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Sample records for aggressive lipid lowering

  1. Aggressive lipid lowering does not improve endothelial function in type 2 diabetes - The Diabetes Atorvastatin Lipid Intervention (DALI) study : A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Venrooij, FV; van de Ree, MA; Bots, ML; Stolk, RP; Huisman, MV; Banga, JD

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - Endothelial dysfunction is considered an important early marker of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk and is currently used as a surrogate end point for cardiovascular at risk in clinical trials. Type 2 diabetic patients show a characteristic dyslipidemia. Aggressive lipid lowering

  2. Reduction in arterial wall strain with aggressive lipid-lowering therapy in patients with carotid artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inflammation and biomechanical factors have been associated with the development of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. Lipid-lowering therapy has been shown to be effective in stabilizing them by reducing plaque inflammation. Its effect on arterial wall strain, however, remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of high- and low-dose lipid-lowering therapy using an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, atorvastatin, on arterial wall strain. Forty patients with carotid stenosis >40% were successfully followed up during the Atorvastatin Therapy: Effects on Reduction Of Macrophage Activity (ATHEROMA; ISRCTN64894118) Trial. All patients had plaque inflammation as shown by intraplaque accumulation of ultrasmall super paramagnetic particles of iron oxide on magnetic resonance imaging at baseline. Structural analysis was performed and change of strain was compared between high- and low-dose statin at 0 and 12 weeks. There was no significant difference in strain between the 2 groups at baseline (P=0.6). At 12 weeks, the maximum strain was significantly lower in the 80-mg group than in the 10-mg group (0.085±0.033 vs. 0.169±0.084; P=0.001). A significant reduction (26%) of maximum strain was observed in the 80-mg group at 12 weeks (0.018±0.02; P=0.01). Aggressive lipid-lowering therapy is associated with a significant reduction in arterial wall strain. The reduction in biomechanical strain may be associated with reductions in plaque inflammatory burden. (author)

  3. Gemfibrozil, stretching arms beyond lipid lowering

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Avik; Pahan, Kalipada

    2009-01-01

    Gemfibrozil is long known for its ability to reduce the level of triglycerides in the blood circulation and to decrease the risk of hyperlipidemia. However, a number of recent studies reveal that apart from its lipid-lowering effects, gemfibrozil can also regulate many other signaling pathways responsible for inflammation, switching of T-helper cells, cell-to-cell contact, migration, and oxidative stress. In this review, we have made an honest attempt to analyze various biological activities ...

  4. Lipid-lowering treatment to the end?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Line Kirkeby; Christensen, Kaare; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    that hypercholesterolaemia is a risk factor at the highest ages seems to be based on extrapolation from younger adults. A review of observational studies shows a trend where all-cause mortality was highest when total cholesterol (TC) was lowest ('a reverse J-shaped' association between TC and all......People aged 80 or older are the fastest growing population in high-income countries. One of the most common causes of death among the elderly is the cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lipid-lowering treatment is common, e.g. one-third of 75-84-year-old Swedes are treated with statins. The assumption...

  5. Lipid Lowering Activity of Anthocephalus indicus Root in Hyperlipidemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid lowering activity of Anthocephalus indicus (family Rubiaceae; Hindi name Kadamba root extract has been studied in triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemia in rats. In this model, feeding with root extract (500 mg kg−1 b.w. lowered plasma lipids and reactivated post-heparin lipolytic activity in hyperlipidemic rats. Furthermore, the root extract (50–500 μM inhibited the generation of superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals, in both enzymic and non-enzymic systems, in vitro. The results of the present study demonstrated both lipid lowering and antioxidant activities in root extract of A. indicus, which could help prevention of hyperlipidemia and related diseases.

  6. The lower the better? Reviewing the evidence for more aggressive cholesterol reduction and goal attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Evan

    2002-04-01

    There is considerable evidence that more aggressive lowering of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is associated with increased benefits in reducing atherosclerotic disease burden, supporting the notion of 'the lower, the better.' However, achievement of currently recommended goals has proven difficult with lipid-lowering agents at the commonly used doses. Current options for achieving greater LDL cholesterol reductions include use of high doses of the most effective of the available statins and use of high or moderate statin doses in combination with agents that work in a complementary manner (e.g. bile acid sequestrants or niacin). Near-term options may include statins with increased LDL cholesterol-lowering effectiveness and better-tolerated secondary agents that can be combined with statin therapy. Rosuvastatin (Crestor, AstraZeneca) is a new statin that may prove to be of considerable utility in achieving greater LDL cholesterol reductions than are currently possible with existing statins. Recent phase III clinical trials have shown that this agent produces significantly greater LDL cholesterol reductions than atorvastatin, simvastatin, or pravastatin in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia and significantly greater reductions than the maximal dose of atorvastatin in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. PMID:11976073

  7. Comparison of the Effect of Rosuvastatin 2.5 mg vs 20 mg on Coronary Plaque Determined by Angioscopy and Intravascular Ultrasound in Japanese With Stable Angina Pectoris (from the Aggressive Lipid-Lowering Treatment Approach Using Intensive Rosuvastatin for Vulnerable Coronary Artery Plaque [ALTAIR] Randomized Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Tadateru; Komatsu, Sei; Ueda, Yasunori; Fukushima, Seiji; Hiro, Takafumi; Hirayama, Atsushi; Saito, Satoshi

    2016-04-15

    Diminishing yellow color, evaluated by coronary angioscopy, is associated with plaque stabilization and regression. Our aim was to assess the effect of aggressive lipid-lowering therapy with rosuvastatin on plaque regression and instability. Thirty-seven patients with stable angina or silent myocardial ischemia who planned to undergo elective percutaneous coronary intervention and had angioscopic yellow plaques of grade 2 or more were randomized to high-dose (group H, 20 mg/day, n = 18) or low-dose (group L, 2.5 mg/day, n = 19) rosuvastatin therapy for 48 weeks. Yellow plaque was graded on a 4-point scale of 0 (white) to 3 (bright yellow) by angioscopy, and plaque volume was determined by intravascular ultrasound for plaques with a length of 5 to 15 mm. Color and volume were assessed at baseline and after 48 weeks by the investigators blinded to the rosuvastatin dosage, and were compared between the 2 dosing groups. The level of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol decreased from 130.3 ± 25.5 mg/dl to 61.7 ± 16.5 mg/dl (-50 ± 19%: high intensity) in group H (p change in plaque volume was significantly larger in group H than in group L (p = 0.005). In conclusion, both high-dose and low-dose rosuvastatin increased plaque stability. However, high-dose rosuvastatin was more effective than low-dose rosuvastatin in inducing plaque volume regression. Clinical Trial Registration No: UMIN-CTR, UMIN000003276. PMID:26879069

  8. Lipid-lowering effects of statins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statins have become one of the most prescribed drugs in the world. These medications are used in the treatment of dyslipidemia and in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Recently, new evidence has emerged about their mechanisms of action and their pleiotropic properties, well beyond lowering cholesterol levels. This pharmacodynamic action has called the attention of many investigators who suggest their use in several diseases centered on inflammation, immune disorders and cell proliferation. Although there is wide evidence that recognizes their efficacy in several disease models, there is still a lack of studies to approve their use in clinical practice. The pharmacodynamic properties focusing on the pathophysiology that suggests their clinical use in the treatment of several diseases have been reviewed. (author)

  9. The appeal of violent video games to lower educated aggressive adolescent boys from two countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Jeroen S; Bushman, Brad J; Konijn, Elly A

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effect of individual differences on appeal and use of video games. Participants were 299 adolescent boys from lower and higher secondary schools in the Netherlands and Belgium. In general, boys were most attracted to violent video games. Boys that scored higher in trait aggressiveness and lower in empathy were especially attracted to violent games and spent more time playing video games than did boys lower in trait aggressiveness. Lower educated boys showed more appreciation for both violent and nonviolent games and spent more time playing them than did higher educated boys. The present study showed that aggressive and less empathic boys were most attracted to violent games. The fact that heavy users of violent games show less empathy and higher aggressiveness suggests the possibility of desensitization. Other studies have shown that playing violent games increases aggressiveness and decreases empathy. These results combined suggest the possibility of a violence cycle. Aggressive individuals are attracted to violent games. Playing violent games increases aggressiveness and decreases empathy, which in turn leads to increased appreciation and use of violent games. PMID:17034335

  10. Intensive lipid lowering with simvastatin and ezetimibe in aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossebo, A.B.; Pedersen, T.R.; Boman, K.; Brudi, P.; Chambers, J.B.; Egstrup, K.; Gerdts, E.; Gohlke-Barwolf, C.; Holme, I.; Kesaniemi, Y.A.; Malbecq, W.; Nienaber, C.A.; Ray, S.; Skjaerpe, T.; Wachtell, K.; Willenheimer, R.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyperlipidemia has been suggested as a risk factor for stenosis of the aortic valve, but lipid-lowering studies have had conflicting results. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial involving 1873 patients with mild-to-moderate, asymptomatic aortic stenosis. The patients...

  11. Lipid-lowering medication and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørgen H.; Johansen, Christoffer; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; McLaughlin, Joseph K.; Mellemkjær, Lene; Steffensen, Flemming Hald; Fraumeni Jr., Joseph F.

    1999-01-01

    Low or declining levels of serum cholesterol have been associated with increased mortality from cancer. We conducted a population-based cohort study of 1882 patients from one Danish county who received lipid-lowering drugs between January 1, 1991 and December 31, 1994. During the follow-up period...... drug provided no evidence of an association. Further research is needed, however, with longer follow-up to assess more fully any potential cancer risk with these medications....

  12. A Case of Rhabdomyolysis Induced by Lipid Lowering Agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Eun Mi; Lee, Tae Won; Ihn, Chun Gyoo; Kim, Kwang Won; Kim, Myung Jae; Choi, Young Kil [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-03-15

    Bezafibrate is a lipid-lowering agent and one of the fabric acid derivatives. It is relatively safe and well tolerated and adverse reactions to bezafibrate have largely been restricted to gastrointestinal disturbances. But a few cases of rhabdomyolysis after bezafibrate administration have been reported and recently we experienced bezafibrate-induced rhabdomyolysis in patients with chronic renal failure. So we report this case with the bone scan finding and the literature review. We believe that this is the first case report of bezafibrate-induced rhabdomyolysis in Korea.

  13. Potential synergy between lipid-lowering and blood-pressure-lowering in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sever, Peter; Dahlöf, Björn; Poulter, Neil; Wedel, Hans; Beevers, Gareth; Caulfield, Mark; Collins, Rory; Kjeldsen, Sverre; Kristinsson, Arni; McInnes, Gordon; Mehlsen, Jesper; Nieminem, Markku; O'Brien, Eoin; Ostergren, Jan

    2006-01-01

    A prespecified objective of the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT) was to assess whether any synergistic effects were apparent between the lipid-lowering and blood-pressure-lowering regimens in preventing cardiovascular events.......A prespecified objective of the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT) was to assess whether any synergistic effects were apparent between the lipid-lowering and blood-pressure-lowering regimens in preventing cardiovascular events....

  14. Pomegranate flower improves cardiac lipid metabolism in a diabetic rat model: role of lowering circulating lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tom Hsun-Wei; Peng, Gang; Kota, Bhavani Prasad; Li, George Qian; Yamahara, Johji; Roufogalis, Basil D; Li, Yuhao

    2005-07-01

    Excess triglyceride (TG) accumulation and increased fatty acid (FA) oxidation in the diabetic heart contribute to cardiac dysfunction. Punica granatum flower (PGF) is a traditional antidiabetic medicine. Here, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of action of PGF extract on abnormal cardiac lipid metabolism both in vivo and in vitro. Long-term oral administration of PGF extract (500 mg kg(-1)) reduced cardiac TG content, accompanied by a decrease in plasma levels of TG and total cholesterol in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, indicating improvement by PGF extract of abnormal cardiac TG accumulation and hyperlipidemia in this diabetic model. Treatment of ZDF rats with PGF extract lowered plasma FA levels. Furthermore, the treatment suppressed cardiac overexpression of mRNAs encoding for FA transport protein, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, acyl-CoA oxidase and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase alpha2, and restored downregulated cardiac acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA expression in ZDF rats, whereas it showed little effect in Zucker lean rats. The results suggest that PGF extract inhibits increased cardiac FA uptake and oxidation in the diabetic condition. PGF extract and its component oleanolic acid enhanced PPAR-alpha luciferase reporter gene activity in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, and this effect was completely suppressed by a selective PPAR-alpha antagonist MK-886, consistent with the presence of PPAR-alpha activator activity in the extract and this component. Our findings suggest that PGF extract improves abnormal cardiac lipid metabolism in ZDF rats by activating PPAR-alpha and thereby lowering circulating lipid and inhibiting its cardiac uptake. PMID:15880139

  15. Formulation and Evaluation of Nanocrystals of a Lipid Lowering Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Dina

    2016-01-01

    Atorvastatin calcium, the lipid lowering agent, is taken as a model drug characterized by poor water solubility and bioavailability. In this study an attempt was made for preparation of nanocrystals using high pressure homogenization. A number of stabilizers were included as well as polymers at different concentrations, and the formulations were homogenized for ten cycles at a pressure of 1000 bars. The obtained nano crystals were evaluated by determining their size, zeta potential, saturated solubility and dissolution rate. Results revealed that Formulation 3, containing (10: 1) drug to sodium lauryl sulphate ratio, possessed the highest saturated solubility and dissolution rate, and hence was analyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourrier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. An in-vivo study was carried out on the successful formulation in comparison to drug powder using rats as experimental animals. A significant increase in the area under the concentration-time curve Cpmax and MRT for nanocrystals was observed in comparison to the untreated atorvastatin calcium. PMID:27610148

  16. Pharmacogenetics of apolipoprotein E gene during lipid-lowering therapy: lipid levels and prevention of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Tuomo; Kähönen, Mika; Viiri, Leena E; Grönroos, Paula; Lehtimäki, Terho

    2008-10-01

    A non-optimal plasma concentration of lipids is among the major modifiable risk factors of atherosclerosis. Therefore, the prevention of cardiovascular disease by means of lipid-lowering therapy with statins and other agents is of great importance for patient groups where a lifestyle change, for example, diet modification, does not lead to adequately reduced lipid levels. The response of low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels to statin therapy is highly variable. This is partly attributed to hereditary variation in genes involved in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and lipid metabolism. The pharmacogenetics of lipid-lowering therapy have been investigated for more than 40 different genes. The gene for apolipoprotein E (APOE) has been the most frequently studied, particularly regarding the epsilon2/epsilon3/epsilon4 polymorphism. Those with the epsilon4 allele seem to have the poorest and those with the epsilon2 allele the strongest response to statins with regards to LDL-C levels. In addition, the epsilon2 carriers may reach the LDL-C treatment goals more frequently than epsilon4 carriers. Few studies have investigated the interaction of the APOE epsilon2/epsilon3/epsilon4 polymorphism and lipid-lowering therapy in relation to the course of coronary heart disease; the results are contradictory and so far inconclusive. This review summarizes the pharmacogenetic findings related to the influence of APOE gene variation on lipid responses and the prevention of coronary heart disease during lipid-lowering therapy. PMID:18855536

  17. Steroidal saponin from Chlorophytum nimonii (Grah with lipid-lowering and antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijai Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Since drugs used these days to lower the lipids are all synthetic drugs, they have some or the other side effects, therefore in search of cheaper lipid-lowering drugs with no side effects, we have conducted a study on Chlorophytum nimonii for its lipid-lowering and antioxidant properties. Materials and Methods: Chloragin and Gemfibrozil both caused a significant decrease in the serum level of lipids in triton-induced hyperlipidemic rats, and this model has been successfully used for the evaluation of lipid-lowering activity of chloragin in the rats. Results and Discussion: The lipid-lowering action of steroidal saponin and chloragin of the C. nimonii has been studied in triton model (in cholesterol-fed hyperlipidemic rats in vivo and antioxidant activity in vitro model. Serum lipids were found to be lowered by the steroidal saponin (100 mg/kg body weight in triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia. Chronic feeding of this compound (50 mg/kg in animals simultaneously fed with high-fat diet for 30 days caused lowering in the lipid and lipoproteins levels of low-density lipoproteins in experimental animals. Conclusion: Chloragin activates lipolytic enzymes in plasma and liver. Chloragin is mediated through inhibition of hepatic lipids, increased fecal bile acid excretion, and enhanced plasma lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase activities. Chloragin from the C. nimonii showed potent antioxidant activity as well.

  18. EFFECTIVE LIPID-LOWERING THERAPY IN HIGH-RISK PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J.P Kastelein

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the primary cause of mortality in developed and developing societies. Identifying patients at high CVD risk is important but challenging. Measurement of classical risk factors is crucial for this assessment. Also, next to traditional factors such as lipids or lipoprotein levels, apolipoproteins or Lp(a plasma levels may be important for such purposes. Moreover, the use of emerging biomarkers such as C-reactive protein is likely to gain importance in upcoming years in an attempt to better identify subgroups of patients that may be at increased cardiovascular risk. Our review will focus on novel tools that are, or will become available to identify patients at high CVD risk; and to discuss the potential usefulness of statins in these patients, with a particular focus on potent statin therapy

  19. LCREP chemistry and lipids - Lower Columbia River Ecosystem Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to document juvenile salmon habitat occurrence in the Lower Columbia River and estuary, and examine how habitat conditions...

  20. Lipid lowering agents are associated with a slower cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Masse, I; Bordet, R; Deplanque, D; Al, K; Richard, F.; Libersa, C; Pasquier, F

    2005-01-01

    Background: Data from epidemiological studies and animal models imply that disturbances in cholesterol metabolism are linked to Alzheimer's disease susceptibility. Lipid lowering agents (LLAs) may have implications for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Effect of lipid lowering on new-onset atrial fibrillation in patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper N; Greve, Anders; Boman, Kurt;

    2012-01-01

    Lipid-lowering drugs, particularly statins, have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that may prevent atrial fibrillation (AF). This effect has not been investigated on new-onset AF in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis (AS).......Lipid-lowering drugs, particularly statins, have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that may prevent atrial fibrillation (AF). This effect has not been investigated on new-onset AF in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis (AS)....

  2. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sadeghipour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L. was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia.

  3. Pomegranate flower improves cardiac lipid metabolism in a diabetic rat model: role of lowering circulating lipids

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Tom Hsun-Wei; Peng, Gang; Kota, Bhavani Prasad; Li, George Qian; Yamahara, Johji; Roufogalis, Basil D.; Li, Yuhao

    2005-01-01

    Excess triglyceride (TG) accumulation and increased fatty acid (FA) oxidation in the diabetic heart contribute to cardiac dysfunction. Punica granatum flower (PGF) is a traditional antidiabetic medicine. Here, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of action of PGF extract on abnormal cardiac lipid metabolism both in vivo and in vitro.Long-term oral administration of PGF extract (500 mg kg−1) reduced cardiac TG content, accompanied by a decrease in plasma levels of TG and total cholestero...

  4. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Sadeghipour; Maryam Eidi; Ali Ilchizadeh Kavgani; Reza Ghahramani; Saleh Shahabzadeh; Ali Anissian

    2014-01-01

    Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in ...

  5. Platelet function in hyperlipoproteinemia and effects of lipid-lowering treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bröijersén, Anders

    1996-01-01

    Coronary atherosclerosis and thrombus formation on fissuring atherosclerotic plaques are keyevents in the development of coronary artrey disease. Hyperlipoproteinemia inducesatherosclerosis but may also exert direct prothrombotic effects via platelet activation. Thepresent thesis has concerned the effect of acute and chronic elevations of blood lipids on plateletfunction in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the impact of lipid-lowering interventions and mentalstress on platelet function in vivo wa...

  6. Lessons learned from a lipid lowering trial in adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishop Franziska K

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Herein, we describe recruitment efforts for a trial of lipid-lowering medications in adolescents with type 1 diabetes, age 12–21 years. Based on our experience, future studies will require multiple centers to enroll a sufficient number of participants for adequate data to direct dyslipidemia medication treatment guidelines for adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

  7. The lipid lowering effect of plant sterol ester capsules in hypercholesterolemic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhi-Ping

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foods enriched with phytosterols have been proven to be an effective therapy to improve blood lipid profiles. However, none of the studies have investigated the efficacy in lipid lowering of plant sterol esters (PSE in capsule form. The objective of this study is to determine if the plant sterol esters (PSE in capsule form (1.3 grams of PSE/day lowered plasma cholesterol levels and lipid ratios in free-living hypercholesterolemic subjects during a 4-week intervention period. Methods Sixteen subjects participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, sequential study with a 4-week placebo phase followed by a 2-week wash-out period and a 4-week treatment phase. Subjects were instructed to maintain stable diet pattern and physical activities. Blood samples were collected at 7, 21 and 28 days of each phase. The primary measurements were change in plasma total cholesterol (TC, HDL-cholesterol (HDL and LDL-cholesterol (LDL between phases and within each phase. The secondary measurements were change in triglycerides, lipoprotein ratios (TC/HDL, LDL/HDL and C-reactive protein (CRP. Results In comparison to placebo, LDL-cholesterol was significantly reduced by 7% and 4% (P Conclusion In conclusion, plant sterol ester capsule is effective in improving lipid profiles among hypercholesterolemic subjects in a free-living setting at the minimum dosage recommended by FDA. The significant improved lipid profiles were reached after three weeks of administration. To achieve better lipid lowering results, higher dosages and combination with diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol are recommended.

  8. Lipid Lowering Efficacy of Pennisetum glaucum Bran in Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Javed*, B. Aslam, M. Z. Khan1, Zia-Ur-Rahman, F. Muhammad and M. K. Saleemi1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine lipid lowering efficacy of Pennisetum (P glaucum (Pearl millet, locally known as bajra, bran in hyperlipidemia albino rats. Simvastatin, (Tablet survive®, was used as cholesterol lowering synthetic drug. The period of 0-15 days was considered as a lead-in period to induce hyperlipidemia with atherogenic diet in albino rats. P. glaucum bran at dose rate of 2, 4 and 6 g/kg BW showed lipid lowering efficacy in hyperlipidemic rats at post-treatment days 30, 45 and 60. At the level of 6 g/kg, P. glaucum bran was able to produce a significant (P<0.05 increase in HDL- cholesterol (47% and fall in other lipid profile parameters i.e. total lipids (41%, triglycerides(48%, total cholesterol (39% and LDL- cholesterol (55%. P. glaucum 6 g/kg also reduced total cholesterol in liver tissue and increased fecal bile acid secretion. The results of present study suggest that 6 g/kg P. glaucum bran and 0.6 mg/kg Simvastatin were equally effective in treating hyperlipidemia in albino rats. Moreover, the potency of P. glaucum for stimulating fecal bile acid secretion in albino rats may safely be conceived, at least, as a part of mechanisms for its antihyperlipidemic efficacy.

  9. Intensive lipid-lowering therapy with rosuvastatin stabilizes lipid-rich coronary plaques. Evaluation using dual-source computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical studies using invasive modalities have reported that statin therapy stabilizes coronary plaque vulnerability. The serial changes of lipid-rich coronary plaques (LRCPs) during rosuvastatin treatment were evaluated non-invasively in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) using dual-source computed tomography (DSCT). A total of 11 consecutive ACS patients, and 13 LRCPs were serially evaluated on DSCT before and 24 weeks after rosuvastatin treatment. Compared with the baseline, there was no change in post-treatment minimal lumen diameter, lumen volume, or longitudinal length of LRCPs. By contrast, the ratio of lipid core volume to plaque volume significantly decreased from 48.0±9.9% to 43.7±10.6% (P=0.04), and plaque volume decreased from 144.5±85.5 mm3 to 119.8±78.0 mm3 (P=0.07). The remodeling index of target LRCPs significantly decreased from 1.16±0.10 to 1.06±0.12 (P=0.02). Percent reduction of plaque volume was significantly greater in patients with a lower ratio of low-density lipoprotein to high-density lipoprotein (L/H ratio ≤1.5) at follow-up than patients with higher L/H ratio (>1.5; median -31.7% vs. -6.8%, P=0.03). Rosuvastatin therapy reduced the volume of lipid cores and LRCPs and increased the CT attenuation value of LRCPs. DSCT is an effective modality for the non-invasive evaluation of LRCPs in patients with ACS. (author)

  10. LIPID-LOWERING THERAPY IN OUTPATIENT PRACTICE (ACCORDING TO THE ARGO-2 STUDY)

    OpenAIRE

    N. M. Akhmedzhanov; D. V. Nebieridze; A. S. Safaryan; V. A. Vygodin; A. Yu. Shuraev; A. N. Tkacheva; A. S. Lishuta

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To study the features of lipid-lowering therapy with rosuvastatin in high and very high cardiovascular risk patients in real outpatient practice.Material and methods. Patients ≥30 years, visited internists or cardiologists of district outpatient clinics in the period from October 2013 to July 2014 were included into the study. Each patient fill in questionnaire. Determination of total cholesterol (TC) level was performed without special preparation of the patient using a portable photome...

  11. Design and synthesis of novel indole-chalcone fibrates as lipid lowering agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashidhara, Koneni V; Dodda, Ranga Prasad; Sonkar, Ravi; Palnati, Gopala Reddy; Bhatia, Gitika

    2014-06-23

    A series of novel indole-chalcone fibrates were synthesized and their hypolipidemic activity was evaluated in triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rat model. Preliminary studies indicated that the hybrids 19, 24 and 29 exhibited potent in vitro antioxidant and significant in vivo antidyslipidemic effects. Our results suggest that these new hybrid architectures may serve as promising leads for the development of next generation lipid lowering agents. PMID:24871900

  12. No lipid lowering effect of vitamin D supplements found on statin users.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsen, Martin Solvang

    2015-01-01

    Background Tromsø endocrine research group has performed multiple RCTs with vitamin D supplements/placebo and effects on different outcomes. Compiling data from four of these studies I tested an hypothesis established by Kane et al. in 2013, which suggests that vitamin D supplements have a significant lipid lowering effect in statin users. Retesting hypotheses in general is vital to the scientific community. By using patient data from Tromsø endocrine research group I wanted to retest this...

  13. Comparative Effects of Diet-Induced Lipid Lowering Versus Lipid Lowering Along With Apo A-I Milano Gene Therapy on Regression of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lai; Tian, Fang; Arias, Ana; Yang, Mingjie; Sharifi, Behrooz G; Shah, Prediman K

    2016-05-01

    Apolipoprotein A-1 (Apo A-I) Milano, a naturally occurring Arg173to Cys mutant of Apo A-1, has been shown to reduce atherosclerosis in animal models and in a small phase 2 human trial. We have shown the superior atheroprotective effects of Apo A-I Milano (Apo A-IM) gene compared to wild-type Apo A-I gene using transplantation of retrovirally transduced bone marrow in Apo A-I/Apo E null mice. In this study, we compared the effect of dietary lipid lowering versus lipid lowering plus Apo A-IM gene transfer using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) 8 as vectors on atherosclerosis regression in Apo A-I/Apo E null mice. All mice were fed a high-cholesterol diet from age of 6 weeks until week 20, and at 20 weeks, 10 mice were euthanized to determine the extent of atherosclerosis. After 20 weeks, an additional 20 mice were placed on either a low-cholesterol diet plus empty rAAV (n = 10) to serve as controls or low-cholesterol diet plus 1 single intravenous injection of 1.2 × 10(12)vector genomes of adeno-associated virus (AAV) 8 vectors expressing Apo A-IM (n = 10). At the 40 week time point, intravenous AAV8 Apo A-IM recipients showed a significant regression of atherosclerosis in the whole aorta (Pplus empty vector control group showed no significant regression in lesion size. Immunostaining showed that compared to the 20-week-old mice, there was a significantly reduced macrophage content in the brachiocephalic (P< .05) and aortic sinus plaques (P< .05) of AAV8 Apo A-IM recipients. These data show that although dietary-mediated cholesterol lowering halts progression of atherosclerosis, it does not induce regression, whereas combination of low-cholesterol diet and AAV8 mediated Apo A-I Milano gene therapy induces rapid and significant regression of atherosclerosis in mice. These data provide support for the potential feasibility of this approach for atherosclerosis regression. PMID:26499098

  14. Lipid-lowering Activity of Natural and Semi-Synthetic Sterols and Stanols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Dhiaa A; Wasan, Ellen K; Wasan, Kishor M; Gershkovich, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of plant sterols/ stanols has long been demonstrated to reduce plasma cholesterol levels. The objective of this review is to demonstrate the lipid-lowering activity and anti-atherogenic effects of natural and semi-synthetic plant sterols/ stanols based on evidence from cell-culture studies, animal studies and clinical trials. Additionally, this review highlights certain molecular mechanisms by which plant sterols/ stanols lower plasma cholesterol levels with a special emphasis on factors that affect the cholesterol-lowering activity of plant sterols/stanols. The crystalline nature and the poor oil solubility of these natural products could be important factors that limit their cholesterol-lowering efficiency. Several attempts have been made to improve the cholesterol-lowering activity by enhancing the bioavailability of crystalline sterols and stanols. Approaches involved reduction of the crystal size and/or esterification with fatty acids from vegetable or fish oils. However, the most promising approach in this context is the chemical modification of plant sterols /stanols into water soluble disodium ascorbyl phytostanyl phosphates analogue by esterification with ascorbic acid. This novel semi-synthetic stanol derivative has improved efficacy over natural plant sterols/ stanols and can provide additional benefits by combining the cholesterol-lowering properties of plant stanols with the antioxidant potential of ascorbic acid. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page. PMID:26626241

  15. Sociodemographic and diagnostic characteristics of prescribing a second-line lipid-lowering medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallach-Kildemoes, Helle; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ezetimibe is used as a second-line lipid-lowering medication (LLM) if statin therapy is not tolerated or cholesterol targets are not reached by statins alone. We aimed to investigate the impact of sociodemographic factors on ezetimibe initiation as (a) incident LLM therapy, (b) add...... switching (1.64; 1.27-2.13). Both income and education were predictors for add-on therapy, with the educational effect mediated by prior use of high-potency statins. Odds for ezetimibe prescribing were highest in myocardial infarction patients. CONCLUSION: While higher income is a predictor for switching to...... ezetimibe, both higher education and income are weak predictors for using ezetimibe as add-on therapy. Women and individuals with myocardial infarction are more likely to be prescribed ezetimibe than others, despite lack of evidence of ezetimibe lowering the risk of cardiovascular events....

  16. [Cholesterol goal attainment with lipid lowering drugs. The COMETA Mexico Trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Eduardo; Vela, Agustín; Ramos, Alma; Alemao, Evo; Yin, Donald

    2004-01-01

    In a retrospective study to determine rate of patients attaining therapeutic LDL-C goal values with lipid-lowering drugs, 20 specialists and general practitioners were selected who enrolled 120 patients whose lipids were measured after at least 12 weeks of treatment. They were grouped in three categories: group A (absolute risk of CHD in 10 years 20% risk. Goal LDL-C values were <160 mg/dL for group A, <130 for group B, and <100 for group C. Mean age was 57 +/- 12 years, 59% were males, and 51% were in group C; 83% took statins, 12% fibrates alone, and 5%, combinations. Atorvastatin and simvastatin were the most used drugs, at medium doses (mean 12 and 27 mg/day). LDL-C was reduced 25%; overall, 22% of patient doses were adjusted. Therapeutic goals were attained in 29% with initial doses and 42% at the end of study. Goal values were better attained in groups with lower risk. No differences were noticed among distinct physician categories. Data show poor compliance with international guidelines and insufficient attainment of therapeutic goals. PMID:15559229

  17. The role of soluble fiber intake in patients under highly effective lipid-lowering therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezende Vinicius M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been demonstrated that statins can increase intestinal sterol absorption. Augments in phytosterolemia seems related to cardiovascular disease. Objective We examined the role of soluble fiber intake in endogenous cholesterol synthesis and in sterol absorption among subjects under highly effective lipid-lowering therapy. Design In an open label, randomized, parallel-design study with blinded endpoints, subjects with primary hypercholesterolemia (n = 116 were assigned to receive during 12 weeks, a daily dose of 25 g of fiber (corresponding to 6 g of soluble fibers plus rosuvastatin 40 mg (n = 28, rosuvastatin 40 mg alone (n = 30, sinvastatin 40 mg plus ezetimibe 10 mg plus 25 g of fiber (n = 28, or sinvastatin 40 mg plus ezetimibe 10 mg (n = 30 alone. Results The four assigned therapies produced similar changes in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides (p Conclusion Among subjects treated with highly effective lipid-lowering therapy, the intake of 25 g of fibers added favorable effects, mainly by reducing phytosterolemia. Additional benefits include improvement in blood glucose and anthropometric parameters.

  18. Reasons of general practitioners for not prescribing lipid-lowering medication to patients with diabetes: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    AB, Elisabeth; Denig, Petra; van Vliet, Ton; Dekker, Janny H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Lipid-lowering medication remains underused, even in high-risk populations. The objective of this study was to determine factors underlying general practitioners' decisions not to prescribe such drugs to patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A qualitative study with semi-structured interviews using real cases was conducted to explore reasons for not prescribing lipid-lowering medication after a guideline was distributed that recommended the use of statins in most patients with t...

  19. Effect of lipid-lowering and anti-hypertensive drugs on plasma homocysteine levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Dierkes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Jutta Dierkes, Claus Luley, Sabine WestphalInstitute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, University Hospital Magdeburg, Germany Abstract: Elevated plasma concentrations of homocysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, are a risk factor for coronary, cerebral and peripheral artery disease. Next to other factors, drugs used for the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular disease may modulate plasma homocysteine levels. Thus, a drug induced homocysteine increase may counteract the desired cardioprotective effect. The aim is to summarize the current knowledge on the effect of two important classes of drugs, lipid-lowering drugs and anti-hypertensive drugs, on homocysteine metabolism. Among the lipid-lowering drugs, especially the fibric acid derivatives, which are used for treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol, are associated with an increase of homocysteine by 20%–50%. This increase can be reduced, but not totally avoided by the addition of folic acid, vitamin B12 and B6 to fibrates. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins do not influence homocysteine concentrations substantially. The effects of nicotinic acid and n3-fatty acids on the homocysteine concentrations are less clear, more studies are necessary to clarify their influence on homocysteine. Antihypertensive drugs have also been studied with respect to homocysteine metabolism. A homocysteine increase has been shown after treatment with hydrochlorothiazide, a lowering was observed after treatment with ß-blockers, but no effect with ACE-inhibitors. The clinical significance of the homocysteine elevation by fibrates and thiazides is not clear. However, individual patients use these drugs for long time, indicating that even moderate increases may be important.Keywords: homocysteine, fibrates, diuretics, cardiovascular disease

  20. Lipid lowering and antioxidant potential of Asparagus racemosus in hyperlipidemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama R. Bhosale

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerosis is associated with hyperlipidemia which is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease. Therefore, treatment of hyperlipidemia is one of the major approaches to decrease the atherogenic process. Many studies revealed that Asparagus racemosus (AR possesses hypolipidemic and antioxidant potential, but results were not consistent. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate lipid lowering and antioxidant potential of AR root powder in hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Hyperlipidemia was induced in normal rats by including 0.75 gm% cholesterol and 1.5 gm% bile salt in normal diet and these rats were used for the experiments. Dried root powder of Asparagus racemosus was administered as feed supplement at 5 gm% and 10 gm% dose levels to the hyperlipidemic rats. Plasma lipid profile, malondialdehyde, ascorbic acid, catalase and superoxide dismutase were estimated using standard methods. Statistical analysis was done by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Feed supplementation with 5 gm% and 10 gm% Asparagus racemosus resulted in a significant decrease in plasma cholesterol, LDL and significant increase in HDL. But there were no significant decrease in triglycerides and VLDL. The feed supplementation increased activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbic acid content increased significantly in both the experimental groups (5 and 10 gm% supplemented groups. But there was no significant change in the concentration of malondialdehyde in these groups. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that addition of Asparagus racemosus root powder at 5 gm% and 10 gm% level as feed supplement reduces the plasma lipid levels and also acts as an antioxidant. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(3.000: 168-173

  1. Lupin seeds lower plasma lipid concentrations and normalize antioxidant parameters in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to test bitter and sweet lupin seeds for lipid-lowering and for their antioxidative activities in hypercholesterolemic rats. The levels of plasma lipid, malondialdehyde (MDA and whole blood reduced glutathione (GSH, as well as the activities of transaminases (ALT and AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in plasma, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx in erythrocytes and plasma glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and catalase (CAT were examined. A hypercholesterolemia-induced diet manifested in the elevation of total lipids (TL, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, LDL-C and MDA levels, ALT, AST, LDH activities and the depletion of GSH and enzymic antioxidants. The supplementation of a hypercholesterolemia-induced diet with bitter and sweet lupin seeds significantly lowered the plasma levels of TL, TC, TG and LDL-C. ALT, AST and LDH activities slightly decreased in treated groups compared with the hypercholesterolemic group (HC. Furthermore, the content of GSH significantly increased while MDA significantly decreased in treated groups compared with the HC group. In addition, the bitter lupin seed group improved enzymic antioxidants compared with the HC group. In general, the results indicated that the bitter lupin seed supplements are better than those containing sweet lupin seeds. These results suggested that the hypocholesterolemic effect of bitter and sweet lupin seed supplements might be due to their abilities to lower the plasma cholesterol level as well as to slow down the lipid peroxidation process and to enhance the antioxidant enzyme activity.

    Este estudio fue diseñado para evaluar semillas de altramuces dulces y amargas como agentes que bajan los lípidos y estudiar su efecto en la actividad antioxidante en ratas hipercolesterolémicas. El nivel de lípidos en plasma, malondialdehido (MDA y glutatión reducido (GSH, así como la actividad transaminasa (ALT y AST

  2. Danish Guidelines for Lipid-lowering Treatment in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieperink, Hans; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo;

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of lipid profile in adults with CKD 1-5: We recommend measuring the lipid profile (T cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides) in all adults with newly diagnosed CKD 1-5 (including patients in renal replacement therapy). Monitoring of lipid profile in adults with...

  3. Danish guidelines for lipid-lowering treatment in patients with chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieperink, Hans; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo;

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of lipid profile in adults with CKD 1-5: We recommend measuring the lipid profile (T cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides) in all adults with newly diagnosed CKD 1-5 (including patients in renal replacement therapy). Monitoring of lipid profile in adults with...

  4. An investigation of the effects of lipid-lowering medications: genome-wide linkage analysis of lipids in the HyperGEN study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellison R Curtis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of anti-hyperlipidemic medications compromises genetic analysis because of altered lipid profiles. We propose an empirical method to adjust lipid levels for medication effects so that the adjusted lipid values substitute the unmedicated lipid values in the genetic analysis. Results Published clinical trials were reviewed for HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors and fibric acid derivatives as mono-drug therapy. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors showed similar effects in African Americans (AA and non-African Americans (non-AA for lowering total cholesterol (TC, -50.7 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C, -48.1 mg/dl, and triglycerides (TG, -19.7 mg/dl. Their effect on increasing HDL cholesterol (HDL-C in AA (+0.4 mg/dl was lower than in Non-AA (+2.3 mg/dl. The effects of fibric acid derivatives were estimated as -46.1 mg/dl for TC, -40.1 mg/dl for LDL-C, and +5.9 mg/dl for HDL-C in non-AA. The corresponding effects in AA were less extreme (-20.1 mg/dl, -11.4 mg/dl, and +3.1 mg/dl. Similar effect for TG (59.0 mg/dl was shown in AA and non-AA. The above estimated effects were applied to a multipoint variance components linkage analysis on the lipid levels in 2,403 Whites and 2,214 AA in the HyperGEN study. The familial effects did vary depending on whether the lipids were adjusted for medication use. For example, the heritabilities increased after medication adjustment for TC and LDL-C, but did not change significantly for HDL-C and TG. Conclusion Ethnicity-specific medication adjustments using our empirical method can be employed in epidemiological and genetic analysis of lipids.

  5. Effect of homocysteine-lowering nutrients on blood lipids: results from four randomised, placebo-controlled studies in healthy humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreet R Olthof

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Betaine (trimethylglycine lowers plasma homocysteine, a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, studies in renal patients and in obese individuals who are on a weight-loss diet suggest that betaine supplementation raises blood cholesterol; data in healthy individuals are lacking. Such an effect on cholesterol would counteract any favourable effect on homocysteine. We therefore investigated the effect of betaine, of its precursor choline in the form of phosphatidylcholine, and of the classical homocysteine-lowering vitamin folic acid on blood lipid concentrations in healthy humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We measured blood lipids in four placebo-controlled, randomised intervention studies that examined the effect of betaine (three studies, n = 151, folic acid (two studies, n = 75, and phosphatidylcholine (one study, n = 26 on plasma homocysteine concentrations. We combined blood lipid data from the individual studies and calculated a weighted mean change in blood lipid concentrations relative to placebo. Betaine supplementation (6 g/d for 6 wk increased blood LDL cholesterol concentrations by 0.36 mmol/l (95% confidence interval: 0.25-0.46, and triacylglycerol concentrations by 0.14 mmol/l (0.04-0.23 relative to placebo. The ratio of total to HDL cholesterol increased by 0.23 (0.14-0.32. Concentrations of HDL cholesterol were not affected. Doses of betaine lower than 6 g/d also raised LDL cholesterol, but these changes were not statistically significant. Further, the effect of betaine on LDL cholesterol was already evident after 2 wk of intervention. Phosphatidylcholine supplementation (providing approximately 2.6 g/d of choline for 2 wk increased triacylglycerol concentrations by 0.14 mmol/l (0.06-0.21, but did not affect cholesterol concentrations. Folic acid supplementation (0.8 mg/d had no effect on lipid concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Betaine supplementation increased blood LDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol

  6. A Rare Case of Aggressive Digital Adenocarcinoma of the Lower Extremity, Masquerading as an Ulcerative Lesion that Clinically Favored Benignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Vazales

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A rare case report of Aggressive Digital Adenocarcinoma (ADPCa is presented complete with a literature review encompassing lesions that pose potential diagnostic challenges. Similarities between basal cell carcinoma (BCC, marjolin’s ulceration/squamous cell carcinoma (MSCC and ADPCa are discussed. This article discusses potential treatment options for ADPCa and the need for early biopsy when faced with any challenging lesion. An algorithmic approach to ADPCa treatment based on the most current research is recommended.

  7. The lipid lowering drug lovastatin protects against doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liver is the main detoxifying organ and therefore the target of high concentrations of genotoxic compounds, such as environmental carcinogens and anticancer drugs. Here, we investigated the usefulness of lovastatin, which is nowadays widely used for lipid lowering purpose, as a hepatoprotective drug following the administration of the anthracycline derivative doxorubicin in vivo. To this end, BALB/c mice were exposed to either a single high dose or three consecutive low doses of doxorubicin. Acute and subacute hepatotoxicities were analyzed with or without lovastatin co-treatment. Lovastatin protected the liver against doxorubicin-induced acute pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic stress responses as indicated by an attenuated mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), respectively. Hepatoprotection by lovastatin was due to a reduced induction of DNA damage following doxorubicin treatment. The statin also mitigated subacute anthracycline-provoked hepatotoxicity as shown on the level of doxorubicin- and epirubicin-stimulated CTGF mRNA expression as well as histopathologically detectable fibrosis and serum concentration of marker enzymes of hepatotoxicity (GPT/GLDH). Kidney damage following doxorubicin exposure was not detectable under our experimental conditions. Moreover, lovastatin showed multiple inhibitory effects on doxorubicin-triggered hepatic expression of genes involved in oxidative stress response, drug transport, DNA repair, cell cycle progression and cell death. Doxorubicin also stimulated the formation of ceramides. Ceramide production, however, was not blocked by lovastatin, indicating that hepatoprotection by lovastatin is independent of the sphingolipid metabolism. Overall, the data show that lovastatin is hepatoprotective following genotoxic stress induced by anthracyclines. Based on the data, we hypothesize that statins might be suitable to lower hepatic injury following anthracycline

  8. The lipid lowering drug lovastatin protects against doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henninger, Christian [Institute of Toxicology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str. 67, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Institute of Toxicology, University Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Universitätsstrasse 1, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Huelsenbeck, Johannes; Huelsenbeck, Stefanie [Institute of Toxicology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str. 67, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Grösch, Sabine [Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt, Theodor Stern Kai 7, D-60590 Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Schad, Arno [Institute of Pathology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str. 67, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Lackner, Karl J. [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str. 67, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Kaina, Bernd [Institute of Toxicology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str. 67, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Fritz, Gerhard, E-mail: fritz@uni-duesseldorf.de [Institute of Toxicology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str. 67, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Institute of Toxicology, University Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Universitätsstrasse 1, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Liver is the main detoxifying organ and therefore the target of high concentrations of genotoxic compounds, such as environmental carcinogens and anticancer drugs. Here, we investigated the usefulness of lovastatin, which is nowadays widely used for lipid lowering purpose, as a hepatoprotective drug following the administration of the anthracycline derivative doxorubicin in vivo. To this end, BALB/c mice were exposed to either a single high dose or three consecutive low doses of doxorubicin. Acute and subacute hepatotoxicities were analyzed with or without lovastatin co-treatment. Lovastatin protected the liver against doxorubicin-induced acute pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic stress responses as indicated by an attenuated mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), respectively. Hepatoprotection by lovastatin was due to a reduced induction of DNA damage following doxorubicin treatment. The statin also mitigated subacute anthracycline-provoked hepatotoxicity as shown on the level of doxorubicin- and epirubicin-stimulated CTGF mRNA expression as well as histopathologically detectable fibrosis and serum concentration of marker enzymes of hepatotoxicity (GPT/GLDH). Kidney damage following doxorubicin exposure was not detectable under our experimental conditions. Moreover, lovastatin showed multiple inhibitory effects on doxorubicin-triggered hepatic expression of genes involved in oxidative stress response, drug transport, DNA repair, cell cycle progression and cell death. Doxorubicin also stimulated the formation of ceramides. Ceramide production, however, was not blocked by lovastatin, indicating that hepatoprotection by lovastatin is independent of the sphingolipid metabolism. Overall, the data show that lovastatin is hepatoprotective following genotoxic stress induced by anthracyclines. Based on the data, we hypothesize that statins might be suitable to lower hepatic injury following anthracycline

  9. Ethanolic Extract of Vitis thunbergii Exhibits Lipid Lowering Properties via Modulation of the AMPK-ACC Pathway in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hsu Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitis thunbergii (VT is a wild grape that has been shown to provide various cardioprotective effects. The present study was designed to examine whether a VT extract could reduce serum lipid levels and prevent atherogenesis in a hypercholesterolemic rabbit model. At the end of an 8-week study, our results showed that a VT extract supplement markedly suppressed the serum levels of cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, reduced lipid accumulation in liver tissues, and limited aortic fatty streaks. Our findings suggest that the VT extract activated AMPK (5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase with subsequent inhibition of the activation of ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Our results suggest that this VT extract could be further developed as a potential lipid-lowering agent and as a natural health food to prevent atherogenesis.

  10. Genome-wide association of lipid-lowering response to statins in combined study populations.

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    Mathew J Barber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Statins effectively lower total and plasma LDL-cholesterol, but the magnitude of decrease varies among individuals. To identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs contributing to this variation, we performed a combined analysis of genome-wide association (GWA results from three trials of statin efficacy. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bayesian and standard frequentist association analyses were performed on untreated and statin-mediated changes in LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride on a total of 3932 subjects using data from three studies: Cholesterol and Pharmacogenetics (40 mg/day simvastatin, 6 weeks, Pravastatin/Inflammation CRP Evaluation (40 mg/day pravastatin, 24 weeks, and Treating to New Targets (10 mg/day atorvastatin, 8 weeks. Genotype imputation was used to maximize genomic coverage and to combine information across studies. Phenotypes were normalized within each study to account for systematic differences among studies, and fixed-effects combined analysis of the combined sample were performed to detect consistent effects across studies. Two SNP associations were assessed as having posterior probability greater than 50%, indicating that they were more likely than not to be genuinely associated with statin-mediated lipid response. SNP rs8014194, located within the CLMN gene on chromosome 14, was strongly associated with statin-mediated change in total cholesterol with an 84% probability by Bayesian analysis, and a p-value exceeding conventional levels of genome-wide significance by frequentist analysis (P = 1.8 x 10(-8. This SNP was less significantly associated with change in LDL-cholesterol (posterior probability = 0.16, P = 4.0 x 10(-6. Bayesian analysis also assigned a 51% probability that rs4420638, located in APOC1 and near APOE, was associated with change in LDL-cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Using combined GWA analysis from three clinical trials involving nearly 4

  11. Green Tea as Inhibitor of the Intestinal Absorption of Lipids: Potential Mechanism for its Lipid-Lowering Effect1

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Sung I.; Noh, Sang K.

    2007-01-01

    Animal and epidemiological studies suggest that green tea catechins may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CHD). The health benefit of green tea has been attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties; however, considerable evidence suggests that green tea and its catechins may reduce the risk of CHD by lowering the plasma levels of cholesterol and triglyceride. Although the mechanism underlying such effect of green tea is yet to be determined, it is evident from in v...

  12. High Dose Simvastatin Exhibits Enhanced Lipid Lowering Effects Relative to Simvastatin/Ezetimibe Combination Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settergren, Magnus; D'Alexandri, Fabio Luiz; Haeggström, Jesper Z.; Fiehn, Oliver; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Newman, John W.; Orešič, Matej; Pernow, John; Wheelock, Craig E.

