Sample records for aggregative citrobacter freundii

  1. Endocarditis Due to Citrobacter Freundii


    Reyes, Cesar V.; Folwarkiw, Oksana


    The etiologic association of acute bacterial endocarditis with the Citrobacter species has been rare, although it is one of the opportunistic organisms that afflicts the elderly, neonates, the debilitated and immunocompromised. We report a case of endocarditis due to Citrobacter freundii.

  2. Diarrhea-associated biofilm formed by enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and aggregative Citrobacter freundii: a consortium mediated by putative F pili

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    Araújo Ana CG


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC are enteropathogenic strains identified by the aggregative adhesion (AA pattern that share the capability to form biofilms. Citrobacter freundii is classically considered as an indigenous intestinal species that is sporadically associated with diarrhea. Results During an epidemiologic study focusing on infantile diarrhea, aggregative C. freundii (EACF and EAEC strains were concomitantly recovered from a severe case of mucous diarrhea. Thereby, the occurrence of synergic events involving these strains was investigated. Coinfection of HeLa cells with EACF and EAEC strains showed an 8-fold increase in the overall bacterial adhesion compared with single infections (P traA were capable of forming bacterial aggregates only in the presence of EACF. Scanning electronic microscopy analyses revealed that bacterial aggregates as well as enhanced biofilms formed by EACF and traA-positive EAEC were mediated by non-bundle forming, flexible pili. Moreover, mixed biofilms formed by EACF and traA-positive EAEC strains were significantly reduced using nonlethal concentration of zinc, a specific inhibitor of F pili. In addition, EAEC strains isolated from diarrheic children frequently produced single biofilms sensitive to zinc. Conclusions Putative F pili expressed by EAEC strains boosted mixed biofilm formation when in the presence of aggregative C. freundii.

  3. Genetic characterization of atypical Citrobacter freundii. (United States)

    Delgado, Gabriela; Souza, Valeria; Morales, Rosario; Cerritos, René; González-González, Andrea; Méndez, José Luis; Vázquez, Virginia; Cravioto, Alejandro


    The ability of a bacterial population to survive in different niches, as well as in stressful and rapidly changing environmental conditions, depends greatly on its genetic content. To survive such fluctuating conditions, bacteria have evolved different mechanisms to modulate phenotypic variations and related strategies to produce high levels of genetic diversity. Laboratories working in microbiological diagnosis have shown that Citrobacter freundii is very versatile in its colony morphology, as well as in its biochemical, antigenic and pathogenic behaviours. This phenotypic versatility has made C. freundii difficult to identify and it is frequently confused with both Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli. In order to determine the genomic events and to explain the mechanisms involved in this plasticity, six C. freundii isolates were selected from a phenotypic variation study. An I-CeuI genomic cleavage map was created and eight housekeeping genes, including 16S rRNA, were sequenced. In general, the results showed a range of both phenotypes and genotypes among the isolates with some revealing a greater similarity to C. freundii and some to S. enterica, while others were identified as phenotypic and genotypic intermediary states between the two species. The occurrence of these events in natural populations may have important implications for genomic diversification in bacterial evolution, especially when considering bacterial species boundaries. In addition, such events may have a profound impact on medical science in terms of treatment, course and outcomes of infectious diseases, evading the immune response, and understanding host-pathogen interactions.

  4. A case of emphysematous pyelonephritis induced by Citrobacter freundii infection

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    Youichi Yanagawa


    Full Text Available A 79-year-old female with diabetes mellitus had general fatigue, a high fever and vomiting. A CT revealed acute emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN. A nephrectomy was performed on the 2 nd hospital day. The results of the blood culture showed the presence of Citrobacter freundii infection. The patient′s post-operative course was uneventful. This case is the second reported case of EPN induced by Citrobacter freundii. Bacteremia induced by Citrobacter freundii infection typically results in a high mortality rate. In this case, the early diagnosis of the EPN using CT and immediate medical treatment, including urgent elective nephrectomy, were key to the favorable outcome.

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of the Type Species of the Genus Citrobacter, Citrobacter freundii MTCC 1658


    Kumar, Shailesh; Kaur, Chandandeep; Kimura, Kazuyuki; Takeo, Masahiro; Raghava, Gajendra Pal Singh; Mayilraj, Shanmugam


    We report the 5.0-Mb genome sequence of the type species of the genus Citrobacter, Citrobacter freundii strain MTCC 1658, isolated from canal water. This draft genome sequence of C. freundii strain MTCC 1658T consists of 5,001,265 bp with a G+C content of 51.61%, 4,691 protein-coding genes, 70 tRNAs, and 10 rRNAs.

  6. Citrobacter freundii induced endocarditis in a yearling colt. (United States)

    Guidi, Eleonora E A; Thomas, Aurélie; Cadoré, Jean-Luc; Smith, Agnès Benamou


    Endocarditis is a rare pathology in horses and the clinical signs can be misleading. We describe the clinical, echocardiographic, and pathological features of Citrobacter freundii induced bacterial endocarditis in a horse. This bacterium has never been reported before as an agent of vegetative endocarditis in the horse.

  7. Characterization of a virulent bacteriophage LK1 specific for Citrobacter freundii isolated from sewage water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaudhry, Waqas Nasir; Ul Haq, Irshad; Andleeb, Saadia; Qadri, Ishtiaq


    Citrobacter freundii is a worldwide emerging nosocomial pathogen with escalating incidence of multidrug resistance. Citrobacter freundii exists in natural environment, especially in health care settings and is difficult to eradicate. Phage therapy is considered as an alternative way of controlling b

  8. Characterization of Five Podoviridae Phages Infecting Citrobacter freundii. (United States)

    Hamdi, Sana; Rousseau, Geneviève M; Labrie, Simon J; Kourda, Rim S; Tremblay, Denise M; Moineau, Sylvain; Slama, Karim B


    Citrobacter freundii causes opportunistic infections in humans and animals, which are becoming difficult to treat due to increased antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to explore phages as potential antimicrobial agents against this opportunistic pathogen. We isolated and characterized five new virulent phages, SH1, SH2, SH3, SH4, and SH5 from sewage samples in Tunisia. Morphological and genomic analyses revealed that the five C. freundii phages belong to the Caudovirales order, Podoviridae family, and Autographivirinae subfamily. Their linear double-stranded DNA genomes range from 39,158 to 39,832 bp and are terminally redundant with direct repeats between 183 and 242 bp. The five genomes share the same organization as coliphage T7. Based on genomic comparisons and on the phylogeny of the DNA polymerases, we assigned the five phages to the T7virus genus but separated them into two different groups. Phages SH1 and SH2 are very similar to previously characterized phages phiYeO3-12 and phiSG-JL2, infecting, respectively, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica, as well as sharing more than 80% identity with most genes of coliphage T7. Phages SH3, SH4, and SH5 are very similar to phages K1F and Dev2, infecting, respectively, Escherichia coli and Cronobacter turicensis. Several structural proteins of phages SH1, SH3, and SH4 were detected by mass spectrometry. The five phages were also stable from pH 5 to 10. No genes coding for known virulence factors or integrases were found, suggesting that the five isolated phages could be good candidates for therapeutic applications to prevent or treat C. freundii infections. In addition, this study increases our knowledge about the evolutionary relationships within the T7virus genus.

  9. Clonal origin of aminoglycoside-resistant Citrobacter freundii isolates in a Danish county

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    Norskov-Lauritsen, N.; Sandvang, Dorthe; Hedegaard, J.;


    During 1997, attention was drawn to an increased frequency of aminoglycoside-resistant Citrobacter freundii in a Danish county, when a total of 24 resistant C. freundii isolates was detected. In this study, 15 such isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, riboprinting and partial...

  10. Citrobacter freundii septicemia in a stranded newborn Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris). (United States)

    Fernández, Antonio; Vela, Ana Isabel; Andrada, Marisa; Herraez, Pedro; Díaz-Delgado, Josue; Domínguez, Lucas; Arbelo, Manuel


    Citrobacter freundii, a gram-negative enterobacterium, may cause fatal septicemia in humans and animals. Its potential pathogenic role in cetaceans (bottlenose dolphins and beluga whales) has been hypothesized. Here we describe fatal C. freundii septicemia in a stranded newborn Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris).

  11. Phosphatase production and activity in Citrobacter freundii and a naturally occurring, heavy-metal-accumulating Citrobacter sp. (United States)

    Montgomery, D M; Dean, A C; Wiffen, P; Macaskie, L E


    The ability of a naturally occurring Citrobacter sp. to accumulate cadmium has been attributed to cellular precipitation of CdHPO4, utilizing HPO4(2-) liberated via the activity of an overproduced, Cd-resistant acid-type phosphatase. Phosphatase production and heavy metal accumulation by batch cultures of this strain (N14) and a phosphatase-deficient mutant were compared with two reference strains of Citrobacter freundii. Only strain N14 expressed a high level of acid phosphatase and accumulated lanthanum and uranyl ion enzymically. Acid phosphatase is regulated via carbon-starvation; although the C. freundii strains overexpressed phosphatase activity in carbon-limiting continuous culture, this was approximately 20-fold less than the activity of strain N14 grown similarly. Citrobacter strain N14 was originally isolated from a metal-contaminated soil environment; phosphatase overproduction and metal accumulation were postulated as a detoxification mechanism. However, application of Cd-stress, and enrichment for Cd-resistant C. freundii ('training'), reduced the phosphatase activity of this organism by about 50% as compared to Cd-unstressed cultures. The acid phosphatase of C. freundii and Citrobacter N14 had a similar pattern of resistance to some diagnostic reagents. The enzyme of the latter is similar to the PhoN acid phosphatase of Salmonella typhimurium described by other workers; the results are discussed with respect to the known phosphatases of the enterobacteria.

  12. Morphological alterations on Citrobacter freundii bacteria induced by erythrosine dye and laser light. (United States)

    Silva, Josmary R; Cardoso, Gleidson; Maciel, Rafael R G; de Souza, Nara C


    The effect of the laser irradiation (532 nm) on films prepared from Citrobacter freundii mixed with erythrosine dye was investigated by using atomic force microscopy. It was observed that morphological changes of bacterial surfaces after irradiations, which were attributed to cellular damage of the outer membranes, are a result of a photodynamic effect. The results suggested that the combination of erythrosine and laser light at 532 nm could be a candidate to a photodynamic therapy against C. freundii.

  13. Characterization of a virulent bacteriophage LK1 specific for Citrobacter freundii isolated from sewage water. (United States)

    Chaudhry, Waqas Nasir; Haq, Irshad Ul; Andleeb, Saadia; Qadri, Ishtiaq


    Citrobacter freundii is a worldwide emerging nosocomial pathogen with escalating incidence of multidrug resistance. Citrobacter freundii exists in natural environment, especially in health care settings and is difficult to eradicate. Phage therapy is considered as an alternative way of controlling bacterial infections and contaminations. In this study, we have described isolation and characterization of a virulent bacteriophage LK1 capable of specifically infecting Citrobacter freundii. A virulent bacteriophage LK1, specific for Citrobacter freundii was isolated from sewage water sample. TEM showed that phage Lk1 has an icosahedral head 70 nm in diameter and short tail of 17 nm, and can be classified as a member of the Podoviridae family. Restriction analysis indicated that phage LK1 was a dsDNA virus with an approximate genome size of 20-23 kb. Proteomic pattern generated by SDS PAGE using purified LK1 phage particles, revealed three major and six minor protein bands with molecular weight ranging from 25 to 80 kDa. Adsorption rate of LK1 relative to the host bacterium was also determined which showed significant improvement in adsorption with the addition of CaCl2 . In a single step growth experiment, LK1 exhibited a latent period of 24 min and burst size of 801 particle/cell. Moreover, pH and thermal stability of phage LK1 demonstrated a pH range of 5.0-6.0 and phage viability decreased to 0% at 65 °C. When LK1 was used to infect six other clinically isolated pathogenic strains, it showed relatively narrow host range. LK1 was capable of eliciting efficient lysis of Citrobacter freundii, revealing its potential as a non-toxic sanitizer for controlling Citrobacter freundii infection and contamination in both hospital and other public environments.

  14. Utilization of aminoaromatic acids by a methanogenic enrichment culture and by a novel Citrobacter freundii strain

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    Savelieva, O.; Kotova, I.; Roelofsen, W.; Stams, A.J.M.; Netrusov, A.


    Following incubation of mesophilic methanogenic floccular sludge from a lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor used to treat cattle manure wastewater, a stable 5-aminosalicylate-degrading enrichment culture was obtained. Subsequently, a Citrobacter freundii strain, WA1, was isolated from the

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Citrobacter freundii Strain A47, Resistant to the Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Lepp, Dion; Pauls, K. P.


    ABSTRACT Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Citrobacter freundii strain A47 with a length of 4,878,242 bp, which contains 4,357 putative protein coding genes, including 270 unique genes. This work is expected to assist in obtaining novel gene(s) that code for deoxynivalenol (DON) de-epoxidation enzyme(s). PMID:28302773

  16. Citrobacter freundii brain abscess in a preterm infant: a case report and literature review. (United States)

    Plakkal, Nishad; Soraisham, Amuchou Singh; Amin, Harish


    Intracranial abscesses are serious conditions but uncommon in preterm neonates. Citrobacter species are an uncommon cause of bacterial meningitis in neonates, but are associated with brain abscesses in a majority of cases. We report a preterm infant who developed Citrobacter freundii meningitis with brain abscess, who was successfully treated with antibiotics and surgical drainage. The infant had normal neurological outcome at follow-up. We report this case to highlight the importance of serial neuroimaging in the diagnosis of cerebral abscess in infants with Citrobacter meningitis.

  17. Emergence of Citrobacter freundii carrying IMP-8 metallo-β-lactamase in Germany (United States)

    Peter, S; Wolz, C; Kaase, M; Marschal, M; Schulte, B; Vogel, W; Autenrieth, I; Willmann, M


    Metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) in Enterobacteriaceae are an increasing problem worldwide. This report describes the isolation of Citrobacter freundii carrying IMP-8 MBL from three patients during the period from March 2012 until March 2013 in Germany. The blaIMP-8 enzyme is predominantly found in Asia, where IMP-8 has spread to various enterobacterial species causing serious infections. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of blaIMP-8 habouring Enterobacteriaceae in Europe. PMID:25356340

  18. Emergence of Citrobacter freundii carrying IMP-8 metallo-β-lactamase in Germany

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    S. Peter


    Full Text Available Metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs in Enterobacteriaceae are an increasing problem worldwide. This report describes the isolation of Citrobacter freundii carrying IMP-8 MBL from three patients during the period from March 2012 until March 2013 in Germany. The blaIMP-8 enzyme is predominantly found in Asia, where IMP-8 has spread to various enterobacterial species causing serious infections. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of blaIMP-8 habouring Enterobacteriaceae in Europe.

  19. Exoelectrogenic bacterium phylogenetically related to Citrobacter freundii, isolated from anodic biofilm of a microbial fuel cell. (United States)

    Huang, Jianjian; Zhu, Nengwu; Cao, Yanlan; Peng, Yue; Wu, Pingxiao; Dong, Wenhao


    An electrogenic bacterium, named Citrobacter freundii Z7, was isolated from the anodic biofilm of microbial fuel cell (MFC) inoculated with aerobic sewage sludge. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) analysis exhibited that the strain Z7 had relatively high electrochemical activity. When the strain Z7 was inoculated into MFC, the maximum power density can reach 204.5 mW/m(2) using citrate as electron donor. Series of substrates including glucose, glycerol, lactose, sucrose, and rhammose could be utilized to generate power. CV tests and the addition of anode solution as well as AQDS experiments indicated that the strain Z7 might transfer electrons indirectly via secreted mediators.

  20. Ureolytic Citrobacter freundii infection of the urine as a cause of dissolution of cystine renal calculi. (United States)

    Gutierrez Millet, V; Praga, M; Miranda, B; Bello, I; Ruilope, L; Diaz Gonzalez, R; Leyva, O; Alcazar, J M; Barrientos, A; Rodicio, J L


    We report a case of cystinuria with staghorn renal lithiasis in a solitary right kidney and chronic renal failure. Right nephropyelolithotomy was performed and although 29 renal calculi were extracted many stones remained in situ. A permanent nephrostomy was left in the kidney. Several months later the urine was infected chronically with a ureolytic Citrobacter freundii bacteria and urinary pH oscillated between 8.0 and 9.2. Spontaneous dissolution of the cystine calculi was observed and many tiny fragments of cystine were expulsed through the nephrostomy, following which renal function improved. Despite the conditions favoring struvite calculi, formation did not occur.

  1. Reduction of azo dyes by flavin reductase from Citrobacter freundii A1

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    Mohd Firdaus Abdul-Wahab


    Full Text Available Citrobacter freundii A1 isolated from a sewage treatment facility was demonstrated to be able to effectively decolorize azo dyes as pure and mixed culture. This study reports on the investigation on the enzymatic systems involved. An assay performed suggested the possible involvement of flavin reductase (Fre as an azo reductase. A heterologouslyexpressed recombinant Fre from C. freundii A1 was used to investigate its involvement in the azo reduction process. Three model dyes were used, namely Acid Red 27 (AR27, Direct Blue 15 (DB15 and Reactive Black 5 (RB5. AR27 was found to be reduced the fastest by Fre, followed by RB5, and lastly DB15. Redox mediators nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH and riboflavin enhance the reduction, suggesting the redox activity of the enzyme. The rate and extent of reduction of the model dyes correlate well with the reduction potentials (Ep. The data presented here strongly suggest that Fre is one of the enzymes responsible for azo reduction in C. freundii A1, acting via an oxidation-reduction reaction.

  2. Isolation,Identification and Antibiotics Susceptibility Test of Citrobacter freundii from Procambarus clarkia

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    Chen; Honglian; Song; Guangtong; He; Jixiang; Hou; Guanjun; Wang; Yongjie


    This experiment was conducted to clarify species and drug resistance of pathogen from the diseased Procambarus clarkia. Pathogenic bacteria from hepatopancreas of the diseased P. clarkia were examined using conventional methods,and then were isolated. The further tests and analysis of the isolated strain were developed,including the regression experiment to P. clarkia,the morphology,physiological and biochemical characteristics,sequence analysis of their 16 S rRNA and gyr B genes,and the susceptibility test to antibiotics. Large colonies with similar morphology and color were obtained. Strain X120523 was identified as Citrobacter freundii,proved to have strong pathogenicity,and was susceptible to quinolones and aminoglycosides.

  3. Impact of cold plasma on Citrobacter freundii in apple juice: inactivation kinetics and mechanisms. (United States)

    Surowsky, Björn; Fröhling, Antje; Gottschalk, Nathalie; Schlüter, Oliver; Knorr, Dietrich


    Various studies have shown that cold plasma is capable of inactivating microorganisms located on a variety of food surfaces, food packaging materials and process equipment under atmospheric pressure conditions; however, less attention has been paid to the impact of cold plasma on microorganisms in liquid foodstuffs. The present study investigates cold plasma's ability to inactivate Citrobacter freundii in apple juice. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and temperature measurements were performed to characterise the plasma source. The plasma-related impact on microbial loads was evaluated by traditional plate count methods, while morphological changes were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Physiological property changes were obtained through flow cytometric measurements (membrane integrity, esterase activity and membrane potential). In addition, mathematical modelling was performed in order to achieve a reliable prediction of microbial inactivation and to establish the basis for possible industrial implementation. C. freundii loads in apple juice were reduced by about 5 log cycles after a plasma exposure of 480s using argon and 0.1% oxygen plus a subsequent storage time of 24h. The results indicate that a direct contact between bacterial cells and plasma is not necessary for achieving successful inactivation. The plasma-generated compounds in the liquid, such as H2O2 and most likely hydroperoxy radicals, are particularly responsible for microbial inactivation.

  4. Characterization of phiCFP-1, a virulent bacteriophage specific for Citrobacter freundii. (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangna; Huang, Simo; Zhao, Jiangtao; He, Xiaoming; Li, Erna; Li, Huan; Liu, Wei; Zou, Dayang; Wei, Xiao; Wang, Xuesong; Dong, Derong; Yang, Zhan; Yan, Xiabei; Shen, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Jing


    Citrobacter freundii, a Gram-negative bacterium, causes many opportunistic infections. Bacteriophage phiCFP-1 was isolated and characterized by its ability to lyse the multidrug-resistant clinical C. freundii strain P10159. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the phage has an icosahedral head and a short tail, making it a Podoviridae family member. In a single-step growth experiment, phiCFP-1 exhibited an eclipse period of 20 min and a burst size of 100 particles per cell. Its genome assembled as a circular molecule when genomic sequencing was completed. However, based on genome content and organization, it was categorized as a classic T7-related phage, and such phages are known to have linear genomes with direct terminal repeats. With the quick and simple method established herein, the 38,625-bp linear double-stranded DNA with 229-bp direct terminal repeats was accurately identified. The genome contained 43 putative open reading frames and no tRNA genes. Using a proteomics-based approach, seven viral and two host proteins from purified phiCFP-1 particles were identified. Comparative genomics and recombination analyzes revealed close genetic relatedness among phiCFP-1, phiYeO3-12/vB_YenP_AP5 (from Yersinia enterocolitica O3), and phiSG-JL2 (from Salmonella enterica).

  5. Studies of polypropylene membrane fouling during microfiltration of broth with Citrobacter freundii bacteria

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    Gryta Marek


    Full Text Available In this work a fouling study of polypropylene membranes used for microfiltration of glycerol solutions fermented by Citrobacter freundii bacteria was presented. The permeate free of C. freundii bacteria and having a turbidity in the range of 0.72–1.46 NTU was obtained. However, the initial permeate flux (100–110 L/m2h at 30 kPa of transmembrane pressure was decreased 3–5 fold during 2–3 h of process duration. The performed scanning electron microscope observations confirmed that the filtered bacteria and suspensions present in the broth formed a cake layer on the membrane surface. A method of periodical module rinsing was used for restriction of the fouling influence on a flux decline. Rinsing with water removed most of the bacteria from the membrane surface, but did not permit to restore the initial permeate flux. It was confirmed that the irreversible fouling was dominated during broth filtration. The formed deposit was removed using a 1 wt% solution of sodium hydroxide as a rinsing solution.

  6. Profile of Citrobacter freundii ST2, a Multi-acyl-homoserine Lactone Producer Associated with Marine Dinoflagellates. (United States)

    Huang, Xinqi; Gao, Yan; Ma, Zhiping; Lin, Guanghui; Cai, Zhonghua; Zhou, Jin


    Marine algae provide a unique niche termed the phycosphere for microorganism inhabitation. The phycosphere environment is an important niche for mutualistic and competitive interactions between algae and bacteria. Quorum sensing (QS) serves as a gene regulatory system in the microbial biosphere that allows bacteria to sense the population density with signaling molecules, such as acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL), and adapt their physiological activities to their surroundings. Understanding the QS system is important to elucidate the interactions between algal-associated microbial communities in the phycosphere condition. In this study, we isolated an epidermal bacterium (ST2) from the marine dinoflagellate Scrippsiella trochoidea and evaluated its AHL production profile. Strain ST2 was classified as a member of the genus Citrobacter closely related to Citrobacter freundii by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Thin-layer chromatography revealed that C. freundii ST2 secreted three active AHL compounds into the culture supernatant. Specific compounds, such as N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-AHL), N-octanoyl-DL-homoserine lactone (C8-AHL), and N-decanoyl-DL-homoserine lactone (C10-AHL), were identified by high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Carbon metabolic profiling with Biolog EcoPlate™ indicated that C. freundii ST2 was widely used as a carbon source and preferred carbohydrates, amino acids, and carboxylic acids as carbon substrates. Our results demonstrated that C. freundii ST2 is a multi-AHL producer that participates in the phycosphere carbon cycle.

  7. Acute death associated with Citrobacter freundii infection in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana). (United States)

    Ortega, Joaquín; Corpa, Juan M; Orden, José A; Blanco, Jorge; Carbonell, María D; Gerique, Amalia C; Latimer, Erin; Hayward, Gary S; Roemmelt, Andreas; Kraemer, Thomas; Romey, Aurore; Kassimi, Labib B; Casares, Miguel


    A 21-year-old male African elephant (Loxodonta africana) died suddenly with no previous medical history. Grossly, there were severe multifocal epicardial and endocardial hemorrhages of the atria and ventricles, hydropericardium, multifocal pleural hemorrhages, and severe pulmonary congestion and edema. Histologically, there was fibrinoid vasculitis and thrombosis in the heart and lung and myocardial necrosis. Citrobacter freundii was isolated in abundance in pure culture from liver and heart samples. Low levels of multiples types of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV-6, EEHV-2B, and EEHV-3A) were detected in spleen samples, but not in heart samples. The levels of EEHV DNA found were much lower than those usually associated with acute EEHV hemorrhagic disease, and many other genomic loci that would normally be found in such cases were evidently below the level of detection. Therefore, these findings are unlikely to indicate lethal EEHV disease. Polymerase chain reaction for encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and toxicology for oleander (Nerium oleander) were negative. Stress, resulting from recent transport, and antimicrobial therapy may have contributed to the death of this animal.

  8. Engineered Citrobacter freundii methionine γ-lyase effectively produces antimicrobial thiosulfinates. (United States)

    Morozova, Elena A; Kulikova, Vitalia V; Rodionov, Alexei N; Revtovich, Svetlana V; Anufrieva, Natalya V; Demidkina, Tatyana V


    Antimicrobial activity of thiosulfinates in situ produced by mixtures of Citrobacter freundii methionine γ-lyase (MGL) with new substrates, l-methionine and S-(alkyl/allyl)-l-cysteine sulfoxides has been recently demonstrated (Anufrieva et al., 2015). This opens a way to the rational design of a new biotechnologically relevant antimicrobial drug producer. To increase the efficiency of the enzyme toward sulfoxides, the mutant forms of MGL, with the replacements of active site cysteine 115 with alanine (C115A MGL) and histidine (C115H MGL) were obtained. The replacement of cysteine 115 by histidine results in the loss of activity of the mutant enzyme in the γ-elimination reaction of physiological substrate, whereas the activity in the β-elimination reaction of characteristic substrates persists. However, the catalytic efficiency of C115H MGL in the β-elimination reaction of S-substituted l-cysteine sulfoxides is increased by about an order of magnitude compared to the wild type MGL. The antibacterial activity of C115H MGL mixtures with a number of sulfoxides was assessed against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The bacteriostatic effect was more pronounced against Gram-positive than against Gram-negative bacteria, while antibacterial potential proved to be quite similar. Thus, the mutant enzyme C115H MGL is an effective catalyst, in particular, for decomposition of sulfoxides and the pharmacological couples of the mutant form with sulfoxides might be new antimicrobial agents.

  9. Fermentative hydrogen production by Clostridium butyricum CWBI1009 and Citrobacter freundii CWBI952 in pure and mixed cultures

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    Beckers, L.


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the biohydrogen production by two mesophilic strains, a strict anaerobe (Clostridium butyricum CWBI1009 and a facultative anaerobe (Citrobacter freundii CWBI952. They were cultured in pure and mixed cultures in serum bottles with five different carbon sources. The hydrogen yields of pure C. freundii cultures ranged from 0.09 molH2.molhexose-1 (with sucrose to 0.24 molH2.molhexose-1 (with glucose. Higher yields were obtained by the pure cultures of Cl. butyricum ranging from 0.44 molH2.molhexose-1 (with sucrose to 0.69 molH2.molhexose-1 (with lactose. This strain also fermented starch whereas C. freundii did not. However, it consumed the other substrates faster and produced hydrogen earlier than Cl. butyricum. This ability has been used to promote the growth conditions of Cl. butyricum in co-culture with C. freundii, since Cl. butyricum is extremely sensitive to the presence of oxygen which strongly inhibits H2 production. This approach could avoid the addition of any expensive reducing agents in the culture media such as L-cysteine since C. freundii consumes the residual oxygen. Thereafter, co-cultures with glucose and starch were investigated: hydrogen yields decreased from 0.53 molH2.molhexose-1 for pure Cl. butyricum cultures to 0.38 molH2.molhexose-1 for mixed culture with glucose but slightly increased with starch (respectively 0.69 and 0.73 molH2.molhexose-1. After 48 h of fermentation, metabolites analysis confirmed with microbial observation, revealed that the cell concentration of C. freundii dramatically decreased or was strongly inhibited by the development of Cl. butyricum.

  10. Molecular cloning, co-expression, and characterization of glycerol dehydratase and 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase from Citrobacter freundii. (United States)

    Qi, Xianghui; Deng, Wenying; Wang, Fei; Guo, Qi; Chen, Huayou; Wang, Liang; He, Xiang; Huang, Ribo


    1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PD), an important material for chemical industry, is biologically synthesized by glycerol dehydratase (GDHt) and 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase (PDOR). In present study, the dhaBCE and dhaT genes encoding glycerol dehydratase and 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase respectively were cloned from Citrobacter freundii and co-expressed in E. coli. Sequence analysis revealed that the cloned genes were 85 and 77 % identical to corresponding gene of C. freundii DSM 30040 (GenBank No. U09771), respectively. The over-expressed recombinant enzymes were purified by nickel-chelate chromatography combined with gel filtration, and recombinant GDHt and PDOR were characterized by activity assay, kinetic analysis, pH, and temperature optimization. This research may form a basis for the future work on biological synthesis of 1,3-PD.

  11. NDM-1-Producing Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, and Acinetobacter baumannii Identified from a Single Patient in China. (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Min; Zhong, Lan-Lan; Zhang, Xue-Fei; Hu, Hang-Tong; Li, Yu-Qi; Yang, Xiao-Rong; Feng, Lian-Qiang; Huang, Xi; Tian, Guo-Bao


    We identified New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1)-producing Citrobacter freundii GB032, Escherichia coli GB102, and Acinetobacter baumannii GB661 in urine and stool samples from a single patient in China. Plasmid profiling and Southern blotting indicated that blaNDM-1 from GB032 and that from GB102 were likely located on the same plasmid, while blaNDM-1 from GB661 was located on a very large (>400-kb) plasmid. This case underscores the broad host range of blaNDM-1 and its potential to spread between members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and A. baumannii.

  12. 1,3-Propanediol production by Escherichia coli using genes from Citrobacter freundii atcc 8090. (United States)

    Przystałowska, Hanna; Zeyland, Joanna; Kośmider, Alicja; Szalata, Marlena; Słomski, Ryszard; Lipiński, Daniel


    Compared with chemical synthesis, fermentation has the advantage of mass production at low cost, and has been used in the production of various industrial chemicals. As a valuable organic compound, 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) has numerous applications in the production of polymers, lubricants, cosmetics and medicines. Here, conversion of glycerol (a renewable substrate and waste from biodiesel production) to 1,3-PDO by E. coli bacterial strain carrying altered glycerol metabolic pathway was investigated. Two gene constructs containing the 1,3-PDO operon from Citrobacter freundii (pCF1 and pCF2) were used to transform the bacteria. The pCF1 gene expression construct contained dhaBCE genes encoding the three subunits of glycerol dehydratase, dhaF encoding the large subunit of the glycerol dehydratase reactivation factor and dhaG encoding the small subunit of the glycerol dehydratase reactivating factor. The pCF2 gene expression construct contained the dhaT gene encoding the 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase. Expression of the genes cloned in the above constructs was under regulation of the T7lac promoter. RT-PCR, SDS-PAGE analyses and functional tests confirmed that 1,3-PDO synthesis pathway genes were expressed at the RNA and protein levels, and worked flawlessly in the heterologous host. In a batch flask culture, in a short time applied just to identify the 1,3-PDO in a preliminary study, the recombinant E. coli bacteria produced 1.53 g/L of 1,3-PDO, using 21.2 g/L of glycerol in 72 h. In the Sartorius Biostat B Plus reactor, they produced 11.7 g/L of 1,3-PDO using 24.2 g/L of glycerol, attaining an efficiency of 0.58 [mol1,3-PDO/molglycerol].

  13. The role of active site tyrosine 58 in Citrobacter freundii methionine γ-lyase. (United States)

    Anufrieva, Natalya V; Faleev, Nicolai G; Morozova, Elena A; Bazhulina, Natalia P; Revtovich, Svetlana V; Timofeev, Vladimir P; Tkachev, Yaroslav V; Nikulin, Alexei D; Demidkina, Tatyana V


    In the spatial structure of methionine γ-lyase (MGL, EC from Citrobacter freundii, Tyr58 is located at H-bonding distance to the oxygen atom of the phosphate "handle" of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). It was replaced for phenylalanine by site-directed mutagenesis. The X-ray structure of the mutant enzyme was determined at 1.96Å resolution. Comparison of spatial structures and absorption spectra of wild-type and mutant holoenzymes demonstrated that the replacement did not result in essential changes of the conformation of the active site Tyr58Phe MGL. The Kd value of PLP for Tyr58Phe MGL proved to be comparable to the Kd value for the wild-type enzyme. The replacement led to a decrease of catalytic efficiencies in both γ- and β-elimination reactions of about two orders of magnitude as compared to those for the wild-type enzyme. The rates of exchange of C-α- and C-β- protons of inhibitors in D2O catalyzed by the mutant form are comparable with those for the wild-type enzyme. Spectral data on the complexes of the mutant form with the substrates and inhibitors showed that the replacement led to a change of rate the limiting step of the physiological reaction. The results allowed us to conclude that Tyr58 is involved in an optimal positioning of the active site Lys210 at some stages of γ- and β-elimination reactions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cofactor-dependent proteins: evolution, chemical diversity and bio-applications.

  14. Characterization of chromosomal qnrB and ampC alleles in Citrobacter freundii isolates from different origins. (United States)

    Liao, Xiaoping; Fang, Liangxing; Li, Liang; Sun, Jian; Li, Xingping; Chen, Muya; Deng, Hui; Yang, Qiu'e; Li, Xue; Liu, Yahong


    The association of ESBLs (extended-spectrum beta-lactamases)/pAmpCs (plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases) with PMQR (plasmid mediated quinolone resistance) in gram-negative bacteria has been of great concern. The present study was performed to characterize the diversity, gene location, genetic context, and evolution of ampC and qnrB alleles in isolates of Citrobacter freundii. Fifteen isolates of C. freundii were identified from a total of 788 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae derived from humans, animals, animal food products, and the environment between 2010 and 2012. Co-existence of qnrB/ΔqnrB with ampC was detected in all C. freundii isolates. Both ampC and qnrB genes were found to be located on the chromosome, but were distantly separated on the chromosome. Seven and six novel alleles were discovered for the 10 ampC and qnrB variants detected in this study, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the new alleles differed a little from the variants of ampC/qnrB previously described in this genus. The genetic context surrounding ampC genes was AmpR-AmpC-Blc-SugE. However, five different genetic contexts surrounding qnrB/ΔqnrB genes were observed, but they occurred in all cases between the pspF and sapA genes. Additionally, cloning experiments showed that the regions containing different qnrB alleles, even with different genetic contexts, contributed to the reduction of quinolone susceptibility. Our results showed that the chromosomal ampC and qnrB alleles are closely related to C. freundii. However, unlike ampC, qnrB alleles seemed to be related to the genetic contexts surrounding them. The evolution of these two genes in C. freundii isolates might be through different pathways.

  15. Conversion of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol by Citrobacter freundii and Hafnia alvei - newly isolated strains from the Enterobacteriaceae. (United States)

    Drożdżyńska, Agnieszka; Pawlicka, Joanna; Kubiak, Piotr; Kośmider, Alicja; Pranke, Dorota; Olejnik-Schmidt, Agnieszka; Czaczyk, Katarzyna


    In this study, nearly 4000 bacterial strains from the family of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from different environments were screened for ability to convert glycerol to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD). The aim of the research was to isolate 1,3-PD producers from the natural environment, identify and characterize the best isolates. Three selective media were tested to usefulness in the isolation of bacteria from the family Enterobacteriaceae. Only, 28% of examined isolates could synthesize 1,3-PD from glycerol. 1,3-PD producing bacteria were identified by API 20E tests and 16S rRNA sequences to be Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter freundii and Hafnia alvei. It is the first time, when the fermentation glycerol to 1,3-PD by H. alvei was investigated. The selected strains (C. freundii AD119 and H. alvei AD27) were analyzed on a bioreactor scale under constant pH value 7.0 at temperature of 30°C and 37°C. After 40h in batch fermentation, H. alvei AD27 produced 11.3g/L of 1,3-PD at 37°C. For C. freundii AD119, the best results were obtained at temperature of 30°C. After 24h of fermentation, the 1,3-PD concentration reached above 23 g/L of 1,3-PD.

  16. Genetic characteristics of blaNDM-1-positive plasmid in Citrobacter freundii isolate separated from a clinical infectious patient. (United States)

    Du, Xiao-Xing; Wang, Jian-Feng; Fu, Ying; Zhao, Feng; Chen, Yan; Wang, Hai-Ping; Yu, Yun-Song


    This study reports an infectious case involving an (NDM-1)-producing Citrobacter freundii and further explored the potential threat of the bla(NDM-1) gene by analysing the characteristics of the (NDM-1)-encoding plasmid sequence. A bla(NDM-1)-positive C. freundii with high resistance to carbapenems was separated from a clinical patient suffering from a urinary tract infection. S1 nuclease-based plasmid analysis followed by Southern blot hybridization, a conjugation experiment and electrotransformation confirmed that the bla(NDM-1) gene was located on a plasmid. High-throughput sequencing of the bla(NDM-1)-positive plasmid (pCFNDM-CN) showed that it was a 54 kb IncX-type plasmid and contained a backbone region and a variable region with two β-lactamase genes (bla(NDM-1) and bla(SHV-12)). The NDM-1 composite transposon in the variable region was surrounded by IS26 and IS5-truncated ISAba125, and shared a high sequence similarity to the bla(NDM-1) surrounding structure in Acinetobacter spp. Our research suggested that the NDM-1 composite transposon might play an essential role in mobilization of the bla(NDM-1) gene from Acinetobacter spp. to Enterobacteriaceae.

  17. Novel genetic environment of the plasmid-mediated KPC-3 gene detected in Escherichia coli and Citrobacter freundii isolates from China


    Li, G.; Wei, Q; Wang, Y.; Du, X.; Zhao, Y.; Jiang, X.


    The imipenem and meropenem-resistant strains Citrobacter freundii HS70 and Escherichia coli HS510 were isolated from patients in Shanghai, China. By isoelectric focusing, PCR amplification and sequencing, these strains were each found to produce four β-lactamases: TEM-1, KPC-3, SHV-7 and CTX-M-14. A conjugation experiment and plasmid restriction digestion revealed that the bla KPC-3 gene was located on the same plasmid in both isolates. Bidirectional primer walking sequencing showed that the ...

  18. Kinetic Parameters and Cytotoxic Activity of Recombinant Methionine γ-Lyase from Clostridium tetani, Clostridium sporogenes, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Citrobacter freundii. (United States)

    Morozova, E A; Kulikova, V V; Yashin, D V; Anufrieva, N V; Anisimova, N Y; Revtovich, S V; Kotlov, M I; Belyi, Y F; Pokrovsky, V S; Demidkina, T V


    The steady-state kinetic parameters of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent recombinant methionine γ -lyase from three pathogenic bacteria, Clostridium tetani, Clostridium sporogenes, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, were determined in β- and γ-elimination reactions. The enzyme from C. sporogenes is characterized by the highest catalytic efficiency in the γ-elimination reaction of L-methionine. It was demonstrated that the enzyme from these three sources exists as a tetramer. The N-terminal poly-histidine fragment of three recombinant enzymes influences their catalytic activity and facilitates the aggregation of monomers to yield dimeric forms under denaturing conditions. The cytotoxicity of methionine γ-lyase from C. sporogenes and C. tetani in comparison with Citrobacter freundii was evaluated using K562, PC-3, LnCap, MCF7, SKOV-3, and L5178y tumor cell lines. K562 (IC50=0.4-1.3 U/ml), PC-3 (IC50=0.1-0.4 U/ml), and MCF7 (IC50=0.04-3.2 U/ml) turned out to be the most sensitive cell lines.

