climate made independent contributions to changes in student aggression, as students moved from kindergarten to second grade. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  12. Identifying cognitive predictors of reactive and proactive aggression. (United States)

    Brugman, Suzanne; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Cima, Maaike; Schuhmann, Teresa; Dambacher, Franziska; Sack, Alexander T


    The aim of this study was to identify implicit cognitive predictors of aggressive behavior. Specifically, the predictive value of an attentional bias for aggressive stimuli and automatic association of the self and aggression was examined for reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in a non-clinical sample (N = 90). An Emotional Stroop Task was used to measure an attentional bias. With an idiographic Single-Target Implicit Association Test, automatic associations were assessed between words referring to the self (e.g., the participants' name) and words referring to aggression (e.g., fighting). The Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP) was used to measure reactive and proactive aggressive behavior. Furthermore, self-reported aggressiveness was assessed with the Reactive Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ). Results showed that heightened attentional interference for aggressive words significantly predicted more reactive aggression, while lower attentional bias towards aggressive words predicted higher levels of proactive aggression. A stronger self-aggression association resulted in more proactive aggression, but not reactive aggression. Self-reports on aggression did not additionally predict behavioral aggression. This implies that the cognitive tests employed in our study have the potential to discriminate between reactive and proactive aggression. Aggr. Behav. 41:51-64 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Aggression on inpatient units: Clinical characteristics and consequences. (United States)

    Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len


    Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation.

  14. Aggression in Inpatient Adolescents: The Effects of Gender and Depression. (United States)

    Knox, Michele; Carey, Michael; Kim, Wun Jung


    Examined differences in aggressive behavior among predominantly white adolescent inpatients with and without depression. Survey data indicated that depression and gender interacted significantly. Depressed females demonstrated more physical aggression than nondepressed females, and depressed males demonstrated less aggression than nondepressed…

  15. The neurobiology of aggression and violence. (United States)

    Rosell, Daniel R; Siever, Larry J


    Aggression and violence represent a significant public health concern and a clinical challenge for the mental healthcare provider. A great deal has been revealed regarding the neurobiology of violence and aggression, and an integration of this body of knowledge will ultimately serve to advance clinical diagnostics and therapeutic interventions. We will review here the latest findings regarding the neurobiology of aggression and violence. First, we will introduce the construct of aggression, with a focus on issues related to its heterogeneity, as well as the importance of refining the aggression phenotype in order to reduce pathophysiologic variability. Next we will examine the neuroanatomy of aggression and violence, focusing on regional volumes, functional studies, and interregional connectivity. Significant emphasis will be on the amygdala, as well as amygdala-frontal circuitry. Then we will turn our attention to the neurochemistry and molecular genetics of aggression and violence, examining the extensive findings on the serotonergic system, as well as the growing literature on the dopaminergic and vasopressinergic systems. We will also address the contribution of steroid hormones, namely, cortisol and testosterone. Finally, we will summarize these findings with a focus on reconciling inconsistencies and potential clinical implications; and, then we will suggest areas of focus for future directions in the field.

  16. Affective Dependence and Aggression: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Petruccelli


    Full Text Available Introduction. Emotionally dependent subjects may engage in controlling, restrictive, and aggressive behaviours, which limit their partner’s autonomy. The underlying causes of such behaviours are not solely based on levels of aggression, but act as a mean of maintaining the subject’s own sense of self-worth, identity, and general functioning. Objective. The aim of the paper is to explore the correlation between affective dependency and reactive/proactive aggression and to evaluate individual differences as predisposing factors for aggressive behaviour and emotional dependency. Methods. The Spouse-Specific Dependency Scale (SSDS and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ were administered to a sample of 3375 subjects. Results. In the whole sample, a positive correlation between emotional dependency and proactive aggression was identified. Differences with regard to sex, age group, and geographical distribution were evidenced for the scores of the different scales. Conclusion. A fundamental distinction between reactive and proactive aggression was observed, anchoring proactive aggression more strictly to emotional dependency. Sociocultural and demographical variables, together with the previous structuring of attachment styles, help to determine the scope, frequency, and intensity of the demands made to the partner, as well as to feed the fears of loss, abandonment, or betrayal.

  17. Aggression and psychopathology in detained adolescent females. (United States)

    Hamerlynck, Sannie M J J; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vermeiren, Robert; Jansen, Lucres M C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T


    The aim of the study was to investigate a group of detained females with regard to aggression and psychopathology and to examine the relationship between the two conditions. For this purpose, a representative sample of 216 detained adolescent females aged 12-18 (mean 15.5) was studied with a standard set of self-report instruments, while a subgroup of 73 parents was interviewed by telephone on the participants' externalizing psychopathology. Based on aggression items derived from the Conduct Disorder section of the Kiddie-SADS, the following three aggression subgroups were identified: (1) non-aggressive (NA; 41%), (2) mildly aggressive (MA; 39%), and (3) severely aggressive (SA; 20%). In addition to high levels of psychopathology for the group as a whole, differences were found between aggression groups, with the NA group demonstrating the lowest levels, the MA group intermediate levels, and the SA group the highest levels. These differences were most pronounced for externalizing psychopathology, and were also found for post-traumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) and suicidality. The clinical implications of these findings should be investigated in the future, but may well relate to issues of diagnostic identification and administration of adequate and targeted treatment, especially with regard to PTSS and suicidality. Since the current study was cross-sectional, the predictive effect of the investigated relationships should be the focus of further study.

  18. Agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression: the mediating effect of trait aggressivity. (United States)

    Miller, Cameron A; Parrott, Dominic J; Giancola, Peter R


    This study investigated the mediating effect of trait aggressivity on the relation between agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression in a laboratory setting. Participants were 116 healthy male social drinkers between 21 and 30 years of age. Agreeableness and trait aggressivity were measured using the Big Five Inventory and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, respectively. Following the consumption of an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, participants completed a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm, in which electric shocks were received from and administered to a fictitious opponent during a competitive task. Aggression was operationalized as the proportion of the most extreme shocks delivered to the fictitious opponent under conditions of low and high provocation. Results indicated that lower levels of agreeableness were associated with higher levels of trait aggressivity. In turn, higher levels of trait aggressivity predicted extreme aggression in intoxicated, but not sober, participants under low, but not high, provocation. Findings highlight the importance of examining determinants of intoxicated aggression within a broader theoretical framework of personality.

  19. Efficacy therapy in a nonsurgical periodontal treatment in aggressive periodontitisno


    Nelly Garcia-Madueño; Fabiola Gutierrez-Romero; Jesús Bolaños-Palacios


    La terapia periodontal no quirúrgica es la clave para el control y el mantenimiento de la enfermedad periodontal logrando evitar la fase quirúrgica en muchos casos. Paciente de sexo masculino de 46 años de edad con diagnóstico de periodontitis agresiva generalizada se realizó el control mecánico de placa bacteriana, motivación e instrucción de higiene oral, raspado y alisado radicular manual por cuadrantes, clorhexidina al 0.12% en colutorio 15 ml por 30s dos veces al día por siete días; se c...

  20. Efficacy therapy in a nonsurgical periodontal treatment in aggressive periodontitisno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Garcia-Madueño


    Full Text Available La terapia periodontal no quirúrgica es la clave para el control y el mantenimiento de la enfermedad periodontal logrando evitar la fase quirúrgica en muchos casos. Paciente de sexo masculino de 46 años de edad con diagnóstico de periodontitis agresiva generalizada se realizó el control mecánico de placa bacteriana, motivación e instrucción de higiene oral, raspado y alisado radicular manual por cuadrantes, clorhexidina al 0.12% en colutorio 15 ml por 30s dos veces al día por siete días; se complementó con terapia antibiótica sistémica clindamicina de 300mg tres veces al día por siete días. Durante un año de seguimiento con tratamiento periodontal de soporte se observó una reducción de los parámetros clínicos como sangrado al sondaje, disminución de la perdida de inserción y estabilidad del nivel óseo.

  1. Intralesional cidofovir as adjuvant for the successful management of aggressive respiratory papillomatosis in an infant. (United States)

    Durvasula, Venkata S P B; Richter, Gresham T


    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) in young children is frequently characterized by a recalcitrant course and need for multiple surgeries. Periodic surgical debulking and ablation is the mainstay of therapy as a cure for RRP rarely occurs. Benefits of adjuvant treatment with local injection of cidofovir in aggressive cases of RRP have been reported in both children and adults. However, a consensus on initiation, dosage, or scheduling of this drug has not been established in the very young patient. Literature on successful remission in children less than 1 year of age is not available. One such case of an infant with aggressive RRP treated with local adjuvant cidofovir is described herein.

  2. Toward a refined view of aggressive fantasy as a risk factor for aggression: interaction effects involving cognitive and situational variables. (United States)

    Smith, Craig E; Fischer, Kurt W; Watson, Malcolm W


    Over three decades of research have established a positive connection between fantasizing about aggression and enacting aggression. Such findings have provided strong evidence against the catharsis view of aggressive fantasy. However, little attention has been paid to the potentially nuanced nature of the link between fantasy aggression and actual aggression. In the present article, we examined the influence of four variables in the aggressive fantasy-aggressive behavior link: gender, exposure to violence, fantasy absorption, and level of fantasy about harm befalling loved ones and the self (dysphoric fantasy). Using data from a diverse, community-based sample of 7-14-year olds and their mothers, we replicated the general finding that aggressive fantasy is positively associated with real-world aggressive behavior. However, we also found that the interaction of aggressive fantasy and exposure to violence related significantly to aggression, as did the relation between aggressive fantasy and dysphoric fantasy. When exposure to violence was low, even high levels of aggressive fantasizing did not predict aggressive behavior, and, when aggressive fantasizing was low, even high levels of exposure to violence did not predict aggressive behavior. Similarly, when dysphoric fantasy was high, the connection between fantasy aggression and real aggression was markedly attenuated. The implications of these findings for intervention efforts and future research are considered.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Personality Structures of the Perpetrators of Aggressive and Non-aggressive Offense

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    Kalashnikova A.S.,


    Full Text Available problem of the emergence of aggressive behavior is seen through the analysis of the relationship of proagressive and inhibiting aggression personality structures. The study involved 54 men serving sentences for criminal offenses, of which 24 were accused for violent offenses and 30 - for offenses without resorting to violence. We used questionnaires to study the proagressive and deterring aggression personality structures. Statistical analysis was performed to reveal significant differences between groups and to determine correlations. On this basis, the correlations were interpreted with the help of not only quantitative but also qualitative analysis. The results showed no significant differences in the level of expression of aggression and aggression inhibitors between treatment groups, but we identified qualitative differences in the structural analysis of data from individual psychological characteristics that are expected to distinguish aggressive offenders from the perpetrators without violence.

  4. Risperidone for Aggressive Behavior in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available The effects of risperidone augmentation for treatment-resistant aggression in children with ADHD were evaluated in a placebo-controlled pilot study at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, FL.

  5. Detection of aggressive periodontitis by calprotectin expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desi Sandra Sari


    Full Text Available Background: Calprotectin is a calcium-binding protein expressed by neutrophil, monocytes, gingival keratinocytes, and oral epithelial cells. The concentrations of calprotectin increase in plasma, urine and synovial fluid of patients with inflammatory diseases. This protein is known as a marker for periodontal diseases and is detected in gingival crevicular fluids. Purpose: This study was aimed to investigate the detection of inflammation on the aggressive periodontitis by calprotectin expression. Method: The gingival crevicular fluids were taken from five aggressive periodontitis patients and five healthy subjects by using sterile paper points. Calprotectin expression was analyzed by ELISA technique. Result: The results showed the significant difference in calprotectin expression between subject with aggressive periodontitis and healthy subjects p = 0.002 (p < 0.05. Conclusion: It was concluded that the calprotectin expression on the aggressive periodontitis patients may be useful for evaluation the progression of inflammation in periodontitis.

  6. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features (United States)

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  7. Suicidality and aggression during antidepressant treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Tarang; Guski, Louise Schow; Freund, Nanna


    OBJECTIVE: To study serious harms associated with selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors.Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality and suicidality. Secondary outcomes were aggressive behaviour and akathisia. DATA SOURCES: Clinical...

  8. Role of antibiotics in generalized aggressive periodontitis: A review of clinical trials in humans (United States)

    Ahuja, Annapurna; Baiju, C. S.; Ahuja, Vipin


    Background: It is well-recognized fact that periodontal diseases are caused by multifactorial etiologies, in which microorganisms play an important role. An essential component of therapy is to eliminate or manage these pathogens. This has been traditionally accomplished through mechanical means by scaling and root planning which is ineffective in some of the aggressive periodontal diseases. These aggressive diseases involve particular groups of microorganisms which are not eliminated by mechanical means; and they require anti-infective therapy, which includes local and systemic antimicrobials. This approach of therapy is of interest to periodontist due to the aforementioned shortcomings of conventional methods. Materials and Methods: A manual and electronic search was made for human studies up to March 2011 that presented clinical and microbiological data for the efficacy of a systemic antibiotics in generalized aggressive periodontitis along with scaling and root planning. A systematic approach was followed by two independent reviewers and included eligibility criteria for study inclusion, quality assessment, and determination of outcome measures, data extraction, data synthesis, and drawing of conclusion. Results: Only three randomized controlled human trials qualified, and they concluded that both scaling and root planing (SRP) mono-therapy and SRP with antibiotics proves beneficial in improving clinical and microbiological parameters in aggressive periodontitis. Better results were seen in SRP with antibiotic groups as compared with SRP alone. Conclusion: Because of the insufficient quantity and heterogenecity of studies, no adequate evidence could be gathered to use the beneficial effects of these antibiotics along with SRP in aggressive periodontitis compared with SRP alone. PMID:23162322



    Jasiński, Tadeusz


    Aim of this study was comparison of declared aggression and aggressiveness in boys training handball, where aggressive reactions not provided for in regulations are condemned and punished, with their level in schoolchildren participating only in the physical education lessons. The study involved altogether 146 male participants, aged between 12 to 33 years. The participants were divided into three groups. The first (G1) was formed out of sports club Orlen handball players (40 competitors). Re...

  10. Psychobiological Mechanisms of Aggression in Youth


    Haden, Sara Chiara


    Recently, models of aggressive behavior have begun to appreciate the influence of both psychological and biological predictors of maladaptive behavior. The aim of the current project was to clarify the roles that the noradrenergic system (i.e., norepinephrine metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyglycol [MHPG]) and characteristics of the rearing environment play in different expressions of aggression (i.e., hostile and instrumental). It was predicted that higher concentrations of MHPG would be...

  11. Hormone-dependent aggression in female rats: testosterone implants attenuate the decline in aggression following ovariectomy. (United States)

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L


    Female rats were individually housed with a sterile male for a 4- to 5-week period. Each female was then tested for aggression toward an unfamiliar female intruder at weekly intervals. Those females that displayed a high level of aggression on each of three weekly tests were ovariectomized and given subcutaneous implants of testosterone-filled tubes, ovariectomized and given subcutaneous implants of empty tubes, or sham-ovariectomized and implanted with empty tubes. These implants should produce a serum testosterone concentration of about 0.6 ng/ml, compared to 0.17 ng/ml in intact females. Beginning 1 week postoperatively, the aggression of each female was tested weekly for 4 weeks. Ovariectomized females with testosterone implants displayed a level of aggression significantly higher than that of ovariectomized females with empty implants on 3 of 4 weekly tests. The level of aggression by females with testosterone implants was not significantly different from that of sham-ovariectomized females on the first postoperative test. Additional observations showed that testosterone implants did not produce an increase in aggression in females whose preoperative level of aggression was low. Further, Silastic implants containing estrogen (1 to 2 mm long) sufficient to maintain a serum estrogen level of 20 to 30 pg/ml also attenuated the decline of aggression following ovariectomy. These results suggest that testosterone and estrogen may both contribute to the biological substrate of hormone-dependent aggression in female rats.

  12. Identifying cognitive predictors of reactive and proactive aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, S.; Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.; Cima, M.; Schuhmann, T.; Dambacher, F.; Sack, A.T.


    The aim of this study was to identify implicit cognitive predictors of aggressive behavior. Specifically, the predictive value of an attentional bias for aggressive stimuli and automatic association of the self and aggression was examined for reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in a non-clini

  13. Relational Aggression and Academic Performance in Elementary School (United States)

    Risser, Scott D.


    To investigate the relationship between relational aggression and school performance, this study examined the relative and combined associations among relational aggression, overt aggression, and victimization and children's academic performance. Additionally this study examined the relative associations among relational and overt aggression and…

  14. Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase represents CYP1B1, and not CYP1A1, in human freshly isolated white cells: trimodal distribution of Japanese population according to induction of CYP1B1 mRNA by environmental dioxins. (United States)

    Toide, Kenji; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Rikako; Itoh, Keisuke; Iwano, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Yoshiki; Watanabe, Shaw; Kamataki, Tetsuya


    The expression level of mRNAs for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and 1B1 in freshly prepared white cells from 72 subjects exposed to dioxins at waste incinerators was investigated. The amounts of CYP1B1 mRNA ranged from 0.16 to 671 molecules/10(7) molecules of 18S rRNA, whereas the amounts of CYP1A1 mRNA were dioxins. The inducibility of CYP1B1 mRNA in leukocytes, defined as the ratio of CYP1B1 mRNA to the plasma concentration of dioxins, varied among the subjects. It was found that the subjects showed trimodal distribution according to inducibility: 39 (54.2%), 25 (34.7%), and 8 (11.1%) of 72 subjects were judged as poor, intermediate, and high responders to environmental dioxins, respectively. The amounts of CYP1B1 mRNA in leukocytes of the intermediate and high responders were highly correlated with the plasma concentrations of dioxins (P dioxins is involved in aromatic hydrocarbon hydroxylase activities in human lymphocytes.

  15. Synthesis of GdAlO3:Mn(4+),Ge(4+)@Au Core-Shell Nanoprobes with Plasmon-Enhanced Near-Infrared Persistent Luminescence for in Vivo Trimodality Bioimaging. (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Min; Liu, Yao-Yao; Zhang, Dong-Dong; Fang, Guo-Zhen; Wang, Shuo


    The rise of multimodal nanoprobes has promoted the development of new methods to explore multiple molecular targets simultaneously or to combine various bioimaging tools in one assay to more clearly delineate localization and expression of biomarkers. Persistent luminescence nanophosphors (PLNPs) have been qualified as a promising contrast agent for in vivo imaging. The easy surface modification and proper nanostructure design strategy would favor the fabrication of PLNP-based multifunctional nanoprobes for biological application. In this paper, we have proposed novel multifunctional core-shell nanomaterials, applying the Mn(4+) and Ge(4+) co-doped gadolinium aluminate (GdAlO3:Mn(4+),Ge(4+)) PLNPs as the near-infrared persistent luminescence emission center and introducing the gold nanoshell coated on the PLNPs to enhance the luminescence efficiency via plasmon resonance. Our developed core-shell nanoprobes have demonstrated the excellent features of ultrabrightness, superlong afterglow, good monodispersity, low toxicity, and excellent biocompatibility. The well-characterized nanoprobes have been utilized for trimodality in vivo imaging, with near-infrared persistent luminescence for optical imaging, Gd element for magnetic resonance imaging, and Au element for computed tomography imaging.

  16. Differential gene expression in brain tissues of aggressive and non-aggressive dogs

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    Tverdal Aage


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine behavioural problems, in particular aggression, are important reasons for euthanasia of otherwise healthy dogs. Aggressive behaviour in dogs also represents an animal welfare problem and a public threat. Elucidating the genetic background of adverse behaviour can provide valuable information to breeding programs and aid the development of drugs aimed at treating undesirable behaviour. With the intentions of identifying gene-specific expression in particular brain parts and comparing brains of aggressive and non-aggressive dogs, we studied amygdala, frontal cortex, hypothalamus and parietal cortex, as these tissues are reported to be involved in emotional reactions, including aggression. Based on quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR in 20 brains, obtained from 11 dogs euthanised because of aggressive behaviour and nine non-aggressive dogs, we studied expression of nine genes identified in an initial screening by subtraction hybridisation. Results This study describes differential expression of the UBE2V2 and ZNF227 genes in brains of aggressive and non-aggressive dogs. It also reports differential expression for eight of the studied genes across four different brain tissues (amygdala, frontal cortex, hypothalamus, and parietal cortex. Sex differences in transcription levels were detected for five of the nine studied genes. Conclusions The study showed significant differences in gene expression between brain compartments for most of the investigated genes. Increased expression of two genes was associated with the aggression phenotype. Although the UBE2V2 and ZNF227 genes have no known function in regulation of aggressive behaviour, this study contributes to preliminary data of differential gene expression in the canine brain and provides new information to be further explored.

  17. Levels of Aggression among Turkish Adolescents and Factors Leading to Aggression. (United States)

    Avci, Dilek; Kilic, Mahmut; Tari Selcuk, Kevser; Uzuncakmak, Tugba


    Aggression, an increasing problem among adolescents, is a potential threat to public health as it can lead to violence. Determining the factors causing aggression plays an important role in taking measures to reduce violence. This study aimed at determining the level of aggression among adolescents and at identifying the factors associated with high levels of aggression. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 2,409 Turkish adolescents. Data were collected with the Socio-demographic Questionnaire, Aggression Scale, Perceived Social Support Scale, and Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression. The participants' mean aggression score was 91.83 ± 24.05, and 24.0% of the adolescents' aggression levels rated high. According to the logistic regression model, aggression was 1.26 times higher among males, 1.92 times higher among those who perceived their mental health as poor, 1.58 times higher among those with suicidal ideation, 1.29 times higher among those who did not get prepared for university entrance exams, and 1.62 times higher among those who perceived their school performance as poor. Perceived family social support was a protective factor against high aggression. Approximately one out of every four adolescents in the two Turkish high schools where the study was conducted was determined to display high levels of aggression. Therefore, in order to reduce aggression among adolescents, programs such as coping management and coping with anger should be applied by nurses. Programs should include not only students but also families.

  18. Normative influences on aggression in urban elementary school classrooms. (United States)

    Henry, D; Guerra, N; Huesmann, R; Tolan, P; VanAcker, R; Eron, L


    We report a study aimed at understanding the effects of classroom normative influences on individual aggressive behavior, using samples of 614 and 427 urban elementary school children. Participants were assessed with measures of aggressive behavior and normative beliefs about aggression. We tested hypotheses related to the effects of personal normative beliefs, descriptive classroom norms (the central tendency of classmates' aggressive behavior), injunctive classroom normative beliefs (classmates' beliefs about the acceptability of aggression), and norm salience (student and teacher sanctions against aggression) on longitudinal changes in aggressive behavior and beliefs. injunctive norms affected individual normative beliefs and aggression, but descriptive norms had no effect on either. In classrooms where students and teachers made norms against aggression salient, aggressive behavior diminished over time. Implications for classroom behavior management and further research are discussed.

  19. A principal components analysis of Rorschach aggression and hostility variables. (United States)

    Katko, Nicholas J; Meyer, Gregory J; Mihura, Joni L; Bombel, George


    We examined the structure of 9 Rorschach variables related to hostility and aggression (Aggressive Movement, Morbid, Primary Process Aggression, Secondary Process Aggression, Aggressive Content, Aggressive Past, Strong Hostility, Lesser Hostility) in a sample of medical students (N= 225) from the Johns Hopkins Precursors Study (The Johns Hopkins University, 1999). Principal components analysis revealed 2 dimensions accounting for 58% of the total variance. These dimensions extended previous findings for a 2-component model of Rorschach aggressive imagery that had been identified using just 5 or 6 marker variables (Baity & Hilsenroth, 1999; Liebman, Porcerelli, & Abell, 2005). In light of this evidence, we draw an empirical link between the historical research literature and current studies of Rorschach aggression and hostility that helps organize their findings. We also offer suggestions for condensing the array of aggression-related measures to simplify Rorschach aggression scoring.

  20. FAM5C contributes to aggressive periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia M Carvalho

    Full Text Available Aggressive periodontitis is characterized by a rapid and severe periodontal destruction in young systemically healthy subjects. A greater prevalence is reported in Africans and African descendent groups than in Caucasians and Hispanics. We first fine mapped the interval 1q24.2 to 1q31.3 suggested as containing an aggressive periodontitis locus. Three hundred and eighty-nine subjects from 55 pedigrees were studied. Saliva samples were collected from all subjects, and DNA was extracted. Twenty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms were selected and analyzed by standard polymerase chain reaction using TaqMan chemistry. Non-parametric linkage and transmission distortion analyses were performed. Although linkage results were negative, statistically significant association between two markers, rs1935881 and rs1342913, in the FAM5C gene and aggressive periodontitis (p = 0.03 was found. Haplotype analysis showed an association between aggressive periodontitis and the haplotype A-G (rs1935881-rs1342913; p = 0.009. Sequence analysis of FAM5C coding regions did not disclose any mutations, but two variants in conserved intronic regions of FAM5C, rs57694932 and rs10494634, were found. However, these two variants are not associated with aggressive periodontitis. Secondly, we investigated the pattern of FAM5C expression in aggressive periodontitis lesions and its possible correlations with inflammatory/immunological factors and pathogens commonly associated with periodontal diseases. FAM5C mRNA expression was significantly higher in diseased versus healthy sites, and was found to be correlated to the IL-1beta, IL-17A, IL-4 and RANKL mRNA levels. No correlations were found between FAM5C levels and the presence and load of red complex periodontopathogens or Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. This study provides evidence that FAM5C contributes to aggressive periodontitis.

  1. Cruel Intentions on Television and in Real Life: Can Viewing Indirect Aggression Increase Viewers' Subsequent Indirect Aggression? (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M.; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike


    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were…

  2. Factors affecting assessment of severity of aggressive incidents: using the Staff Observation Aggression Scale - Revised (SOAS-R) in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noda, T.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Sugiyama, N.; Tsujiwaki, K.; Putkonen, H.; Sailas, E.; Kontio, R.; Ito, H.; Joffe, G.


    Accessible summary Consumer gender and age, and nurse gender influenced the perception of overall severity of aggressive incidents, in addition to the aggression data provided by the Staff Observation Aggression Scale Revised (SOAS-R) scores. The factors influencing assessments of aggression inciden

  3. The Effect of Television-Mediated Aggression and Real-Life Aggression on the Behavior of Lebanese Children. (United States)

    Day, Richard C.; Ghandour, Maryam


    Investigates the effect of television-mediated aggression and real-life aggression on the behavior of Lebanese children. Observations made of 48 boys and 48 girls six to eight years of age revealed that boys as a group were more aggressive than girls and exhibited more imitative aggression. Girls were more violent after viewing real-life violence.…

  4. Aggressive and Nonaggressive Children's Moral Judgments and Moral Emotion Attributions in Situations Involving Retaliation and Unprovoked Aggression (United States)

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline


    The authors investigated 7- and 9-year-old children's moral understanding of retaliation as compared to unprovoked aggression with regard to their aggressive behavior status. Based on peer ratings, 48 children were selected as overtly aggressive and 91 as nonaggressive. Their moral understanding of retaliation and unprovoked aggression was…

  5. Effects of Viewing Relational Aggression on Television on Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M.


    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing "relational aggression" on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of…

  6. Brief report: the adolescent Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire: an examination of aggressions against parents in Spanish adolescents. (United States)

    Calvete, E; Gamez-Guadix, M; Orue, I; Gonzalez-Diez, Z; Lopez de Arroyabe, E; Sampedro, R; Pereira, R; Zubizarreta, A; Borrajo, E


    The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire to assess child-to-parent aggression in adolescents and to document the extent of the problem. The questionnaire developed in this study, the Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire (CPAQ), includes forms of physical and psychological aggression directed at both the mother and the father. It also includes open questions about the reasons for the aggressive acts. The CPAQ was completed by a sample of 2719 adolescents (age range: 13-18 years old, 51.4% girls). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor correlated structure (physical aggression against mother, physical aggression against father, psychological aggression against mother, and psychological aggression against father). Psychological and physical aggression against the mother was more frequent than against the father. However, there were no differences with regard to severe forms of aggression. Girls scored significantly higher on all indicators of psychological aggression, including severe psychological aggression. Nevertheless, except for the prevalence of physical aggression against mothers, which was higher in females, there were no significant differences in physical aggression against parents. Finally, the reasons provided by the adolescents for the aggression included both instrumental (e.g., to obtain permission to get home late and to access their computers) and reactive reasons (e.g., anger and self-defense). These findings highlight the complexity of child-to-parent aggression in adolescence.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zając, Tomasz


    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the differenc es between a group of people struggling with depression (n1=30 and healthy subjects, who had never used psychiatric help (n2=30, in such areas as: aggression, anger, which is agression’s emotional component, hostility, and impulsivity. In addition, an analysis of the relationship between the intensity of depressive symptoms and the various forms of aggression w as performed. Methods: To assess severity of depressive symptoms the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI was used. To measure physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger and hostility the Amity version of Arnold Buss and Mark Perry’s Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ was used. The tendency to react in an impulsive way was verified using the Cortlaud Emotional Control Scale by Maggie Watson and Steven Greer (CECSResults: Individuals struggling with depressive disorders obtained significantly higher scores than the control group in the scales of the BPAQ’s anger and hostility. Additionally, there was a significant positive correlation between severity of depressive symptoms and Anger and Hostility. There were no differences between the groups which had been tested in terms of Physical Aggression and Verbal Aggression on the BPAQ and the Cortlaud Emotional Control Scale (CECS. Conclusions: The results of the study suggest that the characteristic feature of depressive disorders is more intense emotion of anger and attitude of hostility. This observation supports the most popular psychological concepts of unipolar affective disorder, according to which effective therapy of depression requires work on anger and non-adaptive styles of thinking.