    2014-01-01

    Statins are the frontline in cholesterol reduction therapies; however use in combination with agents that possess complimentary mechanisms of action may achieve further reductions in LDL-C. Thirty-nine patients were treated with either 80mg simvastatin (n=20) or 10mg simvastatin plus 10mg ezetimibe (n=19) for 6 weeks. Dosing was designed to produce comparable LDL-C reductions, while enabling assessment of potential simvastatin-associated pleiotropic effects. Baseline and post-treatment plasma were analyzed for lipid mediators (e.g., eicosanoids, endocannabinoids) and structural lipids by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Following statistical analysis and orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) multivariate modeling, no changes were observed in lipid mediator levels, while global structural lipids were reduced in response to both mono- (R2Y=0.74, Q2=0.66, CV-ANOVA p=7.0×10-8) and combination therapy (R2Y=0.67, Q2=0.54, CV-ANOVA p=2.6×10−5). OPLS modeling identified a subset of 12 lipids that classified the two treatment groups after 6 weeks (R2Y=0.65, Q2=0.61, CV-ANOVA p=5.4×10−8). Decreases in the lipid species PC(15:0/18:2) and HexCer(d18:1/24:0) were the strongest discriminators of LDL-C reductions for both treatment groups (q<0.00005), while PE(36:3e) contributed most to distinguishing treatment groups (q=0.017). Shifts in lipid composition were similar for high-dose simvastatin and simvastatin/ezetimibe combination therapy, but the magnitude of the reduction was linked to simvastatin dosage. Simvastatin therapy did not affect circulating levels of lipid mediators, suggesting that pleiotropic effects are not associated with eicosanoid production. Only high-dose simvastatin reduced the relative proportion of sphingomyelin and ceramide to phosphatidylcholine (q=0.008), suggesting a pleiotropic effect previously associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25516625

  13. Metabolomic and pharmacokinetic study on the mechanism underlying the lipid-lowering effect of oral-administrated berberine

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Shenghua; Cao, Bei; Sun, Runbin; Tang, Yueqing; Paletta, Janice L.; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Liu, Linsheng; Zha, Weibin; Zhao, Chunyan; Li, Yan; Radlon, Jason M.; Phillip B Hylemon; Zhou, Huiping; Aa, Jiye; Wang, Guangji

    2014-01-01

    Clinic and animal studies demonstrated that oral-administrated berberine had distinct lipid-lowering effect. However, pharmacokinetic studies showed berberine was poorly absorbed into the body so that the levels of berberine in the blood and target tissues were far below the effective concentrations revealed. To probe the underlying mechanism, the effect of berberine on biological system was studied on a high-fat-diet-induced hamster hyperlipidemia model. Our results showed that intragastric-...

  14. Antiobesity and lipid-lowering effects of Bifidobacterium spp. in high fat diet-induced obese rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Si; Cha Min; Kim Jung; Lee Do; Park Shin; An Hyang; Lim Hyung; Kim Kyung; Ha Nam

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent studies have reported the preventive effects of probiotics on obesity. Among commensal bacteria, bifidobacteria is one of the most numerous probiotics in the mammalian gut and are a type of lactic acid bacteria. The aim of this study was to assess the antiobesity and lipid-lowering effects of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Korean on high fat diet-induced obese rats. Methods Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups as follows: (1...

  15. Gemfibrozil, a lipid lowering drug, inhibits the activation of primary human microglia via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β

    OpenAIRE

    Jana, Malabendu; Pahan, Kalipada

    2012-01-01

    Microglial activation participates in the pathogenesis of various neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. However, mechanisms by which microglial activation could be controlled are poorly understood. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor super family with diverse effect. This study underlines the importance of PPARβ/δ in mediating the anti-inflammatory effect of gemfibrozil, an FDA-approved lipid-lowering drug,...

  16. Prospective, Pharmacoepidemiologic Study of Prescribing Patterns for Lipid Lowering Drugs at a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Prasad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The guidelines for management of dyslipidemia released by the US National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP have been in use throughout the world. But South Asian Indian populations are reported to have significantly different lipoprotein parameters and atherogenic risk factors than Western populations. Even now there is paucity of data regarding the drug use pattern of the lipid lowering drugs in India. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine current prescribing patterns for lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs adopted by physicians in East India. Methods: This prospective, non-interventional, uncontrolled, open-chart, pharmaco-epidemiologic study was conducted from June 2010 to May 2011 at a tertiary rare hospital in East India and included 200 dyslipidemic patients. The pattern of prescribing LLDs was recorded, along with the serum levels of lipid parameters – total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C – at the time of initiating LLD therapy. Results: Males above 40 years were predominantly prescribed (89.5% lipid lowering (LLDs drugs. Advice regarding life style modification was included in only 18% of prescriptions. The ratio of prescribing LLDs for primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease was 1:1.15. The LLDs prescribed were statins (80.5% and fibrates (14.5%. The mean (SD values of lipid parameters in the study population showed high total cholesterol, LDL-C, borderline high triglyceride as per the NCEP guidelines as follows: total cholesterol (TC: 233.54±21.5, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C: 149.65±25.6, triglycerides (TG: 216.062±34.5 and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C: 39.904±5.5. Conclusions : The prescribing patterns of the lipid lowering drugs (LLDs was in accordance with the specific recommendations made for the South Asian Indian populations, as well as with the 2001 NCEP – III guidelines. [Natl J of Med Res 2012; 2

  17. The Lipid-Lowering Efficacy of Switching Within Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors in HIV-Infected Patients

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    A. M. Bain

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present research is to evaluate the lipid lowering efficacy and safety of switching within non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI in HIV-infected patients. This is a multicenter, retrospective study utilizing a comprehensive electronic patient registry to identify all adult HIV-infected patients seen from October 1, 1998 through October 1, 2006, who substituted efavirenz for nevirapine (EFV→NVP or vice-versa (NVP→EFV, without change in other antiretrovirals. Lipid profiles before and after the switch were analyzed. A total of 124 patients were identified with 14 male (EFV→NVP, n = 9; NVP→EFV, n = 5 patients meeting the strict criteria for inclusion. An EFV→NVP switch resulted in significant reductions in TC -16% and non-HDL -25% (p≤0.02 and a trend towards a reduction in LDL-C -12%, TG -27%, TC/HDL -23%, TG/HDL -48% and an increase in HDL-C +15% without any changes to BMI, viral or immunological control. However, a NVP→EFV switch appeared to result in a non-significant worsening of LDL-C +29%, HDL-C -8%, TG +36%, non-HDL +28%, TC/HDL +57% and TG/HDL +46%. Lastly, more patients achieved their lipid goals when switched from EFV to NVP. These data suggest that switching from EFV to NVP-based HAART is associated with lipid improvement, however, switching from NVP to EFV-based HAART is associated with worsening of serum lipids.

  18. Lipid-lowering effects of methanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaves in rats fed on high cholesterol diet

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    Oluwatosin A Adaramoye

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Oluwatosin A Adaramoye, Olajumoke Akintayo, Jonah Achem, Michael A FafunsoDepartment of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaAbstract: We investigated the lipid-lowering effects of methanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina (VA leaves in rats fed an high cholesterol diet, and compared with a standard hypolipidemic drug, Questran (Qu. The effects of VA on the lipid profile were assessed by measuring the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, lipid peroxidation (LPO, phospholipid, and glutathione (GSH in the plasma and liver of the rats. Administration of cholesterol at a dose of 30 mg/0.3 ml, five times in a week for nine consecutive weeks resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.05 in plasma and post mitochondrial fraction (PMF cholesterol levels by 33% and 55%, respectively. However, treatment with extract of VA at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg caused a dose dependent reduction in the plasma and PMF cholesterol by 20%, 23% and 23%, 29%, respectively. Similar reduction in cholesterol levels was obtained in Qu-treated rats. Furthermore, VA at 200 mg/kg decreased the plasma and PMF LDL-cholesterol levels by 23% and 49%, and also decreased plasma and PMF triglyceride levels by 29% and 28%, respectively. Also, VA at 100 and 200 mg/kg caused a dosedependent increase in plasma HDL-cholesterol levels by 41% and 59%, respectively. However, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05 in the PMF HDL-cholesterol and phospholipid levels of the treated rats when compared to hypercholesterolemic rats. There were significant decreases (p < 0.05 in the LPO levels of extract-treated rats. Precisely, VA at 100 and 200 mg/kg decreased the levels of plasma and PMF LPO by 38%, 42% and 35%, 45%, respectively. In addition, VA augmented the cholesterol-induced decrease in PMF glutathione levels of the rats

  19. Bioactive vegetable proteins and peptides in lipid-lowering: nutraceutical potential

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    Jorge Carlos Ruiz Ruiz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As the last century saw a decline in the burden of nutritional deficiency and infectious disease, the global burden of chronic disease, cardiovascular disease (CVD in particular, is increasing. CVD is the leading cause of death in the developed countries. Significant research efforts on the prevention and treatment of this disease have identified elevated plasma cholesterol as a primary risk factor for CVD. Although CVD progresses with hypercholesterolemia, it seems possibility to delay and prevent its development through improvement of diet. Recent findings demonstrate that protein concentrates, protein hydrolysates, and peptides derived from vegetables may promote a significant decrease in blood cholesterol concentration. This reduction in cholesterol and lipid levels by protein, protein hydrolysates, and peptides can be the result of dietary changes, reduced cholesterol biosynthesis, changes in bile acid synthesis, and reduced absorption of lipid cholesterol and bile acid. Combination drug/diet therapies may reduce the number of drug prescriptions, the progressive rise in "optimal" drug dosage and costs associated with pharmaceutical management of disease. These bioactive vegetable proteins, hydrolysates and peptides may be used in formulation of functional foods, nutraceuticals, and natural drugs because of their health benefit effects suggesting their use as an alternative in treatment of various dyslipidemias, and a potential agent for reducing cardiovascular diseases risk factors.

  20. Gemfibrozil, a Lipid-lowering Drug, Inhibits the Induction of Nitric-oxide Synthase in Human Astrocytes*

    OpenAIRE

    Pahan, Kalipada; Jana, Malabendu; Liu, Xiaojuan; Taylor, Bradley S.; Wood, Charles; Fischer, Susan M.

    2002-01-01

    Gemfibrozil, a lipid-lowering drug, inhibited cytokine-induced production of NO and the expression of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) in human U373MG astroglial cells and primary astrocytes. Similar to gemfibrozil, clofibrate, another fibrate drug, also inhibited the expression of iNOS. Inhibition of human iNOS promoter-driven luciferase activity by gemfibrozil in cytokine-stimulated U373MG astroglial cells suggests that this compound inhibits the transcription of iNOS. Since gemfibroz...

  1. The impact of a short course of three lipid lowering drugs on fat oxidation during exercise in healthy volunteers.

    OpenAIRE

    Head, A; Jakeman, P. M.; Kendall, M. J.; Cramb, R.; Maxwell, S.

    1993-01-01

    We examined the impact of three lipid lowering drugs on fat oxidation during a 120 minute treadmill walk, at an exercise intensity of 50% maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max). Subjects (N = 24) were healthy male volunteers with normal serum chemistry, assigned to three groups (n = 8). Group A received simvastatin 20 mg twice daily, Group B received gemfibrozil 600 mg twice daily, Group C received acipimox 600 mg twice daily. Each subject performed two 120 minute walks, once with drug, and once wit...

  2. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of mipomersen in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia receiving maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapy.

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    Mary P McGowan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Mipomersen, an antisense oligonucleotide targeting apolipoprotein B synthesis, significantly reduces LDL-C and other atherogenic lipoproteins in familial hypercholesterolemia when added to ongoing maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapy. Safety and efficacy of mipomersen in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia was evaluated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Patients (n  = 58 were ≥18 years with LDL-C ≥7.8 mmol/L or LDL-C ≥5.1 mmol/L plus CHD disease, on maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapy that excluded apheresis. Weekly subcutaneous injections of mipomersen 200 mg (n  = 39 or placebo (n  = 19 were added to lipid-lowering therapy for 26 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME: percent reduction in LDL-C from baseline to 2 weeks after the last dose of treatment. Mipomersen (n = 27 reduced LDL-C by 36%, from a baseline of 7.2 mmol/L, for a mean absolute reduction of 2.6 mmol/L. Conversely, mean LDL-C increased 13% in placebo (n = 18 from a baseline of 6.5 mmol/L (mipomersen vs placebo p<0.001. Mipomersen produced statistically significant (p<0.001 reductions in apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein(a, with no change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Mild-to-moderate injection site reactions were the most frequently reported adverse events with mipomersen. Mild-to-moderate flu-like symptoms were reported more often with mipomersen. Alanine transaminase increase, aspartate transaminase increase, and hepatic steatosis occurred in 21%, 13% and 13% of mipomersen treated patients, respectively. Adverse events by category for the placebo and mipomersen groups respectively were: total adverse events, 16(84.2%, 39(100%; serious adverse events, 0(0%, 6(15.4%; discontinuations due to adverse events, 1(5.3%, 8(20.5% and cardiac adverse events, 1(5.3%, 5(12.8%. CONCLUSION: Mipomersen significantly reduced LDL-C, apolipoprotein B, total cholesterol and non

  3. Mechanism of lipid lowering in mice expressing human apolipoprotein A5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchart-Najib, Jamila; Bauge, Eric; Niculescu, Loredan-Stefan; Pham, Tatiana; Thomas, Benoit; Rommens, Corinne; Majd, Zouher; Brewer, Bryan; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.; Fruchart, Jean-Charles

    2004-01-15

    Recently, we reported that apoAV plays key role in triglycerides lowering. Here, we attempted to determine the mechanism underlying this hypotriglyceridemic effect. We showed that triglyceride turnover is faster in hAPOA5 transgenic compared to wild type mice. Moreover, both apoB and apoCIII are decreased and LPL activity is increased in postheparin plasma of hAPOA5 transgenic mice. These data suggest a decrease in size and number of VLDL. To further investigate the mechanism of hAPOA5 in hyperlipidemic background, we intercrossed hAPOA5 and hAPOC3 transgenic mice. The effect resulted in a marked decreased of VLDL triglyceride, cholesterol, apolipoproteins B and CIII. In postprandial state, the triglyceride response is abolished in hAPOA5 transgenic mice. We demonstrated that in response to the fat load in hAPOA5XhAPOC3 mice, apoAV shifted from HDL to VLDL, probably to limit the elevation of triglycerides. In vitro, apoAV activates lipoprotein lipase. However, apoAV does not interact with LPL but interacts physically with apoCIII. This interaction does not seem to displace apoCIII from VLDL but may induce conformational change in apoCIII and consequently change in its function leading the activation of lipoprotein lipase.

  4. Lipid-lowering efficacy of psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid in non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus with hyperlipidaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R R; Agrawal, C G; Singh, G P; Ghatak, A

    1994-11-01

    The effect of the administration of 3.5 g of psyllium husk twice daily for 90 days was investigated in 24 patients of non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) with hyperlipidaemia. After 90 days of treatment, psyllium was withdrawn and the patients were followed up for a further 90 days. Psyllium significantly decreased the levels of total cholesterol (TC; 19.7%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; 23.7%), triglycerides (TG; 27.2%) and the ratio of LDL-C to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; 24.1%) and the lowering was sustained even up to 90 days after cessation of treatment. The level of HDL-C also showed a significant increase of 15.8 per cent but this effect was not sustained after cessation of treatment. The compliance was very good and no adverse effects were observed. This study indicated that psyllium husk is an effective and well tolerated adjunct to diet for the treatment of mild to moderate hyperlipidaemia in NIDDM patients. PMID:7829159

  5. A Retrospective Cohort Study of the Potency of lipid-lowering therapy and Race-gender Differences in LDL cholesterol control

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    Weiner Mark

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reasons for race and gender differences in controlling elevated low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol may be related to variations in prescribed lipid-lowering therapy. We examined the effect of lipid-lowering drug treatment and potency on time until LDL control for black and white women and men with a baseline elevated LDL. Methods We studied 3,484 older hypertensive patients with dyslipidemia in 6 primary care practices over a 4-year timeframe. Potency of lipid-lowering drugs calculated for each treated day and summed to assess total potency for at least 6 and up to 24 months. Cox models of time to LDL control within two years and logistic regression models of control within 6 months by race-gender adjust for: demographics, clinical, health care delivery, primary/specialty care, LDL measurement, and drug potency. Results Time to LDL control decreased as lipid-lowering drug potency increased (P Conclusions Black women and, to a lesser extent, black men and white women were less likely to achieve LDL control than white men after accounting for lipid-lowering drug potency as well as diverse patient and provider factors. Future work should focus on the contributions of medication adherence and response to treatment to these clinically important differences.

  6. The seeds from Plantago ovata lower plasma lipids by altering hepatic and bile acid metabolism in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Ana Lourdes; West, Kristy L; Zern, Tosca; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2002-06-01

    Psyllium, the husks from Plantago ovata (PO), is recognized as a potent agent in lowering plasma cholesterol. In this study, we tested the potential hypolipidemic effects of the seeds from PO and the mechanisms associated with the lowering of plasma lipids. Male Hartley guinea pigs (n = 30; 10 per group) were fed either a control diet or diets containing 7.5 or 10 g/100 g PO for 4 wk. Diets were identical in composition except for the fiber source. The control diet contained 10 g/100 g cellulose and 2.5 g/100 g guar gum, whereas the PO diets were adjusted to a total of 12.5 g/100 g fiber with cellulose. Although a dose response was not observed, plasma triglycerides and LDL cholesterol were 34 and 23% lower in the PO groups compared with the control (P < 0.01). Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) activities were significantly affected by the PO diets. The control group had 100 and 36% higher LCAT and CETP (P < 0.01) activities, respectively, compared with the PO groups. Hepatic total and free cholesterol concentrations were not affected by PO, but cholesteryl ester concentrations were 50% (P < 0.01) lower in the PO groups compared with the control. The activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis was up-regulated in the PO groups by 37%. Similarly, the activity of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase, the regulatory enzyme of cholesterol catabolism to bile acids was 33% higher in the PO groups (P < 0.02). Fecal bile acids were 3 times higher in the PO groups than in the control group. These results suggest that PO exerts its hypolipidemic effect by affecting bile acid absorption and altering hepatic cholesterol metabolism. PMID:12042433

  7. African Nutmeg (Monodora Myristica) Lowers Cholesterol and Modulates Lipid Peroxidation in Experimentally Induced Hypercholesterolemic Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyenibe, Nwozo Sarah; Fowokemi, Kasumu Titilayo; Emmanuel, Oyinloye Babatunji

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the cholesterol lowering potential and protective ability of aqueous extract of Monodora myristica experimental hypercholesterolemic rats, a short-term study was conducted. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by administering cholesterol orally at a dose of 40 mg/kg/0.3 ml. Plant extracts 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight and Questran 0.26 g/kg were administered five times a week for eight weeks for amelioration. Hypolipidemic effects were evaluated by measuring total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) in the serum, while the protective ability was measured by the extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) as well as enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants levels in post mitochondrial fractions (PMF) of the hepatic and cardiac homogenates. Serum aminotransferases activities were also monitored. Results obtained shows that treatment with M. myristica elicited a significant reduction in serum TC, TG and LDL-C levels while there was concomitant increase in HDL-C of hypercholesterolemic rats. Elevations in serum aminotransferases activities and LPO level were reversed and a significant amelioration was noticed in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants status in the liver and heart of hypercholesterolemic rats. This study suggests that M. myristica possess cholesterol lowering potentials and protective ability in experimental hypercholesterolemia rat model. PMID:26199582

  8. Pseudomonas aeruginosa exploits lipid A and muropeptides modification as a strategy to lower innate immunity during cystic fibrosis lung infection.

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    Cristina Cigana

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa can establish life-long airways chronic infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF with pathogenic variants distinguished from initially acquired strain. Here, we analysed chemical and biological activity of P. aeruginosa Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs in clonal strains, including mucoid and non-mucoid phenotypes, isolated during a period of up to 7.5 years from a CF patient. Chemical structure by MS spectrometry defined lipopolysaccharide (LPS lipid A and peptidoglycan (PGN muropeptides with specific structural modifications temporally associated with CF lung infection. Gene sequence analysis revealed novel mutation in pagL, which supported lipid A changes. Both LPS and PGN had different potencies when activating host innate immunity via binding TLR4 and Nod1. Significantly higher NF-kB activation, IL-8 expression and production were detected in HEK293hTLR4/MD2-CD14 and HEK293hNod1 after stimulation with LPS and PGN respectively, purified from early P. aeruginosa strain as compared to late strains. Similar results were obtained in macrophages-like cells THP-1, epithelial cells of CF origin IB3-1 and their isogenic cells C38, corrected by insertion of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR. In murine model, altered LPS structure of P. aeruginosa late strains induces lower leukocyte recruitment in bronchoalveolar lavage and MIP-2, KC and IL-1beta cytokine levels in lung homogenates when compared with early strain. Histopathological analysis of lung tissue sections confirmed differences between LPS from early and late P. aeruginosa. Finally, in this study for the first time we unveil how P. aeruginosa has evolved the capacity to evade immune system detection, thus promoting survival and establishing favourable conditions for chronic persistence. Our findings provide relevant information with respect to chronic infections in CF.

  9. Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Aggressive Behavior Page Content Article Body My child is sometimes ... type of behavior? The best way to prevent aggressive behavior is to give your child a stable, secure ...

  10. Clinical use and effectiveness of lipid lowering therapies in diabetes mellitus--an observational study from the Swedish National Diabetes Register.

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    Björn Eliasson

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe the use and evaluate the effectiveness of different lipid lowering therapies in unselected patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes in clinical practice. DESIGN: Observational population-based study using the personal identification number to link information from the National Diabetes Register, the Prescribed Drug Register and the Patient register in Sweden. All patients in the NDR aged 18-75 years with diabetes more than one year were eligible, but only patients starting any lipid lowering treatment with at least three prescriptions 1 July 2006-30 June 2007 were included (n = 37,182. The mean blood lipid levels in 2008 and reductions in LDL cholesterol were examined. RESULTS: Blood lipid levels were similar in patients treated with simvastatin, atorvastatin and rosuvastatin, showing similar lipid lowering effect as currently used. Users of pravastatin, fluvastatin, ezetimib and fibrate more seldom reach treatment goals. Moderate daily doses of the statins were used, with 76% of simvastatin users taking 20 mg or less, 48% of atorvastatin users taking 10 mg, 55% of pravastatin users taking 20 mg, and 76% of rosuvastatin users taking 5 or 10 mg. CONCLUSIONS: This observational study shows that the LDL-C levels in patients taking simvastatin, atorvastatin or rosuvastatin are very similar as currently used, as well as their LDL-C lowering abilities. There is potential to intensify lipid lowering treatment to reduce the remaining high residual risk and achieve better fulfilment of treatment goals, since the commonly used doses are only low to moderate.

  11. Antiobesity and lipid-lowering effects of Bifidobacterium spp. in high fat diet-induced obese rats

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    Lee Si

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have reported the preventive effects of probiotics on obesity. Among commensal bacteria, bifidobacteria is one of the most numerous probiotics in the mammalian gut and are a type of lactic acid bacteria. The aim of this study was to assess the antiobesity and lipid-lowering effects of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Korean on high fat diet-induced obese rats. Methods Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups as follows: (1 SD group, fed standard diet; (2 HFD group, fed high fat diet; and (3 HFD-LAB group, fed high fat diet supplemented with LAB supplement (B. pseudocatenulatum SPM 1204, B. longum SPM 1205, and B. longum SPM 1207; 108 ~ 109 CFU. After 7 weeks, the body, organ, and fat weights, food intake, blood serum levels, fecal LAB counts, and harmful enzyme activities were measured. Results Administration of LAB reduced body and fat weights, blood serum levels (TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglyceride, glucose, leptin, AST, ALT, and lipase levels, and harmful enzyme activities (β-glucosidase, β-glucuronidase, and tryptophanase, and significantly increased fecal LAB counts. Conclusion These data suggest that Bifidobacterium spp. used in this study may have beneficial antiobesity effects.

  12. Concomitant Intake of Quercetin with a Grain-Based Diet Acutely Lowers Postprandial Plasma Glucose and Lipid Concentrations in Pigs

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    Silvia Wein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment goals of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2 include glycemic control and reduction of nonglycemic risk factors, for example, dyslipidemia. Quercetin, a plant-derived polyphenol, often discussed for possible antidiabetic effects, was investigated for acute postprandial glucose- and lipid-lowering effects in healthy growing pigs. Male pigs (n = 16, body weight = BW 25–30 kg were fed flavonoid-poor grain-based meals without (GBM or with quercetin (GBMQ. In a first experiment, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, and triacylglycerols were analyzed in 8 pigs receiving 500 g of either GBM or GBMQ (10 mg/kg BW in a cross-over design. Blood samples were collected before, and up to 5 h every 30 min, as well as 6 and 8 h after the feeding. In the second experiment, 2 h after ingestions of 1000 g of either GBM or GBMQ (50 mg/kg BW animals were sacrificed; gastric content was collected and analyzed for dry matter content. Quercetin ingestion reduced postprandial glucose, NEFA, and TG concentration, but two hours after ingestion of the meal no effect on gastric emptying was observed. Our results point to inhibitory effects of quercetin on nutrient absorption, which appear not to be attributable to delayed gastric emptying.

  13. The relationship between changes in health behaviour and initiation of lipid-lowering and antihypertensive medications in individuals at high risk of ischaemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempler, Nana Folmann; Krasnik, Allan; Pisinger, Charlotta;

    2012-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that health conscious individuals tend to take better care of themselves by greater adherence to preventive medications. We examined, whether long-term changes in dietary habits and physical activity were associated with initiation of lipid-lowering and antihypertensive...

  14. Effects of intensive lipid-lowering therapy on coronary plaques composition in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auscher, Søren; Heinsen, Laurits; Nieman, Koen;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Statins have been shown to possess favourable effects on the cardiovascular system with stabilization of the vulnerable plaque. We sought to assess the effects of early aggressive statin treatment on plaque composition in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), using serial...

  15. Lipid-Lowering Effects of Pediococcus acidilactici M76 Isolated from Korean Traditional Makgeolli in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

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    Yeon-Jeong Moon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Pediococcus acidilactici M76 (lactic acid bacteria isolated from makgeolli on mice fed a high fat diet was investigated to clarify the lipid lowering function. C57BL/6J male mice were randomly divided into a normal diet (ND group, high fat diet (HD group, HD plus Pediococcus acidilactici DSM 20284 reference strain (PR group, and HD plus Pediococcus acidilactici M76 strain (PA groups. The lyophilized PA and PR strain were dissolved in distilled water at a final concentration of 1.25 × 109 cfu/mL and was given orally to animals at a dose of 4 mL/kg body weight for 12 weeks. The PA group had a lower final body weight, adipose tissue weight, and lipid profile than those in the HD group. Additionally, level of ACC, FAS and PPAR-γ, a key lipid synthesis enzyme, was markedly suppressed in the PA compared to those in the HD group. These data suggest that P. acidilactici M76 may exert a lipid-lowering effect in high fat diet- induced obese mice.

  16. Aggressive Angiomyxoma

    OpenAIRE

    Padmavathy, L.; L Lakshmana Rao; M Dhana Lakshmi; N Sylvester

    2014-01-01

    Myxoid tumors are a heterogeneous group of lesions characterized by a marked abundance of extra cellular mucoid (myxoid) matrix. [1] The term aggressive emphasizes the often infiltrative nature of the tumor and its frequent association with recurrence. [2] A case of aggressive angiomyxoma arising from the vagina in a 55-year-old woman is reported for its rarity.

  17. Aggressive angiomyxoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmavathy, L; Rao, L Lakshmana; Lakshmi, M Dhana; Sylvester, N

    2014-04-01

    Myxoid tumors are a heterogeneous group of lesions characterized by a marked abundance of extra cellular mucoid (myxoid) matrix.[1] The term aggressive emphasizes the often infiltrative nature of the tumor and its frequent association with recurrence.[2] A case of aggressive angiomyxoma arising from the vagina in a 55-year-old woman is reported for its rarity. PMID:24860748

  18. Aggressive Angiomyxoma

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    L Padmavathy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myxoid tumors are a heterogeneous group of lesions characterized by a marked abundance of extra cellular mucoid (myxoid matrix. [1] The term aggressive emphasizes the often infiltrative nature of the tumor and its frequent association with recurrence. [2] A case of aggressive angiomyxoma arising from the vagina in a 55-year-old woman is reported for its rarity.

  19. Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Indonesian Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Who Were Not Receiving Lipid-Lowering Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaligis, Rinambaan W M; Adiarto, Suko; Nugroho, Johanes; Pradnyana, Bagus Ari; Lefi, Achmad; Rifqi, Sodiqur

    2016-09-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is frequently utilized for detection of subclinical atherosclerosis. This study aims to investigate the association between the CIMT values and demographic characteristics, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, lipid biochemistry profiles, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels among the Indonesian population. Subjects who had two or more CVD risk factors but were not receiving lipid-lowering therapy were recruited from six hospitals of Indonesia. Measurements of CIMT are obtained by ultrasonography of 12 sites within the common carotid artery. CVD risk factors, lipid and glucose profiles, and hs-CRP values were analyzed with respect to distribution of CIMT. The mean-max CIMT was 0.805 ± 0.190 mm (minimum, 0.268 mm; maximum, 1.652 mm) and the mean-mean CIMT was 0.614 ± 0.190 mm (minimum, 0.127 mm; maximum, 1.388 mm). Multivariate analyses confirmed an independent association between increasing CIMT and increasing age (regression coefficient = 0.004; p = 0.004). Our data show normative mean-mean CIMT data for Indonesian subjects with two or more CVD risk factors who are not receiving lipid-lowering therapy, which may guide CVD risk stratification of asymptomatic individuals in Indonesia. PMID:27574385

  20. 1,8-cineole protected human lipoproteins from modification by oxidation and glycation and exhibited serum lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory activity in zebrafish

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    Kyung-Hyun Cho1,2,*

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported that a water extract of laurel or turmeric,1,8-cineole enriched fractions, showed hypolipidemic activityin the zebrafish model. Therefore, the present study investigatedthe cineole’s anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activitiesin lipoprotein metabolism in vitro and in vivo. Cineolehad inhibitory effects on cupric ion-mediated oxidation of lipoproteinsin general, while simultaneously enhancing ferric ionremoval ability in high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Hypercholesterolemiawas induced in zebrafish using cholesterol-feedingtreatment, 4% cholesterol, for 3 weeks. After feeding with orwithout the addition of cineole, the results revealed that cineolepossessed lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory activitiesin hypercholesterolemic zebrafish. In addition, serum amyloidA and interleukin-6 levels were lowered and lipid accumulationwas decreased in the liver. Conclusively, 1,8-cineole wasfound to have anti-oxidant activities in lipoprotein metabolismboth in vitro and in vivo with simultaneous reduction of lipidaccumulation in the liver of zebrafish.

  1. Estudo quantitativo das células de Langerhans em carcinomas basocelulares com maior e menor potencial de agressividade local Quantitative study of Langerhans cells in basal cell carcinoma with higher or lower potential of local aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar Santos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS - O carcinoma basocelular localiza-se principalmente em áreas expostas ao sol, apresentando formas clínicas e histológicas diferentes, algumas com grande e outras com pequena agressividade local. Células de Langerhans participam ativamente do sistema imune da pele. OBJETIVO - Avaliar quantitativamente as células de Langerhans sobrepostas aos carcinomas basocelulares de maior e menor potencial de agressividade local, assim como nas respectivas epidermes sãs adjacentes. MÉTODOS - Dois grupos com 14 preparações histológicas cada. No primeiro, carcinoma basocelular de menor potencial de agressividade local e, no segundo, carcinoma basocelular de maior potencial. Empregou-se a imunoistoquímica com proteína S100 para identificação das células de Langerhans. Utilizando microscópio óptico em aumento de 400 vezes e a grade morfométrica de Weibel, foram contadas as células de Langerhans presentes em sete campos, obtendo-se a média em cada lâmina. Foi utilizado teste estatístico de Wilcoxon para análise estatística. RESULTADOS - No grupo de menor potencial de agressividade local, na epiderme sã adjacente houve aumento significativo no número de células de Langerhans comparado ao da epiderme sobreposta ao carcinoma basocelular (p d 0,05. No grupo de maior potencial de agressividade local, não houve diferença com significado estatístico (p > 0,05. CONCLUSÃO - O maior número de células de Langerhans na epiderme sã vizinha à lesão tumoral de menor potencial de agressividade local poderia representar uma maior resistência imunológica da epiderme, limitando a agressividade da neoplasia.BACKGROUNDS - Basal cell carcinoma affects areas of the body that have been exposed to the sun, and this disorder has different clinical and histopathologic presentations. Some of these forms have a higher potential of local aggressiveness, while others have a lower potential. Langerhans cells actively participate in the skin

  2. Lipid-based nutrient supplements do not affect efavirenz but lower plasma nevirapine concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdissa, A; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Yilma, D; Tesfaye, M; Girma, T; Christiansen, M; Hagen, C M; Wiesner, L; Castel, S; Aseffa, A; McIlleron, H; Pedersen, C; Friis, Henrik; Andersen, A B

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) are increasingly used in HIV programmes in resource-limited settings. However, the possible effects of LNSs on the plasma concentrations of antiretroviral drugs have not been assessed. Here, we aimed to assess the effects of LNSs on plasma...

  3. Apolipoprotein E epsilon-4 polymorphism is associated with younger age at referral to a lipidology clinic and a poorer response to lipid-lowering therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Pedro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of coronary heart disease (CHD is related to environmental factors and genetic variants. Apolipoprotein E (apoE polymorphisms are heritable determinants of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, with some authors suggesting an association between the ε4 allele and CHD. We investigated the relationship between apoE genotype and age at referral to a specialized lipid clinic by the primary care physician and whether the benefits of treatment with statin differed between genotypes. Methods We assessed individual apoE genotypes and lipid blood profile in a total of 463 patients followed at a specialized lipid clinic due to dyslipidemia, with a 3-year median follow-up time. The primary care physician at the time of the referral had no access to the apoE genotyping results. Carriers of apoE ε4/ε2 genotype were excluded. Results The frequencies of ε2, ε3 and ε4 alleles were 7.8, 78.9 and 13.3%, respectively. There were no significant differences between genders. Although with similar lipid profiles and antidyslipidemic drug usage at baseline, ε4-carriers were referred to the clinic at a younger age (44.2 ± 14.7 years compared with non-ε4 carriers (50.6 ± 13.8 years (p Conclusion Our findings support the concept that there is a reduced response to anti-dyslipidemic treatment in ε4 carriers; this can be a contributing factor for the earlier referral of these patients to our specialized lipid clinic and reinforces the usefulness of apoE genotyping in predicting patients response to lipid lowering therapies.

  4. Production of branched tetraether lipids in the lower Pearl River and estuary: effects of extraction methods and impact on bGDGT proxies

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    ChuanlunZhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Branched glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs are known as bacterial lipids that occur widely in terrestrial environments, particularly in anaerobic peat bogs and soil. We examined the abundance and distribution of bGDGTs in both core (C and polar (P lipid fractions from the water column and surface sediments in the lower Pearl River (PR and its estuary using two extraction methods (sonication vs. Bligh and Dyer. A number of soil samples in the lower PR drainage basin were also collected and extracted for bGDGTs using the sonication method. The results showed aquatic production of bGDGTs as supported by substantial abundances of P-bGDGTs in the water column and sediment samples. The bGDGT-based proxies (BIT, CBT, and MBT were not affected by the method of extraction when C-bGDGTs were analyzed; in such case, the pHCBT of the sediments reflected the soil pH of the lower PR drainage basin, and the temperature close to the annual mean air temperature in the lower PR basin. On the other hand, the P-bGDGT-derived proxies were inconsistent between the two methods. The P-bGDGTs (particularly those extracted using the sonication method may not be reliable indicators of annual mean air temperatures.

  5. Changes over time in risk factors for cardiovascular disease and use of lipid-lowering drugs in HIV-infected individuals and impact on myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabin, C A; d'Arminio Monforte, A; Friis-Moller, N;

    2008-01-01

    for CVD, the rate decreased over time (relative rate in 2003 [compared with 1999-2000], 0.73 cases per 100 PY [95% CI, 0.50-1.05 cases per 100 PY]; in 2004, 0.64 cases per 100 PY [95% CI, 0.44-0.94 cases per 100 PY]; in 2005-2006, 0.36 cases per 100 PY [95% CI, 0.24-0.56 cases per 100 PY]). Further...... adjustment for lipid levels attenuated the relative rates towards unity (relative rate in 2003 [compared with 1999-2000], 1.06 cases per 100 PY [95% CI, 0.63-1.77 cases per 100 PY]; in 2004, 1.02 cases per 100 PY [95% CI, 0.61-1.71 cases per 100 PY]; in 2005-2006, 0.63 cases per 100 PY [95% CI, 0.......36-1.09 cases per 100 PY]). CONCLUSIONS: Although the CVD risk profile among patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs Study has decreased since 1999, rates have remained relatively stable, possibly as a result of a more aggressive approach towards managing the risk of CVD....

  6. Related research of blood glucose, blood lipid and serum cystatin C and lower-extremity arterial disease in type 2 diabetic mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Zeng; Jie Ou; Yun-Mei He; Chun-Yu Cai

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the relationship between levels of blood glucose, blood lipid and serum cystatin C and lower-extremity arterial disease in type 2 diabetic mellitus so as to provide the basis for the prevention and treatment of the disease.Methods:A total of 240 cases of patients with type 2 diabetic mellitus receiving physical examinations in our hospital from March 2014 to March 2015 were selected and divided into three groups. The control group was consisted of type 2 diabetes patients without lower-extremity arterial disease, the observation group 1 included type 2 diabetes patients with mild or moderate lower-extremity arterial disease, and the observation group 2 was formed by type 2 diabetes patients with severe lower-extremity arterial disease. Each group contained 80 cases. Then, the heights, weights, waist and hip circumferences of patients in the three groups were determined and the body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were calculated; the fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS), insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), 2 h postprandial blood glucose (2 h PG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HBA1c) in two groups were detected; and the levels of serum total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), apolipoprotein B (apoB) and cystatin C (CysC) in two groups were also tested.Results:Compared with the control group, the WHR, FBG, HOMA-IR, 2 h PG, HBA1c, LDL-C, apoB and CysC all increased significantly, and the differences were statistically significant. Besides, there were statistically significances existing between the observation groups 1 and 2. What’s more, the serum levels of TC, HDL-C, TG and apoA1 in the observation groups were not significantly different from those of the control group.Conclusions: There is a close relationship between blood glucose, blood lipid, serum cystatin C level and lower-extremity arterial

  7. Nutraceutical pill containing berberine versus ezetimibe on plasma lipid pattern in hypercholesterolemic subjects and its additive effect in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia on stable cholesterol-lowering treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisciotta Livia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although statins (STs are drugs of first choice in hypercholesterolemic patients, especially in those at high cardiovascular risk, some of them are intolerant to STs or refuse treatment with these drugs. In view of this, we have evaluated the lipid-lowering effect of a nutraceutical pill containing berberine (BBR and of ezetimibe, as alternative treatments, in monotherapy or in combination, in 228 subjects with primary hypercholesterolemia (HCH, with history of STs intolerance or refusing STs treatment. In addition, since PCSK9 was found up-regulated by STs dampening their effect through an LDL receptors (LDLRs degradation, and BBR suppressed PCSK9 expression in cellular studies, we supplemented the stable lipid-lowering therapy of 30 genotype-confirmed Familial Hypercholesterolemia heterozygotes (HeFH with BBR, searching for a further plasma cholesterol reduction. Plasma lipid pattern was evaluated at baseline and during treatments. Results In HCH subjects the nutraceutical pill resulted more effective than EZE in lowering LDL cholesterol (−31.7% vs −25.4%, P > G silent polymorphism of NPC1L1 gene showed a higher response to EZE than homozygous for the common allele (GG + CG: LDL-C −29.4±5.0%, CC −23.6±6.5%, P Conclusions The alternative treatments tested in our HCH subjects were rather effective and safe. The findings in HeFH patients suggest that BBR might act in vivo increasing expression and stability of LDLRs and/or suppressing PCSK9 expression.

  8. Lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory effects of omega 3 ethyl esters and krill oil: a randomized, cross-over, clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosticci, Martina; Morbini, Martino; Cagnati, Marcella; Grandi, Elisa; Parini, Angelo; Borghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) derived from different sources could have different lipid-lowering effects in humans. The main aim of our study was to compare the short-term triglyceride-lowering efficacy of krill oil and purified omega 3 ethyl ester PUFAs in mildly overweight hypertriglyceridemic subjects. Material and methods This double-blind, randomized clinical trial was carried out in 25 moderately hypertriglyceridemic subjects (TG = 150–500 mg/dl). After a 4-week run-in, participants were allocated to treatment with similar pills containing omega 3 ethyl ester PUFAs 1000 mg twice a day vs. krill oil 500 mg twice a day. After 4 weeks of treatment, participants were asked to observe a 4-week wash-out period, and they were then assigned to the alternative treatment for a further period of 4 weeks. Results Although both PUFA sources were able to improve TG plasma levels, esterified omega 3 PUFAs were more efficacious than krill oil (p oil treatment was able to significantly improve high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein AI levels, compared to both baseline (p oil improved it more efficaciously than esterified omega 3 PUFAs (p oil has lipid-lowering effects comparable with those obtained through a 4-fold higher dose of purified omega 3 ethyl ester PUFAs in mildly overweight hypertriglyceridemic subjects, while more efficaciously reducing hs-CRP.

  9. Anti-Aging and Tissue Regeneration Ability of Policosanol Along with Lipid-Lowering Effect in Hyperlipidemic Zebrafish via Enhancement of High-Density Lipoprotein Functionality

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun-Young; Yoo, Jeong-Ah; Lim, So-Mang; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the tissue regeneration and lipid-lowering effects of policosanol (PCO) by employing a hyperlipidemic zebrafish model. A reconstituted high-density lipoprotein containing policosanol (PCO-rHDL) facilitated greater cell growth and replication with less apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in BV-2 microglial cell lines. From in vivo study, injection of rHDL containing apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) caused 76 ± 4% (p = 0.01) greater tissue regeneration act...

  10. Lipid-lowering treatment to the end? A review of observational studies and RCTs on cholesterol and mortality in 80+-year olds

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Line Kirkeby; Christensen, Kaare; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    People aged 80 or older are the fastest growing population in high-income countries. One of the most common causes of death among the elderly is the cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lipid-lowering treatment is common, e.g. one-third of 75–84-year-old Swedes are treated with statins [ 3]. The assumption that hypercholesterolaemia is a risk factor at the highest ages seems to be based on extrapolation from younger adults. A review of observational studies shows a trend where all-cause mortality...

  11. Variation in prescribing of lipid-lowering medication in primary care is associated with incidence of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in people with screen-detected diabetes: findings from the ADDITION-Denmark trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, R K; Carlsen, A H; Griffin, S J; Charles, M; Christiansen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K; Sandbæk, A; Lauritzen, T

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine variation between general practices in the prescription of lipid-lowering treatment to people with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes, and associations with practice and participant characteristics and risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Methods Observational cohort analysis of data from 1533 people with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes aged 40–69 years from the ADDITION-Denmark study. One hundred and seventy-four general practices were cluster randomized to receive: (1) routine diabetes care according to national guidelines (623 individuals), or (2) intensive multifactorial target-driven management (910 individuals). Multivariable logistic regression was used to quantify the association between the proportion of individuals in each practice who redeemed prescriptions for lipid-lowering medication in the two years following diabetes diagnosis and a composite cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcome, adjusting for age, sex, prevalent chronic disease, baseline CVD risk factors, smoking and lipid-lowering medication, and follow-up time. Results The proportion of individuals treated with lipid-lowering medication varied widely between practices (0–100%). There were 118 CVD events over 9431 person-years of follow-up. For the whole trial cohort, the risk of CVD was significantly higher in practices in the lowest compared with the highest quartile for prescribing lipid-lowering medication [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6–7.3]. Similar trends were found for all-cause mortality. Conclusions More frequent prescription of lipid-lowering treatment was associated with a lower incidence of CVD and all-cause mortality. Improved understanding of factors underlying practice variation in prescribing may enable more frequent use of lipid-lowering treatment. The results highlight the benefits of intensive treatment of people with screen-detected diabetes (Clinical Trials Registry No; NCT 00237549). What's new Despite

  12. ASPECTS OF LIPID-LOWERING THERAPY WITH ATORVASTATIN IN PATIENTS WITH MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF PERSONALIZED MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Solodun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze the impact of the SLCO1B1*5 (c.521T> C and LIPC (C514T genes polymorphisms on the efficacy of atorvastatin therapy and the incidence of the combined endpoint in patients after myocardial infarction (MI.Material and methods. 121 patients with MI aged 45-75 years were included into the study. All patients were prescribed atorvastatin. A group of 65 people in whom lipid levels were studied at baseline and after 3 months of atorvastatin treatment was formed to evaluate the efficacy of statin therapy. Genetic polimorphism of SLCO1B1*5 (c.521T> C and LIPC (C514T was determined using polimerase chain reaction. The prognosis was assessed by clinical outcomes after 3 months of follow-up, based on the achievement of the combined endpoint MACE (Major Adverse Cardiac Events, which included cardiovascular deaths, recurrent MI, hospitalization for progressive angina, unplanned coronary revascularization.Results. Patients with SLCO1B1 c.521СC genotype had no significant reduction in the levels of atherogenic lipids (p>0.05, while patients with TT and TC genotypes demonstrated significant reduction in atherogenic cholesterol fractions (p<0.05. Allelic polymorphism of LIPC (C514T gene has no influence on the atorvastatin treatment efficacy. The SLCO1B1 and LIPC (C514T genes polymorphism has no impact on the three-month prognosis after MI.Conclusion. The SLCO1B1 polymorphism should be taken into consideration while personalised prescribing of atorvastatin to patients with MI.

  13. Effect of homocysteine-lowering nutrients on blood lipids: Results from four randomised, placebo-controlled studies in healthy humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Vliet, T. van; Verhoef, P.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Betaine (trimethylglycine) lowers plasma homocysteine, a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, studies in renal patients and in obese individuals who are on a weight-loss diet suggest that betaine supplementation raises blood cholesterol; data in healthy individuals a

  14. Effect of Homocysteine-Lowering Nutrients on Blood Lipids: Result from Four Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Studies in Healthy Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Vliet, van T.; Verhoef, P.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Background Betaine (trimethylglycine) lowers plasma homocysteine, a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, studies in renal patients and in obese individuals who are on a weight-loss diet suggest that betaine supplementation raises blood cholesterol; data in healthy individuals ar

  15. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  16. Trends in total cholesterol screening and in prescribing lipid-lowering drugs in general practice in the period 1994–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truyers Carla

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General Practitioners (GPs play a central role in controlling an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, i.e. cholesterol levels in serum. In the past few decades different studies have been published on the effect of treating hyperlipidemia with statins. Guidelines for treatment have been adopted. We investigated the consequences on the practice of GPs screening cholesterol levels and on the timing of starting statin prescription. Methods For this descriptive study, data from the Intego database were used, composed with data from the electronic medical records (EMR of 47 general practices in Flanders. GPs had not received special instructions for testing specific patients. For each patient the mean cholesterol level per year was calculated. A patient belonged to the group with lipid-lowering drugs if there was at least one prescription of the drug in a year in his EMR. Mixed model linear regression models were used to quantify the effect of covariates on total cholesterol values. Results In the period 1994–2003 total cholesterol was tested in 47,254 out of 139,148 different patients. Twelve percent of those tested took lipid-lowering medication. The proportion of patients with at least one cholesterol test a year, increased over a period of ten years in all age groups, but primarily for those over the age of 65. The mean cholesterol level decreased in the treated as well as in the non-treated group. Of the patients with a cardiovascular antecedent who were on lipid-lowering drugs in 2003, 56% had a cholesterol level ≤ 199 mg/dl, 31% between 200–239 and 13% over 240 mg/dl. Conclusion The indications for testing and treating cholesterol levels broadened considerably in the period examined. In 2003 cholesterol was tested in many more patients and patients were already treated at lower cholesterol values than in previous years. Comparisons of cholesterol levels over different years should therefore be

  17. The formation of short-chain fatty acids is positively associated with the blood lipid-lowering effect of lupin kernel fiber in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechner, Anita; Kiehntopf, Michael; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    Lupin kernel fiber beneficially modifies blood lipids because of its bile acid-binding capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effects of a lupin kernel fiber preparation on cardiovascular diseases and to clarify possible mechanisms. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled crossover trial, 60 moderately hypercholesterolemic adults (plasma total cholesterol: >5.2 mmol/L) passed 3 intervention periods in different orders with a 2-wk washout phase between each. Participants consumed either a high-fiber diet containing 25-g/d lupin kernel fiber (LF) or citrus fiber (CF), or a low-fiber control diet (CD) for 4 wk each. Anthropometric, plasma, and fecal variables were assessed at baseline and after the interventions. Contrary to the CF period, total (9%) and LDL (12%) cholesterol as well as triacylglycerols (10%) were lower after the LF period when compared with the CD period [P ≤ 0.02, adjusted for baseline, age, gender, and body mass index (BMI)]. HDL cholesterol remained unchanged. Moreover, the LF period reduced high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P = 0.02) and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.01) when compared with baseline. Bile acid binding could not be shown because the excretion of total bile acids remained constant after the high-fiber diets. However, the LF period resulted in an enhanced formation of the main short-chain fatty acids in comparison with the CD period. During the CF period, only acetate increased significantly. Both high-fiber diets led to higher satiety and modified nutritional behavior, resulting in significantly lower body weight, BMI, and waist circumference compared with the CD period. The blood lipid-lowering effects of LF are apparently not a result of bile acid binding. Rather, we hypothesize for the first time, to our knowledge, that the blood lipid-lowering effects of LF may be mainly attributed to the formation of short-chain fatty acids, specifically propionate and acetate. This trial was registered at

  18. The triple line pattern on carotid intima media thickness imaging and its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in patients on lipid lowering therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh TA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tania A Singh,1 Todd C Villines,2 Allen J Taylor31Division of Cardiology, Medstar Georgetown University Hospital, 2Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, 3Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA Background: Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT infrequently identifies a triple line pattern (TLP in the visualization of the internal elastic lamina. We examined the prevalence and predictors of the TLP among a consecutive series of subjects enrolled in a CIMT clinical trial, and also the effects of lipid lowering therapy.Methods: Baseline CIMT studies of subjects with known heart disease, or high risk for heart disease, were evaluated from a single site of the Arterial Biology for the Investigation of the Treatment Effects of Reducing Cholesterol 6-HDL and LDL Treatment Strategies in Atherosclerosis trial (N=120. One sonographer obtained four views of the right and left far wall common CIMT, using a 13 MHz ultrasound probe. Images were blindly reviewed for the presence of the TLP. The TLP was defined as absent (0, possible (1, or definite (2. A composite score from all four views was calculated. A patient was defined as having the TLP if the composite score was ≥4. Univariate predictors of the TLP were explored. Follow-up ultrasounds at 14 months were also reviewed for presence of the TLP.Results: The prevalence of the TLP at baseline was 22.5%. Among cardiovascular risk variables, systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in subjects displaying the TLP (141.3±15.6 mmHg versus 133.1±18.4 mmHg; P=0.036. There were no differences among those with, and without, the TLP, with respect to other cardiovascular risk variables (age, sex, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, glucose, weight, waist girth, tobacco use, medications, quantitative CIMT, or image quality. During ongoing lipid lowering therapy, the prevalence of the TLP increased to 54

  19. Randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the lipid lowering effect of co-formulated TDF/FTC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Santos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Previous studies have described improvements on lipid parameters when switching from other antiretroviral drugs to tenofovir (TDF and impairments in lipid profile when discontinuing TDF. [1–3] It is unknown, however, if TDF has an intrinsic lipid-lowering effect or such findings are due to the addition or removal of other offending agents or other reasons. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial (NCT 01458977. Subjects with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL during at least 6 months on stable DRV/r (800/100 mg QD or LPV/r (400/100 mg BID monotherapy, with confirmed fasting total cholesterol ≥200 or LDL-cholesterol ≥130 mg/dL and not taking lipid-lowering drugs were randomized to (A adding TDF/FTCduring 12 weeks followed by 24 weeks without TDF/FTC, or (B continuing without TDF/FTC for 12 weeks, adding TDF/FTC for 12 weeks and then withdrawing TDF/FTC for 12 additional weeks. Randomization was stratified by DRV/r or LPV/r use at study entry. All subjects received a specific dietary counselling. Primary endpoints were changes in median fasting total, LDL and HDL-cholesterol 12 weeks after TDF/FTC addition. Analyses were performed by ITT. Results: 46 subjects with a median age of 43 (40–48 years were enrolled in the study: 70% were male, 56% received DRV/r and 44% LPV/r. One subject withdrew the study voluntarily at week 4 and another one interrupted due to diarrhoea at week 24. Treatment with TDF/FTC decreased total, LDL and HDL-cholesterol from 235.9 to 204.9 (p<0.001, 154.7 to 127.6 (p<0.001 and 50.3 to 44.5 mg/dL (p<0.001, respectively. In comparison, total, LDL and HDL-cholesterol levels remained stable during placebo exposure. Week 12 total cholesterol (p<0.001, LDL-cholesterol (p<0.001 and HDL-cholesterol (p=0.011 levels were significantly lower in TDF/FTC versus placebo. Treatment with TDF/FTC reduced the fraction of subjects with abnormal fasting total

  20. Effect of Homocysteine-Lowering Nutrients on Blood Lipids: Result from Four Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Studies in Healthy Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Margreet R Olthof; Trinette van Vliet; Petra Verhoef; Peter L Zock; Katan, Martijn B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Betaine (trimethylglycine) lowers plasma homocysteine, a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, studies in renal patients and in obese individuals who are on a weight-loss diet suggest that betaine supplementation raises blood cholesterol; data in healthy individuals are lacking. Such an effect on cholesterol would counteract any favourable effect on homocysteine. We therefore investigated the effect of betaine, of its precursor choline in the form of phosphatid...