  19. Complete Nucleotide Sequence of a Citrobacter freundii Plasmid Carrying KPC-2 in a Unique Genetic Environment (United States)

    Yao, Yancheng; Imirzalioglu, Can; Hain, Torsten; Kaase, Martin; Gatermann, Soeren; Exner, Martin; Mielke, Martin; Hauri, Anja; Dragneva, Yolanta; Bill, Rita; Wendt, Constanze; Wirtz, Angela; Chakraborty, Trinad


    The complete and annotated nucleotide sequence of a 54,036-bp plasmid harboring a blaKPC-2 gene that is clonally present in Citrobacter isolates from different species is presented. The plasmid belongs to incompatibility group N (IncN) and harbors the class A carbapenemase KPC-2 in a unique genetic environment. PMID:25395635

  20. Alliin is a suicide substrate of Citrobacter freundii methionine γ-lyase: structural bases of inactivation of the enzyme. (United States)

    Morozova, Elena A; Revtovich, Svetlana V; Anufrieva, Natalya V; Kulikova, Vitalia V; Nikulin, Alexey D; Demidkina, Tatyana V


    The interaction of Citrobacter freundii methionine γ-lyase (MGL) and the mutant form in which Cys115 is replaced by Ala (MGL C115A) with the nonprotein amino acid (2R)-2-amino-3-[(S)-prop-2-enylsulfinyl]propanoic acid (alliin) was investigated. It was found that MGL catalyzes the β-elimination reaction of alliin to form 2-propenethiosulfinate (allicin), pyruvate and ammonia. The β-elimination reaction of alliin is followed by the inactivation and modification of SH groups of the wild-type and mutant enzymes. Three-dimensional structures of inactivated wild-type MGL (iMGL wild type) and a C115A mutant form (iMGL C115A) were determined at 1.85 and 1.45 Å resolution and allowed the identification of the SH groups that were oxidized by allicin. On this basis, the mechanism of the inactivation of MGL by alliin, a new suicide substrate of MGL, is proposed.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖; 孙永明; 孔晓英; 李连华; 李东; 袁振宏


    An exoelectrogenic bacterium LY-3 was isolated from microbial fuel cell. According to its phenotypic, physiological and biochemical characteristics as well as the phylogenetic analysis based on the sequence of 16S rDNA, it was identified as Citrobacter sp. and shared the highest similarities to C. freundi. So we named it as C. freundi LY-3. Cyclic voltammetry experiment showed that strain LY-3 is electrochemical activity. The C. freundi LY-3 is inoculated into the anode chamber of two-chamber MFC and the maximal voltage output was 0. 43 V with 2. 0g/L beef extract as the fuel. The maximal power density is 98. 2mW/m2.%通过形态、生理生化特性及系统进化分析表明,从微生物燃料电池中分离出的产电菌株LY-3与弗氏柠檬酸杆菌(Citrobacter freundii)最相近,将其命名为Citrobacter freundii LY-3.循环伏安扫描显示,该菌株具有电化学活性,在微生物燃料电池中,以牛肉膏为燃料产生的最大电压为0.43V,最大功率密度为98.2mW/m2.

  2. 柠檬酸杆菌吸附重金属铀的试验研究%Study on Adsorption of Heavy Metal Uranium by Citrobacter freundii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Citrobacter freundii was used to adsorb heavy metal uranium. The influence of pH, strain concentration and initial concentration of uranium on the adsorption of uranium were investigated. The results show that the adsorption efficiency of uranium by Citrobacter freundii increases with the in-crease of pH at the beginning of the adsorption and reaches its maximum at pH of 6 then decreases. The adsorption efficiency increases with the increase of strain concentration, while the adsorption capacity de-creases. The adsorption capacity increases with the increase of the initial concentration of uranium while the adsorption efficiency decreases. The adsorption process of uranium by Citrobacter freundii is in ac-cordance with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, and the fitting result of Freundlich isotherm is better.%采用弗氏柠檬酸杆菌吸附重金属铀,考察了pH、菌体浓度和铀离子浓度对吸附效果的影响.结果表明,弗氏柠檬酸杆菌对铀的吸附一开始随pH的增大而增大,当pH值为6时吸附率达到最大,而后降低;吸附率随菌体浓度的增加而增大,吸附量则相反;吸附量随铀起始浓度的增加而增大,而吸附率则降低;吸附过程符合Langmuir和Freundlich等温吸附方程,且后者的拟合效果较前者好.

  3. Complete sequence of the IncT-type plasmid pT-OXA-181 carrying the blaOXA-181 carbapenemase gene from Citrobacter freundii. (United States)

    Villa, Laura; Carattoli, Alessandra; Nordmann, Patrice; Carta, Claudio; Poirel, Laurent


    The gene encoding the carbapenemase OXA-181 (an OXA-48 variant) was identified from a Citrobacter freundii isolate coproducing NDM-1. The whole sequence of plasmid pT-OXA-181 bearing the blaOXA-181 gene was determined and revealed a 84-kb mobilizable but non-self-conjugative IncT-type plasmid. It totally differs from the 7.6-kb ColE-type and blaOXA-181-bearing plasmid recently identified in a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate. However, in both plasmids, insertion sequence ISEcp1 might have played a role in acquisition of the blaOXA-181 gene.

  4. Characterization and genome sequencing of a Citrobacter freundii phage CfP1 harboring a lysin active against multidrug-resistant isolates. (United States)

    Oliveira, Hugo; Pinto, Graça; Oliveira, Ana; Oliveira, Carla; Faustino, Maria Alberta; Briers, Yves; Domingues, Lucília; Azeredo, Joana


    Citrobacter spp., although frequently ignored, is emerging as an important nosocomial bacterium able to cause various superficial and systemic life-threatening infections. Considered to be hard-to-treat bacterium due to its pattern of high antibiotic resistance, it is important to develop effective measures for early and efficient therapy. In this study, the first myovirus (vB_CfrM_CfP1) lytic for Citrobacter freundii was microbiologically and genomically characterized. Its morphology, activity spectrum, burst size, and biophysical stability spectrum were determined. CfP1 specifically infects C. freundii, has broad host range (>85 %; 21 strains tested), a burst size of 45 PFU/cell, and is very stable under different temperatures (-20 to 50 °C) and pH (3 to 11) values. CfP1 demonstrated to be highly virulent against multidrug-resistant clinical isolates up to 12 antibiotics, including penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and fluroquinoles. Genomically, CfP1 has a dsDNA molecule with 180,219 bp with average GC content of 43.1 % and codes for 273 CDSs. The genome architecture is organized into function-specific gene clusters typical for tailed phages, sharing 46 to 94 % nucleotide identity to other Citrobacter phages. The lysin gene encoding a predicted D-Ala-D-Ala carboxypeptidase was also cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and its activity evaluated in terms of pH, ionic strength, and temperature. The lysine optimum activity was reached at 20 mM HEPES, pH 7 at 37 °C, and was able to significantly reduce all C. freundii (>2 logs) as well as Citrobacter koseri (>4 logs) strains tested. Interestingly, the antimicrobial activity of this enzyme was performed without the need of pretreatment with outer membrane-destabilizing agents. These results indicate that CfP1 lysin is a good candidate to control problematic Citrobacter infections, for which current antibiotics are no longer effective.

  5. Enhanced 1,3-propanediol production by a newly isolated Citrobacter freundii strain cultivated on biodiesel-derived waste glycerol through sterile and non-sterile bioprocesses. (United States)

    Metsoviti, Maria; Zeng, An-Ping; Koutinas, Apostolis A; Papanikolaou, Seraphim


    The production of 1,3-propanediol (PD) by a newly isolated Citrobacter freundii strain [FMCC-B 294 (VK-19)] was investigated. Different grades of biodiesel-derived glycerol were employed. Slightly lower PD biosynthesis was observed in batch experiments only when crude glycerol from waste-cooking oil trans-esterification was utilized and only at elevated initial substrate concentrations employed. Batch bioreactor cultures revealed the capability of the strain to tolerate elevated amounts of substrate (glycerol up to 170 g/L) and produce quantities of PD in such high substrate concentrations. Nevertheless, maximum PD quantities (45.9 g/L) were achieved at lower initial glycerol concentrations (∼100 g/L) employed, suggesting some inhibition exerted due to the increased initial substrate concentrations. In order to improve PD production, a fed-batch fermentation was carried out and 68.1g/L of PD were produced (the highest PD quantity achieved by C. freundii strains so far) with yield per glycerol consumed ∼0.40 g/g and volumetric productivity 0.79 g/L/h. Aiming to perform a more economical and eco-friendlier procedure, batch and fed-batch fermentations under completely non-sterile conditions were carried out. During non-sterilized fed-batch process, 176 g/L of raw glycerol were converted to 66.3g/L of PD, suggesting the potentiality of the non-sterile fermentation by C. freundii FMCC-B 294.

  6. Use of WGS data for investigation of a long-term NDM-1-producing Citrobacter freundii outbreak and secondary in vivo spread of blaNDM-1 to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, Anette M; Hansen, Frank; Linde Nielsen, Hans


    Objectives An outbreak of NDM-1-producing Citrobacter freundii and possible secondary in vivo spread of blaNDM-1 to other Enterobacteriaceae were investigated. Methods From October 2012 to March 2015, meropenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were detected in 45 samples from seven patients at Aalbor...

  7. 潜在致病性的弗氏枸橼酸杆菌的筛查%Screening of potential pathogenic Citrobacter freundii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽云; 夏胜利; 孙晖


    目的 筛查具有潜在致病性的弗氏枸橼酸杆菌.方法 对从河南省睢县分离到的36株弗氏枸橼酸杆菌进行黏附HEp-2细胞的检测,以及与HEp-2细胞(MOI:100)作用10 h后的乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)释放情况分析.同时比较弗氏枸橼酸杆菌CF74(Citrobacter freundii 74)、CF72(Citrobacter freundii 72)、肠聚集性大肠埃希菌(EnteroaggregativeE.coli,EAEC)、肠致病性大肠埃希菌(Enteropathogenic E.coli,EPEC)2348/69和HB101的黏附和细胞毒性差异.结果 16株弗氏枸橼酸杆菌几乎没有黏附性,黏附指数<1;18株弗氏枸橼酸杆菌具有中等强度的黏附性,黏附指数<100;2株弗氏枸橼酸杆菌CF74和CF65(Citrobacter freundii 65)具有强的黏附性.与HEp-2细胞作用10 h后,除了CF74(24.4%),其余的35株弗氏枸橼酸杆菌具有低的LDH释放量,LDH释放量与阴性对照HB101 (5.02%)相似.说明除了CF74,其余的弗氏枸橼酸杆菌不具有细胞毒性.CF74具有和EAEC042一样的聚集性黏附类型,并且CF74引起的LDH释放率明显高于CF72、2348/69和HB101(P<0.01)而低于EAEC17-2.结论 作为潜在的致病菌,CF74具有强的黏附性和细胞毒性.

  8. 弗劳地枸橼酸杆菌引起的猕猴腹泻%Identification of Citrobacter freundii Caused Diarrhea in Rhesus Monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勤; 郭光远


    对从腹泻猕猴脓血便中分离的一株细菌,经ATB细菌分析仪,选用ID32E肠杆菌测试条鉴定为弗劳地枸橼酸杆菌(Citrobacter freundii),id%=99.9.用K-B纸片法做药敏试验,结果表明,该菌对诺氟沙星、环丙沙星、头孢噻肟、头孢曲松、头孢他定、氯霉素敏感.对庆大霉素、头孢拉定、痢特灵等十几种抗生素耐药.总之,在做腹泻病猴粪便培养时,应重视弗劳地枸橼酸菌的检测.

  9. Novel genetic environment of the plasmid-mediated KPC-3 gene detected in Escherichia coli and Citrobacter freundii isolates from China. (United States)

    Li, G; Wei, Q; Wang, Y; Du, X; Zhao, Y; Jiang, X


    The imipenem and meropenem-resistant strains Citrobacter freundii HS70 and Escherichia coli HS510 were isolated from patients in Shanghai, China. By isoelectric focusing, PCR amplification and sequencing, these strains were each found to produce four β-lactamases: TEM-1, KPC-3, SHV-7 and CTX-M-14. A conjugation experiment and plasmid restriction digestion revealed that the bla (KPC-3) gene was located on the same plasmid in both isolates. Bidirectional primer walking sequencing showed that the nucleotide sequence surrounding the 3.8 kb bla(KPC-3) contained a 671-bp insertion similar to that previously characterized in China. The insertion was located between the promoter and the coding region of the bla(KPC-3) gene. Susceptibility testing performed on recombinant strains carrying the bla(KPC-3) gene with or without the insertion revealed that minimum inhibitory concentrations of imipenem, meropenem, cefepime, and cefotaxime for E. coli EMU-KPC3 (without insertion) were four times higher than that of E. coli EKPC3 (with insertion). The 671 bp insertion reduced bla(KPC-3) expression significantly. Taken together, these results suggest that KPC-3-producing C. freundii and E. coli have begun to emerge in our hospital.

  10. An Analysis of the Effects of Vancomycin and/or Vancomycin-Resistant Citrobacter freundii Exposure on the Microbial Community Structure in Soil. (United States)

    Cycoń, Mariusz; Borymski, Sławomir; Orlewska, Kamila; Wąsik, Tomasz J; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia


    The occurrence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in the environment has become a subject of growing concern. The extensive use of vancomycin and other pharmaceuticals may alter the biodiversity of soil microbial communities and select antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of vancomycin and/or vancomycin-resistant Citrobacter freundii on soil microbial communities using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) approaches. The experiment had a completely randomized block design with the following treatments: control soil (C), soil with vancomycin (1 mg/kg soil-VA1), soil with vancomycin (10 mg/kg soil-VA10), soil with C. freundii (Cit), soil with vancomycin (1 mg/kg soil) and C. freundii (VA1+Cit), and soil with vancomycin (10 mg/kg soil) and C. freundii (VA10+Cit). A bacterial strain resistant to vancomycin was isolated from raw sewage collected from the municipal sewage treatment plant. The obtained results indicated that the antibiotic and/or the bacterial strain exerted a selective pressure that resulted in qualitative and quantitative changes in the population of soil microorganisms. However, a multivariate analysis showed that the genetic and structural diversity of the soil microbial community was primarily affected by the incubation time and to a lesser extent by the antibiotic and introduced bacteria. DGGE analysis clearly showed that certain species within the bacterial community were sensitive to vancomycin as was evidenced by a decrease in the values of S (richness) and H (Shannon-Wiener) indices. Moreover, a PLFA method-based analysis revealed alterations in the structure of the soil microbial community as indicated by changes in the biomass of the PLFA biomarkers specific for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi. The changes observed in the community of soil microorganisms may decrease the rate of microbial

  11. 一株大凉疣螈肠道弗氏柠檬酸杆菌的分离及其药敏试验%Isolation and Susceptibility Test of an Intestinal Citrobacter freundii from Tylototriton taliangensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓓; 邹立扣; 罗燕


    首次从大凉疣螈(Tylototritoa taliangemsis)肠道分离获得弗氏柠稼酸杆菌(Citrobacter freundii),利用分子生物学方法对其16S rDNA进行了扩增测序,并与GenBank中已有的有关序列进行比较,进行了系统发育分析.测序结果表明,16S rDNA与GenBank中序列同源率在98%~99%,分离的菌株与GU126681(C.freundii MRB0903)处于同一分支中;序列同源性及系统发育树表明,此菌为弗氏柠檬酸杆菌;药敏试验表明.弗氏柠檬酸杆菌对氨苄西林及头孢噻吩中介,对其余药物均敏感.%A Citrobacter freundii was isolated from the intestinal tact of Tylototriton taliangensis ,and its 16S rDNA was amplified and sequenced by the molecular biology method,and then the 16S rDNA was compared with other sequences in Genbank to conduct a phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that the 16S rDNA sequence of Citrobacter freundii showed 98% -99% homogeny with those in the GenBank.and belonged to the same branch with GU126681 (C.freundii MRB0903). As shown by the sequence homology and phylogenetic tree,the bacterium was C. Freun-dii,which was medium sensitive to ampicillin and cephalothin,and sensitive to other biotics.

  12. The Type VI Secretion System Modulates Flagellar Gene Expression and Secretion in Citrobacter freundii and Contributes to Adhesion and Cytotoxicity to Host Cells. (United States)

    Liu, Liyun; Hao, Shuai; Lan, Ruiting; Wang, Guangxia; Xiao, Di; Sun, Hui; Xu, Jianguo


    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) as a virulence factor-releasing system contributes to virulence development of various pathogens and is often activated upon contact with target cells. Citrobacter freundii strain CF74 has a complete T6SS genomic island (GI) that contains clpV, hcp-2, and vgr T6SS genes. We constructed clpV, hcp-2, vgr, and T6SS GI deletion mutants in CF74 and analyzed their effects on the transcriptome overall and, specifically, on the flagellar system at the levels of transcription and translation. Deletion of the T6SS GI affected the transcription of 84 genes, with 15 and 69 genes exhibiting higher and lower levels of transcription, respectively. Members of the cell motility class of downregulated genes of the CF74ΔT6SS mutant were mainly flagellar genes, including effector proteins, chaperones, and regulators. Moreover, the production and secretion of FliC were also decreased in clpV, hcp-2, vgr, or T6SS GI deletion mutants in CF74 and were restored upon complementation. In swimming motility assays, the mutant strains were found to be less motile than the wild type, and motility was restored by complementation. The mutant strains were defective in adhesion to HEp-2 cells and were restored partially upon complementation. Further, the CF74ΔT6SS, CF74ΔclpV, and CF74Δhcp-2 mutants induced lower cytotoxicity to HEp-2 cells than the wild type. These results suggested that the T6SS GI in CF74 regulates the flagellar system, enhances motility, is involved in adherence to host cells, and induces cytotoxicity to host cells. Thus, the T6SS plays a wide-ranging role in C. freundii.

  13. Complex integrons containing qnrB4-ampC (bla(DHA-1)) in plasmids of multidrug-resistant Citrobacter freundii from wastewater. (United States)

    Yim, Grace; Kwong, Waldan; Davies, Julian; Miao, Vivian


    Microbial populations in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are increasingly being recognized as environmental reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes. PCR amplicons for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS were recorded in samples from a WWTP in Vancouver, British Columbia. Six strains of ciprofloxacin-resistant Citrobacter freundii were isolated and found to carry mutations in gyrA and parC, as well as multiple plasmid-borne resistance genes, collectively including qnrB; aac(6')-Ib-cr; β-lactamase-encoding genes from molecular classes A (blaTEM-1), C (ampC), D (blaOXA-1, blaOXA-10); and genes for resistance to 5 other types of antibiotics. In 3 strains, large (>60 kb) plasmids carried qnrB4 and ampC as part of a complex integron in a 14 kb arrangement that has been reported worldwide but, until recently, only among pathogenic strains of Klebsiella. Analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the qnrB4-ampC regions infers 2 introductions into the WWTP environment. These results suggest recent passage of plasmid-borne fluoroquinolone and β-lactam resistance genes from pathogens to bacteria that may be indigenous inhabitants of WWTPs, thus contributing to an environmental pool of antibiotic resistance.

  14. 花鳗鲡病原菌弗氏柠檬酸杆菌的鉴定%Identification of Pathogenic Citrobacter freundii Isolated from Anguilla marmorata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨方园; 关瑞章; 李忠琴; 于海振; 李秋云


    首次报道了从养殖花鳗鲡(Anguilla marmorata)肝脏中分离得到优势菌株AMRB6,经人工腹腔注射感染健康花鳗鲡试验,结果证实该菌有致病作用,其半数致死量LD50为3.2×107 CFU/mL.结合菌体形态特征、常规生理生化鉴定和Biolog自动微生物鉴定系统鉴定,以及16S rRNA序列扩增结果,表明该菌为弗氏柠檬酸杆菌(Citrobacter freundii).30种药物药敏试验结果表明,该菌株对左氧氟沙星、诺氟沙星、庆大霉素、卡那霉素等14种药物高度敏感.

  15. Identification of Citrobacter freundii from Ornamental Carp ( Cyprinus carpio L. )%锦鲤弗氏柠檬酸杆菌的鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈翠珍; 房海; 葛慕湘; 王秀云


    对从病死锦鲤(cyprinuscarpioL.)肝组织中分离的2株菌(编号:HC050630B-1,HC050630B-2)进行了形态特征、主要理化特性、对健康鲤鱼的致病作用、药物敏感性等方面的检验;同时测定了HCOS0630B-1株菌的16SrRNA基因序列,构建了系统发育树。结果表明,2株被检菌为弗氏柠檬酸杆菌(Citrobacter加吼蒯),对健康鲤鱼有致病作用;所测菌株的16SrRNA基因序列长度1458bp,在GenBank中登录号为EF669481,该菌株16SrRNA基因序列与GenBank数据库中柠檬酸杆菌属细菌的16SrRNA基因序列同源性在99%;药敏试验结果显示,对供试的头孢噻肟等21种药物呈现高度敏感或敏感,对头孢唑啉等5种呈低度敏感,对四环素等11种耐药。%Two strains ( HC050630B-1 ,HC050630B-2) isolated from the liver of diseased ( or dead) ornamen- tal carp were examined,including their morphological characteristics,physiological and biochemical character- istics ,pathogenicity to healthy carp and antibiotic sensitivity. In addition,the 16S rRNA gene of HC050630B-1 were sequenced,and molecular phylogenetic tree was constructed. The results showed that the two examined strains were identified as Citrobacter freundii, and had strong pathogenicity to healthy carp. The length of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of examined strain is 1 458 bp. Its database accession numbers in NCBI is EF669481 ,and the similarity of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of examined strain with the 16S rRNA gene of Citrobacter from GenBank database is 99%. The antibiotic sensitivity using 37 antimicrobial agents showed that isolates were high sensitive or sensitive to 21 agents including cefotaxime, slight sensitive to 5 agents including cefazolin, and resistant to 11 agents including tetrecycline.

  16. Optimization of culture conditions for biological hydrogen production by Citrobacter freundii CWBI952 in batch, sequenced-batch and semicontinuous operating mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Christopher; Hiligsmann, Serge; Beckers, Laurent; Masset, Julien; Thonart, Philippe [Walloon Centre of Industrial Biology, Bd du Rectorat, 29, B.40 - P.70, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Wilmotte, Annick [Center for Protein Engineering, Institute of Chemistry, B.6-P.14, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)


    Investigations were carried out to determine the effect of the pH, the nitrogen source, iron and the dilution rate (h{sup -1}) on fermentative hydrogen production from glucose by the newly isolated strain Citrobacter freundii CWBI952. The hydrogen production rate (HPR), hydrogen yield, biomass and soluble metabolites were monitored at 30 C in 100 mL serum bottles and in a 2.3 L bioreactor operated in batch, sequenced-batch and semicontinuous mode. The results indicate that hydrogen production activity, formate biosynthesis and glucose intake rates are very sensitive to the culture pH, and that additional formate bioconversion and production of hydrogen with lower biomass yields can be obtained at pH 5.9. In a further series of cultures casein peptone was replaced by (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, a low cost alternative nitrogen source. The ammonia-based substitute was found to be suitable for H{sub 2} production when a concentration of 0.045 g/L FeSO{sub 4} was provided. Optimal overall performances (ca. an HPR of 33.2 mL H{sub 2}/L h and a yield of 0.83mol{sub H{sub 2}}/mol{sub glucose}) were obtained in the semicontinuous culture applying the previously optimized parameters for pH, nitrogen, and iron with a dilution rate of 0.012 h{sup -1} and degassing of biogas by N{sub 2} at a 28 mL/min flow rate. (author)

  17. Characterization of KPC-2-producing Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Klebsiella oxytoca isolates from a Chinese Hospital. (United States)

    Luo, Yanping; Yang, Jiyong; Ye, Liyan; Guo, Lin; Zhao, Qiang; Chen, Rong; Chen, Yong; Han, Xuelin; Zhao, Jingya; Tian, Shuguang; Han, Li


    Twelve nonduplicated KPC-2-producing enterobacterial isolates, including three Escherichia coli, two Citrobacter freundii, two Enterobacter cloacae, four Enterobacter aerogenes, and one Klebsiella oxytoca, were collected from various clinical samples within 18 months (March 2011 to September 2012). Two of the 12 patients died from infections caused by KPC-2-producing pathogens, while the rest of the patients with KPC-2-producing pathogens improved or were cured. The majority of the clinical isolates exhibited a high-level of resistance to oxyimino-cephalosporins and carbapenems, and possessed self-transferable bla(KPC-2)-carrying plasmids with sizes ranging from 20 to 120 kb. Most isolates carried bla(CTX-M) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes, while some isolates produced 16S rRNA methylases (ArmA or RmtB). The genetic environment of bla(KPC-2) of most clinical strains was consistent with the genetic structure surrounding bla(KPC-2) on the plasmid pKP048, which contains an integration structure of a Tn3-based transposon and partial Tn4401 segment. Inserted fragments (truncated bla(TEM)) were detected upstream of the bla(KPC-2) gene for two E. aerogenes strains. In conclusion, the enterobacterial isolates exhibited sporadic emergence and did not arise by clonal spread at our hospital. The outcome of infections caused by KPC-producing enterobacterial isolates and their mortality were closely associated with the baseline condition of patients. The spread of bla(KPC-2) gene between different enterobacterial species in China was mainly mediated by horizontal transfer of the Tn3-based transposons and not the bla(KPC-2)-carrying plasmids.

  18. 156株弗氏柠檬酸杆菌感染的分布与耐药性分析%Distribution and drug resistance of 156 strains of citrobacter freundii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    OBJECTIVE To understand the distribution and drug resistance of citrobacter freundii, to provide a reasonable basis for clinicians to use anti-infective therapy. METHODS Totally 156 strains of Citrobacter freundii from patients from Oct 2008 to May 2010 were analyzed, the component ratio and the isolation rate from various department were calculated by referring to the National Clinical Laboratory Operation Rules, as well as the drug sensitivity testing was performed by K-B methods. RESULTS Of 156 strains of isolated citrobacter freundii, the isolates from department of respiratory medicine accounted for 39.1%, from department of neurology 15.4 %,from intensive care unit was 12.2% ; the main clinical specimens were collected from the sputum, the liquor purisand the urine, accounting for 60. 3%, 21. 2% and 7. 1%, respectively. Of 447 strains of detected pathogenic bacteria, there were 156 strains of citrobacter freundii, accounting for 34.9%; drug resistance rates of CFR to ampicillin and cefazolin were 100. 0% and 91.0%, which could cause multiple sites infection. CONCLUSION Hospital should attach importance to the monitoring and the controlling of multidrug-resistant citrobacter freundii and prevent the outbreak and epidemic of nosocomial infections.%目的 了解医院临床标本分离的弗氏柠檬酸杆菌(CFR)检出分布规律及耐药性特点,为临床医师合理抗感染治疗提供依据.方法 回顾性分析2008年1月-2010年5月,住院患者送检标本中分离的156株CFR,计算其构成比、科室分离率,鉴定按进行;药物敏感性试验采用CLSI推荐的K-B法.结果 分离的156株CFR中,呼吸内科检出占39.1%,神经内科占15.4%,综合ICU占12.2%;主要标本来源于痰液、脓液、尿液,分别占总数的60.3%、21.2%、7.1%;病原菌检出447株,检出CFR 156株,占34.9%;CFR对氨苄西林、头孢唑林的耐药性较强,耐药率分别为100.0%、91.0%,可引起多部位感染.结论应重视对多药

  19. 中华绒螯蟹病原弗氏柠檬酸杆菌的鉴定%Identification of Citrobacter freundii isolated from crab (Eriocheir sinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈翠珍; 张晓君; 房海; 巩元芳; 葛慕湘


    目的对从一起自然发病的病(死)中华绒螯蟹(Eriocheir sinensis H.Milne-Edwards)肝胰腺中,所分离做纯培养的6株(HQ010516B-1至HQ010516B-6)菌,进行在主要生物学性状、感染试验的致病作用、对抗菌类药物的敏感性等方面的检验,旨在明确分离菌的种类、病原学意义及耐药特征等.方法在发病情况及主要病变检验的基础上,以6只病(死)蟹的肝胰腺为材料做细菌分离与纯培养,对纯培养菌做形态特征、理化特性、16S rRNA基因序列测定及系统发育学分析等方面较系统的鉴定,主要依据(1994)并结合系统发育特征做菌种归类判定;以3×108CFU/ml的菌悬液,对健康蟹做感染试验,测定相应的致病作用;用琼脂扩散(K-B)法做对常用抗菌类药物的敏感性测定,以抑菌圈直径作为敏感与耐药的判定指标.结果分离做纯培养的6株菌为同种的弗氏柠檬酸杆菌(Citrobacter freundii),对供试健康蟹有致病性,对供试37种抗菌类药物中的头孢噻肟等22种药物呈敏感或高度敏感、对四环素等5种呈低度敏感、对青霉素G等10种耐药.结论所检出的弗氏柠檬酸杆菌,构成了所检中华绒螯蟹病例的病原菌之一,对供试抗菌类药物未表现出敏感与耐药的明显株间差异性.

  20. Gene cloning and expression of glycerol dehydratase from Citrobacter freundii in Escherichia coli%弗氏柠檬酸菌甘油脱水酶基因在大肠杆菌中的克隆和表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐向辉; 朱绮霞; 韦宇拓; 黄鲲; 黄日波


    以弗氏柠檬酸菌(Citrobacter freundii)基因组DNA为模板,通过PCR得到甘油脱水酶(glycerol dehydratase)基因dhaB、dhaC、dhaE,克隆到表达载体pSE380上,得到重组质粒pSE-dhaBCE.将此重组质粒转化到E.coliJM109中,重组菌株SDS-PAGE结果显示有明显的61kD、22kD、16kD三条特异性蛋白条带出现.重组菌株经诱导表达,酶活力为11.59U/mL.

  1. Purification and properties of Citrobacter freundii phytase%弗氏柠檬酸杆菌植酸酶的分离纯化及其酶学性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗会颖; 石鹏君; 李江; 王亚茹; 姚斌; 黄火青; 袁铁铮; 柏映国


    从弗氏柠檬酸杆菌(Citrobacter freundii)中分离纯化了一种植酸酶并进行了酶学性质研究,其反应最适pH为4.0~4.5,最适温度为40℃,在37℃下以植酸钠为底物的Km值为0.85nmol/L,Vmax为0.53IU/(mg·min),具有较好的抗胰蛋白酶的能力.酶蛋白的分子量大小约为45kDa,成熟酶蛋白N端序列为QCAPEGYQLQQVLMM.

  2. Isolation and identification of Citrobacter freundii from Cherax quadricarinatus%红螯螯虾弗氏柠檬酸杆菌病病原的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈锦玉; 顾志敏; 潘晓艺; 周保中; 尹文林; 曹铮


    从濒死的红螯螯虾(Cherax quadricarinatus)的肝胰脏中分离得到可疑病菌L1和L2,经细菌学鉴定2株细菌均为弗氏柠檬酸杆菌(Citrobacter freundii);经人工感染试验证实L1和L2均导致健康虾发病死亡,其LD50分别为2.2×105CFU/ind、7×105CFU/ind;2株细菌对14种药物的敏感性相似,对9种抗生素敏感,对5种抗生素有抗性.从中筛选出有效药物,应用于生产中取得了较好效果.

  3. Investigation of a foodborne disease outbreak caused by Citrobacter freundii%一起弗氏柠檬酸杆菌所致食源性疾病调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫革彬; 隋吉林; 芦丹; 刘重程; 王涛


    本文用描述性流行病学分析方法,对一起集体聚餐所致食源性疾病进行分析,根据流行病学调查资料、病例临床特点和实验室检验结果,证实该起食源性疾病由食用受弗氏柠檬酸杆菌污染的食品所致.%Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on a food borne disease outbreak after a mass dinner, and laboratory detection was performed to understand the etiology of the disease. According to the epidemiological survey and laboratory detection results, the outbreak was identified to be caused by the food contaminated with Citrobacter freundii.

  4. 弗氏柠檬酸杆菌随机扩增多态性DNA法基因分型%Genotyping of Citrobacter freundii by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶明亮; 黄象艳; 吕波; 侯晓琦; 李银太


    目的建立弗氏柠檬酸杆菌(Citrobacter freundii)随机扩增多态性DNA(RAPD)法基因分型图谱. 方法以优化的反应体系及单一随机引物L8,对临床分离的116株C.freundii进行RAPD分析,并按指纹图上DNA条带数及片段大小绘制基因分型图谱. 结果 116株临床分离C.freundii共得78种RAPD型. 结论 RAPD法可将C.freundii分型78种.

  5. In vitro susceptibility of Citrobacter species to various antimicrobial agents.


    Samonis, G.; Ho, D H; Gooch, G F; Rolston, K V; Bodey, G P


    The in vitro activities of 16 antimicrobial agents against 14 clinical isolates of Citrobacter diversus and 27 isolates of Citrobacter freundii were studied. C. freundii isolates were more resistant, being susceptible only to amikacin, netilmicin, gentamicin, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, and enoxacin. C. diversus isolates were susceptible to many more of the agents tested.

  6. 产CMY型AmpC酶费劳地枸橼酸杆菌的分子学特性研究%Study on molecule characteristics of a novel CMY-type AmpC β-Lactamase from Citrobacter freundii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓坤; 徐韫健; 廖伟娇; 张东梅; 张丽梅


    目的 对产CMY型AmpC酶费劳地枸橼酸杆菌进行耐药表型及分子学特性进行研究,探讨研制新的酶抑制剂.方法 对临床分离的两株费劳地枸橼酸杆菌所产CMY型AmpC酶用纸片扩散法、三相水解试验进行耐药表型检测,以该菌总基因组DNA和质粒DNA为模板进行PCR扩增、序列分析、质粒接合试验、构建重组表达载体及AmpC酶检测.结果 两株菌株对青霉素类、头孢菌素类、喹诺酮类、氨基糖苷类抗生素均表现为耐药,对呋喃类和碳青霉烯类表现为敏感;三相水解试验结果显示该菌能水解头孢西丁;PCR扩增出大小为1 146 bp的基因片段,与GenBank上多种CMY亚型的基因序列同源性为97%;质粒接合试验证实质粒上含CMY基因,为可转移质粒.结论 两株菌株所产CMY型AmpC酶为新的CMY型头孢菌素酶,它介导了该菌对青霉素类、头孢菌素类、喹诺酮类等抗生素耐药,其耐药性能水平传播.%Objective To investigate the antibiotic phenotype and moleculelogy characteristics of novel CMY-type AmpC β-Lactamase from Citrobacter freundii,in order to triturate homologue enzyme inhibitors. Methods Slip diffusion method and three-phase hydrolyses test were used to analyze antibiotic phenotype of novel CMY-type AmpC β-Lactamase from Citrobacter freundii that was detached from clinic.The DNA and plasmid of CMY-type AmpCβ-Lactamase from Citrobacter freundii Strain was amplified by PCR、sequence analysis.Plasmid Conjugation tests、construction recombinant expression vector and AmpC induce tests. Results Two strains were resistant to penicillins , cephalosporin, quinolone, aminoglycoside , and susceptible to nitrofuran , carbapenem , The results of three-dimension test showed, AmpCβ-Lactamase from DNA Strain and recombinant strain could hydrolyz cefoxitin,The 1 l46bp DNA fragment of CMY-type AmpC β-Lactamase encoding gene sequence shared 97% amino acid identity with CMY-type AmpC β-Lactamase that

  7. Isolation and Identification of Citrobacter freundii and Its PCR-SSCP Analysis%弗氏柠檬酸杆菌的分离鉴定与PCR-SSCP分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡秀彩; 王艺; 吕爱军


    摘要利用营养琼脂、MaC培养基从草鱼肠道中分离到3株细菌,暂时编号为TC-1、TC-2和TC-3,通过形态学观察、生理生化特征、药敏试验、动物试验、构建系统发育进化树及PCR-SSCP分析等系统鉴定,结果表明3株菌株均为弗氏柠檬酸杆菌(Citrobacter freundii),其中TC-2菌株对小鼠、斑马鱼有致病性;3株菌均对头孢噻肟、头孢曲松、洛美沙星、诺氟沙星等多种药物敏感;系统发育分析表明,3株弗氏柠檬酸杆菌16S rDNA序列与DSM 30039模式株同源性分别为99.59%、99.47%和99.53%,且位于系统发育树的同一分支;进一步采用V3区PCR-SSCP分析结果显示弗氏柠檬酸杆菌SSCP图谱中菌株间带型存在差异.%The bacteria were isolated from intestine in grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus ) using nutrient agar and MaC medium, designated temporarily as TC-1, TC-2 and TC-3, and identified with morphological observation, physiological and biochemical characteristics, drug sensitive test, animal test, established phylogcnctic tree, as well as PCR-SSCP analysis. The results showed that all 3 strains were Citrobacter freundii (Cf). Animal tests showed that TC-2 strain was lethal to mice and zebrafish, respectively. Drug sensitivity test analysis revealed that 3 strains were sensitivity to cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, lomefloxacin, norfloxacin, and many others. The phylogenetic analysis showed that 16S rDNA sequence of the 3 strains had homoiogy to the typical strain DSM 30039 at 99. 59% , 99. 47% and 99.53% respectively, and they located on the same branch of the phylogenelic tree. Further analysis results adopting V3 region of PCR-SSCP showed there were differences among SSCP atlases of Cf strains.

  8. Isolation, identification and antibiotics susceptibility test of Citrobacter freundii from Procambarus clarkii%克氏原螯虾弗氏柠檬酸杆菌的分离鉴定与药敏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红莲; 宋光同; 何吉祥; 侯冠军; 王永杰


    为确定引起养殖克氏原螯虾( Procambarus clarkii)患病的病原种类及耐药情况,从患病克氏原螯虾肝胰腺取样进行常规细菌学检查,对分离株进行回归感染试验、形态观察、生理生化特性检测、16S rRNA和gyrB基因分析及药敏试验。结果显示:从患病克氏原螯虾肝胰腺分离到大量菌落形态和色泽一致的细菌,代表菌株X120523为弗氏柠檬酸杆菌( Citrobacter freundii),具有较强致病性,对20种抗生素中的喹诺酮类和氨基糖苷类抗生素敏感。%This experiment was conducted to clarify species and drug resistance of pathogen from the diseased Procambarus clarkia.Pathogenic bacteria from hepatopancreas of the diseased Procambarus clarkia were examined using conventional methods and isolated.The further tests and analysis of the isolated strain were developed , including the regression experi-ment to Procambarus clarkii, the morphology, physiological and biochemical characteristics , sequence analysis of their 16S rRNA and gyrB genes , and the susceptibility test to antibiotics.Large colonies with similar morphology and color were obtained.Strain X120523 was identified as Citrobacter freundii, proved to have strong pathogenicity , and susceptible to quinolones and aminoglycosides.

  9. 乌翅真鲨弗氏柠檬酸杆菌的分离与鉴定%Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Bacterium Citrobacter Freundii from Blacktip Reef Shark Carcharhinus melanopterus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢君辉; 孙佳佳; 董世龙; 任硕


    为确定引起乌翅真鲨(Carcharhinus melanopterus)患病的病原种类及耐药情况,用常规方法从患病乌翅真鲨内脏取样分离得到的1株优势菌,通过回归感染试验确定该菌株的致病性,通过经典生理生化分析、API 20E细菌快速鉴定系统、16S rDNA序列分析对其进行鉴定,确定该株致病菌为弗氏柠檬酸杆菌(Citrobacter freundii).药敏试验结果表明:该菌株对左氧氟沙星、头孢曲松钠、四环素、链霉素和庆大霉素等敏感.

  10. Correlation between integron and drug-resistance in clinical isolates of Citrobacter freundii%弗氏柠檬酸杆菌临床分离株整合子与耐药相关性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞燕; 魏取好; 王卫忠


    目的 了解临床分离弗氏柠檬酸杆菌中整合子的分布,分析整合子与细菌耐药性的关系.方法 选取2011年7月至2013年2月非重复分离自浙江省人民医院就诊患者临床样本中的37株弗氏柠檬酸杆菌,用聚合酶链反应(PCR)检测菌株第Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ类整合子.抗生素药敏试验采用微量肉汤稀释法.结果 37株弗氏柠檬酸杆菌中,有14株(37.8%)检测到第Ⅰ类整合子,未检出第Ⅱ类和第Ⅲ类整合子.对15种常用抗生素的耐药性检测显示,第Ⅰ类整合子阳性菌株对复方磺胺甲(噁)唑及环丙沙星的耐药率高于第Ⅰ类整合子阴性菌株(P均<0.05);对其他抗生素的耐药性,第Ⅰ类整合子阳性和阴性菌株间差异无统计学意义(P均>0.05).结论 第Ⅰ类整合子在弗氏柠檬酸杆菌中分布普遍.第Ⅰ类整合子与复方磺胺甲(噁)唑及环丙沙星的耐药性密切相关.%Objective To investigate the distribution of integrons in clinical Citrobacterfreundii strains and analyze the relationship between integrons and antibiotic resistance.Methods A total of 37 non-repeated clinical isolates of Citrobacter freundii from Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital were selected from July 2011 to February 2013.The types of the interons(intIl、intI2、intI3) were identified by PCR and the drug-sensitivity tests were carried out by broth dilution method.Results Among 37 non-repeated isolates of Citrobacter freundii,intIl was detected in 14 isolates (37.8 %),intI2 and intI3 genes were not detected.After drug-resistance test of 15 common used antibiotics,the intI1-positive strains showed higher resistant rates of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin than the intIl-negative strains (P all < 0.05).For resistance rates of the other antibiotics,there was no difference between theintIl-positive and intIl-negative strains(P all > 0.05).Conclusions In this study,the class Ⅰ integron is extensively found in clinical isolates

  11. Plasma methionine depletion and pharmacokinetic properties in mice of methionine γ-lyase from Citrobacter freundii, Clostridium tetani and Clostridium sporogenes. (United States)

    Morozova, E A; Anufrieva, N V; Davydov, D Zh; Komarova, M V; Dyakov, I N; Rodionov, A N; Demidkina, T V; Pokrovsky, V S


    PK studies were carried out after a single i.v. administration of 500 and 1000 U/kg by measuring of MGL activity in plasma samples. L-methionine concentration was measured by mass spectrometry. After single i.v. injection of 500U/kg the circulating T1/2 of enzymes in mice varies from 73 to 123min. The AUC0-tinf values determined for MGL 500U/kg from C. freundii, C. tetani and C. sporogenes are 8.21±0.28, 9.04±0.33 and 13.88±0.39U/(ml×h), respectively. Comparison of PK parameters of three MGL sources in the dose of 500U/kg indicated the MGL C. sporogenes to have better PK parameters: clearance 0.83(95%CI: 0.779-0.871) - was lower than C. tetanii 1.27(95%CI: 1.18-1.36) and C. freundii 1.39(95%CI: 1.30-1.49). Mice plasma methionine decreased to undetectable level 10min after MGL 1000 U/kg injection. After MGL C. sporogenes 500U/kg injection plasma methionine level completely omitted after 10min till 6h, assuming the sustainability of negligible levels of methionine (tetani. There are no significant differences between methionine cleavage after MGL C. tetani and MGL C. sporogenes i.v. injection at all doses. MGL from C. sporogenes may be considered as promising enzyme for further investigation as potential anticancer agent.