  8. Developmental exposure to vasopressin increases aggression in adult prairie voles



    Although the biological roots of aggression have been the source of intense debate, the precise physiological mechanisms responsible for aggression remain poorly understood. In most species, aggression is more common in males than females; thus, gonadal hormones have been a focal point for research in this field. Although gonadal hormones have been shown to influence the expression of aggression, in many cases aggression can continue after castration, indicating that testicular steroids are n...

  9. Aggression in humans: what is its biological foundation? (United States)

    Albert, D J; Walsh, M L; Jonik, R H


    Although human aggression is frequently inferred to parallel aggression based on testosterone in nonprimate mammals, there is little concrete support for this position. High- and low-aggression individuals do not consistently differ in serum testosterone. Aggression does not change at puberty when testosterone levels increase. Aggression does not increase in hypogonadal males (or females) when exogenous testosterone is administered to support sexual activity. Similarly, there are no reports that aggression increases in hirsute females even though testosterone levels may rise to 200% above normal. Conversely, castration or antiandrogen administration to human males is not associated with a consistent decrease in aggression. Finally, changes in human aggression associated with neuropathology are not consistent with current knowledge of the neural basis of testosterone-dependent aggression. In contrast, human aggression does have a substantial number of features in common with defensive aggression seen in nonprimate mammals. It is present at all age levels, is displayed by both males and females, is directed at both males and females, and is not dependent on seasonal changes in hormone levels or experiential events such as sexual activity. As would be expected from current knowledge of the neural system controlling defensive aggression, aggression in humans increases with tumors in the medial hypothalamus and septal region, and with seizure activity in the amygdala. It decreases with lesions in the amygdala. The inference that human aggression has its roots in the defensive aggression of nonprimate mammals is in general agreement with evidence on the consistency of human aggressiveness over age, with similarities in male and female aggressiveness in laboratory studies, and with observations that some neurological disturbances contribute to criminal violence. This evidence suggests that human aggression has its biological roots in the defensive aggression of nonprimate

  10. The psychopharmacology of aggressive behavior: a translational approach: part 2: clinical studies using atypical antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and lithium. (United States)

    Comai, Stefano; Tau, Michael; Pavlovic, Zoran; Gobbi, Gabriella


    Patients experiencing mental disorders are at an elevated risk for developing aggressive behavior. In the past 10 years, the psychopharmacological treatment of aggression has changed dramatically owing to the introduction of atypical antipsychotics on the market and the increased use of anticonvulsants and lithium in the treatment of aggressive patients.This review (second of 2 parts) uses a translational medicine approach to examine the neurobiology of aggression, discussing the major neurotransmitter systems implicated in its pathogenesis (serotonin, glutamate, norepinephrine, dopamine, and γ-aminobutyric acid) and the neuropharmacological rationale for using atypical antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and lithium in the therapeutics of aggressive behavior. A critical review of all clinical trials using atypical antipsychotics (aripiprazole, clozapine, loxapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone, and amisulpride), anticonvulsants (topiramate, valproate, lamotrigine, and gabapentin), and lithium are presented. Given the complex, multifaceted nature of aggression, a multifunctional combined therapy, targeting different receptors, seems to be the best strategy for treating aggressive behavior. This therapeutic strategy is supported by translational studies and a few human studies, even if additional randomized, double-blind, clinical trials are needed to confirm the clinical efficacy of this framework.

  11. Highly and moderately aggressive mouse ovarian cancer cell lines exhibit differential gene expression (United States)

    Zhang, Wensheng; Kale, Shubha P.; McFerrin, Harris; Davenport, Ian; Wang, Guangdi; Skripnikova, Elena; Li, Xiao-Lin; Bowen, Nathan J.; McDaniels, Leticia B; Meng, Yuan-Xiang; Polk, Paula; Liu, Yong-Yu; Zhang, Qian-Jin


    Patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer often experience disease recurrence after standard therapies, a critical factor in determining their five-year survival rate. Recent reports indicated that long-term or short-term survival is associated with varied gene expression of cancer cells. Thus, identification of novel prognostic biomarkers should be considered. Since the mouse genome is similar to the human genome, we explored potential prognostic biomarkers using two groups of mouse ovarian cancer cell lines (group 1: IG-10, IG-10pw, and IG-10pw/agar; group 2: IG-10 clones 2, 3, and 11) which display highly and moderately aggressive phenotypes in vivo. Mice injected with these cell lines have different survival time and rates, capacities of tumor, and ascites formations, reflecting different prognostic potentials. Using an Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array, a total of 181 genes were differentially expressed (Pdeath. None of the genes from a set of the 72 genes overexpressed in the moderately aggressive cell lines had a function annotation in the David database. Our results suggested that the overexpressed MYC and 109 gene set represented highly aggressive ovarian cancer potential biomarkers while overexpressed AR and 72 gene set represented moderately aggressive ovarian cancer potential biomarkers. Based on our knowledge, the current study is first time to report the potential biomarkers relevant to different aggressive ovarian cancer. These potential biomarkers provide important information for investigating human ovarian cancer prognosis. PMID:26935058

  12. Temozolomide and pasireotide treatment for aggressive pituitary adenoma: expertise at a tertiary care center. (United States)

    Ceccato, Filippo; Lombardi, Giuseppe; Manara, Renzo; Emanuelli, Enzo; Denaro, Luca; Milanese, Laura; Gardiman, Marina Paola; Bertorelle, Roberta; Scanarini, Massimo; D'Avella, Domenico; Occhi, Gianluca; Boscaro, Marco; Zagonel, Vittorina; Scaroni, Carla


    Aggressive pituitary adenomas (PAs) are clinically challenging for endocrinologists and neurosurgeons due to their locally invasive nature and resistance to standard treatment (surgery, medical or radiotherapy). Two pituitary-directed drugs have recently been proposed: temozolomide (TMZ) for aggressive PA, and pasireotide for ACTH-secreting PA. We describe the experience of our multidisciplinary team of endocrinologists, neurosurgeons, neuroradiologists, oncologists, otolaryngologists and pathologists with TMZ and pasireotide treatment for aggressive PAs in terms of their radiological shrinkage and genetic features. We considered five patients with aggressive PA, three of them non-secreting (two ACTH-silent and one becoming ACTH secreting), and two secreting (one GH and one ACTH). TMZ was administrated orally at 150-200 mg/m(2) daily for 5 days every 28 days to all 5 patients, and 2 of them also received pasireotide 600-900 µg bid sc. We assessed the MRI at the baseline and during TMZ or pasireotide treatment. We also checked for MGMT promoter methylation and IDH, BRAF and kRAS mutations. Considering TMZ, two patients showed PA progression, one stable disease and two achieved radiological and clinical response. Pasireotide was effective in reducing hypercortisolism and mass volume, combined with TMZ in one case. Both treatments were generally well tolerated; one patient developed a grade 2 TMZ-induced thrombocytopenia. None of patients developed hypopituitarism while taking TMZ or pasireotide treatment. No genetic anomalies were identified in the adenoma tissue. TMZ and pasireotide may be important therapies for aggressive PA, alone or in combination.

  13. The Relationship between Unstable Self-Esteem and Aggression: Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression (United States)

    Lee, Eunju J.


    This study examines whether the instability of self-esteem (i.e., a high intraindividual variability in self-esteem) is differentially associated with different types of aggressive behavior by using a sample of 235 preadolescent children. Self-esteem was measured four times for four consecutive days, and proactive and reactive aggressive behaviors…

  14. The impact of classroom aggression on the development of aggressive behavior problems in children. (United States)

    Thomas, Duane E; Bierman, Karen L


    Prior research suggests that exposure to elementary classrooms characterized by high levels of student aggression may contribute to the development of child aggressive behavior problems. To explore this process in more detail, this study followed a longitudinal sample of 4,907 children and examined demographic factors associated with exposure to high-aggression classrooms, including school context factors (school size, student poverty levels, and rural vs. urban location) and child ethnicity (African American, European American). The developmental impact of different temporal patterns of exposure (e.g., primacy, recency, chronicity) to high-aggression classrooms was evaluated on child aggression. Analyses revealed that African American children attending large, urban schools that served socioeconomically disadvantaged students were more likely than other students to be exposed to high-aggressive classroom contexts. Hierarchical regressions demonstrated cumulative effects for temporal exposure, whereby children with multiple years of exposure showed higher levels of aggressive behavior after 3 years than children with primacy, less recent, and less chronic exposure, controlling for initial levels of aggression. Implications are discussed for developmental research and preventive interventions.

  15. Is familial papillary thyroid microcarcinoma more aggressive than sporadic form? (United States)

    Lee, Cho Rok; Park, Seulkee; Kang, Sang-Wook; Lee, Jandee; Jeong, Jong Ju; Chung, Woong Youn; Park, Cheong Soo


    Purpose With the increasing incidence of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC), familial papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (FPTMC) is now recognized more frequently. However, the biological behavior of FPTMC is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of FPTMC and its biological aggressiveness. Methods Between March 2006 and July 2010, 2,414 patients underwent primary surgical therapy for PTMC and 149 (6.2%) were further classified as FPTMC. To determine the biological aggressiveness of FPTMC, we compared the clinicopathological features and prognosis between FPTMC and sporadic PTMC (SPTMC). Results The male-to-female ratio was higher in FPTMC than in sporadic papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (SPTMC: 1:4.5 vs. 1:7.2, P = 0.041). The central lymph node (LN) metastasis rate was significantly higher in FPTMC than in SPTMC (36.2% vs. 24.2%, P = 0.002). The local recurrence rate was also higher in FPTMC than in SPTMC (4.5% vs. 0.6%, P patients to detect local recurrence.

  16. Management Strategies for Aggressive Cushing's Syndrome: From Macroadenomas to Ectopics

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    Carlotta Pozza


    Full Text Available Cushing’s syndrome (CS is a rare but severe clinical condition represented by an excessive endogenous cortisol secretion and hence excess circulating free cortisol, characterized by loss of the normal feedback regulation and circadian rhythm of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis due to inappropriate secretion of ACTH from a pituitary tumor (Cushing’s disease, CD or an ectopic source (ectopic ACTH secretion, EAS. The remaining causes (20% are ACTH independent. As soon as the diagnosis is established, the therapeutic goal is the removal of the tumor. Whenever surgery is not curative, management of patients with CS requires a major effort to control hypercortisolemia and associated symptoms. A multidisciplinary approach that includes endocrinologists, neurosurgeons, oncologists, and radiotherapists should be adopted. This paper will focus on traditional and novel medical therapy for aggressive ACTH-dependent CS. Several drugs are able to reduce cortisol levels. Their mechanism of action involves blocking adrenal steroidogenesis (ketoconazole, metyrapone, aminoglutethimide, mitotane, etomidate or inhibiting the peripheral action of cortisol through blocking its receptors (mifepristone “RU-486”. Other drugs include centrally acting agents (dopamine agonists, somatostatin receptor agonists, retinoic acid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ “PPAR-γ” ligands and novel chemotherapeutic agents (temozolomide and tyrosine kinase inhibitors which have a significant activity against aggressive pituitary or ectopic tumors.

  17. A high aggression strategy for smaller males.

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    P Andreas Svensson

    Full Text Available Male-male conflict is common among animals, but questions remain as to when, how and by whom aggression should be initiated. Factors that affect agonistic strategies include residency, the value of the contested resource and the fighting ability of the two contestants. We quantified initiation of aggression in a fish, the desert goby, Chlamydogobius eremius, by exposing nest-holding males to a male intruder. The perceived value of the resource (the nest was manipulated by exposing half of the residents to sexually receptive females for two days before the trial. Resident male aggression, however, was unaffected by perceived mating opportunities. It was also unaffected by the absolute and relative size of the intruder. Instead resident aggression was negatively related to resident male size. In particular, smaller residents attacked sooner and with greater intensity compared to larger residents. These results suggest that resident desert goby males used set, rather than conditional, strategies for initiating aggression. If intruders are more likely to flee than retaliate, small males may benefit from attacking intruders before these have had an opportunity to assess the resident and/or the resource.

  18. Digit Ratio (2D:4D, Aggression, and Testosterone in Men Exposed to an Aggressive Video Stimulus

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    Liam P. Kilduff


    Full Text Available The relative lengths of the 2nd and 4th digits (2D:4D is a negative biomarker for prenatal testosterone, and low 2D:4D may be associated with aggression. However, the evidence for a 2D:4D-aggression association is mixed. Here we test the hypothesis that 2D:4D is robustly linked to aggression in “challenge” situations in which testosterone is increased. Participants were exposed to an aggressive video and a control video. Aggression was measured after each video and salivary free testosterone levels before and after each video. Compared to the control video, the aggressive video was associated with raised aggression responses and a marginally significant increase in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was negatively correlated with aggression after the aggressive video and the strength of the correlation was higher in those participants who showed the greatest increases in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was also negatively correlated to the difference between aggression scores in the aggressive and control conditions. The control video did not influence testosterone concentrations and there were no associations between 2D:4D and aggression. We conclude that 2D:4D moderates the impact of an aggressive stimulus on aggression, such that an increase in testosterone resulting from a “challenge” is associated with a negative correlation between 2D:4D and aggression.

  19. An examination of the relationship between personality and aggression using the general aggression and five factor models. (United States)

    Hosie, Julia; Gilbert, Flora; Simpson, Katrina; Daffern, Michael


    This study examined the relationships between personality and aggression using the general aggression (GAM, Anderson and Bushman [2002] Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 27-51) and five factor models (FFMs) (Costa and McCrae [1992] Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources). Specifically, it examined Ferguson and Dyck's (Ferguson and Dyck [2012] Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17, 220-228) criticisms that the GAM has questionable validity in clinical populations and disproportionately focuses on aggression-related knowledge structures to the detriment of other inputs, specifically personality variables. Fifty-five male offenders attending a community forensic mental health service for pre-sentence psychiatric and/or psychological evaluation were assessed for aggressive script rehearsal, aggression-supportive normative beliefs, FFM personality traits, trait anger and past aggressive behavior. With regard to relationships between five factor variables and aggression, results suggested that only agreeableness and conscientiousness were related to aggression. However, these relationships were: (1) weak in comparison with those between script rehearsal, normative beliefs and trait anger with aggression and (2) were not significant predictors in hierarchical regression analysis when all of the significant univariate predictors, including GAM-specified variables were regressed onto life history of aggression; normative beliefs supporting aggression, aggressive script rehearsal, and trait anger were significantly related to aggression in this regression analysis. These results provide further support for the application of the GAM to aggressive populations.

  20. Genetic and immunological features of aggressive periodontitis

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    Miguel Angel MUÑOZ


    Full Text Available clinicians and researchers due to its rapid progression and its evidences of genetic character. Different theories have tried to explain the individual differences in susceptibility, where genetic and immunological assays have assumed great importance. The purpose of this study was to review the literature in order to comprehend the genetic and immunological features of aggressive periodontitis. Literature review: Articles were examined, specifically the ones dealing with information regarding genetic and/or immunological studies of individuals related to their disease susceptibility. Conclusions: In the presence of dental biofilm, host susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis varies among regions, countries and races. Immune-inflammatory processes that seem to be modified in aggressive periodontitis patients may be transmitted vertically, explaining familial aggregation associated with this disease.

  1. Order aggressiveness and order book dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Anthony D.; Hautsch, Nikolaus


    In this paper, we study the determinants of order aggressiveness and traders’ order submission strategy in an open limit order book market. Applying an order classification scheme, we model the most aggressive market orders, limit orders as well as cancellations on both sides of the market...... employing a six-dimensional autoregressive conditional intensity model. Using order book data from the Australian Stock Exchange, we find that market depth, the queued volume, the bid-ask spread, recent volatility, as well as recent changes in both the order flow and the price play an important role...... in explaining the determinants of order aggressiveness. Overall, our empirical results broadly confirm theoretical predictions on limit order book trading. However, we also find evidence for behavior that can be attributed to particular liquidity and volatility effects...

  2. Intergenerational Transmission of Relationship Aggression: A Prospective Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Cui, Ming; Durtschi, Jared A.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.


    The present study examined whether physical and verbal aggression in the family of origin were associated with similar patterns of aggression in young adult couples. Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 213 focal individuals who were followed from adolescence to adulthood. Results suggested that aggression in the family when focal participants were adolescents predicted aggression with romantic partners when participants were adults. The association between interparental aggression and later aggression in adult romantic unions was partially mediated through parents’ aggression to focal participants when they were adolescents. Both physical and verbal aggression revealed the same pattern of findings. All together, these findings are consistent with a developmental-interactional perspective (Capaldi & Gorman-Smith, 2003) concerning the developmental origins of aggression in intimate relationships. PMID:21171767

  3. Behavioral aggressiveness in boys with sexual precocity

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    Bindu Kulshreshtha


    Full Text Available Background: Some boys with sexual precocity are known to have behavioral problems like increased physical and verbal aggression and school and social maladjustments. It is believed to be due to premature androgen exposure. However, it is not clear why only some develop this problem, difference in etiology could be one explanation. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess behavioral aggression in boys with sexual precocity due to different disorders. Materials and Methods: Seven children, ages three to seven years, were enrolled for this study. Two were diagnosed to have congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, three had testotoxicosis, while two had central precocious puberty. Parents of children with precocious puberty underwent the (CASP questionnaire (children′s aggression scale-parent version. Results: Testosterone levels were high in all patients. Parents denied any history of physical or verbal aggression in the two boys with CAH. Their CASP rating was 0. In contrast, the CASP ratings in the two boys with testotoxicosis and the two with precocious puberty for five domains ranged from 3.1 - 24.2, 2.6 - 8.3,1-5.6,0 - 7.1, and 0 - 1, respectively. In the present study, increased aggression was seen among all the patients with testotoxicosis and both with precocious puberty. In contrast, there were no symptoms of either increased verbal or physical aggression in either of the two patients with CAH. Conclusions: The hormonal milieu in the boys with CAH versus those with sexual precocity due to other causes differed in terms of cortisol and androgen precursors. The androgen excess in CAH children was a consequence of cortisol deficiency. It is possible that cortisol sufficiency is required for androgen-mediated behavioral effects.

  4. Emotions, Coping Style and Aggression during Adolescence


    Mestre Escrivá, Vicenta; Universitat de Valencia; Samper García, Paula; Universitat de Valencia; Tur Porcar, Ana María; Universitat de Valencia; Richaud de Minzi, Cristina; Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigaciones en Psicología Matemática y Experimental (CIIPME), dependiente del Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET); Mesurado, Belen; Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigaciones en Psicología Matemática y Experimental (CIIPME), dependiente del Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET)


    This study assesses the relation between coping strategies and emotions to know to what extend these are processes related to aggressive behavior. We assume that the aggression influence coping mechanisms in solving problems and handling of emotions: emotional instability (lack of self-control in stressful situations) or empathy (feelings faced to “other” who has a problem or need). A sample of 1.557 boys and girls, with an age range of 12-15 years, enrolled in first-cycle of Compulsory Se...

  5. Medical Art Therapy

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    Birgul Aydin


    Full Text Available Art therapy is a form of expressive therapy that uses art materials. Art therapy combines traditional psychotherapeutic theories and techniques with an understanding of the psychological aspects of the creative process, especially the affective properties of the different art materials. Medical art therapy has been defined as the clinical application of art expression and imagery with individuals who are physically ill, experiencing physical trauma or undergoing invasive or aggressive medical procedures such as surgery or chemotherapy and is considered as a form of complementary or integrative medicine. Several studies have shown that patients with physical illness benefit from medical art therapy in different aspects. Unlike other therapies, art therapy can take the patients away from their illness for a while by means of creative activities during sessions, can make them forget the illness or lost abilities. Art therapy leads to re-experiencing normality and personal power even with short creative activity sessions. In this article definition, influence and necessity of medical art therapy are briefly reviewed.

  6. Road Users' Risky Behavior: Analysis Focusing on Aggressiveness

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    Alica Kalašová


    Full Text Available With transport and traffic developing permanently, we can meet more and more aggressive drivers on roads. We can see various kinds of aggressiveness and aggressive behavior that can lead to dangerous situations which can threaten one's health or even life. The problem of aggressive driving on the roads is becoming more current. Speeding, inappropriate gestures, and nonobservance of safe distance, are only a fraction of the aggressive behavior of many drivers that need to be solved in the road traffic. At present, the problem of aggressive driver behavior in Slovakia is not resolved yet.

  7. Parental attitudes and aggression in the Emo subculture

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    Magdalena Chęć


    In the Emo subculture, teenagers’aggressive behaviour is related to improper parental attitudes. It has been stated that mother’s attitudes, irrespective of subculture, are much more strongly associated with the aggression among adolescents than father’s attitudes. Moreover, aggressive behaviour in the Emo subculture occurs when father displays an excessively demanding attitude. A reduction of the level of almost all kinds of aggression manifested among teenagers from the Emo subculture is associated with mothers’ attitude of acceptance. Mothers’ autonomous attitude leads to an increase in the aggression in this group, whereas an inconsistent attitude of mothers fosters an increase in aggression among all teenagers.

  8. Combination of Intravitreal Ranibizumab and Laser Photocoagulation for Aggressive Posterior Retinopathy of Prematurity

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    Ágata Mota


    Full Text Available Purpose: To report on 2 cases of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (ROP treated with intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis® and laser photocoagulation. Methods: Two premature females, born at 25 and 26 weeks’ gestation with a birth weight of 530 and 550 g, respectively, with aggressive posterior ROP received combined treatment with laser photocoagulation and intravitreal ranibizumab (0.3 mg [30 µl] to each eye. Structural outcomes were evaluated by indirect ophthalmoscopy and documented by retinography. Results: An intravitreal injection was made at 34 weeks of postmenstrual age in the first case, followed by laser photocoagulation 1 week later. There was a partial regression of ROP with treatment. Five weeks later, neovascularization regrowth with bleeding in both eyes (intraretinal and subhyaloid occurred and retreatment with combined therapy was performed. In the second case, single therapy with laser photocoagulation was made at 34 weeks of postmenstrual age. In spite of the confluent photocoagulation in the avascular area, progression to 4A ROP stage occurred 1 week later. Both eyes were retreated 1 week later with intravitreal ranibizumab and laser photocoagulation. Treatment resulted in ROP regression in both cases. There were no signs of systemic or ocular adverse side effects. Conclusion: The cases presented show that combination therapy of indirect laser photocoagulation and intravitreal ranibizumab can be effective in the management of aggressive posterior ROP. Further investigation on anti-VEGF safety in premature infants is necessary . Additional studies are needed to define the role of anti-VEGF in ROP treatment.

  9. Prevalence and psychosocial factors of aggression among youth

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    Manoj Kumar Sharma


    Full Text Available Background: Youth indulgence themselves in various aggressive behaviors leading to significant psychosocial dysfunctions. The present study assesses the prevalence of aggression among youth and to assess the risk factors of aggression among youth. Materials and Methods: Anger Data sheet, Resilience Scale and Buss-Perry Aggression Scale, were administered on 5476 participants using survey design. Data was collected from different communities (college, residential, apartments and workplace of Bangalore, Jammu, Indore, Kerala, Rajasthan, Sikkim and Delhi. 47% were female and 53% were male. The mean age of the sample was 20.2 years. Comparative analysis was carried out by Pearson correlation coefficient and Chi-square was also carried out. Results: About 17.7% of the youth has high mean aggression score on Buss-Perry Aggression Scale. Males have high mean score on aggression than females. Males experienced more verbal aggression, physical aggression and anger than females. Younger age group (16-19 years experienced more aggression than older age group (20-26 years. The risk factors of the youth aggressions were identified as physical abuse in childhood, substance abuse such as alcohol and tobacco, negative peer influence, family violence, academic disturbance, psychological problems attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, suspicious, loneliness, mood disturbance, negative childhood experience and TV and media. Conclusion: The study document, the presence of correlates of risk factors of aggression among youth and implies usages of management strategies to help them to handle aggression.

  10. Proactive and reactive sibling aggression and adjustment in adolescence. (United States)

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Van Gundy, Karen T; Wiesen-Martin, Desireé; Hiley Sharp, Erin; Rebellon, Cesar J; Stracuzzi, Nena F


    Existing research on aggression tends to narrowly focus on peers; less is known about sibling aggression, most likely due to its historical acceptance. Aggression is characterized by its forms (i.e., physical vs. social or relational aggression) and its functions (i.e., the motivations behind the aggressive act and categorized as proactive vs. reactive aggression). We use data from a two-wave study of middle (n = 197; M age = 12.63 years at Wave 1) and older (n = 159; M age = 16.50 years at Wave 1) adolescents to assess the extent to which proactive and reactive functions of sibling aggression make unique or conditional contributions to adolescent adjustment (i.e., depression, delinquency, and substance use). We find that proactive sibling aggression increases risk for problem substance use and delinquent behavior, reactive sibling aggression increases risk for depressed mood and delinquent behavior, and such results are observed even with statistical adjustments for sociodemographic and family variables, stressful life events, and prior adjustment. Few conditional effects of proactive or reactive sibling aggression by sex or grade are observed; yet, for all three outcomes, the harmful effects of reactive sibling aggression are strongest among adolescents who report low levels of proactive sibling aggression. The results speak to the importance of understanding the proactive and reactive functions of sibling aggressive behaviors for adolescent adjustment.

  11. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression (United States)

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles


    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  12. Aggression Replacement Training and Childhood Trauma (United States)

    Amendola, A. Mark; Oliver, Robert W.


    Aggression Replacement Training (ART) was developed by the late Arnold Goldstein of Syracuse University to teach positive alternatives to children and youth with emotional and behavioral problems (Glick & Gibbs, 2011; Goldstein, Glick, & Gibbs, 1998). ART provides cognitive, affective, and behavioral interventions to build competence in…

  13. Aggressive behavior in the genus Gallus sp

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    SA Queiroz


    Full Text Available The intensification of the production system in the poultry industry and the vertical integration of the poultry agribusiness have brought profound changes in the physical and social environment of domestic fowls in comparison to their ancestors and have modified the expression of aggression and submission. The present review has covered the studies focusing on the different aspects linked to aggressiveness in the genus Gallus. The evaluated studies have shown that aggressiveness and subordination are complex behavioral expressions that involve genetic differences between breeds, strains and individuals, and differences in the cerebral development during growth, in the hormonal metabolism, in the rearing conditions of individuals, including feed restriction, density, housing type (litter or cage, influence of the opposite sex during the growth period, existence of hostile stimuli (pain and frustration, ability to recognize individuals and social learning. The utilization of fighting birds as experimental material in the study of mechanisms that have influence on the manifestation of aggressiveness in the genus Gallus might comparatively help to elucidate important biological aspects of such behavior.

  14. Subtypes of aggression in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Sune; Forth, Adelle; Kongerslev, Mickey;


    Research has repeatedly demonstrated that schizophrenia has a small but significant association with violence. It is further recognised that a subgroup of people with such links also have personality disorders, but the extent to which type of violence or aggression varies according to subgroup...

  15. Emotion Regulation and Childhood Aggression: Longitudinal Associations (United States)

    Roll, Judith; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz


    Accumulating evidence suggests that emotion dysregulation is associated with psychopathology. This paper provides a review of recent longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age. While there is substantial evidence for assuming a close relation of emotion regulation and…

  16. Fantasy and Reality in Mark Twain's Aggression. (United States)

    Sears, Robert R.

