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Sample records for aggressive prostate cancer

  1. Src: marker or actor of prostate cancer aggressiveness

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    Virginie eVlaeminck-Guillem

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A key question for urologic practitioners is whether an apparently organ-confined prostate cancer is actually aggressive or not. The dilemma is to specifically identify among all prostate tumors the very aggressive high-grade cancers that will become life-threatening by developing extra-prostatic invasion and metastatic potential and the indolent cancers that will never modify a patient’s life expectancy. A choice must be made between several therapeutic options to achieve the optimal personalized management of the disease that causes as little harm as possible to patients. Reliable clinical, biological or pathological markers that would enable distinctions to be made between aggressive and indolen prostate cancers in routine practice at the time of initial diagnosis are still lacking. The molecular mechanisms that explain why a prostate cancer is aggressive or not are also poorly understood. Among the potential markers and/or actors in prostate cancer aggressiveness, Src and other members of the Src kinase family, are valuable candidates. Activation of Src-dependent intracellular pathways is frequently observed in prostate cancer. Indeed, Src is at the cross-roads of several pathways (including androgen receptor, TGFbeta, Bcl-2, Akt/PTEN or MAPK and ERK …, and is now known to influence some of the cellular and tissular events that accompany tumor progression: cell proliferation, cell motility, invasion, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, resistance to apoptosis, angiogenesis, neuroendocrine differentiation, and metastatic spread. Recent work even suggests that Src could also play a part in prostate cancer initiation in coordination with the androgen receptor. The aim of this review is to gather data that explores the links between the Src kinase family and prostate cancer progression and aggressiveness.

  2. Defining Aggressive Prostate Cancer Using a 12-Gene Model1

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    Tarek A Bismar; Demichelis, Francesca; Riva, Alberto; Kim, Robert; Varambally, Sooryanarayana; He, Le; Kutok, Jeff; Aster, Jonathan C; Tang, Jeffery; Kuefer, Rainer; Hofer, Matthias D.; Febbo, Phillip G; Arul M Chinnaiyan; Mark A. Rubin

    2006-01-01

    The critical clinical question in prostate cancer research is: How do we develop means of distinguishing aggressive disease from indolent disease? Using a combination of proteomic and expression array data, we identified a set of 36 genes with concordant dysregulation of protein products that could be evaluated in situ by quantitative immunohistochemistry. Another five prostate cancer biomarkers were included using linear discriminant analysis, we determined that the optimal model used to pre...

  3. Cancer/testis antigens: novel tools for discerning aggressive and non-aggressive prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takumi Shiraishi; Robert H Getzenberg; Prakash Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the 1980s has dramatically altered and benefited the initial diagnosis of prostate cancer.However,the widespread use of PSA testing has resulted in overdetection and overtreatment of potentially indolent disease.Thus,a clinical dilemma today in the management of prostate cancer is to discern men with aggressive disease who need definitive treatment from men whose disease are not lethal.Although several serum and tissue biomarkers have been evaluated during the past decade,improved markers are still needed to enhance the accuracy,with which patients at risk can be discerned and treated more aggressively.The cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are a group of proteins that are restricted to the testis in the normal adult,but are aberrantly expressed in several types of cancers.Because of their restricted expression pattern,the CTAs represent attractive biomarker candidates for cancer diagnosis/prognosis.Furthermore,several studies to date have reported the differential expression of CTAs in prostate cancer.Here,we review recent developments that demonstrate the potential of the CTAs as biomarkers to discern the aggressive phenotype of prostate cancer.

  4. Defining Aggressive Prostate Cancer Using a 12-Gene Model

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    Tarek A. Bismar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The critical clinical question in prostate cancer research is: How do we develop means of distinguishing aggressive disease from indolent disease? Using a combination of proteomic and expression array data, we identified a set of 36 genes with concordant dysregulation of protein products that could be evaluated in situ by quantitative immunohistochemistry. Another five prostate cancer biomarkers were included using linear discriminant analysis, we determined that the optimal model used to predict prostate cancer progression consisted of 12 proteins. Using a separate patient population, transcriptional levels of the 12 genes encoding for these proteins predicted prostate-specific antigen failure in 79 men following surgery for clinically localized prostate cancer (P = .0015. This study demonstrates that cross-platform models can lead to predictive models with the possible advantage of being more robust through this selection process.

  5. PBX3 is a putative biomarker of aggressive prostate cancer.

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    Ramberg, Håkon; Grytli, Helene Hartvedt; Nygård, Ståle; Wang, Wanzhong; Ögren, Olov; Zhao, Sen; Løvf, Marthe; Katz, Betina; Skotheim, Rolf I; Bjartell, Anders; Eri, Lars Magne; Berge, Viktor; Svindland, Aud; Taskén, Kristin Austlid

    2016-10-15

    There is a great need to identify new and better prognostic and predictive biomarkers to stratify prostate cancer patients for optimal treatment. The aims of this study were to characterize the expression profile of pre-B cell leukemia homeobox (PBX) transcription factors in prostate cancer with an emphasis on investigating whether PBX3 harbours any prognostic value. The expression profile of PBX3 and PBX1 in prostate tissue was determined by immunohistochemical and immunoblot analysis. Furthermore, the expression of PBX3 transcript variants was analyzed by RT-PCR, NanoString Technologies®, and by analyzing RNA sequence data. The potential of PBX3 to predict prognosis, either at mRNA or protein level, was studied in four independent cohorts. PBX3 was mainly expressed in the nucleus of normal prostate basal cells, while it showed cytosolic expression in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer cells. We detected four PBX3 transcript variants in prostate tissue. Competing risk regression analysis revealed that high PBX3 expression was associated with slower progression to castration resistant prostate cancer (sub-hazard ratio (SHR) 0.18, 95% CI: 0.081-0.42, p values aggressive prostate cancer. PMID:27273830

  6. Blood-based biomarkers of aggressive prostate cancer.

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    Men Long Liong

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Prostate cancer is a bimodal disease with aggressive and indolent forms. Current prostate-specific-antigen testing and digital rectal examination screening provide ambiguous results leading to both under-and over-treatment. Accurate, consistent diagnosis is crucial to risk-stratify patients and facilitate clinical decision making as to treatment versus active surveillance. Diagnosis is currently achieved by needle biopsy, a painful procedure. Thus, there is a clinical need for a minimally-invasive test to determine prostate cancer aggressiveness. A blood sample to predict Gleason score, which is known to reflect aggressiveness of the cancer, could serve as such a test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood mRNA was isolated from North American and Malaysian prostate cancer patients/controls. Microarray analysis was conducted utilizing the Affymetrix U133 plus 2·0 platform. Expression profiles from 255 patients/controls generated 85 candidate biomarkers. Following quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis, ten disease-associated biomarkers remained for paired statistical analysis and normalization. RESULTS: Microarray analysis was conducted to identify 85 genes differentially expressed between aggressive prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥8 and controls. Expression of these genes was qRT-PCR verified. Statistical analysis yielded a final seven-gene panel evaluated as six gene-ratio duplexes. This molecular signature predicted as aggressive (ie, Gleason score ≥8 55% of G6 samples, 49% of G7(3+4, 79% of G7(4+3 and 83% of G8-10, while rejecting 98% of controls. CONCLUSION: In this study, we have developed a novel, blood-based biomarker panel which can be used as the basis of a simple blood test to identify men with aggressive prostate cancer and thereby reduce the overdiagnosis and overtreatment that currently results from diagnosis using PSA alone. We discuss possible clinical uses of the panel to identify men more likely to benefit from

  7. IL-8 secretion in primary cultures of prostate cells is associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness

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    Neveu B

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bertrand Neveu*, Xavier Moreel*, Marie-Pier Deschênes-Rompré, Alain Bergeron, Hélène LaRue, Cherifa Ayari, Yves Fradet, Vincent FradetDepartment of Surgery, Laval University Cancer Research Centre, CHU de Quebec Research Centre, Quebec, QC, Canada *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Chronic inflammation is believed to be a major factor in prostate cancer initiation and promotion and has been studied using prostate cancer cells and immortalized cell lines. However, little is known about the contribution of normal cells to the prostatic microenvironment and inflammation. We aim to study the contribution of normal prostate epithelial cells to prostate inflammation and to link the inflammatory status of normal cells to prostate cancer aggressiveness.Materials and methods: Short-term primary cell cultures of normal epithelial prostate cells were derived from prostate biopsies from 25 men undergoing radical prostatectomy, cystoprostatectomy, or organ donation. Cells were treated with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, a mimic of double-stranded viral RNA and a potent inducer of the inflammatory response. Secretion of interleukin (IL-8 in the cell culture medium by untreated and treated cells was measured and we determined the association between IL-8 levels in these primary cell cultures and prostate cancer characteristics. The Fligner–Policello test was used to compare the groups.Results: Baseline and induced IL-8 secretion were highly variable between cultured cells from different patients. This variation was not related to drug use, past medical history, age, or preoperative prostate-specific antigen value. Nonetheless, an elevated secretion of IL-8 from normal cultured epithelial cells was associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness (P=0.0005.Conclusion: The baseline secretion of IL-8 from normal prostate epithelial cells in culture is strongly correlated with cancer aggressiveness and may drive prostate cancer

  8. Preventing aggressive prostate cancer with proven cardiovascular disease preventive methods

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    Moyad, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the number one cause of death in the U.S. for 114 of the last 115 years. Risk factors for prostate cancer have primarily mirrored risk proven risk factors for CVD, especially aggressive disease. Obesity, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, metabolic syndrome, unhealthy dietary habits or caloric excess, lack of physical activity, and inflammation are just some of these shared risk factors. The evidence also suggests proven CVD preventive measures are identi...

  9. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, Variation in Inflammatory Genes, and Aggressive Prostate Cancer

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    John S. Witte

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that prostatic inflammation plays a key role in the development of prostate cancer. It remains controversial whether non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs reduce the risk of prostate cancer. Here, we investigate how a previously reported inverse association between NSAID use and the risk of aggressive prostate cancer is modulated by variants in several inflammatory genes. We found that NSAIDs may have differential effects on prostate cancer development, depending on one’s genetic makeup. Further study of these inflammatory pathways may clarify the mechanisms through which NSAIDs impact prostate cancer risk.

  10. Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism influences aggressive behavior in prostate cancer cells by deregulating cholesterol homeostasis

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    IFERE, GODWIN O.; Desmond, Renee; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Nagy, Tim R.

    2013-01-01

    High circulating cholesterol and its deregulated homeostasis may facilitate prostate cancer progression. Genetic polymorphism in Apolipoprotein (Apo) E, a key cholesterol regulatory protein may effect changes in systemic cholesterol levels. In this investigation, we determined whether variants of the Apo E gene can trigger defective intracellular cholesterol efflux, which could promote aggressive prostate cancer. ApoE genotypes of weakly (non-aggressive), moderate and highly tumorigenic (aggr...

  11. Methylome-wide Sequencing Detects DNA Hypermethylation Distinguishing Indolent from Aggressive Prostate Cancer

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    Jeffrey M. Bhasin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A critical need in understanding the biology of prostate cancer is characterizing the molecular differences between indolent and aggressive cases. Because DNA methylation can capture the regulatory state of tumors, we analyzed differential methylation patterns genome-wide among benign prostatic tissue and low-grade and high-grade prostate cancer and found extensive, focal hypermethylation regions unique to high-grade disease. These hypermethylation regions occurred not only in the promoters of genes but also in gene bodies and at intergenic regions that are enriched for DNA-protein binding sites. Integration with existing RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq and survival data revealed regions where DNA methylation correlates with reduced gene expression associated with poor outcome. Regions specific to aggressive disease are proximal to genes with distinct functions from regions shared by indolent and aggressive disease. Our compendium of methylation changes reveals crucial molecular distinctions between indolent and aggressive prostate cancer.

  12. SNP-SNP interaction network in angiogenesis genes associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness.

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    Hui-Yi Lin

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis has been shown to be associated with prostate cancer development. The majority of prostate cancer studies focused on individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs while SNP-SNP interactions are suggested having a great impact on unveiling the underlying mechanism of complex disease. Using 1,151 prostate cancer patients in the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS dataset, 2,651 SNPs in the angiogenesis genes associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness were evaluated. SNP-SNP interactions were primarily assessed using the two-stage Random Forests plus Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (TRM approach in the CGEMS group, and were then re-evaluated in the Moffitt group with 1,040 patients. For the identified gene pairs, cross-evaluation was applied to evaluate SNP interactions in both study groups. Five SNP-SNP interactions in three gene pairs (MMP16+ ROBO1, MMP16+ CSF1, and MMP16+ EGFR were identified to be associated with aggressive prostate cancer in both groups. Three pairs of SNPs (rs1477908+ rs1387665, rs1467251+ rs7625555, and rs1824717+ rs7625555 were in MMP16 and ROBO1, one pair (rs2176771+ rs333970 in MMP16 and CSF1, and one pair (rs1401862+ rs6964705 in MMP16 and EGFR. The results suggest that MMP16 may play an important role in prostate cancer aggressiveness. By integrating our novel findings and available biomedical literature, a hypothetical gene interaction network was proposed. This network demonstrates that our identified SNP-SNP interactions are biologically relevant and shows that EGFR may be the hub for the interactions. The findings provide valuable information to identify genotype combinations at risk of developing aggressive prostate cancer and improve understanding on the genetic etiology of angiogenesis associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness.

  13. Intake of Grains and Dietary Fiber and Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness by Race

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    Fred Tabung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the associations among intake of refined grains, whole grains and dietary fiber and aggressiveness of prostate cancer in African Americans (AA, n=930 and European Americans (EA, n=993 in a population-based, case-only study (The North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project, PCaP. Methods. Prostate cancer aggressiveness was categorized as high, intermediate or low based on Gleason grade, PSA level and clinical stage. Dietary intake was assessed utilizing the NCI Diet History Questionnaire. Logistic regression (comparing high to intermediate/low aggressive cancers and polytomous regression with adjustment for potential confounders were used to determine odds of high prostate cancer aggressiveness with intake of refined grains, whole grains and dietary fiber from all sources. Results. An inverse association with aggressive prostate cancer was observed in the 2nd and 3rd tertiles of total fiber intake (OR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.50–0.97 and OR = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40–0.93, resp. as compared to the lowest tertile of intake. In the race-stratified analyses, inverse associations were observed in the 3rd tertile of total fiber intake for EA (OR = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.23–0.87 and the 2nd tertile of intake for AA (OR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.35–0.95. Conclusions. Dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with aggressive prostate cancer among both AA and EA men.

  14. Polymorphisms in the AR and PSA genes as markers of susceptibility and aggressiveness in prostate cancer

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    Kuasne, Hellen; Rodrigues, Iara Sant'Ana; Fuganti, Paulo Emílio;

    2010-01-01

    The study of genes involved in androgen pathway can contribute to a better knowledge of prostate cancer. Our aim was to examine if polymorphisms in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and androgen receptor (AR) genes were involved in prostate cancer risk and aggressiveness. Genotypes were determined...... by PCR-RFLP (PSA) or using a 377 ABI DNA Sequencer (AR). PSA(G/G) genotype (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.06–2.99) and AR short CAG repeats (OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.21–2.96) increased risk for prostate cancer and were related with tumor aggressiveness. About 38.3% of tumors showed microsatellite instability...

  15. Contrast-Enhanced Harmonic Ultrasonography for the Assessment of Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness: a Preliminary Study

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    Zhu, Yunkai; Chen, Yaqing; Jiang, Jun [Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Wang, Ren; Zhou, Yongchang; Zhang, Huizhen [Sixth People' s Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai (China)

    2010-02-15

    To determine whether contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography can be used to predict the aggressiveness of prostate cancer. Contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography was performed in 103 patients suspected of prostate cancer before biopsy. Time intensity curves were reconstructed for systematic biopsy sites and sonographic abnormalities. The characteristics of the curves were described using hemodynamic indices including arrival time (AT), time-to-peak (TTP), and peak intensity (PI). The differences of hemodynamic indices between high-grade and low-grade cancer were analyzed and the correlations between the hemodynamic indices and biopsy Gleason score were studied. Prostate cancer was detected in 41 of 103 patients and there were significant differences in the hemodynamic indices between the biopsy sites of the non-malignant patients and prostate cancer lesions (p < 0.05). The prostate biopsies revealed 154 prostate cancer lesions, including 31 low-grade lesions and 123 high-grade lesions. The hemodynamic indices AT and TTP of highgrade tumors were significantly shorter than those of low-grade tumors (p = 0.001, 0.002). In addition, high-grade peripheral zone (PZ) tumors had higher PI than low-grade PZ tumors (p = 0.009). The PZ prostate cancer Gleason score correlated with PI, AT and TTP, with Spearman correlation coefficients of 0.223, -0.335, and -0.351, respectively (p = 0.013, < 0.001 and < 0.001). Contrast-enhanced ultrasound measurements of hemodynamic indices correlate with the prostate cancer Gleason score.

  16. Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness Locus on Chromosome 7832-q33 Identified by Linkage and Allelic Imbalance Studies

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    Phillippa J. Neville

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The biologic aggressiveness of prostate tumors is an important indicator of prognosis. Chromosome 7g32-q33 was recently reported to show linkage to more aggressive prostate cancer, based on Gleason score, in a large sibling pair study. We report confirmation and narrowing of the linked region using finer-scale genotyping. We also report a high frequency of allelic imbalance. (AI defined within this locus in a series of 48 primary prostate tumors from men unselected for family history or disease status. The highest frequency of AI was observed with adjacent markers D7S2531. (52% and D7S1804. (36%. These two markers delineated a common region of AI, with 24 tumors exhibiting interstitial AI involving one or both markers. The 1.1-Mb candidate region contains relatively few transcripts. Additionally, we observed positive associations between interstitial AI at D7S1804 and early age at diagnosis. (P=.03 as well as a high combined Gleason score and tumor stage. (P=.06. Interstitial AI at D7S2531 was associated with a positive family history of prostate cancer. (P=.05. These data imply that we have localized a prostate cancer tumor aggressiveness loci to chromosome 7832-q33 that is involved in familial and nonfamilial forms of prostate cancer.

  17. Periprostatic fat measured on computed tomography as a marker for prostate cancer aggressiveness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roermund, J.G.H. van; Bol, G.H.; Witjes, J.A.; Ruud Bosch, J.L.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Vulpen, M. van

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Several reports found that obesity was associated with prostate cancer (PC) aggressiveness among men treated with radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy. Studies concerning this issue have basically relied on body mass index (BMI), as a marker for general obesity. Because visceral fat is t

  18. Paper Highlight: Biomarker Identified for Predicting Early Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness — Site

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    A team led by Cory Abate-Shen, Michael Shen, and Andrea Califano at Columbia University found that measuring the expression levels of three genes associated with aging can be used to predict the aggressiveness of seemingly low-risk prostate cancer.

  19. Spermine and citrate as metabolic biomarkers for assessing prostate cancer aggressiveness.

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    Guro F Giskeødegård

    Full Text Available Separating indolent from aggressive prostate cancer is an important clinical challenge for identifying patients eligible for active surveillance, thereby reducing the risk of overtreatment. The purpose of this study was to assess prostate cancer aggressiveness by metabolic profiling of prostatectomy tissue and to identify specific metabolites as biomarkers for aggressiveness. Prostate tissue samples (n = 158, 48 patients with a high cancer content (mean: 61.8% were obtained using a new harvesting method, and metabolic profiles of samples representing different Gleason scores (GS were acquired by high resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR-MAS. Multivariate analysis (PLS, PLS-DA and absolute quantification (LCModel were used to examine the ability to predict cancer aggressiveness by comparing low grade (GS = 6, n = 30 and high grade (GS≥7, n = 81 cancer with normal adjacent tissue (n = 47. High grade cancer tissue was distinguished from low grade cancer tissue by decreased concentrations of spermine (p = 0.0044 and citrate (p = 7.73·10(-4, and an increase in the clinically applied (total choline+creatine+polyamines/citrate (CCP/C ratio (p = 2.17·10(-4. The metabolic profiles were significantly correlated to the GS obtained from each tissue sample (r = 0.71, and cancer tissue could be distinguished from normal tissue with sensitivity 86.9% and specificity 85.2%. Overall, our findings show that metabolic profiling can separate aggressive from indolent prostate cancer. This holds promise for the benefit of applying in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS within clinical MR imaging investigations, and HR-MAS analysis of transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies has a potential as an additional diagnostic tool.

  20. IL-8 secretion in primary cultures of prostate cells is associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Neveu B; Moreel X; Deschênes-Rompré M-P; Bergeron A; LaRue H; Ayari C; Fradet Y; Fradet V

    2014-01-01

    Bertrand Neveu*, Xavier Moreel*, Marie-Pier Deschênes-Rompré, Alain Bergeron, Hélène LaRue, Cherifa Ayari, Yves Fradet, Vincent FradetDepartment of Surgery, Laval University Cancer Research Centre, CHU de Quebec Research Centre, Quebec, QC, Canada *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Chronic inflammation is believed to be a major factor in prostate cancer initiation and promotion and has been studied using prostate cancer cells ...

  1. A Targetable GATA2-IGF2 Axis Confers Aggressiveness in Lethal Prostate Cancer

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    Vidal, Samuel J.; Rodriguez-Bravo, Veronica; Quinn, S. Aidan; Rodriguez-Barrueco, Ruth; Lujambio, Amaia; Williams, Estrelania; Sun, Xiaochen; de la Iglesia-Vicente, Janis; Lee, Albert; Readhead, Ben; Chen, Xintong; Galsky, Matthew; Esteve, Berta; Petrylak, Daniel P.; Dudley, Joel T.; Rabadan, Raul; Silva, Jose M.; Hoshida, Yujin; Lowe, Scott W.; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Domingo-Domenech, Josep

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Elucidating the determinants of aggressiveness in lethal prostate cancer may stimulate therapeutic strategies that improve clinical outcomes. We used experimental models and clinical databases to identify GATA2 as a regulator of chemotherapy resistance and tumorigenicity in this context. Mechanistically, direct upregulation of the growth hormone IGF2 emerged as a mediator of the aggressive properties regulated by GATA2. IGF2 in turn activated IGF1R and INSR as well as a downstream polykinase program. The characterization of this axis prompted a combination strategy whereby dual IGF1R/INSR inhibition restored the efficacy of chemotherapy and improved survival in preclinical models. These studies reveal a GATA2-IGF2 aggressiveness axis in lethal prostate cancer and identify a therapeutic opportunity in this challenging disease. PMID:25670080

  2. Loss of PDEF, a prostate-derived Ets factor is associated with aggressive phenotype of prostate cancer: Regulation of MMP 9 by PDEF

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    Meacham Randall B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate-derived Ets factor (PDEF is expressed in tissues of high epithelial content including prostate, although its precise function has not been fully established. Conventional therapies produce a high rate of cure for patients with localized prostate cancer, but there is, at present, no effective treatment for intervention in metastatic prostate cancer. These facts underline the need to develop new approaches for early diagnosis of aggressive prostate cancer patients, and mechanism based anti-metastasis therapies that will improve the outlook for hormone-refractory prostate cancer. In this study we evaluated role of prostate-derived Ets factor (PDEF in prostate cancer. Results We observed decreased PDEF expression in prostate cancer cell lines correlated with increased aggressive phenotype, and complete loss of PDEF protein in metastatic prostate cancer cell lines. Loss of PDEF expression was confirmed in high Gleason Grade prostate cancer samples by immuno-histochemical methods. Reintroduction of PDEF profoundly affected cell behavior leading to less invasive phenotypes in three dimensional cultures. In addition, PDEF expressing cells had altered cell morphology, decreased FAK phosphorylation and decreased colony formation, cell migration, and cellular invasiveness. In contrast PDEF knockdown resulted in increased migration and invasion as well as clonogenic activity. Our results also demonstrated that PDEF downregulated MMP9 promoter activity, suppressed MMP9 mRNA expression, and resulted in loss of MMP9 activity in prostate cancer cells. These results suggested that loss of PDEF might be associated with increased MMP9 expression and activity in aggressive prostate cancer. To confirm results we investigated MMP9 expression in clinical samples of prostate cancer. Results of these studies show increased MMP9 expression correlated with advanced Gleason grade. Taken together our results demonstrate decreased PDEF expression

  3. A systems genetics approach identifies CXCL14, ITGAX, and LPCAT2 as novel aggressive prostate cancer susceptibility genes.

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    Kendra A Williams

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although prostate cancer typically runs an indolent course, a subset of men develop aggressive, fatal forms of this disease. We hypothesize that germline variation modulates susceptibility to aggressive prostate cancer. The goal of this work is to identify susceptibility genes using the C57BL/6-Tg(TRAMP8247Ng/J (TRAMP mouse model of neuroendocrine prostate cancer. Quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping was performed in transgene-positive (TRAMPxNOD/ShiLtJ F2 intercross males (n = 228, which facilitated identification of 11 loci associated with aggressive disease development. Microarray data derived from 126 (TRAMPxNOD/ShiLtJ F2 primary tumors were used to prioritize candidate genes within QTLs, with candidate genes deemed as being high priority when possessing both high levels of expression-trait correlation and a proximal expression QTL. This process enabled the identification of 35 aggressive prostate tumorigenesis candidate genes. The role of these genes in aggressive forms of human prostate cancer was investigated using two concurrent approaches. First, logistic regression analysis in two human prostate gene expression datasets revealed that expression levels of five genes (CXCL14, ITGAX, LPCAT2, RNASEH2A, and ZNF322 were positively correlated with aggressive prostate cancer and two genes (CCL19 and HIST1H1A were protective for aggressive prostate cancer. Higher than average levels of expression of the five genes that were positively correlated with aggressive disease were consistently associated with patient outcome in both human prostate cancer tumor gene expression datasets. Second, three of these five genes (CXCL14, ITGAX, and LPCAT2 harbored polymorphisms associated with aggressive disease development in a human GWAS cohort consisting of 1,172 prostate cancer patients. This study is the first example of using a systems genetics approach to successfully identify novel susceptibility genes for aggressive prostate cancer. Such

  4. Coordinate loss of MAP3K7 and CHD1 promotes aggressive prostate cancer.

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    Rodrigues, Lindsey Ulkus; Rider, Leah; Nieto, Cera; Romero, Lina; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Loda, Massimo; Lucia, M Scott; Wu, Min; Shi, Lihong; Cimic, Adela; Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Nolley, Rosalie; Pac, Colton; Chen, Haitao; Peehl, Donna M; Xu, Jianfeng; Liu, Wennuan; Costello, James C; Cramer, Scott D

    2015-03-15

    Prostate cancer subtypes are poorly defined and functional validation of drivers of ETS rearrangement-negative prostate cancer has not been conducted. Here, we identified an ETS(-) subtype of aggressive prostate cancer (ERG(-)MAP3K7(del)CHD1(del)) and used a novel developmental model and a cell line xenograft model to show that cosuppression of MAP3K7 and CHD1 expression promotes aggressive disease. Analyses of publicly available prostate cancer datasets revealed that MAP3K7 and CHD1 were significantly codeleted in 10% to 20% of localized tumors and combined loss correlated with poor disease-free survival. To evaluate the functional impact of dual MAP3K7-CHD1 loss, we suppressed Map3k7 and/or Chd1 expression in mouse prostate epithelial progenitor/stem cells (PrP/SC) and performed tissue recombination experiments in vivo. Dual shMap3k7-shChd1 PrP/SC recombinants displayed massive glandular atypia with regions of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma apparent. Combined Map3k7-Chd1 suppression greatly disrupted normal prostatic lineage differentiation; dual recombinants displayed significant androgen receptor loss, increased neuroendocrine differentiation, and increased neural differentiation. Clinical samples with dual MAP3K7-CHD1 loss also displayed neuroendocrine and neural characteristics. In addition, dual Map3k7-Chd1 suppression promoted E-cadherin loss and mucin production in recombinants. MAP3K7 and CHD1 protein loss also correlated with Gleason grade and E-cadherin loss in clinical samples. To further validate the phenotype observed in the PrP/SC model, we suppressed MAP3K7 and/or CHD1 expression in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Dual shMAP3K7-shCHD1 LNCaP xenografts displayed increased tumor growth and decreased survival compared with shControl, shMAP3K7, and shCHD1 xenografts. Collectively, these data identify coordinate loss of MAP3K7 and CHD1 as a unique driver of aggressive prostate cancer development. PMID:25770290

  5. ETV1 directs androgen metabolism and confers aggressive prostate cancer in targeted mice and patients.

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    Baena, Esther; Shao, Zhen; Linn, Douglas E; Glass, Kimberly; Hamblen, Melanie J; Fujiwara, Yuko; Kim, Jonghwan; Nguyen, Minh; Zhang, Xin; Godinho, Frank J; Bronson, Roderick T; Mucci, Lorelei A; Loda, Massimo; Yuan, Guo-Cheng; Orkin, Stuart H; Li, Zhe

    2013-03-15

    Distinguishing aggressive from indolent disease and developing effective therapy for advanced disease are the major challenges in prostate cancer research. Chromosomal rearrangements involving ETS transcription factors, such as ERG and ETV1, occur frequently in prostate cancer. How they contribute to tumorigenesis and whether they play similar or distinct in vivo roles remain elusive. Here we show that in mice with ERG or ETV1 targeted to the endogenous Tmprss2 locus, either factor cooperated with loss of a single copy of Pten, leading to localized cancer, but only ETV1 appeared to support development of invasive adenocarcinoma under the background of full Pten loss. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that ERG and ETV1 control a common transcriptional network but largely in an opposing fashion. In particular, while ERG negatively regulates the androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional program, ETV1 cooperates with AR signaling by favoring activation of the AR transcriptional program. Furthermore, we found that ETV1 expression, but not that of ERG, promotes autonomous testosterone production. Last, we confirmed the association of an ETV1 expression signature with aggressive disease and poorer outcome in patient data. The distinct biology of ETV1-associated prostate cancer suggests that this disease class may require new therapies directed to underlying programs controlled by ETV1.

  6. Elevated expression of Ki-67 identifies aggressive prostate cancers but does not distinguish BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, A V; Jameson, C; Barbachano, Y;

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancers in men with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are more aggressive than morphologically similar cancers in men without these mutations. This study was performed to test the hypothesis that enhanced expression of Ki-67, as a surrogate of cell proliferation, is a characteristic...... and benign tissues (p0.5). Similar results were obtained when the data were analysed using a threshold set at 3.5 and 7.1%. This study shows that elevated expression of Ki-67 is associated both with aggressive prostate cancers and with high Gleason score irrespective of whether their occurrence is...... against a background of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations or as sporadic disease. The data suggest that, since elevated Ki-67 does not distinguish prostate cancers occurring in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers from sporadic prostatic malignancies, the effects of these genetic mutations are probably independent...

  7. Stratification of the aggressiveness of prostate cancer using pre-biopsy multiparametric MRI (mpMRI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Durgesh Kumar; Kumar, Rajeev; Bora, Girdhar S; Thulkar, Sanjay; Sharma, Sanjay; Gupta, Siddhartha Datta; Jagannathan, Naranamangalam R

    2016-03-01

    Risk stratification, based on the Gleason score (GS) of a prostate biopsy, is an important decision-making tool in prostate cancer management. As low-grade disease may not need active intervention, the ability to identify aggressive cancers on imaging could limit the need for prostate biopsies. We assessed the ability of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) in pre-biopsy risk stratification of men with prostate cancer. One hundred and twenty men suspected to have prostate cancer underwent mpMRI (diffusion MRI and MR spectroscopic imaging) prior to biopsy. Twenty-six had cancer and were stratified into three groups based on GS: low grade (GS ≤ 6), intermediate grade (GS = 7) and high grade (GS ≥ 8). A total of 910 regions of interest (ROIs) from the peripheral zone (PZ, range 25-45) were analyzed from these 26 patients. The metabolite ratio [citrate/(choline + creatine)] and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of voxels were calculated for the PZ regions corresponding to the biopsy cores and compared with histology. The median metabolite ratios for low-grade, intermediate-grade and high-grade cancer were 0.29 (range: 0.16, 0.61), 0.17 (range: 0.13, 0.32) and 0.13 (range: 0.05, 0.23), respectively (p = 0.004). The corresponding mean ADCs (×10(-3) mm(2) /s) for low-grade, intermediate-grade and high-grade cancer were 0.99 ± 0.08, 0.86 ± 0.11 and 0.69 ± 0.12, respectively (p < 0.0001). The combined ADC and metabolite ratio model showed strong discriminatory ability to differentiate subjects with GS ≤ 6 from subjects with GS ≥ 7 with an area under the curve of 94%. These data indicate that pre-biopsy mpMRI may stratify PCa aggressiveness noninvasively. As the recent literature data suggest that men with GS ≤ 6 cancer may not need radical therapy, our data may help limit the need for biopsy and allow informed decision making for clinical intervention. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Interaction among apoptosis-associated sequence variants and joint effects on aggressive prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavender Nicole A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular and epidemiological evidence demonstrate that altered gene expression and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the apoptotic pathway are linked to many cancers. Yet, few studies emphasize the interaction of variant apoptotic genes and their joint modifying effects on prostate cancer (PCA outcomes. An exhaustive assessment of all the possible two-, three- and four-way gene-gene interactions is computationally burdensome. This statistical conundrum stems from the prohibitive amount of data needed to account for multiple hypothesis testing. Methods To address this issue, we systematically prioritized and evaluated individual effects and complex interactions among 172 apoptotic SNPs in relation to PCA risk and aggressive disease (i.e., Gleason score ≥ 7 and tumor stages III/IV. Single and joint modifying effects on PCA outcomes among European-American men were analyzed using statistical epistasis networks coupled with multi-factor dimensionality reduction (SEN-guided MDR. The case-control study design included 1,175 incident PCA cases and 1,111 controls from the prostate, lung, colo-rectal, and ovarian (PLCO cancer screening trial. Moreover, a subset analysis of PCA cases consisted of 688 aggressive and 488 non-aggressive PCA cases. SNP profiles were obtained using the NCI Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS data portal. Main effects were assessed using logistic regression (LR models. Prior to modeling interactions, SEN was used to pre-process our genetic data. SEN used network science to reduce our analysis from > 36 million to Results Following LR modeling, eleven and thirteen sequence variants were associated with PCA risk and aggressive disease, respectively. However, none of these markers remained significant after we adjusted for multiple comparisons. Nevertheless, we detected a modest synergistic interaction between AKT3 rs2125230-PRKCQ rs571715 and disease aggressiveness using SEN-guided MDR (p = 0

  9. Integrated genome and transcriptome sequencing identifies a novel form of hybrid and aggressive prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunxiao; Wyatt, Alexander W; Lapuk, Anna V; McPherson, Andrew; McConeghy, Brian J; Bell, Robert H; Anderson, Shawn; Haegert, Anne; Brahmbhatt, Sonal; Shukin, Robert; Mo, Fan; Li, Estelle; Fazli, Ladan; Hurtado-Coll, Antonio; Jones, Edward C; Butterfield, Yaron S; Hach, Faraz; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Hajirasouliha, Iman; Boutros, Paul C; Bristow, Robert G; Jones, Steven Jm; Hirst, Martin; Marra, Marco A; Maher, Christopher A; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Sahinalp, S Cenk; Gleave, Martin E; Volik, Stanislav V; Collins, Colin C

    2012-05-01

    Next-generation sequencing is making sequence-based molecular pathology and personalized oncology viable. We selected an individual initially diagnosed with conventional but aggressive prostate adenocarcinoma and sequenced the genome and transcriptome from primary and metastatic tissues collected prior to hormone therapy. The histology-pathology and copy number profiles were remarkably homogeneous, yet it was possible to propose the quadrant of the prostate tumour that likely seeded the metastatic diaspora. Despite a homogeneous cell type, our transcriptome analysis revealed signatures of both luminal and neuroendocrine cell types. Remarkably, the repertoire of expressed but apparently private gene fusions, including C15orf21:MYC, recapitulated this biology. We hypothesize that the amplification and over-expression of the stem cell gene MSI2 may have contributed to the stable hybrid cellular identity. This hybrid luminal-neuroendocrine tumour appears to represent a novel and highly aggressive case of prostate cancer with unique biological features and, conceivably, a propensity for rapid progression to castrate-resistance. Overall, this work highlights the importance of integrated analyses of genome, exome and transcriptome sequences for basic tumour biology, sequence-based molecular pathology and personalized oncology.

  10. Glycoprotein Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Aggressive Prostate Cancer — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Early Detection Research Network of the NCI is charged with the discovery, development and validation of biomarkers for early detection and prognosis related to neoplastic disease. Our laboratory is an NCI EDRN (U01CA152813) working on "Glycoprotein biomarkers for the early detection of aggressive prostate cancer". This EDRN administratiVE! supplement is a collaboration with Robert Veltri on his project to identify men with very low risk (indolent) prostate cancer (CaP) at the diagnostic biopsy at selection for active surveillance (AS). We will assess biopsy tissue using quantitative nuclear histomorphometric measurements and molecular biomarkers to predict an unexpected catastrophic CaP in such men with indolent CaP. At Johns Hopkins Hospital w1e use the Epstein criteria that includes; PSA density (PSAD) aggressive disease from a AS diagnostic biopsy. Our approach will combine nuclear morphometry measured by digital microscopy with a unique biopsy tissue biomarker profile (DNA content, Ki67, Her2neu, CACND1 and periostin). Fc•r the molecular targets we will us•e a multiplex tissue blot (MTB) immunohistochemistry method. The Aims o'f our work include 1) to utilize retrospective archival biopsy material from 70 AS cases where the outcome was unexpected and disastrous and collect an equal number of AS cases (n=140) and perform assays for morphology and biomarker targi ts proposed, 2) and predict failure using Cox proportional hazards statistical modeling.

  11. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Prevention Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient ...

  12. Association of genetic polymorphisms in the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene with prostate cancer aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dapeng; Yu, Hongjie; Sun, Jielin; Qi, Jun; Liu, Qiang; Li, Ruipeng; Zheng, Siqun Lily; Xu, Jianfeng; Kang, Jian

    2015-07-01

    Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), encoded by the TERT gene, is an essential component of telomerase, essential for the maintenance of telomere DNA length, chromosomal stability and cellular immortality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between common genetic variations across the TERT gene region and prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness in a Chinese population. A total of 12 TERT tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped on the Sequenom Mass-ARRAY iPLEX® platform in a case-case study with 1,210 Chinese patients with PCa. Unconditional logistic regression was used to investigate the association of genotypes with PCa aggressiveness, Gleason grade and risk of developing early-onset PCa. It was observed that the C allele of the TERT intron 2 SNP (rs2736100) was significantly associated with reduced risk of PCa aggressiveness [odds ratio (OR)=0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66-0.99; P=0.037]. This allele was also significantly correlated with a reduced risk of developing a tumor with a high Gleason score (>7; OR=0.83; 95% CI: 0.70-0.99; P=0.039). The T allele of the intron 4 SNP (rs10069690) was found to be significantly associated with a decreased risk for an aggressive form of PCa (OR=0.76; 95% CI: 0.59-0.97; P=0.030). In addition, the A allele of rs10078761 located at the 3' end of the TERT gene exhibited a statistically significant association with the reduced risk of developing a higher grade disease (OR=0.48; 95% CI: 0.28-0.81; P=0.006). However, no association between TERT polymorphisms and age at diagnosis was observed in the present study. The present findings demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that genetic variations across the TERT gene are associated with PCa aggressiveness in a Chinese Han population. PMID:25738283

  13. Prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  14. Study of testosterone as a predictor of tumor aggressiveness in patients with prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Oliveira Cabral

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose A growing body of evidence suggests that low testosterone can be an independent predictor of adverse clinicopathological features and worse prognosis in prostate cancer (PCa patients. However, this association is still incompletely understood and the results are divisive. The aim of this study was to analyze testosterone as a predictor of aggressive disease in subjects with clinically localized PCa. Materials and Methods A cohort was conducted including the patients submitted to radical prostatectomy in our institution during a period of four years. The patients had clinically localized disease and their total testosterone (TT was routinely measured preoperatively in the morning before surgery. They were stratified in groups with low ( 0.99. Conversely, men with high Gleason score had similar mean TT compared to those with lower scores. Preoperative low TT (defined as TT < 300 ng/dL could not be statistically correlated with either preoperative PSA levels, pathological Gleason score, extraprostatic extension, positive surgical margins or seminal vesicles involvement. Conclusions This study indicates that testosterone may be a useful predictive tool once pathological extraprostatic extension was somewhat signaled by lower TT levels preoperatively. However, it does not consolidate a clear association between aggressive tumor biology and hypogonadism.

  15. PI3K/AKT pathway regulates E-cadherin and Desmoglein 2 in aggressive prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduced expression of both classical and desmosomal cadherins has been associated with different types of carcinomas, including prostate cancer. This study aims to provide a comprehensive view of the role and regulation of cell–cell adhesion in prostate cancer aggressiveness by examining the functional implications of both E-cadherin and Desmoglein 2 (DSG2). E-cadherin expression was first examined using immunofluorescence in 50 normal prostate tissues and in a cohort of 414 prostate cancer patients. Correlation and survival analyses were performed to assess its clinical significance. In primary prostate cancer patients, reduced expression of both E-cadherin and DSG2 is significantly associated with an earlier biochemical recurrence. Transgenic DU145 E-cadherin knockdown and constitutively active AKT overexpression lines were generated. Functional implications of such genetic alterations were analyzed in vitro and in vivo, the latter by using tumorigenesis as well as extravasation and metastatic tumor formation assays. We observed that loss of E-cadherin leads to impaired primary and metastatic tumor formation in vivo, suggesting a tumor promoter role for E-cadherin in addition to its known role as a tumor suppressor. Activation of AKT leads to a significant reduction in E-cadherin expression and nuclear localization of Snail, suggesting a role for the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in the transient repression of E-cadherin. This reduced expression may be regulated by separate mechanisms as neither the loss of E-cadherin nor activation of AKT significantly affected DSG2 expression. In conclusion, these findings illustrate the critical role of cell–cell adhesion in the progression to aggressive prostate cancer, through regulation by the PI3K pathway

  16. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  17. Familial prostate cancer has a more aggressive course than sporadic prostate cancer after treatment for localized disease, mainly due to a higher rate of distant metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    with negative and positive family history were 83% and 72% percent, respectively (p=0.013). The 5-year locRFS rates for patients with negative and positive family history were 91% and 87% percent, respectively (p=0.45). The 5-year dRFS rates for patients with negative and positive family history were 91% and 84%, respectively (p=0.032). Table 1 displays the statistical significance in crude (univariate) and adjusted (multivariate) analysis of all factors analyzed with respect to outcomes of interest. After adjusting for potential confounders, family history of prostate cancer remained strongly associated with biochemical failure. For RP patients, even in the presence of pathologic parameters, family history remained a strong independent predictor of biochemical, clinical, and distant failure (data not shown). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that familial prostate cancer may have a more aggressive course after treatment than non-familial prostate cancer, and that clinical and/or pathological parameters may not adequately predict this course. Familial prostate cancer seems associated with a higher rate of distant metastases. Further studies need to be performed to confirm these findings

  18. Learning about Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Information on Prostate Cancer What is prostate cancer? Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in American ... of page Additional Resources of Information on Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer [nlm.nih.gov] From Medline Plus Medical ...

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2: ERG Scores and Serum PHI in Predicting Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile Tallon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion tests and serum PHI correlate to cancer aggressiveness-related pathological criteria at prostatectomy. To evaluate and compare their ability in predicting prostate cancer aggressiveness, PHI and urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG (T2 scores were assessed in 154 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for biopsy-proven prostate cancer. Univariate and multivariate analyses using logistic regression and decision curve analyses were performed. All three markers were predictors of a tumor volume ≥0.5 mL. Only PHI predicted Gleason score ≥7. T2 score and PHI were both independent predictors of extracapsular extension (≥pT3, while multifocality was only predicted by PCA3 score. Moreover, when compared to a base model (age, digital rectal examination, serum PSA, and Gleason sum at biopsy, the addition of both PCA3 score and PHI to the base model induced a significant increase (+12% when predicting tumor volume >0.5 mL. PHI and urinary PCA3 and T2 scores can be considered as complementary predictors of cancer aggressiveness at prostatectomy.

  20. Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Eggener, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer continues to be a significant public health issue worldwide, particularly in countries where men have life expectancies long enough to clinically manifest the disease. In many countries, it remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality.Although significant progress has been made over the past few decades, many elements regarding the diagnosis and management of patients with prostate cancer remain enigmatic. In this Prostate Cancer special issue, o...

  1. Progress against Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Progress Against Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents ... Read More "Prostate Cancer" Articles Progress Against Prostate Cancer / Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His ...

  2. Assessment of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Values as Predictor of Aggressiveness in Peripheral Zone Prostate Cancer: Comparison with Gleason Score

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. To determine association between apparent diffusion coefficient value on diffusion-weighted imaging and Gleason score in patients with prostate cancer. Methods. This retrospective case series was conducted at Radiology Department of Aga Khan University between June 2009 and June 2011. 28 patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer were included who underwent ultrasound guided sextant prostate biopsy and MRI. MRI images were analyzed on diagnostic console and regions of interest were drawn. Data were entered and analyzed on SPSS 20.0. ADC values were compared with Gleason score using one-way ANOVA test. Results. In 28 patients, 168 quadrants were biopsied and 106 quadrants were positive for malignancy. 89 lesions with proven malignancy showed diffusion restriction. The mean ADC value for disease with a Gleason score of 6 was 935 mm2/s (SD = 248.4 mm2/s); Gleason score of 7 was 837 mm2/s (SD = 208.5 mm2/s); Gleason score of 8 was 614 mm2/s (SD = 108 mm2/s); and Gleason score of 9 was 571 mm2/s (SD = 82 mm2/s). Inverse relationship was observed between Gleason score and mean ADC values. Conclusion. DWI and specifically quantitative ADC values may help differentiate between low-risk (Gleason score, 6), intermediate-risk (Gleason score, 7), and high-risk (Gleason score 8 and 9) prostate cancers, indirectly determining the aggressiveness of the disease

  3. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryosurgery-prostate cancer; Cryoablation-prostate cancer ... Prostate Cancer. American Cancer Society. www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/detailedguide/prostate-cancer-treating-cryosurgery. Accessed August 31, 2015. Horwich ...

  4. Texture features on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: new potential biomarkers for prostate cancer aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignati, A.; Mazzetti, S.; Giannini, V.; Russo, F.; Bollito, E.; Porpiglia, F.; Stasi, M.; Regge, D.

    2015-04-01

    To explore contrast (C) and homogeneity (H) gray-level co-occurrence matrix texture features on T2-weighted (T2w) Magnetic Resonance (MR) images and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for predicting prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness, and to compare them with traditional ADC metrics for differentiating low- from intermediate/high-grade PCas. The local Ethics Committee approved this prospective study of 93 patients (median age, 65 years), who underwent 1.5 T multiparametric endorectal MR imaging before prostatectomy. Clinically significant (volume ≥0.5 ml) peripheral tumours were outlined on histological sections, contoured on T2w and ADC images, and their pathological Gleason Score (pGS) was recorded. C, H, and traditional ADC metrics (mean, median, 10th and 25th percentile) were calculated on the largest lesion slice, and correlated with the pGS through the Spearman correlation coefficient. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) assessed how parameters differentiate pGS = 6 from pGS ≥ 7. The dataset included 49 clinically significant PCas with a balanced distribution of pGS. The Spearman ρ and AUC values on ADC were: -0.489, 0.823 (mean) -0.522, 0.821 (median) -0.569, 0.854 (10th percentile) -0.556, 0.854 (25th percentile) -0.386, 0.871 (C); 0.533, 0.923 (H); while on T2w they were: -0.654, 0.945 (C); 0.645, 0.962 (H). AUC of H on ADC and T2w, and C on T2w were significantly higher than that of the mean ADC (p = 0.05). H and C calculated on T2w images outperform ADC parameters in correlating with pGS and differentiating low- from intermediate/high-risk PCas, supporting the role of T2w MR imaging in assessing PCa biological aggressiveness.

  5. Comparison of diffusion weighted imaging and transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy in predicting aggressiveness of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To retrospectively evaluate the utility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in predicting aggressiveness of prostate cancer. Comparison was made with transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy Gleason scores (GS) and prostatectomy GS. Methods: Diffusion weighted images of 51 patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer were obtained using 1.5 T MR with a pelvic phased-array coil. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on areas of the suspicious lesion and the ADC values were calculated. The correlations between the ADC values and prostatectomy GS were assessed with Pearson correlation. The relationship between biopsy GS and prostatectomy GS were also evaluated. Meanwhile, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine the ability of ADC values and biopsy GS in differentiating low-grade prostate cancer from intermediate/high grade prostate cancer. Results: The accuracy of transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy in predicting prostatectomy GS was 41.2%(21/51). Compared with prostatectomy GS, up to 11.8% of the patients (n=6) was overestimated by biopsy, while 47.0% (n=24) were underestimated. These 51 patients had a mean ADC value of (0.974 ±0.194) × 10-3 mm2/s. The mean ADC value of intermediate/high-grade tumors (n=35) was (0.907 ±0.160) ×10-3 mm2/s while that of low-grade tumors was (1.121 ±0.185) × 10-3 mm2/s (n=16). A significant negative correlation was found between mean ADC values of suspicious lesions and their prostatectomy GS (r=-0.761, P <0.01). No significant correlation was found between biopsy GS and prostatectomy GS (r=0.187, P=0.189). The area under the ROC curves of ADC and biopsy GS was 0.827 and 0.689, respectively. Conclusion: The ADC values of cancerous areas in prostate perform better than biopsy GS in predicting aggressiveness of prostate cancer. (authors)

  6. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of prostate cancer. The techniques used are: transrectal ultrasound, laparascopy, bone scan, chest x-ray, radiography, chemoterapy and radiotherapy

  7. Intratumor DNA methylation heterogeneity reflects clonal evolution in aggressive prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brocks, David; Assenov, Yassen; Minner, Sarah;

    2014-01-01

    Despite much evidence on epigenetic abnormalities in cancer, it is currently unclear to what extent epigenetic alterations can be associated with tumors' clonal genetic origins. Here, we show that the prostate intratumor heterogeneity in DNA methylation and copy-number patterns can be explained b...

