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Sample records for aggressive pecking behaviour

  1. Differentially Expressed Genes for Aggressive Pecking Behaviour in Laying Hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buitenhuis, Bart; Hedegaard, Jakob; Janss, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Background Aggressive behaviour is an important aspect in the daily lives of animals living in groups. Aggressive animals have advantages, such as better access to food or territories, and they produce more offspring than low ranking animals. The social hierarchy in chickens is measured using the...... expressed genes may elucidate how the pecking order forms in laying hens at a molecular level....... the 'pecking order' concept, which counts the number of aggressive pecks given and received. To date, little is known about the underlying genetics of the 'pecking order'. Results A total of 60 hens from a high feather pecking selection line were divided into three groups: only receivers (R), only peckers (P...... binding (GO:0035254). Conclusion In conclusion, our study provides new insights into which genes are involved in aggressive behaviours in chickens. Pecking and receiving hens exhibited different gene expression profiles in their brains. Following confirmation, the identification of differentially...

  2. Differential effects of 4 types of environmental enrichment on aggressive pecking, feather pecking, feather loss, food wastage and productivity in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K A; Mench, J A

    2006-12-01

    1. We examined the effects of 4 types of environmental enrichment (foraging opportunities, structural complexity, sensory stimulation/novelty, and social companionship) on aggressive and feather pecking, feather condition, food wastage, body weight, feed conversion, and egg production in adult Japanese quail. Sex differences were examined where possible. 2. GLM analysis was used to evaluate the effects of enrichment and housing, while test-retest reliability and the stability of measures over 18 d were assessed using partial correlation. 3. Foraging enrichment reduced food wastage. 4. Body weight, feed conversion, and egg production were not affected by enrichment. Rates of aggressive and feather pecking were also not significantly affected, but these behaviours were observed very infrequently in this study. 5. Socially-housed birds had poorer feather condition, lower body weight and less efficient feed conversion than singly-housed birds. Social housing did not affect food wastage. 6. There were not sex differences in feather pecking, feather condition, food wastage, or feed conversion. 7. All measures except feather pecking were reliable over 24 h, but only feather condition and body weight were stable over 18 d. The instability f the behavioural measures over time suggest that enrichment effects may vary with age.

  3. Long term selection for reduced or increased pecking behaviour in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buitenhuis, A J; Kjaer, J B

    2008-01-01

    Feather pecking in laying hens is an important issue in animal welfare. Four studies in laying hens were selected which investigated increased or reduced pecking behaviour using direct or indirect measures of feather pecking behaviour. Direct comparison of the selected experiments is difficult...... selection for reduced pecking behaviour changes the immune response. Feather pecking in laying hens is an important issue in animal welfare. Four studies in laying hens were selected which investigated increased or reduced pecking behaviour using direct or indirect measures of feather pecking behaviour...... consensus as to the relation between selection on pecking behaviour and laying performance and egg quality, d) Plasma serotonin level in the blood was reduced in the lines selected against pecking behaviour in both the individual selected lines and the group selected lines and there were indications...

  4. Selection on feather pecking affects response to novelty and foraging behaviour in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Haas, Elske N; Nielsen, Birte L; Buitenhuis, A J (Bart)

    2010-01-01

    , therefore we studied the behaviour of 16 birds from a high feather pecking (HFP) line and 16 birds from a low feather pecking (LFP) line at 35 weeks of age inside a plus-maze. Birds were from the 10th generation of selection for either high or low FP. First exposure to the maze was used to measure birds...

  5. Selection on feather pecking affects response to novelty and foraging behaviour in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de E.N.; Nielsen, B.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Buitenhuis, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Feather pecking (FP) is a major welfare problem in laying hens, influenced by multiple factors. FP is thought to be redirected foraging behaviour, however fearful birds are also known to be more sensitive to develop FP. The relationship between fear-responses, foraging and FP is not well understood,

  6. Effect of an early bitter taste experience on subsequent feather-pecking behaviour in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harlander, A.; Beck, P.S.A.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies showed that laying hens learn not to peck at bitter-tasting feathers from conspecifics. In the present experiment, feathers of newly hatched chicks were made distasteful by spraying them with a bitter-tasting substance (quinine). It was hypothesized that chicks could detect quinine an

  7. Evaluation of behaviour testing for human directed aggression in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, van der J.A.M.; Beerda, B.; Ooms, M.; Silveira de Souza, A.; Hagen, M.; Kemp, B.

    2010-01-01

    Behaviour test batteries are used to identify aggressive dogs. The Dutch Socially Acceptable Behaviour (SAB)-test has been used since 2001 to select against unwanted aggression and fear in specific dog breeds, though much is unknown yet regarding its reliability, validity and feasibility. In this pa

  8. Aggressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Stepišnik, Urška

    2013-01-01

    There are a lot of aspects of aggressiveness and everybody understands and defines it differently. Professionals define aggressiveness as actually inflicting damage to other organism or object6, the reaction which aims in damaging living organism or object. The objectives of aggressive behaviour are physical and mental damage. The difference between aggressiveness and aggression is that the term aggression relates to a momentary reaction, aggressiveness, however, means permanent characteristi...

  9. Aggression in children with behavioural/emotional difficulties: seeing aggression on television and video games

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrofan, Oana; Paul, Moli; Weich, Scott; Spencer, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental health professionals are often asked to give advice about managing children’s aggression. Good quality evidence on contributory environmental factors such as seeing aggression on television and in video games is relatively lacking, although societal and professional concerns are high. This study investigated possible associations between seeing aggression in such media and the aggressive behaviour of children attending specialist outpatient child and adolescent mental health...

  10. Aggression in children with behavioural/emotional difficulties : seeing aggression on television and video games

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrofan, Oana; Paul, Moli; Weich, Scott; Spencer, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Background:\\ud Mental health professionals are often asked to give advice about managing children’s aggression. Good quality evidence on contributory environmental factors such as seeing aggression on television and in video games is relatively lacking, although societal and professional concerns are high. This study investigated possible associations between seeing aggression in such media and the aggressive behaviour of children attending specialist outpatient child and adolescent mental he...

  11. Mixed housing of different genetic lines of laying hens negatively affects feather pecking and fear related behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitdehaag, K.A.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Decuypere, E.; Komen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Adult laying hens from Rhode Island Red (RIR) origin both express lower levels of feather pecking and lower fear responses towards a novel object than laying hens from White Leghorn (WL) origin. The present study investigated whether mixed housing of RIR and WL laying hens would affect their behavio

  12. Neuroimaging of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Sterzer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of functional and structural neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural bases of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents. Most functional neuroimaging studies have persued the hypothesis that pathological aggression is a consequence of deficits in the neural circuits involved in emotion processing. There is converging evidence for deficient neural responses to emotional stimuli in youths with a propensity towards aggressive behaviour. In addition, recent neuroimaging work has suggested that aggressive behaviour is also associated with abnormalities in neural processes that subserve both the inhibitory control of behaviour and the flexible adaptation of behaviour in accord with reinforcement information. Structural neuroimaging studies in children and adolescents with conduct problems are still scarce, but point to deficits in brain structures in volved in the processing of social information and in the regulation of social and goal directed behaviour. The indisputable progress that this research field has made in recent years notwithstanding, the overall picture is still rather patchy and there are inconsistencies between studies that await clarification. Despite this, we attempt to provide an integrated view on the neural abnormalities that may contribute to various forms of juvenile aggression and violence, and discuss research strategies that may help to provide a more profound understanding of these important issues in the future.

  13. Chicks change their pecking behaviour towards stationary and mobile food sources over the first 12 weeks of life: improvement and discontinuities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Murphy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus learn to peck soon after hatching and then peck in rapid bursts or bouts with intervals of non-pecking activity. The food sources may be static such as seeds and chick crumb, or mobile such as a mealworm. Here, changes with age in pecking toward chick crumb and a mealworm were measured.Chicks were reared in pairs and their pecking of crumb food was video recorded in their pair housed environment, from food presentation, every third day from day 8 (wk 2 to day 65 (wk 10. Peck rate at crumb food reached maximum levels at day 32 (wk 5, and then declined, fitting a quadratic model, with no sex, sex of cagemate, or box order effects. Within bouts the peck rate was higher and it increased to day 41 (wk 6 and then declined, and here males pecked faster than females. A change in dietary protein concentration from 22% to 18% at day 28 (wk 4 had no effect on subsequent peck rate.Pecking at and consumption of a mealworm in pair housed chicks were measured weekly from wks [5 to 12]. The latency to first worm peck and latency to swallow decreased to wk 8 and increased thereafter. The peck rate to first wormpeck and number of pecks to swallow increased to wk 8 and then declined paralleling the changes with crumb food. The increase in peck rate is coupled with an increase in efficiency in worm catching.The results are consistent with the view that the improvement in pecking ability and accuracy compliments change in nutritional requirement best served by an invertebrate food (IF source requiring speed to achieve feeding success, especially with live prey. When this food source is no longer crucial these associated skill levels decline. An appreciation of the role of domestic fowl in controlling insect populations, at farm level, that are often vectors in disease spread is lacking.

  14. Teachers’ Perception of Aggressive Behaviour in Children: Case of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Tahirovic, Senija

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive behaviour in children and youth is a widespread phenomenon. Antisocial behaviour that includes certain kind of aggressive behaviour can occur and disappear again during a child’s development. However, from a psychological perspective aggression can be one of the problematic types of behaviour in children with long-lasting negative consequences.The aim of this research is to examine teachers’ perceptions of the types of aggressive behaviour as well as to find out the causes for the ...

  15. Intervention of Behavioural, Cognitive and Sex on Early Childhood's Aggressive Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwati; Japar, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to find out the effect of behavioural intervention, cognitive intervention, and sex intervention toward the aggressive behaviour of early childhood. The study is conducted at two non-formal institutions of Education on Early Childhood in Magelang. This study obtains the data from two experimental groups consisting of 14 early…

  16. Effect of feeding silages or carrots as supplements to laying hens on production performance, nutrient digestibility, gut structure, gut microflora and feather pecking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenfeldt, S; Kjaer, J B; Engberg, R M

    2007-08-01

    1. An experiment was carried out to examine the suitability of using maize silage, barley-pea silage and carrots as foraging materials for egg-laying hens. Production performance, nutrient digestibility, gastrointestinal characteristics, including the composition of the intestinal microflora as well as feather pecking behaviour were the outcome variables. 2. The protein content of the foraging material (g/kg DM) was on average 69 g in carrots, 94 g in maize silage and 125 g in barley-pea silage. The starch content was highest in the maize silage (312 g/kg DM), and the content of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) varied from 196 to 390 g/kg, being lowest in carrots. Sugars were just traceable in the silages, whereas carrots contained on average 496 g/kg DM. 3. Egg production was highest in hens fed either carrots or maize silage, whereas hens fed barley-pea silage produced less (219 vs. 208). Although the consumption of foraging material was high (33, 35 and 48% of the total feed intake on 'as fed' basis for maize silage, barley-pea silage and carrots, respectively) only a minor effect on nitrogen corrected apparent metabolisable energy (AME(n)) and apparent digestibility was seen. At 53 weeks of age, hens fed maize silage had AME(n) and apparent digestibility values close to the control group (12.61 and 12.82, respectively), whereas access to barley-pea silage and carrots resulted in slightly lower values (12.36 and 12.42, respectively). Mortality was reduced dramatically in the three groups given supplements (0.5 to 2.5%) compared to the control group (15.2%). 4. Hens receiving silage had greater relative gizzard weights than the control or carrot-fed groups. At 53 weeks of age, the gizzard-content pH of hens receiving silage was about 0.7 to 0.9 units lower than that of the control or carrot-fed hens. Hens fed both types of silage had higher concentrations of lactic acid (15.6 vs. 3.2 micromoles/g) and acetic acid (3.6 vs. 6.1 micromoles/g) in the gizzard contents

  17. Frustrative reward omission increases aggressive behaviour of inferior fighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindas, Marco A.; Johansen, Ida B.; Vela-Avitua, Sergio;

    2014-01-01

    processes can alter contest dynamics, but the interaction between such effects and that of differing RHPs has not been adjudged. We investigated effects of omission of expected reward (OER) on competing individuals with contrasting RHPs. Small and large rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were conditioned......, and twoout of 11 became socially dominant. Increased aggression insmall OER individuals was accompanied by increased serotonin levels in the dorsomedial pallium (proposed amygdala homologue), but no changes in limbic dopamine neurochemistry were observed in OER-exposed individuals. The behavioural...... and physiological response to OER in fish indicates that frustration is an evolutionarily conserved affective state. Moreover, our results indicate that aggressive motivation to reward unpredictability affects low RHP individuals strongest...

  18. Increasing the Teacher Rate of Behaviour Specific Praise and its Effect on a Child with Aggressive Behaviour Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Thecla Kudakwashe

    2011-01-01

    A single subject design was used to investigate the effectiveness of an increase in teacher behaviour-specific praise statements to address anti-social behaviours demonstrated by a student who displays aggressive behaviours. Researchers agree that praise is effective in improving problem behaviours. They also agree that training teachers to use…

  19. RELEVANCE OF USE OF MULTIMEDIA IN ORDER TO PREVENT JUNIOR PUPILS’ AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Oleksiuk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the problem of aggressive behaviour of junior pupils and reasons for its occurrence. There are determined advantages of multimedia use in the prevention of aggressive behaviour of junior pupils and described types of multimedia, which should be used to work with pupils. Problem of aggressive behaviour of junior pupils become one of the main problems of our society. As noted by the most researchers, one of the cause of aggressive behaviour of junior pupils is media, the use of video games, watching movies, cartoons that provoke aggression. One of the important areas of prevention of aggressive behaviour of junior pupils is competence improvement of teachers, social workers and psychologists on the use of multimedia in social and educational classes for junior pupils.

  20. Aggression and flight behaviour of the marmoset monkey Callithrix jacchus: an ethogram for brain stimulation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipp, H P

    1978-01-01

    The aggressive and flight behaviour of the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) is described and split into behavioural units, allowing analysis of agonistic behaviour evoked by electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus. The social context of the described units is also considered. C. jacchus shows clearly recognizable behavioural patterns. Free-born animals are very timid and show typical flight reactions. Within aggressive behaviour, two types of aggression can be distinguished: very violent attacks causing severe injuries, often accompanied by particular threat displays and observed during dominance and territorial encounters, and, on the other hand, relatively harmless short attacks, together with a noisy vocalization, for defensive purposes or keeping group members at a distance.

  1. The influence of the owner on the development of aggressive behaviour in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Aggressive behaviour in dogs has become a major topic of scientific research in Northern Europe, particularly in England and France, and also in the USA. It ranks amongst the top problems presented to animal behaviour therapists. Research into the influence of owner’s interactions with their dog on the development of the dog’s behaviour in general and problem behaviour, including aggression in particular, has yielded contradictory results. While some authors could not establish significant li...

  2. Impulse control and aggressive response generation as predictors of aggressive behaviour in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; de Castro, B. Orobio; van Aken, M. A. G.; Matthys, W.

    2009-01-01

    A growing interest exists in mechanisms involved in behaviour problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence (MID/BI). Social problem solving difficulties have been found to be an explanatory mechanism for aggressive behaviour in these children. However, recentl

  3. Aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours in competitive sports: an analysis of related personal and environmental variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Pelegrín

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an analysis of personal and environmental variables related to aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours in a sample of Spanish sports competitors. We aim to: 1 ascertain how personality and expression variables relate to trait anger control and unsportsmanlike behaviors, in relation to men and women, age groups and type of sport, 2 identify and analyze the most maladjusted and the most adjusted profiles in a sample of sportsmen and women; 3 identify personality variables as predictors of aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours. Differences in gender, age and type of sport were appreciated in personality variables and in aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours. Men have better emotional adjustment (more behaviours of emotional stability, better self-esteem, self-confidence and leadership, and have worse social adjustment (fewer behaviours of tolerance, social skills and responsibility; more aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours. Women have better social adjustment (more behaviours of tolerance, understanding, adaptation, responsibility, discipline and sociability, and have worse emotional adjustment (greater anxiety. More aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours and greater emotional maladjustment were found in the youngest sportsmen and women. Aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours were more frequent in team sports. This study highlights personality variables as predictors of aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours.

  4. Early Childhood Aggression Trajectories: Associations with Teacher-Reported Problem Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildeboer, Andrea; Thijssen, Sandra; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; van der Ende, Jan; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hofman, Albert; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2015-01-01

    High and stable levels of aggression and the presence of aggressive behaviour in multiple settings according to different informants are risk factors for later problems. However, these two factors have not been investigated in early childhood. The present study investigates trajectories of parent-reported child aggression from 1.5 up to 6 years of…

  5. Interspecific aggressive behaviour of invasive pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus in Iberian fresh waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Almeida

    Full Text Available Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus (L. are successful invaders in Europe, where this species exerts multiple ecological effects, mainly through trophic interactions. Behavioural interference represents a potential impact for native fauna and this is of particular conservation concern in the Iberian Peninsula because of the highly valuable endemic fauna inhabiting streams of this region. However, aggressive interactions have not previously been examined under natural conditions in Iberian fresh waters. To address this gap in knowledge, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of pumpkinseed aggression on endemic fauna of an Iberian stream, the River Bullaque (central Spain. In September 2009, we analysed the aggression and environmental contexts of these behavioural interactions by snorkelling: aggressor size, aggression type, shoal size, previous activity to aggression, recipient species, response to aggression, microhabitat structure and prey availability. Small pumpkinseed displayed more threat and fewer pursuit behaviours relative to medium and large individuals, reflecting an ontogenetic behavioural shift from low to high aggression intensity. Small aggressors came from large shoals, with bottom feeding being the most frequently observed activity prior to an aggressive interaction; whereas large pumpkinseed were less gregarious and they were mostly ambulating within the water column prior to aggression. Recipient species of aggression included non-native crayfish and fishes, and more importantly, endemic fishes and frogs. Retreat was the most common response to aggression, irrespective of aggressor size. Small pumpkinseed displayed aggressive behaviours over coarse substrata containing elevated macrobenthos biomass; whereas aggression by large individuals was observed in deeper waters. These findings suggest that small and large pumpkinseed exert a high impact on other stream residents through aggression in competition for food and

  6. Acute fluoxetine exposure alters crab anxiety-like behaviour, but not aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trevor James; Kwan, Garfield T; Gallup, Joshua; Tresguerres, Martin

    2016-01-25

    Aggression and responsiveness to noxious stimuli are adaptable traits that are ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. Like vertebrate animals, some invertebrates have been shown to exhibit anxiety-like behaviour and altered levels of aggression that are modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin. To investigate whether this influence of serotonin is conserved in crabs and whether these behaviours are sensitive to human antidepressant drugs; the striped shore crab, Pachygrapsus crassipes, was studied using anxiety (light/dark test) and aggression (mirror test) paradigms. Crabs were individually exposed to acute doses of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine (5 or 25 mg/L), commonly known as Prozac®, followed by behavioural testing. The high dose of fluoxetine significantly decreased anxiety-like behaviour but had no impact on mobility or aggression. These results suggest that anxiety-like behaviour is more sensitive to modulation of serotonin than is aggressiveness in the shore crab.

  7. A longitudinal study of the effects of television viewing on aggressive and prosocial behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegman, O; Kuttschreuter, M; Baarda, B

    1992-06-01

    A longitudinal study investigated the extent to which children's exposure to aggressive and prosocial television models in drama programmes influences their aggressive and prosocial behaviour. In The Netherlands we did not find significant positive correlations between prosocial behaviour and the viewing of prosocial behaviour on television. Positive correlations were found, however, between aggression and television violence viewing. This relationship disappeared almost completely when corrections for the starting level of aggression and intelligence were applied. The hypothesis, formulated on the basis of social learning theory, that television violence viewing leads to aggressive behaviour could not be supported. Our findings are further discussed and compared with the results found in the other countries participating in the international study.

  8. Children's Aggressive Behaviour and Teacher-Child Conflict in Kindergarten: Is Teacher Perceived Control over Child Behaviour a Mediating Variable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumen, Sarah; Verschueren, Karine; Buyse, Evelien

    2009-01-01

    Background: Research repeatedly showed young children's aggressive behaviour to predict relationship difficulties with the teacher. Aims: To examine a possible mediating variable in this process and in the stability of relationship difficulties across the school year, namely teacher perceived control over child behaviour. Sample: The sample…

  9. Aggressive Behaviour in Huntington’s Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Nursing Home Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Shiwach

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a cross-sectional study of aggressive behaviour in a sample of patients suffering from Huntington's disease in a residential nursing home. Data were obtained using the RAGE, a behaviourally oriented rating scale for measuring aggressive behaviour in cognitively impaired patients. Nursing staff rated 27 patients after a 3 day observation period. A third of the sample were rated to be at least mildly aggressive; the frequencies of some specific types of aggressive behaviour were high. In contrast, the frequency of injuries sustained and the use of restraints and medication for aggressive behaviour were low. Aggressive behaviour was found to be significantly related to the degree of functional impairment. These data are compared with those reported in a study using the RAGE to assess aggressive behaviour in a sample of elderly patients with dementia.

  10. The Role of Social-Cognitive Abilities in Preschoolers' Aggressive Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Rebecca Stetson; Cassidy, Kimberly Wright; Juliano, Mariel

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between preschool children's social-cognitive abilities (theory of mind and social information processing; SIP) and their observed physical and relational aggressive behaviour. Children with more advanced social-cognitive abilities engaged in fewer acts of physical aggression; however, much of the ability…

  11. Influence of broadcasting on Aggressive Behaviour of Younger School-Aged Children

    OpenAIRE

    RAJNOVÁ, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    The thesis is aimed at influence of broadcasting on the level of aggressive behaviour of younger school-aged children. The basic concepts are explained in general terms; the basic way aggressive behaviour and mass media can be divided is given; psyche of a younger school-aged child is explained; television violence, its forms and both negative and positive effects and health consequences of excessive television-watching are described and prevention of adverse ffects of TV programmes on childr...

  12. Soft drinks, aggression and suicidal behaviour in US high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solnick, Sara J; Hemenway, David

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of carbonated soft drinks has been rising among teens, and recent research has identified potential links to violence, depression, suicidal thoughts and suicidal behaviour. We analyse a national data-set, the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, to examine the relationship between soft drink consumption and aggression, depression and suicidal behaviours among US adolescents. We find that higher soft drink consumption is associated with a range of undesirable behaviours: being in a physical fight, feeling sad or hopeless and having suicidal thoughts and actions. The data display a 'dose-response' relationship, with the percentage engaged in aggression or suicidal behaviour increasing steadily with greater quantities of soft drinks consumed. While further research is needed to determine if the association is causal, soft drink consumption may be a useful indicator for both aggression and suicidal behaviours among American high school students.

  13. Feather pecking and feather loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Koene, P.

    2004-01-01

    Characterizing feather peckers seems a viable approach towards a better understanding of the problem of feather pecking. With our current state of knowledge on the causation of feather peckinq, the environmental factors that influence the development of feather pecking and the characteristics of fea

  14. Baseline Omega-3 Index Correlates with Aggressive and Attention Deficit Disorder Behaviours in Adult Prisoners

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Barbara J.; Mitchell K Byrne; Carole Collier; Natalie Parletta; Donna Crawford; Winberg, Pia C.; David Webster; Karen Chapman; Gayle Thomas; Jean Dally; Marijka Batterham; Ian Farquhar; Anne-Marie Martin; Luke Grant

    2015-01-01

    Background There is emerging evidence that the supplementation of omega-3 contributes to a decrease in aggressive behaviour in prison populations. A challenge of such research is achieving statistical power against effect sizes which may be affected by the baseline omega-3 index. There are no published data on the blood omega-3 index with studies of this kind to assess the variability of the blood omega-3 index in conjunction with aggression and attention deficit assessments. Objective To det...

  15. Baseline omega-3 index correlates with aggressive and attention deficit disorder behaviours in adult prisoners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara J Meyer

    Full Text Available There is emerging evidence that the supplementation of omega-3 contributes to a decrease in aggressive behaviour in prison populations. A challenge of such research is achieving statistical power against effect sizes which may be affected by the baseline omega-3 index. There are no published data on the blood omega-3 index with studies of this kind to assess the variability of the blood omega-3 index in conjunction with aggression and attention deficit assessments.To determine if the variance of the omega-3 index is correlated with aggressive and attention deficit behaviour in a prison population.136 adult male prisoners were recruited from South Coast Correctional Centre (SCCC, NSW Australia. A 7 point categorisation was used to quantify levels of aggressive behaviour (4 weeks from individual SCCC case notes, whereby higher scores correspond to increasingly aggressive behaviour. Study participants completed the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ and the Brown's Attention Deficit Disorder Scales (BADDS, provided a blood sample for erythrocyte fatty acid analysis using gas chromatography and the omega-3 index was calculated.The baseline omega-3 index ranged from 2.3% to 10.3%, indicating that some participants already had substantial omega-3 intake, however a median of 4.7% indicated a lower overall omega-3 intake than the general Australian population. Assessment of aggressive and attention deficit behaviour shows that there were negative correlations between baseline omega-3 index and baseline aggression categorisation scores (r = -0.21, P = 0.016; total AQ score (r = -0.234, P = 0.011; Anger (r = -0.222 p = 0.016; Hostility AQ (r = -0.239, P = 0.009; indirect aggression (r = -0.188 p = 0.042; total BADDS (r = -0.263, p = 0.005; Activation (r = -0.224, p = 0.016; Attention (r = -0.192, p = 0.043; Effort (r = -0.253, p = 0.007; Affect (r = -0.330, p = 0.000 and Memory (r = -0.240, p = 0.010.There is a high variability in omega-3 status of a NSW prison

  16. Physical and Verbal Aggressive Behaviour Pattern Among School Children in Urban Area of North Karnataka: A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawwad Shaikh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is growing concern with student conflict, aggression, and violence in the schools, and anger is an important contributing factor which can damage school climate. Aims and Objectives: To elucidate the differentials of aggressive behaviour among high school students and to recognize the influence of age and sex on aggressive behaviour. Material and Methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted in one of the high school in urban area, which included all 347 students (199 boys and 148 girls of classes VII to X. The students were asked to answer, by recall method, a self-administered, pre tested, structured questionnaire indicating the types of aggressive behaviour by them in the previous month and to assess themselves with reference to the statements regarding physical / verbal aggression, after taking their consent. Results: Majority of the students (58.8% were from nuclear families and 26.2% students experienced aggressive behaviour in the family. Role models for aggressive behaviour were parents (42.3% and TV / Cinema actors (39.0%. Overall, 241 (69.5% children were physically aggressive in the previous month. Physical active direct and indirect aggression was significantly more common among boys than among girls. 248 (71.5% children were verbally aggressive in the previous month. Physical aggression increased substantially from VII standard (56.9% to X standard (84.6%. Conclusion: Aggressive behaviour was common among both boys and girls, with increasing trend of physical aggression from VII standard to X standard. Classroom management, counseling and life skills education strategies are recommended for channelizing the aggressive behaviour among school children.

  17. Climate-driven coral reorganisation influences aggressive behaviour in juvenile coral-reef fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Judith E.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Hoogenboom, Mia O.

    2016-06-01

    Globally, habitat degradation is altering the abundance and diversity of species in a variety of ecosystems. This study aimed to determine how habitat degradation, in terms of changing coral composition under climate change, affected abundance, species richness and aggressive behaviour of juveniles of three damselfishes ( Pomacentrus moluccensis, P. amboinensis and Dischistodus perspicillatus, in order of decreasing reliance on coral). Patch reefs were constructed to simulate two types of reefs: present-day reefs that are vulnerable to climate-induced coral bleaching, and reefs with more bleaching-robust coral taxa, thereby simulating the likely future of coral reefs under a warming climate. Fish communities were allowed to establish naturally on the reefs during the summer recruitment period. Climate-robust reefs had lower total species richness of coral-reef fishes than climate-vulnerable reefs, but total fish abundance was not significantly different between reef types (pooled across all species and life-history stages). The nature of aggressive interactions, measured as the number of aggressive chases, varied according to coral composition; on climate-robust reefs, juveniles used the substratum less often to avoid aggression from competitors, and interspecific aggression became relatively more frequent than intraspecific aggression for juveniles of the coral-obligate P. moluccensis. This study highlights the importance of coral composition as a determinant of behaviour and diversity of coral-reef fishes.

  18. Contextual variables affecting aggressive behaviour in individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities who live in a residential facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Didden, H.C.M.; Huitink, C.; Schreuder, N.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Aggression is a common type of problem behaviour in clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability who live in a residential facility. We explored contextual events that elicit aggressive behaviour and variables that were associated with such events. METHOD: Respondents were 87 direct-care

  19. Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence, Incidence and Remission of Aggressive Behaviour and Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, S.-A.; Smiley, E.; Jackson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Allan, L.; Mantry, D.; Morrison, J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Aggressive behaviours can be disabling for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), with negative consequences for the adult, their family and paid carers. It is surprising how little research has been conducted into the epidemiology of these needs, given the impact they can have. This study investigates point prevalence, 2-year…

  20. The impact of group size on damaging behaviours, aggression, fear and stress in farm animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Koene, P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss the impact of group size on damaging behaviours, aggression, fear and stress in farm animals and to identify housing- and management options that can help to reduce problems caused by suboptimal group sizes. Increasing group size was found to increase the risk of

  1. Physical and Verbal Aggressive Behaviour Pattern Among School Children in Urban Area of North Karnataka: A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fawwad Shaikh; R. G. Viveki; A.B. Halappanavar

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is growing concern with student conflict, aggression, and violence in the schools, and anger is an important contributing factor which can damage school climate. Aims and Objectives: To elucidate the differentials of aggressive behaviour among high school students and to recognize the influence of age and sex on aggressive behaviour. Material and Methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted in one of the high school in urban area, which...

  2. CORRELATION BETWEEN AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR AND STRESS IN PEOPLE WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY IN RELATION TO THE TYPE OF HOUSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela TAMAŠ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several research findings indicate that aggression in individuals with intellectual disability (ID is significantly associated with environmental, housing and living conditions. The aim of this study is to determine levels and forms of aggressive behaviour found among individuals with ID; also examine levels of stress experienced as a result of housing conditions and relationships between aggressive behaviours and stressful experiences encountered among individuals with ID living in different housing types. Method: A total of 122 participants participated in the study, 51 of whom reside in institutions, 38 of whom live with families and 33 of whom participate in supported housing programmes. Following instruments have been used: The Lifestress Inventory, The Adult Scale of Hostility and Aggression Reactive-Proactive (A-SHARP. Results: The results reveal that there is a connection between housing types and levels and forms of aggressive behaviour and the level of stress experienced by the individuals with ID. Aggressive behaviour is least pronounced among the participants living in supported housing programmes (verbal aggression: p=0.001; bullying: p=0.002; covert aggression; p=0.003; hostility affect: p=0.002 and physical aggression: p=0.001. Among the participants living in institutions and with families is no statistically significant difference in terms of the level of any form of aggressive behaviour. Participants from supported housing programmes showed significantly lower levels of stress in comparison to the other two sub-samples (p=0.000. Conclusions: There is a statistically significant correlation between aggressive behaviour among individuals with ID and experienced stress, depending on the type of the participants housing.

  3. From sexual attraction to maternal aggression: when pheromones change their behavioural significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sánchez, Ana; McLean, Lynn; Beynon, Robert J; Hurst, Jane L; Ayala, Guillermo; Lanuza, Enrique; Martínez-Garcia, Fernando

    2015-02-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". This paper reviews the role of chemosignals in the socio-sexual interactions of female mice, and reports two experiments testing the role of pup-derived chemosignals and the male sexual pheromone darcin in inducing and promoting maternal aggression. Female mice are attracted to urine-borne male pheromones. Volatile and non-volatile urine fractions have been proposed to contain olfactory and vomeronasal pheromones. In particular, the male-specific major urinary protein (MUP) MUP20, darcin, has been shown to be rewarding and attractive to females. Non-urinary male chemosignals, such as the lacrimal protein ESP1, promote lordosis in female mice, but its attractive properties are still to be tested. There is evidence indicating that ESP1 and MUPs are detected by vomeronasal type 2 receptors (V2R). When a female mouse becomes pregnant, she undergoes dramatic changes in her physiology and behaviour. She builds a nest for her pups and takes care of them. Dams also defend the nest against conspecific intruders, attacking especially gonadally intact males. Maternal behaviour is dependent on a functional olfactory system, thus suggesting a role of chemosignals in the development of maternal behaviour. Our first experiment demonstrates, however, that pup chemosignals are not sufficient to induce maternal aggression in virgin females. In addition, it is known that vomeronasal stimuli are needed for maternal aggression. Since MUPs (and other molecules) are able to promote intermale aggression, in our second experiment we test if the attractive MUP darcin also promotes attacks on castrated male intruders by lactating dams. Our findings demonstrate that the same chemosignal, darcin, promotes attraction or aggression according to female reproductive state.

  4. Vaccination against GnRH may suppress aggressive behaviour and musth in African elephant (Loxodonta africana bulls - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. De Nys

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive behaviour and musth are constant problems in captive and sometimes in free-ranging African elephant bulls. Aggressive bulls are difficult and musth bulls almost impossible to manage without severely restricting their movement either by leg-chaining or using tranquillisers. This study investigated the relationship between faecal androgen metabolites (FAM and faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM concentrations and aggressive behaviour and tested a GnRH vaccine as a means of down-regulating aggressive behaviour and musth in 1 free-ranging and 5 captive elephant bulls. The bulls were non-aggressive (n = 3, aggressive (n = 2 or in musth (n = 1 at the onset of the study. The bulls were injected with a GnRH vaccine-adjuvant combination 3 or 4 times at 3- to 7-week intervals. Behaviour, FAM and FCM concentrations were measured during every week prior to vaccination until 4 months after the last vaccination. FAM concentrations were positively correlated with aggressive behaviour before the 1st vaccination. Androgen production, as reflected by FAM concentrations, was down-regulated in 3 of the 6 immunised bulls. At least 2 bulls and possibly a 3rd showed behavioural improvement following GnRH vaccination and in all 3 temporal gland secretion ceased. No further aggressive behaviour was observed until the end of the study in any of the bulls. The results of this 1st GnRH immunisation study suggest that it could be a useful method to control aggressive behaviour and musth in African elephant bulls.

  5. Climate-driven coral reorganisation influences aggressive behaviour in juvenile coral-reef fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Kok, Judith E.; Graham, Nicholas Anthony James; Mia O Hoogenboom

    2016-01-01

    Globally, habitat degradation is altering the abundance and diversity of species in a variety of ecosystems. This study aimed to determine how habitat degradation, in terms of changing coral composition under climate change, affected abundance, species richness and aggressive behaviour of juveniles of three damselfishes (Pomacentrus moluccensis, P. amboinensis and Dischistodus perspicillatus, in order of decreasing reliance on coral). Patch reefs were constructed to simulate two types of reef...

  6. Genetic associations between maternal traits and aggressive behaviour in Large White sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, A K; Voß, B; Tönepöhl, B; König von Borstel, U; Gauly, M

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined the possibilities and consequences of selecting pigs for reduced aggression and desirable maternal behaviour. Data were recorded from 798 purebred Large White gilts, with an age of 217±17.7 (mean±SD) days, which were observed at mixing with unfamiliar conspecifics. The reaction of the sows towards separation from their litter was assessed for 2022 litters from 848 Large White sows. Sows' performance during their time in the farrowing unit was scored based on the traits farrowing behaviour (i.e. need of birth assistance), rearing performance (i.e. litter quality at day 10 postpartum (pp)), usability (i.e. additional labour input during lactation period e.g. for treatments) and udder quality of the sow (i.e. udder attachment). For agonistic behaviour, traits heritabilities of h 2=0.11±0.04 to h 2=0.28±0.06 were estimated. For the sow's reaction towards separation from her litter low heritabilities were found (h 2=0.03±0.03 for separation test on day 1 pp and h 2=0.02±0.03 for separation test on day 10 pp). Heritabilities for lactating sow's performance (farrowing behaviour, rearing performance, usability of the sow and udder quality) in the farrowing unit ranged from h 2=0.03±0.02 to h 2=0.19±0.03. Due to these results it can be assumed that selection for these traits, for example, for udder quality or reduced aggression, is possible. Antagonistic associations were found between separation test on day 1 pp and different measures of aggressiveness (r g =-0.22±0.26 aggressive attack and r g =-0.41±0.33 reciprocal fighting). Future studies should determine economic as well as welfare-related values of these traits in order to decide whether selection for these traits will be reasonable.

  7. Sensory modulation intervention and behaviour support modification for the treatment of severe aggression in Huntington's disease. A single case experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Caroline A; Brown, Anahita

    2015-10-13

    Aggression is common in Huntington's disease. However, at present there are no standard guidelines for managing aggression in Huntington's sufferers due to a lack of empirical research. This paper presents a case study of the treatment of very high levels of aggression with sensory modulation and behaviour support intervention in a Huntington's sufferer. The client exhibited a range of aggressive behaviours, including physical aggression to people, furniture and objects, and verbal aggression. Following an eight week baseline phase, five weeks of sensory modulation intervention were employed. A behaviour support plan was then implemented as an adjunct to the sensory intervention, with aggressive behaviour systematically audited for a further 11 weeks. The results indicate a significant reduction in reported levels of aggression during the combined sensory modulation and behaviour support phase, compared to both the baseline and the sensory modulation therapy alone phases. This case study highlights the efficacy non-pharmacological interventions may have for reducing aggression in HD.

  8. Neural correlates of reactive aggression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbid disruptive behaviour disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubenzer-Busch, Sarah; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Kuzmanovic, B

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often linked with impulsive and aggressive behaviour, indexed by high comorbidity rates between ADHD and disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD). The present study aimed to investigate underlying neural activity of reactive aggression...... in children with ADHD and comorbid DBD using functional neuroimaging techniques (fMRI). MethodEighteen boys with ADHD (age 9-14years, 10 subjects with comorbid DBD) and 18 healthy controls were administered a modified fMRI-based version of the Point Subtraction Aggression Game' to elicit reactive aggressive...... activation of regions belonging to the insula and the middle temporal sulcus. ConclusionData support the hypothesis that deficient inhibitory control mechanisms are related to increased impulsive aggressive behaviour in young people with ADHD and comorbid DBD....

  9. Different aggressive behaviours are exaggerated by facing vs. broadside subliminal stimuli shown to socially isolated Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, J R; Giri, T; Dunham, D W

    1997-04-01

    We report and analyse some features of a new phenomenon: socially isolated Betta splendens become extremely hyper-aggressive after seeing brief glimpses of fish models or mirrors. These brief glimpses are below the threshold for releasing aggressive display, so they are considered subliminal aggressive stimuli. The hyper-aggressiveness was observed to last for weeks. To confirm that hyper-aggressiveness was dependent upon the aggressive significance of the subliminal stimuli, we presented socially isolated Betta splendens with subliminal models in either a `facing' posture (used mainly in aggressive contexts), or a `broadside' posture (used in many social contexts). The fish shown the aggressive `facing' subliminal stimuli became more aggressive, while those shown `broadside' stimuli performed more generalized advertisement behaviours. The display posture of the model, which may incorporate specific features relevant to aggression, therefore determined how the subliminal aggressive stimuli altered subsequent aggressiveness. This difference was also persistent. Subliminal stimuli may thus be implicated in the hyper-aggressiveness so often reported after social isolation.

  10. An investigation of factors increasing the risk of aggressive behaviour among schizophrenic inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel eLejoyeux

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the studyThis study tried to identify risk factors of aggressive behavior in a population of schizophrenic inpatients. We tested the association between aggressive behavior and socio-demographic characteristics, addictive disorders, history of suicide attempt and sexual violence, impulsivity and sensation seeking.MethodsAll consecutive schizophrenic inpatients (100 were assessed during six months. Aggressive behavior was quantified with a standardized scale, the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS. We studied socio-demographic characteristics and the history of suicide attempt and sexual violence with a specific standardized questionnaire. Addictive disorders were identified with the Fagerström and CAGE questionnaires and with the DSM-IV-R diagnostic criteria for nicotine, alcohol, cannabis opiates, and cocaine abuse and dependence disorders. Lastly, we studied sensation-seeking with the Zuckerman scale and impulsivity with the Barratt scale. ResultsLinear regression identified four factors associated with aggressive behaviour: male gender (odd ratio =12.8, history of sexual violence (odd ratio = 3.6, Fagerström score (odd ratio= 1.3, number of cigarettes smoked each day (odd ratio=1.16. Patients with nicotine use or dependence had significantly higher levels of OAS scores. This difference was not observed between patients with or without alcohol dependence. OAS scores were correlated to the number of cigarettes smoked each day and to Fagerström scores. Patients with a higher level of sensation seeking and impulsivity also had higher OAS scores. ConclusionA Typical schizophrenic patient at risk of showing aggressive behavior is a man, who smokes and presents a history of sexual violence.

  11. Boldness, aggression and exploration: evidence for a behavioural syndrome in male pentamorphic livebearing fish, Poecilia parae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey R. Bourne

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A body of evidence is being accumulated on consistent individual differences in behaviour for several animal taxa. Individuals of these species exhibit different levels of risk during competition over limited resources, and the resultant behavioural types perform better under different social and physical environmental conditions. We used approach distance to a model of a piscivore predator the pike cichlid (Crenicichla saxatilis to categorize male pentamorphic livebearing fish or pentas (Poecilia parae as bold, intermediate, and shy, and then tested the hypothesis that when behaviours are correlated, individuals express different behaviour types under different contexts. Our results for the most part corroborated the six predictions generated by the aforementioned hypothesis: (1 bold pentas explored a T-maze in the shortest time, and initially approached the chamber with a living pike cichlid instead of the one with the conspecific male; (2 intermediate pentas spent more time exploring the maze and exhibited no initial interest in the predator chamber nor the conspecific one; (3 shy individuals spent the most time exploring the maze, and initially approached the predator chamber, providing only partial support for this prediction because shy males did not initially approach the conspecific chamber; (4 approach distance from the pike cichlid predator model and time to explore the maze was positively correlated; (5 bold pentas exhibit highest levels of aggression toward conspecifics; and (6 bold individuals ingested the most conspecific fry. Our results lead to the conclusion that pentas exhibited a behavioural syndrome with bold fish being more aggressive, faster explorers of novel situations, and more cannibalistic than intermediate and shy individuals of the same population. Thus, penta males fall into a behavioural syndrome formally known as the proactive-reactive axis.

  12. Reasons of Aggressive Behaviour Against School Fellows, Its Frequency, Forms: Reaction of Schoolchildren, Teachers and Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdas Pruskus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article, which is based on conducted research data, analyzes an attitude of schoolchildren, teachers and parents towards the reasons of schoolchildren’s aggressive behaviour, its frequency and forms. Different factors and motives that stimulate the aggressiveness of schoolchildren, who go to the city, village and different professional (arts and technology schools are examined. Schoolchildren’s approach towards violence against school fellows and themselves is being discussed, as well as reaction of teachers and parents to this phenomenon. The article reveals opinion of schoolchildren, teachers, and parents about the means used to prevent violence towards schoolchildren and existing ways that can be used to make preventive means to be more effective.

  13. Effectiveness of an Attachment-Focused Manualized Intervention for Parents of Teens at Risk for Aggressive Behaviour: The Connect Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Marlene M.; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive, violent and antisocial behaviour in children and adolescents is a growing concern across the globe. Targeting parent-teen relationships is critical in reducing problem behaviour. "Connect" is a manualized ten-week program for parents or alternative caregivers of at-risk teens that focuses on the building blocks of secure attachment:…

  14. Reported Strategies for Responding to the Aggressive and Extremely Disruptive Behaviour of Students Who Have Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murik, Joe; Shaddock, Anthony; Spinks, Anthony; Zilber, David; Curry, Craig

    2005-01-01

    This research examines the strategies reported by teachers who have managed aggressive and extremely disruptive behaviour of students who have special needs. A sample of 52 teachers from mainstream and special settings listed the strategies that they have used to respond to this behaviour, the reasons for their choice and their estimate of the…

  15. Genetics of animal temperament: aggressive behaviour at mixing is genetically associated with the response to handling in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eath, R B; Roehe, R; Turner, S P; Ison, S H; Farish, M; Jack, M C; Lawrence, A B

    2009-11-01

    Aggression when pigs are mixed into new social groups has negative impacts on welfare and production. Aggressive behaviour is moderately heritable and could be reduced by genetic selection. The possible wider impacts of selection for reduced aggressiveness on handling traits and activity in the home pen were investigated using 1663 male and female pedigree pigs (898 purebred Yorkshire and 765 Yorkshire × Landrace). Aggressive behaviour was observed over 24 h after pigs were mixed at 10 weeks of age into groups balanced for unfamiliarity and weight. Aggression was highly heritable (duration of involvement in reciprocal fighting h2 = 0.47 ± 0.03, and duration of delivering one-sided aggression h2 = 0.34 ± 0.03). Three weeks after mixing, home pen inactivity (indicated by the frequency of lying) was observed over 24 h. Inactivity was weakly heritable (h2 = 0.05 ± 0.01) but showed no significant genetic association with aggression. Pigs' behaviour during handling by humans was assessed on entry to, whilst inside and on exit from a weigh crate at both mixing and end of test at 22 weeks. Pigs were generally easy to handle, moving easily into and out of the crate. Scores indicating 'very difficult to move' were rare. Handling scores at weighing were weakly heritable (h2 = 0.03 to 0.17), and moderately correlated across the two weighings (rg = 0.28 to 0.76). Aggressive behaviour at mixing was genetically associated with handling at the end of test weighing: pigs that fought and delivered one-sided aggression had handling scores indicating more active behaviour at weighing (e.g. moving quickly into the crate v. fighting rg = 0.41 ± 0.05 and v. bullying rg = 0.60 ± 0.04). Also, there was a genetic association between receiving one-side aggression at mixing and producing high-pitched vocalisations in the weigh crate (rg = 0.78 ± 0.08). Correlated behavioural responses occurring across different challenging situations (e.g. social mixing and human handling) have been

  16. Effects of adverse early-life events on aggression and anti-social behaviours in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, J; Harold, G; Sandi, C; Neumann, I D

    2014-10-01

    We review the impact of early adversities on the development of violence and antisocial behaviour in humans, and present three aetiological animal models of escalated rodent aggression, each disentangling the consequences of one particular adverse early-life factor. A review of the human data, as well as those obtained with the animal models of repeated maternal separation, post-weaning social isolation and peripubertal stress, clearly shows that adverse developmental conditions strongly affect aggressive behaviour displayed in adulthood, the emotional responses to social challenges and the neuronal mechanisms activated by conflict. Although similarities between models are evident, important differences were also noted, demonstrating that the behavioural, emotional and neuronal consequences of early adversities are to a large extent dependent on aetiological factors. These findings support recent theories on human aggression, which suggest that particular developmental trajectories lead to specific forms of aggressive behaviour and brain dysfunctions. However, dissecting the roles of particular aetiological factors in humans is difficult because these occur in various combinations; in addition, the neuroscientific tools employed in humans still lack the depth of analysis of those used in animal research. We suggest that the analytical approach of the rodent models presented here may be successfully used to complement human findings and to develop integrative models of the complex relationship between early adversity, brain development and aggressive behaviour.

  17. Do SMEs follow Pecking Order Financing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jan; Mateus, Cèsario; Olson, Dennis

    This paper tests for "pecking order" financing of small and medium size firms. The main sources and "pecking order" of financing for SMEs are equity (internally generated cash), trade credit paid on time, credit provided by institutions such as banks and leasing companies, other sources of debt...... and delayed payment on trade credit. The "pecking order" of financing is driven by the costs of asymmetric information (cost of gathering and analysing information) and financial distress costs. Empirical tests do not confirm that SMEs follow a pecking order....

  18. The effects of attitudes towards violence on violent behaviour among secondary school students: Moderation by gender and aggressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Oljača Milan; Dinić Bojana; Sokolovska Valentina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the effects of attitudes towards violence on different forms of violence behaviour among secondary school students. The moderator roles of gender and aggressiveness in relationships between attitude and violence were also tested. The Bullying Attitudinal Scale, the Peer Violence and Victimisation Questionnaire (PVVQ), and the Aggressiveness questionnaire AVDH were administered on the sample of 643 second- to fourth-gr...