    Psychoanalysis, a favorite method for studying personality and motivation, cannot be used on the dead. Instead, biographical analysis must be employed. This study examines Mark Twain's aggression by analyzing his writings, social behavior, and environmental aspects of his life. In viewing Mark Twain's novels as representing fantasy, 17 categories…

  17. Aggression, anger and violence in South Africa

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    M.J. Masango


    Full Text Available This article traces the roots of aggression, anger and violence in South Africa and the rest of the world. The paper is divided into four parts: Aggression, Anger, Catharsis and Violence. As a result of violence against other human beings, especially women and children, a profound respect for human dignity has been lost. People have become extremely aggressive. The last few decades have created a culture of violence because of the suppression or oppression of feelings. The article argues that frustration yields anger that leads to violent acts. The root cause of violence is frustration, which finally (if not attended to produces anger, anxiety, conflict and the eruption of violence. Suicide bombers in Palestine and other parts of the world demonstrate this type of aggression, anger and violence. Anger, on the one hand, is a good defense mechanism. It helps people cope with frustration. Violence, on the other hand, is used as a means of dominance, especially against women and children. In a political situation it is used as a means of changing social structures.

  18. Multi-modal aggression detection in trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.


    In many public places multiple sensing devices, such as cameras, are installed to help prevent unwanted situations such as aggression and violence. At the moment, the best solution to reach a safe environment requires human operators to monitor the camera images and take appropriate actions when nec

  19. The evolution of humor from male aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuster S


    Full Text Available Sam ShusterNewcastle University, Newcastle Upon Type, NE1 7RU, UKAbstract: The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer's sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15–69 years, with 2–40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection.Keywords: humor evolution, male aggressive behavior

  20. Observing Aggression of Teachers in School Teams (United States)

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit


    To fill the gap in theoretical and empirical knowledge on workplace aggression by teachers working in teams, this study explored its components, its targets, and its contextual determinants. Data were collected through three observations at different schools and at different times on 29 math, homeroom, language, and science studies teams.…

  1. Aggression and Violence in the Workplace. (United States)

    Grant, Frank


    Adults who work in positions of authority with young people must be prepared for the possibility of conflict, which could lead to aggressive behavior. Incorrect handling of a crisis will produce a conflict cycle, the four stages of which are described. Legal issues surrounding physical intervention (in the United Kingdom) are summarized, and…

  2. Multi-modal human aggression detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, J. F. P.; Liem, M. C.; Krijnders, J. D.; Andringa, T. C.; Gavrila, D. M.


    This paper presents a smart surveillance system named CASSANDRA, aimed at detecting instances of aggressive human behavior in public environments. A distinguishing aspect of CASSANDRA is the exploitation of complementary audio and video cues to disambiguate scene activity in real-life environments.

  3. Pathways to Relationship Aggression between Adult Partners (United States)

    Busby, Dean M.; Holman, Thomas B.; Walker, Eric


    In this study, the pathways to adult aggression beginning in the family of origin (FOO) and continuing through adult relationships were investigated. With a sample of 30,600 individuals, a comprehensive model was evaluated that included the unique influences of violent victimization in the family, witnessing parental violence, perpetrating…

  4. Television Viewing and Aggression: Some Alternative Perspectives. (United States)

    Feshbach, Seymour; Tangney, June


    The focus of this article is on the examination of variables that moderate the influence of exposure to TV violence. The research on the relationship between TV violence and aggressive behavior of the audience has largely focused on addressing the social policy issue of whether witnessing TV violence fosters aggressive behavior in viewers, particularly children. There has been a dearth of research addressing the conditions that enhance the aggression stimulating effects of media violence, those that mitigate these effects, and those that may even result in reduced aggression after one witnesses media violence. To illustrate the importance of potential moderating factors, we present longitudinal correlational data relating the degree of viewing TV violence to various social behaviors and cognitive attributes of White and African-American male and female elementary-school-age children. Although TV violence viewing was associated with lower cognitive attributes and negative social behaviors in White males and females and African-American females, a very different pattern of relationships was found for African-American males.

  5. Electromagnetic Optimization Exploiting Aggressive Space Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandler, J. W.; Biernacki, R.; Chen, S.


    We propose a significantly improved space mapping (SM) strategy for electromagnetic (EM) optimization. Instead of waiting for upfront EM analyses at several base points, our new approach aggressively exploits every available EM analysis, producing dramatic results right from the first step. We...

  6. Physical Dating Aggression Growth during Adolescence (United States)

    Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia; Pastorelli, Concetta


    The development of Physical Dating Aggression from the age of 16 to 18 years was investigated in relation to time-invariant predictors (gender, parental education, family composition, number of partners) and to time-varying effects of delinquent behavior and perception of victimization by the partner. The sample consisted of 181 adolescents with a…

  7. Violent Comic Books Influence Relational Aggression. (United States)

    Kirsh, Steven J.; Olczak, Paul V.

    This paper assesses the impact that reading violent comic books has on hostile attributional bias using relationally aggressive scenarios. College students (N=85) read either very violent or mildly violent comic books. Participants rated the comic books on levels of violence, humor, interest level, and overall likeability. They also read five…

  8. Strategies in Gene Therapy for Glioblastoma



    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive form of brain cancer, with a dismal prognosis and extremely low percentage of survivors. Novel therapies are in dire need to improve the clinical management of these tumors and extend patient survival. Genetic therapies for GBM have been postulated and attempted for the past twenty years, with variable degrees of success in pre-clinical models and clinical trials. Here we review the most common approaches to treat GBM by gene therapy, including strate...

  9. Modeling aggressive driver behavior at unsignalized intersections. (United States)

    Kaysi, Isam A; Abbany, Ali S


    The processing of vehicles at unsignalized intersections is a complex and highly interactive process, whereby each driver makes individual decisions about when, where, and how to complete the required maneuver, subject to his perceptions of distances, velocities, and own car's performance. Typically, the performance of priority-unsignalized intersections has been modeled with probabilistic approaches that consider the distribution of gaps in the major-traffic stream and their acceptance by the drivers of minor street vehicles based on the driver's "critical gap". This paper investigates the aggressive behavior of minor street vehicles at intersections that are priority-unsignalized but operate with little respect of control measures. The objective is to formulate a behavioral model that predicts the probability that a driver performs an aggressive maneuver as a function of a set of driver and traffic attributes. Parameters that were tested and modeled include driver characteristics (gender and age), car characteristics (performance and model year), and traffic attributes (number of rejected gaps, total waiting time at head of queue, and major-traffic speed). Binary probit models are developed and tested, based on a collected data set from an unsignalized intersection in the city of Beirut, to determine which of the studied variables are statistically significant in determining the aggressiveness of a specific driver. Primary conclusions reveal that age, car performance, and average speed on the major road are the major determinants of aggressive behavior. Another striking conclusion is that the total waiting time of the driver while waiting for an acceptable gap is of little significance in incurring the "forcing" behavior. The obtained model is incorporated in a simple simulation framework that reflects driver behavior and traffic stream interactions in estimating delay and conflict measures at unsignalized intersections. The simulation results were then compared

  10. Rorschach measures of aggression: a laboratory-based validity study. (United States)

    Kivisto, Aaron J; Swan, Scott A


    This study sought to complement the archival research designs that have established the empirical foundations of Rorschach aggression scores, including Exner's ( 2003 ) Aggressive Movement (AG) score and Meloy and Gacono's ( 1992 ) Aggressive Content (AgC), Aggressive Past (AgPast), and Aggressive Potential (AgPot) variables. Utilizing a highly controlled laboratory-based aggression paradigm and self-report measures of violence history in a sample of 35 undergraduate males with an average age of 19.38 (SD = 2.11), this study found that only AgC was positively associated with in vivo aggression (r = .40, p = .02). None of the Rorschach measures of aggression were significantly associated with self-reported violence history, although there were several trends approaching significance. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed.

  11. Appetitive Aggression in Women: Comparing Male and Female War Combatants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danie eMeyer-Parlapanis


    Full Text Available Appetitive aggression refers to positive feelings being associated with the perpetration of violent behavior and has been shown to provide resilience against the development of PTSD in combatants returning from the battlefield. Until this point, appetitive aggression has been primarily researched in males. This study investigates appetitive aggression in females. Female and male combatants and civilians from Burundi were assessed for levels of appetitive aggression. In contrast to non-combatants, no sex difference in appetitive aggression could be detected for combatants. Furthermore, each of the female and male combatant groups displayed substantially higher levels of appetitive aggression than each of the male and female civilian control groups. This study demonstrates that in violent contexts, such as armed conflict, in which individuals perpetrate numerous aggressive acts against others, the likelihood for an experience of appetitive aggression increases- regardless of whether the individuals are male or female.

  12. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V? (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.


    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  13. Relations between key executive functions and aggression in childhood. (United States)

    Granvald, Viktor; Marciszko, Carin


    The present study examined relationships between three key executive functions (working memory, inhibition, and mental set-shifting) and multiple types of aggression in a general population sample of 9-year-old children. One hundred and forty-eight children completed a battery of executive function tasks and were rated on aggression by their primary teachers. All executive function (EF) composites were related to a composite measure of aggression. Working memory (WM) was most consistently related to the different types of aggression (overt, relational, reactive, and proactive), whereas inhibition and mental set-shifting only were related to relational and reactive aggression, respectively. Specificity in relations (studied as independent contributions) was generally low with the exception of the relation between WM and relational aggression. Taken together, our results highlight the roles of WM and relational aggression in EF-aggression relations in middle childhood.

  14. Adolescents' experience with workplace aggression: school health implications. (United States)

    Smith, Carolyn R; Fisher, Bonnie S; Gillespie, Gordon L; Beery, Theresa A; Gates, Donna M


    Aggression exposure is a critical health issue facing adolescents in the United States. Exposure occurs in various settings including home, school, and the community. An emerging context for aggression exposure is in the workplace. Thirty adolescent employees age 16-18 participated in a qualitative study exploring proposed responses to future workplace aggression. Semistructured interviews were used to gather participants' proposed responses to a series of hypothetical aggressive incidents in the workplace. Conventional content analysis identified patterns and themes among the participants' responses. Results indicated adolescent employees' proposed responses to workplace aggression are similar to other forms of aggression such as peer-bullying and teen dating violence. Education and training are needed within the school setting to promote appropriate responses to various forms of aggression encountered by adolescents. Implications for school health professionals' involvement in addressing responses to such aggression and further research opportunities are explored.

  15. Distinct characteristics of psychopathy relate to different subtypes of aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cima, M.; Raine, A.


    This article both selectively reviews the evidence supporting the view that reactive and proactive aggression actually reflect related but separate constructs, and also investigates the selective relationship between these forms of aggression and psychopathic personality in 121 male prison inmates.

  16. The Reactive–Proactive Aggression Questionnaire: Differential Correlates of Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Adolescent Boys


    Raine, Adrian; Dodge, Kenneth; Loeber, Rolf; GATZKE-KOPP, LISA; Lynam, Don; Reynolds, Chandra; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Liu, Jianghong


    This study reports the development of the Reactive–Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), and the differential correlates of these two forms of aggression. Antisocial, psychosocial and personality measures were obtained at ages 7 and 16 years in schoolboys, while the RPQ was administered to 334 of the boys at age 16 years. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a significant fit for a two-factor proactive–reactive model that replicated from one independent subsample to another. Proactive a...

  17. The socializing effect of classroom aggression on the development of aggression and social rejection: A two-wave multilevel analysis. (United States)

    Rohlf, Helena; Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert


    The current study examined the moderating effect of classroom aggression on the development of individual aggression and on the path from individual aggression to social rejection over time. The study included 1,284 elementary school children and consisted of two data waves 10months apart. At both time points, teachers assessed the children's physical and relational aggression and their social rejection status. Multi-level analyses revealed that the classroom level of relational aggression moderated the link between individual relational aggression at T1 and T2 (b=-0.18, 95% CI [-0.32, -0.05], paggression and T2 social rejection (b=-0.12, 95% CI [-0.23, -0.003], paggression was prevalent increased relational aggression among children with a low level of relational aggression at T1. Furthermore, a high individual level of relational aggression predicted greater social rejection in classrooms with a low level of relational aggression. Children were mainly influenced by their same-gender peers. Boys as a group had a greater influence than girls on their peers of either gender in the domain of relational aggression, whereas girls as a group had a greater influence in the domain of physical aggression. The contributions of analyzing cross-level interaction to understanding the developmental patterns of aggression and social rejection in middle childhood are discussed.

  18. Aggression by ovariectomized female rats with testosterone implants: competitive experience activates aggression toward unfamiliar females. (United States)

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L


    Female hooded rats (250 to 325 g) were ovariectomized and bilaterally implanted with testosterone-filled or empty Silastic tubes. The testosterone-filled space in each tube was 10 mm long and this should produce a serum testosterone concentration 4 to 5 times that of an intact female, but well below that of a male. Three weeks following surgery, half of the animals with testosterone implants were housed with an animal with an empty implant and left for 6 weeks. The remaining animals were placed on a 23-hr food deprivation schedule, housed in testosterone implant/empty implant pairs, and then subjected to a series of food competition tests. Following the competition tests, all animals were individually tested in their living cage for aggression toward an unfamiliar female. In food competition, females with testosterone implants were more successful and more aggressive than their cagemates with empty implants. When tested for aggression toward an unfamiliar intruder, females with testosterone implants given competitive experience were more aggressive toward an intruder than were their cagemates with empty implants or females with testosterone implants not given the competitive experience. Females with testosterone implants but without competitive experience were not more aggressive toward an unfamiliar female than were their cagemates with empty implants. These results suggest that, in ovariectomized females with testosterone implants, hormone-dependent aggression fostered by a competitive situation is displayed toward unfamiliar females.

  19. Neural mediators of the intergenerational transmission of family aggression


    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa Borofsky; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas Todd; Margolin, Gayla


    Youth exposed to family aggression may become more aggressive themselves, but the mechanisms of intergenerational transmission are understudied. In a longitudinal study, we found that adolescents’ reduced neural activation when rating their parents’ emotions, assessed via magnetic resonance imaging, mediated the association between parents’ past aggression and adolescents’ subsequent aggressive behavior toward parents. A subsample of 21 youth, drawn from the larger study, underwent magnetic r...

  20. Perpetration and Victimization of Intimate Partner Aggression Among Rural Mothers


    Schwab Reese, Laura M.; Harland, Karisa; Smithart, Kelsey; Ramirez, Marizen


    Intimate partner aggression is a leading cause of injury among women of child-bearing age. Research suggests that pregnancy and the postpartum period are times of increased vulnerability to aggression. Since rural women are at an increased risk of intimate partner aggression, research is needed to examine the role of pregnancy and the presence of children on intimate partner aggression among this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between young chil...

  1. Prevalence and Psychosocial Factors of Aggression Among Youth


    Manoj Kumar Sharma; Palaniappan Marimuthu


    Background: Youth indulgence themselves in various aggressive behaviors leading to significant psychosocial dysfunctions. The present study assesses the prevalence of aggression among youth and to assess the risk factors of aggression among youth. Materials and Methods: Anger Data sheet, Resilience Scale and Buss-Perry Aggression Scale, were administered on 5476 participants using survey design. Data was collected from different communities (college, residential, apartments and workplace) of ...

  2. Neurogenetics of Aggressive Behavior – Studies in Rodents


    Takahashi, Aki; Miczek, Klaus A.


    Aggressive behavior is observed in many animal species, such as insects, fish, lizards, frogs, and most mammals including humans. This wide range of conservation underscores the importance of aggressive behavior in the animals’ survival and fitness, and the likely heritability of this behavior. Although typical patterns of aggressive behavior differ between species, there are several concordances in the neurobiology of aggression among rodents, primates, and humans. Studies with rodent models...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The sizes of the hippocampal intra- and infrapyramidal messy fiber terminal fields (IIPMF) of mice from two lines bidirectionally selected for attack latency were measured. Aggressive males possess smaller IIPMF than do non-aggressive ones. We hypothesize that both differences in aggression and size

  4. Effects of Television Viewing in an Experimental Aggression Paradigm. (United States)

    Anchor, Kenneth N.

    This investigation used a convergent measures design to explore the relationship of television viewing habits and preferences to experimentally emitted aggressive behavior. The catharsis argument posits that watching programs high in aggressive content provides a socially adaptive outlet for involvement with aggression. Groups of college and…

  5. Parent-Child Interaction, Television Violence, and Aggression of Children. (United States)

    Eron, Leonard D.


    Reviews findings of two longitudinal studies on development of aggression. Observes that the process by which children learn violence from television is circular: i.e., aggressive children are unpopular and consequently spend less time with peers and more time watching television, which in turn, assures them that aggressive behavior is…

  6. Lateralisation of aggressive displays in a tephritid fly (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Romano, Donato; Stefanini, Cesare; Messing, Russell H.; Canale, Angelo


    Lateralisation (i.e. different functional and/or structural specialisations of the left and right sides of the brain) of aggression has been examined in several vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. In this study, we investigated lateralisation of aggressive displays (boxing with forelegs and wing strikes) in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. We attempted to answer the following questions: (1) do medflies show lateralisation of aggressive displays at the population-level; (2) are there sex differences in lateralisation of aggressive displays; and (3) does lateralisation of aggression enhance fighting success? Results showed left-biased population-level lateralisation of aggressive displays, with no consistent differences among sexes. In both male-male and female-female conflicts, aggressive behaviours performed with left body parts led to greater fighting success than those performed with right body parts. As we found left-biased preferential use of body parts for both wing strikes and boxing, we predicted that the left foreleg/wing is quicker in exploring/striking than the right one. We characterised wing strike and boxing using high-speed videos, calculating mean velocity of aggressive displays. For both sexes, aggressive displays that led to success were faster than unsuccessful ones. However, left wing/legs were not faster than right ones while performing aggressive acts. Further research is needed on proximate causes allowing enhanced fighting success of lateralised aggressive behaviour. This is the first report supporting the adaptive role of lateralisation of aggressive displays in insects.

  7. Parental Influences on the Prevalence and Development of Child Aggressiveness (United States)

    Wahl, Klaus; Metzner, Cornelia


    The development of aggressiveness between 5 and 17 years and some parental influences on this development were analyzed using data from Germany. International studies have shown a "camel humps" curve, i.e., a peak of aggression of children (primarily boys) between 2 and 4 years and a second peak of antisocial or aggressive behavior of…

  8. A Link between Mothers' Disciplinary Strategies and Children's Relational Aggression (United States)

    Sandstrom, Marlene J.


    This study examines the association between maternal disciplinary strategies and children's level of relational aggression, and then compares these associations with those found with overt aggression. Eighty-two 4th graders (aged 9-11 years) completed peer nomination measures of relational and overt aggression, and their mothers completed a…

  9. Integrating Field and Laboratory Investigations of Televised Violence and Aggression. (United States)

    Eron, Leonard D.; Huesmann, L. Rowell

    Longitudinal and intervention laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the effects of viewing televised violence on the aggressive behavior of elementary school children. In the longitudinal study 505 children were studied over a 3-year period. The measures used included peer nominated aggression, aggression anxiety and popularity,…

  10. Females' Reasons for Their Physical Aggression in Dating Relationships (United States)

    Hettrich, Emma L.; O'Leary, K. Daniel


    Approximately 32% of dating college females reported that they engaged in physical aggression against their partners and that they engaged in acts of physical aggression more often than their male partners engaged in aggression against them. However, the females also reported that their male partners attempted to force them to engage in oral sex…

  11. The Implications of Relational Aggression toward Females Pursuing Educational Administration (United States)

    Dryier, Kimberly J.


    The purpose of this study was to examine the existence and implications of relational aggression toward female educational administrators. This qualitative study examined the impacts of relational aggression toward ten female superintendents, their observations of relational aggression in the workplace, strategies to overcome relational…

  12. Exploring Parental Aggression toward Teachers in a Public School Setting (United States)

    May, David C.; Johnson, Jerry; Chen, Yanfen; Hutchinson, Lisa; Ricketts, Melissa


    Almost all of the extant research examining aggressive activity uses data from student populations. In this study, we extend that literature by examining teacher perceptions of parental aggression in public schools in Kentucky. Using data from a sample of 5,971 public school teachers, we determine that parental aggression directed at public school…

  13. Relational Aggression in School Settings: Definition, Development, Strategies, and Implications (United States)

    Dailey, Alicia L.; Frey, Andy J.; Walker, Hill M.


    Relational aggression (RA) is a nonphysical form of aggression whereby the perpetrator's goal is to inflict or threaten damage to relationships, including harm to the target child's social standing or reputation. This form of aggression may result in long-term psychological harm to victims. This article defines RA, summarizes its development, and…

  14. The Development of Sex Differences in Aggression: A Revised Model. (United States)

    Hyde, Janet S.; Schuck, John R.

    In response to Maccoby and Jacklin's (1974) conclusion that sex differences in aggression must be biological in origin, we suggest alternative social-learning mechanisms to explain the differences. These mechanisms include: (1) punishment for aggression increases aggression in boys, particularly because boys do not identify with the punisher; (2)…

  15. Reducing proactive aggression through non-invasive brain stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dambacher, F.; Schuhmann, T.; Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.; Brugman, S.; Sack, A.T.


    Aggressive behavior poses a threat to human collaboration and social safety. It is of utmost importance to identify the functional mechanisms underlying aggression and to develop potential interventions capable of reducing dysfunctional aggressive behavior already at a brain level. We here experimen

  16. Child Abuse and Aggression among Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Children (United States)

    Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Connor, Daniel F.


    Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical…

  17. Parental Influences on the Prevalence and Development of Child Aggressiveness (United States)

    Wahl, Klaus; Metzner, Cornelia


    The development of aggressiveness between 5 and 17 years and some parental influences on this development were analyzed using data from Germany. International studies have shown a "camel humps" curve, i.e., a peak of aggression of children (primarily boys) between 2 and 4 years and a second peak of antisocial or aggressive behavior of boys between…

  18. Fathers' Trait Verbal Aggressiveness and Argumentativeness as Predictors of Adult Sons' Perceptions of Fathers' Sarcasm, Criticism, and Verbal Aggressiveness. (United States)

    Beatty, Michael J.; And Others


    Finds that approximately 40% of the variance in adult sons' reports of fathers' messages (sarcasm, criticism, and verbal aggressiveness) was attributable to fathers' self-reported argumentativeness and verbal aggression. (SR)

  19. Epithelioid/rhabdoid glioblastoma: a highly aggressive subtype of glioblastoma. (United States)

    Sugimoto, Kazutaka; Ideguchi, Makoto; Kimura, Tokuhiro; Kajiwara, Koji; Imoto, Hirochika; Sadahiro, Hirokazu; Ishii, Aya; Kawano, Hiroo; Ikeda, Eiji; Suzuki, Michiyasu


    Epithelioid glioblastoma (GBM) and rhabdoid GBM are rare variants that are morphologically similar, but there is no consensus on the characteristics of each disease. These tumors have aggressive features of early recurrence and leptomeningeal dissemination and tend to develop in younger patients compared to typical GBM. The prognosis is normally worse than typical GBM, even with intensive chemoradiotherapy after surgical resection. Thus, accurate diagnosis and effective therapy for epithelioid/rhabdoid GBM are required. Four consecutive patients aged 16-48 years were diagnosed with epithelioid/rhabdoid GBM by pathological and immunohistochemical analysis at Yamaguchi University Hospital from 2006 to 2012. Two of these patients had relatively long-term survival (19 and 23 months after diagnosis). Two cases had a BRAF V600E mutation, whereas no ATRX mutation was present in any cases. All patients suffered leptomeningeal and/or spinal dissemination that worsened their prognosis. These results illustrate the need for a new therapeutic approach, such as molecular targeted drug therapy like BRAF inhibition, in addition to standard chemoradiotherapy for typical GBM.

  20. Proton therapy (United States)

    Proton beam therapy; Cancer - proton therapy; Radiation therapy - proton therapy; Prostate cancer - proton therapy ... that use x-rays to destroy cancer cells, proton therapy uses a beam of special particles called ...

  1. The role of serotonergic system at the interface of aggression and suicide (United States)

    Bortolato, Marco; Pivac, Nela; Seler, Dorotea Muck; Perkovic, Matea Nikolac; Pessia, Mauro; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe


    Alterations in serotonin (5-HT) neurochemistry have been implicated in the aetiology of all major neuropsychiatric disorders, ranging from schizophrenia to mood and anxiety-spectrum disorders. This review will focus on the mulifaceted implications of 5-HT-ergic dysfunctions in the pathophysiology of aggressive and suicidal behaviours. After a brief overview of the anatomical distribution of the 5-HT-ergic system in the key brain areas that govern aggression and suicidal behaviours, the implication of 5-HT markers (5-HT receptors, transporter as well as synthetic and metabolic enzymes) in these conditions is discussed. In this regard, particular emphasis is placed on the integration of pharmacological and genetic evidence from animal studies with the findings of human experimental and genetic association studies. Traditional views postulated an inverse relationship between 5-HT and aggression and suicidal behaviours; however, ample evidence has shown that this perspective may be overly simplistic, and that such pathological manifestations may reflect alterations in 5-HT homeostasis due to the interaction of genetic, environmental and gender-related factors, particularly during early critical developmental stages. The development of animal models that may capture the complexity of such interactions promises to afford a powerful tool to elucidate the pathophysiology of impulsive aggression and suicidability, and find new effective therapies for these conditions. PMID:23333677

  2. The role of the serotonergic system at the interface of aggression and suicide. (United States)

    Bortolato, M; Pivac, N; Muck Seler, D; Nikolac Perkovic, M; Pessia, M; Di Giovanni, G


    Alterations in serotonin (5-HT) neurochemistry have been implicated in the aetiology of all major neuropsychiatric disorders, ranging from schizophrenia to mood and anxiety-spectrum disorders. This review will focus on the multifaceted implications of 5-HT-ergic dysfunctions in the pathophysiology of aggressive and suicidal behaviours. After a brief overview of the anatomical distribution of the 5-HT-ergic system in the key brain areas that govern aggression and suicidal behaviours, the implication of 5-HT markers (5-HT receptors, transporter as well as synthetic and metabolic enzymes) in these conditions is discussed. In this regard, particular emphasis is placed on the integration of pharmacological and genetic evidence from animal studies with the findings of human experimental and genetic association studies. Traditional views postulated an inverse relationship between 5-HT and aggression and suicidal behaviours; however, ample evidence has shown that this perspective may be overly simplistic, and that such pathological manifestations may reflect alterations in 5-HT homoeostasis due to the interaction of genetic, environmental and gender-related factors, particularly during early critical developmental stages. The development of animal models that may capture the complexity of such interactions promises to afford a powerful tool to elucidate the pathophysiology of impulsive aggression and suicidability, and identify new effective therapies for these conditions.

  3. Aggression Norms in the Classroom Social Network: Contexts of Aggressive Behavior and Social Preference in Middle Childhood. (United States)

    Jackson, Daisy R; Cappella, Elise; Neal, Jennifer Watling


    In a cross-sectional sample of African-American 2nd-4th grade students (N = 681), we examine the moderating effects of classroom overt and relational aggression norms on peers' social acceptance of classmates who exhibit overt and relational aggression in urban schools. Extending theory and research on classroom norms, we integrate social network data to adjust aggression norms based on children's direct and indirect connections in the classroom. Results of multilevel models indicate that network-based classroom aggression norms moderated relations between children's aggressive behavior and their social preference. Specifically, children benefited socially when their form of aggressive behavior fit with what was normative in the classroom social context. The moderating effect of classroom aggression norms was stronger for the association between overt aggression and social preference than relational aggression and social preference. Relationally aggressive youth were socially preferred by peers regardless of the classroom norm, although this positive association was magnified in classrooms with higher levels of relational aggression. Future research focused on aggression norms within classroom social networks are discussed and implications for school prevention efforts are considered.