  8. What is Prostate Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Prostate Cancer » Detailed Guide » What is prostate cancer? Share ... how cancers start and spread, see What Is Cancer? Prostate cancer begins when cells in the prostate gland ...

  9. TGF-β regulates DNA methyltransferase expression in prostate cancer, correlates with aggressive capabilities, and predicts disease recurrence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA methyltransferase (DNMT is one of the major factors mediating the methylation of cancer related genes such as TGF-β receptors (TβRs. This in turn may result in a loss of sensitivity to physiologic levels of TGF-β in aggressive prostate cancer (CaP. The specific mechanisms of DNMT's role in CaP remain undetermined. In this study, we describe the mechanism of TGF-β-mediated DNMT in CaP and its association with clinical outcomes following radical prostatectomy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used human CaP cell lines with varying degrees of invasive capability to describe how TGF-β mediates the expression of DNMT in CaP, and its effects on methylation status of TGF-β receptors and the invasive capability of CaP in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we determined the association between DNMT expression and clinical outcome after radical prostatectomy. We found that more aggressive CaP cells had significantly higher TGF-β levels, increased expression of DNMT, but reduced TβRs when compared to benign prostate cells and less aggressive prostate cancer cells. Blockade of TGF-β signaling or ERK activation (p-ERK was associated with a dramatic decrease in the expression of DNMT, which results in a coincident increase in the expression of TβRs. Blockade of either TGF-β signaling or DNMT dramatically decreased the invasive capabilities of CaP. Inhibition of TGF-β in an TRAMP-C2 CaP model in C57BL/6 mice using 1D11 was associated with downregulation of DNMTs and p-ERK and impairment in tumor growth. Finally, independent of Gleason grade, increased DNMT1 expression was associated with biochemical recurrence following surgical treatment for prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings demonstrate that CaP derived TGF-β may induce the expression of DNMTs in CaP which is associated with methylation of its receptors and the aggressive potential of CaP. In addition, DNMTs is an independent predictor for disease

  10. Prostate cancer is not breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Venniyoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancers of the prostate and breast are hormone dependent cancers. There is a tendency to equate them and apply same algorithms for treatment. It is pointed out that metastatic prostate cancer with bone-only disease is a potentially fatal condition with a much poorer prognosis than metastatic breast cancer and needs a more aggressive approach.

  11. Prostate Cancer (Radiation Therapy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Prostate Cancer Treatment Prostate cancer overview? What are my treatment options? What ... any new developments in treating my disease? Prostate cancer overview Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer ...

  12. Targeted prostate cancer screening in men with mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 detects aggressive prostate cancer: preliminary analysis of the results of the IMPACT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, Anita V; Bancroft, Elizabeth K; Barbachano, Yolanda;

    2011-01-01

    Study Type - Diagnostic (validating cohort)
Level of Evidence 1b OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of targeted prostate cancer screening in men with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, an international study, IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening ...

  13. Clinical evaluation of a computer-aided diagnosis system for determining cancer aggressiveness in prostate MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the added value of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) on the diagnostic accuracy of PIRADS reporting and the assessment of cancer aggressiveness. Multi-parametric MRI and histopathological outcome of MR-guided biopsies of a consecutive set of 130 patients were included. All cases were prospectively PIRADS reported and the reported lesions underwent CAD analysis. Logistic regression combined the CAD prediction and radiologist PIRADS score into a combination score. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used to assess the diagnostic accuracy and correlation to cancer grade. Evaluation was performed for discriminating benign lesions from cancer and for discriminating indolent from aggressive lesions. In total 141 lesions (107 patients) were included for final analysis. The area-under-the-ROC-curve of the combination score was higher than for the PIRADS score of the radiologist (benign vs. cancer, 0.88 vs. 0.81, p = 0.013 and indolent vs. aggressive, 0.88 vs. 0.78, p < 0.01). The combination score correlated significantly stronger with cancer grade (0.69, p = 0.0014) than the individual CAD system or radiologist (0.54 and 0.58). Combining CAD prediction and PIRADS into a combination score has the potential to improve diagnostic accuracy. Furthermore, such a combination score has a strong correlation with cancer grade. (orig.)

  14. Clinical evaluation of a computer-aided diagnosis system for determining cancer aggressiveness in prostate MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litjens, Geert J.S.; Barentsz, Jelle O.; Karssemeijer, Nico; Huisman, Henkjan J. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2015-11-15

    To investigate the added value of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) on the diagnostic accuracy of PIRADS reporting and the assessment of cancer aggressiveness. Multi-parametric MRI and histopathological outcome of MR-guided biopsies of a consecutive set of 130 patients were included. All cases were prospectively PIRADS reported and the reported lesions underwent CAD analysis. Logistic regression combined the CAD prediction and radiologist PIRADS score into a combination score. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used to assess the diagnostic accuracy and correlation to cancer grade. Evaluation was performed for discriminating benign lesions from cancer and for discriminating indolent from aggressive lesions. In total 141 lesions (107 patients) were included for final analysis. The area-under-the-ROC-curve of the combination score was higher than for the PIRADS score of the radiologist (benign vs. cancer, 0.88 vs. 0.81, p = 0.013 and indolent vs. aggressive, 0.88 vs. 0.78, p < 0.01). The combination score correlated significantly stronger with cancer grade (0.69, p = 0.0014) than the individual CAD system or radiologist (0.54 and 0.58). Combining CAD prediction and PIRADS into a combination score has the potential to improve diagnostic accuracy. Furthermore, such a combination score has a strong correlation with cancer grade. (orig.)

  15. Global Patterns of Prostate Cancer Incidence, Aggressiveness, and Mortality in Men of African Descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. Rebbeck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (CaP is the leading cancer among men of African descent in the USA, Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The estimated number of CaP deaths in SSA during 2008 was more than five times that among African Americans and is expected to double in Africa by 2030. We summarize publicly available CaP data and collected data from the men of African descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate (MADCaP Consortium and the African Caribbean Cancer Consortium (AC3 to evaluate CaP incidence and mortality in men of African descent worldwide. CaP incidence and mortality are highest in men of African descent in the USA and the Caribbean. Tumor stage and grade were highest in SSA. We report a higher proportion of T1 stage prostate tumors in countries with greater percent gross domestic product spent on health care and physicians per 100,000 persons. We also observed that regions with a higher proportion of advanced tumors reported lower mortality rates. This finding suggests that CaP is underdiagnosed and/or underreported in SSA men. Nonetheless, CaP incidence and mortality represent a significant public health problem in men of African descent around the world.

  16. A novel genomic alteration of LSAMP associates with aggressive prostate cancer in African American men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyorgy Petrovics

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of cancer genomes in global context is of great interest in light of changing ethnic distribution of the world population. We focused our study on men of African ancestry because of their disproportionately higher rate of prostate cancer (CaP incidence and mortality. We present a systematic whole genome analyses, revealing alterations that differentiate African American (AA and Caucasian American (CA CaP genomes. We discovered a recurrent deletion on chromosome 3q13.31 centering on the LSAMP locus that was prevalent in tumors from AA men (cumulative analyses of 435 patients: whole genome sequence, 14; FISH evaluations, 101; and SNP array, 320 patients. Notably, carriers of this deletion experienced more rapid disease progression. In contrast, PTEN and ERG common driver alterations in CaP were significantly lower in AA prostate tumors compared to prostate tumors from CA. Moreover, the frequency of inter-chromosomal rearrangements was significantly higher in AA than CA tumors. These findings reveal differentially distributed somatic mutations in CaP across ancestral groups, which have implications for precision medicine strategies.

  17. A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies to identify prostate cancer susceptibility loci associated with aggressive and non-aggressive disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin Al Olama, Ali; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Wiklund, Fredrik; Berndt, Sonja I.; Benlloch, Sara; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Neal, David E.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Donovan, Jenny L.; Hunter, David J.; Henderson, Brian E.; Thun, Michael J.; Gaziano, Michael; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Siddiq, Afshan; Travis, Ruth C.; Cox, David G.; Canzian, Federico; Riboli, Elio; Key, Timothy J.; Andriole, Gerald; Albanes, Demetrius; Hayes, Richard B.; Schleutker, Johanna; Auvinen, Anssi; Tammela, Teuvo L.J.; Weischer, Maren; Stanford, Janet L.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Cybulski, Cezary; Lubinski, Jan; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Schaid, Daniel J.; Sorensen, Karina D.; Batra, Jyotsna; Clements, Judith A.; Chambers, Suzanne; Aitken, Joanne; Gardiner, Robert A.; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Dörk, Thilo; Brenner, Hermann; Habuchi, Tomonori; Ingles, Sue; John, Esther M.; Dickinson, Joanne L.; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Kaneva, Radka; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Lu, Yong-Jie; Park, Jong Y.; Cooney, Kathleen A.; Muir, Kenneth R.; Leongamornlert, Daniel A.; Saunders, Edward; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Mahmud, Nadiya; Guy, Michelle; Govindasami, Koveela; O'Brien, Lynne T.; Wilkinson, Rosemary A.; Hall, Amanda L.; Sawyer, Emma J.; Dadaev, Tokhir; Morrison, Jonathan; Dearnaley, David P.; Horwich, Alan; Huddart, Robert A.; Khoo, Vincent S.; Parker, Christopher C.; Van As, Nicholas; Woodhouse, Christopher J.; Thompson, Alan; Dudderidge, Tim; Ogden, Chris; Cooper, Colin S.; Lophatonanon, Artitaya; Southey, Melissa C.; Hopper, John L.; English, Dallas; Virtamo, Jarmo; Le Marchand, Loic; Campa, Daniele; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lindstrom, Sara; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan; Yeager, Meredith; Cox, Angela; Stern, Mariana C.; Corral, Roman; Aly, Markus; Isaacs, William; Adolfsson, Jan; Xu, Jianfeng; Zheng, S. Lilly; Wahlfors, Tiina; Taari, Kimmo; Kujala, Paula; Klarskov, Peter; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Røder, M. Andreas; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Bojesen, Stig E.; FitzGerald, Liesel M.; Kolb, Suzanne; Kwon, Erika M.; Karyadi, Danielle M.; Orntoft, Torben Falck; Borre, Michael; Rinckleb, Antje; Luedeke, Manuel; Herkommer, Kathleen; Meyer, Andreas; Serth, Jürgen; Marthick, James R.; Patterson, Briony; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Spurdle, Amanda; Lose, Felicity; McDonnell, Shannon K.; Joshi, Amit D.; Shahabi, Ahva; Pinto, Pedro; Santos, Joana; Ray, Ana; Sellers, Thomas A.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Stephenson, Robert A.; Teerlink, Craig; Muller, Heiko; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Tsuchiya, Norihiko; Narita, Shintaro; Cao, Guang-Wen; Slavov, Chavdar; Mitev, Vanio; Chanock, Stephen; Gronberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher A.; Kraft, Peter; Easton, Douglas F.; Eeles, Rosalind A.

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple common genetic variants associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (PrCa), but these explain less than one-third of the heritability. To identify further susceptibility alleles, we conducted a meta-analysis of four GWAS including 5953 cases of aggressive PrCa and 11 463 controls (men without PrCa). We computed association tests for approximately 2.6 million SNPs and followed up the most significant SNPs by genotyping 49 121 samples in 29 studies through the international PRACTICAL and BPC3 consortia. We not only confirmed the association of a PrCa susceptibility locus, rs11672691 on chromosome 19, but also showed an association with aggressive PrCa [odds ratio = 1.12 (95% confidence interval 1.03–1.21), P = 1.4 × 10−8]. This report describes a genetic variant which is associated with aggressive PrCa, which is a type of PrCa associated with a poorer prognosis. PMID:23065704

  18. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Logager, Vibeke;

    2011-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data....

  19. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Logager, Vibeke;

    2011-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data.......To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data....

  20. Association between Prostinogen (KLK15 genetic variants and prostate cancer risk and aggressiveness in Australia and a meta-analysis of GWAS data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Batra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kallikrein 15 (KLK15/Prostinogen is a plausible candidate for prostate cancer susceptibility. Elevated KLK15 expression has been reported in prostate cancer and it has been described as an unfavorable prognostic marker for the disease. OBJECTIVES: We performed a comprehensive analysis of association of variants in the KLK15 gene with prostate cancer risk and aggressiveness by genotyping tagSNPs, as well as putative functional SNPs identified by extensive bioinformatics analysis. METHODS AND DATA SOURCES: Twelve out of 22 SNPs, selected on the basis of linkage disequilibrium pattern, were analyzed in an Australian sample of 1,011 histologically verified prostate cancer cases and 1,405 ethnically matched controls. Replication was sought from two existing genome wide association studies (GWAS: the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS project and a UK GWAS study. RESULTS: Two KLK15 SNPs, rs2659053 and rs3745522, showed evidence of association (p<0.05 but were not present on the GWAS platforms. KLK15 SNP rs2659056 was found to be associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness and showed evidence of association in a replication cohort of 5,051 patients from the UK, Australia, and the CGEMS dataset of US samples. A highly significant association with Gleason score was observed when the data was combined from these three studies with an Odds Ratio (OR of 0.85 (95% CI = 0.77-0.93; p = 2.7×10(-4. The rs2659056 SNP is predicted to alter binding of the RORalpha transcription factor, which has a role in the control of cell growth and differentiation and has been suggested to control the metastatic behavior of prostate cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a role for KLK15 genetic variation in the etiology of prostate cancer among men of European ancestry, although further studies in very large sample sets are necessary to confirm effect sizes.

  1. Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Eggener

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer continues to be a significant public health issue worldwide, particularly in countries where men have life expectancies long enough to clinically manifest the disease. In many countries, it remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality.

  2. Decreased expression of SLC 39A14 is associated with tumor aggressiveness and biochemical recurrence of human prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Cheng-Gong; Zhu, Yu-Di; Chen, Wei-Hua; Shao, Si-Liang; Jiang, Fu-Neng; Liao, Qian-De

    2016-01-01

    Objective Solute carrier family 39, member 14 (SLC39A14), has been identified as a potential biomarker for various cancers. However, its roles in prostate cancer (PCa) are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of SLC39A14 in patients with PCa and its functions in malignant phenotypes of PCa cells. Patients and methods Subcellular localization and expression pattern of SLC39A14 protein were examined by immunohistochemistry. Then, the associations of SLC39A14 expression with various clinicopathological features and clinical outcome of patients with PCa were statistically evaluated. Subsequently, the effects of SLC39A14 overexpression and knockdown on PCa cell proliferation and motility were, respectively, examined by Cell Counting Kit-8, transwell, and wound-healing assays. Results The immunoreactive scores of SLC39A14 protein in human PCa tissues were significantly lower than those in normal prostate tissues. Based on the Taylor dataset, SLC39A14 downregulation occurred more frequently in patients with PCa with a higher Gleason score (P<0.001), advanced clinical stage (P=0.008), presence of metastasis (P=0.009), and prostate-specific antigen failure (P=0.006). More interestingly, the survival analysis identified SLC39A14 as an independent factor for predicting the biochemical recurrence-free survival of patients with PCa (P=0.017). Functionally, the enforced expression of SLC39A14 could suppress cell proliferation, invasion, and migration of PCa cell lines in vitro, which could be reversed by the knockdown of SLC39A14. Conclusion Decreased expression of SLC39A14 may lead to malignant phenotypes of PCa cells and aggressive tumor progression in patients with PCa. Importantly, SLC39A14 may function as a tumor suppressor and a biomarker for screening patients with biochemical recurrence following radical prostatectomy. PMID:27471394

  3. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this ... a combination of drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated ...

  4. Cancer of the Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will die of this disease. Who Gets This Cancer? Prostate cancer occurs only in men, and it is ... Percent of New Cases by Age Group: Prostate Cancer Prostate cancer is most frequently diagnosed among men aged ...

  5. Prostate cancer - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - prostate cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on prostate cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/index National Cancer Institute -- www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/ ...

  6. Region 2 of 8q24 is associated with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer in Caribbean men of African descent from Guadeloupe (French West Indies)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geraldine CancelTassin; Marc Romana; Cecile Gaffory; Pascal Blanchet; Olivier Cussenot; Luc Multigner

    2015-01-01

    Multiple regions of the genome have been associated with the risk of prostate cancer in Caucasians, particularly including several polymorphisms located at 8q24. Region 2 of 8q24 has been repeatedly found to be associated with the risk of prostate cancer among men of African descent, although one study performed in the Caribbean island of Jamaica did not report this finding. In this study, the single nucleotide polymorphism rs16901979, located in region 2 of 8q24, was genotyped in 498 cases of histologically confirmed prostate cancer and 541 controls from the French Caribbean islands of Guadeloupe, where the population is largely of African descent. The AA genotype and the A allele at rs16901979 were associated with elevated risks of prostate cancer (odds ratios [ORs] = 1.84, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.26–2.69, P = 0.002 and OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.13–1.64, P = 0.001, respectively). Following stratification of the patients by disease aggressiveness, as defined by the Gleason score, the pooled genotypes AC + AA were associated with a higher risk of a Gleason score ≥7 at diagnosis (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.17–2.73, P = 0.007). In summary, the A allele at rs16901979 was associated with the risk of prostate cancer in the Caribbean population of Guadeloupe, confirming its involvement in populations of African descent. Moreover, our study provides the first evidence of an association between this variant and the risk of aggressive prostate cancer.

  7. Staging of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Montironi, Rodolfo; Bostwick, David G; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Berney, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Prostatic carcinoma (PCa) is a significant cause of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide. Accurate staging is critical for prognosis assessment and treatment planning for PCa. Despite the large volume of clinical activity and research, the challenge to define the most appropriate and clinically relevant staging system remains. The pathologically complex and uncertain clinical course of prostate cancer further complicates the design of staging classification and a substaging system suitable for individualized care. This review will focus on recent progress and controversial issues related to prostate cancer staging. The 2010 revision of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (AJCC/UICC) tumour, node and metastasis (TNM) system is the most widely used staging system at this time. Despite general acceptance of the system as a whole, there is controversy and uncertainty about its application, particularly for T2 subclassification. The three-tiered T2 classification system for organ-confined prostate cancer is superfluous, considering the biology and anatomy of PCa. A tumour size-based substaging system may be considered in the future TNM subclassification of pT2 cancer. Lymph node status is one of the most important prognostic factors for prostate cancer. Nevertheless, clinical outcomes in patients with positive lymph nodes are variable. Identification of patients at the greatest risk of systemic progression helps in the selection of appropriate therapy. The data suggest that the inherent aggressiveness of metastatic prostate cancer is closely linked to the tumour volume of lymph node metastasis. We recommend that a future TNM staging system should consider subclassification of node-positive cancer on the basis of nodal cancer volume, using the diameter of the largest nodal metastasis and/or the number of positive nodes.

  8. What Is Prostate Cancer?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... no such thing as one type of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is really a spectrum of diseases where on ... very benevolent in its behavior. Men will develop prostate cancer and live the rest of their lives -- 20, ...

  9. Prostate Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... P 2 rovocative Questions PCCTC Scientific Retreat Coffey-Holden Research News Faces of Prostate Cancer [4] Survivors ... Foundation News The Prostate Cancer Foundation’s 2016 Coffey-Holden Prostate Cancer Academy Meeting accelerates advances in the ...

  10. Impact of tertiary Gleason pattern 5 on prostate cancer aggressiveness: Lessons from a contemporary single institution radical prostatectomy series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary B. Koloff

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Our results emphasize the importance of TP5 and suggest that criteria for tertiary pattern reporting in prostate cancer should be standardized. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of tertiary patterns in prognostic models.

  11. Association between Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Ancestry and Aggressive Prostate Cancer among African Americans and European Americans in PCaP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E Steck

    Full Text Available African Americans (AAs have lower circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OHD3] concentrations and higher prostate cancer (CaP aggressiveness than other racial/ethnic groups. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between plasma 25(OHD3, African ancestry and CaP aggressiveness among AAs and European Americans (EAs.Plasma 25(OHD3 was measured using LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry in 537 AA and 663 EA newly-diagnosed CaP patients from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP classified as having either 'high' or 'low' aggressive disease based on clinical stage, Gleason grade and prostate specific antigen at diagnosis. Mean plasma 25(OHD3 concentrations were compared by proportion of African ancestry. Logistic regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI for high aggressive CaP by tertile of plasma 25(OHD3.AAs with highest percent African ancestry (>95% had the lowest mean plasma 25(OHD3 concentrations. Overall, plasma 25(OHD3 was associated positively with aggressiveness among AA men, an association that was modified by calcium intake (ORT 3vs.T1: 2.23, 95%CI: 1.26-3.95 among men with low calcium intake, and ORT 3vs.T1: 0.19, 95%CI: 0.05-0.70 among men with high calcium intake. Among EAs, the point estimates of the ORs were <1.0 for the upper tertiles with CIs that included the null.Among AAs, plasma 25(OHD3 was associated positively with CaP aggressiveness among men with low calcium intake and inversely among men with high calcium intake. The clinical significance of circulating concentrations of 25(OHD3 and interactions with calcium intake in the AA population warrants further study.

  12. Localized Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a decision aid for men with clinically localized prostate cancer (available at http://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/prostate_da) ... A Decision Aid for Men With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer Page 1 of 24 Introduction Men with clinically ...

  13. Imaging primary prostate cancer with 11C-Choline PET/CT: relation to tumour stage, Gleason score and biomarkers of biologic aggressiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a significant overlap of 11C-Choline standardized uptake value (SUV) between prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) tissue, controversy exists regarding the clinical value of 11C-Choline PET/CT scan in primary prostate cancer. In this study, the SUVmax of the prostate lesions and the pelvic muscles were measured and their ratios (SUVmax-P/M ratio) were calculated. Then we evaluated whether the tracer 11C-Choline uptake, quantified as SUVmax-P/M ratio, correlated with tumour stage, Gleason score, and expression levels of several biomarkers of aggressiveness. Twenty-six patients with primary prostate cancer underwent 11C-Choline PET/CT. Tumour specimens from these patients were graded histopathologically, and immunnohistochemistry for Ki-67, CD31, androgen receptor (AR), Her-2/neu, Bcl-2, and PTEN were performed. Both SUVmax and SUVmax-P/M ratio showed no significant difference between patients with tumour stage II and III, but significantly elevated in patients with tumour stage IV. SUVmax-P/M ratio was also significantly higher in lesions with Gleason score of 4+3 or higher versus less than or equal to 3+4. SUVmax-P/M ratio was found significantly correlated with expression levels of Ki-67 and CD31. In addition, a higher SUVmax-P/M ratio was demonstrated in Her-2/neu positive subgroup than negative subgroup. At the same time, Gleason score and expression levels of these biomarkers showed no significant association with SUVmax. Using the parameter SUVmax-P/M ratio, 11C-Choline PET/CT may be a valuable non-invasive imaging technology in the diagnosis of primary prostate cancer

  14. A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies to identify prostate cancer susceptibility loci associated with aggressive and non-aggressive disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin Al Olama, Ali; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Schumacher, Fredrick R;

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple common genetic variants associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (PrCa), but these explain less than one-third of the heritability. To identify further susceptibility alleles, we conducted a meta-analysis of four GWAS inc...

  15. Carotenoid Intake and Adipose Tissue Carotenoid Levels in Relation to Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness among African-American and European-American Men in the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Samuel O.; Steck, Susan E.; Su, L. Joseph; Hebert, James R.; Zhang, Hongmei; Craft, Neal E.; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Smith, Gary J.; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Mohler, James L.; Arab, Lenore

    2016-01-01

    Background Associations between carotenoid intake and prostate cancer (CaP) incidence have varied across studies. This may be due to combining indolent with aggressive disease in most studies. This study examined whether carotenoid intake and adipose tissue carotenoid levels were inversely associated with CaP aggressiveness. Methods Data on African-American (AA, n=1,023) and European-American (EA, n=1,079) men with incident CaP from North Carolina and Louisiana were analyzed. Dietary carotenoid intake was assessed using a detailed food frequency questionnaire, and abdominal adipose tissue samples were analyzed for carotenoid concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography. Multivariable logistic regression was used in race-stratified analysis to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) comparing high aggressive CaP with low/intermediate aggressive CaP. Results Carotenoid intake differed significantly between AAs and EAs, which included higher intake of lycopene among EAs and higher β–cryptoxanthin intake among AAs. Comparing the highest and lowest tertiles, dietary lycopene was associated inversely with high aggressive CaP among EAs (OR=0.55, 95%CI: 0.34–0.89, Ptrend=0.02), while an inverse association was observed between dietary β–cryptoxanthin intake and high aggressive CaP among AAs (OR=0.56, 95%CI: 0.36–0.87, Ptrend=0.01). Adipose tissue α–carotene and lycopene (cis + trans) concentrations were higher among EAs than AAs, and marginally significant inverse linear trends were observed for adipose α–carotene (Ptrend=0.07) and lycopene (Ptrend=0.11), and CaP aggressiveness among EAs only. Conclusions These results suggest that diets high in lycopene and β–cryptoxanthin may protect against aggressive CaP among EAs and AAs, respectively. Differences in dietary behaviors may explain the racial differences in associations. PMID:27271547

  16. Can Prostate Cancer Be Found Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Prostate Cancer » Detailed Guide » Can prostate cancer be found ... and symptoms of prostate cancer Tests for prostate cancer Prostate cancer stages Survival rates for prostate cancer Previous ...

  17. Prostate cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000846.htm Prostate cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this ... Intern Med . 2011;155(11):762-71. National Cancer Institute. Prostate Cancer Screening -- for health professionals. Revised April 2, ...

  18. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSA tests. Read More "6 Common Cancers" Articles Lung Cancer / Breast Cancer / Prostate Cancer / Colorectal Cancer / Skin Cancer / Gynecologic Cancers Spring 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 2 Page 10 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & ...

  19. Cell-to-cell signaling influences the fate of prostate cancer stem cells and their potential to generate more aggressive tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Salvatori

    Full Text Available An increasing number of malignancies has been shown to be initiated and propelled by small subpopulations of cancer stem cells (CSC. However, whether tumor aggressiveness is driven by CSC and by what extent this property may be relevant within the tumor mass is still unsettled. To address this issue, we isolated a rare tumor cell population on the basis of its CD44(+CD24(- phenotype from the human androgen-independent prostate carcinoma cell line DU145 and established its CSC properties. The behavior of selected CSC was investigated with respect to the bulk DU145 cells. The injection of CSC in nude mice generated highly vascularized tumors infiltrating the adjacent tissues, showing high density of neuroendocrine cells and expressing low levels of E-cadherin and β-catenin as well as high levels of vimentin. On the contrary, when a comparable number of unsorted DU145 cells were injected the resulting tumors were less aggressive. To investigate the different features of tumors in vivo, the influence of differentiated tumor cells on CSC was examined in vitro by growing CSC in the absence or presence of conditioned medium from DU145 cells. CSC grown in permissive conditions differentiated into cell populations with features similar to those of cells held in aggressive tumors generated from CSC injection. Differently, conditioned medium induced CSC to differentiate into a cell phenotype comparable to cells of scarcely aggressive tumors originated from bulk DU145 cell injection. These findings show for the first time that CSC are able to generate differentiated cells expressing either highly or scarcely aggressive phenotype, thus influencing prostate cancer progression. The fate of CSC was determined by signals released from tumor environment. Moreover, using microarray analysis we selected some molecules which could be involved in this cell-to-cell signaling, hypothesizing their potential value for prognostic or therapeutic applications.

  20. Polymorphisms of an Innate Immune Gene, Toll-Like Receptor 4, and Aggressive Prostate Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Hsuan Weng; Yi-Ling Huang; Page, John H; Jen-Hau Chen; Jianfeng Xu; Stella Koutros; Sonja Berndt; Stephen Chanock; Meredith Yeager; Witte, John S.; Rosalind A Eeles; Douglas F. Easton; Neal, David E.; Jenny Donovan; Hamdy, Freddie C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is one of the best known TLR members expressed on the surface of several leukocytes and tissue cells and has a key function in detecting pathogen and danger-associated molecular patterns. The role of TLR4 in the pathophysiology of several age-related diseases is also well recognized, such as prostate cancer (PCa). TLR4 polymorphisms have been related to PCa risk, but the relationship between TLR4 genotypes and aggressive PCa risk has not been evaluated ...

  1. Descriptive Epidemiology, Molecular Biology and Genetics of Hereditary Prostate Cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon, Diem Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    A search for markers that can differentiate indolent prostate cancers from more aggressive forms. Assessment of clinical differences between hereditary and sporadicc prostate cancer.......A search for markers that can differentiate indolent prostate cancers from more aggressive forms. Assessment of clinical differences between hereditary and sporadicc prostate cancer....

  2. Association between Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Ancestry and Aggressive Prostate Cancer among African Americans and European Americans in PCaP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Susan E.; Arab, Lenore; Zhang, Hongmei; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Johnson, Candace S.; Mohler, James L.; Smith, Gary J.; Su, Joseph L.; Trump, Donald L.; Woloszynska-Read, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background African Americans (AAs) have lower circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] concentrations and higher prostate cancer (CaP) aggressiveness than other racial/ethnic groups. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between plasma 25(OH)D3, African ancestry and CaP aggressiveness among AAs and European Americans (EAs). Methods Plasma 25(OH)D3 was measured using LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry) in 537 AA and 663 EA newly-diagnosed CaP patients from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP) classified as having either ‘high’ or ‘low’ aggressive disease based on clinical stage, Gleason grade and prostate specific antigen at diagnosis. Mean plasma 25(OH)D3 concentrations were compared by proportion of African ancestry. Logistic regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for high aggressive CaP by tertile of plasma 25(OH)D3. Results AAs with highest percent African ancestry (>95%) had the lowest mean plasma 25(OH)D3 concentrations. Overall, plasma 25(OH)D3 was associated positively with aggressiveness among AA men, an association that was modified by calcium intake (ORT3vs.T1: 2.23, 95%CI: 1.26–3.95 among men with low calcium intake, and ORT3vs.T1: 0.19, 95%CI: 0.05–0.70 among men with high calcium intake). Among EAs, the point estimates of the ORs were <1.0 for the upper tertiles with CIs that included the null. Conclusions Among AAs, plasma 25(OH)D3 was associated positively with CaP aggressiveness among men with low calcium intake and inversely among men with high calcium intake. The clinical significance of circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D3 and interactions with calcium intake in the AA population warrants further study. PMID:25919866

  3. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000397.htm Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  4. Prostate cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Friis, S; Kjaer, S K;

    1998-01-01

    To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period.......To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period....

  5. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prostate cancer increases as men get older. Family history of prostate cancer A man whose father, brother, ... some foods, such as green vegetables, beans and orange juice. Folic acid is a man-made form ...

  6. Dietary, Supplement, and Adipose Tissue Tocopherols Levels in Relation to Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness Among African and European Americans: The North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Samuel; Steck, Susan E.; Su, L. Joseph; Hebert, James R.; Zhang, Hongmei; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Smith, Gary; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Mohler, James L.; Arab, Lenore

    2016-01-01

    Background Controversies remain over the safety and efficacy of vitamin E (i.e., α–tocopherol) supplementation use for the prevention of prostate cancer (CaP); however, associations of different tocopherol forms and CaP aggressiveness have yet to be examined. Methods This study examined whether food intake of tocopherols, vitamin E supplement use, and adipose tissue biomarkers of tocopherol were associated with CaP aggressiveness among African-American (AA, n=1,023) and European-American (EA, n=1,079) men diagnosed with incident CaP. Dietary tocopherols were estimated from a food frequency questionnaire, supplement use from questionnaire/inventory, and biomarkers from abdominal adipose samples measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated from logistic regression comparing high aggressive CaP to low/intermediate aggressive CaP, adjusting for covariates. Results Dietary intakes of α-and δ-tocopherol were related inversely to CaP aggressiveness among EAs [OR (95% CI), highest versus lowest quartile: α-tocopherol, 0.34 (0.17–0.69), Ptrend = 0.006; δ-tocopherol, 0.45 (0.21–0.95) Ptrend = 0.007]. Inverse associations between dietary and supplemental α-tocopherol and CaP aggressiveness were observed among AAs, though these did not reach statistical significance [OR (95% CI), highest versus lowest quartile: dietary α-tocopherol, 0.58 (0.28–1.19), Ptrend = 0.20; supplemental α-tocopherol, 0.64 (0.31–1.21) Ptrend = 0.15]. No significant association was observed between adipose tocopherol levels and CaP aggressiveness [OR (95% CI), highest versus lowest quartiles of α-tocopherol for EAs 1.43 (0.66–3.11) and AAs 0.66 (0.27–1.62)]. Conclusions The inverse associations observed between dietary sources of tocopherols and CaP aggressiveness suggests a beneficial role of food sources of these tocopherols in CaP aggressiveness. PMID:26053590

  7. Prostate Cancer Genomics: Toward a New Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    John S Witte

    2008-01-01

    Recent genetics and genomics studies of prostate cancer help clarify the genetic basis of this common but complex disease. Genome-wide studies have detected numerous variants associated with disease as well as common gene fusions and expression ‘signatures’ in prostate tumors. Based on these results, some advocate gene-based individualized screening for prostate cancer, although such testing may only be worthwhile to distinguish disease aggressiveness. Lessons learned here provide strategies ...

  8. A novel genomic alteration of LSAMP associates with aggressive prostate cancer in African American men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovics, Gyorgy; Li, Hua; Stümpel, Tanja;

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of cancer genomes in global context is of great interest in light of changing ethnic distribution of the world population. We focused our study on men of African ancestry because of their disproportionately higher rate of prostate cancer (CaP) incidence and mortality. We present a syst......, the frequency of inter-chromosomal rearrangements was significantly higher in AA than CA tumors. These findings reveal differentially distributed somatic mutations in CaP across ancestral groups, which have implications for precision medicine strategies.......Evaluation of cancer genomes in global context is of great interest in light of changing ethnic distribution of the world population. We focused our study on men of African ancestry because of their disproportionately higher rate of prostate cancer (CaP) incidence and mortality. We present...... a systematic whole genome analyses, revealing alterations that differentiate African American (AA) and Caucasian American (CA) CaP genomes. We discovered a recurrent deletion on chromosome 3q13.31 centering on the LSAMP locus that was prevalent in tumors from AA men (cumulative analyses of 435 patients: whole...

  9. Prostate cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, Shi-Ming; Lin, Sue-Hwa

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells have long been implicated in prostate glandular formation. The prostate undergoes regression after androgen deprivation and regeneration after testosterone replacement. Regenerative studies suggest that these cells are found in the proximal ducts and basal layer of the prostate. Many characteristics of prostate cancer indicate that it originates from stem cells. For example, the putative AR− status of prostate stem cells renders them inherently insensitive to androgen blockade ther...

  10. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryotherapy uses very cold temperatures to freeze and kill prostate cancer cells. The goal of cryosurgery is ... Possible short-term side effects of cryotherapy for prostate ... of the penis or scrotum Problems controlling your bladder (more ...

  11. Detecting Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like to do is just do a rectal examination and feel that prostate. Narrator: The other necessary ... they do have an abnormality in their rectal examination does not mean that they have prostate cancer. ...

  12. The genomic landscape of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvan eBaca

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in men, with a markedly variable clinical course. Somatic alterations in DNA drive the growth of prostate cancers and may underlie the behavior of aggressive versus indolent tumors. The accelerating application of genomic technologies over the last two decades has identified mutations that drive prostate cancer formation, progression, and therapeutic resistance. Here, we discuss exemplary somatic mutations in prostate cancer, and highlight mutated cellular pathways with biological and possible therapeutic importance. Examples include mutated genes involved in androgen signaling, cell cycle regulation, signal transduction and development. Some genetic alterations may also predict the clinical course of disease or response to therapy, although the molecular heterogeneity of prostate tumors poses challenges to genomic biomarker identification. The widespread application of massively parallel sequencing technology to the analysis of prostate cancer genomes should continue to advance both discovery-oriented and diagnostic avenues.

  13. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000908.htm Hormone therapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing ... helps slow the growth of prostate cancer. Male Hormones and Prostate Cancer Androgens are male sex hormones. ...

  14. Annexin A1 is involved in the acquisition and maintenance of a stem cell-like/aggressive phenotype in prostate cancer cells with acquired resistance to zoledronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzarro, Valentina; Belvedere, Raffaella; Milone, Maria Rita; Pucci, Biagio; Lombardi, Rita; Bruzzese, Francesca; Popolo, Ada; Parente, Luca; Budillon, Alfredo; Petrella, Antonello

    2015-09-22

    In this study, we have characterized the role of annexin A1 (ANXA1) in the acquisition and maintenance of stem-like/aggressive features in prostate cancer (PCa) cells comparing zoledronic acid (ZA)-resistant DU145R80 with their parental DU145 cells. ANXA1 is over-expressed in DU145R80 cells and its down-regulation abolishes their resistance to ZA. Moreover, ANXA1 induces DU145 and DU145R80 invasiveness acting through formyl peptide receptors (FPRs). Also, ANXA1 knockdown is able to inhibit epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and to reduce focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and metalloproteases (MMP)-2/9 expression in PCa cells. DU145R80 show a cancer stem cell (CSC)-like signature with a high expression of CSC markers including CD44, CD133, NANOG, Snail, Oct4 and ALDH7A1 and CSC-related genes as STAT3. Interestingly, ANXA1 knockdown induces these cells to revert from a putative prostate CSC to a more differentiated phenotype resembling DU145 PCa cell signature. Similar results are obtained concerning some drug resistance-related genes such as ATP Binding Cassette G2 (ABCG2) and Lung Resistant Protein (LRP). Our study provides new insights on the role of ANXA1 protein in PCa onset and progression. PMID:26312765

  15. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Cancer screening is looking for cancer before you have any ... be easier to treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different ...

  16. PSA Screening Has Led to Overtreatment of Many Prostate Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for prostate cancer with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test has led to overtreatment of many prostate cancers, including aggressive treatments in older men considered to be at low risk for progression of the disease according to a study published in the July 26, 2010 Archives of Internal Medicine.

  17. N-Myc Drives Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer Initiated from Human Prostate Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, JK; Phillips, JW; Smith, BA; Park, JW; Stoyanova, T; McCaffrey, EF; Baertsch, R.; Sokolov, A.; Meyerowitz, JG; Mathis, C.; Cheng, D; Stuart, JM; Shokat, KM; Gustafson, WC; Huang, J.

    2016-01-01

    MYCN amplification and overexpression are common in neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC). However, the impact of aberrant N-Myc expression in prostate tumorigenesis and the cellular origin of NEPC have not been established. We define N-Myc and activated AKT1 as oncogenic components sufficient to transform human prostate epithelial cells to prostate adenocarcinoma and NEPC with phenotypic and molecular features of aggressive, late-stage human disease. We directly show that prostate adenocarci...

  18. What Is Prostate Cancer?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the more likely he is to develop the disease. Physician: Come on back, first room. Narrator: Most ... cancer. Prostate cancer is really a spectrum of diseases where on one end of the spectrum there ...

  19. Detecting Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abnormal and raises the index of suspicion that cancer may be present. Narrator: While the use of ... examination does not mean that they have prostate cancer. It means that we're concerned about it ...

  20. Prostate Cancer and Sexual Function

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun, Jae Saog

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is now ranked fifth in incidence among cancers in Korean adult males. This is attributable to the more Westernized dietary style which increases the morbidity of prostate cancer and the development of cancer diagnostic technologies, such as prostate-specific antigen and advanced medical systems, increasing the rate of prostate cancer diagnosis. Prostate cancer effects include not only erectile dysfunction caused by the disease itself, but also by psychiatric disorders caused b...

  1. Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His ... Read More "Prostate Cancer" Articles Progress Against Prostate Cancer / Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His ...

  2. Prostate Cancer Screening (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best in your individual situation. WHAT IS PROSTATE CANCER? — Prostate cancer is a cancer of the prostate, a ... most of them do not die from their cancer. Prostate cancer often grows so slowly that many men ...

  3. IGFBP-3 is a Metastasis Suppression Gene in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Hemal H.; Gao, Qinglei; Galet, Colette; Paharkova, Vladislava; Wan, Junxiang; Said, Jonathan; Sohn, Joanne J.; Lawson, Gregory; Cohen, Pinchas; Cobb, Laura J.; Lee, Kuk-Wha

    2011-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor binding protein IGFBP-3 is a pro-apoptotic and anti-angiogenic protein in prostate cancer (CaP). Epidemiological studies suggest that low IGFBP-3 is associated with greater risk of aggressive, metastatic prostate cancers, but in vivo functional data are lacking. Here we show that mice that are genetically deficient in IGFBP-3 exhibit weaker growth of primary prostate tumors growth but higher incidence of metastatic disease. Prostates in IGFBP-3 knockout mice (IG...

  4. Prostate cancer; Cancer de la prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieillot, S.; Fenoglietto, P.; Ailleres, N.; Hay, M.H.; Dubois, J.B.; Azria, D. [Departement de cancerologie radiotherapie, Universite Montpellier I, CRLC Val d' Aurelle, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2010-07-01

    Radiation therapy is now widely accepted as an efficacious treatment of localized prostate cancer. The technical developments of recent years have enabled the evolution of a three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, offering a better adaptation of the dose distribution, and leading therefore to preserve organs at risk. In addition, the required dose delivered to the target volume permit physician to increase the total dose if necessary. This requires a thorough knowledge of the radio-anatomy of the prostate, the natural history of the disease but also the ballistics and dosimetry. The objectives of this work were to detail epidemiology and radio-anatomy of the prostate cancer. In addition, conformal radiation modalities are illustrated by a case report. (authors)

  5. What Tests Can Detect Prostate Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Prostate Cancer Prevention and Early Detection + - Text Size Download Printable Version [ ... coverage for prostate cancer screening Additional resources for prostate cancer prevention and early detection References: Prostate cancer prevention and ...

  6. Detecting Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rectal examination does not mean that they have prostate cancer. It means that we're concerned about it and they should go on to have other tests, such as a trans-rectal ultrasound ... made of the prostate gland. Usually these are accompanied by a biopsy -- ...

  7. Detecting Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rectal examination does not mean that they have prostate cancer. It means that we're concerned about it and they should go on to have other tests, such as a trans-rectal ultrasound ... made of the prostate gland. Usually these are accompanied by a biopsy -- ...

  8. Growth inhibition properties of the putative prostate cancer biomarkers PSP94 and CRISP-3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aleyde Van Eynde; Kirill Litovkin; Mathieu Bollen

    2011-01-01

    @@ One of the major problems in prostate cancer (PCa)diagnosis and treatment relates to the difficulty in discriminating between slow-growing, indolent cancers and more aggress-ive tumors with a lethal outcome.

  9. Multiparametric MR imaging in diagnosis of chronic prostatitis and its differentiation from prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Sah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic prostatitis is a heterogeneous condition with high prevalence rate. Chronic prostatitis has overlap in clinical presentation with other prostate disorders and is one of the causes of high serum prostate specific antigen (PSA level. Chronic prostatitis, unlike acute prostatitis, is difficult to diagnose reliably and accurately on the clinical grounds alone. Not only this, it is also challenging to differentiate chronic prostatitis from prostate cancer with imaging modalities like TRUS and conventional MR Imaging, as the findings can mimic those of prostate cancer. Even biopsy doesn't play promising role in the diagnosis of chronic prostatitis as it has limited sensitivity and specificity. As a result of this, chronic prostatitis may be misdiagnosed as a malignant condition and end up in aggressive surgical management resulting in increased morbidity. This warrants the need of reliable diagnostic tool which has ability not only to diagnose it reliably but also to differentiate it from the prostate cancer. Recently, it is suggested that multiparametric MR Imaging of the prostate could improve the diagnostic accuracy of the prostate cancer. This review is based on the critically published literature and aims to provide an overview of multiparamateric MRI techniques in the diagnosis of chronic prostatitis and its differentiation from prostate cancer.

  10. Neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Popescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This review aims to provide practicing clinicians with the most recent knowledge of the biological nature of prostate cancer especially the information regarding neuroendocrine differentiation. Methods: Review of the literature using PubMed search and scientific journal publications. Results: Much progress has been made towards an understanding of the development and progression of prostate cancer. The prostate is a male accessory sex gland which produces a fraction of seminal fluid. The normal human prostate is composed of a stromal compartment (which contains: nerves, fibroblast, smooth muscle cells, macrophages surrounding glandular acins – epithelial cells. Neuroendocrine cells are one of the epithelial populations in the normal prostate and are believed to provide trophic signals trough the secretion of neuropeptides that diffuse and influence surrounding epithelial cells. Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in men. In prostate cancer, neuroendocrine cells can stimulate growth of surrounding prostate adenocarcinoma cells (proliferation of neighboring cancer cells in a paracrine manner by secretion of neuroendocrine products. Neuroendocrine prostate cancer is an aggressive variant of prostate cancer that commonly arises in later stages of castration resistant prostate cancer. The detection of neuroendocrine prostate cancer has clinical implications. These patients are often treated with platinum chemotherapy rather than with androgen receptor targeted therapies. Conclusion: This review shows the need to improve our knowledge regarding diagnostic and treatment methods of the Prostate Cancer, especially cancer cells with neuroendocrine phenotype.

  11. Epigenetics in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantine Albany

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the most commonly diagnosed nonskin malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequences. Two common epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone modification, have demonstrated critical roles in prostate cancer growth and metastasis. DNA hypermethylation of cytosine-guanine (CpG rich sequence islands within gene promoter regions is widespread during neoplastic transformation of prostate cells, suggesting that treatment-induced restoration of a “normal” epigenome could be clinically beneficial. Histone modification leads to altered tumor gene function by changing chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription. The reversibility of epigenetic aberrations and restoration of tumor suppression gene function have made them attractive targets for prostate cancer treatment with modulators that demethylate DNA and inhibit histone deacetylases.

  12. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... absolute reduction in mortal- ity. Preliminary results from PIVOT (Prostate Cancer In- tervention Versus Observation Trial), in ... early PSA screening era, prelim- inary findings from PIVOT show that, after 12 years, in- tention to ...

  13. Detecting Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have by having their blood sampled and what we look for is a particular glyco-protein that's ... that they have prostate cancer. It means that we're concerned about it and they should go ...

  14. Prostate Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financials Our Leadership Leadership Team A Legacy of Leadership Featured ... Medicine Revolution Welcome to the world of precision medicine—where doctors can target each prostate cancer with new, more effective drugs. And this is just the beginning. Learn ...

  15. Novel diagnostic biomarkers for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikezie O. Madu, Yi Lu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in American men, and a more aggressive form of the disease is particularly prevalent among African Americans. The therapeutic success rate for prostate cancer can be tremendously improved if the disease is diagnosed early. Thus, a successful therapy for this disease depends heavily on the clinical indicators (biomarkers for early detection of the presence and progression of the disease, as well as the prediction after the clinical intervention. However, the current clinical biomarkers for prostate cancer are not ideal as there remains a lack of reliable biomarkers that can specifically distinguish between those patients who should be treated adequately to stop the aggressive form of the disease and those who should avoid overtreatment of the indolent form.A biomarker is a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. A biomarker reveals further information to presently existing clinical and pathological analysis. It facilitates screening and detecting the cancer, monitoring the progression of the disease, and predicting the prognosis and survival after clinical intervention. A biomarker can also be used to evaluate the process of drug development, and, optimally, to improve the efficacy and safety of cancer treatment by enabling physicians to tailor treatment for individual patients. The form of the prostate cancer biomarkers can vary from metabolites and chemical products present in body fluid to genes and proteins in the prostate tissues.Current advances in molecular techniques have provided new tools facilitating the discovery of new biomarkers for prostate cancer. These emerging biomarkers will be beneficial and critical in developing new and clinically reliable indicators that will have a high specificity for the diagnosis and prognosis of

  16. Novel diagnostic biomarkers for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Chikezie O; Lu, Yi

    2010-10-06

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in American men, and a more aggressive form of the disease is particularly prevalent among African Americans. The therapeutic success rate for prostate cancer can be tremendously improved if the disease is diagnosed early. Thus, a successful therapy for this disease depends heavily on the clinical indicators (biomarkers) for early detection of the presence and progression of the disease, as well as the prediction after the clinical intervention. However, the current clinical biomarkers for prostate cancer are not ideal as there remains a lack of reliable biomarkers that can specifically distinguish between those patients who should be treated adequately to stop the aggressive form of the disease and those who should avoid overtreatment of the indolent form.A biomarker is a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. A biomarker reveals further information to presently existing clinical and pathological analysis. It facilitates screening and detecting the cancer, monitoring the progression of the disease, and predicting the prognosis and survival after clinical intervention. A biomarker can also be used to evaluate the process of drug development, and, optimally, to improve the efficacy and safety of cancer treatment by enabling physicians to tailor treatment for individual patients. The form of the prostate cancer biomarkers can vary from metabolites and chemical products present in body fluid to genes and proteins in the prostate tissues.Current advances in molecular techniques have provided new tools facilitating the discovery of new biomarkers for prostate cancer. These emerging biomarkers will be beneficial and critical in developing new and clinically reliable indicators that will have a high specificity for the diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer. The

  17. Algorithms, nomograms and the detection of indolent prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Roobol-Bouts, Monique

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men. However, only about 12% of the men diagnosed with prostate cancer will die of their disease. Result: The serum PSA test can detect prostate cancers early, but using a PSA based cut-off indication for prostate biopsy results in unnecessary testing in app. 75-80% of the men and perhaps even more important the serum PSA test cannot tell how aggressive the cancer is. To decrease unnecessary testing different test r...