  19. Aggression behaviour induced by oral administration of the Janus-kinase inhibitor tofacitinib, but not oclacitinib, under stressful conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Tomoki; Tschernig, Thomas; Qi, Yulin; Volmer, Dietrich A; Bäumer, Wolfgang

    2015-10-05

    Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors have recently been developed for allergic diseases. We focused on the 2 different JAK inhibitors, tofacitinib (selective for JAK3) and oclacitinib (selective for JAK1 and 2), to clarify the mechanism of anti-inflammatory and anti-itching potency of these drugs. In the process of detecting anti-itching potency, we observed that tofacitinib treated mice showed aggression behaviour. The objective of the study reported here was to investigate the aggressive behaviour induced by tofacitinib by using a mouse model of allergic dermatitis and the resident-intruder test. For the allergic dermatitis model, female BALB/c mice were sensitised and challenged topically with toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI). Vehicle, tofacitinib or oclacitinib, was administered orally 30 min before TDI challenge. Scratching, aggression and standing behaviours were monitored in the 60 min period immediately following challenge of TDI. Another group of male BALB/c mice treated with vehicle, tofacitinib or oclacitinib was evaluated in the resident-intruder test and brains were obtained to determine blood brain barrier penetration. In the allergic dermatitis model, a significant increase in aggression and standing behaviour was only obvious in the tofacitinib treatment group. There was no effect in non-sensitised mice, but similar aggression was also induced by tofacitinib in male resident-intruder test. Penetration of blood-brain barrier was observed both in tofacitinib and oclacitinib treated mice. These results suggest that aggression was induced by tofacitinib under some kind of stressful environment. This study indicates a possible role of the JAK-STAT pathway in modulation of aggression behaviour.

  20. Fluoxetine inhibits aggressive behaviour during parental care in male fighting fish (Betta splendens, Regan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsatkar, Mohammad Navid; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Amiri, Bagher Mojazi; Huang, Wen-Bin

    2014-11-01

    The increasing presence of aquatic contaminants, such as the pharmaceutical fluoxetine, has raised concerns over potentially disrupting effects on several aspects of fish reproduction. However, the effects of fluoxetine on reproductive and paternal behavior in fish remain understudied, particularly at environmentally relevant concentrations. In the current study, we therefore tested the hypothesis that waterborne fluoxetine at an environmentally relevant concentration (540 ng/l), disrupts specific reproductive and paternal behaviors in male Siamese fighting fish at distinct reproductive phases. A pre-post test design was adopted to investigate specific behavioral responses at the individual fish level in response to male conspecific intruders at two different distances from the nest across four distinct reproductive phases (before bubblenest construction, following bubblenest construction, after spawning and after hatching of the larvae). In the control specimens, the measured behaviours were not different between the spawning times and among the interactions in either distance to nest at the different reproduction phases. Our results indicate that fluoxetine specifically disrupts characteristic paternal territorial aggression behaviour only after spawning and hatching of the larvae, while male behaviour in previous reproductive phases is unaffected by fluoxetine exposure. Results of comparison between males at 1st spawning and specimens exposed to fluoxetine at 2nd spawning showed that the first reaction of the nest-holding males to the intruders, duration of fin spreading, number of bites, and 90° turn, and the frequency of sweeps were different between the spawning times after spawning or hatching of embryos. However, interaction of spawning time and reproduction phase was significant on biting behaviour. These results demonstrate that fluoxetine exposure at environmental concentrations negatively affects territorial defense behaviour in fighting fish during

  1. Personal Values and Moral Disengagement Promote Aggressive and Rule-Breaking Behaviours in Adolescents With Disruptive Behaviour Disorders: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciello, Marinella; Muratori, Pietro; Ruglioni, Laura; Milone, Annarita; Buonanno, Carlo; Capo, Rosario; Lochman, John E; Barcaccia, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    The pilot study presented in this article investigated the role of moral-cognitive features in understanding aggressive and rule-breaking behaviours in adolescents with Disruptive Behaviour Disorder (DBD). We collected two samples. The community sample was composed of 85 adolescents, whereas the DBD sample was composed of 30 adolescents. Compared with a community sample, adolescents with DBD are more inclined to use moral disengagement (MD) to legitimize their aggressive and rule-breaking behaviours. Moreover, regression models showed that self-enhancement values and MD foster externalizing behaviours taking into account both gender and the group they belonged to, that is, either clinical or community sample. Instead, self-transcendence values could prevent externalizing problems by inhibiting MD. Implications of these findings for assessment and therapeutic interventions are discussed.

  2. Environmental and nursing-staff factors contributing to aggressive and violent behaviour of patients in mental health facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalina van Wijk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aggressive and violent behaviour of inpatients in mental health facilities disrupts the therapeutic alliance and hampers treatment.Objectives: The aim of the study was to describe patients’ perceptions of the possible environmental and staff factors that might contribute to their aggressive and violent behaviour after admission to a mental health facility; and to propose strategies to prevent and manage such behaviour.Research design: A qualitative, phenomenological study was utilised, in which purposefully sampled inpatients were interviewed over a six-month period. Inpatients were invited to participate if they had been admitted for at least seven days and were in touch with reality.Method: Forty inpatients in two mental health facilities in Cape Town participated in face-to-face, semi-structured interviews over a period of six months. Tesch’s descriptive method of open coding formed the framework for the data analysis and presentation of the results. Trustworthiness was ensured in accordance with the principles of credibility, confirmability, transferability and dependability.Results: Analysis of the data indicates two central categories in the factors contributing to patients’ aggressive and violent behaviour, namely, environmental factors and the attitude and behaviour of staff. Conclusion: From the perspective of the inpatients included in this study, aggressive and violent episodes are common and require intervention. Specific strategies for preventing such behaviour are proposed and it is recommended that these strategies be incorporated into the in-service training programmes of the staff of mental health facilities. These strategies could prevent, or reduce, aggressive and violent behaviour in in-patient facilities.

  3. Pecking Order Behavior in Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seifert, Bruce; Gonenc, Halit

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the validity of the pecking order hypothesis in 23 emerging market countries. Emerging market countries would appear to be an ideal setting for the pecking order hypothesis to hold because of the presence of strong asymmetric information issues and agency costs. We observe, howev

  4. The effects of attitudes towards violence on violent behaviour among secondary school students: Moderation by gender and aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oljača Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to explore the effects of attitudes towards violence on different forms of violence behaviour among secondary school students. The moderator roles of gender and aggressiveness in relationships between attitude and violence were also tested. The Bullying Attitudinal Scale, the Peer Violence and Victimisation Questionnaire (PVVQ, and the Aggressiveness questionnaire AVDH were administered on the sample of 643 second- to fourth-grade secondary school students from urban area (61.7% boysgrade. The results have shown that among boys more positive attitudes towards violence had significant effect on direct violence forms - physical and verbal, but that it depended on aggressiveness whether violence would be manifested as physical. Namely, the boys with more positive attitudes towards violence, who, at the same time, scored higher on aggressiveness, were more prone to physical violence. Unlike them, the boys with more positive attitudes towards violence but with lower aggressiveness were less prone to physical aggression. In the case of verbal violence, it has been shown that boys with more positive attitudes towards violence were more prone to verbal violence, regardless of aggressiveness. Aggressiveness had a unique contribution to the prediction of verbal violence and only a significant effect in the prediction of relational violence. The importance of changing the attitudes towards violence in the context of violence prevention is discussed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON179006 i br. ON179037: Nasilje u savremenom društvu: dispozicioni i kontekstualni činioci

  5. SYSTEM RESEARCH OF YOUNGER TEENAGERS FROM POSITIONS OF A FLOOR AND A GENDER DEPENDING ON AGGRESSION OF BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Любовь Владимировна Мищенко

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: scientifically to prove aggression as the backbone factor of development of integrated individuality of younger teenagers and to define specificity of structures of integrated individuality of boys and girls of younger teenagers with high and low level of aggression.Methodology: the theoretical analysis of a problem of research in the psychological, pedagogical and methodical literature; ascertaining experiment; methods of mathematical and statistical data processing (t-criterion of Stjudenta, correlation and factorial analyses.Results:  on the basis of the teoretiko-empirical analysis we have come to the following - structures of integrated individuality of boys with aggressive behaviour are more harmonious, at them two full factors while at girls it is revealed - one full factor are revealed; however girls are more flexible - at them more облических communications; at boys leaders are socially - psychological properties, and at girls - temperament, carries out an organising role. Proceeding from results of research we have developed practical psihologo - pedagogical recommendations - ignoring of speech aggression; attention switching; a method of displaying of positive personal qualities and behavioural reactions; open verbal censure; belief; and certainly, humour and a joke.Practical implications: diagnostics and preventive maintenance of preventive maintenance of aggressive behaviour at boys and at girls of younger teenagers.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-6-30

  6. Aggressive Behaviour in Early Elementary School Children: Relations to Authoritarian Parenting, Children's Negative Emotionality and Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…

  7. Social isolation increases aggressive behaviour and alters the effects of diazepam in the rat social interaction test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongwitdecha, N; Marsden, C A

    1996-02-01

    Isolation rearing in the early stages of life has been shown to modify a variety of behaviours in many animals and the responsitivity to psychotropic drugs. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of isolation rearing on anxiety using the social interaction paradigm and to compare the effects of diazepam on social interaction behaviours in isolation and socially reared rats. Male Lister hooded rats were reared from weaning either alone (isolation reared) or in groups of four (socially reared) for 6 weeks and then were tested for social interaction. Both isolation and socially reared rats were exposed to the social interaction test either without drug treatment or following saline or diazepam (1 and 2.5 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min before testing). The results demonstrate that under high light in an unfamiliar arena, the isolation compared to the socially reared rats showed a significantly (P < 0.01) higher level of social interaction, manifested as increases in aggressive and avoidance behaviours, and that this interaction occur for a greater length of time during the test period (10 min). However, when the light level was decreased or when the arena was familiar, active social interaction of isolation reared rats decreased but increased in the socially reared rats. In both conditions the isolation reared rats displayed more aggressive behaviours, in particular biting and boxing the partners which did not occur with the socially reared rats. Pretreatment of diazepam (1 and 2.5 mg/kg., i.p.) caused a dose-related reduction in aggressive behaviours in rats reared under both conditions but increased passive interactions in the socially reared rats. In contrast diazepam (2.5 mg/kg) reduced active interaction in the isolation reared rats but had no effect on passive interaction. These results indicate that isolation rearing increases aggressive behaviours and alters the effects of diazepam.

  8. Effects of beak amputation and sex on the pecking rate damage and performance parameters of turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allinson, I B; Ekunseitan, D A; Ayoola, A A; Iposu, S O; Idowu, O M O; Ogunade, I M; Osho, S O

    2013-10-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of sex and beak trimming on pecking and the performance of turkeys. Five hundred and forty unsexed, day old British United Turkey poults were was divided into 3 treatments based on beak trimming at 0, 1/4, 1/3 measured from the tip of the beak inwards with 3 replicates of 60 poults each experiment 1 while 480 turkeys (240 each of male and female) were transferred and allotted to 4 treatment groups of 120 birds each and 4 replicates of 30 turkeys each in experiment 2. Data on performance response and severity of pecking were taken and subjected to one-way analysis of variance in a completely randomised design (experiment 1) and 2x2 factorial layout (factors were sex and beak trimming). Results showed that beak trimming had no significant (p>0.05) effect on all the performance parameters of turkey poults except feed intake while sex and beak trimming had significant (p<0.05) effect on performance indices of turkey. Debeaked male and female recorded higher feed intake, protein intake and feed conversion ratio. There was higher rate of aggressive pecking among the Toms than in the Hens and severity of damage was higher in undebeaked turkeys than the debeaked. Beak trimming can greatly reduce the severity of damage caused by aggressive pecking and should be done twice (6 and 14th week) at 1/4 measured from the tip of the beak.

  9. Aggressive behaviour in preschool children. Neuropsychological correlates, costs of service use, and preventive efforts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, M.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    At ages two and three the vast majority of children shows a high level of aggression. During the preschool period the level of aggression generally declines. However, some children continue to show a high level of aggression and are at risk for the development of Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD),

  10. Brief report: Cyberbullying perpetration and its associations with socio-demographics, aggressive behaviour at school, and mental health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Adam; Fitzgerald-Yau, Natasha; Jones, Rebecca; Allen, Elizabeth; Viner, Russell M; Bonell, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Relatively little is known about those who cyberbully others, especially in a UK context. We drew on data from 1144 young people aged 12-13 in eight English secondary schools to examine the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and its associations with sociodemographics, other behaviours, and health outcomes. Overall, 14.1% of respondents reported ever cyberbullying others with no significant differences by gender or socioeconomic status. Drawing on mixed-effects logistic regression models, first we found a strong, dose-response relationship between aggressive behaviour at school and cyberbullying others, suggesting that cyberbullying may not only be a facet of wider patterns of bullying but also of aggression more broadly. Second, cyberbullying others was associated with poorer quality of life and with psychological difficulties but not with peer/social problems or worse mental wellbeing. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess whether such associations are causal.

  11. Adolescent Substance Use and Aggressive Behaviours in Multiple Structural Peer Contexts (SRCD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommans, Rob; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; ter Bogt, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Many changes in health-related behaviours occur during adolescence (Williams, Holmbeck, & Greenley, 2002). Peers play a critical role in such behaviour changes, since they can substantially influence youths’ health behaviours (Ryan, 2001). Adolescents tend to adhere to the behavioural norms (i.e., t

  12. Adolescent Substance Use and Aggressive Behaviours in Multiple Structural Peer Contexts (HBSC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommans, Rob; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; ter Bogt, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Many changes in health-related behaviours occur during adolescence (Williams, Holmbeck, & Greenley, 2002). Peers play a critical role in such behaviour changes, since they can substantially influence youths’ health behaviours (Ryan, 2001). Adolescents tend to adhere to the behavioural norms (i.e., p

  13. Adolescent Substance Use and Aggressive Behaviours in Multiple Structural Peer Contexts (CAS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommans, Rob; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; ter Bogt, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Many changes in health-related behaviours occur during adolescence (Williams, Holmbeck, & Greenley, 2002). Peers play a critical role in such behaviour changes, since they can substantially influence youths’ health behaviours (Ryan, 2001). Adolescents tend to adhere to the behavioural norms (i.e., p

  14. A role for plasma aromatic amino acids in injurious pecking behavior in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkl, Patrick; Franke, Leonora; Bas Rodenburg, T; Ellen, Ester; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra

    2017-03-29

    Injurious pecking, including feather pecking (FP), is one of the most prevalent causes of mortality for commercial laying hens. The underlying biological mechanisms of FP are not yet fully understood, but they could be related to alterations in the serotonin (5-HT) and/or dopamine (DA) circuits within the brain. In the past, the central synthesis of 5-HT and DA was found to be influenced by the availability of their precursors, aromatic amino acids (AAA) such as tryptophan (TRP), phenylalanine (PHE), and tyrosine (TYR), in blood plasma, which are transported across the blood-brain-barrier into the brain. Because knowledge about plasma levels of AAA in laying hens is very limited, the present study compared the AAA profiles of a large sample of laying hens from two genetic lines: one selected for low mortality (LM) due to injurious pecking (n=129 birds) and one high production line (HP) selected for high egg-production only (n=132 birds). Head, comb, and feather covering were scored at the end of the experiment. Blood samples were collected at weeks 24 and 29 of age and were analysed for AAA using high performance liquid chromatography. Neither FP nor feather damage was observed in the present study, but aggressive pecking directed at the head/neck area occurred in several groups with an onset of this aberrant behavior between weeks 22 and 29. Eight HP pens and seven LM pens were affected by severe head/comb injuries inflicted via aggressive pecking. Therefore, our exploratory data analysis focused upon the possible interplay between the variability of our outcome measures (absolute levels of AAA in plasma as well as the ratios PHE/TYR and TRP/(PHE+TYR) and the aggressive head/comb pecking as an expression of social stress within the pens. We found significantly lower TRP availability relative to PHE and TYR (TRP/(PHE+TYR) ratio) and higher TYR concentrations at week 24 in pens with an early onset of injurious aggressive behavior at weeks 22-23. This was most

  15. Divergent Evolution of Male Aggressive Behaviour: Another Reproductive Isolation Barrier in Extremophile Poeciliid Fishes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bierbach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive isolation among locally adapted populations may arise when immigrants from foreign habitats are selected against via natural or (inter-sexual selection (female mate choice. We asked whether also intrasexual selection through male-male competition could promote reproductive isolation among populations of poeciliid fishes that are locally adapted to extreme environmental conditions [i.e., darkness in caves and/or toxic hydrogen sulphide (H2S]. We found strongly reduced aggressiveness in extremophile Poecilia mexicana, and darkness was the best predictor for the evolutionary reduction of aggressiveness, especially when combined with presence of H2S. We demonstrate that reduced aggression directly translates into migrant males being inferior when paired with males from nonsulphidic surface habitats. By contrast, the phylogenetically old sulphur-endemic P. sulphuraria from another sulphide spring area showed no overall reduced aggressiveness, possibly indicating evolved mechanisms to better cope with H2S.

  16. Do Portuguese SMEs Follow Pecking Order Financing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jan; Mateus, Cesario; Olson, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    This paper tests for pecking order behavior in medium-sized private Portuguese firms. In contrast to the usual split between internal funds, debt, and external equity, we separate debt into four components – cheap trade credits (CTC), bank loans (BL), other loans, and expensive credits (EC). We use...

  17. Sociálny kapitál ako prevencia negatívnej agresivity adolescentov (Social Capital as a Prevention of Adolescents’ Aggressive Behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Božeková

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aggression as undesirable risk behaviour is a serious social problem which requires effective prevention and intervention solutions. This paper focuses on concept of Social Capital as an important factor in reduction of aggressive behaviour in family, school and neighbourhood. Relationships amongst family members, the involvement of parents in school activities, the participation of young people at school events and hobby groups and the activitiesof local youth and religious institutions can be identified as relevant components of social capital decreasing juvenile aggression. Positive social relationships offer an adequate prevention of adolescent aggression but also facilitate the inclusion of young people (who during adolescence and “dramatic clashes” create their personal identity, ultimatelydetermining their life as adults into society.

  18. Condoning Aggressive Behaviour in Sport: A Cross-Sectional Research in a Few Consecutive Age Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchart, Eric; Rulence-Pâques, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the way in which 216 young handball players ("Mage" = 12.79, SD = 2.20) of different ages (nine- to 10-years-old, 11- to 12-years-old, 13- to 14-years-old, and 15- to 16-years-old) combined and integrated five different information cues (the consequences of the aggression, the current score, the time…

  19. Fearfulness and feather damage in laying hens divergently selected for high and low feather pecking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodenburg, T Bas; de Haas, Elske N; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2010-01-01

    Feather pecking (FP) remains a major welfare and economic problem in laying hens. FP has been found to be related to other behavioural characteristics, such as fearfulness. There are indications that fearful birds are more likely to develop FP. Furthermore, FP can lead to increased fearfulness...... in the victims. To investigate further the relationship between FP and fearfulness, feather damage and behavioural fear responses were recorded in three White Leghorn lines of laying hens: a line selected for high FP (HFP line), a line selected for low FP (LFP line) and an unselected control line (10th...

  20. THE BEHAVIOURAL REACTION OF WEANERS TO HANGING TOYS: WOODEN BALL AND AROMATIZED WOODEN BALL – WAY TO REDUCE AGGRESSION AFTER MIXING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek NOWICKI

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of weaners after mixing housed in pens equipped with hanging wooden ball, aromatized with vanilla fluid hanging wooden ball and without enrichment was evaluated. It was found that both enrichments reduced aggression, however the most interesting for weaners was the aromatized wooden ball.

  1. Pecking at Pecking Order Theory: Evidence from Pakistan’s Non-financial Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Jibran

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study tests the Pecking Order Theory for the capital structure of listed firms in Pakistan. As per Pecking Order Theory in capital structure formulation, internally generated resources would have first priority, followed by debt issuance where equity is used as a last resort. In its strong form, the Pecking Order Theory sustains that equity issues would never occur, whereas in its weak form, limited amounts of issues are acceptable. The methodology adopted in this empirical study involves cross-section regressions and the testing of hypotheses stemming from the underlying theory in its strong and weak forms. A sample of capital structure of non-financial firms listed at KSE is considered from 2001 to 2008. A statistical tool of panel data regression analysis is used to test different firms’ data. The value of R2, t-test and F-Stat indicate firms in KSE supporting the weak form of pecking order theory, i.e., the option of using internal equity and debt is more preferred and a limited amount of external equity is used for reinvestment and fund raising purposes.

  2. Reinforcer Magnitude Attenuates Apomorphine's Effects on Operant Pecking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Lamb, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    When given to pigeons, the direct-acting dopamine agonist apomorphine elicits pecking. The response has been likened to foraging pecking because it bears remarkable similarity to foraging behavior, and it is enhanced by food deprivation. On the other hand, other data suggest the response is not related to foraging behavior and may even interfere…

  3. Feather pecking in growers: a study with individually marked birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wechsler, B; Huber-Eicher, B; Nash, David Richard

    1998-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether individual birds specialise in feather pecking. Growers were individually marked and reared in groups of 30 or 31 in pens with a slatted floor. At an age of 4 to 6 weeks feather pecking was frequent in all pens. 2. On average 83% of all...

  4. Effects of aggressive behaviour and group size on collective escape in an emergency: a test between a social identity model and deindividuation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugihara, N

    2001-12-01

    This study models escape behaviour in emergency situations and compares the ability of deindividuation and social identity-based explanations in particular to account for responses. According to deindividuation theory, the larger the group, the higher the degree of anonymity and the stronger antisocial responses such as competitiveness will be. Moreover, the competition for escape should be more severe, and the escape rate lowered, in a large group, regardless of whether participants have an aggressive option. A social identity model predicts that when group members have an option of aggressive behaviour, the salience of the aggressive norm in a larger group will be stronger than that in a smaller group. In contrast, when participants only have concessive option, the salience of the non-aggressive norm in a large group is expected to be stronger than that in a small group. The results of Study 1 supported the social identity model. Study 2 tested how participants responded to their norm. The social identity model suggests a more conscious and socially regulated process whereas deindividuation theory implies an unconscious or unregulated process. The results showed that what directly affects norm formation is the density of stimulus, that is, the amount of aggression received from others and of others' escape activity divided by group size. The results suggest the conscious process of the norm formation and support the social identity model.

  5. Using single-case experimental design methodology to evaluate the effects of the ABC method for nursing staff on verbal aggressive behaviour after acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkens, Ieke; Ponds, Rudolf; Pouwels, Climmy; Eilander, Henk; van Heugten, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    The ABC method is a basic and simplified form of behavioural modification therapy for use by nurses. ABC refers to the identification of Antecedent events, target Behaviours, and Consequent events. A single-case experimental AB design was used to evaluate the effects of the ABC method on a woman diagnosed with olivo-ponto-cerebellar ataxia. Target behaviour was verbal aggressive behaviour during ADL care, assessed at 9 time points immediately before implementation of the ABC method and at 36 time points after implementation. A randomisation test showed a significant treatment effect between the baseline and intervention phases (t = .58, p = .03; ES [Nonoverlap All Pairs] = .62). Visual analysis, however, showed that the target behaviour was still present after implementation of the method and that on some days the nurses even judged the behaviour to be more severe than at baseline. Although the target behaviour was still present after treatment, the ABC method seems to be a promising tool for decreasing problem behaviour in patients with acquired brain injury. It is worth investigating the effects of this method in future studies. When interpreting single-subject data, both visual inspection and statistical analysis are needed to determine whether treatment is effective and whether the effects lead to clinically desirable results.

  6. Magnitude, types and sex differentials of aggressive behaviour among school children in a rural area of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Dutt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aggression affects academic learning and emotional development, can damage school climate and if not controlled early and may precipitate extreme violence in the future. Objective s : (1 To determine the magnitude and types of aggressive behavior in school children. (2 To identify the influence of age and sex on aggressive behavior. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Anandanagar High School, Singur village, West Bengal. Participants were 161 boys and 177 girls of classes VII to IX. The students were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire indicating the types of aggressive behavior by them in the previous month and to assess themselves with reference to statements indicating verbal/physical aggression. Results: Overall, 66.5% of the children were physically aggressive in the previous month: Boys 75.8%, girls 58.2% ( P = 0.001; 56.8% were verbally aggressive: Boys 55.2%, girls 61% ( P = 0.97. Verbal indirect passive aggression was more common among girls (55.3% than among boys (22.3% ( P = 0.000 [1.17E-09 ]. Boys were more liable to physical aggression, viz. 60.2% of the boys would hit on provocation compared with only 9% of the girls ( P = 0.000 [6.6E -23 ]. Regarding attributes indicating verbal aggression, girls were more argumentative (63.8% than boys (55.2% ( P = 0.134 and disagreeing (41.8% compared with boys (33.5% ( P = 0.145. With increasing age/class, physical direct active aggression decreased while physical indirect passive and verbal indirect passive aggression increased. No classes had been taken on anger control/management by school the authorities. Conclusions: Aggressive behavior was common both among boys and girls. Life skills education/counseling/classroom management strategies are recommended.

  7. Narrative report: Fort Peck Game Range: May - August 1943

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1943. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  8. Fort Peck Game Range: Narrative report: January - April, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1956. The report begins by summarizing...

  9. Fort Peck Game Range: Narrative report: September - December 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1962. The report begins by...

  10. Fort Peck Game Range: Narrative report: May - August 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1960. The report begins by summarizing...

  11. Fort Peck Game Range: Narrative report: September - December 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1961. The report begins by...

  12. Fort Peck Game Range: Narrative report: May - August 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1959. The report begins by summarizing...

  13. Fort Peck Game Range: Narrative report: January - April 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1961. The report begins by...

  14. [Fort Peck Game Range: Narrative report: February-April 1941

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from February through April of 1941. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  15. Fort Peck Game Range: Narrative report: September - December, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1959. The report begins by...

  16. Fort Peck Game Range: January - April 1945: Narrative report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1945. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  17. Mice heterozygous for the oxytocin receptor gene (Oxtr(+/-)) show impaired social behaviour but not increased aggression or cognitive inflexibility: evidence of a selective haploinsufficiency gene effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, M; Braida, D; Donzelli, A; Martucci, R; Busnelli, M; Bulgheroni, E; Rubino, T; Parolaro, D; Nishimori, K; Chini, B

    2013-02-01

    We characterised the behavioural phenotype of mice heterozygous (Oxtr(+/-)) for the oxytocin receptor gene (Oxtr) and compared it with that of Oxtr null mice (Oxtr(-/-)), which display autistic-like behaviours, including impaired sociability and preference for social novelty, impaired cognitive flexibility, and increased aggression. Similar to Oxtr(-/-) mice, the Oxtr(+/-) showed impaired sociability and preference for social novelty but, unlike the null genotype, their cognitive flexibility and aggression were normal. By autoradiography, Oxtr(+/-) mice were found to have approximately 50% fewer oxytocin receptors (OXTRs) in all of the examined brain regions. Thus, because a partial reduction in Oxtr gene expression is sufficient to compromise social behaviour, the Oxtr acts as a haploinsufficient gene. Furthermore, the inactivation of the Oxtr gene affects specific behaviours in a dose-dependent manner: social behaviour is sensitive to even a partial reduction in Oxtr gene expression, whereas defects in aggression and cognitive flexibility require the complete inactivation of the Oxtr gene to emerge. We then investigated the rescue of the Oxtr(+/-) social deficits by oxytocin (OT) and Thr(4)Gly(7)OT (TGOT) administered i.c.v. at different doses. TGOT was more potent than OT in rescuing sociability and social novelty in both genotypes. Furthermore, the TGOT doses that reverted impaired sociability and preference for social novelty in Oxtr(+/-) were lower than those required in Oxtr(-/-), thus suggesting that the rescue effect is mediated by OXTR in Oxtr(+/-) and by other receptors (presumably vasopressin V1a receptors) in Oxtr(-/-). In line with this, a low dose of the selective oxytocin antagonist desGlyDTyrOVT blocks the rescue effect of TGOT only in the Oxtr(+/-) genotype, whereas the less selective antagonist SR49059 blocks rescue in both genotypes. In conclusion, the Oxtr(+/-) mouse is a unique animal model for investigating how partial loss of the Oxtr gene

  18. Analysis of severe feather pecking behavior in a high feather pecking selection line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labouriau, R; Kjaer, J B; Abreu, G C G;

    2009-01-01

    , it is necessary to characterize the genetic mechanism associated with this behavior. In this study, we use a high FP selection line, which has been selected for 8 generations. We present evidence of the presence of a major dominant allele affecting the FP behavior by using an argument based on the presence......Even though feather pecking (FP) in laying hens has been extensively studied, a good solution to prevent chickens from this behavior under commercial circumstances has not been found. Selection against FP behavior is possible, but for a more effective selection across different populations...

  19. Effect of a mindfulness training program on the impulsivity and aggression levels of adolescents with behavioural problems in the classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERTO AMUTIO

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of a mindfulness training psycho-educative program on impulsivity and aggression levels in a sample of high school students. Methods: A randomized controlled trial with pretest-posttest measurements was applied to an experimental group and a control group (waiting list. The Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11 (Barratt, 1995 and the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ (Buss and Perry, 1992 were used. Results: Statistical analyses showed a significant decrease in the levels of impulsivity and aggressiveness in the experimental group compared with the control group. These results have important implications for improving the level of academic engagement and self-efficacy of students and for reducing school failure. Conclusion: This is one of the first studies showing the effectiveness of mindfulness training at reducing impulsive and aggressive behaviors in the classroom. The efficacy of mindfulness-based programs is emphasized.

  20. Identification of quantitative trait loci for receiving pecks in young and adult laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenhuis, A.J.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Siwek-Gapinska, M.Z.; Cornelissen, S.J.B.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Koene, P.; Bovenhuis, H.; Poel, van der J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Feather pecking (FP) is a major problem in cage and free-range housing systems. In free-range systems, FP is more difficult to control. It is not known why a victim is being pecked. It could be that a bird is genetically predisposed to be pecked. To study the genetics of FP behavior, a large F2 popu

  1. Reaction to frustration in high and low feather pecking laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Zimmerman, P.H.; Koene, P.

    2002-01-01

    Reaction to frustration of high (HFP) and low feather pecking (LFP) laying hens was investigated. From a HFP- and a LFP-line five birds with a HFP- and five birds with a LFP-phenotype were selected. Birds from the HFP-line were expected to show more key pecking and covered feeder pecking during frus

  2. The development and causation of feather pecking in the domestic fowl.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    Feather pecking in poultry consists of pecking directed at the feathers of other birds, sometimes pulling out and eating these feathers. It may result in severe damage of the integument of the birds, including wounds of the skin. Finally wounded birds may be pecked to death (cannibalism). About 30 y

  3. The mediating effect of daily nervousness and irritability on the relationship between soft drink consumption and aggressive behaviour among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether soft drink consumption is related to fighting and bullying behaviour among school-aged children and whether nervousness and irritation mediated this relationship. The data on 7583 adolescents aged 11-15 years from the Slovak part of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged

  4. Staff's Attitudes and Reactions towards Aggressive Behaviour of Clients with Intellectual Disabilities: A Multi-Level Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knotter, Maartje H.; Wissink, Inge B.; Moonen, Xavier M. H.; Stams, Geert-Jan J. M.; Jansen, Gerard J.

    2013-01-01

    Data were collected from 121 staff members (20 direct support staff teams) on background characteristics of the individual staff members and their teams (gender, age, years of work experience, position and education), the frequency and form of aggression of clients with an intellectual disability (verbal or physical), staff members' attitudes…

  5. Attack of the invasive garden ant: aggression behaviour of Lasius neglectus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) against native Lasius species in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cremer, Sylvia; Ugelvig, Line Vej; Lommen, Suzanne T.E.;

    2006-01-01

    Invasive species often dramatically change native species communities by directly and indirectly out-competing na-tive species. We studied the direct interference abilities of the invasive garden ant, Lasius neglectus VAN LOON, BOOMSMA & ANDRÁSFALVY, 1990, by performing one-to-one aggression tests...

  6. The educative relationship in primary school: aggressive tendencies and pro-social behaviour La relación educativa en la escuela primaria: tendencias agresivas y comportamientos prosociales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Longobardi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The general objective of this work is to analyze how pupils’ aggressive tendencies and pro-social behaviour can influence the perception of a given educative relationship, both from the point of view of the pupil and of the teacher. This study shall focus particularly on aggressive tendencies and pro-social behaviour envisaged as indicators of social adaptation’s capability. The research has been conducted on a sample of 249 pupils and 30 teachers, belonging to 15 primary school classes in the province of Turin. Both teachers and pupils agree that children with difficulties of social adaptation appear to maintain less positive relationships: their lower pro-social behaviour matches lack of closeness in relationships and the increase of affective distance within them. Moreover, augmented aggressive tendencies have been discovered among pupils with higher levels of conflict. This research shall highlight how the social and anti-social modalities of interaction of a child may influence a teacher’s perception of their relationship, much more than the pupil’s evaluation of his or hers cognitive abilities. For what concerns the association between relationship and capability of adaptation, it shall be first shown how the pupil tends to view himself or herself as a more or less pro-social and antisocial individual; then, how such perception influences the pupil’s connection with the teacher. At the same time, it shall be given evidence of how the teacher tends to judge the bond with a pupil on the basis of the mental image he or she has created of the child and of which the child may not be entirely aware.

    Key words: Educative relationship, teacher-pupil, aggressiveness, pro-social behaviour.

    El objetivo general del trabajo es el de estudiar la influencia que la tendencia agresiva y el comportamiento prosocial del alumno, considerados como indicadores de la capacidad de adaptación social, pueden ejercitar sobre la percepci

  7. Using Behavioural Skills Training to Treat Aggression in Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability in a Forensic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Robert W.; Sturmey, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of anger management in people with intellectual disability failed to control for the effects of the number of provocative stimuli presented and lacked direct measures of behaviour and treatment integrity data. Methods: This experiment systematically assessed and presented discriminative stimuli for aggressive…

  8. Structural and Functional Alterations in Right Dorsomedial Prefrontal and Left Insular Cortex Co-Localize in Adolescents with Aggressive Behaviour: An ALE Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Maria Raschle

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging work has suggested that aggressive behaviour (AB is associated with structural and functional brain abnormalities in processes subserving emotion processing and regulation. However, most neuroimaging studies on AB to date only contain relatively small sample sizes. To objectively investigate the consistency of previous structural and functional research in adolescent AB, we performed a systematic literature review and two coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses on eight VBM and nine functional neuroimaging studies in a total of 783 participants (408 [224AB/184 controls] and 375 [215 AB/160 controls] for structural and functional analysis respectively. We found 19 structural and eight functional foci of significant alterations in adolescents with AB, mainly located within the emotion processing and regulation network (including orbitofrontal, dorsomedial prefrontal and limbic cortex. A subsequent conjunction analysis revealed that functional and structural alterations co-localize in right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and left insula. Our results are in line with meta-analytic work as well as structural, functional and connectivity findings to date, all of which make a strong point for the involvement of a network of brain areas responsible for emotion processing and regulation, which is disrupted in AB. Increased knowledge about the behavioural and neuronal underpinnings of AB is crucial for the development of novel and implementation of existing treatment strategies. Longitudinal research studies will have to show whether the observed alterations are a result or primary cause of the phenotypic characteristics in AB.

  9. Structural and Functional Alterations in Right Dorsomedial Prefrontal and Left Insular Cortex Co-Localize in Adolescents with Aggressive Behaviour: An ALE Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschle, Nora Maria; Menks, Willeke Martine; Fehlbaum, Lynn Valérie; Tshomba, Ebongo; Stadler, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging work has suggested that aggressive behaviour (AB) is associated with structural and functional brain abnormalities in processes subserving emotion processing and regulation. However, most neuroimaging studies on AB to date only contain relatively small sample sizes. To objectively investigate the consistency of previous structural and functional research in adolescent AB, we performed a systematic literature review and two coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses on eight VBM and nine functional neuroimaging studies in a total of 783 participants (408 [224AB/184 controls] and 375 [215 AB/160 controls] for structural and functional analysis respectively). We found 19 structural and eight functional foci of significant alterations in adolescents with AB, mainly located within the emotion processing and regulation network (including orbitofrontal, dorsomedial prefrontal and limbic cortex). A subsequent conjunction analysis revealed that functional and structural alterations co-localize in right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and left insula. Our results are in line with meta-analytic work as well as structural, functional and connectivity findings to date, all of which make a strong point for the involvement of a network of brain areas responsible for emotion processing and regulation, which is disrupted in AB. Increased knowledge about the behavioural and neuronal underpinnings of AB is crucial for the development of novel and implementation of existing treatment strategies. Longitudinal research studies will have to show whether the observed alterations are a result or primary cause of the phenotypic characteristics in AB.

  10. Contexts and predictability of aggression in chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, F.B.M. de; Hoekstra, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Reasons for aggression may be deduced from the situations preceding aggressive behaviour. This we may call the retrospective approach. In addition to results from this conventional procedure the present paper investigates the predictability of aggressive behaviour. In this so-called anticipatory app

  11. The analysis of the types of aggressiveness at preadolescents from urban and rural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Losîi Elena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In last year’s the study of aggressive behaviour became widespread and dynamic, and also remains a challenge for psychology. The evolution of aggressiveness phenomenon led to the it’s refinement based on different practices and mechanisms of aggressiveness appearance. In phylogentic evolution remains constantly especially among children. The types and forms of aggressive behaviour are becoming more numerous and various. Aggressive behaviour knows a multitude of faces and can be expressed in a variety of ways. The given article is dedicated to the research of aggressive and types of aggressive behaviour at preadolescents. Our study included 100 preadolescents from urban and rural environments. The hostility, physical aggression, indirect aggression, nervousness, negativity, verbal aggression and guilt were tested with Buss - Durkee Hostility Inventory. As consequences we can mention that aggressive behaviour is largely specific to contemporary preadolescents. Also we can underline that aggressive behaviour and types of aggressive behaviour depends on gender and environment of preadolescents.

  12. Applying chemical stimuli on feathers to reduce feather pecking in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harlander Matauschek, A.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that spraying a distasteful substance (quinine) on a bird's feather cover reduced short-term feather pecking. The present experiment evaluated if other substances offer similar or better protection against feather pecking. One hundred and twenty birds were divided into 12 g

  13. Testing the Pecking Order Theory: The Impact of Financing Surpluses and Large Financing Deficits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Jong (Abe); M.J.C.M. Verbeek (Marno); P. Verwijmeren (Patrick)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper extends the basic pecking order model of Shyam-Sunder and Myers (1999) by separating the effects of financing surpluses, normal deficits, and large deficits. Using a broad cross-section of publicly traded firms for 1971 to 2005, we find that the estimated pecking order coeffic

  14. Firms' debt-equity decisions when the static tradeoff theory and the pecking order theory disagree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, A.; Verbeek, M.; Verwijmeren, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper tests the static tradeoff theory against the pecking order theory. We focus on an important difference in prediction: the static tradeoff theory argues that a firm increases leverage until it reaches its target debt ratio, while the pecking order yields debt issuance until the debt capaci

  15. The Impact of Financing Surpluses and Large Financing Deficits on Tests of the Pecking Order Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Abe; Verbeek, Marno; Verwijmeren, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the basic pecking order model of Shyam-Sunder and Myers by separating the effects of financing surpluses, normal deficits, and large deficits. Using a panel of US firms over the period 1971-2005, we find that the estimated pecking order coefficient is highest for surpluses (0.90),

  16. Heritability of feather pecking and open-field response of laying hens at two different ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Buitenhuis, A.J.; Ask, B.; Uitdehaag, K.A.; Koene, P.; Poel, van der J.J.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to estimate heritabilities. (h(2)) of feather pecking and open-field response of laying hens at two different ages. An F-2 cross, originating from a high and a low feather pecking line of laying hens, was used for the experiment. Each of the 630 birds of the F-

  17. The prevention and control of feather pecking: application to commercial systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicol, C.J.; Bestman, M.; Gilani, A.M.; Haas, de E.N.; Jong, de I.C.; Lampton, S.; Wagenaar, J.P.; Weeks, C.A.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the prevalence of feather pecking in different commercial laying hen 23 systems and its welfare and economic impacts are reviewed in the following paper. 24 Current methods for controlling feather pecking include beak-trimming and alterations to light regimes, but these methods have signi

  18. Study on Suitable Producing Areas of Wolfiporia extensa (Peck) Ginns by TCMGIS-Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen; WANG; Liang; DONG; Jiachun; LI; Wei; XIAO; Zhenzhong; WANG; Caixiang; XIE; Linfang; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Based on database of ecological factors and geographic information space analysis method, we analyzed suitability of Wolfiporia extensa (Peck) Ginns producing regions, in the hope of providing reference for scientific zoning and cultivation. Ecological factors we analyzed mainly include temperature, altitude, and soil. Our analysis shows that Hubei, Anhui, Yunnan, Guizhou and Sichuan provinces are regions that have highest similarity with original producing areas of Wolfiporia extensa (Peck) Ginns. This is basically consistent with actual conditions. In addition, we predicted some regions (for example, Gansu) that have not been recorded in literature, which provides scientific and reliable data support for seed introduction and expansion of Wolfiporia extensa (Peck) Ginns. Using the GIS-based program for the distribution prediction of traditional Chinese medicine (TCMGIS-II) to analyze suitability of Wolfiporia extensa (Peck) Ginns producing regions is scientific and accurate, and will provide important reference for seed introduction, cultivation and scientific zoning of Wolfiporia extensa (Peck) Ginns.

  19. Fort Peck Dam/Fort Peck Lake Master Plan with Integrated Programmatic Environmental Assessment, Missouri River, Montana: Update of Design Memorandum MFP-105D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    the time it was listed in 1975, including two cabins, a barn, a restaurant or hostel , a saloon, a well house, a stable, and a feed storage shed...continued promotion of accessible facilities, fishing tomnaments and other events. August 2008 page 2-87 Fort Peck Dam/Fort Peck Lake Master Plan...jurisdiction in a manner that will promote the safe and healthful use of these shorelines by the public although maintaining environmental safeguards to

  20. Adrenocortical reactivity and central serotonin and dopamine turnover in young chicks from a high and low feather-pecking line of laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hierden, YM; Korte, SM; Ruesink, EW; van Reenen, CG; Engel, B; Korte-Bouws, GAH; Koolhaas, JM; Blokhuis, HJ

    2002-01-01

    Feather pecking in domestic fowl is a behavioral abnormality that consists of mild or injurious pecking at feathers of conspecifics. Previously, it was shown that chicks from a high feather-pecking (HFP) and low feather-pecking (LFP) line of laying hens already differ in their propensity to feather

  1. Electricity Generation from Geothermal Resources on the Fort Peck Reservation in Northeast Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Garry J. [Gradient Geophysics Inc., Missoula, MT (United States); Birkby, Jeff [Birkby Consulting LLC, Missoula, MT (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Tribal lands owned by Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes on the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, located in Northeastern Montana, overlie large volumes of deep, hot, saline water. Our study area included all the Fort Peck Reservation occupying roughly 1,456 sq miles. The geothermal water present in the Fort Peck Reservation is located in the western part of the Williston Basin in the Madison Group complex ranging in depths of 5500 to 7500 feet. Although no surface hot springs exist on the Reservation, water temperatures within oil wells that intercept these geothermal resources in the Madison Formation range from 150 to 278 degrees F.

  2. COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOUR AND INTERGROUP AGGRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    - Faturochman

    2015-01-01

    Crowd phenomena has challenged social psychology for about a century, even early development of social psychology has been inspired by the crowd phenomena. LeBon’s (cited in Moscovici, 1986 ; Reicher, 1996) book, The Crowds A Study of the Popular Mind, has been described by social psychologists as the most popular book of all time. His theory asserts that individuals in the crowd lose their conscious personality and that will lead to impulsive actions. The other characteristics of the c...

  3. Analysis of Pecking Order Theory on Chinese Listed Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    初保驹; 林舒嫄

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the order of firms’ financing choices based on a sample consists of 150 Chinese listed companies. And it indicates that China’s listed companies did not follow the theoretical ‘Pecking Order’ (Myers,1984), but a ‘new order’- internal fund, equity, and debt - to make their financial choices. This is because firm’s gearing ratio and solvency did not show a high degree of correlation in China’s capital market, which leads to the preference of using equity. Besides, there are some other reasons: low cost of issuing equity, ineffective financial management, immaturity of capital market, not well developed bond market, and lack of an effective credit rating system.

  4. Narrative report: Fort Peck Game Range: January, February, March, April, 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1949. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  5. Fort Peck Game Range: Refuge narrative report: September, October, November, December 1953

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1953. The report begins by...

  6. Fort Peck Game Range: Refuge narrative report: January, February, March, April 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1952. The report begins by summarizing...

  7. Fort Peck Game Range: Refuge narrative report: May, June, July, August 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1949. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  8. Fort Peck Game Range: Refuge narrative report: September, October, November, December 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1950. The report begins by...

  9. Enrichment and aggression in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honess, P E; Marin, C M

    2006-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that primates housed under impoverished conditions develop behavioural abnormalities, including, in the most extreme example, self-harming behaviour. This has implications for all contexts in which primates are maintained in captivity from laboratories to zoos since by compromising the animals' psychological well-being and allowing them to develop behavioural abnormalities their value as appropriate educational and research models is diminished. This review examines the extensive body of literature documenting attempts to improve living conditions with a view to correcting behavioural abnormalities and housing primates in such a way that they are encouraged to exhibit a more natural range and proportion of behaviours, including less self-directed and social aggression. The results of housing, feeding, physical, sensory and social enrichment efforts are examined with specific focus on their effect on aggressive behaviour and variation in their use and efficacy. It is concluded that while inappropriate or poorly distributed enrichment may encourage aggressive competition, enrichment that is species, sex, age and background appropriate can dramatically reduce aggression, can eliminate abnormal behaviour and substantially improve the welfare of primates maintained in captivity.

  10. Aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Lindsay, W.R.; Lang, R.; Sigafoos, J.; Deb, S.; Wiersma, J.; Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Marschik, P.B.; O’Reilly, M.F.; Lancioni, G.E.

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is common in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs), and it is most often targeted for intervention. Psychological, contextual, and biological risk factors may contribute to the risk of aggressive behavior. Risk factors are gender (males), level of ID

  11. Signaling aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds.

  12. Fear and aggression in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzunova Krasimira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the concepts of fear, phobia and aggression in dogs were precisely defined, as well as their underlying causes. The behavioural activities specific for these conditions were indicated. The accompanying symptoms were consistently explained. The causes that the development of pathological fear leads to aggression in dogs as well as the ex various therapy options depending on the clinical signs were presented.

  13. Female alcohol consumption, motivations for aggression and aggressive incidents in licensed premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Michelle; Williams, Nikki; Caulfield, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Research into the relationship between alcohol and aggression has previously focused on men. However, in recent years there has been an increase in binge drinking and violent crime among women, behaviours which have been labelled 'ladette' culture in the UK. The current study advances the literature in this area by investigating the relationship between alcohol consumption and aggressive behaviour of females in licensed premises, including the type of aggression and motivations for aggressive incidents. Ninety-three female university students completed the Student Alcohol Questionnaire (SAQ; Engs, 2002), the Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) and a questionnaire developed to measure self-reported aggressive incidents. Females who had been involved in an aggressive incident reported spending more time on average in licensed premises per week and higher levels of aggression as well as consuming significantly more alcohol on the day of the incident than females who had not been involved in an aggressive incident. Contrary to expectations, however, those who had been involved in an aggressive incident did not report drinking more beer (a male-orientated drink) than those who had not. Verbally aggressive incidents were reported more than physically aggressive incidents, and aggression was commonly motivated by an emotional reaction or to address a grievance. The finding that average alcohol consumption per week was significantly associated with female aggression in licensed premises highlights the importance of developing interventions to reduce alcohol consumption among young females.

  14. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between feather pecking and open-field reponse in laying hens at two different ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Buitenhuis, A.J.; Ask, B.; Uitdehaag, K.A.; Koene, P.; Poel, van der J.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2004-01-01

    The object of this research was to study the relationship between feather pecking and open-field activity in laying hens at two different ages. A population of 550 birds of a laying hen cross was subjected to an open-field test at 5 and 29 weeks of age and to a social feather pecking test at 6 and 3

  15. Parental attitudes and aggression in the Emo subculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Chęć

    2016-02-01

    In the Emo subculture, teenagers’aggressive behaviour is related to improper parental attitudes. It has been stated that mother’s attitudes, irrespective of subculture, are much more strongly associated with the aggression among adolescents than father’s attitudes. Moreover, aggressive behaviour in the Emo subculture occurs when father displays an excessively demanding attitude. A reduction of the level of almost all kinds of aggression manifested among teenagers from the Emo subculture is associated with mothers’ attitude of acceptance. Mothers’ autonomous attitude leads to an increase in the aggression in this group, whereas an inconsistent attitude of mothers fosters an increase in aggression among all teenagers.