  4. Transcriptional analysis of aggressiveness and heterogeneity across grades of astrocytomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjing Wang

    Full Text Available Astrocytoma is the most common glioma, accounting for half of all primary brain and spinal cord tumors. Late detection and the aggressive nature of high-grade astrocytomas contribute to high mortality rates. Though many studies identify candidate biomarkers using high-throughput transcriptomic profiling to stratify grades and subtypes, few have resulted in clinically actionable results. This shortcoming can be attributed, in part, to pronounced lab effects that reduce signature robustness and varied individual gene expression among patients with the same tumor. We addressed these issues by uniformly preprocessing publicly available transcriptomic data, comprising 306 tumor samples from three astrocytoma grades (Grade 2, 3, and 4 and 30 non-tumor samples (normal brain as control tissues. Utilizing Differential Rank Conservation (DIRAC, a network-based classification approach, we examined the global and individual patterns of network regulation across tumor grades. Additionally, we applied gene-based approaches to identify genes whose expression changed consistently with increasing tumor grade and evaluated their robustness across multiple studies using statistical sampling. Applying DIRAC, we observed a global trend of greater network dysregulation with increasing tumor aggressiveness. Individual networks displaying greater differences in regulation between adjacent grades play well-known roles in calcium/PKC, EGF, and transcription signaling. Interestingly, many of the 90 individual genes found to monotonically increase or decrease with astrocytoma grade are implicated in cancer-affected processes such as calcium signaling, mitochondrial metabolism, and apoptosis. The fact that specific genes monotonically increase or decrease with increasing astrocytoma grade may reflect shared oncogenic mechanisms among phenotypically similar tumors. This work presents statistically significant results that enable better characterization of different human

  5. Temozolomide and radiation for aggressive pediatric central nervous system malignancies. (United States)

    Loh, Kenneth C; Willert, Jennifer; Meltzer, Hal; Roberts, William; Kerlin, Bryce; Kadota, Richard; Levy, Michael; White, Greg; Geddis, Amy; Schiff, Deborah; Martin, Laura; Yu, Alice; Kung, Faith; Spear, Matthew A


    This study describes the outcomes of children treated with combinations of temozolomide and radiation therapy for various aggressive central nervous system malignancies. Their age at diagnosis ranged from 1 to 15 years. Patients with focal disease were treated with concomitant temozolomide (daily 75 mg/m) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in a dose that ranged from 50 to 54 Gy, followed by temozolomide (200 mg/m/d x 5 days/month in three patients, 150 mg/m x 5 days/ month in one patient). Patients with disseminated disease were treated with craniospinal radiation (39.6 Gy) before conformal boost. One patient received temozolomide (200 mg/m x 5 days/month) before craniospinal radiation, and one patient received temozolomide (daily 95 mg/m) concomitant with craniospinal radiation and a radiosurgical boost, followed by temozolomide (200 mg/m x 5 days/month). Three patients achieved a partial response during treatment, with two of these patients dying of progressive disease after treatment. One patient has no evidence of disease. Three patients achieved stable disease, with one of these patients dying of progressive disease after treatment. Toxicities observed included low-grade neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and lymphopenia. The combination of temozolomide and radiotherapy appears to be well tolerated in a variety of treatment schemas for aggressive pediatric central nervous system malignancies. This information is of particular use in designing future studies, given the recent positive results in a randomized study examining the use of temozolomide concomitant with radiation in the treatment of adult glioblastoma.

  6. BRCA1-IRIS overexpression promotes formation of aggressive breast cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiko Shimizu

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Women with HER2(+ or triple negative/basal-like (TN/BL breast cancers succumb to their cancer rapidly due, in part to acquired Herceptin resistance and lack of TN/BL-targeted therapies. BRCA1-IRIS is a recently discovered, 1399 residue, BRCA1 locus alternative product, which while sharing 1365 residues with the full-length product of this tumor suppressor gene, BRCA1/p220, it has oncoprotein-like properties. Here, we examine whether BRCA1-IRIS is a valuable treatment target for HER2(+ and/or TN/BL tumors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunohistochemical staining of large cohort of human breast tumor samples using new monoclonal anti-BRCA1-IRIS antibody, followed by correlation of BRCA1-IRIS expression with that of AKT1, AKT2, p-AKT, survivin and BRCA1/p220, tumor status and age at diagnosis. Generation of subcutaneous tumors in SCID mice using human mammary epithelial (HME cells overexpressing TERT/LT/BRCA1-IRIS, followed by comparing AKT, survivin, and BRCA1/p220 expression, tumor status and aggressiveness in these tumors to that in tumors developed using TERT/LT/Ras(V12-overexpressing HME cells. Induction of primary and invasive rat mammary tumors using the carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU, followed by analysis of rat BRCA1-IRIS and ERα mRNA levels in these tumors. High BRCA1-IRIS expression was detected in the majority of human breast tumors analyzed, which was positively correlated with that of AKT1-, AKT2-, p-AKT-, survivin, but negatively with BRCA1/p220 expression. BRCA1-IRIS-positivity induced high-grade, early onset and metastatic HER2(+ or TN/BL tumors. TERT/LT/BRCA1-IRIS overexpressing HME cells formed invasive subcutaneous tumors that express high AKT1, AKT2, p-AKT and vimentin, but no CK19, p63 or BRCA1/p220. NMU-induced primary and invasive rat breast cancers expressed high levels of rat BRCA1-IRIS mRNA but low levels of rat ERα mRNA. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: BRCA1-IRIS overexpression triggers aggressive

  7. Temozolomide in aggressive pituitary adenomas and carcinomas


    Leon D. Ortiz; Luis V. Syro; Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Fabio Rotondo; Humberto Uribe; Camilo E Fadul; Eva Horvath; Kalman Kovacs


    Temozolomide is an alkylating agent used in the treatment of gliomas and, more recently, aggressive pituitary adenomas and carcinomas. Temozolomide methylates DNA and, thereby, has antitumor effects. O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, a DNA repair enzyme, removes the alkylating adducts that are induced by temozolomide, thereby counteracting its effects. A Medline search for all of the available publications regarding the use of temozolomide for the treatment of pituitary tumors was perf...

  8. Analyst Coverage and Tax Reporting Aggressiveness


    McInerney, Megan Michelle


    The role of analysts in corporate governance has been examined extensively in the accounting literature. Two conflicting representations of the influence of analysts have emerged. Analysts are either viewed as external monitors of corporate behavior, thereby reducing agency costs; or they are viewed as exerting additional pressure on management to meet earnings forecasts, which may contribute to aggressive corporate behavior. Studies exist that examine the impact of analyst coverage in a f...

  9. Neuropsychological and cognitive concomitants of aggression



    M.A. (Counselling Pyschology) "Given the environmental and biological studies of criminality and delinquency, it seems clear that offense behaviour is a multifactorial disorder, with contributors possibly including such variables as low IQ, attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, and early aggressiveness. Protective factors possibly include high IQ and shyness. Each of these factors has been shown to be highly heritable" (Oilalla & Gottesman, 1991, p.128). It is imperative that rese...

  10. The impact of social desirability on psychometric measures of aggression. (United States)

    Vigil-Colet, Andreu; Ruiz-Pamies, Mireia; Anguiano-Carrasco, Cristina; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano


    Although many studies have focused on the effects of social desirability in personality measures, few have analysed its effects on such highly undesirable behaviour as aggressiveness. The present study analyzes the impact of social desirability on measures of direct and indirect aggression and on the relationships between both kinds of aggression with impulsivity, using a method that enables the content factors of the measures to be isolated from social desirability. Results showed that aggression measures are highly affected by social desirability and that the relationships between the two forms of aggression and impulsivity are due to the content measured by the tests and not to a common social desirability factor.

  11. Aggressive behavior during the first 24 hours of psychiatric admission

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    Vitor Crestani Calegaro


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between aggression in the first 24 hours after admission and severity of psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients.METHODS: This cross-sectional study included psychiatric patients admitted to Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria, in Santa Maria, southern Brazil, from August 2012 to January 2013. At their arrival at the hospital, patients were interviewed to fill in the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS form, and any aggressive episodes in the first 24 hours after admission were recorded using the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare patients according to aggressiveness: aggressive versus non-aggressive, hostile versus violent, and aggressive against others only versus self-aggressive.RESULTS: The sample was composed of 110 patients. Aggressive patients in general had higher BPRS total scores (p = 0.002 and individual component scores, and their results showed more activation (p < 0.001 and thinking disorders (p = 0.009, but less anxious-depression (p = 0.008. Violent patients had more severe psychomotor agitation (p = 0.027, hallucinations (p = 0.017 and unusual thought content (p = 0.020. Additionally, self-aggressive patients had more disorientation (p = 0.011 and conceptual disorganization (p = 0.007.CONCLUSIONS: Aggression in psychiatric patients in the first 24 hours after admission is associated with severity of psychopathology, and severity increases with severity of patient psychosis and agitation.

  12. Neural mediators of the intergenerational transmission of family aggression. (United States)

    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa Borofsky; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas Todd; Margolin, Gayla


    Youth exposed to family aggression may become more aggressive themselves, but the mechanisms of intergenerational transmission are understudied. In a longitudinal study, we found that adolescents' reduced neural activation when rating their parents' emotions, assessed via magnetic resonance imaging, mediated the association between parents' past aggression and adolescents' subsequent aggressive behavior toward parents. A subsample of 21 youth, drawn from the larger study, underwent magnetic resonance imaging scanning proximate to the second of two assessments of the family environment. At Time 1 (when youth were on average 15.51 years old) we measured parents' aggressive marital and parent-child conflict behaviors, and at Time 2 (≈2 years later), we measured youth aggression directed toward parents. Youth from more aggressive families showed relatively less activation to parent stimuli in brain areas associated with salience and socioemotional processing, including the insula and limbic structures. Activation patterns in these same areas were also associated with youths' subsequent parent-directed aggression. The association between parents' aggression and youths' subsequent parent-directed aggression was statistically mediated by signal change coefficients in the insula, right amygdala, thalamus, and putamen. These signal change coefficients were also positively associated with scores on a mentalizing measure. Hypoarousal of the emotional brain to family stimuli may support the intergenerational transmission of family aggression.

  13. Inpatient verbal aggression: content, targets and patient characteristics. (United States)

    Stewart, D; Bowers, L


    Verbally aggressive behaviour on psychiatric wards is more common than physical violence and can have distressing consequences for the staff and patients who are subjected to it. Previous research has tended to examine incidents of verbal aggression in little detail, instead combining different types of aggressive behaviour into a single measure. This study recruited 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards. Data were collected from nursing and medical records for the first 2 weeks of admission. Incidents of verbal aggression were categorized and associations with patient characteristics examined. There were 1398 incidents of verbal aggression in total, reported for half the sample. Types of verbal aggression were, in order of prevalence: abusive language, shouting, threats, expressions of anger and racist comments. There were also a large number of entries in the notes which did not specify the form of verbal aggression. Staff members were the most frequent target of aggression. A history of violence and previous drug use were consistently associated with verbal aggression. However, there were also some notable differences in patient variables associated with specific types of verbal aggression. Future studies should consider using multidimensional measures of verbal aggression.

  14. Reducing proactive aggression through non-invasive brain stimulation. (United States)

    Dambacher, Franziska; Schuhmann, Teresa; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Sack, Alexander T


    Aggressive behavior poses a threat to human collaboration and social safety. It is of utmost importance to identify the functional mechanisms underlying aggression and to develop potential interventions capable of reducing dysfunctional aggressive behavior already at a brain level. We here experimentally shifted fronto-cortical asymmetry to manipulate the underlying motivational emotional states in both male and female participants while assessing the behavioral effects on proactive and reactive aggression. Thirty-two healthy volunteers received either anodal transcranial direct current stimulation to increase neural activity within right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, or sham stimulation. Aggressive behavior was measured with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm. We revealed a general gender effect, showing that men displayed more behavioral aggression than women. After the induction of right fronto-hemispheric dominance, proactive aggression was reduced in men. This study demonstrates that non-invasive brain stimulation can reduce aggression in men. This is a relevant and promising step to better understand how cortical brain states connect to impulsive actions and to examine the causal role of the prefrontal cortex in aggression. Ultimately, such findings could help to examine whether the brain can be a direct target for potential supportive interventions in clinical settings dealing with overly aggressive patients and/or violent offenders.

  15. Patient aggression in clinical psychiatry: perceptions of mental health nurses. (United States)

    Jonker, E J; Goossens, P J J; Steenhuis, I H M; Oud, N E


    Mental health nurses are faced with an increasing number of aggressive incidents during their daily practice. The coercive intervention of seclusion is often used to manage patient aggression in the Netherlands. However, GGZ Nederland, the Dutch association of service providers for mental health and addition care, has initiated a project to decrease the number of seclusions in clinical psychiatry. A first step in this project is to gain insight into the current situation: the perceived prevalence of patient aggression, the attitudes of mental health nurses towards patient aggression and those socio-demographic and psychosocial factors that contribute to the use of coercive interventions. A survey was undertaken among 113 nurses from six closed and semi-closed wards. In this survey, two questionnaires were used: (1) the Attitude Toward Aggression Scale; and (2) the Perceptions of the Prevalence of Aggression Scale. Variables derived from the Theory of Planned Behaviour were also measured. Nurses reported being regularly confronted with aggression in general and mostly with non-threatening verbal aggression. They perceived patient aggression as being destructive or offensive and not serving a protective or communicative function. The nurses generally perceived themselves as having control over patient behaviour (i.e. considerable self-efficacy) and reported considerable social support from colleagues. Although the nurses in this study were frequently confronted with aggression, they did not experience the aggression as a major problem.

  16. Aggression and anxiety: social context and neurobiological links

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    Inga D Neumann


    Full Text Available Psychopathologies such as anxiety- and depression-related disorders are often characterized by impaired social behaviours including excessive aggression and violence. Excessive aggression and violence likely develop as a consequence of generally disturbed emotional regulation, such as abnormally high or low levels of anxiety. This suggests an overlap between brain circuitries and neurochemical systems regulating aggression and anxiety. In this review, we will discuss different forms of male aggression, rodent models of excessive aggression, and neurobiological mechanisms underlying male aggression in the context of anxiety. We will summarize our attempts to establish an animal model of high and abnormal aggression using rats selected for high (HAB versus low (LAB anxiety-related behaviour. Briefly, male LAB rats and, to a lesser extent, male HAB rats show high and abnormal forms of aggression compared with non-selected (NAB rats, making them a suitable animal model for studying excessive aggression in the context of extremes in innate anxiety. In addition, we will discuss differences in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, brain arginine vasopressin, and the serotonin systems, among others, which contribute to the distinct behavioural phenotypes related to aggression and anxiety. Further investigation of the neurobiological systems in animals with distinct anxiety phenotypes might provide valuable information about the link between excessive aggression and disturbed emotional regulation, which is essential for understanding the social and emotional deficits that are characteristic of many human psychiatric disorders.

  17. The role of temozolomide in the treatment of aggressive pituitary tumors. (United States)

    Liu, James K; Patel, Jimmy; Eloy, Jean Anderson


    Pituitary tumors are amongst the most common intracranial neoplasms and are generally benign. However, some pituitary tumors exhibit clinically aggressive behavior that is characterized by tumor recurrence and continued progression despite repeated treatments with conventional surgical, radiation and medical therapies. More recently, temozolomide, a second generation oral alkylating agent, has shown therapeutic promise for aggressive pituitary adenomas and carcinomas with favorable clinical and radiographic responses. Temozolomide causes DNA damage by methylation of the O(6) position of guanine, which results in potent cytotoxic DNA adducts and consequently, tumor cell apoptosis. The degree of MGMT expression appears to be inversely related to therapeutic responsiveness to temozolomide with a significant number of temozolomide-sensitive pituitary tumors exhibiting low MGMT expression. The presence of high MGMT expression appears to mitigate the effectiveness of temozolomide and this has been used as a marker in several studies to predict the efficacy of temozolomide. Recent evidence also suggests that mutations in mismatch repair proteins such as MSH6 could render pituitary tumors resistant to temozolomide. In this article, the authors review the development of temozolomide, its biochemistry and interaction with O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), its role in adjuvant treatment of aggressive pituitary neoplasms, and future works that could influence the efficacy of temozolomide therapy.

  18. Do aggressive people play violent computer games in a more aggressive way? Individual difference and idiosyncratic game-playing experience. (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Liu, Ming; Mou, Yi


    ABSTRACT This study investigates whether individual difference influences idiosyncratic experience of game playing. In particular, we examine the relationship between the game player's physical-aggressive personality and the aggressiveness of the player's game playing in violence-oriented video games. Screen video stream of 40 individual participants' game playing was captured and content analyzed. Participants' physical aggression was measured before the game play. The results suggest that people with more physical-aggressive personality engage in a more aggressive style of playing, after controlling the differences of gender and previous gaming experience. Implications of these findings and direction for future studies are discussed.

  19. Media violence, physical aggression, and relational aggression in school age children: a short-term longitudinal study. (United States)

    Gentile, Douglas A; Coyne, Sarah; Walsh, David A


    Many studies have shown that media violence has an effect on children's subsequent aggression. This study expands upon previous research in three directions: (1) by examining several subtypes of aggression (verbal, relational, and physical), (2) by measuring media violence exposure (MVE) across three types of media, and (3) by measuring MVE and aggressive/prosocial behaviors at two points in time during the school year. In this study, 430 3rd-5th grade children, their peers, and their teachers were surveyed. Children's consumption of media violence early in the school year predicted higher verbally aggressive behavior, higher relationally aggressive behavior, higher physically aggressive behavior, and less prosocial behavior later in the school year. Additionally, these effects were mediated by hostile attribution bias. The findings are interpreted within the theoretical framework of the General Aggression Model.

  20. Individual and collective social cognitive influences on peer aggression: exploring the contribution of aggression efficacy, moral disengagement, and collective efficacy. (United States)

    Barchia, Kirstin; Bussey, Kay


    This follow-up study with 1,167 primarily White adolescents (aged 13.45 years at T1, 613 females) examined the impact of self-efficacy for aggression, moral disengagement, and collective efficacy beliefs on peer aggression in schools. Students completed questionnaire measures at the beginning and end of the school year (8 months apart). High aggression efficacy and moral disengagement scores predicted higher frequency of peer aggression over time. Low collective efficacy beliefs regarding the ability of students and teachers to collaboratively act to inhibit peer aggression were also associated with more frequent aggression, although this association was stronger at higher levels of moral disengagement. The findings of this study highlight the need to consider collective efficacy beliefs in conjunction with individual social cognitive processes when seeking to explain aggressive behavior.

  1. Performing aggressive code optimization with an ability to rollback changes made by the aggressive optimizations (United States)

    Gschwind, Michael K


    Mechanisms for aggressively optimizing computer code are provided. With these mechanisms, a compiler determines an optimization to apply to a portion of source code and determines if the optimization as applied to the portion of source code will result in unsafe optimized code that introduces a new source of exceptions being generated by the optimized code. In response to a determination that the optimization is an unsafe optimization, the compiler generates an aggressively compiled code version, in which the unsafe optimization is applied, and a conservatively compiled code version in which the unsafe optimization is not applied. The compiler stores both versions and provides them for execution. Mechanisms are provided for switching between these versions during execution in the event of a failure of the aggressively compiled code version. Moreover, predictive mechanisms are provided for predicting whether such a failure is likely.

  2. Idiopathic Gingival Fibromatosis With Aggressive Periodontitis – A Rare Case Report

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    Rizwan M Sanadi


    Full Text Available Idiopathic gingival fibromatosis is a rare benign oral condition characterized by a slowly progressive, non-hemorrhagic, fibrous enlargement of maxillary and mandibular attached and non-attached gingivae. A 14 year old female patient suffered from unusual gingival enlargement, more on the left side along with generalized aggressive periodontitis. The enlarged gingiva covered more than two-thirds of the clinical crowns. Marked inflammatory hyperplasia of epithelium and connective tissue of the gingiva was observed histopathologically. Perioscan test was performed, the results of which were negative. The diagnosis of Idiopathic gingival fibromatosis with aggressive periodontitis was made. Conventional periodontal therapy was performed followed by excision of the enlargement using gingivectomy procedure.

  3. Clinicopathologic features of aggressive meningioma emphasizing the role of radiotherapy in treatment

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    Engenhart-Cabillic, R.; Henzel, M. [Philipps Univ., Marburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology; Farhoud, A.; Sure, U.; Heinze, S.; Bertalanffy, H. [Philipps Univ., Marburg (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Mennel, H.D. [Philipps Univ., Marburg (Germany). Dept. of Neuropathology


    Background and Purpose: Although meningiomas are typically benign, they occasionally behave in an aggressive fashion and carry a less favorable prognosis. The aim of this study was to review the clinical, radiologic and histopathologic features of these aggressive variants as well as the outcome after multimodality therapy. Patients and Methods: 16 patients with atypical meningiomas (n=11) and anaplastic meningiomas (n=5) were treated in the Departments of Neurosurgery and Radiation Oncology at the University Hospital of Philipps University Marburg, Germany, between 1997 and 2003. Tumor grading was based on new WHO criteria. There were eleven men and five women with a mean age of 54 years. The median follow-up period was 34 months. Results: A total of 24 surgical procedures were performed for these 16 patients. Only seven patients underwent postoperative fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. Patients with atypical meningioma received radiotherapy only for the recurrent disease. Six patients (37.5%) experienced tumor recurrence after a mean period of 27.2 months in spite of gross total resection. Radiographic findings suggestive of aggressiveness were observed mostly with WHO grade III meningiomas. By comparing the proliferation rate in four cases with atypical meningioma operated twice, the recurrent tumor had a higher proliferation rate than the first tumor in three cases. A special proliferation pattern was noticed in MIB-1 with anaplastic meningiomas. The mean overall survival period was 66.5 months. There was no mortality among patients with atypical meningioma, while four out of five patients with anaplastic meningioma died during follow-up. Conclusion: Considering the higher rate of recurrence in aggressive meningiomas even after radical surgical excision and the possibility that the recurrent tumor is more aggressive than the original one, surgery should be combined with postoperative fractionated radiotherapy to improve local tumor control. The peculiar

  4. Aggressive regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis decrease all-cause mortality.

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    Carole D Mitnick

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: A better understanding of the composition of optimal treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is essential for expanding universal access to effective treatment and for developing new therapies for MDR-TB. Analysis of observational data may inform the definition of an optimized regimen. OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the impact of an aggressive regimen-one containing at least five likely effective drugs, including a fluoroquinolone and injectable-on treatment outcomes in a large MDR-TB patient cohort. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients treated in a national outpatient program in Peru between 1999 and 2002. We examined the association between receiving an aggressive regimen and the rate of death. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In total, 669 patients were treated with individualized regimens for laboratory-confirmed MDR-TB. Isolates were resistant to a mean of 5.4 (SD 1.7 drugs. Cure or completion was achieved in 66.1% (442 of patients; death occurred in 20.8% (139. Patients who received an aggressive regimen were less likely to die (crude hazard ratio [HR]: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.44,0.89, compared to those who did not receive such a regimen. This association held in analyses adjusted for comorbidities and indicators of severity (adjusted HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.43,0.93. CONCLUSIONS: The aggressive regimen is a robust predictor of MDR-TB treatment outcome. TB policy makers and program directors should consider this standard as they design and implement regimens for patients with drug-resistant disease. Furthermore, the aggressive regimen should be considered the standard background regimen when designing randomized trials of treatment for drug-resistant TB.

  5. Effect of naloxone on food competition aggression in food-restricted high and low aggression pigeons (Columba livia

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    Fachinelli C.


    Full Text Available We determined the effect of the opiate receptor antagonist naloxone on aggression, emotion, feeder control, and eating behavior in high and low aggression female pigeons maintained at 80% of their normal weight and exposed to food competition interactions. Pigeons were divided into pairs by previously ranked high aggression (total time spent in offensive aggression exceeding 60 s/5 min; N = 6 pairs and low aggression females (time spent in offensive aggression less than 10 s/5 min; N = 6 pairs. A pigeon in each pair received an sc dose of naloxone (1 mg kg-1 ml saline-1 and the other animal received the vehicle. Trials (10 min were performed 30 min after the naloxone/vehicle administration. The naloxone group of high aggression pigeons showed lower scores of total time spent in offensive aggression (control: 98.6 ± 12.0; naloxone: 46.8 ± 6.6 s; P < 0.05 and higher scores of time spent in emotional responses (control: 3.5 ± 0.6; naloxone: 10.8 ± 2.4 s; P < 0.05 than controls. The other behaviors scored, feeder control and eating behavior, were not affected in this group. The naloxone group of low aggression pigeons, however, showed higher scores of offensive aggression than their controls (5.3 ± 1.3; naloxone: 28.7 ± 8.0 s; P < 0.05. The present results suggest that opiate receptor mechanisms are implicated in offensive aggression responses in high and low aggression pigeons. However, as reported for brain 5-hydroxytryptamine manipulation and GABA-A-benzodiazepine receptor manipulation, the effect of the opiate receptor antagonist on food competition aggression in pigeons was related to their pretreatment level of aggression.

  6. The Effect of Aggressive Blood Pressure Control on the Recurrence of Atrial Fibrillation After Catheter Ablation: A Randomized, Open Label, Clinical Trial (Substrate Modification with Aggressive Blood Pressure Control: SMAC- AF). (United States)

    Parkash, Ratika; Wells, George A; Sapp, John L; Healey, Jeffrey S; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Greiss, Isabelle; Rivard, Léna; Roux, Jean-Francois; Gula, Lorne; Nault, Isabelle; Novak, Paul G; Birnie, David H; Ha, Andrew C; Wilton, Stephen B; Mangat, Iqwal; Gray, Christopher J; Gardner, Martin J; Tang, Anthony S L


    Background -Radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation has become an important therapy for AF, however recurrence rates remain high. We proposed to determine whether aggressive blood pressure (BP) lowering prevents recurrent atrial fibrillation (AF) after catheter ablation in patients with AF and a high symptom burden. Methods -We randomly assigned 184 patients with AF and a BP greater than 130/80 mmHg to aggressive BP (target <120/80 mm Hg) or standard BP treatment (target <140/90 mmHg) prior to their scheduled AF catheter ablation. The primary outcome was symptomatic recurrence of AF/atrial tachycardia/atrial flutter lasting greater than 30 seconds, determined 3 months beyond catheter ablation by a blinded endpoint evaluation. Results -The median follow-up was 14 months. At six months, the mean systolic BP in the aggressive BP treatment group was 123.2±13.2 versus 135.4±15.7mm Hg (p<0.001) in the standard treatment group. The primary outcome occurred in 106 patients, 54 (61.4%) in the aggressive BP treatment group, compared to 52 (61.2%) in the standard treatment group, (Hazard Ratio 0.94, 95% Confidence Interval 0.65-1.38, p=0.763). In the prespecified subgroup analysis of the influence of age, patients aged ≥ 61 years had a lower primary outcome event rate with aggressive BP (Hazard Ratio 0.58, 95% Confidence Interval (0.34, 0.97), p=0.013). There was a higher rate of hypotension requiring medication adjustment in the aggressive BP group (26% versus 0%). Conclusions -In this study, this duration of aggressive BP treatment did not reduce atrial arrhythmia recurrence after catheter ablation for AF, but resulted in more hypotension. Clinical Trial Registration Identifier: NCT00438113.

  7. Examination on the Aggression Levels of Turkish National Skiing Athletes

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    Atalay GACAR


    Full Text Available Leading the aggression in some athletes ensures productivity; however, misleading does not give the same result. The aggression may reach dangerous extents. Nevertheless, aggressive behavior can be regarded as a relaxation. One of the important reasons of violence and aggression seen in sports is the belief that it increases the performance or success. Based upon these arguments, we aim to examine the aggression levels of Turkey national skiing athletes. The study has been conducted on 9 female and 11 male national skiing athletes who participated in International Alpine Skiing Cup held in Sarıkamış in 2012. An assessment instrument that comprises 2 parts was used to acquire data. At the first part, demographic data of the participants were gathered; at the second part, a 30-item Aggression Scale of which reliability has been developed by İpek İlter was used to analyze the participants’ aggression and factors influencing aggression. Consequently, the aggression levels were observed below the average pursuant to the gender, age and year of sports. Furthermore, assertiveness level was observed as high while disruptive and passive dimensions of aggression were found low. It is believed the athletes’ being national athletes at the elite level has importance in both team success and individual success.

  8. College students' behavioral reactions upon witnessing relational peer aggression. (United States)

    You, Ji-In; Bellmore, Amy


    With a sample of 228 college students (82.5% females) from the Midwestern United States, individual factors that contribute to emerging adults' behavioral responses when witnessing relational aggression among their peers were explored. The experience of witnessing relational aggression was found to be systematically associated with college students' behavioral responses to relational aggression through two social cognitive processes: normative beliefs about relational aggression and susceptibility to peer influence. The experience of witnessing relational aggression was associated with defending behavior through normative beliefs about relational aggression and both assisting and reinforcing behavior through normative beliefs about relational aggression and susceptibility to peer influence. The experience of witnessing relational aggression was also associated with onlooking behavior through normative beliefs about relational aggression. The findings indicate that exposure to relational aggression as a witness may influence witness responses because of the way such exposure may shape specific social cognitions. The potential for using the study findings for promoting effective witness interventions among college students is discussed.