  12. Isolation and identification of multidrug resistant Citrobacter freundii from diseased soft -shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis%一株多重耐药中华鳖源弗氏柠檬酸杆菌的分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛烁君; 斯广杰; 任晓金; 石婷婷; 章烨; 王卓瑞; 章晓栋


    从患典型鳃腺炎病中华鳖(Pelodiscus sinensis)肝脏和腹水处进行细菌接种,分离获得一株细菌。综合菌落形态,16 S rRNA 序列进化分析和 API 细菌生化鉴定系统判定,所得菌株为弗氏柠檬酸杆菌(Citrobacter freundii)(SX43)。动物回归实验显示,分离株对小鼠的半数致死量(LD50)为106.5 CFU,显示该菌株具有较强的致病性,可从实验幼鳖体内再次分离到相同的病原菌。常用药物的抗菌敏感性测定显示,菌株 SX43对头孢哌酮、头孢曲松、头孢呋辛、复方新诺明、氯霉素高度敏感。%One bacteria was isolated from liver and ascites of diseased soft- shelled turtles( Pelodiscus sinensis) suffered with parotitis, on the colony morphology, Gram’s staining, API ID32E bacterial biochemical identification system and se-quence analysis of 16S rRNA gene, the isolate bacteria was identified as Citrobacter freundii, named SX43.Healthy soft -shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis) were used for experimental infection with bacterial suspension, the same bacterium could be recovered.Isolate SX43 was demonstrated virulence potential in mouse models, with the median lethal dose (LD50 ) in mice at 10 6.5 CFU.The susceptibility test to antibiotics demonstrated that the bacterial strain SX43 was suscepti-ble to cefoperazone, rocephin, cefuroxim, co -trimoxazole, chloramphenicol.

  13. 产AmpC酶弗劳地枸橼酸杆菌的耐药基因研究%Study on resistance gene of AmpC β-lactamase in Citrobacter freundii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾红莲; 赵东明; 徐韫健; 张晓坤


    Aim To investigate the drug resistance gene of AmpC β-Lactamase from ten Citrobacter freundii.Methods -lactamases of ten strains was extracted by ultrasonic crushing,and AmpC -lactamases was tested with Cefoxitin in three dimensional test,the genotype of AmpC were amplified by multiple PCR and PCR products were sequenced subsequently. Drug sensitivity of ten strains were determined. Results There were 4 strains positive in three-dimensional test.The genotype of β-lactamases were not detected in CMY-G1 (1/10),CMY-G2 (2/10),FOX (1/10),CIT(2/10),ACT,DHA and MOX genes in ten strains. The 1 146bp DNA fragment of CMY-type AmpC β-Lactamase gene sequence shared 99 % amino acid identity with blaCMY that already appeared in Guangzhou. The resistant strains overexpressing AmpC β-lactamases were multi-drug resistant. Conclusion The surveillance of overexpressing AmpC β-lactamases in Citrobacter freundii should be emphasized so as to choose effective antibiotic for dealing with AmpC β-lactamases producing strains.%目的 对广州医学院第一附属医院临床分离的10株弗劳地枸橼酸杆菌进行AmpC酶的耐药基因研究.方法 用超声破碎法提取10株菌的β-内酰胺酶粗提物,进行三维试验;提取10株细菌的总DNA,PCR扩增CMY-G1、CMY-G2、FOX、ACT、DHA、MOX、CIT耐药基因并进行测序;对菌株进行MIC药物敏感试验.结果 三维试验阳性的有4株,β-内酰胺酶基因的检出率:CMY-G1(1/10)、CMY-G2(2/10)、FOX(1/10)、CIT(2/10),ACT、DHA和MOX未检出;CMY基因经全序列测定得到1 146bp的基因片段,与广州地区报道的CMY基因有99%同源;AmpC酶阳性的菌株茵呈多重耐药现象.结论 加强菌弗劳地枸橼酸杆菌产AmpC酶的监测,以选择合适的抗生素应对产酶株.

  14. 患病大鲵中弗氏柠檬酸杆菌的分离与鉴定%Isolation and identification of Citrobacter freundii from diseased giant salamander, Andrias davidianus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高正勇; 曾令兵; 孟彦; 刘小玲; 张波


    [目的]确定导致大鲵(Andrias davidianus)细菌性感染死亡的病原.[方法]从大鲵肝脏中分离细菌,通过Biolog微生物自动鉴定系统及分子生物学方法对纯培养的细菌进行鉴定,再用大鲵和鲫鱼分别进行人工感染试验,以确定分离菌的致病性,同时对分离到的病原菌进行药物敏感试验.[结果]从患病大鲵肝脏中分离到一株致病菌JZ01,经人工感染健康大鲵,可复制与自然发病相同的症状,且从人工感染病鲵体内再次分离到相同的病原菌.该致病菌对健康鲫鱼也有致病性.经Biolog微生物自动鉴定系统的鉴定,以及进一步的16S rDNA基因序列和系统发育分析都表明,此致病菌为弗氏柠檬酸杆菌.药物敏感性试验表明,该菌株对氨曲南、头孢三嗪、先锋噻肟等9种药物高度敏感.[结论]弗氏柠檬酸杆菌是大鲵的一种致病菌.本文在国内外首次报道了该菌对大鲵具有致病性.%[ Objective ] To determine the pathogenic bacterium infecting giant salamander ( Andrias davidianus ) . [ Methods] Bacterium was isolated from the liver of diseased Chinese giant salamander and identified by the Biolog Microbial Identification System and molecular biology method. Healthy Chinese giant salamander and crucian carp were used for experimental infection with bacterial suspension. [Results] A bacterial strain JZO1 was isolated and identified from diseased giant salamander. Infection with the bacterial suspension to healthy giant salamander could reproduce the diseased symptoms as occurred naturally and the same bacterium could be recovered from these infected giant salamanders. The isolated bacterium also has certain pathogenicity to crucian carp. Identification by the Biolog Microbial Identification System, and further 16S rDNA sequence and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the bacterium isolated from diseased giant salamander was Citrobacter freundii. The susceptibility test to antibiotics

  15. Secondary metabolites extracted from marine sponge associated Comamonas testosteroni and Citrobacter freundii as potential antimicrobials against MDR pathogens and hypothetical leads for VP40 matrix protein of Ebola virus: an in vitro and in silico investigation. (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Acharya, Archana B; Subramaniyan, Saumya; Babu, Sumangala; Kulkarni, Shruthi; Narayanappa, Rajeswari


    The current study explores therapeutic potential of metabolites extracted from marine sponge (Cliona sp.)-associated bacteria against MDR pathogens and predicts the binding prospective of probable lead molecules against VP40 target of Ebola virus. The metabolite-producing bacteria were characterized by agar overlay assay and as per the protocols in Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology. The antibacterial activities of extracted metabolites were tested against clinical pathogens by well-diffusion assay. The selected metabolite producers were characterized by 16S rDNA sequencing. Chemical screening and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis for selected compounds were performed. The probable lead molecules present in the metabolites were hypothesized based on proximate analysis, FTIR data, and literature survey. The drug-like properties and binding potential of lead molecules against VP40 target of Ebola virus were hypothesized by computational virtual screening and molecular docking. The current study demonstrated that clear zones around bacterial colonies in agar overlay assay. Antibiotic sensitivity profiling demonstrated that the clinical isolates were multi-drug resistant, however; most of them showed sensitivity to secondary metabolites (MIC-15 μl/well). The proximate and FTIR analysis suggested that probable metabolites belonged to alkaloids with O-H, C-H, C=O, and N-H groups. 16S rDNA characterization of selected metabolite producers demonstrated that 96% and 99% sequence identity to Comamonas testosteroni and Citrobacter freundii, respectively. The docking studies suggested that molecules such as Gymnastatin, Sorbicillactone, Marizomib, and Daryamide can designed as probable lead candidates against VP40 target of Ebola virus.

  16. Morphological Evolution during the Formation of Carbonate Spherulite in Citrobacter freundii Culture%Citrobacter freundii作用下球状碳酸盐矿物的形态演化过程研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马恒; 李福春; 苏宁; 李学林


    不少微生物都具有形成球状碳酸盐矿物的能力.对形成过程的动态跟踪研究是了解球状碳酸盐矿物形成机理的关键.利用光学显微镜和电子显微镜对Citrobacter freundii作用下球状碳酸盐矿物的形成过程进行了跟踪研究.结果表明,纳米晶体在有机物质的包裹下逐渐聚集.最终生长为具有辐射状内部结构和菱形表面纹理的球状构造.在球状构造形成之前,矿物集合体经历了花形、哑铃形、花菜形、纺锤形以及类似于十字形的多种过渡形态.对最初、过渡和最终形态进行总结,有助于理解微生物作用下的球状碳酸盐矿物形成机理,为识别微生物活动在沉积环境中遗留的痕迹提供更多有用的信息.以往的研究极少涉及Citrobacter freundii诱导碳酸盐矿物的形成.研究结果将丰富微生物促进球状碳酸盐矿化的研究内容.

  17. 枸橼酸杆菌中质粒介导喹诺酮耐药基因的检测%Study of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants in Citrobacter freundii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵宜波; 李旭; 胡立芬; 谢琴秀


    目的 了解枸橼酸杆菌中质粒介导喹诺酮耐药(PMQR)基因的分布,以期发现新型PMQR基因.测定临床分离的PMQR基因阳性枸橼酸杆菌对临床常用抗菌药物的敏感性.方法 收集安徽医科大学第一附属医院检验科2009年临床分离的枸橼酸杆菌,PCR扩增qnr、aac(6′)-Ib-cr和qepA基因,产物纯化测序,测序结果在GenBank上比对并行转移接合实验.对收集的PMQR基因阳性枸橼酸杆菌及其接合子,采用琼脂对倍稀释法进行临床常用抗菌药物的药物敏感试验.结果 收集的枸橼酸杆菌共31株,8株菌株扩增出qnr,qnr基因阳性率为25.8%;其中6株扩增出qnrB.4株qnr阳性菌株的qnr基因转移接合成功.在qnr阳性的枸橼酸杆菌中,测序发现1种PMQR基因新亚型,命名为qnrB24.所有qnr阳性临床菌株对喹诺酮类药物的耐药率为87.5%,对头孢噻肟、阿米卡星、头孢他啶、头孢吡肟和庆大霉素的耐药率分别为75.0%、7.5%、62.5%、37.5%和87.5%,所有qnr阳性菌株对亚胺培南耐药表型为敏感.喹诺酮类药物对qnr阳性的接合子最低抑菌浓度升高10~23倍,敏感性下降.结论 安徽地区枸橼酸杆菌中qnr基因型的检出率较高,以qnrB基因型为主,qnr阳性枸橼酸杆菌对常用抗菌药物耐药性较高.%Objectives This study was conducted to detect and analyze the presence of plasmidmediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants [qnr,aac-(6′)-Ib-cr and qepA] among clinical isolates of Citrobacter freundii strains isolated from patients in Anhui,China,and to understand the susceptibility of PMQR positive strains to commonly used antimicrobial agents.Methods During the year 2009,31 Citrobacter strains were collected from the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University.Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect PMQR genes.Amplicons were purified,sequenced and compared with data from the GenBank.Conjugation experiments were conducted to

  18. Characterization of qnrB-like genes in Citrobacter species of the American Type Culture Collection. (United States)

    Saga, Tomoo; Sabtcheva, Stefana; Mitsutake, Kotaro; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Keizo; Kaku, Mitsuo


    Among five American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) Citrobacter strains, qnrB60 in Citrobacter freundii ATCC 6879, an isolate from the preantibiotic era, and qnrB61 in Citrobacter braakii ATCC 51113(T), a type strain belonging to the C. freundii complex, were identified. Meanwhile, a truncated qnrB-like pseudogene was identified in C. freundii ATCC 8090(T) and ATCC 43864. No qnrB-like sequence was found in Citrobacter koseri ATCC 27028(T). These findings underscore the close relationship between this species and qnrB.

  19. 132株弗劳地枸橼酸杆菌致重症患者医院感染的原因与耐药性分析%Analysis of the etiology and drug resistance of hospital infection in critically ill patients caused by 132 Citrobacter freundii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To analysis of the causes and drug resistance characteristics in ICU patients with Citrobacter freundii hos‐pital infections ,for the future of clinical treatment and prevention of Citrobacter freundii infection provides the basis .Methods Col‐lected our hospitals from December 2011 to November 2014 clinical samples of ICU patients ,conventional isolation and culture of bacteria ,K‐B disk diffusion susceptibility test ,using Whonet5 .6 software analysis processing tentative data .Results Isolated from Critically ill patients Citrobacter freundii lower respiratory tract ,accounted for 64 .4% ;ESBLs producing high ,accounted for 35 .6% ;susceptibility testing showed the bacteria to imipenem ,meropenem ,nitrofurantoin ,kanamycin ,amikacin ,cefoperazone/sul‐bactam and piperacillin/tazobactam were more sensitive ,drug resistance rates were 3 .8% ,4 .5% ,8 .3% ,9 .1% ,17 .4% ,18 .1% and 22 .7% ,the rest of antimicrobial drug resistance rates more than 25 .0% .Conclusion Citrobacter freundii caused critically ill pa‐tients hospital infection have become increasingly serious ,lower respiratory tract was the main site of infection ,the bacteria used in the clinic for cephalosporin ,quinolones ,aminoglycosides and a variety of internal β‐lactam antibiotics were highly resistant ,clinicians should strengthen monitoring of drug resistance ,to reduce the resistant strains produced and spread within the hospital .%目的:分析该院重症监护病房患者弗劳地枸橼酸杆菌医院感染的原因和耐药特点,为今后的临床治疗和预防弗劳地枸橼酸杆菌感染提供依据。方法收集该院2011年12月至2014年11月重症监护病房患者的临床标本,常规分离培养细菌,K‐B纸片法进行药敏试验,利用WHONET 5.6软件分析处理实验数据。结果从重症患者分离的弗劳地枸橼酸杆菌以下呼吸道为主,占64.4%;产ESBLs高,达35.6%;药敏试验表明该菌对亚胺培南、

  20. Optimization of fermentation conditions for violacein production by recombinant Citrobacter freundii%重组柠檬酸杆菌合成紫色杆菌素的工艺条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞萍; 蒋培霞; 李春; 邢新会


    以L-色氨酸为前体物,对弗氏柠檬酸杆菌(Citrobacter freundii)基因工程菌株生产紫色杆菌素的工艺条件进行了优化.通过单因素实验研究了培养基种类、培养温度、碳源、溶氧、种子液的状态、接种量、诱导时机、诱导剂的浓度及初始pH对细胞生长和紫色杆菌素产量的影响,通过正交实验研究了这些因素中可能存在交互作用的4个因素(种子液OD660、接种量、诱导时机、诱导剂浓度)的影响主次,确定了这些因素、水平的最佳搭配方案.结果表明,重组柠檬酸杆菌合成紫色杆菌素的最优培养条件为:种子液培养至OD660=3.6时,以3 %的接种量接种于以甘油为碳源、初始pH为6.5的磷酸盐发酵培养基E2(25 μg·ml-1卡那霉素),先在37℃、200 r·min-1下培养至OD660=1.4,然后加入0.5 μl·ml-1的诱导剂正辛烷,同时转入20℃,在150 r·min-1下诱导培养31 h.在此最优条件下,紫色杆菌素粗提物(紫色杆菌素及脱氧紫色杆菌素的混合物)产量可达1.809 g·L-1,比优化前(0.514 g·L-1)提高了252%,是目前国际上其他研究小组报道的最高摇瓶产量(0.43 g·L-1)的4.2倍.质粒稳定性实验结果表明重组柠檬酸杆菌在抗生素选择压力条件下具有良好的遗传稳定性.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静; 李进; 王开强; 孟小然


    A strain of Citrobacter freundii with sulfate-reducing function was isolated from the sludge at the bottom of cooling tower in a power plant using reclaimed water.Scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry(EDS) were employed to investigate the characteristics of the biofilm formed on the surface of HSn70-1A and BFe30-1-1 in reclaimed water.The results show that the characteristics of biofilm-forming for HSn70-1A was better than BFe30-1-1.In biofilm the contents of C,O and other inorganic elements were relatively high,while the contents of matrix elements significantly decreased.The components of extracellular polymer substances(EPS)in the bio-film formed on the surface of copper alloy at the different time were analyzed.Differences in the ratio of polysaccharide to protein revealed that the 3rd day and 7th day were two critical periods for the formation of biofilm.During these two periods,EPS from HSn70-1A showed better hydrophobic properties than EPS from BFe30-1-1,which made HSn70-1A more resistant to microorganism corrosion.%从使用再生水的某电厂冷却塔粘泥中分离出一株具有硫酸盐还原功能的弗氏柠檬酸杆菌.利用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)和能谱仪(EDS)对再生水中HSn70-1A和BFe30-1-1两种合金表面弗氏柠檬酸杆菌生物膜结构和成分进行表征,结果表明HSn70-1A成膜特性好于BFe30-1-1,两种合金表面生物膜中C、O等无机元素含量较大、基体金属元素含量下降较为明显.对不同时刻合金表面生物膜胞外聚合物(EPS)组分进行分析,多糖与蛋白质含量之比揭示出,在第3天和第7天两个关键期EPS的疏水性能对微生物膜的致密性和完整性产生重要影响,实验结果表明在两个关键期内HSn70-1A显示较好的疏水性能,使其比BFe30-1-1表现出较强的耐微生物腐蚀性能.

  2. Molecular characterization of encoding plasmid-mediated ESBLs and AmpC β-lactamases genes in Citrobacter freundii%质粒介导产ESBLs与AmpCβ-内酰胺酶基因弗氏柠檬酸杆菌的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈坚; 余方友


    OBJECTIVE To investigate the resistant mechanism of Citrobacter freundii which coexisted with ESBLs and AmpC genes. METHODS A multi-resistant Citrobacter freundii was isolated from hospital by VITEK-60 system. The detection of ESBLs was performed by the CLSI-recommended confirmatory test, Cefoxitin three-dimentional test was presented to identify AmpC β-lactamases, the mimimal inhibitative concentration (MIC) was determined by E-test. Polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and sequencing were carried out for analyzing the encoding genes of β-lactamases. Conjugation study was performed to determine whether resistant genes were likely transferred by plasmid. RESULTS The isolate was highly resistant to ceftazidime (MICs,96 jug/ml), cefotaxime (MlCs,96 μg/ml), cefoxitin(MICs.256 μg/ml) , aztreonam(MICs, 192 fig/ml) , ampicillin(MICs,>256 μg/ml) and sinomin compositea(MICs,>32 fig/ml). The clinical isolate produced AmpCs and ESBLs. The presence of blacrx-M-3 and blaCMY-2 of clinical isolate were identified by PCR and sequenced. Those genes of clinical isolate could be transferred to Escherichia coli J53 through conjugation. CONCLUSION Citrobacter freundii carries ESBLs and AmpC β-lactamases genes synchronously, which were mediated by plasmid.%目的 研究一株同时产ESBLs和AmpC β-内酰胺酶弗氏柠檬酸杆菌(CFR)的耐药机制.方法 2008年1月从临床尿液标本中分离出多药耐药弗氏柠檬酸杆菌1株,采用双纸片扩散法检测产ESBLs,头孢西丁三维试验检测AmpC酶,E-test法测定抗菌药物最低抑菌浓度(MIC),聚合酶链反应(PCR)检测产ESBss和AmpC酶基因,DNA测序决定基因型;接合试验测定耐药基因的转移性.结果 临床分离出一株同时产ESBLs和AmpCβ-内酰胺酶的多药耐药弗氏柠檬酸杆菌,对头孢他啶、头孢噻肟、头孢西丁、氨曲南、氨苄西林、磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶的MIC分别为96、96、256、192、>256、>32 μg/ml,PCR扩增及测序

  3. 中华鳖弗氏柠檬酸杆菌的分离、鉴定及药物敏感性试验%Isolation, Identification and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Pathogenic Bacterium Citrobacter freundii from Soft Shell Turtle Trionyx sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田飞焱; 欧阳敏; 张晓燕; 江明华


    从患病中华鳖(Trionyx sinensis)内脏中分离到一株细菌(LCJY-002).ATB Expression型微生物鉴定系统显示:该菌为弗氏柠檬酸杆菌(Citrobacter freundii.16S rDNA分析得到1条长度为1456bp的核苷酸序列(GenBank登录号为KC691177);Blast分析显示:该分离株与弗氏柠檬酸杆菌的同源性达99%,在系统发育树上与C.freundii聚为一支.鉴定结果确认:菌株LCJY-002为弗氏柠檬酸杆菌.人工回归感染试验证实:该菌具有致病性,PCR检测表明:分离的弗氏柠檬酸杆菌具有cfa毒力因子.药敏试验结果显示:该菌对16种抗菌药物中的庆大霉素等7种药物敏感.

  4. Differential expression of immune-related genes from skin of zebrafish induced by the infection of Citrobacter freundii%弗氏柠檬酸杆菌感染诱导斑马鱼皮肤免疫相关基因的差异表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕爱军; 胡秀彩; 朱静榕; 薛军; 王艺; 程超


    With water pollution aggravated and intensive aquaculture spread, the occurrence of opportunistic infections has become a significant health problem in farmed fish, Citrobacter freundii is an enterobacterium commonly isolated from diseased and healthy animals, including human, mammals and fish, which is considered to be an opportunistic pathogen. Skin is an essential protective barrier for fish and functions as a first line of defense against invading pathogens,but its molecular mechanism remains unclear. The objective of this study is to screen the differential gene expression in response to pathogen infection in skin of fish,and provide a basis for understanding the fish skin immune mechanism to the pathogen at the molecular level. Here,a strain of bacteria was isolated from intestine in Ctenopharyngodon idellus, which was identified by using the morphological observation, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The results showed that the isolated strain was identified species levels as Citrobacter freundii ,and animal tests showed that the strain was lethal to zebrafish. Immune response in skin of fish analyzed by using Citrobacter freundii induced zebrafish as a model, which applied the Affymetrix zebrafish cDNA microarray hybridized to the skin tissues. Total RNAs were isolated from the skin tissues of the zebrafish and labeled with biotin,and hybridized to zebrafish cDNA gene chips. The expression profiles from the hybridization to 15617 genes in zebrafish cDNA array were analyzed by the GeneChip Operating Software( GCOS 1.4). Out of 15617 genes in zebrafish cDNA chips,total of 88 immune-related genes were identified to be significantly expressed in the skin tissues,of which 74 genes are up-regulated and 14 are down-regulated in the zebrafish skin tissues. Furthermore, the differential expression genes could be categorized into eight functional groups by using the Gene Ontology (GO) method,including complement

  5. 弗氏枸橼酸杆菌TaqMan实时荧光定量-聚合酶链反应检测方法的建立%Establishment of novel real-time TaqMan PCR assay for detection of Citrobacter freundii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金东; 王艺婷; 白雪梅; 叶长芸; 刘丽云


    目的 建立针对弗氏枸橼酸杆菌的TaqMan实时荧光定量-聚合酶链反应(real time-PCR)检测方法.方法 针对弗氏枸橼酸杆菌的特有序列设计引物和TaqMan探针,扩增目的基因建立标准曲线,确定检测方法的灵敏度;对20种其他肠道致病菌及院内感染中常见的致病菌进行检测,评价该检测方法的特异性;使用牛奶模拟标本评价方法在实际检测工作中应用性.结果 TaqMan real time-PCR检测方法对弗氏枸橼酸杆菌重组质粒的检测灵敏度为1.0×101拷贝/反应体系;该检测方法在检测30种其他肠道致病菌及院内感染中常见的致病菌时未出现特异性扩增.该检测方法对牛奶模拟样本中弗氏枸橼酸杆菌检测下限为1.0×102cfu/ml的菌量;通过对1.0×107、1.0×105和1.0×103三个浓度质粒标准品的重复检测,确定本方法的组内变异系数为1.90%~3.91%;组间变异系数为1.52% ~ 1.69%.结论 本研究建立的TaqMan real time-PCR检测方法可作为检测弗氏枸橼酸杆菌灵敏、特异、快速的方法.%Objective To establish a real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of Citrobacter freundii.Methods Primers and probe were designed based on the sequences of tricarboxylic transport (tct)gene.The target gene was cloned to pMD20-T vector to build the standard curve of this assay and evaluate the sensitivity of the assay.The specificity was evaluated by using 20 other enteropathogenic bacteria and isolates causing nosocomial infection.Results Sensitivity test of recombinant plasmids showed that the sensitivity could reach 1 × 101copies /reaction.Specificity test showed that no specific amplifications were presented for the 20 other enteropathogenic bacteria and the isolates causing nosocomial infection.The detection limit of this assay for artificially contaminated milk was 1.0 × 102cfu/ml.Conclusion This real-time TaqMan PCR assay is sensitive and specific for



    Priyadarshini; Kasukurthy Leela; Rajendran


    BACKGROUND Genus Citrobacter is one of the aerobic Gram negative non-sporing bacilli, from the Enterobacteriaceae family. Citrobacter koseri and Citrobacter freundii are the commonest species implicated in infections. It is emerging as an important nosocomial pathogen. It is associated with high mortality and morbidity rate. They are often resistant to routinely used antibiotics. Emerging drug resistance is a therapeutic concern for clinicians worldwide, thus isolation and ant...

  7. 一种鉴别与大肠埃希菌O157血清凝集的弗氏枸橼酸杆菌的PCR方法%A PCR method of identification for Citrobacter freundii agglutinating with O157 serum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢珊; 白莉; 熊衍文


    Objective To develop a PCR method to distinguish Citrobacter freundii which agglutinate with O157 serum from Escherichia coil O157. Methods All the strains isolated were subjects for biochemical identification, test for agglutination with O157 serum and test for wzx gene by PCR. Results The wzx gene was detected in 25 strains of Citrobacterfreundii which showed agglutination reaction with O157 serum, while no wzx gene was detected in 8 strains of Citrobacterfreundii which showed no agglutination reaction with O157 serum. No wzx PCR product was detected in 20 strains of O157: H7. Conclusion The wzx-basod PCR is a sensitive and rapid method to distinguish Citrobacterfreundii strains which agglutinate with OI57 serum from Escherichia coli O157 strains.%目的 利用基于O抗原翻转酶wzx基因的PCR方法,鉴别与大肠埃希菌O157血清凝集的弗氏枸橼酸杆菌和O157大肠埃希菌.方法 用微生物鉴定仪对细菌进行生化鉴定,与P157血清凝集,同时扩增wzx基因.结果 25株与大肠埃希菌O157血清凝集的弗氏枸橼酸杆菌及1株不与大肠埃希菌O157血清凝集的弗氏枸橼酸杆菌wzx基因扩增为阳性,8株与O157血清不凝集的弗氏枸橼酸杆菌wzx基因扩增为阴性,20株O157:H7大肠埃希菌wzx基因扩增为阴性.结论 对于可与O157血清发生强凝集的弗氏枸橼酸杆菌,基于O抗原翻转酶wzx基因的PCR方法是一种有效的快速鉴别方法.

  8. [NMR screening of potential inhibitors of Citrobacter freundii methionine]. (United States)

    Batuev, E A; Lizunov, A Iu; Morozova, E A; Klochkov, V V; Anufrieva, N V; Demidkina, T V; Pol'shakov, V I


    Methionine γ-lyase [EC] participates in a methionine catabolism at a number of bacteria and protozoa eukaryotes, including pathogenic microorganisms. Lack of this enzyme at mammals allows consider it as a perspective target for rational antibacterial drug design. Currently in medical practice there are no the preparations based on an inhibition of methionine γ-lyase activity. We present results of the search of potential inhibitors of the enzyme using the NMR screening techniques based on identification of compounds, which able to bind specifically to their biological target. Study included a stage of in silico virtual screening of the library of commercially available compounds and subsequent experimental selection of the leading compounds, capable to interact with enzyme. Identification of binding was carried out by means of saturation transfer difference (STD) spectroscopy and WaterLOGSY technique. At the final stage the experimental assessment of inhibiting ability of the selected compounds in the reaction of γ-elimination of L-methionine catalyzed by methionine γ-lyase was carried out. Binding constants of two leading compounds were determined using the WaterLOGSY method. The research expands structural group of potential inhibitors of methionine γ-lyase and allows approach to the design of the inhibitors with higher efficacy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Genus Citrobacter is one of the aerobic Gram negative non-sporing bacilli, from the Enterobacteriaceae family. Citrobacter koseri and Citrobacter freundii are the commonest species implicated in infections. It is emerging as an important nosocomial pathogen. It is associated with high mortality and morbidity rate. They are often resistant to routinely used antibiotics. Emerging drug resistance is a therapeutic concern for clinicians worldwide, thus isolation and antibiotic sensitivity of Citrobacter is critically needed. OBJECTIVES Identification of Citrobacter species and antibiotic sensitivity pattern with AmpC and ESBL Detection. METHODS Prospective study was done from June 2014 to March 2015. The samples were collected from patients attending VIMS and RC. The samples were processed and identified by standard protocol. Citrobacter isolates were tested for antibiotic sensitivity by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method as per clinical and standard institute guidelines. Detection of AmpC by Cephamycin Hodge test using Cefoxitin 30 μg with ATCC strains of Escherichia coli 25922 was done. ESBL detection was done by Ceftazidime (30 μg and Ceftazidime/clavulanic acid (30 μg/10 μg and Cefotaxime (30 ug Cefotaxime/clavulanic acid (30 ug/10 ug. RESULTS Out of 5695 Gram negative isolates identified, 690 were Citrobacter isolates. Citrobacter koseri 398 (62.5% and Citrobacter freundii 292 (37.5% were the commonest species isolated. The antibiogram as per CLSI Guidelines showed resistance to Fluoroquinolones, Cephalosporins and beta lactamase inhibitors. Carbapenems were found to be sensitive. The resistance to beta lactamase inhibitors increased with the presence of AmpC beta lactamase (76% and ESBL (50%. CONCLUSION Citrobacter species are emerging as an important nosocomial pathogen. Citrobacter koseri and Citrobacter freundii were the commonest species isolated. Antibiogram showing an increase in resistance among the beta lactamase

  10. Bacteremia due to Citrobacter braakii: A case report and literature review. (United States)

    Hirai, Jun; Uechi, Kohei; Hagihara, Mao; Sakanashi, Daisuke; Kinjo, Takeshi; Haranaga, Shusaku; Fujita, Jiro


    Among the Citrobacter genus, the most commonly isolated bacteria from human specimens are Citrobacter freundii and Citrobacter koseri, and previous cases of infection due to Citrobacter braakii have been rarely reported. We present a case of bacteremia due to C. braakii in a 38-year-old woman with cervical cancer. She was admitted to our hospital with complaints of a fever, chills, and nausea. Blood culture results showed gram-negative bacilli identified as C. braakii via matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis, although biochemical testing findings were suggestive of C. freundii. Since a rare pathogen was detected in the present case and the results of additional biochemical studies were suggestive of both C. braakii and Citrobacter farmeri, genetic analysis was conducted. Finally, the gram-negative bacilli were confirmed as C. braakii, a member of the C. freundii complex since 1993, by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing analysis. The gastrointestinal tract was considered the portal of entry, because the patient had a rectal fistula and other cultures such as urine and vaginal discharge incubated species other than C. braakii. The patient recovered after receiving treatment with ciprofloxacin for 14 days. The epidemiology and clinical characteristics of C. braakii infection are still unknown because of the limitations in accurate identification by using currently available commercial biochemical testing and previously, only 6 cases of C. braakii infection have been reported. Physicians should focus on this species, because it causes community-acquired infections, although further studies are needed to clarify the clinical characteristics of C. braakii infections.

  11. Citrobacter europaeus sp. nov., isolated from water and human faecal samples. (United States)

    Ribeiro, Teresa G; Clermont, Dominique; Branquinho, Raquel; Machado, Elisabete; Peixe, Luísa; Brisse, Sylvain


    Strains 97/79T and A121, recovered respectively from human faeces and well water, were compared to currently known species of the genus Citrobacter using genotypic and phenotypic approaches. Multilocus sequence analysis based on housekeeping genes fusA, leuS, pyrG, rpoB and recN, showed that the two strains formed a distinct phylogenetic lineage within the genus Citrobacter. Average nucleotide identity (ANI) between strains 97/79T and A121 was 99.2 %, whereas ANI values of strain 97/79T with the type strains of closely related species of the genus Citrobacter, C. werkmanii, C. braakii, C. freundii, C. youngae and C. pasteurii, were all below 93.0 %. The ability to metabolize different compounds also discriminated strains 97/79T and A121 from other species of the genus Citrobacter. Based on these results, strains 97/79T and A121 represent a novel species of the genus Citrobacter, for which the name Citrobacter europaeus sp. nov. is proposed, with strain 97/79T (=CIP 106467T=DSM 103031T) as the type strain. The DNA G+C content of strain 97/79T is 52.0 %.



    Перунова, Н.; Туйгунова, В.; Иванова, Е.; Габидуллин, Ю.


    Экспериментально выявлено два типа направленности биокоммуникативой активности в ассоциации бактерий с Citrobacter spp. – синергидный и антагонистический. Ассоциативная микробиота, характерная для дисбиоза, инициировала биопленкообразование (БПО) и антилизоцимную активность (АЛА) C. freundii, и, напротив, доминанты (бифидобактерии) и лактозопозитивные негемолитические эшерихии, изолированные при эубиозе, ингибировали базовые физиологические функции адаптации Citrobacter spp.Метаболиты C. freu...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 李文; 肖正华; 王云霞; 夏仕文


    以在L-酪氨酸诱导下高效表达酪氨酸酚解酶的菌株Citrobacter freundii48003-3的休止细胞为生物催化剂,以邻苯二酚、丙酮酸钠、醋酸铵为前体,选择性合成L-DOPA.研究了反应温度、pH和前体浓度等对合成L-DOPA的影响.最优反应条件下,反应12h,L-DOPA的量可达到9.5g/L.

  14. Phylogeny and Comparative Genomics Unveil Independent Diversification Trajectories of qnrB and Genetic Platforms within Particular Citrobacter Species. (United States)

    Ribeiro, Teresa G; Novais, Ângela; Branquinho, Raquel; Machado, Elisabete; Peixe, Luísa


    To gain insights into the diversification trajectories of qnrB genes, a phylogenetic and comparative genomics analysis of these genes and their surrounding genetic sequences was performed. For this purpose, Citrobacter sp. isolates (n = 21) and genome or plasmid sequences (n = 56) available in public databases harboring complete or truncated qnrB genes were analyzed. Citrobacter species identification was performed by phylogenetic analysis of different genotypic markers. The clonal relatedness among isolates, the location of qnrB genes, and the genetic surroundings of qnrB genes were investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), S1-/I-CeuI-PFGE and hybridization, and PCR mapping and sequencing, respectively. Identification of Citrobacter isolates was achieved using leuS and recN gene sequences, and isolates characterized in this study were diverse and harbored chromosomal qnrB genes. Phylogenetic analysis of all known qnrB genes revealed seven main clusters and two branches, with most of them included in two clusters. Specific platforms (comprising pspF and sapA and varying in synteny and/or identity of other genes and intergenic regions) were associated with each one of these qnrB clusters, and the reliable identification of all Citrobacter isolates revealed that each platform evolved in different recognizable (Citrobacter freundii, C. braakii, C. werkmanii, and C. pasteurii) and putatively new species. A high identity was observed between some of the platforms identified in the chromosome of Citrobacter spp. and in different plasmids of Enterobacteriaceae. Our data corroborate Citrobacter as the origin of qnrB and further suggest divergent evolution of closely related qnrB genes/platforms in particular Citrobacter spp., which were delineated using particular genotypic markers.

  15. Distribution of chitin/chitosan-like bioflocculant-producing potential in the genus Citrobacter. (United States)

    Kimura, Kazuyuki; Inoue, Takuya; Kato, Dai-Ichiro; Negoro, Seiji; Ike, Michihiko; Takeo, Masahiro


    Some strains belonging to the genera Citrobacter and Enterobacter have been reported to produce chitin/chitosan-like bioflocculants (BFs) from acetate. In this study, to investigate the distribution of the BF-producing potential in the genus Citrobacter and to screen stably and highly BF-producing strains, we obtained 36 Citrobacter strains from different culture collection centers, which were distributed among seven species in the genus, and tested for the flocculating activities of their culture supernatants using a kaolin suspension method. As a result, 21 strains belonging to C. freundii (17 strains in 23 strains tested), C. braakii (two in two), C. youngae (one in one), and C. werkmanii (one in two) showed flocculating activity, but this ability was limited to cells grown on acetate. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of the hydrolysates from the BFs of five selected strains indicated that they consisted of glucosamine and/or N-acetylglucosamine, such as the chitin/chitosan-like BF (BF04) produced by Citrobacter sp. TKF04 (Fujita et al. J Biosci Bioeng 89: 40-46, 2000). Gel filtration chromatography using a high-performance liquid chromatography system revealed that the molecular weight ranges of these BFs varied, but the average sizes were all above 1.66 × 10⁶Da.

  16. Unraveling the dha cluster in Citrobacter werkmanii: comparative genomic analysis of bacterial 1,3-propanediol biosynthesis clusters. (United States)

    Maervoet, Veerle E T; De Maeseneire, Sofie L; Soetaert, Wim K; De Mey, Marjan


    In natural 1,3-propanediol (PDO) producing microorganisms such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii and Clostridium sp., the genes coding for PDO producing enzymes are grouped in a dha cluster. This article describes the dha cluster of a novel candidate for PDO production, Citrobacter werkmanii DSM17579 and compares the cluster to the currently known PDO clusters of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridiaceae. Moreover, we attribute a putative function to two previously unannotated ORFs, OrfW and OrfY, both in C. freundii and in C. werkmanii: both proteins might form a complex and support the glycerol dehydratase by converting cob(I)alamin to the glycerol dehydratase cofactor coenzyme B12. Unraveling this biosynthesis cluster revealed high homology between the deduced amino acid sequence of the open reading frames of C. werkmanii DSM17579 and those of C. freundii DSM30040 and K. pneumoniae MGH78578, i.e., 96 and 87.5 % identity, respectively. On the other hand, major differences between the clusters have also been discovered. For example, only one dihydroxyacetone kinase (DHAK) is present in the dha cluster of C. werkmanii DSM17579, while two DHAK enzymes are present in the cluster of K. pneumoniae MGH78578 and Clostridium butyricum VPI1718.

  17. Biohydrogen production by dark fermentation of glycerol using Enterobacter and Citrobacter Sp. (United States)

    Maru, Biniam T; Constanti, Magda; Stchigel, Alberto M; Medina, Francesc; Sueiras, Jesus E


    Glycerol is an attractive substrate for biohydrogen production because, in theory, it can produce 3 mol of hydrogen per mol of glycerol. Moreover, glycerol is produced in substantial amounts as a byproduct of producing biodiesel, the demand for which has increased in recent years. Therefore, hydrogen production from glycerol was studied by dark fermentation using three strains of bacteria: namely, Enterobacter spH1, Enterobacter spH2, and Citrobacter freundii H3 and a mixture thereof (1:1:1). It was found that, when an initial concentration of 20 g/L of glycerol was used, all three strains and their mixture produced substantial amounts of hydrogen ranging from 2400 to 3500 mL/L, being highest for C. freundii H3 (3547 mL/L) and Enterobacter spH1 (3506 mL/L). The main nongaseous fermentation products were ethanol and acetate, albeit in different ratios. For Enterobacter spH1, Enterobacter spH2, C. freundii H3, and the mixture (1:1:1), the ethanol yields (in mol EtOH/mol glycerol consumed) were 0.96, 0.67, 0.31, and 0.66, respectively. Compared to the individual strains, the mixture (1:1:1) did not show a significantly higher hydrogen level, indicating that there was no synergistic effect. Enterobacter spH1 was selected for further investigation because of its higher yield of hydrogen and ethanol.