  18. New Prostate Cancer Treatment Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have identified a potential alternative approach to blocking a key molecular driver of an advanced form of prostate cancer, called androgen-independent or castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  19. Genetic epidemiology of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wiklund, Fredrik

    2004-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a major health burden throughout the world, yet the etiology of prostate cancer is poorly understood. Evidence has accumulated supporting the existence of a hereditary form of this disease. Improved understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying the development and progression of prostate cancer would be a major advance for improved prevention, detection and treatment strategies. This thesis evaluates different aspects of the genetic epidemiology of prostate cancer. In ...

  20. Prostate cancer: emerging pharmacotherapeutic modalities

    OpenAIRE

    Pratap Shankar; Anoop Kumar Verma; Rakesh Kumar Dixit; Amod Kumar Sachan

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in the world due to factors like old age, family history, ethnicity, diet and some elements exposure, with lot of controversies regarding prevention of prostate cancer. Though the exact pathogenesis is not clear, epidemiological evidence supports a relationship between prostate cancer and hormone levels. In this review article we are focusing on the advances in different pharmacotherapeutic modalities i.e. Chemoprevention, Prostate-Specific Antigen, H...

  1. Evolving Recommendations on Prostate Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawley, Otis W; Thompson, Ian M; Grönberg, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Results of a number of studies demonstrate that the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in and of itself is an inadequate screening test. Today, one of the most pressing questions in prostate cancer medicine is how can screening be honed to identify those who have life-threatening disease and need aggressive treatment. A number of efforts are underway. One such effort is the assessment of men in the landmark Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial that has led to a prostate cancer risk calculator (PCPTRC), which is available online. PCPTRC version 2.0 predicts the probability of the diagnosis of no cancer, low-grade cancer, or high-grade cancer when variables such as PSA, age, race, family history, and physical findings are input. Modern biomarker development promises to provide tests with fewer false positives and improved ability to find high-grade cancers. Stockholm III (STHLM3) is a prospective, population-based, paired, screen-positive, prostate cancer diagnostic study assessing a combination of plasma protein biomarkers along with age, family history, previous biopsy, and prostate examination for prediction of prostate cancer. Multiparametric MRI incorporates anatomic and functional imaging to better characterize and predict future behavior of tumors within the prostate. After diagnosis of cancer, several genomic tests promise to better distinguish the cancers that need treatment versus those that need observation. Although the new technologies are promising, there is an urgent need for evaluation of these new tests in high-quality, large population-based studies. Until these technologies are proven, most professional organizations have evolved to a recommendation of informed or shared decision making in which there is a discussion between the doctor and patient. PMID:27249774

  2. American Cancer Society Recommendations for Prostate Cancer Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Prostate Cancer Prevention and Early Detection + - Text Size Download Printable Version [ ... coverage for prostate cancer screening Additional resources for prostate cancer prevention and early detection References: Prostate cancer prevention and ...

  3. Osteoporosis and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads Hvid; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Abrahamsen, Bo;

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of osteoporosis and risk factors of osteoporotic fractures before androgen deprivation in Danish men. Treatment and prognosis of prostate cancer necessitate management of long-term consequences of androgen deprivation therapy...... (ADT), including accelerated bone loss resulting in osteoporosis. Osteoporotic fractures are associated with excess morbidity and mortality. Material and methods. Patients with prostate cancer awaiting initiation of ADT were consecutively included. Half of the patients had localized disease and were...... level was 30.5 g/l (1-5714 g/l). The average Gleason score was 7.8 (range 5-10, SD 1.1). Fifty patients had localized prostate cancer and the other 55 patients had disseminated disease. The prevalence of osteoporosis was 10% and the prevalence of osteopenia was 58% before ADT. There was no significant...

  4. Childhood height increases the risk of prostate cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adult body size is positively associated with aggressive and fatal prostate cancers. It is unknown whether these associations originate in early life. Therefore, we investigated if childhood height, body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and growth are associated with prostate cancer-specific......BACKGROUND: Adult body size is positively associated with aggressive and fatal prostate cancers. It is unknown whether these associations originate in early life. Therefore, we investigated if childhood height, body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and growth are associated with prostate cancer......-specific mortality and survival. METHODS: Subjects were 125,208 men from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born 1930-1969 with height and weight measurements at ages 7-13years. Linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry and the Register of Causes of Death enabled identification of incident and fatal prostate...

  5. ETS rearrangements in prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark A Rubin

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a clinically and molecularly heterogeneous disease.Understanding the biologic underpinning of prostate cancer is necessary to best determine how biology is associated with the risk of disease progression and how this understanding might provide insight into the development of novel therapeutic approaches.The focus of this review is on the recently identified common ETS and non-ETS gene rearrangements in prostate cancer.Although multiple molecular alterations have been detected in prostate cancer,a basic understanding of gene fusion prostate cancer should help explain the clinical and biologic diversity,providing a rationale for a molecular subclassification of the disease.

  6. Chemotherapy in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Michael

    2015-10-01

    For approximately a decade, chemotherapy has been shown to prolong life in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Since that time, however, only two agents have proven to prolong life (docetaxel and cabazitaxel). However, in the last year, the addition of chemotherapy to primary hormonal therapy became a standard of care for high-volume castration-sensitive metastatic disease. Here I will review current prostate cancer chemotherapies, mechanisms of resistance to those therapies, and ongoing clinical studies of chemotherapy combinations and novel chemotherapeutics. PMID:26216506

  7. Highlights from the prostate cancer genome report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyh-Han Tan; Gyorgy Petrovics; Shiv Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    @@ Prostate cancer (Cap) is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer of men worldwide (899 000 new cases,13.6% of the total),with nearly 75% of the registered cases occurring in developed countries (644000 cases).1 Blood prostate-specific antigen test has revolutionized the early detection of Cap and organ-confined Cap is effectively managed by state-of-the-art treatments including radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy.2 In the past decade,tremendous progress has also been made in our understanding of the biology and common genomicalterations in Cap 3.4 New molecular marker assays have promise in improving CaP diagnosis.Despite these advances,major challenges remain with our ability to distinguish indolent cancers from the more aggressive cancers detected early due to widely used prostate-specific antigen test.Furthermore,development of molecular stratification of CaP for targeted and more effective therapies is critically needed.

  8. [Chemotherapy for prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchenwald, Michael; De Santis, Maria; Fink, Eleonore; Höltl, Wolfgang; Kramer, Gero; Marei, Isabella-Carolina; Neumann, Hans-Jörg; Reissigl, Andreas; Schmeller, Nikolaus; Stackl, Walter; Hobisch, Alfred; Krainer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    For many years the benefit of chemotherapy in patients with prostate cancer was thought to be limited to palliation of late-stage disease, and thus this treatment option only became involved in patient care towards the end of the disease process, if at all. However, two landmark phase-III trials with docetaxel-based therapy (TAX 327 and Southwest Oncology Group, SWOG, 9916) have shown a survival benefit for patients with hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) thus prompting a change in patterns of care. With raising interest for chemotherapeutic options and clinical trials for new drugs and new indications (neoadjuvant therapy, adjuvant therapy, increasing PSA levels after local treatment, and hormone sensitive cancer) under way our goal was to review within the context of a multidisciplinary team the available evidence and explore the standard for the medical treatment of prostate cancer outside of clinical trials. We are carefully evaluating the current treatment recommendations based on the available evidence and highlight potential future treatment options but also discuss important clinical topics (treatment until progression versus the advantage of chemo holidays, definition of particular patient subgroups and potential second line options) for which there are no clear cut answers to date. The role and importance of radiotherapy, biphosphonate treatment and the medical management of pain and side effects is also discussed. The multitude of treatment options for patients with advanced prostate cancer clearly asks for a close collaboration between urologists, medical oncologists and radiation therapists. PMID:18726672

  9. Periostin is up-regulated in high grade and high stage prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schraml Peter

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression of periostin is an indicator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer but a detailed analysis of periostin expression in prostate cancer has not been conducted so far. Methods Here, we evaluated periostin expression in prostate cancer cells and peritumoural stroma immunohistochemically in two independent prostate cancer cohorts, including a training cohort (n = 93 and a test cohort (n = 325. Metastatic prostate cancers (n = 20, hormone refractory prostate cancers (n = 19 and benign prostatic tissues (n = 38 were also analyzed. Results In total, strong epithelial periostin expression was detectable in 142 of 418 (34.0% of prostate carcinomas and in 11 of 38 benign prostate glands (28.9%. Increased periostin expression in carcinoma cells was significantly associated with high Gleason score (p Conclusions Our data indicate that periostin up-regulation is related to increased tumour aggressiveness in prostate cancer and might be a promising target for therapeutical interventions in primary and metastatic prostate cancer.

  10. SU-E-J-95: Predicting Treatment Outcomes for Prostate Cancer: Irradiation Responses of Prostate Cancer Stem Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Most prostate cancers are slow-growing diseases but normally require much higher doses (80Gy) with conventional fractionation radiotherapy, comparing to other more aggressive cancers. This study is to disclose the radiobiological basis of this discrepancy by proposing the concept of prostate cancer stem cells (CSCs) and examining their specific irradiation responses. Methods: There are overwhelming evidences that CSC may keep their stemness, e.g. the competency of cell differentiation, in hypoxic microenvironments and hence become radiation resistive, though the probability is tiny for aggressiveness cancers. Tumor hypoxia used to be considered as an independent reason for poor treatment outcomes, and recent evidences showed that even prostate cancers were also hypoxic though they are very slow-growing. In addition, to achieve comparable outcomes to other much more aggressive cancers, much higher doses (rather than lower doses) are always needed for prostate cancers, regardless of its non-aggressiveness. All these abnormal facts can only be possibly interpreted by the irradiation responses characteristics of prostate CSCs. Results: Both normal cancer cells (NCCs) and CSCs exiting in tumors, in which NCCs are mainly for symptoms whereas killing all CSCs achieves disease-free. Since prostate cancers are slow-growing, the hypoxia in prostate cancers cannot possibly from NCCs, thus it is caused by hypoxic CSCs. However, single hypoxic cell cannot be imaged due to limitation of imaging techniques, unless a large group of hypoxic cells exist together, thus most of CSCs in prostate cancers are virtually hypoxic, i.e. not in working mode because CSCs in proliferating mode have to be normoxic, and this explains why prostate cancers are unaggressive. Conclusion: The fractional dose in conventional radiotherapy (∼2Gy) could only kill NCCs and CSCs in proliferating modes, whereas most CSCs survived fractional treatments since they were hypoxic, thus to eliminate all

  11. SU-E-J-95: Predicting Treatment Outcomes for Prostate Cancer: Irradiation Responses of Prostate Cancer Stem Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, K [University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Most prostate cancers are slow-growing diseases but normally require much higher doses (80Gy) with conventional fractionation radiotherapy, comparing to other more aggressive cancers. This study is to disclose the radiobiological basis of this discrepancy by proposing the concept of prostate cancer stem cells (CSCs) and examining their specific irradiation responses. Methods: There are overwhelming evidences that CSC may keep their stemness, e.g. the competency of cell differentiation, in hypoxic microenvironments and hence become radiation resistive, though the probability is tiny for aggressiveness cancers. Tumor hypoxia used to be considered as an independent reason for poor treatment outcomes, and recent evidences showed that even prostate cancers were also hypoxic though they are very slow-growing. In addition, to achieve comparable outcomes to other much more aggressive cancers, much higher doses (rather than lower doses) are always needed for prostate cancers, regardless of its non-aggressiveness. All these abnormal facts can only be possibly interpreted by the irradiation responses characteristics of prostate CSCs. Results: Both normal cancer cells (NCCs) and CSCs exiting in tumors, in which NCCs are mainly for symptoms whereas killing all CSCs achieves disease-free. Since prostate cancers are slow-growing, the hypoxia in prostate cancers cannot possibly from NCCs, thus it is caused by hypoxic CSCs. However, single hypoxic cell cannot be imaged due to limitation of imaging techniques, unless a large group of hypoxic cells exist together, thus most of CSCs in prostate cancers are virtually hypoxic, i.e. not in working mode because CSCs in proliferating mode have to be normoxic, and this explains why prostate cancers are unaggressive. Conclusion: The fractional dose in conventional radiotherapy (∼2Gy) could only kill NCCs and CSCs in proliferating modes, whereas most CSCs survived fractional treatments since they were hypoxic, thus to eliminate all

  12. Vitamin E and Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin E, its metabolites or its analogs, might help prevent prostate cancer initiation or progression. Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in the United States, exceeded only by lung cancer. About 218,890 new cases of prost...

  13. Development of the VCaP Androgen Independent Model of Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Loberg, Robert D; St. John, Lauren N; Day, LaShon L.; Neeley, Chris K; Kenneth J. Pienta

    2006-01-01

    Prostate epithelial cell growth is dependent on the presence of androgens and the transition of prostate cancer to an androgen independent phenotype results in a highly aggressive, currently incurable cancer. We have developed a new preclinical model of androgen independent prostate cancer derived from the VCaP prostate cancer epithelial cell line. VCaP cells were subcutaneously implanted and serially passaged in castrated male SCID mice. Androgen independence was confirmed by WST-1 (a tetraz...

  14. Prevention strategies in prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Trottier, Greg; Lawrentschuk, N.; Fleshner, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer (pca) prevention has been an exciting and controversial topic since the results of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (pcpt) were published. With the recently published results of the reduce (Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events) trial, interest in this topic is at a peak. Primary pca prevention will be unlikely to affect mortality significantly, but the reduction in overtreatment and the effect on quality of life from the avoidance of a cancer diagnosis are im...

  15. Novel approaches for the molecular classification of prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert H. Getzenberg

    2010-01-01

    @@ Among the urologic cancers, prostate cancer is by far the most common, and it appears to have the potential to affect almost all men throughout the world as they age. A number of studies have shown that many men with prostate cancer will not die from their disease, but rather with the disease but from other causes. These men have a form of prostate cancer that is de-scribed as "very low risk" and has often been called indolent. There are however a group of men that have a form of prostate cancer that is much more aggressive and life threatening. Unlike other cancer types, we have few tools to provide for the molecular classification of prostate cancer.

  16. Survival in prostate cancer prevention trial detailed

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the NCI-sponsored Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, initial findings from a decade ago showed that the drug finasteride significantly reduced the risk of prostate cancer, but among those who did develop prostate cancer, paradoxically, the drug was asso

  17. Association between cytochrome CYP17A1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A43 polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk and aggressiveness in a Korean study population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hyun Han

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated genetic variants of the androgen metabolism genes CYP17A1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A43 to determine whether they play a role in the development of prostate cancer (PCa in Korean men. The study population included 240 pathologically diagnosed cases of PCa and 223 age-matched controls. Among the 789 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP database variants detected, 129 were reported in two Asian groups (Han Chinese and Japanese in the HapMap database. Only 21 polymorphisms of CYP17A1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A43 were selected based on linkage disequilibrium in Asians (r2 = 1, locations (SNPs in exons were preferred, and amino acid changes and were assessed. In addition, we performed haplotype analysis for the 21 SNPs in CYP17A1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A43 genes. To determine the association between genotype and haplotype distributions of patients and controls, logistic analyses were carried out, controlling for age. Twelve sequence variants and five major haplotypes were identified in CYP17A1. Five sequence variants and two major haplotypes were identified in CYP3A4. Four sequence variants and four major haplotypes were observed in CYP3A43. CYP17A1 haplotype-2 (Ht-2 (odds ratio [OR], 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-2.18 was associated with PCa susceptibility. CYP3A4 Ht-2 (OR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.02-3.43 was associated with PCa metastatic potential according to tumor stage. rs17115149 (OR: 1.96; 95% CI: 1.04-3.68 and CYP17A1 Ht-4 (OR: 2.01; 95% CI: 1.07-4.11 showed a significant association with histologic aggressiveness according to Gleason score. Genetic variants of CYP17A1 and CYP3A4 may play a role in the development of PCa in Korean men.

  18. [Epidemiology of prostate cancer in China: an overview and clinical implication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dingwei; Zhu, Yao

    2015-04-01

    Prostate cancer is a currently common disease in Chinese male. The incidence is increasing rapidly in urban area and the mortality is high in rural area. According to characteristics of disease stage, advancement in early diagnosis of prostate cancer is the key to improve prostate cancer survival in China. Because of the remarkable disparity in economic and health care across mainland China, a selective prostate cancer screen approach may be a better alternative to spread. Therefore, indepth researches in optimization of prostate specific antigen screen and validation biomarkers of aggressive prostate cancer should be advocated. Furthermore, physicians should take a more active role in population education.

  19. Efficacy of c-Met inhibitor for advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen James G

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aberrant expression of HGF/SF and its receptor, c-Met, often correlates with advanced prostate cancer. Our previous study showed that expression of c-Met in prostate cancer cells was increased after attenuation of androgen receptor (AR signalling. This suggested that current androgen ablation therapy for prostate cancer activates c-Met expression and may contribute to development of more aggressive, castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC. Therefore, we directly assessed the efficacy of c-Met inhibition during androgen ablation on the growth and progression of prostate cancer. Methods We tested two c-Met small molecule inhibitors, PHA-665752 and PF-2341066, for anti-proliferative activity by MTS assay and cell proliferation assay on human prostate cancer cell lines with different levels of androgen sensitivity. We also used renal subcapsular and castrated orthotopic xenograft mouse models to assess the effect of the inhibitors on prostate tumor formation and progression. Results We demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of PHA-665752 and PF-2341066 on the proliferation of human prostate cancer cells and the phosphorylation of c-Met. The effect on cell proliferation was stronger in androgen insensitive cells. The c-Met inhibitor, PF-2341066, significantly reduced growth of prostate tumor cells in the renal subcapsular mouse model and the castrated orthotopic mouse model. The effect on cell proliferation was greater following castration. Conclusions The c-Met inhibitors demonstrated anti-proliferative efficacy when combined with androgen ablation therapy for advanced prostate cancer.

  20. Dutasteride May Slow the Growth of Early-Stage Prostate Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    For men who are undergoing active surveillance for early-stage prostate cancer, the drug dutasteride (Avodart) could help control the disease and prevent the need for more aggressive treatments. |

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer clinical application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Li; Yong Du; Hanfeng Yang; Yayong Huang; Jun Meng; Dongmei Xiao

    2013-01-01

    As prostate cancer is a biologically heterogeneous disease for which a variety of treatment options are available,the major objective of prostate cancer imaging is to achieve more precise disease characterization.In clinical practice,magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the imaging tools for the evaluation of prostate cancer,the fusion of MRI or dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) with magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is improving the evaluation of cancer location,size,and extent,while providing an indication of tumor aggressiveness.This review summarizes the role of MRI in the application of prostate cancer and describes molecular MRI techniques (including MRSI and DCE-MRI)for aiding prostate cancer management.

  2. Molecular markers for prostate cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynolds, M.A.; Kastury, K.; Groskopf, J.; Schalken, J.A.; Rittenhouse, H.G.

    2007-01-01

    Serum PSA testing has been used for over 20 years as an aid in the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. Although highly sensitive, it suffers from a lack of specificity, showing elevated serum levels in a variety of other conditions including prostatitis, benign prostate hyperplasia, and non

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Prostate Multiparametric MR Images for Detection of Aggressive Prostate Cancer in the Peripheral Zone: A Multiple Imager Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang Dinh, Au; Melodelima, Christelle; Souchon, Rémi; Lehaire, Jérôme; Bratan, Flavie; Mège-Lechevallier, Florence; Ruffion, Alain; Crouzet, Sébastien; Colombel, Marc; Rouvière, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    Purpose To assess the intermanufacturer variability of quantitative models in discriminating cancers with a Gleason score of at least 7 among peripheral zone (PZ) lesions seen at 3-T multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods An institutional review board-approved prospective database of 257 patients who gave written consent and underwent T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted, and dynamic contrast material-enhanced imaging before prostatectomy was retrospectively reviewed. It contained outlined lesions found to be suspicious for malignancy by two independent radiologists and classified as malignant or benign after correlation with prostatectomy whole-mount specimens. One hundred six patients who underwent imaging with 3-T MR systems from two manufacturers were selected (data set A, n = 72; data set B, n = 34). Eleven parameters were calculated in PZ lesions: normalized T2-weighted signal intensity, skewness and kurtosis of T2-weighted signal intensity, T2 value, wash-in rate, washout rate, time to peak (TTP), mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), 10th percentile of the ADC, and skewness and kurtosis of the histogram of the ADC values. Parameters were selected on the basis of their specificity for a sensitivity of 0.95 in diagnosing cancers with a Gleason score of at least 7, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the models was calculated. Results The model of the 10th percentile of the ADC with TTP yielded the highest AUC in both data sets. In data set A, the AUC was 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.85, 0.95) or 0.89 (95% CI: 0.82, 0.94) when it was trained in data set A or B, respectively. In data set B, the AUC was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.94) or 0.86 (95% CI: 0.76, 0.95) when it was trained in data set A or B, respectively. No third variable added significantly independent information in any data set. Conclusion The model of the 10th percentile of the ADC with TTP yielded accurate results in

  4. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudit Verma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person’s genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed.

  5. Cabazitaxel Plus Prednisone With Octreotide For Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC) Previously Treated With Docetaxel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-21

    Diarrhea; Hormone-resistant Prostate Cancer; Recurrent Prostate Cancer; Stage I Prostate Cancer; Stage IIA Prostate Cancer; Stage IIB Prostate Cancer; Stage III Prostate Cancer; Stage IV Prostate Cancer

  6. The Early Prostate Cancer program: bicalutamide in nonmetastatic prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter; Roder, Martin Andreas; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The Early Prostate Cancer program is investigating the addition of bicalutamide 150 mg to standard care for localized or locally advanced, nonmetastatic prostate cancer. The third program analysis, at 7.4 years' median follow-up, has shown that bicalutamide 150 mg does not benefit patients...

  7. Differentiation of lethal and non lethal prostate cancer:PSA and PSA isoforms and kinetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H Ballentine Carter

    2012-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer has led to a decrease in cancer mortality.However,the high prevalence of low-grade prostate cancer and its long natural history,competing causes of death in older men and treatment patterns of prostate cancer,have led to dramatic overtreatment of the disease.Improved markers of prostate cancer lethality are needed to reduce the overtreatment of prostate cancer that leads to a reduced quality of life without extending life for a high proportion of men.The PSA level prior to treatment is routinely used in multivariable models to predict prostate cancer aggressiveness.PSA isoforms and PSA kinetics have been associated with more aggressive phenotypes,but are not routinely employed as part of prediction tools prior to treatment.PSA kinetics is a valuable marker of lethality post treatment and routinely used in determining the need for salvage therapy.

  8. CXCL5 Promotes Prostate Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesa A Begley

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available CXCL5 is a proangiogenic CXC-type chemokine that is an inflammatory mediator and a powerful attractant for granulocytic immune cells. Unlike many other chemokines, CXCL5 is secreted by both immune (neutrophil, monocyte, and macrophage and nonimmune (epithelial, endothelial, and fibroblastic cell types. The current study was intended to determine which of these cell types express CXCL5 in normal and malignant human prostatic tissues, whether expression levels correlated with malignancy and whether CXCL5 stimulated biologic effects consistent with a benign or malignant prostate epithelial phenotype. The results of these studies show that CXCL5 protein expression levels are concordant with prostate tumor progression, are highly associated with inflammatory infiltrate, and are frequently detected in the lumens of both benign and malignant prostate glands. Exogenous administration of CXCL5 stimulates cellular proliferation and gene transcription in both nontransformed and transformed prostate epithelial cells and induces highly aggressive prostate cancer cells to invade through synthetic basement membrane in vitro. These findings suggest that the inflammatory mediator, CXCL5, may play multiple roles in the etiology of both benign and malignant proliferative diseases in the prostate.

  9. Telomerase activity in needle biopsies from prostate cancer and benign prostates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wymenga, LFA; Wisman, GBA; Ruiters, MHJ; Mensink, HJA; Veenstra, R.

    2000-01-01

    Background Telomerase activation is thought to be essential for the immortality of cancer cells. It may be a prognostic factor in small volume well differentiated prostate cancers and hence a guide for the aggressiveness of the approach. The length of the chromosome tips (telomeres) are maintained b

  10. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  11. Androgen Control in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelekanou, Vasiliki; Castanas, Elias

    2016-10-01

    Research on prostate cancer has extensively advanced in the past decade, through an improved understanding for its genetic basis and risk-stratification. Molecular classification of prostate cancer into distinct subtypes and the recognition of new histologic entities promise the development of tailored-made management strategies of patients. Nowadays, various alternatives are available for clinical management of localized disease ranging from observation alone through radical prostatectomy. In patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer, the approval of new drugs for the management of metastatic disease has offered promising results improving the survival of these patients. In this context, androgen receptors (AR) remain at the epicenter of prostate cancer research holding a prominent role in the biology and therapeutic regimens of prostate cancer. As many of castration-resistant tumors retain hormone-responsiveness, AR is a clinical relevant, druggable target. However, AR paradoxically remains neglected as a prostate cancer biomarker. The great advancements in prostate cancer preclinical and clinical research, imply further improvement in clinical and translational data, for patient selection and treatment optimization. For a precision medicine-guided clinical management of prostate cancer, AR evaluation has to be implemented in companion and complementary diagnostics, as discussed here. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2224-2234, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27104784

  12. Multidrug Resistance in Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. van Brussel

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAdvanced hormone refractory prostate cancer constitutes a therapeutic challenge, because all available treatment strategies have failed to substantially increase cancer specific survival. Among these strategies, a multitude of chemotherapeutic approaches did not offer a superior life

  13. DNA methylome and the complexity of discovering prostate cancer biomarkers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahriar Koochekpour

    2011-01-01

    @@ Prostate cancer (PCa) remains the most common malignancy and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men.Molecular discrimination at an early stage between indolent and aggressive primary tumors in pathologically confirmed PCa is required to develop personalized therapeutic interventions.

  14. Prostate cancer stem cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chunyan; Yao, Zhi; Jiang, Yuan; Keller, Evan T.

    2012-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) model provides insights into pathophysiology of cancers and their therapeutic response. The CSC model has been both controversial, yet provides a foundation to explore cancer biology. In this review, we provide an overview of CSC concepts, biology and potential therapeutic avenues. We then focus on prostate CSC including (1) their purported origin as either basal-derived or luminal-derived cells; (2) markers used for prostate CSC identification; (3) alterations of s...

  15. Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Dipamoy; Aftabuddin, Md; Gupta, Dinesh Kumar; Raha, Sanghamitra; Sen, Prosenjit

    2016-01-01

    Human prostate cancer is a complex heterogeneous disease that mainly affects elder male population of the western world with a high rate of mortality. Acquisitions of diverse sets of hallmark capabilities along with an aberrant functioning of androgen receptor signaling are the central driving forces behind prostatic tumorigenesis and its transition into metastatic castration resistant disease. These hallmark capabilities arise due to an intense orchestration of several crucial factors, including deregulation of vital cell physiological processes, inactivation of tumor suppressive activity and disruption of prostate gland specific cellular homeostasis. The molecular complexity and redundancy of oncoproteins signaling in prostate cancer demands for concurrent inhibition of multiple hallmark associated pathways. By an extensive manual curation of the published biomedical literature, we have developed Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map (HPCHM), an onco-functional atlas of human prostate cancer associated signaling and events. It explores molecular architecture of prostate cancer signaling at various levels, namely key protein components, molecular connectivity map, oncogenic signaling pathway map, pathway based functional connectivity map etc. Here, we briefly represent the systems level understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with prostate tumorigenesis by considering each and individual molecular and cell biological events of this disease process.

  16. Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Dipamoy; Aftabuddin, Md; Gupta, Dinesh Kumar; Raha, Sanghamitra; Sen, Prosenjit

    2016-01-01

    Human prostate cancer is a complex heterogeneous disease that mainly affects elder male population of the western world with a high rate of mortality. Acquisitions of diverse sets of hallmark capabilities along with an aberrant functioning of androgen receptor signaling are the central driving forces behind prostatic tumorigenesis and its transition into metastatic castration resistant disease. These hallmark capabilities arise due to an intense orchestration of several crucial factors, including deregulation of vital cell physiological processes, inactivation of tumor suppressive activity and disruption of prostate gland specific cellular homeostasis. The molecular complexity and redundancy of oncoproteins signaling in prostate cancer demands for concurrent inhibition of multiple hallmark associated pathways. By an extensive manual curation of the published biomedical literature, we have developed Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map (HPCHM), an onco-functional atlas of human prostate cancer associated signaling and events. It explores molecular architecture of prostate cancer signaling at various levels, namely key protein components, molecular connectivity map, oncogenic signaling pathway map, pathway based functional connectivity map etc. Here, we briefly represent the systems level understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with prostate tumorigenesis by considering each and individual molecular and cell biological events of this disease process. PMID:27476486

  17. Chemotherapeutic prevention studies of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djavan, Bob; Zlotta, Alexandre; Schulman, Claude;

    2004-01-01

    Despite advances in the detection and management of prostate cancer, this disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in men. Increasing attention has focused on the role of chemoprevention for prostate cancer, ie the administration of agents that inhibit 1 or more steps in the natural...... history of prostate carcinogenesis. We review prostate cancer chemoprevention studies in Europe....

  18. Prevention and early detection of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuzick, J.; Thorat, M.A.; Andriole, G.; Brawley, O.W.; Brown, P.H.; Culig, Z.; Eeles, R.A.; Ford, L.G.; Hamdy, F.C.; Holmberg, L.; Ilic, D.; Key, T.J.; Vecchia, C. La; Lilja, H.; Marberger, M.; Meyskens, F.L.; Minasian, L.M.; Parker, C.; Parnes, H.L.; Perner, S.; Rittenhouse, H.; Schalken, J.A.; Schmid, H.P.; Schmitz-Drager, B.J.; Schroder, F.H.; Stenzl, A.; Tombal, B.; Wilt, T.J.; Wolk, A.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by prostate-speci

  19. Prostate cancer postoperative nomogram scores and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Major

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Nomograms are tools used in clinical practice to predict cancer outcomes and to help make decisions regarding management of disease. Since its conception, utility of the prostate cancer nomogram has more than tripled. Limited information is available on the relation between the nomograms' predicted probabilities and obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the predictions from a validated postoperative prostate cancer nomogram were associated with obesity. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional analysis of 1220 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP in southern California from 2000 to 2008. Progression-free probabilities (PFPs were ascertained from the 10-year Kattan postoperative nomogram. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. RESULTS: In the present study, aggressive prostate cancer (Gleason ≥7, but not advanced stage, was associated with obesity (p = 0.01. After adjusting for age, black race, family history of prostate cancer and current smoking, an inverse association was observed for 10-year progression-free predictions (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.28-0.90 and positive associations were observed for preoperative PSA levels (OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.01-1.50 and Gleason >7 (OR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.11-1.90. CONCLUSION: Obese RP patients were more likely to have lower PFP values than non-obese patients, suggesting a higher risk of experiencing prostate cancer progression. Identifying men with potentially higher risks due to obesity may improve disease prognosis and treatment decision-making.

  20. New horizons in prostate cancer imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravizzini, Gregory; Turkbey, Baris; Kurdziel, Karen [Molecular Imaging Program, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Choyke, Peter L. [Molecular Imaging Program, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)], E-mail: pchoyke@nih.gov

    2009-05-15

    Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy among American men. Imaging has recently become more important in detection of prostate cancer since screening techniques such as digital rectal examination (DRE), prostate specific and transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy have considerable limitations in diagnosis and localization of prostate cancer. In this manuscript, we reviewed conventional, functional and targeted imaging modalities used in diagnosis and local staging of prostate cancer with exquisite images.

  1. Prostate Cancer Detection and Dutasteride : Utility and Limitations of Prostate-Specific Antigen in Men with Previous Negative Biopsies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Pim J.; Koelble, Konrad; Huland, Hartwig; Hambrock, Thomas; Barentsz, Jelle; Schroder, Fritz H.

    2011-01-01

    Context: We addressed the question whether the change of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in men who use 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor (5-ARI) dutasteride is sensitive for the detection of aggressive prostate cancer (PCa). Objective: The case of a man using dutasteride diagnosed with Gleason 7 tr

  2. Prostate Cancer Genetics: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Christopher J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, research has focussed on identifying the genetic underpinnings of prostate cancer. It has been recognized that a number of forms of genetic changes coupled with epigenetic and gene expression changes can increase the prediction to develop prostate cancer. This review outlines the role of somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs), structural rearrangements, point mutations, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as well as miRNAs. Identifying relevant genetic changes offers the ability to develop novel biomarkers to allow early and accurate detection of prostate cancer as well as provide risk stratification of patients following their diagnosis. The concept of personalized or individualized medicine has gained significant attention. Therefore, a better understanding of the genetic and metabolic pathways underlying prostate cancer development offers the opportunity to explore new therapeutic interventions with the possibility of offering patient-specific targeted therapy.

  3. Neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaoti Huang

    2008-01-01

    @@ The treatment of choice for advanced/metastatic prostate cancer(PC) is hormonal therapy. Although patients respond initially to this therapy, the tumor will recur and enter the androgen-independent state, which is the major obstacle in therapy.

  4. Contemporary Management of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Katherine; Konety, Badrinath; Ordonez, Maria A

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer represents a spectrum ranging from low-grade, localized tumors to devastating metastatic disease. We discuss the general options for treatment and recent developments in the field. PMID:26949522

  5. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Mudit Verma; Mukesh Verma; Payal Patel

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high ris...

  6. The hallmarks of castration-resistant prostate cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsogiannou, Maria; Ziouziou, Hajer; Karaki, Sara; Andrieu, Claudia; Henry de Villeneuve, Marie; Rocchi, Palma

    2015-07-01

    Prostate cancer has become a real public health issue in industrialized countries, mainly due to patients' relapse by castration-refractory disease after androgen ablation. Castration-resistant prostate cancer is an incurable and highly aggressive terminal stage of prostate cancer, seriously jeopardizing the patient's quality of life and lifespan. The management of castration-resistant prostate cancer is complex and has opened new fields of research during the last decade leading to an improved understanding of the biology of the disease and the development of new therapies. Most advanced tumors resistant to therapy still maintain the androgen receptor-pathway, which plays a central role for survival and growth of most castration-resistant prostate cancers. Many mechanisms induce the emergence of the castration resistant phenotype through this pathway. However some non-related AR pathways like neuroendocrine cells or overexpression of anti-apoptotic proteins like Hsp27 are described to be involved in CRPC progression. More recently, loss of expression of tumor suppressor gene, post-transcriptional modification using miRNA, epigenetic alterations, alternatif splicing and gene fusion became also hallmarks of castration-resistant prostate cancer. This review presents an up-to-date overview of the androgen receptor-related mechanisms as well as the latest evidence of the non-AR-related mechanisms underlying castration-resistant prostate cancer progression. PMID:25981454

  7. [Reducing the side effects of aggressive chemotherapy (cisplatin and epirubicin) with xenogenic peptides (factor AF2) in patients with hormone refractory metastatic prostate cancer. A prospective, randomized study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, I; Wand, H

    1989-06-01

    The indication of a chemotherapy is advisable with patients who are suffering from a progressively metastasised, secondarily hormone refractory carcinoma of the prostate. In search of efficient chemotherapy protocols we combined cisplatin with epirubicin (PE scheme) in our clinic. Massive side effects of that aggressive chemotherapy scheme like gastro-intestinal trouble and myelotoxicity are the limiting factors of the scheme. With measures like reducing the dosage, delaying the next cycle, or breaking off the therapy the effective dosage can often not be achieved. The anti-emetics which are usually used today exclusively give anti-emetic protection. The additional administration of xenogenic peptides (Factor AF2) had additionally myeloprotective effect in former studies. In this study we examined whether, by additionally giving Factor AF2, the patients' subjective condition, and above all their hemogram, could be stabilised in order to achieve the effective dosage or dosage intensity. For that, the patients were prospectively randomised in two groups by means of a random selection board. The analysis of the data gained in the protocol showed that the additional administration of Factor AF2 improves the patients' subjective conditions significantly. Apart from that, we noticed a considerable reduction of the vomiting frequency. Concerning the objective measured parameters of the leukocytes, thrombocytes, erythrocytes, and the hemoglobin level, the significantly myeloprotective effect of Factor AF2 could be proved. Due to the fact that in the verum group there were considerably fewer cases of breaking off or delays of the treatment than in the control group, the effective dosage intensity could be achieved with a higher number of patients in that group. PMID:2691943

  8. Detecting Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... such as a trans-rectal ultrasound and a biopsy. Physician: Now, just relax -- the best thing to ... prostate gland. Usually these are accompanied by a biopsy -- a sampling of the prostate tissue with a ...

  9. Developing a nanoparticle test for prostate cancer scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huo Qun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over-diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer has been a major problem in prostate cancer care and management. Currently the most relevant prognostic factor to predict a patient's risk of death due to prostate cancer is the Gleason score of the biopsied tissue samples. However, pathological analysis is subjective, and the Gleason score is only a qualitative estimate of the cancer malignancy. Molecular biomarkers and diagnostic tests that can accurately predict prostate tumor aggressiveness are rather limited. Method We report here for the first time the development of a nanoparticle test that not only can distinguish prostate cancer from normal and benign conditions, but also has the potential to predict the aggressiveness of prostate cancer quantitatively. To conduct the test, a prostate tissue lysate sample is spiked into a blood serum or human IgG solution and the spiked sample is incubated with a citrate-protected gold nanoparticle solution. IgG is known to adsorb to citrate-protected gold nanoparticles to form a "protein corona" on the nanoparticle surface. From this study, we discovered that certain tumor-specific molecules can interact with IgG and change the adsorption behavior of IgG to the gold nanoparticles. This change is reflected in the nanoparticle size of the assay solution and detected by a dynamic light scattering technique. Assay data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA for multiple variant analysis, and using the Student t-test or nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-tests for pairwise analyses. Results An inverse, quantitative correlation of the average nanoparticle size of the assay solution with tumor status and histological diagnostic grading was observed from the nanoparticle test. IgG solutions spiked with prostate tumor tissue exhibit significantly smaller nanoparticle size than the solutions spiked with normal and benign tissues. The higher grade the tumor is, the smaller the nanoparticle size is. The test

  10. What Do Prostate Cancer Patients Die Of?

    OpenAIRE

    Riihimäki, Matias; Thomsen, Hauke; Brandt, Andreas; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2011-01-01

    The cause of death in prostate cancer patients is examined using the Swedish Family-Cancer Database. Prostate cancer patients were found to have a higher risk for dying from various causes other than prostate cancer, including external causes and heart failure.

  11. Dietary Antioxidants and Prostate Cancer: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Vance, Terrence M.; Su, Joseph; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous cancer in men in the United States. Several studies have examined the relationship between prostate cancer and antioxidants; however, the results of these studies are inconsistent. This article provides a systematic review of studies on prostate cancer and antioxidant intake from diet and supplements. Tea and coffee appear to offer protection against advanced prostate cancer. Different forms of vitamin E appear to exert different effects on pro...

  12. Prostate Cancer Severity Associations with Neighborhood Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charnita M. Zeigler-Johnson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The goal of this paper was to examine neighborhood deprivation and prostate cancer severity. Methods. We studied African American and Caucasian prostate cancer cases from the Pennsylvania State Cancer Registry. Census tract-level variables and deprivation scores were examined in relation to diagnosis stage, grade, and tumor aggressiveness. Results. We observed associations of low SES with high Gleason score among African Americans residing in neighborhoods with low educational attainment (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.13–1.60, high poverty (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.15–1.67, low car ownership (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.20–1.78, and higher percentage of residents on public assistance (OR = 1.32, 95% = 1.08–1.62. The highest quartile of neighborhood deprivation was also associated with high Gleason score. For both Caucasians and African Americans, the highest quartile of neighborhood deprivation was associated with high Gleason score at diagnosis (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.19–1.52; OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.21–2.40, resp.. Conclusion. Using a neighborhood deprivation index, we observed associations between high-grade prostate cancer and neighborhood deprivation in Caucasians and African-Americans.

  13. The Danish Prostate Cancer Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen-Nielsen M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mary Nguyen-Nielsen,1,2 Søren Høyer,3 Søren Friis,4 Steinbjørn Hansen,5 Klaus Brasso,6 Erik Breth Jakobsen,7 Mette Moe,8 Heidi Larsson,9 Mette Søgaard,9 Anne Nakano,9,10 Michael Borre1 1Department of Urology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 2Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, 3Department of Pathology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 4Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, 5Department of Oncology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, 6Copenhagen Prostate Cancer Center and Department of Urology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 7Department of Urology, Næstved Hospital, Næstved, 8Department of Oncology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, 9Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, 10Competence Centre for Health Quality and Informatics (KCKS-Vest, Aarhus, Denmark Aim of database: The Danish Prostate Cancer Database (DAPROCAdata is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively collected data on patients with incident prostate cancer in Denmark since February 2010. The overall aim of the DAPROCAdata is to improve the quality of prostate cancer care in Denmark by systematically collecting key clinical variables for the purposes of health care monitoring, quality improvement, and research. Study population: All Danish patients with histologically verified prostate cancer are included in the DAPROCAdata. Main variables: The DAPROCAdata registers clinical data and selected characteristics for patients with prostate cancer at diagnosis. Data are collected from the linkage of nationwide health registries and supplemented with online registration of key clinical variables by treating physicians at urological and oncological departments. Main variables include Gleason scores, cancer staging, prostate-specific antigen values, and therapeutic measures (active surveillance, surgery, radiotherapy, endocrine

  14. Prostate cancer, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes, among men with metabolic aberrations.

    OpenAIRE

    Häggström, Christel; Stocks, Tanja; Nagel, Gabriele; Manjer, Jonas; Bjørge, Tone; Hallmans, Göran; Engeland, Anders; Ulmer, Hanno; Lindkvist, Björn; Selmer, Randi; Concin, Hans; Tretli, Steinar; Jonsson, Håkan; Stattin, Pär

    2014-01-01

    Few previous studies of metabolic aberrations and prostate cancer risk have taken into account the fact that men with metabolic aberrations have an increased risk of death from causes other than prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to calculate, in a real-life scenario, the risk of prostate cancer diagnosis, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes.

  15. Perceived causes of prostate cancer among prostate cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.G.; Cremers, R.G.H.M.; Aben, K.K.H.; Oort, van I.M.; Kampman, E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate self-reported causes of prostate cancer among prostate cancer survivors in the Netherlands to obtain insight into the common beliefs and perceptions of risk factors for prostate cancer. Materials and methods A total of 956 prostate cancer survivors,

  16. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  17. Road to Recovery from Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about robotic prostatectomies for the treatment of prostate cancer. During the program, we would like to go ... potency post- surgery. So in 2008, while prostate cancer remains a very controversial subject, it is obviously ...

  18. African American Men and Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Americans have one of the highest incidences of prostate cancer in the world, and in this country ... is -- an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction to prostate cancer started with the death of my 46- ...

  19. African American Men and Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Americans have one of the highest incidences of prostate cancer in the world, and in this country the ... is -- an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction to prostate cancer started with the death of my 46-year- ...

  20. African American Men and Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have one of the highest incidences of prostate cancer in the world, and in this country the ... an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction to prostate cancer started with the death of my 46-year- ...

  1. Active surveillance for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Otero, Javier; García-Gómez, Borja; Duarte-Ojeda, José M; Rodríguez-Antolín, Alfredo; Vilaseca, Antoni; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Touijer, Karim A

    2016-03-01

    It is worth distinguishing between the two strategies of expectant management for prostate cancer. Watchful waiting entails administering non-curative androgen deprivation therapy to patients on development of symptomatic progression, whereas active surveillance entails delivering curative treatment on signs of disease progression. The objectives of the two management strategies and the patients enrolled in either are different: (i) to review the role of active surveillance as a management strategy for patients with low-risk prostate cancer; and (ii) review the benefits and pitfalls of active surveillance. We carried out a systematic review of active surveillance for prostate cancer in the literature using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's electronic database, PubMed. We carried out a search in English using the terms: active surveillance, prostate cancer, watchful waiting and conservative management. Selected studies were required to have a comprehensive description of the demographic and disease characteristics of the patients at the time of diagnosis, inclusion criteria for surveillance, and a protocol for the patients' follow up. Review articles were included, but not multiple papers from the same datasets. Active surveillance appears to reduce overtreatment in patients with low-risk prostate cancer without compromising cancer-specific survival at 10 years. Therefore, active surveillance is an option for select patients who want to avoid the side-effects inherent to the different types of immediate treatment. However, inclusion criteria for active surveillance and the most appropriate method of monitoring patients on active surveillance have not yet been standardized. PMID:26621054

  2. Prevention strategies for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz-Dräger, B J; Lümmen, G; Bismarck, E; Fischer, C

    2012-12-01

    Through the last decade consideration of the role of vitamins and minerals in primary prevention of genitourinary tumors has dramatically changed. Despite all efforts efficacy of a specific compound has not been proven, so far. In consequence, recommendations for a use of vitamins or other supplements with the intention of prostate cancer prevention should be avoided today. In contrast, there is some evidence that life style modification might be helpful: recent investigations suggest that smoking may be involved in prostate cancer carcinogenesis. In addition, there is evidence that moderate food consumption, reduction of dairy products and an Asian or Mediterranean diet might not only prevent prostate cancer but also harbors additional beneficial effects on general health. This move from single compounds to more complex diets can be considered as a change of paradigm in prostate cancer prevention and could be the starting point of future epidemiological research. Disappointing findings with regards to nutritional cancer prevention contrast with a solid evidence concerning the efficacy of chemoprevention using 5a-reductase inhibitors: Long-term use of Finasteride and Dutasteride significantly reduces prostate cancer detection. Further candidate drugs are under investigation. However, translation of these findings into urological practice remains a matter of controversial discussion. PMID:23288209

  3. The link between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, David Dynnes; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    therapy. Furthermore, risk factors such as prostate inflammation and metabolic disruption have key roles in the development of both diseases. Despite these commonalities, BPH and prostate cancer exhibit important differences in terms of histology and localization. Although large-scale epidemiological......Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer are among the most common diseases of the prostate gland and represent significant burdens for patients and health-care systems in many countries. The two diseases share traits such as hormone-dependent growth and response to antiandrogen...... studies have shown that men with BPH have an increased risk of prostate cancer and prostate-cancer-related mortality, it remains unclear whether this association reflects a causal link, shared risk factors or pathophysiological mechanisms, or detection bias upon statistical analysis. Establishing BPH...

  4. N-Myc Drives Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer Initiated from Human Prostate Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John K; Phillips, John W; Smith, Bryan A; Park, Jung Wook; Stoyanova, Tanya; McCaffrey, Erin F; Baertsch, Robert; Sokolov, Artem; Meyerowitz, Justin G; Mathis, Colleen; Cheng, Donghui; Stuart, Joshua M; Shokat, Kevan M; Gustafson, W Clay; Huang, Jiaoti; Witte, Owen N

    2016-04-11

    MYCN amplification and overexpression are common in neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC). However, the impact of aberrant N-Myc expression in prostate tumorigenesis and the cellular origin of NEPC have not been established. We define N-Myc and activated AKT1 as oncogenic components sufficient to transform human prostate epithelial cells to prostate adenocarcinoma and NEPC with phenotypic and molecular features of aggressive, late-stage human disease. We directly show that prostate adenocarcinoma and NEPC can arise from a common epithelial clone. Further, N-Myc is required for tumor maintenance, and destabilization of N-Myc through Aurora A kinase inhibition reduces tumor burden. Our findings establish N-Myc as a driver of NEPC and a target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27050099

  5. Serum Oxidized Protein and Prostate Cancer Risk within the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hoque, Ashraful; Ambrosone, Christine B; Till, Cathee; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Tangen, Cathy; Kristal, Alan; Lucia, Scott; Wang, Qiao; Kappil, Maya; Thompson, Ian; Hsing, Ann W.; Parnes, Howard; Lippman, Scott M.; Santella, Regina M.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the role of oxidative stress in prostate cancer risk, we analyzed serum levels of protein carbonyl groups in 1808 prostate cancer cases and 1805 controls, nested in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, a randomized, placebo-control trial that found finasteride decreased prostate cancer risk. There were no significant differences in protein carbonyl levels in baseline samples between those later diagnosed with prostate cancer and those without at the end of study biopsy. Adjusted ...