  16. A Screen-Peck Task for Investigating Cognitive Bias in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Amanda; Browne, William J; Hodge, James J L; Paul, Elizabeth S; Mendl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Affect-induced cognitive judgement biases occur in both humans and animals. Animals in a more negative affective state tend to interpret ambiguous cues more negatively than animals in a more positive state and vice versa. Investigating animals' responses to ambiguous cues can therefore be used as a proxy measure of affective state. We investigated laying hens' responses to ambiguous stimuli using a novel cognitive bias task. In the 'screen-peck' task, hens were trained to peck a high/low saturation orange circle presented on a computer screen (positive cue-P) to obtain a mealworm reward, and to not peck when the oppositely saturated orange circle was presented (negative cue-N) to avoid a one second air puff. Ambiguous cues were orange circles of intermediate saturation between the P and N cue (near-positive-NP; middle-M; near-negative-NN), and were unrewarded. Cue pecking showed a clear generalisation curve from P through NP, M, NN to N suggesting that hens were able to associate colour saturation with reward or punishment, and could discriminate between stimuli that were more or less similar to learnt cues. Across six test sessions, there was no evidence for extinction of pecking responses to ambiguous cues. We manipulated affective state by changing temperature during testing to either ~20°C or ~29°C in a repeated measures cross-over design. Hens have been shown to prefer temperatures in the higher range and hence we assumed that exposure to the higher temperature would induce a relatively positive affective state. Hens tested under warmer conditions were significantly more likely to peck the M probe than those tested at cooler temperatures suggesting that increased temperature in the ranges tested here may have some positive effect on hens, inducing a positive cognitive bias.

  17. A Screen-Peck Task for Investigating Cognitive Bias in Laying Hens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Deakin

    Full Text Available Affect-induced cognitive judgement biases occur in both humans and animals. Animals in a more negative affective state tend to interpret ambiguous cues more negatively than animals in a more positive state and vice versa. Investigating animals' responses to ambiguous cues can therefore be used as a proxy measure of affective state. We investigated laying hens' responses to ambiguous stimuli using a novel cognitive bias task. In the 'screen-peck' task, hens were trained to peck a high/low saturation orange circle presented on a computer screen (positive cue-P to obtain a mealworm reward, and to not peck when the oppositely saturated orange circle was presented (negative cue-N to avoid a one second air puff. Ambiguous cues were orange circles of intermediate saturation between the P and N cue (near-positive-NP; middle-M; near-negative-NN, and were unrewarded. Cue pecking showed a clear generalisation curve from P through NP, M, NN to N suggesting that hens were able to associate colour saturation with reward or punishment, and could discriminate between stimuli that were more or less similar to learnt cues. Across six test sessions, there was no evidence for extinction of pecking responses to ambiguous cues. We manipulated affective state by changing temperature during testing to either ~20°C or ~29°C in a repeated measures cross-over design. Hens have been shown to prefer temperatures in the higher range and hence we assumed that exposure to the higher temperature would induce a relatively positive affective state. Hens tested under warmer conditions were significantly more likely to peck the M probe than those tested at cooler temperatures suggesting that increased temperature in the ranges tested here may have some positive effect on hens, inducing a positive cognitive bias.

  18. Suicidality and aggression during antidepressant treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Tarang; Guski, Louise Schow; Freund, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study serious harms associated with selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors.Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality and suicidality. Secondary outcomes were aggressive behaviour and akathisia. DATA SOURCES: Clinical...

  19. High oxygen consumption rates and scale loss indicate elevated aggressive behaviour at low rearing density, while elevated brain serotonergic activity suggest chronic stress at high rearing densities in farmed rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Danielle Caroline; Silva, P.I.M.; Larsen, Bodil Katrine;

    2013-01-01

    of a previous study,where levels of crowding where determined using the spatial distribution of fish in two-tank systems. An un-crowded low density of 25 kg m−3, the highest density accepted by the fish without showing indications of crowding stress of 80 kg m−3 as the intermediate density, and the highest...... density accepted by the fish showing indications of crowding stress of 140 kg m−3 as the high density were investigated. The aimof the present study was to examine the effect of being held at these densities on indicators of welfare. This was achieved through oxygen consumption measurements using...... automated respirometry, recording fin erosion, determining scale loss and analysing plasma cortisol and brain serotonergic activity levels. The results obtained in the present study indicated that at the lowest density the fish had the space and opportunity to display their natural aggressive behaviour...

  20. Feather pecking in poultry: the application of science in a search for practical solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, R.B.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Jong, de I.C.; Keeling, L.J.; McAdie, T.M.; Preisinger, R.

    2004-01-01

    Traditional battery cages for laying hens will soon be banned in the EU but the increased risk of feather pecking (FP) hampers the adoption of alternative housing systems. FP can cause injury and lead to cannibalism and the painful death of target birds. Current management practices (beak trimming,

  1. The effect of optimized lighting conditions on feather pecking and production of laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, M.A.W.; Reuvekamp, B.F.J.; Gunnink, H.; Binnendijk, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    Verenpikken is één van de grootste problemen in de commerciële leghennenhouderij. Dit onderzoek bekijkt het effect van kunstlicht op het pikken van veren.Feather pecking is one of the major problems in commercially kept laying hens. The current research considers the relevance of colour of light in

  2. Differential gene expression in brain tissues of aggressive and non-aggressive dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tverdal Aage

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine behavioural problems, in particular aggression, are important reasons for euthanasia of otherwise healthy dogs. Aggressive behaviour in dogs also represents an animal welfare problem and a public threat. Elucidating the genetic background of adverse behaviour can provide valuable information to breeding programs and aid the development of drugs aimed at treating undesirable behaviour. With the intentions of identifying gene-specific expression in particular brain parts and comparing brains of aggressive and non-aggressive dogs, we studied amygdala, frontal cortex, hypothalamus and parietal cortex, as these tissues are reported to be involved in emotional reactions, including aggression. Based on quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR in 20 brains, obtained from 11 dogs euthanised because of aggressive behaviour and nine non-aggressive dogs, we studied expression of nine genes identified in an initial screening by subtraction hybridisation. Results This study describes differential expression of the UBE2V2 and ZNF227 genes in brains of aggressive and non-aggressive dogs. It also reports differential expression for eight of the studied genes across four different brain tissues (amygdala, frontal cortex, hypothalamus, and parietal cortex. Sex differences in transcription levels were detected for five of the nine studied genes. Conclusions The study showed significant differences in gene expression between brain compartments for most of the investigated genes. Increased expression of two genes was associated with the aggression phenotype. Although the UBE2V2 and ZNF227 genes have no known function in regulation of aggressive behaviour, this study contributes to preliminary data of differential gene expression in the canine brain and provides new information to be further explored.

  3. A Screen-Peck Task for Investigating Cognitive Bias in Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, William J.; Hodge, James J. L.; Paul, Elizabeth S.; Mendl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Affect-induced cognitive judgement biases occur in both humans and animals. Animals in a more negative affective state tend to interpret ambiguous cues more negatively than animals in a more positive state and vice versa. Investigating animals’ responses to ambiguous cues can therefore be used as a proxy measure of affective state. We investigated laying hens’ responses to ambiguous stimuli using a novel cognitive bias task. In the ‘screen-peck’ task, hens were trained to peck a high/low saturation orange circle presented on a computer screen (positive cue–P) to obtain a mealworm reward, and to not peck when the oppositely saturated orange circle was presented (negative cue–N) to avoid a one second air puff. Ambiguous cues were orange circles of intermediate saturation between the P and N cue (near-positive–NP; middle–M; near-negative–NN), and were unrewarded. Cue pecking showed a clear generalisation curve from P through NP, M, NN to N suggesting that hens were able to associate colour saturation with reward or punishment, and could discriminate between stimuli that were more or less similar to learnt cues. Across six test sessions, there was no evidence for extinction of pecking responses to ambiguous cues. We manipulated affective state by changing temperature during testing to either ~20°C or ~29°C in a repeated measures cross-over design. Hens have been shown to prefer temperatures in the higher range and hence we assumed that exposure to the higher temperature would induce a relatively positive affective state. Hens tested under warmer conditions were significantly more likely to peck the M probe than those tested at cooler temperatures suggesting that increased temperature in the ranges tested here may have some positive effect on hens, inducing a positive cognitive bias. PMID:27410229

  4. Effects of caudolateral neostriatal ablations on pain-related behaviour in the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentle, M J; Hunter, L N; Corr, S A

    1997-04-01

    As a measure of pain-related behaviour, beak guarding was investigated by recording the pecking response of adult chickens to a visually attractive stimulus before and after bilateral suction ablation of the caudolateral neostriatum (CLN). Two control groups of birds were used: a sham-operated group and an ablated group, in which the ablation was confined to the rostral dorsolateral telencephalon. Comparing the birds that had undergone ablation with the sham-operated controls showed that the ablation did not affect pecking behaviour. Five days after ablation, all birds were subjected to partial amputation of one third of the beak. A significant reduction in pecking behaviour (beak-guarding) was observed in both control groups, but was not observed in those birds that had previously received CLN ablations. In a second experiment, where beak amputation preceeded CLN ablation by 6 days, ablation did not affect the reduced pecking. The absence of guarding or other pain-related behaviours would indicate that an intact CLN was necessary for these behaviours to develop but, once they had developed, ablation had no effect.

  5. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  6. Lateralized loss of biting attack-patterned reflexes following induction of contralateral sensory neglect in the cat: a possible role for the striatum in centrally elicited aggressive behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandler, R; Halliday, R

    1982-06-17

    A syndrome of "contralateral sensory neglect' was induced by hypothalamic knife cuts in 6 of 10 cats in which quiet biting attack behaviour could be elicited by lateral hypothalamic stimulation. The contralateral sensory neglect in the 6 affected cats was accompanied by a loss on the "neglected' side of the body of the patterned reflexes which mediate positioning of the head to bite and the jaw-opening component of biting. As a result, when these cats were stimulated in the lateral hypothalamus, although they continued to approach and even make tactile contact with the rat, they generally failed to bite it. Analysis of the histological and behavioural data suggested that damage to the nigrostriatal and/or striato/pallidonigral fibre systems provided the likely basis for both the induction of the contralateral sensory neglect and the lateralized patterned reflex loss. It was suggested, with respect to these specific patterned reflex components of the attack, that an important contribution may be made by the striatum.

  7. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  8. [Aggressive fibromatoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döhler, J R; Hamelmann, H; Lasson, U

    1984-03-01

    Benign by nature, aggressive fibromatoses (desmoid fibromas) may represent as difficult therapeutic problems as malignant tumours. When subtotally resected they tend to recur. But spontaneous regression is possible. Expense and limits of their surgical treatment are discussed with reference to seven patients. In five cases primary affliction of bone was evident. There are three reports given in detail: In the first, malignant transformation may be due to radiation therapy and hemipelvectomy could not prevent recurrence. In the second, spontaneous regression of untreated pelvic affection may have occurred. In the third, several resections and amputation of the leg failed to cure congenital infantile fibromatosis.

  9. The examination of signaling theory versus pecking order theory: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Mahdavi Sabet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the explanatory power of leverage and cash flows in future cash flow prediction in Tehran Stock Exchange by considering Signaling Theory and Pecking Order Theory. Based on theoretical foundations, the regression models of leverage and cash flow with a set of control variables was developed. Statistical samples consist of companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2005- 2011. The results show that there was a negative relationship between cash flow and leverage levels in contemporary time. This is consistent with pecking order behavior. While at intertemporer level, there was a positive relationship between current leverage and the firm's cash flows in the future. This is consistent with signaling theory.

  10. Construction Foundation Report. Missouri River, Fort Peck, Montana. Volume 2. Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    tesswroad ihcn ing them In a pcn filled to the overflow stent strain loading, the load being applied contin- ry end weighing the mercury displaced. uously...Ax’s 10000 to-PD -00 SECTION -STA 35400 MPI .4" . 0 PUT 2,50 --- ---- T --2 -- -0 96 63 04 1965 loss 967 1966 lS _-r IL&--4mlaitwrw? K 4-- FORT PECK LAKL

  11. The role of contingencies and “principles of behavioral variation” in pigeons' pecking

    OpenAIRE

    Fenner, Douglas

    1980-01-01

    Staddon and Simmelhag's proposal that behavior is produced by “principles of behavioral variation” instead of contingencies of reinforcement was tested in two experiments. In the first experiment pigeons were exposed to either a fixed-interval schedule of response-contingent reinforcement, an autoshaping schedule of stimulus-contingent reinforcement, or a fixed-time schedule of noncontingent reinforcement. Pigeons exposed to contingent reinforcement came to peck more rapidly than those expose...

  12. Estrutura de capital: uma exploração preliminar da abordagem pecking order no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, António Augusto Negreiros Vaz Simões

    1995-01-01

    Este trabalho tem por objetivo, essencialmente, estudar um dos modelos que procuram explicar as políticas de concepção de estrutura de capital. Embora já usado em 1961 por Donaldson, o termo pecking order rotula um modelo criado em 1984 por stwart Myers e Nicholas Majluf, segundo o qual as empresas, procuram financiar seus novos investimentos dando prioridade aos recursos internamente gerados e, uma vez esgotados estes, aderem ao uso de instrumentos de financiamento ex...

  13. Affective Dependence and Aggression: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Petruccelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Emotionally dependent subjects may engage in controlling, restrictive, and aggressive behaviours, which limit their partner’s autonomy. The underlying causes of such behaviours are not solely based on levels of aggression, but act as a mean of maintaining the subject’s own sense of self-worth, identity, and general functioning. Objective. The aim of the paper is to explore the correlation between affective dependency and reactive/proactive aggression and to evaluate individual differences as predisposing factors for aggressive behaviour and emotional dependency. Methods. The Spouse-Specific Dependency Scale (SSDS and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ were administered to a sample of 3375 subjects. Results. In the whole sample, a positive correlation between emotional dependency and proactive aggression was identified. Differences with regard to sex, age group, and geographical distribution were evidenced for the scores of the different scales. Conclusion. A fundamental distinction between reactive and proactive aggression was observed, anchoring proactive aggression more strictly to emotional dependency. Sociocultural and demographical variables, together with the previous structuring of attachment styles, help to determine the scope, frequency, and intensity of the demands made to the partner, as well as to feed the fears of loss, abandonment, or betrayal.

  14. Parenting Practices and the Early Socialisation of Relational Aggression among Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Boxer, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines parents' responses to their young children's relationally aggressive behaviour and compares these with the responses regarding children's overtly aggressive behaviour. Parents' beliefs about discipline strategies for addressing relational versus overt aggression at home and at school are also examined. Additionally,…

  15. The onset of pain related behaviours following partial beak amputation in the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentle, M J; Hunter, L N; Waddington, D

    1991-07-08

    The number of pecks delivered by birds to an attractive visual stimulus was measured before and again 6, 26 and 32 h after partial beak amputation. There was a significant reduction in the number of pecks by birds 26 h after amputation but not at 6 h after. This reduction was considered to be a quantitative measure of pain related guarding behaviour. The results indicated the presence of a pain-free period immediately following amputation which may last in some birds for as long as 26 h.

  16. Differences in intestinal microbial metabolites in laying hens with high and low levels of repetitive feather-pecking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Beatrice; Zentek, Jürgen; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra

    2013-02-17

    Feather pecking in laying hens is a serious behavioral problem and is often associated with feather eating. There is some evidence that ingested feathers affect gut function. The aim of the present study was to explore whether differences in intestinal microbial metabolites in laying hens with high and low levels of repetitive feather-pecking behavior exist. Sixty high feather-pecking birds (H) and sixty low feather-pecking birds (L) of the White Leghorn breed were used for behavioral recordings of feather pecking. Feather pecking activity was observed for 5 weeks, after which 22 H birds with the highest and 22 L birds with the lowest feather pecking activity were chosen. The number of whole feathers and feather parts in the gizzard and intestinal microbial metabolites in the ileum and ceca of these laying hens was examined. Biogenic amines, short-chain fatty acids, ammonia and lactate were measured as microbial metabolites. A higher number of feather parts and particles were found in H than in L birds. Putrescine and cadaverine concentrations were higher in the ileum of the hens with low pecking activity (P<0.001 and P=0.012). In the cecum the amounts of l-lactate, d-lactate and total lactate and SCFA were higher in H birds (P=0.007, P=0.005, P=0.006, and P<0.001). Acetate, i-butyrate, i-valeriate and n-valeriate all displayed significantly higher molar ratios in the cecal contents of L birds (P=0.001, P=0.003, P=0.001, and P<0.001). Propionate and n-butyrate showed higher molar ratios in H birds (P<0.001 and P=0.034). Ammonia was higher in the ileum and cecum of the L birds (P<0.001 and P=0.004). For the first time, this study shows that birds with high and low numbers of repetitive pecking movements to the plumage of other birds differ in their intestinal microbial metabolism. Further experiments should be conducted to investigate whether these differences alter behavior in H and L feather pecking birds. The present results, however, open new avenues of research

  17. Feather-pecking response of laying hens to feather and cellulose-based rations fed during rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegseis, I; Bessei, W; Meyer, B; Zentek, J; Würbel, H; Harlander-Matauschek, A

    2012-07-01

    Recent studies in laying hens have shown that feather peckers eat more feathers than nonpeckers. We hypothesized that food pellets containing feathers would decrease the birds' appetite for feathers and thereby also decrease feather pecking. To separate the effect of feathers from that of insoluble fiber per se, additional control groups were fed pellets containing similar amounts of cellulose. Sixty (experiment 1) and 180 (experiment 2) 1-d-old Lohmann-Selected Leghorn birds were divided into 12 groups of 5 (experiment 1) and 15 (experiment 2) birds, respectively, and kept on slatted floors. During the rearing period, 4 groups each had ad libitum access to either a commercial pelleted diet, a pelleted diet containing 5% (experiment 1) or 10% (experiment 2) of chopped feathers, respectively, or a pelleted diet containing 5% (experiment 1) or 10% (experiment 2) of cellulose, respectively. In the consecutive laying period, all groups received a commercial pelleted diet. In experiment 1, feather pecking was recorded weekly from wk 5 to wk 16. In the laying period, observations were made in wk 18, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, and 30. In experiment 2, feather pecking was recorded weekly from wk 5 to 11, in wk 16 to wk 18, and in wk 20 and 21. At the end of the rearing period, plumage condition per individual hen was scored. Scores from 1 (denuded) to 4 (intact) were given for each of 6 body parts. The addition of 10% of feathers to the diet reduced the number of severe feather-pecking bouts (P < 0.0129) and improved plumage condition of the back area (P < 0.001) significantly compared with control diets. The relationship between feather pecking/eating and the gastrointestinal consequences thereof, which alter feather pecking-behavior, are unclear. Understanding this relationship might be crucial for understanding the causation of feather pecking in laying hens.

  18. Attachment patterns and aggressive behaviours in adolescents suffering from mixed disorders of conduct and emotions [Wzory przywiązania i zachowania agresywne wśród młodzieży z diagnozą zaburzeń zachowania i emocji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iniewicz, Grzegorz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The paper presents results of research concerning attachment patterns and aggressive behaviours in adolescents suffering from mixed disorders of conduct and emotions.Method. Both the clinical and the control group completed Parental Bonding Instrument and Polish version of Buss-Durkee Inventory. The first questionnaire measures parental style as perceived by the child, it consists of two scales: care and control. The second one measures some dimensions of aggression.Results. The study revealed that adolescents from the clinical group perceive their parents as less protective than the control. It showed very weak relations between relations with the parents and expression of aggression. These results are discussed.Conclusions. The basic conclusion is that there are differences between groups in family functioning – adolescents from the clinical group received less protection from their parents what may influence their behaviours aimed at providing them more safety. Results concerning the relation between family relations and aggression indicate that future research must take into consideration other social relations of adolescents.

  19. Aggression and anxiety: social context and neurobiological links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga D Neumann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathologies such as anxiety- and depression-related disorders are often characterized by impaired social behaviours including excessive aggression and violence. Excessive aggression and violence likely develop as a consequence of generally disturbed emotional regulation, such as abnormally high or low levels of anxiety. This suggests an overlap between brain circuitries and neurochemical systems regulating aggression and anxiety. In this review, we will discuss different forms of male aggression, rodent models of excessive aggression, and neurobiological mechanisms underlying male aggression in the context of anxiety. We will summarize our attempts to establish an animal model of high and abnormal aggression using rats selected for high (HAB versus low (LAB anxiety-related behaviour. Briefly, male LAB rats and, to a lesser extent, male HAB rats show high and abnormal forms of aggression compared with non-selected (NAB rats, making them a suitable animal model for studying excessive aggression in the context of extremes in innate anxiety. In addition, we will discuss differences in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, brain arginine vasopressin, and the serotonin systems, among others, which contribute to the distinct behavioural phenotypes related to aggression and anxiety. Further investigation of the neurobiological systems in animals with distinct anxiety phenotypes might provide valuable information about the link between excessive aggression and disturbed emotional regulation, which is essential for understanding the social and emotional deficits that are characteristic of many human psychiatric disorders.

  20. Aggression and Risk of Future Violence in Forensic Psychiatric Patients with and without Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenius, Heidi; Hellstrom, Ake; Belfrage, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Dyslexia does not cause criminal behaviour, but it may worsen aggressive behaviour tendencies. In this study, aggressive behaviour and risk of future violence were compared between forensic psychiatric patients with and without dyslexia. Dyslexia was assessed using the Swedish phonological processing battery "The Pigeon". The patients filled in…

  1. Aggression and Risk of Future Violence in Forensic Psychiatric Patients with and without Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenius, Heidi; Hellstrom, Ake; Belfrage, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Dyslexia does not cause criminal behaviour, but it may worsen aggressive behaviour tendencies. In this study, aggressive behaviour and risk of future violence were compared between forensic psychiatric patients with and without dyslexia. Dyslexia was assessed using the Swedish phonological processing battery "The Pigeon". The patients…

  2. Chicks prefer to peck at insect-like elongated stimuli moving in a direction orthogonal to their longer axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, Elena; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Rogers, Lesley J

    2009-11-01

    Spontaneous preferences towards possible prey have been little investigated using targets in motion. Preferences of domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) to peck at video-images of stimuli representing live insects moving along their longer body axis (i.e. "forwards") or along the shorter body axis (i.e. "sideways") were investigated. Chicks presented with both types of stimulus displayed a significant preference for pecking at stimuli moving sideways. This preference was already present on day 1 post-hatching, and it strengthened on day 6 for those chicks that had experienced pecking at live insects. Head angles used to fixate the stimuli prior to pecking were also analysed and were consistent (i.e. 30 degrees -35 degrees and 60 degrees -65 degrees ) with those reported for fixation of non-edible targets (larger stimuli at a distance). In a first control experiment the same video-presented stimuli were used but the insect's legs were removed to reduce flickering. In a second control experiment, paper-printed images of the whole insect were used. In both cases, the sideways direction of movement was clearly preferred. Overall, our data show that chicks have a spontaneous preference to peck at video-images resembling live insects moving along their shorter body axis. Sideways movement may constitute a crucial signal attracting chicks' attention and enhancing predatory responses possibly because of stronger stimulation of motion detectors.

  3. Lateralisation of aggressive displays in a tephritid fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Romano, Donato; Stefanini, Cesare; Messing, Russell H.; Canale, Angelo

    2015-02-01

    Lateralisation (i.e. different functional and/or structural specialisations of the left and right sides of the brain) of aggression has been examined in several vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. In this study, we investigated lateralisation of aggressive displays (boxing with forelegs and wing strikes) in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. We attempted to answer the following questions: (1) do medflies show lateralisation of aggressive displays at the population-level; (2) are there sex differences in lateralisation of aggressive displays; and (3) does lateralisation of aggression enhance fighting success? Results showed left-biased population-level lateralisation of aggressive displays, with no consistent differences among sexes. In both male-male and female-female conflicts, aggressive behaviours performed with left body parts led to greater fighting success than those performed with right body parts. As we found left-biased preferential use of body parts for both wing strikes and boxing, we predicted that the left foreleg/wing is quicker in exploring/striking than the right one. We characterised wing strike and boxing using high-speed videos, calculating mean velocity of aggressive displays. For both sexes, aggressive displays that led to success were faster than unsuccessful ones. However, left wing/legs were not faster than right ones while performing aggressive acts. Further research is needed on proximate causes allowing enhanced fighting success of lateralised aggressive behaviour. This is the first report supporting the adaptive role of lateralisation of aggressive displays in insects.

  4. The impact of social desirability on psychometric measures of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil-Colet, Andreu; Ruiz-Pamies, Mireia; Anguiano-Carrasco, Cristina; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2012-05-01

    Although many studies have focused on the effects of social desirability in personality measures, few have analysed its effects on such highly undesirable behaviour as aggressiveness. The present study analyzes the impact of social desirability on measures of direct and indirect aggression and on the relationships between both kinds of aggression with impulsivity, using a method that enables the content factors of the measures to be isolated from social desirability. Results showed that aggression measures are highly affected by social desirability and that the relationships between the two forms of aggression and impulsivity are due to the content measured by the tests and not to a common social desirability factor.

  5. Traumatic endophthalmitis following a crane pecking injury – An unusual mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran, Prabu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of beta-hemolytic streptococcal endophthalmitis following crane-pecking injury.Case Report: A twelve-year-old boy was brought to us by his father with history of crane beak injury in his right eye. On examination, his vision was 6/24 Snellen’s acuity. Anterior segment examination showed a full thickness two mm corneo-limbal tear at 1 o’clock with iris prolapse. Pupil showed peaking through the wound with a clear crystalline lens. There was no evidence of hypopyon in the anterior chamber and B-scan ultrasonography showed acoustically clear vitreous with an attached retina. Left eye was within normal limits. Primary corneo-limbal tear repair was performed within 24 hours from the time of presentation. Intra-operatively, the corneal surgeon noted turbid aqueous with minimal hypopyon. In view of clinical suspicion of infection, an intravitreal tap for culture was taken during the primary repair, and prophylactic intravitreal antibiotics were given. The culture report showed beta-hemolytic streptococci. Pars plana vitrectomy with intravitreal antibiotics was performed after 2 days as serial ultrasound scans showed appearance and worsening of endophthalmitis. A month after the surgery, his best corrected visual acuity improved to 6/12.Conclusion: Ocular injuries resulting from bird pecking are very rare. We treated a case of full thickness corneo-limbal tear with endophthalmitis caused by beta-hemolytic streptococci following a crane-pecking injury. We recommend that injecting intravitreal antibiotics along with primary globe repair in case of severe/contaminated injuries and early pars plana core-vitrectomy would result in better outcome like in our case.

  6. Feather eating in individually caged hens which differ in their propensity to feather peck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeegan, D E.F.; Savory, C J.

    2001-07-28

    Two experiments examined the responses of 16 individually caged laying hens to the presentation of feathers plucked from dead birds of the same genetic line. In the first experiment, hens known from a previous experiment to be either feather 'peckers' or 'non-peckers' (8 of each) were tested for their propensity to eat feathers in four 10min trials, in which they were offered fresh semiplumes measuring 4-6cm (length), one at a time, in front of their cage. Wide variation between birds was observed in numbers of feathers eaten, pecked, picked-up and manipulated. Fourteen out of 16 birds readily ate presented feathers on one or more occasion and both birds that ate no feathers were non-peckers. Peckers ate, picked-up and manipulated feathers significantly more often than did non-peckers (P<0.05, P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively). A second experiment investigated the possibility that presence of preen (uropygial) oil might contribute to the attractiveness of feathers to eat. The same group of 16 pecker and non-pecker hens were offered a choice between 20 washed and 20 unwashed semiplumes, presented simultaneously in separate containers, in two 10min trials. Unwashed feathers were eaten, pecked and picked-up in preference to washed feathers by both peckers and non-peckers (P<0.05, P<0.01, and P<0.01, respectively), indicating an attraction towards unwashed feathers, or an avoidance of washed feathers for some reason. Peckers and non-peckers did not differ significantly in their preferences. These results provide evidence of a relationship between feather eating and feather pecking at an individual level. The finding that hens could distinguish between normal feathers and those treated in such a way as to alter their olfactory (but not visual) properties suggests olfactory cues may be of importance in determining the attractiveness of conspecific feathers.

  7. The Fragility of Individual-Based Explanations of Social Hierarchies: A Test Using Animal Pecking Orders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan D Chase

    Full Text Available The standard approach in accounting for hierarchical differentiation in biology and the social sciences considers a hierarchy as a static distribution of individuals possessing differing amounts of some valued commodity, assumes that the hierarchy is generated by micro-level processes involving individuals, and attempts to reverse engineer the processes that produced the hierarchy. However, sufficient experimental and analytical results are available to evaluate this standard approach in the case of animal dominance hierarchies (pecking orders. Our evaluation using evidence from hierarchy formation in small groups of both hens and cichlid fish reveals significant deficiencies in the three tenets of the standard approach in accounting for the organization of dominance hierarchies. In consequence, we suggest that a new approach is needed to explain the organization of pecking orders and, very possibly, by implication, for other kinds of social hierarchies. We develop an example of such an approach that considers dominance hierarchies to be dynamic networks, uses dynamic sequences of interaction (dynamic network motifs to explain the organization of dominance hierarchies, and derives these dynamic sequences directly from observation of hierarchy formation. We test this dynamical explanation using computer simulation and find a good fit with actual dynamics of hierarchy formation in small groups of hens. We hypothesize that the same dynamic sequences are used in small groups of many other animal species forming pecking orders, and we discuss the data required to evaluate our hypothesis. Finally, we briefly consider how our dynamic approach may be generalized to other kinds of social hierarchies using the example of the distribution of empty gastropod (snail shells occupied in populations of hermit crabs.

  8. The Fragility of Individual-Based Explanations of Social Hierarchies: A Test Using Animal Pecking Orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Ivan D; Lindquist, W Brent

    2016-01-01

    The standard approach in accounting for hierarchical differentiation in biology and the social sciences considers a hierarchy as a static distribution of individuals possessing differing amounts of some valued commodity, assumes that the hierarchy is generated by micro-level processes involving individuals, and attempts to reverse engineer the processes that produced the hierarchy. However, sufficient experimental and analytical results are available to evaluate this standard approach in the case of animal dominance hierarchies (pecking orders). Our evaluation using evidence from hierarchy formation in small groups of both hens and cichlid fish reveals significant deficiencies in the three tenets of the standard approach in accounting for the organization of dominance hierarchies. In consequence, we suggest that a new approach is needed to explain the organization of pecking orders and, very possibly, by implication, for other kinds of social hierarchies. We develop an example of such an approach that considers dominance hierarchies to be dynamic networks, uses dynamic sequences of interaction (dynamic network motifs) to explain the organization of dominance hierarchies, and derives these dynamic sequences directly from observation of hierarchy formation. We test this dynamical explanation using computer simulation and find a good fit with actual dynamics of hierarchy formation in small groups of hens. We hypothesize that the same dynamic sequences are used in small groups of many other animal species forming pecking orders, and we discuss the data required to evaluate our hypothesis. Finally, we briefly consider how our dynamic approach may be generalized to other kinds of social hierarchies using the example of the distribution of empty gastropod (snail) shells occupied in populations of hermit crabs.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF HYDROCARBON SEEPAGE DETECTION METHODS ON THE FORT PECK RESERVATION, NORTHEAST MONTANA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence M. Monson

    2003-06-30

    Surface exploration techniques have been employed in separate study areas on the Fort Peck Reservation in northeastern Montana. Anomalies associated with hydrocarbon seepage are documented in all three areas and a variety of surface exploration techniques can be compared. In a small area with established production, Head Gas and Thermal Desorption methods best match production; other methods also map depletion. In a moderate-size area that has prospects defined by 3D seismic data, Head Gas along with Microbial, Iodine, and Eh soil anomalies are all associated with the best hydrocarbon prospect. In a large area that contains many curvilinear patterns observed on Landsat images, that could represent micro-seepage chimneys, results are inconclusive. Reconnaissance mapping using Magnetic Susceptibility has identified a potential prospect; subsequent Soil Gas and Head Gas surveys suggest hydrocarbon potential. In the final year of this project the principle contractor, the Fort Peck Tribes, completed a second survey in the Wicape 3D Seismic Prospect Area (also known as Area 6 in Phase I of the project) and sampled several Landsat image features contained in the Smoke Creek Aeromag Anomaly Area (also known as Area 1 in Phase II of the project). Methods determined to be most useful in Phases I and II, were employed in this final Phase III of the study. The Southwest Wicape seismic anomaly was only partially confirmed. The abundant curvilinears proposed to be possible hydrocarbon micro-seepage chimneys in the Smoke Creek Area were not conclusively verified as such. Insufficient sampling of background data precludes affirmative identification of these mostly topographic Landsat features as gas induced soil and vegetation anomalies. However relatively higher light gas concentrations were found associated with some of the curvilinears. Based on the findings of this work the Assiniboine & Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck Reservation intend to utilize surface hydrocarbon

  10. Effects of feather pecking phenotype (severe feather peckers, victims and non-peckers) on serotonergic and dopaminergic activity in four brain areas of laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kops, M.S.; Haas, de E.N.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Ellen, E.D.; Korte-Bouws, G.A.H.; Olivier, B.; Güntürkün, O.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Korte, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in laying hens is a detrimental behavior causing loss of feathers, skin damage and cannibalism. Previously, we have associated changes in frontal brain serotonin (5-HT) turnover and dopamine (DA) turnover with alterations in feather pecking behavior in young pullets (28–

  11. A bespoke management package can reduce levels of injurious pecking in loose-housed laying hen flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambton, S L; Nicol, C J; Friel, M; Main, D C J; McKinstry, J L; Sherwin, C M; Walton, J; Weeks, C A

    2013-04-20

    This study investigated the protective effects of an on-farm management package designed to reduce injurious pecking (IP) in loose-housed laying hens. A systematic review of scientific literature generated 46 potentially protective management strategies. Bespoke management packages were designed for treatment flocks (TF) using these management strategies. IP in 53 TFs was compared with IP in 47 control flocks (CF) where the management package was not employed. Scoring of plumage damage (PD) and observations of gentle and severe feather pecking (GFP; SFP), and vent and cannibalistic pecking (VP) were completed, and management strategy use was recorded, at 20, 30 and 40 weeks of age. Differences between treatment and CF were examined using multilevel modelling. Compared with CF, TF employed more management strategies (Playing hen flocks.

  12. Neuroendocrine control of maternal behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Caughey, Sarah Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Maternal behaviour during the peri-partum period, albeit in differing forms, can be observed in all mammals, thus it must serve an important evolutionary purpose in enabling the successful raising of offspring. Maternal behaviour is comprised of a large suite of behaviours; in rodents these are generally defined as lactation, pup retrieval, maternal aggression and pup grooming. The maternal behaviour circuitry involves many brain regions including the hypothalamus and the limbi...

  13. Inpatient verbal aggression: content, targets and patient characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, D; Bowers, L

    2013-04-01

    Verbally aggressive behaviour on psychiatric wards is more common than physical violence and can have distressing consequences for the staff and patients who are subjected to it. Previous research has tended to examine incidents of verbal aggression in little detail, instead combining different types of aggressive behaviour into a single measure. This study recruited 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards. Data were collected from nursing and medical records for the first 2 weeks of admission. Incidents of verbal aggression were categorized and associations with patient characteristics examined. There were 1398 incidents of verbal aggression in total, reported for half the sample. Types of verbal aggression were, in order of prevalence: abusive language, shouting, threats, expressions of anger and racist comments. There were also a large number of entries in the notes which did not specify the form of verbal aggression. Staff members were the most frequent target of aggression. A history of violence and previous drug use were consistently associated with verbal aggression. However, there were also some notable differences in patient variables associated with specific types of verbal aggression. Future studies should consider using multidimensional measures of verbal aggression.

  14. Patient aggression in clinical psychiatry: perceptions of mental health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, E J; Goossens, P J J; Steenhuis, I H M; Oud, N E

    2008-08-01

    Mental health nurses are faced with an increasing number of aggressive incidents during their daily practice. The coercive intervention of seclusion is often used to manage patient aggression in the Netherlands. However, GGZ Nederland, the Dutch association of service providers for mental health and addition care, has initiated a project to decrease the number of seclusions in clinical psychiatry. A first step in this project is to gain insight into the current situation: the perceived prevalence of patient aggression, the attitudes of mental health nurses towards patient aggression and those socio-demographic and psychosocial factors that contribute to the use of coercive interventions. A survey was undertaken among 113 nurses from six closed and semi-closed wards. In this survey, two questionnaires were used: (1) the Attitude Toward Aggression Scale; and (2) the Perceptions of the Prevalence of Aggression Scale. Variables derived from the Theory of Planned Behaviour were also measured. Nurses reported being regularly confronted with aggression in general and mostly with non-threatening verbal aggression. They perceived patient aggression as being destructive or offensive and not serving a protective or communicative function. The nurses generally perceived themselves as having control over patient behaviour (i.e. considerable self-efficacy) and reported considerable social support from colleagues. Although the nurses in this study were frequently confronted with aggression, they did not experience the aggression as a major problem.

  15. Violent images, anger and physical aggression among male forensic inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Stine Bjerrum; Gondan, Matthias; Novaco, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    the follow-up period. Imagined violence and trauma-related intrusions separately contributed to anger and aggressive behaviour. Conclusions. The study calls attention to violent images as an important variable involved in aggressive responding. The role of violent images as a mediator of the well......Purpose. The present study of forensic hospital patients examined whether their imagination of violence is related to self-reported anger, psychological distress, and to staff observations of aggressive behaviour in hospital. In view of the relevance of psychological trauma for anger and aggression......, we further investigate whether the associations of imagined violence to anger and aggression are stronger when the patient has trauma-related intrusion symptoms. Methods. Participating male forensic inpatients (N = 54) were individually tested and followed-up for five months. Aggressive episodes were...

  16. Manifestation and coping aggressiveness in the pre-school age

    OpenAIRE

    Hrbková, Jana

    2008-01-01

    Bachelor thesis occupies with manifestation of aggressive behaviour in kindergartens and designs ways how to prevent their implications. Theoretical part is about aggressiveness as a problem of present society with accent to the pre-school and primary school age, to its manifestations, implications and presumption to its coping. Practical part contains observation of aggressiveness in the kindergarten by pre-school teachers, development is made as a question {--} form. It contains games and a...

  17. TRADE-OFF VERSUS PECKING ORDER THEORY IN LISTED COMPANIES AROUND THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORANA VĂTAVU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an insight into the literature on capital structure and its determinants. The capital structure refers to the specific combination of debt and equity and their use in financing the corporate operations. Considering there are various determinants of corporate financing patters, many theories have been developed over time. From Modigliani and Miller theory, which was the first to examine the impact of capital structure on firm value, the trade-off theory and the pecking order theory are probably the most influential theories of corporate finance. The paper reveals the main financial indicators that have a significant impact on the capital structure of companies operating in both developed and under-developed financial markets. According to the particular preference for a capital structure theory, researchers showed that asset tangibility, profitability and tax shield are significant in the trade-off theory while in the pecking-order theory, the most influential factors are long-term profitability and investment opportunities. Regardless the presumed theory, most studies found firm size as essential to financing decisions.

  18. Aggression on Haemodialysis units: a mixed methods study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, J.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Ross, J.; Ashman, N.; Callaghan, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Aggression on haemodialysis units is a growing problem internationally that has received little research attention to date. Aggressive behaviour by patients or their relatives can compromise the safety and well-being of staff and other patients sharing a haemodialysis session. Objectives

  19. The Psychobiology of Aggression and Violence: Bioethical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Jose Luis

    2010-01-01

    Bioethics is concerned with the moral aspects of biology and medicine. The bioethical relevance of aggression and violence is clear, as very different moral and legal responsibilities may apply depending on whether aggression and violence are forms of behaviour that are innate or acquired, deliberate or automatic or not, or understandable and…

  20. Priming effect and pre-exposure aggression in Siamese fighting fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertucci, Frédéric; Matos, Ricardo Jorge Santa Clara; Dabelsteen, Torben

    aggressively during subsequent disputes. This phenomenon is known as aggressive priming. The aim of our study was to investigate if this priming response follows a step function, i.e. appears only above a threshold level of aggression witnessed by a bystander. We found that bystanders behaved more aggressively...... that individuals alter their behaviour in an aggressive social environment and indicate that priming effect follows a step function where aggression is triggered by an aggressive context. We discuss our results and the effect of pre-exposure on agonistic interactions in a communication network perspective....

  1. Altered Circulating Levels of Serotonin and Immunological Changes in Laying Hens Divergently Selected for Feather Pecking Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Kjaer, Jørgen B.; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in immunological parameters as well as changes with respect to plasma levels of serotonin and tryptophan in lines selected for and against feather pecking (FP) behavior [high FP (HP) line and low FP (LP) line] for 5 generations. The hens from...

  2. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between feather pecking behavior, stress response, immune reponse, and egg quality traits in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenhuis, A.J.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Wissink, P.H.; Visscher, J.; Koene, P.; Bovenhuis, H.; Ducro, B.J.; Poel, van der J.J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic correlations among feather pecking (FP) behavior and stress response, immune response, and egg quality parameters. These traits have been measured in an F-2 cross, coming from a cross between a high and a low FP line of laying

  3. Aggression in Psychiatric Wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidhjelm, Jacob; Sestoft, Dorte; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2016-01-01

    Health care workers are often exposed to violence and aggression in psychiatric settings. Short-term risk assessments, such as the Brøset Violence Checklist (BVC), are strong predictors of such aggression and may enable staff to take preventive measures against aggression. This study evaluated...

  4. An international comparative study on the reliability and validity of the attitudes towards aggression scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, GJ; Middel, B; Dassen, TWN

    2005-01-01

    One of the factors known to be associated with the management of patient aggression is the attitude of staff members towards the aggressive behaviour of patients. The construct validity of an instrument measuring the attitudes of staff towards inpatient aggression in psychiatry was evaluated in this

  5. Modulation of aggression in male mice : Influence of cage cleaning regime and scent marks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loo, PLP; Kruitwagen, CLJJ; Van Zutphen, LFM; Koolhaas, JM; Baumans, [No Value

    2000-01-01

    Group housing of male laboratory mice often leads to welfare problems due to aggressive behaviour. From a welfare perspective, individual housing is not a preferred solution to these problems - and so we sought other ways of reducing aggression between male mice. Aggression peaks after disturbances

  6. Shifting impairment and aggression in intellectual disability and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, E.M.; Berger, H.J.C.; Prins, J.B.; Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H.M.J. van; Teunisse, J.P.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behaviour is a major problem in individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) as well as in individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). There are indications that suggest a link between cognitive shifting and aggression. In this study, reports of aggressive incidents of adolesc

  7. Do human females use indirect aggression as an intrasexual competition strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Indirect aggression includes behaviours such as criticizing a competitor's appearance, spreading rumours about a person's sexual behaviour and social exclusion. Human females have a particular proclivity for using indirect aggression, which is typically directed at other females, especially attractive and sexually available females, in the context of intrasexual competition for mates. Indirect aggression is an effective intrasexual competition strategy. It is associated with a diminished willingness to compete on the part of victims and with greater dating and sexual behaviour among those who perpetrate the aggression.

  8. Motivational and situational factors and the relationship between testosterone dynamics and human aggression during competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Justin M; Gilchrist, Jenna D; Morrissey, Mark D; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2010-05-01

    Men engage in aggression at a cost to extrinsic reward, and this behaviour is associated with a rise in testosterone. To characterize the factors underlying aggression, men were assigned to one of the four experimental conditions of a computer game in which they were provoked (points were stolen from them or not) and/or received reward for aggression (received points for aggression or not). Men who were provoked but did not receive reward for aggression enjoyed the task the most, demonstrated an increase in salivary testosterone, and were more likely to choose a competitive versus non-competitive task than men in the other experimental conditions. Moreover, individual differences in aggressive behaviour among these men were positively correlated with the extent to which they enjoyed the task and with testosterone fluctuations. These results indicate that costly aggressive behaviour is intrinsically rewarding, perhaps to regulate future interactions, and that testosterone may be a physiological marker of such reward value.

  9. The Impact of Parent-Child Attachment on Aggression, Social Stress and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Ang, Rebecca P.; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Wong, Geraldine; Cai, Yiming

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the quality of parent-child attachment on aggression, social stress, and self-esteem in a clinical sample of 91 boys with disruptive behaviour disorders ranging from 8 to 12 years of age. These boys were included in the study if they were found to exhibit various aggressive and antisocial behaviours such as…

  10. Parental stress, harsh treatment and parental monitoring as factors associated with aggressive behaviour[Estrés parental, trato rudo y monitoreo como factores asociados a la conducta agresiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivón Paola Guevara Marín

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the joint contribution of three parenting practices in the explanation of aggressive behavior. The main interest was to investigate the associations between these factors, the socioeconomic status, and the differences between the reports provided by parents in regards to the aggressive behavior of their children. The sample included 256 couples whose children were teenagers with an age range between 12 and 18 years old. The results show that parental stress, the harsh treatment, and monitoring are significantly associated with aggressive behavior of children. Parental stress was the factor with the highest degree of prediction. Significant differences were found for the three factors in high and low socioeconomic levels, but in medium and high were not. As for the versions of the parents, there were no significant differences in stress and rough management, but monitoring.

  11. Genetics and criminal behaviour: recent accomplishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagoa, Arlindo; Santos, Agostinho; Pinheiro, M Fátima; Magalhães, Teresa

    2009-10-01

    The past two decades have seen an explosion in research in the fields of violence and behavioural genetics. Advances in human genetics have raised the possibility that genetic mechanisms can explain various aspects of human criminal and aggressive behaviour. However, this new knowledge can pose enormous challenges concerning the moral and legal conceptions of free will and responsibility. This paper reviews the main aspects of behavioural genetics, focusing on criminal and aggressive behaviour and describes the most important genes known to influence this behaviour.

  12. Psychomotor therapy and aggression regulation in eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerhout, Cees; van Busschbach, Jooske T.; Wiersma, Durk; Hoek, Hans W.

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorder behaviours can be seen as self-destructive behaviours to a great extent related to inhibited anger expression. However, a treatment protocol targeted at anger and aggression in these disorders is lacking. This paper describes a psychomotor therapy (PMT) model as a body-oriented metho

  13. Do human females use indirect aggression as an intrasexual competition strategy?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Indirect aggression includes behaviours such as criticizing a competitor's appearance, spreading rumours about a person's sexual behaviour and social exclusion. Human females have a particular proclivity for using indirect aggression, which is typically directed at other females, especially attractive and sexually available females, in the context of intrasexual competition for mates. Indirect aggression is an effective intrasexual competition strategy. It is associated with a diminished will...

  14. Student Behaviour Self-Monitoring Enabling Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jull, Stephen K.

    2009-01-01

    Disruptive, antisocial behaviour remains an ongoing issue for all schools, and particularly those identified as inclusive. Children who exhibit elevated levels of antisocial behaviour have an increased risk of numerous negative life consequences, including impaired social relationships, escalating aggressive behaviours, substance abuse, and school…

  15. Selective aggressiveness in European free-tailed bats ( Tadarida teniotis): influence of familiarity, age and sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo

    2014-03-01

    Bats are highly social mammals that often form large groups and represent good models to test the role played by individual status in shaping social relationships. Social cohesion relies on the ability of group and individual recognition, which is mediated by a range of sensorial cues. In this study, we selected the European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis as a model species to test the effects of familiarity, sex and age on aggressiveness and mutual tolerance. We hypothesize that T. teniotis is able to recognize group members and exhibit selective aggressiveness, and thus we predict fewer aggressive events and more amicable encounters between colony mates than between strangers. As female bats are generally more sociable and perform prolonged parental care to juveniles even after weaning, we hypothesize that sex and age of bats have significant influences on aggressive behaviours and thus predict that females will perform more amicable behaviours than males and that adults of both sexes will be less aggressive towards juveniles. Our results confirm that T. teniotis is able to discriminate between familiar and stranger individuals, showing higher rates of aggressive behaviours towards the latter. Females are more prone to exhibit amicable behaviours, particularly during same-sex interactions, while males show higher level of aggressiveness. Juveniles are subjected to fewer aggressive behaviours by adults of both sexes. Familiarity appears crucial for T. teniotis in determining the degree of aggressiveness during social interactions but the rate of aggressive events is also influenced by intrinsic individual factors such as sex and age.