  1. Validation of Heart Failure Events in the Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT Participants Assigned to Doxazosin and Chlorthalidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leenen Frans HH

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT is a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial designed to compare the rate of coronary heart disease events in high-risk hypertensive participants initially randomized to a diuretic (chlorthalidone versus each of three alternative antihypertensive drugs: alpha-adrenergic blocker (doxazosin, ACE-inhibitor (lisinopril, and calcium-channel blocker (amlodipine. Combined cardiovascular disease risk was significantly increased in the doxazosin arm compared to the chlorthalidone arm (RR 1.25; 95% CI, 1.17–1.33; P P Methods and Results Baseline characteristics (age, race, sex, blood pressure did not differ significantly between treatment groups (P P = 0.83. Conclusion Results of the validation process supported findings of increased heart failure in the ALLHAT doxazosin treatment arm compared to the chlorthalidone treatment arm.

  2. Does the lipid-lowering peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ligand bezafibrate prevent colon cancer in patients with coronary artery disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemesh Joseph

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic studies have suggested that hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance are related to the development of colon cancer. Nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR, which play a central role in lipid and glucose metabolism, had been hypothesized as being involved in colon cancerogenesis. In animal studies the lipid-lowering PPAR ligand bezafibrate suppressed colonic tumors. However, the effect of bezafibrate on colon cancer development in humans is unknown. Therefore, we proposed to investigate a possible preventive effect of bezafibrate on the development of colon cancer in patients with coronary artery disease during a 6-year follow-up. Methods Our population included 3011 patients without any cancer diagnosis who were enrolled in the randomized, double blind Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention (BIP Study. The patients received either 400 mg of bezafibrate retard (1506 patients or placebo (1505 patients once a day. Cancer incidence data were obtained by matching a subject's identification numbers with the National Cancer Registry. Each matched record was checked for correct identification. Results Development of new cancer (all types was recorded in 177 patients: in 79 (5.25% patients from the bezafibrate group vs. 98 (6.51% from the placebo group. Development of colon cancer was recorded in 25 patients: in 8 (0.53% patients from the bezafibrate group vs. 17 (1.13% from the placebo group, (Fisher's exact test: one side p = 0.05; two side p = 0.07. A difference in the incidence of cancer was only detectable after a 4 year lag and progressively increased with continued follow-up. On multivariable analysis the colon cancer risk in patients who received bezafibrate tended to be lower with a hazard ratio of 0.47 and 95% confidence interval 0.2–1.1. Conclusion Our data, derived from patients with coronary artery disease, support the hypothesis regarding a possible preventive effect of bezafibrate on

  3. Comparison of Intensive Versus Moderate Lipid-Lowering Therapy on Fibrous Cap and Atheroma Volume of Coronary Lipid-Rich Plaque Using Serial Optical Coherence Tomography and Intravascular Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jingbo; Xing, Lei; Jia, Haibo; Vergallo, Rocco; Soeda, Tsunerari; Minami, Yoshiyasu; Hu, Sining; Yang, Shuang; Zhang, Shaosong; Lee, Hang; Yu, Bo; Jang, Ik-Kyung

    2016-03-01

    Despite marked clinical benefit, reduction in atheroma volume with statin therapy is minimal. Changes in plaque composition may explain this discrepancy. We aimed in the present study to assess the effect of statin therapy on coronary plaque composition and plaque volume using serial multimodality imaging. From an open-label, single-blinded study, patients with angiographically mild-to-moderate lesion were randomized to receive atorvastatin 60 (AT 60) mg or atorvastatin 20 (AT 20) mg for 12 months. Optical coherence tomography was used to assess fibrous cap thickness (FCT) and intravascular ultrasound to assess atheroma burden at 3 time points: baseline, at 6 months, and at 12 months. Thirty-six lipid-rich plaques in 27 patients with AT 60 mg and 30 lipid-rich plaques in 19 patients with AT 20 mg were enrolled in this study. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was significantly decreased at 6 months without further reduction at 12 months. AT 60 mg induced greater reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with AT 20 mg. Optical coherence tomography revealed continuous increase in FCT from baseline to 6 months and to 12 months in both groups. AT 60 mg induced greater increase in FCT compared with AT 20 mg at both follow-up points. The prevalence of thin-cap fibroatheroma and the presence of macrophage at 6 months were significantly lower in AT 60 mg compared with AT 20 mg. Plaque burden did not change significantly in both groups. In conclusion, both intensive and moderate statin therapy stabilizes coronary plaques, with a greater benefit in the intensive statin group. However, no significant changes in plaque volume were observed over time regardless of the intensity of statin therapy. PMID:26778524

  4. Mechanism of Lipid-Lowering Effect of Paniculata Total Alkaloids%布渣叶总生物碱降血脂作用机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯亮

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨布渣叶总生物碱降血脂作用机制研究. 方法 采用高脂饲料构建高脂血症的大鼠动物模型, 采用灌胃的形式给予不同浓度的布渣叶总生物碱, 通过检测大鼠载脂蛋白、 相关酶类及活性物质, 初步探讨布渣叶总生物碱的降脂作用机制. 结果 布渣叶总生物碱可升高载脂蛋白AI ( ApoAI) , ApoAI/载脂蛋白B ( ApoB) 的比值, 与模型组相比差异具有统计学意义 (P<0. 05); 提高超氧化物歧化酶 (SOD) 的活性, 降低丙二醛 (MDA) 的含量, 与模型组相比差异具有统计学意义 (P<0. 05); 提高卵磷脂胆固醇酰基转移酶 (LCAT) 的活性, 提高一氧化氮 (NO) 的水平, 降低C反应蛋白 (CRP), 且组间相比具有统计学差异 (P<0. 05). 结论 布渣叶总生物碱通过升高高密度脂蛋白胆固醇升高ApoAI, 激活LCAT, 从而促进胆固醇的逆转运, 提高SOD活性, 增强机体康脂质过氧化能力, 促进NO生成, 改善血管内皮功能,具有从多方位调节血脂的作用.%Objective To investigate the mechanism of lipid-lowering effect of paniculata total alkaloids. Methods Animal models of hyperlipidemia rats were constructed by using the high-fat diet. Different concentrations of paniculata total alkaloids were ad-ministered in the form of gavage. Lipid-lowering effect of paniculata total alkaloids was studied by detecting rat apolipoprotein, associ-ated enzymes and active substances. Results The paniculata total alkaloids increased apolipoprotein AI ( ApoAI) , ApoAI / ratio of apolipoprotein B (ApoB). There was statistically significant difference compared with that of the model group (P<0. 05), it also in-creased superoxide dismutase ( SOD) activity and decreased malondialdehyde ( MDA) content. They were significantly different com-pared with those of the model group (P<0. 05), it improved lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity, increased Nitric ox-ide (NO) levels and reduced C-reactive protein

  5. Anti-Aging and Tissue Regeneration Ability of Policosanol Along with Lipid-Lowering Effect in Hyperlipidemic Zebrafish via Enhancement of High-Density Lipoprotein Functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Young; Yoo, Jeong-Ah; Lim, So-Mang; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the tissue regeneration and lipid-lowering effects of policosanol (PCO) by employing a hyperlipidemic zebrafish model. A reconstituted high-density lipoprotein containing policosanol (PCO-rHDL) facilitated greater cell growth and replication with less apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in BV-2 microglial cell lines. From in vivo study, injection of rHDL containing apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) caused 76 ± 4% (p = 0.01) greater tissue regeneration activity than the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) control, whereas PCO-rHDL caused 94 ± 7% (p = 0.002) increased regeneration. PCO in ethanol (EtOH) showed lower cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitory ability than did anacetrapib, whereas PCO-rHDL showed higher inhibitory ability than anacetrapib, suggesting a synergistic effect between PCO and rHDL. Following 9 weeks of PCO consumption, the PCO group (0.003% PCO in Tetrabit) showed the highest survivability (80%), whereas normal diet (ND) and high-cholesterol diet (HCD) control groups showed 67% and 70% survival rates, respectively. Supplementation with a HCD resulted in two-fold elevation of CETP activity along with 3- and 2.5-fold increases in serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TGs) levels, respectively. Consumption of PCO for 9 weeks resulted in 40 ± 5% (p = 0.01 vs. HCD) and 33 ± 4% (p = 0.02 vs. HCD) reduction of TC and TGs levels, respectively. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level increased up to 37 ± 2 mg/dL (p = 0.004), whereas the percentage of HDL-C/TC increased up to 20 ± 2% from 5 ± 1% compared to the HCD control. The serum glucose level was reduced to 47 ± 2% (p = 0.002) compared to the HCD control. Fatty liver change and hepatic inflammation levels were remarkably increased upon HCD consumption and were two-fold higher than that under ND. However, the PCO group showed 58 ± 5% (p = 0.001) and 50 ± 3

  6. The Validity of Physical Aggression in Predicting Adolescent Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, James M.; Lounsbury, John W.; Welsh, Deborah; Buboltz, Walter C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Aggression has a long history in academic research as both a criterion and a predictor variable and it is well documented that aggression is related to a variety of poor academic outcomes such as: lowered academic performance, absenteeism and lower graduation rates. However, recent research has implicated physical aggression as being…

  7. Association of DNA Methylation at CPT1A Locus with Metabolic Syndrome in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Das

    Full Text Available In this study, we conducted an epigenome-wide association study of metabolic syndrome (MetS among 846 participants of European descent in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN. DNA was isolated from CD4+ T cells and methylation at ~470,000 cytosine-phosphate-guanine dinucleotide (CpG pairs was assayed using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. We modeled the percentage methylation at individual CpGs as a function of MetS using linear mixed models. A Bonferroni-corrected P-value of 1.1 x 10(-7 was considered significant. Methylation at two CpG sites in CPT1A on chromosome 11 was significantly associated with MetS (P for cg00574958 = 2.6x10(-14 and P for cg17058475 = 1.2x10(-9. Significant associations were replicated in both European and African ancestry participants of the Bogalusa Heart Study. Our findings suggest that methylation in CPT1A is a promising epigenetic marker for MetS risk which could become useful as a treatment target in the future.

  8. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, soy protein, and their hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Bartley, Glenn E; Mitchell, Cheryl R; Zhang, Hui; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2011-10-26

    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates of white rice protein (WRP), brown rice protein (BRP), and soy protein (SP) hydrolyzed by the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L, were compared to the original protein source. Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing either 20% casein (control) or 20% extracted proteins or their hydrolysates as the protein source for 3 weeks. The brown rice protein hydrolysate (BRPH) diet group reduced weight gain 76% compared with the control. Animals fed the BRPH supplemented diet also had lower final body weight, liver weight, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and liver cholesterol, and higher fecal fat and bile acid excretion than the control. Expression levels of hepatic genes for lipid oxidation, PPARα, ACOX1, and CPT1, were highest for hamsters fed the BRPH supplemented diet. Expression of CYP7A1, the gene regulating bile acid synthesis, was higher in all test groups. Expression of CYP51, a gene coding for an enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis, was highest in the BRPH diet group. The results suggest that BRPH includes unique peptides that reduce weight gain and hepatic cholesterol synthesis. PMID:21913675

  9. CONCEPT ANALYSIS: AGGRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jianghong

    2004-01-01

    The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of ...

  10. 降脂颗粒浸膏总黄酮的提取工艺%The Study of Extraction Process of the Total Flavonoids in the Lipid-lowering Granules Extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田垚; 王莲; 肖继椿; 庞文悦; 张荣泉

    2013-01-01

    研究降脂颗粒浸膏总黄酮的最佳提取工艺。通过正交试验设计,以浸膏总黄酮含量作为指标,考察提取时间、料液比、提取次数对降脂颗粒浸膏总黄酮含量的影响,确定了降脂颗粒浸膏的最佳提取工艺。降脂颗粒浸膏总黄酮的最佳提取工艺为:提取时间为1.5 h,料液比为1∶10,提取次数为3次。此工艺稳定可靠,操作简便。%To study optimum extraction process of total flavonoids in the lipid-lowering granules extract. By designing orthogonal experimental, regarded the content of total flavoniods in the lipid-lowering granules extract as an indicator, investigated how the time of extraction, solid-liquid ratio, extraction times affect the content of total flavonoids in the lipid-lowering granules extract and determined an optimum extraction process of total flavonilds in the lipid-lowering granules extract. The optimum extraction process of total flavonoids in the lipid-lowering granules extract:the time of extraction was 1.5 hours, solid-liquid ratio was 1∶10, extraction times was 3. This process was stable and reliable, easy to operate, providing the reference for industrial production.

  11. A US Claims-Based Analysis of Real-World Lipid-Lowering Treatment Patterns in Patients With High Cardiovascular Disease Risk or a Previous Coronary Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Ruben G W; Fox, Kathleen M; Wang, Li; Li, Lu; Gandra, Shravanthi R; Wong, Nathan D

    2016-02-15

    The objective was to examine real-world treatment patterns of lipid-lowering therapies and their possible associated intolerance and/or ineffectiveness in patients with high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk initiating statins and/or ezetimibe. Patients aged ≥18 years who initiated statins and/or ezetimibe from January 01, 2007, to June 30, 2011, were retrospectively identified from the IMS LifeLink PharMetrics Plus commercial claims database. Patients were further classified into 2 cohorts: (1) history of cardiovascular event (CVE) and (2) history of coronary heart disease risk equivalent (CHD RE). Patients had continuous health plan enrollment ≥1 year pre- and post-index date (statin and/or ezetimibe initiation date). Primary outcomes were index statin intensity, treatment modifications, possible associated statin/nonstatin intolerance and/or ineffectiveness issues (based on treatment modification), and time-to-treatment modifications. Analyses for each cohort were stratified by age group (history of CVE) and 170,344 patients (history of CHD RE) were included. On the index date, 8.8% to 25.1% of patients were initiated on high-intensity statin. Among patients aged history of CVE and 78.6% and 47.3% of those with a history of CHD RE had ≥1 and 2 treatment modifications, respectively. Among all patients, 24.6% to 25.6% had possible statin intolerance and/or ineffectiveness issues after accounting for second treatment modification (if any). In conclusion, in patients with high CVD risk, index statin treatment modifications that imply possible statin intolerance and/or ineffectiveness were frequent; low use of high-intensity statins indicates unmet need in the management of hyperlipidemia and possible remaining unaccounted CVD residual risk. PMID:26742468

  12. High-fat meal effect on LDL, HDL, and VLDL particle size and number in the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering drugs and diet network (GOLDN): an interventional study

    OpenAIRE

    Straka Robert J; Tsai Michael Y; Hopkins Paul N; Kabagambe Edmond K; Oberman Albert; Glasser Stephen P; Wojczynski Mary K; Ordovas Jose M; Arnett Donna K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Postprandial lipemia (PPL) is likely a risk factor for cardiovascular disease but these changes have not been well described and characterized in a large cohort. We assessed acute changes in the size and concentration of total and subclasses of LDL, HDL, and VLDL particles in response to a high-fat meal. Participants (n = 1048) from the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) Study who ingested a high-fat meal were included in this analysis. Lipids were m...

  13. A UK general practice population cohort study investigating the association between lipid lowering drugs and 30-day mortality following medically attended acute respiratory illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Roshni; Venkatesan, Sudhir; Myles, Puja R

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cholesterol lowering drugs HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and PPARα activators (fibrates) have been shown to reduce host inflammation via non-disease specific immunomodulatory mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that commonly prescribed drugs in general practice, statins and fibrates, may be beneficial in influenza-like illness related mortality. This retrospective cohort study examines the association between two lipid lowering drugs, statins and fibrates, and all-cause 30-day mortality following a medically attended acute respiratory illness (MAARI). Methods. Primary care patient data were retrospectively extracted from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) database. The sample comprised 201,179 adults aged 30 years or older experiencing a MAARI episode. Patient exposure to statins or fibrates was coded as separate dichotomous variables and deemed current if the most recent GP prescription was issued in the 30 days prior to MAARI diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox regression were used for analyses. Adjustment was carried out for chronic lung disease, heart failure, metformin and glitazones, comorbidity burden, socio-demographic and lifestyle variables such as smoking status and body mass index (BMI). Statistical interaction tests were carried out to check for effect modification by gender, body mass index, smoking status and comorbidity. Results. A total of 1,096 (5%) patients died within the 30-day follow up period. Of this group, 213 (19.4%) were statin users and 4 (0.4%) were fibrate users. After adjustment, a significant 35% reduction in odds [adj OR; 0.65 (95% CI [0.52-0.80])] and a 33% reduction in the hazard [adj HR: 0.67 (95% CI [0.55-0.83])] of all-cause 30-day mortality following MAARI was observed in statin users. A significant effect modification by comorbidity burden was observed for the association between statin use and MAARI-related mortality. Fibrate use was associated with a non

  14. Skeletal Muscle Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lower Limbs in Late-onset Lipid Storage Myopathy with Electron Transfer Flavoprotein Dehydrogenase Gene Mutations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Yi Liu; Ming Jin; Zhi-Qiang Wang; Dan-Ni Wang; Jun-Jie He; Min-Ting Lin; Hong-Xia Fu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Lipid storage myopathy (LSM) is a genetically heterogeneous group with variable clinical phenotypes.Late-onset multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenation deficiency (MADD) is a rather common form of LSM in China.Diagnosis and clinical management of it remain challenging,especially without robust muscle biopsy result and genetic detection.As the noninvasion and convenience,muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a helpful assistant,diagnostic tool for neuromuscular disorders.However,the disease-specific MRI patterns of muscle involved and its diagnostic value in late-onset MADD have not been systematic analyzed.Methods:We assessed the MRI pattern and fat infiltration degree of the lower limb muscles in 28 late-onset MADD patients,combined with detailed clinical features and gene spectrum.Fat infiltration degree of the thigh muscle was scored while that ofgluteus was described as obvious or not.Associated muscular atrophy was defined as obvious muscle bulk reduction.Results:The mean scores were significantly different among the anterior,medial,and posterior thigh muscle groups.The mean of fat infiltration scores on posterior thigh muscle group was significantly higher than either anterior or medial thigh muscle group (P < 0.001).Moreover,the mean score on medial thigh muscle group was significantly higher than that of anterior thigh muscle group (P < 0.01).About half of the patients displayed fat infiltration and atrophy in gluteus muscles.Of 28 patients,12 exhibited atrophy in medial and/or posterior thigh muscle groups,especially in posterior thigh muscle group.Muscle edema pattern was not found in all the patients.Conclusions:Late-onset MADD patients show a typical muscular imaging pattern of fat infiltration and atrophy on anterior,posterior,and medial thigh muscle groups,with major involvement of posterior thigh muscle group and gluteus muscles and a sparing involvement of anterior thigh compartment.Our findings also suggest that muscle MRI of

  15. Desensitization to media violence: links with habitual media violence exposure, aggressive cognitions, and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content. PMID:21186935

  16. Should Antihypertensive Treatment Recommendations Differ in Patients With and Without Coronary Heart Disease? (from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial [ALLHAT]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Michael H; Davis, Barry R; Piller, Linda B; Ford, Charles E; Baraniuk, M Sarah; Pressel, Sara L; Assadi, Mahshid A; Einhorn, Paula T; Haywood, L Julian; Ilamathi, Ekambaram; Oparil, Suzanne; Retta, Tamrat M

    2016-01-01

    Thiazide-type diuretics have been recommended for initial treatment of hypertension in most patients, but should this recommendation differ for patients with and without coronary heart disease (CHD)? The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) was a randomized, double-blind hypertension treatment trial in 42,418 participants with high risk of combined cardiovascular disease (CVD) (25% with preexisting CHD). This post hoc analysis compares long-term major clinical outcomes in those assigned amlodipine (n = 9048) or lisinopril (n = 9,054) with those assigned chlorthalidone (n = 15,255), stratified by CHD status. After 4 to 8 years, randomized treatment was discontinued. Total follow-up (active treatment + passive surveillance using national databases for deaths and hospitalizations) was 8 to 13 years. For most CVD outcomes, end-stage renal disease, and total mortality, there were no differences across randomized treatment arms regardless of baseline CHD status. In-trial rates of CVD were significantly higher for lisinopril compared with chlorthalidone, and rates of heart failure were significantly higher for amlodipine compared with chlorthalidone in those with and without CHD (overall hazard ratios [HRs] 1.10, p <0.001, and 1.38, p <0.001, respectively). During extended follow-up, significant outcomes according to CHD status interactions (p = 0.012) were noted in amlodipine versus chlorthalidone comparison for CVD and CHD mortality (HR 0.88, p = 0.04, and 0.84, p = 0.04, respectively) in those with CHD at baseline (HR 1.06, p = 0.15, and 1.08, p = 0.17) and in those without. The results of the overall increased stroke mortality in lisinopril compared with chlorthalidone (HR 1.2; p = 0.03) and hospitalized heart failure in amlodipine compared with chlorthalidone (HR 1.12; p = 0.01) during extended follow-up did not differ by baseline CHD status. In conclusion, these results provide no reason to alter our previous

  17. THE IMPROVEMENT OF LIPID-LOWERING THERAPY EFFECTIVENESS IN PATIENTS WITH HIGH CARDIOVASCULAR RISK AND CONCOMITANT LIVER DISEASE (RESULTS OF ADDITIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE RAKURS STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Kutishenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the differences between a group of patients treated with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA during the study period and a group of patients not treated with UDCA by pseudo-randomization using Propensity Score Matching.Material and methods. 262 patients aged 60.1±8.9 years, taking statins for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular complications were included into a 6-month observational cohort study. The UDCA intake was recommended to all the patients due to the presence of liver and/or bile duct diseases. One part of the patients strictly followed medical recommendations and used UDCA, while the other part of the patients wasn’t taking UDCA. This allowed comparing the effect of UDCA in these groups.Results. Propensity Score Matching method allowed forming two groups of patients of 52 people each with similar main clinical and demographic characteristics. A more significant decrease in the levels of total cholesterol (TC and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (up to 4.0 mmol/L and 1.92 mmol/L, respectively; p<0.001 after 6 months was found in patients treated with lipid-lowering therapy in combination with UDCA as compared with patients without UDCA (up to 4.52 mmol/L and 2.6 mmol/L, respectively; p<0.05. No ALT, AST, CPK, LDH activity deterioration and no bilirubin serum level increase was found. Due to statin treatment the target levels of LDL-C by the end of the study were achieved in 31% of the patients of UDCA-group. Target levels of LDL-C were not achieved in any of the patients of the group without UDCA (p<0.001. There was demonstrated a high adherence to UDCA therapy.Conclusion. Combined therapy with statins and UDCA is effective and safe in patients with high cardiovascular risk and concomitant liver disease. Co-administration of statins with UDCA is promising in the treatment of hyperlipidemia in patients with low tolerance to statins. However, additional controlled studies are required.

  18. What Is Aggressive Violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Dorothy G.; Luca, Wendy

    1985-01-01

    Responses to a questionnaire dealing with what constitutes aggressive violence on television indicate that health care providers tend to rate items describing acts on television as more aggressive than television writers, producers, and executives do. (MBR)

  19. Aggressive commercial practicies

    OpenAIRE

    Tomanová, Magdaléna

    2008-01-01

    Diploma thesis evaluates the effectiveness of legal instruments to prevent the use of aggressive commercial practices. Thesis is divided into two main chapters, the first is the protection against aggressive commercial practices in business to consumer market and the second part is dedicated to the protection against aggressive practices in the business to business market. Each section compares the European protection of aggressive commercial practices (and also through European legislation i...

  20. Aggressive Fibromatosis in Neck.

    OpenAIRE

    Namita Kabdwal; Sanjeev Bhagat; Saurabh Varshney; Sampan Singh Bist; Sarita Mishra; Bhavna Singh

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) is a locally aggressive infiltrative low-grade benign tumor that accounts for approximately less than 3% of all soft tissue tumors. In the head and neck region this tumor tends to be more aggressive and associated with significant morbidity. Aggressive surgery is a viable management option and may be successfully used as a single modality treatment, or in combination with radiotherapy. We report a rare case of AF in a 38 year old female, who presented with a painl...

  1. Aggression on Roadways

    OpenAIRE

    Novaco, Raymond W.

    1989-01-01

    Aggression and the automobile have had a long standing association, yet research on aggressive behavior has neglected the roadway context. This chapter reviews existing work which has included archival analysis, field interview studies, personality research, and field experiments. Among the recurrent themes have been the relationship between aggressivity in driving to accident liability and to violence in the larger social context. Validity issues in road aggression research are discussed, an...

  2. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  3. 从预防心肌梗死的降压、降脂治疗和英-斯堪的纳维亚心脏病后果研究的临床试验中获得的启示%Perspectives from the antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment to prevent heart attack trial-lipid lowering trial and the Anglo-Scandinavian cardiac outcomes trial-lipid lowering arm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹莹; 杨杰孚

    2004-01-01

    综述目的:在确诊为高血压的患者中应用他汀类药物降LDL胆固醇的两项大型临床试验中,比较其试验设计、过程及结果.将这次结果纳入先前进行的关于降低胆固醇的临床试验,并对高血压患者亚组进行分析. 最新发现:预防心肌梗死的降压和降脂治疗临床试验(the AntihypertensiVe andLipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial,ALLHAT-LLT)中尚未发现引起总死亡率(主要终点),心血管死亡率及心血管事件的发生率明显的下降.该结果与英-斯堪的纳维亚心脏病后果研究的临床试验(theAnglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial,ASCOT-LLA)的研究结果大相径庭.后者曾因冠心病死亡率及心梗发生率(主要终点)显著下降(36%)而提前终止试验.ASCOT-LLA还表明卒中的发生率明显下降(27%),同时使各种主要的血管事件发生率下降.这两次的试验条件相似,均包括10000人以上确诊为高血压并需药物治疗的患者;二者的治疗均选用单一固定剂量他汀类药物,前者为普伐他汀(40mg/d),后者为阿伐他汀(10mg/d).两次试验的主要差别在于ASCOT-LLA的对照组使用的是安慰剂,双盲设计,而ALLHAT-LLT的对照组则仍为常规治疗.总结:ASCOT-LLA试验结果的确表明在高血压患者中服用降脂药物能使LDL胆固醇明显降低并维持其在较低水平.而ALLHAT-LLT则因为未使用更为有效的药物,对照组中常规应用他汀类药物(剂量逐渐加大),缺乏对比效果而无法获得与ASCOT-LLA相同的结果.

  4. Genome-wide association study of triglyceride response to a high-fat meal among participants of the NHLBI genetics of lipid lowering drugs and diet network (GOLDN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The triglyceride (TG) response to a high-fat meal (postprandial lipemia, PPL) affects cardiovascular disease risk and is influenced by genes and environment. Genes involved in lipid metabolism have dominated genetic studies of PPL TG response. We sought to elucidate common genetic variant...

  5. Pinto Bean Consumption Changes SCFA Profiles in Fecal Fermentations, Bacterial Populations of the Lower Bowel, and Lipid Profiles in Blood of Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Beans improve serum lipids and may reduce the risk of colon cancer by increasing colonic short chain fatty acid (SCFAs) formation. Objective: We assessed whether pinto bean consumption affects 1) in vitro fecal bacterial fermentation and production of SCFAs, 2) colonic bacterial populat...

  6. Research Paradigm of Displaced Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Tanno, Syota

    2013-01-01

    A review of research paradigm of displaced aggression is presented. The author arranged the Japanese wording of displaced aggression, summarized the historical transition of research on displaced aggression, and reviewed research paradigm of displaced aggression.

  7. Antioxidant Activity and Lipid-Lowering Effect of Essential Oils Extracted from Ocimum sanctum L. Leaves in Rats Fed with a High Cholesterol Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Suanarunsawat, Thamolwan; Devakul Na Ayutthaya, Watcharaporn; Songsak, Thanapat; Thirawarapan, Suwan; Poungshompoo, Somlak

    2009-01-01

    It has been reported that Ocimum sanctum L. (OS) leaves decrease serum lipid profile in normal and diabetic animals. No experimental evidences support the anti-hyperlipidemic and antioxidative actions against hypercholesterolemia. Moreover the identity of the specific chemical ingredients in OS leaves responsible for these pharmacological effects are unknown. Since OS leaves are rich in essential oil (EO). Therefore the present study was conducted to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic and an...

  8. Argan oil prevents prothrombotic complications by lowering lipid levels and platelet aggregation, enhancing oxidative status in dyslipidemic patients from the area of Rabat (Morocco)

    OpenAIRE

    Haimeur, Adil; Messaouri, Hafida; ulmann, lionel; Mimouni, Virginie; Masrar, Azelarab; Chraibi, Abdelmjid; Tremblin, Gérard; Meskini, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Background It is now established that patients with hyperlipidemia have a high risk of atherosclerosis and thrombotic complications, which are two important events responsible for the onset and progression of cardiovascular disease. In the context of managing dyslipidemia by means of dietary advice based on the consumption of argan oil, we wanted to investigate the effect of virgin argan oil on plasma lipids, and for the first time, on the platelet hyperactivation and oxidative status associa...

  9. Pomegranate Polyphenols Lower Lipid Peroxidation in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes but Have No Effects in Healthy Volunteers: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Basu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To examine the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of pomegranate polyphenols in obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM (n=8 and in healthy nondiabetic controls (n=9. Methods. Participants received 2 capsules of pomegranate polyphenols (POMx, 1 capsule = 753 mg polyphenols daily for 4 weeks. Blood draws and anthropometrics were performed at baseline and at 4 weeks of the study. Results. Pomegranate polyphenols in healthy controls and in T2DM patients did not significantly affect body weight and blood pressure, glucose and lipids. Among clinical safety profiles, serum electrolytes, renal function tests, and hematological profiles were not significantly affected by POMx supplementation. However, aspartate aminotransferase (AST showed a significant increase in healthy controls, while alanine aminotransferase (ALT was significantly decreased in T2DM patients at 4 weeks (P<0.05, though values remained within the normal ranges. Among the biomarkers of lipid oxidation and inflammation, oxidized LDL and serum C-reactive protein (CRP did not differ at 4 weeks in either group, while pomegranate polyphenols significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA and hydroxynonenal (HNE only in the diabetic group versus baseline (P<0.05. Conclusions. POMx reduces lipid peroxidation in patients with T2DM, but with no effects in healthy controls, and specifically modulates liver enzymes in diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. Larger clinical trials are merited.

  10. Early childhood aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results showed an early childhood aggression curve, with increasing rates of aggression in the second year of life and decreasing rates in the fourth year. One-year stabilities were moderate for 12-month-olds ...

  11. Girls' Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Larry; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to boys' bullying behavior which is often overt and easily visible, girls' aggression is usually indirect and covert. Less research has been conducted on the types of bullying that girls usually engage in. Using focus groups composed of teenaged girls, Dr. Owens and colleagues examine the nature of teenage girls' indirect aggression.

  12. The perception of aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, G; Dassen, T; Moorer, P

    1997-01-01

    Several academic and clinical disciplines are involved in clarifying the concept of aggression by formulating operational and descriptive definitions. In the present paper the validity of the definitions of aggression, reported by nurses in an earlier qualitative study, is examined, using a survey a

  13. Tissue lipid lowering-effect of a traditional Nigerian anti-diabetic infusion of Rauwolfia vomitoria foilage and Citrus aurantium fruit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, J. I. A.; Mortensen, Alicja; Mølgaard, P.

    2006-01-01

    The toxicity and anti-diabetic properties of an aqueous plant extract made by boiling Rauwolfia vomitoria foilage and Citrus aurantium fruits were evaluated in mice. A single dosage corresponding to 70 x the human-daily-dose was non-toxic when administered to 6-week-old NMRI lean mice or 6- or 11...... carbohydrate-deficient Altromin C1009 diet. Although the food intake in the treated mice was not statistically significant from that in the controls, the treated animals had significantly higher serum triglyceride contents, suggesting that the treatment induced lipid mobilization from internal stores. Moreover....../KsBom-db pancreas were observed 5 weeks after cessation of treatment when the treated animals were maintained on the poorer Altromin C1009 diet. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. Parents’ Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    OpenAIRE

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents’ responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents’ actual marital aggression. The study included 118 9−10 year old children, and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with same-sex parents’ actual marital aggression. For children with mothers who exhibit low actual marital aggression, mothers’ aggressive solutions to hypothetical...

  15. The weight lowering effect of sibutramine and its impact on serum lipids in cardiovascular high risk patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus - an analysis from the SCOUT lead-in period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Philip T

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D and unhealthy blood lipid profile are strongly associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD. We examined whether blood lipid changes with short term administration of the weight lowering drug, sibutramine and lifestyle modification in obese and overweight high-risk patients was associated with T2D status at screening. Methods The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT trial included obese and overweight patients at increased risk of cardiovascular events. All patients received guidance on diet and exercise plus once-daily 10 mg sibutramine during the 6-week, single blind lead-in period. Multivariable regression models were used to investigate factors associated with changes in lipid levels during the first four weeks of treatment. Results A total of 10 742 patients received at least one dose of sibutramine during the 6-week lead-in period of SCOUT. After four weeks, patients experienced mean reductions in low density lipoprotein (LDL-C 0.19 mmol/L, high density lipoprotein (HDL-C 0.019 mmol/L, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C 0.08 mmol/L, total cholesterol (TC 0.31 mmol/L and triglycerides 0.24 mmol/L (p 2 decrease in BMI in patients with T2D was associated with -0.09 mmol/L in LDL-C (P Conclusion Short term weight management with sibutramine therapy in obese or overweight high-risk patients induced significant mean reductions for all lipids. Those without T2D benefited most. Patients with hyperlipidaemia and the less obese patients also had greater falls in LDL-C and TC during weight loss. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrial.gov number: NCT00234832.

  16. Reduction in cardiovascular events with atorvastatin in 2,532 patients with type 2 diabetes: Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial--lipid-lowering arm (ASCOT-LLA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sever, Peter S; Poulter, Neil R; Dahlöf, Björn; Wedel, Hans; Collins, Rory; Beevers, Gareth; Caulfield, Mark; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Kristinsson, Arni; McInnes, Gordon T; Mehlsen, Jesper; Nieminen, Markku; O'Brien, Eoin; Ostergren, Jan

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to establish the benefits of lowering cholesterol in diabetic patients with well-controlled hypertension and average/below-average cholesterol concentrations, but without established coronary disease....

  17. Lipid Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Lipid Profile Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... as: Lipid Panel; Coronary Risk Panel Formal name: Lipid Profile Related tests: Cholesterol ; HDL Cholesterol ; LDL Cholesterol ; Triglycerides ; ...

  18. A genome-wide association study of inflammatory biomarker changes in response to fenofibrate treatment in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drug and Diet Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the evidence in support of the anti-inflammatory and triglyceride-lowering effects of fenofibrate, little is known about genetic determinants of the observed heterogeneity in treatment response. This study provides the first genome-wide examination of fenofibrate effects on systemic inflamma...

  19. Aggressive Attitudes Predict Aggressive Behavior in Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConville, David W.; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2003-01-01

    This prospective study found that self-reported attitudes toward peer aggression among 403 middle school students were both internally consistent and stable over time (7 months). Aggressive attitudes were correlated with four outcome criteria for aggressive behavior: student self-report of peer aggression; peer and teacher nominations of bullying;…

  20. Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…

  1. Adecuación de la prescripción de hipolipemiantes y riesgo cardiovascular en pacientes con hipercolesterolemia Appropriateness of lipid-lowering treatment and cardiovascular risk in patients with hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.M. Segade Buceta

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Valorar la adecuación en la prescripción de hipolipemiantes y conocer diversas características clinicoepidemiológicas de los pacientes con hipercolesterolemia. Método: Población objeto de estudio: todos los pacientes con hipercolesterolemia pertenecientes a tres centros de salud urbanos. Muestreo por conglomerados monoetápico (n = 724. Estudio descriptivo con dos tipos de diseño: longitudinal retrospectivo y transversal. Para el primero de los diseños se utilizaron las nuevas tablas de riesgo cardiovascular (RCV de Sheffield; para el segundo, las de Framingham por categorías (Grundy. Resultados: Entre los pacientes en prevención primaria, hubo una adecuación en la prescripción en un 44,2% de los pacientes. Tienen actualmente un riesgo absoluto elevado (≥ 20% a 10 años un 8,9% (1,1 de nuestros pacientes de 30 a 74 años de edad en prevención primaria. Están con un riesgo relativo elevado un 6,0% (0,8 y levemente por encima del límite un 18,1% (2,0. Conclusiones: En más de la mitad de los pacientes se prescribieron hipolipemiantes sin estar indicados mediante una tabla de riesgo. El RCV actual de nuestros pacientes es satisfactorio.Objective: To assess the appropriateness of lipid-lowering treatment and to determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with hypercholesterolemia. Method: The study population comprised all the patients diagnosed with hypercholesterolemia in three urban health centres. A sample of 724 patients was obtaind through a one-stage conglomerate method. A descriptive study was performed with two types of designs: retrospective and longitudinal, and cross-sectional. For the first we used the new Sheffield tables for cardiovascular risk; for the second, the Framingham categorical tables (Grundy. Results: Among patients in primary prevention, prescription of lipid-lowering therapy was appropiate in 44.2%. A total of 8.9% (SE = 1.1 of the patients aged 30-74 years in primary

  2. Comparison of atorvastatin 80 mg/day versus simvastatin 20 to 40 mg/day on frequency of cardiovascular events late (five years) after acute myocardial infarction (from the Incremental Decrease in End Points through Aggressive Lipid Lowering [IDEAL] trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, TR; Cater, Nilo B; Faergeman, Ole; Kastelein, John J P; Olsson, Anders G; Tikkanen, Matti J; Holme, Ingar; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Lindahl, Christina; Szarek, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that benefits of intensive statin therapy compared to standard statin therapy begin shortly after an acute event and are continued up to 2 years of follow-up. However, whether efficacy and safety of intensive statin therapy in patients with a recent cardiac even...

  3. The effect of aggressive versus standard lipid lowering by atorvastatin on diabetic dyslipidemia - The DALI Study : a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in patients with type 2 diabetes and diabetic dyslipidemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkplanken, [No Value; Hoogerbrugge, N; Jansen, H; Jansen, H; Princen, HMG; Huisman, MV; van de Ree, MA; Stolk, RP; van Venrooij, FV; Banga, JD; Dallinga-Thie, G

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - In patients with type 2 diabetes, intensive glucose regulation, although effective for microangiopathy, has not been shown to have unambiguous preventive effects on the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Patients with diabetes show a characteristic dyslipidermia (high triglyceride lev

  4. Addressing Social Aggression in State Anti-Bullying Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Social aggression, or victimization using social exclusion, rumors, and body language, has been overlooked in state anti-bullying policies since the policy surge following the 1999 Columbine Massacres. Social aggression has been associated with social anxiety disorder, depression and suicide, and lowered academic achievement and involvement. An…

  5. Effect of Randomized Lipid Lowering With Simvastatin and Ezetimibe on Cataract Development (from the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper N; Greve, Anders M; la Cour, Morten; Boman, Kurt; Gohlke-Bärwolf, Christa; Ray, Simon; Pedersen, Terje; Rossebø, Anne; Okin, Peter M; Devereux, Richard B; Wachtell, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    indicate a possible effect of statin therapy on reducing risk of lens opacities. However, the results are conflicting. The Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis study (NCT00092677) enrolled 1,873 patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis and no history of diabetes, coronary heart disease, or other...... multivariate analysis adjusted for age, gender, prednisolone treatment, smoking, baseline LDL cholesterol and high sensitivity C-reactive protein; simvastatin plus ezetimibe versus placebo was associated with 44% lower risk of cataract development (hazard ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.96, p = 0......Recent American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines on statin initiation on the basis of total atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk argue that the preventive effect of statins on cardiovascular events outweigh the side effects, although this is controversial. Studies...

  6. Effect of naloxone on food competition aggression in food-restricted high and low aggression pigeons (Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Fachinelli

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effect of the opiate receptor antagonist naloxone on aggression, emotion, feeder control, and eating behavior in high and low aggression female pigeons maintained at 80% of their normal weight and exposed to food competition interactions. Pigeons were divided into pairs by previously ranked high aggression (total time spent in offensive aggression exceeding 60 s/5 min; N = 6 pairs and low aggression females (time spent in offensive aggression less than 10 s/5 min; N = 6 pairs. A pigeon in each pair received an sc dose of naloxone (1 mg kg-1 ml saline-1 and the other animal received the vehicle. Trials (10 min were performed 30 min after the naloxone/vehicle administration. The naloxone group of high aggression pigeons showed lower scores of total time spent in offensive aggression (control: 98.6 ± 12.0; naloxone: 46.8 ± 6.6 s; P < 0.05 and higher scores of time spent in emotional responses (control: 3.5 ± 0.6; naloxone: 10.8 ± 2.4 s; P < 0.05 than controls. The other behaviors scored, feeder control and eating behavior, were not affected in this group. The naloxone group of low aggression pigeons, however, showed higher scores of offensive aggression than their controls (5.3 ± 1.3; naloxone: 28.7 ± 8.0 s; P < 0.05. The present results suggest that opiate receptor mechanisms are implicated in offensive aggression responses in high and low aggression pigeons. However, as reported for brain 5-hydroxytryptamine manipulation and GABA-A-benzodiazepine receptor manipulation, the effect of the opiate receptor antagonist on food competition aggression in pigeons was related to their pretreatment level of aggression.

  7. Uric acid excretion predicts increased aggression in urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Mrug, Michal

    2016-09-01

    Elevated levels of uric acid have been linked with impulsive and disinhibited behavior in clinical and community populations of adults, but no studies have examined uric acid in relation to adolescent aggression. This study examined the prospective role of uric acid in aggressive behavior among urban, low income adolescents, and whether this relationship varies by gender. A total of 84 adolescents (M age 13.36years; 50% male; 95% African American) self-reported on their physical aggression at baseline and 1.5years later. At baseline, the youth also completed a 12-h (overnight) urine collection at home which was used to measure uric acid excretion. After adjusting for baseline aggression and age, greater uric acid excretion predicted more frequent aggressive behavior at follow up, with no significant gender differences. The results suggest that lowering uric acid levels may help reduce youth aggression. PMID:27180134

  8. Individual strategies of aggressive and non-aggressive male mice in encounters with trained aggressive residents

    OpenAIRE

    Benus, Rensina F.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Oortmerssen, Geert A. van

    1992-01-01

    To determine whether individual differences in offensive behaviour are related to differences in defensive behaviour, the responses of male wild house mice, Mus domesticus, of an aggressive and a non-aggressive line to defeat by physically stronger residents were analysed. Individuals of the aggressive line engaged in more flight behaviour, whereas the males of the non-aggressive line predominantly showed immobility. The higher flight tendency of the aggressive intruders provoked more attacks...

  9. Experimental Study of Shenqi Mixture's Lipid-lowering Effect and Mechanism on Hyperlipidemia Rats%参七合剂对高脂血症大鼠的降脂效应及其机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋锐; 姜海斌; 刘柏炎; 向秋玲; 黄卫华

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To establish stable hyperlipidemia animal model with self-designed high-fat diet.To evaluate lipid-lowering effect of Shenqi Mixture and investigate lipid-lowering mechanism of Shenqi Mixture.Method:One hundred and twenty SD rats were randomly divided into control group (30) and model group (90).The SD rats of model group were fed with self-designed high-fat diet.Hyperlipidemia models were evaluated successfully by testing four indexes of blood lipids after 10 days.Model rats were divided on lipid level and randomly divided into model group (1 g · kg-1),Shenqi Mixture group and Simvastatin group (0.001 g·kg-1) (30 each)orally for 20 days.Four indexes of blood lipids and hemorheology indexes were measured and pathological change of liver tissue was observed on 31th day.Result:Four indexes of blood lipid of model SD rats' showed that the hyperlipidemia rats models were successful made on 11 th day.The four indexes of blood lipid,hemorheology indexes and pathological change of liver tissue showed that Shenqi Mixture and Simvastatin could decrease total cholesterol (TC),triglyceride (TG),low-density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-C) and blood viscosity,increase high-density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C),and alleviate hepatic steatosis of liver tissue on 31thday.The results of TC,HDL-C and hepatic steatosis of liver tissue in Shenqi Mixture group were significant different from Simvastatin group.Conclusion:Stable hyperlipidemia rat model can be established with self-designed high-fat diet.Shenqi Mixture can decrease lipid level and blood viscosity,alleviated hepatic steatosis of liver tissue.%目的:使用自制高脂饲料,建立稳定的高脂血症大鼠模型.评价参七合剂的降脂效应,探讨其降脂机制.方法:将120只SD大鼠随机分成对照组(30只)和造模组(90只),使用自制高脂饲料喂养造模组SD大鼠,于第11天采血,检测血脂4项指标.将造模组大鼠先按血脂水平分层,再随机分

  10. Neuroimaging and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Shari; Raine, Adrian

    1994-01-01

    Brain imaging research allows direct assessment of structural and functional brain abnormalities, and thereby provides an improved methodology for studying neurobiological factors predisposing to violent and aggressive behavior. This paper reviews 20 brain imaging studies using four different types of neuroimaging techniques that were conducted in…

  11. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results show

  12. Anonymity, Deindividuation and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Robert S.

    Several writers suggest that reducing one's sense of individuality reduces social restraints. The author suggests that the effect of uniformity of appearance on aggression is unclear when anonymity is held constant. This poses a problem of interpretation given that a distinction must be made between lack of individuality and anonymity. One must…

  13. Relational Aggression among Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  14. Witz, Lust und Aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med forholdet mellem vits, lyst og aggression med udgangspunkt i lysten ved aggressiv litterær humor, eksemplificeret ved tekststeder fra Shakespeares Hamlet. Der argumenteres for, at aggressionen eller angrebet er et fælles centralt aspekt ved Sigmund Freuds og Friedrich...

  15. Nutrition, neurotoxicants & aggressive behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaalberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition, neurotoxicants and aggressive behaviour Antisocial behaviour, such as violence, is explained not only by the social environment, as was long believed. Also nutrients and neurotoxicants might play a role. Whether this is the case was studied in this thesis. In two empirical studies possibl

  16. More Support for Aggressive Blood Pressure Treatment for Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More Support for Aggressive Blood Pressure Treatment for Elderly Latest findings from national trial show it lowers ... risk of heart disease -- even if they're elderly or have already had heart problems, new research ...

  17. Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

  18. Relational Aggression and Physical Aggression among Adolescent Cook Islands Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.

    2016-01-01

    Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…

  19. High-fat meal effect on LDL, HDL, and VLDL particle size and number in the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering drugs and diet network (GOLDN: an interventional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straka Robert J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial lipemia (PPL is likely a risk factor for cardiovascular disease but these changes have not been well described and characterized in a large cohort. We assessed acute changes in the size and concentration of total and subclasses of LDL, HDL, and VLDL particles in response to a high-fat meal. Participants (n = 1048 from the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN Study who ingested a high-fat meal were included in this analysis. Lipids were measured at 0 hr (fasting, 3.5 hr, and 6 hr after a standardized fat meal. Particle size distributions were determined using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Analyses were stratified by baseline triglycerides (normal vs. elevated and gender. The effect of PPL on changes in lipoprotein subclasses was assessed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results Postprandially, LDL-C, HDL-C, VLDL-C, and triglycerides increased regardless of baseline triglyceride status, with the largest increases in VLDL-C and TG; however, those with elevated triglycerides demonstrated larger magnitude of response. Total LDL particle number decreased over the 6-hour time interval, mostly from a decrease in the number of small LDL particles. Similarly, total VLDL particle number decreased due to reductions in medium and small VLDL particles. Large VLDL particles and chylomicrons demonstrated the largest increase in concentration. HDL particles demonstrated minimal overall changes in total particle number. Conclusions We have characterized the changes in LDL and VLDL particle number, and their subclass patterns following a high-fat meal.

  20. Coping with Agitation and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzheimer ’s Caregiving Tips Coping with Agitation and Aggression People with Alzheimer’s disease may become agitated or aggressive as the disease gets worse. Agitation means that a person is restless or worried. ...