  9. A social work study on aggressive behavior among Iranian students

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    Mohammad Reza Iravani


    Full Text Available Aggressive behavior has many bad effects on people's health care and lifestyle and any attempt to find the main issues influencing aggressive behavior among young students could help setup appropriate programs to control and possibly reduce aggressive attitudes. The proposed study of this paper performs an empirical study to find out the relationship between aggressive behavior and other important factors such as gender, age, etc. The survey uses a well-known questionnaire introduced by Buss and Perry (The aggression questionnaire, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 452-459, 1992. The survey distributes 50 questionnaire consists of different questions based on Likert scale among 25 female and 25 male students. The questionnaire consists of various questions including anger, physical aggression, verbal aggression and hostility. The results indicate that while there is no meaningful difference between aggression attitudes of female and male students (with p-value<0.001, the aggressive attitudes increases among older male students but this aggressive reduces among female students as they get older.


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    Pavel Azifovich Bajguzhin


    Full Text Available Purpose: to reveal features of structure of aggression of students of pedagogical university as at future teachers.Methodology. 330 students of the III-IV courses which are training at pedagogical university took part in inspection. Structure of aggression estimated by results of the analysis of the data obtained by means of test Buss-Durkey. Research of interrelation of studied indicators of aggression made by means of the correlation analysis.Results. Specifics of structure of aggression are defined by the compensatory relations of its components (physical, indirect, verbal aggression, irritability and the indicators constraining aggression and substituting it (negativism, offense, suspiciousness. The main correlation loading is born by an «irritability» indicator. High rates of verbal aggression are accompanied by an indicator of indirect aggression, the average which level of manifestation is shown by 60,1% of students. Features of structure of aggression at groups of students with extreme options of manifestation of aggression and hostility are presented.Practical implications. Results of research can be applied in practice of vocational guidance and selection by experts in the field of differential psychophysiology and work psychology.

  11. Popularity differentially predicts reactive and proactive aggression in early adolescence. (United States)

    Stoltz, Sabine; Cillessen, Antonius H N; van den Berg, Yvonne H M; Gommans, Rob


    Previous research has indicated that peer popularity is associated with aggressive behavior. However, it is not yet clear whether popularity is uniquely related to different functions of aggression. In this study, we examined associations between peer-perceived popularity, and reactive and proactive aggression using a cross-sectional and a longitudinal design. Yearly sociometric measures of popularity, and reactive and proactive aggression were gathered from 266 seventh and eight grade adolescents (Mage grade 7 = 12.80, SDage  = .40). Popularity was positively correlated with proactive aggression and negatively correlated with reactive aggression, both concurrently as over time. Curvilinear trends indicated that a significant minority of low versus high popular adolescents showed both functions of aggression. Somewhat stronger effects of popularity on proactive aggression were found for boys than girls. Stably popular adolescents showed the highest levels of proactive aggression, whereas stably unpopular youth showed the highest levels of reactive aggression. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  12. A study of patients with aggressive multiple sclerosis at disease onset

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    Kaunzner UW


    Full Text Available Ulrike W Kaunzner,1 Gaurav Kumar,2 Gulce Askin,3 Susan A Gauthier,1 Nancy N Nealon,1 Timothy Vartanian,1 Jai S Perumal1 1Judit Jaffe Multiple Sclerosis Center, Weill-Cornell Medical College, New York City, NY, 2Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, 3Institute for Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Weill-Cornell Medical College, New York City, NY, USA Objective: Identify aggressive onset multiple sclerosis (AOMS and describe its clinical course.Methods: AOMS patients were identified from a multiple sclerosis (MS database based on a set of criteria. The subsequent clinical course of AOMS patients was then reviewed with the goal of potentially identifying the best approaches to manage these patients.Results: Fifty-eight of 783 (7.4% patients in the MS database met the criteria for AOMS, and 43 patients who had complete data for the duration of their follow-up were included in the subsequent analysis. The mean duration of the follow-up was 54 months. Thirty-five patients (81% were started on a conventional first-line agent (injectable therapies for MS. Only two of these 35 patients (5.7% had no evidence of disease activity. Twenty-two of 35 patients suffering from refractory disease were switched to a more aggressive treatment (natalizumab, rituximab, alemtuzumab, cyclophosphamide. Eight patients were started on aggressive treatment as their initial therapy, and seven of these eight (87.5% patients showed no evidence of disease activity.Conclusion: With recognition of the crucial significance of early optimal treatment during the potential window of opportunity for best long-term outcomes, we describe AOMS within 1 year of disease onset and discuss possible treatment considerations for these patients. Keywords: aggressive multiple sclerosis, algorithm, treatment course, database, retrospective analysis

  13. The Expression of Genetic Risk for Aggressive and Non-aggressive Antisocial Behavior is Moderated by Peer Group Norms. (United States)

    Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E


    Numerous studies have shown that aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behaviors are important precursors of later adjustment problems. There is also strong empirical evidence that both types of antisocial behavior are partially influenced by genetic factors. However, despite its important theoretical and practical implications, no study has examined the question whether environmental factors differentially moderate the expression of genetic influences on the two types of antisocial behavior. Using a genetically informed design based on 266 monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs, this study examined whether the expression of genetic risk for aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior varies depending on the peer group's injunctive norms (i.e., the degree of acceptability) of each type of antisocial behavior. Self-reported aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior and classroom-based sociometric nominations were collected when participants were 10 years old. Multivariate genetic analyses revealed some common genetic factors influencing both types of antisocial behavior (i.e., general antisocial behavior) as well as genetic influences specific to non-aggressive antisocial behavior. However, genetic influences on general antisocial behavior, as well as specific genetic influences on non-aggressive antisocial behavior, vary depending on the injunctive classroom norms regarding these behaviors. These findings speak to the power of peer group norms in shaping aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior. They also contribute further to understanding the distinctive development of both types of antisocial behavior. Finally, they may have important implications for prevention purposes.

  14. Aggression in toddlers: associations with parenting and marital relations. (United States)

    Brook, J S; Zheng, L; Whiteman, M; Brook, D W


    This study examined the relation among parenting factors, marital relations, and toddler aggression. A structured questionnaire was administered to both parents of 254 2-year-olds. The authors used correlation and hierarchical multiple regression analyses to assess the extent to which certain personality traits, drug use, parenting style, and marital conflicts were related to the toddlers' aggressive behavior. Results showed that the maternal child-rearing and parental aggression domains had a direct effect on toddler aggression. The domain of maternal child rearing also served as a mediator for the domains of marital relations, paternal child rearing, parental aggression, and parental drug use. The findings indicated that maternal child-rearing practices, personality attributes, and drug use were more important than paternal attributes in relation to toddler aggression. Implications for prevention among families at risk are discussed.

  15. Brief report: Physical health of adolescent perpetrators of sibling aggression. (United States)

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Van Gundy, Karen; Sharp, Erin Hiley; Rebellon, Cesar


    We describe adolescents' perpetration of sibling aggression and its link to physical health two years later. In-school surveys at Time 1 (N = 331) and Time 2 (two-years later, N = 283) were administered to adolescents (at Time 1, Mage = 15.71 years, SD = .63; 52% female) living in the United States querying about perpetration of aggression toward a sibling closest in age and perceived physical health. The majority of adolescents perpetrated aggression towards their sibling (74%). Adolescents who were part of brother-brother pairs reported the most aggression. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that perpetrating sibling aggression more often at Time 1 was predictive of lower physical health at Time 2 controlling for Time 1 physical health and demographic characteristics. Perpetration of aggression toward a sibling is common and has negative health consequences in late adolescence suggesting this issue should be targeted to improve adolescents' sibling dynamics and physical health.

  16. Skin conductance fear conditioning impairments and aggression: a longitudinal study. (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Tuvblad, Catherine; Schell, Anne; Baker, Laura; Raine, Adrian


    Autonomic fear conditioning deficits have been linked to child aggression and adult criminal behavior. However, it is unknown if fear conditioning deficits are specific to certain subtypes of aggression, and longitudinal research is rare. In the current study, reactive and proactive aggression were assessed in a sample of males and females when aged 10, 12, 15, and 18 years old. Skin conductance fear conditioning data were collected when they were 18 years old. Individuals who were persistently high on proactive aggression measures had significantly poorer conditioned responses at 18 years old when compared to others. This association was not found for reactive aggression. Consistent with prior literature, findings suggest that persistent antisocial individuals have unique neurobiological characteristics and that poor autonomic fear conditioning is associated with the presence of increased instrumental aggressive behavior.

  17. Violent images, anger and physical aggression among male forensic inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Stine Bjerrum; Gondan, Matthias; Novaco, Raymond


    the follow-up period. Imagined violence and trauma-related intrusions separately contributed to anger and aggressive behaviour. Conclusions. The study calls attention to violent images as an important variable involved in aggressive responding. The role of violent images as a mediator of the well......Purpose. The present study of forensic hospital patients examined whether their imagination of violence is related to self-reported anger, psychological distress, and to staff observations of aggressive behaviour in hospital. In view of the relevance of psychological trauma for anger and aggression......, we further investigate whether the associations of imagined violence to anger and aggression are stronger when the patient has trauma-related intrusion symptoms. Methods. Participating male forensic inpatients (N = 54) were individually tested and followed-up for five months. Aggressive episodes were...

  18. Teacher-student relationships as compensatory resources for aggressive children. (United States)

    Meehan, Barbara T; Hughes, Jan N; Cavell, Timothy A


    This 2-year prospective investigation examined the association between the quality of teacher-student relationships and children's levels of aggression in a sample of 140 second- and third-grade aggressive children (M age = 8.18). Consistent with the proposed dual-risk compensatory hypothesis, positive teacher-student relationships were more beneficial for aggressive African American and Hispanic children than for aggressive Caucasian children. Data did not support a moderating effect of negative parent-child relationship quality on the association between supportive teacher-student relationships and aggression. Findings underscore the importance of recruiting and preparing teachers capable of establishing supportive relationships with aggressive African American and Hispanic children. Results also suggest the need for multiple reporters of relationship quality in future research.

  19. A relationship between temperature and aggression in NFL football penalties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Curtis Craig; Randy W. Overbeek; Miles V. Condon; Shannon B. Rinaldo


    Background: Increased ambient temperature has been implicated in increased physical aggression, which has important practical consequences. The present study investigates this established relationship between aggressive behavior and ambient temperature in the highly aggressive context of professional football in the National Football League (NFL). Methods: Using a publicly available dataset, authors conducted multiple hierarchical regression analyses on game-level data (2326 games). Results: The analysis revealed that temperature positively predicted aggressive penalties in football, and that this relationship was significant for teams playing at home but not for visiting teams. Conclusion: These results indicate that even in the aggressive context of football, warmer weather contributes to increased violence. Further, the presence of the heat-aggression relationship for the home team suggests that the characteristics of interacting groups may influence whether heat would have an adverse effect on the outcome of those interactions.

  20. Variation and Transgression of Aggressiveness Among Two Gibberella Zeae Crosses Developed from Highly Aggressive Parental Isolates (United States)

    Gibberella zeae (anamorph: Fusarium graminearum) is the most common cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. Aggressiveness is the most important fungal trait affecting disease severity and stability of host resistance. Objectives were to analyze in two field exper...

  1. Aggressive Behavior in Dutch Forensic Psychiatric Inpatients: Determinants of reactive aggression and their consequences for treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Zwets (Almar)


    markdownabstractThe first goal of the current research project was to get more insight in the determinants of reactive aggression, namely psychopathy, as measured with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), and implicit attitudes toward violence. The second goal was was to investigate the possib

  2. Experiencing aggression in clubs: social group and individual level predictors. (United States)

    Miller, Brenda A; Bourdeau, Beth; Johnson, Mark; Voas, Robert


    To examine the social drinking group's influence on the individual's experiences of physical or sexual aggression at clubs, data were collected from 368 groups (N = 986 individuals). Both group and individual level indicators were examined for impact on self-reports of physical and sexual aggression experiences while at the club. Recent aggressive experiences and perpetration, concerns for group safety, one's own plans and assessment of other group members' plans to drink to the point of intoxication, and personal characteristics were examined, using both individual and group indicators. At exit, participants reported experiencing physical aggression (12.3 %) and sexual aggression (12.6 %) at the club. Using generalized linear mixed modeling to account for nested data (club, event, and group), group level indicators predicted both the individual's physical and sexual aggression experiences. Especially for experiences of physical aggression, group effects are notable. Being in a group whose members recently experienced physical aggression increased the risk for the individual. Interestingly, groups that had higher levels of planned intoxication decreased risks of experiencing aggression, while a discrepancy in these intentions among group members increased the risks. Group effects were also noted for experiencing sexual aggression. High levels of prior experiences for sexual aggression in the group increased the risks for the individual during the event. Also, being in a group that is identified as having at least one member who is frequently drunk increases the risk for experiencing sexual aggression. These findings inform prevention strategies for young adults engaged in high-risk behaviors by targeting social drinking groups who frequent clubs.

  3. Quetiapine modulates functional connectivity in brain aggression networks. (United States)

    Klasen, Martin; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Schwenzer, Michael; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Sarkheil, Pegah; Weber, René; Mathiak, Klaus


    Aggressive behavior is associated with dysfunctions in an affective regulation network encompassing amygdala and prefrontal areas such as orbitofrontal (OFC), anterior cingulate (ACC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In particular, prefrontal regions have been postulated to control amygdala activity by inhibitory projections, and this process may be disrupted in aggressive individuals. The atypical antipsychotic quetiapine successfully attenuates aggressive behavior in various disorders; the underlying neural processes, however, are unknown. A strengthened functional coupling in the prefrontal-amygdala system may account for these anti-aggressive effects. An inhibition of this network has been reported for virtual aggression in violent video games as well. However, there have been so far no in-vivo observations of pharmacological influences on corticolimbic projections during human aggressive behavior. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, quetiapine and placebo were administered for three successive days prior to an fMRI experiment. In this experiment, functional brain connectivity was assessed during virtual aggressive behavior in a violent video game and an aggression-free control task in a non-violent modification. Quetiapine increased the functional connectivity of ACC and DLPFC with the amygdala during virtual aggression, whereas OFC-amygdala coupling was attenuated. These effects were observed neither for placebo nor for the non-violent control. These results demonstrate for the first time a pharmacological modification of aggression-related human brain networks in a naturalistic setting. The violence-specific modulation of prefrontal-amygdala networks appears to control aggressive behavior and provides a neurobiological model for the anti-aggressive effects of quetiapine.

  4. Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer (United States)


    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0168 TITLE: Imaging prostatic lipids to distinguish aggressive prostate cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jackilen...Imaging prostatic lipids to distinguish aggressive prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0168 5b. GRANT NUMBER PC110361 5c. PROGRAM...Mechanisms linking fatty acid synthase overexpression, lipid accumulation, lipid oxidation, and tumor aggressiveness will be explored using

  5. Television viewing and aggressive behavior during adolescence and adulthood. (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey G; Cohen, Patricia; Smailes, Elizabeth M; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S


    Television viewing and aggressive behavior were assessed over a 17-year interval in a community sample of 707 individuals. There was a significant association between the amount of time spent watching television during adolescence and early adulthood and the likelihood of subsequent aggressive acts against others. This association remained significant after previous aggressive behavior, childhood neglect, family income, neighborhood violence, parental education, and psychiatric disorders were controlled statistically.

  6. Canine aggression toward people: a guide for practitioners. (United States)

    Sueda, Karen Lynn C; Malamed, Rachel


    This article reviews the various causes of human-directed aggression in dogs and provides a step-by-step plan guiding the general practitioner through history taking, behavior observations, diagnosis, consultation, treatment, and follow-up care. Charts summarizing how to obtain behavioral information, the client's management options, treatment recommendations, diagnosis and treatment of human-directed aggression, and the clinician's role in preventing human-directed aggression are included. A graphic illustration of canine body language is also provided.

  7. Manifestation and coping aggressiveness in the pre-school age


    Hrbková, Jana


    Bachelor thesis occupies with manifestation of aggressive behaviour in kindergartens and designs ways how to prevent their implications. Theoretical part is about aggressiveness as a problem of present society with accent to the pre-school and primary school age, to its manifestations, implications and presumption to its coping. Practical part contains observation of aggressiveness in the kindergarten by pre-school teachers, development is made as a question {--} form. It contains games and a...

  8. Analysis of complex networks using aggressive abstraction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin.; Willard, Gerald


    This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler (but equivalent) representation, the required analysis is performed using the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit abstractions that are simultaneously dramatically simplifying and property preserving we call these aggressive abstractions -- and which can therefore be analyzed using the proposed approach. We then introduce and develop two forms of aggressive abstraction: 1.) finite state abstraction, in which dynamical networks with uncountable state spaces are modeled using finite state systems, and 2.) onedimensional abstraction, whereby high dimensional network dynamics are captured in a meaningful way using a single scalar variable. In each case, the property preserving nature of the abstraction process is rigorously established and efficient algorithms are presented for computing the abstraction. The considerable potential of the proposed approach to complex networks analysis is illustrated through case studies involving vulnerability analysis of technological networks and predictive analysis for social processes.

  9. Graduation project: Instrumentation System for Photodynamic Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, J.


    Glioblastoma Multiforme is a very aggressive kind of brain cancer. When it is diagnosed, the tumor will be between the size of a pingpong ball and a tennis ball, as shown in picture 1. It accounts for half the brain cancers. Current treatments consists of radio- and chemo-therapy, but the 5 year sur

  10. [Child developmental disorder and art therapy]. (United States)

    Laroquea, Fabienne; Sudres, Jean-luc


    Accompanying the art therapy of a young girl suffering from evolutive disharmony shows how this therapeutic mediation can be used in a beneficial way. As part of the workshop proposed by carers, the use of painting and collages of different materials led to a transformation process. The girl became less aggressive, more receptive to her emotions and more open to the outside world.

  11. Application of Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to School Settings (United States)

    Herschell, Amy D.; Kolko, David J.; Baumann, Barbara L.; Brown, Elissa J.


    Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT) is an evidence-based treatment for families with children aged 5 to 15 years who have been affected by verbal and physical aggression in the family. AF-CBT was designed to address risks for exposure to emotional and physical aggression as well as common clinical consequences of…

  12. Sex-role-taking and aggressive behavior in children. (United States)

    Sandidge, S; Friedland, S J


    Effects of sex-role standards on the expression of aggression were examined in a task requiring 40 boys and girls aged nine to 10 to take the role of boys or girls portrayed in a set of cartoon figures. Subjects were asked to respond to aggressive statements attributed to cartoon figures varying in sex. The expectation that subjects taking the role of male figures would display more antisocial aggression was confirmed. In addition, subjects gave more anti-social aggression responses for boys interacting with boys. Findings are taken as support for a role interpretation of sex differences in expression of agression.

  13. Agitation, aggression, and disinhibition syndromes after traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Kim, Edward


    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently complicated by disinhibition and aggression. These often profound changes in personality, present obstacles to rehabilitative treatments and community reentry. Syndromal presentations may involve a loss of impulse control, spontaneous aggression, and dysphoric bipolar states. Common neuropathological findings of inferior frontal lobe dysfunction support both disinhibition and kindling models of TBI-induced aggression. Assessment of these highly disruptive symptoms requires detailed historical, clinical, and neuropsychological information to formulate appropriate strategies. Management of TBI-related aggression may involve pharmacological, environmental, and psychotherapeutic strategies that incorporate caregiver training and support.

  14. Does aggression cause a preference for viewing media violence? (United States)

    Fenigstein, A


    Virtually all of the research concerned with media violence has attempted to determine whether the viewing of violence is associated with or causes aggression. Little experimental research has been directed at understanding why persons view media violence. The present research experimentally tested the hypotheses that physical aggression and fantasy aggression would lead to a preference for viewing violence. In Experiment 1, undergraduate men and women were induced to express aggressive, nonaggressive, or no fantasies and were then given an opportunity to select film clips for viewing. The films chosen by men contained more violence than those chosen by women. In addition, aggressive fantasies in males, compared to nonaggressive fantasies, increased the preference for viewing violence. Experiment 2, using only males, replicated the results of the first study and also found that men who were given an opportunity to aggress physically, compared to those who had no such opportunity, were more likely to choose to view films containing violent content. These results provide an additional perspective on the relationship between the observation of violence and the expression of aggression by suggesting that the causal effects are bidirectional: Just as the viewing of violence may increase aggression, so, too, aggressive behavior may increase the preference for viewing violence.

  15. "Just how graphic are graphic novels?" An examination of aggression portrayals in manga and associations with aggressive behavior in adolescents. (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Callister, Mark; Stockdale, Laura; Coutts, Holly; Collier, Kevin M


    Manga, a type of graphic novel, represent a widely popular literary genre worldwide and are one of the fastest growing areas of the publishing arena aimed at adolescents in the United States. However, to our knowledge, there has been almost no empirical research examining content or effects of reading manga. This article consists of 2 studies. Study 1 represents a content analysis of aggressive behavior in best-selling manga aimed at adolescents. Results revealed that aggression was common and was often portrayed in ways that may influence subsequent behavior. Study 2 examined the relationship between reading manga and aggressive behavior in 223 adolescents. Manga readers were more physically aggressive than non-manga readers and also reported more peer relationships with lonely individuals and smaller groups. In addition, reading manga with particularly high levels of aggression was associated with physical aggression even after controlling for media violence exposure in other media. Implications regarding these findings are discussed.

  16. Music and aggression: the impact of sexual-aggressive song lyrics on aggression-related thoughts, emotions, and behavior toward the same and the opposite sex. (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias


    Three studies examined the impact of sexual-aggressive song lyrics on aggressive thoughts, emotions, and behavior toward the same and the opposite sex. In Study 1, the authors directly manipulated whether male or female participants listened to misogynous or neutral song lyrics and measured actual aggressive behavior. Male participants who were exposed to misogynous song lyrics administered more hot chili sauce to a female than to a male confederate. Study 2 shed some light on the underlying psychological processes: Male participants who heard misogynous song lyrics recalled more negative attributes of women and reported more feelings of vengeance than when they heard neutral song lyrics. In addition, men-hating song lyrics had a similar effect on aggression-related responses of female participants toward men. Finally, Study 3 replicated the findings of the previous two studies with an alternative measure of aggressive behavior as well as a more subtle measure of aggressive cognitions. The results are discussed in the framework of the General Aggression Model.

  17. Media violence and the self: The impact of personalized gaming characters in aggressive video games on aggressive behavior


    Fischer, Peter; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Greitemeyer, Tobias


    Abstract A recent development in video games is that players can design and personalize their own in-game characters. It was predicted that this innovation could lead to elevations in the intensity of the psychological effects of video games. The present study confirmed this hypothesis, revealing that participants who played an aggressive video game using their own, personalized character exhibited higher levels of aggressive behavior than participants who played an aggressive game...

  18. Use of haloperidol and risperidone in highly aggressive Swiss Webster mice by applying the model of spontaneous aggression (MSA). (United States)

    Fragoso, Viviane Muniz da Silva; Hoppe, Luanda Yanaan; de Araújo-Jorge, Tânia Cremonini; de Azevedo, Marcos José; Campos, Jerônimo Diego de Souza; Cortez, Célia Martins; de Oliveira, Gabriel Melo


    Aggression is defined as the act in which an individual intentionally harms or injures another of their own species. Antipsychotics are a form of treatment used in psychiatric routine. They have been used for decades in treatment of patients with aggressive behavior. Haloperidol and risperidone promote the control of psychiatric symptoms, through their respective mechanisms of action. Experimental models are obtained by behavioral, genetic, and pharmacological manipulations, and use a reduced number of animals. In this context, we applied the model of spontaneous aggression (MSA), originating the presence of highly aggressive mice (AgR) when reassembled in adulthood. We administered haloperidol and risperidone in escalating doses, for ten consecutive days. Using positive and negative control groups, we evaluated the effectiveness of these drugs and the reversal of the aggressive behavior, performing the tail suspension test (TST) and open field test (OFT) on 10th day of treatment and 10 days after its discontinuation. The results showed that both antipsychotic drugs were effective in AgR and reversed the aggressive phenotype, reducing the number of attacks by AgR and the extent of lesions in the subordinate mice (AgD) exposed to the pattern of aggressive behavior (PAB) of the aggressors. This conclusion is based on the reduction in the animals' motor and exploratory activity, and on the reversal of patterns of aggressive behavior. The association between the MSA and experiments with other therapeutic protocols and different antipsychotics can be an important methodology in the study of aggressive behavior in psychiatric patients.

  19. The Aggression Observation Short Form Identified Episodes Not Reported on the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidhjelm, Jacob; Sestoft, Dorte; Bjørner, Jakob Bue


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the underreporting of violence and aggression on the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised (SOAS-R) when compared to a simpler assessment: the Aggression Observation Short Form (AOS). During a period of one year, two open and two closed wards gathered...... for open wards and for patients with short admission lengths. Standard instruments such as the SOAS-R underreport aggressive episodes by 45% or more. Underreporting can be reduced by introducing shorter instruments, but it cannot be completely eliminated....

  20. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. (United States)

    Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J


    Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior.

  1. The analysis of the types of aggressiveness at preadolescents from urban and rural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Losîi Elena


    Full Text Available In last year’s the study of aggressive behaviour became widespread and dynamic, and also remains a challenge for psychology. The evolution of aggressiveness phenomenon led to the it’s refinement based on different practices and mechanisms of aggressiveness appearance. In phylogentic evolution remains constantly especially among children. The types and forms of aggressive behaviour are becoming more numerous and various. Aggressive behaviour knows a multitude of faces and can be expressed in a variety of ways. The given article is dedicated to the research of aggressive and types of aggressive behaviour at preadolescents. Our study included 100 preadolescents from urban and rural environments. The hostility, physical aggression, indirect aggression, nervousness, negativity, verbal aggression and guilt were tested with Buss - Durkee Hostility Inventory. As consequences we can mention that aggressive behaviour is largely specific to contemporary preadolescents. Also we can underline that aggressive behaviour and types of aggressive behaviour depends on gender and environment of preadolescents.

  2. Tri-modality small animal imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, B.K.; Stolin, A.V.; Pole, J.; Baumgart, L.; Fontaine, M.; Wojcik, R.; Kross, B.; Zorn, C.; Majewski, S.; Williams, M.B.


    Our group is developing a scanner that combines x-ray, single gamma, and optical imaging on the same rotating gantry. Two functional modalities (SPECT and optical) are included because they have different strengths and weaknesses in terms of spatial and temporal decay lengths in the context of in vivo imaging, and because of the recent advent of multiple reporter gene constructs. The effect of attenuation by biological tissue on the detected intensity of the emitted signal was measured for both gamma and optical imaging. Attenuation by biological tissue was quantified for both the bioluminescent emission of luciferace and for the emission light of the near infrared fluorophore cyanine 5.5, using a fixed excitation light intensity. Experiments were performed to test the feasibility of using either single gamma or x-ray imaging to make depth-dependent corrections to the measured optical signal. Our results suggest that significant improvements in quantitation of optical emission are possible using straightforward correction techniques based on information from other modalities. Development of an integrated scanner in which data from each modality are obtained with the animal in a common configuration will greatly simplify this process.

  3. Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis and Its Treatment Options: Case Reports and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Roshna


    Full Text Available Generalized aggressive periodontitis results in rapid destruction of the periodontium and can lead to early tooth loss in the affected individuals if not diagnosed early and treated appropriately. The diagnostic features of the disease are characteristic, but the clinical presentation and patterns of destructions may vary between patients. Successful management of the disease is challenging especially if diagnosed at advanced stages of the disease, but not impossible with the current therapeutic choices for the disease. A vast array of treatment modalities is available which can be employed in the treatment of generalized aggressive periodontitis with varying success rates, but a definite guideline for the management is yet to be formulated. However, with the exponential rate of developments in periodontal research, regenerative therapy, tissue engineering, and genetic technologies, the future seems promising in regard to options at managing the disease. This paper attempts to describe the clinical and radiographic diagnostic features and the current treatment options along with a suggested protocol for comprehensive management of generalized aggressive periodontitis patients with case reports and a brief review.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Shabanova


    Full Text Available The relevance of the study is connected with need to expand the arsenal of treatment methods patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The study examined the efficacy of biobehavioral therapy in a comprehensive program of treatment patients with rheumatoid arthritis (medical therapy in combination with biobehavioral therapy. It has been shown when compared with the control group (isolated drug therapy maintaining  clinical  response  in  short-term  follow-up  study  in  the  intervention  group.  Statistically    significant relationship the volitional control of the alpha rhythm of EEG (increased power of the alpha rhythm with a reduction in pain intensity in the in neurofeedback program and positive dynamics of the main characteristics of the alpha rhythm have been drmonstrated. Inclusion in the treatment program of arthritis biobehavioral approach has reduced the dose of pain medication, so reducing aggression of pharmacotherapy.