  16. Progesterone modulates aggression in sex-role reversed female African black coucals

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Testosterone is assumed to be the key hormone related to resource-defence aggression. While this role has been confirmed mostly in the context of reproduction in male vertebrates, the effect of testosterone on the expression of resource-defence aggression in female vertebrates is not so well established. Furthermore, laboratory work suggests that progesterone inhibits aggressive behaviour in females. In this study, we investigated the hormonal changes underlying territorial aggression in free...

  17. Testando as previsões de trade-off e pecking order sobre dividendos e dívida no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cesar G. da Silva

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho mostra que as companhias brasileiras distribuem uma proporção pequena dos lucros em dividendos apesar da legislação favorável. Os dividendos pagos são rapidamente ajustados ao lucro corrente, mas parte da variação de curto prazo nos lucros é absorvida por dívida. De acordo com a previsão comum dos modelos de trade-off e pecking order, as firmas mais lucrativas e menos endividadas distribuem uma maior proporção. Ainda de acordo com a pecking order, os dividendos não sofrem variações de curto prazo para acomodar os investimentos. Finalmente, as firmas mais lucrativas e que menos investem são as menos endividadas, favorecendo a pecking order contra trade-off.This article shows that the Brazilian companies have a low target payout ratio, although the local tax code favors dividends' distributions. The dividends paid present fast adjustment to current earnings, but part of the short-term variation in earnings is still absorbed by debt. Confirming predictions shared by the trade-off and pecking order models, more profitable firms and less levered firms have higher dividend payouts. Consistent with the pecking order model, dividends do not vary in the short-term to accommodate investments. Finally, more profitable firms and firms with fewer investments are less levered, accepting the pecking order hypothesis against the trade-off one.

  18. Early childhood aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results showed an early childhood aggression curve, with increasing rates of aggression in the second year of life and decreasing rates in the fourth year. One-year stabilities were moderate for 12-month-olds ...

  19. Aggressive Fibromatosis in Neck.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita Kabdwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive fibromatosis (AF is a locally aggressive infiltrative low-grade benign tumor that accounts for approximately less than 3% of all soft tissue tumors. In the head and neck region this tumor tends to be more aggressive and associated with significant morbidity. Aggressive surgery is a viable management option and may be successfully used as a single modality treatment, or in combination with radiotherapy. We report a rare case of AF in a 38 year old female, who presented with a painless mass over the left supraclavicular fossa, extending inferiorly into the thoracic inlet, which was excised successfully in toto with the help of cardiothoracic vascular surgeon (CTVS.

  20. TESTING ON PECKING ORDER THEORY AND ANALYSIS OF COMPANY’S CHARACTERISTIC EFFECTS ON EMITTEN’S CAPITAL STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajudin Noor

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pecking Order Theory (POT states that hierarchy fundings based on the cheapest cost coming from internal fund, followed by external fund are needed to determine the capital structure. The research objectives were to examine the concept of POT in agriculture companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange in order to decide the capital structure policies as well as to analyse the effects of company’s characteristics to the emitten capital structure. The research used regression analysis with pooled least square (PLS method in order to test POT, while the fixed effect model (FEM was applied to analyze the effect of company’s characteristics on capital structure. Regression analysis in evaluating pecking order theory’s concept shows that internal funding deficit significantly gives positive influence to the change of long term debts. Regression analysis resulted from company’s characteristics (profitability, size, growth, tangibility and liquidity shows that the company’s size and growth have significant positive effects on capital structure (leverage, whereas company’s profitability and liquidity have significant negative effects on capital structure (leverage. By contrast, company’s assets structure (tangibility do not give significantly influence on capital structure (leverage in 10% level of significance. The research shows that issuers in agricultural sector have implemented the concept of POT through the hierarchy usage of the cheapest financing from the internal as a priority followed by the external financing (debt.Keywords: Pecking Order Theory, capital structure, company’s characteristics, PLS, FEMABSTRAKPecking Order Theory menyatakan bahwa penentuan struktur modal yang optimal didasarkan pada keputusan pendanaan secara hirarki berdasarkan biaya modal yang paling murah yang bersumber pada dana internal, baru kemudian menggunakan sumber dana eksternal. Penelitian ini bertujuan menguji penggunaan konsep Pecking Order Theory

  1. The genetics of aggression: Where are we now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asherson, Philip; Cormand, Bru

    2016-07-01

    Aggression, an overt behaviour with the intention to inflict damage, is a physiological trait with important roles throughout evolution, both in defence and predation. However, when expressed in humans in the wrong context, aggression leads to social maladjustment and crime. This special issue is about the genetic and neurobiological basis for aggression. Most of the 12 works presented here have been prepared by members of five international consortia established under the auspice of the FP7 and H2020 programs of the European Union to investigate different aspects of aggression and related behavioural phenotypes, including delineation of subtypes, aetiological mechanisms, neurobiology, neuroimaging, biomarkers, animal models and development and assessment of new treatments. Research on human aggression has largely focused on the societal causes of violent behaviour with relatively little focus on the underlying neuroscientific basis. However, interesting findings are emerging which suggest that by identifying distinct pathways to aggression, better targeting of social, psychological and medical treatments, can lead to improved outcomes for individuals and society. This issue represents a state of the art review of current neurobiological understanding of human aggression and a starting point for concerted efforts to move the field towards the development of new strategies for prevention and treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Reduced Variance of Gene Expression at Numerous Loci in a Population of Chickens Selected for High Feather Pecking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, A L; Buitenhuis, A J

    2010-01-01

    Changes in gene expression in response to selection were studied by comparing microarray expression profiles among a population of domestic chickens selected for high feather pecking (FP) with a control population and a population selected for low FP. No transcripts showed significant differences...... and gentle FP were distinct, suggesting that very distinct underlying neural mechanisms underlie these 2 behaviors, with SFP showing more signs of an association with synaptic plasticity and with an immunosuppressive stress response...

  3. Humor, Aggression, and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, Ann Louise; And Others

    Although humor is an important phenomenon in human interactions, it has rarely been studied in the elderly. An understanding of responses to humor in aggressive cartoons as a function of advancing age would provide information regarding both the development of humor and the negative (aggressive) emotional experiences of the elderly. This study was…

  4. Serotonin and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Serena-Lynn; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Decreased serotonin function has consistently been shown to be highly correlated with impulsive aggression across a number of different experimental paradigms. Such lowered serotonergic indices appear to correlate with the dimension of aggression dyscontrol and/or impulsivity rather than with psychiatric diagnostic categories per se. Implications…

  5. Parents’ Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    OpenAIRE

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents’ responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents’ actual marital aggression. The study included 118 9−10 year old children, and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with same-sex parents’ actual marital aggression. For children with mothers who exhibit low actual marital aggression, mothers’ aggressive solutions to hypothetical...

  6. Neuropsychological and cognitive concomitants of aggression

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.A. (Counselling Pyschology) "Given the environmental and biological studies of criminality and delinquency, it seems clear that offense behaviour is a multifactorial disorder, with contributors possibly including such variables as low IQ, attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, and early aggressiveness. Protective factors possibly include high IQ and shyness. Each of these factors has been shown to be highly heritable" (Oilalla & Gottesman, 1991, p.128). It is imperative that rese...

  7. Unravelling the neurophysiological basis of aggression in a fish model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickmore Tamsin FA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggression is a near-universal behaviour with substantial influence on and implications for human and animal social systems. The neurophysiological basis of aggression is, however, poorly understood in all species and approaches adopted to study this complex behaviour have often been oversimplified. We applied targeted expression profiling on 40 genes, spanning eight neurological pathways and in four distinct regions of the brain, in combination with behavioural observations and pharmacological manipulations, to screen for regulatory pathways of aggression in the zebrafish (Danio rerio, an animal model in which social rank and aggressiveness tightly correlate. Results Substantial differences occurred in gene expression profiles between dominant and subordinate males associated with phenotypic differences in aggressiveness and, for the chosen gene set, they occurred mainly in the hypothalamus and telencephalon. The patterns of differentially-expressed genes implied multifactorial control of aggression in zebrafish, including the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system, serotonin, somatostatin, dopamine, hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal, hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal and histamine pathways, and the latter is a novel finding outside mammals. Pharmacological manipulations of various nodes within the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system and serotonin pathways supported their functional involvement. We also observed differences in expression profiles in the brains of dominant versus subordinate females that suggested sex-conserved control of aggression. For example, in the HNS pathway, the gene encoding arginine vasotocin (AVT, previously believed specific to male behaviours, was amongst those genes most associated with aggression, and AVT inhibited dominant female aggression, as in males. However, sex-specific differences in the expression profiles also occurred, including differences in aggression-associated tryptophan hydroxylases

  8. Taking a Second Look: Following Surveys with Student's Descriptions of the Culture of Aggression in a Middle School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Nicholson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a research study on aggressive behaviour among students in middle school. The study was initiated in response to concern about agressive behaviour held by the school administration. A survey on aggressive behaviour was administered and followed by interviews with a sample of students. Student interviews highlighted a number of very important issues to consider when assessing and responding to aggressive behaviour in a school: school crowding , the playing out of dominant masculinity, involving students in finding solutions to identified problems, and considering the role of the whole school culture in sustaining agressive behaviour.

  9. The Home and Community Social Behaviour Scales (HCBS): Dimensionality in Social Competence and Antisocial Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukkelberg, Silje; Ogden, Terje

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated dimensionality in the Home and Community Social Behaviour Scales (HCSBS) that assess social competence (Peer Relations and Self-Management/Compliance) and antisocial behaviour (Defiant/Disruptive and Antisocial/Aggressive behaviour) in children and adolescents. The four scales comprising 64 items were completed by 551…

  10. Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…

  11. Effects of feather pecking phenotype (severe feather peckers, victims and non-peckers) on serotonergic and dopaminergic activity in four brain areas of laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kops, Marjolein S; de Haas, Elske N; Rodenburg, T Bas; Ellen, Esther D; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Olivier, Berend; Güntürkün, O; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Korte, S Mechiel

    2013-08-15

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in laying hens is a detrimental behavior causing loss of feathers, skin damage and cannibalism. Previously, we have associated changes in frontal brain serotonin (5-HT) turnover and dopamine (DA) turnover with alterations in feather pecking behavior in young pullets (28-60 days). Here, brain monoamine levels were measured in adult laying hens; focusing on four brain areas that are involved in emotional behavior or are part of the basal ganglia-thalamopallial circuit, which is involved in obsessive compulsive disorders. Three behavioral phenotypes were studied: Severe Feather Peckers (SFPs), Victims of SFP, and Non-Peckers (NPs). Hens (33 weeks old) were sacrificed after a 5-min manual restraint test. SFPs had higher 5-HIAA levels and a higher serotonin turnover (5-HIAA/5-HT) in the dorsal thalamus than NPs, with intermediate levels in victims. NPs had higher 5-HT levels in the medial striatum than victims, with levels of SFPs in between. 5-HT turnover levels did not differ between phenotypes in medial striatum, arcopallium and hippocampus. DA turnover levels were not affected by feather pecking phenotype. These findings indicate that serotonergic neurotransmission in the dorsal thalamus and striatum of adult laying hens depends on differences in behavioral feather pecking phenotype, with, compared to non-pecking hens, changes in both SFP and their victims. Further identification of different SFP phenotypes is needed to elucidate the role of brain monoamines in SFP.

  12. Aggressive periodontitis: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhavi Joshipura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to highlight the current etiological and therapeutic concepts of aggressive periodontitis which is rapidly progressing and aggressive in nature. It leads to destruction of periodontal tissues and loss of teeth. We need advanced diagnostic techniques to learn about current disease activity and rate of progression. We also require strategies to keep the disease under control with proper maintenance regime and prevent tooth loss, because it can result into complicated prosthetic rehabilitation in a very young patient. The evidence suggests that aggressive periodontitis is influenced by microbiological, genetic, and host factors. This paper reviews clinical, microbiological, immunological, and genetic aspects of pathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis, as well as diagnostic criteria of the disease and appropriate nonsurgical and surgical treatment options.

  13. Aggression And Attachment Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Verma

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of the present study is to examine the factors related aggression in Iranian and Indian school children. Method: Attachment security (dependency, availability, and total considered as the variable. The KSS questionnaire was administrated students in the 5th grade; 300 were Iranian and 300 were Indian consisted of 150 boys and 150 girls. Results: Attachment security demonstrated significant negative correlations with aggression in the boys, girls and the total Iranian sample. The dependency on mothers was the only case with insignificant correlation.In the Indian sample, attachment security was also found to be significantly negatively correlated with aggression. The only exception was the correlation between mother's availability and aggression in girls, which was not significant Conclusion: It is important that parents treat their children in a tender, manner so that a secure attachment develop between them.

  14. The Moderating Effect of Parental Warmth on the Association between Spanking and Child Aggression: A Longitudinal Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacks, Ann Michele; Oshio, Toko; Gerard, Jean; Roe, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Study, this study analysed the stability of child aggressive behaviour beginning in infancy and tested whether spanking when the child was 36 months was associated with aggressive child behaviour among three ethnic groups and whether maternal warmth moderated the effect of spanking on…

  15. Original article Intrapersonal correlates of aggression in adolescents: determinants of undertaking the role of the perpetrator and the victim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzanna Farnicka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Youthful aggression, perceived both as a social phenomenon and a psychological issue, is the subject matter of numerous theoretical analyses and scientific studies. Usually, their aim is to determine the consequences of aggressive behaviour, especially the development of criminal behaviour. However, empirical studies devoted to the relations between aggressive behaviour of Polish youth and intrapersonal factors are still lacking. The main aim of the research presented in this paper was to determine the relationship between attachment, temperament, aggressiveness and aggressive behaviour among young people. For research purposes, the multidimensional aggression model developed by Anderson and Bushman was used. Participants and procedure Measurements were carried out with the Buss-Perry Aggressiveness Scale, the Parent and Peer Attachment Inventory by Armsden and Greenberg, the Buss and Plomin Temperament Scale and the Mini DIA Questionnaire (Österman and Björqvist. The studied group consisted of 120 young persons aged between 16 and 19. Results The research results support the conclusion that the dominant temperamental component of persons characterized by a high level of aggressiveness is anger. Also, correlations were found indicating that a high level of trust and a high level of alienation in the relationship with the mother are connected with anger as an aggressiveness component. Conclusions The actually undertaken aggressive behaviour depends on the prevailing aggressiveness dimension: the frequency of perpetrator-type behaviour increases along with the general aggressiveness level and the frequency of its manifestation in the form of physical and verbal aggression, while the frequency of victim-type behaviour increases along with the experienced level of anger and hostility.

  16. Aggression patterns and speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, E; Naftali, G; Guttman, R

    1975-01-01

    The evolutionary significance of interspecific aggression as a factor in speciation was tested among three chromosome forms of the actively speciating fossorial rodent Spalax ehrenbergi in Israel. Laboratory experiments testing intra- and interspecific aggression were conducted on 48 adult animals from 10 populations comprising three chromosome forms with 2n = 52, 58, and 60. Twelve agonistic, motivational-conflict, and territorial behavioral variables were recorded during 72 combats involving homo- and heter-ogametic encounters between opponents. Analysis of the data matrix was carried out by the nonmetric multivariate Smallest Space Analysis (SSA-II). The results indicate that (a) aggression patterns, involving agonistic conflict and territorial variables, are higher in heterogametic encounters than in homogametic ones; and (b) aggression is higher between contiguous chromosome forms (2n = 58-60, and 2n = 52-58) than between noncontiguous ones (2n = 52-60). Both a and b suggest that high interspecific aggression appears to be adaptively selected at final stages of speciation in mole rats as a premating isolating mechanism which reinforces species identification and establishes parapatric distributions between the evolving species. PMID:1059109

  17. Progesterone modulates aggression in sex-role reversed female African black coucals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goymann, Wolfgang; Wittenzellner, Andrea; Schwabl, Ingrid; Makomba, Musa

    2008-05-07

    Testosterone is assumed to be the key hormone related to resource-defence aggression. While this role has been confirmed mostly in the context of reproduction in male vertebrates, the effect of testosterone on the expression of resource-defence aggression in female vertebrates is not so well established. Furthermore, laboratory work suggests that progesterone inhibits aggressive behaviour in females. In this study, we investigated the hormonal changes underlying territorial aggression in free-living female African black coucals, Centropus grillii (Aves; Cuculidae). Females of this sex-role reversed polyandrous bird species should be particularly prone to be affected by testosterone because they aggressively defend territories similar to males of other species. We show, however, that territorial aggression in female black coucals is modulated by progesterone. After aggressive territorial challenges female black coucals expressed lower levels of progesterone than unchallenged territorial females and females without territories, suggesting that progesterone may suppress territorial aggression and is downregulated during aggressive encounters. Indeed, females treated with physiological concentrations of progesterone were less aggressive than females with placebo implants. This is one of the first demonstrations of a corresponding hormone-behaviour interaction under challenged and experimental conditions in free-living females. We anticipate that our observation in a sex-role reversed species may provide a more general mechanism, by which progesterone--in interaction with testosterone--may regulate resource-defence aggression in female vertebrates.

  18. Behaviour Genetics of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Budimir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of pigs can be divided into several categories, which include maternal behavior, aggressive behavior, sexual behavior, feeding behavior, and various other forms of emotional behavior. Domestication has caused many changes in the original behaviour of boar, such as in reproductive and sexual behaviour, and has lead to a general increase in social tolerance between animals. Further modifications in behaviour are also possible, as suggested by the optimization of environmental factors which affect maternal behavior. The behaviour of a sow after farrowing appeared as a consequence of natural selection for protection of piglets from predators in the wild boar population, and affects the survival of piglets and the longevity of the sow in breeding. The behavior of the sows which includes the protection of the piglets from predators appears as a consequence of natural selection in the wild boar population. Familiarity with the molecular mechanisms which determine the patterns of behavior enables understanding of behavioral problems such as aggressiveness and helps the improvement of the well-being of pigs. Research conducted on pigs has determined that there are regions on chromosomes 2, 6, 10, 14, and 15, and chromosome X which can explain the genetic aspect of appearance of some behavioral patterns in sows. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the behavioral patterns appeared in the populations of domestic breeds of pigs and their genetic aspects, which knowledge may provide some help in improving the production qualities and creating higher economic gain during production.

  19. Microbiology of aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könönen, Eija; Müller, Hans-Peter

    2014-06-01

    For decades, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been considered the most likely etiologic agent in aggressive periodontitis. Implementation of DNA-based microbiologic methodologies has considerably improved our understanding of the composition of subgingival biofilms, and advanced open-ended molecular techniques even allow for genome mapping of the whole bacterial spectrum in a sample and characterization of both the cultivable and not-yet-cultivable microbiota associated with periodontal health and disease. Currently, A. actinomycetemcomitans is regarded as a minor component of the resident oral microbiota and as an opportunistic pathogen in some individuals. Its specific JP2 clone, however, shows properties of a true exogenous pathogen and has an important role in the development of aggressive periodontitis in certain populations. Still, limited data exist on the impact of other microbes specifically in aggressive periodontitis. Despite a wide heterogeneity of bacteria, especially in subgingival samples collected from patients, bacteria of the red complex in particular, and those of the orange complex, are considered as potential pathogens in generalized aggressive periodontitis. These types of bacterial findings closely resemble those found for chronic periodontitis, representing a mixed polymicrobial infection without a clear association with any specific microorganism. In aggressive periodontitis, the role of novel and not-yet-cultivable bacteria has not yet been elucidated. There are geographic and ethnic differences in the carriage of periodontitis-associated microorganisms, and they need to be taken into account when comparing study reports on periodontal microbiology in different study populations. In the present review, we provide an overview on the colonization of potential periodontal pathogens in childhood and adolescence, and on specific microorganisms that have been suspected for their role in the initiation and progression of aggressive

  20. Effects of manipulated aggressive 'interactions' on bystanding male fighting fish, Betta splendens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peake, Thomas More; Matos, Ricardo Jorge; McGregor, Peter Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Aggressive interactions between animals often take place in a social environment. Third parties not involved in those interactions, bystanders, have the opportunity to extract information from such interactions and such information may direct their future behaviour towards the interactants. Studi...

  1. Sensitive period for developing a robust trait of appetitive aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke eKöbach

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Violent behaviour can be intrinsically rewarding; especially combatants fighting in current civil wars present with elevated traits of appetitive aggression. The majority of these fighters were recruited as children or adolescents. In the present study we test whether there is a developmental period where combatants are sensitive for developing a robust trait of appetitive aggression.We investigated 95 combatants in their demobilization process that were recruited at different ages in the Kivu regions of the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Using random forest with conditional inference trees, we identified recruitment at the ages from 16 and 17 years as being predictive of the level of appetitive aggression; the number of lifetime, perpetrated acts was the most important predictor. We conclude that high levels of appetitive aggression develop in ex-combatants, especially in those recruited during their middle to late teenage, which is a developmental period marked by a natural inclination to exercise physical force. Consequently, ex-combatants may remain vulnerable for aggressive behaviour patterns and re-recruitment unless they are provided alternative strategies for dealing with their aggression.

  2. No effects of bilateral tDCS over inferior frontal gyrus on response inhibition and aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dambacher, F.; Schuhmann, T.; Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.; Brugman, S.; Sack, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    Response inhibition is defined as the capacity to adequately withdraw pre-planned responses. It has been shown that individuals with deficits in inhibiting pre-planned responses tend to display more aggressive behaviour. The prefrontal cortex is involved in both, response inhibition and aggression.

  3. Social Preference, Perceived Popularity and Social Intelligence: Relations to Overt and Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Eleni

    2006-01-01

    Relations among social preference, perceived popularity, social intelligence and two types of aggressive behaviour were studied. Peer-estimation techniques were used to measure all major variables. Altogether, 403 Greek schoolchildren from fourth-through sixth-grade classrooms participated in the study. Both overt and relational aggression were…

  4. Attachment and Aggressive Manifestations in Younger Adulthood - "Preliminary Findings"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Lorincová

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of the contribution was comparison between retrospective attachment (emocional warmth and rejection and aggressive manifestations (physical aggressivness, verbal aggressivness, anger and hostility among younger adulthood. Bowlby's theory of attachment was that once a core attachment style develops in an infant, it will influence and shape the nature of all intimate relations for the individual moving forward throughout the infant's life cycle. Authors Mikulincer and Shaver (2011 explain how these primary attachment experiences would affect future emotional, cognitive and behavioral processes. Secure adolescents, in comparison to insecure ones are perceived as being less aggressive. Research has pointed out that secure parental attachment promotes adaptive psychological functioning. The direct relationship between attachment security and aggressive/delinquent behaviour is in line with prior evidence that secure adolescents rate higher in terms of emotional and social adjustment, enjoy more positive relationships with their family and peers, and are less likely to engage in externalizing problems, such as antisocial and aggressive behaviours. On the other hand, insecure attachment is connected with aggressive and externalizing behaviour. Hypotheses were formulated on the base of theoretical background and our assumption was, that younger adults with emocional warmth attachment will have lower level of aggressive manifestations (physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger and hostility than younger adults with rejectional attachment. We used two standardized questionnaires for data collection, s.E.M.B.U. Questionnaire, which measured retrospective attachment (emocional warmth and rejection and Questionnaire of Aggressivness, which measured aggressive manifestations. We used statistical analysis and we found statistically significant differencies, which are preliminary findings from broader research, between emocional warmth

  5. Experimental Evidence Shows the Importance of Behavioural Plasticity and Body Size under Competition in Waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Prins, Herbert H. T.; Versluijs, Martijn; Wessels, Rick; Cao, Lei; de Boer, Willem Frederik

    2016-01-01

    When differently sized species feed on the same resources, interference competition may occur, which may negatively affect their food intake rate. It is expected that competition between species also alters behaviour and feeding patch selection. To assess these changes in behaviour and patch selection, we applied an experimental approach using captive birds of three differently sized Anatidae species: wigeon (Anas penelope) (~600 g), swan goose (Anser cygnoides) (~2700 g) and bean goose (Anser fabalis) (~3200 g). We quantified the functional response for each species and then recorded their behaviour and patch selection with and without potential competitors, using different species combinations. Our results showed that all three species acquired the highest nitrogen intake at relatively tall swards (6, 9 cm) when foraging in single species flocks in the functional response experiment. Goose species were offered foraging patches differing in sward height with and without competitors, and we tested for the effect of competition on foraging behaviour. The mean percentage of time spent feeding and being vigilant did not change under competition for all species. However, all species utilized strategies that increased their peck rate on patches across different sward heights, resulting in the same instantaneous and nitrogen intake rate. Our results suggest that variation in peck rate over different swards height permits Anatidae herbivores to compensate for the loss of intake under competition, illustrating the importance of behavioural plasticity in heterogeneous environments when competing with other species for resources. PMID:27727315

  6. Gender and Military Contextual Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Loneliness and aggressive behaviour. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 2, 243–252. Chief of Naval Operations. (2006, December 29). Office of...A. W., & Russell , M. L. (2006). Variables associated with intimate partner violence in a deploying military sample. Military Medicine, 171, 627–631

  7. Precursors to Aggression Are Evident by 6 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Dale F.; Waters, Cerith S.; Perra, Oliver; Swift, Naomi; Kairis, Victoria; Phillips, Rebecca; Jones, Roland; Goodyer, Ian; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; van Goozen, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that developmental precursors to aggression are apparent in infancy. Up to three informants rated 301 firstborn infants for early signs of anger, hitting and biting; 279 (93%) were assessed again as toddlers. Informants' ratings were validated by direct observation at both ages. The precursor behaviours were…

  8. Are female CFOs less tax aggressive? Evidence from tax aggressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Francis , Bill B; Hasan, Iftekhar; Wu,Qiang; YAN Meng

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of CFO gender on corporate tax aggressiveness. Focusing on firms that experience a male-to-female CFO transition, the paper compares those firms’ degree of tax aggressiveness during the pre- and post-transition periods. Using the probability of tax sheltering, the predicted unrecognized tax benefits, and the discretionary permanent book-tax differences to measure tax aggressiveness, we find that female CFOs are associated with less tax aggressiveness as comp...

  9. Witz, Lust und Aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med forholdet mellem vits, lyst og aggression med udgangspunkt i lysten ved aggressiv litterær humor, eksemplificeret ved tekststeder fra Shakespeares Hamlet. Der argumenteres for, at aggressionen eller angrebet er et fælles centralt aspekt ved Sigmund Freuds og Friedrich...

  10. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results show

  11. Relational Aggression among Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  12. Aggressive malignant phyllodes tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Roberts

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Despite biopsy proven malignant phyllodes tumor, it was near impossible to predict such a rapid course of disease progression in our patient. Our case illustrates the unpredictable nature of this disease in general and it possibly sheds light on a variant of the disease which had undergone an aggressive transformation.

  13. Aggressiveness and Disobedience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaaland, Grete Sorensen; Idsoe, Thormod; Roland, Erling

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to conceptualize disobedient pupil behavior within the more general framework of antisocial behavior and to reveal how two forms of aggressiveness are related to disobedience. Disobedience, in the context of this article, covers disruptive pupil behavior or discipline problems when the pupil is aware of breaking a standard set by…

  14. [Canopy-enclosed bed for dementia patients with behavioural problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, P.W.; Kesteren, J.B. van; Ubink-Bontekoe, C.J.; Zoomer-Hendriks, M.P.; Wetzels, R.B.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with dementia almost all have one or more symptoms of problem behaviour. This problem behaviour includes a wide range of symptoms including depression, anxiety and apathy, and behavioural problems such as aggression, general restlessness, compulsion to walk, disinhibition and calling, and p

  15. The relationship between paranoia and aggression in psychosis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrell-Berry, Hannah; Berry, Katherine; Bucci, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    Aggression in the context of schizophrenia has significant detrimental personal, clinical and societal implications. Whilst understanding the precise pathways to aggression in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia is critical for risk management and treatment, these pathways remain unclear. A paranoid belief that others intend harm is one psychotic symptom that might contribute to aggressive behaviours. This is the first review to investigate the relationship between paranoia and aggression in psychosis. A systematic review of published literature pertinent to the relationship between paranoia and aggression was conducted. A search of online databases from inception to November 2014 was performed with keywords related to 'schizophrenia', 'paranoia' and 'aggression'. Fifteen studies, primarily cross-sectional in design (n=9), met eligibility criteria. Studies reviewed showed mixed support for an association between paranoia and aggression in both inpatients and community settings. However, when study quality was taken into account, more methodologically rigorous studies tended to show a positive association between factors. Mixed findings are most likely due to important methodological shortcomings, including heterogeneous samples and studies using a diverse range of aggression/violence measures. In light of methodological limitations of individual studies reviewed, further investigation of the relationship between paranoia and aggression in psychosis using robust methodology is needed before definitive clinical recommendations regarding the hypothesised relationship between paranoia and aggression can be made. This paper sets out key recommendations for future studies, including operationalizing the specific components of aggression and paranoia under investigation and methods to delineate important mediators in the paranoia and aggression relationship.

  16. Serotonin release in the caudal nidopallium of adult laying hens genetically selected for high and low feather pecking behavior: An in vivo microdialysis study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kops, M.S.; Kjaer, J.B.; Güntürkün, O.; Westphal, K.C.G.; Korte-Bouws, G.A.H.; Olivier, B.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Korte, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (FP) is a detrimental behavior causing welfare problems in laying hens. Divergent genetic selection for FP in White Leghorns resulted in strong differences in FP incidences between lines. More recently, it was shown that the high FP (HFP) birds have increased locomotor activit

  17. A Multicultural Glimpse of Rural and Urban Adolescence in Robert Newton Peck's "A Day No Pigs Would Die" and Paul Zindel's "The Pigman."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, Mary Frances Linden

    "A Day No Pigs Would Die" by Robert Newton Peck and "The Pigman" by Paul Zindel are 2 short novels that offer treasures in the form of many lessons in life to share in the language arts classroom. These two rich novels can serve as sources for multicultural understanding of rural and urban life, as well as for interpreting the…

  18. Motivational drive and alprazolam misuse: A recipe for aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Bonnie; Staiger, Petra K; Hall, Kate; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas; Best, David

    2016-06-30

    Benzodiazepine-related aggression has received insufficient research attention, in particular little is known about the motivational factors which may contribute to the development of this paradoxical response. The revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory provides a theoretical framework from which to understand the relevant underlying motivational processes. The current study aimed to identify the role of approach and avoidance motivational tendencies in the occurrence of benzodiazepine-related aggression. Data regarding benzodiazepine and other substance use, approach and avoidance motivation, and general and physical aggressive behaviour were collected via self-report questionnaires. Participants were a convenience sample (n=204) who reported using benzodiazepines in the previous year. Participants were primarily male (62.7%), aged 18-51 years old. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that general and physical aggression were predicted by alprazolam use and Drive, a facet of approach motivation. Overall, lower diazepam use significantly predicted higher levels of general aggression. However, when diazepam-preferring participants were examined in isolation of the larger sample (23.5% of sample), problematic (dependent) diazepam use was associated with greater aggression scores, as was dependence risk for alprazolam-preferring participants (39.7% of sample). The findings highlight the importance of motivational factors and benzodiazepine use patterns in understanding benzodiazepine-related aggression, with implications for violent offender rehabilitation.

  19. Serotonin and Aggressiveness in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...

  20. Low autonomic arousal as vulnerability to externalising behaviour in infants with hostile mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierckx, Bram; Tulen, Joke H M; Tharner, Anne; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2011-01-30

    Maternal psychopathology and the child's autonomic nervous system functioning are risk factors for aggressive behaviour later in life. While research has shown that maternal psychopathology already affects young children, less is known about the association between autonomic functioning and aggressive behaviour in young children. In addition, maternal psychopathology and autonomic nervous system functioning may interact to determine the risk of aggressive behaviour. In a sample of 375 infants and their mothers, maternal psychiatric symptoms were assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory and toddler aggressive behaviour with the Child Behaviour Checklist. Infant heart rate was recorded at 14 months. Maternal psychiatric problems, including hostility and depression, were associated with toddler aggressive behaviour. Maternal psychiatric problems interacted with mean heart rate (P=0.01) and HF variability (P=0.03) in their effect on toddler aggressive behaviour. Mothers with high psychiatric problems, in particular, high hostility, were more likely to have toddlers with high aggressive behaviour. Moreover, in the presence of maternal risk factors, low autonomic arousal renders children particularly susceptible to aggressive behaviour.

  1. [Aggressive fibromatoses in orthopedics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, C P; Stock, D

    1986-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatoses which may develop either in soft tissue or in the bone present considerable problems for the pathologist trying to establish a diagnosis as well as for the radiologist and surgeon. In radiographs, a destruction of the soft and osseous tissue is seen which suggests a malignant tumor. Histologically a monomorphic connective tissue prevails in the biopsy showing no essential signs of malignancy. Under pathoanatomical aspects often a benign proliferation of the connective tissue is assumed. Surgically the tumor may either be removed in a too radical and mutilating way, or the excision may remain incomplete. Two cases of desmoplastic bone fibroma (aggressive fibromatosis in the ulna and in the sacrum) are described in which the complete tumor removal led to healing, whereas the incomplete excision of the tumor resulted in recurrences. Aggressive fibromatosis represents a semimalignant tumor which has a locally destructive and invasive growth tendency but does not metastasize. The various fibromatoses are defined with regard to their biological growth tendency and the therapeutic consequences are discussed.

  2. Providing Basic Needs and Encouragement as Strategies in Managing Aggression in Dementia Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Lestari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The experiences of caregivers in managing dementia clients with aggressive behaviour have been an issue in nursing homes. This study utilized the fact that there is no significant strategy for managing aggression effectively. The aim of the study is to explore the experiences of caregivers in managing dementia clients with aggressive behaviour in nursing home in Jakarta, Indonesia.Method: This study employed a hermeneutic phenomenological approach so that caregivers were able to explore the phenomenon of aggression by dementia residents in the nursing home. Six experienced caregivers were interviewed in this study to uncover caregivers’ strategies they use in managing aggression in dementia residents.Result: The findings in this study were several strategies that have been used by caregivers to manage aggressive behaviour among dementia residents in the nursing home: providing basic needs and encouragement.Conclusion: The findings suggested caregivers to implement the strategies for managing aggression in dementia residents. Due to a limited number of related studies in Indonesia, this study recommended for further research to other nursing homes in Indonesia to determine if other strategies to manage aggression exist.

  3. Conflict resolution in 5-year-old boys: does postconflict affiliative behaviour have a reconciliatory role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungberg; Westlund; Lindqvist Forsberg AJ

    1999-11-01

    In nonhuman primates, affiliative behaviours, such as social grooming and various forms of body contact, become more frequent after an aggressive interaction. Since such behaviours lead to a decrease in postconflict aggressive behaviour and displacement activities and to increased social tolerance, they have been labelled reconciliatory. We videofilmed sessions of free play in daycare centres in Stockholm and investigated whether affiliative behaviours used by 5-year-old boys in the postconflict period had a similar reconciliatory function. For 219 conflicts in 21 h 40 min of observation we recorded postconflict affiliative/prosocial, aggressive and displacement behaviours. When affiliative behaviours were shown and accepted by the opponent, aggressive and displacement behaviours decreased and play was promoted. These behaviours thus serve a function similar to reconciliatory behaviour in nonhuman primates and we think it is applicable to call accepted affiliative behaviours in postconflict periods of preschool children reconciliatory. However, conflicts were often polyadic and nonconflict periods consisted of intense play with a rich exchange of affiliative behaviours. These factors were limitations to the postconflict/matched-control method traditionally used in primatological research to document reconciliatory behaviour. We suggest that for preschool children, video recordings and an analysis and description of postconflict affiliative, aggressive and displacement behaviours can be used instead. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  4. Conceptualising Animal Abuse with an Antisocial Behaviour Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullone, Eleonora

    2011-01-26

    This paper reviews current findings in the human aggression and antisocial behaviour literature and those in the animal abuse literature with the aim of highlighting the overlap in conceptualisation. The major aim of this review is to highlight that the co-occurrence between animal abuse behaviours and aggression and violence toward humans can be logically understood through examination of the research evidence for antisocial and aggressive behaviour. From examination through this framework, it is not at all surprising that the two co-occur. Indeed, it would be surprising if they did not. Animal abuse is one expression of antisocial behaviour. What is also known from the extensive antisocial behaviour literature is that antisocial behaviours co-occur such that the presence of one form of antisocial behaviour is highly predictive of the presence of other antisocial behaviours. From such a framework, it becomes evident that animal abuse should be considered an important indicator of antisocial behaviour and violence as are other aggressive and antisocial behaviours. The implications of such a stance are that law enforcement, health and other professionals should not minimize the presence of animal abuse in their law enforcement, prevention, and treatment decisions.

  5. THE GIFT OF AGGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Socorro Lacerda Lima

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available On the context of Tupinambá war, bodies, trophies, women, children, names, words, identities, aggressions, offenses, and a lot more richness material that from the changing elements moving on permanently among enemy groups. But on the contrary, the potlatch held on the American northwest, where the alliance establishes a mutual relation of favors between not enemy groups. On the context of Tupi war, the changing system is based exactly in a hostile relation among opposite groups. The aim of the present article is to establish a parallel between anthropophagic complexes of Tupinambá Indians and established potlatch on the American’s northwest societies analyzed by Marcel Mauss.

  6. Raiders from the sky: slavemaker founding queens select for aggressive host colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamminger, Tobias; Modlmeier, Andreas P.; Suette, Stefan; Pennings, Pleuni S.; Foitzik, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Reciprocal selection pressures in host–parasite systems drive coevolutionary arms races that lead to advanced adaptations in both opponents. In the interactions between social parasites and their hosts, aggression is one of the major behavioural traits under selection. In a field manipulation, we aimed to disentangle the impact of slavemaking ants and nest density on aggression of Temnothorax longispinosus ants. An early slavemaker mating flight provided us with the unique opportunity to study the influence of host aggression and demography on founding decisions and success. We discovered that parasite queens avoided colony foundation in parasitized areas and were able to capture more brood from less aggressive host colonies. Host colony aggression remained consistent over the two-month experiment, but did not respond to our manipulation. However, as one-fifth of all host colonies were successfully invaded by parasite queens, slavemaker nest foundation acts as a strong selection event selecting for high aggression in host colonies. PMID:22809720

  7. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT OF INCOMPATIBLE BEHAVIOUR (DRI) TO OVERCOME DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOUR OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ossy Firstanti Wardany; Abdul Salim Choiri

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to determine the effectiveness of Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behaviour (DRI) to overcome the disruptive behaviour of intellectual disability students in the classroom during lesson. The type of disruptive behaviour, which becomes the target behaviour in this research, is physical aggression against classmates. This research used quantitative approach with experimental research design. The approach for this experimental research is Single Subject Research (SS...

  8. Aggression can be contagious: Longitudinal associations between proactive aggression and reactive aggression among young twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Daniel J; Richmond, Ashley D; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin's reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin's reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin's proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin's proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child's level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child's proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay.

  9. Aggressive fibromatosis of anterior maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi C Shetty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive fibromatosis is a comparitively rare tumor with unpredictable growth and varying local recurrence rates. It does not develop distant metastases but locally it shows an aggressive and infiltrative behavior. Clinically, aggressive fibromatosis manifests as a painless, firm, often rapidly enlarging mass, fixed to underlying bone or soft tissue. It is never encapsulated. Histologically, it is rich in collagen and fibroblastic cells that are devoid of hyperchromatic or atypical nuclei, but with more variable cellularity in different tumor sections.

  10. Television viewing, aggression, and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M B

    1992-02-01

    For 416 college students, questioned about their experiences with aggression and television viewing, only very weak correlations between preference for violent shows and aggression were observed. Black males watched significantly more television than other respondents. These findings suggest that the frequently reported correlation between viewing televised violence and aggression may not appear when sex, ethnicity, and education are controlled in a sample of young adults.

  11. Aggressiveness of childern at lower primary school

    OpenAIRE

    RUIBAROVÁ, Soňa

    2012-01-01

    The bachelor theses deals with the issue of aggression and aggressiveness of children at lower primary school. The teoretical part is aimed at description of the basic terms and at characteristics of aggression and aggressiveness. In detail it is focused on aggression´s manifestation and factors that influence children´s aggressiveness. Among other things prevention and correction of these issues are suggested. The practical part is analysing presence of aggression among children at the fourt...

  12. Aggression in Psychoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Volavka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most individuals diagnosed with a mental illness are not violent, but some mentally ill patients commit violent acts. PubMed database was searched for articles published between 1980 and November 2013 using the combination of key words “schizophrenia” or “bipolar disorder” with “aggression” or “violence.” In comparison with the general population, there is approximately a twofold increase of risk of violence in schizophrenia without substance abuse comorbidity and ninefold with such comorbidity. The risk in bipolar disorder is at least as high as in schizophrenia. Most of the violence in bipolar disorder occurs during the manic phase. Violence among adults with schizophrenia may follow two distinct pathways: one associated with antisocial conduct and another associated with the acute psychopathology, particularly anger and delusions. Clozapine is the most effective treatment of aggressive behavior in schizophrenia. Emerging evidence suggests that olanzapine may be the second most effective treatment. Treatment nonadherence greatly increases the risk of violent behavior, and poor insight as well as hostility is associated with nonadherence. Nonpharmacological methods of treatment of aggression in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are increasingly important. Cognitive behavioral approaches appear to be effective in cases where pharmacotherapy alone is not sufficient.

  13. DO TANZANIAN COMPANIES PRACTICE PECKING ORDER THEORY, AGENCY COST THEORY OR TRADE-OFF THEORY? AN EMPIRICAL STUDY IN TANZANIAN LISTED COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntogwa Ng'habi Bundala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The empirical study was focused predominantly on validity tests of the three theories on capital structures, the static trade-off theory, the pecking order theory (information asymmetry theory, and agency cost theory in the Tanzanian context. The study used secondary data from eight of the non-financial companies listed in Dar Es Salaam Stock Exchange (DSE from 2006-2012. The study used descriptive (quantitative approach to test the practicality of the theories in Tanzania. The multiple regressions model used to test the theoretical relationship between the financial leverage and characteristics of the company. The research found that there is no strong evidence for validation of static trade off theory, little support of pecking order theory, but the agency cost theory is confirmed to be valid and practiced in Tanzania. It recommended that Tanzanian companies should be adhering to the determinants of the capital structure in the Tanzanian context found by this study.

  14. A review of the assessment and treatment of anger and aggression in offenders with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J L

    2002-05-01

    Rates of aggression amongst people with intellectual disability (ID) have been found to be high in studies conducted on several continents across a number of service settings. Aggression is the primary reason for people with ID to be admitted or re-admitted to institutional settings, and it is also the main reason for individuals in this client group to be prescribed behaviour-control drugs. Anger is a significant activator of aggression, but little is known about the emotional aspects of the lives of people with ID. There are many reasons for this, but a lack of reliable and validated assessment measures is chief among them. The present review found that very little work has been conducted to date concerning the development of robust tools for assessing anger and aggression in this population. A narrative review of interventions for reducing aggression and anger in people with ID showed that there is virtually no evidence to support the use of psychotropic medications. Research has shown that behavioural interventions can be effective; however, they are intrusive and have not been tested in naturalistic settings with higher-functioning clients and low-frequency aggression. More recently, cognitive-behavioural interventions have shown promise, but the mechanisms for effective change have yet to be delineated. Priority research questions relating to assessment, treatment and therapeutic skills in working with anger and aggression problems are offered by the present review.

  15. Physical Aggression and Language Ability from 17 to 72 months: Cross-lagged Effects in a Population Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa-Christine Girard; Jean-Baptiste Pingault; Bruno Falissard; Michel Boivin; Ginette Dionne; Tremblay, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    Background: Does poor language ability in early childhood increase the likelihood of physical aggression or is language ability delayed by frequent physical aggression? This study examined the longitudinal associations between physical aggression and language ability from toddlerhood to early childhood in a population sample while controlling for parenting behaviours, non-verbal intellectual functioning, and children's sex. Methods: Children enrolled in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child ...

  16. Anti-aggressive effects of neuropeptide S independent of anxiolysis in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela I Beiderbeck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide S (NPS exerts robust anxiolytic and memory enhancing effects, but only in a non-social context. In order to study whether NPS affects aggressive behavior we used Wistar rats bred for low (LAB and high (HAB levels of innate anxiety-related behaviour, respectively, which were both described to display increased levels of aggression compared with Wistar rats not selectively bred for anxiety (NAB. Male LAB, HAB and NAB rats were tested for aggressive behavior towards a male intruder rat within their home cage (10 min, resident-intruder [RI] test. Intracerebroventricular (icv infusion of NPS (1 nmol significantly reduced inter-male aggression in LAB rats, and tended to reduce aggression in HAB and NAB males. However, local infusion of NPS (0.2 or 0.1 nmol NPS into either the nucleus accumbens or the lateral hypothalamus did not influence aggressive behavior. Social investigation in the RI test and general social motivation assessed in the social preference paradigm were not altered by icv NPS. The anti-aggressive effect of NPS is most likely not causally linked to its anxiolytic properties, as intraperitoneal administration of the anxiogenic drug pentylenetetrazole decreased aggression in LAB rats whereas the anxiolytic drug diazepam did not affect aggression of HAB rats. Thus, although NPS has so far only been shown to exert effects on non-social behaviors, our results are the first demonstration of anti-aggressive effects of NPS in male rats.

  17. Prepubertal social subjugation and anabolic androgenic steroid-induced aggression in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, R L; McGinnis, M Y

    2008-08-01

    Abused children are more prone to abuse drugs, such as anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), as teenagers and display violence as adults. AAS use has been linked with elevated aggression. Thus, exposure to child abuse and AAS may potentiate aggression. A social subjugation paradigm was used as an animal model of childhood abuse to determine whether prior subjugation increases AAS-induced aggression in male rats. Prepubertal gonadally intact male rats were exposed to social subjugation, a novel cage experience, or remained undisturbed in their home cages. Experimental males were socially subjugated by being placed in the home cage of an adult male. At puberty, both subjugated and nonsubjugated rats were injected with either the AAS testosterone or vehicle. AAS treatment continued for 5 weeks. Aggression was measured during the last week of AAS exposure. AAS was then discontinued. Aggression was again tested 12 weeks after AAS withdrawal. Aggression was tested under three conditions: (i) physical provocation of the experimental male; (ii) provocation of the intruder male; and (iii) without provocation. Both AAS-treated males and socially subjugated males displayed significantly more aggression than did controls. Elevated aggression by subjugated males was still present 17 weeks after social subjugation. AAS males also showed increased aggression 12 weeks after AAS withdrawal. However, exposure to both social subjugation and AAS had no long-term effects on aggression. The results of the present study indicate that social subjugation may have lasting consequences on the expression of adaptive social behaviours.

  18. How goal-fulfillment decreases aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denzler, M.; Förster, J.; Liberman, N.

    2009-01-01

    We suggest that the goal to aggress increases accessibility of aggressive thoughts, and that after goal-fulfillment, accessibility of aggressive content is reduced. Experiment 1 showed an increase in accessibility of aggression after imagining an aggression-eliciting situation compared to non-aggres

  19. Aggression in children and youth towards crime.

    OpenAIRE

    ŠTEFFLOVÁ, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with aggressive children and youth, which leads to crime. It deals with the causes of aggression, factors that influence aggression, but also the type of aggression. The practical part contains specific case studies of individuals whose aggression was one of the causes of crime.

  20. Aggression at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Annie

    Very few international and no Danish studies investigating the consequences of exposure to both physical and psychological aggression at work have been published. The aim of the present thesis is therefore to investigate the prevalence and consequences of different forms of physical...... response in victims. It was also an aim of the thesis to study whether aspects of the work environment, social climate and personal dispositions would mediate potential relationships between exposure to bullying, nasty teasing or violence and different health effects and stress reactions.      The study...... populations came from two Danish surveys and one Swedish. One of the Danish sur­veys was the Danish Work Environment Co­hort Study, which includes three cross-sec­tio­nal samples of 5,940, 5,652, and 5,636 employees each representative for the Danish labour for­ce in 1990, 1995 and 2000 respectively, and two...