  6. Finasteride Concentrations and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, Cindy H.; Price, Douglas K.; Cathee Till; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Xiaohong Chen; Leach, Robin J; Johnson-Pais, Teresa L.; Hsing, Ann W.; Ashraful Hoque; Tangen, Catherine M.; Lisa Chu; Parnes, Howard L.; Schenk, Jeannette M.; Reichardt, Juergen K. V.; Thompson, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    Objective In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by 25%, even though high-grade prostate cancer was more common in the finasteride group. However, it remains to be determined whether finasteride concentrations may affect prostate cancer risk. In this study, we examined the association between serum finasteride concentrations and the risk of prostate cancer in the treatment arm of the PCPT and determined factors involved in modifying dru...

  7. Desdiferenciação do câncer da próstata após terapia antiandrogênica Prostate cancer dedifferentiation following antiandrogen therapy: a morphological finding or an increased tumor aggressiveness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Moritz

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O bloqueio androgênico neo-adjuvante em câncer da próstata produz involução do volume tumoral sem melhorar a evolução desses pacientes. Uma das explicações para esse fenômeno é a aquisição de comportamento mais agressivo pelas células tumorais remanescentes que, morfologicamente, apresentam aspecto mais indiferenciado após o bloqueio androgênico. Os objetivos do presente estudo foram avaliar a freqüência de desdiferenciação celular após tratamento antiandrog��nico e definir se a neoplasia remanescente apresenta sinais de maior agressividade biológica. MÉTODOS: Trinta pacientes portadores de câncer da próstata localmente avançado foram submetidos a tratamento antiandrogênico neo-adjuvante por quatro meses, seguido de prostatectomia radical. Foram comparados os escores de Gleason da biópsia e do espécime cirúrgico. Ademais, mediu-se o índice de proliferação celular, determinado por imunohistoquímica para o PCNA, sendo considerados positivos os testes com reação nuclear intensa. A porcentagem de núcleos positivos, determinada em 500 células, foi confrontada com as diversas categorias do escore de Gleason do espécime cirúrgico. RESULTADOS: Em 11 espécimes cirúrgicos (37% o escore de Gleason foi igual ou menor que o encontrado na biópsia, enquanto em 19 (63% o escore cirúrgico foi maior que o da biópsia (p 0,05. A mediana dos índices de proliferação celular foi de 9% para tumores confinados à glândula ou ao espécime e de 17% para os extraprostáticos (pBACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant androgen deprivation in prostate cancer induces tumor volume regression but does not improve outcome of the patient. A possible explanation for this phenomenon could be an increase of the residual tumor aggressiveness brought about by antiandrogen therapy. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of tumor dedifferentiation following androgen blockade in prostate cancer and to determine if the

  8. Association of Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Prostate Cancer: Results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, Jeannette M.; Kristal, Alan R.; Arnold, Kathryn B.; Tangen, Catherine M.; Neuhouser, Marian L; Lin, Daniel W; White, Emily; Thompson, Ian M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer risk in 5,068 placebo-arm participants enrolled in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (1993–2003). These data include 1,225 men whose cancer was detected during the 7-year trial—556 detected for cause (following abnormal prostate-specific antigen or digital rectal examination) and 669 detected not for cause (without indication), as well as 3,843 men who had biopsy-proven absence of...

  9. Prostate Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing prostate cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  10. Potassium channels in prostate and colonic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ousingsawat, Jiraporn

    2007-01-01

    Large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels in human prostate cancer The KCNMA1 gene encoding the alpha-subunit of BK channels is amplified and BK channel expression is enhanced in late-stage, metastatic and hormone-refractory human prostate cancer tissues, whereas benign prostate tissues show only a weak expression of BK channels. PC-3 hormone-insensitive prostate cancer cells, but not hormone-sensitive prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) and benign prostate hyperplasia cells (BPH-1), show an ...

  11. Low Risk Prostate Cancer and Active Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bul (Meelan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe first part of this thesis comprises an introduction to prostate cancer and screening (chapter 1). The European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) has shown an effect of screening on prostate cancer mortality in favor of the screening population, however, contro

  12. Prevention and early detection of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Cuzick (Jack); M.A. Thorat (Mangesh A); G. Andriole (Gerald); O.W. Brawley (Otis W); P.H. Brown (Powel H); Z. Culig (Zoran); R. Eeles (Rosalind); L.G. Ford (Leslie G); F. Hamdy (Freddie); L. Holmberg (Lars); D. Ilic (Dragan); T.J. Key (Timothy J); C.L. Vecchia (Carlo La); H. Lilja (Hans); M. Marberger (Michael); F.L. Meyskens (Frank L); L.M. Minasian (Lori M); C. Parker (C.); H.L. Parnes (Howard L); S. Perner (Sven); H. Rittenhouse (Harry); J.A. Schalken (J.); H.-P. Schmid (Hans-Peter); B.J. Schmitz-Dräger (Bernd J); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); A. Stenzl (Arnulf); B. Tombal (Bertrand); T.J. Wilt (Timothy J.); K. Wolk (Kerstin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by pr

  13. Periostin is up-regulated in high grade and high stage prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expression of periostin is an indicator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer but a detailed analysis of periostin expression in prostate cancer has not been conducted so far. Here, we evaluated periostin expression in prostate cancer cells and peritumoural stroma immunohistochemically in two independent prostate cancer cohorts, including a training cohort (n = 93) and a test cohort (n = 325). Metastatic prostate cancers (n = 20), hormone refractory prostate cancers (n = 19) and benign prostatic tissues (n = 38) were also analyzed. In total, strong epithelial periostin expression was detectable in 142 of 418 (34.0%) of prostate carcinomas and in 11 of 38 benign prostate glands (28.9%). Increased periostin expression in carcinoma cells was significantly associated with high Gleason score (p < 0.01) and advanced tumour stage (p < 0.05) in the test cohort. Whereas periostin expression was weak or absent in the stroma around normal prostate glands, strong periostin expression in tumour stroma was found in most primary and metastatic prostate cancers. High stromal periostin expression was associated with higher Gleason scores (p < 0.001). There was a relationship between stromal periostin expression and shortened PSA relapse free survival times in the training cohort (p < 0.05). Our data indicate that periostin up-regulation is related to increased tumour aggressiveness in prostate cancer and might be a promising target for therapeutical interventions in primary and metastatic prostate cancer

  14. [Prostate cancer and chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravis, Gwenaelle; Salem, Naji; Bladou, Franck; Viens, Patrice

    2007-07-01

    Androgen deprivation in patients with metastatic prostate cancer produces palliation of symptoms, PSA decrease and tumoral regression in most patients. After a brief period of disease regression lasting 18 to 24 months nearly all pts will progress to androgen independence disease (HRPC) with progressive clinical deterioration and ultimately death. Chemotherapy with mitoxantrone has been shown to palliate symptoms but did not extend survival. Two large randomized trials showed a survival benefit for pts with HRPC treated with docetaxel with a reduction risk of death by 21-24%, and significant improvement in palliation of symptoms and quality of life. New agents targeting angiogenesis, apoptosis, signal transduction pathway, used alone or in combination with docetaxel currently are under trial in an attempt to provide much needed improvements in outcome. Questions remains in suspend when and who need to be treated, earlier, in high risk as in adjuvant setting? Current data have demonstrated that neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy is relatively safe and feasible. Further investigation through prospective randomize trials is critical to define the precise role of this modality in high risk populations. PMID:17845990

  15. Gene therapy for prostate cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tangney, Mark

    2012-01-31

    Cancer remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in understanding, detection, and treatment, it accounts for almost one-fourth of all deaths per year in Western countries. Prostate cancer is currently the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous cancer in men in Europe and the United States, accounting for 15% of all cancers in men. As life expectancy of individuals increases, it is expected that there will also be an increase in the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer may be inoperable at initial presentation, unresponsive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, or recur following appropriate treatment. At the time of presentation, patients may already have metastases in their tissues. Preventing tumor recurrence requires systemic therapy; however, current modalities are limited by toxicity or lack of efficacy. For patients with such metastatic cancers, the development of alternative therapies is essential. Gene therapy is a realistic prospect for the treatment of prostate and other cancers, and involves the delivery of genetic information to the patient to facilitate the production of therapeutic proteins. Therapeutics can act directly (eg, by inducing tumor cells to produce cytotoxic agents) or indirectly by upregulating the immune system to efficiently target tumor cells or by destroying the tumor\\'s vasculature. However, technological difficulties must be addressed before an efficient and safe gene medicine is achieved (primarily by developing a means of delivering genes to the target cells or tissue safely and efficiently). A wealth of research has been carried out over the past 20 years, involving various strategies for the treatment of prostate cancer at preclinical and clinical trial levels. The therapeutic efficacy observed with many of these approaches in patients indicates that these treatment modalities will serve as an important component of urological malignancy treatment in the clinic, either in isolation or

  16. Diagnosis and treatment for prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuoxing Niu; Guohua Ren; Shuping Song

    2008-01-01

    The morbility of prostate cancer has risen in China in recent years, it is important to diagnose and treat prostate cancer standardly and systemically.This review analyzed the status and advances of PSA examination, digital rectal examination, prostate biopsy in prostate cancer, and it gave a detailed description of radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, etc.The advances of targeted therapy and tumor vaccine is also discussed.

  17. Cancer stem cells in prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Moltzahn, Felix; Thalmann, George N

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (P-Ca) remains a leading cause of cancer-related death in men. Lately, increasing evidence for a hierarchically organized cancer stem cell (CSC) model emerged for different tumors entities, including P-Ca. CSCs are defined by several characteristics including self-renewal, pluripotency and tumorigenicity and are thought to be responsible for tumor recurrence, metastasis and cancer related death. In this review we discuss the recent research in the field of CSCs, its limitation...

  18. Long noncoding RNAs in prostate cancer: overview and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Bhavna; Feng, Felix Y

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer mortality among men in the United States. While many prostate cancers are indolent, an important subset of patients experiences disease recurrence after conventional therapy and progresses to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), which is currently incurable. Thus, there is a critical need to identify biomarkers that will distinguish indolent from aggressive disease, as well as novel therapeutic targets for the prevention or treatment of CRPC. In recent years, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as an important class of biological molecules. LncRNAs are polyadenylated RNA species that share many similarities with protein-coding genes despite the fact that they are noncoding (not translated into proteins). They are usually transcribed by RNA polymerase II and exhibit the same epigenetic signatures as protein-coding genes. LncRNAs have also been implicated in the development and progression of variety of cancers, including prostate cancer. While a large number of lncRNAs exhibit tissue- and cancer-specific expression, their utility as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers is just starting to be explored. In this review, we highlight recent findings on the functional role and molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs in the progression of prostate cancer and evaluate their use as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  19. Long noncoding RNAs in prostate cancer: overview and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Bhavna; Feng, Felix Y

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer mortality among men in the United States. While many prostate cancers are indolent, an important subset of patients experiences disease recurrence after conventional therapy and progresses to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), which is currently incurable. Thus, there is a critical need to identify biomarkers that will distinguish indolent from aggressive disease, as well as novel therapeutic targets for the prevention or treatment of CRPC. In recent years, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as an important class of biological molecules. LncRNAs are polyadenylated RNA species that share many similarities with protein-coding genes despite the fact that they are noncoding (not translated into proteins). They are usually transcribed by RNA polymerase II and exhibit the same epigenetic signatures as protein-coding genes. LncRNAs have also been implicated in the development and progression of variety of cancers, including prostate cancer. While a large number of lncRNAs exhibit tissue- and cancer-specific expression, their utility as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers is just starting to be explored. In this review, we highlight recent findings on the functional role and molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs in the progression of prostate cancer and evaluate their use as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets. PMID:27072044

  20. Prostate cancer immunotherapy: beyond immunity to curability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Jonathan W

    2014-11-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in the United States. It is the first prevalent cancer in which overall survival in advanced disease is modestly, but objectively, improved with outpatient delivered dendritic cell-based immunotherapy. More prostate cancer patients have enrolled through Facebook and trusted-site Internet searches in clinical trials for prostate cancer vaccine-based immunotherapy than in immunotherapy trials for lung, breast, colon, pancreas, ovarian, and bladder cancer combined in the past 7 years. Exceptional responses to anti-CTLA-4 treatment have been documented in clinics, and prostate cancer neoantigen characterization and T-cell clonotyping are in their research ascendancy. The prostate is an accessory organ; it is not required for fertility, erectile function, or urinary continence. The true evolutionary advantage of having a prostate for male mammalian physiology is a topic of speculation in seminar rooms and on bar stools, but it remains unknown. Hundreds of prostate lineage-unique proteins (PLUP) exist among the >37,000 normal human prostate lineage-unique open reading frames that can be targeted for immunologic ablation of PLUP(+) prostate cancer cells by prostate-specific autoimmunity. This bioengineered graft-versus-prostate disease is a powerful strategy that can eliminate deaths from prostate cancer. Immunologic tolerance to prostate cancer can be overcome at every clinical stage of presentation. This Cancer Immunology at the Crossroads article aims to present advances in the past two decades of basic, translational, and clinical research in prostate cancer, including bioengineering B-cell and T-cell responses, and ongoing prostate cancer immunotherapy trials. PMID:25367978

  1. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tindall, Elizabeth A.; Hayes, Vanessa M. [Cancer Genetics Group, Children’s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, PO Box 81, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia); University of New South Wales, Kensington Campus, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Petersen, Desiree C., E-mail: dpetersen@ccia.unsw.edu.au [Cancer Genetics Group, Children’s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, PO Box 81, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia)

    2010-06-08

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk.

  2. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk

  3. Vitamin D, Sunlight and Prostate Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Vanaja Donkena; Young, Charles Y. F.

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second common cancer in men worldwide. The prevention of prostate cancer remains a challenge to researchers and clinicians. Here, we review the relationship of vitamin D and sunlight to prostate cancer risk. Ultraviolet radiation of the sunlight is the main stimulator for vitamin D production in humans. Vitamin D's antiprostate cancer activities may be involved in the actions through the pathways mediated by vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, vitamin...

  4. Progress in Gene Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    KamranAliAhmed; BrianJamesDavis; TorrenceMWilson; GregoryAWiseman; MarkJFederspiel; JohnCMorris

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy has held promise to correct various disease processes. Prostate cancer represents the second leading cause of cancer death in American men. A number of clinical trials involving gene therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer have been reported. The ability to efficiently transduce tumors with effective levels of therapeutic genes has been identified as a fundamental barrier to effective cancer gene therapy. The approach utilizing gene therapy in prostate cancer patients at our...

  5. The additional value of TGFβ1 and IL-7 to predict the course of prostate cancer progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Schroten-Loef (Caroline); N.F. Dits (Natasja); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); R. Kranse (Ries); G.J.H.L. Leenders (Geert); C.H. Bangma (Chris); R. Kraaij (Robert)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Given the fact that prostate cancer incidence will increase in the coming years, new prognostic biomarkers are needed with regard to the biological aggressiveness of the prostate cancer diagnosed. Since cytokines have been associated with the biology of cancer and its prognos

  6. Detecting Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have other tests, such as a trans-rectal ultrasound and a biopsy. Physician: Now, just relax -- the ... exam or PSA test indicates an abnormality, an ultrasound image is made of the prostate gland. Usually ...

  7. Detecting Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stands for Prostate Specific Antigen. It is a test that men have by having their blood sampled ... be present. Narrator: While the use of the test remains controversial, a normal PSA level is considered ...

  8. Detecting Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... M.D.: PSA stands for Prostate Specific Antigen. It is a test that men have by having ... detection is the digital rectal exam. Barry Trevithick: It doesn't make sense to be afraid of ...

  9. What Is Prostate Cancer?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... visit to their urologist. John Bertini, M.D.: It's a wide variety of reasons why they might ... have a prostate. Most men don't pronounce it correctly and wouldn't know where it's located ...

  10. Improving Screening Strategies for Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Wolters (Tineke)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTh is thesis describes research on screening for prostate cancer. To improve understanding of the thesis, some background information will be provided in this introduction. First, a short description of the prostate and of prostate cancer will be given in Chapter 1, followed by more deta

  11. The Clinical Genetics of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kommu Sashi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and the second highest cause of cancer-related mortality in the U.K. A genetic component in predisposition to prostate cancer has been recognized for decades. One of the strongest epidemiological risk factors for prostate cancer is a positive family history. The hunt for the genes that predispose to prostate cancer in families has been the focus of many research groups worldwide for the past 10 years. Both epidemiological and twin studies support a role for genetic predisposition to prostate cancer. Familial cancer loci have been found, but the genes that cause familial prostate cancer remain largely elusive. Unravelling the genetics of prostate cancer is challenging and is likely to involve the analysis of numerous predisposition genes. Current evidence supports the hypothesis that excess familial risk of prostate cancer could be due to the inheritance of multiple moderate-risk genetic variants. Although research on hereditary prostate cancer has improved our knowledge of the genetic aetiology of the disease, a lot of questions still remain unanswered. This article explores the current evidence that there is a genetic component to the aetiology of prostate cancer and attempts to put into context the diverse findings that have been shown to be possibly associated with the development of hereditary prostate cancer. Linkage searches over the last decade are summarised. It explores issues as to why understanding the genetics of prostate cancer has been so difficult and why despite this, it is still a major focus of research. Finally, current and future management strategies of men with Hereditary Prostate Cancer (HPC are discussed.

  12. Screening spectroscopy of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolenko, S. B.; Voloshynskyy, D. I.; Fedoruk, O. S.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to establish objective parameters of the field of laser and incoherent radiation of different spectral ranges (UV, visible, IR) as a non-invasive optical method of interaction with different samples of biological tissues and fluids of patients to determine the state of prostate cancer and choosing the best personal treatment. The objects of study were selected venous blood plasma of patient with prostate cancer, histological sections of rat prostate gland in the postoperative period. As diagnostic methods have been used ultraviolet spectrometry samples of blood plasma in the liquid state, infrared spectroscopy middle range (2,5-25 microns) dry residue of plasma by spectral diagnostic technique of thin histological sections of biological tissues.

  13. Evaluating localized prostate cancer and identifying candidates for focal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, A Oliver; Hricak, Hedvig; Wheeler, Thomas M; Coleman, Jonathan; Penson, David F; Carroll, Peter R; Rubin, Mark A; Scardino, Peter T

    2008-12-01

    Can focal therapy successfully control prostate cancer? Also, if so, which patients should be considered eligible? With limited data available from relatively few patients, these questions are difficult to answer. At this writing, the most likely candidates for focal therapy are patients with low-risk, small-volume tumors, located in 1 region or sector of the prostate, who would benefit from early intervention. The difficulty lies in reliably identifying these men. The larger number of cores obtained in each needle biopsy session has increased both the detection of prostate cancer and the potential risk of overtreating many patients whose cancers pose very little risk to life or health. Urologists typically perform at least a 12-core template biopsy. Although the debate continues about the optimal template, laterally and peripherally directed biopsies have been shown to improve the diagnostic yield. However, as many as 25% of tumors arise anteriorly and can be missed with peripherally directed techniques. Prostate cancer tends to be multifocal, even in its earliest stages. However, the secondary cancers are usually smaller and less aggressive than the index cancer. They appear similar to the incidental cancers found in cystoprostatectomy specimens and appear to have little effect on prognosis in surgical series. When a single focus of cancer is found in 1 core, physicians rightly suspect that more foci of cancer are present in the prostate. Assessing the risk in these patients is challenging when determined by the biopsy data alone. To predict the presence of a very low-risk or "indolent" cancer, nomograms have been developed to incorporate clinical stage, Gleason grade, prostate-specific antigen levels, and prostate volume, along with the quantitative analysis of the biopsy results. Transperineal "mapping" or "saturation" biopsies have been advocated to detect cancers missed or underestimated by previous transrectal biopsies. This approach could provide the

  14. Association of a Common Variant at 10q26 and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Aggressiveness in Han Chinese Descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies reported that rs2252004 at 10q26 was significantly associated with prostate cancer (PCa risk in a Japanese population and was subsequently confirmed in a Chinese population. We aimed to assess the relationship between this locus and risk/aggressiveness of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. The current study included 426 BPH cases and 1,008 controls from Xinhua Hospital in Shanghai, China. All BPH patients were treated with α-adrenergic blockers and 5α-reductase inhibitors for at least 9 months. Associations between rs2252004 and BPH risk/aggressiveness were tested using logistic regression. Associations between rs2252004 and clinical parameters including International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS, total prostate volume (TPV, total PSA (tPSA, and free PSA (fPSA were evaluated by linear regression. Allele “A” in rs2252004 was significantly associated with increased risk for aggressiveness of BPH in a Chinese population (OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.04–1.96, P=0.03. Patients with the genotype “A/A” (homozygous minor allele had an increase of IPSS and TPV after treatment (P=0.045 and 0.024, resp.. No association was observed between rs2252004, BPH risk, and baseline clinicopathological traits (All P>0.05. Our study is the first to show that rs2252004 at 10q26 was associated with BPH aggressiveness and efficacy of BPH treatment.

  15. Road to Recovery from Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Urology and the Director of the Deane Prostate Health and Research Center at the Mount Sinai ... more about robotic prostatectomies for the treatment of prostate cancer. During the program, we would like to ...

  16. Prostate Cancer, Prostate Cancer Death, and Death from Other Causes, Among Men with Metabolic Aberrations

    OpenAIRE

    Häggström, Christel; Stocks, Tanja; Nagel, Gabriele; Manjer, Jonas; Bjørge, Tone; Hallmans, Göran; Engeland, Anders; Ulmer, Hanno; Lindkvist, Bjorn; Selmer, Randi; Concin, Hans; Tretli, Steinar; Jonsson, Håkan; Stattin, Pär

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few previous studies of metabolic aberrations and prostate cancer risk have taken into account the fact that men with metabolic aberrations have an increased risk of death from causes other than prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to calculate, in a real-life scenario, the risk of prostate cancer diagnosis, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes. Methods: In the Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer Project, prospective data on body mass index, blood pressure, glucose, ...

  17. Effects of Prostate Cancer Screening and Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Wever (Elisabeth)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer of men worldwide. The number of new cases worldwide was estimated at 899,000 and accounted for 13.6% of all cancers in men in 2008. With an estimated 258,000 deaths in 2008, prostate cancer is the sixth leading cause of death

  18. Serum α-Tocopherol and γ-Tocopherol Concentrations and Prostate Cancer Risk in the PLCO Screening Trial: A Nested Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Ulrike Peters; Jiyoung Ahn; Friesen, Marlin D.; Elio Riboli; Hayes, Richard B; Demetrius Albanes

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin E compounds exhibit prostate cancer preventive properties experimentally, but serologic investigations of tocopherols, and randomized controlled trials of supplementation in particular, have been inconsistent. Many studies suggest protective effects among smokers and for aggressive prostate cancer, however. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study of serum α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol and prostate cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer S...

  19. Pancreatic Metastasis from Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The pancreas is an unusual location for metastases from other primary cancers. Rarely, pancreatic metastases from kidney or colorectal cancers have been reported. However, a variety of other cancers may also spread to the pancreas. We report an exceptional case of pancreatic metastasis from prostate cancer. Differences in management between primary and secondary pancreatic tumors make recognition of metastases to the pancreas an objective of first importance. Knowledge of unusual locations for metastatic spread will reduce diagnostic delay and lead to a timely delivery of an appropriate treatment.

  20. Immunotherapy and Immune Evasion in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Archana Thakur; Ulka Vaishampayan; Lum, Lawrence G.

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer remains to this day a terminal disease. Prostatectomy and radiotherapy are effective for organ-confined diseases, but treatment for locally advanced and metastatic cancer remains challenging. Although advanced prostate cancers treated with androgen deprivation therapy achieves debulking of disease, responses are transient with subsequent development of castration-resistant and metastatic disease. Since prostate cancer is typically a slowly progressing disease, use o...

  1. Prostate Cancer and Bone: The Elective Affinities

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Rucci; Adriano Angelucci

    2014-01-01

    The onset of metastases dramatically changes the prognosis of prostate cancer patients, determining increased morbidity and a drastic fall in survival expectancy. Bone is a common site of metastases in few types of cancer, and it represents the most frequent metastatic site in prostate cancer. Of note, the prevalence of tumor relapse to the bone appears to be increasing over the years, likely due to a longer overall survival of prostate cancer patients. Bone tropism represents an intriguing c...

  2. Multidisciplinary Functional MR Imaging for Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jeong Kon; Jang, Yun-Jin; Cho, Gyunggoo

    2009-01-01

    Various functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques are used for evaluating prostate cancer including diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging, and MR spectroscopy. These techniques provide unique information that is helpful to differentiate prostate cancer from non-cancerous tissue and have been proven to improve the diagnostic performance of MRI not only for cancer detection, but also for staging, post-treatment monitoring, and guiding prostate biopsies. Ho...

  3. Prostate and Urologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of prostate and bladder cancer. | Conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of prostate, bladder, and skin cancers.

  4. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of prostate cancer; Multiparametrische Magnetresonanztomografie zur Detektion des Prostatakarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durmus, T.; Baur, A.; Hamm, B. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-03-15

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men, but only about 10 % of patients die from that cancer. Recent studies suggest that not all patients benefit from a radical therapeutic approach. When prostate cancer is suspected, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can make an important contribution to cancer localization within the prostate. Many studies show that T2-weighted morphologic imaging should be supplemented by multiparametric MRI techniques including diffusion-weighted imaging, contrast-enhanced sequences, and MR spectroscopy. This approach detects aggressive prostate cancer with high sensitivity and specificity. The findings of multiparametric MRI additionally contribute information to the assessment of cancer aggressiveness. The use of these multiparametric MRI techniques will gain an increasing role in the clinical management of prostate cancer patients. They can help in establishing a definitive diagnosis with a minimum of invasiveness and may also contribute to optimal individualized treatment. This review article presents the different techniques of multiparametric MRI and discusses their contribution to the detection of prostate cancer. Moreover, this review outlines an objective approach to image interpretation and structured reporting of MRI findings using the PI-RADS criteria. The review concludes with an outline of approaches to prostate biopsy on the basis of MRI (transrectal ultrasound, direct MRI guidance of tissue sampling, and MRI-ultrasound fusion biopsy) and emerging future uses of MRI in the planning of focal treatment options and in the active surveillance of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. (orig.)

  5. Profiling of circulating microRNAs for prostate cancer biomarker discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Christa; Kosaka, Nobuyoshi; Ochiya, Takahiro;

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most frequent cancer in men in the Western world. Currently, serum prostate-specific antigen levels and digital rectal examinations are used to indicate the need for diagnostic prostate biopsy, but lack in specificity and sensitivity. Thus, many men undergo unnecessary...... biopsy, and better and less invasive tools for PC detection are needed. Furthermore, whereas aggressive PC should be treated immediately to prevent dissemination, indolent PC often does not progress and overtreatment should be avoided. Currently, the best predictors of aggressiveness are Gleason score...

  6. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) velocity: a test of controversial benefit in the era of increased prostate cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael S Borofsky; Danil V Makarov

    2011-01-01

    @@ Determining the need for prostate biopsy remains one of the most controversial questions in urology.Over the past 10 years, practice guidelines have changed dramatically, especially among asymptomatic men with low prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and negative digital rectal exam.Thompson et al.Found that nearly 15% of men with PSA <4.0 had evidence of prostate cancer on biopsy;1 however, the clinical significance of these tumors is unclear.PSAvelocity (PSAV) has been suggested as a measurement to discriminate between aggressive and indolent cancers.Both the NCCN2 and AUA3 guidelines recommend considering prostate biopsy for men with PSA <4.0 and high PSAV (0.35 and 0.4 ng/ml/year, respectively); however, a recent article by Vickers et al.4 has called these recommendations into question, suggesting that PSAV adds little predictive accuracy to the standard risk factor assessment for prostate cancer.

  7. Early experience in MRI-guided therapies of prostate cancer: HIFU, laser and photodynamic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Da Rosa, M.R.; Trachtenberg, J; R Chopra; Haider, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Prostate cancer screening has resulted in earlier diagnosis with lower-grade disease, leading to over-detection and over-treatment in a significant number of patients. Current whole-gland radical treatments are associated with significant rates of morbidity. The high prevalence of low-risk disease together with an inability to accurately identify those men harboring more aggressive cancers has led to tremendous research in low-morbidity focal therapies for prostate cancer. This revie...

  8. Prostate cancer and metastasis initiating stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kathleen Kelly; Juan Juan Yin

    2008-01-01

    Androgen refractory prostate cancer metastasis is a major clinical challenge.Mechanism-based approaches to treating prostate cancer metastasis require an understanding of the developmental origin of the metastasis-initiating cell.Properties of prostate cancer metastases such as plasticity with respect to differentiated phenotype and androgen independence are consistent with the transformation of a prostate epithelial progenitor or stem cell leading to metastasis.This review focuses upon current evidence and concepts addressing the identification and properties of normal prostate stem or progenitor cells and their transformed counterparts.

  9. Detecting Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Roger Babaian, M.D.: PSA stands for Prostate Specific Antigen. It is a test that men have by having their blood sampled and ... testing may be required. Physician: OK, what I'd like to do is just do a rectal ...

  10. Immunotherapy and Immune Evasion in Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastatic prostate cancer remains to this day a terminal disease. Prostatectomy and radiotherapy are effective for organ-confined diseases, but treatment for locally advanced and metastatic cancer remains challenging. Although advanced prostate cancers treated with androgen deprivation therapy achieves debulking of disease, responses are transient with subsequent development of castration-resistant and metastatic disease. Since prostate cancer is typically a slowly progressing disease, use of immune-based therapies offers an advantage to target advanced tumors and to induce antitumor immunity. This review will discuss the clinical merits of various vaccines and immunotherapies in castrate resistant prostate cancer and challenges to this evolving field of immune-based therapies

  11. Immunotherapy and Immune Evasion in Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Archana, E-mail: thakur@karmanos.org; Vaishampayan, Ulka [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Lum, Lawrence G., E-mail: thakur@karmanos.org [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

    2013-05-24

    Metastatic prostate cancer remains to this day a terminal disease. Prostatectomy and radiotherapy are effective for organ-confined diseases, but treatment for locally advanced and metastatic cancer remains challenging. Although advanced prostate cancers treated with androgen deprivation therapy achieves debulking of disease, responses are transient with subsequent development of castration-resistant and metastatic disease. Since prostate cancer is typically a slowly progressing disease, use of immune-based therapies offers an advantage to target advanced tumors and to induce antitumor immunity. This review will discuss the clinical merits of various vaccines and immunotherapies in castrate resistant prostate cancer and challenges to this evolving field of immune-based therapies.

  12. Role of androgen receptor in prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HiroyoshiSuzuki; HaruoIto

    1999-01-01

    The growth of prostate cancer is sensitive to androgen, and hormonal therapy has been used for treatment of ad-vanced cancer. About 80 % of prostate cancers initially respond to hormonal therapy, howcrver, more than half of the re-sponders gradtmlly become resistant to this therapy. Changes in tumors from an androgen-responsive to an androgen-unre-sponsive state have been widely discussed. Since androgen action is mediated by androgen receptor (AR), abnonnalitiesof AR is believed to play an important role of the loss of androgen responsiveness in prostate cancer. "Ilais article focusedon the role of AR in the progression of prostate cancer.

  13. TRICHOMONOSIS AND SUBSEQUENT RISK OF PROSTATE CANCER IN THE PROSTATE CANCER PREVENTION TRIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Alderete, John F.; Till, Cathee; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Hsing, Ann W.; Zenilman, Jonathan M; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    We previously observed a positive association between a history of trichomonosis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the protozoan, Trichomonas vaginalis, and prostate cancer risk in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. To determine the reproducibility of this finding, we conducted a second, prospective investigation of trichomonosis and prostate cancer in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. Participants were men ≥55 years of age with no evidence of prostate cancer at enrollmen...

  14. Serum Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results From the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Brasky, Theodore M.; Till, Cathee; White, Emily; Neuhouser, Marian L; Song, Xiaoling; Goodman, Phyllis; Thompson, Ian M; King, Irena B.; Albanes, Demetrius; Kristal, Alan R.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation may be involved in prostate cancer development and progression. This study examined the associations between inflammation-related phospholipid fatty acids and the 7-year-period prevalence of prostate cancer in a nested case-control analysis of participants, aged 55–84 years, in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial during 1994–2003. Cases (n = 1,658) were frequency matched to controls (n = 1,803) on age, treatment, and prostate cancer family history. Phospholipid fatty acids were ...

  15. Role of transurethral resection of the prostate in the management of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Szollosi Attila; Martha Orsolya; Denes Lorand; Vida Arpad Oliver; Maier Adrian; Pavai Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Prostate cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer in men, after lung cancer. The gold standard procedure in prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis is the ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) used in solving the bladder outlet obstruction, can have a role in detection of PCa. The aim of this retrospective study is to examine the role of transurethral resection of the prostate in the diagnosis and therapy of prostate cancer.

  16. Prostate Cancer Screening : The effect on prostate cancer mortality and incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van Leeuwen (Pim)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAt first glance, deciding whether to get the PSA screening test for prostate cancer seems to be pretty straightforward and attractive. It’s a simple blood test that can pick up the prostate cancer long before your symptoms appear. After all, your prostate cancer is earlier treated result

  17. CRITICAL REVIEW OF PROSTATE CANCER PREDICTIVE TOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrokh F. Shariat; Michael W Kattan; Vickers, Andrew J; Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Scardino, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a very complex disease, and the decision-making process requires the clinician to balance clinical benefits, life expectancy, comorbidities, and potential treatment related side effects. Accurate prediction of clinical outcomes may help in the difficult process of making decisions related to prostate cancer. In this review, we discuss attributes of predictive tools and systematically review those available for prostate cancer. Types of tools include probability formulas, lo...

  18. Antisense approaches in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Kim N; Gleave, Martin E

    2004-06-01

    Patients with hormone refractory prostate cancer have limited treatment options and new therapies are urgently needed. Advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms implicated in prostate cancer progression have identified many potential therapeutic gene targets that are involved in apoptosis, growth factors, cell signalling and the androgen receptor (AR). Antisense oligonucleotides are short sequences of synthetic modified DNA that are designed to be complimentary to a selected gene's mRNA and thereby specifically inhibit expression of that gene. The antisense approach continues to hold promise as a therapeutic modality to target genes involved in cancer progression, especially those in which the gene products are not amenable to small molecule inhibition or antibodies. The current status and future direction of a number of antisense oligonucleotides targeting several genes, including BCL-2, BCL-XL, clusterin, the inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) family, MDM2, protein kinase C-alpha, c-raf, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins and the AR, that have potential clinical use in prostate cancer are reviewed. PMID:15174974

  19. Aging Men and Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson B

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in men worldwide and its incidence increases with age, mainly affecting elderly men aged 60 and above. Factors known to be associated with the development and progression of PCa are age, family history, and race/ethnicity, with age being the most important factor. The reasons for the increased incidence and mortality due to prostate cancer in elderly men are not entirely clear. Continued exposure to environmental and dietary factors may lead to accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes over the life-span, leading to altered expression and/or activity of tumor promoter and tumor suppressor genes. Changing levels of endogenous hormones (like androgens and metabolism in elderly men may also play a role in the development of prostate cancers which may be further influenced by testosterone replacement therapy. For many decades now preventative strategies and treatments such as radiation therapy or hormone therapy, and others have been administered to manage PCa; however current studies and evidence suggest that PCa is undertreated in elderly men, despite evidence of efficacy of these treatments, which leads to higher prevalence of mortality in this age group. Studies involving basic research, preventative and management strategies are still underway to understand the mechanisms of PCa development in elderly men and treatment of this disease in ageing male population.

  20. FGF Signaling in Prostate Cancer Progression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nora M. NAVONE

    2009-01-01

    @@ Objective: prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in men in the United States. Localized prostate cancer can be cured by andro-gen ablation, but when the disease escapes the confines of the gland, the prospects for cure decrease drastically and the disease becomes "castrate resistant.

  1. Vitamin D, Sunlight and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Vanaja Donkena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second common cancer in men worldwide. The prevention of prostate cancer remains a challenge to researchers and clinicians. Here, we review the relationship of vitamin D and sunlight to prostate cancer risk. Ultraviolet radiation of the sunlight is the main stimulator for vitamin D production in humans. Vitamin D's antiprostate cancer activities may be involved in the actions through the pathways mediated by vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, vitamin D receptor (VDR, and VDR-regulated genes. Although laboratory studies including the use of animal models have shown that vitamin D has antiprostate cancer properties, whether it can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of prostate cancer in humans remains to be inconclusive and an intensively studied subject. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory and epidemiology studies on the effects of vitamin D on prostate cancer prevention.

  2. Adipocyte secreted factors enhance aggressiveness of prostate carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Moreira

    Full Text Available Obesity has been associated with increased incidence and risk of mortality of prostate cancer. One of the proposed mechanisms underlying this risk association is the change in adipokines expression that could promote the development and progression of the prostate tumor cells. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of preadipocyte and adipocyte secretome in the proliferation, migration and invasion of androgen independent prostate carcinoma cells (RM1 and to assess cell proliferation in the presence of the adiposity signals leptin and insulin. RM1 cells were co-cultured in with preadipocytes, adipocytes or cultured in their respective conditioned medium. Cell proliferation was assessed by flow cytometry and XTT viability test. Cell migration was evaluated using a wound healing injury assay of RM1 cells cultured with conditioned media. Cellular invasion of RM1 cells co-cultured with adipocytes and preadipocytes was assessed using matrigel membranes. Preadipocyte conditioned medium was associated with a small increase in RM1 proliferation, while adipocytes conditioned media significantly increased RM1 cell proliferation (p<0.01. Adipocytes also significantly increased the RM1 cells proliferation in co-culture (p <0.01. Cell migration was higher in RM1 cells cultured with preadipocyte and adipocyte conditioned medium. RM1 cell invasion was significantly increased after co-culture with preadipocytes and adipocytes (p <0.05. Insulin also increased significantly the cell proliferation in contrast to leptin, which showed no effect. In conclusion, prostate carcinoma cells seem to be influenced by factors secreted by adipocytes that are able to increase their ability to proliferate, migrate and invade.

  3. When Prostate Cancer Circulates in the Bloodstream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Vlaeminck-Guillem

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Management of patients with prostate cancer is currently based on imperfect clinical, biological, radiological and pathological evaluation. Prostate cancer aggressiveness, including metastatic potential, remains difficult to accurately estimate. In an attempt to better adapt therapeutics to an individual (personalized medicine, reliable evaluation of the intrinsic molecular biology of the tumor is warranted, and particularly for all tumor sites (primary tumors and secondary sites at any time of the disease progression. As a consequence of their natural tendency to grow (passive invasion or as a consequence of an active blood vessel invasion by metastase-initiating cells, tumors shed various materials into the bloodstream. Major efforts have been recently made to develop powerful and accurate methods able to detect, quantify and/or analyze all these circulating tumor materials: circulating tumors cells, disseminating tumor cells, extracellular vesicles (including exosomes, nucleic acids, etc. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about these circulating tumor materials and their applications in translational research.

  4. Predictive value of prostate-specific antigen for prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepherd, Leah; Borges, Alvaro Humberto; Ravn, Lene;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although prostate cancer (PCa) incidence is lower in HIV+ men than in HIV- men, the usefulness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in this population is not well defined and may have higher false negative rates than in HIV- men. We aimed to describe the kinetics and predict...

  5. Prostate Cancer and Li-Fraumeni Syndrome: Implications for Screening and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen K. Spees

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder associated with mutations in the TP53 gene and characterized by a propensity to develop a variety of malignancies resulting in a shortened lifespan. We report a case of prostate cancer in a 50 year old male with LFS. Experimental studies suggest that TP53 mutations in prostate cancer are associated with therapeutic resistance to radiation, chemotherapy, and anti-androgens, implying that LFS men may experience more aggressive cancer biology with implications for therapeutic decisions. The potential of prostate cancer to develop earlier in LFS favors institution of screening at earlier ages.

  6. Smoking and prostate cancer survival and recurrence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roberto L Muller; Daniel M Moreira

    2011-01-01

    Smooking is associated with several major benign and malignant diseases,representing one of the most important modifiable risk factors.Among urothelial neoplasms,smoking is pivotal in tumor carcinogenesis,but its role in prostate cancer is still controversial.Many authors have failed to demonstrate an association between smoking and prostate cancer.1-3 However,large epidemiological studies have shown that smoking is associated with higher risk of developing and dying of prostate cancer.4 Thus,large sample sizes and long follow-ups are important when studying prostate cancer given that its natural history can be quite long.

  7. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Prostate Cancer Derived Exosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Geetanjali Kharmate; Elham Hosseini-Beheshti; Josselin Caradec; Mei Yieng Chin; Tomlinson Guns, Emma S.

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes proteins and microRNAs have gained much attention as diagnostic tools and biomarker potential in various malignancies including prostate cancer (PCa). However, the role of exosomes and membrane-associated receptors, particularly epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as mediators of cell proliferation and invasion in PCa progression remains unexplored. EGFR is frequently overexpressed and has been associated with aggressive forms of PCa. While PCa cells and tissues express EGFR, it ...

  8. [Medical treatment of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, B; Cipolla, B; Labrador, J

    1994-03-01

    Hormone dependence of prostate cancer is well known. In 80% of cases with metastases, hormone suppression leads to the reduction of tumour volume and related disorders. However the treatment is generally palliative because malignant process recurs after about around 16 months. Mean survival is less than 3 years in these forms. Lack of response come always together with a poor prognosis, and there is 90% mortality at 2 years. Advanced prostatic cancer should not be treated with hormones if the patient has few symptoms and his quality of life is satisfactory. Symptomatic forms require hormone manipulation. Orchidectomy or LH-RH are recommended. Total androgen ablation (combined treatment) leads rapidly to more relief of symptoms, but its drawbacks and especially high cost indicate that its use should be weighed individually. Estramustine is not a first-lune treatment. Presently, there is no criteria to predict response to treatment. PMID:8066398

  9. Toll-like Receptors and Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu eZhao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men after lung cancer. Immune responses clearly play a critical role in the tumorigenesis and in the efficacy of radiation therapy and chemotherapy in prostate cancer; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Toll-like receptors (TLRs are a well-known family of pattern recognition receptors that play a key role in host immune system. Recent studies demonstrate that there are links between TLRs and cancer; however, the function and biological importance of TLRs in prostate cancer seems complex. To elucidate the role of TLRs and innate immunity in prostate cancer might provide us with a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this disease. Moreover, utilizing the agonists or antagonists of TLRs might represent a promising new strategy against prostate cancer. In this review, we summarize recent advances on the studies of association between TLR signaling and prostate cancer, TLR polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk, and provide some insights about TLRs as potential targets for prostate cancer immunotherapy.

  10. Cancer of the prostate - role of PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1979 when prostate specific antigen (PSA), found in the cytoplasm of benign and malignant prostatic cells, was first purified, it has attained world wide popularity in prostate cancer detection. It is also a sensitive test for skeletal meta states from carcinoma of the prostate. Prostate cancer has become the number one cancer in men and constitutes 11% of all cancers. Approximately 50% of men over 50 years have symptoms referable to the lower urinary tract. 50% or more of patients at Ibadan present an advanced stage of the disease and are therefore not curable. Thus, lacking the skill to manage advanced manifestations, early detection and screening programs are the best means to reduce mortality due to prostate cancer

  11. Shear wave elastography for detection of prostate cancer: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Sung Min; Kim, Sang Youn; Cho, Jeong Yeon; KIm, Seung Hyup [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    To assess the diagnostic value of shear wave elastography (SWE) for prostate cancer detection. In this retrospective study, 87 patients with the suspicion of prostate cancer (prostate-specific antigen > 4 ng/mL and abnormal digital rectal examination) underwent a protocol-based systematic 12-core biopsy followed by targeted biopsy at hypoechoic areas on grey-scale ultrasound. Prior to biopsy, SWE was performed by placing two circular 5 mm-sized regions of interest (ROIs) along the estimated biopsy tract in each sector and one ROI for hypoechoic lesions. SWE parameters, S (mean stiffness) and R (mean stiffness ratio), were calculated and compared regarding different histopathologic tissues and their accuracy for diagnosing prostate cancer was analyzed. SWE parameters were correlated with Gleason score and were compared between indolent (< 8) and aggressive (≥ 8) tissues in prostate cancer patients. Prostate cancer was detected in 7.5% of 1058 cores in 29.9% of 87 patients. Seven (43.8%) of 16 hypoechoic lesions were confirmed as prostate cancer. SWE parameters were significantly different among the histopathologic entities (p < 0.001). Prostate cancer was stiffer than benign tissues (p ≤ 0.003). Sensitivity, specificity and receiver operating characteristic curve area for diagnosing cancer were 43%, 80.8%, and 0.599, respectively, for a cutoff of S > 43.9 kPa and 60.8%, 66.4%, and 0.653, respectively, for R > 3. Both, S and R showed a significant correlation with Gleason score (r ≥ 0.296, p ≤ 0.008) and were significantly different between indolent and aggressive prostate cancer (p ≤ 0.006). Shear wave elastographic parameters are significantly different between prostate cancer and benign prostate tissue and correlate with Gleason score.

  12. Prostate cancer characterization by optical contrast enhanced photoacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guan; Qin, Ming; Mukundan, Ananya; Siddiqui, Javed; Takada, Marilia; Vilar-Saavedra, Paulo; Tomlins, Scott A.; Kopelman, Raoul; Wang, Xueding

    2016-03-01

    During the past decades, prostate cancer (PCa), with an annual incident rate much higher than any other cancer, is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in American men. PCa has a relatively low progression rate yet the survival percentage decreases dramatically once the cancer has metastasized. Identifying aggressive from indolent PCa to prevent metastasis and death is critical to improving outcomes for patients with PCa. Standard procedure for assessing the aggressiveness of PCa involves the removal of tumor tissues by transrectal (TR) ultrasound (US) guided needle biopsy. The microscopic architecture of the biopsied tissue is visualized by histological or immunohistochemical staining procedures. The heterogeneity of the microscopic architecture is characterized by a Gleason score, a quantitative description of the aggressiveness of PCa. Due to the inability to identify the cancer cells, most noninvasive imaging modalities can only provide diagnosis of PCa at limited accuracy. This study investigates the feasibility of identifying PCa tumors and characterizing the aggressiveness of PCa by photoacoustic imaging assisted by cancer targeting polyacrylamide (PAA) nanoparticles (NPs). PAA is a biocompatible material used in clinics for the past 20 years. PAA NPs can protect capsulated optical contrast agents from interference by enzymes and enable prolonged systematic circulation in the living biological environment. The cancer targeting mechanism is achieved by conjugating the NPs to F3 peptides, which trace nucleolin overexpressed on the surface of cancer cells. Preliminary studies have shown that the NPs are capable of staining the PCa cells in vivo.

  13. Diet, Supplement Use, and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results From the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kristal, Alan R.; Arnold, Kathryn B.; Neuhouser, Marian L; Goodman, Phyllis; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Albanes, Demetrius; Thompson, Ian M

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined nutritional risk factors for prostate cancer among 9,559 participants in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (United States and Canada, 1994–2003). The presence or absence of cancer was determined by prostate biopsy, which was recommended during the trial because of an elevated prostate-specific antigen level or an abnormal digital rectal examination and was offered to all men at the trial's end. Nutrient intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and a str...

  14. Epidemiology of prostate cancer in India

    OpenAIRE

    Shalu Jain; Sunita Saxena; Anup Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Data from national cancer registries shows that incidence of certain cancers are on rise in India. The cancers which are showing significant increase in incidence rates include prostate, mouth and kidney among male population, corpus uteri, breast and thyroid among female population and lung cancer in both male and female populations. In the present review article we have focused on epidemiology of prostate cancer in Indian subcontinent in terms of incidence, survival, and mortality etc. The ...

  15. Prostate Cancer Stem Cells: Research Advances

    OpenAIRE

    Dagmara Jaworska; Wojciech Król; Ewelina Szliszka

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells have been defined as cells within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. Experimental evidence showed that these highly tumorigenic cells might be responsible for initiation and progression of cancer into invasive and metastatic disease. Eradicating prostate cancer stem cells, the root of the problem, has been considered as a promising target in prostate cancer treatment to improve th...

  16. Shared care in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anette Svarre; Lund, Lars; Jønler, Morten;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate 3 year follow-up in patients with stable prostate cancer (PCa) managed in a shared care program by general practitioners (GPs) in collaboration with urological departments. PCa patients who have undergone curative treatment or endocrine therapy...... require long-term follow-up. Until recently, follow-up has primarily been managed by urologists at hospital-based outpatient clinics. However, new organizational strategies are needed to meet the needs of the growing number of elderly, comorbid cancer patients. These new organizational strategies target...