  5. Suicidality and aggression during antidepressant treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Tarang; Guski, Louise Schow; Freund, Nanna;


    reports for duloxetine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, and venlafaxine obtained from the European and UK drug regulators, and summary trial reports for duloxetine and fluoxetine from Eli Lilly's website.Eligibility criteria for study selection Double blind placebo controlled trials that contained any....... These trials had limitations in the study design and discrepancies in reporting, which may have led to serious under-reporting of harms. For example, some outcomes appeared only in individual patient listings in appendices, which we had for only 32 trials, and we did not have case report forms for any......Objective To study serious harms associated with selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors.Design Systematic review and meta-analysis.Main outcome measures Mortality and suicidality. Secondary outcomes were aggressive behaviour and akathisia.Data sources Clinical study...

  6. Homogeneous cosmology with aggressively expanding civilizations

    CERN Document Server

    Olson, S Jay


    In the context of a homogeneous universe, we note that the appearance of aggressively expanding advanced life is geometrically similar to the process of nucleation and bubble growth in a first-order cosmological phase transition. We exploit this similarity to describe the dynamics of life saturating the universe on a cosmic scale, adapting the phase transition model to incorporate probability distributions of expansion and resource consumption strategies. Through a series of numerical solutions covering several orders of magnitude in the input assumption parameters, the resulting cosmological model is used to address basic questions related to the intergalactic spreading of life, dealing with issues such as timescales, observability, competition between strategies, and first-mover advantage. Finally, we examine physical effects on the universe itself, such as reheating and the backreaction on the evolution of the scale factor, if such life is able to control and convert a significant fraction of the available...

  7. Microenvironment-Driven Bioelimination of Magnetoplasmonic Nanoassemblies and Their Multimodal Imaging-Guided Tumor Photothermal Therapy. (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Fu, Shiyan; Chen, Chuanfang; Wang, Xuandong; Fu, Changhui; Wang, Shu; Guo, Weibo; Yu, Xin; Zhang, Xiaodi; Liu, Zhirong; Qiu, Jichuan; Liu, Hong


    Biocompatibility and bioelimination are basic requirements for systematically administered nanomaterials for biomedical purposes. Gold-based plasmonic nanomaterials have shown potential applications in photothermal cancer therapy. However, their inability to biodegrade has impeded practical biomedical application. In this study, a kind of bioeliminable magnetoplasmonic nanoassembly (MPNA), assembled from an Fe3O4 nanocluster and gold nanoshell, was elaborately designed for computed tomography, photoacoustic tomography, and magnetic resonance trimodal imaging-guided tumor photothermal therapy. A single dose of photothermal therapy under near-infrared light induced a complete tumor regression in mice. Importantly, MPNAs could respond to the local microenvironment with acidic pH and enzymes where they accumulated including tumors, liver, spleen, etc., collapse into small molecules and discrete nanoparticles, and finally be cleared from the body. With the bioelimination ability from the body, a high dose of 400 mg kg(-1) MPNAs had good biocompatibility. The MPNAs for cancer theranostics pave a way toward biodegradable bio-nanomaterials for biomedical applications.

  8. Parent-child interactions and relational aggression in peer relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michiels, Daisy; Grietens, Hans; Onghena, Patrick; Kuppens, Sofie


    The major aim of this review is to propose new ways of thinking about the role of parents in the development and course of children's relationally aggressive behavior. An important theoretical framework from which to start thinking about linkages between parenting and relational aggression is provid

  9. Selective Exposure to Televised Aggression. Report No. 7. (United States)

    Atkin, Charles K.; And Others

    This 2-wave panel survey of young people was conducted to explore the relationship between attitudes and viewing over time, examining aggressiveness and viewing of programs portraying physical and verbal aggression. Questionnaires were administered to 227 children in the fourth, sixth, and eighth grades in 1976 and again one year later. The…

  10. Effects of Symbolic Modeling on Children's Interpersonal Aggression. (United States)

    Liebert, Robert M.; Baron, Robert A.

    Does exposure to symbolically modeled aggression (aggression in cartoons, movies, stories and simulated television programs) increase children's willingness to engage in behavior which might actually harm another human being? This paper presents a summary of three recent experiments offering affirmative answers to the question. A fourth experiment…

  11. Addressing Social Aggression in State Anti-Bullying Policies (United States)

    Temkin, Deborah


    Social aggression, or victimization using social exclusion, rumors, and body language, has been overlooked in state anti-bullying policies since the policy surge following the 1999 Columbine Massacres. Social aggression has been associated with social anxiety disorder, depression and suicide, and lowered academic achievement and involvement. An…

  12. Male and Female University Students' Experiences of Indirect Aggression (United States)

    Leenaars, Lindsey; Rinaldi, Christina M.


    This study examines the role of sex, gender role orientation, social representations of indirect aggression, and indicators of psychosocial adjustment in indirect aggression and victimization in an emerging adult sample. A total of 42 participants (19 men, 23 women) recruited are required to complete the questionnaires, along with 18 participants…

  13. Actualization of Social Cognitions into Aggressive Behavior toward Disliked Targets (United States)

    Peets, Katlin; Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Salmivalli, Christina


    The basic premise that social cognitions guide behavior (aggression) was evaluated within relationships marked by dislike. At Time 1, a disliked target was identified for each participant (195 fifth-grade children; 109 boys; 11-12 years old at Time 1) who then responded to questions about different aggression-supporting social cognitions with…

  14. Enhancing the Assessment of Verbal Aggression through Observational Methodology (United States)

    van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Mata, Andrea D.; Klipfel, Katherine M.


    The assessment of verbal aggression in adolescent and young adult dating relationships has largely relied on self-report methodology. We investigated whether information on verbal aggression derived from an observational assessment would enhance the prediction of romantic relationship satisfaction and dissolution in a sample of young adult dating…

  15. Interparental aggression and parent-adolescent salivary alpha amylase symmetry. (United States)

    Gordis, Elana B; Margolin, Gayla; Spies, Lauren A; Susman, Elizabeth J; Granger, Douglas A


    The present study examined salivary alpha amylase (sAA), a putative marker of adrenergic activity, in family members engaging in family conflict discussions. We examined symmetry among family members' sAA levels at baseline and in response to a conflict discussion. The relation between a history of interparental aggression on parent-adolescent sAA symmetry also was examined. Participants were 62 families with a mother, father, and biological child age 13-18 (n=29 girls). After engaging in a relaxation procedure, families participated in a 15-minute triadic family conflict discussion. Participants provided saliva samples at post-relaxation/pre-discussion, immediately post-discussion, and at 10 and 20 min post-discussion. Participants also reported on interparental physical aggression during the previous year. Across the sample we found evidence of symmetry between mothers' and adolescents' sAA levels at baseline and around the discussion. Interparental aggression was associated with lower sAA levels among fathers. Interparental aggression also affected patterns of parent-child sAA response symmetry such that families reporting interparental aggression exhibited greater father-adolescent sAA symmetry than did those with no reports of interparental aggression. Among families with no interparental aggression history, we found consistent mother-adolescent symmetry. These differences suggest different patterns of parent-adolescent physiological attunement among families with interparental aggression.

  16. Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression (United States)

    Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin


    The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…

  17. Low levels of caries in aggressive periodontitis: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulugodu Ramachandra Srinivas


    Full Text Available This article is a traditional literature review on caries levels in aggressive periodontitis. Aggressive periodontitis generally affects systemically healthy individuals aged <30 years (older individuals can also be affected and is characterized by a young age of onset, rapid rate of disease progression, and familial aggregation of cases. Dental caries is caused by the dissolution of enamel by acid-producing bacteria present in the plaque biofilm, especially when the biofilm reaches critical mass due to improper oral hygiene. The association between caries level and aggressive periodontitis has long been debated. Initial research indicated that caries levels were high in patients with aggressive periodontitis, but high-quality studies have consistently shown that caries and aggressive periodontitis are inversely related. A recent in vitro study showed that Streptococcus mutans was killed more readily in the saliva of patients with aggressive periodontitis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans positivity than in patients with A. actinomycetemcomitans negativity. Other mechanisms possibly explaining the inverse relationship between caries and aggressive periodontitis in cases of Down’s syndrome are also discussed in this literature review. The usefulness of caries level in the diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis in developing countries such as India, where the disease is diagnosed primarily on the basis of clinical and radiographic features and familial history is also discussed.

  18. The Effects of Pathological Gaming on Aggressive Behavior (United States)

    Lemmens, Jeroen S.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen


    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this…

  19. A relationship between temperature and aggression in NFL football penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Craig


    Conclusion: These results indicate that even in the aggressive context of football, warmer weather contributes to increased violence. Further, the presence of the heat-aggression relationship for the home team suggests that the characteristics of interacting groups may influence whether heat would have an adverse effect on the outcome of those interactions.

  20. Aggression proneness: Transdiagnostic processes involving negative valence and cognitive systems. (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Bresin, Konrad


    Aggressive behavior is observed in persons with various mental health problems and has been studied from the perspectives of neuroscience and psychophysiology. The present research reviews some of the extant experimental literature to help clarify the interplay between domains of functioning implicated in aggression proneness. We then convey a process-oriented model that elucidates how the interplay of the Negative Valence and Cognitive System domains of NIMH's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) helps explain aggression proneness, particularly reactive aggression. Finally, we report on a study involving event-related potential (ERP) indices of emotional and inhibitory control processing during an emotional-linguistic go/no-go task among 67 individuals with histories of violence and criminal offending (30% female, 44% African-American) who reported on their aggressive tendencies using the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Results provide evidence that tendencies toward angry and aggressive behavior relate to reduced inhibitory control processing (no-go P3) specifically during relevant threat-word blocks, suggesting deterioration of cognitive control by acute or sustained threat sensitivity. These findings highlight the value of ERP methodologies for clarifying the interplay of Negative Valence and Cognitive System processes in aggression proneness.

  1. The Effect of Viewing Television Violence on Aggression. (United States)

    Primavera, Louis H.; Herron, William G.; Jauier, Rafael A.


    Discusses research on the negative impact of television and movies, scientific research on television violence and aggression, laboratory research, criticisms of laboratory research, field research, correlation studies. Concludes there is no evidence that viewing television violence increases aggression in children or adults but viewing it can…

  2. Indirect Aggression, Bullying and Female Teen Victimization: A Literature Review (United States)

    Catanzaro, Mary F.


    This article assesses the literature in relation to youth bullying in the United Kingdom, Scandinavia and North America, focusing in particular on female aggression as it is expressed in adolescent peer relationships. It addresses the escalating problems of indirect aggression, especially those involving social networking interchanges such as…

  3. Relations between Childraising Styles and Aggressiveness in Adolescents (United States)

    De la Torre-Cruz, M. J.; García-Linares, M. C.; Casanova-Arias, P. F.


    Introduction: Physical and aggressive behavior which children and adolescents show toward peers is associated to parenting styles. The aim of this research was to examine the relation between perceived parenting styles (from mothers and fathers) and the level of physical and verbal aggressive behavior, anger and hostility showed towards the peers.…

  4. Popularity differentially predicts reactive and proactive aggression in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltz, S.E.M.J.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Berg, Y.H.M. van den; Gommans, R.


    Previous research has indicated that peer popularity is associated with aggressive behavior. However, it is not yet clear whether popularity is uniquely related to different functions of aggression. In this study, we examined associations between peer-perceived popularity, and reactive and proactive

  5. Popularity Differentially Predicts Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Early Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltz, Sabine E.M.J.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; van den Berg, Yvonne; Gommans, R.


    Previous research has indicated that peer popularity is associated with aggressive behavior. However, it is not yet clear whether popularity is uniquely related to different functions of aggression. In this study, we examined associations between peer-perceived popularity, and reactive and proactive

  6. Genetic and environmental stability differs in reactive and proactive aggression. (United States)

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Raine, Adrian; Zheng, Mo; Baker, Laura A


    The aim of this study was to examine stability and change in genetic and environmental influences on reactive (impulsive and affective) and proactive (planned and instrumental) aggression from childhood to early adolescence. The sample was drawn from an ongoing longitudinal twin study of risk factors for antisocial behavior at the University of Southern California (USC). The twins were measured on two occasions: ages 9-10 years (N=1,241) and 11-14 years (N=874). Reactive and proactive aggressive behaviors were rated by parents. The stability in reactive aggression was due to genetic and nonshared environmental influences, whereas the continuity in proactive aggression was primarily genetically mediated. Change in both reactive and proactive aggression between the two occasions was mainly explained by nonshared environmental influences, although some evidence for new genetic variance at the second occasion was found for both forms of aggression. These results suggest that proactive and reactive aggression differ in their genetic and environmental stability, and provide further evidence for some distinction between reactive and proactive forms of aggression.

  7. 22 CFR 213.11 - Aggressive collection actions; documentation. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aggressive collection actions; documentation... Collection § 213.11 Aggressive collection actions; documentation. (a) USAID takes actions and effective... compromise, termination or suspension of collection actions is set out in detail. This...

  8. Associations among Empathy, Social Competence, & Reactive/Proactive Aggression Subtypes (United States)

    Mayberry, Megan L.; Espelage, Dorothy L.


    Differences between proactive and reactive aggression subtypes on self-reported measures of empathy, social competence, and expectation for reward were examined among 433 middle school students (65.4% White, 33.9% Black). As hypothesized, males scored higher on proactive and reactive aggression scales and lower on empathy measures than females.…

  9. Associations between parental control and children's overt and relational aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuppens, Sofie; Grietens, Hans; Onghena, Patrick; Michiels, Daisy


    The present study examined specialized associations between parental control and child aggression in a sample of 600 8- to 10-years old children. Parental control dimensions and aggression subtypes were assessed using multiple informants (i.e. children, mothers, fathers, peers, and teachers). In lin

  10. Associations between Parental Control and Children's Overt and Relational Aggression (United States)

    Kuppens, Sofie; Grietens, Hans; Onghena, Patrick; Michiels, Daisy


    The present study examined specialized associations between parental control and child aggression in a sample of 600 8- to 10-years old children. Parental control dimensions and aggression subtypes were assessed using multiple informants (i.e. children, mothers, fathers, peers, and teachers). In line with expectations, parental physical punishment…

  11. Controlling Parenting and Physical Aggression during Elementary School (United States)

    Joussemet, Mireille; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Cote, Sylvana; Nagin, Daniel S.; Zoccolillo, Mark; Tremblay, Richard E.


    The goal of the present study was to examine whether controlling parenting contributes to the problem of physical aggression. Developmental trajectories of children's physical aggression were modeled from yearly teachers' ratings, from ages 6 to 12. Multinomial logistic regressions (N = 1,508) served to identify risk factors that distinguish…

  12. Parent-Child Interactions and Relational Aggression in Peer Relationships (United States)

    Michiels, Daisy; Grietens, Hans; Onghena, Patrick; Kuppens, Sofie


    The major aim of this review is to propose new ways of thinking about the role of parents in the development and course of children's relationally aggressive behavior. An important theoretical framework from which to start thinking about linkages between parenting and relational aggression is provided by attachment theory. Attachment theory…

  13. Social Anxiety and Aggression in Behaviorally Disordered Children. (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ketty P.; And Others


    Thirty-nine boys in classes for students with behavioral disturbances were given questionnaires on trait anxiety, social anxiety, empathy, depression, and self-esteem, while teachers rated their aggression. Results showed that anxiety and empathy scores were not correlated with aggression, while social anxiety was positively correlated with trait…

  14. Aggression on Haemodialysis units: a mixed methods study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, J.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Ross, J.; Ashman, N.; Callaghan, P.


    Background Aggression on haemodialysis units is a growing problem internationally that has received little research attention to date. Aggressive behaviour by patients or their relatives can compromise the safety and well-being of staff and other patients sharing a haemodialysis session. Objectives

  15. Relational Aggression and Burnout: Fight, Hide, or Run? (United States)

    Culver, Mary K.


    This study looks at female relational aggression in an effort to illustrate factors involved in selecting appropriate responses for the situation. This ethnographic case study analyzes a principal's interview, personal journal, and artifact file to describe the situations and reactions present in a severe case of female relational aggression.…

  16. Sensory, hormonal, and neural basis of maternal aggression in rodents. (United States)

    de Almeida, Rosa Maria Martins; Ferreira, Annabel; Agrati, Daniella


    We review existing knowledge of the neural, hormonal, and sensory basis of maternal aggression in the female rat. Although females may express different kinds of aggression, such as defense or dominance, the most frequent and conspicuous form of aggressive behavior among females is the one associated with motherhood. Maternal aggression occurs in various vertebrate and invertebrate species; however, our emphasis will be on maternal aggression in rats because most of the physiological investigations have been performed in this species. Firstly, we address those factors that predispose the female to attack, such as the endocrine profile, the maternal state, and the stimulation provided by the pups, as well as those that trigger the aggressive response, as the intruder's characteristics and the context. As the postpartum aggression is a fundamental component of the maternal repertoire, we emphasize its association with maternal motivation and the reduction of fear and anxiety in dams. Finally, we outline the neurocircuitry involved in the control of maternal aggression, stressing the role of the ventro-orbital region of prefrontal cortex and the serotoninergic system.

  17. A Hybrid Aggressive Space Mapping Algorithm for EM Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakr, Mohamed H.; Bandler, John W.; Georgieva, N.;


    We propose a novel hybrid aggressive space-mapping (HASM) optimization algorithm. HASM exploits both the trust-region aggressive space-mapping (TRASM) strategy and direct optimization. Severe differences between the coarse and fine models and nonuniqueness of the parameter extraction procedure ma...

  18. A Hybrid Aggressive Space Mapping Algorithm for EM Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakr, M.; Bandler, J. W.; Georgieva, N.;


    We present a novel, Hybrid Aggressive Space Mapping (HASM) optimization algorithm. HASM is a hybrid approach exploiting both the Trust Region Aggressive Space Mapping (TRASM) algorithm and direct optimization. It does not assume that the final space-mapped design is the true optimal design and is...

  19. Aggression as Positive Reinforcement in People with Intellectual Disabilities (United States)

    May, Michael E.


    From an applied behavior-analytic perspective, aggression in people with intellectual disabilities is mostly maintained by social reinforcement consequences. However, nonsocial consequences have also been identified in functional assessments on aggression. Behaviors producing their own reinforcement have been labeled "automatic" or "nonsocial" in…

  20. The Psychobiology of Aggression and Violence: Bioethical Implications (United States)

    Diaz, Jose Luis


    Bioethics is concerned with the moral aspects of biology and medicine. The bioethical relevance of aggression and violence is clear, as very different moral and legal responsibilities may apply depending on whether aggression and violence are forms of behaviour that are innate or acquired, deliberate or automatic or not, or understandable and…

  1. Reducing Aggressive Male Behavior in Elementary School: Promising Practices (United States)

    Holmes, Barbara; Gibson, Jamel; Morrison-Danner, Dietrich


    Student aggression and violent behavior, especially among males, is pervasive and problematic in the classroom. When incorporated in the lesson design, promising practices (music, movement, and visual stimulation) are evidence-based strategies that may reduce male aggression in the classroom.

  2. Physical Aggression in Early Marriage: Prerelationship and Relationship Effects. (United States)

    O'Leary, K. Daniel; And Others


    Predicted spousal physical aggression at 30 months after marriage for 393 young couples. Prerelationship predictor variables were history of violence in family of origin, aggression against others during childhood and adolescence, and personality characteristics. Relationship predictor variables were marital discord and spouse-specific…

  3. Amelogenesis imperfecta and localised aggressive periodontitis: A rare clinical entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri Gundannavar


    Full Text Available This case report presents two female patients whose chief complaint was discoloration of teeth. On careful clinical examination it was found that the patients had features of amelogenesis imperfecta and localised aggressive periodontitis. This article will give an insight of clinical and radiographic features of amelogenesis imperfecta with localised aggressive periodontitis, which is a rare clinical entity.

  4. Amelogenesis imperfecta and localised aggressive periodontitis: A rare clinical entity. (United States)

    Gundannavar, Gayatri; Rosh, Radhika M; Chandrasekaran, Shoba; Hussain, Ahad M


    This case report presents two female patients whose chief complaint was discoloration of teeth. On careful clinical examination it was found that the patients had features of amelogenesis imperfecta and localised aggressive periodontitis. This article will give an insight of clinical and radiographic features of amelogenesis imperfecta with localised aggressive periodontitis, which is a rare clinical entity.

  5. Fear and Aggression in German Shepherd, Boxer and Rottweiler Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krassimira Uzunova


    Full Text Available As a result of long-term active fear, variable moods can occur – howling, whimpering, crying, tremor, tics, manias, depressions, etc. It is now acknowledged that fear and aggression are closely related. It is also known that the different dog breeds manifest a various extent of fear and aggression. The study aimed to provide answers to two questions - classification of factors invoking fear and aggression according to their significance and which of investigated dog breeds – German Shepherd, Rottweiler or Boxer is the most resistant to fear and aggression episodes? The exclusion of all factors on the cultivation of three breeds of dogs / they complied with the norms / found that the causes of fear aggressive conditions are listed as follows – first of fear and aggression depend on the temperament of the dog and on the second place of the breed origin, growing conditions and the associated level of primary and secondary socialization. Fear aggressive manifestations occur at least in dogs with sanguine and choleric temperament. Representatives of the breed "Boxer" and "German Shepherd" are at the same level on the manifestations of fear and aggression. Rottweiler breed is in third place in this direction.

  6. Institutional climate and aggression in a secure psychiatric setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, N.; van der Helm, P.; Wissink, I.; Stams, G.J.; Schaftenaar, P.


    The number of aggressive incidents committed by patients in (secure) mental health care is high. The present study examined the relation between institutional climate (support, growth, atmosphere, and repression) and aggressive incidents using data of 72 patients in a secure (forensic) mental health

  7. The Effects of Forensics Training on Verbal Aggression and Argumentativeness. (United States)

    Colbert, Kent R.; Dorff, Todd

    A study focused on the effects of forensic participation on two specific traits--argumentativeness and verbal aggression. Two hundred eighty-one high school forensic students participating at a large western forensic tournament in the beginning of the 1990 academic year completed D. A. Infante's Argumentative and Verbal Aggression Scales. Results…

  8. Is the Aggression Questionnaire Bias Free? A Rasch Analysis (United States)

    Abd-El-Fattah, Sabry M.


    Buss and Perry (1992) developed the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) to assess aggressiveness as a personality trait in high school and college samples. The AQ has been used by researchers in United States, Italy, Germany, Netherland, Japan, Canada, and Greece. The present study is reported on an Arabic adapted version of the AQ among a sample of 510…

  9. Schoolyard Corner Society: Relating Membership to Reactive and Proactive Aggressiveness (United States)

    Storksen, Svein; Idsoe, Thormod; Roland, Erling


    This study investigated whether secondary schools in Norway had deviant subcultures, which could be labelled "schoolyard corner society", and how gender and age were related to membership. We also studied levels of reactive and proactive aggressiveness in students, and the relationship between these types of aggressiveness and participation in…

  10. Person x Context Effects on Anticipated Moral Emotions Following Aggression (United States)

    Roos, Sanna; Salmivalli, Christina; Hodges, Ernest V. E.


    We investigated person (sex, aggression level), context (witness type, victim reactions), and person x context effects on children's anticipated moral emotions following hypothetical acts of aggression against a peer. Children (N = 378, mean age = 11.3 years) were presented a series of hypothetical vignettes in which the presence of witnesses (no…

  11. Sociable Weavers Increase Cooperative Nest Construction after Suffering Aggression. (United States)

    Leighton, Gavin M; Meiden, Laura Vander


    The major transitions in evolution rely on the formation of stable groups that are composed of previously independent units, and the stability of these groups requires both cooperation and reduced conflict. Conflict over group resources may be common, as suggested by work in both cichlids and humans that has investigated how societies resolve conflict regarding investment in group resources, i.e. public goods. We investigated whether sociable weavers (Philetairus socius) use aggressive behaviors to modulate the cooperative behavior of group mates. We find that the individuals that build the communal thatch of the nest, i.e. the individuals most at risk of exploitation, are the most aggressive individuals. We show that individuals that invest in interior chamber maintenance, possibly a more selfish behavior, suffer relatively more aggression. After suffering aggression individuals significantly increase cooperative construction of the communal nest thatch. We show that cooperative individuals target aggression towards selfish individuals, and the individuals suffering aggression perform cooperative behaviors subsequent to suffering aggression. In addition to other evolutionary mechanisms, these results suggest that aggression, possibly via the pay-to-stay mechanism, is possibly being used to maintain a public good.

  12. Hypothalamic control of male aggression-seeking behavior. (United States)

    Falkner, Annegret L; Grosenick, Logan; Davidson, Thomas J; Deisseroth, Karl; Lin, Dayu


    In many vertebrate species, certain individuals will seek out opportunities for aggression, even in the absence of threat-provoking cues. Although several brain areas have been implicated in the generation of attack in response to social threat, little is known about the neural mechanisms that promote self-initiated or 'voluntary' aggression-seeking when no threat is present. To explore this directly, we utilized an aggression-seeking task in which male mice self-initiated aggression trials to gain brief and repeated access to a weaker male that they could attack. In males that exhibited rapid task learning, we found that the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl), an area with a known role in attack, was essential for aggression-seeking. Using both single-unit electrophysiology and population optical recording, we found that VMHvl neurons became active during aggression-seeking and that their activity tracked changes in task learning and extinction. Inactivation of the VMHvl reduced aggression-seeking behavior, whereas optogenetic stimulation of the VMHvl accelerated moment-to-moment aggression-seeking and intensified future attack. These data demonstrate that the VMHvl can mediate both acute attack and flexible seeking actions that precede attack.

  13. Comparison of Sports Sciences and Education Faculty Students' Aggression Scores (United States)

    Atan, Tülin


    The aim of this study was to compare the aggression scores of Sports Sciences Faculty and Education Faculty students and also to examine the effects of some demographic variables on aggression. Two hundred Sports Sciences Faculty students (who engage in sporting activities four days a week for two hours) and 200 Education Faculty students (who do…

  14. Evaluation of behaviour testing for human directed aggression in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, van der J.A.M.; Beerda, B.; Ooms, M.; Silveira de Souza, A.; Hagen, M.; Kemp, B.


    Behaviour test batteries are used to identify aggressive dogs. The Dutch Socially Acceptable Behaviour (SAB)-test has been used since 2001 to select against unwanted aggression and fear in specific dog breeds, though much is unknown yet regarding its reliability, validity and feasibility. In this pa

  15. A.R.T. – Aggression Replacement Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Lotte Junker; Domben, Eskil


    Artiklen indeholder en kort introduktion, eksemplificeret ved case, af det manualbaserede program til behandling af udadreagerende unge Aggression Replacement Training.......Artiklen indeholder en kort introduktion, eksemplificeret ved case, af det manualbaserede program til behandling af udadreagerende unge Aggression Replacement Training....

  16. Routine versus aggressive upstream rhythm control for prevention of early atrial fibrillation in heart failure : background, aims and design of the RACE 3 study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alings, M.; Smit, M. D.; Moes, M. L.; Crijns, H. J. G. M.; Tijssen, J. G. P.; Brugemann, J.; Hillege, H. L.; Lane, D. A.; Lip, G. Y. H.; Smeets, J. R. L. M.; Tieleman, R. G.; Tukkie, R.; Willems, F. F.; Vermond, R. A.; Van Veldhuisen, D. J.; Van Gelder, I. C.


    Rhythm control for atrial fibrillation (AF) is cumbersome because of its progressive nature caused by structural remodelling. Upstream therapy refers to therapeutic interventions aiming to modify the atrial substrate, leading to prevention of AF. The Routine versus Aggressive upstream rhythm Control

  17. Müllerian adenosarcoma of the uterine cervix with sarcomatous overgrowth: A case report of aggressive disease in a young patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Morales F.