  18. Sulfate reduction and copper precipitation by a Citrobacter sp. isolated from a mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Rongliang, E-mail: [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)] [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Zhao Benliang; Liu Jinling [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Huang, Xiongfei [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)] [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Li, Qingfei [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Brewer, Eric [Viridian Environmental LLC, VA 22207 (United States); Wang, Shizhong; Shi, Ning [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)


    A strain of sulfate-reducing bacteria, designated strain 'DBM', was isolated from sediments of a mining area. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate revealed that it was related to members of the genus Citrobacter, with C. AzoR-4, C. freundii, C. braakii and C. werkmanii being the most closely related species (sequence similarity up to 98%). Few studies have been done on sulfate reduction ability in Citrobacter. Electron microscopy studies showed that the morphology of the strain DBM was rod-shaped. Strain DBM reduced 10 mM of sulfate completely to sulfide within 7 d, and it recovered its sulfate reduction ability after 7 d of aerobic growth. Furthermore, strain DBM effectively precipitated 0.40 mM copper during its growth. Elemental composition of the resulting microbial precipitate was studied using electro-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and it was found that the ratio of S:Cu was 1.07. The result was consistent with the formation of copper sulfide. Heavy metal precipitation by Citrobacter sp. strain DBM was a phenomenon that may be useful in the bioremediation of acid mine drainage.

  19. Multidrug resistant citrobacter: an unusual cause of liver abscess. (United States)

    Kumar, Prabhat; Ghosh, Soumik; Rath, Deepak; Gadpayle, A K


    Liver abscesses are infectious, space occupying lesions in the liver, the two most common abscesses being pyogenic and amoebic. A pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is a rare condition with a reported incidence of 20 per 100 000 hospital admissions in the western population. The right lobe of the liver is the most common site in both types of liver abscess. Clinical presentation is elusive with complaints of fever, right upper quadrant pain in the abdomen and hepatomegaly with or without jaundice. The aetiology of PLA has changed in the past few decades and may be of biliary, portal, arterial or traumatic origin, but many cases are still cryptogenic. The most common organisms causing PLA are Gram-negative aerobes, especially Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Studies have shown a high degree of antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated organism resulting in an overall lower mortality in PLA. Here, we present a case of PLA caused by multidrug-resistant Citrobacter freundii, which is an unusual organism to be isolated.

  20. Citrobacter bitternis sp. nov. isolated from bitterns. (United States)

    Ko, Kwan Soo; Choi, Ji-Young; Kim, Joo; Park, Myoung Kyu


    In this study, we reported two gram-negative bacteria that were isolated from bitterns, designated as SKKU-TP7(T) and SKKU-TP20, representing a novel species of Citrobacter. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, the two strains were found to be closely related and showed the highest pairwise similarity with Citrobacter farmeri CDC 2992-81(T) (97.1-97.3 %) and other Citrobacter species. Cellular fatty acid analysis revealed that the profiles of strains SKKU-TP7(T) and SKKU-TP20 were similar to those of related species of Citrobacter. The major cellular fatty acids were C16:0 (31.5 %), summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c, C16:1 ω6c, 19.7 %), summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω7c, C18:1 ω6c, 11.9 %), C17:0 cyclo (10.7 %), and summed feature 2 (C12:0 aldehyde/unknown 10928, 9.5 %). Although the strains could utilize sucrose and raffinose as a carbon source, they did not produce ornithine decarboxylase and urease. The biochemical and genotypic characteristics indicate that strains SKKU-TP7(T) and SKKU-TP20 represent a novel species of Citrobacter, for which the name Citrobacter bitterns sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SKKU-TP7(T) (=KCTC 42139(T) = JCM 30009(T)).

  1. 枸橼酸杆菌医院感染特点及耐药性检测%Nosocomial infection and antibiotic resistance surveillance of citrobacter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红梅; 姜玉昌


    Objective To investigate the distribution and antibiotic resistance of citrobacter for anti-infection therapy .Methods The citrobacter were identified by Walk-Away-40 according to《National Guide to Clinical Laboratory Procedures》 .Kirby-Bauer(K-B ) were used for drug sensitive test and WHONET5.4 for statistics .Results We isolated 172 strains of citrobacteT .Of which C .freundii was major (70.3%) ,then Citrobacter am alonaticus (14.0%) and Citrobacter diversus (5.2%).In 172 strains of citrobacte which came mainly from respiratoy tract (67 .4%) and urogenital tract was the next(22.1% ).The infected ward were neurology ward (29.1%) ,respiratoy ward(27.9%)nephrology ward (16.9%)and oncology ward(11.0%).Drug sensitive test showed higher resistance rate in 172 strains of citrobacter to ampicillin ,cefazolin and Cefoxitin were above 87% ,while to amikacin ,imipenem and sulperazone were lower 20% .Conclusion C .freundii was the common citrobacter in nosocomial infection and came mainly from respiratory tract.Citrobacter produced multi-β-lactam ase resistance .Imipenem ,sulperazone and amikacin have higher antibacterial activities to citrobacte.%目的 了解枸橼酸杆菌在医院感染中的分布特点及耐药特性,为临床抗感染治疗提供依据.方法 细菌分离培养按进行;采用WalkAway-40全自动细菌鉴定仪对临床分离菌株进行菌种鉴定;采用K-B法进行药敏试验,用WHONET5.4软件进行统计分析.结果 共分离枸橼酸杆菌属细菌172株,其中弗劳地枸橼酸杆菌最多,占70.3%,其次为丙二酸盐阴性枸橼酸杆菌和异型枸橼酸杆菌,分别占14.0%和5.2%,172株枸橼酸杆菌的感染部位以呼吸道最多(67.4%),其次为泌尿生殖道(22.1%);病区分布主要为神经内科病房、呼吸内科病房、肾内科病房和肿瘤病房,分别占29.1%、27.9%、16.9%和11.0%;药敏结果显示,172株枸橼酸杆菌对氨苄西林、头孢唑啉、头孢

  2. Optimum management of Citrobacter koseri infection. (United States)

    Deveci, Aydin; Coban, Ahmet Yilmaz


    Low virulent Citrobacter koseri can cause life threatening infections. Neonates and other immunocompromised patients are particularly susceptible to infection from C. koseri. Any infection due to C. koseri mandates antimicrobial therapy based on the sensitivity of the pathogen microorganism. Various types of antibiotics, including aminoglycosides carbapenems, cephalosporins, chloramphenicol and quinolones, are used for the treatment of C. koseri infections. The rational choice of antimicrobial therapy for Citrobacter infections is a challenge for clinicians because there is a sustained increase in antibacterial resistance. We reviewed antimicrobial agents used for C. koseri infections in this review.

  3. Species identification of strains belonging to genus Citrobacter using the biochemical method and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Kolínská, Renáta; Spanělová, Petra; Dřevínek, Michal; Hrabák, Jaroslav; Zemličková, Helena


    Strains of genus Citrobacter (152 isolates from 1950 to 1988 deposited in the Czech National Collection of Type Cultures, Prague) were re-classified using biological and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) methods. One-hundred thirty-six strains (ca. 90 %) were identified to the species level using the biological method with evaluation by Farmer matrix. MALDI-TOF MS exhibited better identification capability, the data being more compact; the method was unambiguously successful in typing 145 (95 %) strains. Comparison of the results of identification by the two methods revealed differences (for 12 samples) in identified species which, considering all biochemical and/or MS characteristics, could be attributed to the natural variability of strains and close relation of the misidentified species (all of them belonged to the Citrobacter freundii complex). Taking into account all the above data, both methods can be considered reliable; however, the MALDI-TOF MS exhibits higher accuracy, efficiency, and rapidity.

  4. Pre-steady-state kinetic and structural analysis of interaction of methionine γ-lyase from Citrobacter freundii with inhibitors. (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Nikita A; Faleev, Nicolai G; Kuznetsova, Alexandra A; Morozova, Elena A; Revtovich, Svetlana V; Anufrieva, Natalya V; Nikulin, Alexei D; Fedorova, Olga S; Demidkina, Tatyana V


    Methionine γ-lyase (MGL) catalyzes the γ-elimination of l-methionine and its derivatives as well as the β-elimination of l-cysteine and its analogs. These reactions yield α-keto acids and thiols. The mechanism of chemical conversion of amino acids includes numerous reaction intermediates. The detailed analysis of MGL interaction with glycine, l-alanine, l-norvaline, and l-cycloserine was performed by pre-steady-state stopped-flow kinetics. The structure of side chains of the amino acids is important both for their binding with enzyme and for the stability of the external aldimine and ketimine intermediates. X-ray structure of the MGL·l-cycloserine complex has been solved at 1.6 Å resolution. The structure models the ketimine intermediate of physiological reaction. The results elucidate the mechanisms of the intermediate interconversion at the stages of external aldimine and ketimine formation.

  5. 21 CFR 866.3125 - Citrobacter spp. serological reagents. (United States)


    ... isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Citrobacter and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused...



    Dhanya; Sevitha


    BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Citrobacter species have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens . The infections caused by this organism include UTI , wound infection , Neonatal sepsis , pulmonary infection , brain abscess , meningitis . The organism is recovered from a variety of clinical specimen incl uding pus , urine , sputum . Antibiotic resistance is on rise among the Citrobacter spp . The present study w...

  7. Multilocus sequence analysis of the genus Citrobacter and description of Citrobacter pasteurii sp. nov. (United States)

    Clermont, Dominique; Motreff, Laurence; Passet, Virginie; Fernandez, José-Carlos; Bizet, Chantal; Brisse, Sylvain


    Strains originating from various sources and classified as members of the genus Citrobacter within the family Enterobacteriaceae were characterized by sequencing internal portions of genes rpoB, fusA, pyrG and leuS, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, average nucleotide identity (ANI) of genomic sequences and biochemical tests. Phylogenetic analysis based on the four housekeeping genes showed that the 11 species of the genus Citrobacter with validly published names are well demarcated. Strains CIP 55.13(T) and CIP 55.9 formed a distinct branch associated with Citrobacter youngae. The ANI between CIP 55.9 and CIP 55.13(T) was 99.19%, whereas it was 94.75% between CIP 55.13(T) and strain CIP 105016(T) of the species C. youngae, the most closely related species. Biochemical characteristics consolidated the fact that the two isolates represent a separate species, for which the name Citrobacter pasteurii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CIP 55.13(T) ( =DSM 28879(T) =Na 1a(T)).

  8. Citrobacter koseri septicaemia in a holstein calf. (United States)

    Komine, M; Massa, A; Moon, L; Mullaney, T


    A 4-day-old male Holstein calf with dull mentation, nystagmus and blindness was humanely destroyed and subject to necropsy examination. Gross lesions included severe suppurative meningitis characterized by diffuse cloudy thickening of the meninges, bilateral hypopyon and fibrinosuppurative polyarthritis affecting the hocks. Citrobacter koseri was isolated from the meninges, ocular fluid, synovial fluid, spleen and small intestine. Microscopically, there was neutrophilic and histiocytic meningitis with intralesional bacilli, endophthalmitis, neutrophilic splenitis and multiple renal microabscesses. Failure of passive transfer of colostrum was confirmed. This appears to be the first characterization of septicaemia in a calf caused by C. koseri, with lesions comparable with those described in human neonates.

  9. Native Valve Endocarditis Due to Citrobacter Chronic Prostatitis (United States)

    Lum, Corey; Bolger, Dennis; Bello, Erlaine


    Introduction: Citrobacter koseri is a gram-negative bacillus that rarely causes infection in immunocompetent hosts and typically is associated with urinary or respiratory tract infections. Rarely will Citrobacter be a cause of infective endocarditis. Case Report: We present a case of a 77-year-old man with no known immunocompromising conditions who was hospitalized for infective aortic endocarditis due to Citrobacter koseri originating from a chronically infected prostate. Unusually, he also developed a C. koseri diskitis and phlegmon, which, along with the aortic vegetations, increased in size despite appropriate antibiotics. The patient thus met indications for aortic valve replacement and had improved appearance of lesions in follow-up imaging.

  10. Brain abscess caused by Citrobacter koseri infection in an adult. (United States)

    Liu, Heng-Wei; Chang, Chih-Ju; Hsieh, Cheng-Ta


    Citrobacter koseri is a gram-negative bacillus that causes mostly meningitis and brain abscesses in neonates and infants. However, brain abscess caused by Citrobacter koseri infection in an adult is extremely rare, and only 2 cases have been described. Here, we reported a 73-year-old male presenting with a 3-week headache. A history of diabetes mellitus was noted. The images revealed a brain abscess in the left frontal lobe and pus culture confirmed the growth of Citrobacter koseri. The clinical symptoms improved completely postoperatively.

  11. Citrobacter koseri folliculitis of the face. (United States)

    Raia, D D; Barbareschi, M; Veraldi, S


    We report a case of severe Citrobacter koseri folliculitis of the face in a boy with acne. A 15-year-old boy affected by acne was admitted because of a rash located on the face. Dermatological examination revealed two large plaques, with numerous pustules, eschars and crusts, located bilaterally and symmetrically on the cheeks. Three bacteriological examinations were positive for C. koseri. The patient was successfully treated with i.m. ceftriaxone. C. koseri is a Gram-negative, aerobic, mobile, nonsporulating bacillus belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. It can cause meningitis, central nervous system abscess and sepsis, almost exclusively in infants and immunocompromised hosts. Respiratory tract and urinary infections have been reported in elderly people. Furthermore, rare cases of skin infections have been described.

  12. Citrobacter rodentium: infection, inflammation and the microbiota. (United States)

    Collins, James W; Keeney, Kristie M; Crepin, Valerie F; Rathinam, Vijay A K; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Finlay, B Brett; Frankel, Gad


    Citrobacter rodentium is a mucosal pathogen of mice that shares several pathogenic mechanisms with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), which are two clinically important human gastrointestinal pathogens. Thus, C. rodentium has long been used as a model to understand the molecular basis of EPEC and EHEC infection in vivo. In this Review, we discuss recent studies in which C. rodentium has been used to study mucosal immunology, including the deregulation of intestinal inflammatory responses during bacteria-induced colitis and the role of the intestinal microbiota in mediating resistance to colonization by enteric pathogens. These insights should help to elucidate the roles of mucosal inflammatory responses and the microbiota in the virulence of enteric pathogens.

  13. Musculoskeletal infections associated with Citrobacter koseri. (United States)

    Kwaees, T A; Hakim, Z; Weerasinghe, C; Dunkow, P


    Introduction Citrobacter koseri is a well known cause of central nervous system infections in the paediatric setting. Musculoskeletal infections caused by C koseri are rare, with only 14 previously reported cases. We present the first recorded case of C koseri induced septic arthritis of the knee along with a review of the literature. Methods A search of the PubMed, Embase(®) and Google Scholar™ databases was undertaken. Only complete or near complete cases were reviewed. Findings Fourteen musculoskeletal infections were identified. Of these, five were associated with an operative procedure and five involved a septic joint. Surgical treatment was required in the majority of cases and cure was achieved in all cases following prolonged antibiotic use. Conclusions C koseri associated musculoskeletal infections may complicate primary orthopaedic procedures. The organism can present aggressively and can be difficult to identify microbiologically. It is sensitive to newer generation beta-lactams, cephalosporin-based antibiotics and timely surgery.

  14. [Transpon Tn5 mutagenesis in Citrobacter]. (United States)

    Wang, A Q; Yin, P; Chen, X Z


    When E. coli 1830/PJB4JI mating with four Citrobacter strains all were Kanamycin resistant, but a majority of KanrGens transconjugants were obtained from C-3-1. Among 3000 KanrGens 21 were auxotrophs, these are Lys-(1), Ura-(1), Arg-(2), Iso-(2), His-(2), Met-(1), Phe-(1), Tyr-(1), Ser-(1), Thr-(1), Leu-(3), Pro-(1), Ade-(3), Lac-(1), PJB4JI plasmid DNA were detected in parent strain E. coli 1830, but not in auxotrophs strains which carrying Tn5 induced mutations. Twenty auxotrophs chromosome DNA were hybridized with Tn5 DNA labeled with 32P respectively, all auxotrophs has positive reaction. Therefore, we concluded from genetic and physical data that auxotrophs resulted from Tn5 transposition from PJB4JI into C-3-1 chromosome.

  15. Citrobacter rodentium mouse model of bacterial infection. (United States)

    Crepin, Valerie F; Collins, James W; Habibzay, Maryam; Frankel, Gad


    Infection of mice with Citrobacter rodentium is a robust model to study bacterial pathogenesis, mucosal immunology, the health benefits of probiotics and the role of the microbiota during infection. C. rodentium was first isolated by Barthold from an outbreak of mouse diarrhea in Yale University in 1972 and was 'rediscovered' by Falkow and Schauer in 1993. Since then the use of the model has proliferated, and it is now the gold standard for studying virulence of the closely related human pathogens enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC, respectively). Here we provide a detailed protocol for various applications of the model, including bacterial growth, site-directed mutagenesis, mouse inoculation (from cultured cells and after cohabitation), monitoring of bacterial colonization, tissue extraction and analysis, immune responses, probiotic treatment and microbiota analysis. The main protocol, from mouse infection to clearance and analysis of tissues and host responses, takes ∼5 weeks to complete.

  16. Biochemical Identification of Citrobacter Species Defined by DNA Hybridization and Description of Citrobacter gillenii sp. nov. (Formerly Citrobacter Genomospecies 10) and Citrobacter murliniae sp. nov. (Formerly Citrobacter Genomospecies 11)


    Brenner, Don J.; O’Hara, Caroline M.; Grimont, Patrick A. D.; Janda, J. Michael; Falsen, Enevold; Aldova, Eva; Ageron, Elisabeth; Schindler, Jiri; Abbott, Sharon L.; Steigerwalt, Arnold G.


    Recent work describing six named species and two unnamed genomospecies within Citrobacter has enlarged the genus to 11 species. DNA relatedness and phenotypic tests were used to determine how well these species can be identified. One hundred thirty-six strains were identified to species level by DNA relatedness and then identified phenotypically in a blinded fashion. By using conventional tests, 119 of the 136 strains (88%) were correctly identified to species level. Three additional strains ...

  17. Pneumorachis associated with multiorgan infection due to Citrobacter koseri. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Norihisa; Takegawa, Ryosuke; Seki, Masafumi; Takahashi, Kyosuke; Tahara, Kenichi; Hirose, Tomoya; Hamaguchi, Shigeto; Irisawa, Taro; Matsumoto, Naoya; Shimazu, Takeshi; Tomono, Kazunori


    Pneumorachis rarely occurs after spreading from a contiguous site of infection or after a traumatic event. We describe an adult patient who developed sepsis and a renal abscess due to Citrobacter koseri, and computed tomographic imaging identified gas within the entire spinal canal as well as an iliopsoas abscess. This patient recovered from pneumorachis caused by disseminated infection.

  18. Citrobacter amalonaticus human urinary tract infections, Marseille, France


    Garcia,V.; C. Abat; V. Moal; J.-M. Rolain


    Citrobacter amalonaticus is a bacterium that has rarely been reported as a human pathogen. Here we report four cases of C. amalonaticus infections occurring in patients hospitalized in Marseille, France, and review all cases described in the published literature.

  19. Citrobacter amalonaticus human urinary tract infections, Marseille, France (United States)

    Garcia, V.; Abat, C.; Moal, V.; Rolain, J.-M.


    Citrobacter amalonaticus is a bacterium that has rarely been reported as a human pathogen. Here we report four cases of C. amalonaticus infections occurring in patients hospitalized in Marseille, France, and review all cases described in the published literature. PMID:26958347

  20. Citrobacter amalonaticus human urinary tract infections, Marseille, France. (United States)

    Garcia, V; Abat, C; Moal, V; Rolain, J-M


    Citrobacter amalonaticus is a bacterium that has rarely been reported as a human pathogen. Here we report four cases of C. amalonaticus infections occurring in patients hospitalized in Marseille, France, and review all cases described in the published literature.



    Morozova, E.; Kulikova, V.; Yashin, D.; Anufrieva, N.; Anisimova, N.; Revtovich, S.; Kotlov, M.; Belyi, Y.; Pokrovsky, V.; Demidkina, T.


    The steady-state kinetic parameters of pyridoxal 5’-phosphate-dependent recombinant methionine γ -lyase from three pathogenic bacteria, Clostridium tetani, Clostridium sporogenes, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, were determined in β- and γ-elimination reactions. The enzyme from C. sporogenes is characterized by the highest catalytic efficiency in the γ-elimination reaction of L-methionine. It was demonstrated that the enzyme from these three sources exists as a tetramer. The N-terminal poly-his...

  2. Community-Acquired Pneumonia and Empyema Caused by Citrobacter koseri in an Immunocompetent Patient


    Miguel Angel Ariza-Prota; Ana Pando-Sandoval; Marta García-Clemente; Ramón Fernández; Pere Casan


    Citrobacter species, belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae, are environmental organisms commonly found in soil, water, and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. Citrobacter koseri is known to be an uncommon but serious cause of both sporadic and epidemic septicemia and meningitis in neonates and young infants. Most cases reported have occurred in immunocompromised hosts. The infections caused by Citrobacter are difficult to treat with usual broad spectrum antibiotics owing to rapi...

  3. Neonatal Citrobacter koseri Meningitis: Report of Four Cases


    Joana Rodrigues; Dalila Rocha; Fátima Santos; Anabela João


    Citrobacter koseri is a rare cause of neonatal meningitis with predisposal for brain abscesses, and therefore responsible for high mortality and serious neurologic sequelae in this age group. We present the evolution and outcome of four cases of C. koseri meningitis. One of them developed brain abscesses and another one died. The cases show the bacteria's propensity for serious brain damage, despite early and adequate treatment, and the high risk of long-term neurologic complications in survi...

  4. Citrobacter koseri Pneumonia As Initial Presentation of Underlying Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma


    Kelly Pennington; Martin Van Zyl; Patricio Escalante


    Citrobacter koseri is a motile, gram-negative rod traditionally known to cause infection in individuals with significant comorbidities and immunocompromised status. While most cases represent nosocomial infections, rarely community-acquired infections have been reported. We present a previously healthy man in his 60s with C. koseri pneumonia who was subsequently found to have underlying pulmonary adenocarcinoma, illustrating the need for further investigation for immunodeficiency and/or intra...

  5. Citrobacter koseri Pneumonia As Initial Presentation of Underlying Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma (United States)

    Pennington, Kelly; Van Zyl, Martin; Escalante, Patricio


    Citrobacter koseri is a motile, gram-negative rod traditionally known to cause infection in individuals with significant comorbidities and immunocompromised status. While most cases represent nosocomial infections, rarely community-acquired infections have been reported. We present a previously healthy man in his 60s with C. koseri pneumonia who was subsequently found to have underlying pulmonary adenocarcinoma, illustrating the need for further investigation for immunodeficiency and/or intrapulmonary pathology.

  6. Genome sequence of Citrobacter sp. strain A1, a dye-degrading bacterium. (United States)

    Chan, Giek Far; Gan, Han Ming; Rashid, Noor Aini Abdul


    Citrobacter sp. strain A1, isolated from a sewage oxidation pond, is a facultative aerobe and mesophilic dye-degrading bacterium. This organism degrades azo dyes efficiently via azo reduction and desulfonation, followed by the successive biotransformation of dye intermediates under an aerobic environment. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Citrobacter sp. A1.

  7. Characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Citrobacter obtained in environmental samples of a Tunisian hospital. (United States)

    Dziri, Raoudha; Klibi, Naouel; Alonso, Carla Andrea; Said, Leila Ben; Bellaaj, Ridha; Slama, Karim Ben; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Torres, Carmen


    The assessment of the hospital environment as a reservoir of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Tunisian hospitals is scarcely analyzed, except for Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of ESBL-producing non-E. coli Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-EbNoEc) in 300 samples of abiotic surfaces and the hands of patients and staff of a Tunisian Hospital, and to characterize the ESBL genes of the recovered isolates. ESBL-EbNoEc were recovered in 28 of 300 (9.3%) analyzed samples and were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae (n= 11), Enterobacter cloacae (n=11), Citrobacter freundii (n=4) and Klebsiella oxytoca (n=2). The bla genes identified by PCR and sequencing among the strains were as follows: 11 K.pneumoniae strains [blaCTX-M-15+ blaTEM-1+ blaSHV-11 (n=6); blaCTX-M-15+ blaTEM-1+ blaSHV-28 (n=3); blaCTX-M-15+ blaTEM-1+ blaSHV-1 (n=2)], 11 E. cloacae strains [blaCTX-M-15 (n=6); blaCTX-M-15+ blaTEM-1b (n=2); blaCTX-M-15+ blaTEM-1b+ blaOXA-1 (n=1);blaCTX-M-15+ blaOXA-1 (n=1);blaSHV-12 (n=1)], 4 C. freundii strains [blaCTX-M-15] and 2 K. oxytoca strains [blaCTX-M-15 (n=1); blaSHV-12 (n=1)]. The ISEcp1 and orf477 sequences were identified upstream and downstream of the blaCTX-M-15 gene, respectively, in 3 K. pneumoniae and 3 E. cloacae isolates. The PFGE analysis demonstrated three unrelated pulsotypes in K. pneumoniae strains and five pulsotypes in E. cloacae. The uncontrolled dissemination of ESBL-producing bacteria, even in the hospital environment, has become a real problem and new strategies and hygienic rules are needed to stop this bacterial dissemination.

  8. Structural and serological studies on the O-antigen show that Citrobacter youngae PCM1505 must be classified to a new Citrobacter O-serogroup. (United States)

    Katzenellenbogen, Ewa; Kocharova, Nina A; Górska-Frączek, Sabina; Gamian, Andrzej; Shashkov, Alexander S; Knirel, Yuriy A


    The O-polysaccharide obtained by mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharide of Citrobacter youngae PCM1505 was studied by sugar and methylation analyses along with 1D and 2D (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopies. The following structure of the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the polysaccharide was established: [Formula: see text]. Structural and serological data obtained earlier and in this work show that the strain studied is a candidate to a new Citrobacter O-serogroup.

  9. Community-Acquired Pneumonia and Empyema Caused by Citrobacter koseri in an Immunocompetent Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Ariza-Prota


    Full Text Available Citrobacter species, belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae, are environmental organisms commonly found in soil, water, and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. Citrobacter koseri is known to be an uncommon but serious cause of both sporadic and epidemic septicemia and meningitis in neonates and young infants. Most cases reported have occurred in immunocompromised hosts. The infections caused by Citrobacter are difficult to treat with usual broad spectrum antibiotics owing to rapid generation of mutants and have been associated with high death rates in the past. We believe this is the first case described in the literature of a community-acquired pneumonia and empyema caused by Citrobacter koseri in an immunocompetent adult patient.

  10. Virulence factors enhance Citrobacter rodentium expansion through aerobic respiration. (United States)

    Lopez, Christopher A; Miller, Brittany M; Rivera-Chávez, Fabian; Velazquez, Eric M; Byndloss, Mariana X; Chávez-Arroyo, Alfredo; Lokken, Kristen L; Tsolis, Renée M; Winter, Sebastian E; Bäumler, Andreas J


    Citrobacter rodentium uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to induce colonic crypt hyperplasia in mice, thereby gaining an edge during its competition with the gut microbiota through an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that by triggering colonic crypt hyperplasia, the C. rodentium T3SS induced an excessive expansion of undifferentiated Ki67-positive epithelial cells, which increased oxygenation of the mucosal surface and drove an aerobic C. rodentium expansion in the colon. Treatment of mice with the γ-secretase inhibitor dibenzazepine to diminish Notch-driven colonic crypt hyperplasia curtailed the fitness advantage conferred by aerobic respiration during C. rodentium infection. We conclude that C. rodentium uses its T3SS to induce histopathological lesions that generate an intestinal microenvironment in which growth of the pathogen is fueled by aerobic respiration.

  11. Anti-microbial resistance profile of Citrobacter species in a tertiary care hospital of southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj C Metri


    Full Text Available Background: Recently, the isolation of this pathogen in hospital settings is increasing and multidrug-resistant strains are emerging; these strains present a challenge for clinician and the clinical microbiologist because of their increased occurrence in nosocomial infection. The current study was done to find out the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Citrobacter species from various clinical specimens. Materials and Methods: Samples were collected from patients in accordance with standard protocols. Citrobacter species were identified by conventional biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was done by disc diffusion method according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS recommendations. Results: Out of 563 isolates of Citrobacter, majority were from pus (48.1%, followed by urine (24.3%, sputum (20.3%, body fluids (05.2%, blood (02.1%. C. koseri was the predominant species [391 (70%] isolated. Infection was nosocomialy acquired in 493 (87.4% patients. The mean age was 39.5 years. Anti-biograms of Citrobacter isolates revealed that effective agent against Citrobacter isolates was imipenem (91.8% sensitive, followed by piperacillin/tazobactam (58.3% and amikacin (53.4%. Conclusion: Citrobacter isolates resistant to multiple anti-microbial agents have emerged, including strains resistant to imipenem, making it an emerging nosocomial pathogen. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that surveillance of anti-microbial resistance in Citrobacter is necessary. Antibiotic policy should be formulated in the hospital. Depending on the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the Citrobacter isolates, antibiotics should be used, and proper infection control measures should be strictly followed to prevent spread of this pathogen.

  12. Fulminant citrobacter meningitis with multiple periventricular abscesses in a three-month-old infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anoop


    Full Text Available Citrobacter, a Gram-negative enteric bacillus, is a rare cause of septicemia and meningitis, seldom reported beyond the neonatal period. It is characterized by a fulminant clinical course and a high incidence of complications, including brain abscesses. We studied a three-month-old infant with Citrobacter meningitis, who developed acute communicating hydrocephalus and multiple periventricular brain abscesses while on treatment. The patient died, despite intensive antibiotic treatment directed towards the causative organism, C. diversus.

  13. The Serine Protease Autotransporter Pic Modulates Citrobacter rodentium Pathogenesis and Its Innate Recognition by the Host. (United States)

    Bhullar, Kirandeep; Zarepour, Maryam; Yu, Hongbing; Yang, Hong; Croxen, Matthew; Stahl, Martin; Finlay, B Brett; Turvey, Stuart E; Vallance, Bruce A


    Bacterial pathogens produce a number of autotransporters that possess diverse functions. These include the family of serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) produced by enteric pathogens such as Shigella flexneri and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli. Of these SPATEs, one termed "protein involved in colonization," or Pic, has been shown to possess mucinase activity in vitro, but to date, its role in in vivo enteric pathogenesis is unknown. Testing a pic null (ΔpicC) mutant in Citrobacter rodentium, a natural mouse pathogen, found that the C. rodentium ΔpicC strain was impaired in its ability to degrade mucin in vitro compared to the wild type. Upon infection of mice, the ΔpicC mutant exhibited a hypervirulent phenotype with dramatically heavier pathogen burdens found in intestinal crypts. ΔpicC mutant-infected mice suffered greater barrier disruption and more severe colitis and weight loss, necessitating their euthanization between 10 and 14 days postinfection. Notably, the virulence of the ΔpicC mutant was normalized when the picC gene was restored; however, a PicC point mutant causing loss of mucinase activity did not replicate the ΔpicC phenotype. Exploring other aspects of PicC function, the ΔpicC mutant was found to aggregate to higher levels in vivo than wild-type C. rodentium. Moreover, unlike the wild type, the C. rodentium ΔpicC mutant had a red, dry, and rough (RDAR) morphology in vitro and showed increased activation of the innate receptor Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Interestingly, the C. rodentium ΔpicC mutant caused a degree of pathology similar to that of wild-type C. rodentium when infecting TLR2-deficient mice, showing that despite its mucinase activity, PicC's major role in vivo may be to limit C. rodentium's stimulation of the host's innate immune system.

  14. Production and properties of alpha-amylase from Citrobacter species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebuta N. Etim-Osowo


    Full Text Available Amylase production by Citrobacter sp. isolated from potato was optimized in batch culture studies under shake flask conditions. Effects and interactions of best sources and levels of carbon and nitrogen estimated by 4 x 5 and 4 x 4 factorial experimental arrangements were significant (P < 0.01 on amylase production. Optimal alpha-amylase yield was obtained in a medium containing sorghum flour (2.0 % w/v and a mixture of (NH42SO4 + soybean meal (1.5% w/v with an initial medium pH of 8.0. Under optimum conditions, amylase yield was maximal (0.499 U/ml after 60h incubation at room temperature (28oC ± 2oC. Characterization studies showed that the enzyme had maximum activity at 60oC, retained 100% of its original activities at 60oC for 2h, was maximally active at pH 7.0 and retained 100% of original activities at pH 9.0 for 2h. Enzyme activity was stimulated by urea, Mg2+, Ca2+ and Zn2+ but inhibited by Hg2+.

  15. Fermented dairy products modulate Citrobacter rodentium-induced colonic hyperplasia. (United States)

    Collins, James W; Chervaux, Christian; Raymond, Benoit; Derrien, Muriel; Brazeilles, Rémi; Kosta, Artemis; Chambaud, Isabelle; Crepin, Valerie F; Frankel, Gad


    We evaluated the protective effects of fermented dairy products (FDPs) in an infection model, using the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium (CR). Treatment of mice with FDP formulas A, B, and C or a control product did not affect CR colonization, organ specificity, or attaching and effacing lesion formation. Fermented dairy product A (FDP-A), but neither the supernatant from FDP-A nor β-irradiated (IR) FDP-A, caused a significant reduction in colonic crypt hyperplasia and CR-associated pathology. Profiling the gut microbiota revealed that IR-FDP-A promoted higher levels of phylotypes belonging to Alcaligenaceae and a decrease in Lachnospiraceae (Ruminococcus) during CR infection. Conversely, FDP-A prevented a decrease in Ruminococcus and increased Turicibacteraceae (Turicibacter). Importantly, loss of Ruminococcus and Turicibacter has been associated with susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis. Our results demonstrate that viable bacteria in FDP-A reduced CR-induced colonic crypt hyperplasia and prevented the loss of key bacterial genera that may contribute to disease pathology.

  16. Complete genome sequence of novel carbon monoxide oxidizing bacteria Citrobacter amalonaticus Y19, assembled de novo. (United States)

    Ainala, Satish Kumar; Seol, Eunhee; Park, Sunghoon


    We report here the complete genome sequence of Citrobacter amalonaticus Y19 isolated from an anaerobic digester. PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing was employed, resulting in a single scaffold of 5.58Mb. The sequence of a mega plasmid of 291Kb size is also presented.

  17. Favorable outcome in cerebral abscesses caused by Citrobacter koseri in a newborn infant


    Sarah Algubaisi; Christoph Bührer; Ulrich-Wilhelm Thomale; Birgit Spors


    The treatment of brain abscesses in newborn infants is controversial. We report on a 6-week-old infant with multiple brain abscesses caused by Citrobacter koseri that resolved after treatment with combined surgical drainage and intravenous therapy with meropenem and fosfomycin.

  18. Long-term selenium deficiency increases the pathogenicity of a Citrobacter rodentium infection in mice (United States)

    Citrobacter rodentium is a mouse pathogen that causes infectious colitis and shares characteristics with human enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli, including the ability to cause attaching and effacing lesions in the colon, and serves as a useful model to study the ...

  19. Hypervirulent- host-associated Citrobacter rodentium cells have poor acid tolerance (United States)

    Enhanced virulence or infectivity after passage through a mammalian host has been reported for a number of enteric food-borne pathogens. Citrobacter rodentium is a mouse pathogen that mimics many aspects of enterohemorrhagic E. coli infection of humans and serves as a useful model for studying viru...

  20. Construction aggregates (United States)

    Nelson, T.I.; Bolen, W.P.


    Construction aggregates, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.

  1. Phosphatase-mediated heavy metal accumulation by a Citrobacter sp. and related enterobacteria. (United States)

    Macaskie, L E; Bonthrone, K M; Rouch, D A


    A Citrobacter sp. was reported previously to accumulate heavy metals as cell-bound heavy metal phosphates. Metal uptake is mediated by the activity of a periplasmic acid-type phosphatase that liberates inorganic phosphate to provide the precipitant ligand for heavy metals presented to the cells. Amino acid sequencing of peptide fragments of the purified enzyme revealed significant homology to the phoN product (acid phosphatase) of some other enterobacteria. These organisms, together with Klebsiella pneumoniae, previously reported to produce acid phosphatase, were tested for their ability to remove uranium and lanthanum from challenge solutions supplemented with phosphatase substrate. The coupling of phosphate liberation to metal bioaccumulation was limited to the metal accumulating Citrobacter sp.; therefore the participation of species-specific additional factors in metal bioaccumulation was suggested.

  2. Identification and phylogeny of Enterobacter sakazakii relative to Enterobacter and Citrobacter species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Carol; Waddington, Michael; On, Stephen L.W.;


    The phylogenetic relationships of Enterobacter sakazakii strains were investigated using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and hsp60 sequencing. Each analysis distributed E. sakazakii strains among four clusters, indicating substantial taxonomic heterogeneity. The E. sakazakii type strain 16S rDNA sequenc...... was 97.8% similar to that of Citrobacter koseri but 97.0% similar to that of Enterobacter cloacae....

  3. Development of a real-time PCR assay for quantification of Citrobacter rodentium. (United States)

    Sagaidak, Sofia; Taibi, Amel; Wen, Bijun; Comelli, Elena M


    Molecular tools to quantify Citrobacter rodentium are not available. We developed a quantitative PCR assay targeting the espB gene. This assay is specific, has a linearity range of about 6.7×10(1) to 6.7×10(6)cells/PCR reaction (92% efficiency) and a detection limit of about 10(4)cells/g wet feces.

  4. Biosorption of lead, cadmium, and zinc by Citrobacter strain MCM B-181: Characterization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puranik, P.R.; Paknikar, K.M. [Agharkar Research Inst., Pune (India). Div. of Microbial Sciences


    The biosorption process for removal of lead, cadmium, and zinc by Citrobacter strain MCM B-181, a laboratory isolate, was characterized. Effects of environmental factors and growth conditions on metal uptake capacity were studied. Pretreatment of biomass with chemical agents increased cadmium sorption efficiency; however, there was no significant enhancement in lead and zinc sorption capacity. Metal sorption by Citrobacter strain MCM B-181 was found to be influenced by the pH of the solution, initial metal concentration, biomass concentration, and type of growth medium. The metal sorption process was not affected by the age of the culture or change in temperature. Equilibrium metal sorption was found to fit the Langmuir adsorption model. Kinetic studies showed that metal uptake by Citrobacter strain MCm B-181 was a fast process, requiring < 20 min to achieve > 90% adsorption efficiency. The presence of cations reduced lead, zinc, and cadmium sorption to the extent of 11.8%, 84.3%, and 33.4%, respectively. When biomass was exposed to multimetal solutions, metals were adsorbed in the order Co{sup 2+} < Ni{sup 2+} < Cd{sup 2+} < Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} < Pb{sup 2+}. A new mathematical model used for batch kinetic studies was found to be highly useful in prediction of experimentally obtained metal concentration profiles as a function of time.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭丽花; 任源; 邓留杰; 张小璇; 韦朝海


    考察了在不同温度、pH值、摇床转速、氮源等环境和营养条件下,间甲酚降解菌Citrobacter farmeri对降解速率和降解过程中反应液的TOC值、紫外吸收及酶活的变化.结果表明,Citrobacter farmeri 降解间甲酚的最适温度为35℃,培养基初始pH值为6.5-8.0,摇床转速为170 r·min-1,无机氮比有机氮和氨态氮比硝态氮更利于Citrobacter farmeri/对间甲酚的降解;当间甲酚初始浓度低于375mg·l-1时,Citrobacter farmerifarmeri降解间甲酚符合零级动力学方程;间甲酚初始浓度约为60 mg·I-1时约4 h完全降解,TOC的去除率8 h内可达到77%,之后几乎不变;Citrobacter farmeri 可完全降解约600 mg·l-1的间甲酚,表现出高效与强耐受能力的结合.对酶活的测定发现,儿茶酚1,2-双加氧酶有明显增大,初步判断Citrobacter farmeri以邻位裂解的途径对间甲酚进行降解.

  6. [Septic shock following platelet transfusion contaminated with Citrobacter koseri in a child with postchemotherapy febrile neutropenia]. (United States)

    Tichit, R; Saumet, L; Marchandin, H; Haouy, S; Latry, P; Sirvent, N


    The bacterial transfusion risk is currently the greatest infectious risk of blood transfusion. We report the case of a child with postchemotherapy febrile neutropenia who presented septic shock following platelet transfusion contaminated with Citrobacter koseri. The life-threatening development could have been avoided by strict compliance with good clinical practice. The stability of mortality rates due to adverse effects of bacterial proliferation during platelet transfusions in France since 1994 calls for optimization of all preventive measures throughout the transfusion chain and perfect knowledge of transfusion rules by medical staff and care givers.