  1. Antihypertensive and lipid lowering treatment in 70–74 year old individuals – predictors for treatment and blood-pressure control: a population based survey. The Hordaland Health Study (HUSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straand Jørund

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an elderly, community based population we aimed at investigating antihypertensive and lipid lowering medication use in relation to own and familiar cardiovascular morbidity and diabetes mellitus, as well as to lifestyle factors and general health. We also examined levels of blood pressure in untreated and treated residents, to investigate factors correlating with blood pressure control. Methods A health survey carried out in 1997-9 in the county of Hordaland, Norway included a self-administered questionnaire mailed to 4 338 persons born in 1925-7. Drug use the day prior to filling in the questionnaire was reported. A health check-up was carried out, where their systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, body mass index (BMI, and serum-cholesterol level were recorded. Results One third of respondents used one or more antihypertensive drugs, while 13% of men and women were treated with a statin. Diabetes mellitus, own or relatives'cardiovascular disease, having quit smoking, physical inactivity, and overweight correlated with antihypertensive treatment. Mean blood pressure was lower in respondents not on treatment. Among those on treatment, 38% of men and 29% of women had reached a target BP-level of lower than 140/90 mm Hg. Own cardiovascular disease and a low BMI correlated with good BP-control. Conclusion One third of 70–74 year old individuals living in the community used one or more antihypertensive drugs. Only around one third of those treated had reached a target BP-level of less than 140/90 mm Hg. Own cardiovascular disease and a low BMI correlated with good BP-control.

  2. Children's normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesmann, L R; Guerra, N G

    1997-02-01

    Normative beliefs have been defined as self-regulating beliefs about the appropriateness of social behaviors. In 2 studies the authors revised their scale for assessing normative beliefs about aggression, found that it is reliable and valid for use with elementary school children, and investigated the longitudinal relation between normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior in a large sample of elementary school children living in poor urban neighborhoods. Using data obtained in 2 waves of observations 1 year apart, the authors found that children tended to approve more of aggression as they grew older and that this increase appeared to be correlated with increases in aggressive behavior. More important, although individual differences in aggressive behavior predicted subsequent differences in normative beliefs in younger children, individual differences in aggressive behavior were predicted by preceding differences in normative beliefs in older children. PMID:9107008

  3. Caffeinated and non-caffeinated alcohol use and indirect aggression: The impact of self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Brynn E; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy

    2016-07-01

    Research shows that heavier alcohol use is associated with physical aggression. Scant research has examined the way in which alcohol relates to other forms of aggression, such as indirect aggression (e.g., malicious humor, social exclusion). Given the possible negative consequences of indirect aggression and the limited evidence suggesting alcohol use can elicit indirectly aggressive responses, research is needed to further investigate the association between drinking behavior and indirect aggression. Additionally, specific alcoholic beverages, such as caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs; e.g., Red Bull and vodka), may potentiate aggression above the influence of typical use, and thus warrant examination with regard to indirect aggression. One factor that may impact the strength of the alcohol-indirect aggression and CAB-indirect aggression relationships is one's level of self-regulation. Consequently, our study examined the relationships between (1) alcohol use and indirect aggression, (2) CAB use and indirect aggression, and (3) self-regulation as a moderator. Participants were 733 (67.6% female) undergraduate students who reported their CAB and alcohol use, self-regulation, and aggressive behaviors. Results revealed that heavier alcohol use was associated with more frequent indirect aggression after controlling for dispositional aggression. Heavier CAB use was related to more frequent indirect aggression after accounting for typical use and dispositional aggression. Self-regulation moderated these associations such that for those with lower self-regulation, greater alcohol and CAB consumption was associated with greater indirect aggression. Our findings suggest that heavier alcohol and CAB consumption may be risk factors for engaging in indirect aggression and this risk is impacted by one's regulatory control. PMID:26905765

  4. Football fan aggression: the importance of low Basal cortisol and a fair referee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leander van der Meij

    Full Text Available Fan aggression in football (soccer is a societal problem that affects many countries worldwide. However, to date, most studies use an epidemiological or survey approach to explain football fan aggression. This study used a controlled laboratory study to advance a model of predictors for fan aggression. To do so, football fans (n = 74 saw a match summary in which their favorite team lost against their most important rival. Next, we measured levels of aggression with the hot sauce paradigm, in which fans were given the opportunity to administer a sample of hot sauce that a rival football supporter had to consume. To investigate if media exposure had the ability to reduce aggression, before the match fans saw a video in which fans of the rival team commented in a neutral, negative, or positive manner on their favorite team. Results showed that the media exposure did not affect aggression. However, participants displayed high levels of aggression and anger after having watched the match. Also, aggression was higher in fans with lower basal cortisol levels, which suggests that part of the aggression displayed was proactive and related to anti-social behavior. Furthermore, aggression was higher when the referee was blamed and aggression was lower when the performance of the participants' favorite team was blamed for the match result. These results indicate that aggression increased when the match result was perceived as unfair. Interventions that aim to reduce football fan aggression should give special attention to the perceived fairness of the match result.

  5. Tryptophan via serotonin/kynurenine pathways abnormalities in a large cohort of aggressive inmates: markers for aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comai, Stefano; Bertazzo, Antonella; Vachon, Jeanne; Daigle, Marc; Toupin, Jean; Côté, Gilles; Turecki, Gustavo; Gobbi, Gabriella

    2016-10-01

    Aggressive behavior is one of the most challenging symptoms in psychiatry, and biological markers for aggression lack of large sample validations. Serotonin (5-HT) and other neuroactive compounds deriving from Tryptophan (Trp), including kynurenine (Kyn), have not yet been investigated in large cohorts of aggressive individuals to validate their potential as biomarkers of aggression. In 361 male inmates we measured serum levels of Trp, 5-hydroxytryptophan, 5-HT, Kyn, the ratios 5-HT/Trp∗1000 and Kyn/Trp∗1000, and performed Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I and -II Disorders (SCID-I and -II), global assessment of functioning (GAF), and scales for aggressive behavior, impulsivity, adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and intelligent quotient (IQ). Aggressive compared to non-aggressive inmates exhibited lower Trp and Kyn serum levels but higher levels of 5-HT and 5-HT/Trp∗1000, higher levels of impulsivity and ADHD indices, lower IQ and GAF, higher prevalence of mood disorders, drug abuse/dependence, and borderline, conduct and antisocial behaviors. Interestingly, Kyn/Trp∗1000 was positively correlated to the number of severe aggressive acts (r=0.593, Pmental diseases. PMID:27117820

  6. Radiotherapy for aggressive fibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: To evaluate local control with radiotherapy for aggressive fibromatosis. Materials and Methods: Fifty-three patients with histologically confirmed aggressive fibromatosis were treated with radiotherapy at the University of Florida between March 1975 and June 1992. The minimum length of follow-up was 2 years; 88% of patients had follow-up for at least 5 years. Thirty-nine patients had lesions in an extremity and 14 patients had lesions in the trunk. Twenty-nine patients were treated for gross disease. Patients were treated with total doses between 35 Gy and 70 Gy; 83% of patients received 50 Gy to 60 Gy. Results: Local control was achieved in 23 of 29 patients (79%) treated for postoperative microscopic residual disease. Local control was achieved in 21 of 24 patients (88%) treated for gross disease; gross disease was controlled in 8 of 8 patients with previously untreated lesions, and in 13 of 16 patients treated for postoperative gross residual and recurrent disease. Overall, aggressive fibromatosis was locally controlled in 83% of treated patients. All 9 treatment failures occurred with extremity lesions 4 to 68 months after initiation of treatment. Of the 9 recurrences, 4 were out-of-field, 3 were in-field, and 4 occurred at the margin of the irradiated field. Salvage was successful in 8 of 9 patients in whom salvage was attempted with surgery alone or combined with postoperative radiotherapy. A functional limb was maintained in 38 of 39 patients with extremity or limb girdle lesions. The most serious complication of treatment was pathologic fracture, which occurred in 3 of 53 treated patients; all 3 fractures healed with conservative management. Conclusion: Radiotherapy is a valuable adjunct to surgery in the management of aggressive fibromatosis and can be used alone in patients with unresectable or inoperable disease

  7. Nutrition, neurotoxicants & aggressive behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Zaalberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition, neurotoxicants and aggressive behaviour Antisocial behaviour, such as violence, is explained not only by the social environment, as was long believed. Also nutrients and neurotoxicants might play a role. Whether this is the case was studied in this thesis. In two empirical studies possible relations between nutrients and behaviour were investigated. In the first study, levels of nutrients in blood samples of forensic psychiatric patients were measured. Low levels of omega-3 fatty a...

  8. Involvement in alcohol-related verbal or physical aggression. Does social status matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraus Ludwig

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION -The analyses (1 assessed the association between social status variables and aggression when controlling for volume of alcohol consumption and episodic heavy drinking (EHD, (2 tested whether social status moderates the association between volume or EHD and verbal as well as physical aggression, and (3 investigated whether EHD moderates the effect of volume on aggression. METHODS - Swedish Alcohol Monitoring Survey (2003 to 2011; N=104,316 current drinkers; response rate: 51 to 38%. Alcohol-related aggression was defined as involvement in a quarrel or physical fight while drinking. Social status was defined as the highest education, monthly income and marital status. RESULTS - The associations between social status variables and aggression showed mixed results. Verbal aggression was associated with education in males and with marital status in both genders. Physical aggression was associated with education in both genders. No associations with aggression were found for income. With few exceptions, these associations remained significant when controlling for drinking patterns; social status did not moderate the association between drinking and aggression; EHD moderated the effect of volume on physical aggression in males. CONCLUSIONS - Groups of lower educated and nonmarried individuals experience verbal or physical aggression over and above different levels of consumption. Individual differences in aggression vulnerability rather than differences in aggression predisposition account for higher risks of aggression in these groups.

  9. Individual strategies of aggressive and non-aggressive male mice in encounters with trained aggressive residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benus, Rensina F.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Oortmerssen, Geert A. van

    1992-01-01

    To determine whether individual differences in offensive behaviour are related to differences in defensive behaviour, the responses of male wild house mice, Mus domesticus, of an aggressive and a non-aggressive line to defeat by physically stronger residents were analysed. Individuals of the aggress

  10. Motives in Sexual Aggression: The Chinese Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared sexual and aggressive motives for sexual aggression in Chinese college students. Male undergraduates (N=146) completed self-report measures. Results suggest that sex guilt and aggressive guilt acted as inhibitors for their respective drives and sexual aggression resulted from aggressive, rather than sexual, motives. Sexual aggression may…

  11. The Association Between Antihypertensive Medication Nonadherence and Visit-to-Visit Variability of Blood Pressure: Findings From the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronish, Ian M; Lynch, Amy I; Oparil, Suzanne; Whittle, Jeff; Davis, Barry R; Simpson, Lara M; Krousel-Wood, Marie; Cushman, William C; Chang, Tara I; Muntner, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Low adherence to antihypertensive medication has been hypothesized to increase visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of blood pressure (BP). We assessed the association between antihypertensive medication adherence and VVV of BP in the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). VVV of BP was calculated using SD independent of mean, SD, and average real variability across study visits conducted 6 to 28 months after randomization. Participants who reported taking <80% of their antihypertensive medication at ≥1 study visits were categorized as nonadherent. Participants were followed up for cardiovascular events and mortality after the assessment of adherence and VVV of BP. SD independent of mean of BP was higher for nonadherent (n=2912) versus adherent (n=16 878) participants; 11.4±4.9 versus 10.5±4.5 for systolic BP; 6.8±2.8 versus 6.2±2.6 for diastolic BP (each P<0.001). SD independent of mean of BP remained higher among nonadherent than among adherent participants after multivariable adjustment (0.8 [95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.0] higher for systolic BP and 0.4 [95% confidence interval, 0.3-0.5] higher for diastolic BP]. SD and average real variability of systolic BP and diastolic BP were also higher among nonadherent than among adherent participants. Adjustment for nonadherence did not explain the association of VVV of BP with higher fatal coronary heart disease or nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, or mortality risk. In conclusion, improving medication adherence may lower VVV of BP. However, VVV of BP is associated with cardiovascular outcomes independent of medication adherence. PMID:27217410

  12. Lipids in liver transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüsing, Anna; Kabar, Iyad; Schmidt, Hartmut H

    2016-03-28

    Hyperlipidemia is very common after liver transplantation and can be observed in up to 71% of patients. The etiology of lipid disorders in these patients is multifactorial, with different lipid profiles observed depending on the immunosuppressive agents administered and the presence of additional risk factors, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and nutrition. Due to recent improvements in survival of liver transplant recipients, the prevention of cardiovascular events has become more important, especially as approximately 64% of liver transplant recipients present with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Management of dyslipidemia and of other modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes and smoking, has therefore become essential in these patients. Treatment of hyperlipidemia after liver transplantation consists of life style modification, modifying the dose or type of immunosuppressive agents and use of lipid lowering agents. At the start of administration of lipid lowering medications, it is important to monitor drug-drug interactions, especially between lipid lowering agents and immunosuppressive drugs. Furthermore, as combinations of various lipid lowering drugs can lead to severe side effects, such as myopathies and rhabdomyolysis, these combinations should therefore be avoided. To our knowledge, there are no current guidelines targeting the management of lipid metabolism disorders in liver transplant recipients. This paper therefore recommends an approach of managing lipid abnormalities occurring after liver transplantation. PMID:27022213

  13. Aggression predicts Cortisol Awakening Response in healthy young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Sariñana-González

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It seems that aggressive behavior is negatively related to cortisol (C, but this relationship has been established considering the evening C levels. On the other hand, the relationship with the C awakening response (CAR and the influence of gender and menstrual cycle phase are not well understood. This study analyzed this relationship in 83 women (38 in the luteal and 45 in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle and 20 men. CAR was assessed by measuring salivary free cortisol levels in samples taken immediately following awakening and 30, 45, and 60 minutes later. Additionally, participants completed a self-report of aggression. Men presented lower CAR than women in the luteal phase. Moreover, they also had higher levels of physical aggression than women, independently of their menstrual phase. Regarding the relationships between variables, in men general aggression and verbal aggression predicted the CAR. In women, verbal aggression predicted the CAR during the follicular phase, whereas anger and physical aggression were predictors during the luteal phase. Our data support the view that there is a negative relationship between C and aggressive behavior, even during the morning, this relationship being moderated by gender and menstrual cycle phase in the women. These findings may help improve our understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in violence.

  14. Milk lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk fat conveys a number of desirable qualities to food, and various lipid components contribute to human nutrition and health. Over 96% of milk lipids consist of triacylglycerols, which contain a variety of fatty acids. Di- and monoacylglycerols, free fatty acids, sterols, and phospho-, glyco-,...

  15. Effects of pairing aggressive and nonaggressive children in strategic peer affiliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hektner, Joel M; August, Gerald J; Realmuto, George M

    2003-08-01

    Examined the behavior of 118 second graders who participated in a 6-week summer school program that incorporated strategic peer affiliation (a "buddy system"). Moderately aggressive children (the targets of the intervention) were paired with nonaggressive peers throughout the program. All participants were observed playing foosball with their buddies and with aggressive and nonaggressive nonbuddies as teammates. Aggressive children had lower levels of disruptive behavior when their teammate was nonaggressive, regardless of whether the teammate was a buddy. Nonaggressive children showed elevated disruptive behavior when playing with an aggressive nonbuddy, but not when playing with an aggressive buddy. The highest level of aggressive behavior was seen in pairs of aggressive teammates who were friends. One year later, no increase in peer-rated aggressive behavior was found in either group. Results suggest that unidirectional peer influence is possible and that strategic peer affiliation can be an effective intervention that does not put nonaggressive children at risk for acquiring undesired behaviors. PMID:12831229

  16. Aggressive HIV-1?

    OpenAIRE

    van der Hoek Lia; de Ronde Anthony; Berkhout Ben

    2005-01-01

    Abstract New York City health officials announced on February 11, 2005 that a patient rapidly developed full-blown AIDS shortly after being diagnosed with a rare, drug-resistant strain of HIV-1. The New York City Department of Health issued an alert to all hospitals and doctors and a press conference was held to announce the emergence of an aggressive HIV-1 strain that may be difficult to treat and that appears to trigger rapid progression to AIDS. Is the panic justified?

  17. Television Viewing and Aggression: Some Alternative Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feshbach, Seymour; Tangney, June

    2008-09-01

    The focus of this article is on the examination of variables that moderate the influence of exposure to TV violence. The research on the relationship between TV violence and aggressive behavior of the audience has largely focused on addressing the social policy issue of whether witnessing TV violence fosters aggressive behavior in viewers, particularly children. There has been a dearth of research addressing the conditions that enhance the aggression stimulating effects of media violence, those that mitigate these effects, and those that may even result in reduced aggression after one witnesses media violence. To illustrate the importance of potential moderating factors, we present longitudinal correlational data relating the degree of viewing TV violence to various social behaviors and cognitive attributes of White and African-American male and female elementary-school-age children. Although TV violence viewing was associated with lower cognitive attributes and negative social behaviors in White males and females and African-American females, a very different pattern of relationships was found for African-American males. PMID:26158956

  18. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-Esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ae-Na Choi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents, Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control.

  19. The nature of human aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, John

    2009-01-01

    Human aggression is viewed from four explanatory perspectives, derived from the ethological tradition. The first consists of its adaptive value, which can be seen throughout the animal kingdom, involving resource competition and protection of the self and offspring, which has been viewed from a cost-benefit perspective. The second concerns the phylogenetic origin of aggression, which in humans involves brain mechanisms that are associated with anger and inhibition, the emotional expression of anger, and how aggressive actions are manifest. The third concerns the origin of aggression in development and its subsequent modification through experience. An evolutionary approach to development yields conclusions that are contrary to the influential social learning perspective, notably that physical aggression occurs early in life, and its subsequent development is characterized by learned inhibition. The fourth explanation concerns the motivational mechanisms controlling aggression: approached from an evolutionary background, these mechanisms range from the inflexible reflex-like responses to those incorporating rational decision-making. PMID:19411108

  20. Identity Development and Aggressive Lexicon

    OpenAIRE

    Khomyk, Volodymyr; Filippova, Inessa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. The paper is an attempt to explain the aggressive lexicon of adolescents. This explanation was based on the constructive-developmental theory of R. Kegan. Comparison of empirical data meaning-making evolution of identity predisposed to aggression youths with displays of their aggressive lexicon in intense interpersonal interactions indicate that the lexicon spokesmen of the Imperial stage of development a common with others reality is not shared, meaning the voice of his «...

  1. Introduction to "Conflict and Aggression"

    OpenAIRE

    Pagani, Camilla; Farnicka, Marzanna; Liberska, Hanna; Ramirez, J. Martin

    2014-01-01

    During the XXXVII CICA we will be talking about Developmental and Social Conditions of Conflict and Aggression. All participants will have the opportunity to listen to two keynote speakers, eight sessions of scientific presentations, one poster session and two panel discussions. All these kinds of activities will be focused on a variety of types of conditionings of aggression and violence, on methods to measure readiness for aggression and on the practical implications of this knowledge to be...

  2. Aggressive fibromatosis of anterior maxilla

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Devi C; Aadithya B Urs; Puneet Ahuja; Seema Sikka

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis is a comparitively rare tumor with unpredictable growth and varying local recurrence rates. It does not develop distant metastases but locally it shows an aggressive and infiltrative behavior. Clinically, aggressive fibromatosis manifests as a painless, firm, often rapidly enlarging mass, fixed to underlying bone or soft tissue. It is never encapsulated. Histologically, it is rich in collagen and fibroblastic cells that are devoid of hyperchromatic or atypical nuclei, ...

  3. Automobile Driving and Aggressive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Novaco, Raymond W.

    1991-01-01

    Automobile driving and aggressive behavior have had an extensive association. Themes of dominance and territoriality have long been part of automobile driving, which has also involved flagrant assaultive actions. Recent episodes of roadway violence in metropolitan areas have raised community concern about aggressive behavior in driving, although common beliefs about why such violence occurs can be seen as pseudoexplanations. Various themes in the psychology of aggression are presented as they...

  4. Aggressive fibromatosis of anterior maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi C Shetty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive fibromatosis is a comparitively rare tumor with unpredictable growth and varying local recurrence rates. It does not develop distant metastases but locally it shows an aggressive and infiltrative behavior. Clinically, aggressive fibromatosis manifests as a painless, firm, often rapidly enlarging mass, fixed to underlying bone or soft tissue. It is never encapsulated. Histologically, it is rich in collagen and fibroblastic cells that are devoid of hyperchromatic or atypical nuclei, but with more variable cellularity in different tumor sections.

  5. Age and gender differences in aggression of Slovene elementary and secondary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kozina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study examined age and gender differences in aggression using three representative samples for Slovenia: 4th grade elementary school students; 8th grade elementary school students; 4th grade secondary school students in Matura programs. The results were based on the LA aggression scale that measures general aggression and four specific types of aggression: physical aggression (TA, verbal aggression (BA, internal aggression (NA and aggression towards authority (AA. Based on the results of two-way ANOVA we found important effects of age, gender and their interaction. The gender differences were significant in the groups of elementary school students but not in secondary school students. Male elementary school students, 4th and 8th grade, were more aggressive compared to female elementary school students. 8th grade elementary school students were more physically, verbally, internally aggressive and more aggressive towards authority when compared to 4th grade elementary school students. Secondary school students were significantly less physically and verbally aggressive, and on the other hand more internally aggressive when compared to both groups of elementary school students. Secondary school students reported higher level of aggression towards authority than 4th grade elementary students, and lower level then 8th grade elementary students. The results were congruent with the findings of the research literature indicating higher aggression of males when compared to females and different developmental paths for different types of aggression in question. The study introduced important findings regarding age and gender differences in representative school samples in Slovenia and proposed future research mostly in direction of including measures of indirect aggression that is linked to female gender and older students.

  6. Aggressive angiomyxoma in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Goyal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive angiomyxoma (AA is a rare, slow-growing mesenchymal neoplasm of vulvo-perineal region. Although AA is common in females of reproductive age, only a few cases during pregnancy have been documented in the English literature. It carries a high risk of local recurrence but rarely metastasizes. The high recurrence rate can partially be due to inadequate excision, which may be due to an incorrect preoperative diagnosis. We present a case of 25-year-old pregnant female presenting with a painless and soft mass attached to left labia majora by a stalk. This mass was clinically thought to be a lipoma. It was completely excised and was diagnosed as AA on histopathology. Gynecologists should consider the diagnosis of AA when a young female especially during her pregnancy presents with a vulvo-perineal mass. Incorrect diagnosis may lead to incomplete excision and recurrence.

  7. Aggression, suicidality, and serotonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnoila, V M; Virkkunen, M

    1992-10-01

    Studies from several countries, representing diverse cultures, have reported an association between violent suicide attempts by patients with unipolar depression and personality disorders and low concentrations of the major serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Related investigations have documented a similar inverse correlation between impulsive, externally directed aggressive behavior and CSF 5-HIAA in a subgroup of violent offenders. In these individuals, low CSF 5-HIAA concentrations are also associated with a predisposition to mild hypoglycemia, a history of early-onset alcohol and substance abuse, a family history of type II alcoholism, and disturbances in diurnal activity rhythm. These data are discussed in the context of a proposed model for the pathophysiology of a postulated "low serotonin syndrome." PMID:1385390

  8. A latent class analysis of bullies, victims and aggressive victims in Chinese adolescence: relations with social and school adjustments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihui Shao

    Full Text Available This study used the latent class analysis (LCA to identify and classify Chinese adolescent children's aggressive behaviors. It was found that (1 Adolescent children could be divided into four categories: general children, aggressive children, victimized children and aggressive victimized children. (2 There were significant gender differences among the aggressive victimized children, the aggressive children and the general children. Specifically, aggressive victimized children and aggressive children had greater probabilities of being boys; victimized children had equal probabilities of being boys or girls. (3 Significant differences in loneliness, depression, anxiety and academic achievement existed among the aggressive victims, the aggressor, the victims and the general children, in which the aggressive victims scored the worst in all questionnaires. (4 As protective factors, peer and teacher supports had important influences on children's aggressive and victimized behaviors. Relative to general children, aggressive victims, aggressive children and victimized children had lower probabilities of receiving peer supports. On the other hand, compared to general children, aggressive victims had lower probabilities of receiving teacher supports; while significant differences in the probability of receiving teacher supports did not exist between aggressive children and victimized children.

  9. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  10. Subtypes of Aggressive Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Barker, Edward D.

    2006-01-01

    Aggressive behaviors in children and adolescents have undergone important conceptual and definitional modifications in the past two decades. In particular, subtypes of aggression have been proposed that separate the form and the function of the aggressive behaviors (i.e., social vs. physical aggression; reactive vs. proactive aggression).…

  11. Aggression in children and youth towards crime.

    OpenAIRE

    ŠTEFFLOVÁ, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with aggressive children and youth, which leads to crime. It deals with the causes of aggression, factors that influence aggression, but also the type of aggression. The practical part contains specific case studies of individuals whose aggression was one of the causes of crime.

  12. Aggression and Violence in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Gladden Foundation, York, PA.

    This booklet was written to provide an understanding of aggression and violence in youth. Its purpose is to help parents, professionals, and other concerned citizens prevent or reduce these potentially dangerous behaviors. The introduction notes that many experts agree that aggression and violence are on the rise in America. The first section of…

  13. Motivational drive and alprazolam misuse: A recipe for aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Bonnie; Staiger, Petra K; Hall, Kate; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas; Best, David

    2016-06-30

    Benzodiazepine-related aggression has received insufficient research attention, in particular little is known about the motivational factors which may contribute to the development of this paradoxical response. The revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory provides a theoretical framework from which to understand the relevant underlying motivational processes. The current study aimed to identify the role of approach and avoidance motivational tendencies in the occurrence of benzodiazepine-related aggression. Data regarding benzodiazepine and other substance use, approach and avoidance motivation, and general and physical aggressive behaviour were collected via self-report questionnaires. Participants were a convenience sample (n=204) who reported using benzodiazepines in the previous year. Participants were primarily male (62.7%), aged 18-51 years old. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that general and physical aggression were predicted by alprazolam use and Drive, a facet of approach motivation. Overall, lower diazepam use significantly predicted higher levels of general aggression. However, when diazepam-preferring participants were examined in isolation of the larger sample (23.5% of sample), problematic (dependent) diazepam use was associated with greater aggression scores, as was dependence risk for alprazolam-preferring participants (39.7% of sample). The findings highlight the importance of motivational factors and benzodiazepine use patterns in understanding benzodiazepine-related aggression, with implications for violent offender rehabilitation. PMID:27138835

  14. Brain monoamine oxidase A activity predicts trait aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z; Kriplani, Aarti; Logan, Jean; Tomasi, Dardo; Williams, Benjamin; Telang, Frank; Shumay, Elena; Biegon, Anat; Craig, Ian W; Henn, Fritz; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D; Fowler, Joanna S

    2008-05-01

    The genetic deletion of monoamine oxidase A (MAO A), an enzyme that breaks down the monoamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine, produces aggressive phenotypes across species. Therefore, a common polymorphism in the MAO A gene (MAOA, Mendelian Inheritance in Men database number 309850, referred to as high or low based on transcription in non-neuronal cells) has been investigated in a number of externalizing behavioral and clinical phenotypes. These studies provide evidence linking the low MAOA genotype and violent behavior but only through interaction with severe environmental stressors during childhood. Here, we hypothesized that in healthy adult males the gene product of MAO A in the brain, rather than the gene per se, would be associated with regulating the concentration of brain amines involved in trait aggression. Brain MAO A activity was measured in vivo in healthy nonsmoking men with positron emission tomography using a radioligand specific for MAO A (clorgyline labeled with carbon 11). Trait aggression was measured with the multidimensional personality questionnaire (MPQ). Here we report for the first time that brain MAO A correlates inversely with the MPQ trait measure of aggression (but not with other personality traits) such that the lower the MAO A activity in cortical and subcortical brain regions, the higher the self-reported aggression (in both MAOA genotype groups) contributing to more than one-third of the variability. Because trait aggression is a measure used to predict antisocial behavior, these results underscore the relevance of MAO A as a neurochemical substrate of aberrant aggression. PMID:18463263

  15. Looking for reward in all the wrong places: dopamine receptor gene polymorphisms indirectly affect aggression through sensation-seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, David S; DeWall, C Nathan; Derefinko, Karen J; Estus, Steven; Lynam, Donald R; Peters, Jessica R; Jiang, Yang

    2016-10-01

    Individuals with genotypes that code for reduced dopaminergic brain activity often exhibit a predisposition toward aggression. However, it remains largely unknown how dopaminergic genotypes may increase aggression. Lower-functioning dopamine systems motivate individuals to seek reward from external sources such as illicit drugs and other risky experiences. Based on emerging evidence that aggression is a rewarding experience, we predicted that the effect of lower-functioning dopaminergic functioning on aggression would be mediated by tendencies to seek the environment for rewards. Caucasian female and male undergraduates (N = 277) were genotyped for five polymorphisms of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene; they reported their previous history of aggression and their dispositional reward-seeking. Lower-functioning DRD2 profiles were associated with greater sensation-seeking, which then predicted greater aggression. Our findings suggest that lower-functioning dopaminergic activity puts individuals at risk for violence because it motivates them to experience aggression's hedonically rewarding qualities. PMID:26592425

  16. Aggressive Erotica and Violence against Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnerstein, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Examines the effects of aggressive-erotic stimuli on male aggression toward females. Male subjects' deliveries of electric shocks to males or females after viewing either a neutral, erotic, or aggressive-erotic film were measured. (Author/SS)

  17. The relation between trait mindfulness and aggression in men seeking residential substance use treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-06-01

    There has been an abundance of research in recent years on mindfulness, including mindfulness within individuals seeking substance use treatment. However, to date, there has been no research on whether trait mindfulness is associated with increased aggression among individuals seeking substance use treatment. Past research has demonstrated that individuals in substance use treatment evidence higher levels of aggression than non-substance abusers, and preliminary research has shown that trait mindfulness is inversely associated with aggression in non-substance-use treatment-seeking populations. The current study examined whether trait mindfulness was associated with aggression among men seeking residential substance use treatment (N = 116). Results demonstrated that lower trait mindfulness was associated with increased aggression (physical, verbal, and aggressive attitude). Moreover, this relation held for both verbal aggression and aggressive attitude after controlling for alcohol use, drug use, and age, all known predictors of aggression. Findings provide the first evidence that mindfulness is negatively associated with aggression among men in substance use treatment, which could have important implications for intervention. That is, mindfulness-based interventions may prove helpful for the treatment of both substance use and aggression. PMID:25192702

  18. Quantifying Aggressive Behavior in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F

    2016-01-01

    Aggression is a complex behavior that influences social relationships and can be seen as adaptive or maladaptive depending on the context and intensity of expression. A model organism suitable for genetic dissection of the underlying neural mechanisms of aggressive behavior is still needed. Zebrafish has already proven to be a powerful vertebrate model organism for the study of normal and pathological brain function. Despite the fact that zebrafish is a gregarious species that forms shoals, when allowed to interact in pairs, both males and females express aggressive behavior and establish dominance hierarchies. Here, we describe two protocols that can be used to quantify aggressive behavior in zebrafish, using two different paradigms: (1) staged fights between real opponents and (2) mirror-elicited fights. We also discuss the methodology for the behavior analysis, the expected results for both paradigms, and the advantages and disadvantages of each paradigm in face of the specific goals of the study. PMID:27464816

  19. ''Aggressive'' renal angiomyolipoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the US and CT examinations of 4 patients with renal angiomyolipoma with an 'aggressive' appearance, and review the literature. The imaging findings in 4 patients with benign renal angiomyolipomas associated with thrombosis of the renal vein and/or inferior vena cava are presented. CT demonstrated fat densities within both tumor and thrombus. In one patient, small lymph nodes with low density internal areas were detected in the para-aortic region. When considering our patients together with those reported in the literature, we found that most angiomyolipomas with venous invasion were large and centrally located within the kidney. Venous thrombosis was observed in 9 lesions of the right kidney, and in only 4 of the left one. One patient only had symptoms due to the thrombus; 10 had problems due to the tumor; and 3 were asymptomatic. Only 4 patients with pararenal enlarged lymph nodes have been reported on in the imaging literature. Fat-containing nodes were detected by CT in one case only; the others had enlarged nodes of soft-tissue density. In one patient the diagnosis of hamartomatous lymph node invasion was established by angiography. In patients with renal angiomyolipoma, demonstration of both fatty thrombus and the fatty infiltration of lymph nodes of the renal hilum cannot be regarded as an indication of malignancy, but only of local aggessive behavior. Conservative treatment seems possible. Detection of enlarged lymph nodes of soft tissue density may cause difficult diagnostic problems, with the diagnosis addressed only by the presence of associated lesions. (orig./MG)

  20. ``Aggressive`` renal angiomyolipoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cittadini, G. Jr. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Pozzi Mucelli, F. [Univ. of Trieste (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Danza, F.M. [Catholic Sacro Cuore Univ., Rome (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Derchi, L.E. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Pozzi Mucelli, R.S. [Univ. of Trieste (Italy). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-11-01

    We describe the US and CT examinations of 4 patients with renal angiomyolipoma with an `aggressive` appearance, and review the literature. The imaging findings in 4 patients with benign renal angiomyolipomas associated with thrombosis of the renal vein and/or inferior vena cava are presented. CT demonstrated fat densities within both tumor and thrombus. In one patient, small lymph nodes with low density internal areas were detected in the para-aortic region. When considering our patients together with those reported in the literature, we found that most angiomyolipomas with venous invasion were large and centrally located within the kidney. Venous thrombosis was observed in 9 lesions of the right kidney, and in only 4 of the left one. One patient only had symptoms due to the thrombus; 10 had problems due to the tumor; and 3 were asymptomatic. Only 4 patients with pararenal enlarged lymph nodes have been reported on in the imaging literature. Fat-containing nodes were detected by CT in one case only; the others had enlarged nodes of soft-tissue density. In one patient the diagnosis of hamartomatous lymph node invasion was established by angiography. In patients with renal angiomyolipoma, demonstration of both fatty thrombus and the fatty infiltration of lymph nodes of the renal hilum cannot be regarded as an indication of malignancy, but only of local aggessive behavior. Conservative treatment seems possible. Detection of enlarged lymph nodes of soft tissue density may cause difficult diagnostic problems, with the diagnosis addressed only by the presence of associated lesions. (orig./MG).

  1. Anabolic/Androgenic Steroid Administration During Adolescence and Adulthood Differentially Modulates Aggression and Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Thomas R.; Ricci, Lesley A.; Melloni, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic/androgenic steroid (AAS) use remains high in both teens and adults in the U.S. and worldwide despite studies showing that AAS use is associated with a higher incidence of aggression and anxiety. Recently we showed that chronic exposure to AAS through adolescence increases aggression and decreases anxious behaviors, while during AAS-withdrawal aggression is lowered to species-normative levels and anxiety increases. AAS exposure is known to differentially alter behaviors and their unde...

  2. Self-Regulation, Emotion Understanding and Aggressive Behaviour in Preschool Boys

    OpenAIRE

    BRAJŠA-ŽGANEC, Andreja; Hanzec, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that children with greater self-regulation exhibit less aggressive behaviour in their everyday interactions with peers. Boys are usually more aggressive than girls, have lower self-regulation and understand primary emotions less. However, those who understand emotions better behave more prosocially. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the relationship of self-regulation and emotion understanding  with regard to aggressive behaviour in preschool b...

  3. The Cross-Cultural Association Between Marital Status and Physical Aggression Between Intimate Partners

    OpenAIRE

    Bernards, Sharon; Graham, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Some research suggests that the risk of physical aggression by an intimate partner is related to marital status, but this relationship may vary across cultures and by gender. In the present study, we systematically examine the relationship between marital status and physical partner aggression by gender across 19 countries. Logistic and multilevel regression confirmed previous findings of lower rates of physical aggression for legally married versus cohabiting and separated/divorced women and...

  4. Mathematical Model of Age Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Golovinski, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    We formulate a mathematical model of competition for resources between representatives of different age groups. A nonlinear kinetic integral-differential equation of the age aggression describes the process of redistribution of resources. It is shown that the equation of the age aggression has a stationary solution, in the absence of age-dependency in the interaction of different age groups. A numerical simulation of the evolution of resources for different initial distributions has done. It ...

  5. Aggression, Pleasure, and Cognitive Dissonance

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado Izquierdo, Jesús María; J. Martín Ramírez

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between aggression, pleasure and decision-making is analyzed applying a mediation model of structural equation modeling (SEM). The study explored it in two samples of similar age: young offenders and university students. A close relationship between aggression and pleasure was found in both populations. But, whereas in the case of university students, this congruence leads to a normal or adjusted behavior, in the case of young offenders, however, a mismatched evaluation of c...

  6. The psychobiology of aggressive behaviour.

    OpenAIRE

    Träskman Bendz, Lil; Westling, Sofie

    2005-01-01

    Among psychiatric illnesses, genetically determined disorders usually have an early onset and a severe and complicated course. Gene-environmental interaction is of importance for aggressive impulsive behaviour. For example, alcoholism type II has a high family loading, a severe course, and is often associated with antisocial behaviour. In order to gain further understanding of aggressive and impulsive behaviour, genes determining serotonin metabolism, neurosteroids and carbohydrate metabolism...

  7. Why are small males aggressive?

    OpenAIRE

    Morrell, Lesley J.; Lindström, Jan; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2005-01-01

    Aggression is ubiquitous in the animal kingdom, whenever the interests of individuals conflict. In contests between animals, the larger opponent is often victorious. However, counter intuitively, an individual that has little chance of winning (generally smaller individuals) sometimes initiates contests. A number of hypotheses have been put forward to explain this behaviour, including the ‘desperado effect’ according to which, the likely losers initiate aggression due to lack of alternative o...

  8. Risking Aggression: Reply to Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Borer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In his paper, “Is There an ‘Anomalous’ Section of the Laffer Curve?”, Walter Block describes some situations in which it appears that a libertarian should violate the non-aggression principle. To rectify this, Block proposes a different perspective on libertarianism which he calls punishment theory. This paper argues that no new theory is needed, as the non-aggression principle can be used to resolve theapparent conundrums.

  9. Risking Aggression: Reply to Block

    OpenAIRE

    Kris Borer

    2010-01-01

    In his paper, “Is There an ‘Anomalous’ Section of the Laffer Curve?”, Walter Block describes some situations in which it appears that a libertarian should violate the non-aggression principle. To rectify this, Block proposes a different perspective on libertarianism which he calls punishment theory. This paper argues that no new theory is needed, as the non-aggression principle can be used to resolve theapparent conundrums.

  10. Resilience in Physically Abused Children: Protective Factors for Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan R. Holmes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aggression continues to be a serious problem among children, especially those children who have experienced adverse life events such as maltreatment. However, there are many maltreated children who show resilient functioning. This study investigated potential protective factors (i.e., child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being that promoted positive adaptation and increased the likelihood of a child engaging in the healthy, normative range of aggressive behavior, despite experiencing physical maltreatment. Logistic regression analyses were conducted using two waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW-I. Children who were physically maltreated were more likely to exhibit clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1 than children who were not physically maltreated. Children’s internalizing well-being, children’s prosocial behavior, and caregivers’ well-being were associated with lower likelihood of clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1. Children’s internalizing well-being and children’s prosocial behavior remained significantly associated with nonclinical aggression 18 months later. These findings highlight the role of protective factors in fostering positive and adaptive behaviors in maltreated children. Interventions focusing on preventing early aggression and reinforcing child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being may be promising in promoting healthy positive behavioral adjustment.

  11. Do Teachers Misbehave? Aggression in School Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing research on school aggression, significant gaps remain in the authors' knowledge of team aggression, since most studies have mainly explored aggression on the part of students. The purpose of this paper is to focus on understanding the phenomenon of workplace aggression in school teams. Specifically, the purpose of the…

  12. Adolescents' Social Reasoning about Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Tisak, Marie S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined early adolescents' reasoning about relational aggression, and the links that their reasoning has to their own relationally aggressive behavior. Thinking about relational aggression was compared to thinking about physical aggression, conventional violations, and personal behavior. In individual interviews, adolescents (N = 103) rated…

  13. Exogenous lipid pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exogenous lipid pneumonia (ELP) is caused by the aspiration of animal, vegetal or, more often, mineral oils. Even though it may also be acute, ELP is most frequently a chronic disease, affecting people with predisposing factors, such as neuromuscular disorders, structural abnormalities and so on; very often exogenous lipid pneumonia is found in tracheotomized patients. The pathology of lipid pneumonia is a chronic inflammatory process evolving in foreign-body-like reaction, and eventually in ''end-stage lung'' condition. Clinically, most patients are asymptomatic; few cases only present with cough, dyspnea and chest pain. Eight cases of ELP, studied over the past 3 years, are described in this paper. All the patients were examined by chest radiographs and standard tomograms; 3 patients underwent CT. X-ray features were mono/bilateral consolidation of the lower zones, with air bronchogram and variable reduction in volume. CT density was not specific for fat tissue. In all cases the diagnosis was confirmed at biopsy. In 5 patients, followed for at least one year, clinical-radiological features showed no change. Thus, complications of ELP (especially malignant evolution) could be excluded. The authors conclude that lipid pneumonia must be considered in differential diagnosis of patients with history of usage of oils and compatible X-ray findings. The usefulness of an accurate follow-up is stressed

  14. Relationship between Levels of Testosterone and Cortisol in Saliva and Aggressive Behaviors of Adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI-ZHEN YU; JUN-XIA SHI

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the endocfinal factors which influence the aggressive behavior of adolescents. Methods The levels of cortisol (CORT), testosterone (T), prolactin (PRL), and growth hormone (GH) in saliva from 20 aggressive students and 20 non-aggressive control students were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The students were matched for their gender, age, grade, stage of pubertal development, and economic status of their families. Results The salivary T levels were 22.20±14.50 pg/mL and 19.54±12.52 pg/mL in aggressive male and female students, 13.20±6.85 pg/mL and 5.24±3.03 pg/mL in non-aggressive male and female students (P<0.05). The male aggressive students had a lower level of CORT in saliva than non-aggressive male students (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the salivary levels of PRL or GH between the aggressive and non-aggressive groups. Correlation analysis revealed a negative relationship in male students between the salivary CORT levels and the aggression factor scores of the child behavior checklist (CBCL). In addition, the data also showed a positive relationship between the salivary T levels and the aggression factor .scores of CBCL in female students. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the salivary CORT level was an independent predictive factor for aggressive behaviors in adolescent boys. The higher the CORT level, the less aggressive the boys were. Conclusion CORT and T levels may play a certain role in adolescent aggressive behaviors.

  15. Appetitive aggression as a resilience factor against trauma disorders: appetitive aggression and PTSD in German World War II veterans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Weierstall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repeated exposure to traumatic stressors such as combat results in chronic symptoms of PTSD. However, previous findings suggest that former soldiers who report combat-related aggression to be appetitive are more resilient to develop PTSD. Appetitive Aggression should therefore prevent widespread mental suffering in perpetrators of severe atrocities even after decades. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To test the long-term relationship between trauma-related illness and attraction to aggression, we surveyed a sample of 51 German male World-War II veterans (age: M = 86.7, SD = 2.8. War-related appetitive aggression was assessed with the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS. Current- and lifetime PTSD symptoms were assessed with the PSS-I. In a linear regression analysis accounting for 31% of the variance we found that veterans that score higher on the AAS show lower PSS-I symptom severity scores across their whole post-war lifetime (β = - .31, p = .014. The effect size and power were sufficient (f(2 = 0.51, (1-β = .99. The same was true for current PTSD (β = - .27, p = .030. CONCLUSIONS: Appetitive Aggression appears to be a resilience factor for negative long-term effects of combat experiences in perpetrators of violence. This result has practical relevance for preventing trauma-related mental suffering in Peace Corps and for designing adequate homecoming reception for veterans.

  16. Kindergarten Children's Genetic Vulnerabilities Interact with Friends' Aggression to Promote Children's Own Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lier, Pol; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. Method: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as teacher and peer reports of aggression of the two best…

  17. Partner aggression in high-risk families from birth to age 3 years: associations with harsh parenting and child maladjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Alice M; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2012-02-01

    Aggression between partners represents a potential guiding force in family dynamics. However, research examining the influence of partner aggression (physically and psychologically aggressive acts by both partners) on harsh parenting and young child adjustment has been limited by a frequent focus on low-risk samples and by the examination of partner aggression at a single time point. Especially in the context of multiple risk factors and around transitions such as childbirth, partner aggression might be better understood as a dynamic process. In the present study, longitudinal trajectories of partner aggression from birth to age 3 years in a large, high-risk, and ethnically diverse sample (N = 461) were examined. Specific risk factors were tested as predictors of aggression over time, and the longitudinal effects of partner aggression on maternal harsh parenting and child maladjustment were examined. Partner aggression decreased over time, with higher maternal depression and lower maternal age predicting greater decreases in partner aggression. While taking into account contextual and psychosocial risk factors, higher partner aggression measured at birth and a smaller decrease over time independently predicted higher levels of maternal harsh parenting at age 3 years. Initial level of partner aggression and change over time predicted child maladjustment indirectly (via maternal harsh parenting). The implications of understanding change in partner aggression over time as a path to harsh parenting and young children's maladjustment in the context of multiple risk factors are discussed. PMID:22201248

  18. Aggression at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Annie

    cohorts. The second Danish survey was the Psychosocial Work Environment Study, 1997, which includes 1,857 randomly selected representatives of the Danish labour force. The third study population was from a Swe­dish stress survey in 2001 of 437 employees in 5 companies.      Approximately 11% of the...... Swedish survey were exposed to nasty teasing, 4.6% to threats of violence and 2.2% to physical violence at work within 12 months. In 2001, 5% reported exposure to bullying in the past six months. Women reported more exposure to violence than men in all years and to nasty teasing in 2000. No gender...... symptoms and a lower physiological stress response. Gender differences in health effects were focused on specifically and reported for exposure to nasty teasing. The results are discussed and different explanations are suggested.      Victims of bullying and nasty teasing reported lower support from co...

  19. Quality of Parent/Adolescent Attachment and Aggression in Young Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Kevin J.; Paternite, Carl E.; Shore, Cecilia

    2001-01-01

    Examined association between adolescents' perception of parent-adolescent attachment quality and adolescent aggression, as mediated by social cognition and self-esteem. Found that higher social cognition was associated with lower self-reported aggression when parent-adolescent attachments and adolescent self-esteem were controlled. When…

  20. Sustained increase in food supplies reduces broodmate aggression in black-legged kittiwakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J.; Leclaire, S.; Kriloff, M.; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Shyla A.; Danchin, E.