  17. Prognostic factors in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeckman, Johan; Michielsen, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    In the nineteenth century the main goal of medicine was predictive: diagnose the disease and achieve a satisfying prognosis of the patient's chances. Today the effort has shifted to cure the disease. Since the twentieth century, the word prognosis has also been used in nonmedical contexts, for example in corporate finance or elections. The most accurate form of prognosis is achieved statistically. Based on different prognostic factors it should be possible to tell patients how they are expected to do after prostate cancer has been diagnosed and how different treatments may change this outcome. A prognosis is a prediction. The word prognosis comes from the Greek word (see text) and means foreknowing. In the nineteenth century this was the main goal of medicine: diagnose the disease and achieve a satisfying prognosis of the patient's chances. Today the effort has shifted towards seeking a cure. Prognostic factors in (prostate) cancer are defined as "variables that can account for some of the heterogeneity associated with the expected course and outcome of a disease". Bailey defined prognosis as "a reasoned forecast concerning the course, pattern, progression, duration, and end of the disease. Prognostic factors are not only essential to understand the natural history and the course of the disease, but also to predict possible different outcomes of different treatments or perhaps no treatment at all. This is extremely important in a disease like prostate cancer where there is clear evidence that a substantial number of cases discovered by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing are unlikely ever to become clinically significant, not to mention mortal. Furthermore, prognostic factors are of paramount importance for correct interpretation of clinical trials and for the construction of future trials. Finally, according to WHO national screening committee criteria for implementing a national screening programme, widely accepted prognostic factors must be defined before

  18. Prostate Cancer Imaging with Novel PET Tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenberg, Liza; Choyke, Peter; Dahut, William

    2016-03-01

    Molecular imaging of prostate cancer is in a dynamic phase of development. Currently approved techniques are limited and researchers have been working on novel agents to improve accuracy in targeting and detecting prostate tumors. In addition, the complexity of various prostate cancer states also contributes to the challenges in evaluating suitable radiotracer candidates. We have highlighted nuclear medicine tracers that focus on mechanisms involved in bone metastasis, prostate cancer cell membrane synthesis, amino acid analogs, androgen analogs, and the prostate specific membrane antigen. Encouraging results with many of these innovative radiotracer compounds will not only advance diagnostic capabilities for prostate cancer but open opportunities for theranostic applications to treat this worldwide malignancy. PMID:26874530

  19. Development of New Treatments for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPaola, R. S.; Abate-Shen, C.; Hait, W. N.

    2005-02-01

    The Dean and Betty Gallo Prostate Cancer Center (GPCC) was established with the goal of eradicating prostate cancer and improving the lives of men at risk for the disease through research, treatment, education and prevention. GPCC was founded in the memory of Dean Gallo, a beloved New Jersey Congressman who died tragically of prostate cancer diagnosed at an advanced stage. GPCC unites a team of outstanding researchers and clinicians who are committed to high-quality basic research, translation of innovative research to the clinic, exceptional patient care, and improving public education and awareness of prostate cancer. GPCC is a center of excellence of The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, which is the only NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center in the state. GPCC efforts are now integrated well as part of our Prostate Program at CINJ, in which Dr. Robert DiPaola and Dr. Cory Abate-Shen are co-leaders. The Prostate Program unites 19 investigators from 10 academic departments who have broad and complementary expertise in prostate cancer research. The overall goal and unifying theme is to elucidate basic mechanisms of prostate growth and oncogenesis, with the ultimate goal of promoting new and effective strategies for the eradication of prostate cancer. Members' wide range of research interests collectively optimize the chances of providing new insights into normal prostate biology and unraveling the molecular pathophysiology of prostate cancer. Cell culture and powerful animal models developed by program members recapitulate the various stages of prostate cancer progression, including prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, adenocarcinoma, androgen-independence, invasion and metastases. These models promise to further strengthen an already robust program of investigator-initiated therapeutic clinical trials, including studies adopted by national cooperative groups. Efforts to translate laboratory results into clinical studies of early detection and

  20. Vietnam military service history and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritschi Lin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three decades after US and Australian forces withdrew from Vietnam, there has been much public interest in the health consequences of service in Vietnam. One controversial question is whether the risk of prostate cancer amongst Vietnam veterans is increased. This paper examines relationships between military history, family history and risk of prostate cancer in a population-based case control study. Methods Cases were selected from the Cancer Registry of Western Australia as incident cases of histologically-confirmed prostate cancer, and controls were age-matched and selected from the Western Australian electoral roll. Study participants were asked to report any military service history and details about that service. Results Between January 2001 and September 2002, 606 cases and 471 controls aged between 40–75 years were recruited. An increased prostate cancer risk was observed in men reporting they were deployed in Vietnam although this was not statistically significant (OR = 2.12; 95% CI 0.88–5.06. An increased risk was also observed in men reporting prostate cancer in fathers (OR = 1.90; 95% CI 1.20–3.00 or brothers (OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.20–3.50 diagnosed with prostate cancer. Conclusion These findings support a positive association between prostate cancer and military service history in the Vietnam war and a first degree relative family history of prostate cancer.

  1. Genomic rearrangements of PTEN in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopheap ePhin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The phosphatase and tensin homolog gene on chromosome 10q23.3 (PTEN is a negative regulator of the PIK3/Akt survival pathway and is the most frequently deleted tumor suppressor gene in prostate cancer. Monoallelic loss of PTEN is present in up to 60% of localized prostate cancers and complete loss of PTEN in prostate cancer is linked to metastasis and androgen independent progression. Studies on the genomic status of PTEN in prostate cancer initially used a two-color fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH assay for PTEN copy number detection in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue preparations. More recently, a four-color FISH assay containing two additional control probes flanking the PTEN locus with a lower false-positive rate was reported. Combined with the detection of other critical genomic biomarkers for prostate cancer such as ERG, AR, and MYC, the evaluation of PTEN genomic status has proven to be invaluable for patient stratification and management. Although less frequent than allelic deletions, point mutations in the gene and epigenetic silencing are also known to contribute to loss of PTEN function, and ultimately to prostate cancer initiation. Overall, it is clear that PTEN is a powerful biomarker for prostate cancer. Used as a companion diagnostic for emerging therapeutic drugs, FISH analysis of PTEN is promisingly moving human prostate cancer closer to more effective cancer management and therapies.

  2. Overview of Dietary Supplements in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoubian, Aline; Dargham, Rana Abu; Khauli, Raja B; Bachir, Bassel G

    2016-11-01

    Prostate cancer is a key health concern for men with its etiology still under investigation. Recently, the role of dietary supplements has been noted to have a major inhibitory effect on prostate cancer and numerous studies have been conducted in this regard. This review provides a summary on numerous recent studies conducted in this field. Some of the studies reviewed revealed a protective role for supplements, and others showed no correlation while some even had an adverse effect. The mechanism of how these supplements act on the prostate is still not clear. Further studies are warranted especially for supplements that have been shown to have a potential inhibitory role in prostate cancer.

  3. Development of a Second-Generation Antiandrogen for Treatment of Advanced Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Chris; Ouk, Samedy; Clegg, Nicola J.; Chen, Yu; Watson, Philip A.; Arora, Vivek; Wongvipat, John; Smith-Jones, Peter M.; Yoo, Dongwon; Kwon, Andrew; Wasielewska, Teresa; Welsbie, Derek; Chen, Charlie; Higano, Celestia S.; Beer, Tomasz M

    2009-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer is treated with drugs that antagonize androgen action but most patients progress to a more aggressive form of the disease called castration-resistant prostate cancer, driven by elevated expression of the androgen receptor. Here we characterize the diarylthiohydantoins RD162 and MDV3100, two compounds optimized from a screen for non-steroidal antiandrogens that retain activity in the setting of increased androgen receptor expression. Both compounds bind to the androg...

  4. Prostate Cancer and Li-Fraumeni Syndrome: Implications for Screening and Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Spees, Colleen K.; Kelleher, Kelly J.; Ronney Abaza; Clinton, Steven K.

    2015-01-01

    Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder associated with mutations in the TP53 gene and characterized by a propensity to develop a variety of malignancies resulting in a shortened lifespan. We report a case of prostate cancer in a 50 year old male with LFS. Experimental studies suggest that TP53 mutations in prostate cancer are associated with therapeutic resistance to radiation, chemotherapy, and anti-androgens, implying that LFS men may experience more aggressive...

  5. Molecular Profiling of Prostate Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Nna, Emmanuel Okechukwu

    2009-01-01

    In the UK, more than 30 000 men are diagnosed annually with prostate cancer (PCa) and about 10 000 men die from it each year. Although several molecular markers have been associated with prostate cancer development and/ or progression, only few of them are used in diagnostic pathology. The current standard tests include serum PSA test, digital rectal examination and histology of prostate biopsy. Recently the PCA-3 molecular test was approved in the European Union, and it is now...

  6. Prostate carcinomas; Cancer de la prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledano, A.; Chauveinc, L.; Flam, T.; Thiounn, N.; Solignac, S.; Timbert, M.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Cosset, J.M.; Ammor, A.; Bonnetain, F.; Brenier, J.P.; Maingon, P.; Peignaux, K.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Crevoisier, R. de; Tucker, S.; Dong, L.; Cheung, R.; Kuban, D.; Azria, D.; Llacer Moscardo, C.; Ailleres, N.; Allaw, A.; Serre, A.; Fenoglietto, P.; Hay, M.H.; Thezenas, S.; Dubois, J.B.; Pommier, P.; Perol, D.; Lagrange, J.L.; Richaud, P.; Brune, D.; Le Prise, E.; Azria, D.; Beckendorf, V.; Chabaud, S.; Carrie, C.; Bosset, M.; Bosset, J.F.; Maingon, P.; Ammor, A.; Crehangen, G.; Truc, G.; Peignaux, K.; Bonnetain, F.; Keros, L.; Bernier, V.; Aletti, P.; Wolf, D.; Marchesia, V.; Noel, A.; Artignan, X.; Fourneret, P.; Bacconier, M.; Shestaeva, O.; Pasquier, D.; Descotes, J.L.; Balosso, J.; Bolla, M.; Burette, R.; Corbusier, A.; Germeau, F.; Crevoisier, R. de; Dong, L.; Bonnen, M.; Cheung, R.; Tucker, S.; Kuban, D.; Crevoisier, R. de; Melancon, A.; Kuban, D.; Cheung, R.; Dong, L.; Peignaux, K.; Brenier, J.P.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Ammor, A.; Barillot, I.; Maingon, P.; Molines, J.C.; Berland, E.; Cornulier, J. de; Coulet-Parpillon, A.; Cohard, C.; Picone, M.; Fourneret, P.; Artignan, X.; Daanen, V.; Gastaldo, J.; Bolla, M.; Collomb, D.; Dusserre, A.; Descotes, J.L.; Troccaz, J.; Giraud, J.Y.; Quero, L.; Hennequin, C.; Ravery, V.; Desgrandschamps, F.; Maylin, C.; Boccon-Gibod, L.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Tallet, A.; Simonian, M.; Serment, G.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Simonian, M.; Rosello, R.; Serment, G

    2005-11-15

    Some short communications on the prostate carcinoma are given here. The impact of pelvic irradiation, conformation with intensity modulation, association of radiotherapy and chemotherapy reduction of side effects, imaging, doses escalation are such subjects studied and reported. (N.C.)

  7. East meets West: ethnic differences in prostate cancer epidemiology between East Asians and Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Kimura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer in males in Western countries. The reported incidence in Asia is much lower than that in African Americans and European Caucasians. Although the lack of systematic prostate cancer screening system in Asian countries explains part of the difference, this alone cannot fully explain the lower incidence in Asian immigrants in the United States and west-European countries compared to the black and non-Hispanic white in those countries, nor the somewhat better prognosis in Asian immigrants with prostate cancer in the United States. Soy food consumption, more popular in Asian populations, is associated with a 25% to 30% reduced risk of prostate cancer. Prostate-specific antigen(PSA is the only established and routinely implemented clinical biomarker for prostate cancer detection and disease status. Other biomarkers, such as urinary prostate cancer antigen 3 RNA, may increase accuracy of prostate cancer screening compared to PSA alone. Several susceptible loci have been identified in genetic linkage analyses in populations of countries in the West, and approximately 30 genetic polymorphisms have been reported to modestly increase the prostate cancer risk in genome-wide association studies. Most of the identified polymorphisms are reproducible regardless of ethnicity. Somatic mutations in the genomes of prostate tumors have been repeatedly reported to include deletion and gain of the 8p and 8q chromosomal regions, respectively; epigenetic gene silencing of glutathione S-transferase Pi(GSTP1; as well as mutations in androgen receptor gene. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis, aggressiveness, and prognosis of prostate cancer remain largely unknown. Gene-gene and/or gene-environment interactions still need to be learned. In this review, the differences in PSA screening practice, reported incidence and prognosis of prostate cancer, and genetic factors between the populations in East and

  8. Primary Care of the Prostate Cancer Survivor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Erika M; Farrell, Timothy W

    2016-05-01

    This summary of the American Cancer Society Prostate Cancer Survivorship Care Guidelines targets primary care physicians who coordinate care of prostate cancer survivors with subspecialists. Prostate cancer survivors should undergo prostate-specific antigen screening every six to 12 months and digital rectal examination annually. Surveillance of patients who choose watchful waiting for their prostate cancer should be conducted by a subspecialist. Any hematuria or rectal bleeding must be thoroughly evaluated. Prostate cancer survivors should be screened regularly for urinary incontinence and sexual dysfunction. Patients with predominant urge incontinence symptoms, which can occur after surgical and radiation treatments, may benefit from an anticholinergic agent. If there is difficulty with bladder emptying, a trial of an alpha blocker may be considered. A phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor can effectively treat sexual dysfunction following treatment for prostate cancer. Osteoporosis screening should occur before initiation of androgen deprivation therapy, and patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy should be monitored for anemia, metabolic syndrome, and vasomotor symptoms. Healthy lifestyle choices should be encouraged, including weight management, regular physical activity, proper nutrition, and smoking cessation. Primary care physicians should be vigilant for psychosocial distress, including depression, among prostate cancer survivors, as well as the potential impact of this distress on patients' family members and partners. PMID:27175954

  9. Genetically engineered mouse models of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nawijn, Martijn C.; Bergman, Andreas M.; van der Poel, Henk G.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Mouse models of prostate cancer are used to test the contribution of individual genes to the transformation process, evaluate the collaboration between multiple genetic lesions observed in a single tumour, and perform preclinical intervention studies in prostate cancer research. Methods:

  10. Multimodality Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. Engelbrecht; P. Puech; P. Colin; O. Akin; L. Lemaître; A. Villers

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review both routine T2-weighted and new MRI techniques in the imaging of prostate cancer (PCa) for focal therapy. T2-weighted imaging, knowledge of MRI prostate zonal anatomy, cancer morphology, and intraprostatic tumor spread remain essential for clinical PCa imagi

  11. Road to Recovery from Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2008, while prostate cancer remains a very controversial subject, it is obviously a very important disease. It’s ... another question, which is a little off the subject concerning bladder cancer, so I’m actually going ...

  12. Redefining Hormone Sensitive Disease in Advanced Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyu Hou; Flaig, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the United States. For decades, the cornerstone of medical treatment for advanced prostate cancer has been hormonal therapy, intended to lower testosterone levels, known as Androgen Deprivation Therapy (ADT). The development of hormone-resistant prostate cancer (now termed castration-resistant prostate cancer:CRPC) remains the key roadblock in successful long-term management of prostate cancer. New advancements in medical therapy for pros...

  13. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer with PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadvar, Hossein

    2013-10-01

    Molecular imaging is paving the way for precision and personalized medicine. In view of the significant biologic and clinical heterogeneity of prostate cancer, molecular imaging is expected to play an important role in the evaluation of this prevalent disease. The natural history of prostate cancer spans from an indolent localized process to biochemical relapse after radical treatment with curative intent to a lethal castrate-resistant metastatic disease. The ongoing unraveling of the complex tumor biology of prostate cancer uniquely positions molecular imaging with PET to contribute significantly to every clinical phase of prostate cancer evaluation. The purpose of this article was to provide a concise review of the current state of affairs and potential future developments in the diagnostic utility of PET in prostate cancer.

  14. The molecular and cellular origin of human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, John R; Maitland, Norman J

    2016-06-01

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed male malignancy. Despite compelling epidemiology, there are no definitive aetiological clues linking development to frequency. Pre-malignancies such as proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) yield insights into the initiating events of prostate cancer, as they supply a background "field" for further transformation. An inflammatory aetiology, linked to recurrent prostatitis, and heterologous signalling from reactive stroma and infiltrating immune cells may result in cytokine addiction of cancer cells, including a tumour-initiating population also known as cancer stem cells (CSCs). In prostate tumours, the background mutational rate is rarely exceeded, but genetic change via profound sporadic chromosomal rearrangements results in copy number variations and aberrant gene expression. In cancer, dysfunctional differentiation is imposed upon the normal epithelial lineage, with disruption/disappearance of the basement membrane, loss of the contiguous basal cell layer and expansion of the luminal population. An initiating role for androgen receptor (AR) is attractive, due to the luminal phenotype of the tumours, but alternatively a pool of CSCs, which express little or no AR, has also been demonstrated. Indolent and aggressive tumours may also arise from different stem or progenitor cells. Castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remains the inevitable final stage of disease following treatment. Time-limited effectiveness of second-generation anti-androgens, and the appearance of an AR-neuroendocrine phenotype imply that metastatic disease is reliant upon the plasticity of the CSC population, and indeed CSC gene expression profiles are most closely related to those identified in CRPCs.

  15. Algorithms, nomograms and the detection of indolent prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men. However, only about 12% of the men diagnosed with prostate cancer will die of their disease. Result: The serum PSA test can detect prostate cancers early, but using a PSA based cut-off indication for prostate biopsy r

  16. CHROMOGRANIN-A IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sivkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal marker of neuroendocrine differentiation (NED is chromogranin A (HGA. The purpose of this work is to determine the role of NED in diseases of the prostate gland by the level of HGA.Materials and methods. The study included 304 men with various diseases of the prostate: BPH - 20; chronic prostatitis (CP - 22; BPH and prostatic low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (BPH+LDPIN - 50; BPH and high degree PIN (BPH+HGPIN - 32; localized prostate cancer (LPC - 80; locally advanced PCA (LAPC - 21; CRPC - 51. The last group United in patients LPC, LAPC and metastatic prostate cancer. All these groups of patients were performed blood sampling fasting with further definition of the level of HGA in serum by enzyme immunoassay. The reference values of HGA for this method are ranged from 0 to 3 nmol/L.Results. During the analyzing of the results of the study they revealed a general trend of increasing of mean values of HGA of serum with the growth stage of prostate cancer, with a maximum of patients with CRPC. According to the analysis they revealed no significant correlation between age and HGA (r = 0,05 among all study groups. They noted the persistent correlation (r = 0,32; p <0,001 between HGA and PSA levels among all studied groups of patients. They traced some relationship between the amount of points Gleason and HGA (r = 0,19; p <0,05 in cases of LPC, LAPC and CRPC. Defining the relationship between HGA and stage of prostate cancer (LPC, LAPC and CRPC, we also found a correlation (r = 0,31, p <0,005 among these groups of patients.Conclusions. HGA is a high interest for the early detection CRPC. Also with the help of HGA it seem to be quite promising to discover the most aggressive forms of prostate cancer. Definition of NED-tumor may be necessary for the analysis of a comprehensive approach to prostate cancer treatment selection.

  17. Detection of antibodies directed at M. hyorhinis p37 in the serum of men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent epidemiologic, genetic, and molecular studies suggest infection and inflammation initiate certain cancers, including cancers of the prostate. Over the past several years, our group has been studying how mycoplasmas could possibly initiate and propagate cancers of the prostate. Specifically, Mycoplasma hyorhinis encoded protein p37 was found to promote invasion of prostate cancer cells and cause changes in growth, morphology and gene expression of these cells to a more aggressive phenotype. Moreover, we found that chronic exposure of benign human prostate cells to M. hyorhinis resulted in significant phenotypic and karyotypic changes that ultimately resulted in the malignant transformation of the benign cells. In this study, we set out to investigate another potential link between mycoplasma and human prostate cancer. We report the incidence of men with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) being seropositive for M. hyorhinis. Antibodies to M. hyorhinis were surveyed by a novel indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in serum samples collected from men presenting to an outpatient Urology clinic for BPH (N = 105) or prostate cancer (N = 114) from 2006-2009. A seropositive rate of 36% in men with BPH and 52% in men with prostate cancer was reported, thus leading us to speculate a possible connection between M. hyorhinis exposure with prostate cancer. These results further support a potential exacerbating role for mycoplasma in the development of prostate cancer

  18. A prospective Swedish study on body size, body composition, diabetes, and prostate cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Wallström, P; Bjartell, A; Gullberg, B.; Olsson, H; Wirfält, E

    2009-01-01

    Obesity may be associated with increased risk of prostate cancer (PCa). According to one hypothesis, obesity could lower the risk of non-aggressive tumours, while simultaneously increasing the risk of aggressive cancer. Furthermore, central adiposity may be independently associated with PCa risk; it is also associated with diabetes, which itself may influence risk of PCa. We studied the associations between height, body composition, and fat distribution, diabetes prevalence and risk of total,...

  19. Dietary Pterostilbene is a novel MTA1-targeted chemopreventive and therapeutic agent in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary nutrients with ability to reverse adverse epigenetic events have great potential for cancer chemoprevention. Overexpression of the epigenetic modifier metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) is associated with aggressive human prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine MTA1-d...

  20. Prostate cancer in Denmark. Incidence, morbidity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Iversen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates in Denmark are reviewed for a 50-year period from 1943 to 1992. The prostate cancer incidence rate nearly tripled and prostate cancer mortality rate increased during this period. Until recently in Denmark the routine management of prostate cancer has...... been by deferred hormonal therapy. Morbidity and mortality associated with prostate cancer are analysed in a group of 1459 patients aged 55-74 years, who were diagnosed as having clinically localized prostate cancer in the 5-year period 1983 to 1987. In this group of patients prostate cancer...... is demonstrated to cause significant morbidity. Furthermore, the patients suffered significant excess mortality and loss of life expectancy....

  1. Vitamins and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Y.F. Young

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. Its prevention and treatment remain a challenge to clinicians. Here we review the relationship of vitamins to PC risk. Many vitamins and related chemicals, including vitamin A, retinoids, several B vitamins, vitamin C, vitamin D and vitamin E have shown their anti-cancer activities as anti-oxidants, activators of transcription factors or factors influencing epigenetic events. Although laboratory tests including the use of animal models showed these vitamins may have anti-PC properties, whether they can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of PC in humans remains to be intensively studied subjects. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory, epidemiology and/or clinical trials on the effects of vitamins on PC prevention and/or treatment.

  2. Multiparametric MRI in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tarık Esen; Barıs Turkbey; Anup Patel; Jurgen Futterer

    2014-01-01

    Editorial Multiparametric MRI in Prostate Cancer TarJk Esen,1 BarJs Turkbey,2 Anup Patel,3 and Jurgen Futterer4 1 Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Koc University, 34450 Istanbul, Turkey 2Molecular Imaging Program, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA 3Royal London Hospital, Barts Health NHS Trust, London E1 1BB,UK 4Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands Correspondence should be addressed to Tarık Esen;...

  3. East meets West: ethnic differences in prostate cancer epidemiology between East Asians and Caucasians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomomi Kimura

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer in males in Western countries.The reported incidence in Asia is much lower than that in African Americans and European Caucasians.Although the lack of systematic prostate cancer screening system in Asian countries explains part of the difference,this alone cannot fully explain the-lower incidence in Asian immigrants in the United States and west-European countries compared to the black and non-Hispanic white in those countries,nor the somewhat better prognosis in Asian immigrants with prostate cancer in the United States.Soy food consumption,more popular in Asian populations,is associated with a 25% to 30% reduced risk of prostate cancer.Prostatespecific antigen(PSA) is the only established and routinely implemented clinical biomarker for prostate cancer detection and disease status.Other biomarkers,such as urinary prostate cancer antigen 3 RNA,may increase accuracy of prostate cancer screening compared to PSA alone.Several susceptible loci have been identified in genetic linkage analyses in populations of countries in the West,and approximately 30 genetic polymorphisms have been reported to modestly increase the prostate cancer risk in genomewide association studies.Most of the identified polymorphisms are reproducible regardless of ethnicity.Somatic mutations in the genomes of prostate tumors have been repeatedly reported to include deletion and gain of the 8p and 8q chromosomal regions,respectively; epigenetic gene silencing of glutathione Stransferase Pi (GSTP1); as well as mutations in androgen receptor gene.However,the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis,aggressiveness,and prognosis of prostate cancer remain largely unknown.Gene-gene and/or gene-environment interactions still need to be learned.In this review,the differences in PSA screening practice,reported incidence and prognosis of prostate cancer,and genetic factors between the populations in East and West factors are discussed.

  4. ETS fusion genes in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasi Tandefelt, Delila; Boormans, Joost; Hermans, Karin; Trapman, Jan

    2014-06-01

    Prostate cancer is very common in elderly men in developed countries. Unravelling the molecular and biological processes that contribute to tumor development and progressive growth, including its heterogeneity, is a challenging task. The fusion of the genes ERG and TMPRSS2 is the most frequent genomic alteration in prostate cancer. ERG is an oncogene that encodes a member of the family of ETS transcription factors. At lower frequency, other members of this gene family are also rearranged and overexpressed in prostate cancer. TMPRSS2 is an androgen-regulated gene that is preferentially expressed in the prostate. Most of the less frequent ETS fusion partners are also androgen-regulated and prostate-specific. During the last few years, novel concepts of the process of gene fusion have emerged, and initial experimental results explaining the function of the ETS genes ERG and ETV1 in prostate cancer have been published. In this review, we focus on the most relevant ETS gene fusions and summarize the current knowledge of the role of ETS transcription factors in prostate cancer. Finally, we discuss the clinical relevance of TMRPSS2-ERG and other ETS gene fusions in prostate cancer.

  5. Computer-Aided Image Analysis and Fractal Synthesis in the Quantitative Evaluation of Tumor Aggressiveness in Prostate Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, Przemyslaw

    2016-01-01

    The subjective evaluation of tumor aggressiveness is a cornerstone of the contemporary tumor pathology. A large intra- and interobserver variability is a known limiting factor of this approach. This fundamental weakness influences the statistical deterministic models of progression risk assessment. It is unlikely that the recent modification of tumor grading according to Gleason criteria for prostate carcinoma will cause a qualitative change and improve significantly the accuracy. The Gleason system does not allow the identification of low aggressive carcinomas by some precise criteria. The ontological dichotomy implies the application of an objective, quantitative approach for the evaluation of tumor aggressiveness as an alternative. That novel approach must be developed and validated in a manner that is independent of the results of any subjective evaluation. For example, computer-aided image analysis can provide information about geometry of the spatial distribution of cancer cell nuclei. A series of the interrelated complexity measures characterizes unequivocally the complex tumor images. Using those measures, carcinomas can be classified into the classes of equivalence and compared with each other. Furthermore, those measures define the quantitative criteria for the identification of low- and high-aggressive prostate carcinomas, the information that the subjective approach is not able to provide. The co-application of those complexity measures in cluster analysis leads to the conclusion that either the subjective or objective classification of tumor aggressiveness for prostate carcinomas should comprise maximal three grades (or classes). Finally, this set of the global fractal dimensions enables a look into dynamics of the underlying cellular system of interacting cells and the reconstruction of the temporal-spatial attractor based on the Taken's embedding theorem. Both computer-aided image analysis and the subsequent fractal synthesis could be performed

  6. Activation of the hedgehog pathway in advanced prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    McCormick Frank; Chen Kai; He Nonggao; Chi Sumin; Zhang Xiaoli; Li Chengxin; Sheng Tao; Gatalica Zoran; Xie Jingwu

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background The hedgehog pathway plays a critical role in the development of prostate. However, the role of the hedgehog pathway in prostate cancer is not clear. Prostate cancer is the second most prevalent cause of cancer death in American men. Therefore, identification of novel therapeutic targets for prostate cancer has significant clinical implications. Results Here we report that activation of the hedgehog pathway occurs frequently in advanced human prostate cancer. We find that ...

  7. Is prostate cancer screening responsible for the negative results of prostate cancer treatment trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vinay

    2016-08-01

    Clinical guidelines continue to move away from routine prostate specific antigen screening (PSA), once a widespread medical practice. A curious difference exists between early prostate cancer and early breast cancer. While randomized trials of therapy in early breast cancer continue to show overall survival benefit, this is not the case in prostate cancer, where prostatectomy was no better than observation in a recent trial, and where early androgen deprivation is no better than late androgen deprivation. Here, I make the case that prostate cancer screening contributes so greatly to over diagnosis that even treatment trials yield null results due to contamination with non-life threatening disease. PMID:27372859

  8. Comparison of telomerase activity in prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleiman Mahjoub

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase enzyme that synthesizes telomeric DNA on chromosome ends. The enzyme is important for the immortalization of cancer cells because it maintains the telomeres. METHODS: Telomerase activity (TA was measured by fluorescence-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol (FTRAP assay in prostate carcinoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. RESULTS: TA was present in 91.4% of 70 prostate cancers, 68.8% of 16 prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, 43.3% of 30 BPH*, 21.4% of 14 atrophy and 20% of 15 normal samples adjacent to tumor. There was not any significant correlation between TA, histopathological tumor stage or gleason score. In contrast to high TA in the BPH* tissue from the cancer-bearing gland, only 6.3% of 32 BPH specimens from patients only diagnosed with BPH were telomerase activity-positive. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that TA is present in most prostate cancers. The high rate of TA in tissue adjacent to tumor may be attributed either to early molecular alteration of cancer that was histologically unapparent, or to the presence of occult cancer cells. Our findings suggest that the re-expression of telomerase activity could be one step in the transformation of BPH to PIN. KEY WORDS: Telomerase activity, prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  9. Pomegranate fruit juice for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Arshi; Afaq, Farrukh; Sarfaraz, Sami; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Syed, Deeba N.; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2005-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common invasive malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among U.S. males, with a similar trend in many Western countries. One approach to control this malignancy is its prevention through the use of agents present in diet consumed by humans. Pomegranate from the tree Punica granatum possesses strong antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. We recently showed that pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) possesses remarkable antitumor-promoting effects in mouse skin. In this study, employing human prostate cancer cells, we evaluated the antiproliferative and proapoptotic properties of PFE. PFE (10-100 μg/ml; 48 h) treatment of highly aggressive human prostate cancer PC3 cells resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth/cell viability and induction of apoptosis. Immunoblot analysis revealed that PFE treatment of PC3 cells resulted in (i) induction of Bax and Bak (proapoptotic); (ii) down-regulation of Bcl-XL and Bcl-2 (antiapoptotic); (iii) induction of WAF1/p21 and KIP1/p27; (iv) a decrease in cyclins D1, D2, and E; and (v) a decrease in cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) 2, cdk4, and cdk6 expression. These data establish the involvement of the cyclin kinase inhibitor-cyclin-cdk network during the antiproliferative effects of PFE. Oral administration of PFE (0.1% and 0.2%, wt/vol) to athymic nude mice implanted with androgen-sensitive CWR22Rν1 cells resulted in a significant inhibition in tumor growth concomitant with a significant decrease in serum prostate-specific antigen levels. We suggest that pomegranate juice may have cancer-chemopreventive as well as cancer-chemotherapeutic effects against prostate cancer in humans. PMID:16192356

  10. Targeting prostate cancer stem cells for cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guocan; Wang, Zhiwei; Sarkar, Fazlul H; Wei, Wenyi

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignant neoplasm in men and the second most frequent cause of cancer death for males in the United States. Recently, emerging evidence suggests that prostate cancer stem cells (CSCs) may play a critical role in the development and progression of PCa. Therefore, targeting prostate CSCs for the prevention of tumor progression and treatment of PCa could become a novel strategy for better treatment of patients diagnosed with PCa. In this review article, ...

  11. Serum Retinol and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mondul, Alison M.; Watters, Joanne L; Männistö, Satu; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Snyder, Kirk; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2011-01-01

    Greater exposure to retinol (vitamin A) may prevent prostate cancer, although under some conditions it could promote cell growth and de-differentiation. The authors prospectively examined prostate cancer risk and serum retinol levels, measured by using high-performance liquid chromatography, at baseline (n = 29,104) and after 3 years (n = 22,843) in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative risk of to...

  12. [Treatment strategies for advanced prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küronya, Zsófia; Bíró, Krisztina; Géczi, Lajos; Németh, Hajnalka

    2015-09-01

    There has been dramatic improvement in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer recently. The treatment of localized disease became more successful with the application of new, sophisticated techniques available for urologic surgeons and radiotherapists. Nevertheless a significant proportion of patients relapses after the initial local treatment or is diagnosed with metastatic disease at the beginning. In the past five years, six new drugs became registered for the treatment of metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer, such as sipuleucel-T, cabazitaxel, abiraterone, enzalutamide, the α-emitting radionuclide alpharadin and the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) ligand inhibitor denosumab. The availability of these new treatment options raises numerous questions. In this review we present the standard of care of metastatic prostate cancer by disease stage (hormone naive/ hormone sensitive metastatic prostate cancer, non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, oligometastatic/multimetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer) and the emerging treatment modalities presently assessed in clinical trials. We would also like to give advice on debatable aspects of the management of metastatic prostate cancer. PMID:26339912

  13. New serum biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Chadha, Kailash C.; Austin Miller; Nair, Bindukumar B.; Schwartz, Stanley A.; Trump, Donald L.; Willie Underwood

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a biomarker for diagnosis and management of prostate cancer (CaP). However, PSA typically lacks the sensitivity and specificity desired of a diagnostic marker. Objective: The goal of this study was to identify an additional biomarker or a panel of biomarkers that is more sensitive and specific than PSA in differentiating benign versus malignant prostate disease and/or localized CaP versus metastatic CaP. Methods: Concurrent meas...

  14. Enrichment of prostate cancer stem cells from primary prostate cancer cultures of biopsy samples

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shunqi; Huang, Shengsong; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Qimin; Wu, Min; Sun, Feng; Han, Gang; Wu, Denglong

    2013-01-01

    This study was to enrich prostate cancer stem cells (PrCSC) from primary prostate cancer cultures (PPrCC). Primary prostate cancer cells were amplified in keratinocyte serum-free medium with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and bovine pituitary extract (BPE), supplemented with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), stem cell factor (SCF) and cholera toxin. After amplification, cells were transferred into ultra-low attachment dishes with serum-free DMEM/F12 medium, supplemented with EGF, basic fibrobl...

  15. Gene panel model predictive of outcome in patients with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiau, Nadège; Dantal, Yann; Guy, Laurent; Ngollo, Marjolaine; Dagdemir, Aslihan; Kemeny, Jean-Louis; Terris, Benoît; Vieillefond, Annick; Boiteux, Jean-Paul; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Bernard-Gallon, Dominique

    2013-08-01

    In men at high risk for prostate cancer, established clinical and pathological parameters provide only limited prognostic information. Here we analyzed a French cohort of 103 prostate cancer patients and developed a gene panel model predictive of outcome in this group of patients. The model comprised of a 15-gene TaqMan Low-Density Array (TLDA) card, with gene expressions compared to a standardized reference. The RQ value for each gene was calculated, and a scoring system was developed. Summing all the binary scores (0 or 1) corresponding to the 15 genes, a global score is obtained between 0 and 15. This global score can be compared to Gleason score (0 to 10) by recalculating it into a 0-10 scaled score. A scaled score ≥2 suggested that the patient is suffering from a prostate cancer, and a scaled score ≥7 flagged aggressive cancer. Statistical analyses demonstrated a strongly significant linear correlation (p=3.50E-08) between scaled score and Gleason score for this prostate cancer cohort (N=103). These results support the capacity of this designed 15 target gene TLDA card approach to predict outcome in prostate cancer, opening up a new avenue for personalized medicine through future independent replication and applications for rapid identification of aggressive prostate cancer phenotypes for early intervention.

  16. Obesity, body composition, and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowke Jay H

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Established risk factors for prostate cancer have not translated to effective prevention or adjuvant care strategies. Several epidemiologic studies suggest greater body adiposity may be a modifiable risk factor for high-grade (Gleason 7, Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer and prostate cancer mortality. However, BMI only approximates body adiposity, and may be confounded by centralized fat deposition or lean body mass in older men. Our objective was to use bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA to measure body composition and determine the association between prostate cancer and total body fat mass (FM fat-free mass (FFM, and percent body fat (%BF, and which body composition measure mediated the association between BMI or waist circumference (WC with prostate cancer. Methods The study used a multi-centered recruitment protocol targeting men scheduled for prostate biopsy. Men without prostate cancer at biopsy served as controls (n = 1057. Prostate cancer cases were classified as having Gleason 6 (n = 402, Gleason 7 (n = 272, or Gleason 8-10 (n = 135 cancer. BIA and body size measures were ascertained by trained staff prior to diagnosis, and clinical and comorbidity status were determined by chart review. Analyses utilized multivariable linear and logistic regression. Results Body size and composition measures were not significantly associated with low-grade (Gleason 6 prostate cancer. In contrast, BMI, WC, FM, and FFM were associated with an increased risk of Gleason 7 and Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer. Furthermore, BMI and WC were no longer associated with Gleason 8-10 (ORBMI = 1.039 (1.000, 1.081, ORWC = 1.016 (0.999, 1.033, continuous scales with control for total body FFM (ORBMI = 0.998 (0.946, 1.052, ORWC = 0.995 (0.974, 1.017. Furthermore, increasing FFM remained significantly associated with Gleason 7 (ORFFM = 1.030 (1.008, 1.052 and Gleason 8-10 (ORFFM = 1.044 (1.014, 1.074 after controlling for FM. Conclusions Our results

  17. Lymph node staging in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankineni, Sandeep; Brown, Anna M; Fascelli, Michele; Law, Yan Mee; Pinto, Peter A; Choyke, Peter L; Turkbey, Baris

    2015-05-01

    Nodal staging is important in prostate cancer treatment. While surgical lymph node dissection is the classic method of determining whether lymph nodes harbor malignancy, this is a very invasive technique. Current noninvasive approaches to identifying malignant lymph nodes are limited. Conventional imaging methods rely on size and morphology of lymph nodes and have notoriously low sensitivity for detecting malignant nodes. New imaging techniques such as targeted positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL) with iron oxide particles are promising for nodal staging of prostate cancer. In this review, the strengths and limitations of imaging techniques for lymph node staging of prostate cancer are discussed.

  18. Differences between men with screening-detected versus clinically diagnosed prostate cancers in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone S Noell

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of prostate specific antigen (PSA testing in the United States of America (USA has led to a dramatic increase in the incidence of prostate cancer in the United States as well as the number of men undergoing aggressive treatment with radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy. We compared patient characteristics and treatment selection between American men with screening-detected versus clinically diagnosed prostate cancers. Methods We evaluated 3,173 men with prostate cancer in the USA. Surveys and medical records provided information on demographics, socioeconomic status, comorbidities, symptoms, tumor characteristics, and treatment. We classified men presenting with symptoms of advanced cancer – bone pain, weight loss, or hematuria – as "clinically diagnosed"; asymptomatic men and those with only lower urinary tract symptoms were considered "screening-detected." We used multivariate analyses to determine whether screening predicted receiving aggressive treatment for a clinically localized cancer. Results We classified 11% of cancers as being clinically diagnosed. Men with screening-detected cancers were more often non-Hispanic white (77% vs. 65%, P Conclusion Most cancers were detected by screening in this American cohort. Appropriately, younger, healthier men were more likely to be diagnosed by screening. Minority status and lower socio-economic status appeared to be screening barriers. Screening detected earlier-stage cancers and was associated with receiving aggressive treatment.

  19. Prognostic DNA Methylation Markers for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri H. Strand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm and the third most common cause of cancer-related death amongst men in the Western world. PC is a clinically highly heterogeneous disease, and distinction between aggressive and indolent disease is a major challenge for the management of PC. Currently, no biomarkers or prognostic tools are able to accurately predict tumor progression at the time of diagnosis. Thus, improved biomarkers for PC prognosis are urgently needed. This review focuses on the prognostic potential of DNA methylation biomarkers for PC. Epigenetic changes are hallmarks of PC and associated with malignant initiation as well as tumor progression. Moreover, DNA methylation is the most frequently studied epigenetic alteration in PC, and the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers for PC has been demonstrated in multiple studies. The most promising methylation marker candidates identified so far include PITX2, C1orf114 (CCDC181 and the GABRE~miR-452~miR-224 locus, in addition to the three-gene signature AOX1/C1orf114/HAPLN3. Several other biomarker candidates have also been investigated, but with less stringent clinical validation and/or conflicting evidence regarding their possible prognostic value available at this time. Here, we review the current evidence for the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers in PC.

  20. Prognostic DNA methylation markers for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Siri H; Orntoft, Torben F; Sorensen, Karina D

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm and the third most common cause of cancer-related death amongst men in the Western world. PC is a clinically highly heterogeneous disease, and distinction between aggressive and indolent disease is a major challenge for the management of PC. Currently, no biomarkers or prognostic tools are able to accurately predict tumor progression at the time of diagnosis. Thus, improved biomarkers for PC prognosis are urgently needed. This review focuses on the prognostic potential of DNA methylation biomarkers for PC. Epigenetic changes are hallmarks of PC and associated with malignant initiation as well as tumor progression. Moreover, DNA methylation is the most frequently studied epigenetic alteration in PC, and the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers for PC has been demonstrated in multiple studies. The most promising methylation marker candidates identified so far include PITX2, C1orf114 (CCDC181) and the GABRE~miR-452~miR-224 locus, in addition to the three-gene signature AOX1/C1orf114/HAPLN3. Several other biomarker candidates have also been investigated, but with less stringent clinical validation and/or conflicting evidence regarding their possible prognostic value available at this time. Here, we review the current evidence for the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers in PC. PMID:25238417

  1. Statin Use in Prostate Cancer: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcook, Melissa A.; Joshi, Aditya; Montellano, Jeniece A.; Shankar, Eswar; Gupta, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, known as statins, are commonly prescribed for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular disease. A systematic review was conducted using the keywords “statin and prostate cancer” within the title search engines including PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for relevant research work published between 2004 and December 2015. Although still premature, accumulating clinical evidence suggests that statin use may be beneficial in the prevention and/or treatment of prostate cancer. These human studies consist of meta-analyses of secondary endpoints obtained from randomized, controlled cardiovascular disease clinical trials of statins, patient database, observational studies, and a few, small case–control studies, directly addressing statin use on prostate cancer pathology and recurrence. This review summarizes and discusses the recent clinical literature on statins and prostate cancer with a recommendation to move forward with randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials, investigating the use of statins. Additional preclinical testing of statins on prostate cancer cell lines and in vivo models is needed to elucidate pathways and determine its efficacy for prevention and/or treatment of prostate cancer, more specifically, the difference in the effectiveness of lipophilic versus hydrophilic statins in prostate cancer. PMID:27441003

  2. Road to Recovery from Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... working with the pioneer in the field, my friend and colleague Claude Abbou. However, we realized early ... to two percent chance of recurrence and the behavior of this is ... you may a more aggressive disease. By removing the prostate, you will get ...

  3. Focal therapy for prostate cancer: The current status

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Susan; Taneja, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In an era of increasing prostate cancer incidence and earlier detection, the assessment of clinical significance of prostate cancer is critical. Minimally invasive therapies are increasingly being investigated in localized prostate cancer. Methods and results In this review, we discuss the current status of magnetic resonance imaging targeted fusion prostate biopsy and focal therapy for prostate cancer, its rationale, and techniques. Conclusion Focal therapy offers a promising outlook...

  4. PET/CT in prostate cancer: non-choline radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellucci, P; Jadvar, H

    2012-08-01

    In this brief review, the major potential clinical applications of 18F-FDG, 11C-acetate, 18F-FDHT, 18F-FLT, 18F-FMAU, and anti-18F-FACBC in the imaging evaluation of men with prostate cancer are discussed. 18F-FDG has a limited role in primary diagnosis and staging but it may be able to reflect tumour aggressiveness, detect sites of recurrence in some men with high serum PSA after biochemical failure and assess response to chemo- and hormonal treatment in metastatic disease. 11C-acetate has been investigated for intra-prostatic primary tumour detection and staging as well as for re-staging in case of biochemical relapse with results that are overall similar to those with 18F- and 11C-labeled choline. 18F-FDHT targets the androgen receptor and may be particularly useful in the assessment of the pharmacodynamics of the androgen signalling pathway. PET in conjunction with 18F-FLT or 18F-FMAU that track the thymidine salvage pathway of DNA synthesis has also been investigated for imaging cellular proliferation in prostate cancer. Initial experience with the radiolabeled synthetic amino acid, anti-18F-FACBC, which displays slow urinary excretion has been encouraging but further studies will be needed to decipher its exact role in the imaging management of men with prostate cancer.

  5. Physical activity and prostate gene expression in men with low-risk prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Magbanua, MJM; Richman, EL; Sosa, EV; Jones, LW; Simko, J; Shinohara, K.; Haqq, CM; Carroll, PR; Chan, JM

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Vigorous physical activity after diagnosis of localized prostate cancer may reduce the risk of disease progression and prostate cancer-specific mortality. The molecular mechanisms by which physical activity may exert protective effects in the prostate remain unknown. Methods: We examined the associations between self-reported physical activity and gene expression patterns in morphologically normal prostate tissue of 71 men with low-risk prostate cancer on active surveillance. Differe...

  6. MR imaging of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer (PC) is developing into an important health care issue in light of the high incidence of PC and the improvements in stage-adapted therapy. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview on the current role of MR imaging and MR spectroscopy in the diagnosis and staging of PC.Material and methods Pertinent literature was searched and evaluated to collect information on current clinical indications, study techniques, diagnostic value, and limitations of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. Major indications for MR imaging of patients with supected PC are to define tumor location before biopsy when clinical or TRUS findings are inconclusive, and to provide accurate staging of histologically proven PC to ascertain effective therapy. Current MR imaging techniques for the evaluation of PC include multiplanar high-resolution T2-weighted FSE and T1-weighted SE sequences using combined endorectal and phased-array coils. Using these techniques, the reported accuracy of MR imaging for the diagnosis of extracapsular tumor extension ranges between 82 and 88% with sensitivities between 80 and 95%, and specificities between 82 and 93%. Typical MR findings of PC in different stages of disease, as well as diagnostic problems, such as chronic prostatitis, biopsy-related hemorrhage and therapy-related changes of prostatic tissue are discussed. In addition, the current perspectives and limitations of MR spectroscopy in PC are summarized. Current MR imaging techniques provide important diagnostic information in the pretherapeutic workup of PC including a high staging accuracy, and is superior to TRUS. (orig.)

  7. Image guided prostate cancer treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, Robert L. [Bard Cancer Center, Biofoundation for Angiogenesis Research and Development, New York, NY (United States); Fuetterer, Jurgen J. [Radboud Univ. Nijmegen, Medical Centre (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Sperling, Dan (ed.) [Sperling Prostate Center, Alpha 3TMRI, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Detailed information on image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, and microwave and laser ablation. Numerous high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment. Represents the state of the art in Non Invasive Imaging and Minimally Invasive Ablation Treatment (MIAT). Image-Guided Prostate Cancer Treatments is a comprehensive reference and practical guide on the technology and application of ultrasound and MRI in the male pelvis, with special attention to the prostate. The book is organized into three main sections, the first of which is devoted to general aspects of imaging and image-guided treatments. The second section provides a systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Performance of the ultrasound and MRI studies is explained, and the normal and abnormal pathological anatomy is reviewed. Correlation with the ultrasound in the same plane is provided to assist in understanding the MRI sequences. Biopsy and interventional procedures, ultrasound-MRI fusion techniques, and image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, microwave and laser ablation, are all fully covered. The third section focuses on securing treatment effectiveness and the use of follow-up imaging to ensure therapeutic success and detect tumor recurrence at an early stage, which is vital given that prompt focal treatment of recurrence is very successful. Here, particular attention is paid to the role of Doppler ultrasound and DCE-MRI technologies. This book, containing a wealth of high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment, will acquaint beginners with the basics of prostate ultrasound and MRI, while more advanced practitioners will learn new skills, means of avoiding pitfalls, and ways of effectively

  8. Vaccine Therapy and Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Hormone-Resistant, Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Bone; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Soft Tissues; Metastatic Prostate Carcinoma; Prostate Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Stage IV Prostate Cancer

  9. Correlations between meteorological parameters and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Rakesh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There exists a north-south pattern to the distribution of prostate cancer in the U.S., with the north having higher rates than the south. The current hypothesis for the spatial pattern of this disease is low vitamin D levels in individuals living at northerly latitudes; however, this explanation only partially explains the spatial distribution in the incidence of this cancer. Using a U.S. county-level ecological study design, we provide evidence that other meteorological parameters further explain the variation in prostate cancer across the U.S. Results In general, the colder the temperature and the drier the climate in a county, the higher the incidence of prostate cancer, even after controlling for shortwave radiation, age, race, snowfall, premature mortality from heart disease, unemployment rate, and pesticide use. Further, in counties with high average annual snowfall (>75 cm/yr the amount of land used to grow crops (a proxy for pesticide use was positively correlated with the incidence of prostate cancer. Conclusion The trends found in this USA study suggest prostate cancer may be partially correlated with meteorological factors. The patterns observed were consistent with what we would expect given the effects of climate on the deposition, absorption, and degradation of persistent organic pollutants including pesticides. Some of these pollutants are known endocrine disruptors and have been associated with prostate cancer.