  7. Dietary Chitosan Supplementation Increases Microbial Diversity and Attenuates the Severity of Citrobacter rodentium Infection in Mice (United States)

    Wang, Hongbing; Xiong, Xia; Tan, Bie; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Fang, Jun


    C57BL/6 mice were tested in order to investigate the effects of dietary chitosan (COS) supplements on intestinal microflora and resistance to Citrobacter rodentium infection. The findings reveal that, after consuming a 300 mg/kg COS diet for 14 days, microflora became more diverse as a result of the supplement. Mice receiving COS exhibited an increase in the percentage of Bacteroidetes phylum and a decrease in the percentage of Firmicutes phylum. After Citrobacter rodentium infection, the histopathology scores indicated that COS feeding resulted in less severe colitis. IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly lower in colon from COS-feeding mice than those in the control group. Furthermore, mice in COS group were also found to experience inhibited activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in the colonic tissue. Overall, the findings revealed that adding 300 mg/kg COS to the diet changed the composition of the intestinal microflora of mice, resulting in suppressed NF-κB activation and less production of TNF-α and IL-6; and these changes led to better control of inflammation and resolution of infection with C. rodentium. PMID:27761062

  8. Dietary Chitosan Supplementation Increases Microbial Diversity and Attenuates the Severity of Citrobacter rodentium Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiping Guan


    Full Text Available C57BL/6 mice were tested in order to investigate the effects of dietary chitosan (COS supplements on intestinal microflora and resistance to Citrobacter rodentium infection. The findings reveal that, after consuming a 300 mg/kg COS diet for 14 days, microflora became more diverse as a result of the supplement. Mice receiving COS exhibited an increase in the percentage of Bacteroidetes phylum and a decrease in the percentage of Firmicutes phylum. After Citrobacter rodentium infection, the histopathology scores indicated that COS feeding resulted in less severe colitis. IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly lower in colon from COS-feeding mice than those in the control group. Furthermore, mice in COS group were also found to experience inhibited activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB in the colonic tissue. Overall, the findings revealed that adding 300 mg/kg COS to the diet changed the composition of the intestinal microflora of mice, resulting in suppressed NF-κB activation and less production of TNF-α and IL-6; and these changes led to better control of inflammation and resolution of infection with C. rodentium.

  9. Quorum sensing activity of Citrobacter amalonaticus L8A, a bacterium isolated from dental plaque. (United States)

    Goh, Share-Yuan; Khan, Saad Ahmed; Tee, Kok Keng; Abu Kasim, Noor Hayaty; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan


    Cell-cell communication is also known as quorum sensing (QS) that happens in the bacterial cells with the aim to regulate their genes expression in response to increased cell density. In this study, a bacterium (L8A) isolated from dental plaque biofilm was identified as Citrobacter amalonaticus by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). Its N-acylhomoserine-lactone (AHL) production was screened by using two types of AHL biosensors namely Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Escherichia coli [pSB401]. Citrobacter amalonaticus strain L8A was identified and confirmed producing numerous types of AHL namely N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL), N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL), N-octanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C8-HSL) and N-hexadecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C16-HSL). We performed the whole genome sequence analysis of this oral isolate where its genome sequence reveals the presence of QS signal synthase gene and our work will pave the ways to study the function of the related QS genes in this bacterium.

  10. Selective enrichment of commensal gut bacteria protects against Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis. (United States)

    Vong, Linda; Pinnell, Lee J; Määttänen, Pekka; Yeung, C William; Lurz, Eberhard; Sherman, Philip M


    The intestinal microbiota plays a key role in shaping the host immune system. Perturbation of gut microbial composition, termed dysbiosis, is associated with an increased susceptibility to intestinal pathogens and is a hallmark of a number of inflammatory, metabolic, and infectious diseases. The prospect of mining the commensal gut microbiota for bacterial strains that can impact immune function represents an attractive strategy to counteract dysbiosis and resulting disease. In this study, we show that selective enrichment of commensal gut lactobacilli protects against the murine pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, a well-characterized model of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection. The lactobacilli-enriched bacterial culture prevented the expansion of Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria and was associated with improved indexes of epithelial barrier function (dextran flux), transmissible crypt hyperplasia, and tissue inflammatory cytokine levels. Moreover, cultivation of gut bacteria from Citrobacter rodentium-infected mice reveals the differential capacity of bacterial subsets to mobilize neutrophil oxidative burst and initiate the formation of weblike neutrophil extracellular traps. Our findings highlight the beneficial effects of a lactobacilli-enriched commensal gut microenvironment and, in the context of an intestinal barrier breach, the ability of neutrophils to immobilize both commensal and pathogenic bacteria.

  11. The pathogenicity of an enteric Citrobacter rodentium infection is enhanced by deficiencies in the antioxidants selenium and vitamin E (United States)

    Citrobacter rodentium is a mouse pathogen that shares many characteristics with human enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli, the causative agents for human disease, and serves as a useful model to study immunity to these organisms. In this study, the effect of a doub...

  12. Distinguishing aggregate formation and aggregate clearance using cell based assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Eenjes, E.; J.M. Dragich; H. Kampinga (Harm); A. Yamamoto, A.


    textabstractThe accumulation of ubiquitinated proteinaceous inclusions represents a complex process, reflecting the disequilibrium between aggregate formation and aggregate clearance. Although decreasing aggregate formation or augmenting aggregate clearance will ultimately lead to diminished aggrega

  13. Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis: A robust model to study mucosal immune responses in the gut. (United States)

    Koroleva, Ekaterina P; Halperin, Sydney; Gubernatorova, Ekaterina O; Macho-Fernandez, Elise; Spencer, Cody M; Tumanov, Alexei V


    Citrobacter rodentium is a natural mouse pathogen which reproducibly infects mice and causes intestinal disease. The C. rodentium model of infection is very useful for investigating host-pathogen immune interactions in the gut, and can also be used to understand the pathogenesis of several important human intestinal disorders, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, dysbiosis and colon tumorigenesis. Both innate and adaptive immune responses play a critical role in protection against C. rodentium. Here, we summarize the role of immune components in protection against C. rodentium and describe techniques for the analysis of innate and adaptive mucosal immune responses, including setting up the infection, analysis of colonic hyperplasia and bacterial dissemination, evaluation of antibody responses, and purification and analysis of intestinal epithelial and lymphoid cells.

  14. Syntheses of L-tyrosine-related amino acids by tyrosine phenol-lyase of Citrobacter intermedius. (United States)

    Nagasawa, T; Utagawa, T; Goto, J; Kim, C J; Tani, Y; Kumagai, H; Yamada, H


    Degradation of tyrosine to phenol, pyruvate and ammonia by tyrosine phenol-lyase from Citrobacter intermedius (formerly named Escherichia intermedia) is readily reversible at high concentrations of pyruvate and ammonia. Spectrophotometric studies indicate that ammonia is the first substrate which interacts with bound pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Kinetic results show that pyruvate is the second substrate bound, hence phenol must be the third. When an appropriate phenol derivative is substituted for phenol, the corresponding tyrosine analogue can be synthesized. 3-Fluoro-, 2-fluoro-, 3-chloro-, 2-chloro-, 3-bromo-, 2-bromo-, 2-iodo-, 3-methyl-, 2-methyl- and 2-methoxy-L-tyrosines have been synthesized by this reaction. By using various phenol derivatives or tyrosine analogues as substrates, the substrate specificity of tyrosine phenol-lyase is investigated and the situation of its active site is discussed.

  15. Decolorization of textile plant effluent by Citrobacter sp. strain KCTC 18061P. (United States)

    Jang, Moon-Sun; Jung, Byung-Gil; Sung, Nak-Chang; Lee, Young-Choon


    Citrobacter sp. strain KCTC 18061P was found to be able to decolorize textile plant effluent containing different types of reactive dyes. Effects of physico-chemical parameters, such as aeration, nitrogen source, glucose and effluent concentrations on the color removal of real dye effluent by this strain were investigated. The observed changes in the visible spectra indicated color removal by the absorption of dye to cells during incubation with the strain. This strain showed higher decolorization ability under aerobic than static culture conditions. With 1% glucose, this strain removed 70% of effluent color within 5 days. Decolorization was not significantly dependent on the nitrogen sources tested. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) were decreased in proportion to incubation times, and their removal rates were about 35% and 50%, respectively, at 7 days of culture.

  16. Identification, cloning and heterologous expression of active [NiFe]-hydrogenase 2 from Citrobacter sp. SG in Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Maier, Johannes A H; Ragozin, Sergey; Jeltsch, Albert


    Hydrogen (H2) is a potential alternative energy carrier which only produces water and heat upon combustion. Today, industrial hydrogen production mainly uses thermochemical processes based on fossil fuels or electrolysis of water. Therefore, biotechnological approaches to produce H2 from biomass are an interesting alternative. We introduce here a novel direct hydrogen measurement system using a semiconducting device specific for hydrogen detection. Using this device, a bacterium producing considerable amounts of hydrogen under aerobic cultivation was isolated and identified by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing as Citrobacter sp. The enzyme responsible for the observed hydrogenase activity was partially purified by 3 chromatographic purification steps and could be identified by peptide mass fingerprinting to be a type 2 [NiFe]-hydrogenase. Expression of the [NiFe]-hydrogenase 2 containing operon from Citrobacter sp. SG in Escherichia coli allowed recombinant hydrogen production. The [NiFe]-hydrogenase 2 identified here may be useful for biotechnological hydrogen production. We speculate that the expression of the hydrogenase in Citrobacter may be an adaptation to growth in acidic conditions.

  17. O2-stable membrane-bound [NiFe]hydrogenase from a newly isolated Citrobacter sp. S-77. (United States)

    Eguchi, Shigenobu; Yoon, Ki-Seok; Ogo, Seiji


    Hydrogenases are of great interest due to their potential use in H(2)-based technology. However, most hydrogenases are highly sensitive to O(2), which have been the major bottleneck in hydrogenase studies. Here we report an O(2)-stable membrane-bound [NiFe]hydrogenase (MBH) purified from a newly isolated strain, S-77. According to the 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the strain S-77, it belongs to the genus of Citrobacter. In vitro experiments using the cytoplasmic membrane of strain S-77 suggested that a cytochrome b acts as the physiological electron acceptor of the MBH. The purified MBH was composed of a dimer of heterodimers, consisting of two distinct subunits with the molecular weights of 58.5 and 38.5 kDa. The enzyme showed a specific activity for H(2)-oxidation of 661 U/mg, which is 35-fold greater than that for H(2)-production of 18.7 U/mg. Notably, the MBH showed a remarkable O(2)-stability, maintaining almost 95% of its original activity even after incubation for 30 h in air at 4°C. These results suggest that the O(2)-stable MBH may play an important role in the H(2)-metabolic pathway under the aerobic conditions of Citrobacter sp. S-77. This is the first report of the purification and biochemical characterization of an O(2)-stable MBH from the genus of Citrobacter.

  18. Platelet activation and aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Sander; Larsen, O H; Christiansen, Kirsten


    This study introduces a new laboratory model of whole blood platelet aggregation stimulated by endogenously generated thrombin, and explores this aspect in haemophilia A in which impaired thrombin generation is a major hallmark. The method was established to measure platelet aggregation initiated...

  19. Aggregations in Flatworms. (United States)

    Liffen, C. L.; Hunter, M.


    Described is a school project to investigate aggregations in flatworms which may be influenced by light intensity, temperature, and some form of chemical stimulus released by already aggregating flatworms. Such investigations could be adopted to suit many educational levels of science laboratory activities. (DS)

  20. Aggregates from mineral wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baic Ireneusz


    Full Text Available The problem concerning the growing demand for natural aggregates and the need to limit costs, including transportation from remote deposits, cause the increase in growth of interest in aggregates from mineral wastes as well as in technologies of their production and recovery. The paper presents the issue related to the group of aggregates other than natural. A common name is proposed for such material: “alternative aggregates”. The name seems to be fully justified due to adequacy of this term because of this raw materials origin and role, in comparison to the meaning of natural aggregates based on gravel and sand as well as crushed stones. The paper presents characteristics of the market and basic application of aggregates produced from mineral wastes, generated in the mining, power and metallurgical industries as well as material from demolished objects.

  1. Stressor exposure has prolonged effects on colonic microbial community structure in Citrobacter rodentium-challenged mice (United States)

    Galley, Jeffrey D.; Mackos, Amy R.; Varaljay, Vanessa A.; Bailey, Michael T.


    Stressor exposure significantly affects the colonic mucosa-associated microbiota, and exacerbates Citrobacter rodentium-induced inflammation, effects that can be attenuated with probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri. This study assessed the structure of the colonic mucosa-associated microbiota in mice exposed to a social stressor (called social disruption), as well as non-stressed control mice, during challenge with the colonic pathogen C. rodentium. Mice were exposed to the social stressor or home cage control conditions for six consecutive days and all mice were challenged with C. rodentium immediately following the first exposure to the stressor. In addition, mice received probiotic L. reuteri, or vehicle as a control, via oral gavage following each stressor exposure. The stressor-exposed mice had significant differences in microbial community composition compared to non-stressed control mice. This difference was first evident following the six-cycle exposure to the stressor, on Day 6 post-C. rodentium challenge, and persisted for up to 19 days after stressor termination. Mice exposed to the stressor had different microbial community composition regardless of whether they were treated with L. reuteri or treated with vehicle as a control. These data indicate that stressor exposure affects the colonic microbiota during challenge with C. rodentium, and that these effects are long-lasting and not attenuated by probiotic L. reuteri. PMID:28344333

  2. Citrobacter rodentium is an unstable pathogen showing evidence of significant genomic flux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola K Petty


    Full Text Available Citrobacter rodentium is a natural mouse pathogen that causes attaching and effacing (A/E lesions. It shares a common virulence strategy with the clinically significant human A/E pathogens enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC and is widely used to model this route of pathogenesis. We previously reported the complete genome sequence of C. rodentium ICC168, where we found that the genome displayed many characteristics of a newly evolved pathogen. In this study, through PFGE, sequencing of isolates showing variation, whole genome transcriptome analysis and examination of the mobile genetic elements, we found that, consistent with our previous hypothesis, the genome of C. rodentium is unstable as a result of repeat-mediated, large-scale genome recombination and because of active transposition of mobile genetic elements such as the prophages. We sequenced an additional C. rodentium strain, EX-33, to reveal that the reference strain ICC168 is representative of the species and that most of the inactivating mutations were common to both isolates and likely to have occurred early on in the evolution of this pathogen. We draw parallels with the evolution of other bacterial pathogens and conclude that C. rodentium is a recently evolved pathogen that may have emerged alongside the development of inbred mice as a model for human disease.

  3. Immunological mechanisms involved in probiotic-mediated protection against Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis. (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Yang, G; Meng, F; Yang, W; Hu, J; Ye, L; Shi, C; Wang, C


    Inflammatory bowel disease is a group of chronic, incurable inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract that cause severe diarrhoea, intestinal inflammation, pain, fatigue and weight loss. In this study, we first developed a model of Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis and then evaluated the protective effects of selected probiotics on inflammation. The results showed that administration of a combination of probiotics including Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 and Lactobacillus plantarum A significantly increased the production of CD11c(+) dendritic cells in the spleen (3.62% vs phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-treated control, P<0.01) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs). In addition, the presence of probiotics significantly up-regulated the development of CD4(+)/CD25(+)/Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in MLNs by approximately 2.07% compared to the effect observed in the PBS-treated control (P<0.01) and down-regulated the expression of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-17, tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, by 0.11, 0.11 and 0.15%, respectively, compared to the effect observed in the PBS-treated control (P<0.01).These effects conferred protection against colitis, as shown by histopathological analyses.

  4. Understanding the host-adapted state of Citrobacter rodentium by transcriptomic analysis. (United States)

    Smith, Allen D; Yan, Xianghe; Chen, Celine; Dawson, Harry D; Bhagwat, Arvind A


    Citrobacter rodentium (Cr) is a mouse pathogen that mimics many aspects of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections including producing attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions. Host-adapted (HA) Cr cells that are shed at the peak of infection have been reported to be hyper-infective. The exact mechanism underlying this phenomenon has remained elusive since the pathogen loses its HA 'status' immediately upon subculturing in laboratory media. We sequenced the entire transcriptome of Cr directly from the feces of infected mice and analyzed the gene expression pattern. We observed that the entire transcriptional machinery as well as several transcriptional regulators to be differentially expressed when compared with the transcriptome of cells grown on laboratory media. Major adhesion and effector genes, tir and eae, were highly expressed in HA along with many genes located on all five loci of enterocyte effacement regions (LEE 1-5). Notable absent among the HA expressed genes were 19 fimbrial operons and non-fimbrial adhesions and several non-LEE encoded effectors. These results demonstrate that host-adapted Cr has a unique transcriptome that is associated with increased host transmission.

  5. Psidium guajava leaf extract prevents intestinal colonization of Citrobacter rodentium in the mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Gupta


    Full Text Available Diarrheal diseases are the second highest cause of mortality of children under 5 years worldwide. There is a continuous search for developing a cost-effective treatment for diarrhea as the present ones are facing challenges. Medicinal plants can be explored further as an alternative treatment for diarrhea. Psidium guajava leaves have been used as an antidiarrheal globally. Citrobacter rodentium, a common mouse pathogen, is known to mimic the pathogenecity of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic E. coli. It can thus present an effective model to study infectious diarrhea. In the present study, the P. guajava leaf extract was tested for its efficacy in treating infectious diarrhea using a C. rodentium mouse model. The mice in the test group (treated with P. guajava leaf extract showed quicker clearance of infection as compared with the control group. The bacterial load in the fecal sample of the mice in the test group was high on Day 4 as compared with that in the control group, suggesting a flush out of the bacteria. In the test group, 6/7 (85.71% mice showed clearance of infection by Day 19. The control group continued to show infection till Day 29. P. guajava leaf extract thus has the potential for use in the treatment of infectious diarrhea.

  6. The cell surface receptor Slamf6 modulates innate immune responses during Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis. (United States)

    van Driel, Boaz; Wang, Guoxing; Liao, Gongxian; Halibozek, Peter J; Keszei, Marton; O'Keeffe, Michael S; Bhan, Atul K; Wang, Ninghai; Terhorst, Cox


    The homophilic cell surface receptors CD150 (Slamf1) and CD352 (Slamf6) are known to modulate adaptive immune responses. Although the Th17 response was enhanced in Slamf6(-/-) C57BL/6 mice upon oral infection with Citrobacter rodentium, the pathologic consequences are indistinguishable from an infection of wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Using a reporter-based binding assay, we show that Slamf6 can engage structures on the outer cell membrane of several Gram(-) bacteria. Therefore, we examined whether Slamf6, like Slamf1, is also involved in innate responses to bacteria and regulates peripheral inflammation by assessing the outcome of C. rodentium infections in Rag(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, the pathology and immune responses in the lamina propria of C. rodentium-infected Slamf6(-/-) Rag(-/-) mice were markedly reduced as compared with those of Rag(-/-) mice. Infiltration of inflammatory phagocytes into the lamina propria was consistently lower in Slamf6(-/-) Rag(-/-) mice than in Rag(-/-) animals. Concomitant with the reduced systemic translocation of the bacteria was an enhanced production of IL-22, suggesting that Slamf6 suppresses a mucosal protective program. Furthermore, administering a mAb (330) that inhibits bacterial interactions with Slamf6 to Rag(-/-) mice ameliorated the infection compared with a control antibody. We conclude that Slamf6-mediated interactions of colonic innate immune cells with specific Gram(-) bacteria reduce mucosal protection and enhance inflammation, contributing to lethal colitis that is caused by C. rodentium infections in Rag(-/-) mice.

  7. Effect of surfactant on phenanthrene metabolic kinetics by Citrobacter sp. SA01. (United States)

    Li, Feng; Zhu, Lizhong; Zhang, Dong


    To attain a better understanding of the effects of surfactants on the metabolic kinetics of hydrophobic organic compounds, the biodegradation of phenanthrene by Citrobacter sp. SA01 was investigated in a batch experiment containing Tween 80, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate and liquid mineral salt medium. The Monod model was modified to effectively describe the partition, phenanthrene biodegradation and biopolymer production. The results showed that Tween 80 and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (each at 50mg/L) enhanced phenanthrene metabolism and poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production as indicated by the increasing amounts of intermediates (by 17.2% to 47.9%), and percentages of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (by 107.3% and 33.1%) within the cell dry weight when compared to their absence. The modified Monod model was capable of predicting microbial growth, phenanthrene depletion and biopolymer production. Furthermore, the Monod kinetic coefficients were largely determined by the surfactant-enhanced partition, suggesting that partitioning is a critical process in surfactant-enhanced bioremediation of hydrophobic organic compounds.

  8. Proteome responses of Citrobacter werkmanii BF-6 planktonic cells and biofilms to calcium chloride. (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Shi, Qing-shan; Huang, Xiao-mo; Xie, Xiao-bao


    Calcium ions are well-known as intracellular second messengers that also have an important extracellular structural role for bacteria. Recently, we found that denser biofilms were formed by Citrobacter werkmanii BF-6 in the presence of 400 mM Ca(2+) than that of 12.5mM Ca(2+). Therefore, we employed two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis methods to investigate the proteome profiles of planktonic cells and biofilms in BF-6 under different concentrations of Ca(2+). Meanwhile, BF-6 biofilm architecture was also visualized with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results demonstrated that BF-6 biofilms formed at the bottom of microtiter plates when grown in the presence of 400 mM Ca(2+). A total of 151 proteins from planktonic cells and biofilms after exposure of BF-6 cells to 12.5 and 400 mM Ca(2+) were successfully identified. Different gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathways were categorized and enriched for the above proteins. Growth in the presence of 400 mM Ca(2+) induced more complex signal pathways in BF-6 than 12.5mM Ca(2+). In addition, the biofilm architectures were also affected by Ca(2+). Our results show two different modes of biofilm enhancement for C. werkmanii in the presence of excess Ca(2+) and provide a preliminary expression of these differences based on proteomic assays.

  9. Glycerol assimilation and production of 1,3-propanediol by Citrobacter amalonaticus Y19. (United States)

    Ainala, Satish Kumar; Ashok, Somasundar; Ko, Yeounjoo; Park, Sunghoon


    Citrobacter amalonaticus Y19 (Y19) was isolated because of its ability for carbon monoxide-dependent hydrogen production (water-gas shift reaction). This paper reports the assimilation of glycerol and the production of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) by Y19. Genome sequencing revealed that Y19 contained the genes for the utilization of glycerol and 1,2-propanediol (pdu operon) along with those for the synthesis of coenzyme B12 (cob operon). On the other hand, it did not possess the genes for the fermentative metabolism of glycerol of Klebsiella pneumoniae, which consists of both the oxidative (dhaD and dhaK) and reductive (dhaB and dhaT) pathways. In shake-flask cultivation under aerobic conditions, Y19 could grow well with glycerol as the sole carbon source and produced 1,3-PDO. The level of 1,3-PDO production was improved when vitamin B12 was added to the culture medium under aerobic conditions. Under anaerobic conditions, cell growth and 1,3-PDO production on glycerol was also possible, but only when an exogenous electron acceptor, such as nitrate or fumarate, was added. This is the first report of the glycerol metabolism and 1,3-PDO production by C. amalonaticus Y19.

  10. Hypervirulent-host-associated Citrobacter rodentium cells have poor acid tolerance. (United States)

    Smith, Allen; Bhagwat, Arvind A


    Enhanced virulence or infectivity after passage through a mammalian host has been reported for a number of enteric food-borne pathogens. Citrobacter rodentium is a mouse pathogen that mimics many aspects of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection of humans and serves as a useful model for studying virulence mechanisms. Emergence of a hyperinfectious state after passage through mouse gastrointestinal tract was reported for C. rodentium. We wanted to investigate if increased acid tolerance could explain hypervirulence status of C. rodentium. Although we were able to observe hyperinfectious state of C. rodentium upon host passage, the cells were extremely acid sensitive. Growth under mildly acidic conditions (LB-MES, pH 5.5) induced acid tolerance of C. rodentium, but did not improve the organism's ability to establish infection. Growth under anaerobic environment on fecal components also did not induce hyperinfectious state. Thus, contrary to conventional anticipation, hypervirulent C. rodentium cells were found to be acid sensitive thereby revealing limitations of the role of mouse gastric acidity by itself in elucidating the hypervirulent phenotype.

  11. Inflammasome Activation by ATP Enhances Citrobacter rodentium Clearance through ROS Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bording-Jorgensen


    Full Text Available Background: Nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3 is an important cytosolic sensor of cellular stress and infection. Once activated, NLRP3 forms a multiprotein complex (inflammasome that triggers the maturation and secretion of interleukin (IL-1β and IL-18. We aimed to define the consequences of NLRP3 induction, utilizing exogenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP as an inflammasome activator, to determine if inflammasome activation increases macrophage killing of Citrobacter rodentium and define mechanisms. Methods: Bacterial survival was measured using a gentamicin protection assay. Inflammasome activation or inhibition in mouse J774A.1 macrophages were assessed by measuring IL-1β; cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS were measured by ELISA and DCFDA, respectively. Results: Activation of the inflammasome increased bacterial killing by macrophages and its inhibition attenuated this effect with no impact on phagocytosis or cell death. Furthermore, inflammasome activation suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines during infection, possibly due to more effective bacterial killing. While the infection increased ROS production, this effect was reduced by inflammasome inhibitors, indicating that ROS is inflammasome-dependent. ROS inhibitors increased bacterial survival in the presence of ATP, suggesting that inflammasome-induced bacterial killing is mediated, at least in part, by ROS activity. Conclusion: Improving inflammasome activity during infection may increase bacterial clearance by macrophages and reduce subsequent microbe-induced inflammation.

  12. IL-23-mediated mononuclear phagocyte crosstalk protects mice from Citrobacter rodentium-induced colon immunopathology. (United States)

    Aychek, Tegest; Mildner, Alexander; Yona, Simon; Kim, Ki-Wook; Lampl, Nardy; Reich-Zeliger, Shlomit; Boon, Louis; Yogev, Nir; Waisman, Ari; Cua, Daniel J; Jung, Steffen


    Gut homeostasis and mucosal immune defense rely on the differential contributions of dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages. Here we show that colonic CX3CR1(+) mononuclear phagocytes are critical inducers of the innate response to Citrobacter rodentium infection. Specifically, the absence of IL-23 expression in macrophages or CD11b(+) DC results in the impairment of IL-22 production and in acute lethality. Highlighting immunopathology as a death cause, infected animals are rescued by the neutralization of IL-12 or IFNγ. Moreover, mice are also protected when the CD103(+) CD11b(-) DC compartment is rendered deficient for IL-12 production. We show that IL-12 production by colonic CD103(+) CD11b(-) DC is repressed by IL-23. Collectively, in addition to its role in inducing IL-22 production, macrophage-derived or CD103(-) CD11b(+) DC-derived IL-23 is required to negatively control the otherwise deleterious production of IL-12 by CD103(+) CD11b(-) DC. Impairment of this critical mononuclear phagocyte crosstalk results in the generation of IFNγ-producing former TH17 cells and fatal immunopathology.

  13. Hydrogen production by a new chemoheterotrophic bacterium Citrobacter sp. Y19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, G.Y. [Pusan National Univ. (Korea). Inst. for Environmental Technology and Industry; Kim, J.R.; Park, J.Y. [Pusan National Univ. (Korea). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Park, S. [Pusan National Univ. (Korea). Inst. for Environmental Technology and Industry; Pusan National Univ. (Korea). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    A newly isolated Citrobacter sp. Y19 grows on organic carbons aerobically and produces hydrogen from carbon monoxide (CO) and water when transferred to anaerobic conditions. Hydrogen production capability of Y19 was studied in serum-bottle and bioreactor cultures. Optimal cell growth was observed at pH 5-8, temperature of 30-40 {sup o} C, oxygen partial pressure of 0.2-0.4 atm. Induction of hydrogen production activity could be carried out efficiently under 20% (v/v) CO when the culture was removed to anaerobic conditions at 12 h. Optimal conditions for hydrogen production were 30-40{sup o} C and pH 5.5-7.5. The maximum hydrogen production activity was observed as 27.1 mmol/gcellh, which was about three times higher than that of Rhodospirillium rubrum. In bioreactor experiments, a stable hydrogen production along with a high activity of 20 mmolH{sub 2}gcellh was observed during the continuous operation of 68 h. (author)

  14. Study on biosorption kinetics and thermodynamics of uranium by Citrobacter freudii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Shuibo [Department of Environment Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China) and School of Urban Construction, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan 421001 (China)], E-mail:; Yang Jing [School of Urban Construction, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan 421001 (China); Chen Chao; Zhang Xiaojian [Department of Environment Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Qingliang; Zhang Chun [School of Urban Construction, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan 421001 (China)


    Biosorption has been developed as an effective and economic method to treat wastewater containing low concentrations of metal pollutants. In this study, a bacterium, Citrobacter freudii, was used as a biosorbent to adsorb uranium ions. The thermodynamics and kinetics of this adsorption, as well as its mechanism, were investigated. The results indicated that the biosorption rate could be better described by a pseudo 2nd-order model than a pseudo 1st-order model. The adsorption of U (VI) proceeded very rapidly in the first 30 min and subsequently slowed down continuously for a long period. The biosorption isotherm of uranium by C. freudii could be described well by the Langmuir or Freundlich isotherm, and the latter was better. The thermodynamics parameters, {delta}H{sup o}, {delta}G{sup o}, and {delta}S{sup o} were calculated according to the results of the experiment, which showed this biosorption as being endothermic and spontaneous. The authors investigated the active sites of bacteria for biosorption and the results proved that carboxyl in the cell wall played an important role in biosorption.

  15. Metabolic-flux analysis of hydrogen production pathway in Citrobacter amalonaticus Y19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, You-Kwan; Kim, Mi-Sun [Bioenergy Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea); Kim, Heung-Joo; Park, Sunghoon [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering and Institute for Environmental Technology and Industry, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea); Ryu, Dewey D.Y. [Biochemical Engineering Program, Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)


    For the newly isolated chemoheterotrophic bacterium Citrobacter amalonaticus Y19, anaerobic glucose metabolism and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production pathway were studied using batch cultivation and an in silico metabolic-flux analysis. Batch cultivation was conducted under varying initial glucose concentration between 1.5 and 9.5 g/L with quantitative measurement of major metabolites to obtain accurate carbon material balance. The metabolic flux of Y19 was analyzed using a metabolic-pathway model which was constructed from 81 biochemical reactions. The linear optimization program MetaFluxNet was employed for the analysis. When the specific growth rate of cells was chosen as an objective function, the model described the batch culture characteristics of Ci. amalonaticus Y19 reasonably well. When the specific H{sub 2} production rate was selected as an objective function, on the other hand, the achievable maximal H{sub 2} production yield (8.7molH{sub 2}/mol glucose) and the metabolic pathway enabling the high H{sub 2} yield were identified. The pathway involved non-native NAD(P)-linked hydrogenase and H{sub 2} production from NAD(P)H which were supplied at a high rate from glucose degradation through the pentose phosphate pathway. (author)

  16. Protein aggregate myopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma M


    Full Text Available Protein aggregate myopathies (PAM are an emerging group of muscle diseases characterized by structural abnormalities. Protein aggregate myopathies are marked by the aggregation of intrinsic proteins within muscle fibers and fall into four major groups or conditions: (1 desmin-related myopathies (DRM that include desminopathies, a-B crystallinopathies, selenoproteinopathies caused by mutations in the, a-B crystallin and selenoprotein N1 genes, (2 hereditary inclusion body myopathies, several of which have been linked to different chromosomal gene loci, but with as yet unidentified protein product, (3 actinopathies marked by mutations in the sarcomeric ACTA1 gene, and (4 myosinopathy marked by a mutation in the MYH-7 gene. While PAM forms 1 and 2 are probably based on impaired extralysosomal protein degradation, resulting in the accumulation of numerous and diverse proteins (in familial types in addition to respective mutant proteins, PAM forms 3 and 4 may represent anabolic or developmental defects because of preservation of sarcomeres outside of the actin and myosin aggregates and dearth or absence of other proteins in these actin or myosin aggregates, respectively. The pathogenetic principles governing protein aggregation within muscle fibers and subsequent structural sarcomeres are still largely unknown in both the putative catabolic and anabolic forms of PAM. Presence of inclusions and their protein composition in other congenital myopathies such as reducing bodies, cylindrical spirals, tubular aggregates and others await clarification. The hitherto described PAMs were first identified by immunohistochemistry of proteins and subsequently by molecular analysis of their genes.

  17. Charged Dust Aggregate Interactions (United States)

    Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell


    A proper understanding of the behavior of dust particle aggregates immersed in a complex plasma first requires a knowledge of the basic properties of the system. Among the most important of these are the net electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments on the dust aggregate as well as the manner in which the aggregate interacts with the local electrostatic fields. The formation of elongated, fractal-like aggregates levitating in the sheath electric field of a weakly ionized RF generated plasma discharge has recently been observed experimentally. The resulting data has shown that as aggregates approach one another, they can both accelerate and rotate. At equilibrium, aggregates are observed to levitate with regular spacing, rotating about their long axis aligned parallel to the sheath electric field. Since gas drag tends to slow any such rotation, energy must be constantly fed into the system in order to sustain it. A numerical model designed to analyze this motion provides both the electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments of the aggregate while including the forces due to thermophoresis, neutral gas drag, and the ion wakefield. This model will be used to investigate the ambient conditions leading to the observed interactions. This research is funded by NSF Grant 1414523.

  18. Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource (AcTOR) is EPA's online aggregator of all the public sources of chemical toxicity data. ACToR aggregates data...

  19. Kinetics study on decolorization of Reactive Red KN-3B by Citrobacter sp. CK3%Citrobacter sp. CK3对活性红KN-3B的脱色反应动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖正; 熊小京; 郑天凌; 林光辉; 张章堂


    采用脱色菌Citrobacter sp. CK3,以活性红KN-3B染料为处理对象,在厌氧批式反应条件下,系统考察了pH值,温度和染料浓度对脱色反应速度的影响;通过动力学模拟及反应过程中染料的UV-Vis扫描图分析,探讨了脱色反应机理。结果表明:Citrobacter sp. CK3对活性红KN-3B的脱色反应的适宜pH为7~9;脱色反应速度在温度为32℃时达到最大。染料初浓度从57 mg/L逐渐增大到458 mg/L时脱色率逐渐降低。脱色过程中染料的偶氮键发生断裂,脱色反应符合二级反应动力学。%The kinetic modeling and mechanism with which Citrobacter sp. CK3 removed the textile dye, C.I. Reactive Red 180, from aqueous solution was investigated using different parameters, such as initial dye concentration,pH and temperature. In anaerobic batch experiments, the decolorization efficiency decreased with increase in initial dye concentration. The high decolorization rate was observed at pH of 7 -9 and temperature of 32C. The decolorization followed a second order kinetic model. The UV-Vis spectra analysis revealed that the decolorization process was azo bond cleaved reaction.

  20. Recycled aggregates concrete: aggregate and mix properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Fonteboa, B.


    Full Text Available This study of structural concrete made with recycled concrete aggregate focuses on two issues: 1. The characterization of such aggregate on the Spanish market. This involved conducting standard tests to determine density, water absorption, grading, shape, flakiness and hardness. The results obtained show that, despite the considerable differences with respect to density and water absorption between these and natural aggregates, on the whole recycled aggregate is apt for use in concrete production. 2. Testing to determine the values of basic concrete properties: mix design parameters were established for structural concrete in non-aggressive environments. These parameters were used to produce conventional concrete, and then adjusted to manufacture recycled concrete aggregate (RCA concrete, in which 50% of the coarse aggregate was replaced by the recycled material. Tests were conducted to determine the physical (density of the fresh and hardened material, water absorption and mechanical (compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity properties. The results showed that, from the standpoint of its physical and mechanical properties, concrete in which RCA accounted for 50% of the coarse aggregate compared favourably to conventional concrete.

    Se aborda el estudio de hormigones estructurales fabricados con áridos reciclados procedentes de hormigón, incidiéndose en dos aspectos: 1. Caracterización de tales áridos, procedentes del mercado español. Para ello se llevan a cabo ensayos de densidad, absorción, granulometría, coeficiente de forma, índice de lajas y dureza. Los resultados obtenidos han puesto de manifiesto que, a pesar de que existen diferencias notables (sobre todo en cuanto a densidad y absorción con los áridos naturales, las características de los áridos hacen posible la fabricación de hormigones. 2. Ensayos sobre propiedades básicas de los hormigones: se establecen parámetros de dosificaci

  1. Aggregation and Averaging. (United States)

    Siegel, Irving H.

    The arithmetic processes of aggregation and averaging are basic to quantitative investigations of employment, unemployment, and related concepts. In explaining these concepts, this report stresses need for accuracy and consistency in measurements, and describes tools for analyzing alternative measures. (BH)

  2. Protein Colloidal Aggregation Project (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J. (Compiler)


    To investigate the pathways and kinetics of protein aggregation to allow accurate predictive modeling of the process and evaluation of potential inhibitors to prevalent diseases including cataract formation, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease and others.

  3. Cell aggregation and sedimentation. (United States)

    Davis, R H


    The aggregation of cells into clumps or flocs has been exploited for decades in such applications as biological wastewater treatment, beer brewing, antibiotic fermentation, and enhanced sedimentation to aid in cell recovery or retention. More recent research has included the use of cell aggregation and sedimentation to selectively separate subpopulations of cells. Potential biotechnological applications include overcoming contamination, maintaining plasmid-bearing cells in continuous fermentors, and selectively removing nonviable hybridoma cells from perfusion cultures.

  4. Identification of Novel Host Interactors of Effectors Secreted by Salmonella and Citrobacter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sontag, Ryan L.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Brown, Roslyn N.; Niemann, George S.; Sydor, Michael A.; Sanchez, Octavio; Ansong, Charles; Lu, Shao-Yeh; Choi, Hyungwon; Valleau, Dylan; Weitz, Karl K.; Savchenko, Alexei; Cambronne, Eric D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J.


    Many pathogenic bacteria of the familyEnterobacteriaceaeuse type III secretion systems to inject virulence proteins, termed “effectors,” into the host cell cytosol. Although host-cellular activities of several effectors have been demonstrated, the function and host-targeted pathways of most of the effectors identified to date are largely undetermined. To gain insight into host proteins targeted by bacterial effectors, we performed coaffinity purification of host proteins from cell lysates using recombinant effectors from theEnterobacteriaceaeintracellular pathogensSalmonella entericaserovar Typhimurium andCitrobacter rodentium. We identified 54 high-confidence host interactors for theSalmonellaeffectors GogA, GtgA, GtgE, SpvC, SrfH, SseL, SspH1, and SssB collectively and 21 interactors for theCitrobactereffectors EspT, NleA, NleG1, and NleK. We biochemically validated the interaction between the SrfHSalmonellaprotein and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) host protein kinase, which revealed a role for this effector in regulating phosphorylation levels of this enzyme, which plays a central role in signal transduction.

    IMPORTANCEDuring infection, pathogenic bacteria face an adverse environment of factors driven by both cellular and humoral defense mechanisms. To help evade the immune response and ultimately proliferate inside the host, many bacteria evolved specialized secretion systems to deliver effector proteins directly into host cells. Translocated effector proteins function to subvert host defense mechanisms. Numerous pathogenic bacteria use a specialized secretion system called type III secretion to deliver effectors into the host cell cytosol. Here, we identified 75 new host targets ofSalmonellaandCitrobactereffectors, which will help elucidate their mechanisms of

  5. Polymeric and compositional properties of novel extracellular microbial polyglucosamine biopolymer from new strain of citrobacter sp. BL-4. (United States)

    Kim, Lin-Su; Hong, Soo-Jung; Son, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Yong-Hyun


    A novel polyglucosamine polymer, PGB-2, was produced extracellularly from a new strain Citrobacter sp. BL-4 using pH-stat fed batch cultivation. It was composed of 97.3% glucosamine and 2.7% rhamnose; its average molecular weight, solubility in 2% acetic acid and viscosity were 20 kDa, 5 g l(-1) and 2.9 cps, respectively. FT-IR and 1H NMR spectra of PGB-2 revealed a close identity with chitosan from crab shells.

  6. The CpxRA two-component system is essential for Citrobacter rodentium virulence. (United States)

    Thomassin, Jenny-Lee; Giannakopoulou, Natalia; Zhu, Lei; Gross, Jeremy; Salmon, Kristiana; Leclerc, Jean-Mathieu; Daigle, France; Le Moual, Hervé; Gruenheid, Samantha


    Citrobacter rodentium is a murine intestinal pathogen used as a model for the foodborne human pathogens enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and enteropathogenic E. coli. During infection, these pathogens use two-component signal transduction systems to detect and adapt to changing environmental conditions. In E. coli, the CpxRA two-component signal transduction system responds to envelope stress by modulating the expression of a myriad of genes. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that cpxRA was expressed in the colon of C57BL/6J mice infected with C. rodentium. To determine whether CpxRA plays a role during C. rodentium infection, a cpxRA deletion strain was generated and found to have a colonization defect during infection. This defect was independent of an altered growth rate or a defective type III secretion system, and single-copy chromosomal complementation of cpxRA restored virulence. The C. rodentium strains were then tested in C3H/HeJ mice, a lethal intestinal infection model. Mice infected with the ΔcpxRA strain survived infection, whereas mice infected with the wild-type or complemented strains succumbed to infection. Furthermore, we found that the cpxRA expression level was higher during early infection than at a later time point. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the CpxRA two-component signal transduction system is essential for the in vivo virulence of C. rodentium. In addition, these data suggest that fine-tuned cpxRA expression is important for infection. This is the first study that identifies a C. rodentium two-component transduction system required for pathogenesis. This study further indicates that CpxRA is an interesting target for therapeutics against enteric pathogens.