    2010-01-01

    The amount of food ingested by chicks has often been suggested as being the main proximate factor controlling broodmate aggression in facultatively siblicidal species. Although several experiments have demonstrated that short-term food deprivation causes a temporary increase in aggression, no study has, to our knowledge, experimentally manipulated overall food supplies and considered long-term effects on chick behaviour and life history traits. We provided supplemental food to breeding pairs of black-legged kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, over an entire breeding season and compared the aggressive behaviour of their chicks with that of chicks of control pairs. Control A-chicks (first to hatch) showed more frequent and intense aggression than their experimental counterparts. Furthermore, the more A-chicks begged and the lower their growth rate the more aggressive they were. The consequences of increased aggression for B-chicks (second to hatch) were lower begging rate, lower growth rate and lower survival. We thus provide evidence that a sustained increase in food availability affects broodmate aggression and chick survival at the nest and we discuss the various proximate and ultimate causes involved in the evolution of broodmate aggression. ?? 2010 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  1. Biomarkers of aggression in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotovac, Kristina; Nikolac Perković, Matea; Pivac, Nela; Borovečki, Fran

    2016-08-01

    Dementia is a clinical syndrome defined by progressive global impairment of acquired cognitive abilities. It can be caused by a number of underlying conditions. The most common types of dementia are Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Despite the fact that cognitive impairment is central to the dementia, noncognitive symptoms, most commonly described nowadays as neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) exist almost always at certain point of the illness. Aggression as one of the NPS represents danger both for patients and caregivers and the rate of aggression correlates with the loss of independence, cognitive decline and poor outcome. Therefore, biomarkers of aggression in dementia patients would be of a great importance. Studies have shown that different genetic factors, including monoamine signaling and processing, can be associated with various NPS including aggression. There have been significant and multiple neurotransmitter changes identified in the brains of patients with dementia and some of these changes have been involved in the etiology of NPS. Aggression specific changes have also been observed in neuropathological studies. The current consensus is that the best approach for development of such biomarkers may be incorporation of genetics (polymorphisms), neurobiology (neurotransmitters and neuropathology) and neuroimaging techniques. PMID:26952705

  2. Exposure to aggressive behaviour and burnout in direct support providers: The role of positive work factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Jennifer M; Lunsky, Yona; Dewa, Carolyn S

    2014-11-11

    Many direct support providers (DSPs) are exposed to aggressive behaviour in their work supporting adults with developmental disabilities service recipients. This is a work environment factor that has been linked to job burnout. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of positive work factors on emotional exhaustion (EE) among DSPs who are exposed to aggressive behaviour. Survey responses from 671 DSPs who were working in community service settings for adults with developmental disabilities, and were exposed to aggressive behaviour at least monthly were examined. Hierarchical linear regression examined the direct contribution and moderating role of positive work factors (self-efficacy for dealing with aggression and work contributions) on EE measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, after controlling for demographics, occupational variables, exposure to aggression and negative emotional reactions to aggression. Results showed that younger age, more experience, more depression/anger emotions in response to aggression, lower self-efficacy and low positive work contributions were significantly associated with EE. Positive work motivation was a moderator of exposure to aggression and EE. When work motivations were low, DSPs were more negatively affected by higher exposure to aggression. These findings suggest that in addition to addressing the negative emotional reactions to the aggressive behaviour encountered at work, it is also important to foster positive work factors which may be protective against EE. PMID:25462500

  3. Viewing relational aggression through multiple lenses: temperament, personality, and personality pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Kushner, Shauna C; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Smack, Avante J; Reardon, Kathleen W

    2014-08-01

    Dispositional trait frameworks offer great potential to elucidate the nature and development of psychopathology, including the construct of relational aggression. The present study sought to explore the dispositional context of relational aggression across three dispositional frameworks: temperament, personality, and personality pathology. Participants comprised a large community sample of youth, aged 6 to 18 years (N = 1,188; 51.2% female). Ratings of children's relational aggression, temperament, personality, and personality pathology traits were obtained through parent report (86.3% mothers). Results showed convergence and divergence across these three dispositional frameworks. Like other antisocial behavior subtypes, relational aggression generally showed connections with traits reflecting negative emotionality and poor self-regulation. Relational aggression showed stronger connections with temperament traits than with personality traits, suggesting that temperament frameworks may capture more relationally aggressive content. Findings at the lower order trait level help differentiate relational aggression from other externalizing problems by providing a more nuanced perspective (e.g., both sociability and shyness positively predicted relational aggression). In addition, there was little evidence of moderation of these associations by gender, age, or age2, and findings remained robust even after controlling for physical aggression. Results are discussed in the broader context of conceptualizing relational aggression in an overarching personality-psychopathology framework. PMID:25047304

  4. Family and social environmental factors associated with aggression among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Chunxia; Wei, Zhen; Jin, Ke; Wang, He; Wang, Xiulan; Peng, Ziwen

    2015-09-01

    Family and school environments are assumed to be associated with and influence aggressive behaviors. However, which specific risk factors within these environments that are associated with aggressive behavior are unclear. The goal of this study is to identify family and social environmental qualities that are related to aggression among Chinese adolescents. Survey data were obtained from 3,213 randomly selected urban high school students ages 10 through 18 in southern China. Lower parental attachment, higher family income, mother's higher education levels, father's parenting goals, rough or changeable parenting styles, unsuitable peer relationships, and inadequate social atmospheres at school serve as risk factors for aggression among Chinese adolescents. Our findings provide some implications for understanding aggression among adolescents and suggests possible interventions to help overcome potential environmental risk factors and thus to prevent aggressive behavior in school. PMID:25496506

  5. Covalently bound lipids in keratinizing epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, F; Swartzendruber, D C; Wertz, P W; Squier, C A

    1993-07-25

    Covalently bound lipids have been identified and compared in keratinizing porcine epithelia including epidermis and oral epithelium from palate and gingiva. Stratum corneum was isolated by tryptic digestion, and after extensive extraction of lipids using a series of chloroform-methanol mixtures, the residual tissue was subjected to alkaline hydrolysis to release covalently bound lipids. The lipids so released were analyzed by quantitative thin-layer chromatography. Stratum corneum from each of the three anatomical sites contained omega-hydroxyceramides, omega-hydroxyacids and fatty acids. In epidermal stratum corneum the total covalently bound lipids represented 2.4% of the dry weight of the tissue, but in the oral epithelia this figure was consistently lower: 0.24% in palatal stratum corneum and 0.20% in gingival stratum corneum. Transmission electron microscopy before and after lipid extraction confirms the presence of a lipid envelope in epidermal stratum corneum and demonstrates the absence of this structure in oral stratum corneum. PMID:8334143

  6. 饮茶与参加太极运动对老年人体成分和血脂水平的影响%Comparison and Research the Effect of Tai Ji on Different tea Like Older Lipid-lowering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦彦丽

    2012-01-01

    To explore the elderly serum six lipid , Tai Ji exercise and moderate tea intervention influence on six lipid. Method :To just joining Lv liang City Tai Ji Association member 128 (not previously conducted exercises) for 10 weeks, Tai Ji exercise, using the bioelectrical impedance method of percentage body fat, using flow cytometry were measured before and after intervention for lipid determination. Results: Tai Ji exercise before and after the intervention of obesity, blood lipid ratio of six compared to the control group and the tea drinking group had significant difference ( P 〈 0.05 ), but the effect of Tai Ji exercise intervention lag of tea polyphenols and Tai Ji exercise superposition.%目的:观察饮茶和参加太极运动锻炼联合干预对老年人身体成分和血脂水平的影响,探讨饮茶与参加太极运动联合干预在减肥降脂方面的协同作用。方法:将刚刚加入吕梁市太极协会的128名老年人(之前未进行过太极锻炼)分为饮茶组与非饮茶组,进行太极运动锻炼干预。锻炼前分别采用生物电阻抗法测量体成分,全自动生化分析仪测定血脂指标,10周后复测。结果:饮茶组和不饮茶组老年人太极运动干预前后体脂百分比、血脂六项均有显著变化,且饮茶组效果好于不饮茶组(P〈0.05),参加太极运动和饮茶在减肥降血脂方面具有叠加效应。结论:饮茶与参加太极运动联合干预在改善老年人身体成分和血脂水平方面具有协同作用。

  7. Aggressive Jungen und gewalthaltige Computerspiele

    OpenAIRE

    Kristen, Astrid

    2010-01-01

    Does playing violent video games increase aggressive behavior over time or is it aggressive children who increasingly seek out (and play) these violent video games? To study such long-term effects a longitudinal design is necessary. Within a field study in a large German city (Kinder, Computer, Hobby, Lernen – KUHL, Freie Universtität Berlin) about 115 elementary school boys attending in the beginning (t1) classrooms of the third and fourth grade and twelve months later (t2) classrooms of the...

  8. Ecology and multilevel selection explain aggression in spider colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernaskie, Jay M; Foster, Kevin R

    2016-08-01

    Progress in sociobiology continues to be hindered by abstract debates over methodology and the relative importance of within-group vs. between-group selection. We need concrete biological examples to ground discussions in empirical data. Recent work argued that the levels of aggression in social spider colonies are explained by group-level adaptation. Here, we examine this conclusion using models that incorporate ecological detail while remaining consistent with kin- and multilevel selection frameworks. We show that although levels of aggression are driven, in part, by between-group selection, incorporating universal within-group competition provides a striking fit to the data that is inconsistent with pure group-level adaptation. Instead, our analyses suggest that aggression is favoured primarily as a selfish strategy to compete for resources, despite causing lower group foraging efficiency or higher risk of group extinction. We argue that sociobiology will benefit from a pluralistic approach and stronger links between ecologically informed models and data. PMID:27264438

  9. The Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle (PACC) helps observers to be able to look beyond behavior and better understand what is occurring beneath the surface. This article presents a real-life example of a seemingly minor conflict between a teacher and child that elicited an apparent major overreaction by the adult. Also provided is a…

  10. Aggressive angiomyxoma of the thigh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare tumour that typically occurs in the perineum in women of reproductive age. A small number of cases occurring in men have been reported, all of which were located in the low pelvis, perineum or scrotum. While benign, the tumour is locally infiltrative and consequently has a high rate of local recurrence following surgery; therefore, accurate pre-operative diagnosis is important. The characteristic location of these tumours in the low pelvis or perineum has led to speculation that aggressive angiomyxomas arise from a mesenchymal cell that is unique to the perineum. We describe a case of aggressive angiomyxoma arising in the thigh of a 54-year-old man, which we believe is the first reported instance of this rare neoplasm occurring remote from the pelvis or perineum in a male patient. Cross-sectional imaging demonstrated a well-defined mass that had low density on CT and high intensity on fluid-sensitive MR sequences. Biopsy was non-diagnostic and excision was performed. At histological analysis, the tumour exhibited the characteristic features of aggressive angiomyxoma, with bland spindle cells and large, hyalinised blood vessels in a hypocellular myxoid matrix. Extensive immunohistochemical staining further supported the diagnosis. While the imaging features of these tumours are non-specific and suggestive of myxoid neoplasms, the diagnosis should be considered whenever biopsy of a myxoid-appearing mass yields hypocellular, non-diagnostic material, despite adequate sampling. (orig.)

  11. Aggressive angiomyxoma of the thigh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffernan, E.J.; Alkubaidan, F.O.; Munk, P.L. [Vancouver General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hayes, M.M. [BC Cancer Agency, Department of Pathology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Clarkson, P.W. [BC Cancer Agency, Department of Surgery, Radiation Oncology and Developmental Radiotherapeutics, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare tumour that typically occurs in the perineum in women of reproductive age. A small number of cases occurring in men have been reported, all of which were located in the low pelvis, perineum or scrotum. While benign, the tumour is locally infiltrative and consequently has a high rate of local recurrence following surgery; therefore, accurate pre-operative diagnosis is important. The characteristic location of these tumours in the low pelvis or perineum has led to speculation that aggressive angiomyxomas arise from a mesenchymal cell that is unique to the perineum. We describe a case of aggressive angiomyxoma arising in the thigh of a 54-year-old man, which we believe is the first reported instance of this rare neoplasm occurring remote from the pelvis or perineum in a male patient. Cross-sectional imaging demonstrated a well-defined mass that had low density on CT and high intensity on fluid-sensitive MR sequences. Biopsy was non-diagnostic and excision was performed. At histological analysis, the tumour exhibited the characteristic features of aggressive angiomyxoma, with bland spindle cells and large, hyalinised blood vessels in a hypocellular myxoid matrix. Extensive immunohistochemical staining further supported the diagnosis. While the imaging features of these tumours are non-specific and suggestive of myxoid neoplasms, the diagnosis should be considered whenever biopsy of a myxoid-appearing mass yields hypocellular, non-diagnostic material, despite adequate sampling. (orig.)

  12. Disparities in lipid management for African Americans and Caucasians with coronary artery disease: A national cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter-Edwards Lori

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with coronary artery disease are at high risk for adverse health outcomes. This risk can be diminished by aggressive lipid management, but adherence to lipid management guidelines is far from ideal and substantial racial disparities in care have been reported. Lipid treatment and goal attainment information is not readily available for large patient populations seen in the fee-for-service setting. As a result, national programs to improve lipid management in this setting may focus on lipid testing as an indicator of lipid management. We describe the detection, treatment, and control of dyslipdemia for African Americans and Caucasians with coronary artery disease to evaluate whether public health programs focusing on lipid testing can eliminate racial disparities in lipid management. Methods Physicians and medical practices with high numbers of prescriptions for coronary artery disease medications were invited to participate in the Quality Assurance Program. Medical records were reviewed from a random sample of patients with coronary artery disease seen from 1995 through 1998. Data related to the detection, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia were abstracted from the medical record and evaluated in cross-sectional stratified and logistic regression analyses using generalized estimation equations. Results Data from the medical records of 1,046 African Americans and 22,077 Caucasians seen in outpatient medical practices in 23 states were analyzed. African-American patients were younger, more likely to be women and to have diabetes, heart failure, and hypertension. The low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C testing rate for Caucasian men was over 1.4 times higher than that for African-American women and about 1.3 times higher than that for African-American men. Almost 60% of tested Caucasian men and less than half of tested African Americans were prescribed lipid-lowering drugs. Tested and treated Caucasian men

  13. When power shapes interpersonal behavior: Low relationship power predicts men's aggressive responses to low situational power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Nickola C; Hammond, Matthew D; McNulty, James K; Finkel, Eli J

    2016-08-01

    When does power in intimate relationships shape important interpersonal behaviors, such as psychological aggression? Five studies tested whether possessing low relationship power was associated with aggressive responses, but (a) only within power-relevant relationship interactions when situational power was low, and (b) only by men because masculinity (but not femininity) involves the possession and demonstration of power. In Studies 1 and 2, men lower in relationship power exhibited greater aggressive communication during couples' observed conflict discussions, but only when they experienced low situational power because they were unable to influence their partner. In Study 3, men lower in relationship power reported greater daily aggressive responses toward their partner, but only on days when they experienced low situational power because they were either (a) unable to influence their partner or (b) dependent on their partner for support. In Study 4, men who possessed lower relationship power exhibited greater aggressive responses during couples' support-relevant discussions, but only when they had low situational power because they needed high levels of support. Study 5 provided evidence for the theoretical mechanism underlying men's aggressive responses to low relationship power. Men who possessed lower relationship power felt less manly on days they faced low situational power because their partner was unwilling to change to resolve relationship problems, which in turn predicted greater aggressive behavior toward their partner. These results demonstrate that fully understanding when and why power is associated with interpersonal behavior requires differentiating between relationship and situational power. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27442766

  14. Aggressive Driving Behavior: Undergraduate Students Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rungson Chomeya

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The main purposes of this research were (1) to study the aggressive driving behavior of graduate students, (2) to develop aggressive driving behavior standard test, (3) to compare the aggressive driving behavior between gender, years of study, academic achievement, driving confidence and driving experience and (4) to study the relationship among aggressive driving behavior, driving confidence, driving experience and accident experience. Approach: The subjects consisted of 4...

  15. Violent video games stress people out and make them more aggressive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Youssef; Bègue, Laurent; Bushman, Brad J

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that violent video games increase aggression, and that stress increases aggression. Many violent video games can be stressful because enemies are trying to kill players. The present study investigates whether violent games increase aggression by inducing stress in players. Stress was measured using cardiac coherence, defined as the synchronization of the rhythm of breathing to the rhythm of the heart. We predicted that cardiac coherence would mediate the link between exposure to violent video games and subsequent aggression. Specifically, we predicted that playing a violent video game would decrease cardiac coherence, and that cardiac coherence, in turn, would correlate negatively with aggression. Participants (N = 77) played a violent or nonviolent video game for 20 min. Cardiac coherence was measured before and during game play. After game play, participants had the opportunity to blast a confederate with loud noise through headphones during a reaction time task. The intensity and duration of noise blasts given to the confederate was used to measure aggression. As expected, violent video game players had lower cardiac coherence levels and higher aggression levels than did nonviolent game players. Cardiac coherence, in turn, was negatively related to aggression. This research offers another possible reason why violent games can increase aggression-by inducing stress. Cardiac coherence can be a useful tool to measure stress induced by violent video games. Cardiac coherence has several desirable methodological features as well: it is noninvasive, stable against environmental disturbances, relatively inexpensive, not subject to demand characteristics, and easy to use. PMID:23097053

  16. Neurobiology of escalated aggression and violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miczek, Klaus A.; de Almeida, Rosa M. M.; Kravitz, Edward A.; Rissman, Emilie F.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Raine, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Psychopathological violence in criminals and intense aggression in fruit flies and rodents are studied with novel behavioral, neurobiological, and genetic approaches that characterize the escalation from adaptive aggression to violence. One goal is to delineate the type of aggressive behavior and it

  17. Understanding and Preventing Aggressive Responses in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Jeannine

    1996-01-01

    Fighting violence requires a networking approach among schools, community, and parents. This article advises elementary school counselors: (a) focus on the causes of aggression; (b) identify children with the propensity for behaving aggressively; and (c) prevent aggressive responses in children and adolescents by introducing techniques and…

  18. Aggression in the Dreams of Blind Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtley, Donald D.; Sabo, Kenneth T.

    1983-01-01

    Aggressive content of dreams was compared for 11 visually handicapped adult females and normally sighted college females. Dream diaries were content-analyzed by means of the aggression scale of the Hall-Van de Castle content-analysis system. Visually handicapped adults, as a group, exhibited far more verbal and covert aggression. (Author/CL)

  19. Fantasy Aggression and the Catharsis Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Sharon Baron; Zelin, Martin

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of fantasy aggression on blood pressure, affective states, and probability of subsequent aggression. The results are inconclusive because of the limited range of fantasy stimuli used and the short amount of time allowed for aggression to occur. (Author/KM)

  20. Social Aggression on Television and Its Relationship to Children's Aggression in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Nicole; Wilson, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted with over 500 children in grades K-5 to examine whether exposure to socially aggressive content was related to children's use of social aggression. The results of the survey revealed a significant relationship between exposure to televised social aggression and increased social aggression at school, but only for girls and…

  1. Therapies for type 2 diabetes: lowering HbA1c and associated cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurukulasuriya L Romayne

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To summarize data supporting the effects of antidiabetes agents on glucose control and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Studies reporting on the effects of antidiabetes agents on glycemic control, body weight, lipid levels, and blood pressure parameters are reviewed and summarized for the purpose of selecting optimal therapeutic regimens for patients with type 2 diabetes. Results National guidelines recommend the aggressive management of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes, including weight loss and achieving lipid and blood pressure treatment goals. All antidiabetes pharmacotherapies lower glucose; however, effects on cardiovascular risk factors vary greatly among agents. While thiazolidinediones, sulfonylureas, and insulin are associated with weight gain, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors are considered weight neutral and metformin can be weight neutral or associated with a small weight loss. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and amylinomimetics (e.g. pramlintide result in weight loss. Additionally, metformin, thiazolidinediones, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists have demonstrated beneficial effects on lipid and blood pressure parameters. Conclusion Management of the cardiovascular risk factors experienced by patients with type 2 diabetes requires a multidisciplinary approach with implementation of treatment strategies to achieve not only glycemic goals but to improve and/or correct the underlying cardiovascular risk factors.

  2. Lowering triglycerides to modify cardiovascular risk: will icosapent deliver?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherer DJ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Scherer,1 Stephen J Nicholls2 1Cardiovascular Investigation Unit, Royal Adelaide Hospital, 2South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: Despite the clinical benefits of lowering levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, many patients continue to experience cardiovascular events. This residual risk suggests that additional risk factors require aggressive modification to result in more effective prevention of cardiovascular disease. Hypertriglyceridemia has presented a considerable challenge with regard to understanding its role in the promotion of cardiovascular risk. Increasing evidence has established a clear causal role for elevated triglyceride levels in vascular risk. As a result, there is increasing interest in the development of specific therapeutic strategies that directly target hypertriglyceridemia. This has seen a resurgence in the use of omega-3 fatty acids for the therapeutic lowering of triglyceride levels. The role of these agents and other emerging strategies to reduce triglyceride levels in order to decrease vascular risk are reviewed. Keywords: hypertriglyceridemia, omega-3 fatty acid, fish oil, cardiovascular risk, lipids

  3. The frontal lobe and aggression

    OpenAIRE

    SÉGUIN, JEAN R.

    2009-01-01

    Frontal lesions often lead to psychosocial problems. It is not surprising that frontal lobe dysfunctions have been proposed to underlie antisocial behaviour in individuals without apparent lesions. However, physical aggression and violence have never been systematically related to acquired lesions. Whereas, traditional neuropsychological testing identifies problems in cognitive and emotional information processing, recent brain-imaging studies have revealed both the frontal structural and fun...

  4. Imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeyadevan, N.N.; Sohaib, S.A.A.; Thomas, J.M.; Jeyarajah, A.; Shepherd, J.H.; Fisher, C

    2003-02-01

    AIM: To describe the imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma in a rare benign mesenchymal tumour most frequently arising from the perineum in young female patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of patients with aggressive angiomyxoma who were referred to our hospital. The imaging features were correlated with clinical information and pathology in all patients. RESULTS: Four CT and five MR studies were available for five patients (all women, mean age 39, range 24-55). Three patients had recurrent tumour at follow-up. CT and MR imaging demonstrated a well-defined mass-displacing adjacent structures. The tumour was of low attenuation relative to muscle on CT. On MR, the tumour was isointense relative to muscle on T1-weighted image, hyperintense on T2-weighted image and enhanced avidly after gadolinium contrast with a characteristic 'swirled' internal pattern. MR imaging demonstrates the extent of the tumour and its relation to the pelvic floor. Recurrent tumour has a similar appearance to the primary lesion. CONCLUSION: The MR appearances of aggressive angiomyxomas are characteristic, and the diagnosis should be considered in any young woman presenting with a well-defined mass arising from the perineum. Jeyadevan, N. N. etal. (2003). Clinical Radiology58, 157--162.

  5. Imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To describe the imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma in a rare benign mesenchymal tumour most frequently arising from the perineum in young female patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of patients with aggressive angiomyxoma who were referred to our hospital. The imaging features were correlated with clinical information and pathology in all patients. RESULTS: Four CT and five MR studies were available for five patients (all women, mean age 39, range 24-55). Three patients had recurrent tumour at follow-up. CT and MR imaging demonstrated a well-defined mass-displacing adjacent structures. The tumour was of low attenuation relative to muscle on CT. On MR, the tumour was isointense relative to muscle on T1-weighted image, hyperintense on T2-weighted image and enhanced avidly after gadolinium contrast with a characteristic 'swirled' internal pattern. MR imaging demonstrates the extent of the tumour and its relation to the pelvic floor. Recurrent tumour has a similar appearance to the primary lesion. CONCLUSION: The MR appearances of aggressive angiomyxomas are characteristic, and the diagnosis should be considered in any young woman presenting with a well-defined mass arising from the perineum. Jeyadevan, N. N. etal. (2003). Clinical Radiology58, 157--162

  6. Rural neighborhoods and child aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Natasha K; Wretman, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to evaluate the direct and mediated effects of a neighborhood risk factor (negative teen behaviors) on the parent-report aggressive behavior of 213 students in grades 3 through 5 attending a school in a low-income, rural community. Contagion and social control hypotheses were examined as well as hypotheses about whether the neighborhood served as a microsystem or exosystem for rural pre-adolescents. Analyses took into account the clustering of students and ordinal nature of the data. Findings suggest that rural neighborhoods may operate as both a microsystem and exosystem for children, with direct contagion effects on their aggressive behaviors as well as indirect social control effects through parenting practices. Direct effects on aggression were also found for parenting practices and child reports of friends' negative behaviors. Pre-adolescence may be a transitional stage, when influences of the neighborhood on child behavior begin to compete with influences of caregivers. Findings can inform the timing and targets of violence prevention in rural communities. PMID:25205545

  7. An Investigation into the Phenomenon of Aggressiveness among Yazd Citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Alireza Afshani

    2015-09-01

    factor analysis, namely, attitude to aggression, tendency to revenge and tendency to aggression, the concept of aggression was divided into 3 dimensions. Diner et al.'s scale of life satisfaction comprised of 5 items, access to welfare facilities comprised of 7 items, and aggression objective experience comprised of 3 items constitute other sections of the instrument. The reliability coefficient for aggression scale was 0.89, 0.85 for life satisfaction and 0.87 for access to welfare to facilities.     Discussion of Results and Conclusions   Based on the descriptive findings, from among the total number of 324 respondents, 147 were single (45.4% and 177 were married (54.6%. The age mean was 29.77. Among the respondents, 34.9 percent had diploma (associate degree or lower and 65.1 percent had a higher degree. The individuals' mean of aggression on the scale of 12-92 was equal to 42.66, the mean of aggression objective experience on the scale of 0-3 was 1.65, mean of life satisfaction on the scale of 5-25 was equal to 16.31, and mean of access to welfare facilities on the scale of 7-35 was equal to 22.64.   Most of the variables have a statistically significant correlation with each other. Age variable has a significant and negative relationship with other variables except life satisfaction and income. Tendency to aggression (r = -0.228 and tendency to revenge (r= -0.226 variables have a significant, negative relationship with age, indicating that young people have a more tendency to get involved in acts of aggression and revenge than the elderly.   Income variable has a positive and significant relationship with life satisfaction (r= 0.158 and access to welfare facilities (r= 0.189 variables, that is, as income increases, their access to facilities will rise and hence, their life satisfaction will increase. But income does not have a significant relationship with other variables.   The phenomena of aggression in a society produces challenges and problems that create

  8. Aggression: peculiarities of manifestation and coping strategies in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Budykin A.V.; Budykin S.V.; Zhigachev A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Aggression management is becoming increasingly important task in modern society, as the number of situations that provoke aggression increases. Particular attention should be paid to aggression in adolescence. The world economic crisis contributes to the increase in the level of aggressiveness. The incidence of auto-aggression also increases. Suppressed aggression leads to the development of psychosomatic disorders. Experts agree that aggression is bad, but just suppressing aggressive reactio...

  9. Lipid14: The Amber Lipid Force Field

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson, Callum J.; Madej, Benjamin D.; Skjevik, Åge A.; Betz, Robin M.; Teigen, Knut; Gould, Ian R.; Walker, Ross C.

    2014-01-01

    The AMBER lipid force field has been updated to create Lipid14, allowing tensionless simulation of a number of lipid types with the AMBER MD package. The modular nature of this force field allows numerous combinations of head and tail groups to create different lipid types, enabling the easy insertion of new lipid species. The Lennard-Jones and torsion parameters of both the head and tail groups have been revised and updated partial charges calculated. The force field has been validated by si...

  10. Antisocial personality disorder, alcohol, and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, F G; Dougherty, D M

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies and laboratory research consistently link alcohol use with aggression. Not all people, however, exhibit increased aggression under the influence of alcohol. Recent research suggests that people with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may be more prone to alcohol-related aggression than people without ASPD. As a group, people with ASPD have higher rates of alcohol dependence and more alcohol-related problems than people without ASPD. Likewise, in laboratory studies, people with ASPD show greater increases in aggressive behavior after consuming alcohol than people without ASPD. The association between ASPD and alcohol-related aggression may result from biological factors, such as ASPD-related impairments in the functions of certain brain chemicals (e.g., serotonin) or in the activities of higher reasoning, or "executive," brain regions. Alternatively, the association between ASPD and alcohol-related aggression may stem from some as yet undetermined factor(s) that increase the risk for aggression in general. PMID:11496966

  11. Perceptions of Parenting Practices as Predictors of Aggression in a Low-Income, Urban, Predominately African American Middle School Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Kantahyanee W.; Haynie, Denise L.; Howard, Donna E.; Tina L. Cheng; SIMONS-MORTON, BRUCE

    2010-01-01

    This research examined the relation between early adolescent aggression and parenting practices in an urban, predominately African American sample. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their overt and relational aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers’ parenting practices. Findings indicated that moderate levels of parental expectations for peaceful solutions at Time 1 were associated with a lower likelihood of overt aggression at Time 2. Furthermore, findings sug...

  12. [Effects of essential oil on lipid peroxidation and lipid metabolism in patients with chronic bronchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siurin, S A

    1997-01-01

    Natural concentrations of some essential oils were examined for effects on the system lipid peroxidation-antioxidant defense and lipid metabolism in 150 patients with chronic bronchitis. Lowering of plasm levels of dienic conjugates and ketons, activation of catalase in red cells characteristic of antioxidant effect were observed in exposure to essential oils of rosemary, basil, fir, eucalyptus. Lavender essential oil promotes normalization of the level of total lipids, ratio of total cholesterol to its alpha-fraction. PMID:9490339

  13. Prevention of coronary and stroke events with atorvastatin in hypertensive patients who have average or lower-than-average cholesterol concentrations, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial--Lipid Lowering Arm (ASCOT-LLA): a multicentre randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sever, Peter S; Dahlöf, Björn; Poulter, Neil R; Wedel, Hans; Beevers, Gareth; Caulfield, Mark; Collins, Rory; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Kristinsson, Arni; McInnes, Gordon T; Mehlsen, Jesper; Nieminen, Markku; O'Brien, Eoin; Ostergren, Jan

    2003-01-01

    The lowering of cholesterol concentrations in individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease improves outcome. No study, however, has assessed benefits of cholesterol lowering in the primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) in hypertensive patients who are not conventionally deemed ...

  14. Prevention of coronary and stroke events with atorvastatin in hypertensive patients who have average or lower-than-average cholesterol concentrations, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial--Lipid Lowering Arm (ASCOT-LLA): a multicentre randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sever, Peter S; Dahlöf, Björn; Poulter, Neil R; Wedel, Hans; Beevers, Gareth; Caulfield, Mark; Collins, Rory; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Kristinsson, Arni; McInnes, Gordon T; Mehlsen, Jesper; Nieminen, Markku; O'Brien, Eoin; Ostergren, Jan

    The lowering of cholesterol concentrations in individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease improves outcome. No study, however, has assessed benefits of cholesterol lowering in the primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) in hypertensive patients who are not conventionally deemed ...

  15. Student nurses' perceptions of aggression: An exploratory study of defensive styles, aggression experiences, and demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Hulya; Keser Ozcan, Neslihan; Tulek, Zeliha; Kaya, Fadime; Boyacioglu, Nur Elcin; Erol, Ozgul; Arguvanli Coban, Sibel; Pazvantoglu, Ozan; Gumus, Kubra

    2016-06-01

    Throughout the clinical learning process, nursing students' perception of aggression might have implications in terms of their future professional behavior toward patients. Using a descriptive cross-sectional design, we investigated the relationships between student nurses' perceptions of aggression and their personal characteristics, defense styles, and a convenience sample of 1539 experiences of aggressive behavior in clinical practice. Information about the students' personal features, their clinical practice, and experiences of aggressive behavior was obtained by questionnaire. The Turkish version of the Perception of Aggression Scale and Defense Styles Questionnaire-40 were also used. Students were frequently exposed to verbal aggression from patients and their relatives. And perceived patient aggression negatively, perception of aggression were associated with sex, defense styles, feelings of safety, and experiences of aggressions during clinical practice. Of interest is the reality that student nurses should be prepared for untoward events during their training. PMID:26916604

  16. Extraction of microalgal lipids and the influence of polar lipids on biodiesel production by lipase-catalyzed transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro López, Elvira; Robles Medina, Alfonso; González Moreno, Pedro Antonio; Esteban Cerdán, Luis; Molina Grima, Emilio

    2016-09-01

    In order to obtain microalgal saponifiable lipids (SLs) fractions containing different polar lipid (glycolipids and phospholipids) contents, SLs were extracted from wet Nannochloropsis gaditana microalgal biomass using seven extraction systems, and the polar lipid contents of some fractions were reduced by low temperature acetone crystallization. We observed that the polar lipid content in the extracted lipids depended on the polarity of the first solvent used in the extraction system. Lipid fractions with polar lipid contents between 75.1% and 15.3% were obtained. Some of these fractions were transformed into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs, biodiesel) by methanolysis, catalyzed by the lipases Novozym 435 and Rhizopus oryzae in tert-butanol medium. We observed that the reaction velocity was higher the lower the polar lipid content, and that the final FAME conversions achieved after using the same lipase batch to catalyze consecutive reactions decreased in relation to an increase in the polar lipid content. PMID:27323242

  17. Extra-Abdominal Aggressive Fibromatosis Presenting As an Intrathoracic Tumor

    OpenAIRE

    YÖRÜK, Yener; KARAMUSTAFAOĞLU, Yekta Altemur; Sezer, Yavuz Atakan; İbiş, Abdil Cem

    2010-01-01

    Tumors of fibrous tissue origin (fibromatosis) in chest and mediastinum have been rarely reported in the literature. Herein, we report a rare case of aggressive fibromatosis presenting as an intrathoracic tumor. A 36-year-old woman admitted to our hospital due to a feeling of oppression and pain in the left chest. A chest X-ray, thorax computed tomography revealed a large mass filling two thirds of lower left thorax. Widely surgical resection of the tumor was performed thoracotomy via seventh...

  18. Simulation study of a gramicidin/lipid bilayer system in excess water and lipid. I. Structure of the molecular complex.

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, S. W.; Subramaniam, S.; Jakobsson, E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on a simulation of a gramicidin channel inserted into a fluid phase DMPC bilayer with 100 lipid molecules. Two lipid molecules per leaflet were removed to insert the gramicidin, so the resulting preparation had 96 lipid molecules and 3209 water molecules. Constant surface tension boundary conditions were employed. Like previous simulations with a lower lipid/gramicidin ratio (Woolf, T. B., and B. Roux. 1996. Proteins: Struct., Funct., Genet. 24:92-114), it is found that try...

  19. 强化降脂治疗对高血压合并高脂血症患者动脉脉搏波传导速度的影响%Effect of Artery Pulse Wave Velocity by Intensive Lipid-lowering Therapy in Patients with Hypertension Combined Hyperlipidemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖奕华; 邓云梅; 胡晶晶; 马艳丽; 樊琳

    2013-01-01

      目的:观察强化降脂治疗对高血压合并高脂血症患者动脉脉搏波传导速度的影响。方法:99例1、2级高血压病合并高脂血症患者随机分为强化降脂组50例和对照组49例,两组患者降压治疗均选用硝苯地平缓释片、缬沙坦;使患者血压降至140/90 mm Hg以下。降脂治疗选用阿托伐他汀钙,对照组血脂水平降至TC<5.18 mmol/L、LDL-C<3.37 mmol/L;强化降脂组血脂水平降至TC<4.11 mmol/L、LDL-C<2.60 mmol/L;疗程均为6个月。观察治疗前后患者血压、臂踝动脉脉搏波传导速度(baPWV)、血脂、高敏C反应蛋白(hs-CRP)和血浆内皮素(ET)的变化。结果:与正常值相比,两组患者baPWV、ET、hs-CRP水平均明显升高,比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01),治疗6个月后有明显回落(P<0.01),其中强化降脂组治疗后降低更为明显,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:对轻中度高血压合并高脂血症患者,在控制血压基础上,强化降脂治疗,可进一步改善患者的臂踝动脉脉搏波传导速度、降低hs-CRP和ET水平,对改善患者的血管功能状态有积极临床意义。%Objective:To observe the effect of pulse wave velocity by intensive lipid-lowering therapy in patients with hypertension combined hyperlipidemia.Method:100 cases of hypertension grade 1 and 2 combined with hyperlipidemia were randomly divided into 49 cases of control group and 50 cases intensive lipid-lowering group.Antihypertensive treatment with nifedipine in both groups,valsartan(blood pressure drop to below 140/90 mm Hg);Lipid-lowering therapy with atorvastatin calcium,the lipid levels was:TC<5.00 mmol/L,LDL-C<3.1 mmol/L in control group,and TC<4.11 mmol/L, LDL-C<2.6 mmol/L in intensive lipid-lowering group.The course of treatment was six months,the artery pulse wave velocity(baPWV),blood pressure, total cholesterol(TC),triglyceride(TG),high density lipoprotein

  20. Understanding child directed caregiver aggression: An examination of characteristics and predictors associated with perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkout, Olga V; Kolko, David J

    2016-06-01

    Child physical abuse presents a substantial public health concern with lasting negative consequences for victims. Understanding the variables associated with perpetration can help inform prevention and intervention efforts. The current study examined background and clinical variables in a sample of 195 help-seeking caregivers who were at risk for or had been identified as having engaged in child directed aggression or abuse. We found that caregivers who did (vs. did not) report severe child directed aggression had poorer parenting and reported more drug use. Having a recent allegation of child physical abuse (vs. no allegation) based on official child welfare records was unrelated to parenting, drug and alcohol use, negative affect, parenting stress, or neglect. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the influence of parenting stress on child directed aggression and its effects through negative affect and positive parenting. We found that parenting stress predicted higher negative affect, which was related to greater child directed aggression. Additionally, parenting stress predicted lower positive parenting, which in turn predicted lower child directed aggression. A model including drug and alcohol use did not add to the prediction of child directed aggression. Prediction of neglect using similar variables found that only positive parenting was of import and that parenting stress and negative affect did not contribute to neglect. Implications for future prevention and treatment development efforts with abusive/aggressive caregivers are discussed. PMID:27131453

  1. What lies beneath the face of aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Justin M; Murphy, Kelly R; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-02-01

    Recent evidence indicates that a sexually dimorphic feature of humans, the facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR), is positively correlated with reactive aggression, particularly in men. Also, predictions about the aggressive tendencies of others faithfully map onto FWHR in the absence of explicit awareness of this metric. Here, we provide the first evidence that amygdala reactivity to social signals of interpersonal challenge may underlie the link between aggression and the FWHR. Specifically, amygdala reactivity to angry faces was positively correlated with aggression, but only among men with relatively large FWHRs. The patterns of association were specific to angry facial expressions and unique to men. These links may reflect the common influence of pubertal testosterone on craniofacial growth and development of neural circuitry underlying aggression. Amygdala reactivity may also represent a plausible pathway through which FWHR may have evolved to represent an honest indicator of conspecific threat, namely by reflecting the responsiveness of neural circuitry mediating aggressive behavior. PMID:22198969

  2. Understanding Aggressive Behavior Across the Life Span

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jianghong; Lewis, Gary; Evans, Lois

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is the observable manifestation of aggression and is often associated with developmental transitions and a range of medical and psychiatric diagnoses across the lifespan. As healthcare professionals involved in the medical and psychosocial care of patients from birth through death, nurses frequently encounter—and may serve as—both victims and perpetrators of aggressive behavior in the workplace. While the nursing literature has continually reported research on prevention a...

  3. What lies beneath the face of aggression?

    OpenAIRE

    Carré, Justin M.; Murphy, Kelly R.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that a sexually dimorphic feature of humans, the facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR), is positively correlated with reactive aggression, particularly in men. Also, predictions about the aggressive tendencies of others faithfully map onto FWHR in the absence of explicit awareness of this metric. Here, we provide the first evidence that amygdala reactivity to social signals of interpersonal challenge may underlie the link between aggression and the FWHR. Specifically, ...

  4. Family Values and Female's Psychological Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Edalati; Ma'rof Redzuan; Mariani Mansor; Mansor A.   Talib

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The main objective of the current study is to determine the relationship between womens perceptions toward Iranian family values with psychological aggression. Approach: All of the randomly selected 337 wives who suffered from level of psychological aggression were included in this study. Straus questionnaire (CTS) is the method used to measure psychological aggression. It shows a negative relationship between family values (inequality in affairs and inequality in regulatio...

  5. Prosocial video games reduce aggressive cognitions

    OpenAIRE

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Osswald, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Previous research has shown that playing violent video games increased aggressive tendencies. However, as pointed out by the General Learning Model (GLM) (Buckley & Anderson, 2006), depending on their content, video games do not inevitably increase but may also decrease aggressive responses. Accordingly, the present research tested the hypothesis that playing prosocial video games decreases aggressive cognitions. In fact, playing a prosocial (relative to a neutral) video g...

  6. Aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity classification

    OpenAIRE

    A.V. Tereshchenko,; Yu. A. Belyy; M. S. Tereshchenkova; I. G. Trifanenkova

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Based on dynamic monitoring of 133 premature infants (266 eyes) with aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), digital retinoscopy and computer morphometry the disease clinical and morphometric features were revealed and systematized, and their consecutive replacement was fixed. As a result the separate classification of aggressive posterior disease was worked up. In aggressive posterior ROP course the next consecutive stages were marked out: subclinical, early ...

  7. Affective Dependence and Aggression: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Filippo Petruccelli; Pierluigi Diotaiuti; Valeria Verrastro; Irene Petruccelli; Roberta Federico; Giovanni Martinotti; Andrea Fossati; Massimo Di Giannantonio; Luigi Janiri

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Emotionally dependent subjects may engage in controlling, restrictive, and aggressive behaviours, which limit their partner's autonomy. The underlying causes of such behaviours are not solely based on levels of aggression, but act as a mean of maintaining the subject's own sense of self-worth, identity, and general functioning. Objective. The aim of the paper is to explore the correlation between affective dependency and reactive/proactive aggression and to evaluate individual d...

  8. Neurobiological Basis of Reactive Aggression: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Shiina A

    2015-01-01

    Reactive aggression is a response to salient threats that may have evolved as a strategy for survival. The likelihood of its outburst is mediated by several factors including the activity of serotonin and other neurotransmitters that regulate reactive aggression through the corticolimbic circuit. Specifically, this circuit is modulated by monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) such that low levels of activity incline an animal to impulsive behavior. Evidence also indicates that aggressive ...

  9. Aggression, anger and violence in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    M.J. Masango

    2004-01-01

    This article traces the roots of aggression, anger and violence in South Africa and the rest of the world. The paper is divided into four parts: Aggression, Anger, Catharsis and Violence. As a result of violence against other human beings, especially women and children, a profound respect for human dignity has been lost. People have become extremely aggressive. The last few decades have created a culture of violence because of the suppression or oppression of feelings. The article argues that...

  10. Aggression and Brain Asymmetries: A Theoretical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rohlfs , Paloma; Ramirez, J. Martin

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between aggression and brain asymmetries has not been studied enough. The association between both concepts can be approached from two different perspectives. One perspective points to brain asymmetries underlying the emotion of anger and consequently aggression in normal people. Another one is concerned with the existence of brain asymmetries in aggressive people (e.g., in the case of suicides or psychopathies). Research on emotional processing points out the confusion betw...

  11. Understanding Relations Among Early Family Environment, Cortisol Response, and Child Aggression via a Prevention Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    O’Neal, Colleen R.; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Huang, Keng-Yen; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Calzada, Esther J.; Pine, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined relations among family environment, cortisol response, and behavior in the context of a randomized controlled trial with 92 children (M = 48 months) at risk for antisocial behavior. Previously, researchers reported an intervention effect on cortisol response in anticipation of a social challenge. The current study examined whether changes in cortisol response were related to later child aggression. Among lower warmth families, the intervention effect on aggression was larg...

  12. Video media-induced aggressiveness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Michael Steven

    2013-09-01

    Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented. PMID:24002556

  13. Gibbon Aggression During Introductions: An International Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harl, Heather; Stevens, Lisa; Margulis, Susan W; Petersen, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding the prevalence of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). In this study, an online survey was developed to quantify and collect contextual details regarding the frequency and types of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). Nineteen percent of institutions (17 institutions) reported observing aggression, and 6 of these institutions recorded multiple instances of aggression, though a vast majority of these cases resulted in mild injuries or none at all. The female was the primary aggressor in 23% of cases, the male was the primary aggressor in 58% of cases, and both were the primary aggressor in 1 case. Although these aggressive interactions were often not associated with a known cause, 27% of cases were associated with food displacement. In most cases, management changes, including trying new pairings, greatly reduced situational aggression, suggesting that individual personalities may play a factor in aggression. These data begin to explain the extent of aggression observed in captive gibbons; future studies will address possible correlations with aggression and introduction techniques. PMID:26963568

  14. Discourses of aggression in forensic mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berring, Lene L; Pedersen, Liselotte; Buus, Niels

    2015-01-01

    aggression is communicated in forensic mental health nursing records. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the discursive practices used by forensic mental health nursing staff when they record observed aggressive incidents. Textual accounts were extracted from the Staff Observation Aggression Scale....... These antecedents, combined with the aggression incident itself, created stereotyping representations of forensic psychiatric patients as deviant, unpredictable and dangerous. Patient and staff identities were continually (re)produced by an automatic response from the staff that was solely focused on the patient...

  15. [Confrontation with aggression - psychopathological patterns of behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauchard, J P

    1981-01-01

    Man in our society is less and less able to manage his own aggression or aggression of others. Psychopathologic patterns of reaction appearing thereby are demonstrated on the example of the soldier, and relations to stress theories are discussed. Conditions of formation and consequences of suppression of aggression are shown on the example of the recruit with fear of shooting or failure in basic training; similar manifestations in non-military life are referred to. The necessity of an education to adequate management of aggression is stressed. PMID:7313590

  16. 优化联合降脂:糖尿病高危患者剩留血管风险干预的再认识%Optimization of combined lipid-lowering therapy:reassessment of the intervention of residual cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高燕; 赵水平

    2014-01-01

    patients by combined lipid-lowering strategies becomes a hot topic.There for, the latest researches on optimization of combined lipid therapy and reduction of residual cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients are reviewed in this article. Diabetic patients are often characterized by atherogenic dyslipidemia profile, that is, low level of HDL and increased level of triglycerides;the latter is associated with coronary artery disease and diabetic microvascular complications. Etiological targeting treatment and life style intervention are the fundamental therapies for atherogenic dyslipidemia of diabetes.Concurrent guidelines recommend statins therapy as the cornerstone of lipid lowering in diabetes treatment, but the high dose of statins could lead to the rise of adverse effects and cardiovascular events. All the fibrates show positive effect against atherogenic dyslipidemia, besides different members of this drug class have different extra benefit other than lipid modulation. Combination of statin and fibrate can more effectively improve the atherosclerotic lipid profile on reduction of LDL-C and increase of HDL-C than monotherapy of statin, thus reducing the risk of major cardiovascular events and having no significant adverse effects. It is necessary to choose evidentially safer statins and fibrates for combined therapy in clinical practice. Considering the dose-dependent increase of blood glucose by statin therapy ,whihe bezafibrato is better than fenofibrate in the extra benefit of improving abnormal glucose metabolism and weight control ,theoretically the combination of bezafibrate and statins may have synergistic effect in modulating lipids and reversing the increased blood glucose by statins to prevent the onset of new diabetes. It is still necessary to compare the efficacy and safety of different combined lipid-lowering regimes on modulation of gluco-lipid metabolism and reduction of residual cardiov-ascular risk in diabetes in clinical real world.

  17. Effects of viewing relational aggression on television on aggressive behavior in adolescents: A three-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M

    2016-02-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing relational aggression on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of different questionnaires involving media and aggression at 3 different time points. Results revealed that viewing relational aggression on TV was longitudinally associated with future relational aggression. However, early levels of relational aggression did not predict future exposure to televised relational aggression. Conversely, there was a bidirectional relationship between TV violence and physical aggression over time. No longitudinal evidence was found for a general effect of viewing TV, as all significant media effects were specific to the type of aggression viewed. These results support the general aggression model and suggest that viewing relational aggression in the media can have a long-term effect on aggressive behavior during adolescence. PMID:26595354

  18. The impact of lipid composition on the stability of the tear fluid lipid layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulovesi, P.; Telenius, J.; Koivuniemi, A.;

    2012-01-01

    The tear fluid protects the corneal epithelium from drying and pathogens and it also provides nutrients to these cells. Tear fluid is composed of an aqueous layer as well as a lipid layer that resides at the air-tear interface. The function of the lipid layer is to lower the surface tension of the...... tear fluid and probably prevent evaporation. We have studied the impact of lipid composition on the structural and dynamical properties of the tear lipid film using Langmuir films, X-ray diffraction, and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. Based on recently published lipidomic data, we have...... selected a number of model systems comprised of phospholipids, cholesteryl oleates, triglycerides, and free fatty acids to study how the organization, stability, and dynamics of the lipid layer depend on its composition. In particular our aim is to unravel how excess neutral lipids affect the stability and...

  19. Social Likeability, Subtypes of Aggression, and the Attributional Style of Aggressive Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Blier, Heather K.

    2001-01-01

    Recent efforts to understand and predict the onset and maintenance of aggression have considered the heterogeneity of this behavior. Dodge (1980) and others, have suggested a distinction in aggression based on two primary subtypes: reactive and proactive aggression. The form, severity and persistence of these aggressive subtypes may depend on an on-going interaction between individual characteristics and environmental characteristics that elicit varying antecedents and consequences (Frick,...

  20. Behavioural strategies of aggressive and non-aggressive male mice in active shock avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Benus, R. F.; Bohus, B; Koolhaas, J.M.; van Oortmerssen, G.A

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis, partly based on findings in social interactions, that aggressive mice generally adopt an active behavioural strategy (cf. fight-flight) in threatening situations, while non-aggressive ones generally assume a passive strategy (cf. conservation-withdrawal) was tested using a two-way active shock avoidance paradigm. Overall, aggressive mice were found to be better active shock avoiders than non-aggressive animals, a finding that is consistent with our hypothesis. However, within ...

  1. The Influence of Classroom Aggression and Classroom Climate on Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Duane E.; Bierman, Karen L.; Powers, CJ

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that early classroom experiences influence the socialization of aggression. Tracking changes in the aggressive behavior of 4179 children from kindergarten to second-grade (ages 5–8) this study examined the impact of two important features of the classroom context–aggregate peer aggression and climates characterized by supportive teacher-student interactions. The aggregate aggression scores of children assigned to first-grade classrooms predicted the level of classroom aggres...

  2. Adolescent Aggression: The Role of Peer Group Status Motives, Peer Aggression, and Group Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Faris, Robert; Ennett, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of youth aggression have emphasized the role of network-based peer influence processes. Other scholars have suggested that aggression is often motivated by status concerns. We integrate these two veins of research by considering the effects of peer status motivations on subsequent adolescent aggression, net of their own status motivations, prior aggression, and peer behavior. We also explore different levels at which peer effects may occur, considering the effects of reciprocat...

  3. Behavioural strategies of aggressive and non-aggressive male mice in response to inescapable shock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benus, R.F.; Bohus, B.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Oortmerssen, G.A. van

    1990-01-01

    The effect of exposure to inescapable long-duration shocks of moderate intensity on intershock activity and on subsequent escape or avoidance performance was studied in aggressive and non-aggressive male mice. The activity of the non-aggressive mice was severely suppressed during the inescapable sho

  4. The Relationship of Aggression and Bullying to Social Preference: Differences in Gender and Types of Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunju

    2009-01-01

    With 338 fifth-grade students as subjects, this study found the variations in the relation between school bullying and social preference as a function of gender and types of aggressive behavior utilized. Aggressive boys were likely to be rejected by peers, whereas aggressive girls were both rejected and accepted by peers. Children nominated…

  5. Predicting Aggressive Behavior in Children with the Help of Measures of Implicit and Explicit Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumm, Mandy; Hein, Sascha; Fingerle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive behavior between children in schools is a topic that receives much interest as violence and aggressive behavior cause many maladaptive social outcomes in the school setting. In the current study the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was adapted as a measure of children's implicit aggression, by assessing the association of the self…

  6. Media depictions of physical and relational aggression: connections with aggression in young adults' romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Tew, Emily; Meng, K Nathan; Olsen, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Various studies have found that viewing physical or relational aggression in the media can impact subsequent engagement in aggressive behavior. However, this has rarely been examined in the context of relationships. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the connection between viewing various types of aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression against a romantic partner. A total of 369 young adults completed a variety of questionnaires asking for their perpetration of various forms of relationship aggression. Participants' exposure to both physical and relational aggression in the media was also assessed. As a whole, we found a relationship between viewing aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression; however, this depended on the sex of the participant and the type of aggression measured. Specifically, exposure to physical violence in the media was related to engagement in physical aggression against their partner only for men. However, exposure to relational aggression in the media was related to romantic relational aggression for both men and women. PMID:21046605

  7. Competitive Aggression without Interaction: Effects of Competitive versus Cooperative Instructions on Aggressive Behavior in Video Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A.; Morrow, Melissa

    1995-01-01

    Extended and tested Deutsch's theory of competition effects. Predicted that people view competitive situations as inherently more aggressive than cooperative ones. Predicted that leading people to think of an aggressive situation in competitive terms would increase aggressive behavior. Increase of kill ratio occurred in absence of changes in…

  8. Relational and Overt Aggression in Urban India: Associations with Peer Relations and Best Friends' Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Raja, Radhi

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the associations between relational and overt aggression and social status, and tested whether the peer correlates of aggression vary as a function of best friends' aggression during early adolescence in urban India. One hundred and ninety-four young adolescents from primarily middle-to-upper-class families in Surat, India…

  9. Stability of Aggression during Early Adolescence as Moderated by Reciprocated Friendship Status and Friend's Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.; Bagwell, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The effect of friendship reciprocation and friend aggression on the stability of aggression across a 6-month period following the transition to secondary school was studied in a sample of 298 Grade 6 children from a predominately white, middle-class, Midwestern American community. The stability of aggression was generally high but it varied as a…

  10. Subjective aggression during alcohol and cannabis intoxication before and after aggression exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Sousa Fernandes Perna, E B; Theunissen, E L; Kuypers, K P C; Toennes, S W; Ramaekers, J G

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Alcohol and cannabis use have been implicated in aggression. Alcohol consumption is known to facilitate aggression, whereas a causal link between cannabis and aggression has not been clearly demonstrated. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the acute effects of alcohol and cannabis on sub

  11. Vincristine Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincristine lipid complex is used to treat a certain type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; a type ... at least two different treatments with other medications. Vincristine lipid complex is in a class of medications ...