  1. Timing and presence of an attachment person affect sensitivity of aggression tests in shelter dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, A; Klausz, B; Persa, E; Miklósi, Á; Gácsi, M

    2014-02-22

    Different test series have been developed and used to measure behaviour in shelter dogs in order to reveal individuals not suitable for re-homing due to their aggressive tendencies. However, behavioural tests previously validated on pet dogs seem to have relatively low predictability in the case of shelter dogs. Here, we investigate the potential effects of (1) timing of the behaviour testing and (2) presence of a human companion on dogs' aggressive behaviour. In Study I, shelter dogs (n=25) showed more aggression when tested in a short test series two weeks after they had been placed in the shelter compared to their responses in the same test performed 1-2 days after arrival. In Study II, the occurrence of aggressive behaviour was more probable in pet dogs (n=50) in the presence than in the absence of their passive owner. We conclude that the sensitivity of aggression tests for shelter dogs can be increased by running the test in the presence of a caretaker, and after some period of acclimatisation to the new environment. This methodology could also provide better chances for successful adoption.

  2. Parasite-induced aggression and impaired contest ability in a fish host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taskinen J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Success of trophically transmitted parasites depends to a great extent on their ability to manipulate their intermediate hosts in a way that makes them easier prey for target hosts. Parasite-induced behavioural changes are the most spectacular and diverse examples of manipulation. Most of the studies have been focused on individual behaviour of hosts including fish. We suggest that agonistic interactions and territoriality in fish hosts may affect their vulnerability to predators and thus the transmission efficiency of trophically transmitted parasites. The parasite Diplostomum spathaceum (Trematoda and juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were used to study whether infection can alter aggression rates and territorial behaviour of intermediate fish hosts. Results The changes in behaviour of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, infected with an eye fluke Diplostomum spathaceum (Trematoda, was monitored over the course of an experimental infection for 1.5 months. At the beginning of their development, not yet infective D. spathaceum metacercariae decreased the aggressiveness of rainbow trout. By the time that metacercariae were fully infective to their definitive hosts, the aggressiveness increased and exceeded that of control fish. Despite the increased aggressiveness, the experimentally infected fish lost contests for a territory (dark parts of the bottom against the control fish. Conclusions The results obtained indicate that the parasitized fish pay the cost of aggressiveness without the benefit of acquiring a territory that would provide them with better protection against predators. This behaviour should increase transmission of the parasite as expected by the parasite manipulation hypothesis.

  3. Territorial meadow pipit males ( Anthus pratensis; Passeriformes) become more aggressive in female presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrusková, Tereza; Petrusek, Adam; Pavel, Václav; Fuchs, Roman

    2007-08-01

    Although mate guarding as prevention of extra-pair copulation is common among birds, evidence for aggressive behaviour involving physical contact related to mate guarding in passerines is scarce and cases of the presence of one partner directly influencing the aggressiveness of the other are lacking. We investigated the intra-specific territorial behaviour of male meadow pipits ( Anthus pratensis; Passeriformes: Motacillidae) at the beginning of the breeding season by placing a pipit model accompanied by an intra-specific song playback in the territory of socially paired males and compared the responses of males whose mates were physically present during trials with those whose females were out of sight. The level of aggression of males was significantly higher in the presence of the female; half of the males in this group physically attacked the model (the most intense and risky aggressive behaviour). Physical attacks did not occur among males whose female was absent during the trial; response to the playback by most of these males was only weak. This pattern may be related to the prevention of extra-pair copulation; if the risks involved in the conflict are outweighed by potential loss of paternity, such aggressive mate guarding may pay off. The apparently overlooked effect on the territorial behaviour of a partner’s passive physical presence during conflict should be further evaluated because it may be important for the design and interpretation of results of behavioural experiments.

  4. The Neurobiology of Impulsive Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert J R

    2016-02-01

    This selective review provides a model of the neurobiology of impulsive aggression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. It is argued that prototypical cases of impulsive aggression, those associated with anger, involve the recruitment of the acute threat response system structures; that is, the amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. It is argued that whether the recruitment of these structures results in impulsive aggression or not reflects the functional roles of ventromedial frontal cortex and dorsomedial frontal and anterior insula cortex in response selection. It is also argued that impulsive aggression may occur because of impaired decision making. The aggression may not be accompanied by anger, but it will reflect disrupted evaluation of the rewards/benefits of the action.

  5. Aggressiveness and intelligence in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Munique de Souza Siqueira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the aggressiveness and intelligence in adolescence, and to verify if exists association through these variables. The aggressiveness is inherent in human nature and collaborates in the construction of personality by influencing the behaviors positively or negatively. Intelligence refers to the cognitive skill that every individual has and contributes to the establishment of social relations. As a teenager the aggressiveness and the intelligence become more evident due to change in this phase of development. The sample of 35 adolescents of both sexes participated in this survey. The instruments used were the batch of reasoning tests – BPR-5 and the Aggressiveness scale for children and young people. The results indicated that there is no relationship between aggression and intelligence. However, based on the literature these variables interrelate. Therefore, it is suggested that this research be expanded with the use of other psychological instruments.

  6. Trans fat consumption and aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice A Golomb

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary trans fatty acids (dTFA are primarily synthetic compounds that have been introduced only recently; little is known about their behavioral effects. dTFA inhibit production of omega-3 fatty acids, which experimentally have been shown to reduce aggression. Potential behavioral effects of dTFA merit investigation. We sought to determine whether dTFA are associated with aggression/irritability. METHODOLGY/PRINICPAL FINDINGS: We capitalized on baseline dietary and behavioral assessments in an existing clinical trial to analyze the relationship of dTFA to aggression. Of 1,018 broadly sampled baseline subjects, the 945 adult men and women who brought a completed dietary survey to their baseline visit are the target of this analysis. Subjects (seen 1999-2004 were not on lipid medications, and were without LDL-cholesterol extremes, diabetes, HIV, cancer or heart disease. Outcomes assessed adverse behaviors with impact on others: Overt Aggression Scale Modified-aggression subscale (primary behavioral endpoint; Life History of Aggression; Conflict Tactics Scale; and self-rated impatience and irritability. The association of dTFA to aggression was analyzed via regression and ordinal logit, unadjusted and adjusted for potential confounders (sex, age, education, alcohol, and smoking. Additional analyses stratified on sex, age, and ethnicity, and examined the prospective association. Greater dTFA were strongly significantly associated with greater aggression, with dTFA more consistently predictive than other assessed aggression predictors. The relationship was upheld with adjustment for confounders, was preserved across sex, age, and ethnicity strata, and held cross-sectionally and prospectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides the first evidence linking dTFA with behavioral irritability and aggression. While confounding is always a concern in observational studies, factors including strength and consistency of association

  7. Facial width-to-height ratio predicts self-reported dominance and aggression in males and females, but a measure of masculinity does not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Carmen E; Etchells, Peter J; Howell, Emma C; Clark, Andrew P; Penton-Voak, Ian S

    2014-10-01

    Recently, associations between facial structure and aggressive behaviour have been reported. Specifically, the facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is thought to link to aggression, although it is unclear whether this association is related to a specific dimension of aggression, or to a more generalized concept of dominance behaviour. Similarly, an association has been proposed between facial masculinity and dominant and aggressive behaviour, but, to date, this has not been formally tested. Because masculinity and fWHR are negatively correlated, it is unlikely that both signal similar behaviours. Here, we thus tested these associations and show that: (i) fWHR is related to both self-reported dominance and aggression; (ii) physical aggression, verbal aggression and anger, but not hostility are associated with fWHR; (iii) there is no evidence for a sex difference in associations between fWHR and aggression; and (iv) the facial masculinity index does not predict dominance or aggression. Taken together, these results indicate that fWHR, but not a measure of facial masculinity, cues dominance and specific types of aggression in both sexes.

  8. Children's social cognition about proactive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Killen, Melanie; Duffy, Amanda

    2013-11-01

    In this study, 6- and 9-year-old children (N=258) observed two instances of proactive aggression (one relational and the other direct aggression) that were committed by members of a group toward out-group members. Participants were either members of the group or independent observers. Analyses of participants' social cognition about the aggressor and the aggression (cause of aggression, moral judgment of aggression, attitudes toward the aggressor, and exclusion of the aggressor) indicated that, overall, group members were more positive toward aggressors than were independent observers. Although intergroup competition was perceived to be the cause of the aggression, participants disapproved of both types of aggression (especially direct aggression), disapproval increased with age, and girls disapproved of relational aggression more than did boys. Group members' social cognition about the aggressor and the aggression comprised a coherent cognitive process for both types of aggression, but the observers' process was simpler and differed by aggression type.

  9. Involvement in internet aggression during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Nicole E; Bumpus, Matthew F; Rock, Daquarii

    2010-06-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were themselves targets of Internet aggression. Offline relational aggression and beliefs supportive of relational and physical aggression also predicted concurrent involvement in Internet aggression. We used longitudinal data (N = 150; 51% female) to distinguish between youth who were aggressive in traditional contexts only (i.e., school) from those who were aggressive both online and offline. These results indicated that youth who were aggressive both online and offline were older at the initial assessment, were targets of Internet aggression, and held beliefs more supportive of relational aggression than youth who were aggressive offline only. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  10. [The effect of media violence on aggression: is aggressive behavior mediated by aggressive cognitions and emotions?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukawa, S; Yoshida, F

    1999-06-01

    This study investigated whether cognitions and emotions elicited by media violence mediate aggressive behavior. Eighty undergraduates, 40 men and 40 women, participated in the experiment. First, subjects were exposed to one of four violent videos which varied in levels of violence and entertainment. Subjects' heart rate and eyeblink rate were continuously recorded while they watched the video. After watching it, subjects described their thoughts which occurred while watching it and rated their affective reactions to it. Finally, their aggressive behavior was measured. Results showed that (1) videos high in violence elicited more aggressive thoughts, more thoughts of negative affect, stronger negative affects, and stronger empty-powerless affects, whereas videos high in entertainment elicited stronger positive affects; (2) no significant differences were found among the videos in terms of physiological reactions and aggressive behavior; and (3) cognitions and emotions elicited by media violence did not mediate aggressive behavior.

  11. Suicidality and aggression during antidepressant treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Tarang; Guski, Louise Schow; Freund, Nanna;

    2016-01-01

    reports for duloxetine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, and venlafaxine obtained from the European and UK drug regulators, and summary trial reports for duloxetine and fluoxetine from Eli Lilly's website.Eligibility criteria for study selection Double blind placebo controlled trials that contained any....... These trials had limitations in the study design and discrepancies in reporting, which may have led to serious under-reporting of harms. For example, some outcomes appeared only in individual patient listings in appendices, which we had for only 32 trials, and we did not have case report forms for any......Objective To study serious harms associated with selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors.Design Systematic review and meta-analysis.Main outcome measures Mortality and suicidality. Secondary outcomes were aggressive behaviour and akathisia.Data sources Clinical study...

  12. Testando as previsões da Pecking Order Theory no financiamento das empress brasileiras: uma nova metodologia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina da Silva Borges de Araújo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a existência de assimetria de informação entre gestores e investidores, Myers (1984 afirma que a formação da estrutura de capital por parte das empresas está baseada em uma hierarquia de captação conhecida como Pecking Order Theory (POT, favorecendo seqüencialmente a utilização de recursos internos, emissão de dívida e, por último, emissão de ações. A verificação empírica esbarra em questões metodológicas, sendo a POT por vezes confirmada e outras negada. Neste artigo, propõe-se uma metodologia diferente, reconhecendo as características das empresas como tamanho, lucratividade e crescimento, para explicar o financiamento do déficit, utilizando um modelo de dados em painel. Analisou-se uma amostra de 313 empresas listadas na Bovespa de 2000 a 2005. Os resultados indicam que unicamente as empresas de menor tamanho na amostra, de lucratividade negativa e baixo crescimento, apresentam aderência (fraca às previsões da POT. Assim, essa teoria não pode ser considerada uma teoria geral para explicar a estrutura de capital das empresas.

  13. Interpersonal violence, aggression, and antisocial behaviours in the adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, H D

    1999-01-01

    Violence is a growing problem among adolescents all over the world. Exposure to violence can have lasting and pervasive effects on an adolescent's mental and physical health, general well-being, and ability to become a productive adult. Research on adolescent violence in India and Southeast Asia is limited; very little is written in clinical journals. Addressing adolescent violence is currently a low priority for medical practitioners because disease, poverty, and infant maternal health pose more immediate threats to morbidity and mortality in Asia. Physicians, especially in India, have a unique opportunity to take preventative actions now, to stem the tide of morbidity and mortality from gun violence that plagues the United States. Adolescents in Asia are at greatest risk for violence exposure in their homes. Pediatricians who are proactive and educate their patients, families, and the community can help reduce or prevent morbidity and mortality resulting from violence in adolescents.

  14. Inhaled corticosteroids do not affect behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, T. W.; van Roon, E. N.; Duiverman, E. J.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether children with asthma and on inhaled corticosteroids have more behavioural problems, such as aggressiveness and hyperactivity, as compared with healthy controls and with children under medical care because of other disorders. Methods: Questionnaires were given to three group

  15. Linking behavioural syndromes and cognition: a behavioural ecology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Del Giudice, Marco

    2012-10-01

    With the exception of a few model species, individual differences in cognition remain relatively unstudied in non-human animals. One intriguing possibility is that variation in cognition is functionally related to variation in personality. Here, we review some examples and present hypotheses on relationships between personality (or behavioural syndromes) and individual differences in cognitive style. Our hypotheses are based largely on a connection between fast-slow behavioural types (BTs; e.g. boldness, aggressiveness, exploration tendency) and cognitive speed-accuracy trade-offs. We also discuss connections between BTs, cognition and ecologically important aspects of decision-making, including sampling, impulsivity, risk sensitivity and choosiness. Finally, we introduce the notion of cognition syndromes, and apply ideas from theories on adaptive behavioural syndromes to generate predictions on cognition syndromes.

  16. Aggressivity, violence, sociability and conflict resolution: What genes can tell us.

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno i Torrens, David, 1965-

    2010-01-01

    Conflicts are inherent to the human condition, as they are for all living beings. Disputes about resources or access to mating partners are among the most common causes of conflict. Conflict is herein defined as a struggle or contest between individuals or parties, and may involve a variety of aggressive behaviours. In humans, aggressiveness, violence and conflicts, including individual predisposal to conflict resolution, have traditionally been said to have deep cultural roots, but recent re...

  17. From aggressiveness to creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrevlje, Gorazd V

    2004-02-01

    Psychology has a long tradition of considering human creativity as a distinct human characteristic and a special kind of human activity. After explaining the key motives for such an attitude, the author discusses those forms of healthy aggressiveness that stand out as necessary and constitutive elements of the creative process. Taking the well-known statement of C. G. Jung's 'The person who does not build (create), will demolish and destroy' as a starting point, the author compares the basic premises for understanding the process of human creativity, at the same time drawing on Freud's psychology of the individual and Jung's principle of the collective unconscious as well as his notion of 'complexes'. In doing so, the author somewhat boldly paraphrases Jung's dictum: 'In order to be creative, rather than just constructive, one must occasionally also destroy'. With reference to Wallas, Taylor and Neumann (Wallas 1926; Taylor 1959;;Neumann 2001), the author goes on to explore those concepts which help us to investigate the phenomenon of human creativity, drawing distinctions between emergent, expressive, productive, inventive and innovative creativity. The second part of the article discusses the importance of intelligence, originality, nonconformity, subversiveness and free-mindedness for the creative process of human beings. The author concludes with a further explanation of Erich Neumann's argument that human creativity cannot be understood solely as a result of sociogenetic factors, and argues that it is only by taking into consideration Jung's perception of creativity that a global ontological understanding of these processes can be achieved.

  18. Playing to an audience: the social environment influences aggression and victory displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Lauren P; Bertram, Susan M

    2013-08-23

    Animal behaviour studies have begun to incorporate the influence of the social environment, providing new opportunities for studying signal strategies and evolution. We examined how the presence and sex of an audience influenced aggression and victory display behaviour in field-captured and laboratory-reared field crickets (Gryllus veletis). Audience type, rearing environment and their interaction were important predictors in all model sets. Thus, audience type may impose different costs and benefits for competing males depending on whether they are socially experienced or not. Our results suggest that field-captured winners, in particular, dynamically adjust their contest behaviour to potentially gain a reproductive benefit via female eavesdropping and may deter future aggression from rivals by advertising their aggressiveness and victories.

  19. Should I fight or should I flight? How studying insect aggression can help integrated pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Aggression plays a key role all across the animal kingdom, as it allows the acquisition and/or defence of limited resources (food, mates and territories) in a huge number of species. A large part of our knowledge on aggressive behaviour has been developed on insects of economic importance. How can this knowledge be exploited to enhance integrated pest management? Here, I highlight how knowledge on intraspecific aggression can help IPM both in terms of insect pests (with a focus on the enhancement of the sterile insect technique) and in terms of biological control agents (with a focus on mass-rearing optimisation). Then, I examine what implications for IPM can be outlined from knowledge about interspecific aggressive behaviour. Besides predator-pest aggressive interactions predicted by classic biological control, I focus on what IPM can learn from (i) interspecific aggression among pest species (with special reference to competitive displacement), (ii) defensive behaviour exhibited by prey against predaceous insects and (iii) conflicts among predaceous arthropods sharing the same trophic niche (with special reference to learning/sensitisation practices and artificial manipulation of chemically mediated interactions).

  20. Risk factors associated with interdog aggression and shooting phobias among purebred dogs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Helene; Proschowsky, Helle Friis; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2003-01-01

    aggression, separation anxiety and shooting phobia. Compared to Labrador Retrievers, the following breeds and breed groups had higher odds of being reported to have interdog dominance aggression: Belgian Sheepdogs, Dachshunds, Dalmatians, German, Shepherds, Hovawarts, Pinschers, Rottweilers, Scent dogs...... and Spitz dogs. Poodles, retrieving/flushing dogs, Sheepdogs, Spitz dogs and terriers had higher odds of shooting phobia. The odds of interdog dominance aggression were higher among dogs owned by younger dog owners compared to dogs owned by older dog owners. Dogs living in the capital area of Copenhagen had...... phobia. Dogs belonging to dog breeders had reduced odds of being reported to have the investigated behaviour problems....

  1. Suicidal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J

    2001-01-01

    -Prevention of suicidal behaviour remains difficult, despite increasing knowledge of its determinants. Health service efforts hardly affect suicide rates. -Recent shifts in the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour are rising rates among the young and increasing use of violent methods. these can be lin

  2. Physical aggression and language ability from 17 to 72 months: cross-lagged effects in a population sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Christine Girard

    Full Text Available Does poor language ability in early childhood increase the likelihood of physical aggression or is language ability delayed by frequent physical aggression? This study examined the longitudinal associations between physical aggression and language ability from toddlerhood to early childhood in a population sample while controlling for parenting behaviours, non-verbal intellectual functioning, and children's sex.Children enrolled in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD (N = 2, 057 were assessed longitudinally from 17 to 72 months via parent reports and standardized assessments.The cross-lagged models revealed modest reciprocal associations between physical aggression and language performance from 17 to 41 months but not thereafter.Significant associations between physical aggression and poor language ability are minimal and limited to the period when physical aggression and language performance are both substantially increasing. During that period parenting behaviours may play an important role in supporting language ability while reducing the frequency of physical aggression. Further studies are needed that utilize multiple assessments of physical aggression, assess multiple domains of language abilities, and that examine the potential mediating role of parenting behaviours between 12 and 48 months.

  3. A longitudinal investigation of maternal influences on the development of child hostile attributions and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Sarah J; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter J; Hughes, Claire; Halligan, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Aggression in children is associated with an enhanced tendency to attribute hostile intentions to others. However, limited information is available regarding the factors that contribute to the development of such hostile attribution tendencies. We examined factors that contribute to individual differences in child hostile attributions and aggression, focusing on potential pathways from maternal hostile attributions via negative parenting behavior. We conducted a longitudinal study of 98 mothers and children (47 male, 51 female), recruited from groups experiencing high and low levels of psychosocial adversity. Maternal hostile attributions, observed parenting, and child behaviour were assessed at 18 months and 5 years child age, and child hostile attributions were also examined at 5 years. Independent assessments of maternal and child processes were utilized where possible. Analyses provided support for a direct influence of maternal hostile attributions on the development of child hostile attributions and aggressive behaviour. Maternal hostile attributions were also associated with negative parenting behaviour, which in turn influenced child adjustment. Even taking account of possible parenting influences and preexisting child difficulties, hostile attributions in the mother showed a direct link with child aggression at 5 years. Maternal hostile attributions were themselves related to psychosocial adversity. We conclude that maternal hostile attributions are prevalent in high-risk samples and are related to less optimal parenting behaviour, child hostile attributions, and child aggression. Targeting hostile maternal cognitions may be a useful adjunct to parenting programs.

  4. Female-female aggression and female mate choice on black grouse leks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen; Rintamäki; Alatalo

    2000-05-01

    We studied female-female aggression in relation to female mate choice in black grouse, Tetrao tetrix, in central Finland, in 1994-1998. Aggression occurred on average every other minute when there was more than one female on a territory, and aggressive behaviour was most prominent when several females attended the lek. Interactions tended to be proportionally most frequent on the territories of the highest-ranking males, although not significantly so. Females that were chased by other females did not mate with lower-ranking males than their aggressors did. Furthermore, chased females were only rarely (6% of cases) forced to move off the territory by agonistic interactions and copulations were disrupted by other females even less often (3% of cases). The choice of a mating territory did not depend on the outcome of aggression even though the aggressors were more likely to mate on the territory where aggression occurred than elsewhere. There was a marginally significant tendency for aggressors to mate earlier in the season. Females placed themselves further away from other females on the territory when soliciting a copulation than just before aggression. Our results suggest that aggression between females does not effectively constrain female choice in black grouse. Its function may be to aid females to secure undisturbed mating opportunities for themselves rather than to prevent others from mating with a particular male. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  5. The couple that sings together stays together: duetting, aggression and extra-pair paternity in a promiscuous bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarre, Daniel T; Greig, Emma I; Webster, Michael S

    2016-02-01

    When individuals mate outside the pair bond, males should employ behaviours such as aggression or vocal displays (e.g. duetting) that help assure paternity of the offspring they care for. We tested whether male paternity was associated with aggression or duetting in the red-backed fairy-wren, a species exhibiting high rates of extra-pair paternity. During simulated territorial intrusions, aggression and duetting were variable among and repeatable within males, suggesting behavioural consistency of individuals. Males with quicker and stronger duet responses were cuckolded less often than males with slower and weaker responses. In contrast, physical aggression was not correlated with male paternity. These results suggest that either acoustic mate guarding or male-female vocal negotiations via duetting lead to increased paternity assurance, whereas physical aggression does not.

  6. ``Aggressive`` renal angiomyolipoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cittadini, G. Jr. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Pozzi Mucelli, F. [Univ. of Trieste (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Danza, F.M. [Catholic Sacro Cuore Univ., Rome (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Derchi, L.E. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Pozzi Mucelli, R.S. [Univ. of Trieste (Italy). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-11-01

    We describe the US and CT examinations of 4 patients with renal angiomyolipoma with an `aggressive` appearance, and review the literature. The imaging findings in 4 patients with benign renal angiomyolipomas associated with thrombosis of the renal vein and/or inferior vena cava are presented. CT demonstrated fat densities within both tumor and thrombus. In one patient, small lymph nodes with low density internal areas were detected in the para-aortic region. When considering our patients together with those reported in the literature, we found that most angiomyolipomas with venous invasion were large and centrally located within the kidney. Venous thrombosis was observed in 9 lesions of the right kidney, and in only 4 of the left one. One patient only had symptoms due to the thrombus; 10 had problems due to the tumor; and 3 were asymptomatic. Only 4 patients with pararenal enlarged lymph nodes have been reported on in the imaging literature. Fat-containing nodes were detected by CT in one case only; the others had enlarged nodes of soft-tissue density. In one patient the diagnosis of hamartomatous lymph node invasion was established by angiography. In patients with renal angiomyolipoma, demonstration of both fatty thrombus and the fatty infiltration of lymph nodes of the renal hilum cannot be regarded as an indication of malignancy, but only of local aggessive behavior. Conservative treatment seems possible. Detection of enlarged lymph nodes of soft tissue density may cause difficult diagnostic problems, with the diagnosis addressed only by the presence of associated lesions. (orig./MG).

  7. Genetics of Aggression in Voles

    OpenAIRE

    Gobrogge, Kyle L.; Wang, Zuoxin

    2011-01-01

    Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are socially monogamous rodents that form pair bonds—a behavior composed of several social interactions including attachment with a familiar mate and aggression toward conspecific strangers. Therefore, this species has provided an excellent opportunity for the study of pair bonding behavior and its underlying neural mechanisms. In this chapter, we discuss the utility of this unique animal model in the study of aggression and review recent findings illustra...

  8. Music, Substance Use, and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Grube, Joel W.; Waiters, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and from a sample of community college students aged 15-25 (N = 1056; 43% male). A structural equation modeling method was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music, alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors, taking into account respondents’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking. Results Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. Additionally, alcohol and illicit drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables such as sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. Conclusion The findings suggest that young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Conversely, music listening preference may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. Alternatively, substance use, aggression and music preference are independent constructs, but share common “third factors.” PMID:16608146

  9. Aggression and affiliation during social conflict in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerlink, Irene; Turner, Simon P; Ursinus, Winanda W; Reimert, Inonge; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Social conflict is mostly studied in relation to aggression. A more integral approach, including aggressive and affiliative behaviour as well as physiology, may however give a better understanding of the animals' experience during social conflict. The experience of social conflict may also be reflected in the spatial distribution between conspecifics. The objective was to assess the relationship between behaviour, physiology, and spatial integration in pigs (Sus scrofa) during social conflict. Hereto, 64 groups of pigs (9 wk of age) were studied in a 24 h regrouping test whereby pairs of familiar pigs were grouped with 2 unfamiliar pairs, in either barren or straw-enriched housing. Data on aggressive and affiliative behaviour, skin lesions, body weight, and haptoglobin could be summarized into three principal component analysis factors. These three factors were analysed in relation to spatial integration, i.e. inter-individual distances and lying in body contact. Pigs stayed up to 24 h after encounter in closer proximity to the familiar pig than to unfamiliar pigs. Pigs with a high factor 1 score were more inactive, gave little social nosing, had many skin lesions and a high body weight. They tended to space further away from the familiar pig (b = 1.9 cm; P = 0.08) and unfamiliar ones (b = 0.7 cm; P = 0.05). Pigs that were involved in much aggression (factor 2), and that had a strong increase in haptoglobin (factor 3), tended to be relatively most far away from unfamiliar pigs (b = 0.03 times further; P = 0.08). Results on lying in body contact were coherent with results on distances. Pigs in enriched housing spaced further apart than pigs in barren housing (Psocial conflict.

  10. Behavioural consequences of partial beak amputation (beak trimming) in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, I J; Slee, G S; Seawright, E; Breward, J

    1989-09-01

    1. The effects of beak trimming on 16-week-old Brown Leghorn hens, housed individually in battery cages, was assessed by comparing their behaviour after trimming with their behaviour before trimming and with the behaviour of a sham-operated control group. 2. In the short-term, times spent feeding, drinking and preening decreased. 3. In the long-term, times spent preening and pecking at the cage decreased and times spent standing inactive increased, with no signs of returning to pretreatment values after 5 weeks. 4. During the first three weeks, times spent feeding and drinking decreased and during the first two weeks, times spent sitting dozing increased, but after 5 weeks these had returned to near pre-treatment values. 5. It is argued that pain is the most probable cause of these behavioural changes. 6. The decrease in welfare to the individual bird caused by this pain will conflict with any increase in welfare to the flock brought about by beak trimming; this should be considered before any decision to beak trim is taken.

  11. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression.

  12. How spiders practice aggressive and Batesian mimicry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ximena J.NELSON; Robert R.JACKSON

    2012-01-01

    To understand communication,the interests of the sender and the receiver/s of signals should be considered separately.When our goal is to understand the adaptive significance of specific responses to specific signals by the receiver,questions about signal information are useful.However,when our goal is to understand the adaptive significance to the sender of generating a signal,it may be better to envisage the receiver's response to signals as part of the sender's extended phenotype.By making signals,a sender interfaces with the receiver's model of the world and indirectly manipulates its behaviour.This is especially clear in cases of mimicry,where animals use deceptive signals that indirectly manipulate the behaviour of receivers.Many animals adopt Batesian mimicry to deceive their predators,or aggressive mimicry to deceive their prey.We review examples from the literature on spiders to illustrate how these phenomena,traditionally thought of as distinct,can become entangled in a web of lies.

  13. How spiders practice aggressive and Batesian mimicry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena J. NELSON, Robert R. JACKSON

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To understand communication, the interests of the sender and the receiver/s of signals should be considered separately. When our goal is to understand the adaptive significance of specific responses to specific signals by the receiver, questions about signal information are useful. However, when our goal is to understand the adaptive significance to the sender of generating a signal, it may be better to envisage the receiver’s response to signals as part of the sender’s extended phenotype. By making signals, a sender interfaces with the receiver’s model of the world and indirectly manipulates its behaviour. This is especially clear in cases of mimicry, where animals use deceptive signals that indirectly manipulate the behaviour of receivers. Many animals adopt Batesian mimicry to deceive their predators, or aggressive mimicry to deceive their prey. We review examples from the lite­rature on spiders to illustrate how these phenomena, traditionally thought of as distinct, can become entangled in a web of lies [Current Zoology 58 (4: 620–629, 2012].

  14. Adolescents' Social Reasoning about Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Tisak, Marie S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined early adolescents' reasoning about relational aggression, and the links that their reasoning has to their own relationally aggressive behavior. Thinking about relational aggression was compared to thinking about physical aggression, conventional violations, and personal behavior. In individual interviews, adolescents (N = 103) rated…

  15. Do Teachers Misbehave? Aggression in School Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing research on school aggression, significant gaps remain in the authors' knowledge of team aggression, since most studies have mainly explored aggression on the part of students. The purpose of this paper is to focus on understanding the phenomenon of workplace aggression in school teams. Specifically, the purpose of the…

  16. Timing of presentation of an audience: aggressive priming and audience effects in male displays of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Ricardo J.; Peake, Tom M.; McGregor, Peter K.

    2003-05-28

    Studies of animal communication often underestimate the presence of individuals other than the signaller-receiver dyad. Signalling interactions often occur in the presence of non-participating individuals (audiences); the effect of these individuals upon the dynamics of interactions has been called the audience effect. Recent studies of fighting fish Betta splendens have shown that the presence of a male audience can increase aggression during interactions. However, in many of these studies males were allowed to see the audience prior to the interaction, thus such pre-exposure may have facilitated aggressive behaviour (aggressive priming). Here we present results of two experiments designed to examine the relative importance of priming and audience effects on the dynamics of aggressive interactions. Males that were pre-exposed showed higher levels of aggression during subsequent interactions regardless of the presence or absence of an audience. When only one of the interactants had been pre-exposed to the audience, the non-exposed male showed similar increases in aggressive behaviour, i.e. matching the level of aggression showed by his opponent. Taken together these results suggest that aggressive priming may have resulted in an over-estimation of the audience effect in previous studies. The results still highlight the importance of social environment in determining the dynamics and outcomes of aggressive contests.

  17. Parent-child interaction therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, M.E.; Junger, M.; Chavannes, E.L.; Coelman, F.J.G.; Boer, F.; Lindauer, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Persistent high levels of aggressive, oppositional and impulsive behaviours, in the early lives of children, are significant risk factors for adolescent and adult antisocial behaviour and criminal activity. If the disruptive behavioural problems of young children could be prevented or sig

  18. [Pro-aggressive effect of diazepam in male mice with repeated experience of aggression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'eva, A E; Smagin, D A; Bondar', N P; Galiamina, A G; Kudriavtseva, N N

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that repeated experience of aggression is attended with the development of increased anxiety in male mice. The paper aimed to investigate effect of anxiolytic, diazepam, on the level of anxiety and aggression in these animals. The drug was chronically administrated for two weeks at the process of aggression experience acquisition. It was shown that diazepam decreased anxiety but didn't influence aggression level assessed by total time of attacks. However, diazepam decreased demonstration of aggressive grooming in part of aggressive males. Group of diazepam-treated aggressive males which displayed aggressive grooming didn't differ in level of anxiety and aggression in saline-treated male mice. Diazepam had anxiolytic and pro-aggressive effects in male mice without demonstrating aggressive grooming. Thus, we can conclude that anxiolytic effect of diazepam is accompanied with increased aggression as side effect in some male mice which have repeated experience of aggression.

  19. Can Non-Beak Treated Hens be Kept in Commercial Furnished Cages? Exploring the Effects of Strain and Extra Environmental Enrichment on Behaviour, Feather Cover, and Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Krysta L. H.; Brocklehurst, Sarah; Baker, Laurence; Widowski, Tina M.; Sandilands, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Commercial laying hens are prone to injurious pecking (IP), a common multifactorial problem. A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design assessed the effects of breed (Lohmann Brown Classic (L) or Hyline Brown (H)), beak treatment (infra-red treated (T) or not (NT)), and environment (extra enrichment (EE) or no extra enrichment (NE)) on mortality, behaviour, feather cover, and beak shape. Hens were allocated to treatments at 16 weeks of age and data were collected every four weeks from age 19 to 71 weeks. Data were analysed in Genstat using mixed models. L hens had higher all and IP-related mortality than H hens (p cages (p bird-to-bird pecking than H and EE hens, respectively (breed p = 0.015, enrichment p = 0.032). More damage to mats and ropes was caused by L and NT hens than by H and T hens, respectively (age × breed p bird-to-bird pecking, the enrichments were less effective at reducing feather cover damage and mortality than expected. PMID:26927190

  20. Genetic contributions to subtypes of aggression

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Boys and girls may display different styles of aggression. The aim of this study was to identify subtypes of aggression within the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) aggression scale, and determine their characteristics for both sexes. Maternal CBCL ratings of 7449 7-year-old twin pairs were analyzed using principal components analyses to identify subtypes of aggression, and structural equation modeling to carry out genetic analyses. Two aggression subtypes were identified: relational and direct...

  1. Behavioural Modernity

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural Modernity explores the changing politics of representation and ethics of care in curatorial practice, necessitated by an increasing blurring of boundaries between the human, the technological, and the planetary.

  2. Geothermal Space Heating Applications for the Fort Peck Indian Reservation in the Vicinity of Poplar, Montana. Phase I Report, August 20, 1979--December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Glenn J.; Cohen, M. Jane

    1980-01-04

    This engineering and economic study is concerned with the question of using the natural heat of the earth, or geothermal energy, as an alternative to other energy sources such as oil and natural gas which are increasing in cost. This document represents a quarterly progress report on the effort directed to determine the availability of geothermal energy within the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Montana (Figure 1), and the feasibility of beneficial use of this resource including engineering, economic and environmental considerations. The project is being carried out by the Tribal Research office, Assinboine and Sioux Tribes, Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Poplar, Montana under a contract to the United States Department of Energy. PRC TOUPS, the major subcontractor, is responsible for engineering and economic studies and the Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) is providing support in the areas of environment and finance, the results of which will appear in the Final Report. The existence of potentially valuable geothermal resource within the Fort Peck Indian Reservation was first detected from an analysis of temperatures encountered in oil wells drilled in the area. This data, produced by the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, pointed to a possible moderate to high temperature source near the town of Poplar, Montana, which is the location of the Tribal Headquarters for the Fort Peck Reservation. During the first phase of this project, additional data was collected to better characterize the nature of this geothermal resource and to analyze means of gaining access to it. As a result of this investigation, it has been learned that not only is there a potential geothermal resource in the region but that the producing oil wells north of the town of Poplar bring to the surface nearly 20,000 barrels a day (589 gal/min) of geothermal fluid in a temperature range of 185-200 F. Following oil separation, these fluids are disposed of by pumping into a deep groundwater

  3. A estrutura de capital das maiores empresas brasileiras: análise empírica das teorias de pecking order e trade-off, usando panel data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Correa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas sobre estrutura de capital das empresas são consideradas dentre as mais relevantes na área de finanças. Diversas abordagens teóricas têm sido discutidas e testadas na literatura financeira. Este estudo buscou analisar o nível de endividamento das maiores empresas brasileiras, à luz das duas principais teorias que versam sobre o assunto, a teoria de Pecking Order e a teoria de trade--off, testando seus determinantes. A teoria do Pecking Order sugere a existência de uma hierarquia no uso de fontes de recursos, enquanto a teoria de trade-off considera a existência de uma estrutura meta de capital que seria perseguida pela empresa. O estudo é uma adaptação do artigo de Gaud et al. (2005, cujo trabalho serviu como base e principal referência para a escolha das principais variáveis e dos testes econométricos realizados. Tal como Gaud et al. (2005, desenvolvemos as análises estatísticas utilizando a metodologia de Panel Data, que considera os dados da amostra em corte transversal e longitudinal. Além de testes estáticos, foram feitos testes dinâmicos, com o objetivo de analisar o processo de ajuste da estrutura de capital ao longo do tempo, em direção a um suposto nível-alvo ótimo. Os resultados demonstraram relação negativa entre o nível de endividamento das empresas e o grau de tangibilidade dos ativos e a rentabilidade, bem como relação positiva do endividamento com o risco. Demonstraram ainda que empresas de capital estrangeiro são mais endividadas que empresas nacionais. De um modo geral, os resultados sugerem que a teoria de Pecking Order é mais consistente do que a teoria de trade-off para explicar a estrutura de capital das companhias abertas brasileiras. Em especial, destacamos a relação negativa entre endividamento e rentabilidade, confirmando vários outros resultados de pesquisa obtidos na realidade brasileira. A análise dinâmica demonstrou baixa velocidade do processo de ajuste da estrutura de

  4. RESTRAINTS AND PATIENTS WITH MENTAL DISORDERS AND AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zartaloudi A.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aggression management and means of control in psychiatric settings is an international issue. Many studies in mental health literature are related to the appearance and the causes of violence and the use of control procedures, such as seclusion and restraint, from mental health professionals in order to control and suppress aggressive and violent behavior. AIM: The purpose of this study is to present the restraints used to control the behaviour of mentally ill patients, the relationship between aggressive behavior and mental disorders and the historical background concerning the use of restrictive measures. METHOD: A critical review of this body of literature was carried out. Evidence was collected through Medline database. RESULTS: Two restraint techniques are used in order to cope with patients who could cause harm to themselves or their environment, physical restraint and seclusion. These restrictive measures are used through centuries in order to suppress violent behaviour of mental patients. CONCLUSION: Involuntary treatment and restraint are used when patients loose control of their behavior. In fact it is difficult to achieve a balance between ensuring patients’ rights and needs and preventing them from harming themselves or the others.

  5. Gene expression and variation in social aggression by queens of the harvester ant Pogonomyrmex californicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmkampf, Martin; Mikheyev, Alexander S; Kang, Yun; Fewell, Jennifer; Gadau, Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    A key requirement for social cooperation is the mitigation and/or social regulation of aggression towards other group members. Populations of the harvester ant Pogonomyrmex californicus show the alternate social phenotypes of queens founding nests alone (haplometrosis) or in groups of unrelated yet cooperative individuals (pleometrosis). Pleometrotic queens display an associated reduction in aggression. To understand the proximate drivers behind this variation, we placed foundresses of the two populations into social environments with queens from the same or the alternate population, and measured their behaviour and head gene expression profiles. A proportion of queens from both populations behaved aggressively, but haplometrotic queens were significantly more likely to perform aggressive acts, and conflict escalated more frequently in pairs of haplometrotic queens. Whole-head RNA sequencing revealed variation in gene expression patterns, with the two populations showing moderate differentiation in overall transcriptional profile, suggesting that genetic differences underlie the two founding strategies. The largest detected difference, however, was associated with aggression, regardless of queen founding type. Several modules of coregulated genes, involved in metabolism, immune system and neuronal function, were found to be upregulated in highly aggressive queens. Conversely, nonaggressive queens exhibited a striking pattern of upregulation in chemosensory genes. Our results highlight that the social phenotypes of cooperative vs. solitary nest founding tap into a set of gene regulatory networks that seem to govern aggression level. We also present a number of highly connected hub genes associated with aggression, providing opportunity to further study the genetic underpinnings of social conflict and tolerance.

  6. Direct and indirect effects of parenting practices on socio-moral approval of aggression in Polish young adults. Do all practices matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiak-Kochanek, Monika; Konopka, Karolina; Rutkowska, Marta; Frączek, Adam; Ramirez, J Martin

    2016-08-08

    The purpose of this article was to determine the socialisation antecedents of socio-moral approval of aggression (SMAA). In Study 1, we assessed factorial structure and reliability of the SMAA with a sample of 355 students who reported on the extent to which they approved of six forms of aggressive behaviour and six justifications of aggression. Two-factor solutions were obtained with regard to forms and justifications of aggressive acts. Thus, approval of extreme and minor aggression was distinguished as well as legitimate and illegitimate justifications of aggression. In Study 2, we tested the path models of the socialisation antecedents that contributed to the high approval of minor and extreme aggressive acts as well as legitimate and illegitimate justifications of aggression. Data were collected from 173 undergraduate students. Path analyses showed that high levels of approval of extremely aggressive acts and of illegitimate justifications of aggression were preceded by a sequence of negative life events, beginning with frequent misbehaviour in childhood, corporal punishment used by parents and ending with delinquency in adolescence. The approval of minor aggression had little relation to socialisation factors apart from a detrimental effect of psychological aggression while approval of legitimate justifications of aggression had no socialisation antecedents.

  7. VIOLENCE AND AGGRESSIVENESS IN SPORTS. ETIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria LULESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyses the causes that lead to violent behaviour in sport (from the social, economic, biological and psychological factors to the violent patterns promoted by mass media and it identifies the measures that could be adopted for preventing and fighting against this widespread phenomenon in today’s society. The phenomenon of violence in sport appeared subsequent to the “Sport Revolution”, which occurred in the 19th century, when sport became a mass and democratic phenomenon. Today sport is accessible to all society members for whom it has acquired cultural and economic importance; however, it is generally agreed that sport events are more or less frequently accompanied by violent behaviour on the part of most or some of its supporters. This scientific article enumerates the causes that trigger violent behaviour in society: from the inner ones (tension, fear, lack of success, incapacity to the social, biological, psychological and economic ones (lack of education, illnesses, trauma and poverty. Similarly, the present article analyses the influence of mass media upon human behaviour while taking into consideration two paradigms: there is a former paradigm, according to which mass media strongly influence human behaviour, by inculcating upon people violent reactions; there is a latter paradigm, according to which the influence of mass media on human behaviour is relatively insignificant for it is the individual that controls this influence. In this paper I have also analysed the risk factors that trigger violence and aggressiveness on stadiums, according to the inquiries made by the Ministry of Administration and Domestic Affairs. As solutions for violence prevention and deterrence, I have suggested: - the implementation of the objectives promoted by the Olympic Movement, which may contribute to the formation of a better and more peaceful world through the education of the youth in accordance with the principles and values of

  8. The role of narcissism and self-esteem in predicting peer-oriented and dating aggression in a sample of high-risk youths

    OpenAIRE

    Da Silva, Kimberley St Anne

    2007-01-01

    In the psychological literature, low self-esteem has frequently been linked to aggressive behaviour in both youth and adults. These findings, however, have been challenged and it has been proposed that narcissism is actually the personality characteristic that gives rise to aggression towards others. Research investigating the relationship between narcissism, self-esteem and aggression in adolescents has emphasized the importance of examining both personality constructs to gain a better under...

  9. Managing disruptive behaviour disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Scott; Bailey, Clare

    2013-05-01

    The age at which individuals are most physically aggressive is 22 months. However, some children fail to inhibit this normal aggression and by the time they are three or four are showing signs of oppositional defiant disorder. In older children persistent antisocial behaviour is classified as conduct disorder. At any age, antisocial behaviour is on a continuum, and while the most severe 5% or so will meet diagnostic criteria, those falling short are often described as having conduct problems. Epidemiological follow-up surveys show that the risk of poor outcomes in antisocial children is very high. The causes are multiple but two sets of factors stand out. First, genetic predisposition. Even children adopted away from violent or criminal parents have three or four times the rate of antisocial behaviour and second, poor parenting. Watching and waiting is a reasonable strategy if the antisocial behaviour is not very severe. It is important to be vigilant for severe tantrums or aggression occurring almost every day, harsh, rough, or inconsistent parenting and coexistent ADHD. If severity is moderate, referral to an evidence-based parenting group would be a good first move. If this fails to make things better, or if the child or parent has a comorbid condition, referral to CAMHS is indicated. For older children, aged 10 to 17, there are effective interventions such as anger management CBT and parenting groups for adolescents.

  10. Self-Consciousness, Self-Report of Aggressiveness, and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheier, Michael F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Private self-consciousness consists of attending to one's thoughts, feelings, and motives. Public self-consciousness consists of attending to oneself as a social object. The effect of dispositional self-consciousness on the accuracy of self-reports was studied in research on aggression. (Editor)

  11. Frequency and severity of aggressive incidents in acute psychiatric wards in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Joachim E

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggression and violence and negative consequences thereof are a major concern in acute psychiatric inpatient care globally. Variations in study designs, settings, populations, and data collection methods render comparisons of the incidence of aggressive behaviour in high risk settings difficult. Objective To describe the frequency and severity of aggressive incidents in acute psychiatric wards in the German speaking part of Switzerland. Methods We conducted a prospective multicentre study on 24 acute admission wards in 12 psychiatric hospitals in the German speaking part of Switzerland. Aggressive incidents were recorded by the revised Staff Observation Aggression Scale (SOAS-R and we checked the data collection for underreporting. Our sample comprised 2344 treatment episodes of 2017 patients and a total of 41'560 treatment days. Results A total of 760 aggressive incidents were registered. We found incidence rates per 100 treatment days between 0.60 (95% CI 0.10–1.78 for physical attacks and 1.83 (1.70–1.97 for all aggressive incidents (including purely verbal aggression. The mean severity was 8.80 ± 4.88 points on the 22-point SOAS-R-severity measure; 46% of the purely verbally aggression was classified as severe (≥ 9 pts.. 53% of the aggressive incidents were followed by a coercive measure, mostly seclusion or seclusion accompanied by medication. In 13% of the patients, one ore more incidents were registered, and 6.9% of the patients were involved in one ore more physical attack. Involuntary admission (OR 2.2; 1.6–2.9, longer length of stay (OR 2.7; 2.0–3.8, and a diagnosis of schizophrenia (ICH-10 F2 (OR 2.1; 1.5–2.9 was associated with a higher risk for aggressive incidents, but no such association was found for age and gender. 38% of the incidents were registered within the first 7 days after admission. Conclusion Aggressive incidents in acute admission wards are a frequent and serious problem. Due to the

  12. Consequences of hyper-aggressiveness in Siamese fighting fish: cheaters seldom prospered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin; Giri; Elliott; Dunham

    1998-01-01

    Zahavi's handicap theory, formalized by Grafen, suggests that 'cheaters' must be at a disadvantage if a communication system such as ritualized aggression is to evolve (Grafen 1991, In: Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach (Ed. by J. R. Krebs & N. B. Davies), pp. 5-31. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific). To determine whether cheating is disadvantageous in Betta splendens, we held a series of live interactions, after inducing hyper-aggression by socially isolating and then briefly 'priming' the fish. Primed isolates, which were no stronger than their rivals, 'cheated' by escalating rapidly to tailbeating and biting. These cheaters, however, usually lost fights to non-isolated opponents. Unprimed isolates, i.e. socially isolated fish that were not primed, were not initially hyper-aggressive and thus did not cheat. They lost fewer fights than the cheaters. Results suggested that cheaters lost because they exhausted themselves by their hyper-aggressiveness, allowing their non-hyper-aggressive opponents to win. This result is consistent with the Zahavi-Grafen model of how an 'honest' level of ritualized aggression can be stabilized in a population. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  13. The effect of acute Lithium and AMI-193, a new 5HT2 antagonist, on Apomorphine-induced pecking in pigeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri T

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Intramascular (IM administration of apomorphine (a mixed D1/D2 dopamine receptors agonist 0.2-1.6 mg/kg induced pecking, a stereotype behavior in pigeons in a dose- dependent manner. In this study the effect of lithium (Li+, 240 mg/kg, IM and AMI-193 (a new 5-HT2 antagonist, 0.003 mg/pigeon on apomorphine-induced peking (AIP were investigated. This study showed that Li+ and AMI-193 did not induce pecking by itself but administration of each of these agents before apomorphine increased and decreased the AIP (apomor-phine 0.8 mg/kg respectively whereas concomitant use of Li+ (240 mg/kg IM and AMI-193 decreased AIP significantly. These results suggested that 5-HT2 antagonists inhibit the inhibitory effect of serotonin on the dopamine release in the raphe-striatal pathway but Li+ can modulate dopamine and serotonin function by different mechanisms and decrease this effect. As a result, it is mechanisms and decrease this effect. As a result, it is concluded serotonin can decrease the AIP through 5-HT2 receptors indirectly by decrease the dopamine release.