  7. Rac2-deficiency leads to exacerbated and protracted colitis in response to Citrobacter rodentium infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi Fattouh

    Full Text Available Recent genetic-based studies have implicated a number of immune-related genes in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Our recent genetic studies showed that RAC2 is associated with human IBD; however, its role in disease pathogenesis is unclear. Given Rac2's importance in various fundamental immune cell processes, we investigated whether a defect in Rac2 may impair host immune responses in the intestine and promote disease in the context of an infection-based (Citrobacter rodentium model of colitis. In response to infection, Rac2(-/- mice showed i worsened clinical symptoms (days 13-18, ii increased crypt hyperplasia at days 11 and 22 (a time when crypt hyperplasia was largely resolved in wild-type mice; WT, and iii marked mononuclear cell infiltration characterized by higher numbers of T (CD3(+ cells (day 22, compared to WT-infected mice. Moreover, splenocytes harvested from infected Rac2(-/- mice and stimulated in vitro with C. rodentium lysate produced considerably higher levels of interferon-γ and interleukin-17A. The augmented responses observed in Rac2(-/- mice did not appear to stem from Rac2's role in NADPH oxidase-driven reactive oxygen species production as no differences in crypt hyperplasia, nor inflammation, were observed in infected NOX2(-/- mice compared to WT. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that Rac2(-/- mice develop more severe disease when subjected to a C. rodentium-induced model of infectious colitis, and suggest that impaired Rac2 function may promote the development of IBD in humans.

  8. Role of class 1 serine protease autotransporter in the pathogenesis of Citrobacter rodentium colitis. (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Vidhya; Santiago, Araceli; Smith, Rachel; Smith, Mark; Robins-Browne, Roy M; Nataro, James P; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando


    A growing family of virulence factors called serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) are secreted by Shigella, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli pathotypes. SPATEs are subdivided into class 1 and class 2 based on structural features and phylogenetics. Class 1 SPATEs induce cytopathic effects in numerous epithelial cell lines, and several have been shown to cleave the cytoskeletal protein spectrin in vitro. However, to date the in vivo role of class 1 SPATEs in enteric pathogenesis is unknown. Citrobacter rodentium, a natural mouse pathogen, has recently been shown to harbor class 1 and class 2 SPATEs. To better understand the contribution of class 1 SPATEs in enteric infection, we constructed a class 1 SPATE null mutant (Δcrc1) in C. rodentium. Upon infection of C57BL/6 mice, the Δcrc1 mutant exhibited a hypervirulent, hyperinflammatory phenotype compared with its parent, accompanied by greater weight loss and a trend toward increased mortality in young mice; the effect was reversed when the crc1 gene was restored. Using flow cytometry, we observed increased infiltration of T cells, B cells, and neutrophils into the lamina propria of the distal colon in mice fed the Δcrc1 mutant, starting as early as 5 days after infection. No significant difference in epithelial cytotoxicity was observed. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis of distal colonic tissue on day 10 postinfection showed significant increases in mRNA encoding cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), gamma interferon (IFN-γ), IL-1β, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) but not in mRNA encoding IL-17, IL-4, or IL-10 in the Δcrc1 mutant-infected mice. Our data suggest a previously unsuspected role for class 1 SPATEs in enteric infection.

  9. Evolutionary adaptation of an AraC-like regulatory protein in Citrobacter rodentium and Escherichia species. (United States)

    Tan, Aimee; Petty, Nicola K; Hocking, Dianna; Bennett-Wood, Vicki; Wakefield, Matthew; Praszkier, Judyta; Tauschek, Marija; Yang, Ji; Robins-Browne, Roy


    The evolution of pathogenic bacteria is a multifaceted and complex process, which is strongly influenced by the horizontal acquisition of genetic elements and their subsequent expression in their new hosts. A well-studied example is the RegA regulon of the enteric pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. The RegA regulatory protein is a member of the AraC/XylS superfamily, which coordinates the expression of a gene repertoire that is necessary for full pathogenicity of this murine pathogen. Upon stimulation by an exogenous, gut-associated signal, namely, bicarbonate ions, RegA activates the expression of a series of genes, including virulence factors, such as autotransporters, fimbriae, a dispersin-like protein, and the grlRA operon on the locus of enterocyte effacement pathogenicity island. Interestingly, the genes encoding RegA homologues are distributed across the genus Escherichia, encompassing pathogenic and nonpathogenic subtypes. In this study, we carried out a series of bioinformatic, transcriptional, and functional analyses of the RegA regulons of these bacteria. Our results demonstrated that regA has been horizontally transferred to Escherichia spp. and C. rodentium. Comparative studies of two RegA homologues, namely, those from C. rodentium and E. coli SMS-3-5, a multiresistant environmental strain of E. coli, showed that the two regulators acted similarly in vitro but differed in terms of their abilities to activate the virulence of C. rodentium in vivo, which evidently was due to their differential activation of grlRA. Our data indicate that RegA from C. rodentium has strain-specific adaptations that facilitate infection of its murine host. These findings shed new light on the development of virulence by C. rodentium and on the evolution of virulence-regulatory genes of bacterial pathogens in general.

  10. Fermentative biohydrogen production by a new chemoheterotrophic bacterium Citrobacter sp. Y19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youkwan Oh; Sunghoon Park [Changjeon Univ., Pusan (Korea). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Pusan National Univ. (Korea). Inst. for Environmental Technology and Industry; Eunhee Seol [Changjeon Univ., Pusan (Korea). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Jung Rae Kim [Pusan National Univ. (Korea). Inst. for Environmental Technology and Industry


    A newly isolated Citrobacter sp. Y19 for CO-dependent H{sub 2} production was studied for its capability of fermentative H{sub 2} production in batch cultivation. When glucose was used as carbon source, the pH of the culture medium significantly decreased as fermentation proceeded and H{sub 2} production was seriously inhibited. The use of fortified phosphate at 60-180 mM alleviated this inhibition. By increasing culture temperatures (25-36{sup o}C), faster cell growth and higher initial H{sub 2} production rates were observed but final H{sub 2} production and yield were almost constant irrespective of temperature. Optimal specific H{sub 2} production activity was observed at 36{sup o}C and pH 6-7. The increase of glucose concentration (1-20 g/l) in the culture medium resulted in higher H{sub 2} production, but the yield of H{sub 2} production (mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose) gradually decreased with increasing glucose concentration. Carbon mass balance showed that, in addition to cell mass, ethanol, acetate and CO{sub 2} were the major fermentation products and comprised more than 70% of the carbon consumed. The maximal H{sub 2} yield and H{sub 2} production rate were estimated to be 2.49 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose and 32.3 mmol H{sub 2}/gcellh, respectively. The overall performance of Y19 in fermentative H{sub 2} production is quite similar to that of most H{sub 2}-producing bacteria previously studied, especially to that of Rhodopseudomonas palustris P4, and this indicates that the attempt to find an outstanding bacterial strain for fermentative H{sub 2} production might be very difficult if not impossible. (author)

  11. Microbial degradation of Paclitaxel using Citrobacter amalonaticus Rashtia isolated from pharmaceutical wastewater: kinetic and thermodynamic study. (United States)

    Zamani, Hojjatolah; Grakoee, Seyed Reza; Rakhshaee, Roohan


    Paclitaxel is a highly toxic anticancer agent which is used in a wide range against ovarian, breast, lung, and prostate cancers. Paclitaxel is manufactured recently in the north of Iran which may lead to the introduction of the drug into the environment via pharmaceutical wastewater. To our knowledge, Paclitaxel degradation is currently performed using physicochemical methods and biological degradation of Paclitaxel has not been reported. In this study, a Paclitaxel degrading bacterium was isolated from pharmaceutical wastewater for the first time. The bacterium was identified using biochemical and molecular assays and its Paclitaxel degradation potential was evaluated using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). In addition, kinetic and thermodynamic study of Paclitaxel degradation at different experimental conditions was performed. A Citrobacter species named as C. amalonaticus Rashtia able to degrade and utilize Paclitaxel as the sole carbon source was isolated. The isolated strain tolerated high level concentration of Paclitaxel (0.4 mg/mL) in liquid culture media and was able to degrade spillage-level concentrations of the drug (0.01-0.1 mg/mL) with 87-93 % efficacy under aerobic condition. Kinetic and thermodynamic study at different pHs (4.0, 7.0 and 10.0) and temperatures (285, 295 and 310 K) revealed that Paclitaxel degradation is a non-spontaneous process and the highest rate constant was observed in the basic condition and at the highest temperature. The ΔG values at 285, 295 and 310 K were determined 103.3, 105.9 and 109.9 kJ/mol, respectively. In addition, The ΔH and activation energy (Ea) of the process were determined +28.7 kJ/mol and +30.87 kJ/mol, respectively.

  12. Tir Triggers Expression of CXCL1 in Enterocytes and Neutrophil Recruitment during Citrobacter rodentium Infection. (United States)

    Crepin, Valerie F; Habibzay, Maryam; Glegola-Madejska, Izabela; Guenot, Marianne; Collins, James W; Frankel, Gad


    The hallmarks of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection are formation of attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions on mucosal surfaces and actin-rich pedestals on cultured cells, both of which are dependent on the type III secretion system effector Tir. Following translocation into cultured cells and clustering by intimin, Tir Y474 is phosphorylated, leading to recruitment of Nck, activation of N-WASP, and actin polymerization via the Arp2/3 complex. A secondary, weak, actin polymerization pathway is triggered via an NPY motif (Y454). Importantly, Y454 and Y474 play no role in A/E lesion formation on mucosal surfaces following infection with the EPEC-like mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. In this study, we investigated the roles of Tir segments located upstream of Y451 and downstream of Y471 in C. rodentium colonization and A/E lesion formation. We also tested the role that Tir residues Y451 and Y471 play in host immune responses to C. rodentium infection. We found that deletion of amino acids 382 to 462 or 478 to 547 had no impact on the ability of Tir to mediate A/E lesion formation, although deletion of amino acids 478 to 547 affected Tir translocation. Examination of enterocytes isolated from infected mice revealed that a C. rodentium strain expressing Tir_Y451A/Y471A recruited significantly fewer neutrophils to the colon and triggered less colonic hyperplasia on day 14 postinfection than the wild-type strain. Consistently, enterocytes isolated from mice infected with C. rodentium expressing Tir_Y451A/Y471A expressed significantly less CXCL1. These result show that Tir-induced actin remodeling plays a direct role in modulation of immune responses to C. rodentium infection.

  13. Optical dynamics of molecular aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Steven


    The subject of this thesis is the spectroscopy and dynamics of molecular aggregates in amorphous matrices. Aggregates of three different molecules were studied. The molecules are depicted in Fig. (1.1). Supersaturated solutions of these molecules show aggregate formation. Aggregation is a process si

  14. Fractals of Silica Aggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhinhongLi; DongWu; Yuhansun; JunWang; YiLiu; BaozhongDong; Zhinhong


    Silica aggregates were prepared by base-catalyzed hydrolysis and condensation of alkoxides in alcohol.Polyethylene glycol(PEG) was used as organic modifier.The sols were characterized using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) with synchrotron radiation as X-ray source.The structure evolution during the sol-gel process was determined and described in terms of the fractal geometry.As-produced silica aggregates were found to be mass fractals.The fractl dimensions spanned the regime 2.1-2.6 corresponding to more branched and compact structures.Both RLCA and Eden models dominated the kinetic growth under base-catalyzed condition.

  15. Effects of nutritional and environmental conditions on planktonic growth and biofilm formation of Citrobacter werkmanii BF-6. (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Li, Long-jie; Shi, Qing-shan; Ouyang, You-sheng; Chen, Yi-ben; Hu, Wen-feng


    Citrobacter sp. is a cause of significant opportunistic nosocomial infection and is frequently found in human and animal feces, soil, and sewage water, and even in industrial waste or putrefaction. Biofilm formation is an important virulence trait of Citrobacter sp. pathogens but the process and characteristics of this formation are unclear. Therefore, we employed in vitro assays to study the nutritional and environmental parameters that might influence biofilm formation of C. werkmanii BF-6 using 96-well microtiter plates. In addition, we detected the relative transcript levels of biofilm formation genes by RT-PCR. Our results indicated that the capacity of C. werkmanii BF-6 to form biofilms was affected by culture temperature, media, time, pH, and the osmotic agents glucose, sucrose, NaCl, and KCl. Confocal laser scanning microscopy results illustrated that the structure of biofilms and extracellular polysaccharide was influenced by 100 mM NaCl or 100 mM KCl. In addition, nine biofilm formation genes (bsmA, bssR, bssS, csgD, csgE, csgF, mrkA, mrkB, and mrkE) were found to contribute to planktonic and biofilm growth. Our data suggest that biofilm formation by C. werkmanii BF-6 is affected by nutritional and environmental factors, which could pave the way to the prevention and elimination of biofilm formation using proper strategies.

  16. Improved purification, crystallization and crystallographic study of Hyd-2-type [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Citrobacter sp. S-77. (United States)

    Muhd Noor, Noor Dina; Nishikawa, Koji; Nishihara, Hirofumi; Yoon, Ki Seok; Ogo, Seiji; Higuchi, Yoshiki


    The purification procedure of Hyd-2-type [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Citrobacter sp. S-77 was improved by applying treatment with trypsin before chromatography. Purified protein samples both with and without trypsin treatment were successfully crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with polyethylene glycol as a precipitant. Both crystals belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 63.90, b = 118.89, c = 96.70 Å, β = 100.61° for the protein subjected to trypsin treatment and a = 65.38, b = 121.45, c = 98.63 Å, β = 102.29° for the sample not treated with trypsin. The crystal obtained from the trypsin-treated protein diffracted to 1.60 Å resolution, which is considerably better than the 2.00 Å resolution obtained without trypsin treatment. The [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Citrobacter sp. S-77 retained catalytic activity with some amount of O2, indicating that it has clear O2 tolerance.

  17. Erosion of dust aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Seizinger, Alexander; Kley, Wilhelm


    Aims: The aim of this work is to gain a deeper insight into how much different aggregate types are affected by erosion. Especially, it is important to study the influence of the velocity of the impacting projectiles. We also want to provide models for dust growth in protoplanetary disks with simple recipes to account for erosion effects. Methods: To study the erosion of dust aggregates we employed a molecular dynamics approach that features a detailed micro-physical model of the interaction of spherical grains. For the first time, the model has been extended by introducing a new visco-elastic damping force which requires a proper calibration. Afterwards, different sample generation methods were used to cover a wide range of aggregate types. Results: The visco-elastic damping force introduced in this work turns out to be crucial to reproduce results obtained from laboratory experiments. After proper calibration, we find that erosion occurs for impact velocities of 5 m/s and above. Though fractal aggregates as ...

  18. Diffusion in aggregated soil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rappoldt, C.


    The structure of an aggregated soil is characterized by the distribution of the distance from an arbitrary point in the soil to the nearest macropore or crack. From this distribution an equivalent model system is derived to which a diffusion model can be more easily applied. The model system consist

  19. A balanced IL-1β activity is required for host response to Citrobacter rodentium infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misagh Alipour

    Full Text Available Microbial sensing plays essential roles in the innate immune response to pathogens. In particular, NLRP3 forms a multiprotein inflammasome complex responsible for the maturation of interleukin (IL-1β. Our aim was to delineate the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages, and the contribution of IL-1β to the host defense against Citrobacter rodentium acute infection in mice. Nlrp3(-/- and background C57BL/6 (WT mice were infected by orogastric gavage, received IL-1β (0.5 µg/mouse; ip on 0, 2, and 4 days post-infection (DPI, and assessed on 6 and 10 DPI. Infected Nlrp3(-/- mice developed severe colitis; IL-1β treatments reduced colonization, abrogated dissemination of bacteria to mesenteric lymph nodes, and protected epithelial integrity of infected Nlrp3(-/- mice. In contrast, IL-1β treatments of WT mice had an opposite effect with increased penetration of bacteria and barrier disruption. Microscopy showed reduced damage in Nlrp3(-/- mice, and increased severity of disease in WT mice with IL-1β treatments, in particular on 10 DPI. Secretion of some pro-inflammatory plasma cytokines was dissipated in Nlrp3(-/- compared to WT mice. IL-1β treatments elevated macrophage infiltration into infected crypts in Nlrp3(-/- mice, suggesting that IL-1β may improve macrophage function, as exogenous administration of IL-1β increased phagocytosis of C. rodentium by peritoneal Nlrp3(-/- macrophages in vitro. As well, the exogenous administration of IL-1β to WT peritoneal macrophages damaged the epithelial barrier of C. rodentium-infected polarized CMT-93 cells. Treatment of Nlrp3(-/- mice with IL-1β seems to confer protection against C. rodentium infection by reducing colonization, protecting epithelial integrity, and improving macrophage activity, while extraneous IL-1β appeared to be detrimental to WT mice. Together, these findings highlight the importance of balanced cytokine responses as IL-1β improved bacterial clearance in Nlrp3(-/- mice

  20. Development of a Rapid and Accurate Identification Method for Citrobacter Species Isolated from Pork Products Using a Matrix-Assisted Laser-Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). (United States)

    Kwak, Hye-Lim; Han, Sun-Kyung; Park, Sunghoon; Park, Si Hong; Shim, Jae-Yong; Oh, Mihwa; Ricke, Steven C; Kim, Hae-Yeong


    Previous detection methods for Citrobacter are considered time consuming and laborious. In this study, we have developed a rapid and accurate detection method for Citrobacter species in pork products, using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). A total of 35 Citrobacter strains were isolated from 30 pork products and identified by both MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA gene sequencing approaches. All isolates were identified to the species level by the MALDI-TOF MS, while 16S rRNA gene sequencing results could not discriminate them clearly. These results confirmed that MALDI-TOF MS is a more accurate and rapid detection method for the identification of Citrobacter species.

  1. [NiFe]Hydrogenase from Citrobacter sp. S-77 surpasses platinum as an electrode for H2 oxidation reaction. (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takahiro; Eguchi, Shigenobu; Nakai, Hidetaka; Hibino, Takashi; Yoon, Ki-Seok; Ogo, Seiji


    Reported herein is an electrode for dihydrogen (H2) oxidation, and it is based on [NiFe]Hydrogenase from Citrobacter sp. S-77 ([NiFe]S77). It has a 637 times higher mass activity than Pt (calculated based on 1 mg of [NiFe]S77 or Pt) at 50 mV in a hydrogen half-cell. The [NiFe]S77 electrode is also stable in air and, unlike Pt, can be recovered 100 % after poisoning by carbon monoxide. Following characterization of the [NiFe]S77 electrode, a fuel cell comprising a [NiFe]S77 anode and Pt cathode was constructed and shown to have a a higher power density than that achievable by Pt.

  2. Influence of NleH effector expression, host genetics, and inflammation on Citrobacter rodentium colonization of mice. (United States)

    Feuerbacher, Leigh Ann; Hardwidge, Philip R


    The Escherichia coli NleH1 and NleH2 virulence proteins differentially regulate host transcription of innate immunity genes. The mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium encodes one NleH protein, which functions equivalently to E. coli NleH1. We examined the impact of host genetics and intestinal inflammation on the contribution of NleH to C. rodentium colonization of mice differing in LPS responsiveness. NleH expression was detrimental to C. rodentium in C57BL/10ScNJ mice, which do not mount LPS-induced inflammatory responses. This phenotype was reversed if inflammation was induced by chemical means. C. rodentium that expressed both E. coli NleH1 and NleH2 was hypervirulent in C3H/HeJ mice.

  3. Malachite green bioremoval by a newly isolated strain Citrobacter sedlakii RI11; enhancement of the treatment by biosurfactant addition. (United States)

    Mnif, Inès; Fendri, Raouia; Ghribi, Dhouha


    Citrobacter sedlackii RI11, isolated from acclimated textile effluent after selective enrichment on synthetic dyes, was assessed for malachite green (MG) biotreatment potency. Results indicate that this bacterium has potential for use in effective treatment of MG contaminated wastewaters under shaking conditions at neutral and alkaline pH value, characteristic of typical textile effluents. Also, the newly isolated strain can tolerate higher doses of dye and decolorize up to 1,000 mg/l of dye. When used as microbial surfactant to enhance MG biodecolorization, Bacillus subtilis SPB1-derived lipopeptide accelerated the decolorization rate and maximized the decolorization efficiency at an optimal concentration of biosurfactant of about 0.075%. Studies ensured that MG removal by this strain could be due to biodegradation and/or adsorption. Results on germination potencies of different seeds using the treated dyes under different conditions favor the use of SPB1 biosurfactant for the treatment of MG.

  4. Investigation of Host and Pathogen Contributions to Infectious Colitis Using the Citrobacter rodentium Mouse Model of Infection. (United States)

    Bosman, Else S; Chan, Justin M; Bhullar, Kirandeep; Vallance, Bruce A


    Citrobacter rodentium is used as a model organism to study enteric bacterial infections in mice. Infection occurs via the oral-fecal route and results in the pathogen forming attaching and effacing lesions on infected epithelial cells. Moreover, infection leads to a subsequent host-mediated form of colitis. C. rodentium infection is thus an excellent model to study infectious colitis in vivo, while the ability to genetically manipulate C. rodentium virulence genes provides the opportunity to develop clear insights into the pathogenesis of this and related infectious microbes. This chapter outlines the basic techniques involved in setting up a C. rodentium infection in mice and several different methodologies to assess the severity of the infection.

  5. Hydrophobic aggregation of ultrafine kaolinite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-ping; HU Yue-hua; LIU Run-Qing


    The hydrophobic aggregation of ultrafine kaolinite in cationic surfactant suspension was investigated by sedimentation test, zeta potential measurement and SEM observation. SEM images reveal that kaolinite particles show the self-aggregation of edge-face in acidic media, the aggregation of edge-face and edge-edge in neutral media, and the dispersion in alkaline media due to electrostatic repulsion. In the presence of the dodecylammonium acetate cationic surfactant and in neutral and alkaline suspension, the hydrophobic aggregation of face-face is demonstrated. The zeta potential of kaolinite increases with increasing the concentration of cationic surfactant. The small and loose aggregation at a low concentration but big and tight aggregation at a high concentration is presented At pH=7 alkyl quarterly amine salt CTAB has the best hydrophobic aggregation among three cationic surfactants, namely, dodecylammonium acetate, alkyl quarterly amine salts 1227 and CTAB.

  6. Absorption Spectra of Astaxanthin Aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Olsina, Jan; Minofar, Babak; Polivka, Tomas; Mancal, Tomas


    Carotenoids in hydrated polar solvents form aggregates characterized by dramatic changes in their absorption spectra with respect to monomers. Here we analyze absorption spectra of aggregates of the carotenoid astaxanthin in hydrated dimethylsulfoxide. Depending on water content, two types of aggregates were produced: H-aggregates with absorption maximum around 390 nm, and J-aggregates with red-shifted absorption band peaking at wavelengths >550 nm. The large shifts with respect to absorption maximum of monomeric astaxanthin (470-495 nm depending on solvent) are caused by excitonic interaction between aggregated molecules. We applied molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate structure of astaxanthin dimer in water, and the resulting structure was used as a basis for calculations of absorption spectra. Absorption spectra of astaxanthin aggregates in hydrated dimethylsulfoxide were calculated using molecular exciton model with the resonance interaction energy between astaxanthin monomers constrained by semi-e...

  7. Norovirus Real Time RT-PCR Detection Technology Transition to the Joint Biological Identification and Diagnosis System (JBAIDS) (United States)


    Known specimen extract) 2 Negative Proteus vulgaris (Culture) 1 Negative Salmonella spp .(Culture) 3 Negative Salmonella typhi (Culture) 2 Negative...Campylobacter spp .(Culture) 5 Negative Citrobacter freundii ATCC8090 1 Negative Criptospora (Known specimen extract) 2 Negative Cyclosporidium (Known

  8. Citrobacter amalonaticus Phytase on the Cell Surface of Pichia pastoris Exhibits High pH Stability as a Promising Potential Feed Supplement


    Cheng Li; Ying Lin; Yuanyuan Huang; Xiaoxiao Liu; Shuli Liang


    Phytase expressed and anchored on the cell surface of Pichia pastoris avoids the expensive and time-consuming steps of protein purification and separation. Furthermore, yeast cells with anchored phytase can be used as a whole-cell biocatalyst. In this study, the phytase gene of Citrobacter amalonaticus was fused with the Pichia pastoris glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored glycoprotein homologue GCW61. Phytase exposed on the cell surface exhibits a high activity of 6413.5 U/g, with an ...

  9. Urinary Tract Infection Caused by Citrobacter koseri in a Patient With Spina Bifida, an Ileal Conduit and Renal Caluli Progressing to Peri-nephric Abscess and Empyema. (United States)

    Stewart, Zachary E; Shaker, Mohammed; Baxter, J David


    Urological problems are common in spina bifida and are often treated with urinary diversions. Spina bifida and ileal conduits put patients at increased risk for ascending urinary tract infections. Here we present a novel case of a Citrobacter koseri urinary tract infection complicated by a perinephric abscess with pleural extension. To our knowledge, no case of an ascending C. koseri UTI progressing to peri-nephric abscess and empyema by direct extension exists in the literature.

  10. Novel aspects of platelet aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roka-Moya Y. M.


    Full Text Available The platelet aggregation is an important process, which is critical for the hemostatic plug formation and thrombosis. Recent studies have shown that the platelet aggregation is more complex and dynamic than it was previously thought. There are several mechanisms that can initiate the platelet aggregation and each of them operates under specific conditions in vivo. At the same time, the influence of certain plasma proteins on this process should be considered. This review intends to summarize the recent data concerning the adhesive molecules and their receptors, which provide the platelet aggregation under different conditions.

  11. Fractal Aggregation Under Rotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Feng-Min; WU Li-Li; LU Hang-Jun; LI Qiao-Wen; YE Gao-Xiang


    By means of the Monte Carlo simulation, a fractal growth model is introduced to describe diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) under rotation. Patterns which are different from the classical DLA model are observed and the fractal dimension of such clusters is calculated. It is found that the pattern of the clusters and their fractal dimension depend strongly on the rotation velocity of the diffusing particle. Our results indicate the transition from fractal to non-fractal behavior of growing cluster with increasing rotation velocity, i.e. for small enough angular velocity ω the fractal dimension decreases with increasing ω, but then, with increasing rotation velocity, the fractal dimension increases and the cluster becomes compact and tends to non-fractal.

  12. Fractal Aggregation Under Rotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUFeng-Min; WULi-Li; LUHang-Jun; LIQiao-Wen; YEGao-Xiang


    By means of the Monte Carlo simulation, a fractal growth model is introduced to describe diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) under rotation. Patterns which are different from the classical DLA model are observed and the fractal dimension of such clusters is calculated. It is found that the pattern of the clusters and their fractal dimension depend strongly on the rotation velocity of the diffusing particle. Our results indicate the transition from fractal to non-fractal behavior of growing cluster with increasing rotation velocity, i.e. for small enough angular velocity ω; thefractal dimension decreases with increasing ω;, but then, with increasing rotation velocity, the fractal dimension increases and the cluster becomes compact and tends to non-fractal.

  13. Platelet aggregation following trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windeløv, Nis A; Sørensen, Anne M; Perner, Anders


    We aimed to elucidate platelet function in trauma patients, as it is pivotal for hemostasis yet remains scarcely investigated in this population. We conducted a prospective observational study of platelet aggregation capacity in 213 adult trauma patients on admission to an emergency department (ED......). Inclusion criteria were trauma team activation and arterial cannula insertion on arrival. Blood samples were analyzed by multiple electrode aggregometry initiated by thrombin receptor agonist peptide 6 (TRAP) or collagen using a Multiplate device. Blood was sampled median 65 min after injury; median injury...... severity score (ISS) was 17; 14 (7%) patients received 10 or more units of red blood cells in the ED (massive transfusion); 24 (11%) patients died within 28 days of trauma: 17 due to cerebral injuries, four due to exsanguination, and three from other causes. No significant association was found between...

  14. Molybdenum-containing membrane-bound formate dehydrogenase isolated from Citrobacter sp. S-77 having high stability against oxygen, pH, and temperature. (United States)

    Nguyen, Nga T; Yatabe, Takeshi; Yoon, Ki-Seok; Ogo, Seiji


    Membrane-bound formate dehydrogenase (FDH) was purified to homogeneity from a facultative anaerobic bacterium Citrobacter sp. S-77. The FDH from Citrobacter sp. S-77 (FDHS77) was a monomer with molecular mass of approximately 150 kDa. On SDS-PAGE, the purified FDHS77 showed as three different protein bands with molecular mass of approximately 95, 87, and 32 kDa, respectively. Based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis, the sequence alignments observed for the 87 kDa protein band were identical to that of the large subunit of 95 kDa, indicating that the purified FDHS77 consisted of two subunits; a 95 kDa large subunit and a 32 kDa small subunit. The purified FDHS77 in this purification did not contain a heme b subunit, but the FDHS77 showed significant activity for formate oxidation, determined by the Vmax of 30.4 U/mg using benzyl viologen as an electron acceptor. The EPR and ICP-MS spectra indicate that the FDHS77 is a molybdenum-containing enzyme, displaying a remarkable O2-stability along with thermostability and pH resistance. This is the first report of the purification and characterization of a FDH from Citrobacter species.

  15. Aggregate resources in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, M.J. van der; Gessel, S.F. van; Veldkamp, J.G.


    We have built a 3D lithological model of the Netherlands, for the purpose of mapping on-land aggregate resources down to 50 m below the surface. The model consists of voxel cells (1000 · 1000 · 1 m), with lithological composition and aggregate content estimates as primary attributes. These attribute

  16. Exciton dynamics in molecular aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augulis, R.; Pugžlys, A.; Loosdrecht, P.H.M. van; Pugzlys, A


    The fundamental aspects of exciton dynamics in double-wall cylindrical aggregates of cyanine dyes are studied by means of frequency resolved femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The collective excitations of the aggregates, resulting from intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions have the characteri

  17. Dye Aggregation in Ink Jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas Paul; Sarfraz Hussain


    Dye aggregation has long been recognised as a key factor in performance, and this is no less so in ink jet applications. The aggregation state was shown to be important in many different areas ranging from the use of dyes in photodynamic therapies all the way to colorants for dying of fabrics. Therefore different methods to investigate dye association qualitatively and quantitatively were developed. A simple procedure to study aggregation could be a useful tool to characterise dyes for ink jet printing. It is critically reviewed the methods used to study dye aggregation, and discussed some of the main conclusions. This will be illustrated by examples of ink jet dye aggregation and its study in aqueous and ink systems. The results are used to correlate the solution behaviour of dyes with their print performance.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.; Einar; Kruis


    A new procedure was developed for estimating the effective collision diameter of an aggregate composed of primary particles of any size. The coagulation coefficient of two oppositely charged particles was measured experimentally and compared with classic Fuchs theory, including a new method to account for particle non-sphericity. A second set of experiments were performed on well-defined nanoparticle aggregates at different stages of sintering, i.e. from the aggregate to the fully sintered stage. Here, electrical mobility was used to characterize the particle drag. The aggregates are being built from two different size-fractionated nanoparticle aerosols, the non-aggregated particles are discarded by an electrofilter and then they are passed through a furnace at concentrations low enough not to induce coagulation.

  19. Optical monitoring of particle aggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Gregory


    Methods for monitoring particle aggregation are briefly reviewed. Most of these techniques are based on some form of light scattering and may be greatly dependent on the optical properties of aggregates, which are not generally known. As fractal aggregates grow larger their density can become very low and this has important practical consequences for light scattering. For instance, the scattering coefficient may be much less than for solid objects, which means that the aggregates can appear much smaller than their actual size by a light transmission method. Also, for low-density objects, a high proportion of the scattered light energy is within a small angle of the incident beam, which may also be relevant for measurements with aggregates.Using the 'turbidity fluctuation' technique as an example, it is shown how the apparent size of hydroxide flocs depends mainly on the included impurity particles, rather than the hydroxide precipitate itself. Results using clay suspensions with hydrolyzing coagulants and under are discussed.

  20. Molecular aggregation of humic substances (United States)

    Wershaw, R. L.


    Humic substances (HS) form molecular aggregates in solution and on mineral surfaces. Elucidation of the mechanism of formation of these aggregates is important for an understanding of the interactions of HS in soils arid natural waters. The HS are formed mainly by enzymatic depolymerization and oxidation of plant biopolymers. These reactions transform the aromatic and lipid plant components into amphiphilic molecules, that is, molecules that consist of separate hydrophobic (nonpolar) and hydrophilic (polar) parts. The nonpolar parts of the molecules are composed of relatively unaltered segments of plant polymers and the polar parts of carboxylic acid groups. These amphiphiles form membrane-like aggregates on mineral surfaces and micelle-like aggregates in solution. The exterior surfaces of these aggregates are hydrophilic, and the interiors constitute separate hydrophobic liquid-like phases.

  1. Orthogonal flexible Rydberg aggregates (United States)

    Leonhardt, K.; Wüster, S.; Rost, J. M.


    We study the link between atomic motion and exciton transport in flexible Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of highly excited light alkali-metal atoms, for which motion due to dipole-dipole interaction becomes relevant. In two one-dimensional atom chains crossing at a right angle adiabatic exciton transport is affected by a conical intersection of excitonic energy surfaces, which induces controllable nonadiabatic effects. A joint exciton-motion pulse that is initially governed by a single energy surface is coherently split into two modes after crossing the intersection. The modes induce strongly different atomic motion, leading to clear signatures of nonadiabatic effects in atomic density profiles. We have shown how this scenario can be exploited as an exciton switch, controlling direction and coherence properties of the joint pulse on the second of the chains [K. Leonhardt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 223001 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.223001]. In this article we discuss the underlying complex dynamics in detail, characterize the switch, and derive our isotropic interaction model from a realistic anisotropic one with the addition of a magnetic bias field.

  2. Orthogonal flexible Rydberg aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Leonhardt, K; Rost, J M


    We study the link between atomic motion and exciton transport in flexible Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of highly excited light alkali atoms, for which motion due to dipole-dipole interaction becomes relevant. In two one-dimensional atom chains crossing at a right angle adiabatic exciton transport is affected by a conical intersection of excitonic energy surfaces, which induces controllable non-adiabatic effects. A joint exciton/motion pulse that is initially governed by a single energy surface is coherently split into two modes after crossing the intersection. The modes induce strongly different atomic motion, leading to clear signatures of non-adiabatic effects in atomic density profiles. We have shown how this scenario can be exploited as an exciton switch, controlling direction and coherence properties of the joint pulse on the second of the chains [K.~Leonhardt {\\it et al.}, Phys.~Rev.~Lett. {\\bf 113} 223001 (2014)]. In this article we discuss the underlying complex dynamics in detail, characterise the ...

  3. Perspectives on Preference Aggregation. (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel


    For centuries, the mathematical aggregation of preferences by groups, organizations, or society itself has received keen interdisciplinary attention. Extensive theoretical work in economics and political science throughout the second half of the 20th century has highlighted the idea that competing notions of rational social choice intrinsically contradict each other. This has led some researchers to consider coherent democratic decision making to be a mathematical impossibility. Recent empirical work in psychology qualifies that view. This nontechnical review sketches a quantitative research paradigm for the behavioral investigation of mathematical social choice rules on real ballots, experimental choices, or attitudinal survey data. The article poses a series of open questions. Some classical work sometimes makes assumptions about voter preferences that are descriptively invalid. Do such technical assumptions lead the theory astray? How can empirical work inform the formulation of meaningful theoretical primitives? Classical "impossibility results" leverage the fact that certain desirable mathematical properties logically cannot hold in all conceivable electorates. Do these properties nonetheless hold true in empirical distributions of preferences? Will future behavioral analyses continue to contradict the expectations of established theory? Under what conditions do competing consensus methods yield identical outcomes and why do they do so?

  4. Polarizing the T helper 17 response in Citrobacter rodentium infection via expression of resistin-like molecule α. (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Chan, Alexander J; Chung, Josiah I; Jang, Jessica C; Osborne, Lisa C; Nair, Meera G


    Citrobacter rodentium infection is a murine model of pathogenic Escherichia coli infection that allows investigation of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in host-protective immunity and bacterial-induced intestinal inflammation. We recently demonstrated that following C. rodentium infection, the absence of Resistin-Like Molecule (RELM) α resulted in attenuated Th17 cell responses and reduced intestinal inflammation with minimal effects on bacterial clearance. In this addendum, we investigated the cytokine modulatory effects of RELMα and RELMα expression in the intestinal mucosa following C. rodentium infection. We show that in addition to promoting Th17 cytokine responses, RELMα inhibits Th2 cytokine expression and Th2-cytokine effector macrophage responses in the C. rodentium-infected colons. Second, utilizing reporter C. rodentium, we examined RELMα expression and macrophage recruitment at the host pathogen interface. We observed infection-induced macrophage infiltration and RELMα expression by intestinal epithelial cells. The influence of infection-induced RELMα on macrophage recruitment in the intestine is discussed.

  5. Surfactant-modified fatty acid composition of Citrobacter sp. SA01 and its effect on phenanthrene transmembrane transport. (United States)

    Li, Feng; Zhu, Lizhong


    The effects of the surfactants, Tween 80 and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) on a membrane's fatty acid composition and the transmembrane transport of phenanthrene were investigated. The results indicated that both surfactants could modify the composition of fatty acids of Citrobacter sp. Strain SA01 cells, 50 mg L(-1) of both surfactants changed the composition of the fatty acids the most, increasing the amount of unsaturated fatty acids. The comparison of fatty acid profiles with diphenylhexatriene fluorescence anisotropy, a probe for plasma membrane fluidity, suggested that an increased amount of unsaturated fatty acids corresponded to greater membrane fluidity. In addition, increased unsaturated fatty acids promoted phenanthrene to partition from the extracellular matrix to cell debris, which increased reverse partitioning from the cell debris to the cytochylema. The results of this study were expected in that the addition of a surfactant is a simple and effective method for accelerating the rate-limiting step of transmembrane transport of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in bioremediation.

  6. Biochemical characterization of a bifunctional acetaldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase purified from a facultative anaerobic bacterium Citrobacter sp. S-77. (United States)

    Tsuji, Kohsei; Yoon, Ki-Seok; Ogo, Seiji


    Acetaldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHE) is a bifunctional enzyme consisting of two domains of an N-terminal acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and a C-terminal alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). The enzyme is known to be important in the cellular alcohol metabolism. However, the role of coenzyme A-acylating ADHE responsible for ethanol production from acetyl-CoA remains uncertain. Here, we present the purification and biochemical characterization of an ADHE from Citrobacter sp. S-77 (ADHE(S77)). Interestingly, the ADHE(S77) was unable to be solubilized from membrane with detergents either 1% Triton X-100 or 1% Sulfobetaine 3-12. However, the enzyme was easily dissociated from membrane by high-salt buffers containing either 1.0 M NaCl or (NH(4))(2)SO(4) without detergents. The molecular weight of a native protein was estimated as approximately 400 kDa, consisting of four identical subunits of 96.3 kDa. Based on the specific activity and kinetic analysis, the ADHES77 tended to have catalytic reaction towards acetaldehyde elimination rather than acetaldehyde formation. Our experimental observation suggests that the ADHES77 may play a pivotal role in modulating intracellular acetaldehyde concentration.

  7. Dietary vitamin D3 deficiency alters intestinal mucosal defense and increases susceptibility to Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis. (United States)

    Ryz, Natasha R; Lochner, Arion; Bhullar, Kirandeep; Ma, Caixia; Huang, Tina; Bhinder, Ganive; Bosman, Else; Wu, Xiujuan; Innis, Sheila M; Jacobson, Kevan; Vallance, Bruce A


    Vitamin D deficiency affects more that 1 billion people worldwide. Although thought to increase risk of bacterial infections, the importance of vitamin D on host defense against intestinal bacterial pathogens is currently unclear since injection of the active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D3, increased susceptibility to the enteric bacterial pathogen Citrobacter rodentium by suppressing key immune/inflammatory factors. To further characterize the role of vitamin D during bacteria-induced colitis, we fed weanling mice either vitamin D3-deficient or vitamin D3-sufficient diets for 5 wk and then challenged them with C. rodentium. Vitamin D3-deficient mice lost significantly more body weight, carried higher C. rodentium burdens, and developed worsened histological damage. Vitamin D3-deficient mice also suffered greater bacterial translocation to extra-intestinal tissues, including mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Intestinal tissues of infected vitamin D3-deficient mice displayed increased inflammatory cell infiltrates as well as significantly higher gene transcript levels of inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, IL-17A, and IL-17F as well as the antimicrobial peptide REG3γ. Notably, these exaggerated inflammatory responses accelerated the loss of commensal microbes and were associated with an impaired ability to detoxify bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Overall, these studies show that dietary-induced vitamin D deficiency exacerbates intestinal inflammatory responses to infection, also impairing host defense.