  12. Irinotecan Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irinotecan lipid complex is used in combination with other medications to treat pancreatic cancer that has spread to other parts of ... after treatment with other chemotherapy medications. Irinotecan lipid complex is in a class of antineoplastic medications called ...

  13. Vincristine Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincristine lipid complex is used to treat a certain type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; a type of cancer of the ... two different treatments with other medications. Vincristine lipid complex is in a class of medications called vinca ...

  14. Doxorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxorubicin lipid complex is used to treat ovarian cancer that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications. Doxorubicin lipid complex is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  15. Cytarabine Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytarabine lipid complex is used to treat lymphomatous meningitis (a type of cancer in the covering of the spinal cord and brain). Cytarabine lipid complex is in a class of medications called antimetabolites. ...

  16. Hypoglycemia and aggression: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, D

    1988-08-01

    The popular notion that a tendency to develop low levels of blood glucose is the cause of a range of behavioral problems is reviewed. It is concluded that it is inappropriate to use the glucose tolerance test as a test of the tendency to develop reactive hypoglycemia. Instead, a meal tolerance test, in which glucose is administered in the presence of fat and protein, should be the method of choice. The use of a meal tolerance test strongly suggests that reactive hypoglycemia rarely results, except in a few exceptional individuals. Three situations are described in which a correlation between a tendency to develop moderately low levels of blood glucose during a glucose tolerance test (not hypoglycemic values) and the tendency to act aggressively have been reported. The significance of these data is unclear but several possible mechanisms by which glucose may influence behavior are discussed. PMID:3053477

  17. MRI diagnosis of aggressive fibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the MRI features of aggressive fibromatosis (AF) in order to improve its diagnostic accuracy. Method: The clinical files and MRI appearances of 66 AF patients (primary 19 cases, recurrent 47 cases) were reviewed and compared with the postoperative pathological findings. Results: The median age of all patients was 31 years (-range, 11-60 years) with a male-to-female sex ratio of 1 : 3.4. Eighty tumors were discovered. There were 5 superficial fibromatosis and 75 deep fibromatosis in which 2 lesions were intraabdominal, 6 lesions in the abdominal wall and 67 lesions extraabdominal. The average long diameter of all lesions was (8.7±5.4) cm, of superficial lesions (5.7± 2.8)cm, of deep lesions (8.9±5.5) cm. Of the 80 tumors, 79 were displayed as space-occupying intramuscular lesions, 47 (58.8%) were ovoid or lobulated and 22 (27.5%) were infiltrative in shape; 48 (60%) lesions had a well-defined margin, of which 4 formed a pseudocapsule as they enlarged by compressing normal tissue. To compare with the muscle signal intensity on MRI, 75 lesions demonstrated isointensity, mild hyperintensity or hypointensity on T1WI , heterogeneous high intensity on T2WI, and avid heterogeneous enhancement after contrast administration. There was no necrosis or surrounding edema in all lesions. Tumors destroyed bone in 2, cases. Conclusion: Aggressive fibromatosis has characteristic features on MRI, and MRI is valuable in diagnosing AF and evaluating the extend of lesion and involvement of adjacent structures. (authors)

  18. Individualizing management of aggressive fibromatoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To examine prognostic indicators in aggressive fibromatoses that may be used to optimize case-specific management strategy. Methods and Materials: One hundred and seven fibromatoses presenting between 1971 and 1992 were analyzed. The following treatment modalities were utilized: (a) surgery alone for 51 tumors; (b) radiation alone for 15 tumors; and (c) radiation and surgery (combined modality) for 41 tumors. Outcome analysis was based on 5-year actuarial local control rates. Results: Control rates among surgery, radiation therapy, and combined modality groups were 69%, 93%, and 72%. Multivariate analysis identified age 60 Gy was seen in patients with unresected or gross residual disease. Of the patients, 23 with disease involving the plantar region had a control rate of 62%, with significantly worse outcomes in children. Conclusions: These results are consistent with those found in the relevent literature. They support primary resection with negative margins when feasible. Radiation is a highly effective alternative in situations where surgery would result in major functional or cosmetic defects. When negative surgical margins are not achieved in recurrent tumors, radiation is recommended. Perioperative radiation should be considered in other high-risk groups (recurrent disease, positive margins, and plantar tumors in young patients). Doses of 60-65 Gy for gross disease and 50-60 Gy for microscopic residual are recommended. Observation may be considered for primary tumors with disease remaining in situ when they are located such that progression would not cause significant morbidity. Although plantar lesions in children may represent a group at high risk for recurrence or aggressive behavior, the greater potential for radiation-induced morbidity in this group must also temper its use. Given the inconsistent nature and treatment response of this tumor, it is fundamental that treatment recommendations should be made based on the risk:benefit analysis for

  19. Aggressive and foraging behavioral interactions among ruffe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Kostich, Melissa J.

    2000-01-01

    The ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, is a nonindigenous percid in the Great Lakes. Ruffe are aggressive benthivores and forage over soft substrates. Laboratory studies in pools (100 cm in diameter, 15 cm water depth) were conducted to determine whether fish density (low = 2, medium = 4, high = 6 ruffe per pool) changed foraging and aggressive behaviors with a limited food supply of chironomid larvae. All fish densities demonstrated a hierarchy based on aggressive interactions, but ruffe were most aggressive at low and high fish densities. Time spent in foraging was lowest at the low fish density. The best forager at the low fish density was the most aggressive individual, but the second most aggressive fish at the medium and high fish density was the best forager and also the one chased most frequently. A medium fish density offered the best energetic benefits to ruffe by providing the lowest ratio of time spent in aggression to that spent foraging. Based on our results, ruffe should grow best at an intermediate density. With high ruffe densities, we would also expect disparity in size as the more aggressive fish are able to garner a disproportionate amount of the resources. Alternatively, as the Great Lakes are a fairly open system, ruffe could migrate out of one area to colonize another as populations exceed optimal densities.

  20. The Barrier within: Relational Aggression among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Relational aggression among women presents an overlooked barrier to women's quest for advancement in the workplace. Although research on women's leadership extols their ability to collaborate and form lasting, supportive relationships, one cannot assume that all women are supportive of other women. Research reveals that relational aggression,…

  1. Treatment of Aggressive NK-Cell Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Anders Kindberg; Jensen, Paw; Johansen, Preben;

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive NK-cell leukemia is a rare malignancy with neoplastic proliferation of natural killer cells. It often presents with constitutional symptoms, a rapid declining clinical course, and a poor prognosis with a median survival of a few months. The disease is usually resistant to cytotoxic...... literature concerning treatment of aggressive NK-cell leukemia....

  2. Students' Attitude to Aggression in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettenborn, Harry; Lautsch, Erwin

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a study of 2,553 students' attitudes toward aggression in schools. Finds differentiated results based on demographic data and with the students' personal involvement in the aggressive acts as either the perpetrator or victim. Discusses practical consequences of the study for schools. (CFR)

  3. Involvement in Internet Aggression during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Nicole E.; Bumpus, Matthew F.; Rock, Daquarii

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were…

  4. Relational Aggression and Victimization in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy

    2013-01-01

    For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…

  5. Monstrous Mycobacterial Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeliger, Jessica; Moody, D Branch

    2016-02-18

    When it comes to lipid diversity, no bacterial genus approaches Mycobacterium. In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Burbaud et al. (2016) provide a multi-genic working model for the biosynthesis of trehalose polyphleate (TPP), one of the largest known lipids in mycobacteria. They demonstrate that this lipid is made by diverse mycobacterial species, including those of medical importance. PMID:26971870

  6. Order aggressiveness and order book dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Anthony D.; Hautsch, Nikolaus

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study the determinants of order aggressiveness and traders’ order submission strategy in an open limit order book market. Applying an order classification scheme, we model the most aggressive market orders, limit orders as well as cancellations on both sides of the market employ...... explaining the determinants of order aggressiveness. Overall, our empirical results broadly confirm theoretical predictions on limit order book trading. However, we also find evidence for behavior that can be attributed to particular liquidity and volatility effects......In this paper, we study the determinants of order aggressiveness and traders’ order submission strategy in an open limit order book market. Applying an order classification scheme, we model the most aggressive market orders, limit orders as well as cancellations on both sides of the market...

  7. Protection of nuclear facilities against outer aggressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The various types of outer aggressions envisaged in safety analysis for nuclear facilities are reviewed. These outer aggressions are classified as natural and non-natural phenomena, the latter depending on the human activities in the vicinity of nuclear sites. The principal natural phenomena able to constitute aggressions are atmospheric phenomena (strong winds, snow storms, hail, frosting mists), hydrologie phenomena such as tides, surges, flood, low waters, and geologic phenomena such as earthquakes. Artificial phenomena are concerned with aircraft crashes, projectiles, fire, possible ruptures of dams, and intentional human aggressions. The protection against intentional human aggressions is of two sorts: first, the possibility of access to the installations mostly sensitive to sabotage are to be prevented or reduced, secondly redundant circuits and functions must be separated for preventing their simultaneous destruction in the case when sabotage actors have reach the core of the facility

  8. Insight, psychosis and aggressive behaviour in mania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itxaso González-Ortega

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Aggressiveness is a common component of manic symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics associated with aggressive behaviour in bipolar patients with acute manic episodes. Methods: A study was carried out with 173 patients who met the DSM-IV criteria for manic or mixed bipolar disorder. Clinical and demographic variables were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS, the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS. Significance and independence of relevant variables were tested with regression models. Results: Forty percent of patients displayed aggressive behaviour. Involuntary nature of admission, positive psychotic symptoms and lack of insight were predictors of aggressive behaviour in manic patients. Conclusions: Aggressive behaviour during acute manic episodes appears to be related with the severity of the psychopathology, and particularly positive psychotic symptoms, involuntary admissions and lack of insight.

  9. Aggression and welfare in a common aquarium fish, the Midas cichlid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Ronald G

    2011-01-01

    Many species of fishes are aggressive when placed in small aquaria. Aggression can negatively affect the welfare of those individuals toward whom it is directed. Animals may behave aggressively in order to defend resources such as food, shelter, mates, and offspring. The decision to defend depends on the distribution of resources and on ecological factors such as number of competitors, amount of available space, and amount of habitat complexity. This study tested the effects of these factors on aggression in a common aquarium fish, the Midas cichlid (Amphilophus citrinellus). The study found that time spent behaving aggressively was not associated with small-scale differences in group size or available space. Aggression was significantly lower in a large aquarium with a complex habitat. Aquaria of sizes typically used in the companion animal (pet) hobby did not provide optimal welfare for cichlids housed with aggressive conspecifics. The public should be aware that this and similar species require larger aquaria with complex habitat, which elicit more natural behavior. PMID:21932947

  10. Trajectories of Adolescent Aggression and Family Cohesion: The Potential to Perpetuate or Ameliorate Political Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laura K; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Pete; Cummings, E Mark

    2016-01-01

    Correlations between intergroup violence and youth aggression are often reported. Yet longitudinal research is needed to understand the developmental factors underlying this relation, including between-person differences in within-person change in aggression through the adolescent years. Multilevel modeling was used to explore developmental and contextual influences related to risk for youth aggression using 4 waves of a prospective, longitudinal study of adolescent/mother dyad reports (N = 820; 51% female; 10-20 years old) in Belfast, Northern Ireland, a setting of protracted political conflict. Experience with sectarian (i.e., intergroup) antisocial behavior predicted greater youth aggression; however, that effect declined with age, and youth were buffered by a cohesive family environment. The trajectory of aggression (i.e., intercepts and linear slopes) related to more youth engagement in sectarian antisocial behavior; however, being female and having a more cohesive family were associated with lower levels of youth participation in sectarian acts. The findings are discussed in terms of protective and risk factors for adolescent aggression, and more specifically, participation in sectarian antisocial behavior. The article concludes with clinical and intervention implications, which may decrease youth aggression and the perpetuation of intergroup violence in contexts of ongoing conflict. PMID:25310245

  11. Parent-child relationships, parental psychological control, and aggression: maternal and paternal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kantahyanee W; Dwyer, Kathleen M; Rubin, Kenneth H; Knighton-Wisor, Sarah; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2014-08-01

    Few studies have examined both maternal and paternal parenting practices in the prediction of child outcomes despite evidence that underscores the salience of fathers throughout their children's development. This study examined the role of the quality of mother-child and father-child relationships in buffering the influence of ineffective parenting practices on subsequent adolescent aggression. Measures of parental psychological control, the quality of the parent-child relationship, and youth aggressive behavior were completed by 163 (49 % female) mostly White and Asian adolescents and their parents during the eighth and ninth grades. Paternal psychological control predicted aggression when adolescents perceived low-quality relationships with their mothers. Similarly, maternal psychological control predicted aggression when adolescents perceived low-quality relationships with their fathers. Maternal psychological control was also associated with lower levels of aggression among adolescent males who reported a high-quality relationship with their father. These findings indicate that, when one parent exerts psychological control, the low-quality relationship the adolescent shares with the opposite gender parent increases risk for adolescent aggression. The findings also suggest that, as mothers exert psychological control, the high-quality parent-child relationship a son shares with his father decreases risk for adolescent aggression. PMID:24072564

  12. Understanding the connection between self-esteem and aggression: The mediating role of emotion dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Carlo; Holden, Christopher J; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Velotti, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to extend previous knowledge concerning the link between self-esteem and aggression by examining the mediating role of emotion dysregulation among offenders and community participants. A sample of 153 incarcerated violent offenders and a community sample of 197 individuals completed self-report measures of self-esteem level, emotion dysregulation, and trait aggression. Offenders reported lower levels of self-esteem than community participants, as well as greater levels of emotional nonacceptance and hostility. Bootstrapping analyses were performed to test whether emotion dysregulation mediated the association between self-esteem level and aggression. In the offender sample, mediation models were significant for three of the four aspects of trait aggression that were considered. Emotion dysregulation fully mediated the links that low self-esteem had with physical aggression, anger, and hostility. The same pattern (with the addition of full mediation for verbal aggression) was confirmed in the community sample. Our findings suggest that emotion dysregulation may play an important role in the connection between low self-esteem and aggression. Alternative models of the associations among these variables were tested and discussed. As a whole, the present results are consistent with those of other studies and suggest that it may be beneficial to include emotion regulation modules as part of prevention and treatment programs for violent offenders. PMID:26208081

  13. Links between marital and parent-child interactions: moderating role of husband-to-wife aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Gayla; Gordis, Elana B; Oliver, Pamella H

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined how marital conflict may compromise parenting by identifying interdependencies across marital and parent-child subsystems in a sample of 86 two-parent families with a child aged 9-13. The study used direct observation of three family discussions to examine interdependencies across family subsystems. The study also assessed whether a history of husband-to-wife aggression strengthened interdependencies. Overall, families with husband-to-wife aggression showed a negative tone that pervaded throughout the family. Consistent with theories about physically aggressive men tending to withdraw from conflict, fathers who had engaged in husband-to-wife aggression showed an association between marital hostilities and lower levels of empathy toward their children. Consistent with stress theories, women who had been exposed to husband-to-wife aggression showed a link between marital hostilities and negative affect when interacting with their children. These findings illustrate how a history of exposure to marital aggression can create a family environment of multiple risks for children. For children in families with prior marital aggression, ongoing marital hostilities can be linked to the additional risk of erosions in parental support. PMID:15605635

  14. Aggressive parenteral nutrition and growth velocity in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Ribed Sánchez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parenteral administration of nutrients to sustain newborns' growth represents an important therapeutic challenge. Objective: To describe parenteral nutrition (PN practices in a tertiary hospital and evaluate postnatal growth in preterm infants. Material and methods: Observational retrospective study over 3 months. Data on infants born or admitted to the Neonatal Department and starting PN were collected. Demographics, anthropometric data, daily caloric, protein intake data and PN components used were collected. Growth velocity was characterized by the average daily weight gain and compared to intrauterine growth. Results: 68 preterm infants started PN during the study period. Most infants (65% were born by caesarean and mean gestational age was 33 weeks. Twenty five percent of newborns did not regain birth weight. The remaining 75% regained birth weight on the 3rd day of PN and average daily weight gain was 16 g/kg/d, ranging between 12 and 22 g/kg/d. Although weight gain approximated intrauterine rate, most infants born <30 weeks gestation did not achieve median birth weight of the reference population. Early aggressive PN was administered with an average of 3, 11 and 3 g/Kg/d of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids respectively, reaching a maximum on the 4th day of 4, 18, 4 g/kg/d, respectively. Discussion: Aggressive PN is used in the hospital setting. The preterm infants reached birth weight earlier and had a greater velocity of growth than in other clinical trials and similar to intrauterine.

  15. Psychometric Properties of the Situation and Aggressive Behavior Inventory and the Motives for Aggression Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Montejo Hernández

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychometric properties of the Situation and Aggressive Behavior Inventory and the Motives for Aggression Inventory were examined in a sample of 373 students of Medicine and Psychology in the city of Tunja in Colombia. In the Situation and Aggressive Behavior Inventory, most common aggressive behaviors were verbal aggression and attitudes or rage gestures, with physical aggression, verbal aggression and threatening showing the highest correlations; most common situation were study problems, family and interpersonalrelations, and familiar or personal economy, no high correlationswere found among situations or situations with behaviors. In the Motives for Aggression Inventory, most common motives were rage, emotional discomfort, self-defense and defending values. A ronbach´s Alpha of 0.91 was obtained. Both of the questionnaires showed a single dimension (construct validity and satisfactory divergent validity, with the Psychopathy subscale of the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire by Krug (1987, and convergent validity, with the Aggression Questionnaire by Buss and Perry (1992. Homogeneity coefficients were appropriated. Motives in the IMA, specially the pleasure of being aggressive, getting what you want, somethingmakes you feel bad, and valuing aggressive persons, were predictors of the behaviors in the ISCA.

  16. Not all aggressions are created equal: a multifoci approach to workplace aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chu-Hsiang Daisy; Lyons, Brent J

    2012-01-01

    Types of perpetrators of workplace aggression can vary considerably, and recent research has demonstrated that aggression from different perpetrator categories has different implications for victims. We extended research on multifoci aggression and explored affective and cognitive pathways linking verbal aggression from four perpetrator types--supervisors, coworkers, customers, and significant others--and employee morale and turnover intention. Data from a sample of 446 working adults indicated that both emotional strain and employees' corresponding judgments of their social exchange relationships with these perpetrators served as the mechanisms for the association between aggression from supervisors, coworkers, and customers and morale and turnover intention. Coworker aggression had a direct association with turnover intention and significant other aggression was related to turnover intention only through emotional strain. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22122549

  17. The relationships among perceived peer acceptance of sexual aggression, punishment certainty, and sexually aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Emily; Peterson, Zoë D

    2013-12-01

    Researching the correlates of men's sexually aggressive behavior (i.e., verbal coercion and rape) is critical to both understanding and preventing sexual aggression. This study examined 120 men who completed an anonymous online questionnaire. The study aimed to determine the relative importance of two potential correlates of men's self-reported use of sexual aggression: (a) perceptions that male peers use and support sexual aggression and (b) perceptions of punishment likelihood associated with sexual aggression. Results revealed that perceptions of male friends' acceptance of sexual aggression were strongly associated with individual men's reports of using verbal coercion and rape. Perceptions of punishment likelihood were negatively correlated with verbal coercion but not with rape through intoxication and force. Implications for sexual aggression prevention are discussed. PMID:24014542

  18. Aggression on inpatient units: Clinical characteristics and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation. PMID:26892149

  19. Validation of a motivation-based typology of angry aggression among antisocial youths in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnebekk, Gunnar; Howard, Rick

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the validation of the Angry Aggression Scales (AAS), the Behavior Inhibition System and the Behavior Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales, the reactive aggression and proactive power scales in relation to a Norwegian sample of 101 antisocial youths with conduct problems (64 boys, 37 girls, mean age 15 ± 1.3 years) and 101 prosocial controls matched on age, gender, education, ethnicity, and school district. Maximum likelihood exploratory factor analyses with oblique rotation were performed on AAS, BIS/BAS, reactive aggression and proactive power scales as well as computation of Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega. Tests for normality and homogeneity of variance were acceptable. Factor analyses of AAS and the proactive/reactive aggression scales suggested a hierarchical structure comprising a single higher-order angry aggression (AA) factor and four and two lower-order factors, respectively. Moreover, results suggested one BIS factor and a single higher-order BAS factor with three lower-order factors related to drive, fun-seeking and reward responsiveness. To compare scores of antisocial youths with controls, t-tests on the mean scale scores were computed. Results confirmed that antisocial youths were different from controls on the above-mentioned scales. Consistent with the idea that anger is associated with approach motivation, AAS scores correlated with behavioral activation, but only explosive/reactive and vengeful/ruminative AA correlated with behavioral inhibition. Results generally validated the quadruple typology of aggression and violence proposed by Howard (2009). PMID:22388964

  20. Authoritative school climate, aggression toward teachers, and teacher distress in middle school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Juliette K; Cornell, Dewey

    2016-03-01

    Aggression toward teachers is linked to burnout and disengagement from teaching, but a positive school climate may reduce aggression and associated teacher distress. Using authoritative school climate theory, the study examined whether schools with high disciplinary structure and student support were associated with less aggression and less distress. The sample of 9,134 teachers in 389 middle schools came from the Virginia Secondary School Climate Survey, a statewide survey administered to all public schools with 7th and 8th grade enrollment. The majority of teachers (75%) were female. More than half (53%) reported that they had more than 10 years of teaching experience; 23% reported 6 to 10 years; 24% reported 1 to 5 years. Students reported on the degree to which their schools were structured and supportive. Teachers reported on their experiences of aggression by students, their level of distress, and their feelings of safety. Staff-related infractions computed from Department of Education records were also used. Multilevel modeling revealed that teachers in authoritative schools experienced less aggression and felt safer and less distressed. Lower aggression by students mediated the association between more authoritative schools and lower distress such that more structured and supportive schools had greater teacher safety and, in turn, less distress. The findings support the idea that more structured and supportive schools relate to greater safety for teachers and, in turn, less distress. Research limitations and implications for practice are discussed. PMID:26524423

  1. Types of Relational Aggression in Girls Are Differentiated by Callous-Unemotional Traits, Peers and Parental Overcontrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centifanti, Luna C. M.; Fanti, Kostas A.; Thomson, Nicholas D.; Demetriou, Vasiliki; Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, Xenia

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent girls often perpetrate aggression by gossiping and spreading rumours about others, by attempting to ruin relationships and by manipulating and excluding others. Further, males and females engage in reactive and proactive relational aggression differently. In this study, we examined the individual, peer and parental contextual factors that best explained the use of reactive and proactive relational aggression in girls. Female participants (n = 614; ages 11–18 years) completed questionnaires on aggression, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, delinquency, peer delinquency, gender composition of their peer group, resistance to peer influence and perceived parental overcontrol. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the effects of individual, peer- and parent-related variables on the likelihood of being classified as a low aggressor, reactive aggressor or proactive/reactive aggressor. Girls in the combined reactive/proactive aggression group were younger, had greater CU traits, a lower proportion of male peers and greater perception of parental control than both the reactive and low aggressive groups. Both highly aggressive groups were more delinquent and had greater peer delinquency than the low aggressive group. This study suggests those girls who show relational aggression for the purpose of gaining status and revenge feel restrained by their parents and may gravitate toward relationships that support their behaviour. PMID:26580659

  2. Impact of social isolation and resident intruder stress on aggressive behavior in the male rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Wei; Huiyun Zhang; Jie Gao; Ling Xue; Peng Sun; Yubin Chao; Gang Xue; Mingqi Qiao

    2010-01-01

    Stress studies frequently utilize physical stressors to establish animal models of stress.In the majority of cases,these models are not consistent with human circumstances.The present study simulated a social isolation plus resident intruder stress model in the rat.The rats were subjected to daily social isolation and resident intruder stress for 2 weeks.Behaviors were then tested.Rats subjected to social stress exhibited different aggressive behavior styles;some rats had greater scores on composite aggression behaviors,as well as locomotor and exploratory activity,but lower scores on latency than others.The high-aggressive group exhibited predominantly anger-out,while the low-aggressive group exhibited anger-in.Results suggest that social isolation plus resident intruder may serve as an appropriate model for anger-in and anger-out emotion modeling in the rat.

  3. Mediational role of parenting styles in emotional intelligence of parents and aggression among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Syeda Shahida; Bond, Rod

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to examine the relationship between parents' emotional intelligence and adolescents' aggression, through the mediation of parenting styles. Two hundred and twenty five undergraduate students (113 boys & 112 girls; age 17-18 years), from four universities in Pakistan, participated with their parents. The Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (Robinson, Mandleco, Olsen, & Hart, 1995), and the Scale of Emotional Intelligence (Batool & Khalid, 2011) were completed by parents. The Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) was completed by their adolescent offspring. Mediational path analysis supported our hypothesised model. Results indicate that emotional intelligence of parents indirectly links to aggression among offspring, through parenting styles. It was concluded that emotional intelligence training will help parents to improve their parenting styles, and it will lower the risk of aggression in their children. PMID:25410534

  4. Sensing environmental lipids by dendritic cell modulates its function.

    OpenAIRE

    Coutant, Frédéric; Agaugué, Sophie; Perrin-Cocon, Laure; André, Patrice; Lotteau, Vincent

    2004-01-01

    International audience Because of its oxidative modification during the acute-phase response to an aggression, low density lipoprotein (LDL) can be regarded as a source of lipid mediators that can act both to promote and inhibit inflammation. This can be exemplified by the production of anti-inflammatory oxidized fatty acids and proinflammatory lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) during LDL oxidation. We have shown previously that oxidized LDL (oxLDL) plays an active role at the interface betwee...

  5. Reactive and proactive aggression and suicide attempts among criminal offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Swogger, Marc T.; Walsh, Zach; Maisto, Stephen A.; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    Outwardly-directed aggression is associated with suicide attempts, but aggression is a heterogeneous construct. Increased specificity in our understanding of the link between aggression and suicide attempts can be attained by examining subtypes of aggression. We studied the relationships of reactive and proactive aggression to history of a suicide attempt among 96 criminal offenders in a pretrial supervision program. Consistent with prior findings in non-offender samples, reactive aggression ...

  6. Verbal versus Physical Aggression in Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Look, Amy E.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) is the only adult psychiatric diagnosis for which pathological aggression is primary. DSM-IV criteria focused on physical aggression, but DSM-5 allows for an IED diagnosis in the presence of frequent verbal aggression with or without concurrent physical aggression. It remains unclear how individuals with verbal aggression differ from those with physical aggression with respect to cognitive-affective deficits and psychosocial functioning. The current study...

  7. Adaptive, maladaptive, mediational, and bidirectional processes of relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, and peer liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Crick, Nicki R

    2014-01-01

    A three-wave longitudinal study among ethnically diverse preadolescents (N = 597 at Time 1, ages 9-11) was conducted to examine adaptive, maladaptive, mediational, and bidirectional processes of relational and physical aggression, victimization, and peer liking indexed by peer acceptance and friendships. A series of nested structural equation models tested the hypothesized links among these peer-domain factors. It was hypothesized that (1) relational aggression trails both adaptive and maladaptive processes, linking to more peer victimization and more peer liking, whereas physical aggression is maladaptive, resulting in more peer victimization and less peer liking; (2) physical and relational victimization is maladaptive, relating to more aggression and less peer liking; (3) peer liking may be the social context that promotes relational aggression (not physical aggression), whereas peer liking may protect against peer victimization, regardless of its type; and (4) peer liking mediates the link between forms of aggression and forms of peer victimization. Results showed that higher levels of peer liking predicted relative increases in relational aggression (not physical aggression), which in turn led to more peer liking. On the other hand, more peer liking was predictive of relative decreases in relational aggression and relational victimization in transition to the next grade (i.e., fifth grade). In addition, relational victimization predicted relative increases in relational aggression and relative decreases in peer liking. Similarly, physical aggression was consistently and concurrently associated more physical victimization and was marginally predictive of relative increases in physical victimization in transition to the next grade. More peer liking predicted relative decreases in physical victimization, which resulted in lower levels of peer liking. The directionality and magnitude of these paths did not differ between boys and girls. PMID:24318459

  8. Differences in aggression, activity and boldness between native and introduced populations of an invasive crayfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintor, L.M.; Sih, A.; Bauer, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Aggressiveness, along with foraging voracity and boldness, are key behavioral mechanisms underlying the competitive displacement and invasion success of exotic species. However, do aggressiveness, voracity and boldness of the invader depend on the presence of an ecologically similar native competitor in the invaded community? We conducted four behavioral assays to compare aggression, foraging voracity, threat response and boldness to forage under predation risk of multiple populations of exotic signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus across its native and invaded range with and without a native congener, the Shasta crayfish P. fortis. We predicted that signal crayfish from the invaded range and sympatric with a native congener (IRS) should be more aggressive to outcompete a close competitor than populations from the native range (NR) or invaded range and allopatric to a native congener (IRA). Furthermore, we predicted that IRS populations of signal crayfish should be more voracious, but less bold to forage under predation risk since native predators and prey likely possess appropriate behavioral responses to the invader. Contrary to our predictions, results indicated that IRA signal crayfish were more aggressive towards conspecifics and more voracious and active foragers, yet also bolder to forage under predation risk in comparison to NR and IRS populations, which did not differ in behavior. Higher aggression/voracity/ boldness was positively correlated with prey consumption rates, and hence potential impacts on prey. We suggest that the positive correlations between aggression/voracity/boldness are the result of an overall aggression syndrome. Results of stream surveys indicated that IRA streams have significantly lower prey biomass than in IRS streams, which may drive invading signal crayfish to be more aggressive/voracious/bold to acquire resources to establish a population. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  9. Affective Dependence and Aggression: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Petruccelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Emotionally dependent subjects may engage in controlling, restrictive, and aggressive behaviours, which limit their partner’s autonomy. The underlying causes of such behaviours are not solely based on levels of aggression, but act as a mean of maintaining the subject’s own sense of self-worth, identity, and general functioning. Objective. The aim of the paper is to explore the correlation between affective dependency and reactive/proactive aggression and to evaluate individual differences as predisposing factors for aggressive behaviour and emotional dependency. Methods. The Spouse-Specific Dependency Scale (SSDS and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ were administered to a sample of 3375 subjects. Results. In the whole sample, a positive correlation between emotional dependency and proactive aggression was identified. Differences with regard to sex, age group, and geographical distribution were evidenced for the scores of the different scales. Conclusion. A fundamental distinction between reactive and proactive aggression was observed, anchoring proactive aggression more strictly to emotional dependency. Sociocultural and demographical variables, together with the previous structuring of attachment styles, help to determine the scope, frequency, and intensity of the demands made to the partner, as well as to feed the fears of loss, abandonment, or betrayal.

  10. Assessment of aggression in inpatient settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Barbara E; Holoyda, Brian J

    2014-10-01

    The threat of violence is a major concern for all individuals working or receiving treatment in an inpatient psychiatric setting. One major focus in forensic psychology and psychiatry over the past several decades has been the development of risk assessments to aid in the identification of those individuals most at risk of exhibiting violent behavior. So-called second- and third-generation risk assessments were developed to improve the accuracy of decision making. While these instruments were developed for use in the community, many have proven to be effective in identifying patients more likely to exhibit institutional aggression. Because the purpose of risk assessment is the reduction of violence, dynamic factors were included in third-generation risk instruments to provide opportunities for intervention and methods for measuring change. Research with these instruments indicates that both static factors (second-generation) and dynamic factors (third-generation) are important in identifying those patients most likely to engage in institutional aggression, especially when the aggression is categorized by type (impulsive/reactive, organized/predatory/instrumental, psychotic). Recent research has indicated that developing a typology of aggressive incidents may provide insight both into precipitants to assaults as well as appropriate interventions to reduce such aggression. The extant literature suggests that both static and dynamic risk factors are important, but may be differentially related to the type of aggression exhibited and the characteristics of the individuals exhibiting the aggression. PMID:25296966

  11. Testosterone and aggressive behavior in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batrinos, Menelaos L

    2012-01-01

    Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant's testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine

  12. Adolescent Aggression: The Role of Peer Group Status Motives, Peer Aggression, and Group Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Robert; Ennett, Susan

    2012-10-01

    Recent studies of youth aggression have emphasized the role of network-based peer influence processes. Other scholars have suggested that aggression is often motivated by status concerns. We integrate these two veins of research by considering the effects of peer status motivations on subsequent adolescent aggression, net of their own status motivations, prior aggression, and peer behavior. We also explore different levels at which peer effects may occur, considering the effects of reciprocated and unreciprocated friendships as well as larger, meso-level peer groups. We anticipate that peer group effects are magnified by both size and boundedness as measured by Freeman's (1972) Segregation Index. We find that, net of the adolescent's aggression at time 1, both the aggressive behaviors and the status valuations of friends independently increase the likelihood of aggression at time 2, six months later. The aggressive behavior of friends who do not reciprocate the adolescent's friendship nomination has particular impact. The average status valuation of peer groups increases their members' likelihood of aggression, even after controlling for their own attitudes about status, their friends' attitudes, and their friends' aggressive behavior. This effect is magnified in large groups and groups with high Freeman segregation scores. PMID:25152562

  13. Aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Tereshchenko,

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Based on dynamic monitoring of 133 premature infants (266 eyes with aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (ROP, digital retinoscopy and computer morphometry the disease clinical and morphometric features were revealed and systematized, and their consecutive replacement was fixed. As a result the separate classification of aggressive posterior disease was worked up. In aggressive posterior ROP course the next consecutive stages were marked out: subclinical, early clinical appearances stage, manifestation stage, advanced, far-advanced and terminal stages. The peculiarity of early clinical appearances stage and manifestation stage is the presence of such course types: favorable and unfavorable.

  14. [Aggressive behavior: theoretical and biological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotakos, O

    2013-01-01

    The susceptibility to aggression may manifest differently depending on the psychological context in which it occurs. In the context of psychopathy, characterized by a lack of empathy, this may manifest in aggression with criminal acts, which is characteristic of antisocial personality disorder. When the susceptibility is associated with psychotic impairment, aggression may be manifested in highly deviant behavior, like murder or serial killing. While the great majority of persons with schizophrenia do not commit violent acts, clinicians suggest that some schizophrenics may pose a risk in the community, particularly those patients with co-occurring substance abuse diagnoses, those who are noncompliant with prescribed psychiatric treatment, and those with a history of frequent relapses resulting in hospitalization or arrest. Episodic violence and aggression often accompany dementia. When coupled with emotional dysregulation, impulsive aggression often occurs in an interpersonal context, as in borderline personality disorder. However, the most common comorbidity is the substance abuse disorder, which contributes to both the cognitive distortions and disinhibition associated with the substance use. According to the biological data, aggression seems to emerge when the drive of limbic-mediated affective prefrontal response to provocative producing stimuli is insufficiently constrained by inhibition. Thus, excessive reactivity in the amygdale, coupled with inadequate prefrontal regulation, increase the possibility of aggressive behavior. The PET/SPECT studies focusing on schizophrenia have shown reduced activity in fronto-temoral circuitry. The fMRI studies concord with the hypothesis that among violent persons with schizophrenia, those with sociopathetic features and/or substance abuse constitute a highly different subgroup, in which cognitive, neurological and behavioral patterns are more closely associated with the personality traits than schizophrenia. It is known

  15. Effect of naloxone on food competition aggression in food-restricted high and low aggression pigeons (Columba livia)

    OpenAIRE

    Fachinelli C.; Torrecillas M.; Rodríguez Echandía E.L.

    2004-01-01

    We determined the effect of the opiate receptor antagonist naloxone on aggression, emotion, feeder control, and eating behavior in high and low aggression female pigeons maintained at 80% of their normal weight and exposed to food competition interactions. Pigeons were divided into pairs by previously ranked high aggression (total time spent in offensive aggression exceeding 60 s/5 min; N = 6 pairs) and low aggression females (time spent in offensive aggression less than 10 s/5 min; N = 6 pai...

  16. Friendship and Aggression in Elementary School. The friendships of aggressive children and the effects of having aggressive friends

    OpenAIRE

    Palmen, J.M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Research has demonstrated the importance of friendship for children’s adjustment (e.g., Ladd, 1990). However, some children may be less capable of maintaining satisfying relationships with their peers. Aggressive children have been found to experience peer relation difficulties (e.g., Dodge, Coie, Pettit, & Price, 1990). Most research on aggression and peer relations has focused on children’s status within the peer group (group interaction), rather than friendship (dyadic interaction). Group ...

  17. Ploidy, cytokinetics, and histology features of aggressive versus less aggressive uterine cervical squamous cell carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors are investigating the interrelationships of flow cytometric measured ploidy, S-fraction with histology features of uterine cervical squamous cell cancers in an attempt to identify aggressive, high risk tumors and less aggressive tumors. Experimentally, pre-radiotherapy biopsy specimens are being studied using flow ploidy and cell-cycle analysis and microscopic scoring for histology features. The results to date for some 200 patients indicate that there are identifyable aggressive tumors, at high risk for 2 yr local control within each stage of disease and differentiation category (WD, MD, PD). These aggressive tumors usually have high degree DNA abnormalities (triploid or greater), high proliferative activity (%S≥20) compared to the less aggressive tumors characterized by diploid/near diploid DNA content, low to moderate %S (2-19, mean 12). Expression of high S-fraction appears to reflect high growth activity or growth potential and characterizes the aggressive tumors

  18. Comparative Analysis of Personality Structures of the Perpetrators of Aggressive and Non-aggressive Offense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikova A.S.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available problem of the emergence of aggressive behavior is seen through the analysis of the relationship of proagressive and inhibiting aggression personality structures. The study involved 54 men serving sentences for criminal offenses, of which 24 were accused for violent offenses and 30 - for offenses without resorting to violence. We used questionnaires to study the proagressive and deterring aggression personality structures. Statistical analysis was performed to reveal significant differences between groups and to determine correlations. On this basis, the correlations were interpreted with the help of not only quantitative but also qualitative analysis. The results showed no significant differences in the level of expression of aggression and aggression inhibitors between treatment groups, but we identified qualitative differences in the structural analysis of data from individual psychological characteristics that are expected to distinguish aggressive offenders from the perpetrators without violence.

  19. Effects of deindividuating situational cues and aggressive models on subjective deindividuation and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice-Dunn, S; Rogers, R W

    1980-07-01

    This experiment demonstrated that a subjective state of deindividuation mediates the effect of deindividuating situational cues on aggression displayed by small groups (n = 4) of coacting aggressors. The deindividuated state was composed of two factors, Self-Awareness and Altered Experiencing, both of which had a causal influence on aggressive behavior. These data are interpreted in terms of deindividuation theories which assume that certain input variables reduce self-awareness and concern about social evaluation and thereby weaken the restraints against expressing antisocial behavior. Also as predicted, compared with a no-model control condition, a high-aggressive model disinhibited overt displays of aggression, whereas a low-aggressive model inhibited aggression among both individuated and deindividuated group members. PMID:7411390

  20. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  1. Electronic Aggression: New Technology and Youth Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Featured Topic: Opportunities for Action Featured Topic: Bullying Research Featured Topic: Prevent Gang Membership Featured Topic: School Violence Data & Statistics Risk & Protective Factors Prevention Prevention Tools & Resources Featured Topic: Electronic Aggression Funded ...

  2. Risperidone for Aggressive Behavior in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of risperidone augmentation for treatment-resistant aggression in children with ADHD were evaluated in a placebo-controlled pilot study at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, FL.

  3. Research: Television Violence and Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtzel, Alan

    1977-01-01

    Summarizes the major research findings on the relationship between television violence and aggressive behavior; concludes that, while there is no definitive proof that such a relationship exists, the evidence points strongly in that direction. (GT)

  4. The impact of classroom aggression on the development of aggressive behavior problems in children

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Duane E.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2006-01-01

    Prior research suggests that exposure to elementary classrooms characterized by high levels of student aggression may contribute to the development of child aggressive behavior problems. To explore this process in more detail, this study followed a longitudinal sample of 4,907 children and examined demographic factors associated with exposure to high-aggression classrooms, including school context factors (school size, student poverty levels, and rural vs. urban location) and child ethnicity ...

  5. Comparative Analysis of Personality Structures of the Perpetrators of Aggressive and Non-aggressive Offense

    OpenAIRE

    Kalashnikova A.S.,; Vasilenko T.G.

    2014-01-01

    problem of the emergence of aggressive behavior is seen through the analysis of the relationship of proagressive and inhibiting aggression personality structures. The study involved 54 men serving sentences for criminal offenses, of which 24 were accused for violent offenses and 30 - for offenses without resorting to violence. We used questionnaires to study the proagressive and deterring aggression personality structures. Statistical analysis was performed to reveal significant differences b...

  6. Desensitization to Media Violence: Links With Habitual Media Violence Exposure, Aggressive Cognitions, and Aggressive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings...

  7. How Food Controls Aggression in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Rod S Lim; Eyrún Eyjólfsdóttir; Euncheol Shin; Pietro Perona; Anderson, David J.

    2014-01-01

    How animals use sensory information to weigh the risks vs. benefits of behavioral decisions remains poorly understood. Inter-male aggression is triggered when animals perceive both the presence of an appetitive resource, such as food or females, and of competing conspecific males. How such signals are detected and integrated to control the decision to fight is not clear. For instance, it is unclear whether food increases aggression directly, or as a secondary consequence of increased social i...

  8. Simulation of electromagnetic aggression on components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical simulation techniques can be used for studying the behaviour of electronic components exposed to electromagnetic aggression. This article discusses CW analysis on a CMOS-technology logic NAND gate under electromagnetic aggression of different amplitudes (2.5 V 5 V), frequencies (100 MHz and 1 GHz) and phase. Numerical simulations were conducted using three codes: Spice code was used for solving electronic circuits, and the Atlas and Dessis codes were used for examining internal component behaviour. (authors)

  9. How Food Controls Aggression in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Rod S.; Eyjólfsdóttir, Eyrún; Shin, Euncheol; Perona, Pietro; Anderson, David J.

    2014-01-01

    How animals use sensory information to weigh the risks vs. benefits of behavioral decisions remains poorly understood. Inter-male aggression is triggered when animals perceive both the presence of an appetitive resource, such as food or females, and of competing conspecific males. How such signals are detected and integrated to control the decision to fight is not clear. For instance, it is unclear whether food increases aggression directly, or as a secondary consequence of increa...

  10. Prevalence of mobile dependency and adolescence aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyebeh Khazaie; Alireza Saadatjoo; Samaneh Dormohamadi; Mansooreh Soleimani; Marzieh Toosinia; Fatemeh Mullah Hassan Zadeh

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Various studies indicate that increasing and complicating use of cell phones in all age groups and in both sexes is associated with aggression. Despite the widespread use of mobile phones in Iran, psychological and behavioral effects of addiction to it and the consequences have not been investigated yet. The present study aimed at determining prevalence of mobile dependency and its relationship with aggression during adolescence in Birjand in 2011. Materials and Methods...

  11. Insight, psychosis and aggressive behaviour in mania

    OpenAIRE

    Itxaso González-Ortega; Fernando Mosquera; Enrique Echeburúa; Ana González-Pinto

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Aggressiveness is a common component of manic symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics associated with aggressive behaviour in bipolar patients with acute manic episodes. Methods: A study was carried out with 173 patients who met the DSM-IV criteria for manic or mixed bipolar disorder. Clinical and demographic variables were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), the...

  12. Hormones and aggression in childhood and adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, J. Martin

    2003-01-01

    This review is a survey on recent psychobiosocial studies on association between hormones and aggression/violence in children and adolescents, with a special focus on puberty, given the rapid changes in both hormones and behavior occurring during that developmental period. Since it cannot be assumed that all readers have much background knowledge, it inevitably begins with some comments about the concept and multifaceted nature of aggression, as well as with a brief reminding about hormone ca...

  13. Social intelligence, empathy, and aggressive behavior: Is a stereotype of aggressive individual as socially incompetent inaccurate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vidmar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, which was carried out on 187 high school students (86 girls and 101 boys, we examined to what extent different aspects of social intelligence contribute to indirect and direct aggression and to what extent empathy can act as a mitigator of aggression. We used The Aggression Questionnaire to measure physical aggression, IAS-A (which includes Social Exclusion, Use of Malicious Humour and Guilt Induction sub-scales to measure indirect aggression, TSIS (which includes Social Information Processing, Social Skills and Social Awareness sub-scales to measure social intelligence and IRI (Perspective Taking and Empathic Concern sub-scales. The results confirmed our expectations that the cognitive aspect of empathy acts as an inhibitor of both direct and indirect aggression. The relationship between the ability of processing social information and indirect aggresssion was positive, whereas the relationship between social awareness and indirect aggression was negative, which shows that the relationships between various aspects of social intelligence and aggression are complex. People who have a high degree of social intelligence but do not have the tendency to take the other's perspective can use their abilities (especially social information processing to performn less evident and less prosecuted forms of aggressive behaviour which still have deleterious effects on interpersonal relationships.

  14. Climate-driven coral reorganisation influences aggressive behaviour in juvenile coral-reef fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Judith E.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Hoogenboom, Mia O.

    2016-06-01

    Globally, habitat degradation is altering the abundance and diversity of species in a variety of ecosystems. This study aimed to determine how habitat degradation, in terms of changing coral composition under climate change, affected abundance, species richness and aggressive behaviour of juveniles of three damselfishes ( Pomacentrus moluccensis, P. amboinensis and Dischistodus perspicillatus, in order of decreasing reliance on coral). Patch reefs were constructed to simulate two types of reefs: present-day reefs that are vulnerable to climate-induced coral bleaching, and reefs with more bleaching-robust coral taxa, thereby simulating the likely future of coral reefs under a warming climate. Fish communities were allowed to establish naturally on the reefs during the summer recruitment period. Climate-robust reefs had lower total species richness of coral-reef fishes than climate-vulnerable reefs, but total fish abundance was not significantly different between reef types (pooled across all species and life-history stages). The nature of aggressive interactions, measured as the number of aggressive chases, varied according to coral composition; on climate-robust reefs, juveniles used the substratum less often to avoid aggression from competitors, and interspecific aggression became relatively more frequent than intraspecific aggression for juveniles of the coral-obligate P. moluccensis. This study highlights the importance of coral composition as a determinant of behaviour and diversity of coral-reef fishes.

  15. Relational Aggression and Academic Performance in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between relational aggression and school performance, this study examined the relative and combined associations among relational aggression, overt aggression, and victimization and children's academic performance. Additionally this study examined the relative associations among relational and overt aggression and…

  16. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dopaminergic system regulates aggression in humans and other mammals. To investigate if birds with genetic propensity for high and low aggressiveness may exhibit distinctly different aggressive mediation via dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor pathways, two high aggressive (DXL and LGPS) and one lo...

  17. Identifying cognitive predictors of reactive and proactive aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, S.; Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.R.; Cima, M.; Schumann, T.; Dambacher, F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify implicit cognitive predictors of aggressive behavior. Specifically, the predictive value of an attentional bias for aggressive stimuli and automatic association of the self and aggression was examined for reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in a non-clini

  18. Identifying cognitive predictors of reactive and proactive aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brugman; J. Lobbestael; A. Arntz; M. Cima; T. Schuhmann; F. Dambacher; A.T. Sack

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify implicit cognitive predictors of aggressive behavior. Specifically, the predictive value of an attentional bias for aggressive stimuli and automatic association of the self and aggression was examined for reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in a non-clini

  19. Aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Chaput

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Yves Chaput1, Lucie Beaulieu2, Michel Paradis3, Edith Labonté41Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal (presently in private practice; 2Department of Psychiatry, Haut Richelieu Hospital, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec; 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Montreal, Montreal; 4Department of Psychiatry, Laval University, Quebec, CanadaIntroduction: Studies of aggressive behaviors in a nonforensic mental health setting have focused primarily on the inpatient ward and, on event prediction, using behavior-based clinical rating scales. Few studies have specifically targeted aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service or determined whether assessing the demographic and clinical characteristics of such patients might prove useful for their more rapid identification.Methods: We used a prospectively acquired database of over 20,900 visits to four services in the province of Quebec, Canada, over a two-year period from September 2002 onwards. A maximum of 72 variables could be acquired per visit. Visits with aggression (any verbally or physically intimidating behavior, both present and past, were tagged. Binary logistic regressions and cross-tabulations were used to determine whether the profile of a variable differed in visits with aggression from those without aggression.Results: About 7% of visits were marked by current aggression (verbal 49%, physical 12%, verbal and physical 39%. Including visits with a “past only” history of aggression increased this number to 20%. Variables associated with aggression were gender (male, marital status (single/separated, education (high school or less, employment (none, judicial history (any type, substance abuse (prior or active, medication compliance (poor, type of arrival to psychiatric emergency services (involuntary, police, judiciary, landlord, reason for referral (behavioral dyscontrol, diagnosis (less frequent in anxiety disorders, and outcome (more frequently placed under

  20. Physical Aggression and Mindfulness among College Students: Evidence from China and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Gao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The link between trait mindfulness and several dimensions of aggression (verbal, anger and hostility has been documented, while the link between physical aggression and trait mindfulness remains less clear. Method: We used two datasets: one United States sample from 300 freshmen males from Clemson University, South Carolina and a Chinese sample of 1516 freshmen students from Shanghai University of Finance and Economics. Multiple regressions were conducted to examine the association between mindfulness (measured by Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS and each of the four subscales of aggression. Results: Among the Clemson sample (N = 286, the mindfulness scale had a significant negative association with each of the four subscales of aggression: Hostility: β = −0.62, p < 0.001; Verbal: β = −0.37, p < 0.001; Physical: β = −0.29, p < 0.001; Anger: β = −0.44, p < 0.001. Among the Shanghai male subsample, the mindfulness scale had a significant negative association with each of the four subscales of aggression: Hostility: β = −0.57, p < 0.001; Verbal: β = −0.37, p < 0.001; Physical: β = −0.35, p < 0.001; Anger: β = −0.58, p < 0.001. Among the Shanghai female subsample (N = 512, the mindfulness scale had a significant negative association with each of the four subscales of aggression: Hostility: β = −0.62, p < 0.001; Verbal: β = −0.41, p < 0.001; Physical: β = −0.52, p < 0.001; and Anger: β = −0.64, p < 0.001. Discussion: Our study documents the negative association between mindfulness and physical aggression in two non-clinical samples. Future studies could explore whether mindfulness training lowers physical aggression among younger adults.

  1. A lipid transfer protein that transfers lipid

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, T. P.