  14. Teoría del Pecking Order versus teoría del Trade off para la empresa Coservicios S.A. E.S.P.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Milena Zambrano Vargas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretende analizar el grado de aplicación de dos teorías de estructura de capital que han sido contradictorias y extensamente comparadas. Para la aplicación de la teoría del Trade Off se utilizan dos modelos, el primero propuesto por López y de Luna (2002 y el segundo es el propuesto por Cruz et al., (2003. Para la aplicación de la teoría del Pecking Order se analiza la forma como han sido manejadas las reservas, la deuda a largo plazo, el crecimiento de los activos operacionales netos, la tendencia que ha tenido la rentabilidad operacional de los activos y el EBITDA. Al final se encuentra que en los períodos analizados la teoría más usada ha sido la de Pecking Order la cual ha tenido más evidencia empírica en otras organizaciones, y de la teoría del Trade Off no se encontró aplicación.

  15. [Water provisions for Muscovy ducks--behaviour at duck showers and modified plasson drinkers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briese, Andreas; Hänsch, Friederike; Hartung, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Feather pecking and cannibalism are serious problems in keeping Moscovy ducks. Prevention of feather pecking by regularly applied beak and claw trimming are increasingly criticised by the public. The recommendation of the Council of Europe (COE) for the keeping of Muscovy ducks in farming systems calls for environmental enrichment including water for preening and bathing after December 31,2010. A total of 126 female Muscovy ducks (not beak nor claw trimmed) from commercial breeding lines were kept for 63 resp. 70 days in four compartments with 15-16 ducks each during two production cycles. Two pens where equipped either with duck showers or open water facility (modified Plasson drinker). Water provisions were made available for the ducks four hours daily at working days from their fifth week of life until slaughter. Behaviour at the water provision was registered and analysed for the number of ducks being engaged with water (944 hours recordings over 59 days from four pens analysed in five-minute-intervals (11,540 observations). Additionally 858 feather preening bouts (five a day for each compartment) were analysed for the duration of feather preening behaviour at the water provision. From the fifth to the tenth week of life the mean percentage of animals of a pen was significantly higher at the open trough (trough: 8,3% (+/-5,37); shower: 4.9% (+/-6.1), Mann-Whitney p animals observed at both water provisions increased with age. Nonetheless only ten percent of the feather preening behaviour exceeded five minutes. Most animals made use of water in the first hour of the time period when water was provided. In the first weeks of water provision open water troughs were used more often and preening behaviour was longer. When given the choice, younger ducks preferred open drinkers to showers while older ducks showed a higher preference for the duck showers. In future it may be useful to elaborate whether a combination of open water troughs in the first few weeks of the

  16. [Relationships among empathy, prosocial behavior, aggressiveness, self-efficacy and pupils' personal and social responsibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Sanmartín, Melchor; Escartí Carbonell, Amparo; Pascual Baños, Carminal

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was, on the one hand, to present/display the Spanish version of diverse instruments that assess Empathy, Prosocial behavior, Aggressiveness, Self-efficacy and Personal and social responsibility, and, on the other hand, to analyze which of these variables could predict responsibility. Participants were 822 pupils, ages 8 to 15 years, who studied in 11 educational centres of the Valencian Community. Measures include Spanish versions of the Index of Empathy for Children and Adolescents, Prosocial Behaviour, and Physical and Verbal Aggression, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Self-Efficacy, and the Contextual Self-Responsibility Questionnaire. Through structural equation modelling (SEM), the results showed positive relationships between Prosocial behaviour, Empathy, Self-efficacy, and Responsibility; and negative relationships between Aggressiveness and Responsibility. The results and implications for education are discussed.

  17. Aggression and dominance in matched groups of subadult Icelandic horses (Equus caballus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaecke, H.; Stevens, J.M.G.; Vandemoortele, H.; Sigurjónsdóttir, H.; Vries, Han de

    2006-01-01

    We studied sex differences in the nature of aggression and dominance behaviour in two newly formed groups of 1-year-old Icelandic horses. One herd contained nine geldings, the other nine mares. The groups were matched with regard to dominancedetermining traits such as age, weaning age, composition o

  18. Attention-Deficit, Fear and Aggression in Iranian Preschool Students with Regard to Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhzade, Mostafa; Assemi, Arezoo

    2013-01-01

    The cause of most adult psychopathologies or behavioural disorders can be traced back to childhood. In this study, we examine the attention-deficit, fear and aggression in Iran's preschool students in Oshnaviye city. In this analytical-descriptive study, 50 students were selected through stratified sampling method from 249 students. Data were…

  19. Attention-Deficit, Fear and Aggression in Iranian Preschool Students with Regard to Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhzade, Mostafa; Assemi, Arezoo

    2013-01-01

    The cause of most adult psychopathologies or behavioural disorders can be traced back to childhood. In this study, we examine the attention-deficit, fear and aggression in Iran's preschool students in Oshnaviye city. In this analytical-descriptive study, 50 students were selected through stratified sampling method from 249 students. Data were…

  20. Biochemistry and Aggression: Psychohematological Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Hilliard G., Jr.; Spitz, Reuben T.

    1994-01-01

    Examines biochemical measures in a population of forensic psychiatric inpatients. Regression equations utilizing chemical and biological variables were developed and evaluated to determine their value in predicting the severity and frequency of aggression. Findings strongly suggest the presence of specific biochemical alteration among those…

  1. Teachers' Reactions to Children's Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Pickering, Kaye

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on social schema theory (Fiske & Taylor, 1991) and social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), this study examined the impact on teachers' reactions to children's aggression of three variables, two of which were related to the aggressors and one was related to the teachers. Experienced female elementary school teachers (N=90) each read…

  2. Narrative Development in Aggressive Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Doris

    2001-01-01

    A study analyzed the oral narrative abilities in Caucasian males (ages 8-13) identified as aggressive. The boys were asked to construct an oral narrative based on a wordless picture book. Subjects provided fewer pieces of information to create the setting of the story for listeners than did controls. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  3. Aggressive periodontitis: The unsolved mystery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Danielle; Febbraio, Maria; Levin, Liran

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive periodontal disease is an oral health mystery. Our current understanding of this disease is that specific bacteria invade the oral cavity and the host reacts with an inflammatory response leading to mass destruction of the alveolar bone. Aggressive periodontal disease is typically observed in a population under the age of 30 and occurs so rapidly that it is difficult to treat. Unfortunately, the consequence of this disease frequently involves tooth extractions. As a result, the aftermath is chewing disability and damage to self-esteem due to an altered self-image. Furthermore, patients are encumbered by frequent dental appointments which have an economic impact in regards to both personal financial strain and absent days in the workplace. Aggressive periodontal disease has a tremendous effect on patients' overall quality of life and needs to be investigated more extensively in order to develop methods for earlier definitive diagnosis and effective treatments. One of the mysteries of aggressive periodontal disease is the relatively nominal amount of plaque present on the tooth surface in relation to the large amount of bone loss. There seems to be a hidden factor that lies between the response by the patient's immune system and the bacterial threat that is present. A better mechanistic understanding of this disease is essential to provide meaningful care and better outcomes for patients.

  4. A Conceptualization of Aggressive Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Dominic A.

    Interpersonal communication can be viewed in terms of an aggressive-nonaggressive continuum. Past research has often focused on nonaggressive forms of interpersonal communication, such as understanding how people get to know one another, how trust and intimacy develop, and the role of self-disclosure in relationship development. However,…

  5. Personal standards for judging aggression by a relationship partner: How much aggression is too much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga, Ximena B; Capezza, Nicole M; Daly, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    What determines whether people tolerate partner aggression? This research examined how norms, relationship experiences, and commitment predict personal standards for judging aggressive acts by a partner. Studies 1a and 1b (n = 689) revealed that experiencing aggression in a current relationship and greater commitment predicted greater tolerance for common partner aggression. Study 2 longitudinally tracked individuals who had never experienced partner aggression (n = 52). Once aggression occurred, individuals adopted more tolerant standards, but only if they were highly committed. Study 3 involved experimentally manipulating the relevance of partner aggression among individuals who reported current partner aggression (n = 73); they were more tolerant of aggressive acts imagined to occur by their partner (vs. the same acts by a stranger), but only if they were highly committed. Personal standards for judging partner aggression are dynamic. They shift toward greater tolerance when committed people experience aggression in a current relationship.

  6. Culture of honour theory and social anxiety: Cross-regional and sex differences in relationships among honour-concerns, social anxiety and reactive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Ashley N; Buckner, Julia D; Weeks, Justin W

    2015-01-01

    Consistent with the "flight or fight" model of anxiety, social anxiety may incite withdrawal or attack; yet, it is unclear why some socially anxious individuals are vulnerable to aggress. It may be that culture impacts tendencies to "fight" or "flee" from social threat. Honour cultures, including the American South, permit or even promote aggression in response to honour-threats. Thus, social anxiety in the South may be more associated with aggression than in non-honour cultures. In the current sample, region moderated the relation between social anxiety and aggression; social anxiety related positively to reactive (but not proactive) aggression among Southerners (n = 285), but not Midwesterners (n = 258). Participant sex further moderated the relationship, such that it was significant only for Southern women. Also, for Southerners, prototypically masculine honour-concerns mediated the relationship between social anxiety and reactive aggression. Cultural factors may play key roles in aggressive behaviour among some socially anxious individuals.

  7. An ethogram of the common marmoset (Calithrix jacchus jacchus): general behavioural repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, M F; Poole, T B

    1976-05-01

    The behavioural repertoire of four captive breeding pairs of Callithrix jacchus jacchus is described. Social communication took the form of postures, facial expressions, vocalizations and piloerection displays. Detailed analyses were made of piloerection displays, adult play, copulatory, aggressive, and prey-catching behaviour. Aggressive behaviour was uncommon in adult mated pairs. Play between adults showed a degree of temporal of temporal organization. Vocalizations were the main methods of intragroup communication whilst piloerection displays were directed towards members of other groups and also to unfamiliar objects. The behavioural repertoire of C. jacchus jacchus is compared with that of other Primates.

  8. No Effects of Bilateral tDCS over Inferior Frontal Gyrus on Response Inhibition and Aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Dambacher

    Full Text Available Response inhibition is defined as the capacity to adequately withdraw pre-planned responses. It has been shown that individuals with deficits in inhibiting pre-planned responses tend to display more aggressive behaviour. The prefrontal cortex is involved in both, response inhibition and aggression. While response inhibition is mostly associated with predominantly right prefrontal activity, the neural components underlying aggression seem to be left-lateralized. These differences in hemispheric dominance are conceptualized in cortical asymmetry theories on motivational direction, which assign avoidance motivation (relevant to inhibit responses to the right and approach motivation (relevant for aggressive actions to the left prefrontal cortex. The current study aimed to directly address the inverse relationship between response inhibition and aggression by assessing them within one experiment. Sixty-nine healthy participants underwent bilateral transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS to the inferior frontal cortex. In one group we induced right-hemispheric fronto-cortical dominance by means of a combined right prefrontal anodal and left prefrontal cathodal tDCS montage. In a second group we induced left-hemispheric fronto-cortical dominance by means of a combined left prefrontal anodal and right prefrontal cathodal tDCS montage. A control group received sham stimulation. Response inhibition was assessed with a go/no-go task (GNGT and aggression with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP. We revealed that participants with poorer performance in the GNGT displayed more aggression during the TAP. No effects of bilateral prefrontal tDCS on either response inhibition or aggression were observed. This is at odds with previous brain stimulation studies applying unilateral protocols. Our results failed to provide evidence in support of the prefrontal cortical asymmetry model in the domain of response inhibition and aggression. The absence of t

  9. [Trait-aggression and conscious poetic attitude in the background of Attila József's suicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsédel, Krisztina; Gerevich, József

    2015-01-01

    Although recently many studies have indicated close connection between aggressive behaviour and suicide, and we can infer at Attila Jozsef's high trait-aggression from several cases, there is no research so far that would analyse the topic of the poet's aggression. We examine in this study the high trait-aggression and conscious poetic attitude of Attila Jozsef and put the question how could those two contribute to his suicide. Recollections of Attila Jozsef's contemporaries reveal that the poet's life was accompanied along with auto- and heteroaggression. By analysing his Rorschach-test, we can also conclude on the weakness of his aggression-control. During his psychoanalytic treatment from 1931 on, some difficult memories and unacceptable desires became revoked, and his aggressive outbreaks became unmanageable, first of all against some females in his life. His free-association works from this period are full of rude, incestuous, aggressive expressions. In spite of these, there is no trace of aggression in his poems - he masks his aggression in them by keeping precisely to formal criteria. We suppose that behind the masking there are unconscious processes, such as a very strong desire to get attached and fear of solitude that led to his aspiration to consciously form "the myth of the good poet". Art's healing power could not prevail as the spontaneous creative process has been turned into a conscious one. His impulses that came to light in the analytic process and were only partly sublime may have returned thus and became urgent and pressing again. We suppose that his high trait-aggression and his conscious poetic attitude together contributed to his life's tragic ending.

  10. Subordinate wasps are more aggressive in colonies with low reproductive skew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanelli, D.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Turillazzi, S.

    2008-01-01

    The small societies of primitively eusocial wasps have provided interesting testing grounds for reproductive skew theory because all individuals have similar reproductive potential, which is unusual in social insects but common in vertebrate societies. Aggression is a key parameter in testing...... the theory, but empirical studies have seldom quantified aggression together with the entire array of other relevant variables. The few studies that have done so were recently criticized for failing to control for the overall level of social activity. We analysed behaviour and reproductive partitioning...... patterns in the stenogastrine wasp Parischnogaster mellyi. We used aggression of the subordinate (ß) breeder as key variable and analysed how relatedness, body size, number of breeders and productivity affect the interaction between the reproductive skew and the aggression while controlling for nest...

  11. Psychological features of aggression in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    .O. Kuznetsova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of empirical study of the psychological characteristics of aggression and frustration response in adolescents with different types of socialization. We describe the qualitative and quantitative aspects of aggression in adolescence. We show the nature of the relationship of a aggressiveness features with type of socialization in adolescents. The described study involved 125 male adolescents aged 13-14 years, enrolled in the VIII grade (56 cadets and 69 students. We used methods of testing, survey, subjective scaling. In cadets, we found elevated rates of aggression and hostility, the prevalence of physical aggression, high scores on Irritation, Verbal aggression and Suspicion, as well as the prevalence in situations of frustration of extrapunitive reactions with “fixation on self-defense”. In the group of students of secondary school, the levels of aggression and hostility an on upper limit of test norms, impunitive reactions, indirect aggression, guilt, constructive reaction with “fixation on meeting needs” prevail.

  12. Consumer behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Energy-saving programmes are increasingly targeted at children to encourage household energy conservation. A study involving the assignment of energy-saving interventions to Girl Scouts shows that a child-focused intervention can improve energy-saving behaviours among children and their parents....

  13. Immunoreactivity for alpha-smooth muscle actin characterizes a potentially aggressive subgroup of little basal cell carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Pilloni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is a very common malignant skin tumor that rarely metastatizes, but is often locally aggressive. Several factors, like large size (more than 3 cm, exposure to ultraviolet rays, histological variants, level of infiltration and perineural or perivascular invasion, are associated with a more aggressive clinical course. These morphological features seem to be more determinant in mideface localized BCC, which frequently show a significantly higher recurrence rate. An immunohistochemical profile, characterized by reactivity of tumor cells for p53, Ki67 and alpha-SMA has been associated with a more aggressive behaviour in large BCCs. The aim of this study was to verify if also little (less than 3 cm basal cell carcinomas can express immunohistochemical markers typical for an aggressive behaviour.

  14. Management of Children's Aggressiveness when Playing Competitive Games in the English Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellanos Andrea

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Human behaviour has been a changing aspect during the history of mankind. Humanity has learned to get along with others; but the behavioural stage has been very difficult to control across the time, because everyone has his/her own interests. In this article, I will describe some factors that affect children’s aggressive behaviour when playing competitive games and some strategies that may be considered when guiding those types of games with young learners in the English class. These can lead, as I found in my study, to deeper understandings of children’s conducts as well as to improvement in classroom management.

  15. Data Fusion for Driver Behaviour Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carmona

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A driver behaviour analysis tool is presented. The proposal offers a novel contribution based on low-cost hardware and advanced software capabilities based on data fusion. The device takes advantage of the information provided by the in-vehicle sensors using Controller Area Network Bus (CAN-BUS, an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU and a GPS. By fusing this information, the system can infer the behaviour of the driver, providing aggressive behaviour detection. By means of accurate GPS-based localization, the system is able to add context information, such as digital map information, speed limits, etc. Several parameters and signals are taken into account, both in the temporal and frequency domains, to provide real time behaviour detection. The system was tested in urban, interurban and highways scenarios.

  16. Female Aggression and Violence: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Penelope E.

    2012-01-01

    Aggression and violence among adolescent females has received extension attention throughout the nation. Girls often employ relationally aggressive behaviors to resolve conflict, which often leads to physical aggression. The purpose of this study was to examine a girl fight from multiple perspectives to gain a better understanding of the causes…

  17. Neurobiology of escalated aggression and violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miczek, Klaus A.; de Almeida, Rosa M. M.; Kravitz, Edward A.; Rissman, Emilie F.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Raine, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Psychopathological violence in criminals and intense aggression in fruit flies and rodents are studied with novel behavioral, neurobiological, and genetic approaches that characterize the escalation from adaptive aggression to violence. One goal is to delineate the type of aggressive behavior and it

  18. Social Aggression on Television and Its Relationship to Children's Aggression in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Nicole; Wilson, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted with over 500 children in grades K-5 to examine whether exposure to socially aggressive content was related to children's use of social aggression. The results of the survey revealed a significant relationship between exposure to televised social aggression and increased social aggression at school, but only for girls and…

  19. Examining the Mediating Effect of Self-Efficacy on Approval of Aggression and Proactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Jade; Mowbray, Tony; Jacobs, Nicky

    2017-01-01

    Proactive aggression (PA) is goal-directed, hostile social behavior that has been linked to detrimental outcomes. It has been theorized that adolescents who believe aggression is a normal and acceptable social response (approval of aggression) are more likely to show PA. Confidence in one's ability to behave aggressively (self-efficacy about…

  20. Animal personality as a cause and consequence of contest behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briffa, Mark; Sneddon, Lynne U; Wilson, Alastair J

    2015-03-01

    We review the evidence for a link between consistent among-individual variation in behaviour (animal personality) and the ability to win contests over limited resources. Explorative and bold behaviours often covary with contest behaviour and outcome, although there is evidence that the structure of these 'behavioural syndromes' can change across situations. Aggression itself is typically repeatable, but also subject to high within-individual variation as a consequence of plastic responses to previous fight outcomes and opponent traits. Common proximate mechanisms (gene expression, endocrine control and metabolic rates) may underpin variation in both contest behaviour and general personality traits. Given the theoretical links between the evolution of fighting and of personality, we suggest that longitudinal studies of contest behaviour, combining behavioural and physiological data, would be a useful context for the study of animal personalities.

  1. Functional MRI studies in disruptive behaviour disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellani, M; Garzitto, M; Brambilla, P

    2012-03-01

    Aggressive or antisocial behaviours with violations of social rules are the main features of disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs), which are developmental diseases and include conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. In the last decade, several efforts have been made to shed light on the biological underpinnings of DBDs. In this context, the main findings of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in DBD are reported here. There are indications of neural dysfunctions in response to affective stimuli, especially regarding medial and orbitofrontal prefrontal cortex and connected subcortical structures.

  2. Read anything mean lately? associations between reading aggression in books and aggressive behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Laura A; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Padilla-Walker, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    Although there have been hundreds of studies on media violence, few have focused on literature, with none examining novels. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine whether reading physical and relational aggression in books was associated with aggressive behavior in adolescents. Participants consisted of 223 adolescents who completed a variety of measures detailing their media use and aggressive behavior. A non-recursive structural equation model revealed that reading aggression in books was positively associated with aggressive behavior, even after controlling for exposure to aggression in other forms of media. Associations were only found for congruent forms of aggression. Implications regarding books as a form of media are discussed.

  3. Types of Relational Aggression in Girls Are Differentiated by Callous-Unemotional Traits, Peers and Parental Overcontrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna C. M. Centifanti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent girls often perpetrate aggression by gossiping and spreading rumours about others, by attempting to ruin relationships and by manipulating and excluding others. Further, males and females engage in reactive and proactive relational aggression differently. In this study, we examined the individual, peer and parental contextual factors that best explained the use of reactive and proactive relational aggression in girls. Female participants (n = 614; ages 11–18 years completed questionnaires on aggression, callous-unemotional (CU traits, delinquency, peer delinquency, gender composition of their peer group, resistance to peer influence and perceived parental overcontrol. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the effects of individual, peer- and parent-related variables on the likelihood of being classified as a low aggressor, reactive aggressor or proactive/reactive aggressor. Girls in the combined reactive/proactive aggression group were younger, had greater CU traits, a lower proportion of male peers and greater perception of parental control than both the reactive and low aggressive groups. Both highly aggressive groups were more delinquent and had greater peer delinquency than the low aggressive group. This study suggests those girls who show relational aggression for the purpose of gaining status and revenge feel restrained by their parents and may gravitate toward relationships that support their behaviour.

  4. Workplace aggression: beginning a dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLemore, Monica R

    2006-08-01

    The June 2005 Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing editorial titled "Communication: Whose Problem Is It?" (Griffin-Sobel, 2005) was written to begin a dialogue about a phenomenon frequently experienced yet rarely discussed: workplace aggression, also known as disruptive behavior. Prompted by a groundbreaking study published in the American Journal of Nursing by Rosenstein and O'Daniel (2005), the editorial challenged oncology nurses to begin to fix problems of communication. After reflecting on both of the articles and considering my own experience as a nurse manager, clinician, and scholar, I decided to explore the topic as it relates to nurse-to-nurse workplace aggression. The following is a summary of interviews with nurse managers, nurse practitioners, and nurse scientists about root causes and effective strategies to manage these sometimes complicated situations. This article is meant to continue the dialogue about the very sensitive issue. Confidentiality has been maintained, and I welcome your comments.

  5. Orthodontic Management in Aggressive Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Bhagabat

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis. PMID:28299350

  6. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-04-26

    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  7. Modelling Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    posing new challenges in all areas of the industry from material and structural to the urban scale. Contributions from invited experts, papers and case studies provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the field, as well as perspectives from related disciplines, such as computer science....... The chapter authors were invited speakers at the 5th Symposium "Modelling Behaviour", which took place at the CITA in Copenhagen in September 2015....

  8. Imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeyadevan, N.N.; Sohaib, S.A.A.; Thomas, J.M.; Jeyarajah, A.; Shepherd, J.H.; Fisher, C

    2003-02-01

    AIM: To describe the imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma in a rare benign mesenchymal tumour most frequently arising from the perineum in young female patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of patients with aggressive angiomyxoma who were referred to our hospital. The imaging features were correlated with clinical information and pathology in all patients. RESULTS: Four CT and five MR studies were available for five patients (all women, mean age 39, range 24-55). Three patients had recurrent tumour at follow-up. CT and MR imaging demonstrated a well-defined mass-displacing adjacent structures. The tumour was of low attenuation relative to muscle on CT. On MR, the tumour was isointense relative to muscle on T1-weighted image, hyperintense on T2-weighted image and enhanced avidly after gadolinium contrast with a characteristic 'swirled' internal pattern. MR imaging demonstrates the extent of the tumour and its relation to the pelvic floor. Recurrent tumour has a similar appearance to the primary lesion. CONCLUSION: The MR appearances of aggressive angiomyxomas are characteristic, and the diagnosis should be considered in any young woman presenting with a well-defined mass arising from the perineum. Jeyadevan, N. N. etal. (2003). Clinical Radiology58, 157--162.

  9. Rural neighborhoods and child aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Natasha K; Wretman, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to evaluate the direct and mediated effects of a neighborhood risk factor (negative teen behaviors) on the parent-report aggressive behavior of 213 students in grades 3 through 5 attending a school in a low-income, rural community. Contagion and social control hypotheses were examined as well as hypotheses about whether the neighborhood served as a microsystem or exosystem for rural pre-adolescents. Analyses took into account the clustering of students and ordinal nature of the data. Findings suggest that rural neighborhoods may operate as both a microsystem and exosystem for children, with direct contagion effects on their aggressive behaviors as well as indirect social control effects through parenting practices. Direct effects on aggression were also found for parenting practices and child reports of friends' negative behaviors. Pre-adolescence may be a transitional stage, when influences of the neighborhood on child behavior begin to compete with influences of caregivers. Findings can inform the timing and targets of violence prevention in rural communities.

  10. Cruel intentions on television and in real life: can viewing indirect aggression increase viewers' subsequent indirect aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were shown an indirect, direct, or no-aggression video and their subsequent indirect aggression was measured by negative evaluation of a confederate and responses to a vignette. Participants viewing indirect or direct aggression gave a more negative evaluation of and less money to a confederate than participants viewing no-aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave less money to the confederate than those viewing direct aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave more indirectly aggressive responses to an ambiguous situation and participants viewing direct aggression gave more directly aggressive responses. This study provides the first evidence that viewing indirect aggression in the media can have an immediate impact on subsequent aggression.

  11. [Pharmacological treatment of syndromes of aggressivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, T M

    1978-01-01

    In the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior, four major groups of drugs emerged: 1. Major tranquilizers in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior associated with psychotic syndromes. 2. Anti-epileptic drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and barbiturates in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior within the epileptic syndrome. 3. Psychostimulants in the treatment of aggressive behavior of adolescents and children within behavior disturbances. 4. Anti-male hormones such as cyproterone acetate in the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior associated with pathological sexual hyperactivity. Whereas each category of drug is predominantly effective in one type of aggressive syndrome, it may also be effective in other conditions as well. Aggression as a result of a personality disorder is most difficult to treat with drugs.

  12. Precarious manhood and displays of physical aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Jennifer K; Vandello, Joseph A; Burnaford, Rochelle M; Weaver, Jonathan R; Arzu Wasti, S

    2009-05-01

    The results of three experiments demonstrate that physically aggressive displays are part of men's cultural script for restoring threatened gender status. In Studies 1 and 2, challenges to men's gender status elicited heightened physically aggressive displays, including punching a pad with greater force and selecting an aggressive boxing activity over a nonaggressive puzzle activity. Study 3 established that a public display of aggressive readiness reduced men's anxiety-related cognitions in the wake of a gender threat. This suggests that aggressive displays may function to downregulate negative affect when manhood has been threatened. The discussion considers past research on gender and physical aggression in light of the authors' thesis that manhood, relative to womanhood, is culturally defined as a precarious status that must be actively, even aggressively, defended.

  13. The Drosophila small GTPase Rac2 is required for normal feeding and mating behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goergen, Philip; Kasagiannis, Anna; Schiöth, Helgi B; Williams, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    All multicellular organisms require the ability to regulate bodily processes in order to maintain a stable condition, which necessitates fluctuations in internal metabolics, as well as modifications of outward behaviour. Understanding the genetics behind this modulation is important as a general model for the metabolic modification of behaviour. This study demonstrates that the activity of the small GTPase Rac2 is required in Drosophila for the proper regulation of lipid storage and feeding behaviour, as well as aggression and mating behaviours. Rac2 mutant males and females are susceptible to starvation and contain considerably less lipids than controls. Furthermore, Rac2 mutants also have disrupted feeding behaviour, eating fewer but larger meals than controls. Intriguingly, Rac2 mutant males rarely initiate aggressive behaviour and display significantly increased levels of courtship behaviour towards other males and mated females. From these results we conclude that Rac2 has a central role in regulating the Drosophila homeostatic system.

  14. Trade-off-theory vs. pecking order theory and the determinants of corporate leverage: Evidence from a panel data analysis upon French SMEs (2002–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Adair

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We test the assumptions of trade-off theory (TOT and pecking order theory (POT regarding corporate leverage. The dependent variable being the debt ratio, we apply a linear model upon a balanced panel data-set of 2,370 French SMEs over the period 2002–2010. In accordance to TOT, trade credit acts as a signal to creditors who have no private information about the firm and access to credit relies on guarantees. The relationship between corporate leverage and the profitability of SMEs as well as growth opportunities support POT. However, the relationship between corporate leverage and the age of SMEs, as well as their size, remains inconclusive with respect to both theories.

  15. The role of serotonergic system at the interface of aggression and suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolato, Marco; Pivac, Nela; Seler, Dorotea Muck; Perkovic, Matea Nikolac; Pessia, Mauro; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in serotonin (5-HT) neurochemistry have been implicated in the aetiology of all major neuropsychiatric disorders, ranging from schizophrenia to mood and anxiety-spectrum disorders. This review will focus on the mulifaceted implications of 5-HT-ergic dysfunctions in the pathophysiology of aggressive and suicidal behaviours. After a brief overview of the anatomical distribution of the 5-HT-ergic system in the key brain areas that govern aggression and suicidal behaviours, the implication of 5-HT markers (5-HT receptors, transporter as well as synthetic and metabolic enzymes) in these conditions is discussed. In this regard, particular emphasis is placed on the integration of pharmacological and genetic evidence from animal studies with the findings of human experimental and genetic association studies. Traditional views postulated an inverse relationship between 5-HT and aggression and suicidal behaviours; however, ample evidence has shown that this perspective may be overly simplistic, and that such pathological manifestations may reflect alterations in 5-HT homeostasis due to the interaction of genetic, environmental and gender-related factors, particularly during early critical developmental stages. The development of animal models that may capture the complexity of such interactions promises to afford a powerful tool to elucidate the pathophysiology of impulsive aggression and suicidability, and find new effective therapies for these conditions. PMID:23333677

  16. The role of the serotonergic system at the interface of aggression and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolato, M; Pivac, N; Muck Seler, D; Nikolac Perkovic, M; Pessia, M; Di Giovanni, G

    2013-04-16

    Alterations in serotonin (5-HT) neurochemistry have been implicated in the aetiology of all major neuropsychiatric disorders, ranging from schizophrenia to mood and anxiety-spectrum disorders. This review will focus on the multifaceted implications of 5-HT-ergic dysfunctions in the pathophysiology of aggressive and suicidal behaviours. After a brief overview of the anatomical distribution of the 5-HT-ergic system in the key brain areas that govern aggression and suicidal behaviours, the implication of 5-HT markers (5-HT receptors, transporter as well as synthetic and metabolic enzymes) in these conditions is discussed. In this regard, particular emphasis is placed on the integration of pharmacological and genetic evidence from animal studies with the findings of human experimental and genetic association studies. Traditional views postulated an inverse relationship between 5-HT and aggression and suicidal behaviours; however, ample evidence has shown that this perspective may be overly simplistic, and that such pathological manifestations may reflect alterations in 5-HT homoeostasis due to the interaction of genetic, environmental and gender-related factors, particularly during early critical developmental stages. The development of animal models that may capture the complexity of such interactions promises to afford a powerful tool to elucidate the pathophysiology of impulsive aggression and suicidability, and identify new effective therapies for these conditions.

  17. Aggression and affiliation during social conflict in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Camerlink

    Full Text Available Social conflict is mostly studied in relation to aggression. A more integral approach, including aggressive and affiliative behaviour as well as physiology, may however give a better understanding of the animals' experience during social conflict. The experience of social conflict may also be reflected in the spatial distribution between conspecifics. The objective was to assess the relationship between behaviour, physiology, and spatial integration in pigs (Sus scrofa during social conflict. Hereto, 64 groups of pigs (9 wk of age were studied in a 24 h regrouping test whereby pairs of familiar pigs were grouped with 2 unfamiliar pairs, in either barren or straw-enriched housing. Data on aggressive and affiliative behaviour, skin lesions, body weight, and haptoglobin could be summarized into three principal component analysis factors. These three factors were analysed in relation to spatial integration, i.e. inter-individual distances and lying in body contact. Pigs stayed up to 24 h after encounter in closer proximity to the familiar pig than to unfamiliar pigs. Pigs with a high factor 1 score were more inactive, gave little social nosing, had many skin lesions and a high body weight. They tended to space further away from the familiar pig (b = 1.9 cm; P = 0.08 and unfamiliar ones (b = 0.7 cm; P = 0.05. Pigs that were involved in much aggression (factor 2, and that had a strong increase in haptoglobin (factor 3, tended to be relatively most far away from unfamiliar pigs (b = 0.03 times further; P = 0.08. Results on lying in body contact were coherent with results on distances. Pigs in enriched housing spaced further apart than pigs in barren housing (P<0.001. The combined analysis of measures revealed animals that may either promote or slow down group cohesion, which may not have become clear from single parameters. This emphasizes the importance of an integral approach to social conflict.

  18. Fear, stress, and feather pecking in commercial white and brown laying hen parent-stock flocks and their relationships with production parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, E N; Kemp, B; Bolhuis, J E; Groothuis, T; Rodenburg, T B

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about the relationship between welfare traits and production in laying hen parent stock (PS). In commercial laying hens and pure lines, it is known that aspects associated with reduced welfare such as high fear, stress, and feather pecking can have negative effects on production. Because PS hens are housed under different conditions than commercial laying hens, the relationship between welfare traits and production may differ. We therefore studied the fear response to a stationary person (SP) and novel object (NO), basal plasma corticosterone (CORT) and whole-blood serotonin levels (5-HT), and feather damage as a proxy for feather pecking in 10 Dekalb White (DW) and 10 ISA Brown (ISA) commercial PS flocks and related these to production data. Because the relationship between welfare traits and production may differ by genetic origin and group size, we also assessed genotype and group size effects. Dekalb White birds were more fearful of a SP, and had more feather damage and lower 5-HT levels than ISA birds. Genotypes did not differ in CORT. A large group size (n > 5,000) was associated with low feed intake and better feed conversion for ISA flocks. For DW flocks, high fear of the NO was associated with low BW, low egg weight, and low feed intake. For ISA flocks, high fear of the SP was associated with high mortality. For both lines, high CORT was related to low egg weight. This is the first study to associate levels of fear and CORT to production in commercial PS flocks. Management of PS flocks should take into account breed differences, group size effects, and effects of human-bird interactions. Further research is needed to determine the effects of fear, CORT, 5-HT, and feather damage in commercial PS flocks on the development of their offspring.

  19. Management of violent behaviour in acutely relapsed schizophrenics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Koen

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The management of aggressive behaviour has always been a criticai issue in psychiatry. Finding measures that can be used to accurately predict the likelihood of assaultative behaviour and thus ensure timeous appropriate pharmacological management remains a dilemma. The study objective was to investigate the naturalistic, pharmacological management of inpatient aggressive behaviour in a group of 50 schizophrenic subjects with a view to determine: (1 whether a presenting history of recent violence lead to altered pharmacological management and (2 whether the NOSIE could be regarded as a useful assessment tool with regards to inpatient behaviour management. No significant difference could be demonstrated between the 2 subsets of subjects (history of violence vs none with respect to total doses of medication administered. No statistical correlation could be found between the total NOSIE score and the dose of psychotropic medication used. The relationship between a subset of NOSIE-items and the total dose of medication was more complex and a clear linear relationship could be demonstrated for a total score of 0 to 5. In this particular ward setting a presenting history of recent violent behaviour did not influence the administration of medication and neither could the clinical judgement employed by the nursing staff to manage inpatient behaviour be captured by the NOSIE. However, a five-item subset of the NOSIE with questions relating to aggression and irritability warrants further scrutiny in this regard.

  20. Intergroup Biases in Fear-induced Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifune, Nobuhiro; Simunovic, Dora; Yamagishi, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Using a recently created preemptive strike game (PSG) with 176 participants, we investigated if the motivations of spite and/or fear promotes aggression that requires a small cost to the aggressor and imposes a larger cost on the opponent, and confirmed the earlier finding that fear does but spite does not promote intergroup aggression when the groups are characterized as minimal groups; additionally, the rate of intergroup aggression did not vary according to the group membership of the opponent. The PSG represents a situation in which both the motivations of spite and of fear can logically drive players to choose an option of aggression against an opponent. Participants decide whether or not to attack another participant, who also has the same capability. The decision is made in real time, using a computer. We discuss theoretical implications of our findings on the evolutionary foundations of intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression. The evolutionary model of intergroup aggression, or the parochial altruism model, posits that intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression have co-evolved, and thus it predicts both intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression to emerge even in a minimal group devoid of a history of intergroup relationships. The finding that only intragroup cooperation but not intergroup aggression emerged in the minimal group experiments strongly suggests that intergroup aggression involves a psychological mechanism that is independent from that of intragroup cooperation. We further discuss the implications of these findings on real-world politics and military strategy. PMID:28174553

  1. Aggressive and acute periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albandar, Jasim M

    2014-06-01

    Inflammatory periodontal diseases are highly prevalent, although most of these diseases develop and progress slowly, often unnoticed by the affected individual. However, a subgroup of these diseases include aggressive and acute forms that have a relatively low prevalence but show a rapid-course, high rate of progression leading to severe destruction of the periodontal tissues, or cause systemic symptoms that often require urgent attention from healthcare providers. Aggressive periodontitis is an early-onset, destructive disease that shows a high rate of periodontal progression and distinctive clinical features. A contemporary case definition of this disease is presented. Population studies show that the disease is more prevalent in certain geographic regions and ethnic groups. Aggressive periodontitis is an infectious disease, and recent data show that in affected subjects the subgingival microbiota is composed of a mixed microbial infection, with a wide heterogeneity in the types and proportions of microorganisms recovered. Furthermore, there are significant differences in the microbiota of the disease among different geographic regions and ethnicities. There is also evidence that the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemycomitans-JP2 clone may play an important role in the development of the disease in certain populations. The host response plays an important role in the susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis, where the immune response may be complex and involve multiple mechanisms. Also, genetic factors seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease, but the mechanisms of increased susceptibility are complex and not yet fully understood. The available data suggest that aggressive periodontitis is caused by mutations either in a few major genes or in multiple small-effect genes, and there is also evidence of gene-gene and gene-environment interaction effects. Diagnostic methods for this disease, based on a specific microbiologic, immunologic or

  2. Cooperation and competition: nepotistic tolerance and intrasexual aggression in western bluebird winter groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, J.L.; Euaparadorn, M.; Greenwald, K.; Mitra, C.; Shizuka, D.

    2009-01-01

    Two hypothesized benefits of delayed dispersal are access to resources and prolonged brood care (or??parental nepotism). Resource abundance (mistletoe wealth) is a key factor influencing whether sons stay home in western bluebirds, Sialia mexicana, but nepotism is also observed. Western bluebird sons commonly remain in their family groups throughout the winter, whereas daughters usually disperse before winter. Because pairing often takes place in winter groups, with newly formed pairs settling on exclusive all-purpose territories in spring, selection for sexual competition and nepotism co-occur and may simultaneously influence patterns of aggression within groups. We measured aggression at mealworm feeder stations, finding evidence of (1) intrasexual aggression against unrelated group members by experienced breeders of both sexes and (2) nepotism towards sons and daughters by experienced breeder females but not by experienced breeder males. Females showed much higher levels of aggression towards same-sex immigrants than males did. Experienced breeder males did not evict their sons from the natal territory, but they were 12 times more aggressive towards sons than breeder females were towards daughters. They were also equally aggressive towards sons and immigrant males, suggesting that local breeding competition and the benefits of intrasexual dominance counter the benefits of paternal nepotism towards sons. ?? 2009 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  3. Social Structure and Genetic Distance Mediate Nestmate Recognition and Aggressiveness in the Facultative Polygynous Ant Pheidole pallidula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Denis; de Biseau, Jean-Christophe; De Laet, Sophie; Lenoir, Alain; Passera, Luc; Aron, Serge

    2016-01-01

    In social insects, the evolutionary stability of cooperation depends on the privileged relationships between individuals of the social group, which is facilitated by the recognition of relatives. Nestmate recognition is based on genetically determined cues and/or environmentally derived chemical components present on the cuticle of individuals. Here, we studied nestmate recognition in the ant Pheidole pallidula, a species where both single-queen (monogyne) and multiple-queen (polygyne) colonies co-occur in the same population. We combined geographical, genetic and chemical analyses to disentangle the factors influencing the level of intraspecific aggressiveness. We show that encounters between workers from neighbouring colonies (i.e., nests less than 5 m away) are on average less aggressive than those between workers from more distant colonies. Aggressive behaviour is associated with the level of genetic difference: workers from monogyne colonies are more aggressive than workers from polygyne colonies, and the intensity of aggressiveness is positively associated with the genetic distance between colonies. Since the genetic distance is correlated with the spatial distance between pairs of colonies, the lower level of aggression toward neighbours may result from their higher relatedness. In contrast, the analysis of overall cuticular hydrocarbon profiles shows that aggressive behaviour is associated neither with the chemical diversity of colonies, nor with the chemical distances between them. When considering methyl-branched alkanes only, however, chemical distances differed between monogyne and polygyne colonies and were significantly associated with aggressiveness. Altogether, these results show that the social structure of colonies and the genetic distances between colonies are two major factors influencing the intensity of agonistic behaviours in the ant P. pallidula.

  4. The Problem of Bullying in Schools and the Promise of Positive Behaviour Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Roger; Chitiyo, Morgan

    2012-01-01

    Bullying in schools is recognised as a global problem. In the USA, school shootings and increasing school aggression focused research on the causes of bullying and interventions that could reduce or eliminate bullying behaviours. A variety of bullying programs have generated mixed results with some actually increasing bullying behaviours. There…

  5. The Behavioural Phenotype of Smith-Magenis Syndrome: Evidence for a Gene-Environment Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, L.; Oliver, C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Behaviour problems and a preference for adult contact are reported to be prominent in the phenotype of Smith-Magenis syndrome. In this study we examined the relationship between social interactions and self-injurious and aggressive/disruptive behaviour in Smith-Magenis syndrome to explore potential operant reinforcement of problem…

  6. Fear of Failure and Student Athletes' Interpersonal Antisocial Behaviour in Education and Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Sam S.; Boardley, Ian D.; Kavussanu, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Background: The link between fear of failure and students' antisocial behaviour has received scant research attention despite associations between fear of failure, hostility, and aggression. Also, the effect of sport experience on antisocial behaviour has not been considered outside of the sport context in adult populations. Further, to date, sex…

  7. A risky boundary : Unwanted sexual behaviour among youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, Paula de; Burrie, Ingrid; Wel, Frits van

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore unwanted sexual behaviour amongs young people. Sexual aggression was operationalized at three levels: ‘‘verbal’’, ‘‘non-verbal/intimidating’’ and ‘‘physically violent’’. A total of 1,700 Dutch adolescents completed a questionnaire that included six clusters of

  8. Effects of high fibre diets on gut fill, behaviour and productivity in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    Different types of fibre sources were used in high fibre diets to increase feeding quantity and measure the effect on different parameters in two experiments. In exp. I, three diets (A, commercial control diet; B, high insoluble fibre content; and C, high soluble fibre content) were fed to 10...... significantly more in a hunger test than birds on diets B and C, indicating that these two high-fibre diets did reduce the level of hunger experienced by the birds. Stereotypic pecking was most frequently seen in birds fed A and never observed in birds fed B. Birds on diet C appeared scruffier in their plumage...... fibre feed staying longer in the intestinal system. Birds fed fibre diets displayed more dust bathing and less stereotypic behaviour. Egg production did not differ between the diet treatments. The results from the two experiments show that high fibre diets prolong the passage of feed and reduce...

  9. Agonistic behaviour in juvenile southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii (Decapoda, Palinuridae: implications for developing aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Carter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii, is a temperate species of spiny lobster with established well managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. It has also been under consideration as a species with aquaculture potential. Agonistic behaviour has important consequences under aquaculture conditions that encompass direct effects, such as damage or death of protagonists, and indirect effects on growth that relate to resource access, principally food and refuge. This study aimed to identify and characterize behaviours and to make a preliminary investigation of their occurrence under tank culture. Juvenile Jasus edwardsii were examined in a flow-through seawater system using a remote video camera system. Twenty-nine behaviours were divided into three sub-groups: aggressive (11, avoidance (6 and others (12. Aggressive behaviours included attacks, pushing, lifting, clasping and carrying an opponent. Avoidance behaviours included moving away in a backwards-, forwards- or side-stepping motion as well as with more vigorous tail flips. These behaviours were components of twelve behavioural groups that described contact, attack and displacement between individuals. Activity was crepuscular with two clear peaks, one in the morning and the other in the evening. The occurrence of behavioural groups was not different between the morning and evening. The frequency of aggressive behaviours was not affected by changes made to stocking density or access to food. The implications of agonistic behaviours are discussed further in relation to developing aquaculture.

  10. Agonistic behaviour in juvenile southern rock lobster, Jasusedwardsii (Decapoda, Palinuridae): implications for developing aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Chris G; Westbury, Heath; Crear, Bradley; Simon, Cedric; Thomas, Craig

    2014-01-01

    The Southern rock lobster, Jasusedwardsii, is a temperate species of spiny lobster with established well managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. It has also been under consideration as a species with aquaculture potential. Agonistic behaviour has important consequences under aquaculture conditions that encompass direct effects, such as damage or death of protagonists, and indirect effects on growth that relate to resource access, principally food and refuge. This study aimed to identify and characterize behaviours and to make a preliminary investigation of their occurrence under tank culture. Juvenile Jasusedwardsii were examined in a flow-through seawater system using a remote video camera system. Twenty-nine behaviours were divided into three sub-groups: aggressive (11), avoidance (6) and others (12). Aggressive behaviours included attacks, pushing, lifting, clasping and carrying an opponent. Avoidance behaviours included moving away in a backwards-, forwards- or side-stepping motion as well as with more vigorous tail flips. These behaviours were components of twelve behavioural groups that described contact, attack and displacement between individuals. Activity was crepuscular with two clear peaks, one in the morning and the other in the evening. The occurrence of behavioural groups was not different between the morning and evening. The frequency of aggressive behaviours was not affected by changes made to stocking density or access to food. The implications of agonistic behaviours are discussed further in relation to developing aquaculture.

  11. Calpains: markers of tumor aggressiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumes, Hélène; Leloup, Ludovic; Dargelos, Elise; Brustis, Jean-Jacques; Daury, Laetitia; Cottin, Patrick

    2010-05-15

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) are soft-tissue sarcoma commonly encountered in childhood. RMS cells can acquire invasive behavior and form metastases. The metastatic dissemination implicates many proteases among which are mu-calpain and m-calpain. Study of calpain expression and activity underline the deregulation of calpain activity in RMS. Analysis of kinetic characteristics of RMS cells, compared to human myoblasts LHCN-M2 cells, shows an important migration velocity in RMS cells. One of the major results of this study is the positive linear correlation between calpain activity and migration velocity presenting calpains as a marker of tumor aggressiveness. The RMS cytoskeleton is disorganized. Specifying the role of mu- and m-calpain using antisense oligonucleotides led to show that both calpains up-regulate alpha- and beta-actin in ARMS cells. Moreover, the invasive behavior of these cells is higher than that of LHCN-M2 cells. However, it is similar to that of non-treated LHCN-M2 cells, when calpains are inhibited. In summary, calpains may be involved in the anarchic adhesion, migration and invasion of RMS. The direct relationship between calpain activity and migration velocities or invasive behavior indicates that calpains could be considered as markers of tumor aggressiveness and as potential targets for limiting development of RMS tumor as well as their metastatic behavior.

  12. Aggressive lymphoma in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtman, S M

    2000-02-01

    Persons 65 years of age and older are the fastest growing segment of the United States population. Over the next 30 years they will comprise approximately 20% of the population. There will be a parallel rise in the number of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Age has long been known to be an adverse prognostic factor. Clinical trials of older patients are complicated by the effect of comorbid illness, particularly its effect on overall survival. CHOP (cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin, vincristine, prednisone) remains the standard therapy for all patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. There are a number of regimens which may be beneficial for older patients with significant comorbidity and poor performance status. The randomized trials in the elderly has reaffirmed CHOP and emphasize the need for adequate dosing, maintaining schedule and anthracyclines. Relapsed patients have a poor prognosis but selected fit older patients may benefit from aggressive reinduction regimens and possibly bone marrow transplantation. Future research should include defining the role of comorbidity, measurement of organ dysfunction and assessment of performance status with geriatric functional scales. New drug treatments should also be explored.