  8. Promoter swapping unveils the role of the Citrobacter rodentium CTS1 type VI secretion system in interbacterial competition. (United States)

    Gueguen, Erwan; Cascales, Eric


    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a versatile secretion machine dedicated to various functions in Gram-negative bacteria, including virulence toward eukaryotic cells and antibacterial activity. Activity of T6SS might be followed in vitro by the release of two proteins, Hcp and VgrG, in the culture supernatant. Citrobacter rodentium, a rodent pathogen, harbors two T6SS gene clusters, cts1 and cts2. Reporter fusion and Hcp release assays suggested that the CTS1 T6SS was not produced or not active. The cts1 locus is composed of two divergent operons. We therefore developed a new vector allowing us to swap the two divergent endogenous promoters by P(tac) and P(BAD) using the λ red recombination technology. Artificial induction of both promoters demonstrated that the CTS1 T6SS is functional as shown by the Hcp release assay and confers on C. rodentium a growth advantage in antibacterial competition experiments with Escherichia coli.

  9. CXCL9 contributes to antimicrobial protection of the gut during citrobacter rodentium infection independent of chemokine-receptor signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Reid-Yu


    Full Text Available Chemokines have been shown to be effective bactericidal molecules against a variety of bacteria and fungi in vitro. These direct antimicrobial effects are independent of their chemotactic activities involving immunological receptors. However, the direct biological role that these proteins may play in host defense, particularly against intestinal pathogens, is poorly understood. Here, we show that CXCL9, an ELR- chemokine, exhibits direct antimicrobial activity against Citrobacter rodentium, an attaching/effacing pathogen that infects the gut mucosa. Inhibition of this antimicrobial activity in vivo using anti-CXCL9 antibodies increases host susceptibility to C. rodentium infection with pronounced bacterial penetration into crypts, increased bacterial load, and worsened tissue pathology. Using Rag1(-/- mice and CXCR3(-/- mice, we demonstrate that the role for CXCL9 in protecting the gut mucosa is independent of an adaptive response or its immunological receptor, CXCR3. Finally, we provide evidence that phagocytes function in tandem with NK cells for robust CXCL9 responses to C. rodentium. These findings identify a novel role for the immune cell-derived CXCL9 chemokine in directing a protective antimicrobial response in the intestinal mucosa.

  10. Dysbiosis caused by vitamin D receptor deficiency confers colonization resistance to Citrobacter rodentium through modulation of innate lymphoid cells. (United States)

    Chen, J; Waddell, A; Lin, Y-D; Cantorna, M T


    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) knockout (KO) mice had fewer Citrobacter rodentium in the feces than wild-type (WT) mice and the kinetics of clearance was faster in VDR KO than WT mice. VDR KO mice had more interleukin-22 (IL-22)-producing innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and more antibacterial peptides than WT mice. The increased ILCs in the VDR KO mice was a cell-autonomous effect of VDR deficiency on ILC frequencies. Bone marrow (BM) transplantation from VDR KO mice into WT resulted in higher ILCs and colonization resistance of the WT mice. Disruption of the gut microbiota using antibiotics in VDR KO mice reversed colonization resistance to C. rodentium infection. Confirming the role of the microbiota in the colonization resistance of VDR KO mice, transfer of the VDR KO microbiota to WT germ-free mice resulted in colonization resistance. Once colonization resistance was overcome, VDR KO mice had increased susceptibility to C. rodentium. VDR expression is a regulator of ILC frequencies, IL-22, dysbiosis, and C. rodentium susceptibility.

  11. Properdin provides protection from Citrobacter rodentium-induced intestinal inflammation in a C5a/IL-6-dependent manner. (United States)

    Jain, Umang; Cao, Qi; Thomas, Nikhil A; Woodruff, Trent M; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J; Stover, Cordula M; Stadnyk, Andrew W


    Citrobacter rodentium is an attaching and effacing mouse pathogen that models enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in humans. The complement system is an important innate defense mechanism; however, only scant information is available about the role of complement proteins during enteric infections. In this study, we examined the impact of the lack of properdin, a positive regulator of complement, in C. rodentium-induced colitis. Following infection, properdin knockout (P(KO)) mice had increased diarrhea and exacerbated inflammation combined with defective epithelial cell-derived IL-6 and greater numbers of colonizing bacteria. The defect in the mucosal response was reversed by administering exogenous properdin to P(KO) mice. Then, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, we show that the mechanism behind the exacerbated inflammation of P(KO) mice is due to a failure to increase local C5a levels. We show that C5a directly stimulates IL-6 production from colonic epithelial cells and that inhibiting C5a in infected wild-type mice resulted in defective epithelial IL-6 production and exacerbated inflammation. These outcomes position properdin early in the response to an infectious challenge in the colon, leading to complement activation and C5a, which in turn provides protection through IL-6 expression by the epithelium. Our results unveil a previously unappreciated mechanism of intestinal homeostasis involving complement, C5a, and IL-6 during bacteria-triggered epithelial injury.

  12. CXCL9 contributes to antimicrobial protection of the gut during citrobacter rodentium infection independent of chemokine-receptor signaling. (United States)

    Reid-Yu, Sarah A; Tuinema, Brian R; Small, Cherrie N; Xing, Lydia; Coombes, Brian K


    Chemokines have been shown to be effective bactericidal molecules against a variety of bacteria and fungi in vitro. These direct antimicrobial effects are independent of their chemotactic activities involving immunological receptors. However, the direct biological role that these proteins may play in host defense, particularly against intestinal pathogens, is poorly understood. Here, we show that CXCL9, an ELR- chemokine, exhibits direct antimicrobial activity against Citrobacter rodentium, an attaching/effacing pathogen that infects the gut mucosa. Inhibition of this antimicrobial activity in vivo using anti-CXCL9 antibodies increases host susceptibility to C. rodentium infection with pronounced bacterial penetration into crypts, increased bacterial load, and worsened tissue pathology. Using Rag1(-/-) mice and CXCR3(-/-) mice, we demonstrate that the role for CXCL9 in protecting the gut mucosa is independent of an adaptive response or its immunological receptor, CXCR3. Finally, we provide evidence that phagocytes function in tandem with NK cells for robust CXCL9 responses to C. rodentium. These findings identify a novel role for the immune cell-derived CXCL9 chemokine in directing a protective antimicrobial response in the intestinal mucosa.

  13. Dependability in Aggregation by Averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Jesus, Paulo; Almeida, Paulo Sérgio


    Aggregation is an important building block of modern distributed applications, allowing the determination of meaningful properties (e.g. network size, total storage capacity, average load, majorities, etc.) that are used to direct the execution of the system. However, the majority of the existing aggregation algorithms exhibit relevant dependability issues, when prospecting their use in real application environments. In this paper, we reveal some dependability issues of aggregation algorithms based on iterative averaging techniques, giving some directions to solve them. This class of algorithms is considered robust (when compared to common tree-based approaches), being independent from the used routing topology and providing an aggregation result at all nodes. However, their robustness is strongly challenged and their correctness often compromised, when changing the assumptions of their working environment to more realistic ones. The correctness of this class of algorithms relies on the maintenance of a funda...

  14. Aggregating and Disaggregating Flexibility Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja


    In many scientific and commercial domains we encounter flexibility objects, i.e., objects with explicit flexibilities in a time and an amount dimension (e.g., energy or product amount). Applications of flexibility objects require novel and efficient techniques capable of handling large amounts...... energy data management and discuss strategies for aggregation and disaggregation of flex-objects while retaining flexibility. This paper further extends these approaches beyond flex-objects originating from energy consumption by additionally considering flex-objects originating from energy production...... and aiming at energy balancing during aggregation. In more detail, this paper considers the complete life cycle of flex-objects: aggregation, disaggregation, associated requirements, efficient incremental computation, and balance aggregation techniques. Extensive experiments based on real-world data from...

  15. Ash Aggregates in Proximal Settings (United States)

    Porritt, L. A.; Russell, K.


    Ash aggregates are thought to have formed within and been deposited by the eruption column and plume and dilute density currents and their associated ash clouds. Moist, turbulent ash clouds are considered critical to ash aggregate formation by facilitating both collision and adhesion of particles. Consequently, they are most commonly found in distal deposits. Proximal deposits containing ash aggregates are less commonly observed but do occur. Here we describe two occurrences of vent proximal ash aggregate-rich deposits; the first within a kimberlite pipe where coated ash pellets and accretionary lapilli are found within the intra-vent sequence; and the second in a glaciovolcanic setting where cored pellets (armoured lapilli) occur within Diamond Mine, Canada, are the residual deposits within the conduit and vent of the volcano and are characterised by an abundance of ash aggregates. Coated ash pellets are dominant but are followed in abundance by ash pellets, accretionary lapilli and rare cored pellets. The coated ash pellets typically range from 1 - 5 mm in diameter and have core to rim ratios of approximately 10:1. The formation and preservation of these aggregates elucidates the style and nature of the explosive phase of kimberlite eruption at A418 (and other pipes?). First, these pyroclasts dictate the intensity of the kimberlite eruption; it must be energetic enough to cause intense fragmentation of the kimberlite to produce a substantial volume of very fine ash (sustained plume attended by concomitant production of pyroclastic density currents. The size and internal structure of the armoured lapilli provide constraints on the nature of the initial explosive phase of eruption at Kima'Kho. Their proximity to the vent also indicates rapid aggregation within the eruption plume. Within both sequences rapid aggregation of ash particles occurred in proximity to the vent. However, the conditions were substantially different leading to the production of armoured

  16. Degradation characteristics of m-cresol by Citrobacterfarmeri%Citrobacter farmeri降解间甲酚的特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭丽花; 董佳


    从某焦化厂废水好氧生物处理的污泥中分离出一株能以间甲酚为唯一碳源、能源生长代谢的菌株Citrobacter farmeri.考察了间甲酚在不同初始浓度下Citrobacter farmeri细菌生长动力学,4种等浓度酚类物质的降解先后顺序,分别添加共基质葡萄糖和蛋白胨对低浓度和高浓度间甲酚降解的影响,以及在添加共基质葡萄糖时Citrobacter farmeri降解高浓度间甲酚过程中产生的酶活.结果表明,当间甲酚初始质量浓度低于375 mg/L时,Citrobacter farmeri菌株生长符合一级动力学方程;Citrobacter farmeri降解4种酚类物质的降解顺序依次为苯酚>邻甲酚>间甲酚>萘酚;外加葡萄糖或蛋白胨对质量浓度低于375 mg/L的间甲酚的降解没有影响,但对高于375mg/L的间甲酚降解有明显的促进作用,在最佳葡萄糖添加量为800 mg/L或最佳蛋白胨添加量为640 mg/L时,缩短降解时间分别为30 h和29 h;对酶活的测定发现儿茶酚1,2-双加氧酶和儿茶酚2,3-双加氧酶有明显增大,初步判断Citrobacter farmeri以邻位和间位裂解的途径对间甲酚进行降解.%A bacterium named Citrobacterfarmeri, which utilizes m-cresol as the sole source of carbon and energy, was isolated from the sludge in the aerobic biological wastewater treatment system of a coking plant. The effects of the Citrobacter farmeri bacteria growth kinetics of m-cresol with various initial concentrations, the degradation sequence of the four kinds of phenols with the same concentration, and the separate addition of glucose or peptone on degradation of m-cresol with low or high concentration were studied. The key enzyme activity related to the ring-cleaving during the high-concentration m-cresol degradation by Citrobacter farmeri was measured to analyze the metabolic pathway when added glucose as co-substrate. The results showed that, the Citrobacter farmeri bacterium growth could be described by first-order dynamic equation

  17. Fractal Aggregates in Tennis Ball Systems (United States)

    Sabin, J.; Bandin, M.; Prieto, G.; Sarmiento, F.


    We present a new practical exercise to explain the mechanisms of aggregation of some colloids which are otherwise not easy to understand. We have used tennis balls to simulate, in a visual way, the aggregation of colloids under reaction-limited colloid aggregation (RLCA) and diffusion-limited colloid aggregation (DLCA) regimes. We have used the…

  18. A Functional Reference Architecture for Aggregators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondy, Daniel Esteban Morales; Heussen, Kai; Gehrke, Oliver;


    Aggregators are considered to be a key enabling technology for harvesting power system services from distributed energy resources (DER). As a precondition for more widespread use of aggregators in power systems, methods for comparing and validating aggregator designs must be established. This paper...... proposes a functional reference architecture for aggregators to address this requirement....

  19. Hierarchical organization in aggregates of protein molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Kyhle, Anders; Sørensen, Alexis Hammer


    The aggregation of proteins into small clusters is studied by atomic force and electron microscopy. Scaling laws and fractal behaviour in the growth of the aggregates and in the correlation between aggregates is seen. A phase diagram of the aggregation process where the protonic concentration...

  20. An exact approach for aggregated formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Spoorendonk, Simon; Røpke, Stefan

    optimality cannot be guaranteed by branching on aggregated variables. We present a generic exact solution method to remedy the drawbacks of aggregation. It combines the original and aggregated formulations and applies Benders' decomposition. We apply the method to the Split Delivery Vehicle Routing Problem.......Aggregating formulations is a powerful approach for problems to take on tractable forms. Aggregation may lead to loss of information, i.e. the aggregated formulation may be an approximation of the original problem. In branch-and-bound context, aggregation can also complicate branching, e.g. when...

  1. Erythrocyte aggregation: Basic aspects and clinical importance


    Oğuz K. Başkurt; Meiselman, Herbert J.


    Red blood cells (RBC) aggregate to form two- and three-dimensional structures when suspended in aqueous solutions containing large plasma proteins or polymers; this aggregation is reversible and shear dependent (i.e., dispersed at high shear and reformed at low or stasis). The extent of aggregation is the main determinant of low shear blood viscosity, thus predicting an inverse relationship between aggregation and in vivo blood flow. However, the effects of aggregation on hemodynamic mechanis...

  2. Molecular Aggregation in Disodium Cromoglycate (United States)

    Singh, Gautam; Agra-Kooijman, D.; Collings, P. J.; Kumar, Satyendra


    Details of molecular aggregation in the mesophases of the anti-asthmatic drug disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) have been studied using x-ray synchrotron scattering. The results show two reflections, one at wide angles corresponding to π-π stacking (3.32 å) of molecules, and the other at small angles which is perpendicular to the direction of molecular stacking and corresponds to the distance between the molecular aggregates. The latter varies from 35 - 41 å in the nematic (N) phase and 27 -- 32 å in the columnar (M) phase. The temperature evolution of the stack height, positional order correlations in the lateral direction, and orientation order parameter were determined in the N, M, and biphasic regions. The structure of the N and M phases and the nature of the molecular aggregation, together with their dependence on temperature and concentration, will be presented.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Hu


    Full Text Available As a composite material, the performance of concrete materials can be expected to depend on the properties of the interfaces between its two major components, aggregate and cement paste. The microstructure at the interfacial transition zone (ITZ is assumed to be different from the bulk material. In general, properties of conventional concrete have been found favoured by optimum packing density of the aggregate. Particle size is a common denominator in such studies. Size segregation in the ITZ among the binder particles in the fresh state, observed in simulation studies by concurrent algorithm-based SPACE system, additionally governs density as well as physical bonding capacity inside these shell-like zones around aggregate particles. These characteristics have been demonstrated qualitatively pertaining also after maturation of the concrete. Such properties of the ITZs have direct impact on composite properties. Despite experimental approaches revealed effects of aggregate grain shape on different features of material structure (among which density, and as a consequence on mechanical properties, it is still an underrated factor in laboratory studies, probably due to the general feeling that a suitable methodology for shape characterization is not available. A scientific argument hindering progress is the interconnected nature of size and shape. Presently, a practical problem preventing shape effects to be emphasized is the limitation of most computer simulation systems in concrete technology to spherical particles. New developments at Delft University of Technology will make it possible in the near future to generate jammed states, or other high-density fresh particle mixtures of non-spherical particles, which thereupon can be subjected to hydration algorithms. This paper will sketch the outlines of a methodological approach for shape assessment of loose (non-embedded aggregate grains, and demonstrate its use for two types of aggregate, allowing

  4. Environmentalism and natural aggregate mining (United States)

    Drew, L.J.; Langer, W.H.; Sachs, J.S.


    Sustaining a developed economy and expanding a developing one require the use of large volumes of natural aggregate. Almost all human activity (commercial, recreational, or leisure) is transacted in or on facilities constructed from natural aggregate. In our urban and suburban worlds, we are almost totally dependent on supplies of water collected behind dams and transported through aqueducts made from concrete. Natural aggregate is essential to the facilities that produce energy-hydroelectric dams and coal-fired powerplants. Ironically, the utility created for mankind by the use of natural aggregate is rarely compared favorably with the environmental impacts of mining it. Instead, the empty quarries and pits are seen as large negative environmental consequences. At the root of this disassociation is the philosophy of environmentalism, which flavors our perceptions of the excavation, processing, and distribution of natural aggregate. The two end-member ideas in this philosophy are ecocentrism and anthropocentrism. Ecocentrism takes the position that the natural world is a organism whose arteries are the rivers-their flow must not be altered. The soil is another vital organ and must not be covered with concrete and asphalt. The motto of the ecocentrist is "man must live more lightly on the land." The anthropocentrist wants clean water and air and an uncluttered landscape for human use. Mining is allowed and even encouraged, but dust and noise from quarry and pit operations must be minimized. The large volume of truck traffic is viewed as a real menace to human life and should be regulated and isolated. The environmental problems that the producers of natural aggregate (crushed stone and sand and gravel) face today are mostly difficult social and political concerns associated with the large holes dug in the ground and the large volume of heavy truck traffic associated with quarry and pit operations. These concerns have increased in recent years as society's demand for

  5. Aggregating energy flexibilities under constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Abello, Alberto


    The flexibility of individual energy prosumers (producers and/or consumers) has drawn a lot of attention in recent years. Aggregation of such flexibilities provides prosumers with the opportunity to directly participate in the energy market and at the same time reduces the complexity of scheduling...... the energy units. However, aggregated flexibility should support normal grid operation. In this paper, we build on the flex-offer (FO) concept to model the inherent flexibility of a prosumer (e.g., a single flexible consumption device such as a clothes washer). An FO captures flexibility in both time...

  6. Balancing energy flexibilities through aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach


    One of the main goals of recent developments in the Smart Grid area is to increase the use of renewable energy sources. These sources are characterized by energy fluctuations that might lead to energy imbalances and congestions in the electricity grid. Exploiting inherent flexibilities, which exist...... in both energy production and consumption, is the key to solving these problems. Flexibilities can be expressed as flex-offers, which due to their high number need to be aggregated to reduce the complexity of energy scheduling. In this paper, we discuss balance aggregation techniques that already during...

  7. Quantitative investigations of aggregate systems. (United States)

    Rai, D K; Beaucage, G; Jonah, E O; Britton, D T; Sukumaran, S; Chopra, S; Gonfa, G Goro; Härting, M


    Nanomaterials with disordered, ramified structure are increasingly being used for applications where low cost and enhanced performance are desired. A particular example is the use in printed electronics of inorganic conducting and semiconducting nanoparticles. The electrical, as well as other physical properties depend on the arrangement and connectivity of the particles in such aggregate systems. Quantification of aggregate structure and development of structure/property relationships is difficult and progress in the application of these materials in electronics has mainly been empirical. In this paper, a scaling model is used to parameterize the structure of printed electronic layers. This model has chiefly been applied to polymers but surprisingly it shows applicability to these nanolayers. Disordered structures of silicon nanoparticles forming aggregates are investigated using small angle x-ray scattering coupled with the scaling model. It is expected that predictions using these structural parameters can be made for electrical properties. The approach may have wide use in understanding and designing nano-aggregates for electronic devices.

  8. Diversity, intent, and aggregated search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Rijke


    Diversity, intent and aggregated search are three core retrieval concepts that receive significant attention. In search result diversification one typically considers the relevance of a document in light of other retrieved documents. The goal is to identify the probable "aspects" of an ambiguous que

  9. Cyclosporine A enhances platelet aggregation. (United States)

    Grace, A A; Barradas, M A; Mikhailidis, D P; Jeremy, J Y; Moorhead, J F; Sweny, P; Dandona, P


    In view of the reported increase in thromboembolic episodes following cyclosporine A (CyA) therapy, the effect of this drug on platelet aggregation and thromboxane A2 release was investigated. The addition of CyA, at therapeutic concentrations to platelet rich plasma from normal subjects in vitro was found to increase aggregation in response to adrenaline, collagen and ADP. Ingestion of CyA by healthy volunteers was also associated with enhanced platelet aggregation. The CyA-mediated enhancement of aggregation was further enhanced by the addition in vitro of therapeutic concentrations of heparin. Platelets from renal allograft recipients treated with CyA also showed hyperaggregability and increased thromboxane A2 release, which were most marked at "peak" plasma CyA concentration and less so at "trough" concentrations. Platelet hyperaggregability in renal allograft patients on long-term CyA therapy tended to revert towards normal following the replacement of CyA with azathioprine. Hypertensive patients with renal allografts on nifedipine therapy had normal platelet function and thromboxane release in spite of CyA therapy. These observations suggest that CyA-mediated platelet activation may contribute to the pathogenesis of the thromboembolic phenomena associated with the use of this drug. The increased release of thromboxane A2 (a vasoconstrictor) may also play a role in mediating CyA-related nephrotoxicity.

  10. Genome-wide analysis of the Pho regulon in a pstCA mutant of Citrobacter rodentium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Cheng

    Full Text Available The phosphate-specific transport operon, pstSCAB-phoU, of Gram-negative bacteria is an essential part of the Pho regulon. Its key roles are to encode a high-affinity inorganic phosphate transport system and to prevent activation of PhoB in phosphate-rich environments. In general, mutations in pstSCAB-phoU lead to the constitutive expression of the Pho regulon. Previously, we constructed a pstCA deletion mutant of Citrobacter rodentium and found it to be attenuated for virulence in mice, its natural host. This attenuation was dependent on PhoB or PhoB-regulated gene(s because a phoB mutation restored virulence for mice to the pstCA mutant. To investigate how downstream genes may contribute to the virulence of C. rodentium, we used microarray analysis to investigate global gene expression of C. rodentium strain ICC169 and its isogenic pstCA mutant when grown in phosphate-rich medium. Overall 323 genes of the pstCA mutant were differentially expressed by at least 1.5-fold compared to the wild-type C. rodentium. Of these 145 were up-regulated and 178 were down-regulated. Differentially expressed genes included some involved in phosphate homoeostasis, cellular metabolism and protein metabolism. A large number of genes involved in stress responses and of unknown function were also differentially expressed, as were some virulence-associated genes. Up-regulated virulence-associated genes in the pstCA mutant included that for DegP, a serine protease, which appeared to be directly regulated by PhoB. Down-regulated genes included those for the production of the urease, flagella, NleG8 (a type III-secreted protein and the tad focus (which encodes type IVb pili in Yersinia enterocolitica. Infection studies using C57/BL6 mice showed that DegP and NleG8 play a role in bacterial virulence. Overall, our study provides evidence that Pho is a global regulator of gene expression in C. rodentium and indicates the presence of at least two previously unrecognized

  11. Dietary oils modify the host immune response and colonic tissue damage following Citrobacter rodentium infection in mice. (United States)

    Hekmatdoost, Azita; Wu, Xiujuan; Morampudi, Vijay; Innis, Sheila M; Jacobson, Kevan


    Inflammatory bowel disease is an intestinal inflammatory disorder of multifactorial origin, in which diets that favor high n-6 and low n-3 fatty acids have been implicated. The present study addressed whether dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids alter colonic mucosal response to Citrobacter rodentium (C. rodentium) infection. Mice were fed diets identical except for fatty acids, with an energy percentage of 15% 18:2n-6 and <0.06% 18:3n-3, 4.2% 18:2n-6 and 1.9% 18:3n-3, or 1.44% 20:5n-3, 4.9% 22:6n-3, 0.32% 18:2n-6, and 0.12% 18:3n-3 from safflower, canola, or fish oil, respectively for 3 wk before infection. Dietary oils had no effect on colonic C. rodentium growth but altered colon 20:4n-6/(20:5n-3+22:6n-3) with 9.40 ± 0.06, 1.94 ± 0.08, and 0.32 ± 0.03% in colon phosphatidylcholine and 3.82 ± 0.18, 1.14 ± 0.02, and 0.30 ± 0.02% in phosphatidylethanolamine of mice fed safflower, canola, or fish oil, respectively. At 10 days postinfection, histological damage, F4/80-positive macrophages, and myeloperoxidase-positive neutrophils in colonic mucosa were higher in infected mice fed safflower than fish oil. Colon gene transcripts for macrophage inflammatory protein 2, keratinocyte cytokine, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 expression were significantly higher in infected mice fed safflower than canola or fish oil; IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-17A expression were significantly elevated in mice fed safflower rather than fish oil; and IL-10 was significantly higher in mice fed fish oil rather than canola or safflower oil. This study demonstrates that oils high in 18:2n-6 with minimal n-3 fatty acids exacerbate mucosal immune response, whereas oils high in n-3 fatty acids attenuate mucosal immune response to C. rodentium. These studies implicate dietary oils as environmental modifiers of intestinal inflammation in response to infection.

  12. Sequence-dependent internalization of aggregating peptides. (United States)

    Couceiro, José R; Gallardo, Rodrigo; De Smet, Frederik; De Baets, Greet; Baatsen, Pieter; Annaert, Wim; Roose, Kenny; Saelens, Xavier; Schymkowitz, Joost; Rousseau, Frederic


    Recently, a number of aggregation disease polypeptides have been shown to spread from cell to cell, thereby displaying prionoid behavior. Studying aggregate internalization, however, is often hampered by the complex kinetics of the aggregation process, resulting in the concomitant uptake of aggregates of different sizes by competing mechanisms, which makes it difficult to isolate pathway-specific responses to aggregates. We designed synthetic aggregating peptides bearing different aggregation propensities with the aim of producing modes of uptake that are sufficiently distinct to differentially analyze the cellular response to internalization. We found that small acidic aggregates (≤500 nm in diameter) were taken up by nonspecific endocytosis as part of the fluid phase and traveled through the endosomal compartment to lysosomes. By contrast, bigger basic aggregates (>1 μm) were taken up through a mechanism dependent on cytoskeletal reorganization and membrane remodeling with the morphological hallmarks of phagocytosis. Importantly, the properties of these aggregates determined not only the mechanism of internalization but also the involvement of the proteostatic machinery (the assembly of interconnected networks that control the biogenesis, folding, trafficking, and degradation of proteins) in the process; whereas the internalization of small acidic aggregates is HSF1-independent, the uptake of larger basic aggregates was HSF1-dependent, requiring Hsp70. Our results show that the biophysical properties of aggregates determine both their mechanism of internalization and proteostatic response. It remains to be seen whether these differences in cellular response contribute to the particular role of specific aggregated proteins in disease.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maris Angela


    Full Text Available In the paper the authors present a model aggregate rating based on credit-scoring models, banking models and their rating model. Multi-criteria approach and an aggregate model better capture business risk of the company.

  14. Acetone:isomedzation and aggregation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhan; JIN Ming-xing; XU Xue-song; CHENG Xi-hui; DING Da-jun


    The advanced experimental and theoretical techniques enable us to obtain information on the rearrangement of atoms or molecules in a reaction nowadays.As an example,we report on our research work on acetone isomerization and aggregation to give an insight into the reaction pathways,the products and their structures,and the growth regularity of aggregation.The evidences on the structural change of acetone and the stability of acetone clusters are found by a laser ionization mass spectrometer and the results are interpreted from theoretical analysis based on the DFT/B3LYP method.Various isomerization channels of acetone have been established and the optimal structures of the neutral clusters (CH3COCH3)n and the protonated acetone clusters (CH3COCHa)n H+ for n=1-7 have been determined.

  15. Intuitionistic fuzzy aggregation and clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zeshui


    This book offers a systematic introduction to the clustering algorithms for intuitionistic fuzzy values, the latest research results in intuitionistic fuzzy aggregation techniques, the extended results in interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy environments, and their applications in multi-attribute decision making, such as supply chain management, military system performance evaluation, project management, venture capital, information system selection, building materials classification, and operational plan assessment, etc.

  16. Familial aggregation of cluster headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simao Cruz


    Full Text Available Several studies suggest a strong familial aggregation for cluster headache (CH, but so far none of them have included subjects with probable cluster headache (PCH in accordance with the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Objective To identify cases of probable cluster headache and to assess the familial aggregation of cluster headache by including these subjects. Method Thirty-six patients attending a headache consultation and diagnosed with trigeminal autonomic headaches were subjected to a questionnaire-based interview. A telephone interview was also applied to all the relatives who were pointed out as possibly affected as well as to some of the remaining relatives. Results Twenty-four probands fulfilled the criteria for CH or PCH; they had 142 first-degree relatives, of whom five were found to have CH or PCH, including one case of CH sine headache. The risk for first-degree relatives was observed to be increased by 35- to 46-fold. Conclusion Our results suggest a familial aggregation of cluster headache in the Portuguese population.

  17. Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced pneumonia and Citrobacter rodentium-induced gut infection differentially alter vitamin A concentrations in the lung and liver of mice. (United States)

    Restori, Katherine H; McDaniel, Kaitlin L; Wray, Amanda E; Cantorna, Margherita T; Ross, A Catharine


    In the developing world, vitamin A (VA) deficiency is endemic in populations that are also at great risk of morbidity and mortality because of pneumococcal pneumonia and enteric infections. To better understand how lung and gastrointestinal pathogens affect VA status, we assessed VA concentrations in serum, lung, and liver during an invasive pneumonia infection induced by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3, and a noninvasive gut infection induced by Citrobacter rodentium, in vitamin A-adequate (VAA) and vitamin A-deficient (VAD) mice. For pneumonia infection, mice were immunized with pneumococcal polysaccharide serotype 3 (PPS3), or not (infected-control), 5 d prior to intranasal inoculation with S. pneumoniae. Two days post-inoculation, immunization was protective against systemic infection regardless of VA status as PPS3 immunization decreased bacteremia compared with infected-control mice (P pneumonia had less effect on VA status than gastrointestinal infection, predominantly owing to reduced hepatic VA storage at the peak of gut infection.

  18. Isolation and Screening of a native Citrobacter sp. with high nicotine-tolerant and its application as a biocatalyst for biodegradation of nicotine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morahem Ashengroph


    Full Text Available Introduction: Nicotine is a toxic plant alkaloid and it has been designated as hazardous by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA since 1994. The present work was directed to screen nicotine resistant bacteria, that is used as biocatalyst in the biodegradation of nicotine from contaminated sites. Materials and methods: Collected soil samples from 12 tobacco farms were selected as target sites for sampling. Enrichment nicotine-degrading bacteria were performed in minimal salt media containing nicotine as the sole carbon and nitrogen sources. Agar dilution plate method was performed for determining intrinsic tolerance of bacterial isolates to nicotine. Phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis were used to identify the selected bacterial isolate able to degrade nicotine. To determine the optimal conditions for the bio-removal of nicotine, the effects of initial nicotine concentration, incubation time and the addition of carbon and nitrogen sources in the selected strain were tested. The quantification of residual nicotine in the culture media was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results: Among 20 bacterial isolates for degradation of nicotine, the strain TPS2 showed a high level of resistance and degradation efficiency. Results of phenotypic identification and phylogenetic analysis showed the native strain TPS2 belongs to the Citrobacter sp. strain TPS2 (GeneBank accession no. KM110046. According to the results of de-nicotination experiment, the native strain TPS2 is able to remove 100% of nicotine with an initial concentration 2.5 g/l in the presence of 2.5 g/l fructose. Discussion and conclusion: The results showed that the screened Citrobacter sp. was suitable candidate for degradation of nicotine from wastewater and sites that contaminated with nicotine. It is seemed by using of the microbial biocatalyst the ecosystem contamination of toxic nicotine can be decreased. The present work is

  19. An exact approach for aggregated formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Spoorendonk, Simon

    cause an infeasible solution. In this paper, we consider (mixed) integer program formulations and propose a method for ensuring an optimal solution to the original (disaggregated) problem using an aggregated formulation. The method is based on Benders’ decomposition on a combination of the disaggregated...... mathematical formulation and the aggregated formulation. The method allows usage of relaxed aggregated formulations and enables branching on both aggregated and disaggregated variables. Also, the method guarantees an LP bound at least as good as those for the disaggregated and aggregated formulations...

  20. [Lysophosphatidic acid and human erythrocyte aggregation]. (United States)

    Sheremet'ev, Iu A; Popovicheva, A N; Levin, G Ia


    The effects of lysophosphatidic acid on the morphology and aggregation of human erythrocytes has been studied. Morphology of erythrocytes and their aggregates were studied by light microscopy. It has been shown that lysophosphatidic acid changes the shape of red blood cells: diskocyte become echinocytes. Aggregation of red blood cells (rouleaux) was significantly reduced in autoplasma. At the same time there is a strong aggregation of echinocytes. This was accompanied by the formation of microvesicles. Adding normal plasma to echinocytes restores shape and aggregation of red blood cells consisting of "rouleaux". A possible mechanism of action of lysophosphatidic acid on erythrocytes is discussed.


    Sheremet'ev, Yu A; Popovicheva, A N; Rogozin, M M; Levin, G Ya


    An aggregation of erythrocytes in autologous plasma after blood storage for 14 days at 4 °C was studied using photometry and light microscopy. The decrease of ATP content, the formation of echinocytes and spheroechinocytes, the decrease of rouleaux form of erythrocyte aggregation were observed during the storage. On the other hand the aggregates of echinocytes were formed in the stored blood. The addition of plasma from the fresh blood didn't restore the normal discocytic shape and aggregation of erythrocytes in the stored blood. The possible mechanisms of erythrocytes and echinocytes aggregation are discussed.

  2. Aggregation of Diesel Contaminated Soil for Bioremediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ying; Shi Xiu-hong; Li Song; Xu Jing-gang


    Diesel contaminated soil (DCS) contained a large amount of the hydrocarbons and salt which was dominated by soluble sodium chloride. Aggregation process which made the desired aggregate size distribution could speed up the degradation rate of the hydrocarbons since the aggregated DCS had better physical characteristics than the non-aggregated material. Artificial aggregation increased pores >30 µm by approximately 5% and reduced pores <1 µm by 5%, but did not change the percentage of the pores between 1 and 30 µm. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of non-aggregated DCS was 5×10-6 m• s-l, but it increased to 1×10-5 m• s-l after aggregation. The compression index of the non-aggregated DCS was 0.0186; however, the artificial aggregates with and without lime were 0.031 and 0.028, respectively. DCS could be piled 0.2 m deep without artificial aggregation; however, it could be applied 0.28 m deep when artificial aggregates were formed without limiting O2 transport.

  3. Bouncing Behavior of Microscopic Dust Aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Seizinger, Alexander


    Context: Bouncing collisions of dust aggregates within the protoplanetary may have a significant impact on the growth process of planetesimals. Yet, the conditions that result in bouncing are not very well understood. Existing simulations studying the bouncing behavior used aggregates with an artificial, very regular internal structure. Aims: Here, we study the bouncing behavior of sub-mm dust aggregates that are constructed applying different sample preparation methods. We analyze how the internal structure of the aggregate alters the collisional outcome and determine the influence of aggregate size, porosity, collision velocity, and impact parameter. Methods: We use molecular dynamics simulations where the individual aggregates are treated as spheres that are made up of several hundred thousand individual monomers. The simulations are run on GPUs. Results: Statistical bulk properties and thus bouncing behavior of sub-mm dust aggregates depend heavily on the preparation method. In particular, there is no uni...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Jeulin


    Full Text Available The percolation threshold ρc of Boolean models of cylinders with their axis parallel to a given direction is studied by means of simulations. An efficient method of construction of percolating connected components was developed, and is applied to one or two scales Boolean model, in order to simulate the presence of aggregates. The invariance of the percolation threshold with respect to affine transformations in the common direction of the axis of cylinders is approximately satisfied on simulations. The prediction of the model (ρc close to 0.16 is consistent with experimental measurements on plasma spray coatings, which motivated this study.

  5. Aggregation kinetics of a simulated telechelic polymer (United States)

    Wilson, Mark; Rabinovitch, Avinoam; Baljon, Arlette R. C.


    We investigate the aggregation kinetics of a simulated telechelic polymer gel. In the hybrid molecular dynamics (MD)/Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm, aggregates of associating end groups form and break according to MC rules, while the position of the polymers in space is dictated by MD. As a result, the aggregate sizes change over time. In order to describe this aggregation process, we employ master equations. They define changes in the number of aggregates of a certain size in terms of reaction rates. These reaction rates indicate the likelihood that two aggregates combine to form a large one, or that a large aggregate splits into two smaller parts. The reaction rates are obtained from the simulations for a range of temperatures. Our results indicate that the rates are not only temperature dependent, but also a function of the sizes of the aggregates involved in the reaction. Using the measured rates, solutions to the master equations are shown to be stable and in agreement with the aggregate size distribution, as obtained directly from simulation data. Furthermore, we show how temperature-induced variations in these rates give rise to the observed changes in the aggregate distribution that characterizes the sol-gel transition.

  6. Pyridine Aggregation in Helium Nanodroplets (United States)

    Nieto, Pablo; Poerschke, Torsten; Habig, Daniel; Schwaab, Gerhard; Havenith, Martina


    Pyridine crystals show the unusual property of isotopic polymorphism. Experimentally it has been observed that deuterated pyridine crystals exist in two phases while non-deuterated pyridine does not show a phase transition. Therefore, although isotopic substitution is the smallest possible modification of a molecule it greatly affects the stability of pyridine crystals. A possible experimental approach in order to understand this striking effect might be the study of pyridine aggregation for small clusters. By embedding the clusters in helium nanodroplets the aggregates can be stabilized and studied by means of Infrared Depletion Spectroscopy. Pyridine oligomers were investigated in the C-H asymmetric vibration region (2980-3100 cm-1) using this experimental technique. The number of molecules for the clusters responsibles for each band were determined by means of pick-up curves as well as mass sensitive depletion spectra. Furthermore, the intensity dependence of the different bands on applying a dc electric field was studied. The assignment of the different structures for pyridine clusters on the basis of these measurements were also carried out. S. Crawford et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 48, 755 (2009).

  7. Estimating Aggregate Demand in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha EMARA


    Full Text Available Abstract. This econometric study seeks to determine the most important factors of aggregate demand in Egypt so as to provide insight into how this developing nation can grow economically in the coming years. The Ordinary Least Squares estimation method was used in order to estimate nominal GDP for the time period 1975 to 2009. Based on the results the real interest rate, the inflation rate, the growth rate of government expenditure, and the growth rate of the money supply are the most statistically and economically significant factors of the growth rate of nominal GDP for the coming year. A one percent change in the growth rate of the previous year government expenditure is predicted to cause the growth rate of the current year nominal GDP to increase by 54%.The role of government expenditures on public sector wage expansion is discussed in this study as to shed light on this factor’s significant influence on income inequality post-1975 in Egypt, which will continue to impact nominal GDP and social conditions for the developing nation in the coming years.Keywords. GDP, Aggregate Demand, Egypt.JEL. E25, O40, Q11.

  8. Byproduct aggregate. Copper slag aggregate, ferronickel slag aggregate; Fukusan kotsuzai. Do suragu kotsuzai, fuero nikkeru suragu kotsuzai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajiwara, Toshitaka


    Copper slag aggregate and ferronickel slag aggregate has not only usual substitute of sand or crushed sand but many features unlike sand or unlike crushed sand. It has many features unlike sand or crushed sand. It seems that especially, behavior of the particulates minute is features of deserving in addition, the examination in future. Of course, one feature also consists on the merit on the demerit by the use. And, copper slag aggregate, ferronickel slag aggregate have also limited the production place at the output of about 2 million annual production tons. These features are utilized, and in addition, wants to teach and want to receive the wider usage. (NEDO)

  9. Natural aggregates of the conterminous United States (United States)

    Langer, William H.


    Crushed stone and sand and gravel are the two main sources of natural aggregates. These materials are commonly used construction materials and frequently can be interchanged with one another. They are widely used throughout the United States, with every State except two producing crushed stone. Together they amount to about half the mining volume in the United States. Approximately 96 percent of sand and gravel and 77 percent of the crushed stone produced in the United States are used in the construction industry. Natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States in a variety of geologic environments. Sand and gravel deposits commonly are the results of the weathering of bedrock and subsequent transportation and deposition of the material by water or ice (glaciers). As such, they commonly occur as river or stream deposits or in glaciated areas as glaciofluvial and other deposits. Crushed stone aggregates are derived from a wide variety of parent bedrock materials. Limestone and other carbonates account for approximately three quarters of the rocks used for crushed stone, with granite and other igneous rocks making up the bulk of the remainder. Limestone deposits are widespread throughout the Central and Eastern United States and are scattered in the West. Granites are widely distributed in the Eastern and Western United States, with few exposures in the Midwest. Igneous rocks (excluding granites) are largely concentrated in the Western United States and in a few isolated localities in the East. Even though natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States, they are not universally available for consumptive use. Some areas are devoid of sand and gravel, and potential sources of crushed stone may be covered with sufficient unconsolidated material to make surface mining impractical. In some areas many aggregates do not meet the physical property requirements for certain uses, or they may contain mineral constituents that react

  10. Role of multicellular aggregates in biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Kasper N.; Hutchison, Jaime B.; Melaugh, Gavin


    In traditional models of in vitro biofilm development, individual bacterial cells seed a surface, multiply, and mature into multicellular, three-dimensional structures. Much research has been devoted to elucidating the mechanisms governing the initial attachment of single cells to surfaces. However......, in natural environments and during infection, bacterial cells tend to clump as multicellular aggregates, and biofilms can also slough off aggregates as a part of the dispersal process. This makes it likely that biofilms are often seeded by aggregates and single cells, yet how these aggregates impact biofilm...... initiation and development is not known. Here we use a combination of experimental and computational approaches to determine the relative fitness of single cells and preformed aggregates during early development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. We find that the relative fitness of aggregates depends...