    2007-01-01

    Very few lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) have been caught in the act of transferring lipids in vivo from a donor membrane to an acceptor membrane. Now, two studies (Halter, D., S. Neumann, S. M. van Dijk, J. Wolthoorn, A. M. de Maziere, O.V. Vieira, P. Mattjus, J. Klumperman, G. van Meer, and H. Sprong. 2007. J. Cell Biol. 179: 101 115; D'Angelo, G., E. Polishchuk, G. D. Tullio, M. Santoro, A. D. Campli, A. Godi, G. West, J. Bielawski, C.C. Chuang, A. C. van der Spoel, et al. 2007. Nature. 449...

  2. Levels of Aggression among Turkish Adolescents and Factors Leading to Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Dilek; Kilic, Mahmut; Tari Selcuk, Kevser; Uzuncakmak, Tugba

    2016-07-01

    Aggression, an increasing problem among adolescents, is a potential threat to public health as it can lead to violence. Determining the factors causing aggression plays an important role in taking measures to reduce violence. This study aimed at determining the level of aggression among adolescents and at identifying the factors associated with high levels of aggression. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 2,409 Turkish adolescents. Data were collected with the Socio-demographic Questionnaire, Aggression Scale, Perceived Social Support Scale, and Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression. The participants' mean aggression score was 91.83 ± 24.05, and 24.0% of the adolescents' aggression levels rated high. According to the logistic regression model, aggression was 1.26 times higher among males, 1.92 times higher among those who perceived their mental health as poor, 1.58 times higher among those with suicidal ideation, 1.29 times higher among those who did not get prepared for university entrance exams, and 1.62 times higher among those who perceived their school performance as poor. Perceived family social support was a protective factor against high aggression. Approximately one out of every four adolescents in the two Turkish high schools where the study was conducted was determined to display high levels of aggression. Therefore, in order to reduce aggression among adolescents, programs such as coping management and coping with anger should be applied by nurses. Programs should include not only students but also families. PMID:27111434

  3. The effects of attitudes towards violence on violent behaviour among secondary school students: Moderation by gender and aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oljača Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to explore the effects of attitudes towards violence on different forms of violence behaviour among secondary school students. The moderator roles of gender and aggressiveness in relationships between attitude and violence were also tested. The Bullying Attitudinal Scale, the Peer Violence and Victimisation Questionnaire (PVVQ, and the Aggressiveness questionnaire AVDH were administered on the sample of 643 second- to fourth-grade secondary school students from urban area (61.7% boysgrade. The results have shown that among boys more positive attitudes towards violence had significant effect on direct violence forms - physical and verbal, but that it depended on aggressiveness whether violence would be manifested as physical. Namely, the boys with more positive attitudes towards violence, who, at the same time, scored higher on aggressiveness, were more prone to physical violence. Unlike them, the boys with more positive attitudes towards violence but with lower aggressiveness were less prone to physical aggression. In the case of verbal violence, it has been shown that boys with more positive attitudes towards violence were more prone to verbal violence, regardless of aggressiveness. Aggressiveness had a unique contribution to the prediction of verbal violence and only a significant effect in the prediction of relational violence. The importance of changing the attitudes towards violence in the context of violence prevention is discussed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON179006 i br. ON179037: Nasilje u savremenom društvu: dispozicioni i kontekstualni činioci

  4. Aggressive and Nonaggressive Children's Moral Judgments and Moral Emotion Attributions in Situations Involving Retaliation and Unprovoked Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated 7- and 9-year-old children's moral understanding of retaliation as compared to unprovoked aggression with regard to their aggressive behavior status. Based on peer ratings, 48 children were selected as overtly aggressive and 91 as nonaggressive. Their moral understanding of retaliation and unprovoked aggression was…

  5. Popular and Nonpopular Subtypes of Physically Aggressive Preadolescents: Continuity of Aggression and Peer Mechanisms during the Transition to Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2012-01-01

    Using peer nominations of physical aggression and perceived popularity in the spring semester of fifth grade, we identified 54 popular aggressive and 42 nonpopular aggressive preadolescents in a diverse sample of 318 participants recruited from an urban school district. Physical aggression in the spring semester of sixth grade was included to…

  6. Effects of Viewing Relational Aggression on Television on Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing "relational aggression" on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of…

  7. Cruel Intentions on Television and in Real Life: Can Viewing Indirect Aggression Increase Viewers' Subsequent Indirect Aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M.; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were…

  8. Quantitative Genomics of Aggressive Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Alexis C.; Stephanie M Rollmann; Morgan, Theodore J.; Trudy F C Mackay

    2006-01-01

    Synopsis Aggressive behavior is a complex trait affected by numerous interacting genes whose expression depends on the environment. Aggression can be selectively advantageous in the pursuit of mates, territory, or food; however, excessive aggression may be deleterious. Pathological levels of aggression in humans create an enormous burden to society. Although dysfunction of the biogenic amine systems is often associated with alterations in aggressive behavior, this represents only the “tip of ...

  9. Road Users' Risky Behavior: Analysis Focusing on Aggressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Alica Kalašová; Zuzana Krchová

    2011-01-01

    With transport and traffic developing permanently, we can meet more and more aggressive drivers on roads. We can see various kinds of aggressiveness and aggressive behavior that can lead to dangerous situations which can threaten one's health or even life. The problem of aggressive driving on the roads is becoming more current. Speeding, inappropriate gestures, and nonobservance of safe distance, are only a fraction of the aggressive behavior of many drivers that need to be solved in the road...

  10. Understanding Female Aggression In Situationally Violent Relationships: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Adi, Samar G

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this multiple case study was to gather information about female aggression in situationally violent relationship. The interviews and surveys of four African-American couples were coded and analyzed to gather information about the impact of female aggression on the relationship, the contextual factors surrounding female aggression, and the motivations for female aggression. The results indicated that female aggression impacts the couple relationship in several ways. First,...

  11. Neurocognitive models of aggression, the antisocial personality disorders, and psychopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers neurocognitive models of aggression and relates them to explanations of the antisocial personality disorders. Two forms of aggression are distinguished: reactive aggression elicited in response to frustration/threat and goal directed, instrumental aggression. It is argued that different forms of neurocognitive model are necessary to explain the emergence of these different forms of aggression. Impairments in executive emotional systems (the somatic marke...

  12. Intergenerational Transmission of Relationship Aggression: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Ming; Durtschi, Jared A.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether physical and verbal aggression in the family of origin were associated with similar patterns of aggression in young adult couples. Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 213 focal individuals who were followed from adolescence to adulthood. Results suggested that aggression in the family when focal participants were adolescents predicted aggression with romantic partners when participants were adults. The association between interparental aggression and la...

  13. Aggression and violence against health care workers in Germany - a cross sectional retrospective survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhnert Saskia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although international scientific research on health issues has been dealing with the problem of aggression and violence towards those employed in health care, research activities in Germany are still at an early stage. In view of this, the aim of this study was to examine the frequency and consequences of aggressive behaviour towards nurses and health care workers in different health sectors in Germany and to assess the need for preventive measures. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional retrospective survey. Nurses and health care workers from two nursing homes, a psychiatric clinic and a workshop for people with disabilities were interviewed using a standardised questionnaire. The sample covered 123 individuals (response rate 38.8%. The survey assessed the frequency, the type and the consequences of aggressive behaviour, and social support in connection with coping with aggression in the workplace. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for putative risk factors which may influence the stress induced by aggression at the workplace were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Results During the previous twelve months 70.7% of the respondents experienced physical and 89.4% verbal aggression. Physical aggression more frequently occurred in nursing homes (83.9% of the employees and verbal aggression was more common in the psychiatric clinic (96.7% of the employees. The proportion of the individuals affected in the workshop for people with disabilities was lower (41.9% and 77.4% respectively. The incidents impaired the physical (55% and emotional well-being (77.2% of the employees. The frequency of incidents (weekly: OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.1-6.4 combined with the lack of social support (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.2-6.6 increased the probability of higher stress due to aggression. Conclusions This study corroborates previous reports of frequent physical and verbal aggression towards care workers in the various areas of

  14. Baseline omega-3 index correlates with aggressive and attention deficit disorder behaviours in adult prisoners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara J Meyer

    Full Text Available There is emerging evidence that the supplementation of omega-3 contributes to a decrease in aggressive behaviour in prison populations. A challenge of such research is achieving statistical power against effect sizes which may be affected by the baseline omega-3 index. There are no published data on the blood omega-3 index with studies of this kind to assess the variability of the blood omega-3 index in conjunction with aggression and attention deficit assessments.To determine if the variance of the omega-3 index is correlated with aggressive and attention deficit behaviour in a prison population.136 adult male prisoners were recruited from South Coast Correctional Centre (SCCC, NSW Australia. A 7 point categorisation was used to quantify levels of aggressive behaviour (4 weeks from individual SCCC case notes, whereby higher scores correspond to increasingly aggressive behaviour. Study participants completed the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ and the Brown's Attention Deficit Disorder Scales (BADDS, provided a blood sample for erythrocyte fatty acid analysis using gas chromatography and the omega-3 index was calculated.The baseline omega-3 index ranged from 2.3% to 10.3%, indicating that some participants already had substantial omega-3 intake, however a median of 4.7% indicated a lower overall omega-3 intake than the general Australian population. Assessment of aggressive and attention deficit behaviour shows that there were negative correlations between baseline omega-3 index and baseline aggression categorisation scores (r = -0.21, P = 0.016; total AQ score (r = -0.234, P = 0.011; Anger (r = -0.222 p = 0.016; Hostility AQ (r = -0.239, P = 0.009; indirect aggression (r = -0.188 p = 0.042; total BADDS (r = -0.263, p = 0.005; Activation (r = -0.224, p = 0.016; Attention (r = -0.192, p = 0.043; Effort (r = -0.253, p = 0.007; Affect (r = -0.330, p = 0.000 and Memory (r = -0.240, p = 0.010.There is a high variability in omega-3 status of a NSW prison

  15. Dengue Virus Infection Perturbs Lipid Homeostasis in Infected Mosquito Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, Rushika M.; Riley, Catherine; Isaac, Georgis; Hopf- Jannasch, Amber; Moore, Ronald J.; Weitz, Karl K.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Metz, Thomas O.; Adamec, Jiri; Kuhn, Richard J.

    2012-03-22

    Dengue virus causes {approx}50-100 million infections per year and thus is considered one of the most aggressive arthropod-borne human pathogen worldwide. During its replication, dengue virus induces dramatic alterations in the intracellular membranes of infected cells. This phenomenon is observed both in human and vector-derived cells. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry of mosquito cells, we show that this membrane remodeling is directly linked to a unique lipid repertoire induced by dengue virus infection. Specifically, 15% of the metabolites detected were significantly different between DENV infected and uninfected cells while 85% of the metabolites detected were significantly different in isolated replication complex membranes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that intracellular lipid redistribution induced by the inhibition of fatty acid synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme in lipid biosynthesis, is sufficient for cell survival but is inhibitory to dengue virus replication. Lipids that have the capacity to destabilize and change the curvature of membranes as well as lipids that change the permeability of membranes are enriched in dengue virus infected cells. Several sphingolipids and other bioactive signaling molecules that are involved in controlling membrane fusion, fission, and trafficking as well as molecules that influence cytoskeletal reorganization are also up regulated during dengue infection. These observations shed light on the emerging role of lipids in shaping the membrane and protein environments during viral infections and suggest membrane-organizing principles that may influence virus-induced intracellular membrane architecture.

  16. Intra- Versus Intersex Aggression: Testing Theories of Sex Differences Using Aggression Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfer, Ralf; Hewstone, Miles

    2015-08-01

    Two theories offer competing explanations of sex differences in aggressive behavior: sexual-selection theory and social-role theory. While each theory has specific strengths and limitations depending on the victim's sex, research hardly differentiates between intrasex and intersex aggression. In the present study, 11,307 students (mean age = 14.96 years; 50% girls, 50% boys) from 597 school classes provided social-network data (aggression and friendship networks) as well as physical (body mass index) and psychosocial (gender and masculinity norms) information. Aggression networks were used to disentangle intra- and intersex aggression, whereas their class-aggregated sex differences were analyzed using contextual predictors derived from sexual-selection and social-role theories. As expected, results revealed that sexual-selection theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intrasex aggression, whereas social-role theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intersex aggression. Findings suggest the value of explaining sex differences separately for intra- and intersex aggression with a dual-theory framework covering both evolutionary and normative components. PMID:26158924

  17. Behavioural differences between artificially selected aggressive and non-aggressive mice : response to apomorphine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benus, Rensina F.; Bohus, Bela; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Oortmerssen, Geert A. van

    1991-01-01

    The present study reports a first attempt to unravel the neurochemical background that underlies the difference in behavioural profiles between aggressive and non-aggressive male mice. For this purpose two bidirectionally selected lines for attack latency (SAL and LAL) were used. In pursuit of anoth

  18. The Relationship between Unstable Self-Esteem and Aggression: Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunju J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether the instability of self-esteem (i.e., a high intraindividual variability in self-esteem) is differentially associated with different types of aggressive behavior by using a sample of 235 preadolescent children. Self-esteem was measured four times for four consecutive days, and proactive and reactive aggressive behaviors…

  19. The Aggression-Inhibiting and Aggression-Facilitating Influence of Heightened Sexual Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Robert A.; Bell, Paul A.

    Eighty-six undergraduate males participated in an experiment designed to investigate the impact of various types of erotic stimuli upon aggression. On the basis of previous research, it was hypothesized that exposure to mild erotic stimuli would tend to inhibit subsequent aggression, while exposure to more arousing stimuli of this type would…

  20. "We Don't Need No Education": Video Game Preferences, Video Game Motivations, and Aggressiveness among Adolescent Boys of Different Educational Ability Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijvank, Marije Nije; Konijn, Elly A.; Bushman, Brad J.

    2012-01-01

    This research focuses on low educational ability as a risk factor for aggression and violent game play. We propose that boys of lower educational ability are more attracted to violent video games than other boys are, and that they are also higher in trait aggressiveness and sensation seeking. Participants were Dutch boys in public schools (N =…

  1. Oxytocin inhibits aggression in female Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, A C; Huhman, K L; Moore, T O; Albers, H E

    2002-12-01

    Dominant subordinate relationships are formed as the result of social conflict and are maintained at least in part by communication. At this time, little is known about the neural mechanisms that are responsible for coordinating the social behaviours (e.g. aggression) that occur in association with the formation and maintenance of these relationships. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of oxytocin (OXT) within the medial preoptic anterior hypothalamic continuum (MPOA-AH) in the control of aggression in female hamsters. OXT injected into the MPOA-AH immediately before testing significantly reduced the duration of aggression in a dose-dependent manner. Injection of an OXT antagonist 30 min before testing significantly increased the duration of aggression. In contrast, the duration of aggression was not altered when hamsters were tested either 30 min after injection of OXT or immediately following injection of an OXT-antagonist. These data support the hypothesis that OXT release within the MPOA-AH regulates social behaviours important in the formation and maintenance of dominant subordinate relationships in female hamsters. PMID:12472877

  2. A high aggression strategy for smaller males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Andreas Svensson

    Full Text Available Male-male conflict is common among animals, but questions remain as to when, how and by whom aggression should be initiated. Factors that affect agonistic strategies include residency, the value of the contested resource and the fighting ability of the two contestants. We quantified initiation of aggression in a fish, the desert goby, Chlamydogobius eremius, by exposing nest-holding males to a male intruder. The perceived value of the resource (the nest was manipulated by exposing half of the residents to sexually receptive females for two days before the trial. Resident male aggression, however, was unaffected by perceived mating opportunities. It was also unaffected by the absolute and relative size of the intruder. Instead resident aggression was negatively related to resident male size. In particular, smaller residents attacked sooner and with greater intensity compared to larger residents. These results suggest that resident desert goby males used set, rather than conditional, strategies for initiating aggression. If intruders are more likely to flee than retaliate, small males may benefit from attacking intruders before these have had an opportunity to assess the resident and/or the resource.

  3. Oil and resource-backed aggression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colgan, Jeff, E-mail: colgan@american.ed [International Relations, American University (United States)

    2011-03-15

    A common misperception about oil politics is that it has a uniform, monolithic effect on policy development. This paper argues that in fact the net political effect of oil varies dramatically depending on the nature of the petrostate. It shows that oil income, when combined with revolutionary governments in petrostates, generates strong incentives for foreign policy aggression and international conflict. The aggressiveness of petro-revolutionary states is shown to have consequences in both military and economic spheres of international relations. Militarily, the aggressiveness of this type of state leads to a high rate of armed conflicts. Economically, the aggressiveness of petro-revolutionary states shapes global oil markets and international economic relations. The argument is tested using statistical analysis of international conflicts and economic sanctions. The policy implications are then considered, focusing on the negative global impacts of dependence on oil consumption. - Research highlights: {yields} A radical reconsideration of the link between oil and international conflict is needed. {yields} Resource-backed aggression, not resource-competition, is the major source of conflict. {yields} Petro-revolutionary states instigate 250% more military conflicts than typical states. {yields} Petro-revolutionary states are also more frequently targeted for economic sanctions.

  4. The Relationship of Intimate Partner Aggression to Head Injury, Executive Functioning, and Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walling, Sherry M.; Meehan, Jeffrey C.; Marshall, Amy D.; Holtzworth-Munroe, Amy; Taft, Casey T.

    2012-01-01

    Measures of head injury, executive functioning, and intelligence were given to a community sample composed of 102 male perpetrators of intimate partner aggression (IPA) and 62 nonaggressive men. A history of head injury and lower mean score on a measure of verbal intelligence were associated with the frequency of male-perpetrated physical IPA as…

  5. Subordinate wasps are more aggressive in colonies with low reproductive skew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanelli, D.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Turillazzi, S.

    2008-01-01

    activity and actual interaction time between a and ß. We showed that (1) more even reproductive partitioning (lower reproductive skew) is associated with higher levels of aggression initiated by the ß subordinate independent of colony activity and (2) none of the currently available reproductive skew...

  6. Aggressive Marital Conflict, Maternal Harsh Punishment, and Child Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior: Evidence for Direct and Mediated Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Erath, Stephen A.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2006-01-01

    Direct associations between aggressive marital conflict and child aggressive-disruptive behavior at home and school were explored in this cross-sectional study of 360 kindergarten children. In addition, mediated pathways linking aggressive marital conflict to maternal harsh punishment to child aggressive-disruptive behavior were examined. Moderation analyses explored how the overall frequency of marital disagreement might buffer or exacerbate the impact of aggressive marital conflict on mater...

  7. Partner Aggression among Men and Women in Substance Use Disorder Treatment: Correlates of Psychological and Physical Aggression and Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Chermack, Stephen T.; Murray, Regan L.; Walton, Maureen A.; Booth, Brenda A; Wryobeck, John; Blow, Frederic C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined intimate partner aggression in a sample of 489 participants enrolled in substance use disorder treatment, and expands on prior research by including measures of various forms of aggression, a mixed gender sample (76% men, 24% women), and measurement of several potential risk domains. Aggression measures included both participant-to-partner and partner-to-participant psychological aggression, physical aggression and injury. Analyses focused on the role of distal and proxima...

  8. "We don't need no education": Video game preferences, video game motivations, and aggressiveness among adolescent boys of different educational ability levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nije Bijvank, Marije; Konijn, Elly A; Bushman, Brad J

    2012-02-01

    This research focuses on low educational ability as a risk factor for aggression and violent game play. We propose that boys of lower educational ability are more attracted to violent video games than other boys are, and that they are also higher in trait aggressiveness and sensation seeking. Participants were Dutch boys in public schools (N = 830, age-range 11-17). In the Netherlands, standardized tests are used to place students into lower, medium, and higher educational ability groups. Results showed that boys in the lower educational ability group preferred to play violent, stand-alone games, identified more with video game characters, and perceived video games to be more realistic than other boys did. Lower levels of education were also related to higher levels of aggressiveness and sensation seeking. Higher educational ability boys preferred social, multiplayer games. Within a risk and resilience model, boys with lower educational ability are at greater risk for aggression. PMID:21529925

  9. Does Exercise Reduce Aggressive Feelings? An Experiment Examining the Influence of Movement Type and Social Task Conditions on Testiness and Anger Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pels, Fabian; Kleinert, Jens

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, it was assumed that a decrease in aggressive feelings is stronger with movements that are unlike aggressive actions compared with those that are similar to aggressive actions. Furthermore, cooperative exercise tasks were expected to lead to lower aggressive feelings compared with competitive tasks. After undergoing an induction of aggressive feelings, 60 participants were randomly assigned to one of six experimental treatment groups, each differing in "movement type" (rowing and combat exercise) and "social task condition" (cooperation, competition, and individualization). A significant reduction of aggressive feelings was only found for participants exercising individually in the rowing condition compared with the individual combat exercise condition. There were no sole effects of "movement type" and "social task condition." PMID:27184261

  10. Medea: Aggression im Dienste weiblicher Subjektivierung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Gsell

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Aggression wurde in der Geschlechterforschung bisher meist nicht nur unter negativen Vorzeichen – nämlich als zerstörerische und fehlgeleitete Kraft – thematisiert und mit Gewalt in eins gesetzt, sondern darüberhinaus fast ausschließlich mit Männlichkeit konnotiert. Nur langsam setzt sich demgegenüber die Einsicht durch, dass Aggression zunächst einmal eine grundsätzlich positive Kraft ist, derer es zur Subjektivierung und Erlangung von Selbstbestimmung bedarf. Damit scheint nun auch eine fruchtbare Auseinandersetzung mit Weiblichkeit und Aggression möglich geworden zu sein. Ein lehrreicher Beitrag dazu ist Roxana Hidalgos Medea-Studie, gerade weil sie die eigentlich heiklen Fragen weder stellt noch beantwortet.

  11. Genetic and immunological features of aggressive periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel MUÑOZ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available clinicians and researchers due to its rapid progression and its evidences of genetic character. Different theories have tried to explain the individual differences in susceptibility, where genetic and immunological assays have assumed great importance. The purpose of this study was to review the literature in order to comprehend the genetic and immunological features of aggressive periodontitis. Literature review: Articles were examined, specifically the ones dealing with information regarding genetic and/or immunological studies of individuals related to their disease susceptibility. Conclusions: In the presence of dental biofilm, host susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis varies among regions, countries and races. Immune-inflammatory processes that seem to be modified in aggressive periodontitis patients may be transmitted vertically, explaining familial aggregation associated with this disease.

  12. Which is the best lipid-modifying strategy in metabolic syndrome and diabetes: fibrates, statins or both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenenbaum Alexander

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although less clinical intervention studies have been performed with fibrates than with statins, there are evidences indicating that fibrates may reduce risk of cardiovascular events. The potential clinical benefit of the fenofibrate will be specified by the ongoing Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD study, which rationale, methods and aims have been just published. Controlled clinical trials show similar or even greater cardiovascular benefits from statins-based therapy in patient subgroups with diabetes compared with overall study populations. Therefore, statins are the drug of first choice for aggressive lipid lowering actions and reducing risk of coronary artery disease in these patients. However, current therapeutic use of statins as monotherapy is still leaving many patients with mixed atherogenic dyslipidemia at high risk for coronary events. A combination statin/fibrate therapy may be often necessary to control all lipid abnormalities in patients with metabolic syndrome and diabetes adequately, since fibrates provide additional important benefits, particularly on triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels. Thus, this combined therapy concentrates on all the components of the mixed dyslipidemia that often occurs in persons with diabetes or metabolic syndrome, and may be expected to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Safety concerns about some fibrates such as gemfibrozil may lead to exaggerate precautions regarding fibrate administration and therefore diminish the use of the seagents. However, other fibrates, such as bezafibrate and fenofibrate appear to be safer and better tolerated. We believe that a proper co-administration of statins and fibrates, selected on basis of their safety, could be more effective in achieving a comprehensive lipid control as compared with monotherapy.

  13. Behavioral aggressiveness in boys with sexual precocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Kulshreshtha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some boys with sexual precocity are known to have behavioral problems like increased physical and verbal aggression and school and social maladjustments. It is believed to be due to premature androgen exposure. However, it is not clear why only some develop this problem, difference in etiology could be one explanation. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess behavioral aggression in boys with sexual precocity due to different disorders. Materials and Methods: Seven children, ages three to seven years, were enrolled for this study. Two were diagnosed to have congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, three had testotoxicosis, while two had central precocious puberty. Parents of children with precocious puberty underwent the (CASP questionnaire (children′s aggression scale-parent version. Results: Testosterone levels were high in all patients. Parents denied any history of physical or verbal aggression in the two boys with CAH. Their CASP rating was 0. In contrast, the CASP ratings in the two boys with testotoxicosis and the two with precocious puberty for five domains ranged from 3.1 - 24.2, 2.6 - 8.3,1-5.6,0 - 7.1, and 0 - 1, respectively. In the present study, increased aggression was seen among all the patients with testotoxicosis and both with precocious puberty. In contrast, there were no symptoms of either increased verbal or physical aggression in either of the two patients with CAH. Conclusions: The hormonal milieu in the boys with CAH versus those with sexual precocity due to other causes differed in terms of cortisol and androgen precursors. The androgen excess in CAH children was a consequence of cortisol deficiency. It is possible that cortisol sufficiency is required for androgen-mediated behavioral effects.

  14. Regulation of lipid metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng LI

    2011-01-01

    @@ Lipids including cholesterol, phospholipids, fatty acids and triacylglycerols are important cellular constituents involved in membrane structure, energy homeostasis and many biological processes such as signal transduction, organelle development and cell differentiation.Recently, the area of lipid metabolism has drawn a great deal of attention due to its emerging role in the development of metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis and liver steatosis.We decided to organize a special issue of Frontiers in Biology focusing on our current understanding of lipid metabolism.

  15. Prevalence of physical and verbal aggressive behaviours and associated factors among older adults in long-term care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desrosiers Johanne

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal and physical aggressive behaviours are among the most disturbing and distressing behaviours displayed by older patients in long-term care facilities. Aggressive behaviour (AB is often the reason for using physical or chemical restraints with nursing home residents and is a major concern for caregivers. AB is associated with increased health care costs due to staff turnover and absenteeism. Methods The goals of this secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study are to determine the prevalence of verbal and physical aggressive behaviours and to identify associated factors among older adults in long-term care facilities in the Quebec City area (n = 2 332. Results The same percentage of older adults displayed physical aggressive behaviour (21.2% or verbal aggressive behaviour (21.5%, whereas 11.2% displayed both types of aggressive behaviour. Factors associated with aggressive behaviour (both verbal and physical were male gender, neuroleptic drug use, mild and severe cognitive impairment, insomnia, psychological distress, and physical restraints. Factors associated with physical aggressive behaviour were older age, male gender, neuroleptic drug use, mild or severe cognitive impairment, insomnia and psychological distress. Finally, factors associated with verbal aggressive behaviour were benzodiazepine and neuroleptic drug use, functional dependency, mild or severe cognitive impairment and insomnia. Conclusion Cognitive impairment severity is the most significant predisposing factor for aggressive behaviour among older adults in long-term care facilities in the Quebec City area. Physical and chemical restraints were also significantly associated with AB. Based on these results, we suggest that caregivers should provide care to older adults with AB using approaches such as the progressively lowered stress threshold model and reactance theory which stress the importance of paying attention to the severity of cognitive

  16. High aggression in rats is associated with elevated stress, anxiety-like behavior, and altered catecholamine content in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patki, Gaurav; Atrooz, Fatin; Alkadhi, Isam; Solanki, Naimesh; Salim, Samina

    2015-01-01

    The social defeat paradigm involves aggressive encounters between Long-Evans (LE) (resident) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) (intruder) rats. Successful application of chronic social defeat stress in SD rats is dependent upon selection of highly aggressive LE rats. Half of the LE rats screened for aggression did not meet the criterion for aggression (LE rats performing a defeat, characterized by the intruder surrendering or acquiring a supine position for at least 3 sec). The observation of the differences in the level of aggression between age and weight matched LE rats was quite compelling which led us to the present study. Herein, we measured behavioral differences between aggressor and non-aggressor LE rats. We analyzed their anxiety-like behavior using open-field and elevated plus maze tests. We also measured aggression/violence-like behavior using two tests. In one, time taken to defeat the intruder SD rat was recorded. In the second test, time taken to attack a novel object was compared between the two groups. We observed a significant increase in anxiety-like behavior in aggressor rats when compared to the non-aggressive group. Furthermore, time taken to defeat the intruder rat and to attack a novel object was significantly lower in aggressive LE rats. Biochemical data suggests that heightened anxiety-like behavior and aggression is associated with increased plasma levels of corticosterones and elevated oxidative stress. Significant alterations in dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) were observed within the hippocampus, amygdala and the prefrontal cortex, suggesting potential involvement of dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems in regulation of aggressive behaviors. PMID:25450144

  17. Boys’ and Girls’ Relational and Physical Aggression in Nine Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Di Giunta, Laura; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Distinguishing between relational and physical aggression has become a key feature of many developmental studies in North America and Western Europe, but very little information is available on relational and physical aggression in more diverse cultural contexts. This study examined the factor structure of, associations between, and gender differences in relational and physical aggression in China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. Children ages 7–10 years (N = 1,410) reported on their relationally and physically aggressive behavior. Relational and physical aggression shared a common factor structure across countries. In all nine countries, relational and physical aggression were significantly correlated (average r = .49). Countries differed in the mean levels of both relational and physical aggression that children reported using and with respect to whether children reported using more physical than relational aggression or more relational than physical aggression. Boys reported being more physically aggressive than girls across all nine countries; no consistent gender differences emerged in relational aggression. Despite mean-level differences in relational and physical aggression across countries, the findings provided support for cross-country similarities in associations between relational and physical aggression as well as links between gender and aggression. PMID:23935227

  18. Friendship and Aggression in Elementary School. The friendships of aggressive children and the effects of having aggressive friends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmen, J.M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Research has demonstrated the importance of friendship for children’s adjustment (e.g., Ladd, 1990). However, some children may be less capable of maintaining satisfying relationships with their peers. Aggressive children have been found to experience peer relation difficulties (e.g., Dodge, Coie, P

  19. Polyene-lipids: a new tool to image lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuerschner, Lars; Ejsing, Christer S.; Ekroos, Kim;

    2005-01-01

    superiority of polyene-lipids to both NBD- and BODIPY-tagged lipids. Cells readily take up various polyene-lipid precursors and generate the expected end products with no apparent disturbance by the tag. Applying two-photon excitation microscopy, we imaged the distribution of polyene-lipids in living......Microscopy of lipids in living cells is currently hampered by a lack of adequate fluorescent tags. The most frequently used tags, NBD and BODIPY, strongly influence the properties of lipids, yielding analogs with quite different characteristics. Here, we introduce polyene-lipids containing five...

  20. Hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John G

    2016-06-01

    The liver has a central role in the regulation of systemic glucose and lipid fluxes during feeding and fasting and also relies on these substrates for its own energy needs. These parallel requirements are met by coordinated control of carbohydrate and lipid fluxes into and out of the Krebs cycle, which is highly tuned to nutrient availability and heavily regulated by insulin and glucagon. During progression of type 2 diabetes, hepatic carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis fluxes become elevated, thus contributing to hyperglycaemia and hypertriacylglycerolaemia. Over this interval there are also significant fluctuations in hepatic energy state. To date, it is not known to what extent abnormal glucose and lipid fluxes are causally linked to altered energy states. Recent evidence that the glucose-lowering effects of metformin appear to be mediated by attenuation of hepatic energy generation places an additional spotlight on the interdependence of hepatic biosynthetic and oxidative fluxes. The transition from fasting to feeding results in a significant re-direction of hepatic glucose and lipid fluxes and may also incur a temporary hepatic energy deficit. At present, it is not known to what extent these variables are additionally modified by type 2 diabetes and/or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Thus, there is a compelling need to measure fluxes through oxidative, gluconeogenic and lipogenic pathways and determine their relationship with hepatic energy state in both fasting and fed conditions. New magnetic resonance-based technologies allow these variables to be non-invasively studied in animal models and humans. This review summarises a presentation given at the symposium entitled 'The liver in focus' at the 2015 annual meeting of the EASD. It is accompanied by two other reviews on topics from this symposium (by Kenneth Cusi, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3952-1 , and by Hannele Yki-Järvinen, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3944-1 ) and a commentary by the Session Chair, Michael

  1. Situation determinanty of display of aggression in sporting activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maystruk V.V.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Situation pre-conditions of development of aggression are considered. Aggression within the limits of rules of competitions is the important element of successful activity of sportsman. Aspiring to victory requires a sporting aggressiveness. Sport is a comfortable model for the scientific experimental study of the phenomenon of aggression. Existing is studied типологии of aggressiveness in sporting activity. A reactive and instrumental aggressiveness is selected. Primary objective of first consists in causing of physical or psychological trauma. A friend is pursued by a purpose is a receipt of victory and not causing of harm to the competitor.

  2. Road Users' Risky Behavior: Analysis Focusing on Aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica Kalašová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With transport and traffic developing permanently, we can meet more and more aggressive drivers on roads. We can see various kinds of aggressiveness and aggressive behavior that can lead to dangerous situations which can threaten one's health or even life. The problem of aggressive driving on the roads is becoming more current. Speeding, inappropriate gestures, and nonobservance of safe distance, are only a fraction of the aggressive behavior of many drivers that need to be solved in the road traffic. At present, the problem of aggressive driver behavior in Slovakia is not resolved yet.

  3. The effect of television-mediated aggression and real-life aggression on the behavior of Lebanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, R C; Ghandour, M

    1984-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of television-mediated aggression and real-life aggression on the behavior of Lebanese children. The sample consisted of 48 boys and 48 girls of Lebanese origin who were students in an elementary school in Beirut, Lebanon. After controlling for pre-experimental aggression, the subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment conditions: human-film aggression, cartoon-film aggression, neutral film, or real-life (act of war) aggression. The results indicated that boys as a group were more aggressive than girls and exhibited more imitative aggression after viewing both violent film and real-life violence. Girls were not more violent after viewing filmed aggression but were affected by the real-life violence. Comparisons of Bandura's work within the Lebanese culture are made. PMID:6470621

  4. Lipids in Marine Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher C Parrish

    2013-01-01

    Lipids provide the densest form of energy in marine ecosystems. They are also a solvent and absorption carrier for organic contaminants and thus can be drivers of pollutant bioaccumulation. Among the lipids, certain essential fatty acids and sterols are considered to be important determinants of ecosystem health and stability. Fatty acids and sterols are also susceptible to oxidative damage leading to cytotoxicity and a decrease in membrane fluidity. The physical characteristics of biological...

  5. LIPID PEROXIDATION IN PREECLAMPSIA

    OpenAIRE

    T. Sharmila Krishna; D. Raja Rajeswari; E. Venkat Rao; Sk. Deepthi; Naidu, J.N.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension in pregnancy is a leading cause of both maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Preeclampsia is characterised by hypertension and proteinuria. Lipid peroxidation is an important factor in the pathophysiology of Preeclampsia. The present study was undertaken to determine Serum Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels , a product of lipid peroxidation , in clinically diagnosed Preeclamptic women(n=30) and the values were compared with that of Normotensive pregnant women (n=30) aged between...

  6. Cocaine exposure and children’s self-regulation: Indirect association via maternal aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina eEiden

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study examined the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and children’s self-regulation at 3 years of child age. In addition to direct effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on children’s self-regulation, we hypothesized there would be indirect associations between cocaine exposure and self-regulation via higher maternal aggression and poor autonomic regulation in infancy. Methods: The sample consisted of 216 mother-infant dyads recruited at delivery from local area hospitals (116 cocaine exposed, 100 non-exposed. Infant autonomic regulation was measured at 7 months of age during an anger/frustration task, maternal aggression was coded from observations of mother-toddler interactions at 2 years of age, and children’s self-regulation was measured at 3 years of age using several laboratory paradigms. Results: Contrary to hypotheses, there were no direct associations between maternal cocaine use and children’s self-regulation. However, results from testing our conceptual model including the indirect effects via maternal aggression or infant parasympathetic regulation indicated that this model fit the data well, X2 (23 = 34.36, p > .05, Comparative Fit Index = .95, RMSEA = .05. Cocaine using mothers displayed higher intensity of aggression toward their toddlers during lab interactions across a variety of tasks at 2 years of age (β = .23, p < .05, and higher intensity of aggression at 2 years was predictive of lower self-regulation at 3 years (β = -.36, p < .01. Maternal cocaine use was also predictive of a non-adaptive increase in respiratory sinus arrythmia (RSA from baseline to the negative affect task, but RSA change in infancy was not predictive of self-regulation at 3 years. Conclusions: Results are supportive of animal models indicating higher aggression among cocaine treated dams, and indicate that higher maternal aggression among cocaine using mothers is predictive of child self-regulatory outcomes over time.

  7. Perspectives on marine zooplankton lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kattner, G.; Hagen, W.; Lee, R.F.;

    2007-01-01

    climate change. The first addresses the role of lipids in membranes, storage lipids, and buoyancy with the following key question: How are the properties of membranes and deposits affected by the various types of lipids? The second deals with the importance of various types of lipids during reproduction...

  8. Understanding Relations Among Early Family Environment, Cortisol Response, and Child Aggression via a Prevention Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Neal, Colleen R.; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Huang, Keng-Yen; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Calzada, Esther J.; Pine, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations among family environment, cortisol response, and behavior in the context of a randomized controlled trial with 92 children (M = 48 months) at risk for antisocial behavior. Previously, researchers reported an intervention effect on cortisol response in anticipation of a social challenge. The current study examined whether changes in cortisol response were related to later child aggression. Among lower warmth families, the intervention effect on aggression was largely mediated by the intervention effect on cortisol response. Although the intervention also resulted in significant benefits on child engaging behavior, cortisol response did not mediate this effect. These findings demonstrate meaningful associations between cortisol response and aggression among children at familial risk for antisocial behavior. PMID:20331668

  9. Pathways to prevention: improving nonresident African American fathers' parenting skills and behaviors to reduce sons' aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard Caldwell, Cleopatra; Antonakos, Cathy L; Assari, Shervin; Kruger, Daniel; De Loney, E Hill; Njai, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    This study describes a test of the Fathers and Sons Program for increasing intentions to avoid violence and reducing aggressive behaviors in 8- to 12-year-old African American boys by enhancing the parenting skills satisfaction and parenting behaviors of their nonresident fathers. The study included 158 intervention and 129 comparison group families. Structural equation model results indicated that the intervention was effective for improving fathers' parenting skills satisfaction, which was positively associated with sons' satisfaction with paternal engagement. Sons' paternal engagement satisfaction was positively associated with their intentions to avoid violence. Although aggressive behaviors were lower for comparison group sons, the intervention effectively reduced sons' aggressive behaviors indirectly by enhancing fathers' parenting behaviors. Support for family-centered youth violence prevention efforts is discussed. PMID:23746345

  10. The evolution of humor from male aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuster S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sam ShusterNewcastle University, Newcastle Upon Type, NE1 7RU, UKAbstract: The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer's sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15–69 years, with 2–40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection.Keywords: humor evolution, male aggressive behavior

  11. Pathways to Relationship Aggression between Adult Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Dean M.; Holman, Thomas B.; Walker, Eric

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the pathways to adult aggression beginning in the family of origin (FOO) and continuing through adult relationships were investigated. With a sample of 30,600 individuals, a comprehensive model was evaluated that included the unique influences of violent victimization in the family, witnessing parental violence, perpetrating…

  12. Nigerian dentists′ knowledge of aggressive periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Olusegun Nwhator

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the general knowledge of Nigerian dentists on aggressive periodontitis (AgP and specific knowledge of distinguishing between the clinical features of localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP and generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, non-random convenience survey was done on 200 dentists, in three geopolitical zones of Nigeria, using pre-tested, closed question– type questionnaires. Eventually, only 133 questionnaires were analyzed. Relationships between six outcome variables namely clinical features of LAP, clinical features of GAP, LAP oral hygiene, GAP oral hygiene, laser therapy option and type of laser therapy, and the explanatory variables of gender and experience were analyzed. Results: A total of 33.8% of the dentists had poor general knowledge, 16.5% had fair knowledge, 31.9% had good knowledge, while 10.5% had excellent knowledge. Gender- and experience-related differences were found, but they were not statistically signifi cant. Conclusion: Both the general and specifi c knowledge of aggressive periodontitis among Nigerian dentists is less than expected and needs improvement through targeted, continuing dental education.

  13. Subtypes of aggression in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Sune; Forth, Adelle; Kongerslev, Mickey;

    2013-01-01

    Research has repeatedly demonstrated that schizophrenia has a small but significant association with violence. It is further recognised that a subgroup of people with such links also have personality disorders, but the extent to which type of violence or aggression varies according to subgroup is...

  14. Physical Dating Aggression Growth during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2010-01-01

    The development of Physical Dating Aggression from the age of 16 to 18 years was investigated in relation to time-invariant predictors (gender, parental education, family composition, number of partners) and to time-varying effects of delinquent behavior and perception of victimization by the partner. The sample consisted of 181 adolescents with a…

  15. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  16. Aggression, anger and violence in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Masango

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the roots of aggression, anger and violence in South Africa and the rest of the world. The paper is divided into four parts: Aggression, Anger, Catharsis and Violence. As a result of violence against other human beings, especially women and children, a profound respect for human dignity has been lost. People have become extremely aggressive. The last few decades have created a culture of violence because of the suppression or oppression of feelings. The article argues that frustration yields anger that leads to violent acts. The root cause of violence is frustration, which finally (if not attended to produces anger, anxiety, conflict and the eruption of violence. Suicide bombers in Palestine and other parts of the world demonstrate this type of aggression, anger and violence. Anger, on the one hand, is a good defense mechanism. It helps people cope with frustration. Violence, on the other hand, is used as a means of dominance, especially against women and children. In a political situation it is used as a means of changing social structures.

  17. Suicidality and aggression during antidepressant treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Tarang; Guski, Louise Schow; Freund, Nanna;

    2016-01-01

    of the trials. Differences in mortality (all deaths were in adults, odds ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval 0.40 to 4.06), suicidality (1.21, 0.84 to 1.74), and akathisia (2.04, 0.93 to 4.48) were not significant, whereas patients taking antidepressants displayed more aggressive behaviour (1.93, 1...

  18. Observing Aggression of Teachers in School Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    To fill the gap in theoretical and empirical knowledge on workplace aggression by teachers working in teams, this study explored its components, its targets, and its contextual determinants. Data were collected through three observations at different schools and at different times on 29 math, homeroom, language, and science studies teams.…

  19. Identifying and Intervening in Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskauskas, Juliana; Stoltz, Ann D.

    2004-01-01

    Chronic victimization by bullies has been associated with academic failure in adolescence, as well as adjustment difficulties, depression, and suicidal ideation. Relational aggression is a form of bullying that is a problem for adolescent girls. It often takes the form of damaging peer relationships and includes verbal assaults such as teasing or…

  20. Aggression Replacement Training and Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, A. Mark; Oliver, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression Replacement Training (ART) was developed by the late Arnold Goldstein of Syracuse University to teach positive alternatives to children and youth with emotional and behavioral problems (Glick & Gibbs, 2011; Goldstein, Glick, & Gibbs, 1998). ART provides cognitive, affective, and behavioral interventions to build competence in…

  1. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENCODING ABILITY AND AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamis, Vasiliki J; Rebok, George W; Montague, David R

    2009-03-26

    While past research efforts have reported a relationship between encoding ability and aggressive behavior in children, the relationship between encoding ability and adult aggressiveness has not been examined. Encoding, an element of attention, refers to the ability to recall and reorder information stored in memory. Using selected cognitive tests and a self-report measure of aggressive behavior in a sample of community college students (n=55), this study investigated the relationship between encoding ability and aggressive behavior, (i.e., physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, hostility, indirect aggression, and total aggression). Aggressive behavior was assessed by the Aggression Questionnaire of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, a widely-used measure of aggressive behavior. Encoding was measured using the WAIS-III Digit Span and Arithmetic subtests. Initial analyses showed no significant correlations between the cognitive measures and the five scales of aggressive behavior. However, there was a significant age-related association between scores on the cognitive measures and the indices of aggressive behavior. Two groups were created, those who reported attention problems and those who did not report attention problems. When the two groups were compared, participants who had a history of attention problems were verbally more aggressive than participants with a negative history of attention problems, and they were generally more aggressive. A composite score, called an "encoding score," was related to scores on the aggressive behavior scales. Moreover, the age-related relationship between these two variables suggests that the relationship is maturational and may disappear as an individual ages. Concerning the latter, participants in the current study were enrolled in junior college. Therefore, persons who had attention problems and were aggressive may not have pursued higher education. PMID:19953190

  2. Prevalence and psychosocial factors of aggression among youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Youth indulgence themselves in various aggressive behaviors leading to significant psychosocial dysfunctions. The present study assesses the prevalence of aggression among youth and to assess the risk factors of aggression among youth. Materials and Methods: Anger Data sheet, Resilience Scale and Buss-Perry Aggression Scale, were administered on 5476 participants using survey design. Data was collected from different communities (college, residential, apartments and workplace of Bangalore, Jammu, Indore, Kerala, Rajasthan, Sikkim and Delhi. 47% were female and 53% were male. The mean age of the sample was 20.2 years. Comparative analysis was carried out by Pearson correlation coefficient and Chi-square was also carried out. Results: About 17.7% of the youth has high mean aggression score on Buss-Perry Aggression Scale. Males have high mean score on aggression than females. Males experienced more verbal aggression, physical aggression and anger than females. Younger age group (16-19 years experienced more aggression than older age group (20-26 years. The risk factors of the youth aggressions were identified as physical abuse in childhood, substance abuse such as alcohol and tobacco, negative peer influence, family violence, academic disturbance, psychological problems attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, suspicious, loneliness, mood disturbance, negative childhood experience and TV and media. Conclusion: The study document, the presence of correlates of risk factors of aggression among youth and implies usages of management strategies to help them to handle aggression.

  3. Genes and gene networks implicated in aggression related behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malki, Karim; Pain, Oliver; Du Rietz, Ebba; Tosto, Maria Grazia; Paya-Cano, Jose; Sandnabba, Kenneth N; de Boer, Sietse; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Sluyter, Frans

    2014-10-01

    Aggressive behaviour is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Despite of moderate heritability estimates, progress in identifying the genetic factors underlying aggressive behaviour has been limited. There are currently three genetic mouse models of high and low aggression created using selective breeding. This is the first study to offer a global transcriptomic characterization of the prefrontal cortex across all three genetic mouse models of aggression. A systems biology approach has been applied to transcriptomic data across the three pairs of selected inbred mouse strains (Turku Aggressive (TA) and Turku Non-Aggressive (TNA), Short Attack Latency (SAL) and Long Attack Latency (LAL) mice and North Carolina Aggressive (NC900) and North Carolina Non-Aggressive (NC100)), providing novel insight into the neurobiological mechanisms and genetics underlying aggression. First, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was performed to identify modules of highly correlated genes associated with aggression. Probe sets belonging to gene modules uncovered by WGCNA were carried forward for network analysis using ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA). The RankProd non-parametric algorithm was then used to statistically evaluate expression differences across the genes belonging to modules significantly associated with aggression. IPA uncovered two pathways, involving NF-kB and MAPKs. The secondary RankProd analysis yielded 14 differentially expressed genes, some of which have previously been implicated in pathways associated with aggressive behaviour, such as Adrbk2. The results highlighted plausible candidate genes and gene networks implicated in aggression-related behaviour. PMID:25142712

  4. Modeling aggressive driver behavior at unsignalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysi, Isam A; Abbany, Ali S

    2007-07-01

    The processing of vehicles at unsignalized intersections is a complex and highly interactive process, whereby each driver makes individual decisions about when, where, and how to complete the required maneuver, subject to his perceptions of distances, velocities, and own car's performance. Typically, the performance of priority-unsignalized intersections has been modeled with probabilistic approaches that consider the distribution of gaps in the major-traffic stream and their acceptance by the drivers of minor street vehicles based on the driver's "critical gap". This paper investigates the aggressive behavior of minor street vehicles at intersections that are priority-unsignalized but operate with little respect of control measures. The objective is to formulate a behavioral model that predicts the probability that a driver performs an aggressive maneuver as a function of a set of driver and traffic attributes. Parameters that were tested and modeled include driver characteristics (gender and age), car characteristics (performance and model year), and traffic attributes (number of rejected gaps, total waiting time at head of queue, and major-traffic speed). Binary probit models are developed and tested, based on a collected data set from an unsignalized intersection in the city of Beirut, to determine which of the studied variables are statistically significant in determining the aggressiveness of a specific driver. Primary conclusions reveal that age, car performance, and average speed on the major road are the major determinants of aggressive behavior. Another striking conclusion is that the total waiting time of the driver while waiting for an acceptable gap is of little significance in incurring the "forcing" behavior. The obtained model is incorporated in a simple simulation framework that reflects driver behavior and traffic stream interactions in estimating delay and conflict measures at unsignalized intersections. The simulation results were then compared

  5. Thallium-201 brain SPECT to diagnose aggressiveness of meningiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation was conducted to determine the ability of 201Tl brain SPECT with respect to pre-operative prediction of lesional aggressiveness of meningioma. Fifty-nine lesions in 42 patients were examined. Early (15 min) and late (3 h) SPECT were obtained. Early uptake ratio (ER; lesion to normal brain average count ratio), late uptake ratio (LR) and the ratio of LR to ER (L/E ratio) were calculated. Twenty-three lesions exhibited malignant features based on histologic or clinical course such as recurrence or skull invasion. Both ER and LR of malignant meningiomas were significantly higher than those in thirty-six benign lesions. Benign lesions were classified into two groups for further analysis: meningotheliomatous type, which is the most common histology, and benign lesions other than the meningotheliomatous (other benign) type. ER in other benign type was lower than the meningotheliomatous and the malignant type. LR afforded differentiation of the malignant type from the two benign types. These two benign types could be distinguished on the basis of the L/E ratio. These results indicate that high pre-operative ER and LR values in patients with meningioma are indicators of the aggressiveness of lesions, i.e., malignant meningioma, recurrence or skull invasion. (author)

  6. Do children with aggressive behavior have temporal lobe changes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggressive behavior and mood disorders may afflict children. One problem is the lack of objective data to arrive at a specific clinical diagnosis. Abnormalities in neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid have been reported to play an important role in the onset of these disorders. We studied 8 patients, 3 girls and 5 boys, ages ranging from 6 to 12, referred to us with the diagnosis of ADHD or autism and reported as having temper problems by their families. These patients were injected with a dose of Tc-99m HMPAO calculated according to patient age and weight and were imaged 1 hour later using a Picker camera with Fan Beam collimators. We analyzed the brain SPECT using 3D as well as the traditional transverse, coronal and sagittal images. With the help of surface rendered 3D images with a cut off of 88% (high) and 60-65% (lower value depending on the patient RCBF value), we observed increased perfusion or activation of either or both right and left temporal lobes in all 8 of the patients. This pattern was not seen in children whose parents did not report temper problems. Increase in perfusion to the temporal lobes may indicate an association with oppositional or aggressive behavior that may be amenable to treatment. Brain SPECT may be useful not only in early diagnosis, but also in guiding appropriate therapy

  7. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of lipids in cancer metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ji-Xin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipid-rich tumours have been associated with increased cancer metastasis and aggressive clinical behaviours. Nonetheless, pathologists cannot classify lipid-rich tumours as a clinically distinctive form of carcinoma due to a lack of mechanistic understanding on the roles of lipids in cancer development. Methods Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS microscopy is employed to study cancer cell behaviours in excess lipid environments in vivo and in vitro. The impacts of a high fat diet on cancer development are evaluated in a Balb/c mice cancer model. Intravital flow cytometry and histology are employed to enumerate cancer cell escape to the bloodstream and metastasis to lung tissues, respectively. Cancer cell motility and tissue invasion capability are also evaluated in excess lipid environments. Results CARS imaging reveals intracellular lipid accumulation is induced by excess free fatty acids (FFAs. Excess FFAs incorporation onto cancer cell membrane induces membrane phase separation, reduces cell-cell contact, increases surface adhesion, and promotes tissue invasion. Increased plasma FFAs level and visceral adiposity are associated with early rise in circulating tumour cells and increased lung metastasis. Furthermore, CARS imaging reveals FFAs-induced lipid accumulation in primary, circulating, and metastasized cancer cells. Conclusion Lipid-rich tumours are linked to cancer metastasis through FFAs-induced physical perturbations on cancer cell membrane. Most importantly, the revelation of lipid-rich circulating tumour cells suggests possible development of CARS intravital flow cytometry for label-free detection of early-stage cancer metastasis.