  10. Prostate Cancer Stem Cells: Research Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Dagmara; Król, Wojciech; Szliszka, Ewelina

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells have been defined as cells within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. Experimental evidence showed that these highly tumorigenic cells might be responsible for initiation and progression of cancer into invasive and metastatic disease. Eradicating prostate cancer stem cells, the root of the problem, has been considered as a promising target in prostate cancer treatment to improve the prognosis for patients with advanced stages of the disease.

  11. Prostate Cancer Stem Cells: Research Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Jaworska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells have been defined as cells within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. Experimental evidence showed that these highly tumorigenic cells might be responsible for initiation and progression of cancer into invasive and metastatic disease. Eradicating prostate cancer stem cells, the root of the problem, has been considered as a promising target in prostate cancer treatment to improve the prognosis for patients with advanced stages of the disease.

  12. Researchers Find 8 Immune Genes in Aggressive Brain Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 159031.html Researchers Find 8 Immune Genes in Aggressive Brain Cancer Discovery might eventually lead to better ... tissue samples from 170 people with a less aggressive type of brain tumor. This led to the ...

  13. Extensive Surgery Best for an Aggressive Brain Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_159415.html Extensive Surgery Best for an Aggressive Brain Cancer: Study Although larger procedure carries more ... News) -- When it comes to battling a particularly aggressive form of brain tumor, more extensive surgeries may ...

  14. Road to Recovery from Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... too enamored with the gimmick of using the robot or having limited bleeding and we’ve had ... the Department of Urology, I felt that the robot surgery for the treatment of prostate cancer is ...

  15. Road to Recovery from Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... remember the rule of ones. This is the number one treatment option for prostate cancer in 2008. ... over the past few years and the estimated number in 2008, it’s going to be a little ...

  16. Abiraterone Improves Survival in Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multinational phase III trial found that the drug abiraterone acetate prolonged the median survival of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer by 4 months compared with patients who received a placebo.

  17. Road to Recovery from Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over two housekeeping items. First, please keep in mind that this live webcast will be archived on ... prostate cancer, we must keep the trifecta in mind. Certainly, there are many naysayers of using minimally ...

  18. African American Men and Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the African-American that we treat this as what it is -- an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction ... being ignorant to prostate cancer -- and not knowing what it was -- that was my first, first, first- ...

  19. Road to Recovery from Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to get the da Vinci S or the latest model of the robot, and would that comes the ... If you have a Gleason 8 or high risk prostate cancer, certainly that’s important to know whether ...

  20. Genomic Predictors of Outcome in Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bostrom, P.J.; Bjartell, A.S.; Catto, J.W.; Eggener, S.E.; Lilja, H.; Loeb, S.; Schalken, J.A.; Schlomm, T.; Cooperberg, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Given the highly variable behavior and clinical course of prostate cancer (PCa) and the multiple available treatment options, a personalized approach to oncologic risk stratification is important. Novel genetic approaches offer additional information to improve clinical decision making. OBJ

  1. Radium-223 for Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A summary of results from a phase III trial that compared radium-223 dichloride plus the best standard of care versus a placebo plus the best standard of care in men with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  2. The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer Program. Demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    See, W A.; McLeod, D; Iversen, P;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for early prostate cancer has yet to be established. A well-tolerated hormonal therapy such as bicalutamide could be a useful treatment option in this setting, either as adjuvant or immediate therapy. A major collaborative clinical trials program was set up to...... investigate bicalutamide as a treatment option for local prostate cancer (localized or locally advanced disease). METHODS: The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer program comprises three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of similar design that are being conducted in distinct geographical...... areas (North America; Australia, Europe, Israel, South Africa and Mexico; and Scandinavia). Men with T1b-4N0-1M0 (TNM 1997) prostate cancer have been randomized on a 1:1 basis to receive bicalutamide 150 mg daily or placebo. Recruitment to the program closed in July 1998, and follow-up is ongoing. Study...

  3. Road to Recovery from Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the web for anyone to reference in the future. Secondly, we welcome you to email any questions ... for the treatment of prostate cancer is the future. When we wanted to build a program at ...

  4. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Omi/HtrA2 Expression in Prostate Cancer and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiaoyong; CHEN Xiaochun; PING Hao; CHEN Zhaohui; ZENG Fuqing; LU Gongcheng

    2005-01-01

    To study the expression and significance of the serine protease Omi/HtrA2 in prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. The expression of Omi/HtrA2 was assayed by means of immunohistochemical technique in 41 prostate cancer (Cap), 20 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 10 normal prostate (NP) specimens. Omi/HtrA2 expression was positive in 30 (73.17%) prostate cancer specimens, and the positive rate of Omi/HtrA2 was lower in well differentiated than in poorly and moderately differentiated groups (P<0.05). By contrast, the cells in normal prostate and benign prostatic hyperplasia groups showed no or weak expression of Omi/HtrA2.Prostate cancer cells in vivo may need Omi/HtrA2 expression for apoptosis, and that Omi/HtrA2expression might be involved in prostate cancer development.

  5. Finasteride concentrations and prostate cancer risk: results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy H Chau

    Full Text Available In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT, finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by 25%, even though high-grade prostate cancer was more common in the finasteride group. However, it remains to be determined whether finasteride concentrations may affect prostate cancer risk. In this study, we examined the association between serum finasteride concentrations and the risk of prostate cancer in the treatment arm of the PCPT and determined factors involved in modifying drug concentrations.Data for this nested case-control study are from the PCPT. Cases were drawn from men with biopsy-proven prostate cancer and matched controls. Finasteride concentrations were measured using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry validated assay. The association of serum finasteride concentrations with prostate cancer risk was determined by logistic regression. We also examine whether polymorphisms in the enzyme target and metabolism genes of finasteride are related to drug concentrations using linear regression.Among men with detectable finasteride concentrations, there was no association between finasteride concentrations and prostate cancer risk, low-grade or high-grade, when finasteride concentration was analyzed as a continuous variable or categorized by cutoff points. Since there was no concentration-dependent effect on prostate cancer, any exposure to finasteride intake may reduce prostate cancer risk. Of the twenty-seven SNPs assessed in the enzyme target and metabolism pathway, five SNPs in two genes, CYP3A4 (rs2242480; rs4646437; rs4986910, and CYP3A5 (rs15524; rs776746 were significantly associated with modifying finasteride concentrations. These results suggest that finasteride exposure may reduce prostate cancer risk and finasteride concentrations are affected by genetic variations in genes responsible for altering its metabolism pathway.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00288106.

  6. Genetic association of the KLK4 locus with risk of prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Lose

    Full Text Available The Kallikrein-related peptidase, KLK4, has been shown to be significantly overexpressed in prostate tumours in numerous studies and is suggested to be a potential biomarker for prostate cancer. KLK4 may also play a role in prostate cancer progression through its involvement in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a more aggressive phenotype, and metastases to bone. It is well known that genetic variation has the potential to affect gene expression and/or various protein characteristics and hence we sought to investigate the possible role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the KLK4 gene in prostate cancer. Assessment of 61 SNPs in the KLK4 locus (± 10 kb in approximately 1300 prostate cancer cases and 1300 male controls for associations with prostate cancer risk and/or prostate tumour aggressiveness (Gleason score <7 versus ≥ 7 revealed 7 SNPs to be associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer at the P(trend<0.05 significance level. Three of these SNPs, rs268923, rs56112930 and the HapMap tagSNP rs7248321, are located several kb upstream of KLK4; rs1654551 encodes a non-synonymous serine to alanine substitution at position 22 of the long isoform of the KLK4 protein, and the remaining 3 risk-associated SNPs, rs1701927, rs1090649 and rs806019, are located downstream of KLK4 and are in high linkage disequilibrium with each other (r(2 ≥ 0.98. Our findings provide suggestive evidence of a role for genetic variation in the KLK4 locus in prostate cancer predisposition.

  7. Prostate Cancer: Current Treatment and Prevention Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fang-zhi; Zhao, Xiao-kun

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Prostate cancer is one of the life threatening disorders of male. Although, over the last two decades, a high rate of overdiagnosis, and overtreatment has lowered the incidence rate of prostate cancer, the treatment or prevention strategies are not enough to control the high rate of disease related mortality. Current medical treatment approaches include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, cryosurgery and other methods. These approaches are more or less effecti...

  8. Prostate cancer: a review of active surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Lund L; Svolgaard N; Poulsen MH

    2014-01-01

    Lars Lund,1,2 Niels Svolgaard,1 Mads Hvid Poulsen1 1Department of Urology, Odense University Hospital, 2Clinical Institute, Southern University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark Abstract: The objective of this paper is to review the current recommendations for active surveillance in prostate cancer from the present prospective studies. Worldwide, there are increasing numbers of men with prostate cancer. It is now accepted as standard care that a number of men with favorable-risk disease c...

  9. Prostate cancer research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-Cheng Ren; Rui Chen; Ying-Hao Sun

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) research in China has been on a rocketing trend in recent years.The first genome-wide association study (GWAS)in China identified two new PCa risk associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).Next generation sequencing is beginning to be used,yielding novel findings:gene fusions,long non-coding RNAs and other variations.Mechanisms of PCa progression have been illustrated while various diagnosis biomarkers have been investigated extensively.Personalized therapy based on genetic factors,nano-medicine and traditional Chinese medicine has been the focus of experimental therapeutic research for PCa.This review intends to shed light upon the recent progress in PCa research in China and points out the possible breakthroughs in the future.

  10. Epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniyal, Muhammad; Siddiqui, Zamir Ali; Akram, Muhammad; Asif, H M; Sultana, Sabira; Khan, Asmatullah

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is more common in men over the age of 65 years. There are 15% cases with positive family history of prostate cancer Worldwide. Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death among the U.S. men. Prostate cancer incidence is strongly related to age with the highest rates in older man. Globally millions of people are suffering from this disease. This study aims to provide awareness about prostate cancer as well as an updated knowledge about the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer.

  11. The politics of prostate cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaffenberger, Samuel D; Penson, David F

    2014-05-01

    The controversial recent recommendation by the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) against prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for early-stage prostate cancer has caused much debate. Whereas USPSTF recommendations against routine screening mammography in younger women resulted in fierce public outcry and eventual alteration in the language of the recommendation, the same public and political response has not been seen with PSA screening for prostate cancer. It is of paramount importance to ensure improved efficiency and transparency of the USPSTF recommendation process, and resolution of concerns with the current USPSTF recommendation against PSA screening for all ages. PMID:24725487

  12. Micronutrient intake and risk of prostate cancer in a cohort of middle-aged, Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roswall, Nina; Larsen, Signe B.; Friis, Søren;

    2013-01-01

    with questionnaire-based information on diet, supplements, and lifestyle. Hazard ratios (HRs) for prostate cancer associated with micronutrient intake were calculated using Cox proportional hazard analyses. Results: During follow-up (1993-2010), 1,571 prostate cancer cases were identified. Supplemental folic acid...... folate or for the other studied micronutrients, regardless of source. We found no significant effect modification by alcohol intake and BMI in relation to any micronutrient. Conclusion: Our study may indicate an inverse association between folic acid and prostate cancer; however, the inverse association...... was confined to supplemental folic acid and non-aggressive prostate cancer and may thus be a chance finding. Further studies are warranted to evaluate our findings. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht....

  13. [Medical castration in the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer: an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, S-J; Rouprêt, M; Davin, J-L; Soulié, M

    2009-04-01

    Indications for hormonotherapy in prostate cancer are in deep mutation and are constantly evolving. Used initially (1941) in metastatic stages, hormone therapy is used nowadays in locally advanced prostate cancer and aggressive localized disease. Its prescription in association with radiotherapy or surgery has provided a benefit regarding survival free progression. The place of hormone therapy in localized prostate cancer is not well defined and the debate is still ongoing, especially in case of biochemical recurrence after irradiation or radical prostatectomy and even in neoadjuvant cases. Additional and further studies are ongoing and are strongly needed to establish new guidelines. Nevertheless, hormone therapy is not restricted any more to palliative cases and is part of the current therapeutic arsenal of the urologist for high risk localized and/or locally advanced prostate cancers. PMID:19465332

  14. Focal Therapy in the Management of Prostate Cancer: An Emerging Approach for Localized Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Takeo Nomura; Hiromitsu Mimata

    2012-01-01

    A widespread screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has led increased diagnosis of localized prostate cancer along with a reduction in the proportion of advanced-stage disease at diagnosis. Over the past decade, interest in focal therapy as a less morbid option for the treatment of localized low-risk prostate cancer has recently been renewed due to downward stage migration. Focal therapy stands midway between active surveillance and radical treatments, combining minimal morbidity with...

  15. Role of miRNA Let-7 and Its Major Targets in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Wagner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is worldwide the sixth leading cause of cancer related death in men thus early detection and successful treatment are still of major interest. The commonly performed screening of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA is controversially discussed, as in many patients the prostate-specific antigen levels are chronically elevated in the absence of cancer. Due to the unsatisfying efficiency of available prostate cancer screening markers and the current treatment outcome of the aggressive hormone refractory prostate cancer, the evaluation of novel molecular markers and targets is considered an issue of high importance. MicroRNAs are relatively stable in body fluids orchestrating simultaneously the expression of many genes. These molecules are currently discussed to bear a greater diagnostic potential than protein-coding genes, being additionally promising therapeutic drugs and/or targets. Herein we review the potential impact of the microRNA let-7 family on prostate cancer and show how deregulation of several of its target genes could influence the cellular equilibrium in the prostate gland, promoting cancer development as they do in a variety of other human malignant neoplasias.

  16. The Role of Estrogen Receptor β in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Christoforou, Paraskevi; Christopoulos, Panagiotis F; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although androgen receptor (AR) signaling is the main molecular tool regulating growth and function of the prostate gland, estrogen receptor β (ERβ) is involved in the differentiation of prostatic epithelial cells and numerous antiproliferative actions on prostate cancer cells. However, ERβ splice variants have been associated with prostate cancer initiation and progression mechanisms. ERβ is promising as an anticancer therapy and in the prevention of prostate cancer. Herein, we review the re...

  17. Dietary Zinc and Prostate Cancer in the TRAMP Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad, Ananda S; Mukhtar, Hasan; Beck, Frances W.J.; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A.; Din, Maria; Hafeez, Bilal B.; KUCUK, Omer

    2010-01-01

    Circumstantial evidence indicates that zinc may have an important role in the prostate. Total zinc levels in the prostate are 10 times higher than in other soft tissues. Zinc concentrations in prostate epithethial cancer cells are decreased significantly. Zinc supplementation for prevention and treatment of prostate cancer in humans has yielded controversial results. No studies have been reported in animal models to show the effect of zinc supplementation on prevention of prostate cancer, thu...

  18. The role of Estrogen Receptor Beta in Prostate Cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Christoforou, Paraskevi; Christopoulos, Panagiotis F; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although androgen receptor (AR) signaling is the main molecular tool regulating growth and function of prostate gland, estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is involved contributive in the differentiation of prostatic epithelial cells and numerous antiproliferative actions on prostate cancer cells. However, ERβ splice variants have been associated with prostate cancer initiation and progression mechanisms. Nowadays, ERß is a promising target as an anticancer therapy and prevention for prostate cancer....

  19. Behavioral stress accelerates prostate cancer development in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Sazzad; Karpova, Yelena; Baiz, Daniele; Yancey, Dana; Pullikuth, Ashok; Flores, Anabel; Register, Thomas; Cline, J. Mark; D’Agostino, Ralph; Danial, Nika; Datta, Sandeep Robert; Kulik, George

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer patients have increased levels of stress and anxiety. Conversely, men who take beta blockers, which interfere with signaling from the stress hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline, have a lower incidence of prostate cancer; however, the mechanisms underlying stress–prostate cancer interactions are unknown. Here, we report that stress promotes prostate carcinogenesis in mice in an adrenaline-dependent manner. Behavioral stress inhibited apoptosis and delayed prostate tumor invol...

  20. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer: translating molecular biology approaches into the clinical realm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Sala, Evis; Hricak, Hedvig [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Grimm, Jan [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Program in Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States); Donati, Olivio F. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-05-01

    The epidemiology of prostate cancer has dramatically changed since the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in the 1980's. Most prostate cancers today are detected at early stages of the disease and are considered 'indolent'; however, some patients' prostate cancers demonstrate a more aggressive behaviour which leads to rapid progression and death. Increasing understanding of the biology underlying the heterogeneity that characterises this disease has led to a continuously evolving role of imaging in the management of prostate cancer. Functional and metabolic imaging techniques are gaining importance as the impact on the therapeutic paradigm has shifted from structural tumour detection alone to distinguishing patients with indolent tumours that can be managed conservatively (e.g., by active surveillance) from patients with more aggressive tumours that may require definitive treatment with surgery or radiation. In this review, we discuss advanced imaging techniques that allow direct visualisation of molecular interactions relevant to prostate cancer and their potential for translation to the clinical setting in the near future. The potential use of imaging to follow molecular events during drug therapy as well as the use of imaging agents for therapeutic purposes will also be discussed. (orig.)

  1. Epigenomic Alterations in Localized and Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chun Lin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Although prostate cancer (PCa is the second leading cause of cancer death among men worldwide, not all men diagnosed with PCa will die from the disease. A critical challenge, therefore, is to distinguish indolent PCa from more advanced forms to guide appropriate treatment decisions. We used Enhanced Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing, a genome-wide high-coverage single-base resolution DNA methylation method to profile seven localized PCa samples, seven matched benign prostate tissues, and six aggressive castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC samples. We integrated these data with RNA-seq and whole-genome DNA-seq data to comprehensively characterize the PCa methylome, detect changes associated with disease progression, and identify novel candidate prognostic biomarkers. Our analyses revealed the correlation of cytosine guanine dinucleotide island (CGI-specific hypermethylation with disease severity and association of certain breakpoints (deletion, tandem duplications, and interchromosomal translocations with DNA methylation. Furthermore, integrative analysis of methylation and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs uncovered widespread allele-specific methylation (ASM for the first time in PCa. We found that most DNA methylation changes occurred in the context of ASM, suggesting that variations in tumor epigenetic landscape of individuals are partly mediated by genetic differences, which may affect PCa disease progression. We further selected a panel of 13 CGIs demonstrating increased DNA methylation with disease progression and validated this panel in an independent cohort of 20 benign prostate tissues, 16 PCa, and 8 aggressive CRPCs. These results warrant clinical evaluation in larger cohorts to help distinguish indolent PCa from advanced disease.

  2. 75 FR 54453 - National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... the last decade, prostate cancer is still the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in the... it. The exact causes of prostate cancer are not known, but awareness can help men make more informed... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8552 of August 31, 2010 National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2010 By...

  3. Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of prostate cancer, including information about specific genes and family cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about screening for prostate cancer and research aimed at prevention of this disease. Psychosocial issues associated with genetic testing and counseling of individuals who may have hereditary prostate cancer syndrome are also discussed.

  4. The evolving biology and treatment of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Taichman, Russel S.; Loberg, Robert D; Mehra, Rohit; Kenneth J Pienta

    2007-01-01

    Since the effectiveness of androgen deprivation for treatment of advanced prostate cancer was first demonstrated, prevention strategies and medical therapies for prostate cancer have been based on understanding the biologic underpinnings of the disease. Prostate cancer treatment is one of the best examples of a systematic therapeutic approach to target not only the cancer cells themselves, but the microenvironment in which they are proliferating. As the population ages and prostate cancer pre...

  5. Prostate cancer outcome and tissue levels of metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafanov, A.G.; Todorov, T.I.; Centeno, J.A.; MacIas, V.; Gao, W.; Liang, W.-M.; Beam, C.; Gray, Michael A.; Kajdacsy-Balla, A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND There are several studies examining prostate cancer and exposure to cadmium, iron, selenium, and zinc. Less data are available on the possible influence of these metal ions on prostate cancer outcome. This study measured levels of these ions in prostatectomy samples in order to examine possible associations between metal concentrations and disease outcome. METHODS We obtained formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks of prostatectomy samples of 40 patients with PSA recurrence, matched 1:1 (for year of surgery, race, age, Gleason grading, and pathology TNM classification) with tissue blocks from 40 patients without recurrence (n = 80). Case-control pairs were compared for the levels of metals in areas adjacent to tumors. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for quantification of Cd, Fe, Zn, and Se. RESULTS Patients with biochemical (PSA) recurrence of disease had 12% lower median iron (95 ??g/g vs. 111 ??g/g; P = 0.04) and 21% lower zinc (279 ??g/g vs. 346 ??g/g; P = 0.04) concentrations in the normal-appearing tissue immediately adjacent to cancer areas. Differences in cadmium (0.489 ??g/g vs. 0.439 ??g/g; 4% higher) and selenium (1.68 ??g/g vs. 1.58 ??g/g; 5% higher) levels were not statistically significant in recurrence cases, when compared to non-recurrences (P = 0.40 and 0.21, respectively). CONCLUSIONS There is an association between low zinc and low iron prostate tissue levels and biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer. Whether these novel findings are a cause or effect of more aggressive tumors, or whether low zinc and iron prostatic levels raise implications for therapy, remains to be investigated. Copyright ?? 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Risk of prostate cancer among cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.; Schans, S.A. van de; Liu, L.; Kampman, E.; Coebergh, J.W.W.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Soerjomataram, I.; Aben, K.K.H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parallel with increasing numbers of cancer patients and improving cancer survival, the occurrence of second primary cancers becomes a relevant issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate risk of prostate cancer as second primary cancer in a population-based setting. METHODS: Data from

  7. Risk of prostate cancer among cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.G.; Schans, van de S.A.; Liu, L.; Kampman, E.; Coebergh, J.W.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Soerjomataram, I.; Aben, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    In parallel with increasing numbers of cancer patients and improving cancer survival, the occurrence of second primary cancers becomes a relevant issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate risk of prostate cancer as second primary cancer in a population-based setting. Methods Data from the Netherla

  8. Prostate-specific antigen in the early detection of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Ian M; Ankerst, Donna P.

    2007-01-01

    Throughout Canada, the United States and much of Europe, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer has proliferated over the past 2 decades, leading to dramatic increases in detection rates of prostate cancer. Although it has unquestionably led to increased detection of cancer and a migration to lower-stage and -volume tumours, it is still unknown whether PSA screening significantly reduces mortality from prostate cancer. Often thought to be dichotomous (i.e., either norma...

  9. Chemotherapy of prostate cancer: present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Donald; Lau, Yiu-Keung

    2003-06-01

    The role of chemotherapy in prostate cancer continues to evolve. In men with symptomatic androgen-independent prostate cancer, significant reduction in pain and analgesic requirements are achievable with mitoxantrone and glucocorticoid combinations compared with glucocorticoids alone. However, survival rates are not improved. Taxane-based combinations with estramustine phosphate or other new agents show promise. Prostate-specific antigen response rates with these combinations appear to be 1.5 to 2 times more frequent than with mitoxantrone-based combinations. Randomized trials of taxane versus mitoxantrone-based therapies are underway. New agents and applications of current agents in adjuvant settings should be explored if survival in men with prostate cancer is to be improved. PMID:12756087

  10. Chemotherapy of prostate cancer: present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Donald; Lau, Yiu-Keung

    2003-06-01

    The role of chemotherapy in prostate cancer continues to evolve. In men with symptomatic androgen-independent prostate cancer, significant reduction in pain and analgesic requirements are achievable with mitoxantrone and glucocorticoid combinations compared with glucocorticoids alone. However, survival rates are not improved. Taxane-based combinations with estramustine phosphate or other new agents show promise. Prostate-specific antigen response rates with these combinations appear to be 1.5 to 2 times more frequent than with mitoxantrone-based combinations. Randomized trials of taxane versus mitoxantrone-based therapies are underway. New agents and applications of current agents in adjuvant settings should be explored if survival in men with prostate cancer is to be improved.

  11. Current Role and Future Perspectives of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Radiation Oncology for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Zapotoczna

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Prostatic neoplasms are not uniformly distributed within the prostate volume. With recent developments in three-dimensional intensity-modulated and imageguided radiation therapy, it is possible to treat different volumes within the prostate to different thresholds of doses. This approach has the potential to adapt the dose to the biologic aggressiveness of various clusters of tumor cells within the gland. The definition of tumor burden volume in prostate cancer can be facilitated by the use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. The increasing sensitivity and specificity of MRS to the prostate is causing new interest in its potential role in the definition of target subvolumes at higher risk of failure following radical radiotherapy. Prostate MRS might also play a role as a noninvasive predictive factor for tumor response and treatment outcome. We review the use of MRS in radiation therapy for prostate cancer by evaluating its accuracy in the classification of aggressive cancer regions and target definition; its current role in the radiotherapy planning process, with special interest in technical issues behind the successful inclusion of MRS in clinical use; and available early experiences as a prognostic tool.

  12. Active surveillance of prostate cancer in African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Jonathan L; Feibus, Allison H; Maddox, Michael M; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Moparty, Krishnarao; Thomas, Raju; Sartor, Oliver

    2014-12-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is a treatment strategy for prostate cancer (PCa) whereby patients diagnosed with PCa undergo ongoing characterization of their disease with the intent of avoiding radical treatment. Previously, AS has been demonstrated to be a reasonable option for men with low-risk PCa, but existing cohorts largely consist of Caucasian Americans. Because African Americans have a greater incidence, more aggressive, and potentially more lethal PCa than Caucasian Americans, it is unclear if AS is appropriate for African Americans. We performed a review of the available literature on AS with a focus on African Americans.

  13. Polymorphisms In The Nitric-Oxide Synthase 2 Gene And Prostate Cancer Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotta Ryk

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: Nitric oxide can induce proliferation as well as apoptosis depending on cellular context. Our results suggest that NOS2 polymorphisms may influence the risk of aggressive prostate cancer and that these polymorphisms could have an impact on disease pathogenesis, possibly by affecting intracellular nitric oxide levels.

  14. Notch3 is activated by chronic hypoxia and contributes to the progression of human prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanna Danza; Claudia Di Serio; Maria Raffaella Ambrosio; Niccolò Sturli; Giuseppe Lonetto; Fabiana Rosati; Bruno Jim Rocca; Giuseppina Ventimiglia; Maria Teresa del Vecchio; Igor Prudovsky; Niccolò Marchionni; Francesca Tarantini

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is still the second cause of cancer-related death among men. Although patients with metastatic presentation have an ominous outcome, the vast majority of PCs are diagnosed at an early stage. Nonetheless, even among patients with clinically localized disease the outcome may vary considerably. Other than androgen sensitivity, little is known about which other signaling pathways are deranged in aggressive, localized cancers. The elucidation of such pathways may help to devel...

  15. The role of inflammatory mediators in the development of prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Elkahwaji JE

    2012-01-01

    Johny E Elkahwaji1–31Section of Urologic Surgery, 2Section of Medical Oncology and Hematology, 3Genitourinary Oncology Research Laboratory, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USAAbstract: Benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer remain the most prevalent urologic health concerns affecting elderly men in their lifetime. Only 20% of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer cases coexist in the same zone of the prostate and require a long time for initiat...

  16. Prostate-specific antigen: does the current evidence support its use in prostate cancer screening?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Although widely used, the value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in screening asymptomatic men for prostate cancer is controversial. Reasons for the controversy relate to PSA being less than an ideal marker in detecting early prostate cancer, the possibility that screening for prostate cancer may result in the overdetection and thus overtreatment of indolent disease and the lack of clarity as to the definitive or best treatment for men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. Although the results from some randomized prospective trials suggest that screening with PSA reduces mortality from prostate cancer, the overall benefit was modest. It is thus currently unclear as to whether the modest benefit of reduced mortality outweighs the harms of overdetection and overtreatment. Thus, prior to undergoing screening for prostate cancer, men should be informed of the risks and benefits of early detection. Newly emerging markers that may complement PSA in the early detection of prostate cancer include specific isoforms of PSA and PCA3.

  17. Prostate cancer in men of African origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Kathleen F; Tay, Kae Jack; Moul, Judd W

    2016-02-01

    Men of African origin are disproportionately affected by prostate cancer: prostate cancer incidence is highest among men of African origin in the USA, prostate cancer mortality is highest among men of African origin in the Caribbean, and tumour stage and grade at diagnosis are highest among men in sub-Saharan Africa. Socioeconomic, educational, cultural, and genetic factors, as well as variations in care delivery and treatment selection, contribute to this cancer disparity. Emerging data on single-nucleotide-polymorphism patterns, epigenetic changes, and variations in fusion-gene products among men of African origin add to the understanding of genetic differences underlying this disease. On the diagnosis of prostate cancer, when all treatment options are available, men of African origin are more likely to choose radiation therapy or to receive no definitive treatment than white men. Among men of African origin undergoing surgery, increased rates of biochemical recurrence have been identified. Understanding differences in the cancer-survivorship experience and quality-of-life outcomes among men of African origin are critical to appropriately counsel patients and improve cultural sensitivity. Efforts to curtail prostate cancer screening will likely affect men of African origin disproportionately and widen the racial disparity of disease.

  18. Genomic Copy Number Variations in the Genomes of Leukocytes Predict Prostate Cancer Clinical Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan P Yu

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of prostate cancer clinical courses remains elusive. In this study, we performed whole genome copy number analysis on leukocytes of 273 prostate cancer patients using Affymetrix SNP6.0 chip. Copy number variations (CNV were found across all chromosomes of the human genome. An average of 152 CNV fragments per genome was identified in the leukocytes from prostate cancer patients. The size distributions of CNV in the genome of leukocytes were highly correlative with prostate cancer aggressiveness. A prostate cancer outcome prediction model was developed based on large size ratio of CNV from the leukocyte genomes. This prediction model generated an average prediction rate of 75.2%, with sensitivity of 77.3% and specificity of 69.0% for prostate cancer recurrence. When combined with Nomogram and the status of fusion transcripts, the average prediction rate was improved to 82.5% with sensitivity of 84.8% and specificity of 78.2%. In addition, the leukocyte prediction model was 62.6% accurate in predicting short prostate specific antigen doubling time. When combined with Gleason's grade, Nomogram and the status of fusion transcripts, the prediction model generated a correct prediction rate of 77.5% with 73.7% sensitivity and 80.1% specificity. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that CNVs in leukocyte genomes are predictive of clinical outcomes of a human malignancy.

  19. Cholesterol Metabolism and Prostate Cancer Lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopsack, Konrad H; Gerke, Travis A; Sinnott, Jennifer A; Penney, Kathryn L; Tyekucheva, Svitlana; Sesso, Howard D; Andersson, Swen-Olof; Andrén, Ove; Cerhan, James R; Giovannucci, Edward L; Mucci, Lorelei A; Rider, Jennifer R

    2016-08-15

    Cholesterol metabolism has been implicated in prostate cancer pathogenesis. Here, we assessed the association of intratumoral mRNA expression of cholesterol synthesis enzymes, transporters, and regulators in tumor specimen at diagnosis and lethal prostate cancer, defined as mortality or metastases from prostate cancer in contrast to nonlethal disease without evidence of metastases after at least 8 years of follow-up. We analyzed the prospective prostate cancer cohorts within the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n = 249) and the Physicians' Health Study (n = 153) as well as expectantly managed patients in the Swedish Watchful Waiting Study (n = 338). The expression of squalene monooxygenase (SQLE) was associated with lethal cancer in all three cohorts. Men with high SQLE expression (>1 standard deviation above the mean) were 8.3 times (95% confidence interval, 3.5 to 19.7) more likely to have lethal cancer despite therapy compared with men with the mean level of SQLE expression. Absolute SQLE expression was associated with lethal cancer independently from Gleason grade and stage, as was a SQLE expression ratio in tumor versus surrounding benign prostate tissue. Higher SQLE expression was tightly associated with increased histologic markers of angiogenesis. Collectively, this study establishes the prognostic value of intratumoral cholesterol synthesis as measured via SQLE, its second rate-limiting enzyme. SQLE expression at cancer diagnosis is prognostic for lethal prostate cancer both after curative-intent prostatectomy and in a watchful waiting setting, possibly by facilitating micrometastatic disease. Cancer Res; 76(16); 4785-90. ©2016 AACR.

  20. Are Toll-like receptor gene polymorphisms associated with prostate cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutikhin AG

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Anton G Kutikhin, Arseniy E YuzhalinDepartment of Epidemiology, Kemerovo State Medical Academy, Kemerovo, Russian FederationAbstract: The suggestion that there is a connection between chronic intraprostatic inflammation and prostate cancer was declared some years ago. As Toll-like receptors (TLRs are the key players in the processes of chronic intraprostatic inflammation, there is a hypothesis that TLR gene polymorphisms may be associated with prostate cancer risk. Although a number of comprehensive studies have been conducted on large samples in various countries, reliable connections between these single nucleotide polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk, stage, grade, aggressiveness, ability to metastasize, and mortality have not been detected. Results have also varied slightly in different populations. The data obtained regarding the absence of connection between the polymorphisms of the genes encoding interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases (IRAK1 and IRAK4 and prostate cancer risk might indicate a lack of association between inherited variation in the TLR signaling pathway and prostate cancer risk. It is possible to consider that polymorphisms of genes encoding TLRs and proteins of the TLR pathway also do not play a major role in the etiology and pathogenesis of prostate cancer. Feasibly, it would be better to focus research on associations between TLR single nucleotide polymorphisms and cancer risk in other infection-related cancer types.Keywords: TLRs, single nucleotide polymorphisms, genetic variation, inflammation, innate immunity

  1. Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium collaborates with three genomic facilities, epidemiologists, population geneticists, and biostatisticians from multiple institutions to study hormone-related gene variants and environmental factors in breast and prostate cancers.

  2. Prostate cancer epigenetics and its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal cells have a level of epigenetic programming that is superimposed on the genetic code to establish and maintain their cell identity and phenotypes. This epigenetic programming can be thought as the architecture, a sort of cityscape, that is built upon the underlying genetic landscape. The epigenetic programming is encoded by a complex set of chemical marks on DNA, on histone proteins in nucleosomes, and by numerous context-specific DNA, RNA, protein interactions that all regulate the structure, organization, and function of the genome in a given cell. It is becoming increasingly evident that abnormalities in both the genetic landscape and epigenetic cityscape can cooperate to drive carcinogenesis and disease progression. Large-scale cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding the enzymatic machinery for shaping the epigenetic cityscape are among the most common mutations observed in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Interestingly, although the constellation of genetic mutations in a given cancer can be quite heterogeneous from person to person, there are numerous epigenetic alterations that appear to be highly recurrent, and nearly universal in a given cancer type, including in prostate cancer. The highly recurrent nature of these alterations can be exploited for development of biomarkers for cancer detection and risk stratification and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we explore the basic principles of epigenetic processes in normal cells and prostate cancer cells and discuss the potential clinical implications with regards to prostate cancer biomarker development and therapy.

  3. Prostate cancer epigenetics and its clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Normal cells have a level of epigenetic programming that is superimposed on the genetic code to establish and maintain their cell identity and phenotypes. This epigenetic programming can be thought as the architecture, a sort of cityscape, that is built upon the underlying genetic landscape. The epigenetic programming is encoded by a complex set of chemical marks on DNA, on histone proteins in nucleosomes, and by numerous context-specific DNA, RNA, protein interactions that all regulate the structure, organization, and function of the genome in a given cell. It is becoming increasingly evident that abnormalities in both the genetic landscape and epigenetic cityscape can cooperate to drive carcinogenesis and disease progression. Large-scale cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding the enzymatic machinery for shaping the epigenetic cityscape are among the most common mutations observed in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Interestingly, although the constellation of genetic mutations in a given cancer can be quite heterogeneous from person to person, there are numerous epigenetic alterations that appear to be highly recurrent, and nearly universal in a given cancer type, including in prostate cancer. The highly recurrent nature of these alterations can be exploited for development of biomarkers for cancer detection and risk stratification and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we explore the basic principles of epigenetic processes in normal cells and prostate cancer cells and discuss the potential clinical implications with regards to prostate cancer biomarker development and therapy. PMID:27212125

  4. Effect of acute exercise on prostate cancer cell growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Rundqvist

    Full Text Available Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of several cancers, including aggressive prostate cancer. The mechanisms mediating the effects are not yet understood; among the candidates are modifications of endogenous hormone levels. Long-term exercise is known to reduce serum levels of growth stimulating hormones. In contrast, the endocrine effects of acute endurance exercise include increased levels of mitogenic factors such as GH and IGF-1. It can be speculated that the elevation of serum growth factors may be detrimental to prostate cancer progression into malignancy. The incentive of the current study is to evaluate the effect of acute exercise serum on prostate cancer cell growth. We designed an exercise intervention where 10 male individuals performed 60 minutes of bicycle exercise at increasing intensity. Serum samples were obtained before (rest serum and after completed exercise (exercise serum. The established prostate cancer cell line LNCaP was exposed to exercise or rest serum. Exercise serum from 9 out of 10 individuals had a growth inhibitory effect on LNCaP cells. Incubation with pooled exercise serum resulted in a 31% inhibition of LNCaP growth and pre-incubation before subcutaneous injection into SCID mice caused a delay in tumor formation. Serum analyses indicated two possible candidates for the effect; increased levels of IGFBP-1 and reduced levels of EGF. In conclusion, despite the fear of possible detrimental effects of acute exercise serum on tumor cell growth, we show that even the short-term effects seem to add to the overall beneficial influence of exercise on neoplasia.

  5. Epidermal growth factor increases LRF/Pokemon expression in human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Himanshu; Aggarwal, Anshu; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2011-10-01

    Leukemia/lymphoma related factor/POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (LRF/Pokemon) is a member of the POK family of proteins that promotes oncogenesis in several forms of cancer. Recently, we found higher LRF expression in human breast and prostate carcinomas compared to the corresponding normal tissues. The aim of this study was to examine the regulation of LRF expression in human prostate cells. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptors mediate several tumorigenic cascades that regulate cell differentiation, proliferation, migration and survival of prostate cancer cells. There was significantly higher level of LRF expression in the nucleus of LNCaP and PC-3 cells than RWPE-1 cells. A significant increase in LRF expression was observed with increasing doses of EGF in more aggressive and androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells suggesting that EGF signaling pathway is critical in upregulating the expression of LRF/Pokemon to promote oncogenesis. PMID:21640721

  6. Mitochondrial DNA determines androgen dependence in prostate cancer cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Higuchi, M; Kudo, T; Suzuki, S.; Evans, TT; Sasaki, R.; Wada, Y; Shirakawa, T.; Sawyer, JR; Gotoh, A

    2006-01-01

    Prostate cancer progresses from an androgen-dependent to androgen-independent stage after androgen ablation therapy. Mitochondrial DNA plays a role in cell death and metastatic competence. Further, heteroplasmic large-deletion mitochondrial DNA is verycommon in prostate cancer. To investigate the role of mitochondrial DNA in androgen dependence of prostate cancers, we tested the changes of normal and deleted mitochondrial DNA in accordance with the progression of prostate cancer. We demonstra...

  7. Methods to Predict and Lower the Risk of Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Ercole; Dipen J Parekh

    2011-01-01

    Chemoprevention for prostate cancer (PCa) continues to generate interest from both physicians and the patient population. The goal of chemoprevention is to stop the malignant transformation of prostate cells into cancer. Multiple studies on different substances ranging from supplements to medical therapy have been undertaken. Thus far, only the studies on 5α-reductase inhibitors (the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial [PCPT] and Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events [REDUCE] trial)...

  8. Developing a nanoparticle test for prostate cancer scoring

    OpenAIRE

    Huo Qun; Litherland Sally A; Sullivan Shannon; Hallquist Hillari; Decker David A; Rivera-Ramirez Inoel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Over-diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer has been a major problem in prostate cancer care and management. Currently the most relevant prognostic factor to predict a patient's risk of death due to prostate cancer is the Gleason score of the biopsied tissue samples. However, pathological analysis is subjective, and the Gleason score is only a qualitative estimate of the cancer malignancy. Molecular biomarkers and diagnostic tests that can accurately predict prostate t...

  9. A good molecular target for prostate cancer chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sidney R Grimes

    2011-01-01

    @@ An exciting new basic medical research study shows that inhibition of the activity of the kinesin spindle protein Eg5 effectively blocks cell division and induces cell death in prostate cancer cells.1 The potent anticancer drug S-(methoxytrityl)-L-cysteine(S(MeO)TLC)spe-cifically blocks activity of Eg5 in prostate cancer cells, arrests cell division, induces cell death during mitosis and inhibits prostate cancer cells in a mouse model of prostate cancer.

  10. Development of PROSTVAC immunotherapy in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Parminder; Pal, Sumanta K; Alex, Anitha; Agarwal, Neeraj

    2015-01-01

    PROSTVAC immunotherapy is a heterologous prime-boost regimen of two different recombinant pox-virus vectors; vaccinia as the primary immunotherapy, followed by boosters employing fowlpox, to provoke immune responses against prostate-specific antigen. Both vectors contain transgenes for prostate-specific antigen and a triad of T-cell costimulatory molecules (TRICOM). In a placebo-controlled Phase II trial of men with minimally symptomatic, chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, PROSTVAC was well tolerated and associated with a 44% reduction in death. With a novel mechanism of action, and excellent tolerability, PROSTVAC has the potential to dramatically alter the treatment landscape of prostate cancer, not only as a monotherapy, but also in combination with other novel agents, such as immune check point inhibitors and novel androgen receptor blockers. A Phase III trial recently completed accrual. PMID:26235179

  11. Prostatic and dietary omega-3 fatty acids and prostate cancer progression during active surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreel, Xavier; Allaire, Janie; Léger, Caroline; Caron, André; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Lamarche, Benoît; Julien, Pierre; Desmeules, Patrice; Têtu, Bernard; Fradet, Vincent

    2014-07-01

    The association between omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids and prostate cancer has been widely studied. However, little is known about the impact of prostate tissue fatty acid content on prostate cancer progression. We hypothesized that compared with the estimated dietary ω-3 fatty acids intake and the ω-3 fatty acids levels measured in red blood cells (RBC), the prostate tissue ω-3 fatty acid content is more strongly related to prostate cancer progression. We present the initial observations from baseline data of a phase II clinical trial conducted in a cohort of 48 untreated men affected with low-risk prostate cancer, managed under active surveillance. These men underwent a first repeat biopsy session within 6 months after the initial diagnosis of low-risk prostate cancer, at which time 29% of the men had progressed from a Gleason score of 6 to a Gleason score of 7. At the first repeat biopsy session, fatty acid levels were assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire, and determined in the RBC and in the prostate tissue biopsy. We found that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer progression when measured directly in the prostate tissue. Thus, this initial interim study analysis suggests that prostate tissue ω-3 fatty acids, especially EPA, may be protective against prostate cancer progression in men with low-risk prostate cancer.

  12. COPING STRATEGIES IN PATIENTS WITH PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Gardanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostics of psycho-emotional disorders of patients with malignant diseases of the prostate is not doubt, because timely correction contributes to the shortening of rehabilitation period and restoration of the quality of life of patients after treatment. Detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer for many patients is stressful and causes changes in the affective sphere, and manifests itself in increased levels of anxiety and depression in men. To cope with stress is possible due to the used coping strategies.Purpose. Studying the coping mechanisms in prostate cancer patients.Materials and methods. 56 men treated in FGBU "LRTS" Russian Ministry of Health. The average age was 65.7 ± 6.1 years. The average duration of the disease prostate cancer is 3 ± 2 months. All men were subjected to the standard algorithm for the evaluation of hormonal status, the PSA, taking a history, inspection and physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphy of bones of a skeleton. All the patients underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Psychological testing with the use of the method of "Coping test" the scale of reactive and personal anxiety for the differentiated evaluation of anxiety. Results. The most common for prostate cancer revealed constructive coping strategies are "planning solve", "selfcontrol" and "search of social support". According to the scale Spielberg–Hanin a high level of situational anxiety was revealed.Conclusion. According to the results of the research, patients with prostate cancer are likely to use constructive coping strategies, that leads to stabilization of psycho-emotional state of men and promotes more effective adaptation in the terms of stress, that is caused by treatment of prostate cancer.

  13. From Prostate to Bone: Key Players in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Thobe, Megan N.; Rinker-Schaeffer, Carrie W.; Clark, Robert J; Bainer, Russell O.; Prasad, Sandip M.

    2011-01-01

    Bone is the most common site for metastasis in human prostate cancer patients. Skeletal metastases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and overall greatly affect the quality of life of prostate cancer patients. Despite advances in our understanding of the biology of primary prostate tumors, our knowledge of how and why secondary tumors derived from prostate cancer cells preferentially localize bone remains limited. The physiochemical properties of bone, and signaling molecules ...

  14. TUMOR MARKERS IN BONE MARROW IN PATIENTS WITH PROSTATIC CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Iwai, Akio; Ozono, Seiichiro; Tanaka, Yozo; Nagayoshi, Junichi; Hirayama, Akihide; Kumon, Toshihiko; Joko, Masanori; Hirata, Naoya; Yoshikawa, Motoyoshi; Tabata, Shoichi; Uemura, Hirotsugu; Moriya, Akira; Kaneko, Yoshiteru; Okamoto, Shinji; Hirao, Yoshihiko

    1991-01-01

    We compared prostatic specific acid phosphatase (PAP), prostatic specificantigen (PA) and γ-seminoprotein (γ-SM) levels between bone marrow and serum for the purpose of assessing of the usefulness of these tumor markers in early detection ofbone metastasis in cases with prostatic cancer. Thirty-three patients were entered into this study. Of the patients, 20 had prostatic cancer including 11 with bone metastasis, and 13 patients had benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) served as controls. It se...

  15. Shear wave elastography for detection of prostate cancer: A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the diagnostic value of shear wave elastography (SWE) for prostate cancer detection. In this retrospective study, 87 patients with the suspicion of prostate cancer (prostate-specific antigen > 4 ng/mL and abnormal digital rectal examination) underwent a protocol-based systematic 12-core biopsy followed by targeted biopsy at hypoechoic areas on grey-scale ultrasound. Prior to biopsy, SWE was performed by placing two circular 5 mm-sized regions of interest (ROIs) along the estimated biopsy tract in each sector and one ROI for hypoechoic lesions. SWE parameters, S (mean stiffness) and R (mean stiffness ratio), were calculated and compared regarding different histopathologic tissues and their accuracy for diagnosing prostate cancer was analyzed. SWE parameters were correlated with Gleason score and were compared between indolent ( 43.9 kPa and 60.8%, 66.4%, and 0.653, respectively, for R > 3. Both, S and R showed a significant correlation with Gleason score (r ≥ 0.296, p ≤ 0.008) and were significantly different between indolent and aggressive prostate cancer (p ≤ 0.006). Shear wave elastographic parameters are significantly different between prostate cancer and benign prostate tissue and correlate with Gleason score.

  16. Advanced research on separating prostate cancer stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer is a common malignant tumor in male urinary system,and may easily develop into the hormone refractory prostate cancer which can hardly be cured. Recent studies had found that the prostate cancer stem cells may be the source of the prostate cancer's occurrence,development, metastasis and recurrence. The therapy targeting the prostate cancer stem cells may be the effective way to cure prostate cancer. But these cells is too low to be detected. The difficulty lies in the low separation efficiency of prostate cancer stem cell, so the effectively separating prostate cancer stem cells occupied the main position for the more in-depth research of prostate cancer stem cells. This paper reviews the research progress and existing problems on the several main separating methods of prostate cancer stem cells, includes the fluorescence activated cells sorting and magnetic activated cells sorting based on prostate cancer stem cell surface markers, the side-population sorting and serum-free medium sphere forming sorting based on prostate cancer stem cell's biology. (authors)

  17. The Role of FSH in Prostate Cancer: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Catarinicchia; E David Crawford

    2016-01-01

    Castrate Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC) is a difficult entity to treat in the spectrum of prostate cancer disease. Recently, Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) has been shown to play an important part in the natural history of prostate cancer disease progression (Crawford et al., 2014). Here, we discuss a now deceased 94 year-old patient who illustrates the importance of this.

  18. 77 FR 55099 - National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... preventing, detecting, and treating this terrible illness. While the causes of prostate cancer are still... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8855 of August 31, 2012 National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Prostate cancer is among the most common...