    Conclusion: A young woman with Müllerian adenosarcoma of the cervix with sarcomatous overgrowth presenting the risk factors for its recurrence experienced a rapid relapse after receiving radical surgery but not adjuvant therapy. Control of this aggressive disease via sequential radiotherapy and chemotherapy are recommended.

  18. Effects of Violent-Video-Game Exposure on Aggressive Behavior, Aggressive-Thought Accessibility, and Aggressive Affect Among Adults With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder. (United States)

    Engelhardt, Christopher R; Mazurek, Micah O; Hilgard, Joseph; Rouder, Jeffrey N; Bartholow, Bruce D


    Recent mass shootings have prompted the idea among some members of the public that exposure to violent video games can have a pronounced effect on individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Empirical evidence for or against this claim has been missing, however. To address this issue, we assigned adults with and without ASD to play a violent or nonviolent version of a customized first-person shooter video game. After they played the game, we assessed three aggression-related outcome variables (aggressive behavior, aggressive-thought accessibility, and aggressive affect). Results showed strong evidence that adults with ASD, compared with typically developing adults, are not differentially affected by acute exposure to violent video games. Moreover, model comparisons provided modest evidence against any effect of violent game content whatsoever. Findings from this experiment suggest that societal concerns that exposure to violent games may have a unique effect on adults with autism are not supported by evidence.

  19. Aggressive content of high school students' TV viewing. (United States)

    Yoon, Jina S; Somers, Cheryl L


    The purpose of this study was to examine high school students' exposure to television programming with aggressive content and to explore whether consumption of aggressive TV varied by sex and ethnicity. Participants were 472 boys and girls from two high schools, one urban and one suburban. Definitions of both direct and indirect aggression were used to rate TV programs, and the participants' exposure to both was assessed. Analysis yielded a statistically significant effect for sex but not ethnicity as girls watched more TV programs containing indirect aggression. Also, exposure to aggressive TV content peaked in Grade 10 and fell sharply thereafter. The importance of educating adolescents about the images they view is highlighted. Implications for research are discussed.

  20. Social status moderates the relationship between facial structure and aggression. (United States)

    Goetz, Stefan M M; Shattuck, Kraig S; Miller, Robert M; Campbell, Jocelyn A; Lozoya, Elianna; Weisfeld, Glenn E; Carré, Justin M


    A growing body of evidence has linked individual differences in facial structure-in particular, the facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR)-to social behaviors, including aggression, cheating, and nonreciprocation of trust. In the research reported here, we extended this work by demonstrating that the association between FWHR and aggression is moderated by subjective and objective measures of social status. In Study 1 (N = 237 college students), FWHR was positively correlated with aggressive behavior, but only among men reporting relatively low social status. In Study 2 (N = 891 professional hockey players), FWHR was positively correlated with penalty minutes, but only among players who earned relatively low salaries. Collectively, these studies provide compelling evidence for the role of social status in moderating the relationship between facial structure and aggression, indicating that FWHR is a robust predictor of aggressive behavior, but only in the context of relatively low social status.

  1. Towards a design theory for reducing aggression in psychiatric facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Roger S; Bogren, Lennart; Lundin, Stefan


    The paper proposes a tentative theory for designing psychiatric environments to foster reduced aggression and violence. A basic premise underlying the design theory is that environmental and psycho-social stressors mediate and trigger aggression. The theory posits that aggression will be reduced...... buildings with design guided by the best available evidence and theory can play an important role in reducing the serious patient and staff safety problem of aggressive behavior....... if the facility has been designed with an evidence-based bundle of stress-reducing environmental characteristics that are identified and discussed. To make possible a tentative empirical evaluation of the theory, findings are described from a study that compared aggressive incidents in three Swedish psychiatric...

  2. The effect of video games on feelings of aggression. (United States)

    Scott, D


    Fueled by the media, the controversy over whether playing popular arcade/computer games increases aggressiveness has only been compounded by inconsistencies within empirical research. This experiment, conducted with university students in Scotland, was designed to explore some of these inconsistencies. Aggressiveness was manipulated as the independent variable. As dependent variables, the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (Buss & Durkee, 1957) and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ; Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975) were used. There was no linear pattern in aggressive affect change across three games that contained varying levels of violence. Results are discussed in terms of the general lack of support for the commonly held view that playing aggressive computer games causes an individual to feel more aggressive.

  3. Psychosexual Characteristics of Women Reporting Sexual Aggression Against Men. (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J


    Sexual aggression as committed by women has been the target of little empirical research and is still regarded as a myth by many people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychosexual profile of young and educated women reporting sexual aggression against men. This is a cross-sectional study; a total of 260 female college students answered to an online survey. Among them, 93 (35.8%) reported having committed some form of sexual aggression against men: 46.2% of sexually aggressive women fell into the category of sexual coercion, 34.1% fell into the category of sexual abuse, and 19.8% reported having used physical force. Findings revealed that sexually aggressive women reported significantly higher levels of sociosexuality, sexual fantasies of dominance and submission, sexual compulsivity, sexual excitation, and sexual inhibition due to the threat of sexual performance failure. Data are expected to affect prevention strategies for a relevant yet understudied social concern.

  4. Forgiveness and consideration of future consequences in aggressive driving. (United States)

    Moore, Michael; Dahlen, Eric R


    Most research on aggressive driving has focused on identifying aspects of driver personality which will exacerbate it (e.g., sensation seeking, impulsiveness, driving anger, etc.). The present study was designed to examine two theoretically relevant but previously unexplored personality factors predicted to reduce the risk of aggressive driving: trait forgiveness and consideration of future consequences. The utility of these variables in predicting aggressive driving and driving anger expression was evaluated among 316 college student volunteers. Hierarchical multiple regressions permitted an analysis of the incremental validity of these constructs beyond respondent gender, age, miles driven per week, and driving anger. Both forgiveness and consideration of future consequences contributed to the prediction of aggressive driving and driving anger expression, independent of driving anger. Research on aggressive driving may be enhanced by greater attention to adaptive, potentially risk-reducing traits. Moreover, forgiveness and consideration of future consequences may have implications for accident prevention.

  5. Cancer/testis antigens: novel tools for discerning aggressive and non-aggressive prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takumi Shiraishi; Robert H Getzenberg; Prakash Kulkarni


    The introduction of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the 1980s has dramatically altered and benefited the initial diagnosis of prostate cancer.However,the widespread use of PSA testing has resulted in overdetection and overtreatment of potentially indolent disease.Thus,a clinical dilemma today in the management of prostate cancer is to discern men with aggressive disease who need definitive treatment from men whose disease are not lethal.Although several serum and tissue biomarkers have been evaluated during the past decade,improved markers are still needed to enhance the accuracy,with which patients at risk can be discerned and treated more aggressively.The cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are a group of proteins that are restricted to the testis in the normal adult,but are aberrantly expressed in several types of cancers.Because of their restricted expression pattern,the CTAs represent attractive biomarker candidates for cancer diagnosis/prognosis.Furthermore,several studies to date have reported the differential expression of CTAs in prostate cancer.Here,we review recent developments that demonstrate the potential of the CTAs as biomarkers to discern the aggressive phenotype of prostate cancer.

  6. Differential role of the 5-HT1A receptor in aggressive and non-aggressive mice : An across-strain comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caramaschi, Doretta; de Boer, Sietse F.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.


    Differential role of the 5-HT1A receptor in aggressive and non-aggressive mice: an across-strain comparison. PHYSIOL BEHAV 00(0) 000-000, 2006. According to the serotonin (5-HT)-deficiency hypothesis of aggression, highly aggressive individuals are characterized by low brain 5-HT neurotransmission.

  7. Imaging the neural circuitry and chemical control of aggressive motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanchard D Caroline


    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in awake animals it is possible to resolve patterns of neuronal activity across the entire brain with high spatial and temporal resolution. Synchronized changes in neuronal activity across multiple brain areas can be viewed as functional neuroanatomical circuits coordinating the thoughts, memories and emotions for particular behaviors. To this end, fMRI in conscious rats combined with 3D computational analysis was used to identifying the putative distributed neural circuit involved in aggressive motivation and how this circuit is affected by drugs that block aggressive behavior. Results To trigger aggressive motivation, male rats were presented with their female cage mate plus a novel male intruder in the bore of the magnet during image acquisition. As expected, brain areas previously identified as critical in the organization and expression of aggressive behavior were activated, e.g., lateral hypothalamus, medial basal amygdala. Unexpected was the intense activation of the forebrain cortex and anterior thalamic nuclei. Oral administration of a selective vasopressin V1a receptor antagonist SRX251 or the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, drugs that block aggressive behavior, both caused a general suppression of the distributed neural circuit involved in aggressive motivation. However, the effect of SRX251, but not fluoxetine, was specific to aggression as brain activation in response to a novel sexually receptive female was unaffected. Conclusion The putative neural circuit of aggressive motivation identified with fMRI includes neural substrates contributing to emotional expression (i.e. cortical and medial amygdala, BNST, lateral hypothalamus, emotional experience (i.e. hippocampus, forebrain cortex, anterior cingulate, retrosplenial cortex and the anterior thalamic nuclei that bridge the motor and cognitive components of aggressive responding

  8. Aggressiveness across development and suicidal behavior in depressed patients. (United States)

    Carballo, Juan J; García-Nieto, Rebeca; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill; de Leon-Martinez, Victoria; Baca-García, Enrique


    The objective of this study was to determine differences in the pathway of aggressiveness across development between depressive subjects and normal controls, and to examine males and females separately with regard to level of aggression and suicidal behavior among depressed subjects. Participants were classified into 5 groups: depressed suicide attempters (DSA; n = 339), depressed non-suicide attempters (DNSA; n = 92), psychiatric controls who had attempted suicide (PSA; n = 188), psychiatric controls who had not attempted suicide (PNSA; n = 222), and normal controls (NC; n = 532). The level of aggressiveness across development in the different groups was examined using a 5 (DSA vs. DNSA vs. PSA vs. PNSA vs. NC)×3 (Childhood, Adolescence, and Adulthood) MANCOVA. Adjusted and separate models for males and females were conducted. Depressed subjects differed in severity of aggressiveness. The level of aggressiveness in individuals in the NC group remained stable across development, while subjects in the DSA and DNSA groups showed significantly higher levels of aggressiveness. This finding was also observed in subjects of the PSA and PNSA groups. The level of aggressiveness in males with depression significantly increased over time. In women, increasing levels of aggressiveness across development were only observed in depressed suicide attempters. Limitations of this study included use of semi-structured interview for the assessment of risk factors. We found significant differences in severity and in the pathway of aggressiveness across development between depressive subjects and normal controls. In addition, sex differences regarding level of aggression and suicidal behavior among depressed subjects were found.

  9. Etiological Distinctions between Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Antisocial Behavior: Results from a Nuclear Twin Family Model (United States)

    Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.


    A recent meta-analysis of 103 studies Burt ("Clinical Psychology Review," 29:163-178, 2009a) highlighted the presence of etiological distinctions between aggressive (AGG) and non-aggressive rule-breaking (RB) dimensions of antisocial behavior, such that AGG was more heritable than was RB, whereas RB was more influenced by the shared…

  10. The Development of Aggression during Adolescence: Sex Differences in Trajectories of Physical and Social Aggression among Youth in Rural Areas (United States)

    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Suchindran, Chirayath


    To describe trajectories of aggressive behaviors for adolescents living in rural areas, we compared the patterns, timing and sex differences in development of physical and social aggression using five waves of data collected from youth in school surveys administered over 2.5 years. The sample (N = 5,151) was 50.0% female, 52.1% Caucasian and 38.2%…

  11. Interplay between Friends' Aggression and Friendship Quality in the Development of Child Aggression during the Early School Years (United States)

    Salvas, Marie-Claude; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Lacourse, Eric; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E.


    The aim of this study was to investigate the unique and combined role of friendship quality and friends' aggression in regard to the persistence of young children's physical aggression from kindergarten to grade 2. The sample included 1555 children (808 girls) assessed annually using teacher ratings. Two theoretical perspectives (i.e., the social…

  12. Effects of Playing Violent versus Nonviolent Video Games on the Aggressive Ideation of Aggressive and Nonaggressive Children. (United States)

    Graybill, Daniel; And Others


    Examines effects of playing violent and nonviolent video games on children's aggressive ideation. Children played a violent or nonviolent video game for eight minutes. Provides initial support, at least on a short-term basis, for notion that the playing of video games affects children's aggression fantasies. (Author/DST)

  13. From Classroom to Dyad: Actor and Partner Effects of Aggression and Victim Reputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansu, T.A.M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Sandstrom, M.J.


    This study examined whether early adolescents' classroom aggression predicted their aggression in a one-on-one dyadic setting, and whether early adolescents' classroom victimization predicted their victimization in the dyadic setting. After completing peer nominations for aggression and victimizatio

  14. Sacrococcygeal chordoma in infancy showing an aggressive clinical course: an autopsy case report. (United States)

    Shinmura, Yuichiro; Miura, Katsutoshi; Yajima, Shuhei; Tsutsui, Yoshihiro


    The autopsy case of a 3-year 6-month-old boy with chordoma arising in the sacrococcygeal region is presented. The primary lesion of the sacrococcygeal area was unresectable and lung metastasis was detected. He was treated with multi-agent systemic chemotherapy and radiation therapy, but the tumor was less responsive to these therapies. He died about one year after first admission. An autopsy revealed a massive sacrococcygeal mass and metastasis in the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, retroperitoneal and mediastinal lymph nodes, and also in the bilateral lungs and liver. Histologically, the tumor was composed of 'pink' cells and scattered 'physaliphorous' cells with a myxoid matrix. Sacrococcygeal chordoma in infancy is very rare. Our case showed a highly aggressive clinical course.

  15. Aggression between siblings : associations with the home environment and peer bullying


    Tippett, Neil; Wolke, Dieter


    Sibling aggression is a common form of intra-familial aggression, yet has been largely neglected by research. Using an inclusive measure of sibling aggression, this study investigated, firstly, prevalence of sibling aggression and associations with family and household characteristics, and secondly, the relationship between sibling aggression and peer bullying. Participants were 4,237 adolescents from Wave 1 of Understanding Society. Four types of sibling aggression were measured: physical, v...

  16. ETV1 directs androgen metabolism and confers aggressive prostate cancer in targeted mice and patients. (United States)

    Baena, Esther; Shao, Zhen; Linn, Douglas E; Glass, Kimberly; Hamblen, Melanie J; Fujiwara, Yuko; Kim, Jonghwan; Nguyen, Minh; Zhang, Xin; Godinho, Frank J; Bronson, Roderick T; Mucci, Lorelei A; Loda, Massimo; Yuan, Guo-Cheng; Orkin, Stuart H; Li, Zhe


    Distinguishing aggressive from indolent disease and developing effective therapy for advanced disease are the major challenges in prostate cancer research. Chromosomal rearrangements involving ETS transcription factors, such as ERG and ETV1, occur frequently in prostate cancer. How they contribute to tumorigenesis and whether they play similar or distinct in vivo roles remain elusive. Here we show that in mice with ERG or ETV1 targeted to the endogenous Tmprss2 locus, either factor cooperated with loss of a single copy of Pten, leading to localized cancer, but only ETV1 appeared to support development of invasive adenocarcinoma under the background of full Pten loss. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that ERG and ETV1 control a common transcriptional network but largely in an opposing fashion. In particular, while ERG negatively regulates the androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional program, ETV1 cooperates with AR signaling by favoring activation of the AR transcriptional program. Furthermore, we found that ETV1 expression, but not that of ERG, promotes autonomous testosterone production. Last, we confirmed the association of an ETV1 expression signature with aggressive disease and poorer outcome in patient data. The distinct biology of ETV1-associated prostate cancer suggests that this disease class may require new therapies directed to underlying programs controlled by ETV1.

  17. Chronic arsenic trioxide exposure leads to enhanced aggressiveness via Met oncogene addiction in cancer cells (United States)

    Kryeziu, Kushtrim; Pirker, Christine; Englinger, Bernhard; van Schoonhoven, Sushilla; Spitzwieser, Melanie; Mohr, Thomas; Körner, Wilfried; Weinmüllner, Regina; Tav, Koray; Grillari, Johannes; Cichna-Markl, Margit; Berger, Walter; Heffeter, Petra


    As an environmental poison, arsenic is responsible for many cancer deaths. Paradoxically, arsenic trioxide (ATO) presents also a powerful therapy used to treat refractory acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and is intensively investigated for treatment of other cancer types. Noteworthy, cancer therapy is frequently hampered by drug resistance, which is also often associated with enhancement of tumor aggressiveness. In this study, we analyzed ATO-selected cancer cells (A2780ATO) for the mechanisms underlying their enhanced tumorigenicity and aggressiveness. These cells were characterized by enhanced proliferation and spheroid growth as well as increased tumorigenicity of xenografts in SCID mice. Noteworthy, subsequent studies revealed that overexpression of Met receptor was the underlying oncogenic driver of these effects, as A2780ATO cells were characterized by collateral sensitivity against Met inhibitors. This finding was also confirmed by array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and whole genome gene expression arrays, which revealed that Met overexpression by chronic ATO exposure was based on the transcriptional regulation via activation of AP-1. Finally, it was shown that treatment with the Met inhibitor crizotinib was also effective against A2780ATO cell xenografts in vivo, indicating that targeting of Met presents a promising strategy for the treatment of Met-overexpressing tumors after either arsenic exposure or failure to ATO treatment. PMID:27036042

  18. The genetics of aggression: Where are we now? (United States)

    Asherson, Philip; Cormand, Bru


    Aggression, an overt behaviour with the intention to inflict damage, is a physiological trait with important roles throughout evolution, both in defence and predation. However, when expressed in humans in the wrong context, aggression leads to social maladjustment and crime. This special issue is about the genetic and neurobiological basis for aggression. Most of the 12 works presented here have been prepared by members of five international consortia established under the auspice of the FP7 and H2020 programs of the European Union to investigate different aspects of aggression and related behavioural phenotypes, including delineation of subtypes, aetiological mechanisms, neurobiology, neuroimaging, biomarkers, animal models and development and assessment of new treatments. Research on human aggression has largely focused on the societal causes of violent behaviour with relatively little focus on the underlying neuroscientific basis. However, interesting findings are emerging which suggest that by identifying distinct pathways to aggression, better targeting of social, psychological and medical treatments, can lead to improved outcomes for individuals and society. This issue represents a state of the art review of current neurobiological understanding of human aggression and a starting point for concerted efforts to move the field towards the development of new strategies for prevention and treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Motivational drive and alprazolam misuse: A recipe for aggression? (United States)

    Albrecht, Bonnie; Staiger, Petra K; Hall, Kate; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas; Best, David


    Benzodiazepine-related aggression has received insufficient research attention, in particular little is known about the motivational factors which may contribute to the development of this paradoxical response. The revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory provides a theoretical framework from which to understand the relevant underlying motivational processes. The current study aimed to identify the role of approach and avoidance motivational tendencies in the occurrence of benzodiazepine-related aggression. Data regarding benzodiazepine and other substance use, approach and avoidance motivation, and general and physical aggressive behaviour were collected via self-report questionnaires. Participants were a convenience sample (n=204) who reported using benzodiazepines in the previous year. Participants were primarily male (62.7%), aged 18-51 years old. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that general and physical aggression were predicted by alprazolam use and Drive, a facet of approach motivation. Overall, lower diazepam use significantly predicted higher levels of general aggression. However, when diazepam-preferring participants were examined in isolation of the larger sample (23.5% of sample), problematic (dependent) diazepam use was associated with greater aggression scores, as was dependence risk for alprazolam-preferring participants (39.7% of sample). The findings highlight the importance of motivational factors and benzodiazepine use patterns in understanding benzodiazepine-related aggression, with implications for violent offender rehabilitation.

  20. Genetic architecture of natural variation in Drosophila melanogaster aggressive behavior. (United States)

    Shorter, John; Couch, Charlene; Huang, Wen; Carbone, Mary Anna; Peiffer, Jason; Anholt, Robert R H; Mackay, Trudy F C


    Aggression is an evolutionarily conserved complex behavior essential for survival and the organization of social hierarchies. With the exception of genetic variants associated with bioamine signaling, which have been implicated in aggression in many species, the genetic basis of natural variation in aggression is largely unknown. Drosophila melanogaster is a favorable model system for exploring the genetic basis of natural variation in aggression. Here, we performed genome-wide association analyses using the inbred, sequenced lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and replicate advanced intercross populations derived from the most and least aggressive DGRP lines. We identified genes that have been previously implicated in aggressive behavior as well as many novel loci, including gustatory receptor 63a (Gr63a), which encodes a subunit of the receptor for CO2, and genes associated with development and function of the nervous system. Although genes from the two association analyses were largely nonoverlapping, they mapped onto a genetic interaction network inferred from an analysis of pairwise epistasis in the DGRP. We used mutations and RNAi knock-down alleles to functionally validate 79% of the candidate genes and 75% of the candidate epistatic interactions tested. Epistasis for aggressive behavior causes cryptic genetic variation in the DGRP that is revealed by changing allele frequencies in the outbred populations derived from extreme DGRP lines. This phenomenon may pertain to other fitness traits and species, with implications for evolution, applied breeding, and human genetics.

  1. Rejection Sensitivity, Jealousy, and the Relationship to Interpersonal Aggression. (United States)

    Murphy, Anna M; Russell, Gemma


    The development and maintenance of interpersonal relationships lead individuals to risk rejection in the pursuit of acceptance. Some individuals are predisposed to experience a hypersensitivity to rejection that is hypothesized to be related to jealous and aggressive reactions within interpersonal relationships. The current study used convenience sampling to recruit 247 young adults to evaluate the relationship between rejection sensitivity, jealousy, and aggression. A mediation model was used to test three hypotheses: Higher scores of rejection sensitivity would be positively correlated to higher scores of aggression (Hypothesis 1); higher scores of rejection sensitivity would be positively correlated to higher scores of jealousy (Hypothesis 2); jealousy would mediate the relationship between rejection sensitivity and aggression (Hypothesis 3). Study results suggest a tendency for individuals with high rejection sensitivity to experience higher levels of jealousy, and subsequently have a greater propensity for aggression, than individuals with low rejection sensitivity. Future research that substantiates a link between hypersensitivity to rejection, jealousy, and aggression may provide an avenue for prevention, education, or intervention in reducing aggression within interpersonal relationships.

  2. Suppression of serotonin neuron firing increases aggression in mice. (United States)

    Audero, Enrica; Mlinar, Boris; Baccini, Gilda; Skachokova, Zhiva K; Corradetti, Renato; Gross, Cornelius


    Numerous studies link decreased serotonin metabolites with increased impulsive and aggressive traits. However, although pharmacological depletion of serotonin is associated with increased aggression, interventions aimed at directly decreasing serotonin neuron activity have supported the opposite association. Furthermore, it is not clear if altered serotonin activity during development may contribute to some of the observed associations. Here, we used two pharmacogenetic approaches in transgenic mice to selectively and reversibly reduce the firing of serotonin neurons in behaving animals. Conditional overexpression of the serotonin 1A receptor (Htr1a) in serotonin neurons showed that a chronic reduction in serotonin neuron firing was associated with heightened aggression. Overexpression of Htr1a in adulthood, but not during development, was sufficient to increase aggression. Rapid suppression of serotonin neuron firing by agonist treatment of mice expressing Htr1a exclusively in serotonin neurons also led to increased aggression. These data confirm a role of serotonin activity in setting thresholds for aggressive behavior and support a direct association between low levels of serotonin homeostasis and increased aggression.

  3. Morph matters: aggression bias in a polymorphic sparrow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent M Horton

    Full Text Available In species with discrete morphs exhibiting alternative behavioral strategies, individuals may vary their aggressive behavior in competitive encounters according to the phenotype of their opponent. Such aggression bias has been documented in multiple polymorphic species evolving under negative frequency-dependent selection, but it has not been well-studied under other selection regimes. We investigated this phenomenon in white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis, a passerine with plumage polychromatism maintained by disassortative mating. The two distinct color morphs differ with respect to reproductive strategy in that white-striped birds invest more in territorial aggression than tan-striped birds. Whether territorial aggression in this species is biased according to the morph of an intruder is less understood. We found that during peak territorial and mating activity, both color morphs and sexes can exhibit aggression bias, but whether they do so depends on the strategy (morph of the intruder. During simulated territorial intrusions, resident white-striped males and tan-striped females, which represent the opposite ends of a continuum from high to low territorial aggression, altered their territorial responses according to intruder morph. Tan-striped males and white-striped females, which represent the middle of the continuum, did not show a bias. We propose that because of the disassortative mating system and morph differences in reproductive strategy, the fitness risks of intrusions vary according to the morphs of the resident and the intruder, and that aggression bias is an attuned response to varying threats to fitness.

  4. Prefrontal brain asymmetry and aggression in imprisoned violent offenders. (United States)

    Keune, Philipp M; van der Heiden, Linda; Várkuti, Bálint; Konicar, Lilian; Veit, Ralf; Birbaumer, Niels


    Anterior brain asymmetry, assessed through the alpha and beta band in resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG) is associated with approach-related behavioral dispositions, particularly with aggression in the general population. To date, the association between frontal asymmetry and aggression has not been examined in highly aggressive groups. We examined the topographic characteristics of alpha and beta activity, the relation of both asymmetry metrics to trait aggression, and whether alpha asymmetry was extreme in anterior regions according to clinical standards in a group of imprisoned violent offenders. As expected, these individuals were characterized by stronger right than left-hemispheric alpha activity, which was putatively extreme in anterior regions in one third of the cases. We also report that in line with observations made in the general population, aggression was associated with stronger right-frontal alpha activity in these violent individuals. This suggests that frontal alpha asymmetry, as a correlate of trait aggression, might be utilizable as an outcome measure in studies which assess the effects of anti-aggressiveness training in violent offenders.

  5. Prozac impacts lateralization of aggression in male Siamese fighting fish. (United States)

    HedayatiRad, Maryam; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Forsatkar, Mohammad Navid; Brown, Culum


    Previous studies have shown that Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, preferentially use right-eye during the aggressive displays. However, administration of antidepressant drugs may disrupt eye-use preference in association with a reduction in aggression; a phenomena that has not been explored in fish. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of exposure to the antidepressant drug, fluoxetine, on lateralization in eye-use during aggressive displays in male Siamese fighting fish. Baseline aggression and lateralization in eye use of thirty fish were assessed toward live conspecifics, following which experimental subjects (n=15) were then exposed to fluoxetine (540ng/L) in a static renewal water system. Behavior was quantified again after 9 days of exposure. All of the subjects preferentially used the right-eye during aggressive responses before the exposure experiments. Fluoxetine exposed subjects showed a reduction in the time spent gill flaring as has previously been reported, indicative of a reduction in the level of aggression. Fluoxetine also had a significant effect on the lateralization in preferred eye-use while looking at their opponent. Fish exposed to fluoxetine switched from a preferential use of the right-eye during aggressive encounters prior to exposure to using their left-eye after exposure to fluoxetine. The results are discussed with regard to asymmetrical distribution of serotonin between the two brain hemispheres.

  6. Human aggression across the lifespan: genetic propensities and environmental moderators. (United States)

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Baker, Laura A


    This chapter reviews the recent evidence of genetic and environmental influences on human aggression. Findings from a large selection of the twin and adoption studies that have investigated the genetic and environmental architecture of aggressive behavior are summarized. These studies together show that about half (50%) of the variance in aggressive behavior is explained by genetic influences in both males and females, with the remaining 50% of the variance being explained by environmental factors not shared by family members. Form of aggression (reactive, proactive, direct/physical, indirect/relational), method of assessment (laboratory observation, self-report, ratings by parents and teachers), and age of the subjects-all seem to be significant moderators of the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on aggressive behavior. Neither study design (twin vs. sibling adoption design) nor sex (male vs. female) seems to impact the magnitude of the genetic and environmental influences on aggression. There is also some evidence of gene-environment interaction (G × E) from both twin/adoption studies and molecular genetic studies. Various measures of family adversity and social disadvantage have been found to moderate genetic influences on aggressive behavior. Findings from these G × E studies suggest that not all individuals will be affected to the same degree by experiences and exposures, and that genetic predispositions may have different effects depending on the environment.