  8. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of lipids in cancer metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipid-rich tumours have been associated with increased cancer metastasis and aggressive clinical behaviours. Nonetheless, pathologists cannot classify lipid-rich tumours as a clinically distinctive form of carcinoma due to a lack of mechanistic understanding on the roles of lipids in cancer development. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy is employed to study cancer cell behaviours in excess lipid environments in vivo and in vitro. The impacts of a high fat diet on cancer development are evaluated in a Balb/c mice cancer model. Intravital flow cytometry and histology are employed to enumerate cancer cell escape to the bloodstream and metastasis to lung tissues, respectively. Cancer cell motility and tissue invasion capability are also evaluated in excess lipid environments. CARS imaging reveals intracellular lipid accumulation is induced by excess free fatty acids (FFAs). Excess FFAs incorporation onto cancer cell membrane induces membrane phase separation, reduces cell-cell contact, increases surface adhesion, and promotes tissue invasion. Increased plasma FFAs level and visceral adiposity are associated with early rise in circulating tumour cells and increased lung metastasis. Furthermore, CARS imaging reveals FFAs-induced lipid accumulation in primary, circulating, and metastasized cancer cells. Lipid-rich tumours are linked to cancer metastasis through FFAs-induced physical perturbations on cancer cell membrane. Most importantly, the revelation of lipid-rich circulating tumour cells suggests possible development of CARS intravital flow cytometry for label-free detection of early-stage cancer metastasis

  9. Differential gene expression in brain tissues of aggressive and non-aggressive dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Tverdal Aage; Arnet Ellen; Bønsdorff Tina B; Våge Jørn; Lingaas Frode

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Canine behavioural problems, in particular aggression, are important reasons for euthanasia of otherwise healthy dogs. Aggressive behaviour in dogs also represents an animal welfare problem and a public threat. Elucidating the genetic background of adverse behaviour can provide valuable information to breeding programs and aid the development of drugs aimed at treating undesirable behaviour. With the intentions of identifying gene-specific expression in particular brain pa...

  10. Behavioural differences between artificially selected aggressive and non-aggressive mice: response to apomorphine

    OpenAIRE

    Benus, Rensina F.; Bohus, Bela; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Oortmerssen, Geert A. van

    1991-01-01

    The present study reports a first attempt to unravel the neurochemical background that underlies the difference in behavioural profiles between aggressive and non-aggressive male mice. For this purpose two bidirectionally selected lines for attack latency (SAL and LAL) were used. In pursuit of another approach, the susceptibility of individuals of both selection lines to the dopamine agonist apomorphine was measured. The apomorphine was injected subcutaneously at dose levels of 2.5 and 5.0 mg...

  11. Researchers Find 8 Immune Genes in Aggressive Brain Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 159031.html Researchers Find 8 Immune Genes in Aggressive Brain Cancer Discovery might eventually lead to better ... tissue samples from 170 people with a less aggressive type of brain tumor. This led to the ...

  12. Extensive Surgery Best for an Aggressive Brain Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_159415.html Extensive Surgery Best for an Aggressive Brain Cancer: Study Although larger procedure carries more ... News) -- When it comes to battling a particularly aggressive form of brain tumor, more extensive surgeries may ...

  13. Distinct characteristics of psychopathy relate to different subtypes of aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cima, M.; Raine, A.

    2009-01-01

    This article both selectively reviews the evidence supporting the view that reactive and proactive aggression actually reflect related but separate constructs, and also investigates the selective relationship between these forms of aggression and psychopathic personality in 121 male prison inmates.

  14. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  15. Low Vitamin D Levels May Signal More Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157564.html Low Vitamin D Levels May Signal More Aggressive Prostate Cancer ... more aggressive in men who are deficient in vitamin D, new research suggests. A study of nearly ...

  16. Juvenile aggressive cemento-ossifying fibroma. A case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Patil K; Mahima V; Balaji P

    2003-01-01

    Juvenile Aggressive Cemento-Ossifying Fibroma is a benign, fibro osseous neoplasm commonly affecting maxilla but also other bones including mandible, arising in children. It is considered to be a locally aggressive and quickly expansile lesion. Because of its aggressive nature and high recurrence rate, an early detection and a complete surgical excision is essential. A case of Juvenile Aggressive Cemento-Ossifying Fibroma in a 9 year old male child who visited the Department of Oral Medicine ...

  17. Aggressive Behaviors and Verbal Communication Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; Terenzio, Vanessa; Coppola, Annamaria; Campa, Maria Gloria; Passeri, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is a common problem among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and could negatively affect family functioning and school and social competence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between aggressive behavior, such as self-aggression and other-aggression, with verbal communication ability and IQ level in children with ASD. The sample examined in this study included 88 children with a diagnosis of ASD. For the purposes of our study, much ...

  18. A social work study on aggressive behavior among Iranian students

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior has many bad effects on people's health care and lifestyle and any attempt to find the main issues influencing aggressive behavior among young students could help setup appropriate programs to control and possibly reduce aggressive attitudes. The proposed study of this paper performs an empirical study to find out the relationship between aggressive behavior and other important factors such as gender, age, etc. The survey uses a well-known questionnaire introduced by Buss ...

  19. Mutations in many genes affect aggressive behavior in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Zwarts Liesbeth; Edwards Alexis C; Yamamoto Akihiko; Callaerts Patrick; Mackay Trudy FC

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Aggressive behavior in animals is important for survival and reproduction. Identifying the underlying genes and environmental contexts that affect aggressive behavior is important for understanding the evolutionary forces that maintain variation for aggressive behavior in natural populations, and to develop therapeutic interventions to modulate extreme levels of aggressive behavior in humans. While the role of neurotransmitters and a few other molecules in mediating and mo...

  20. Prevention of injury by early socialization of aggressive behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay, R

    2002-01-01

    Frequent use of physical aggression by humans appears to reach its peak between 2 and 3 years of age. In the following years most children learn alternatives to physical aggression. Approximately 4% of children have high levels of physical aggression from early childhood to late adolescence. These children can be considered to show chronic physical aggression. They are at high risk of causing injuries to others and to themselves. They are also at high risk of many other co-morbid mental healt...

  1. Aggression and Peer Rejection among Children with Conduct Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Somaieh Salehi; Sidek Mohd Noah; Maznah Baba; Wan Marzuki Wan Jaafar

    2013-01-01

    Children with Conduct Disorder suffer from aggression and peer difficulties. This study provides an overview of aggression and peer rejection among children with Conduct Disorder worldwide and in Iran. This study is based on researches from library archives specially focused on studies have been done in Iran. First Conduct Disorder, its’ prevalence, subtypes, and other comorbid disorders are explained. Next, studies regarding aggression among aggressive children and children with conduct prob...

  2. Facebook Addiction and Aggression: Is There a Profound Relation?

    OpenAIRE

    Arendain, Jonathan; Murcia, John Vianne

    2016-01-01

    The study intends to investigate the relation of Facebook addiction and aggression among college students, and to determine if there is gender specificity in their aggression levels. The Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale (BFAS) by Andreassen et al. (2012), which measures Facebook addiction in the areas of salience, tolerance, mood modification, withdrawal, conflict and relapse, and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) of Buss and Perry (1992), which measures four forms of aggression ...

  3. Intimate Partner Aggression Perpetration in Primary Care Chronic Pain Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Taft, Casey; Schwartz, Sonia; Liebschutz, Jane M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of partner aggression perpetration in 597 primary care chronic pain patients. Approximately 30% of participants reported perpetrating low-level aggression, 12% reported injuring their partner, and 5% reported engaging in sexual coercion. Women reported more low-level aggression perpetration than men, and men reported more engagement in sexual coercion than women. Substance use disorders (SUD) were associated with all outcomes, and both aggress...

  4. Overcoming aggression: musing on mindfulness and self-control

    OpenAIRE

    Yusainy, Cleoputri

    2013-01-01

    The ability to restrain oneself from acting on aggressive impulses is arguably a crucial aspect of human functioning and interaction. Yet growing evidence in the literature suggests that people’s self-control resources may be limited and, at times, self-controlled regulation could even increase the association between aggressive triggers and aggressive behaviour. As an alternative, mindfulness practices encourage individuals to be aware and accept their aggression-related thoughts and emotion...

  5. Middle School Girls' Relational Aggression: An Intervention through Action Research

    OpenAIRE

    Plant, Lauren Perrish

    2014-01-01

    The teachers in this action research study examined the problem of relational aggression at Whirlwind Academy. Relational aggression can be defined as the purposeful manipulation of peer relationships with the intent to cause harm. Associated behaviors may include social exclusion, gossip, clique-forming, and cyber bullying. The nine teachers analyzed middle school girl behaviors to identify relational aggression, effective relational aggression intervention, and their own confidence to int...

  6. Lipid Peroxidation and Lipid Metabolism in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    , Banu ÖNVURAL

    1998-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the degree of lipid peroxidation in the sera of postmenopausal women and compare this with the lipid peroxidation of a premenopausal group, and to see if there was any correlation between lipid parameters and lipid peroxidation within the groups. We assayed the lipid profiles and malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker for lipid peroxidation, in a postmenopausal group (n=57, mean age=49.4±6.6), an age-matched male group (n=21, mean age=48.5±6.7) an...

  7. 10 CFR 15.20 - Aggressive agency collection activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aggressive agency collection activity. 15.20 Section 15.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DEBT COLLECTION PROCEDURES Administrative Collection of Claims § 15.20 Aggressive agency collection activity. (a) The NRC shall take aggressive action to collect...

  8. 14 CFR 1261.406 - Aggressive collection action; documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aggressive collection action; documentation... Activities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) § 1261.406 Aggressive collection action; documentation. (a) NASA shall take aggressive action, on a timely basis with effective...

  9. Parental Influences on the Prevalence and Development of Child Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Klaus; Metzner, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    The development of aggressiveness between 5 and 17 years and some parental influences on this development were analyzed using data from Germany. International studies have shown a "camel humps" curve, i.e., a peak of aggression of children (primarily boys) between 2 and 4 years and a second peak of antisocial or aggressive behavior of boys between…

  10. Towards a design theory for reducing aggression in psychiatric facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Roger S; Bogren, Lennart; Lundin, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The paper proposes a tentative theory for designing psychiatric environments to foster reduced aggression and violence. A basic premise underlying the design theory is that environmental and psycho-social stressors mediate and trigger aggression. The theory posits that aggression will be reduced if...

  11. Examining the Coping Response to Peer Relational Aggression Victimization

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa M. Gomes

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Relational aggression, rumor spreading, backstabbing, and social isolation, is psychologically damaging for adolescent girls. The purpose of this study was to provide an explanation of victimization response after experiencing peer relational aggression victimization. Methods. Grounded theory techniques were used to gain an understanding of the victimization experience and the coping responses used. Findings. A theory of coping after experiencing peer relational aggression vic...

  12. Genes and gene networks implicated in aggression related behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malki, Karim; Pain, Oliver; Du Rietz, Ebba; Tosto, Maria Grazia; Paya-Cano, Jose; Sandnabba, Kenneth N.; de Boer, Sietse; Schalkwyk, Leonard C.; Sluyter, Frans

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behaviour is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Despite of moderate heritability estimates, progress in identifying the genetic factors underlying aggressive behaviour has been limited. There are currently three genetic mouse models of high and low aggression created using selectiv

  13. Relational Aggression in School Settings: Definition, Development, Strategies, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Alicia L.; Frey, Andy J.; Walker, Hill M.

    2015-01-01

    Relational aggression (RA) is a nonphysical form of aggression whereby the perpetrator's goal is to inflict or threaten damage to relationships, including harm to the target child's social standing or reputation. This form of aggression may result in long-term psychological harm to victims. This article defines RA, summarizes its development, and…

  14. Shared Targets for Aggression by Early Adolescent Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Noel A.; Hodges, Ernest V. E.

    2006-01-01

    Similarity in early adolescent friends' general aggressiveness is well known, but questions remain regarding the degree to which friends aggress against the same victims. The authors examined this by administering the newly created Dyadic Aggression and Victimization Inventory to 417 sixth- through eighth-grade boys and girls (53%). Friends …

  15. Marital Aggression Predicts Infant Orienting toward Mother at Six Months

    OpenAIRE

    Parade, Stephanie H.; Leerkes, Esther M.

    2011-01-01

    Links between marital aggression and infant orienting toward mother in fearful and frustrating contexts were examined in 92 mother-infant dyads when infants were 6 months. Results demonstrated that marital aggression was linked with less orienting toward mothers in frustrating situations, in fearful situations marital aggression was linked with less orienting among infants who were high on fear reactivity only.

  16. Determinants of Seclusion After Aggression in Psychiatric Inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vruwink, F.J.; Noorthoorn, E.O.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Nagel, J.E.L. van der; Hox, J.J.C.M.; Mulder, C.L.

    2012-01-01

    ome aggressive incidents in psychiatric wards result in seclusion, whereas others do not. We used the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised and the mental health trust's database to identify determinants that predicted seclusion after aggression. These consisted of demographic, diagnostic, cont

  17. Social Networks and Aggressive Behavior: Peer Support or Peer Rejection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Robert B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Studied the aggressive behavior in school of two cohorts of boys and girls in the fourth and seventh grades. Highly aggressive subjects were usually solid members of peer clusters and typically had a network of friends. Aggressive patterns and correlated behaviors provided a basis for social cohesion and commonalities in friendships for both boys…

  18. A Link between Mothers' Disciplinary Strategies and Children's Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Marlene J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the association between maternal disciplinary strategies and children's level of relational aggression, and then compares these associations with those found with overt aggression. Eighty-two 4th graders (aged 9-11 years) completed peer nomination measures of relational and overt aggression, and their mothers completed a…

  19. Child Abuse and Aggression among Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Connor, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical…

  20. The Early Socialization of Aggressive Victims of Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David; Dodge, Kenneth; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Studied early family experiences of boys who later emerged as both aggressive and bullied during middle childhood. Found that aggressive victims had experienced more punitive, hostile, and abusive family treatment than others. Nonvictimized aggressors had greater exposure to adult aggression, but not victimization, than the normative group,…

  1. Lateralisation of aggressive displays in a tephritid fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Romano, Donato; Stefanini, Cesare; Messing, Russell H.; Canale, Angelo

    2015-02-01

    Lateralisation (i.e. different functional and/or structural specialisations of the left and right sides of the brain) of aggression has been examined in several vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. In this study, we investigated lateralisation of aggressive displays (boxing with forelegs and wing strikes) in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. We attempted to answer the following questions: (1) do medflies show lateralisation of aggressive displays at the population-level; (2) are there sex differences in lateralisation of aggressive displays; and (3) does lateralisation of aggression enhance fighting success? Results showed left-biased population-level lateralisation of aggressive displays, with no consistent differences among sexes. In both male-male and female-female conflicts, aggressive behaviours performed with left body parts led to greater fighting success than those performed with right body parts. As we found left-biased preferential use of body parts for both wing strikes and boxing, we predicted that the left foreleg/wing is quicker in exploring/striking than the right one. We characterised wing strike and boxing using high-speed videos, calculating mean velocity of aggressive displays. For both sexes, aggressive displays that led to success were faster than unsuccessful ones. However, left wing/legs were not faster than right ones while performing aggressive acts. Further research is needed on proximate causes allowing enhanced fighting success of lateralised aggressive behaviour. This is the first report supporting the adaptive role of lateralisation of aggressive displays in insects.

  2. Parent-Child Interaction, Television Violence, and Aggression of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eron, Leonard D.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews findings of two longitudinal studies on development of aggression. Observes that the process by which children learn violence from television is circular: i.e., aggressive children are unpopular and consequently spend less time with peers and more time watching television, which in turn, assures them that aggressive behavior is…

  3. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ae-Na Choi; Myeong Soo Lee; Jung-Sook Lee

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents), Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers) and Rosenberg Self-...

  4. Parental Emotion Coaching: Associations With Self-Regulation in Aggressive/Rejected and Low Aggressive/Popular Children

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Petaja, Holly; Yun, Jenna; King, Kathleen; Berg, Jessica; Kremmel, Lindsey; Cook, Diana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated associations between maternal and paternal emotion coaching and the self-regulation skills of kindergarten and first-grade children. Participants were 54 children categorized as either aggressive/rejected or low aggressive/popular by peer reports. Findings indicated a statistical trend for fathers of low aggressive/popular children to engage in more emotion coaching than fathers of aggressive/rejected children. Paternal emotion coaching accounted for significant varian...

  5. Chemical Profiles of Microalgae with Emphasis on Lipids: A Subcontract Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornabene, T. G.; Hubbard, J. S.

    1984-09-01

    Well balanced cultivated cells that are healthy and unstressed produce the optimum cellular yield. All stress studies for lipids production should be conducted with the established cell mass and not be administered during active cultivation. Cells cultivated continually in suboptimum conditions produce lower cellular yields and continuous cultivation in suboptimum media and environmental conditions produce lower than normal lipid levels. Lipid triggers are preceded by a burst of carbohydrate synthesis and storage.

  6. Blood lipid levels, statin therapy and the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Yingxu; Li, Zhaokai; Chen, Liang; Li, Xiangping

    2016-01-01

    Dyslipidemia has been proven to play an important role in the occurrence and development of the ischemic stroke and lipid-lowering therapy could significantly decrease the risk of the ischemic stroke. However, the association between lipid levels, lipid-lowering therapy and the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is not clear. Studies have shown that low serum levels of total cholesterol might be associated with increasing risk of ICH, whereas the SPARCL study, a large prospective, randomi...

  7. LIPID PEROXIDATION IN PREECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Sharmila Krishna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension in pregnancy is a leading cause of both maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Preeclampsia is characterised by hypertension and proteinuria. Lipid peroxidation is an important factor in the pathophysiology of Preeclampsia. The present study was undertaken to determine Serum Malondialdehyde (MDA levels , a product of lipid peroxidation , in clinically diagnosed Preeclamptic women(n=30 and the values were compared with that of Normotensive pregnant women (n=30 aged between 18-30yrs. All of them were in their third trimester and were primigravida. Serum MDA was estimated by TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method. We observed that Serum MDA levels were significantly increased in Preeclamptic women (p <0.000 as compared to that of Normotensive pregnant women . Increased levels of lipid peroxiation product - MDA may contribute to the pathophysiology of Preeclampsia.

  8. Lipid Production from Nannochloropsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Nian; Chen, Tian-Peng; Yang, Bo; Liu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Microalgae are sunlight-driven green cell factories for the production of potential bioactive products and biofuels. Nannochloropsis represents a genus of marine microalgae with high photosynthetic efficiency and can convert carbon dioxide to storage lipids mainly in the form of triacylglycerols and to the ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Recently, Nannochloropsis has received ever-increasing interests of both research and public communities. This review aims to provide an overview of biology and biotechnological potential of Nannochloropsis, with the emphasis on lipid production. The path forward for the further exploration of Nannochloropsis for lipid production with respect to both challenges and opportunities is also discussed. PMID:27023568

  9. Lipid Ion Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Heimburg, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The interpretation electrical phenomena in biomembranes is usually based on the assumption that the experimentally found discrete ion conduction events are due to a particular class of proteins called ion channels while the lipid membrane is considered being an inert electrical insulator. The particular protein structure is thought to be related to ion specificity, specific recognition of drugs by receptors and to macroscopic phenomena as nerve pulse propagation. However, lipid membranes in their chain melting regime are known to be highly permeable to ions, water and small molecules, and are therefore not always inert. In voltage-clamp experiments one finds quantized conduction events through protein-free membranes in their melting regime similar to or even undistinguishable from those attributed to proteins. This constitutes a conceptual problem for the interpretation of electrophysiological data obtained from biological membrane preparations. Here, we review the experimental evidence for lipid ion channels...

  10. Lipid management in ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slim, Ines; Ach, Koussay; Chaieb, Larbi

    2015-05-01

    During Ramadan fast, Muslims must refrain from smoking, eating, drinking, having sexual activity, and consuming oral medications from sunrise to sunset. It has been previously shown that Ramadan fasting induces favourable changes on metabolic parameters, reduces oxidative stress and inflammation and promotes cardiovascular benefits. Although ill people are exempted from fasting, most patients with chronic diseases are keen on performing this Islamic-ritual. During recent years, Risk stratification and treatment adjustment during Ramadan are well known and structured in several guidelines for patients with diabetes mellitus. Data related to the effect of Ramadan fast on lipid profiles are less known and several controversies have been reported. Here, we focus on lipid profile and lipid management during Ramadan taking into account comorbidities and cardiovascular risk. PMID:26013790

  11. Aggression and 5HTT polymorphism in females: study of synchronized swimming and control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysoeva, Olga V; Maluchenko, Natalia V; Timofeeva, Marina A; Portnova, Galina V; Kulikova, Maria A; Tonevitsky, Alexandr G; Ivanitsky, Alexey M

    2009-05-01

    Aggression is a heterogeneous heritable psychological trait, also influenced by environmental factors. Previous studies, mostly conducted on male population, have found some associations of the aggression with the polymorphisms of genes, regulating the activity of serotonin (5-HT) in the brain. However, psychological as well as biochemical manifestations of the aggression are different in males and females. Our study aimed to investigate the association of 5-HTT gene polymorphism with different facets of aggression (BDHI) in females. Two groups: the synchronized swimming and non-athlete control, - were examined to study the possible modulation effect of sport on the association between 5-HTT gene polymorphism and aggression. It was found that in both groups the low-active 5-HTT polymorphism (SS) was associated with increased scores on Indirect Hostility scale and decreased scores on Negativism scale, compared to LL genotype. No interaction effect between sport and 5-HTT polymorphism was found. The higher percentage of LL-carriers and lower of LS-carriers in the synchronized swimming group compared to the control one was observed. This may be the sign of the importance of LL polymorphism of 5-HTT gene, previously associated with higher resistance to stress factors, for being an athlete, although this result has to be taken cautiously keeping in mind the stratification problem. Synchronized swimmers had lower scores on Assault, Negativism, Irritability and Verbal Hostility compared to age-matched control girls (in general and for each 5-HTT genotype separately), suggesting that they may have more matured emotional system (older control group has also lower scores on these scales). PMID:19121342

  12. Effects of Different Doses of Atorvastatin on Lipid Lowering Efficacy Observation of Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia%不同剂量阿托伐他汀对家族性高胆固醇血症的降脂疗效评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    步建新

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨阿托伐他汀的不同剂量对杂合子家族性高胆固醇血症(familial hypercholesterolemia ,FH)的降脂效果。方法:选取家族性高胆固醇血症患者68例,随机分为观察组和对照组,每组34例。对照组每天给予阿托伐他汀片剂40 mg,观察组每天给予阿托伐他汀片剂60 mg,检测两组空腹外周血总胆固醇(TC)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)的含量,并比较用药前后的疗效。结果:治疗一个疗程后,观察组TC、HLD-C、LDL-C分别为(5.12±0.64)mmol/L、(1.25±0.02)mmol/L、(3.13±0.48)mmol/L,与治疗前比较,差异有统计学意义(t=2.898,P<0.05;t=1.762,P<0.05;t=2.954,P<0.05);对照组服药后TC、HLD-C、LDL-C分别为(7.34±0.32)mmol/L、(1.13±0.21)mmol/L、(4.06±0.21)mmol/L,与治疗前比较,差异有统计学意义(t=1.958,P<0.05;t=1.926,P<0.05;t=1.968,P<0.05);治疗后,观察组TC、LDL-C、HDL-C下降水平明显优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组临床总有效率为91.18%(31/34),对照组临床总有效率为82.35%(28/34),两组比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=3.968,P<0.05)。结论:阿托伐他汀60 mg/d的剂量对杂合子FH的降脂效果理想,值得临床推广应用。%Objective:To investigate the lipid-lowering effect of Atorvastatin on heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia(familial hypercholesterolemia,FH).Method:68 cases with heterozygous FH,were randomly divided into the observation group(n=34) and the control group(n=34).The observation group was given Atorvastatin tablets 60 mg,the control group was given Atorvastatin tablets 40 mg,detection of total cholesterol in each dosage group fasting peripheral blood(TC),high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C),low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C), efficacy was compared before and after treatment.Result:After one course of treatment,the observation group TC,HLD-C,LDL-C were

  13. The Effects of Online Discussion Forum Aggressive Messages and Cognitive Distortion on Users' Negative Affect and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yu-Tzu; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng

    2012-01-01

    This research is comprised of two studies designed to explore the effects of online discussion forum aggressive messages and Internet cognitive distortion on users' negative affect and aggression. The results of study 1 revealed 69 users could perceive both disgust and hostility feelings toward aggressive messages conducted by the authors, and…

  14. Aggression Norms in the Classroom Social Network: Contexts of Aggressive Behavior and Social Preference in Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Daisy R; Cappella, Elise; Neal, Jennifer Watling

    2015-12-01

    In a cross-sectional sample of African-American 2nd-4th grade students (N = 681), we examine the moderating effects of classroom overt and relational aggression norms on peers' social acceptance of classmates who exhibit overt and relational aggression in urban schools. Extending theory and research on classroom norms, we integrate social network data to adjust aggression norms based on children's direct and indirect connections in the classroom. Results of multilevel models indicate that network-based classroom aggression norms moderated relations between children's aggressive behavior and their social preference. Specifically, children benefited socially when their form of aggressive behavior fit with what was normative in the classroom social context. The moderating effect of classroom aggression norms was stronger for the association between overt aggression and social preference than relational aggression and social preference. Relationally aggressive youth were socially preferred by peers regardless of the classroom norm, although this positive association was magnified in classrooms with higher levels of relational aggression. Future research focused on aggression norms within classroom social networks are discussed and implications for school prevention efforts are considered. PMID:26415598

  15. Psychological Aggression, Physical Aggression, and Injury in Nonpartner Relationships Among Men and Women in Treatment for Substance-Use Disorders*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Regan L.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Walton, Maureen A.; Winters, Jamie; Booth, Brenda M.; Blow, Frederic C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study focused on the prevalence and predictors of psychological aggression, physical aggression, and injury rates in nonintimate partner relationships in a substance-use disorder treatment sample. Method: The sample included 489 (76% men, 24% women) participants who completed screening measures for inclusion in a randomized control trial for an aggression-prevention treatment. Primary outcome measures included rates of past-year psychological aggression, physical aggression, and injury (both from the participant to nonpartners and from nonpartners to the participant). Potential predictors included individual factors (e.g., age, gender), developmental factors (e.g., family history of drug use, childhood physical abuse), and recent factors (e.g., depression, cocaine use). Results: Rates of participant-tononpartner psychological aggression (83%), physical aggression (61%), and injury (47%) were high, as were rates of nonpartner-to-participant aggression. Bivariate analyses revealed significant relationships between the aggression outcomes and most of the individual, developmental, and recent factors. However, multivariate analyses (zero-inflated Poisson regression) revealed that age, treatment status, current symptoms of depression, heavy periods of drinking, and cocaine use were related most frequently to the occurrence of aggression to and from nonpartners. Conclusions: Nonpartner aggression may be as common within a substance-use disorder sample as partner aggression, and it is associated with heavy drinking episodes, cocaine use, and depressive symptoms. The findings highlight the need for the development of effective violence interventions addressing violence in nonpartner relationship types. PMID:18925348

  16. The relationship between adult reactive and proactive aggression, hostile interpretation bias, and antisocial personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbestael, J.; Cima, M.; Arntz, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive aggression (RA) refers to angry responses to provocation or frustration, while proactive aggression (PA) denotes nonemotional, instrumental, and unprovoked aggression. The current study examined personality-related and cognitive correlates of both aggressive types. Respectively, the predict

  17. Aggressive Fibromatosis: Evidence for a Stable Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Gillian Mitchell; J. Meirion Thomas; Harmer, Clive L.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose. Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) is an uncommon locally infiltrating benign disease of soft tissue for which treatment comprises complete surgical resection. Radiotherapy can be given postoperatively if the margin is incompletely resected. If the tumour is inoperable radiotherapy provides an alternative treatment. Hormone therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy have also been used for unresectable or recurrent disease. All treatment modalities carry an associated morbidity. We believe that th...

  18. Emotionsregulationsstrategien und aggressives Verhalten im Kindergartenalter

    OpenAIRE

    Helmsen, Johanna; Petermann, Franz

    2010-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Studie (N = 193) wurde untersucht, ob sich körperlich und relational aggressive Kinder im Kindergartenalter (mittleres Alter: 55 Monate) in ihren Emotionsregulationsstrategien von ihren unauffälligen Altersgenossen unterscheiden. Zur Erhebung der Emotionsregulation wurde eine strukturierte, videografierte Verhaltensbeobachtung durchgeführt, in der gezielt Frustration ausgelöst wurde. Anschließend wurden Regulationsstrategien in sieben verschiedenen Kategorien ausgewertet. ...

  19. Aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service

    OpenAIRE

    Yves Chaput; Lucie Beaulieu; Michel Paradis; et al, ...

    2011-01-01

    Yves Chaput1, Lucie Beaulieu2, Michel Paradis3, Edith Labonté41Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal (presently in private practice); 2Department of Psychiatry, Haut Richelieu Hospital, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec; 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Montreal, Montreal; 4Department of Psychiatry, Laval University, Quebec, CanadaIntroduction: Studies of aggressive behaviors in a nonforensic mental health setting have focused primarily on the inpatient ward ...

  20. Aggressive retinal astrocytoma associated with tuberous sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    Machiko Tomida,1 Yoshinori Mitamura,1 Takashi Katome,1 Hiroshi Eguchi,1 Takeshi Naito,1 Takayuki Harada21Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima, 2Visual Research Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: We report the case of a patient with an aggressive retinal astrocytoma accompanied with macular edema and neovascular vessels, who was initially treated with intravitreal bevaci...

  1. Marine lipids and the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Müllertz, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Marine lipids are enriched with omega-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acids are important membrane lipids and have many recognized health benefits, the bioavailability of these fatty acids can therefore be important for achieving...... bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids has been reported to be affected by several factors; among the important factors were the digestion and absorption processes of omega-3 containing lipids in the gastrointestinal tract. Both lipid structures and food structures can affect the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty....... In vitro studies provided a mechanistic understanding on the varied bioavailability caused by different lipid structures, the lower relative bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from FAEE formulation was closely related to the slower digestion rate of FAEE. Microencapsulated fish oil has often been...

  2. Aggressive events in adolescent dating violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna; Stephenson, Pamela; Risko, Judy; Heckman, Terri; Sheehan, Denice; Perkins, Shannon; Washington, Kalisha; Cook, Christina; Ferguson, Candice

    2010-09-01

    This purpose of this paper is to present a typology of common aggressive events that occur in the context of adolescent dating violence. The typology is based on 42 transcripts of interviews with young adults, ages 18 to 21, who described dating violence they had experienced when adolescents (ages 13-18). One-hundred and eighty-four text units that contained a description of an event involving aggression or violence between the participant and a dating partner were extracted from the transcripts. Cross-case analysis was used to create categories of events that shared similar characteristics. The analysis yielded eight types of aggressive events: (a) tumultuous, (b) explosive, (c) scuffling, (d) violating, (e) threatening, (f) controlling, (g) disparaging, and (h) rejecting, ignoring, or disrespecting. The typology can provide a foundation for further research on adolescent dating violence from a situational perspective and can be used as a tool to promote discussion of dating violence with victimized or at-risk youth. PMID:20701423

  3. Female impulsive aggression: a sleep research perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nina; Tani, Pekka; Putkonen, Hanna; Sailas, Eila; Takala, Pirjo; Eronen, Markku; Virkkunen, Matti

    2009-01-01

    The rate of violent crimes among girls and women appears to be increasing. One in every five female prisoners has been reported to have antisocial personality disorder. However, it has been quite unclear whether the impulsive, aggressive behaviour among women is affected by the same biological mechanisms as among men. Psychiatric sleep research has attempted to identify diagnostically sensitive and specific sleep patterns associated with particular disorders. Most psychiatric disorders are typically characterized by a severe sleep disturbance associated with decreased amounts of slow wave sleep (SWS), the physiologically significant, refreshing part of sleep. Among men with antisocial behaviour with severe aggression, on the contrary, increased SWS has been reported, reflecting either specific brain pathology or a delay in the normal development of human sleep patterns. In our preliminary study among medication-free, detoxified female homicidal offenders with antisocial personality disorder, the same profound abnormality in sleep architecture was found. From the perspective of sleep research, the biological correlates of severe impulsive aggression seem to share similar features in both sexes. PMID:19095304

  4. Monoclonal Antibodies for Lipid Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Matthew J; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, biochemical and genetic studies have identified proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) as a major mediator of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels and thereby a potential novel target for reducing risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). These observations led to the development of PCSK9 inhibitors, which lower LDL-c levels more than any other non-invasive lipid-lowering therapy presently available. The PCSK9 inhibitors furthest along in clinical trials are subcutaneously injected monoclonal antibodies. These PCSK9 inhibitors have demonstrated LDL-c-lowering efficacy with acceptable safety in phase III clinical trials and may offer a useful therapy in addition to maximally tolerated HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) in certain patient groups. Longer-term data are required to ensure sustained efficacy and safety of this new class of medications. This review provides an overview of the biology, genetics, development, and clinical trials of monoclonal antibodies designed to inhibit PCSK9. PMID:27221501

  5. Age and gender differences in aggression of Slovene elementary and secondary school students

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Kozina

    2012-01-01

    The study examined age and gender differences in aggression using three representative samples for Slovenia: 4th grade elementary school students; 8th grade elementary school students; 4th grade secondary school students in Matura programs. The results were based on the LA aggression scale that measures general aggression and four specific types of aggression: physical aggression (TA), verbal aggression (BA), internal aggression (NA) and aggression towards authority (AA). Based on the results...

  6. Inpatient verbal aggression: content, targets and patient characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, D; Bowers, L

    2013-04-01

    Verbally aggressive behaviour on psychiatric wards is more common than physical violence and can have distressing consequences for the staff and patients who are subjected to it. Previous research has tended to examine incidents of verbal aggression in little detail, instead combining different types of aggressive behaviour into a single measure. This study recruited 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards. Data were collected from nursing and medical records for the first 2 weeks of admission. Incidents of verbal aggression were categorized and associations with patient characteristics examined. There were 1398 incidents of verbal aggression in total, reported for half the sample. Types of verbal aggression were, in order of prevalence: abusive language, shouting, threats, expressions of anger and racist comments. There were also a large number of entries in the notes which did not specify the form of verbal aggression. Staff members were the most frequent target of aggression. A history of violence and previous drug use were consistently associated with verbal aggression. However, there were also some notable differences in patient variables associated with specific types of verbal aggression. Future studies should consider using multidimensional measures of verbal aggression. PMID:22486899

  7. Aggressive behavior during the first 24 hours of psychiatric admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Crestani Calegaro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between aggression in the first 24 hours after admission and severity of psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients.METHODS: This cross-sectional study included psychiatric patients admitted to Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria, in Santa Maria, southern Brazil, from August 2012 to January 2013. At their arrival at the hospital, patients were interviewed to fill in the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS form, and any aggressive episodes in the first 24 hours after admission were recorded using the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare patients according to aggressiveness: aggressive versus non-aggressive, hostile versus violent, and aggressive against others only versus self-aggressive.RESULTS: The sample was composed of 110 patients. Aggressive patients in general had higher BPRS total scores (p = 0.002 and individual component scores, and their results showed more activation (p < 0.001 and thinking disorders (p = 0.009, but less anxious-depression (p = 0.008. Violent patients had more severe psychomotor agitation (p = 0.027, hallucinations (p = 0.017 and unusual thought content (p = 0.020. Additionally, self-aggressive patients had more disorientation (p = 0.011 and conceptual disorganization (p = 0.007.CONCLUSIONS: Aggression in psychiatric patients in the first 24 hours after admission is associated with severity of psychopathology, and severity increases with severity of patient psychosis and agitation.

  8. Does humor explain why relationally aggressive adolescents are popular?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C; Etkin, Rebecca G

    2014-08-01

    The association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence is well established. Yet, little is known about why, exactly, relationally aggressive young adolescents are able to achieve and maintain high popular status among peers. The present study investigated the mediating role of humor in the association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence. Also considered was whether the association between relational aggression and humor varies according to adolescents' gender and their friends' levels of relational aggression. Participants were 265 sixth-grade students (48% female; 41% racial/ethnic minority; M age = 12.04 years) who completed peer nomination and friendship measures in their classrooms at two time points (Wave 1: February; Wave 2: May). The results indicated that Wave 1 relational aggression was related to Wave 1 and 2 popularity indirectly through Wave 1 humor, after accounting for the effects of Wave 1 physical aggression, ethnicity, and gender. Additional analyses showed that relational aggression and humor were related significantly only for boys and for young adolescents with highly relationally aggressive friends. The results support the need for further research on humor and aggression during early adolescence and other mechanisms by which relationally aggressive youth achieve high popular status. PMID:24136377

  9. Aggression and anxiety: social context and neurobiological links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga D Neumann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathologies such as anxiety- and depression-related disorders are often characterized by impaired social behaviours including excessive aggression and violence. Excessive aggression and violence likely develop as a consequence of generally disturbed emotional regulation, such as abnormally high or low levels of anxiety. This suggests an overlap between brain circuitries and neurochemical systems regulating aggression and anxiety. In this review, we will discuss different forms of male aggression, rodent models of excessive aggression, and neurobiological mechanisms underlying male aggression in the context of anxiety. We will summarize our attempts to establish an animal model of high and abnormal aggression using rats selected for high (HAB versus low (LAB anxiety-related behaviour. Briefly, male LAB rats and, to a lesser extent, male HAB rats show high and abnormal forms of aggression compared with non-selected (NAB rats, making them a suitable animal model for studying excessive aggression in the context of extremes in innate anxiety. In addition, we will discuss differences in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, brain arginine vasopressin, and the serotonin systems, among others, which contribute to the distinct behavioural phenotypes related to aggression and anxiety. Further investigation of the neurobiological systems in animals with distinct anxiety phenotypes might provide valuable information about the link between excessive aggression and disturbed emotional regulation, which is essential for understanding the social and emotional deficits that are characteristic of many human psychiatric disorders.

  10. Combined Norepinephrine / Serotonergic Reuptake Inhibition: Effects on Maternal Behavior, Aggression and Oxytocin in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Thomas Cox

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few systematic studies exist on the effects of chronic reuptake of monoamine neurotransmitter systems during pregnancy on the regulation of maternal behavior, although many drugs act primarily through one or more of these systems. Previous studies examining fluoxetine and amfonelic acid treatment during gestation on subsequent maternal behavior in rodents indicated significant alterations in postpartum maternal care, aggression and oxytocin levels. In this study, we extended our studies to include chronic gestational treatment with desipramine or amitriptyline to examine differential effects of reuptake inhibition of norepinephrine and combined noradrenergic and serotonergic systems on maternal behavior, aggression, and oxytocin system changes. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated throughout gestation with saline or one of three doses of either desipramine, which has a high affinity for the norepinephrine monoamine transporter, or amitriptyline, an agent with high affinity for both the norepinephrine and serotonin monoamine transporters. Maternal behavior and postpartum aggression were assessed on postpartum days one and six respectively. Oxytocin levels were measured in relevant brain regions on postpartum day seven. Predictions were that amitriptyline would decrease maternal behavior and increase aggression relative to desipramine, particularly at higher doses. Amygdaloidal oxytocin was expected to decrease with increased aggression. RESULTS: Amitriptyline and desiprimine differentially reduced maternal behavior, and at higher doses reduced aggressive behavior. Hippocampal oxytocin levels were lower after treatment with either drug but were not correlated with specific behavioral effects. These results, in combination with previous findings following gestational treatment with other selective neurotransmitter reuptake inhibitors, highlight the diverse effects of multiple monoamine systems thought to be involved in

  11. Wheat leaf lipids during heat stress: I. High day and night temperatures result in major lipid alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sruthi; Tamura, Pamela J; Roth, Mary R; Prasad, P V Vara; Welti, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    Understanding how wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants under high temperature (HT) regulate lipid composition is critical to developing climate-resilient varieties. We measured 165 glycerolipids and sterol derivatives under optimum and high day and night temperatures in wheat leaves using electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Levels of polar lipid fatty acyl chain unsaturation were lower in both heat-tolerant genotype Ventnor and susceptible genotype Karl 92 under HT, compared with optimum temperature. The lower unsaturation was predominantly because of lower levels of 18:3 acyl chains and higher levels of 18:1 and 16:0 acyl chains. Levels of 18:3-containing triacylglycerols increased threefold/more under HT, consistent with their possible role in sequestering fatty acids during membrane lipid remodelling. Phospholipids containing odd-numbered or oxidized acyl chains accumulated in leaves under HT. Sterol glycosides (SG) and 16:0-acylated sterol glycosides (ASG) were higher under HT than optimum temperatures. Ventnor had lower amounts of phospholipids with oxidized acyl chains under HT and higher amounts of SG and 16:0-ASG than Karl 92. Taken together, the data demonstrate that wheat leaf lipid composition is altered by HT, in which some lipids are particularly responsive to HT, and that two wheat genotypes, chosen for their differing physiological responses to HT, differ in lipid profile under HT. PMID:26436679

  12. Aggressive properties of underground water; 1 : 1 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggressive properties of underground waters are characterised on the basis of analytically established indicators. The input data were taken from the database of the Geochemical Atlas of Slovakia, part Groundwater (Statny geologicky ustav D. Stura, Bratislava, 1996). The detected parameters of aggressiveness (pH value, aggressive CO2 and S042- ion content, in mg.dm-3, and the carbonate water hardness TK in nmol.dm-3) were compared to the STN 73 1215 Concrete Constructions Standard; Classification of Aggressive Environments. The excess of the threshold values of the individual indicators of aggressiveness is marked by the filling of the corresponding single quadrant in the circular target while the aggressiveness levels (slightly, moderately and highly aggressive environment) or their combinations are expressed by colour. The source material is used for assessment of problems than may occur in the sphere of water-management and constructions. (authors)

  13. Medea: Aggression im Dienste weiblicher Subjektivierung Medea: How aggression works for female subjugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Gsell

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Aggression wurde in der Geschlechterforschung bisher meist nicht nur unter negativen Vorzeichen – nämlich als zerstörerische und fehlgeleitete Kraft – thematisiert und mit Gewalt in eins gesetzt, sondern darüberhinaus fast ausschließlich mit Männlichkeit konnotiert. Nur langsam setzt sich demgegenüber die Einsicht durch, dass Aggression zunächst einmal eine grundsätzlich positive Kraft ist, derer es zur Subjektivierung und Erlangung von Selbstbestimmung bedarf. Damit scheint nun auch eine fruchtbare Auseinandersetzung mit Weiblichkeit und Aggression möglich geworden zu sein. Ein lehrreicher Beitrag dazu ist Roxana Hidalgos Medea-Studie, gerade weil sie die eigentlich heiklen Fragen weder stellt noch beantwortet.So far, gender studies have tended to thematise aggression not only as a destructive, misdirected force, but one that is regarded almost without exception as masculine. Slowly, though, understanding is growing that aggresion should be viewed in principle as a positive force that is vital for the process of gaining subjectivity and self-determination. This insight seems to have opened the potential to discuss femininity and aggression in new and fruitful ways. Roxana Hidalgos’s study of Medea is an instructive contribution to this discussion – especially/above all because the author neither asks nor answers the really tricky questions.

  14. Surgical treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudeva, Viren S; Chi, John H; Groff, Michael W

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Vertebral hemangiomas are common tumors that are benign and generally asymptomatic. Occasionally these lesions can exhibit aggressive features such as bony expansion and erosion into the epidural space resulting in neurological symptoms. Surgery is often recommended in these cases, especially if symptoms are severe or rapidly progressive. Some surgeons perform decompression alone, others perform gross-total resection, while others perform en bloc resection. Radiation, embolization, vertebroplasty, and ethanol injection have also been used in combination with surgery. Despite the variety of available treatment options, the optimal management strategy is unclear because aggressive vertebral hemangiomas are uncommon lesions, making it difficult to perform large trials. For this reason, the authors chose instead to report their institutional experience along with a comprehensive review of the literature. METHODS A departmental database was searched for patients with a pathological diagnosis of "hemangioma" between 2008 and 2015. Medical records were reviewed to identify patients with aggressive vertebral hemangiomas, and these cases were reviewed in detail. RESULTS Five patients were identified who underwent surgery for treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas during the specified time period. There were 2 lumbar and 3 thoracic lesions. One patient underwent en bloc spondylectomy, 2 patients had piecemeal gross-total resection, and the remaining 2 had subtotal tumor resection. Intraoperative vertebroplasty was used in 3 cases to augment the anterior column or to obliterate residual tumor. Adjuvant radiation was used in 1 case where there was residual tumor as well. The patient who underwent en bloc spondylectomy experienced several postoperative complications requiring additional medical care and reoperation. At an average follow-up of 31 months (range 3-65 months), no patient had any recurrence of disease and all were clinically asymptomatic, except the

  15. Lipids in airway secretions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipids form a significant portion of airway mucus yet they have not received the same attention that epithelial glycoproteins have. We have analysed, by thin layer chromatography, lipids present in airway mucus under 'normal' and hypersecretory (pathological) conditions.The 'normals' included (1) bronchial lavage obtained from healthy human volunteers and from dogs and (2) secretions produced ''in vitro'' by human (bronchial) and canine (tracheal) explants. Hypersecretory mucus samples included (1) lavage from dogs made bronchitic by exposure to SO2, (2) bronchial aspirates from acute and chronic tracheostomy patients, (3) sputum from patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchitis and (4) postmortem secretions from patients who died from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) or from status asthmaticus. Cholesterol was found to be the predominant lipid in 'normal' mucus with lesser amounts of phospholipids. No glycolipids were detected. In the hypersecretory mucus, in addition to neutral and phospholipids, glycolipids were present in appreciable amounts, often the predominant species, suggesting that these may be useful as markers of disease. Radioactive precursors 14C acetate and 14C palmitate were incorporated into lipids secreted ''in vitro'' by canine tracheal explants indicating that they are synthesised by the airway. (author)

  16. Lipids in airway secretions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaskar, K.R.; DeFeudis O' Sullivan, D.; Opaskar-Hincman, H.; Reid, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Lipids form a significant portion of airway mucus yet they have not received the same attention that epithelial glycoproteins have. We have analysed, by thin layer chromatography, lipids present in airway mucus under 'normal' and hypersecretory (pathological) conditions.The 'normals' included (1) bronchial lavage obtained from healthy human volunteers and from dogs and (2) secretions produced ''in vitro'' by human (bronchial) and canine (tracheal) explants. Hypersecretory mucus samples included (1) lavage from dogs made bronchitic by exposure to SO/sub 2/, (2) bronchial aspirates from acute and chronic tracheostomy patients, (3) sputum from patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchitis and (4) postmortem secretions from patients who died from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) or from status asthmaticus. Cholesterol was found to be the predominant lipid in 'normal' mucus with lesser amounts of phospholipids. No glycolipids were detected. In the hypersecretory mucus, in addition to neutral and phospholipids, glycolipids were present in appreciable amounts, often the predominant species, suggesting that these may be useful as markers of disease. Radioactive precursors /sup 14/C acetate and /sup 14/C palmitate were incorporated into lipids secreted ''in vitro'' by canine tracheal explants indicating that they are synthesised by the airway.

  17. Lake Superior lipids

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Fish chemistry data (d13C, d15N, C:N, lipid content) published in Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 2015, 29, 2069–2077 DOI: 10.1002/rcm.7367 This dataset is associated...

  18. Do aggressive people play violent computer games in a more aggressive way? Individual difference and idiosyncratic game-playing experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Liu, Ming; Mou, Yi

    2008-04-01

    ABSTRACT This study investigates whether individual difference influences idiosyncratic experience of game playing. In particular, we examine the relationship between the game player's physical-aggressive personality and the aggressiveness of the player's game playing in violence-oriented video games. Screen video stream of 40 individual participants' game playing was captured and content analyzed. Participants' physical aggression was measured before the game play. The results suggest that people with more physical-aggressive personality engage in a more aggressive style of playing, after controlling the differences of gender and previous gaming experience. Implications of these findings and direction for future studies are discussed. PMID:18422407

  19. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did ... respond or are unable to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in ...

  20. The Role of Lipid Rafts in Cancer Cell Adhesion and Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Murai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid rafts are cholesterol-enriched microdomains of the cell membrane and possess a highly dynamic nature. They have been involved in various cellular functions including the regulation of cell adhesion and membrane signaling through proteins within lipid rafts. The dynamic features of the cancer cell surface may modulate the malignant phenotype of cancer, including adhesion disorders and aggressive phenotypes of migration and invasion. Recently, it was demonstrated that lipid rafts play critical roles in cancer cell adhesion and migration. This article summarizes the important roles of lipid rafts in cancer cell adhesion and migration, with a focus on the current state of knowledge. This article will improve the understanding of cancer progression and lead to the development of novel targets for cancer therapy.