  19. Interleukin 7 and Patient Selection in Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Schroten-Loef (Caroline)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is a disease of elderly males. An increase in prostate cancer is expected in the coming years due to a growing population of men aged over 60 years of age from 475 million in 2009 to 1.6 billion in the year 2050 worldwide. Moreover, if screening for prostate cancer is tak

  20. Population based screening for prostate cancer : tumor characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.W. van der Cruijsen (Ingrid W)

    2008-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer is a multi-centre randomized controlled trial to examine whether screening for prostate cancer has an effect on prostate cancer mortality. The total study cohort consists of 268.000 men in eight different Eu

  1. Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Dong; Vela, Ian; Sboner, Andrea; Iaquinta, Phillip J; Karthaus, Wouter R; Gopalan, Anuradha; Dowling, Catherine; Wanjala, Jackline N; Undvall, Eva A; Arora, Vivek K; Wongvipat, John; Kossai, Myriam; Ramazanoglu, Sinan; Barboza, Luendreo P; Di, Wei; Cao, Zhen; Zhang, Qi Fan; Sirota, Inna; Ran, Leili; MacDonald, Theresa Y; Beltran, Himisha; Mosquera, Juan-Miguel; Touijer, Karim A; Scardino, Peter T; Laudone, Vincent P; Curtis, Kristen R; Rathkopf, Dana E; Morris, Michael J; Danila, Daniel C; Slovin, Susan F; Solomon, Stephen B; Eastham, James A; Chi, Ping; Carver, Brett; Rubin, Mark A; Scher, Howard I; Clevers, Hans; Sawyers, Charles L; Chen, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The lack of in vitro prostate cancer models that recapitulate the diversity of human prostate cancer has hampered progress in understanding disease pathogenesis and therapy response. Using a 3D organoid system, we report success in long-term culture of prostate cancer from biopsy specimens and circu

  2. COPING STRATEGIES IN PATIENTS WITH PROSTATE CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    J. R. Gardanova; I. I. Abdullin; D. N. Chernov; Chernov, A. V.; Y. I. Kekteeva

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostics of psycho-emotional disorders of patients with malignant diseases of the prostate is not doubt, because timely correction contributes to the shortening of rehabilitation period and restoration of the quality of life of patients after treatment. Detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer for many patients is stressful and causes changes in the affective sphere, and manifests itself in increased levels of anxiety and depression in men. To cope with stress is possible due to the used...

  3. Measurement of quality of life in men with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaugh, Jeffrey; Hacker, Eileen Danaher

    2008-02-01

    Prostate cancer continues to be one of the most common cancers diagnosed in men. In light of the excellent survival rates for prostate cancer, quality of life is a primary concern during and following prostate cancer treatment. Quality of life is defined and determined in multiple ways. This article explores quality of life in men with prostate cancer. Quality-of-life dimensions, measurement tools, and implications of quality of life with prostate cancer on clinical practice for oncology nurses will be presented. PMID:18258577

  4. Targeted prostate cancer screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bancroft, Elizabeth K; Page, Elizabeth C; Castro, Elena;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Men with germline breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) or breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene mutations have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) than noncarriers. IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening...... were classified as intermediate- or high-risk disease. The positive predictive value (PPV) for biopsy using a PSA threshold of 3.0 ng/ml in BRCA2 mutation carriers was 48%-double the PPV reported in population screening studies. A significant difference in detecting intermediate- or high-risk disease....... These preliminary results support the use of targeted PSA screening based on BRCA genotype and show that this screening yields a high proportion of aggressive disease. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this report, we demonstrate that germline genetic markers can be used to identify men at higher risk of prostate cancer...

  5. Current Challenges in Development of Differentially Expressed and Prognostic Prostate Cancer Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Lucas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Predicting the aggressiveness of prostate cancer at biopsy is invaluable in making treatment decisions. In this paper we review the differential expression of genes and microRNAs identified through microarray analysis as potentially useful markers for prostate cancer prognosis and discuss some of the challenges associated with their development. Methods. A review of the literature was conducted through Medline. Articles were identified through searches of the following terms: “prostate cancer AND differential expression”, “prostate cancer prognosis”, and “prostate cancer AND microRNAs”. Results. Though numerous differentially expressed genes and microRNAs were identified as possible prognostic markers, the significance of several of these genes is either debated due to conflicting results or is not validated in other study populations. A few of the articles constructed predictive nomograms using a panel of biomarkers which require further validation. Challenges to the development of useful markers include different methodology, cancer heterogeneity, and sampling error. These can be overcome by categorizing prognostic factors into particular gene pathways or by supplementing biopsy information with blood or urine-based biomarkers. Conclusion. Though biomarkers based on differential expression offer the potential to improve decision making concerning prostate cancer, further validation of their utility and accuracy at the biopsy level is needed.

  6. Management of locally advanced prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heather Payne

    2009-01-01

    The management of all stages of prostate cancer is an increasingly complex process and involves a variety of available treatments and many disciplines.Despite prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing,the presentation of prostate cancer at a locally advanced stage is common in the UK,accounting for one-third of all new cases.There is no universally accepted definition of locally advanced prostate cancer;the term is loosely used to encompass a spectrum of disease profiles that show high-risk features.Men with high-risk prostate cancer generally have a significant risk of disease progression and cancer-related death if left untreated.High-risk patients,including those with locally advanced disease,present two specific challenges.There is a need for local control as well as a need to treat any microscopic metastases likely to be present but undetectable until disease progression.The optimal treatment approach will therefore often necessitate multiple modalities.The exact combinations,timing and intensity of treatment continue to be strongly debated.Management decisions should be made after all treatments have been discussed by a multidisciplinary team (including urologists,oncologists,radiologists,pathologists and nurse specialists) and after the balance of benefits and side effects of each therapy modality has been considered by the patient with regard to his own individual circumstances.This article reviews the current therapy options.

  7. Novel role of microRNAs in prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jun-jie; XIA Shu-jie

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the novel biomarkers of microRNAs in prostate cancer.Data sources The literatures about microRNAs and prostate cancer cited in this review were obtained mainly from Pubmed published in English from 2004 to 2012.Study selection Original articles regarding the novel role of microRNAs in prostate cancer were selected.Results MicroRNAs play an important role in prostate cancer such as cell differentiation,proliferation,apoptosis,and invasion.Especially microRNAs correlate with prostate cancer cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT),cancer stem cells (CSCs),drug sensitivity,cancer microenvironment,energy metabolism,androgen independence transformation,and diagnosis prediction.Conclusions MicroRNAs are involved in various aspects of prostate cancer biology.The role of microRNA in the initiation and development of prostate cancer deserves further study.

  8. Treatment of locally advanced prostatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušić Goran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A locally advanced prostate cancer is defined as a malignant process spreading beyond the prostate capsule or in seminal vesicles but without distant metastasis or regional lymph nodes invasion. Clinical classification, prediction and treatment of prostate cancer. An exact staging of clinical T3 stadium is usually difficult because of the frequent over and under staging. The risk prognostic stratification is performed through nomograms and ANN (artificial neural networks. The options for treatment are: radical prostatectomy, external radiotherapy and interstitial implantation of radioisotopes, hormonal therapy by androgen blockade. Radical prostatectomy is considered in patients with T3 stage but extensive dissection of lymph nodes, dissection of neurovascular bundle (on tumor side, total removal of seminal vesicle and sometimes resection of bladder neck are obligatory. Postoperative radiotherapy is performed in patients with invasion of seminal vesicles and capsular penetration or with prostate specific antigen value over 0.1 ng/ml, one month after the surgical treatment. Definitive radiotherapy could be used as the best treatment option considering clinical stage, Gleason score, age, starting prostate specific antigen (PSA value, concomitant diseases, life expectancy, quality of life, through multidisciplinary approach (combined with androgen deprivation. Hormonal therapy in intended for patients who are not eligible for surgical treatment or radiotherapy. Conclusion. Management of locally advanced prostate cancer is still controversial and studies for better diagnosis and new treatment modalities are ongoing.

  9. Combined androgen blockade in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer--an overview. The Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1997-01-01

    The value of combined androgen blockade in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer is still controversial. In this review by the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group, the literature addressing the concept and its clinical use is critically reviewed.......The value of combined androgen blockade in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer is still controversial. In this review by the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group, the literature addressing the concept and its clinical use is critically reviewed....

  10. Serum estrogen levels and prostate cancer risk in the prostate cancer prevention trial: a nested case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Song; Till, Cathee; Kristal, Alan R.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Hsing, Ann W.; Tangen, Catherine M.; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Reichardt, Juergen K. V.; Tang, Li; Neuhouser, Marian L; Santella, Regina M.; William D Figg; Price, Douglas K.; Parnes, Howard L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Finasteride reduces prostate cancer risk by blocking the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. However, whether finasteride affects estrogens levels or change in estrogens affects prostate cancer risk is unknown. Methods These questions were investigated in a case–control study nested within the prostate cancer prevention trial (PCPT) with 1,798 biopsy-proven prostate cancer cases and 1,798 matched controls. Results Among men on placebo, no relationship of serum estroge...

  11. Diffusion tensor imaging of the prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of DTI for prostate cancer. Methods: From October 2009 to December 2010,44 patients suspected of prostate cancer received MRI and DTI. The data of MRI and DTI were analyzed retrospectively. By histopathology, prostate cancer was proved in 16 patients,and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) was proved in 28 patients. Differences in ADC and FA values between prostate cancer and BPH were compared by independent samples t test. Diagnostic accuracy of FA value and ADC value for prostate cancer was analyzed by using ROC curve, and the diagnostic threshold of FA value and ADC value for prostate cancer was determined. Results: The mean FA value of the tumor regions and BPH were 0.308±0.084 and 0.203 ±0.029, respectively. The mean ADC value of the tumor regions and BPH were (0.883±0.192) × 10-3 mm2/s and ( 1.408 ±0.130) × 10-3 mm2/s, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in ADC and FA values between tumor regions and BPH (t values were 4.833 and 10.779 respectively, P<0.01). The ADC value area under curve of ROC was 0.996 (95% CI was 0.984 to 1.007); the FA value area under curve of ROC was 0.904 (95% CI was 0.812 to 0.996); Combined the FA and ADC value area under curve of ROC is 0.996 (95% CI was 0.984 to 1.007); Using the ADC value of 0.725 × 10-3 mm2/s as the ROC cut off point, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 100.0% and 96.0%, respectively; Using the FA value of 0.311 as the ROC cut off point,the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity was 100.0% and 68.7%, respectively. Conclusion: DTI imaging can provide valuable information for prostate cancer diagnosis and differential diagnosis, and improve the diagnosis ability of prostate cancer. (authors)

  12. SOST Inhibits Prostate Cancer Invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan D Hudson

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of Wnt signaling have been shown to be involved in prostate cancer (PC metastasis; however the role of Sclerostin (Sost has not yet been explored. Here we show that elevated Wnt signaling derived from Sost deficient osteoblasts promotes PC invasion, while rhSOST has an inhibitory effect. In contrast, rhDKK1 promotes PC elongation and filopodia formation, morphological changes characteristic of an invasive phenotype. Furthermore, rhDKK1 was found to activate canonical Wnt signaling in PC3 cells, suggesting that SOST and DKK1 have opposing roles on Wnt signaling in this context. Gene expression analysis of PC3 cells co-cultured with OBs exhibiting varying amounts of Wnt signaling identified CRIM1 as one of the transcripts upregulated under highly invasive conditions. We found CRIM1 overexpression to also promote cell-invasion. These findings suggest that bone-derived Wnt signaling may enhance PC tropism by promoting CRIM1 expression and facilitating cancer cell invasion and adhesion to bone. We concluded that SOST and DKK1 have opposing effects on PC3 cell invasion and that bone-derived Wnt signaling positively contributes to the invasive phenotypes of PC3 cells by activating CRIM1 expression and facilitating PC-OB physical interaction. As such, we investigated the effects of high concentrations of SOST in vivo. We found that PC3-cells overexpressing SOST injected via the tail vein in NSG mice did not readily metastasize, and those injected intrafemorally had significantly reduced osteolysis, suggesting that targeting the molecular bone environment may influence bone metastatic prognosis in clinical settings.

  13. Population Based Screening for Prostate Cancer: prognostic findings of two subsequent screening rounds

    OpenAIRE

    Postma, Renske

    2006-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is nowadays the most common non-cutaneous cancer in men in the Western world. Since the introduction of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) testing in the last decade, prostate cancer incidence increased dramatically. In addition, the population is aging, and prostate cancer incidence increases with higher age. The dilemma of prostate cancer is that more men die with prostate cancer than from prostate cancer, as reflected by the observation that in 70% of men who are 8...

  14. The neuronal repellent SLIT2 is a target for repression by EZH2 in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J; Cao, Q; Yu, J; Wu, L; Dallol, A; Li, J; Chen, G; Grasso, C; Cao, X; Lonigro, R J; Varambally, S; Mehra, R; Palanisamy, N; Wu, J Y; Latif, F; Chinnaiyan, A M

    2010-09-30

    The neuronal repellent SLIT2 is repressed in a number of cancer types primarily through promoter hypermethylation. SLIT2, however, has not been studied in prostate cancer. Through genome-wide location analysis we identified SLIT2 as a target of polycomb group (PcG) protein EZH2. The EZH2-containing polycomb repressive complexes bound to the SLIT2 promoter inhibiting its expression. SLIT2 was downregulated in a majority of metastatic prostate tumors, showing a negative correlation with EZH2. This repressed expression could be restored by methylation inhibitors or EZH2-suppressing compounds. In addition, a low level of SLIT2 expression was associated with aggressive prostate, breast and lung cancers. Functional assays showed that SLIT2 inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Thus, this study showed for the first time the epigenetic silencing of SLIT2 in prostate tumors, and supported SLIT2 as a potential biomarker for aggressive solid tumors. Importantly, PcG-mediated repression may serve as a precursor for the silencing of SLIT2 by DNA methylation in cancer.

  15. ROLE OF LYCOPENE IN PREVENTING PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Tami Budirejeki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer in the United States in 2003. Prostate cancer is the second cause of death after lung cancer. The possibility of a man suffering from prostate cancer is about 3 %. Increasing age is the main risk factor for this disease. Eighty percent of prostate cancer patients aged over 65 years. Prostate cancer occurs due to accumulation of DNA damage. There are various mechanisms that cause DNA damage, one of them is due to oxidative stress. Imbalance levels of free radicals and antioxidant in tissues causes oxidative stress. Antioxidants are substance that has ability to neutralize free radicals. One of the powerful antioxidant is lycopene. It is belived have ability to prevent prostate cancer. Various studies and reviews have been conducted to determine the role of lycopene in the prevention of prostate cancer. Although most studies have found an association between the consumption of foods that contain lycopene with a reduced risk of prostate cancer, but few studies have found no such relationship. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  16. Imaging of recurrent prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Futterer, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 30\\% of patients who underwent radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy will develop biochemical recurrent disease. Biochemical recurrent disease is defined as an increase in the serum value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) after reaching the nadir. Prostate recurrence can present

  17. Prostate radiation in non-metastatic castrate refractory prostate cancer provides an interesting insight into biology of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascoe Abigail C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The natural history of non-metastatic castrate refractory prostate cancer is unknown and treatment options are limited. We present a retrospective review of 13 patients with locally advanced or high risk prostate cancer, initially treated with hormone monotherapy and then treated with prostate radiation after becoming castration refractory. Findings Median PSA response following prostate radiation was 67.4%. Median time to biochemical progression following radiotherapy was 15 months and to detection of metastatic disease was 18.5 months. Median survival from castration resistance (to date of death or November 2011 was 60 months, with median survival from RT 42 months. Conclusion Prostate radiation appears to be beneficial even in patients with potential micrometastatic disease, which supports the hypothesis that the primary tumour is important in the progression of prostate cancer. These results are an interesting addition to the literature on the biology of prostate cancer especially as this data is unlikely to be available in the future due to combined prostate radiation and androgen deprivation therapy now being the standard of care.

  18. Unfoldomics of prostate cancer: on the abundance and roles of intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Kevin S; Na, Insung; Schenck, Ryan O; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-01-01

    Prostatic diseases such as prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia are highly prevalent among men. The number of studies focused on the abundance and roles of intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer is rather limited. The goal of this study is to analyze the prevalence and degree of disorder in proteins that were previously associated with the prostate cancer pathogenesis and to compare these proteins to the entire human proteome. The analysis of these datasets provides means for drawing conclusions on the roles of disordered proteins in this common male disease. We also hope that the results of our analysis can potentially lead to future experimental studies of these proteins to find novel pathways associated with this disease. PMID:27453073

  19. Unfoldomics of prostate cancer: on the abundance and roles of intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Kevin S; Na, Insung; Schenck, Ryan O; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-01-01

    Prostatic diseases such as prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia are highly prevalent among men. The number of studies focused on the abundance and roles of intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer is rather limited. The goal of this study is to analyze the prevalence and degree of disorder in proteins that were previously associated with the prostate cancer pathogenesis and to compare these proteins to the entire human proteome. The analysis of these datasets provides means for drawing conclusions on the roles of disordered proteins in this common male disease. We also hope that the results of our analysis can potentially lead to future experimental studies of these proteins to find novel pathways associated with this disease.

  20. From Prostate to Bone: Key Players in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone is the most common site for metastasis in human prostate cancer patients. Skeletal metastases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and overall greatly affect the quality of life of prostate cancer patients. Despite advances in our understanding of the biology of primary prostate tumors, our knowledge of how and why secondary tumors derived from prostate cancer cells preferentially localize bone remains limited. The physiochemical properties of bone, and signaling molecules including specific chemokines and their receptors, are distinct in nature and function, yet play intricate and significant roles in prostate cancer bone metastasis. Examining the impact of these facets of bone metastasis in vivo remains a significant challenge, as animal models that mimic the natural history and malignant progression clinical prostate cancer are rare. The goals of this article are to discuss (1) characteristics of bone that most likely render it a favorable environment for prostate tumor cell growth, (2) chemokine signaling that is critical in the recruitment and migration of prostate cancer cells to the bone, and (3) current animal models utilized in studying prostate cancer bone metastasis. Further research is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the extravasation of disseminated prostate cancer cells into the bone and to provide a better understanding of the basis of cancer cell survival within the bone microenvironment. The development of animal models that recapitulate more closely the human clinical scenario of prostate cancer will greatly benefit the generation of better therapies

  1. Circulating Tumor Cells in Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Brian [Institute of Urology, University of Southern California, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Suite 7416, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Rochefort, Holly [Department of Surgery, University of Southern California, 1520 San Pablo Street, HCT 4300, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Goldkorn, Amir, E-mail: agoldkor@usc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Suite 3440, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)

    2013-12-04

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can provide a non-invasive, repeatable snapshot of an individual patient’s tumor. In prostate cancer, CTC enumeration has been extensively studied and validated as a prognostic tool and has received FDA clearance for use in monitoring advanced disease. More recently, CTC analysis has been shifting from enumeration to more sophisticated molecular characterization of captured cells, which serve as a “liquid biopsy” of the tumor, reflecting molecular changes in an individual’s malignancy over time. Here we will review the main CTC studies in advanced and localized prostate cancer, highlighting the important gains as well as the challenges posed by various approaches, and their implications for advancing prostate cancer management.

  2. Circulating Tumor Cells in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Hu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs can provide a non-invasive, repeatable snapshot of an individual patient’s tumor. In prostate cancer, CTC enumeration has been extensively studied and validated as a prognostic tool and has received FDA clearance for use in monitoring advanced disease. More recently, CTC analysis has been shifting from enumeration to more sophisticated molecular characterization of captured cells, which serve as a “liquid biopsy” of the tumor, reflecting molecular changes in an individual’s malignancy over time. Here we will review the main CTC studies in advanced and localized prostate cancer, highlighting the important gains as well as the challenges posed by various approaches, and their implications for advancing prostate cancer management.

  3. [THE EVOLUTION OF MARKERS OF PROSTATE CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peshkov, M N; Generozov, E V; Kostryukova, E S

    2016-03-01

    The implementation of biochemical laboratory tests in oncology practice increased exponentially during last decades and continues to be in progress nowadays. The application of modern molecular genetic technologies permits using diagnostic systems with greater diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. The new tests are actively implemented permitting to diagnose physical presence of tumor systemic manifestations of malignant neoplasm (cachexia, pyrexia), paraneoplastic syndromes and also to detect tumor markers. The oncomarker permits to differentiate malignant from benign tumor on the basis of quantitative differences in content of corresponding antigene-tumor marker in blood serum independently of localization of tumor nidus. The prostate cancer is a medical social problem of male population. On initial stages, this disease can take its course asymptomatically or with symptomatic conditioned by such concomitant and more prevalent pathologies as chronic prostatitis and prostate benign hyperplasia. The early diagnostic ofprostate cancer permits implementing timely radical treatment frequently contributing to total recovery of patients. The article presents detailed description of evolutionary conception of markers using in diagnostic, staging and prognostication of course of prostate cancer. The acid phosphatase was applied for the first time in early diagnostic of staging of prostate cancer in 1974. Nowadays, in century of "OMX"-technologies, in common clinical practice detection of RNA in urine of patient is used for staging diagnostic and prognostication of progression of process of tissue neotransformation. PMID:27506103

  4. Prostate cancer: a review of active surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund L

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lars Lund,1,2 Niels Svolgaard,1 Mads Hvid Poulsen1 1Department of Urology, Odense University Hospital, 2Clinical Institute, Southern University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark Abstract: The objective of this paper is to review the current recommendations for active surveillance in prostate cancer from the present prospective studies. Worldwide, there are increasing numbers of men with prostate cancer. It is now accepted as standard care that a number of men with favorable-risk disease can be followed with active surveillance. In 1995, the first prospective studies were initiated to assess the feasibility of active surveillance, in which the decision to intervene was determined by prostate-specific antigen and/or histological progression. The strategy was to provide therapy individualized to the biological behavior of the cancer. Clinical trials assessing active surveillance have usually included patients younger than 70 years of age, although the guidelines have changed over time for Gleason score and prostate-specific antigen, eg, doubling time, thereby changing the indication for active treatment. The present review focuses on patient selection, prospective studies reported in the literature, and future directions. Keywords: active surveillance, prostate cancer, prospective studies, review

  5. Prostate cancer radiotherapy 2002: the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukka, Himu; Pickles, Tom; Morton, Gerard; Catton, Charles; Souhami, Luis; Warde, Padraig

    2005-02-01

    In November 2000, the GU Radiation Oncologists of Canada had their first meeting, "Controversies in prostate cancer radiotherapy: consensus development". The success of this meeting prompted a second meeting, held in December 2002 to discuss "The Way Forward" in prostate radiotherapy. Radiation oncologists from across Canada were brought together and integrated with key opinion leaders in prostate cancer treatment from throughout North America. The group debated current controversies including: intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), external beam hypofractionation, high dose-rate brachytherapy, and hormone therapy in the management of prostate cancer. The meeting also sought to identify and prioritize clinical trial opportunities and to highlight steps required to achieve these research goals. In summary, advances involving IMRT have enabled the use of higher radiation doses without increasing morbidity. With renewed interest in hypofractionated radiation schedules, the value of hypofractionation using IMRT was discussed and initial results from ongoing clinical trials were presented. The emerging role for high dose-rate brachytherapy in higher risk patients was also discussed. Based on existing preliminary evidence the group expressed enthusiasm for further investigation of the role for brachytherapy in intermediate to high-risk patients. Despite significant advances in radiotherapy, hormone therapy continues to play an important role in prostate cancer treatment for patients with intermediate and high-risk disease. Although evidence supports the effectiveness of hormone therapy, the optimal timing, and duration of hormonal treatment are unclear. Results from ongoing clinical trials will provide insight into these questions and will assist in the design of future clinical trials.

  6. 5-Alpha reductase inhibitor use and prostate cancer survival in the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtola, Teemu J; Karppa, Elina K; Taari, Kimmo; Talala, Kirsi; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Auvinen, Anssi

    2016-06-15

    Randomized clinical trials have shown that use of 5α-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) lowers overall prostate cancer (PCa) risk compared to placebo, while the proportion of Gleason 8-10 tumors is elevated. It is unknown whether this affects PCa-specific survival. We studied disease-specific survival by 5-ARI usage in a cohort of 6,537 prostate cancer cases diagnosed in the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial and linked to the national prescription database for information on medication use. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for prostate cancer-specific deaths. For comparison, survival among alpha-blocker users was also evaluated. During the median follow-up of 7.5 years after diagnosis a total of 2,478 men died; 617 due to prostate cancer and 1,861 due to other causes. The risk of prostate cancer death did not differ between 5-ARI users and nonusers (multivariable adjusted HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.72-1.24 and HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.69-1.41 for usage before and after the diagnosis, respectively). Alpha-blocker usage both before and after diagnosis was associated with increased risk of prostate cancer death (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.08-1.54 and HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.30-1.86, respectively). The risk increase vanished in long-term alpha-blocker usage. Use of 5-ARIs does not appear to affect prostate cancer mortality when used in management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Increased risk associated with alpha-blocker usage should prompt further exploration on the prognostic role of lower urinary tract symptoms.

  7. The role of IL-6 in the radiation response of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hormone-resistant (HR) prostate cancers are highly aggressive and respond poorly to treatment. IL-6/STAT3 signaling has been identified to link with the transition of HR and aggressive tumor behavior. The role of IL-6 in the radiation response of prostate cancer was investigated in the present study. The murine prostate cancer cell line (TRAMP-C1) and the hormone-resistant cell sub-line, TRAMP-HR, were used to assess the radiation response using in vitro clonogenic assays and tumor growth delay in vivo. Biological changes following irradiation were investigated by means of experimental manipulation of IL-6 signaling. Correlations among IL-6 levels, tumor regrowth, angiogenesis and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) recruitment were examined in an animal model. HR prostate cancer cells had a higher expression of IL-6 and more activated STAT3, compared to TRAMP-C1 cells. HR prostate cancer cells had a greater capacity to scavenge reactive oxygen species, suffered less apoptosis, and subsequently were more likely to survive after irradiation. Moreover, IL-6 expression was positively linked to irradiation and radiation resistance. IL-6 inhibition enhanced the radiation sensitivity of prostate cancer, which was associated with increased p53, RT-induced ROS and oxidative DNA damage. Furthermore, when mice were irradiated with a sub-lethal dose, inhibition of IL-6 protein expression attenuated angiogenesis, MDSC recruitment, and decreased tumor regrowth. These data demonstrate that IL-6 is important in the biological sequelae following irradiation. Therefore, treatment with concurrent IL-6 inhibition is a potential therapeutic strategy for increasing the radiation response of prostate cancer

  8. Glucocorticoids and prostate cancer treatment:friend or foe?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bruce Montgomery; Heather H Cheng; James Drechsler; Elahe A Mostaghel

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids have been used in the treatment of prostate cancer to slow disease progression, improve pain control and offset side effects of chemo-and hormonal therapy. However, they may also have the potential to drive prostate cancer growth via mutated androgen receptors or glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). In this review we examine historical and contemporary use of glucocorticoids in the treatment of prostate cancer, review potential mechanisms by which they may inhibit or drive prostate cancer growth, and describe potential means of deifning their contribution to the biology of prostate cancer.

  9. Stroma-epithelium crosstalk in prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Nong Niu; Shu-Jie Xia

    2009-01-01

    The critical role played by stroma-epithelium crosstalk in carcinogenesis and progression of prostate cancer has been increasingly recognized.These interactions are mediated by a variety of paracrine factors secreted by cancer cells and/or stromal cells.In human prostate cancer,reactive stroma is characterized by an increase in myofibroblasts and a corresponding amplification of extracellular matrix production and angiogenesis.Permanent genetic mutations have been reported in stromal cells as well as in turnout cells.Transforming growth factor-β,vascular endothelial growth factor,platelet-derived growth factor and fibroblast growth factor signalling pathways are involved in the process of angiogenesis,whereas hepatocyte growth factor,insulin-like growth factor-1,epidermal growth factor,CXC12 and Interleukin-6 play active roles in the progression,androgen-independent conversion and distal metastasis of prostate cancer.Some soluble factors have reciprocal interactions with androgens and the androgen receptor (AR),and can even activate AR in the absence of the androgen ligand.In this article,we review the complex interactions between cancer cells and the surrounding microenvironment,and discuss the potential therapeutic targets in the stromal compartment of prostate cancer.

  10. Management of patients with advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillessen, S; Omlin, A; Attard, G;

    2015-01-01

    -resistant prostate cancer and the recent studies of chemo-hormonal therapy in men with castration-naïve prostate cancer have led to considerable uncertainty as to the best treatment choices, sequence of treatment options and appropriate patient selection. Management recommendations based on expert opinion......, and not based on a critical review of the available evidence, are presented. The various recommendations carried differing degrees of support, as reflected in the wording of the article text and in the detailed voting results recorded in supplementary Material, available at Annals of Oncology online. Detailed...

  11. Inuit are protected against prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dewailly, Eric; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning Sloth;

    2003-01-01

    Incidence and mortality rates for prostate cancer are reported to be low among Inuit, but this finding must be additionally supported given the difficulty of obtaining a precise medical diagnosis in the Arctic. We conducted an autopsy study in 1990–1994 among 61 deceased males representative of all...... deaths occurring in Greenland and found only one invasive prostate cancer. Histological data were available for 27 autopsies and revealed no latent carcinoma. Our results suggest that in situ carcinoma is rare among Inuit and that their traditional diet, which is rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty...

  12. The relationship between obesity and prostate cancer: from genetics to disease treatment and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Lughezzani Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies demonstrated that obesity is associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness and prognosis. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood. Tumor microenvironment has been increasingly considered as an important determinant of cancer growth and progression. In the light of this growing evidence, Ribeiro et al., in a BMC Medicine research article, investigated the gene expression profiles of periprostatic adipose tissue of obese patients with ...

  13. Prostate cancer in Denmark. Incidence, morbidity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Iversen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    been by deferred hormonal therapy. Morbidity and mortality associated with prostate cancer are analysed in a group of 1459 patients aged 55-74 years, who were diagnosed as having clinically localized prostate cancer in the 5-year period 1983 to 1987. In this group of patients prostate cancer...... is demonstrated to cause significant morbidity. Furthermore, the patients suffered significant excess mortality and loss of life expectancy.......Prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates in Denmark are reviewed for a 50-year period from 1943 to 1992. The prostate cancer incidence rate nearly tripled and prostate cancer mortality rate increased during this period. Until recently in Denmark the routine management of prostate cancer has...

  14. Gene delivery for the treatment of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Kathleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed in men. Whilst treatments for early-stage disease are largely effective, current therapies for metastatic prostate cancer, particularly for bone metastasis, offer only a few months increased lifespan at best. Hence new treatments are urgently required. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been investigated for the treatment of prostate cancer where it can ‘silence’ specific cancer-related genes. However the clinical application of siRNA...

  15. Pigmentation-related phenotypes and risk of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, S J; Virtamo, J; Albanes, D

    2013-01-01

    Background: Solar ultraviolet radiation exposure has been inversely related to prostate cancer incidence and mortality, possibly mediated through vitamin D status. Pigmentation-related traits influence endogenous vitamin D synthesis and may alter risk of prostate cancer. Methods: We examined prostate cancer in relation to hair and eye colour, and skin phototype in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort. Incident cancer was diagnosed in 1982 out of 20 863 men. Multi...

  16. MMP inhibition in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokeshwar, B L

    1999-06-30

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a significant role during the development and metastasis of prostate cancer (CaP). CaP cells secrete high levels of MMPs and low levels of endogenous MMP inhibitors (TIMPs), thus creating an excess balance of MMPs. Established CaP cell lines that express high levels of MMPs frequently metastasize to the bone and the lungs. Drugs such as Taxol and alendronate that reduce cell motility and calcium metabolism reduce bony metastasis of xenografted CaP tumors. We tested several synthetic, nontoxic inhibitors of MMPs that can be administered orally, including doxycycline (DC) and chemically modified tetracyclines (CMTs) on CaP cells in vitro and on a rat CaP model in vivo. Among several anti-MMP agents tested, CMT-3 (6-deoxy, 6-demethyl,4-de-dimethylamino tetracycline) showed highest activity against CaP cell invasion and cell proliferation. Micromolar concentration of CMT-3 and DC inhibited both the secretion and activity of MMPs by CaP cells. When tested for in vivo efficacy in the Dunning rat CaP model by daily oral gavage, CMT-3 and DC both reduced the lung metastases (> 50%). CMT-3, but not DC, inhibited tumor incidence (55 +/- 9%) and also reduced the tumor growth rate (27 +/- 9.3%). More significantly, the drugs showed minimum systemic toxicity. Ongoing studies indicate that CMT-3 may inhibit the skeletal metastases of CaP cells and delay the onset of paraplegia due to lumbar metastases. These preclinical studies provide the basis for clinical trials of CMT-3 for the treatment of metastatic disease. PMID:10415736

  17. Reduction in the risk of prostate cancer: future directions after the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, E David; Andriole, Gerald L; Marberger, Michael; Rittmaster, Roger S

    2010-03-01

    The landmark Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) generated interest in the potential health benefits and cost of reducing prostate cancer risk--specifically, the potential role of 5alpha-reductase inhibitors. However, the PCPT raised several unanswered questions, including the cause and significance of the increased incidence of high-grade tumors associated with finasteride. In the present study, we review the PCPT findings and unanswered questions, next steps in this field, and ongoing prostate cancer prevention trials addressing these unanswered questions. Particular emphasis is placed on the design of the second large-scale trial of a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, the REduction by DUtasteride of prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial. PMID:20035983

  18. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging predicts the presence of prostate cancer in patients with negative prostate biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Lista, F; Castillo, Ernesto; Gimbernat, H.; Rodríguez-Barbero, José M.; Panizo, J.; Angulo Cuesta, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the ability of multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) to detect prostate cancer in patients with prior negative transrectal prostate biopsy (TPB). mpMRI (TSE-T2-w, DWI and DCE sequences) was performed on 1.5 T (Magnetom Avanto; Siemens Healthcare Solutions) in 150 patients suspicious of prostate cancer and with negative TPB. European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) criteria were used. PSA measurement (total and free), digita...

  19. Effect of endocrine treatment on voiding and prostate size in men with prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Louise L; Klarskov, Peter; Mommsen, Søren;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and quantify changes in voiding parameters and prostate size in men with prostate cancer from before the start of endocrine treatment and during long-term follow-up.......The aim of this study was to assess and quantify changes in voiding parameters and prostate size in men with prostate cancer from before the start of endocrine treatment and during long-term follow-up....

  20. External beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objectives: The intent of this course is to review the issues involved in the management of non-metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate. -- The value of pre-treatment prognostic factors including stage, grade and PSA value will be presented, and their value in determining therapeutic strategies will be discussed. -- Controversies involving the simulation process and treatment design will be presented. The value of CT scanning, Beams-Eye View, 3-D planning, intravesicle, intraurethral and rectal contrast will be presented. The significance of prostate and patient movement and strategies for dealing with them will be presented. -- The management of low stage, low to intermediate grade prostate cancer will be discussed. The dose, volume and timing of irradiation will be discussed as will the role of neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy, neutron irradiation and brachytherapy. The current status of radical prostatectomy and cryotherapy will be summarized. Treatment of locally advanced, poorly differentiated prostate cancer will be presented including a discussion of neo-adjuvant and adjuvant hormones, dose-escalation and neutron irradiation. -- Strategies for post-radiation failures will be presented including data on cryotherapy, salvage prostatectomy and hormonal therapy (immediate, delayed and/or intermittent). New areas for investigation will be reviewed. -- The management of patients post prostatectomy will be reviewed. Data on adjuvant radiation and therapeutic radiation for biochemical or clinically relapsed patients will be presented. This course hopes to present a realistic and pragmatic overview for treating patients with non-metastatic prostatic cancer

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Prostate Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This procedure is done to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy and it is sometimes done to relieve symptoms ... or part of the small intestine through weak muscles into the groin ). Inguinal hernia may occur more ...

  2. [Prostate cancer external beam radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Crevoisier, R; Pommier, P; Latorzeff, I; Chapet, O; Chauvet, B; Hennequin, C

    2016-09-01

    The prostate external beam radiotherapy techniques are described, when irradiating the prostate or after prostatectomy, with and without pelvic lymph nodes. The following parts are presented: indications of radiotherapy, total dose and fractionation, planning CT image acquisition, volume of interest delineation (target volumes and organs at risk) and margins, Intensity modulated radiotherapy planning and corresponding dose-volume constraints, and finally Image guided radiotherapy. PMID:27516051

  3. The role of inflammatory mediators in the development of prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkahwaji JE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Johny E Elkahwaji1–31Section of Urologic Surgery, 2Section of Medical Oncology and Hematology, 3Genitourinary Oncology Research Laboratory, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USAAbstract: Benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer remain the most prevalent urologic health concerns affecting elderly men in their lifetime. Only 20% of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer cases coexist in the same zone of the prostate and require a long time for initiation and progression. While the pathogenesis of both diseases is not fully understood, benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer are thought to have a multifactorial etiology, their incidence and prevalence are indeed affected by age and hormones, and they are associated with chronic prostatic inflammation. At least 20% of all human malignancies arise in a tissue microenvironment dominated by chronic or recurrent inflammation. In prostate malignancy, chronic inflammation is an extremely common histopathologic finding; its origin remains a subject of debate and may in fact be multifactorial. Emerging insights suggest that prostate epithelium damage potentially inflicted by multiple environmental factors such as infectious agents, dietary carcinogens, and hormones triggers procarcinogenic inflammatory processes and promotes cell transformation and disease development. Also, the coincidence of chronic inflammation and tumorigenesis in the peripheral zone has recently been linked by studies identifying so-called proliferative inflammatory atrophy as a possible precursor of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate cancer. This paper will discuss the available evidence suggesting that chronic inflammation may be involved in the development and progression of chronic prostatic disease, although a direct causal role for chronic inflammation or infection in prostatic carcinogenesis has yet to be established in humans. Further basic and clinical research in the

  4. Increased Expression of Serglycin in Specific Carcinomas and Aggressive Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Korpetinou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present pilot study, we examined the presence of serglycin in lung, breast, prostate, and colon cancer and evaluated its expression in cell lines and tissues. We found that serglycin was expressed and constitutively secreted in culture medium in high levels in more aggressive cancer cells. It is worth noticing that aggressive cancer cells that harbor KRAS or EGFR mutations secreted serglycin constitutively in elevated levels. Furthermore, we detected the transcription of an alternative splice variant of serglycin lacking exon 2 in specific cell lines. In a limited number of tissue samples analyzed, serglycin was detected in normal epithelium but was also expressed in higher levels in advanced grade tumors as shown by immunohistochemistry. Serglycin staining was diffuse, granular, and mainly cytoplasmic. In some cancer cells serglycin also exhibited membrane and/or nuclear immunolocalization. Interestingly, the stromal cells of the reactive tumor stroma were positive for serglycin, suggesting an enhanced biosynthesis for this proteoglycan in activated tumor microenvironment. Our study investigated for first time the distribution of serglycin in normal epithelial and cancerous lesions in most common cancer types. The elevated levels of serglycin in aggressive cancer and stromal cells may suggest a key role for serglycin in disease progression.

  5. Prostate cancer screening with PSA: new data, old debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Sciallero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two prostate cancer screening randomised controlled trials from Europe (European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer—ERSPC and U.S. (Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Program— PLCO have been published earlier this year...

  6. What's wrong with chemoprevention of prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justman, Stewart

    2011-12-01

    When prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing was introduced, proponents expected it to cut prostate-cancer mortality and did not expect it to unleash an epidemic of unnecessary treatments. Now that evidence of a mortality benefit remains unclear while evidence of overtreatment in undeniable, there is understandable interest in reducing the human costs of the PSA system. Two related drugs, finasteride and dutasteride, both proven to reduce the incidence of prostate cancer and the "risk of diagnosis," are being promoted accordingly. However, if not for the flaws of the PSA system the use of these drugs for purposes of prevention would lose its rationale. Not only are the drugs in this sense dependent on a faulty system, but their own mortality benefits are as speculative as PSA's-in addition to which, they introduce new risks. PMID:22146025

  7. Prostate-specific extracellular vesicles as a novel biomarker in human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong Hyun; Shin, Hyun Woo; Jung, Ae Ryang; Kwon, Oh Sung; Choi, Yeong-Jin; Park, Jaesung; Lee, Ji Youl

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) may play an important role in cancer development and progression. We aimed to investigate the prognostic potential of prostate-specific EVs in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Plasma and prostate tissue were collected from patients who underwent surgery for PCa (n = 82) or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, n = 28). To analyze the quantity of EVs in prostate, we performed transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immuno-TEM with CD63 and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), and immunofluorescence staining. After EV isolation from plasma, CD63 and PSMA concentration was measured using ELISA kits. PSMA-positive areas in prostate differed in patients with BPH, and low-, intermediate-, and high-risk PCa (2.4, 8.2, 17.5, 26.5%, p prostate volume (50.2 vs. 33.4 cc, p prostate-specific EVs (p = 0.085). PMID:27503267

  8. Interleukin 7 and Patient Selection in Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Schroten-Loef, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is a disease of elderly males. An increase in prostate cancer is expected in the coming years due to a growing population of men aged over 60 years of age from 475 million in 2009 to 1.6 billion in the year 2050 worldwide. Moreover, if screening for prostate cancer is taken into account, even more men will be diagnosed with this disease.[1-3] In the early disease stages, prostate cancer is a slow-growing and symptom-free malignancy. Men suffering from prostate canc...

  9. Sexual activity and the risk of prostate cancer: Review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fouad Kotb

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual activity can affect prostate cancer pathogenesis in a variety of ways; including the proposed high androgen status, risk of sexually transmitted infections and the potential effect of retained carcinogens within the prostatic cells. Methods: PubMed review of all publications concerning sexual activity and the risk of prostate cancer was done by two researchers. Results: Few publications could be detected and data were classified as a prostate cancer risk in association with either heterosexual or homosexual activities. Conclusion: Frequent ejaculation seems to be protective from the development of prostate cancer. Multiple sexual partners may be protective from prostate cancer, excluding the risk of sexually transmitted infections. Homosexual men are at a greater risk for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

  10. Are we ready for prostate cancer?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The incidence of prostate cancer(PCa)in Western developed countries is higher than in Asia where it is presently increasing rapidly.1 Data from Shanghai and Macau2 suggest that the incidence of PCa in the Chinese population has also shown an increasing trend over the last twenty years.

  11. Radiotherapy for prostate cancer and sexual health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Incrocci (Luca)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSexual dysfunction is very common after treatment of prostate cancer. Radiation therapy together with radical prostatectomy is the most effective treatment for localized disease. Percentages of erectile dysfunction (ED) reported in prospective studies after external-beam radiotherapy (RT

  12. Screening for prostatic cancer. Investigational models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Torp-Pedersen, S T

    1991-01-01

    Prostatic cancer has a long natural history and a significant preclinical period, during which the disease is detectable. Thus, this common malignancy in males fulfills some of the most important criteria for initiating screening programs. However, the still enigmatic epidemiology also includes...

  13. Risk-based prostate cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X.D. Zhu (Xiaoye); P.C. Albertsen (Peter); G.L. Andriole (Gerald); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); A.J. Vickers (Andrew)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractContext: Widespread mass screening of prostate cancer (PCa) is not recommended because the balance between benefits and harms is still not well established. The achieved mortality reduction comes with considerable harm such as unnecessary biopsies, overdiagnoses, and overtreatment. There

  14. Management of synchronous rectal and prostate cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, D O

    2012-11-01

    Although well described, there is limited published data related to management on the coexistence of prostate and rectal cancer. The aim of this study was to describe a single institution\\'s experience with this and propose a treatment algorithm based on the best available evidence.

  15. [Primary prevention of urologic tumors: prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz-Dräger, B J; Lümmen, G; Bismarck, E; Fischer, C

    2011-10-01

    Assessment of the role of vitamins and micronutrients in the primary prevention of prostate cancer has changed dramatically in the past 10 years. Efforts to confirm the efficacy of a single substance have not yet succeeded. Therefore, such recommendations should at present no longer be given. Consideration could even be given to discussing whether additional large-scale interventional studies are expedient in this regard. There is still solid evidence that a well-balanced moderate diet, reduced consumption of milk products, and an Asian or Mediterranean diet are not only beneficial for general good health but can also prevent the development of prostate cancer. This should be the focus of further epidemiological studies. Thus, one can certainly speak of a paradigm shift in the prevention of prostate cancer. In contrast, available data on chemoprevention with 5α-reductase inhibitors is unequivocal: intake of finasteride as well as dutasteride correlates with significantly decreased evidence for prostate cancer. Converting this result into urologic practice remains the topic of extensive controversy. PMID:21927877

  16. African American Men and Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Curtis Pettaway, M.D.: We know that black Americans have one of the highest incidences of prostate cancer in the world, and in ... not go to the doctor's. Curtis Pettaway, M.D.: Those are the individuals where the message really ...

  17. New genetic variants associated with prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have newly identified 23 common genetic variants -- one-letter changes in DNA known as single-nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs -- that are associated with risk of prostate cancer. These results come from an analysis of more than 10 million SNP

  18. African American Men and Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Curtis Pettaway, M.D.: We know that black Americans have one of the highest incidences of prostate cancer in the world, and in this country ... have even suggested that our testosterone runs higher. We really don't know. But I would strongly ...

  19. Enzalutamide in metastatic prostate cancer before chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beer, Tomasz M; Armstrong, Andrew J; Rathkopf, Dana E;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enzalutamide is an oral androgen-receptor inhibitor that prolongs survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in whom the disease has progressed after chemotherapy. New treatment options are needed for patients with metastatic prostate cancer who have not rece......BACKGROUND: Enzalutamide is an oral androgen-receptor inhibitor that prolongs survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in whom the disease has progressed after chemotherapy. New treatment options are needed for patients with metastatic prostate cancer who have...... not received chemotherapy, in whom the disease has progressed despite androgen-deprivation therapy. METHODS: In this double-blind, phase 3 study, we randomly assigned 1717 patients to receive either enzalutamide (at a dose of 160 mg) or placebo once daily. The coprimary end points were radiographic progression...... at the data-cutoff date (29% reduction in the risk of death; hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.84; Pchemotherapy (hazard ratio, 0.35), the time until the first...

  20. Road to Recovery from Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in learning more about robotic prostatectomies for the treatment of prostate cancer. During the program, we would ... ask us, “Why is a prostatectomy the best treatment for me?” So, certainly we know it’s the ...

  1. The impact of obesity on prostate cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roermund, J.G. van; Witjes, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing prevalence of obesity in many parts of the world emphasizes the importance of learning more about the relationship between obesity and prostate cancer (PC). The present paper reviews the impact of obesity on PC using knowledge obtained from the available literature. Search of published li

  2. Childhood height, adult height, and the risk of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lise Geisler; Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We previously showed that childhood height is positively associated with prostate cancer risk. It is, however, unknown whether childhood height exerts its effects independently of or through adult height. We investigated whether and to what extent childhood height has a direct effect...... on the risk of prostate cancer apart from adult height. METHODS: We included 5,871 men with height measured at ages 7 and 13 years in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register who also had adult (50-65 years) height measured in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. Prostate cancer status was obtained...... through linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Direct and total effects of childhood height on prostate cancer risk were estimated from Cox regressions. RESULTS: From 1996 to 2012, 429 prostate cancers occurred. Child and adult heights were positively and significantly associated with prostate cancer risk...

  3. Accumulation of [{sup 11}C]acetate in normal prostate and benign prostatic hyperplasia: comparison with prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Takei, Toshiki; Shiga, Tohru; Nakada, Kunihiro; Tamaki, Nagara [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita 15, Nishi 6, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Kuge, Yuji; Katoh, Chietsugu [Department of Tracer Kinetics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Shinohara, Nobuo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    Carbon-11 acetate positron emission tomography (PET) has been reported to be of clinical value for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, no detailed analysis has yet been carried out on the physiological accumulation of [{sup 11}C]acetate in the prostate. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the physiological accumulation of [{sup 11}C]acetate in the prostate using dynamic PET. The study included 30 subjects without prostate cancer [21 with normal prostate and nine with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)] and six patients with prostate cancer. A dynamic PET study was performed for 20 min after intravenous administration of 555 MBq of [{sup 11}C]acetate. The standardised uptake value (SUV) at 16-20 min post tracer administration and the early-to-late-activity ratio of the SUV (E/L ratio), which was determined by dividing the SUV{sub 6-10} {sub min} by the SUV {sub 16-20min}, were calculated to evaluate the accumulation of [ {sup 11}C]acetate. The prostate was clearly visualised and distinguished from adjacent organs in PET images in most of the cases. The SUV of the prostate (2.6 {+-}0.8) was significantly higher than that of the rectum (1.7 {+-}0.4) or bone marrow (1.3 {+-}0.3) (P <0.0001 in each case). The SUV of the normal prostate of subjects aged <50 years (3.4 {+-}0.7) was significantly higher than both the SUV for the normal prostate of subjects aged {>=}50 years (2.3 {+-}0.7) and that of subjects with BPH (2.1 {+-}0.6) (P <0.01 in each case). The primary prostate cancer in six cases was visualised by [ {sup 11}C]acetate PET. However, the difference in the SUV between subjects aged {>=}50 with normal prostate or with BPH and the patients with prostate cancer (1.9 {+-}0.6) was not statistically significant. There was also no significant difference in the E/L ratio between subjects aged {>=}50 with normal prostate (0.98 {+-}0.04) or BPH (0.96 {+-}0.08) and patients with prostate cancer (1.02 {+-}0.12). In conclusion, a normal prostate exhibits age

  4. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonzi, Roberto [Marie Curie Research Wing, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Rickmansworth Road, Northwood, Middlesex, HA6 2RN (United Kingdom)], E-mail: robertoalonzi@btinternet.com; Padhani, Anwar R. [Paul Strickland Scanner Centre, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Rickmansworth Road, Northwood, Middlesex, HA6 2RN (United Kingdom); Synarc Inc. 575 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94105 (United States)], E-mail: anwar.padhani@paulstrickland-scannercentre.org.uk; Allen, Clare [Department of Imaging, University College Hospital, London, 235 Euston Road, NW1 2BU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: clare.allen@uclh.nhs.uk

    2007-09-15

    Angiogenesis is an integral part of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), is associated with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and is key to the growth and for metastasis of prostate cancer. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) using small molecular weight gadolinium chelates enables non-invasive imaging characterization of tissue vascularity. Depending on the technique used, data reflecting tissue perfusion, microvessel permeability surface area product, and extracellular leakage space can be obtained. Two dynamic MRI techniques (T{sub 2}*-weighted or susceptibility based and T{sub 1}-weighted or relaxivity enhanced methods) for prostate gland evaluations are discussed in this review with reference to biological basis of observations, data acquisition and analysis methods, technical limitations and validation. Established clinical roles of T{sub 1}-weighted imaging evaluations will be discussed including lesion detection and localisation, for tumour staging and for the detection of suspected tumour recurrence. Limitations include inadequate lesion characterisation particularly differentiating prostatitis from cancer, and in distinguishing between BPH and central gland tumours.