  13. Effect of socio-environmental isolation on brain biochemistry, behaviour and psychoactive drug activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valzelli, L

    1978-01-01

    Isolation has been widely described to induce a strong aggressive behaviour in many animal species and especially in rodents. A deeper analysis of this altered behaviour induced by isolation, allows for the identification of several other changes involving numerous peripheral, behavioural and neurochemical functions. As a consequence of the manifold aspects involved in this experimental situation, the definition "isolation syndrome" seems to be much more adequate than the simplest definition of "aggressiveness by isolation". On this framework, some similarities with psychoneurosis in men are also suggested.

  14. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  15. [Motives and interpersonal functions of aggression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohbuchi, K

    1987-06-01

    In this review, the author theoretically and empirically examined motives and interpersonal functions of aggression. A factor-analysis of Averill's questionnaire items on anger revealed that motives involved in aggressive responses were clustered into two groups: the hostile and the instrumental. It was also clarified that an individual is likely to engage in aggression particularly when some hostile motives are evoked. Concerning the interpersonal functions, the author proposed that aggression might serve four principal goals. (1) Aggression can be generated as an avoidance response to an aversive stimulus, such as frustration, annoyance, or pain, and so on. It depends on the severity of the stimulus. It was however emphasized that aggression is also mediated by social cognition, such as an attribution of intent to a harm-doer. (2) Aggression can be used as a means of coercing the other person into doing something. An individual is likely to use such a power strategy if he/she is lacking in self-confidence or a perspective for influencing the target person by more peaceful strategies. (3) Aggression can be interpreted as a punishment when it is directed toward a transgressor. In this case, aggression is motivated by restoration of a social justice, and thus its intensity is determined by the perceived moral responsibility of the transgressor. Further, it was indicated that aggression is intensified if it is justified as a sanctional conduct against the immoral. (4) Aggression can be also evoked when an individual's social identity is threatened. It was suggested that impression management motives are involved in aggression by an unexpected finding that the presence of audience or the identifiability rather facilitated retaliative aggression. The aggression-inhibition effect of apology was also explained in terms of impression management. In conclusion, it was presented that aggression is a behavioral strategy as an attempt to resolve interpersonal conflicts

  16. Video media-induced aggressiveness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Michael Steven

    2013-09-01

    Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented.

  17. Physical aggressive resident behavior during hygienic care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell Miller, M

    1997-05-01

    Management of aggressive behavior has been identified as a concern for nursing staff who provide institutional care for cognitively impaired elderly. The Omnibus Reconciliation Act (OBRA '87) mandates a trial reduction in the use of chemical and physical restraints, and the development of nursing interventions for the management of behavioral disorders of institutionalized cognitively impaired elderly. Most skilled nursing facilities, however, are limited in their ability to provide environmental and behavioral programs to manage aggressive patient behavior. For the purposes of this study, physically aggressive behavior was identified as threatened or actual aggressive patient contact which has taken place between a patient and a member of the nursing staff. This study explored the nursing staff's responses to patient physical aggression and the effects that physical aggression had on them and on nursing practice from the perspective of the nursing staff. Nursing staff employed on one Dementia Special Care Unit (DSCU) were invited to participate. Interviews with nursing staff were analyzed using qualitative descriptive methods described by Miles and Huberman (1994). Nursing staff reported that they were subjected to aggressive patient behaviors ranging from verbal threats to actual physical violence. Nursing staff reported that showering a resident was the activity of daily living most likely to provoke patient to staff physical aggression. The findings revealed geropsychiatric nursing practices for the management of physically aggressive residents, and offered recommendations for improving the safety of nursing staff and residents on a secured DSCU.

  18. Modelling Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This book reflects and expands on the current trend in the building industry to understand, simulate and ultimately design buildings by taking into consideration the interlinked elements and forces that act on them. This approach overcomes the traditional, exclusive focus on building tasks, while....... The chapter authors were invited speakers at the 5th Symposium "Modelling Behaviour", which took place at the CITA in Copenhagen in September 2015....... posing new challenges in all areas of the industry from material and structural to the urban scale. Contributions from invited experts, papers and case studies provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the field, as well as perspectives from related disciplines, such as computer science...

  19. Aggression, Violence and Injury in Minor League Ice Hockey: Avenues for Prevention of Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Cusimano

    Full Text Available In North America, more than 800,000 youth are registered in organized ice hockey leagues. Despite the many benefits of involvement, young players are at significant risk for injury. Body-checking and aggressive play are associated with high frequency of game-related injury including concussion. We conducted a qualitative study to understand why youth ice hockey players engage in aggressive, injury-prone behaviours on the ice.Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 61 minor ice hockey participants, including male and female players, parents, coaches, trainers, managers and a game official. Players were aged 13-15 playing on competitive body checking teams or on non-body checking teams. Interviews were manually transcribed, coded and analyzed for themes relating to aggressive play in minor ice hockey.Parents, coaches, teammates and the media exert a large influence on player behavior. Aggressive behavior is often reinforced by the player's social environment and justified by players to demonstrate loyalty to teammates and especially injured teammates by seeking revenge particularly in competitive, body-checking leagues. Among female and male players in non-body checking organizations, aggressive play is not reinforced by the social environment. These findings are discussed within the framework of social identity theory and social learning theory, in order to understand players' need to seek revenge and how the social environment reinforces aggressive behaviors.This study provides a better understanding of the players' motivations and environmental influences around aggressive and violent play which may be conducive to injury. The findings can be used to help design interventions aimed at reducing aggression and related injuries sustained during ice hockey and sports with similar cultures and rules.

  20. The Study of Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviours in Greek, Russian, Indian, and Chinese Children Using the Fairy Tale Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savina, Elena; Coulacoglou, Carina; Sanyal, Nilanjana; Zhang, Jianxin

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated externalizing and internalizing behaviours in Greek (n = 599), Russian (n = 596), Indian (n = 571), and Chinese (n = 376) 7- to 12-year-old children. The Fairy Tale Test was used to measure impulsive and motivated aggression, fear of aggression, anxiety, and depression. The results indicated culture-specific patterns…

  1. Agreeableness and Alcohol-Related Aggression: The Mediating Effect of Trait Aggressivity

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Cameron A.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Giancola, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the mediating effect of trait aggressivity on the relation between agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression in a laboratory setting. Participants were 116 healthy male social drinkers between 21 and 30 years of age. Agreeableness and trait aggressivity were measured using the Big Five Inventory and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, respectively. Following the consumption of an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, participants completed a modified version ...

  2. Physiological Arousal, Exposure to a Relatively Lengthy Aggressive Film, and Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Margaret Hanratty

    1982-01-01

    Studied male students who viewed an aggressive television program or a neutral one. Half of the students were then angered by a confederate. Results indicated angered men who had seen the aggressive film were most aggressive and exhibited the lowest average pulse rates both before and after shock delivery. (Author/JAC)

  3. Relational and Overt Aggression in Urban India: Associations with Peer Relations and Best Friends' Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Raja, Radhi

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the associations between relational and overt aggression and social status, and tested whether the peer correlates of aggression vary as a function of best friends' aggression during early adolescence in urban India. One hundred and ninety-four young adolescents from primarily middle-to-upper-class families in Surat, India…

  4. Daily associations among anger experience and intimate partner aggression within aggressive and nonaggressive community couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Cory A; Testa, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Anger is an empirically established precipitant to aggressive responding toward intimate partners. The current investigation examined the effects of anger, as experienced by both partners, as well as gender and previous aggression, on in vivo intimate-partner aggression (IPA) using a prospective daily diary methodology. Participants (N = 118 couples) individually provided 56 consecutive, daily reports of affective experience and partner aggression. Multilevel models were estimated using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) framework to analyze the daily associations between anger and partner-aggression perpetration among participating men and women, as moderated by aggression history. Results revealed that both actor and partner anger were generally associated with subsequently reported daily conflict. Further, increases in daily partner anger were associated with corresponding increases in partner aggression among both women who reported high levels of anger and men, regardless of their own anger experience. Increases in actor anger were associated with increases in daily partner aggression only among previously aggressive women. Previously aggressive men and women consistently reported greater perpetration than their nonaggressive counterparts on days of high levels of actors' anger experiences. Results emphasize the importance of both actor and partner factors in partner aggression and suggest that female anger may be a stronger predictor of both female-to-male and male-to-female partner aggression than male anger, when measured at the daily level.

  5. Desensitization to media violence: links with habitual media violence exposure, aggressive cognitions, and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content.

  6. Psychiatric Illness and Behavioural Problems in Adults with Learning Disability and Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoumitro Deb

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We retrospectively collected data on the rate and type of psychiatric illness and behavioural problems on 143 adults with learning disability and epilepsy. 55% behavioural problems. 19% verbal aggression and temper tantrums, and 13% injurious behaviour. The overall rates of behavioural problems and different types of behaviours found in the current study cohort are similar to what was found before in learning disabled adults in general, as well as in epileptic and non-epileptic learning disabled adults. Psychiatric diagnosis was made in 12.6% combined diagnosis of schizophrenia, delusional disorder and schizo-affective disorder was most common (5% diagnosis of depressive episode (3% bipolar affective disorder.

  7. Reactive and proactive aggression in children : A review of theory, findings and the relevance for child and adolescent psychiatry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempes, M; Matthys, W; de Vries, Han; van Engeland, H

    2005-01-01

    The clinical population of aggressive children diagnosed as having an oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or a conduct disorder (CD) is heterogeneous, both with respect to behaviour and aetiology. Recently, the following distinction has been proposed that might further clarify this heterogeneity: re

  8. Canadian Female and Male Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Child Aggression and Rough-and-Tumble Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosacki, Sandra; Woods, Heather; Coplan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated female and male early childhood educators' (ECEs) perceptions of young children's aggression and rough-and-tumble play in the Canadian early childhood classroom. Participants were drawn from a larger sample of ECEs who completed an online questionnaire regarding their perceptions of young children's behaviours in the…

  9. Lack of Support for the Association between Facial Shape and Aggression: A Reappraisal Based on a Worldwide Population Genetics Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; Hünemeier, Tábita; Quinto-Sánchez, Mirsha; Paschetta, Carolina; de Azevedo, Soledad; González, Marina F.; Martínez-Abadías, Neus; Esparza, Mireia; Pucciarelli, Héctor M.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Bau, Claiton H. D.; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; González-José, Rolando

    2013-01-01

    Antisocial and criminal behaviors are multifactorial traits whose interpretation relies on multiple disciplines. Since these interpretations may have social, moral and legal implications, a constant review of the evidence is necessary before any scientific claim is considered as truth. A recent study proposed that men with wider faces relative to facial height (fWHR) are more likely to develop unethical behaviour mediated by a psychological sense of power. This research was based on reports suggesting that sexual dimorphism and selection would be responsible for a correlation between fWHR and aggression. Here we show that 4,960 individuals from 94 modern human populations belonging to a vast array of genetic and cultural contexts do not display significant amounts of fWHR sexual dimorphism. Further analyses using populations with associated ethnographical records as well as samples of male prisoners of the Mexico City Federal Penitentiary condemned by crimes of variable level of inter-personal aggression (homicide, robbery, and minor faults) did not show significant evidence, suggesting that populations/individuals with higher levels of bellicosity, aggressive behaviour, or power-mediated behaviour display greater fWHR. Finally, a regression analysis of fWHR on individual's fitness showed no significant correlation between this facial trait and reproductive success. Overall, our results suggest that facial attributes are poor predictors of aggressive behaviour, or at least, that sexual selection was weak enough to leave a signal on patterns of between- and within-sex and population facial variation. PMID:23326328

  10. Modern (1992–2011) and projected (2012–99) peak snowpack and May–July runoff for the Fort Peck Lake and Lake Sakakawea watersheds in the Upper Missouri River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, John F.; Todey, Dennis; Mayes Bousted, Barbara; Rossi, Shawn; Norton, Parker A.; Carter, Janet M.

    2016-02-09

    Mountain snowpack is an important contributor to runoff in the Upper Missouri River Basin; for example, high amounts of winter and spring precipitation in the mountains and plains in 2010–11 were associated with the peak runoff of record in 2011 in the Upper Missouri River Basin. To project trends in peak mountain snowpack and runoff in the upcoming decades, multiple linear regression models of peak mountain snowpack and total May–July runoff were developed for the Fort Peck Lake (above Fort Peck Dam) and lower Lake Sakakawea watersheds (between Fort Peck and Garrison Dams) in the Upper Missouri River Basin. Input to regression models included seasonal estimates of precipitation, air temperature, and total reference evapotranspiration stratified by elevation. Calibration was based on records from 107 weather stations from 1991 to 2011. Regressed annual peak mountain snowpack was used as input to the transfer function of May–July runoff. Peak snowpack and May–July runoff were projected for 2012–99 on the basis of air temperature and precipitation from the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) output. Two estimates of projected peak snowpack and May–July runoff for 2012–99 were computed: one estimate was based on output from the CCSM, version 3.0 (CCSM3), and the second estimate was based on output from the CCSM, version 4.0 (CCSM4). The significance of projected trends was based on the Kendall’s tau nonparametric test.

  11. How food controls aggression in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod S Lim

    Full Text Available How animals use sensory information to weigh the risks vs. benefits of behavioral decisions remains poorly understood. Inter-male aggression is triggered when animals perceive both the presence of an appetitive resource, such as food or females, and of competing conspecific males. How such signals are detected and integrated to control the decision to fight is not clear. For instance, it is unclear whether food increases aggression directly, or as a secondary consequence of increased social interactions caused by attraction to food. Here we use the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate the manner by which food influences aggression. We show that food promotes aggression in flies, and that it does so independently of any effect on frequency of contact between males, increase in locomotor activity or general enhancement of social interactions. Importantly, the level of aggression depends on the absolute amount of food, rather than on its surface area or concentration. When food resources exceed a certain level, aggression is diminished, suggestive of reduced competition. Finally, we show that detection of sugar via Gr5a+ gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs is necessary for food-promoted aggression. These data demonstrate that food exerts a specific effect to promote aggression in male flies, and that this effect is mediated, at least in part, by sweet-sensing GRNs.

  12. The Prevention of Social Aggression among Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, Elise; Weinstein, Rhona

    2006-01-01

    This study represents the first systematic attempt to examine a theory-based program designed to reduce girls' social aggression and increase positive leadership among peers. Fifth-grade girls from six public schools were randomly assigned within classrooms to the social aggression prevention program (SAPP) and the comparison reading clubs. A…

  13. Treatment of Aggressive NK-Cell Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Anders Kindberg; Jensen, Paw; Johansen, Preben;

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive NK-cell leukemia is a rare malignancy with neoplastic proliferation of natural killer cells. It often presents with constitutional symptoms, a rapid declining clinical course, and a poor prognosis with a median survival of a few months. The disease is usually resistant to cytotoxic...... literature concerning treatment of aggressive NK-cell leukemia....

  14. Involvement in Internet Aggression during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Nicole E.; Bumpus, Matthew F.; Rock, Daquarii

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were…

  15. The Barrier within: Relational Aggression among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Relational aggression among women presents an overlooked barrier to women's quest for advancement in the workplace. Although research on women's leadership extols their ability to collaborate and form lasting, supportive relationships, one cannot assume that all women are supportive of other women. Research reveals that relational aggression,…

  16. Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163824.html Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma Over one-third ... TUESDAY, Feb. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental gene therapy for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma beat back more ...

  17. Assessing aggressiveness quickly and efficiently: the Spanish adaptation of Aggression Questionnaire-refined version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Pujol, David; Kramp, Uwe; García-Forero, Carlos; Pérez-Ramírez, Meritxell; Andrés-Pueyo, Antonio

    2006-10-01

    The assessment of aggressiveness and the prediction of aggression has become a relevant research and applied topic in Psychiatry and Psychology. There have been many attempts in order to get a fast and reliable tool to measure aggression. Buss and Durkee started the pathway, and recently Bryant and Smith developed a tool with an enormous potential, a fast-applicable, reliable and valid test. We herein report a Spanish adaptation of this test and we show that aggressiveness can be measured rapidly, and in a simple, valid and reliable way across different populations. We focus on the discriminant capacity of this test to detect aggressive individuals.

  18. Psychopathic traits and reactive-proactive aggression in a large community sample of Polish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perenc, Lidia; Radochonski, Mieczyslaw

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents results of the only large-scale study carried-out in Poland to date on the prevalence of psychopathic traits and their relationship with aggressive behaviour in mainstream adolescents. The sample consists of 9,415 students (4,808 boys, 4,607 girls) in the first to third grades at 142 public secondary schools. Psychopathic traits were measured by teacher-report ratings with the antisocial process screening device (APSD), while aggressive behaviours were assessed using the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire. Analysis of results revealed that boys scored much higher than girls in total APSD scale measuring psychopathic traits. Only 2.68% of assessed adolescents scored above the cut-off of 25 points. Results also showed significant correlations between psychopathic traits and both proactive and reactive aggression. The authors concluded that screening a large sample to identify children and youths with psychopathic traits has some important advantages but, on the other hand, it is a sensitive undertaking because of the label 'psychopath' can have negative consequences for the subjects.

  19. Wild Asian elephants distinguish aggressive tiger and leopard growls according to perceived danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuppil, Vivek; Coss, Richard G

    2013-10-23

    Prey species exhibit antipredator behaviours such as alertness, aggression and flight, among others, in response to predators. The nature of this response is variable, with animals reacting more strongly in situations of increased vulnerability. Our research described here is the first formal study to investigate night-time antipredator behaviour in any species of elephants, Asian or African. We examined the provocative effects of elephant-triggered tiger and leopard growls while elephants attempted to crop-raid. Tigers opportunistically prey on elephant calves, whereas leopards pose no threat; therefore, we predicted that the elephant response would be reflective of this difference. Elephants reacted similarly cautiously to the simulated presence of felids of both species by eventually moving away, but differed markedly in their more immediate behavioural responses. Elephants retreated silently to tiger-growl playbacks, whereas they responded with aggressive vocalizations, such as trumpets and grunts, to leopard-growl playbacks. Elephants also lingered in the area and displayed alert or investigative behaviours in response to leopard growls when compared with tiger growls. We anticipate that the methods outlined here will promote further study of elephant antipredator behaviour in a naturalistic context, with applications for conservation efforts as well.

  20. Are Aggressive Cartoons Really Funnier? A Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Stieger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research has found that more aggressive cartoons are perceived as funnier. The current study (N = 106; 16 cartoons examined this finding in more detail by additionally including painfulness and cleverness rankings of cartoons, and by examining possible moderating effects of different humor styles, self-esteem (explicit, implicit, and social desirability. Aggressive or painful cartoons were not perceived to be funnier, but were rated as having a cleverer punch line. Effects were only weakly correlated with participants’ humor styles, but were independent of self-esteem and social desirability. This suggests that aggressive cartoons are not in general perceived to be funnier than non-aggressive ones, and that there may be other moderators influencing this effect (e.g., the type of cartoons, definition of aggression and funniness, cultural aspects.

  1. Cyberbullying or Cyber Aggression?: A Review of Existing Definitions of Cyber-Based Peer-to-Peer Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Corcoran

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the ongoing debate regarding the definitions and measurement of cyberbullying, the present article critically appraises the existing literature and offers direction regarding the question of how best to conceptualise peer-to-peer abuse in a cyber context. Variations across definitions are problematic as it has been argued that inconsistencies with regard to definitions result in researchers examining different phenomena, whilst the absence of an agreed conceptualisation of the behaviour(s involved hinders the development of reliable and valid measures. Existing definitions of cyberbullying often incorporate the criteria of traditional bullying such as intent to harm, repetition, and imbalance of power. However, due to the unique nature of cyber-based communication, it can be difficult to identify such criteria in relation to cyber-based abuse. Thus, for these reasons cyberbullying may not be the most appropriate term. Rather than attempting to “shoe-horn” this abusive behaviour into the preconceived conceptual framework that provides an understanding of traditional bullying, it is timely to take an alternative approach. We argue that it is now time to turn our attention to the broader issue of cyber aggression, rather than persist with the narrow focus that is cyberbullying.

  2. Pathways to romantic relational aggression through adolescent peer aggression and heavy episodic drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodin, Erica M; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena; Caldeira, Valerie; Homel, Jacqueline; Leadbeater, Bonnie

    2016-11-01

    Adolescent peer aggression is a well-established correlate of romantic relational aggression; however, the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Heavy episodic drinking (or "binge" alcohol use) was examined as both a prior and concurrent mediator of this link in a sample of 282 12-18 year old interviewed four times over 6 years. Path analyses indicated that early peer relational and physical aggression each uniquely predicted later romantic relational aggression. Concurrent heavy episodic drinking fully mediated this effect for peer physical aggression only. These findings highlight two important mechanisms by which peer aggression may increase the risk of later romantic relational aggression: a direct pathway from peer relational aggression to romantic relational aggression and an indirect pathway through peer physical aggression and concurrent heavy episodic drinking. Prevention programs targeting romantic relational aggression in adolescence and young adulthood may benefit from interventions that target multiple domains of risky behavior, including the heavy concurrent use of alcohol. Aggr. Behav. 42:563-576, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Psychometric Properties of the Situation and Aggressive Behavior Inventory and the Motives for Aggression Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Montejo Hernández

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychometric properties of the Situation and Aggressive Behavior Inventory and the Motives for Aggression Inventory were examined in a sample of 373 students of Medicine and Psychology in the city of Tunja in Colombia. In the Situation and Aggressive Behavior Inventory, most common aggressive behaviors were verbal aggression and attitudes or rage gestures, with physical aggression, verbal aggression and threatening showing the highest correlations; most common situation were study problems, family and interpersonalrelations, and familiar or personal economy, no high correlationswere found among situations or situations with behaviors. In the Motives for Aggression Inventory, most common motives were rage, emotional discomfort, self-defense and defending values. A ronbach´s Alpha of 0.91 was obtained. Both of the questionnaires showed a single dimension (construct validity and satisfactory divergent validity, with the Psychopathy subscale of the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire by Krug (1987, and convergent validity, with the Aggression Questionnaire by Buss and Perry (1992. Homogeneity coefficients were appropriated. Motives in the IMA, specially the pleasure of being aggressive, getting what you want, somethingmakes you feel bad, and valuing aggressive persons, were predictors of the behaviors in the ISCA.

  4. The importance of narcissism in predicting proactive and reactive aggression in moderately to highly aggressive children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Tammy D; Thompson, Alice; Barry, Christopher T; Lochman, John E; Adler, Kristy; Hill, Kwoneathia

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the importance of psychopathy-linked narcissism in predicting proactive and reactive aggression and conduct problems in a group of 160 moderately to highly aggressive children (mean age of 10 years, 9 months). Children's self-report of self-esteem and parent and teacher report of dimensions of psychopathy [narcissism, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and impulsivity], proactive and reactive aggression, and conduct problems were collected. Composites of parent and teacher ratings of children's behavior were used. Consistent with the study's hypotheses, narcissism predicted unique variance in both proactive and reactive aggression, even when controlling for other dimensions of psychopathy, demographic variables associated with narcissism, and the alternative subtype of aggression. As hypothesized, impulsivity was significantly associated with only reactive aggression. CU traits were not related to proactive or reactive aggression once the control variables were entered. All dimensions of psychopathy predicted unique variance in conduct problems. Consistent with prediction, narcissism was not significantly related to general self-esteem, providing support that narcissism and self-esteem are different constructs. Furthermore, narcissism and self-esteem related differentially to proactive aggression, reactive aggression, and conduct problems. Furthermore, narcissism but not self-esteem accounted for unique variance in aggression and conduct problems. The importance of narcissism in the prediction of aggressive behaviors and clinical implications are discussed.

  5. The influence of classroom aggression and classroom climate on aggressive-disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Duane E; Bierman, Karen L; Powers, C J

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that early classroom experiences influence the socialization of aggression. Tracking changes in the aggressive behavior of 4,179 children from kindergarten to second-grade (ages 5-8), this study examined the impact of 2 important features of the classroom context--aggregate peer aggression and climates characterized by supportive teacher-student interactions. The aggregate aggression scores of children assigned to first-grade classrooms predicted the level of classroom aggression (assessed by teacher ratings) and quality of classroom climate (assessed by observers) that emerged by the end of Grade 1. Hierarchical linear model analyses revealed that first-grade classroom aggression and quality of classroom climate made independent contributions to changes in student aggression, as students moved from kindergarten to second grade. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  6. Identifying cognitive predictors of reactive and proactive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugman, Suzanne; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Cima, Maaike; Schuhmann, Teresa; Dambacher, Franziska; Sack, Alexander T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify implicit cognitive predictors of aggressive behavior. Specifically, the predictive value of an attentional bias for aggressive stimuli and automatic association of the self and aggression was examined for reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in a non-clinical sample (N = 90). An Emotional Stroop Task was used to measure an attentional bias. With an idiographic Single-Target Implicit Association Test, automatic associations were assessed between words referring to the self (e.g., the participants' name) and words referring to aggression (e.g., fighting). The Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP) was used to measure reactive and proactive aggressive behavior. Furthermore, self-reported aggressiveness was assessed with the Reactive Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ). Results showed that heightened attentional interference for aggressive words significantly predicted more reactive aggression, while lower attentional bias towards aggressive words predicted higher levels of proactive aggression. A stronger self-aggression association resulted in more proactive aggression, but not reactive aggression. Self-reports on aggression did not additionally predict behavioral aggression. This implies that the cognitive tests employed in our study have the potential to discriminate between reactive and proactive aggression. Aggr. Behav. 41:51-64 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Aggression on inpatient units: Clinical characteristics and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation.

  8. Neuro-imaging the serotonin 2A receptor as a valid biomarker for canine behavioural disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeire, Simon; Audenaert, Kurt; De Meester, Rudy; Vandermeulen, Eva; Waelbers, Tim; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Eersels, Jos; Dobbeleir, André; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2011-12-01

    The serotonergic system is disturbed in different mood and affective disorders, with especially the serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptor involved in impulsive aggressiveness and anxiety. The aim of the study was to evaluate the involvement of the brain 5-HT 2A receptor in dogs with different behavioural disorders. Three groups of drug naive dogs were studied: 22 dogs showing impulsive aggressive behaviour, 22 showing normal behaviour, and 22 showing anxious behaviour. The serotonin 2A receptor was evaluated with Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and the serotonin 2A receptor-selective radiopharmaceutical (123)I-R91150. A serotonin 2A receptor binding index (BI), proportional to the cortical receptor density, was calculated. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine cut-off values at which optimal sensitivity and specificity are achieved and to evaluate the general performance of the BI in reflecting the state of the dog, i.e., impulsive aggressive, normal or anxious. Significantly (Pdogs behaving abnormally, with consistently increased BI in impulsive aggressive dogs and decreased BI in anxious dogs. These results provide clear evidence for a disturbed serotonergic balance in canine impulsive aggression and anxiety disorders. A right frontal cut-off value of ≥1.92 with 86.4% sensitivity and 2.3% (1-specificity) was obtained for the impulsive aggressive dogs. Differentiating the anxious dogs from the rest of the population was possible with a cut-off value of ≤1.73 with 86.4% sensitivity and 18.2% (1-specificity). We conclude that SPECT imaging with the radioligand (123)I-R91150 can be a helpful tool in evaluating the involvement of the serotonin 2A receptor in the complex mechanisms of impulsive aggressive and anxious behaviour. The 5HT-2A binding index of the right frontal cortex appears to be a valid biomarker in differentiating the studied canine behavioural disorders.

  9. Aggression in Inpatient Adolescents: The Effects of Gender and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Michele; Carey, Michael; Kim, Wun Jung

    2003-01-01

    Examined differences in aggressive behavior among predominantly white adolescent inpatients with and without depression. Survey data indicated that depression and gender interacted significantly. Depressed females demonstrated more physical aggression than nondepressed females, and depressed males demonstrated less aggression than nondepressed…

  10. The effect of online violent video games on levels of aggression.

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    Jack Hollingdale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent years the video game industry has surpassed both the music and video industries in sales. Currently violent video games are among the most popular video games played by consumers, most specifically First-Person Shooters (FPS. Technological advancements in game play experience including the ability to play online has accounted for this increase in popularity. Previous research, utilising the General Aggression Model (GAM, has identified that violent video games increase levels of aggression. Little is known, however, as to the effect of playing a violent video game online. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants (N = 101 were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions; neutral video game--offline, neutral video game--online, violent video game--offline and violent video game--online. Following this they completed questionnaires to assess their attitudes towards the game and engaged in a chilli sauce paradigm to measure behavioural aggression. The results identified that participants who played a violent video game exhibited more aggression than those who played a neutral video game. Furthermore, this main effect was not particularly pronounced when the game was played online. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that both playing violent video games online and offline compared to playing neutral video games increases aggression.

  11. Altering an extended phenotype reduces intraspecific male aggression and can maintain diversity in cichlid fish

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    Isabel Santos Magalhaes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Reduced male aggression towards different phenotypes generating negative frequency-dependent intrasexual selection has been suggested as a mechanism to facilitate the invasion and maintenance of novel phenotypes in a population. To date, the best empirical evidence for the phenomenon has been provided by laboratory studies on cichlid fish with different colour polymorphisms. Here we experimentally tested the hypothesis in a natural population of Lake Malawi cichlid fish, in which males build sand-castles (bowers to attract females during seasonal leks. We predicted that if bower shape plays an important role in male aggressive interactions, aggression among conspecific males should decrease when their bower shape is altered. Accordingly, we allocated randomly chosen bowers in a Nyassachromis cf. microcephalus lek into three treatments: control, manipulated to a different shape, and simulated manipulation. We then measured male behaviours and bower shape before and after these treatments. We found that once bower shape was altered, males were involved in significantly fewer aggressive interactions with conspecific males than before manipulation. Mating success was not affected. Our results support the idea that an extended phenotype, such as bower shape, can be important in maintaining polymorphic populations. Specifically, reduced male conspecific aggression towards males with different extended phenotypes (here, bower shapes may cause negative frequency-dependent selection, allowing the invasion and establishment of a new phenotype (bower builder. This could help our understanding of mechanisms of diversification within populations, and in particular, the overall diversification of bower shapes within Lake Malawi cichlids.

  12. Aggressive atypical ameloblastic fibrodentinoma: Report of a case

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    Girish B Giraddi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastic fibroma and related lesions constitute a group of lesions, which range in biologic behaviour from true neoplasms to hamartomas. This group of lesions is also sometimes referred to as mixed odontogenic tumors and usually includes ameloblastic fibroma, ameloblastic fibrodentinoma and ameloblastic fibro-odontoma. Despite numerous efforts however, there is still considerable confusion concerning the nature and interrelationship of these mixed odontogenic tumors and related lesions. The malignant counterpart of these lesions namely aameloblastic fibrosarcoma, ameloblastic dentinosarcoma and ameloblastic odontosarcoma respectively are said to arise secondarily in their benign counterpart or de novo. Recurrence of the benign lesion raises the risk towards malignant transformation therefore a radical surgery should be planned inspite of enucleation or curettage. Here we present a case of an aggressive ameloblastic fibrodentinoma which was radically excised in the light of clinical and histological presentation followed by reconstruction of mandible.

  13. The neurobiology of aggression and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Daniel R; Siever, Larry J

    2015-06-01

    Aggression and violence represent a significant public health concern and a clinical challenge for the mental healthcare provider. A great deal has been revealed regarding the neurobiology of violence and aggression, and an integration of this body of knowledge will ultimately serve to advance clinical diagnostics and therapeutic interventions. We will review here the latest findings regarding the neurobiology of aggression and violence. First, we will introduce the construct of aggression, with a focus on issues related to its heterogeneity, as well as the importance of refining the aggression phenotype in order to reduce pathophysiologic variability. Next we will examine the neuroanatomy of aggression and violence, focusing on regional volumes, functional studies, and interregional connectivity. Significant emphasis will be on the amygdala, as well as amygdala-frontal circuitry. Then we will turn our attention to the neurochemistry and molecular genetics of aggression and violence, examining the extensive findings on the serotonergic system, as well as the growing literature on the dopaminergic and vasopressinergic systems. We will also address the contribution of steroid hormones, namely, cortisol and testosterone. Finally, we will summarize these findings with a focus on reconciling inconsistencies and potential clinical implications; and, then we will suggest areas of focus for future directions in the field.

  14. Aggression and psychopathology in detained adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerlynck, Sannie M J J; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vermeiren, Robert; Jansen, Lucres M C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2008-05-30

    The aim of the study was to investigate a group of detained females with regard to aggression and psychopathology and to examine the relationship between the two conditions. For this purpose, a representative sample of 216 detained adolescent females aged 12-18 (mean 15.5) was studied with a standard set of self-report instruments, while a subgroup of 73 parents was interviewed by telephone on the participants' externalizing psychopathology. Based on aggression items derived from the Conduct Disorder section of the Kiddie-SADS, the following three aggression subgroups were identified: (1) non-aggressive (NA; 41%), (2) mildly aggressive (MA; 39%), and (3) severely aggressive (SA; 20%). In addition to high levels of psychopathology for the group as a whole, differences were found between aggression groups, with the NA group demonstrating the lowest levels, the MA group intermediate levels, and the SA group the highest levels. These differences were most pronounced for externalizing psychopathology, and were also found for post-traumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) and suicidality. The clinical implications of these findings should be investigated in the future, but may well relate to issues of diagnostic identification and administration of adequate and targeted treatment, especially with regard to PTSS and suicidality. Since the current study was cross-sectional, the predictive effect of the investigated relationships should be the focus of further study.

  15. Arginine vasotocin, isotocin and nonapeptide receptor gene expression link to social status and aggression in sex-dependent patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lema, S C; Sanders, K E; Walti, K A

    2015-02-01

    Nonapeptide hormones of the vasopressin/oxytocin family regulate social behaviours. In mammals and birds, variation in behaviour also is linked to expression patterns of the V1a-type receptor and the oxytocin/mesotocin receptor in the brain. Genome duplications, however, expand the diversity of nonapeptide receptors in actinopterygian fishes, and two distinct V1a-type receptors (v1a1 and v1a2) for vasotocin, as well as at least two V2-type receptors (v2a and v2b), have been identified in these taxa. The present study investigates how aggression connected to social status relates to the abundance patterns of gene transcripts encoding four vasotocin receptors, an isotocin receptor (itr), pro-vasotocin (proVT) and pro-isotocin (proIT) in the brain of the pupfish Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae. Sexually-mature pupfish were maintained in mixed-sex social groups and assessed for individual variation in aggressive behaviours. Males in these groups behaved more aggressively than females, and larger fish exhibited higher aggression relative to smaller fish of the same sex. Hypothalamic proVT transcript abundance was elevated in dominant males compared to subordinate males, and correlated positively with individual variation in aggression in both social classes. Transcripts encoding vasotocin receptor v1a1 were at higher levels in the telencephalon and hypothalamus of socially subordinate males than dominant males. Dominant males exhibited elevated hypothalamic v1a2 receptor transcript abundance relative to subordinate males and females, and telencephalic v1a2 mRNA abundance in dominant males was also associated positively with individual aggressiveness. Transcripts in the telencephalon encoding itr were elevated in females relative to males, and both telencephalic proIT and hypothalamic itr transcript abundance varied with female social status. Taken together, these data link hypothalamic proVT expression to aggression and implicate forebrain expression of the V1a

  16. Agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression: the mediating effect of trait aggressivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cameron A; Parrott, Dominic J; Giancola, Peter R

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the mediating effect of trait aggressivity on the relation between agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression in a laboratory setting. Participants were 116 healthy male social drinkers between 21 and 30 years of age. Agreeableness and trait aggressivity were measured using the Big Five Inventory and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, respectively. Following the consumption of an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, participants completed a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm, in which electric shocks were received from and administered to a fictitious opponent during a competitive task. Aggression was operationalized as the proportion of the most extreme shocks delivered to the fictitious opponent under conditions of low and high provocation. Results indicated that lower levels of agreeableness were associated with higher levels of trait aggressivity. In turn, higher levels of trait aggressivity predicted extreme aggression in intoxicated, but not sober, participants under low, but not high, provocation. Findings highlight the importance of examining determinants of intoxicated aggression within a broader theoretical framework of personality.

  17. Influence of Perceived Racial Discrimination on Health and Behaviour of Immigrant Children in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anne George

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the influence of perceived discrimination on the health and behaviour of ethnic minority immigrant children in British Columbia, Canada. Using data from the New Canadian Children and Youth Study, we examine perceived discrimination experienced by the parent, family, and cultural group in Canada to test the influence of micro-, meso-, and macrolevels of discrimination on children. Families from 6 ethnic backgrounds participated in the study. Parents’ perceptions of the child’s health and six behavioral scales (hyperactivity, prosocial behaviour, emotional problems, aggression, indirect aggression, and a general combined behaviour scale were examined as outcome variables. After controlling for ethnicity and background variables, our findings suggest that perceived micro- and macrodiscrimination has the greatest influence on the health and behaviour of our immigrant child sample. Variation among ethnic groups provided the largest explanation of health and behavioural discrepancies in our study.

  18. Toward a refined view of aggressive fantasy as a risk factor for aggression: interaction effects involving cognitive and situational variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Craig E; Fischer, Kurt W; Watson, Malcolm W

    2009-01-01

    Over three decades of research have established a positive connection between fantasizing about aggression and enacting aggression. Such findings have provided strong evidence against the catharsis view of aggressive fantasy. However, little attention has been paid to the potentially nuanced nature of the link between fantasy aggression and actual aggression. In the present article, we examined the influence of four variables in the aggressive fantasy-aggressive behavior link: gender, exposure to violence, fantasy absorption, and level of fantasy about harm befalling loved ones and the self (dysphoric fantasy). Using data from a diverse, community-based sample of 7-14-year olds and their mothers, we replicated the general finding that aggressive fantasy is positively associated with real-world aggressive behavior. However, we also found that the interaction of aggressive fantasy and exposure to violence related significantly to aggression, as did the relation between aggressive fantasy and dysphoric fantasy. When exposure to violence was low, even high levels of aggressive fantasizing did not predict aggressive behavior, and, when aggressive fantasizing was low, even high levels of exposure to violence did not predict aggressive behavior. Similarly, when dysphoric fantasy was high, the connection between fantasy aggression and real aggression was markedly attenuated. The implications of these findings for intervention efforts and future research are considered.

  19. How does agonistic behaviour differ in albino and pigmented fish?

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    Ondřej Slavík

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics.

  20. How does agonistic behaviour differ in albino and pigmented fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavík, Ondřej; Horký, Pavel; Wackermannová, Marie

    2016-01-01

    In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Personality Structures of the Perpetrators of Aggressive and Non-aggressive Offense

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    Kalashnikova A.S.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available problem of the emergence of aggressive behavior is seen through the analysis of the relationship of proagressive and inhibiting aggression personality structures. The study involved 54 men serving sentences for criminal offenses, of which 24 were accused for violent offenses and 30 - for offenses without resorting to violence. We used questionnaires to study the proagressive and deterring aggression personality structures. Statistical analysis was performed to reveal significant differences between groups and to determine correlations. On this basis, the correlations were interpreted with the help of not only quantitative but also qualitative analysis. The results showed no significant differences in the level of expression of aggression and aggression inhibitors between treatment groups, but we identified qualitative differences in the structural analysis of data from individual psychological characteristics that are expected to distinguish aggressive offenders from the perpetrators without violence.

  2. Risperidone for Aggressive Behavior in ADHD

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of risperidone augmentation for treatment-resistant aggression in children with ADHD were evaluated in a placebo-controlled pilot study at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, FL.

  3. Detection of aggressive periodontitis by calprotectin expression

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    Desi Sandra Sari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calprotectin is a calcium-binding protein expressed by neutrophil, monocytes, gingival keratinocytes, and oral epithelial cells. The concentrations of calprotectin increase in plasma, urine and synovial fluid of patients with inflammatory diseases. This protein is known as a marker for periodontal diseases and is detected in gingival crevicular fluids. Purpose: This study was aimed to investigate the detection of inflammation on the aggressive periodontitis by calprotectin expression. Method: The gingival crevicular fluids were taken from five aggressive periodontitis patients and five healthy subjects by using sterile paper points. Calprotectin expression was analyzed by ELISA technique. Result: The results showed the significant difference in calprotectin expression between subject with aggressive periodontitis and healthy subjects p = 0.002 (p < 0.05. Conclusion: It was concluded that the calprotectin expression on the aggressive periodontitis patients may be useful for evaluation the progression of inflammation in periodontitis.

  4. Antibiotics in the management of aggressive periodontitis

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    Abinaya Prakasam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive periodontitis, although not rare, is a fairly unknown condition. Little is known about its optimal management. While majority of patients with common forms of periodontal disease respond predictably well to conventional therapy (oral hygiene instructions (OHI, non-surgical debridement, surgery, and Supportive Periodontal therapy (SPT, patients diagnosed with aggressive form of periodontal disease often do not respond predictably/favorably to conventional therapy owing to its complex multi-factorial etiology. Protocols for treating aggressive periodontitis are largely empirical. There is compelling evidence that adjunctive antibiotic treatment frequently results in more favorable clinical response than conventional therapy alone. This article mainly focuses on the role of adjunct use of pharmacological agents in improving the prognosis and treatment outcome of aggressive periodontitis patients.

  5. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  6. Using the incidence and impact of behavioural conditions in guide dogs to investigate patterns in undesirable behaviour in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron-Lormier, Geoffrey; Harvey, Naomi D; England, Gary C W; Asher, Lucy

    2016-04-14

    The domestic dog is one of our most popular companions and longest relationships, occupying different roles, from pet to working guide dog for the blind. As dogs age different behavioural issues occur and in some cases dogs may be relinquished or removed from their working service. Here we analyse a dataset on working guide dogs that were removed from their service between 1994 and 2013. We use the withdrawal reasons as a proxy for the manifestation of undesirable behaviour. More than 7,500 dogs were in the dataset used, 83% of which were retired (due to old age) and 17% were withdrawn for behavioural issues. We found that the main reasons for behaviour withdrawal were environmental anxiety, training, and fear/aggression. Breed and sex had an effect on the odds of dogs being withdrawn under the different reasons. The age at withdrawal for the different withdrawal reasons suggested that dogs were more likely to develop fear/aggression related issues early on, whilst issues related to training could develop at almost any age. We found no evidence for heterosis effecting behaviour. We believe that this work is relevant to the pet dog population and had implications for understanding ageing and genetic influences on behaviour.

  7. DECLARED AGGRESSION AND AGGRESSIVENESS IN HANDBALL PLAYERS IN COMPARISON WITH REFERENCE GROUPS

    OpenAIRE

    Jasiński, Tadeusz

    2007-01-01

    Aim of this study was comparison of declared aggression and aggressiveness in boys training handball, where aggressive reactions not provided for in regulations are condemned and punished, with their level in schoolchildren participating only in the physical education lessons. The study involved altogether 146 male participants, aged between 12 to 33 years. The participants were divided into three groups. The first (G1) was formed out of sports club Orlen handball players (40 competitors). Re...

  8. Psychobiological Mechanisms of Aggression in Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Haden, Sara Chiara

    2006-01-01

    Recently, models of aggressive behavior have begun to appreciate the influence of both psychological and biological predictors of maladaptive behavior. The aim of the current project was to clarify the roles that the noradrenergic system (i.e., norepinephrine metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyglycol [MHPG]) and characteristics of the rearing environment play in different expressions of aggression (i.e., hostile and instrumental). It was predicted that higher concentrations of MHPG would be...

  9. [Juvenile criminality: general strain theory and the reactive-proactive aggression trait].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Romy; Curci, Antonietta; Grattagliano, Ignazio

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the present study are to test General Strain Theory's (GST) assumptions, and to integrate the model including the proactive-reactive aggression trait. GST hypothesizes crime to be enacted in response to extra-personal stimuli (strain) and their subsequent negative emotions, especially anger. However, there exist also internally-driven manifestations of crime (instrumental or proactive), motivated by stimuli that are of an intrapersonal origin. Further, individuals differ to each other in the tendency to commit reactive or proactive or both manifestations of crime. With the goal to gain a more comprehensive model, GST variables and the reactive-proactive aggression trait are together tested as to their ability to predict criminal behaviour. Participants in the present research are 68 adolescent males with age ranging from 14 to 19 (M = 16.94, SD = 0.95). Half of the participants were jailed adolescents at the Fornelli Juvenile Detention Centre in Bari, while the remaining were adolescents with no criminal record, matched for age and level of education with the former group. An interview was administered to assess the experienced strain events, anger, and crime committed by the participants in the three months preceding the interview and also before. The reactive-proactive aggression trait was additionally measured. Results of the present study supported GST's assumptions, and confirmed the utility of integrating the model to include the proactive-reactive aggression trait. Strain events experienced in three-month time were found to influence property and violent offences committed by participants in the same time-interval as well as over this time. Furthermore,jailed participants were more likely to react with anger, and violence to strain events than non-jailed individuals, although the number of events experienced by both groups in the preceding months is similar. Finally, the results of the present study showed that proactive aggression is a strong

  10. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter; Matthews, Lindsay R; Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Fels, Johannes Josef; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society.

  11. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Gottingen minipigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Maria Juul Haagensen

    Full Text Available High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society.

  12. Hormone-dependent aggression in female rats: testosterone implants attenuate the decline in aggression following ovariectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L

    1990-04-01

    Female rats were individually housed with a sterile male for a 4- to 5-week period. Each female was then tested for aggression toward an unfamiliar female intruder at weekly intervals. Those females that displayed a high level of aggression on each of three weekly tests were ovariectomized and given subcutaneous implants of testosterone-filled tubes, ovariectomized and given subcutaneous implants of empty tubes, or sham-ovariectomized and implanted with empty tubes. These implants should produce a serum testosterone concentration of about 0.6 ng/ml, compared to 0.17 ng/ml in intact females. Beginning 1 week postoperatively, the aggression of each female was tested weekly for 4 weeks. Ovariectomized females with testosterone implants displayed a level of aggression significantly higher than that of ovariectomized females with empty implants on 3 of 4 weekly tests. The level of aggression by females with testosterone implants was not significantly different from that of sham-ovariectomized females on the first postoperative test. Additional observations showed that testosterone implants did not produce an increase in aggression in females whose preoperative level of aggression was low. Further, Silastic implants containing estrogen (1 to 2 mm long) sufficient to maintain a serum estrogen level of 20 to 30 pg/ml also attenuated the decline of aggression following ovariectomy. These results suggest that testosterone and estrogen may both contribute to the biological substrate of hormone-dependent aggression in female rats.

  13. First report of behavioural lateralisation in mosquitoes: right-biased kicking behaviour against males in females of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Romano, Donato; Messing, Russell H; Canale, Angelo

    2015-04-01

    Lateralisation (i.e. functional and/or structural specialisations of left and right sides of the brain) of aggressive traits has been studied in a number of vertebrates, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. Mosquito females display aggressive responses against undesired males, performing rejection kicks with the hind legs. In this research, we examined lateralisation of kicking behaviour in females of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. We found a right-biased population-level lateralisation of kicking behaviour. Four repeated testing phases on mosquito females confirmed the preferential use of right legs. However, when left legs were used, the mean number of kicks per rejection event was not different to that performed with right legs. Both left and right kicking behaviour lead to successful displacement of undesired partners. This is the first report about behavioural lateralisation in mosquitoes.

  14. Identifying cognitive predictors of reactive and proactive aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, S.; Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.; Cima, M.; Schuhmann, T.; Dambacher, F.; Sack, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify implicit cognitive predictors of aggressive behavior. Specifically, the predictive value of an attentional bias for aggressive stimuli and automatic association of the self and aggression was examined for reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in a non-clini

  15. Relational Aggression and Academic Performance in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between relational aggression and school performance, this study examined the relative and combined associations among relational aggression, overt aggression, and victimization and children's academic performance. Additionally this study examined the relative associations among relational and overt aggression and…

  16. Levels of Aggression among Turkish Adolescents and Factors Leading to Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Dilek; Kilic, Mahmut; Tari Selcuk, Kevser; Uzuncakmak, Tugba

    2016-07-01

    Aggression, an increasing problem among adolescents, is a potential threat to public health as it can lead to violence. Determining the factors causing aggression plays an important role in taking measures to reduce violence. This study aimed at determining the level of aggression among adolescents and at identifying the factors associated with high levels of aggression. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 2,409 Turkish adolescents. Data were collected with the Socio-demographic Questionnaire, Aggression Scale, Perceived Social Support Scale, and Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression. The participants' mean aggression score was 91.83 ± 24.05, and 24.0% of the adolescents' aggression levels rated high. According to the logistic regression model, aggression was 1.26 times higher among males, 1.92 times higher among those who perceived their mental health as poor, 1.58 times higher among those with suicidal ideation, 1.29 times higher among those who did not get prepared for university entrance exams, and 1.62 times higher among those who perceived their school performance as poor. Perceived family social support was a protective factor against high aggression. Approximately one out of every four adolescents in the two Turkish high schools where the study was conducted was determined to display high levels of aggression. Therefore, in order to reduce aggression among adolescents, programs such as coping management and coping with anger should be applied by nurses. Programs should include not only students but also families.