  7. Sexual narcissism and the perpetration of sexual aggression. (United States)

    Widman, Laura; McNulty, James K


    Despite indirect evidence linking narcissism to sexual aggression, studies directly examining this relationship have yielded inconsistent results. Likely contributing to such inconsistencies, prior research has used global measures of narcissism not sensitive to whether the components of narcissism are activated in sexual versus non-sexual domains. The current research avoided such problems by using a measure of sexual narcissism to predict sexual aggression. In a sample of 299 men and women, Study 1 validated the Sexual Narcissism Scale, a new sexuality research instrument with four subscales-Sexual Exploitation, Sexual Entitlement, Low Sexual Empathy, and Sexual Skill. Then, in a sample of 378 men, Study 2 demonstrated that sexual narcissism was associated with reports of the frequency of sexual aggression, three specific types of sexual aggression (unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and attempted/completed rape), and the likelihood of future sexual aggression. Notably, global narcissism was unrelated to all indices of sexual aggression when sexual narcissism was controlled. That sexual narcissism outperformed global assessments of narcissism to account for variance in sexual aggression suggests that future research may benefit by examining whether sexual narcissism and other sexual-situation-specific measurements of personality can similarly provide a more valid test of the association between personality and other sexual behaviors and outcomes (e.g., contraceptive use, infidelity, sexual satisfaction).

  8. How spiders practice aggressive and Batesian mimicry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ximena J.NELSON; Robert R.JACKSON


    To understand communication,the interests of the sender and the receiver/s of signals should be considered separately.When our goal is to understand the adaptive significance of specific responses to specific signals by the receiver,questions about signal information are useful.However,when our goal is to understand the adaptive significance to the sender of generating a signal,it may be better to envisage the receiver's response to signals as part of the sender's extended phenotype.By making signals,a sender interfaces with the receiver's model of the world and indirectly manipulates its behaviour.This is especially clear in cases of mimicry,where animals use deceptive signals that indirectly manipulate the behaviour of receivers.Many animals adopt Batesian mimicry to deceive their predators,or aggressive mimicry to deceive their prey.We review examples from the literature on spiders to illustrate how these phenomena,traditionally thought of as distinct,can become entangled in a web of lies.

  9. How spiders practice aggressive and Batesian mimicry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena J. NELSON, Robert R. JACKSON


    Full Text Available To understand communication, the interests of the sender and the receiver/s of signals should be considered separately. When our goal is to understand the adaptive significance of specific responses to specific signals by the receiver, questions about signal information are useful. However, when our goal is to understand the adaptive significance to the sender of generating a signal, it may be better to envisage the receiver’s response to signals as part of the sender’s extended phenotype. By making signals, a sender interfaces with the receiver’s model of the world and indirectly manipulates its behaviour. This is especially clear in cases of mimicry, where animals use deceptive signals that indirectly manipulate the behaviour of receivers. Many animals adopt Batesian mimicry to deceive their predators, or aggressive mimicry to deceive their prey. We review examples from the lite­rature on spiders to illustrate how these phenomena, traditionally thought of as distinct, can become entangled in a web of lies [Current Zoology 58 (4: 620–629, 2012].

  10. Diagnostic Accuracy of CBCT for Aggressive Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Mohan


    Full Text Available Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT is an indispensable diagnostic imaging tool for dento-alveolar examination. CBCT scanning has become a valuable imaging modality in the field of Periodontology for the detection of very small osseous defects. A patient reported to the department of Periodontology with a complaint of loose teeth. Clinical and direct digital radiographic (DDR examination revealed advanced periodontal destruction, but failed to diagnose the morphology of generalized osseous defects, around all the surfaces of each tooth. CBCT images were obtained for detailed examination of each and every osseous defect around all the teeth. Patient was then diagnosed with generalized aggressive periodontitis. Flap surgery was performed in order to eliminate the periodontal pockets, exposing and degranulating the osseous defects. Actual measurements of surgically exposed osseous defects were compared with that seen in CBCT images and found to be exactly identical. CBCT has proved to be as accurate in measuring osseous defects as direct measurements with a periodontal probe. Buccal and lingual periodontal defects that could not be diagnosed by conventional radiography can be identified with CBCT.

  11. On the dimensionality of the Buss/Perry Aggression Questionnaire. (United States)

    Bernstein, I H; Gesn, P R


    Buss and Perry (1992, Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 452-459) developed a 29-item test that presumably measures four aggression-related dimensions (physical aggression, verbal aggression, hostility, and anger). This study examined the factor structure of the items with particular concern towards seeing how much of the structure previously noted was an artifact of differences in item distributions. Although the scales are intercorrelated to the point that they may not span four dimensions, the scales are in fact multivariate in that the structure is not an artifact of differences in item distributions found with other presumed multifactor scales.

  12. "Frenemies, Fraitors, and Mean-em-aitors": Priming Effects of Viewing Physical and Relational Aggression in the Media on Women. (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Nelson, David A; Gentile, Douglas A


    Past research has shown activation of aggressive cognitions in memory after media violence exposure, but has not examined priming effects of viewing relational aggression in the media. In the current study, 250 women viewed a video clip depicting physical aggression, relational aggression, or no aggression. Subsequent activation of physical and relational aggression cognitions was measured using an emotional Stroop task. Results indicated priming of relational aggression cognitions after viewing the relationally aggressive video clip, and activation of both physical and relational aggression cognitions after viewing the physically aggressive video clip. Results are discussed within the framework of the General Aggression Model.

  13. Aggression by a female rat cohabitating with a sterile male: termination of pseudopregnancy does not abolish aggression. (United States)

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Watson, N V; Moe, I V; Walsh, M L


    At the end of that time, each female was assessed for aggressiveness toward an unfamiliar female intruder once each week for 3 weeks. Those females displaying a high level of aggression had their male cagemate changed. For half of the females, the new male cagemate was a castrated male with a testosterone implant. For the other half, the new cagemate was a castrated male without a testosterone implant. Replacement males had been subjected to surgery 9 weeks previously. There were no differences in the aggressiveness of females of the two groups on any of 3 subsequent weekly tests of aggression. In a 3-h evaluation of male sexual behavior, none of the 9 castrated males without testosterone replacement displayed sexual activity with an estrogen/progesterone primed ovariectomized female, but 6 of 9 males with testosterone replacement did. Reanalysis of the aggression data comparing the females whose males had no testosterone replacement and females housed with the 6 males that were sexually active also revealed no differences in aggression over the 21-day test period. Since pseudopregnancy is known to last 13 days, these results indicate that the continuous presence of pseudopregnancy is not required for maintenance of aggression by a female cohabiting with a sterile male.

  14. Comparison of 1-Periodontal Indices and Cultural Porphyromonas Gingivalis Colony Count in Aggressive Periodontitis Patients Treated by Scaling and Rootplanning with or Without Metronidazole Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kadkhoda


    Full Text Available Objective: Systemic antibiotics and locally applied antimicrobial agents have been suggested to enhance clinical parameters. Patients exhibiting aggressive periodontitis in particular benefit from adjunctive antibiotic therapy. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of local antibiotic therapy with metronidazoleadjunctively to scaling and root planning (SRP in the treatment of aggressive periodontitis.Materials and Methods: Twenty patients diagnosed with aggressive periodontitis were placed in a spilt mouth design. Microbial specimens were taken from thedeepest pocket of the teeth. The sites that had positive results of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g were located randomly to receive SRP treatment in the control group and SRP plus metronidazole gel in the test group. Pocket probing depth (PPD, clinical attachment level (CAL and bleeding on probing (BOP parameters and numbers of P.g. colony were taken at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks later.All data were collected and analyzed and tested by Wilcoxon and paired t test. Results: The case group patients had significantly better results in BOP, PPD and the number of P.g colony count reduction in comparison with the control group (p0.05.Conclusion: In non-surgical periodontal treatment of aggressive periodontits adjunctive metronidazole gel therapy has a better effect on the reduction of porphyromonas gingivalis content of pockets.

  15. Turning the other cheek. Agreeableness and the regulation of aggression-related primes. (United States)

    Meier, Brian P; Robinson, Michael D; Wilkowski, Benjamin M


    Aggression-related cues (e.g., violent media) can prime both hostile thoughts and the tendency to commit aggression. However, not everyone engages in an aggressive act after being exposed to an aggression-related cue. Some thought pattern, perhaps an automatic one, may prevent the cue-aggression sequence in some individuals. These considerations motivated the present research, which examined the potential for agreeableness to moderate the effect of aggression-related cues on behavior and cognition. In Study 1, we found that priming with aggression-related cues increased aggressive behavior, but only among individuals low in agreeableness. Study 2 showed that aggression-related cues activated prosocial thoughts among individuals high in agreeable affect (a component of agreeableness). These results reveal that agreeable individuals are able to short-circuit the cue-aggression sequence, likely by recruiting prosocial thoughts in response to aggression-related primes.

  16. Cardiovascular risks of antiretroviral therapies. (United States)

    Mondy, Kristin; Tebas, Pablo


    The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has resulted in sustained reductions in mortality from HIV infection. In recent years, HAART has also been associated with metabolic complications that may increase patients' cardiovascular disease risk. Recent studies have begun to support a more complex interaction between HAART, HIV infection itself, and other traditional social and immunologic factors that may predispose patients to premature cardiovascular disease. Substantial progress has been made in the development of newer antiretroviral therapies that have a better metabolic profile with respect to dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and lipodystrophy. Optimal selection of metabolically neutral antiretroviral therapies, together with aggressive management of other modifiable coronary risk factors, may improve cardiovascular disease risk in the long term.

  17. Maternal Attachment Buffers the Association Between Exposure to Violence and Youth Attitudes About Aggression. (United States)

    Houston, Jessica; Grych, John


    The present study examined the relative and cumulative predictive power of parent-child, interparental, and community aggression on youths' perceptions of the acceptability of aggression between peers and siblings. The potential for mother-child attachment to buffer the effects of violence on aggressive attitudes was tested, as well as the link between aggressive attitudes and aggressive behaviors. A diverse sample of 148 children (ages 9-14) completed measures of interparental, parent-child, and community aggression; a measure of mother-child attachment quality; and a measure of aggressive behaviors. Participants also rated the acceptability of aggressive interactions between two peers and two siblings in written vignettes. Mothers completed a measure of their child's aggressive behaviors. Youths' violence exposure was related to perceptions of aggression as more acceptable, with parent-child aggression having the only unique association. Maternal attachment buffered the relation between exposure to community violence and perceived acceptability of aggression, which predicted decreased aggression. When exposed to high levels of community violence, youths with more secure maternal attachment perceived aggression as less acceptable than youths with less secure attachment and, in turn, displayed fewer aggressive behaviors. Interventions that focus on strengthening the caregiver-child relationship in children exposed to violence may reduce aggressive behaviors by interrupting the development of aggressive attitudes.

  18. The development of aggression during adolescence: Sex differences in trajectories of physical and social aggression among youth in rural areas


    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Suchindran, Chirayath


    Few studies have examined the development of social aggression over time or described trajectories of aggressive behaviors for youth living in rural areas. We compared the timing and patterns of physical and social aggression and examined sex differences in development using five waves of in-school surveys administered over 2.5 years. The sample (N=5151) was 50.0% female, 52.1% white and 38.2% African-American. At baseline the average age was 13.1 years. Multilevel growth curve models showed ...

  19. A multimedia program helps parents manage childhood aggression. (United States)

    Scholer, Seth J; Cherry, Rebecca; Garrard, Henry G; Gupta, Anita O; Mace, Rachel; Greeley, Nicci


    Participants were 65 parents of 6- to 18-month-old children presenting for a well child checkup between September 2002 and February 2003 to one of two private pediatric offices. The intervention was a 30-minute multimedia program, Play Nicely, viewed at home, which teaches the basics in childhood aggression management. One year after intervention, parents were asked, "Do you feel that the CD program was helpful in managing aggressive behavior in your child?" Most (65%) parents who watched the program agreed that it helped them manage aggression with their own child (strongly agree, 31%; agree, 34%; uncertain, 28%; disagree, 7%; and strongly disagree, 0%). An inexpensive, brief, independently viewed, multimedia program helps parents manage aggression in their young children as long as 1 year after receiving it from their pediatrician. An easily implemented intervention may contribute to violence prevention efforts.

  20. When god sanctions killing: effect of scriptural violence on aggression. (United States)

    Bushman, Brad J; Ridge, Robert D; Das, Enny; Key, Colin W; Busath, Gregory L


    Violent people often claim that God sanctions their actions. In two studies, participants read a violent passage said to come from either the Bible or an ancient scroll. For half the participants, the passage said that God sanctioned the violence. Next, participants competed with an ostensible partner on a task in which the winner could blast the loser with loud noise through headphones (the aggression measure). Study 1 involved Brigham Young University students; 99% believed in God and in the Bible. Study 2 involved Vrije Universiteit-Amsterdam students; 50% believed in God, and 27% believed in the Bible. In Study 1, aggression increased when the passage was from the Bible or mentioned God. In Study 2, aggression increased when the passage mentioned God, especially among participants who believed in God and in the Bible. These results suggest that scriptural violence sanctioned by God can increase aggression, especially in believers.

  1. Childhood physical abuse and aggression: Shame and narcissistic vulnerability. (United States)

    Keene, Amanda C; Epps, James


    This study examined narcissistic vulnerability and shame-proneness as potential mediators between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and adult anger and aggression. Participants were 400 undergraduate students, 134 of whom had a history of CPA. All participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing history of CPA, shame-proneness, narcissistic vulnerability, physical aggression, trait anger, and hostility. Results indicated abused participants were more angry and aggressive and experienced higher levels of shame-proneness and narcissistic vulnerability than nonabused participants. Multiple mediation analyses showed that narcissistic vulnerability, but not shame-proneness, partially mediated the relation between abuse and physical aggression. However, narcissistic vulnerability and shame-proneness both emerged as partial mediators between abuse and the anger and hostility variables. These findings suggest that narcissistic vulnerability and shame-proneness may function as mediators of adjustment following childhood maltreatment. Study limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  2. Individualism, collectivism, and Chinese adolescents' aggression: intracultural variations. (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wang, Mo; Wang, Cixin; Shi, Junqi


    This study examined the relations between cultural values (i.e., individualism and collectivism) and aggression among 460 (234 girls) Chinese adolescents. Conflict level and social status insecurity were examined as potential explaining mechanisms for these relations. The results showed that adolescents' endorsement of collectivism was negatively related to their use of overt and relational aggression as reported by teachers and peers, whereas positive associations were found between the endorsement of individualism and adolescent aggression. Adolescents' conflict level and social status insecurity accounted for a significant part of these associations. Findings of this study demonstrate the importance of examining intracultural variations of cultural values in relation to adolescent aggression as well as the process variables in explaining the relations.

  3. Differentially Expressed Genes for Aggressive Pecking Behaviour in Laying Hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buitenhuis, Bart; Hedegaard, Jakob; Janss, Luc


    Background Aggressive behaviour is an important aspect in the daily lives of animals living in groups. Aggressive animals have advantages, such as better access to food or territories, and they produce more offspring than low ranking animals. The social hierarchy in chickens is measured using the...... expressed genes may elucidate how the pecking order forms in laying hens at a molecular level....... the 'pecking order' concept, which counts the number of aggressive pecks given and received. To date, little is known about the underlying genetics of the 'pecking order'. Results A total of 60 hens from a high feather pecking selection line were divided into three groups: only receivers (R), only peckers (P...... binding (GO:0035254). Conclusion In conclusion, our study provides new insights into which genes are involved in aggressive behaviours in chickens. Pecking and receiving hens exhibited different gene expression profiles in their brains. Following confirmation, the identification of differentially...

  4. Optimal accounting policies under financial constraints: aggressive versus conservative


    Masatomo Akita; Yusuke Osaki


    We examine how severity of financial constraints influences firms' choices of accounting policies. This paper shows that firms with mild financial constraints choose an aggressive accounting policy and those with severe financial constraints choose a conservative accounting policy.

  5. Ovariectomy does not attenuate aggression by primiparous lactating female rats. (United States)

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L


    Nulliparous female hooded rats were allowed to cohabit with a sexually active male in a large living cage. Aggression toward an unfamiliar female was assessed during the second and third week of pregnancy. Within 12 to 24 h following parturition females were ovariectomized (n = 7) or sham-ovariectomized (n = 6) in a manner that balanced previous aggression scores. Aggression was assessed at 48 h following ovariectomy and at three weekly intervals thereafter. Ovariectomized and sham-ovariectomized females did not differ in the number of attacks, number of bites, duration of on-top, or frequency of piloerection on any test day following parturition. These results indicate that circulating levels of ovarian steroids do not influence the level of aggression by a primiparous lactating female toward an unfamiliar female conspecific.

  6. Cognitive Mediation of Aggressive, Assertive, and Submissive Behavior in Children. (United States)

    Deluty, Robert H.


    Examines three critical components of interpersonal cognitive problem solving (alternative-thinking ability, evaluative judgments of response alternatives, and consequential thinking) among 188 elementary school students with differing levels of aggressiveness, assertiveness, and submissiveness. Findings indicate interrelatedness of the cognitive…

  7. Aggressive Behaviors in Social Interaction and Developmental Adaptation: A Narrative Analysis of Interpersonal Conflicts during Early Adolescence. (United States)

    Xie, Hongling; Swift, Dylan J.; Cairns, Beverley D.; Cairns, Robert B.


    Investigated interactional properties and developmental functions of the following four types of aggressive behaviors in adolescents: social aggression, direct relational aggression, physical aggression, and verbal aggression. Found that the majority of conflict interactions involved more than a dyad, and that social aggression was an initiating…

  8. Unravelling the neurophysiological basis of aggression in a fish model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickmore Tamsin FA


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggression is a near-universal behaviour with substantial influence on and implications for human and animal social systems. The neurophysiological basis of aggression is, however, poorly understood in all species and approaches adopted to study this complex behaviour have often been oversimplified. We applied targeted expression profiling on 40 genes, spanning eight neurological pathways and in four distinct regions of the brain, in combination with behavioural observations and pharmacological manipulations, to screen for regulatory pathways of aggression in the zebrafish (Danio rerio, an animal model in which social rank and aggressiveness tightly correlate. Results Substantial differences occurred in gene expression profiles between dominant and subordinate males associated with phenotypic differences in aggressiveness and, for the chosen gene set, they occurred mainly in the hypothalamus and telencephalon. The patterns of differentially-expressed genes implied multifactorial control of aggression in zebrafish, including the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system, serotonin, somatostatin, dopamine, hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal, hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal and histamine pathways, and the latter is a novel finding outside mammals. Pharmacological manipulations of various nodes within the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system and serotonin pathways supported their functional involvement. We also observed differences in expression profiles in the brains of dominant versus subordinate females that suggested sex-conserved control of aggression. For example, in the HNS pathway, the gene encoding arginine vasotocin (AVT, previously believed specific to male behaviours, was amongst those genes most associated with aggression, and AVT inhibited dominant female aggression, as in males. However, sex-specific differences in the expression profiles also occurred, including differences in aggression-associated tryptophan hydroxylases

  9. Role of MicroRNA in Aggressive Prostate Cancer (United States)


    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0491 TITLE: Role of MicroRNA in Aggressive Prostate... MicroRNA in Aggressive Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0491 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jer...action is not fully characterized. Using microRNA microarray screening, we found microRNA -363 (miR363) is significantly down regulated in several

  10. Role of MicroRNA in Aggressive Prostate Cancer (United States)


    prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) specimens (Fig. 8A and B) because BPH is considered benign tissue detected with DAB2IP expression. Furthermore, the...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0491 TITLE: Role of microRNA in aggressive prostate ...SUBTITLE Role of microRNA in aggressive prostate cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0491 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  11. The effects of pathological gaming on aggressive behavior


    Lemmens, J.S.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.


    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this purpose, we conducted a two-wave panel study among 851 Dutch adolescents (49% female) of which 540 played games (30% female). Our analyses indicated...

  12. Are Private Firms Really More Tax Aggressive Than Public Firms ?


    Pierk, Jochen


    This paper tests the notion that private firms are more tax aggressive than public firms. Tax avoidance measures, e.g. effective tax rates, cannot be used to compare private and public firms when private and public firms have different levels of importance on financial accounting earnings (Hanlon and Heitzman 2010). To disentangle financial reporting incentives from tax aggressiveness, I use the fact that European groups must prepare two sets of financial statements: first, gro...

  13. Interpersonal aggression and burnout: the mediating role of psychological climate. (United States)

    Bedi, Akanksha; Courcy, Francois; Paquet, Maxime; Harvey, Steve


    Using the theoretical perspectives offered by stressor-stress-strain framework and fairness theory, the authors propose that psychological climate will mediate the positive relationship between interpersonal aggression and employee burnout. Data from a survey of 1893 hospital employees suggested that psychological climate partially mediated the relationship between interpersonal aggression and two of the three dimensions of burnout, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  14. Intranasal administration of oxytocin increases human aggressive behavior. (United States)

    Ne'eman, R; Perach-Barzilay, N; Fischer-Shofty, M; Atias, A; Shamay-Tsoory, S G


    Considering its role in prosocial behaviors, oxytocin (OT) has been suggested to diminish levels of aggression. Nevertheless, recent findings indicate that oxytocin may have a broader influence on increasing the salience of social stimuli and may therefore, under certain circumstances, increase antisocial behaviors such as aggression. This controversy led to the following speculations: If indeed oxytocin promotes primarily prosocial behavior, administration of OT is expected to diminish levels of aggression. However, if oxytocin mainly acts to increase the salience of social stimuli, it is expected to elevate levels of aggression following provocation. In order to test this assumption we used the Social Orientation Paradigm (SOP), a monetary game played against a fictitious partner that allows measuring three types of responses in the context of provocation: an aggressive response - reducing a point from the fictitious partner, an individualistic response - adding a point to oneself, and a collaborative response - adding half a point to the partner and half a point to oneself. In the current double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject study design, 45 participants completed the SOP task following the administration of oxytocin or placebo. The results indicated that among subjects naïve to the procedure oxytocin increased aggressive responses in comparison with placebo. These results support the saliency hypothesis of oxytocin and suggest that oxytocin plays a complex role in the modulation of human behavior.

  15. Resilience in Physically Abused Children: Protective Factors for Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan R. Holmes


    Full Text Available Aggression continues to be a serious problem among children, especially those children who have experienced adverse life events such as maltreatment. However, there are many maltreated children who show resilient functioning. This study investigated potential protective factors (i.e., child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being that promoted positive adaptation and increased the likelihood of a child engaging in the healthy, normative range of aggressive behavior, despite experiencing physical maltreatment. Logistic regression analyses were conducted using two waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW-I. Children who were physically maltreated were more likely to exhibit clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1 than children who were not physically maltreated. Children’s internalizing well-being, children’s prosocial behavior, and caregivers’ well-being were associated with lower likelihood of clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1. Children’s internalizing well-being and children’s prosocial behavior remained significantly associated with nonclinical aggression 18 months later. These findings highlight the role of protective factors in fostering positive and adaptive behaviors in maltreated children. Interventions focusing on preventing early aggression and reinforcing child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being may be promising in promoting healthy positive behavioral adjustment.

  16. The experience of aggression by female teachers in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. van der Merwe


    Full Text Available South Africa is a country with exceptionally high levels of frustration and trauma. Research shows that a third of all people in South Africa are exposed to some kind of violence. This causes insecurity and fear, which creates high levels of stress. High stress levels fuels aggression in the workplace. It was observed that female teachers often experience aggression in the workplace. This has a negative effect on their overall sense of well-being as well as their mental health. A purposive sample was selected through two private schools in Gauteng, South Africa, and consisted of eight female teachers. Data was collected by means of in-depth phenomenological interviews, field notes, naive sketches and observation. One central question was posed to the purposefully selected participants: What is your experience of aggression in your workplace? Thematic coding was used to analyse the data. Three themes were identified: different perceptions influenced female teachers' experience of aggression; the pressure in the school system formed an integral part of the experience of aggression and the experienced effect of aggression on the female teachers.

  17. The effect of trauma on stress reactivity in aggressive youth. (United States)

    Ivanov, Iliyani; Yehuda, Rachel; Greenblatt, Edward; Davidow, Jennifer; Makotkine, Iouri; Alfi, Lea; Newcorn, Jeffrey H


    To address gaps in the literature related to the contribution of childhood trauma on aggression, we evaluated salivary cortisol and heart rate changes to psychological challenge in aggressive children with various degrees of trauma. We hypothesized that traumatized and aggressive youths will exhibit higher responsiveness to an active challenge (Violent film-VF) than aggressive youth with no trauma but will not differ when viewing a Non-Violent film (NVF). A total of 25 children (aged 9-12; M=15, F=9) with history of aggression were assessed for trauma exposure. Children viewed the two films in randomized order. Four salivary cortisol and pulse measurements were obtained before (T1), 15 min after the start (T2), at the end (T3), and 15 min following the end of the movie (T4). Repeated measures Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) using Film (VF/NVF), Cortisol/Time at T1-T4, Group (Trauma/Non-Trauma), and Film Order were performed with age and gender as covariates. There were significant main effects for Group and Cortisol/Time for the Trauma group showing greater cortisol responsiveness than the Non-Trauma group that was most pronounced during the NVF. These results suggest that aggressive youth with personal history of trauma may exhibit unique biological characteristics, which may have important implications for classification and treatment.

  18. Suppression of aggressive rorschach responses among violent offenders and nonoffenders. (United States)

    Benjestorf, Sue TaVoularis; Viglione, Donald J; Lamb, Judy D; Giromini, Luciano


    This Rorschach study explored the suppression of aggression content when violent offenders and nonoffenders are asked to present themselves as not posing a threat of dangerousness in a court role-playing context. Aggressive content and complexity in this suppressive role-play context was compared to a neutral control condition. A total of 41 participants, approximately half violent offenders and half nonoffenders took the Rorschach under both conditions. Results indicate that both groups suppressed aggression content on the Rorschach without altering response complexity. This large effect size for testing condition may partly explain the inconsistencies across previous studies. It is possible that violent offenders have typically been tested in highly suppressive conditions whereas nonoffender or normative groups may have been tested in relatively low suppression conditions. If so, aggression score differences may be a reflection of the testing condition, not group differences. Both instructional sets produced similar levels of complexity, so that individuals do not simplify responses when they screen out aggressive attributions. Violent offenders did not differ from nonviolent offenders in terms of aggression content, but did produce more simplistic records. In addition, this study also undertook a semantic, textual analysis and found that individuals in the suppressive condition tended to eliminate many response elaborations, particularly those with negative of threatening connotations.

  19. Reduction of aggression during benzodiazepine withdrawal: effects of flumazenil. (United States)

    Saxon, L; Borg, S; Hiltunen, A J


    Benzodiazepine withdrawal has been associated with hostile and aggressive behavior. The benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil has reduced, increased or not affected hostility and aggression in animal and human studies. In the present study we analyzed data collected in a placebo-controlled study of the effects of the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil in patients previously treated for benzodiazepine dependency, and healthy controls. The aim was to analyze the effects of flumazenil on hostility and aggression. Ten patients and 10 controls received, on two separate occasions, cumulative doses of flumazenil (0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1mg at 15min intervals) or placebo. Withdrawal symptoms were rated after each injection. Patients had been free from benzodiazepines for 47 (4-266) weeks on the first occasion. A three-way interaction (groupxtreatmentxdose) was found, and was explained by: 1) patients rating aggression and hostility higher than controls at all times during placebo, while 2) during the flumazenil provocation i) the initial significant difference between patients and controls was no longer significant above the 0.5mg dose, and ii) patients rated aggression and hostility significantly lower above the 0.5mg dose compared to base-line. The results suggest that self-rated aggression and hostility in patients treated for benzodiazepine dependency was reduced by the partial benzodiazepine agonist flumazenil.

  20. Sensitive period for developing a robust trait of appetitive aggression

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    Anke eKöbach


    Full Text Available Violent behaviour can be intrinsically rewarding; especially combatants fighting in current civil wars present with elevated traits of appetitive aggression. The majority of these fighters were recruited as children or adolescents. In the present study we test whether there is a developmental period where combatants are sensitive for developing a robust trait of appetitive aggression.We investigated 95 combatants in their demobilization process that were recruited at different ages in the Kivu regions of the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Using random forest with conditional inference trees, we identified recruitment at the ages from 16 and 17 years as being predictive of the level of appetitive aggression; the number of lifetime, perpetrated acts was the most important predictor. We conclude that high levels of appetitive aggression develop in ex-combatants, especially in those recruited during their middle to late teenage, which is a developmental period marked by a natural inclination to exercise physical force. Consequently, ex-combatants may remain vulnerable for aggressive behaviour patterns and re-recruitment unless they are provided alternative strategies for dealing with their aggression.