  5. Liposomal nanomedicines in the treatment of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, Jan; Metselaar, Josbert M; Storm, G; van der Pluijm, Gabri

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer type and the second leading cause of death from cancer in males. In most cases, no curative treatment options are available for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer as these tumors are highly resistant to chemotherapy. Targeted drug delivery, usin

  6. 78 FR 54745 - National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9010 of August 30, 2013 National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Among American men, prostate cancer is both the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second-leading cause of cancer deaths. Although...

  7. Risk of prostate, ovarian, and endometrial cancer among relatives of women with breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Tulinius, H.; Egilsson, V.; Olafsdóttir, G. H.; Sigvaldason, H

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the risk of prostate, ovarian, and endometrial cancer among relatives of patients with breast cancer. DESIGN--Cohort study of 947 pedigrees in which the proband had breast cancer, linked with the Icelandic cancer registry. SETTING--Iceland. SUBJECTS--The 947 pedigrees included 29,725 people, of whom 1539 had breast cancer, 467 had prostate cancer, 135 ovarian cancer, and 105 endometrial cancer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Risk of prostate, ovarian, and endometrial cancer ...

  8. Survival of patients with prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fabienne Camilo da Silveira Pirajá; Rafael Bandeira Lages; Uylma Assunção Costa; João Batista Mendes Teles; Viriato Campelo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the survival after five years among patients treated of prostate cancer at Hospital São Marcos. Methods: A descriptive population-based epidemiological study performed in Teresina-PI, evaluating a hospital cohort consisting of 71 patients of Hospital São Marcos, enrolled in Hospital Cancer Registry (HCR) from 2000 to 2001, under ICD10 - C61. The variables considered in the evaluation of survival were: age group, tumor staging and skin color. The Kaplan-Meier method ...

  9. ADT for prostate cancer: true love or heartbreak?

    OpenAIRE

    Efstathiou, Jason A.; Shipley, William U; Zietman, Anthony L.; Smith, Matthew R.

    2010-01-01

    The addition of hormonal therapy to radiation therapy improves survival in men with unfavorable risk prostate cancer. Yet, men with prostate cancer have higher rates of non-cancer death than the general population and most will die from causes other than their index malignancy. Co-morbid cardiovascular disease is strongly associated with cause of death and this raises the possibility that prostate cancer or its treatment increases cardiovascular disease risk and possibly mortality.

  10. Detection of infectious organisms in archival prostate cancer tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Yow, Melissa A; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Severi, Gianluca; Bolton, Damien M; Pedersen, John; Longano, Anthony; Suzanne M Garland; Southey, Melissa C.; Graham G Giles

    2014-01-01

    Background Seroepidemiological studies have reported associations between exposure to sexually transmitted organisms and prostate cancer risk. This study sought DNA evidence of candidate organisms in archival prostate cancer tissues with the aim of assessing if a subset of these cancers show any association with common genital infections. Methods 221 archival paraffin-embedded tissue blocks representing 128 histopathologically confirmed prostate cancers comprising 52 “aggressive” (Gleason sco...

  11. Evolving Paradigm of Radiotherapy for High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Current Consensus and Continuing Controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juloori, Aditya; Shah, Chirag; Stephans, Kevin; Vassil, Andrew; Tendulkar, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    High-risk prostate cancer is an aggressive form of the disease with an increased risk of distant metastasis and subsequent mortality. Multiple randomized trials have established that the combination of radiation therapy and long-term androgen deprivation therapy improves overall survival compared to either treatment alone. Standard of care for men with high-risk prostate cancer in the modern setting is dose-escalated radiotherapy along with 2-3 years of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). There are research efforts directed towards assessing the efficacy of shorter ADT duration. Current research has been focused on assessing hypofractionated and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) techniques. Ongoing randomized trials will help assess the utility of pelvic lymph node irradiation. Research is also focused on multimodality therapy with addition of a brachytherapy boost to external beam radiation to help improve outcomes in men with high-risk prostate cancer. PMID:27313896

  12. Atg7 cooperates with Pten loss to drive prostate cancer tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santanam, Urmila; Banach-Petrosky, Whitney; Abate-Shen, Cory; Shen, Michael M; White, Eileen; DiPaola, Robert S

    2016-02-15

    Understanding new therapeutic paradigms for both castrate-sensitive and more aggressive castrate-resistant prostate cancer is essential to improve clinical outcomes. As a critically important cellular process, autophagy promotes stress tolerance by recycling intracellular components to sustain metabolism important for tumor survival. To assess the importance of autophagy in prostate cancer, we generated a new autochthonous genetically engineered mouse model (GEMM) with inducible prostate-specific deficiency in the Pten tumor suppressor and autophagy-related-7 (Atg7) genes. Atg7 deficiency produced an autophagy-deficient phenotype and delayed Pten-deficient prostate tumor progression in both castrate-naïve and castrate-resistant cancers. Atg7-deficient tumors display evidence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, suggesting that autophagy may promote prostate tumorigenesis through management of protein homeostasis. Taken together, these data support the importance of autophagy for both castrate-naïve and castrate-resistant growth in a newly developed GEMM, suggesting a new paradigm and model to study approaches to inhibit autophagy in combination with known and new therapies for advanced prostate cancer. PMID:26883359

  13. A prospective study of plasma vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D receptor polymorphisms, and prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haojie Li

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin D insufficiency is a common public health problem nationwide. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25[OH]D, the most commonly used index of vitamin D status, is converted to the active hormone 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25[OH]2D, which, operating through the vitamin D receptor (VDR, inhibits in vitro cell proliferation, induces differentiation and apoptosis, and may protect against prostate cancer. Despite intriguing results from laboratory studies, previous epidemiological studies showed inconsistent associations of circulating levels of 25(OHD, 1,25(OH2D, and several VDR polymorphisms with prostate cancer risk. Few studies have explored the joint association of circulating vitamin D levels with VDR polymorphisms. METHODS AND FINDINGS: During 18 y of follow-up of 14,916 men initially free of diagnosed cancer, we identified 1,066 men with incident prostate cancer (including 496 with aggressive disease, defined as stage C or D, Gleason 7-10, metastatic, and fatal prostate cancer and 1,618 cancer-free, age- and smoking-matched control participants in the Physicians' Health Study. We examined the associations of prediagnostic plasma levels of 25(OHD and 1,25(OH2D, individually and jointly, with total and aggressive disease, and explored whether relations between vitamin D metabolites and prostate cancer were modified by the functional VDR FokI polymorphism, using conditional logistic regression. Among these US physicians, the median plasma 25(OHD levels were 25 ng/ml in the blood samples collected during the winter or spring and 32 ng/ml in samples collected during the summer or fall. Nearly 13% (summer/fall to 36% (winter/spring of the control participants were deficient in 25(OHD (<20 ng/ml and 51% (summer/fall and 77% (winter/spring had insufficient plasma 25(OHD levels (<32 ng/ml. Plasma levels of 1,25(OH2D did not vary by season. Men whose levels for both 25(OHD and 1,25(OH2D were below (versus above the median had a

  14. Redefining Hormone Sensitive Disease in Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Hou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the United States. For decades, the cornerstone of medical treatment for advanced prostate cancer has been hormonal therapy, intended to lower testosterone levels, known as Androgen Deprivation Therapy (ADT. The development of hormone-resistant prostate cancer (now termed castration-resistant prostate cancer:CRPC remains the key roadblock in successful long-term management of prostate cancer. New advancements in medical therapy for prostate cancer have added to the hormonal therapy armamentarium. These new therapeutic agents not only provide a survival benefit but also show potential for reversing hormonal resistance in metastatic CRPC, and thus redefining hormonally sensitive disease.

  15. Survival after radical prostatectomy for clinically localised prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Martin Andreas; Brasso, Klaus; Christensen, Ib Jarle;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe survival and cause of death in a nationwide cohort of Danish patients with prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). To describe risk factors associated with prostate cancer mortality. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Observational study of 6489 men with localised prostate...... cancer treated with RP at six different hospitals in Denmark between 1995 and 2011. Survival was described using Kaplan-Meier estimates. Causes of death were obtained from the national registry and cross-checked with patient files. Cumulative incidence of death, any cause and prostate cancer...... cancer and 219 (66.8%) from other causes. Six patients (0.09%) died ≤30 days of RP. In multivariate analysis, cT-category was a predictor of prostate cancer death (P prostate cancer...

  16. The novel prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3 biomarker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bourdoumis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available PCA3 is a prostate specific, nonprotein coding RNA that is significantly over expressed in prostate cancer, without any correlation to prostatic volume and/or other prostatic diseases (e.g. prostatitis. It can now easily be measured in urine with a novel transcription-mediated amplification based test. Quantification of PCA3 mRNA levels can predict the outcome of prostatic biopsies with a higher specificity rate in comparison to PSA. Several studies have demonstrated that PCA3 can be used as a prognostic marker of prostate cancer, especially in conjunction with other predictive markers. Novel PCA3-based nomograms have already been introduced into clinical practice. PCA3 test may be of valuable help in several PSA quandary situations such as negative prostatic biopsies, concomitant prostatic diseases, and active surveillance. Results from relevant clinical studies, comparative with PSA, are warranted in order to confirm the perspective of PCA3 to substitute PSA.

  17. Gossypol induces apoptosis by activating p53 in prostate cancer cells and prostate tumor-initiating cells

    OpenAIRE

    Volate, Suresh R.; Kawasaki, Brian T.; Hurt, Elaine M.; Milner, John A.; Kim, Young S.; White, Jeffrey; Farrar, William L.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) continues to represent a burgeoning medical problem in the United States. Recent studies suggest that gossypol, a bioactive phytochemical produced by cotton plants, is a promising agent against prostate cancer. The current studies were undertaken to examine the chemotherapeutic efficacy of gossypol on human prostate cancer cell lines and prostate tumor-initiating cells (pTICs). Gossypol reduced viability of three prostate cancer cell lines (LAPC4, PC3, and DU145) with an...

  18. HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPES 16, 18 AND 31 SEROSTATUS AND PROSTATE CANCER RISK IN THE PROSTATE CANCER PREVENTION TRIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Viscidi, Raphael P.; Till, Cathee; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Hoque, Ashraful M.; Hsing, Ann W.; Thompson, Ian M; Zenilman, Jonathan M; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Since human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was first identified as a risk factor for cervical cancer, several seroepidemiologic and tissue-based studies have investigated HPV in relation to prostate cancer, another common genitourinary malignancy, with mixed results. To further inform this potential association, we conducted a large, prospective investigation of HPV types 16, 18, and 31 in relation to risk of prostate cancer in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT). Cases were a sample ...

  19. Does length of prostate biopsy cores have an impact on diagnosis of prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergün, Müslüm; İslamoğlu, Ekrem; Yalçınkaya, Soner; Tokgöz, Hüsnü; Savaş, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether core length is a significant biopsy parameter in the detection of prostate cancer. Material and methods We retrospectively analyzed pathology reports of the specimens of 188 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer who had undergone initial transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate biopsy, and compared biopsy core lengths of the patients with, and without prostate cancer. The biopsy specimens of prostate cancer patients were divided into 3 groups according to core length, and the data obtained were compared (Group 1; total core length 20 mm). Biopsy core lengths of the patients diagnosed as prostate cancer, and benign prostatic hyperplasia were compared, and a certain cut-off value for core length with optimal diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for prostate cancer was calculated. Results Mean age, PSA and total length of cores were 65.08±7.41 years, 9.82±6.34 ng/mL and 11.2±0.2 mm, respectively. Assessment of biopsy core lengths showed that cores with cancer (n=993, median length 12.5 mm) were significantly longer than benign cores (n=1185, median length=11.3 mm) (pcancer (odds ratio: 1.08). Conclusion Biopsy core length is one of the most important parameter that determines the quality of biopsy and detection of prostate cancer. A median sample length of 12 mm is ideal lower limit for cancer detection, and biopsy procedures which yield shorter biopsy cores should be repeated. PMID:27635285

  20. Pomegranate and Its Components as Alternative Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men in the United States. There is a major need for less toxic but yet effective therapies to treat prostate cancer. Pomegranate fruit from the tree Punica granatum has been used for centuries for medicinal purposes and is described as “nature’s power fruit”. Recent research has shown that pomegranate juice (PJ and/or pomegranate extracts (PE significantly inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells in culture. In preclinical murine models, PJ and/or PE inhibit growth and angiogenesis of prostate tumors. More recently, we have shown that three components of PJ, luteolin, ellagic acid and punicic acid together, have similar inhibitory effects on prostate cancer growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Results from clinical trials are also promising. PJ and/or PE significantly prolonged the prostate specific antigen (PSA doubling time in patients with prostate cancer. In this review we discuss data on the effects of PJ and PE on prostate cancer. We also discuss the effects of specific components of the pomegranate fruit and how they have been used to study the mechanisms involved in prostate cancer progression and their potential to be used in deterring prostate cancer metastasis.

  1. Methods to Predict and Lower the Risk of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ercole

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemoprevention for prostate cancer (PCa continues to generate interest from both physicians and the patient population. The goal of chemoprevention is to stop the malignant transformation of prostate cells into cancer. Multiple studies on different substances ranging from supplements to medical therapy have been undertaken. Thus far, only the studies on 5α-reductase inhibitors (the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial [PCPT] and Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events [REDUCE] trial have demonstrated a reduction in the risk of PCa, while results from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT concluded no decreased risk for PCa with selenium or vitamin E.

  2. Incidental prostate cancer in radical cystoprostatectomy specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Jin; Zhao-Dian Chen; Bo Wang; Song-Liang Cai; Xiao-Lin Yao; Bai-Ye Jin

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the rates of prostate cancer (Pca) in radical cystoprostatectomy (RCP) specimens for bladder cancer in mainland China. To determine the follow-up outcome of patients with two concurrent cancers and identify whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a useful tool for the detection of Pca prior to surgery. Methods: From January 2002 to January 2007, 264 male patients with bladder cancer underwent RCP at our center. All patients underwent digital rectal examination (DRE) and B ultrasound. Serum PSA levels were tested in 168 patients. None of the patients had any evidence of Pca before RCP. Entire prostates were embedded and sectioned at 5 mm intervals. Results: Incidental Pca was observed in 37 of 264 (14.0%) RCP specimens. Of these, 12 (32.4%) were clinically significant according to an accepted definition. The PSA levels were not significantly different between patients with Pca and those without Pca, nor between patients with significant Pca and those with insignificant Pca. Thirty-four patients with incidental Pca were followed up. During a mean follow-up period of 26 months, two patients with PSA > 4 ng/mL underwent castration. None of the patients died of Pca. Conclusion: The incidence of Pca in RCP specimens in mainland China is lower than that in most developed countries. PSA cannot identify asymptomatic Pca prior to RCP. In line with published reports, incidental Pca does not impact the prognosis of bladder cancer patients undergoing RCP.

  3. Prostate Cancer Segmentation Using Multispectral Random Walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artan, Yusuf; Haider, Masoom A.; Yetik, Imam Samil

    Several studies have shown the advantages of multispectral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a noninvasive imaging technique for prostate cancer localization. However, a large proportion of these studies are with human readers. There is a significant inter and intra-observer variability for human readers, and it is substantially difficult for humans to analyze the large dataset of multispectral MRI. To solve these problems a few studies were proposed for fully automated cancer localization in the past. However, fully automated methods are highly sensitive to parameter selection and often may not produce desirable segmentation results. In this paper, we present a semi-supervised segmentation algorithm by extending a graph based semi-supervised random walker algorithm to perform prostate cancer segmentation with multispectral MRI. Unlike classical random walker which can be applied only to dataset of single type of MRI, we develop a new method that can be applied to multispectral images. We prove the effectiveness of the proposed method by presenting the qualitative and quantitative results of multispectral MRI datasets acquired from 10 biopsy-confirmed cancer patients. Our results demonstrate that the multispectral MRI noticeably increases the sensitivity and jakkard measures of prostate cancer localization compared to single MR images; 0.71 sensitivity and 0.56 jakkard for multispectral images compared to 0.51 sensitivity and 0.44 jakkard for single MR image based segmentation.

  4. Prostate cancer: a serious disease suitable for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, John M; Schulman, Claude; Zlotta, Alexandre R; Schröder, Fritz H

    2009-04-01

    Prostate cancer is among the most common causes of death from cancer in men, and accounts for 10% of all new male cancers worldwide. The diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer place a substantial physical and emotional burden on patients and their families, and have considerable financial implications for healthcare providers and society. Given that the risk of prostate cancer continues to increase with age, the burden of the disease is likely to increase in line with population life-expectancy. Reducing the risk of prostate cancer has gained increasing coverage in recent years, with proof of principle shown in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial with the type 2 5alpha-reductase (5AR) inhibitor, finasteride. The long latency period, high disease prevalence, and significant associated morbidity and mortality make prostate cancer a suitable target for a risk-reduction approach. Several agents are under investigation for reducing the risk of prostate cancer, including selenium/vitamin E and selective oestrogen receptors modulators (e.g. toremifene). In addition, the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events trial, involving >8000 men, is evaluating the effect of the dual 5AR inhibitor, dutasteride, on the risk of developing prostate cancer. A successful risk-reduction strategy might decrease the incidence of the disease, as well as the anxiety, cost and morbidity associated with its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:19302133

  5. Superficial Urothelial Cancer in the Prostatic Urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziya Kirkali

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC is a multifocal disease of the urinary tract that can also involve the prostatic urethra (PU. The exact incidence of superficial involvement of the PU in patients with bladder TCC is not well known. Bladder TCC may involve the prostate in 12—40% of the patients and the degree of involvement can include urethral mucosa, ducts, acini, and stroma of the gland, which has been shown to affect the outcome. Risk factors for superficial urothelial cancer in the PU are high-grade, multifocal bladder TCC and presence of carcinoma in situ (CIS in the bladder. While visible tumors are easy to detect and resect, controversy still exists regarding the optimal technique to identify prostatic involvement by TCC. Prostatic urethral sampling by a transurethral resection biopsy or a cold-cup biopsy, particularly in the high-risk group of bladder cancer patients, has been recommended for detecting prostatic urethral involvement. Management of superficial prostatic involvement by TCC is also unclear. Currently, there is increasing recognition of the value of conservative treatment options with intravesical agents when there is superficial involvement of the PU. Particularly, intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guèrin (BCG seems to be an effective treatment alternative in the management of superficial involvement of the PU by TCC. Close follow-up by cystoscopy and PU biopsy at 3-month intervals, particularly in intermediate and high-risk patients who respond to intravesical therapy and in whom cystectomy is appropriate, is recommended in order to detect persistent tumor, recurrences, or progression.

  6. New serum biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash C Chadha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA is currently used as a biomarker for diagnosis and management of prostate cancer (CaP. However, PSA typically lacks the sensitivity and specificity desired of a diagnostic marker. Objective: The goal of this study was to identify an additional biomarker or a panel of biomarkers that is more sensitive and specific than PSA in differentiating benign versus malignant prostate disease and/or localized CaP versus metastatic CaP. Methods: Concurrent measurements of circulating interleukin-8 (IL-8, Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptors 1 (sTNFR1 were obtained from four groups of men: (1 Controls (2 with elevated prostate-specific antigen with a negative prostate biopsy (elPSA_negBx (3 with clinically localized CaP and (4 with castration resistant prostate cancer. Results: TNF-α Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.93 and sTNFR1 (AUC = 0.97 were strong predictors of elPSA_negBx (vs. CaP. The best predictor of elPSA_negBx vs CaP was sTNFR1 and IL-8 combined (AUC = 0.997. The strongest single predictors of localized versus metastatic CaP were TNF-α (AUC = 0.992 and PSA (AUC = 0.963 levels. Conclusions: The specificity and sensitivity of a PSA-based CaP diagnosis can be significantly enhanced by concurrent serum measurements of IL-8, TNF-α and sTNFR1. In view of the concerns about the ability of PSA to distinguish clinically relevant CaP from indolent disease, assessment of these biomarkers in the larger cohort is warranted.

  7. New serum biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Kailash C.; Miller, Austin; Nair, Bindukumar B.; Schwartz, Stanley A.; Trump, Donald L.; Underwood, Willie

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a biomarker for diagnosis and management of prostate cancer (CaP). However, PSA typically lacks the sensitivity and specificity desired of a diagnostic marker. Objective The goal of this study was to identify an additional biomarker or a panel of biomarkers that is more sensitive and specific than PSA in differentiating benign versus malignant prostate disease and/or localized CaP versus metastatic CaP. Methods Concurrent measurements of circulating interleukin-8 (IL-8), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptors 1 (sTNFR1) were obtained from four groups of men: (1) Controls (2) with elevated prostate-specific antigen with a negative prostate biopsy (elPSA_negBx) (3) with clinically localized CaP and (4) with castration resistant prostate cancer. Results TNF-α Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.93) and sTNFR1 (AUC = 0.97) were strong predictors of elPSA_negBx (vs. CaP). The best predictor of elPSA_negBx vs CaP was sTNFR1 and IL-8 combined (AUC = 0.997). The strongest single predictors of localized versus metastatic CaP were TNF-α (AUC = 0.992) and PSA (AUC = 0.963) levels. Conclusions The specificity and sensitivity of a PSA-based CaP diagnosis can be significantly enhanced by concurrent serum measurements of IL-8, TNF-α and sTNFR1. In view of the concerns about the ability of PSA to distinguish clinically relevant CaP from indolent disease, assessment of these biomarkers in the larger cohort is warranted. PMID:25593898

  8. Epidemiological study of prostate cancer (EPICAP): a population-based case–control study in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , (4) role of individual genetic susceptibility of genes involved in biological pathways of interest. The EPICAP study will also allow us to study prognostic factors and tumor aggressiveness. Taken together, the EPICAP study will provide a comprehensive framework to go further in the understanding of prostate cancer occurrence and its prognosis

  9. EVALUATION OF FREE-TO-TOTAL PROSTATE SPECIFIC ANTIGEN RATIO IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF PROSTATE CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ It's reported that free to total prostate specific antigen ration (f/tPSA) can provide more benefit than the single use of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). We measured serum PSA and fPSA levels in 62 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 40 cases of PCa using radioimmunoassay, with patients' age range 59y~ 89y.

  10. Does amount or type of alcohol influence the risk of prostate cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Katrine; Grønbaek, Morten; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2002-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers among men, and it is unknown whether alcohol is associated with the development of prostate cancer.......Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers among men, and it is unknown whether alcohol is associated with the development of prostate cancer....

  11. Elevated AKR1C3 expression promotes prostate cancer cell survival and prostate cell-mediated endothelial cell tube formation: implications for prostate cancer progressioan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C family member 3 (AKR1C3), one of four identified human AKR1C enzymes, catalyzes steroid, prostaglandin, and xenobiotic metabolism. In the prostate, AKR1C3 is up-regulated in localized and advanced prostate adenocarcinoma, and is associated with prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness. Here we propose a novel pathological function of AKR1C3 in tumor angiogenesis and its potential role in promoting PCa progression. To recapitulate elevated AKR1C3 expression in cancerous prostate, the human PCa PC-3 cell line was stably transfected with an AKR1C3 expression construct to establish PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants. Microarray and bioinformatics analysis were performed to identify AKR1C3-mediated pathways of activation and their potential biological consequences in PC-3 cells. Western blot analysis, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and an in vitro Matrigel angiogenesis assays were applied to validate the pro-angiogenic activity of PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants identified by bioinformatics analysis. Microarray and bioinformatics analysis suggested that overexpression of AKR1C3 in PC-3 cells modulates estrogen and androgen metabolism, activates insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and Akt signaling pathways, as well as promotes tumor angiogenesis and aggressiveness. Levels of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and Akt activation as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and secretion were significantly elevated in PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants in comparison to PC3-mock transfectants. PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants also promoted endothelial cell (EC) tube formation on Matrigel as compared to the AKR1C3-negative parental PC-3 cells and PC3-mock transfectants. Pre-treatment of PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants with a selective IGF-1R kinase inhibitor (AG1024) or a non-selective phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002) abolished ability of the cells to promote EC tube formation. Bioinformatics

  12. Elevated AKR1C3 expression promotes prostate cancer cell survival and prostate cell-mediated endothelial cell tube formation: implications for prostate cancer progressioan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Jeffrey S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aldo-keto reductase (AKR 1C family member 3 (AKR1C3, one of four identified human AKR1C enzymes, catalyzes steroid, prostaglandin, and xenobiotic metabolism. In the prostate, AKR1C3 is up-regulated in localized and advanced prostate adenocarcinoma, and is associated with prostate cancer (PCa aggressiveness. Here we propose a novel pathological function of AKR1C3 in tumor angiogenesis and its potential role in promoting PCa progression. Methods To recapitulate elevated AKR1C3 expression in cancerous prostate, the human PCa PC-3 cell line was stably transfected with an AKR1C3 expression construct to establish PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants. Microarray and bioinformatics analysis were performed to identify AKR1C3-mediated pathways of activation and their potential biological consequences in PC-3 cells. Western blot analysis, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and an in vitro Matrigel angiogenesis assays were applied to validate the pro-angiogenic activity of PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants identified by bioinformatics analysis. Results Microarray and bioinformatics analysis suggested that overexpression of AKR1C3 in PC-3 cells modulates estrogen and androgen metabolism, activates insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 and Akt signaling pathways, as well as promotes tumor angiogenesis and aggressiveness. Levels of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R and Akt activation as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression and secretion were significantly elevated in PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants in comparison to PC3-mock transfectants. PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants also promoted endothelial cell (EC tube formation on Matrigel as compared to the AKR1C3-negative parental PC-3 cells and PC3-mock transfectants. Pre-treatment of PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants with a selective IGF-1R kinase inhibitor (AG1024 or a non-selective phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K inhibitor (LY294002 abolished ability of the cells

  13. Laser Illumination Modality of Photoacoustic Imaging Technique for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dong-qing; Peng, Yuan-yuan; Guo, Jian; Li, Hui

    2016-02-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) has recently emerged as a promising imaging technique for prostate cancer. But there was still a lot of challenge in the PAI for prostate cancer detection, such as laser illumination modality. Knowledge of absorbed light distribution in prostate tissue was essential since the distribution characteristic of absorbed light energy would influence the imaging depth and range of PAI. In order to make a comparison of different laser illumination modality of photoacoustic imaging technique for prostate cancer, optical model of human prostate was established and combined with Monte Carlo simulation method to calculate the light absorption distribution in the prostate tissue. Characteristic of light absorption distribution of transurethral and trans-rectal illumination case, and of tumor at different location was compared with each other.The relevant conclusions would be significant for optimizing the light illumination in a PAI system for prostate cancer detection.

  14. Optimal management of prostate cancer with lethal biology - state-of-the-art local therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian F Chapin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Defining prostate cancer with lethal biology based upon clinical criteria is challenging. Locally advanced/High-Grade prostate cancer can be downstaged or even downgraded with cure in up to 60% of patients with primary therapy. [1] ,[2] ,[3] ,[4] ,[5] However, what is known is that high-grade prostate cancers have a greater potential for recurrence and progression to metastatic disease, which can ultimately result in a patient′s death. Patients with clinical features of "high-risk" prostate cancer (cT2c, PSA >20, ≥ Gl 8 on biopsy are more likely to harbor more aggressive pathologic findings. The optimal management of high-risk prostate cancer is not known as there are not prospective studies comparing surgery to radiation therapy (RT. Retrospective and population-based studies are subject to many biases and attempts to compare surgery and radiation have demonstrated mixed results. Some show equivalent survival outcomes [6] while others showing an advantage of surgery over RT. [7] ,[8] ,[9] ,[10] ,[11] Local therapy for high-risk disease does appear to be beneficial. Improved outcomes realized with local therapy have been clearly demonstrated by several prospective studies evaluating androgen deprivation therapy (ADT alone versus ADT plus RT. The combination of local with systemic treatment showed improved disease-specific and overall survival outcomes. [12], [13], [14] Unfortunately, primary ADT for N0M0 prostate cancer is still inappropriately applied in general practice. [11] While the surgical literature is largely retrospective, it too demonstrates that surgery in the setting of high-risk prostate cancer is effective in providing durable disease-specific and overall survivals. [2] ,[3] ,[15

  15. Optimal management of prostate cancer with lethal biology--state-of-the-art local therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Brian F

    2015-01-01

    Defining prostate cancer with lethal biology based upon clinical criteria is challenging. Locally advanced/High-Grade prostate cancer can be downstaged or even downgraded with cure in up to 60% of patients with primary therapy. However, what is known is that high-grade prostate cancers have a greater potential for recurrence and progression to metastatic disease, which can ultimately result in a patient's death. Patients with clinical features of "high-risk" prostate cancer (cT2c, PSA >20, ≥ Gl 8 on biopsy) are more likely to harbor more aggressive pathologic findings. The optimal management of high-risk prostate cancer is not known as there are not prospective studies comparing surgery to radiation therapy (RT). Retrospective and population-based studies are subject to many biases and attempts to compare surgery and radiation have demonstrated mixed results. Some show equivalent survival outcomes while others showing an advantage of surgery over RT. Local therapy for high-risk disease does appear to be beneficial. Improved outcomes realized with local therapy have been clearly demonstrated by several prospective studies evaluating androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) alone versus ADT plus RT. The combination of local with systemic treatment showed improved disease-specific and overall survival outcomes. Unfortunately, primary ADT for N0M0 prostate cancer is still inappropriately applied in general practice. While the surgical literature is largely retrospective, it too demonstrates that surgery in the setting of high-risk prostate cancer is effective in providing durable disease-specific and overall survivals. [ PMID:26178396

  16. Effect of interleukin-18 polymorphisms-607 and -137 on clinical characteristics of prostate cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaojun Nong; Yueping Zhang; Bin Cheng; Chongsheng He; Limin Ma; Shujun Zhou; Wenguang Li

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether the presence of IL-18 polymorphisms -137 G/C and -607 A/C was associated with grade, clinical stage, and survival in patients with prostate cancer. Methods: The study cohort included 126 patients with prostate cancer. Control group consisted of 125 samples from Chinese population. Genomic DNA was extracted from EDTA-anticoagulated peripheral blood leukocytes by the salting-out method. The genotyping of the two IL-18 polymorphisms was performed using predesigned TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. Results: The studied IL-18 gene polymorphisms did not influence susceptibility to prostate cancer in the analyzed group of patients (IL-18-607, P = 0.342; IL-18-137 P = 0.715) but may contribute to disease onset and aggressiveness. IL-18-607 CC genotype was significantly associated with higher tumor grade (P = 0.025) and stage (P = 0.001). IL-18-137 GG genotype was correlated with higher tumor grade (P = 0.018) and stage (P = 0.007). The Cox proportional hazard model showed that tuumor grade and stage grouping were independent prognostic factors but IL-18 polymorphism was not. Polymorphism variants in the IL-18 gene (IL-18-607 and IL-18-137) may be associated with a worse prognosis for prostate cancer. Conclusion: High levels of IL-18 production may play a major role in the growth, invasion and metastasis of prostate cancer.

  17. The role of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elena Castro; Rosalind Eeles

    2012-01-01

    One of the strongest risk factors for prostate cancer is a family history of the disease.Germline mutations in the breast cancer predisposition gene 2 (BRCA2) are the genetic events known to date that confer the highest risk of prostate cancer (8.6-fold in men ≤ 65 years).Although the role of BRCA2 and BRCA1 in prostate tumorigenesis remains unrevealed,deleterious mutations in both genes have been associated with more aggressive disease and poor clinical outcomes.The increasing incidence of prostate cancer worldwide supports the need for new methods to predict outcome and identify patients with potentially lethal forms of the disease.As we present here,BRCA germline mutations,mainly in the BRCA2gene,are one of those predictive factors.We will also discuss the implications of these mutations in the management of prostate cancer and hypothesize on the potential for the development of strategies for sporadic cases with similar characteristics.

  18. Aggressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Stepišnik, Urška

    2013-01-01

    There are a lot of aspects of aggressiveness and everybody understands and defines it differently. Professionals define aggressiveness as actually inflicting damage to other organism or object6, the reaction which aims in damaging living organism or object. The objectives of aggressive behaviour are physical and mental damage. The difference between aggressiveness and aggression is that the term aggression relates to a momentary reaction, aggressiveness, however, means permanent characteristi...

  19. Focal Therapy in the Management of Prostate Cancer: An Emerging Approach for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Nomura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A widespread screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA has led increased diagnosis of localized prostate cancer along with a reduction in the proportion of advanced-stage disease at diagnosis. Over the past decade, interest in focal therapy as a less morbid option for the treatment of localized low-risk prostate cancer has recently been renewed due to downward stage migration. Focal therapy stands midway between active surveillance and radical treatments, combining minimal morbidity with cancer control. Several techniques of focal therapy have potential for isolated ablation of a tumor focus with sparing of uninvolved surround tissue demonstrating excellent short-term cancer control and a favorable patient’s quality of life. However, to date, tissue ablation has mostly used for near-whole prostate gland ablation without taking advantage of accompanying the technological capabilities. The available ablative technologies include cryotherapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, and vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP. Despite the interest in focal therapy, this technology has not yet been a well-established procedure nor provided sufficient data, because of the lack of randomized trial comparing the efficacy and morbidity of the standard treatment options. In this paper we briefly summarize the recent data regarding focal therapy for prostate cancer and these new therapeutic modalities.

  20. Prostate cancer:diagnosis and staging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nigel Borley; Mark R.Feneley

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer represents an increasing health burden.The past 20 years,with the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA),has seen prostate cancer move increasingly from a condition that presented with locally advanced disease or metastases to one that is found upon screening.More is also known about the pathology of pre-malignant lesions.Diagnosis relies on trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) to obtain biopsies from throughout the prostate,but TRUS is not useful for staging.Imaging for staging,such as magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography,still has a low accuracy compared with pathological specimens.Current techniques are also inaccurate in identifying lymph node and bony metastases.Nomograms have been developed from the PSA,Gleason score and clinical grading to help quantify the risk of extra-capsular extension in radical prostatectomy specimens.Improved clinical staging modalities are required for more reliable prediction of pathological stage and for monitoring of response to treatments.

  1. DNA Methylation and the HOXC6 Paradox in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Wolfgang A; Masanori Yamanaka; Anna Vinarskaja; Marc Ingenwerth

    2011-01-01

    Overexpression of the classical homeobox transcription factor HOXC6 is frequent in prostate cancers and correlates with adverse clinical parameters. Since surprisingly many HOXC6 target genes are downregulated in prostate cancer, it has been posited that oncogenic effects of HOXC6 in prostate cancer may be unmasked by concurrent epigenetic downregulation of target genes exerting tumor suppressive effects. To test this hypothesis, we have studied the expression of three HOXC6 target genes, CNT...

  2. The Integrated Proactive Surveillance System for Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Haibin; Yatawara, Mahendra; Huang, Shao-Chi; Dudley, Kevin; Szekely, Christine; Holden, Stuart; Piantadosi, Steven

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and implementation of the integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer (PASS-PC). The integrated PASS-PC is a multi-institutional web-based system aimed at collecting a variety of data on prostate cancer patients in a standardized and efficient way. The integrated PASS-PC was commissioned by the Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) and built through the joint of efforts by a group of experts in medical oncology, genetics, pathology, nutrition, ...

  3. Pharmacoeconomics of Available Treatment Options for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zeliadt, Steven B.; Penson, David F.

    2007-01-01

    The resources devoted to managing metastatic prostate cancer are enormous, yet little attention has been given to directly measuring the economic consequences of treatment alternatives. The purpose of this article was to evaluate the pharmacoeconomics of available treatments for metastatic prostate cancer, including hormone-sensitive disease, androgen-independent prostate cancer and locally advanced/progressive disease. We identified 58 articles addressing economic issues related to metastati...

  4. Dietary Polyphenols in Prevention and Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul K. Lall; Syed, Deeba N.; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Mohammad Imran Khan; Hasan Mukhtar

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent disease affecting males in many Western countries, with an estimated 29,480 deaths in 2014 in the US alone. Incidence rates for prostate cancer deaths have been decreasing since the early 1990s in men of all races/ethnicities, though they remain about 60% higher in African Americans than in any other group. The relationship between dietary polyphenols and the prevention of prostate cancer has been examined previously. Although results are sometimes incons...

  5. CD4+ lymphocytes modulate prostate cancer progression in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Poutahidis, Theofilos; Rao, Varada P.; Olipitz, Werner; Taylor, Christie L.; Jackson, Erin A.; Levkovich, Tatiana; Lee, Chung Wei; Fox, James G.; Ge, Zhongming; Erdman, Susan E

    2009-01-01

    Chronic inflammation contributes to the development of prostate cancer in humans. Here, we show that male ApcMin/+ mice also develop prostate carcinoma with increasing age, mimicking that seen in humans in their 5th or 6th decade of life. Proinflammatory cytokines were significantly linked with cancer and increasing age in our mouse model; however, prostate and bowel tissues lacked evidence of inflammatory cell infiltrates other than mast cells. Lymphocytes protected against cancer, and prote...

  6. Perspectives on the Role of Isoflavones in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Aamir; Biersack, Bernhard; Li, Yiwei; Bao, Bin; Kong, Dejuan; Ali, Shadan; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2013-01-01

    Isoflavones have been investigated in detail for their role in the prevention and therapy of prostate cancer. This is primarily because of the overwhelming data connecting high dietary isoflavone intake with reduced risk of developing prostate cancer. A number of investigations have evaluated the mechanism(s) of anticancer action of isoflavones such as genistein, daidzein, biochanin A, equol, etc., in various prostate cancer models, both in vitro and in vivo. Genistein quickly jumped to the f...

  7. Oxidative Stress and DNA Methylation in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Vanaja Donkena; Young, Charles Y. F.; Tindall, Donald J.

    2010-01-01

    The protective effects of fruits, vegetables, and other foods on prostate cancer may be due to their antioxidant properties. An imbalance in the oxidative stress/antioxidant status is observed in prostate cancer patients. Genome oxidative damage in prostate cancer patients is associated with higher lipid peroxidation and lower antioxidant levels. Oxygen radicals are associated with different steps of carcinogenesis, including structural DNA damage, epigenetic changes, and protein and lipid al...

  8. Canadian Nurses’ Perspectives on Prostate Cancer Support Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Ko, Wellam F.; Oliffe, John L.; Han, Christina S.; Garrett, Bernie; Henwood, Tim; Tuckett, Anthony G.; Sohrevardi, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer support groups (PCSGs) are community-based organizations that offer information and psychosocial support to men who experience prostate cancer and their families. Nurses are well positioned to refer men to a range of psychosocial resources to help them adjust to prostate cancer; however, little is known about nurses’ perspectives on PCSGs. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ views about PCSGs as a means to making recommendations for advancing t...

  9. Androgen receptor: structure, role in prostate cancer and drug discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, MH Eileen; Li, Jun; Xu, H. Eric; Melcher, Karsten; Yong, Eu-Leong

    2014-01-01

    Androgens and androgen receptors (AR) play a pivotal role in expression of the male phenotype. Several diseases, such as androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) and prostate cancer, are associated with alterations in AR functions. Indeed, androgen blockade by drugs that prevent the production of androgens and/or block the action of the AR inhibits prostate cancer growth. However, resistance to these drugs often occurs after 2–3 years as the patients develop castration-resistant prostate cancer ...

  10. Identification of Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa was the second most common type of cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death in men. The great challenge for physicians is being able to accurately predict PCa prognosis and treatment response in order to reduce PCa-speciic mortality while avoiding overtreatment by identifying of when to intervene, and in which patients. CONTENT: Currently, PCa prognosis and treatment decision of PCa involved digital rectal examination, Prostate-Speciic Antigens (PSA, and subsequent biopsies for histopathological staging, known as Gleason score. However, each procedure has its shortcomings. Efforts to find a better clinically meaningful and non-invasive biomarkers still developed involving proteins, circulating tumor cells, nucleic acids, and the ‘omics' approaches. SUMMARY: Biomarkers for PCa will most likely be an assay employing multiple biomarkers in combination using protein and gene microarrays, containing markers that are differentially expressed in PCa. KEYWORDS: prostate cancer, PSA, biomarkers, nomograms, miRNA, proteomic, genomic, metabolomic.

  11. Diagnosis of prostate cancer via nanotechnological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang BJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Benedict J Kang,1,2,* Minhong Jeun,1,2,* Gun Hyuk Jang,1,2 Sang Hoon Song,3 In Gab Jeong,3 Choung-Soo Kim,3 Peter C Searson,4 Kwan Hyi Lee1,2 1KIST Biomedical Research Institute, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST, 3Department of Urology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 4Institute for Nanobiotechnology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among the Caucasian adult males in Europe and the USA. Currently available diagnostic strategies for patients with prostate cancer are invasive and unpleasant and have poor accuracy. Many patients have been overly or underly treated resulting in a controversy regarding the reliability of current conventional diagnostic approaches. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research in the development of novel noninvasive prostate cancer diagnostics using nanotechnology coupled with suggested diagnostic strategies for their clinical implication.Keywords: bioassay, nanomaterial, nanodevice, PSA, non-PSA biomarker, bodily fluid

  12. 76 FR 55551 - National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8706 of September 1, 2011 National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer- related deaths among men in the United States. The weight of this illness is felt...

  13. Prostate Cancer Treatments: Different Choices for Different Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160953.html Prostate Cancer Treatments: Different Choices for Different Men Survival rates are ... in fact, found that survival from localized prostate cancer was approximately 99 percent, irrespective of the treatment assigned. However, the cancer spread in 33 of ...

  14. Preventing and Treating Prostate Cancer Spread to Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... options Preventing and treating prostate cancer spread to bones If prostate cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it ... a vein and settle in areas of damaged bones (like those containing cancer spread). Once there, they give off radiation that ...

  15. Can Western Based Online Prostate Cancer Risk Calculators Be Used to Predict Prostate Cancer after Prostate Biopsy for the Korean Population?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Jung, Ha Bum; Park, Jae Won; Kim, Kyu Hyun; Kim, Jongchan; Lee, Seung Hwan; Chung, Byung Ha

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To access the predictive value of the European Randomized Screening of Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator (ERSPC-RC) and the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator (PCPT-RC) in the Korean population. Materials and Methods We retrospectively analyzed the data of 517 men who underwent transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy between January 2008 and November 2010. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to compare the result of prostate biopsy. Area u...

  16. Sleeping Beauty screen reveals Pparg activation in metastatic prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Imran; Mui, Ernest; Galbraith, Laura; Patel, Rachana; Tan, Ee Hong; Salji, Mark; Rust, Alistair G; Repiscak, Peter; Hedley, Ann; Markert, Elke; Loveridge, Carolyn; van der Weyden, Louise; Edwards, Joanne; Sansom, Owen J; Adams, David J; Leung, Hing Y

    2016-07-19

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common adult male cancer in the developed world. The paucity of biomarkers to predict prostate tumor biology makes it important to identify key pathways that confer poor prognosis and guide potential targeted therapy. Using a murine forward mutagenesis screen in a Pten-null background, we identified peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg), encoding a ligand-activated transcription factor, as a promoter of metastatic CaP through activation of lipid signaling pathways, including up-regulation of lipid synthesis enzymes [fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), ATP citrate lyase (ACLY)]. Importantly, inhibition of PPARG suppressed tumor growth in vivo, with down-regulation of the lipid synthesis program. We show that elevated levels of PPARG strongly correlate with elevation of FASN in human CaP and that high levels of PPARG/FASN and PI3K/pAKT pathway activation confer a poor prognosis. These data suggest that CaP patients could be stratified in terms of PPARG/FASN and PTEN levels to identify patients with aggressive CaP who may respond favorably to PPARG/FASN inhibition.

  17. Sleeping Beauty screen reveals Pparg activation in metastatic prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Imran; Mui, Ernest; Galbraith, Laura; Patel, Rachana; Tan, Ee Hong; Salji, Mark; Rust, Alistair G; Repiscak, Peter; Hedley, Ann; Markert, Elke; Loveridge, Carolyn; van der Weyden, Louise; Edwards, Joanne; Sansom, Owen J; Adams, David J; Leung, Hing Y

    2016-07-19

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common adult male cancer in the developed world. The paucity of biomarkers to predict prostate tumor biology makes it important to identify key pathways that confer poor prognosis and guide potential targeted therapy. Using a murine forward mutagenesis screen in a Pten-null background, we identified peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg), encoding a ligand-activated transcription factor, as a promoter of metastatic CaP through activation of lipid signaling pathways, including up-regulation of lipid synthesis enzymes [fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), ATP citrate lyase (ACLY)]. Importantly, inhibition of PPARG suppressed tumor growth in vivo, with down-regulation of the lipid synthesis program. We show that elevated levels of PPARG strongly correlate with elevation of FASN in human CaP and that high levels of PPARG/FASN and PI3K/pAKT pathway activation confer a poor prognosis. These data suggest that CaP patients could be stratified in terms of PPARG/FASN and PTEN levels to identify patients with aggressive CaP who may respond favorably to PPARG/FASN inhibition. PMID:27357679

  18. Isolation of Cancer Stem Cells From Human Prostate Cancer Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Samuel J.; Quinn, S. Aidan; de la Iglesia-Vicente, Janis; Bonal, Dennis M.; Rodriguez-Bravo, Veronica; Firpo-Betancourt, Adolfo; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Domingo-Domenech, Josep

    2014-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) model has been considerably revisited over the last two decades. During this time CSCs have been identified and directly isolated from human tissues and serially propagated in immunodeficient mice, typically through antibody labeling of subpopulations of cells and fractionation by flow cytometry. However, the unique clinical features of prostate cancer have considerably limited the study of prostate CSCs from fresh human tumor samples. We recently reported the isolation of prostate CSCs directly from human tissues by virtue of their HLA class I (HLAI)-negative phenotype. Prostate cancer cells are harvested from surgical specimens and mechanically dissociated. A cell suspension is generated and labeled with fluorescently conjugated HLAI and stromal antibodies. Subpopulations of HLAI-negative cells are finally isolated using a flow cytometer. The principal limitation of this protocol is the frequently microscopic and multifocal nature of primary cancer in prostatectomy specimens. Nonetheless, isolated live prostate CSCs are suitable for molecular characterization and functional validation by transplantation in immunodeficient mice. PMID:24686446

  19. Current state of prostate cancer treatment in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Belinda F; Aiken, William D; Mayhew, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer in Jamaica as well as the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. One report suggested that Jamaica has the highest incidence rate of prostate cancer in the world, with an age-standardised rate of 304/100,000 per year. The Caribbean region is reported to have the highest mortality rate of prostate cancer worldwide. Prostate cancer accounts for a large portion of the clinical practice for health-care practitioners in Jamaica. The Jamaica Urological Society is a professional body comprising 19 urologists in Jamaica who provide most of the care for men with prostate cancer in collaboration with medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, and a palliative care physician. The health-care system is structured in two tiers in Jamaica: public and private. The urologist-to-patient ratio is high, and this limits adequate urological care. Screening for prostate cancer is not a national policy in Jamaica. However, the Jamaica Urological Society and the Jamaica Cancer Society work synergistically to promote screening as well as to provide patient education for prostate cancer. Adequate treatment for localised prostate cancer is available in Jamaica in the forms of active surveillance, nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy, external beam radiation, and brachytherapy. However, there is a geographic maldistribution of centres that provide prostate cancer treatment, which leads to treatment delays. Also, there is difficulty in affording some treatment options in the private health-care sectors. Androgen deprivation therapy is available for treatment of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer and is subsidised through a programme called the National Health Fund. Second-line hormonal agents and chemotherapeutic agents are available but are costly to most of the population. The infrastructure for treatment of prostate cancer in Jamaica is good, but it requires additional technological advances as well as additional specialist

  20. Organoid culture systems for prostate epithelial and cancer tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, Jarno; Karthaus, Wouter R; Gao, Dong; Driehuis, Else; Sawyers, Charles L; Chen, Yu; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes a strategy for the generation of 3D prostate organoid cultures from healthy mouse and human prostate cells (either bulk or FACS-sorted single luminal and basal cells), metastatic prostate cancer lesions and circulating tumor cells. Organoids derived from healthy material cont