  17. Normative influences on aggression in urban elementary school classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, D; Guerra, N; Huesmann, R; Tolan, P; VanAcker, R; Eron, L

    2000-02-01

    We report a study aimed at understanding the effects of classroom normative influences on individual aggressive behavior, using samples of 614 and 427 urban elementary school children. Participants were assessed with measures of aggressive behavior and normative beliefs about aggression. We tested hypotheses related to the effects of personal normative beliefs, descriptive classroom norms (the central tendency of classmates' aggressive behavior), injunctive classroom normative beliefs (classmates' beliefs about the acceptability of aggression), and norm salience (student and teacher sanctions against aggression) on longitudinal changes in aggressive behavior and beliefs. injunctive norms affected individual normative beliefs and aggression, but descriptive norms had no effect on either. In classrooms where students and teachers made norms against aggression salient, aggressive behavior diminished over time. Implications for classroom behavior management and further research are discussed.

  18. A principal components analysis of Rorschach aggression and hostility variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katko, Nicholas J; Meyer, Gregory J; Mihura, Joni L; Bombel, George

    2010-11-01

    We examined the structure of 9 Rorschach variables related to hostility and aggression (Aggressive Movement, Morbid, Primary Process Aggression, Secondary Process Aggression, Aggressive Content, Aggressive Past, Strong Hostility, Lesser Hostility) in a sample of medical students (N= 225) from the Johns Hopkins Precursors Study (The Johns Hopkins University, 1999). Principal components analysis revealed 2 dimensions accounting for 58% of the total variance. These dimensions extended previous findings for a 2-component model of Rorschach aggressive imagery that had been identified using just 5 or 6 marker variables (Baity & Hilsenroth, 1999; Liebman, Porcerelli, & Abell, 2005). In light of this evidence, we draw an empirical link between the historical research literature and current studies of Rorschach aggression and hostility that helps organize their findings. We also offer suggestions for condensing the array of aggression-related measures to simplify Rorschach aggression scoring.

  19. FAM5C contributes to aggressive periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia M Carvalho

    Full Text Available Aggressive periodontitis is characterized by a rapid and severe periodontal destruction in young systemically healthy subjects. A greater prevalence is reported in Africans and African descendent groups than in Caucasians and Hispanics. We first fine mapped the interval 1q24.2 to 1q31.3 suggested as containing an aggressive periodontitis locus. Three hundred and eighty-nine subjects from 55 pedigrees were studied. Saliva samples were collected from all subjects, and DNA was extracted. Twenty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms were selected and analyzed by standard polymerase chain reaction using TaqMan chemistry. Non-parametric linkage and transmission distortion analyses were performed. Although linkage results were negative, statistically significant association between two markers, rs1935881 and rs1342913, in the FAM5C gene and aggressive periodontitis (p = 0.03 was found. Haplotype analysis showed an association between aggressive periodontitis and the haplotype A-G (rs1935881-rs1342913; p = 0.009. Sequence analysis of FAM5C coding regions did not disclose any mutations, but two variants in conserved intronic regions of FAM5C, rs57694932 and rs10494634, were found. However, these two variants are not associated with aggressive periodontitis. Secondly, we investigated the pattern of FAM5C expression in aggressive periodontitis lesions and its possible correlations with inflammatory/immunological factors and pathogens commonly associated with periodontal diseases. FAM5C mRNA expression was significantly higher in diseased versus healthy sites, and was found to be correlated to the IL-1beta, IL-17A, IL-4 and RANKL mRNA levels. No correlations were found between FAM5C levels and the presence and load of red complex periodontopathogens or Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. This study provides evidence that FAM5C contributes to aggressive periodontitis.

  20. Cruel Intentions on Television and in Real Life: Can Viewing Indirect Aggression Increase Viewers' Subsequent Indirect Aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M.; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were…

  1. Factors affecting assessment of severity of aggressive incidents: using the Staff Observation Aggression Scale - Revised (SOAS-R) in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noda, T.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Sugiyama, N.; Tsujiwaki, K.; Putkonen, H.; Sailas, E.; Kontio, R.; Ito, H.; Joffe, G.

    2012-01-01

    Accessible summary Consumer gender and age, and nurse gender influenced the perception of overall severity of aggressive incidents, in addition to the aggression data provided by the Staff Observation Aggression Scale Revised (SOAS-R) scores. The factors influencing assessments of aggression inciden

  2. The Effect of Television-Mediated Aggression and Real-Life Aggression on the Behavior of Lebanese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Richard C.; Ghandour, Maryam

    1984-01-01

    Investigates the effect of television-mediated aggression and real-life aggression on the behavior of Lebanese children. Observations made of 48 boys and 48 girls six to eight years of age revealed that boys as a group were more aggressive than girls and exhibited more imitative aggression. Girls were more violent after viewing real-life violence.…

  3. Aggressive and Nonaggressive Children's Moral Judgments and Moral Emotion Attributions in Situations Involving Retaliation and Unprovoked Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated 7- and 9-year-old children's moral understanding of retaliation as compared to unprovoked aggression with regard to their aggressive behavior status. Based on peer ratings, 48 children were selected as overtly aggressive and 91 as nonaggressive. Their moral understanding of retaliation and unprovoked aggression was…

  4. Effects of Viewing Relational Aggression on Television on Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing "relational aggression" on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of…

  5. Brief report: the adolescent Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire: an examination of aggressions against parents in Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, E; Gamez-Guadix, M; Orue, I; Gonzalez-Diez, Z; Lopez de Arroyabe, E; Sampedro, R; Pereira, R; Zubizarreta, A; Borrajo, E

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire to assess child-to-parent aggression in adolescents and to document the extent of the problem. The questionnaire developed in this study, the Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire (CPAQ), includes forms of physical and psychological aggression directed at both the mother and the father. It also includes open questions about the reasons for the aggressive acts. The CPAQ was completed by a sample of 2719 adolescents (age range: 13-18 years old, 51.4% girls). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor correlated structure (physical aggression against mother, physical aggression against father, psychological aggression against mother, and psychological aggression against father). Psychological and physical aggression against the mother was more frequent than against the father. However, there were no differences with regard to severe forms of aggression. Girls scored significantly higher on all indicators of psychological aggression, including severe psychological aggression. Nevertheless, except for the prevalence of physical aggression against mothers, which was higher in females, there were no significant differences in physical aggression against parents. Finally, the reasons provided by the adolescents for the aggression included both instrumental (e.g., to obtain permission to get home late and to access their computers) and reactive reasons (e.g., anger and self-defense). These findings highlight the complexity of child-to-parent aggression in adolescence.

  6. Developmental exposure to vasopressin increases aggression in adult prairie voles

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Although the biological roots of aggression have been the source of intense debate, the precise physiological mechanisms responsible for aggression remain poorly understood. In most species, aggression is more common in males than females; thus, gonadal hormones have been a focal point for research in this field. Although gonadal hormones have been shown to influence the expression of aggression, in many cases aggression can continue after castration, indicating that testicular steroids are n...

  7. Aggression in humans: what is its biological foundation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, D J; Walsh, M L; Jonik, R H

    1993-01-01

    Although human aggression is frequently inferred to parallel aggression based on testosterone in nonprimate mammals, there is little concrete support for this position. High- and low-aggression individuals do not consistently differ in serum testosterone. Aggression does not change at puberty when testosterone levels increase. Aggression does not increase in hypogonadal males (or females) when exogenous testosterone is administered to support sexual activity. Similarly, there are no reports that aggression increases in hirsute females even though testosterone levels may rise to 200% above normal. Conversely, castration or antiandrogen administration to human males is not associated with a consistent decrease in aggression. Finally, changes in human aggression associated with neuropathology are not consistent with current knowledge of the neural basis of testosterone-dependent aggression. In contrast, human aggression does have a substantial number of features in common with defensive aggression seen in nonprimate mammals. It is present at all age levels, is displayed by both males and females, is directed at both males and females, and is not dependent on seasonal changes in hormone levels or experiential events such as sexual activity. As would be expected from current knowledge of the neural system controlling defensive aggression, aggression in humans increases with tumors in the medial hypothalamus and septal region, and with seizure activity in the amygdala. It decreases with lesions in the amygdala. The inference that human aggression has its roots in the defensive aggression of nonprimate mammals is in general agreement with evidence on the consistency of human aggressiveness over age, with similarities in male and female aggressiveness in laboratory studies, and with observations that some neurological disturbances contribute to criminal violence. This evidence suggests that human aggression has its biological roots in the defensive aggression of nonprimate

  8. Males do not see only red: UV wavelengths and male territorial aggression in the three-spined stickleback ( Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, Ingolf P.; Bakker, Theo C. M.

    2008-07-01

    Animal colour signals serve important functions in intraspecific interactions, including species recognition, mate choice and agonistic behaviour. An increasing interest concerns ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths, for instance studies on the effect of UV in mating decisions. More recently, some studies also established that UV signals affect intrasexual interactions. We studied the role of UV during aggressive encounters between male three-spined sticklebacks ( Gasterosteus aculeatus), a species in which UV has an effect on female and male mate choice and shoaling behaviour. To that aim, we compared the aggressive response of a territorial male to male intruders, either seen in UV-including (UV+) or UV-lacking (UV-) conditions. Our prediction was that, if UV wavelengths are used in male-male competition, a territorial male should show less competitive behaviour towards an intruder representing a lower threat, i.e. the one presented without UV light. Male sticklebacks showed significantly lower levels of aggression towards male opponents lacking an UV component to their coloration than male opponents possessing this colour component. Discrimination was not influenced by a difference in brightness between the UV+ and UV- stimuli. Finally, we present some reflectance-spectrophotometrical data of two skin regions (cheek and abdomen) of the experimental males and analysed relationships between colorimetric variables, body variables and behaviour. Our study emphasises that UV visual cues are of importance in different communicational tasks in the three-spined stickleback.

  9. The Relationship between Unstable Self-Esteem and Aggression: Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunju J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether the instability of self-esteem (i.e., a high intraindividual variability in self-esteem) is differentially associated with different types of aggressive behavior by using a sample of 235 preadolescent children. Self-esteem was measured four times for four consecutive days, and proactive and reactive aggressive behaviors…

  10. The impact of classroom aggression on the development of aggressive behavior problems in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Duane E; Bierman, Karen L

    2006-01-01

    Prior research suggests that exposure to elementary classrooms characterized by high levels of student aggression may contribute to the development of child aggressive behavior problems. To explore this process in more detail, this study followed a longitudinal sample of 4,907 children and examined demographic factors associated with exposure to high-aggression classrooms, including school context factors (school size, student poverty levels, and rural vs. urban location) and child ethnicity (African American, European American). The developmental impact of different temporal patterns of exposure (e.g., primacy, recency, chronicity) to high-aggression classrooms was evaluated on child aggression. Analyses revealed that African American children attending large, urban schools that served socioeconomically disadvantaged students were more likely than other students to be exposed to high-aggressive classroom contexts. Hierarchical regressions demonstrated cumulative effects for temporal exposure, whereby children with multiple years of exposure showed higher levels of aggressive behavior after 3 years than children with primacy, less recent, and less chronic exposure, controlling for initial levels of aggression. Implications are discussed for developmental research and preventive interventions.

  11. Organizational Behaviour in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)......Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)...

  12. Chemical camouflage--a frog's strategy to co-exist with aggressive ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Brede, Christian; Hirschfeld, Mareike; Schmitt, Thomas; Favreau, Philippe; Stöcklin, Reto; Wunder, Cora; Mebs, Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    Whereas interspecific associations receive considerable attention in evolutionary, behavioural and ecological literature, the proximate bases for these associations are usually unknown. This in particular applies to associations between vertebrates with invertebrates. The West-African savanna frog Phrynomantis microps lives in the underground nest of ponerine ants (Paltothyreus tarsatus). The ants usually react highly aggressively when disturbed by fiercely stinging, but the frog is not attacked and lives unharmed among the ants. Herein we examined the proximate mechanisms for this unusual association. Experiments with termites and mealworms covered with the skin secretion of the frog revealed that specific chemical compounds seem to prevent the ants from stinging. By HPLC-fractionation of an aqueous solution of the frogs' skin secretion, two peptides of 1,029 and 1,143 Da were isolated and found to inhibit the aggressive behaviour of the ants. By de novo sequencing using tandem mass spectrometry, the amino acid sequence of both peptides consisting of a chain of 9 and 11 residues, respectively, was elucidated. Both peptides were synthesized and tested, and exhibited the same inhibitory properties as the original frog secretions. These novel peptides most likely act as an appeasement allomone and may serve as models for taming insect aggression.

  13. Chemical camouflage--a frog's strategy to co-exist with aggressive ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark-Oliver Rödel

    Full Text Available Whereas interspecific associations receive considerable attention in evolutionary, behavioural and ecological literature, the proximate bases for these associations are usually unknown. This in particular applies to associations between vertebrates with invertebrates. The West-African savanna frog Phrynomantis microps lives in the underground nest of ponerine ants (Paltothyreus tarsatus. The ants usually react highly aggressively when disturbed by fiercely stinging, but the frog is not attacked and lives unharmed among the ants. Herein we examined the proximate mechanisms for this unusual association. Experiments with termites and mealworms covered with the skin secretion of the frog revealed that specific chemical compounds seem to prevent the ants from stinging. By HPLC-fractionation of an aqueous solution of the frogs' skin secretion, two peptides of 1,029 and 1,143 Da were isolated and found to inhibit the aggressive behaviour of the ants. By de novo sequencing using tandem mass spectrometry, the amino acid sequence of both peptides consisting of a chain of 9 and 11 residues, respectively, was elucidated. Both peptides were synthesized and tested, and exhibited the same inhibitory properties as the original frog secretions. These novel peptides most likely act as an appeasement allomone and may serve as models for taming insect aggression.

  14. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.

  15. [Castration of dogs from the standpoint of behaviour therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhne, F

    2012-04-24

    The castration of dogs is an amputation covered by Section 6 (1) of the Animal Protection Law in Germany. Apart from the general indications given by veterinary medicine, castration of an animal is a potential method of animal behaviour therapy. However, the highly variable, individual effects of castration on behaviour require detailed diagnosis by the veterinarian. Castration appears to exert its strongest influence on sexually dimorphic behaviour patterns in male dogs, e.g. status- related aggression, urine marking, mounting, house-soiling problems, and roaming. An indication to castrate a bitch is maternal aggression. When evaluating the effects of castration, one should always consider individual circumstances, such as learning experience (for example in the case of "experienced copulators"), age, and pack behaviour (if there is more than one dog in the household). Additional benefits of castration include a reduction in the dog's general activity level, decreased preparatory arousal and a decline in the dog's ability to focus its attention fully on the target of attack. As a result, it is much easier for the owner to disrupt and manage or control the dog's agonistic intentions. However, castration is not the ultimate remedy in dog-handling. Any decision in this respect should be based on a precise behaviour- related indication. Otherwise, such surgery may well violate the Animal Protection Law.

  16. A high aggression strategy for smaller males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Andreas Svensson

    Full Text Available Male-male conflict is common among animals, but questions remain as to when, how and by whom aggression should be initiated. Factors that affect agonistic strategies include residency, the value of the contested resource and the fighting ability of the two contestants. We quantified initiation of aggression in a fish, the desert goby, Chlamydogobius eremius, by exposing nest-holding males to a male intruder. The perceived value of the resource (the nest was manipulated by exposing half of the residents to sexually receptive females for two days before the trial. Resident male aggression, however, was unaffected by perceived mating opportunities. It was also unaffected by the absolute and relative size of the intruder. Instead resident aggression was negatively related to resident male size. In particular, smaller residents attacked sooner and with greater intensity compared to larger residents. These results suggest that resident desert goby males used set, rather than conditional, strategies for initiating aggression. If intruders are more likely to flee than retaliate, small males may benefit from attacking intruders before these have had an opportunity to assess the resident and/or the resource.

  17. Behaviour of composite sandwich decks at high temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Puchades, Maria Isabel Garcia

    2016-01-01

    Structures made of FRP composites have been shown to provide efficient and economical applications in bridges and piers. They are being increasingly used due to their several advantages when compared to traditional materials, namely, the lightness, strength, good insulation properties, low maintenance and improved performance when submitted to aggressive environments. However, fire behaviour has been recently identified by several authors as the most critical gap for these materials to be ful...

  18. Organizational Behaviour Study Material

    OpenAIRE

    P. Sreeramana Aithal

    2016-01-01

    An overview of Organizational Behaviour – History of Organisational Behaviour and its  emergence as a disciple-emerging perspective Organizational Behaviour.  Individual process in organisation – Learning, perception and attribution- Individual differences - Basic concepts of motivation - Advanced concepts of motivation. Group process in Organisation – Group dynamics, leadership theories - Power, politics and conflict - inter- personal communication. Enhancing individu...

  19. Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch Prefer and Are Less Aggressive in Darker Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh P Gaffney

    Full Text Available Fish are capable of excellent vision and can be profoundly influenced by the visual properties of their environment. Ambient colours have been found to affect growth, survival, aggression and reproduction, but the effect of background darkness (i.e., the darkness vs. lightness of the background on preference and aggression has not been evaluated systematically. One-hundred Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch, a species that is increasing in popularity in aquaculture, were randomly assigned to 10 tanks. Using a Latin-square design, every tank was bisected to allow fish in each tank to choose between all the following colour choices (8 choices in total: black vs. white, light grey, dark grey, and a mixed dark grey/black pattern, as well as industry-standard blue vs. white, light grey, dark grey, and black. Fish showed a strong preference for black backgrounds over all other options (p < 0.01. Across tests, preference strength increased with background darkness (p < 0.0001. Moreover, having darker backgrounds in the environment resulted in less aggressive behaviour throughout the tank (p < 0.0001. These results provide the first evidence that darker tanks are preferred by and decrease aggression in salmonids, which points to the welfare benefits of housing farmed salmon in enclosures containing dark backgrounds.

  20. Higher aggression towards closer relatives by soldier larvae in a polyembryonic wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Johanna; Dunn, Derek W; Strand, Michael R; Hardy, Ian C W

    2014-05-01

    In the polyembryonic wasp Copidosoma floridanum, females commonly lay one male and one female egg in a lepidopteran host. Both sexes proliferate clonally within the growing host larva. Distinct larval castes develop from each wasp egg, the majority being 'reproductives' plus some 'soldiers' which sacrifice reproduction and attack competitors. Maturing mixed sex broods are usually female biased, as expected when intra-brood mating is common. Pre-mating dispersal followed by outbreeding is expected to increase sexual conflict over brood sex ratios and result in greater soldier attack rates. Owing to sexually asymmetric relatedness, intra-brood conflicts are expected to be resolved primarily via female soldier attack. We observed soldier behaviour in vitro to test whether lower intra-brood relatedness (siblings from either within-strain or between-strain crosses were presented) increased inter-sexual aggression by female as well as male soldiers. As found in prior studies, females were more aggressive than males but, contrary to expectations and previous empirical observations, soldiers of both sexes showed more aggression towards more closely related embryos. We speculate that lower intra-brood relatedness indicates maternal outbreeding and may suggest a rarity of mating opportunities for reproductives maturing from the current brood, which may enhance the value of opposite sex brood-mates, or that higher aggression towards relatives may be a side-effect of mechanisms to discriminate heterospecific competitors.

  1. Digit Ratio (2D:4D, Aggression, and Testosterone in Men Exposed to an Aggressive Video Stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam P. Kilduff

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The relative lengths of the 2nd and 4th digits (2D:4D is a negative biomarker for prenatal testosterone, and low 2D:4D may be associated with aggression. However, the evidence for a 2D:4D-aggression association is mixed. Here we test the hypothesis that 2D:4D is robustly linked to aggression in “challenge” situations in which testosterone is increased. Participants were exposed to an aggressive video and a control video. Aggression was measured after each video and salivary free testosterone levels before and after each video. Compared to the control video, the aggressive video was associated with raised aggression responses and a marginally significant increase in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was negatively correlated with aggression after the aggressive video and the strength of the correlation was higher in those participants who showed the greatest increases in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was also negatively correlated to the difference between aggression scores in the aggressive and control conditions. The control video did not influence testosterone concentrations and there were no associations between 2D:4D and aggression. We conclude that 2D:4D moderates the impact of an aggressive stimulus on aggression, such that an increase in testosterone resulting from a “challenge” is associated with a negative correlation between 2D:4D and aggression.

  2. An examination of the relationship between personality and aggression using the general aggression and five factor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosie, Julia; Gilbert, Flora; Simpson, Katrina; Daffern, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between personality and aggression using the general aggression (GAM, Anderson and Bushman [2002] Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 27-51) and five factor models (FFMs) (Costa and McCrae [1992] Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources). Specifically, it examined Ferguson and Dyck's (Ferguson and Dyck [2012] Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17, 220-228) criticisms that the GAM has questionable validity in clinical populations and disproportionately focuses on aggression-related knowledge structures to the detriment of other inputs, specifically personality variables. Fifty-five male offenders attending a community forensic mental health service for pre-sentence psychiatric and/or psychological evaluation were assessed for aggressive script rehearsal, aggression-supportive normative beliefs, FFM personality traits, trait anger and past aggressive behavior. With regard to relationships between five factor variables and aggression, results suggested that only agreeableness and conscientiousness were related to aggression. However, these relationships were: (1) weak in comparison with those between script rehearsal, normative beliefs and trait anger with aggression and (2) were not significant predictors in hierarchical regression analysis when all of the significant univariate predictors, including GAM-specified variables were regressed onto life history of aggression; normative beliefs supporting aggression, aggressive script rehearsal, and trait anger were significantly related to aggression in this regression analysis. These results provide further support for the application of the GAM to aggressive populations.

  3. Genetic and immunological features of aggressive periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel MUÑOZ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available clinicians and researchers due to its rapid progression and its evidences of genetic character. Different theories have tried to explain the individual differences in susceptibility, where genetic and immunological assays have assumed great importance. The purpose of this study was to review the literature in order to comprehend the genetic and immunological features of aggressive periodontitis. Literature review: Articles were examined, specifically the ones dealing with information regarding genetic and/or immunological studies of individuals related to their disease susceptibility. Conclusions: In the presence of dental biofilm, host susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis varies among regions, countries and races. Immune-inflammatory processes that seem to be modified in aggressive periodontitis patients may be transmitted vertically, explaining familial aggregation associated with this disease.

  4. Order aggressiveness and order book dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Anthony D.; Hautsch, Nikolaus

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study the determinants of order aggressiveness and traders’ order submission strategy in an open limit order book market. Applying an order classification scheme, we model the most aggressive market orders, limit orders as well as cancellations on both sides of the market...... employing a six-dimensional autoregressive conditional intensity model. Using order book data from the Australian Stock Exchange, we find that market depth, the queued volume, the bid-ask spread, recent volatility, as well as recent changes in both the order flow and the price play an important role...... in explaining the determinants of order aggressiveness. Overall, our empirical results broadly confirm theoretical predictions on limit order book trading. However, we also find evidence for behavior that can be attributed to particular liquidity and volatility effects...

  5. Polydrug Use by European Adolescents in the Context of Other Problem Behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokkevi Anna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim – Previous studies of the association between polydrug use and other risk behaviours have generally been limited to specific substances and a small number of behaviours. The aim of this study is to obtain better insight into polydrug use (comprising legal and illegal substances: tobacco, alcohol, tranquillisers/sedatives, cannabis, and other illegal drugs and its association with co-occurring problem behaviours drawn from various broad domains (sexual, aggressive, delinquent, school achievement, relationships among European adolescents. METHODS – Data were obtained from 101,401 16-year-old students from 35 European countries participating in the 2011 ESPAD survey. Associations between polydrug use and other problem behaviours were examined by multinomial and binary logistic regression analyses. RESULTS – Tranquillisers/sedatives appeared among the commonest combinations in the polydrug use pattern, especially for females. A strong trend was found between levels of involvement with polydrug use and other problem behaviours for both genders. The highest associations with polydrug use were for problems with the police, risky sexual behaviour and skipping school. Gender differences showed higher prevalences among boys than girls of problem behaviours of aggressive, antisocial type, while girls prevailed over boys in relationship problems. CONCLUSION – An incremental relationship exists between the level of involvement with polydrug use and the co-occurrence of problem behaviours. Preventative interventions should consider the misuse of tranquillisers/sedatives within the context of polydrug use by adolescents and expand their target groups towards multiple problem behaviours.

  6. Intergenerational Transmission of Relationship Aggression: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ming; Durtschi, Jared A.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether physical and verbal aggression in the family of origin were associated with similar patterns of aggression in young adult couples. Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 213 focal individuals who were followed from adolescence to adulthood. Results suggested that aggression in the family when focal participants were adolescents predicted aggression with romantic partners when participants were adults. The association between interparental aggression and later aggression in adult romantic unions was partially mediated through parents’ aggression to focal participants when they were adolescents. Both physical and verbal aggression revealed the same pattern of findings. All together, these findings are consistent with a developmental-interactional perspective (Capaldi & Gorman-Smith, 2003) concerning the developmental origins of aggression in intimate relationships. PMID:21171767

  7. Behavioral aggressiveness in boys with sexual precocity

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    Bindu Kulshreshtha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some boys with sexual precocity are known to have behavioral problems like increased physical and verbal aggression and school and social maladjustments. It is believed to be due to premature androgen exposure. However, it is not clear why only some develop this problem, difference in etiology could be one explanation. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess behavioral aggression in boys with sexual precocity due to different disorders. Materials and Methods: Seven children, ages three to seven years, were enrolled for this study. Two were diagnosed to have congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, three had testotoxicosis, while two had central precocious puberty. Parents of children with precocious puberty underwent the (CASP questionnaire (children′s aggression scale-parent version. Results: Testosterone levels were high in all patients. Parents denied any history of physical or verbal aggression in the two boys with CAH. Their CASP rating was 0. In contrast, the CASP ratings in the two boys with testotoxicosis and the two with precocious puberty for five domains ranged from 3.1 - 24.2, 2.6 - 8.3,1-5.6,0 - 7.1, and 0 - 1, respectively. In the present study, increased aggression was seen among all the patients with testotoxicosis and both with precocious puberty. In contrast, there were no symptoms of either increased verbal or physical aggression in either of the two patients with CAH. Conclusions: The hormonal milieu in the boys with CAH versus those with sexual precocity due to other causes differed in terms of cortisol and androgen precursors. The androgen excess in CAH children was a consequence of cortisol deficiency. It is possible that cortisol sufficiency is required for androgen-mediated behavioral effects.

  8. Aggressive Fibromatosis: Evidence for a Stable Phase

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    Gillian Mitchell

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Aggressive fibromatosis (AF is an uncommon locally infiltrating benign disease of soft tissue for which treatment comprises complete surgical resection. Radiotherapy can be given postoperatively if the margin is incompletely resected. If the tumour is inoperable radiotherapy provides an alternative treatment. Hormone therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy have also been used for unresectable or recurrent disease. All treatment modalities carry an associated morbidity. We believe that the natural history of aggressive fibromatosis may include a period of stable disease without progression, during which time, treatment is not always necessary.

  9. Emotions, Coping Style and Aggression during Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Mestre Escrivá, Vicenta; Universitat de Valencia; Samper García, Paula; Universitat de Valencia; Tur Porcar, Ana María; Universitat de Valencia; Richaud de Minzi, Cristina; Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigaciones en Psicología Matemática y Experimental (CIIPME), dependiente del Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET); Mesurado, Belen; Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigaciones en Psicología Matemática y Experimental (CIIPME), dependiente del Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET)

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the relation between coping strategies and emotions to know to what extend these are processes related to aggressive behavior. We assume that the aggression influence coping mechanisms in solving problems and handling of emotions: emotional instability (lack of self-control in stressful situations) or empathy (feelings faced to “other” who has a problem or need). A sample of 1.557 boys and girls, with an age range of 12-15 years, enrolled in first-cycle of Compulsory Se...

  10. [Parenting and children's aggression: are there differences in the influence of the father and the mother?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur-Porcar, Ana; Mestre, Vicenta; Samper, Paula; Malonda, Elisabeth

    2012-05-01

    Child rearing provides messages and rules that mediate the children's personality. These messages have a positive or negative influence on their behaviour. The objective of this empirical study was to analyse the relationship between physical and verbal aggression of sons and daughters and parenting style practiced by the father and the mother. The sample consisted of 2,788 students, aged 10 to 15 years, studying either the third cycle of Primary Education (44%) or the first cycle of Secondary Education (56%). Of them, 1,412 were boys (50.6%) and 1,375 were girls (49.3%). The results show that children's aggressiveness is more related to factors associated with the mother's parenting. In the case of daughters, the influence of parenting factors are caused by both parents (father and mother).

  11. The introduction history of invasive garden ants in Europe: Integrating genetic, chemical and behavioural approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Boomsma Jacobus J; Kronauer Daniel JC; Drijfhout Falko P; Ugelvig Line V; Pedersen Jes S; Cremer Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The invasive garden ant, Lasius neglectus, is the most recently detected pest ant and the first known invasive ant able to become established and thrive in the temperate regions of Eurasia. In this study, we aim to reconstruct the invasion history of this ant in Europe analysing 14 populations with three complementary approaches: genetic microsatellite analysis, chemical analysis of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and behavioural observations of aggression behaviour. We eva...

  12. A Pilot Study Examining ADHD and Behavioural Disturbance in Female Mentally Disordered Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Jack Hollingdale; Emma Woodhouse; Philip Asherson; Gudjonsson, Gisli H; Susan Young

    2014-01-01

    Compared with general population rates, prevalence rates of ADHD have been consistently reported to be higher in both male and female offender populations, the latter estimated to range between 10–29%. Research in forensic institutional settings has reported that aggressive behaviour is a particularly prominent source of impairment among men with ADHD. However there is a paucity of research investigating the type of behavioural incidents that may arise in female offenders with ADHD. This pilo...

  13. Risky individuals and the politics of genetic research into aggressiveness and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, Elisa; Levitt, Mairi

    2008-11-01

    New genetic technologies promise to generate valuable insights into the aetiology of several psychiatric conditions, as well as a wider range of human and animal behaviours. Advances in the neurosciences and the application of new brain imaging techniques offer a way of integrating DNA analysis with studies that are looking at other biological markers of behaviour. While candidate 'genes for' certain conditions, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, are said to be 'un-discovered' at a faster rate than they are discovered, many studies are being conducted on personality traits such as aggressiveness and anti-social traits. The clinical applicability and implications of these studies are often discussed within the scientific community. However, little attention has so far been paid to their possible policy implications in relation to criminality management and to Criminal Law itself. Similarly, the related ethical issues arising in the field of crime control, and the tensions between enhancing security for society and protecting civil liberties, are currently under-explored. This paper investigates these ethical issues by focusing on the views of those professionals - including judges, lawyers, probation officers and social workers - who work with individuals 'deemed at risk' of violent and aggressive behaviours. It also discusses and problematizes mainstream rhetoric and arguments around the notion of 'risky individuals'.

  14. Road Users' Risky Behavior: Analysis Focusing on Aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica Kalašová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With transport and traffic developing permanently, we can meet more and more aggressive drivers on roads. We can see various kinds of aggressiveness and aggressive behavior that can lead to dangerous situations which can threaten one's health or even life. The problem of aggressive driving on the roads is becoming more current. Speeding, inappropriate gestures, and nonobservance of safe distance, are only a fraction of the aggressive behavior of many drivers that need to be solved in the road traffic. At present, the problem of aggressive driver behavior in Slovakia is not resolved yet.

  15. 新疆野生羊肚菌菌丝液体培养条件初探%Study on Liquid Culture Conditions for Mycelium of Xinjiang Morchella angusticeps Peck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴新宇; 李格; 郑群; 樊新民

    2013-01-01

    Taking the strain of Xinjiang Morchella angusticeps Peck as material, we primary studied its optimum liquid culture conditions, including suitable culture way, pH value, light condition, medium component and so on. The results showed that, the biological yield of mycelium was highest while the strain was cultured in rotary brown shake flask, and the most suitable pH value was 7.5. Medium 4, with 200 g soybean sprouts (boiled to juice), 20 g sucrose, 5 g corn flour and 1 000 mL sterilized water, was optimum for the mycelium growth of Xinjiang M. angusticeps Peck.%以新疆野生黑脉羊肚菌菌株为材料,在实验室中进行液体培养,对其在培养时的培养方式、最适pH值、光照条件、培养基及其营养物质进行了初步研究。试验结果表明,在棕色瓶内进行旋转式摇瓶培养是最佳培养方式,最适pH值为7.5,最适培养基为4,即黄豆芽200 g(煮汁)、蔗糖20 g、玉米粉5 g、水1000 mL。

  16. Effect of drugs of abuse on social behaviour: a review of animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Gandía, Maria C; Mateos-García, Ana; García-Pardo, Maria P; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Miñarro, José; Aguilar, María A

    2015-09-01

    Social behaviour is disturbed in many substance abuse and psychiatric disorders. Given the consensus that social behaviours of lower mammals may help to understand some human emotional reactions, the aim of the present work was to provide an up-to-date review of studies on the changes in social behaviour induced by drugs of abuse. Various animal models have been used to study the relationship between drugs of abuse and social behaviour. Herein, we describe the effects of different substances of abuse on the three most commonly used animal models of social behaviour: the social play test, the social interaction test and the resident-intruder paradigm. The first is the most widely used test to assess adolescent behaviour in rodents, the second is generally used to evaluate a wide repertoire of behaviours in adulthood and the latter is specific to aggressive behaviour. Throughout the review we will explore the most relevant studies carried out to date to evaluate the effects of alcohol, cocaine, opioids, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), cannabinoids, nicotine and other drugs of abuse on these three paradigms, taking into account the influence of different variables, such as social history, age and type of exposure. Drugs of diverse pharmacological classes induce alterations in social behaviour, although they can be contrasting depending on several factors (drug, individual differences and environmental conditions). Ethanol and nicotine increase social interaction at low doses but reduce it at high doses. Psychostimulants, MDMA and cannabinoids reduce social interaction, whereas opiates increase it. Ethanol and psychostimulants enhance aggression, whereas MDMA, opiates, cannabinoids and nicotine reduce it. Prenatal drug exposure alters social behaviour, whereas drug withdrawal decreases sociability and enhances aggression. As a whole, this evidence has improved our understanding of the social dimension of drug addiction.

  17. Yoga for the Prevention of Depression, Anxiety, and Aggression and the Promotion of Socio-Emotional Competencies in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Ana María; López, María Adelaida; Quiñonez, Natalia; Paba, Diana Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Children and youth coming from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds are at risk of developing behavioural problems. This study examined the efficacy of a Yoga programme implemented in a low-socioeconomic status school, for the prevention of depression, anxiety, and aggression. After-school workshops were delivered twice a week during 12 weeks…

  18. Prevalence and psychosocial factors of aggression among youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Youth indulgence themselves in various aggressive behaviors leading to significant psychosocial dysfunctions. The present study assesses the prevalence of aggression among youth and to assess the risk factors of aggression among youth. Materials and Methods: Anger Data sheet, Resilience Scale and Buss-Perry Aggression Scale, were administered on 5476 participants using survey design. Data was collected from different communities (college, residential, apartments and workplace of Bangalore, Jammu, Indore, Kerala, Rajasthan, Sikkim and Delhi. 47% were female and 53% were male. The mean age of the sample was 20.2 years. Comparative analysis was carried out by Pearson correlation coefficient and Chi-square was also carried out. Results: About 17.7% of the youth has high mean aggression score on Buss-Perry Aggression Scale. Males have high mean score on aggression than females. Males experienced more verbal aggression, physical aggression and anger than females. Younger age group (16-19 years experienced more aggression than older age group (20-26 years. The risk factors of the youth aggressions were identified as physical abuse in childhood, substance abuse such as alcohol and tobacco, negative peer influence, family violence, academic disturbance, psychological problems attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, suspicious, loneliness, mood disturbance, negative childhood experience and TV and media. Conclusion: The study document, the presence of correlates of risk factors of aggression among youth and implies usages of management strategies to help them to handle aggression.

  19. Proactive and reactive sibling aggression and adjustment in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Van Gundy, Karen T; Wiesen-Martin, Desireé; Hiley Sharp, Erin; Rebellon, Cesar J; Stracuzzi, Nena F

    2015-03-01

    Existing research on aggression tends to narrowly focus on peers; less is known about sibling aggression, most likely due to its historical acceptance. Aggression is characterized by its forms (i.e., physical vs. social or relational aggression) and its functions (i.e., the motivations behind the aggressive act and categorized as proactive vs. reactive aggression). We use data from a two-wave study of middle (n = 197; M age = 12.63 years at Wave 1) and older (n = 159; M age = 16.50 years at Wave 1) adolescents to assess the extent to which proactive and reactive functions of sibling aggression make unique or conditional contributions to adolescent adjustment (i.e., depression, delinquency, and substance use). We find that proactive sibling aggression increases risk for problem substance use and delinquent behavior, reactive sibling aggression increases risk for depressed mood and delinquent behavior, and such results are observed even with statistical adjustments for sociodemographic and family variables, stressful life events, and prior adjustment. Few conditional effects of proactive or reactive sibling aggression by sex or grade are observed; yet, for all three outcomes, the harmful effects of reactive sibling aggression are strongest among adolescents who report low levels of proactive sibling aggression. The results speak to the importance of understanding the proactive and reactive functions of sibling aggressive behaviors for adolescent adjustment.

  20. Training Aggressive Adolescents in Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Arnold P.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Structured Learning Therapy (SLT) teaches aggressive adolescents prosocial skills (negotiation, self-relaxation, and anger control) by modeling, role playing, social reinforcement, and transfer of training. This article summarizes initial application of SLT with psychiatric clients, includes guidelines for improving trainee-trainer-treatment…

  1. Aggression Replacement Training and Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, A. Mark; Oliver, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression Replacement Training (ART) was developed by the late Arnold Goldstein of Syracuse University to teach positive alternatives to children and youth with emotional and behavioral problems (Glick & Gibbs, 2011; Goldstein, Glick, & Gibbs, 1998). ART provides cognitive, affective, and behavioral interventions to build competence in…

  2. Aggressive behavior in the genus Gallus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Queiroz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of the production system in the poultry industry and the vertical integration of the poultry agribusiness have brought profound changes in the physical and social environment of domestic fowls in comparison to their ancestors and have modified the expression of aggression and submission. The present review has covered the studies focusing on the different aspects linked to aggressiveness in the genus Gallus. The evaluated studies have shown that aggressiveness and subordination are complex behavioral expressions that involve genetic differences between breeds, strains and individuals, and differences in the cerebral development during growth, in the hormonal metabolism, in the rearing conditions of individuals, including feed restriction, density, housing type (litter or cage, influence of the opposite sex during the growth period, existence of hostile stimuli (pain and frustration, ability to recognize individuals and social learning. The utilization of fighting birds as experimental material in the study of mechanisms that have influence on the manifestation of aggressiveness in the genus Gallus might comparatively help to elucidate important biological aspects of such behavior.

  3. Subtypes of aggression in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Sune; Forth, Adelle; Kongerslev, Mickey;

    2013-01-01

    Research has repeatedly demonstrated that schizophrenia has a small but significant association with violence. It is further recognised that a subgroup of people with such links also have personality disorders, but the extent to which type of violence or aggression varies according to subgroup...

  4. Emotion Regulation and Childhood Aggression: Longitudinal Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Judith; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that emotion dysregulation is associated with psychopathology. This paper provides a review of recent longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age. While there is substantial evidence for assuming a close relation of emotion regulation and…

  5. Fantasy and Reality in Mark Twain's Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Robert R.

    Psychoanalysis, a favorite method for studying personality and motivation, cannot be used on the dead. Instead, biographical analysis must be employed. This study examines Mark Twain's aggression by analyzing his writings, social behavior, and environmental aspects of his life. In viewing Mark Twain's novels as representing fantasy, 17 categories…

  6. Aggression, anger and violence in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Masango

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the roots of aggression, anger and violence in South Africa and the rest of the world. The paper is divided into four parts: Aggression, Anger, Catharsis and Violence. As a result of violence against other human beings, especially women and children, a profound respect for human dignity has been lost. People have become extremely aggressive. The last few decades have created a culture of violence because of the suppression or oppression of feelings. The article argues that frustration yields anger that leads to violent acts. The root cause of violence is frustration, which finally (if not attended to produces anger, anxiety, conflict and the eruption of violence. Suicide bombers in Palestine and other parts of the world demonstrate this type of aggression, anger and violence. Anger, on the one hand, is a good defense mechanism. It helps people cope with frustration. Violence, on the other hand, is used as a means of dominance, especially against women and children. In a political situation it is used as a means of changing social structures.

  7. Multi-modal aggression detection in trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.

    2009-01-01

    In many public places multiple sensing devices, such as cameras, are installed to help prevent unwanted situations such as aggression and violence. At the moment, the best solution to reach a safe environment requires human operators to monitor the camera images and take appropriate actions when nec

  8. The evolution of humor from male aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuster S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sam ShusterNewcastle University, Newcastle Upon Type, NE1 7RU, UKAbstract: The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer's sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15–69 years, with 2–40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection.Keywords: humor evolution, male aggressive behavior

  9. Observing Aggression of Teachers in School Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    To fill the gap in theoretical and empirical knowledge on workplace aggression by teachers working in teams, this study explored its components, its targets, and its contextual determinants. Data were collected through three observations at different schools and at different times on 29 math, homeroom, language, and science studies teams.…

  10. Aggression and Violence in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Adults who work in positions of authority with young people must be prepared for the possibility of conflict, which could lead to aggressive behavior. Incorrect handling of a crisis will produce a conflict cycle, the four stages of which are described. Legal issues surrounding physical intervention (in the United Kingdom) are summarized, and…

  11. Multi-modal human aggression detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, J. F. P.; Liem, M. C.; Krijnders, J. D.; Andringa, T. C.; Gavrila, D. M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a smart surveillance system named CASSANDRA, aimed at detecting instances of aggressive human behavior in public environments. A distinguishing aspect of CASSANDRA is the exploitation of complementary audio and video cues to disambiguate scene activity in real-life environments.

  12. Pathways to Relationship Aggression between Adult Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Dean M.; Holman, Thomas B.; Walker, Eric

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the pathways to adult aggression beginning in the family of origin (FOO) and continuing through adult relationships were investigated. With a sample of 30,600 individuals, a comprehensive model was evaluated that included the unique influences of violent victimization in the family, witnessing parental violence, perpetrating…

  13. Television Viewing and Aggression: Some Alternative Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feshbach, Seymour; Tangney, June

    2008-09-01

    The focus of this article is on the examination of variables that moderate the influence of exposure to TV violence. The research on the relationship between TV violence and aggressive behavior of the audience has largely focused on addressing the social policy issue of whether witnessing TV violence fosters aggressive behavior in viewers, particularly children. There has been a dearth of research addressing the conditions that enhance the aggression stimulating effects of media violence, those that mitigate these effects, and those that may even result in reduced aggression after one witnesses media violence. To illustrate the importance of potential moderating factors, we present longitudinal correlational data relating the degree of viewing TV violence to various social behaviors and cognitive attributes of White and African-American male and female elementary-school-age children. Although TV violence viewing was associated with lower cognitive attributes and negative social behaviors in White males and females and African-American females, a very different pattern of relationships was found for African-American males.

  14. Electromagnetic Optimization Exploiting Aggressive Space Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandler, J. W.; Biernacki, R.; Chen, S.

    1995-01-01

    We propose a significantly improved space mapping (SM) strategy for electromagnetic (EM) optimization. Instead of waiting for upfront EM analyses at several base points, our new approach aggressively exploits every available EM analysis, producing dramatic results right from the first step. We...

  15. Physical Dating Aggression Growth during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2010-01-01

    The development of Physical Dating Aggression from the age of 16 to 18 years was investigated in relation to time-invariant predictors (gender, parental education, family composition, number of partners) and to time-varying effects of delinquent behavior and perception of victimization by the partner. The sample consisted of 181 adolescents with a…

  16. Violent Comic Books Influence Relational Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsh, Steven J.; Olczak, Paul V.

    This paper assesses the impact that reading violent comic books has on hostile attributional bias using relationally aggressive scenarios. College students (N=85) read either very violent or mildly violent comic books. Participants rated the comic books on levels of violence, humor, interest level, and overall likeability. They also read five…

  17. Aggressive Adolescents Benefit from Massage Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego, Miguel A.; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Shaw, Jon A.; Rothe, Eugenio M.; Castellanos, Daniel; Mesner, Linda

    2002-01-01

    Seventeen aggressive adolescents were assigned to a massage therapy group or a relaxation therapy group to receive 20-minute therapy sessions, twice a week for five weeks. The massaged adolescents had lower anxiety after the first and last sessions. By the end of the study, they also reported feeling less hostile and they were perceived by their…

  18. Modeling aggressive driver behavior at unsignalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysi, Isam A; Abbany, Ali S

    2007-07-01

    The processing of vehicles at unsignalized intersections is a complex and highly interactive process, whereby each driver makes individual decisions about when, where, and how to complete the required maneuver, subject to his perceptions of distances, velocities, and own car's performance. Typically, the performance of priority-unsignalized intersections has been modeled with probabilistic approaches that consider the distribution of gaps in the major-traffic stream and their acceptance by the drivers of minor street vehicles based on the driver's "critical gap". This paper investigates the aggressive behavior of minor street vehicles at intersections that are priority-unsignalized but operate with little respect of control measures. The objective is to formulate a behavioral model that predicts the probability that a driver performs an aggressive maneuver as a function of a set of driver and traffic attributes. Parameters that were tested and modeled include driver characteristics (gender and age), car characteristics (performance and model year), and traffic attributes (number of rejected gaps, total waiting time at head of queue, and major-traffic speed). Binary probit models are developed and tested, based on a collected data set from an unsignalized intersection in the city of Beirut, to determine which of the studied variables are statistically significant in determining the aggressiveness of a specific driver. Primary conclusions reveal that age, car performance, and average speed on the major road are the major determinants of aggressive behavior. Another striking conclusion is that the total waiting time of the driver while waiting for an acceptable gap is of little significance in incurring the "forcing" behavior. The obtained model is incorporated in a simple simulation framework that reflects driver behavior and traffic stream interactions in estimating delay and conflict measures at unsignalized intersections. The simulation results were then compared

  19. Rorschach measures of aggression: a laboratory-based validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivisto, Aaron J; Swan, Scott A

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to complement the archival research designs that have established the empirical foundations of Rorschach aggression scores, including Exner's ( 2003 ) Aggressive Movement (AG) score and Meloy and Gacono's ( 1992 ) Aggressive Content (AgC), Aggressive Past (AgPast), and Aggressive Potential (AgPot) variables. Utilizing a highly controlled laboratory-based aggression paradigm and self-report measures of violence history in a sample of 35 undergraduate males with an average age of 19.38 (SD = 2.11), this study found that only AgC was positively associated with in vivo aggression (r = .40, p = .02). None of the Rorschach measures of aggression were significantly associated with self-reported violence history, although there were several trends approaching significance. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed.

  20. Appetitive Aggression in Women: Comparing Male and Female War Combatants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danie eMeyer-Parlapanis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Appetitive aggression refers to positive feelings being associated with the perpetration of violent behavior and has been shown to provide resilience against the development of PTSD in combatants returning from the battlefield. Until this point, appetitive aggression has been primarily researched in males. This study investigates appetitive aggression in females. Female and male combatants and civilians from Burundi were assessed for levels of appetitive aggression. In contrast to non-combatants, no sex difference in appetitive aggression could be detected for combatants. Furthermore, each of the female and male combatant groups displayed substantially higher levels of appetitive aggression than each of the male and female civilian control groups. This study demonstrates that in violent contexts, such as armed conflict, in which individuals perpetrate numerous aggressive acts against others, the likelihood for an experience of appetitive aggression increases- regardless of whether the individuals are male or female.