  11. A vertically resolved model for phytoplankton aggregation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Iris Kriest; Geoffrey T Evans


    This work presents models of the vertical distribution and flux of phytoplankton aggregates, including changes with time in the distribution of aggregate sizes and sinking speeds. The distribution of sizes is described by two parameters, the mass and number of aggregates, which greatly reduces the computational cost of the models. Simple experiments demonstrate the effects of aggregation on the timing and depth distribution of primary production and export. A more detailed ecological model is applied to sites in the Arabian Sea; it demonstrates that aggregation can be important for deep sedimentation even when its effect on surface concentrations is small, and it presents the difference in timing between settlement of aggregates and fecal pellets.

  12. Aggregates in the Temporal Query Language TQuel, (United States)


    makes it possible to define both standard and unique aggregates in a rigorous way. Ceri and Gottlob present 43 prVPW t TW WRJR V P P V * a translation...from a subset of SQL that includes aggregates into relational algebra, thereby defining an operational semantics for SQL aggregates [Ceri & Gottlob ...Zvi, J. The Time Relational Model. Ph). Diss. Computer Science Department, UCLA, 1982. (Ceri & Gotlob 19851 Ceri, S. and G. Gottlob . Translating SQL

  13. Macroeconomic susceptibility, inflation, and aggregate supply (United States)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.


    We unify aggregate-supply dynamics as a time-dependent susceptibility-mediated relationship between inflation and aggregate economic output. In addition to representing well various observations of inflation-output dynamics this parsimonious formalism provides a straightforward derivation of popular representations of aggregate-supply dynamics and a natural basis for economic-agent expectations as an element of inflation formation. Our formalism also illuminates questions of causality and time-correlation that challenge central banks for whom aggregate-supply dynamics is a key constraint in their goal of achieving macroeconomic stability.

  14. Aggregate growth in a protoplanetary disk (United States)

    Xiang, Chuchu; Carballido, Augusto; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell


    We present a method to model the growth of neutral and charged dusts in a turbulent protoplanetary disk, and analyze their collision probabilities. Coagulation of dust aggregates plays an important role in the formation of planets and is of key importance to the evolution of protoplanetary disks. In our method, the temporal evolution of the dusts is followed by Monte Carlo algorithm, and the inter-particle interactions are calculated by Aggregate_Builder (AB), which is a code used to model the collision process of aggregates. First an aggregate library is built and all the aggregates are binned according to their sizes. In each iteration, the collision rate for aggregates from any two bins are computed, which determines the time it takes for the next collision to happen and which two aggregates are selected for collision. Then the AB codes are used to calculate the interaction of the two aggregates. The relative velocity between the two aggregates is the vector sum of Brownian velocity and the turbulent velocity. The latter is calculated by ATHENA, which is a grid-based code for astrophysical magnetohydrodynamics. In each iteration, it’s determined whether the two aggregates hit or miss. In the case of hit, it either sticks or bounces as determined by the critical velocity. As a result, the neutral aggregates are more porous than the charged ones. For a certain size of incoming aggregates, the neutral ones have a higher collision probability than the charged ones. Also, similarly-sized aggregates have lower collision probabilities than aggregates with large size dispersions. This research enables us to determine which physical properties have a greater impact on the collision rate. By tracing the dust size distribution, we can identify the stage when they settle out to the mid-plane and how long it takes to develop to that stage. In the hit-stick regime, our results are consistent with the experiments which shows that when the velocity is smaller than the

  15. Aggregated Dynamic Dataflow Graph Generation and Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Szabó


    Full Text Available Aggregated Dynamic Dataflow Graphs can assist programmers to uncover the main data paths of a given algorithm. This information can be useful when scaling a singlethreaded program into a multi-core architecture. The amount of data movements is crucial when targeting for cache incoherent and/or heterogeneous platforms. This paper presents two methods for generating function-level Aggregated Dynamic Dataflow Graphs. Instruction level trace log was used as a basis, which was generated by Microsoft Giano processor simulator platform. Top-down aggregation strategy and relational database was used to speed up the generation of different views of the aggregated dataflow and call graphs.

  16. Population balance modeling of antibodies aggregation kinetics. (United States)

    Arosio, Paolo; Rima, Simonetta; Lattuada, Marco; Morbidelli, Massimo


    The aggregates morphology and the aggregation kinetics of a model monoclonal antibody under acidic conditions have been investigated. Growth occurs via irreversible cluster-cluster coagulation forming compact, fractal aggregates with fractal dimension of 2.6. We measured the time evolution of the average radius of gyration, , and the average hydrodynamic radius, , by in situ light scattering, and simulated the aggregation kinetics by a modified Smoluchowski's population balance equations. The analysis indicates that aggregation does not occur under diffusive control, and allows quantification of effective intermolecular interactions, expressed in terms of the Fuchs stability ratio (W). In particular, by introducing a dimensionless time weighed on W, the time evolutions of measured under various operating conditions (temperature, pH, type and concentration of salt) collapse on a single master curve. The analysis applies also to data reported in the literature when growth by cluster-cluster coagulation dominates, showing a certain level of generality in the antibodies aggregation behavior. The quantification of the stability ratio gives important physical insights into the process, including the Arrhenius dependence of the aggregation rate constant and the relationship between monomer-monomer and cluster-cluster interactions. Particularly, it is found that the reactivity of non-native monomers is larger than that of non-native aggregates, likely due to the reduction of the number of available hydrophobic patches during aggregation.

  17. Pre-aggregation for Probability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timko, Igor; Dyreson, Curtis E.; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    Motivated by the increasing need to analyze complex uncertain multidimensional data (e.g., in order to optimize and personalize location-based services), this paper proposes novel types of {\\em probabilistic} OLAP queries that operate on aggregate values that are probability distributions...... and the techniques to process these queries. The paper also presents the methods for computing the probability distributions, which enables pre-aggregation, and for using the pre-aggregated distributions for further aggregation. In order to achieve good time and space efficiency, the methods perform approximate...... multidimensional data analysis that is considered in this paper (i.e., approximate processing of probabilistic OLAP queries over probability distributions)....

  18. Collisional Aggregation due to Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Pumir, Alain


    Collisions between particles suspended in a fluid play an important role in many physical processes. As an example, collisions of microscopic water droplets in clouds are a necessary step in the production of macroscopic raindrops. Collisions of dust grains are also conjectured to be important for planet formation in the gas surrounding young stars, and also to play a role in the dynamics of sand storms. In these processes, collisions are favoured by fast turbulent motions. Here we review recent advances in the understanding of collisional aggregation due to turbulence. We discuss the role of fractal clustering of particles, and caustic singularities of their velocities. We also discuss limitations of the Smoluchowski equation for modelling these processes. These advances lead to a semi-quantitative understanding on the influence of turbulence on collision rates, and point to deficiencies in the current understanding of rainfall and planet formation.

  19. Morphological classification of nanoceramic aggregates (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni F.; Kang, Bongwoo; Ospina, Carolina; Sung, Changmo


    Aluminum silicate nanoaggregates grown at near-room temperature on an organic template under a variety of experimental conditions have been imaged by transmission electron microscopy. Images have been automatically classified by an algorithm based on "spectrum enhancement", multivariate statistics and supervised optimization. Spectrum enhancement consists of subtracting, in the log scale, a known function of wavenumber from the angle averaged power spectral density of the image. Enhanced spectra of each image, after polynomial interpolation, have been regarded as morphological descriptors and as such submitted to principal components analysis nested with a multiobjective parameter optimization algorithm. The latter has maximized pairwise discrimination between classes of materials. The role of the organic template and of a reaction parameter on aggregate morphology has been assessed at two magnification scales. Classification results have also been related to crystal structure data derived from selected area electron diffraction patterns.

  20. Colloid Release from Soil Aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per;


    The content of water-dispersible colloids (WDC) has a major impact on soil functions and structural stability. In addition, the presence of mobile colloids may increase the risk of colloid-facilitated transport of strongly sorbing environmental contaminants. The WDC content was measured in 39 soils......, using laser diffraction, by agitating the samples using a wet-dispersion unit. This approach eliminated the need for long sedimentation times required by the more classical end-over-end shaking approach and provided information about the time-dependent release of WDC. The total clay content of the soils...... ranged from 0.1 to 0.44 kg kg−1. The WDC content was measured on air-dry and moist 1- to 2-mm aggregates. The WDC content at a reference time was highly correlated to the total clay content (r > 0.91, P soils. Only for two sites was the WDC content correlated to the content of clay...

  1. Thrombolytic therapy reduces red blood cell aggregation in plasma without affecting intrinsic aggregability. (United States)

    Ben-Ami, R; Sheinman, G; Yedgar, S; Eldor, A; Roth, A; Berliner, A S; Barshtein, G


    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation may contribute to occlusion of the coronary microcirculation during myocardial infarction. We studied the effect of thrombolytic therapy on RBC aggregation in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Compared with patients with myocardial infarction who did not receive thrombolytic therapy, those treated with systemic thrombolysis exhibited significantly reduced RBC aggregation, reduced plasma fibrinogen levels and increased plasma D-dimer levels. Using measurement of RBC aggregation in a standardized dextran-500 solution, reduction in RBC aggregation after thrombolysis was shown to be plasma dependent. Thrombolytic therapy had no direct effect on intrinsic RBC aggregability in patients with AMI. We conclude that thrombolytic therapy has rheologic consequences that may contribute to its overall efficacy. Inhibition of RBC aggregation by thrombolytic therapy may result from the degradation of fibrinogen, a key factor in the formation of RBC aggregates, and from the generation of fibrinogen degradation products capable of disaggregating RBCs.

  2. Preformed Seeds Modulate Native Insulin Aggregation Kinetics. (United States)

    Dutta, Colina; Yang, Mu; Long, Fei; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Tiwari, Ashutosh


    Insulin aggregates under storage conditions via disulfide interchange reaction. It is also known to form aggregates at the site of repeated injections in diabetes patients, leading to injection amyloidosis. This has fueled research in pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry as well as in academia to understand factors that modulate insulin stability and aggregation. The main aim of this study is to understand the factors that modulate aggregation propensity of insulin under conditions close to physiological and measure effect of "seeds" on aggregation kinetics. We explored the aggregation kinetics of insulin at pH 7.2 and 37 °C in the presence of disulfide-reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT), using spectroscopy (UV-visible, fluorescence, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and microscopy (scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy) techniques. We prepared insulin "seeds" by incubating disulfide-reduced insulin at pH 7.2 and 37 °C for varying lengths of time (10 min to 12 h). These seeds were added to the native protein and nucleation-dependent aggregation kinetics was measured. Aggregation kinetics was fastest in the presence of 10 min seeds suggesting they were nascent. Interestingly, intermediate seeds (30 min to 4 h incubation) resulted in formation of transient fibrils in 4 h that converted to amorphous aggregates upon longer incubation of 24 h. Overall, the results show that insulin under disulfide reducing conditions at pH and temperature close to physiological favors amorphous aggregate formation and seed "maturity" plays an important role in nucleation dependent aggregation kinetics.

  3. Impact of Particle Aggregation on Nanoparticle Reactivity (United States)

    Jassby, David


    The prevalence of nanoparticles in the environment is expected to grow in the coming years due to their increasing pervasiveness in consumer and industrial applications. Once released into the environment, nanoparticles encounter conditions of pH, salinity, UV light, and other solution conditions that may alter their surface characteristics and lead to aggregation. The unique properties that make nanoparticles desirable are a direct consequence of their size and increased surface area. Therefore, it is critical to recognize how aggregation alters the reactive properties of nanomaterials, if we wish to understand how these properties are going to behave once released into the environment. The size and structure of nanoparticle aggregates depend on surrounding conditions, including hydrodynamic ones. Depending on these conditions, aggregates can be large or small, tightly packed or loosely bound. Characterizing and measuring these changes to aggregate morphology is important to understanding the impact of aggregation on nanoparticle reactive properties. Examples of decreased reactivity due to aggregation include the case where tightly packed aggregates have fewer available surface sites compared to loosely packed ones; also, photocatalytic particles embedded in the center of large aggregates will experience less light when compared to particles embedded in small aggregates. However, aggregation also results in an increase in solid-solid interfaces between nanoparticles. This can result in increased energy transfer between neighboring particles, surface passivation, and altered surface tension. These phenomena can lead to an increase in reactivity. The goal of this thesis is to examine the impacts of aggregation on the reactivity of a select group of nanomaterials. Additionally, we examined how aggregation impacts the removal efficiency of fullerene nanoparticles using membrane filtration. The materials we selected to study include ZnS---a metal chalcogenide


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Guidi


    Full Text Available For the identification of C pools involved in soil aggregation, a physically-based aggregate fractionation was proposed, and  additional pretreatments were used in the measurement of the 1-2 mm aggregate stability in order to elucidate the relevance of the role of soil microorganisms with respect to the different aggregate breakdown mechanisms. The study was carried out on three clay loam Regosols, developed on calcareous shales, known history of organic cultivation.Our results showed that the soil C pool controlling the process of stabilisation of aggregates was related to the microbial community. We identified the resistance to fast wetting as the major mechanism of aggregate stability driven by microorganims. The plausible hypothesis is that organic farming promotes fungi growth, improving water repellency of soil aggregates by fungal hydrophobic substances. By contrast, we failed in the identification of C pools controlling the formation of aggregates, probably because of the disturbance of mechanical tillage which contributes to the breakdown of soil aggregates.The physically-based aggregate fractionation proposed in this study resulted useful in the  mechanistically understanding of the role of microorganisms in soil aggregation and it might be suggested for studying the impact of management on C pools, aggregates properties and their relationships in agricultural soils.

  5. Protein aggregation and lyophilization: Protein structural descriptors as predictors of aggregation propensity


    Roughton, Brock C.; Iyer, Lavanya K.; Bertelsen, Esben; Topp, Elizabeth M.; Camarda, Kyle V.


    Lyophilization can induce aggregation in therapeutic proteins, but the relative importance of protein structure, formulation and processing conditions are poorly understood. To evaluate the contribution of protein structure to lyophilization-induced aggregation, fifteen proteins were co-lyophilized with each of five excipients. Extent of aggregation following lyophilization, measured using size-exclusion chromatography, was correlated with computational and biophysical protein structural desc...

  6. Marine particle aggregate breakup in turbulent flows (United States)

    Rau, Matthew; Ackleson, Steven; Smith, Geoffrey


    The dynamics of marine particle aggregate formation and breakup due to turbulence is studied experimentally. Aggregates of clay particles, initially in a quiescent aggregation tank, are subjected to fully developed turbulent pipe flow at Reynolds numbers of up to 25,000. This flow arrangement simulates the exposure of marine aggregates in coastal waters to a sudden turbulent event. Particle size distributions are measured by in-situ sampling of the small-angle forward volume scattering function and the volume concentration of the suspended particulate matter is quantified through light attenuation measurements. Results are compared to measurements conducted under laminar and turbulent flow conditions. At low shear rates, larger sized particles indicate that aggregation initially governs the particle dynamics. Breakup is observed when large aggregates are exposed to the highest levels of shear in the experiment. Models describing the aggregation and breakup rates of marine particles due to turbulence are evaluated with the population balance equation and results from the simulation and experiment are compared. Additional model development will more accurately describe aggregation dynamics for remote sensing applications in turbulent marine environments.

  7. Teaching Aggregate Demand and Supply Models (United States)

    Wells, Graeme


    The author analyzes the inflation-targeting model that underlies recent textbook expositions of the aggregate demand-aggregate supply approach used in introductory courses in macroeconomics. He shows how numerical simulations of a model with inflation inertia can be used as a tool to help students understand adjustments in response to demand and…

  8. A formal approach to aggregated belief formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, A.; Klein, M.C.A.; Treur, J.


    This paper introduces a formal method to aggregate over basic beliefs, in order to deduce aggregated or complex beliefs as often used in applications. Complex beliefs can represent several things, such as a belief about a period in which other beliefs held or the minimal or maximal certainty with wh

  9. Approximation of Aggregate Losses Using Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Mohamed


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The modeling of aggregate losses is one of the main objectives in actuarial theory and practice, especially in the process of making important business decisions regarding various aspects of insurance contracts. The aggregate losses over a fixed time period is often modeled by mixing the distributions of loss frequency and severity, whereby the distribution resulted from this approach is called a compound distribution. However, in many cases, realistic probability distributions for loss frequency and severity cannot be combined mathematically to derive the compound distribution of aggregate losses. Approach: This study aimed to approximate the aggregate loss distribution using simulation approach. In particular, the approximation of aggregate losses was based on a compound Poisson-Pareto distribution. The effects of deductible and policy limit on the individual loss as well as the aggregate losses were also investigated. Results: Based on the results, the approximation of compound Poisson-Pareto distribution via simulation approach agreed with the theoretical mean and variance of each of the loss frequency, loss severity and aggregate losses. Conclusion: This study approximated the compound distribution of aggregate losses using simulation approach. The investigation on retained losses and insurance claims allowed an insured or a company to select an insurance contract that fulfills its requirement. In particular, if a company wants to have an additional risk reduction, it can compare alternative policies by considering the worthiness of the additional expected total cost which can be estimated via simulation approach.

  10. Ratio-Based Gradual Aggregation of Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem


    cause data management and data storage issues. However, non-flexible and ineffective means of data aggregation not only reduce performance of database queries but also lead to erroneous reporting. This paper presents flexible and effective ratio-based methods for gradual data aggregation in databases...

  11. Familial Aggregation and Childhood Blood Pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold


    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest prog

  12. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV;


    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...

  13. Multicandidate Elections: Aggregate Uncertainty in the Laboratory* (United States)

    Bouton, Laurent; Castanheira, Micael; Llorente-Saguer, Aniol


    The rational-voter model is often criticized on the grounds that two of its central predictions (the paradox of voting and Duverger’s Law) are at odds with reality. Recent theoretical advances suggest that these empirically unsound predictions might be an artifact of an (arguably unrealistic) assumption: the absence of aggregate uncertainty about the distribution of preferences in the electorate. In this paper, we propose direct empirical evidence of the effect of aggregate uncertainty in multicandidate elections. Adopting a theory-based experimental approach, we explore whether aggregate uncertainty indeed favors the emergence of non-Duverger’s law equilibria in plurality elections. Our experimental results support the main theoretical predictions: sincere voting is a predominant strategy under aggregate uncertainty, whereas without aggregate uncertainty, voters massively coordinate their votes behind one candidate, who wins almost surely.

  14. Role of multicellular aggregates in biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Kasper N.; Hutchison, Jaime B.; Melaugh, Gavin;


    response, may add to this ecological benefit. Our findings suggest that current models of biofilm formation should be reconsidered to incorporate the role of aggregates in biofilm initiation.IMPORTANCE During the past decades, there has been a consensus around the model of development of a biofilm......In traditional models of in vitro biofilm development, individual bacterial cells seed a surface, multiply, and mature into multicellular, three-dimensional structures. Much research has been devoted to elucidating the mechanisms governing the initial attachment of single cells to surfaces. However......, in natural environments and during infection, bacterial cells tend to clump as multicellular aggregates, and biofilms can also slough off aggregates as a part of the dispersal process. This makes it likely that biofilms are often seeded by aggregates and single cells, yet how these aggregates impact biofilm...

  15. Formation of Tethers from Spreading Cellular Aggregates. (United States)

    Beaune, Grégory; Winnik, Françoise M; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise


    Membrane tubes are commonly extruded from cells and vesicles when a point-like force is applied on the membrane. We report here the unexpected formation of membrane tubes from lymph node cancer prostate (LNCaP) cell aggregates in the absence of external applied forces. The spreading of LNCaP aggregates deposited on adhesive glass substrates coated with fibronectin is very limited because cell-cell adhesion is stronger than cell-substrate adhesion. Some cells on the aggregate periphery are very motile and try to escape from the aggregate, leading to the formation of membrane tubes. Tethered networks and exchange of cargos between cells were observed as well. Growth of the tubes is followed by either tube retraction or tube rupture. Hence, even very cohesive cells are successful in escaping aggregates, which may lead to epithelial mesenchymal transition and tumor metastasis. We interpret the dynamics of formation and retraction of tubes in the framework of membrane mechanics.

  16. Pre-aggregation for Probability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timko, Igor; Dyreson, Curtis E.; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    Motivated by the increasing need to analyze complex uncertain multidimensional data (e.g., in order to optimize and personalize location-based services), this paper proposes novel types of {\\em probabilistic} OLAP queries that operate on aggregate values that are probability distributions...... and the techniques to process these queries. The paper also presents the methods for computing the probability distributions, which enables pre-aggregation, and for using the pre-aggregated distributions for further aggregation. In order to achieve good time and space efficiency, the methods perform approximate...... computations of aggregate values. The paper also reports on the experiments with the methods. The work is motivated with a real-world case study, based on our collaboration with a leading Danish vendor of location-based services. No previous work considers the combination of the aspects of uncertain...

  17. Spatial Aggregation: Data Model and Implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez, Leticia; Kuijpers, Bart; Vaisman, Alejandro


    Data aggregation in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is only marginally present in commercial systems nowadays, mostly through ad-hoc solutions. In this paper, we first present a formal model for representing spatial data. This model integrates geographic data and information contained in data warehouses external to the GIS. We define the notion of geometric aggregation, a general framework for aggregate queries in a GIS setting. We also identify the class of summable queries, which can be efficiently evaluated by precomputing the overlay of two or more of the thematic layers involved in the query. We also sketch a language, denoted GISOLAP-QL, for expressing queries that involve GIS and OLAP features. In addition, we introduce Piet, an implementation of our proposal, that makes use of overlay precomputation for answering spatial queries (aggregate or not). Our experimental evaluation showed that for a certain class of geometric queries with or without aggregation, overlay precomputation outperforms R-tre...

  18. Aggregation of Composite Solutions: strategies, models, examples

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Mark Sh


    The paper addresses aggregation issues for composite (modular) solutions. A systemic view point is suggested for various aggregation problems. Several solution structures are considered: sets, set morphologies, trees, etc. Mainly, the aggregation approach is targeted to set morphologies. The aggregation problems are based on basic structures as substructure, superstructure, median/consensus, and extended median/consensus. In the last case, preliminary structure is built (e.g., substructure, median/consensus) and addition of solution elements is considered while taking into account profit of the additional elements and total resource constraint. Four aggregation strategies are examined: (i) extension strategy (designing a substructure of initial solutions as "system kernel" and extension of the substructure by additional elements); (ii) compression strategy (designing a superstructure of initial solutions and deletion of some its elements); (iii) combined strategy; and (iv) new design strategy to build a new s...

  19. Excited-state dynamics of astaxanthin aggregates (United States)

    Fuciman, Marcel; Durchan, Milan; Šlouf, Václav; Keşan, Gürkan; Polívka, Tomáš


    Astaxanthin forms three types of aggregates in hydrated dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). In DMSO/water ratio of 1:1, a red-shifted J-aggregate with maximum at 570 nm is generated, while a ratio of 1:9 produces blue-shifted H-aggregates with peaks at 386 nm (H1) and 460 nm (H2). Monomeric astaxanthin in DMSO has an S1 lifetime of 5.3 ps, but a long-lived (33 ps) S∗ signal was also identified. Aggregation changes the S1 lifetimes to 17 ps (H1), 30 ps (H2), and 14 ps (J). Triplet state of astaxanthin, most likely generated via singlet homofission, was observed in H1 and H2 aggregates.

  20. An exact approach for aggregated formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Spoorendonk, Simon

    optimality cannot be guaranteed by branching on the aggregated variables. In this presentation, we propose a general method for solving aggregated formulations, such that the solution is optimal to the original problem. The method is based on applying Benders’ decomposition on a combination of the original...... to mathematical formulations with a different solution space than that for the original formulation, i.e., the aggregated formulation may be a relaxation of the original problem. In a branch-and-bound context, variable aggregation can also lead to a formulation where branching is not trivial, for example when...... and aggregated formulations. Put in a branch-and-bound context, branching can be performed on the original variables to ensure optimality. We show how to apply the method on well-known optimization problems....

  1. The fractal aggregation of asphaltenes. (United States)

    Hoepfner, Michael P; Fávero, Cláudio Vilas Bôas; Haji-Akbari, Nasim; Fogler, H Scott


    This paper discusses time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering results that were used to investigate asphaltene structure and stability with and without a precipitant added in both crude oil and model oil. A novel approach was used to isolate the scattering from asphaltenes that are insoluble and in the process of aggregating from those that are soluble. It was found that both soluble and insoluble asphaltenes form fractal clusters in crude oil and the fractal dimension of the insoluble asphaltene clusters is higher than that of the soluble clusters. Adding heptane also increases the size of soluble asphaltene clusters without modifying the fractal dimension. Understanding the process of insoluble asphaltenes forming fractals with higher fractal dimensions will potentially reveal the microscopic asphaltene destabilization mechanism (i.e., how a precipitant modifies asphaltene-asphaltene interactions). It was concluded that because of the polydisperse nature of asphaltenes, no well-defined asphaltene phase stability envelope exists and small amounts of asphaltenes precipitated even at dilute precipitant concentrations. Asphaltenes that are stable in a crude oil-precipitant mixture are dispersed on the nanometer length scale. An asphaltene precipitation mechanism is proposed that is consistent with the experimental findings. Additionally, it was found that the heptane-insoluble asphaltene fraction is the dominant source of small-angle scattering in crude oil and the previously unobtainable asphaltene solubility at low heptane concentrations was measured.

  2. Social stress-enhanced severity of Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis is CCL2-dependent and attenuated by probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri. (United States)

    Mackos, A R; Galley, J D; Eubank, T D; Easterling, R S; Parry, N M; Fox, J G; Lyte, M; Bailey, M T


    Psychological stressors are known to affect colonic diseases but the mechanisms by which this occurs, and whether probiotics can prevent stressor effects, are not understood. Because inflammatory monocytes that traffic into the colon can exacerbate colitis, we tested whether CCL2, a chemokine involved in monocyte recruitment, was necessary for stressor-induced exacerbation of infectious colitis. Mice were exposed to a social disruption stressor that entails repeated social defeat. During stressor exposure, mice were orally challenged with Citrobacter rodentium to induce a colonic inflammatory response. Exposure to the stressor during challenge resulted in significantly higher colonic pathogen levels, translocation to the spleen, increases in colonic macrophages, and increases in inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. The stressor-enhanced severity of C. rodentium-induced colitis was not evident in CCL2(-/-) mice, indicating the effects of the stressor are CCL2-dependent. In addition, we tested whether probiotic intervention could attenuate stressor-enhanced infectious colitis by reducing monocyte/macrophage accumulation. Treating mice with probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri reduced CCL2 mRNA levels in the colon and attenuated stressor-enhanced infectious colitis. These data demonstrate that probiotic L. reuteri can prevent the exacerbating effects of stressor exposure on pathogen-induced colitis, and suggest that one mechanism by which this occurs is through downregulation of the chemokine CCL2.

  3. The inhibition of COPII trafficking is important for intestinal epithelial tight junction disruption during enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Citrobacter rodentium infection. (United States)

    Thanabalasuriar, Ajitha; Kim, Jinoh; Gruenheid, Samantha


    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) are bacterial pathogens that cause severe illnesses in humans. Citrobacter rodentium is a related mouse pathogen that serves as a small animal model for EPEC and EHEC infections. EPEC, EHEC and C. rodentium translocate bacterial virulence proteins directly into host intestinal cells via a type III secretion system (T3SS). Non-LEE-encoded effector A (NleA) is a T3SS effector that is common to EPEC, EHEC and C. rodentium. NleA interacts with and inhibits the mammalian COPII complex, impairing cellular secretion; this interaction is required for bacterial virulence. Although diarrhea is a hallmark of EPEC, EHEC and C. rodentium infections, the underlying mechanisms are not well characterized. One of the essential functions of the intestine is to maintain a barrier between the lumen and submucosa. Tight junctions seal the space between adjacent epithelial cells creating this barrier. Consequently, it is thought that the disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions by EPEC, EHEC, and C. rodentium could result in a loss of barrier function. In this study, we demonstrate that NleA mediated COPII inhibition is required for EPEC- and C. rodentium-mediated disruption of tight junction proteins and increases in fecal water content.

  4. Discovery of a Bacterial Glycoside Hydrolase Family 3 (GH3) β-Glucosidase with Myrosinase Activity from a Citrobacter Strain Isolated from Soil. (United States)

    Albaser, Abdulhadi; Kazana, Eleanna; Bennett, Mark H; Cebeci, Fatma; Luang-In, Vijitra; Spanu, Pietro D; Rossiter, John T


    A Citrobacter strain (WYE1) was isolated from a UK soil by enrichment using the glucosinolate sinigrin as sole carbon source. The enzyme myrosinase was purified using a combination of ion exchange and gel filtration to give a pure protein of approximately 66 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid and internal peptide sequence of the purified protein were determined and used to identify the gene, which, based on InterPro sequence analysis, belongs to the family GH3, contains a signal peptide, and is a periplasmic protein with a predicted molecular mass of 71.8 kDa. A preliminary characterization was carried out using protein extracts from cell-free preparations. The apparent KM and Vmax were 0.46 mM and 4.91 mmol dm(-3) min(-1) mg(-1), respectively, with sinigrin as substrate. The optimum temperature and pH for enzyme activity were 25 °C and 6.0, respectively. The enzyme was marginally activated with ascorbate by a factor of 1.67.

  5. Transcriptional frameshifting rescues Citrobacter rodentium type VI secretion by the production of two length variants from the prematurely interrupted tssM gene. (United States)

    Gueguen, Erwan; Wills, Norma M; Atkins, John F; Cascales, Eric


    The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) mediates toxin delivery into both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. It is composed of a cytoplasmic structure resembling the tail of contractile bacteriophages anchored to the cell envelope through a membrane complex composed of the TssL and TssM inner membrane proteins and of the TssJ outer membrane lipoprotein. The C-terminal domain of TssM is required for its interaction with TssJ, and for the function of the T6SS. In Citrobacter rodentium, the tssM1 gene does not encode the C-terminal domain. However, the stop codon is preceded by a run of 11 consecutive adenosines. In this study, we demonstrate that this poly-A tract is a transcriptional slippery site that induces the incorporation of additional adenosines, leading to frameshifting, and hence the production of two TssM1 variants, including a full-length canonical protein. We show that both forms of TssM1, and the ratio between these two forms, are required for the function of the T6SS in C. rodentium. Finally, we demonstrate that the tssM gene associated with the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis T6SS-3 gene cluster is also subjected to transcriptional frameshifting.

  6. Citrobacter amalonaticus phytase on the cell surface of Pichia pastoris exhibits high pH stability as a promising potential feed supplement. (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Lin, Ying; Huang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Liang, Shuli


    Phytase expressed and anchored on the cell surface of Pichia pastoris avoids the expensive and time-consuming steps of protein purification and separation. Furthermore, yeast cells with anchored phytase can be used as a whole-cell biocatalyst. In this study, the phytase gene of Citrobacter amalonaticus was fused with the Pichia pastoris glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored glycoprotein homologue GCW61. Phytase exposed on the cell surface exhibits a high activity of 6413.5 U/g, with an optimal temperature of 60°C. In contrast to secreted phytase, which has an optimal pH of 5.0, phytase presented on the cell surface is characterized by an optimal pH of 3.0. Moreover, our data demonstrate that phytase anchored on the cell surface exhibits higher pH stability than its secreted counterpart. Interestingly, our in vitro digestion experiments demonstrate that phytase attached to the cell surface is a more efficient enzyme than secreted phytase.

  7. Interleukin-7 produced by intestinal epithelial cells in response to Citrobacter rodentium infection plays a major role in innate immunity against this pathogen. (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Du, Jiang-Yuan; Yu, Qing; Jin, Jun-O


    Interleukin-7 (IL-7) engages multiple mechanisms to overcome chronic viral infections, but the role of IL-7 in bacterial infections, especially enteric bacterial infections, remains unclear. Here we characterized the previously unexplored role of IL-7 in the innate immune response to the attaching and effacing bacterium Citrobacter rodentium. C. rodentium infection induced IL-7 production from intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). IL-7 production from IECs in response to C. rodentium was dependent on gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing NK1.1(+) cells and IL-12. Treatment with anti-IL-7Rα antibody during C. rodentium infection resulted in a higher bacterial burden, enhanced intestinal damage, and greater weight loss and mortality than observed with the control IgG treatment. IEC-produced IL-7 was only essential for protective immunity against C. rodentium during the first 6 days after infection. An impaired bacterial clearance upon IL-7Rα blockade was associated with a significant decrease in macrophage accumulation and activation in the colon. Moreover, C. rodentium-induced expansion and activation of intestinal CD4(+) lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells was completely abrogated by IL-7Rα blockade. Collectively, these data demonstrate that IL-7 is produced by IECs in response to C. rodentium infection and plays a critical role in the protective immunity against this intestinal attaching and effacing bacterium.

  8. IL-4 Protects the Mitochondria Against TNFα and IFNγ Induced Insult During Clearance of Infection with Citrobacter rodentium and Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Maiti, Arpan K; Sharba, Sinan; Navabi, Nazanin; Forsman, Huamei; Fernandez, Harvey R; Lindén, Sara K


    Citrobacter rodentium is a murine pathogen that serves as a model for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. C. rodentium infection reduced the quantity and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complexes I and IV, as well as phosphorylation capacity, mitochondrial transmembrane potential and ATP generation at day 10, 14 and 19 post infection. Cytokine mRNA quantification showed increased levels of IFNγ, TNFα, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-12 during infection. The effects of adding these cytokines, C. rodentium and E. coli were hence elucidated using an in vitro colonic mucosa. Both infection and TNFα, individually and combined with IFNγ, decreased complex I and IV enzyme levels and mitochondrial function. However, IL-4 reversed these effects, and IL-6 protected against loss of complex IV. Both in vivo and in vitro, the dysfunction appeared caused by nitric oxide-generation, and was alleviated by an antioxidant targeting mitochondria. IFNγ -/- mice, containing a similar pathogen burden but higher IL-4 and IL-6, displayed no loss of any of the four complexes. Thus, the cytokine environment appears to be a more important determinant of mitochondrial function than direct actions of the pathogen. As IFNγ and TNFα levels increase during clearance of infection, the concomitant increase in IL-4 and IL-6 protects mitochondrial function.

  9. Effect of surfactant-induced cell surface modifications on electron transport system and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase activities and phenanthrene biodegradation by Citrobacter sp. SA01. (United States)

    Li, Feng; Zhu, Lizhong


    In order to better understand how surfactants affect biodegradation of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs), Tween 80 and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), were selected to investigate effects on cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH), electron transport system (ETS) activities and phenanthrene biodegradation by Citrobacter sp. SA01. Tween 80 and SDBS increased CSH by 19.8-25.2%, ETS activities by 352.1-376.0μmol/gmin, catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12) activities by 50.8-52.7U/L, and phenanthrene biodegradation by 8.9-17.2% separately in the presence of 50mg/L of surfactants as compared to in their absence. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) release was 334.7μg/mg in the presence of both surfactants whereas in their absence only 8.6-44.4μg/mg of LPS was released. Thus, enhanced LPS release probably increased ETS and C12 activities as well as phenanthrene biodegradation by increasing CSH. The results demonstrate that surfactant-enhanced CSH provides a simple, yet effective strategy for field applications of surfactant-enhanced bioremediation of HOCs.

  10. Citrobacter rodentium NleB Protein Inhibits Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptor-associated Factor 3 (TRAF3) Ubiquitination to Reduce Host Type I Interferon Production. (United States)

    Gao, Xiaofei; Pham, Thanh H; Feuerbacher, Leigh Ann; Chen, Kangming; Hays, Michael P; Singh, Gyanendra; Rueter, Christian; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ramon; Hardwidge, Philip R


    Interferon signaling plays important roles in both intestinal homeostasis and in the host response to pathogen infection. The extent to which bacterial pathogens inhibit this host pathway is an understudied area of investigation. We characterized Citrobacter rodentium strains bearing deletions in individual type III secretion system effector genes to determine whether this pathogen inhibits the host type I IFN response and which effector is responsible. The NleB effector limited host IFN-β production by inhibiting Lys(63)-linked ubiquitination of TNF receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3). Inhibition was dependent on the glycosyltransferase activity of NleB. GAPDH, a target of NleB during infection, bound to TRAF3 and was required for maximal TRAF3 ubiquitination. NleB glycosyltransferase activity inhibited GAPDH-TRAF3 binding, resulting in reduced TRAF3 ubiquitination. Collectively, our data reveal important interplay between GAPDH and TRAF3 and suggest a mechanism by which the NleB effector inhibits type I IFN signaling.

  11. Aggregate breakup in a contracting nozzle. (United States)

    Soos, Miroslav; Ehrl, Lyonel; Bäbler, Matthäus U; Morbidelli, Massimo


    The breakup of dense aggregates in an extensional flow was investigated experimentally. The flow was realized by pumping the suspension containing the aggregates through a contracting nozzle. Variation of the cluster mass distribution during the breakage process was measured by small-angle light scattering. Because of the large size of primary particles and the dense aggregate structure image analysis was used to determine the shape and structure of the produced fragments. It was found, that neither aggregate structure, characterized by a fractal dimension d(f) = 2.7, nor shape, characterized by an average aspect ratio equal to 1.5, was affected by breakage. Several passes through the nozzle were required to reach the steady state. This is explained by the radial variation of the hydrodynamic stresses at the nozzle entrance, characterized through computational fluid dynamics, which implies that only the fraction of aggregates whose strength is smaller than the local hydrodynamic stress is broken during one pass through the nozzle. Scaling of the steady-state aggregate size as a function of the hydrodynamic stress was used to determine the aggregate strength.

  12. Aggregate Formed by a Cationic Fluorescence Probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN, Juan; SANG, Da-Yong; JI, Guo-Zhen


    The aggregation behavior of a cationic fluorescence probe 10-(4,7,10,13,16-pentaoxa-1-azacyclooctadecyl-methyl)anthracen-9-ylmethyl dodecanoate (1) was observed and studied by a fluorescence methodology in acidic and neutral conditions. By using the Py scale, differences between simple aggregates and micelles have been discussed. The stability of simple aggregates was discussed in terms of hydrophobic interaction and electrostatic repulsion. The absence of excimer emission of the anthrancene moiety of probe 1 in neutral condition was attributed to the photoinduced electron transfer mechanism instead of photodimerization.

  13. Ratio-Based Gradual Aggregation of Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem


    Majority of databases contain large amounts of data, gathered over long intervals of time. In most cases, the data is aggregated so that it can be used for analysis and reporting purposes. The other reason of data aggregation is to reduce data volume in order to avoid over-sized databases that ma....... Gradual data aggregation is a process that reduces data volume by converting the detailed data into multiple levels of summarized data as the data gets older. This paper also describes implementation strategies of the proposed methods based on standard database technology....

  14. Linear aggregation theory in cell biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, T.L.


    This is an account of the theory, probability, and thermodynamics of linear aggregation. The emphasis is on basic principles illustrated by simple models, not on particular applications or polymers. The general physical aggregate systems - attached single-stranded polymers, single-stranded polymers modified by a second component, long multistranded polymers, attached multistranded polymers - are given extensive treatment. Also included are a discussion of the GTPase and ATPase activity accompanying the aggregation of microtubules and action, and the properties of the kinetic two-phase model of the end of a microtubule.

  15. Directional sensing and streaming in Dictyostelium aggregation. (United States)

    Almeida, Sofia; Dilão, Rui


    We merge the Kessler-Levine simple discrete model for Dictyostelium cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production and diffusion with the Dilão-Hauser directional sensing aggregation mechanism. The resulting compound model describes all the known transient patterns that emerge during Dictyostelium aggregation, which include the spontaneous formation of cAMP self-sustained target and spiral waves and streaming. We show that the streaming patterns depend on the speed of the amoebae, on the relaxation time for the production of cAMP, on the cAMP degradation rate, and on directional sensing. Moreover, we show that different signaling centers emerge during Dictyostelium aggregation.

  16. On Aggregating Human Capital Across Heterogeneous Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Growiec, Jakub; Groth, Christian

    Based on a general framework for computing the aggregate human capital stock under heterogeneity across population cohorts, the paper derives aggregate human capital stocks in the whole population and in the labor force, and relates these variables to average years of schooling and average work...... experience. Under the scenarios considered here, the "macro-Mincer" (log-linear) relationship between aggregate human capital and average years of schooling is obtained only in cases which are inconsistent with heterogeneity in years of schooling and based on empirically implausible demographic survival laws...

  17. Programming spiders, bots, and aggregators in Java

    CERN Document Server

    Heaton, Jeff


    The content and services available on the web continue to be accessed mostly through direct human control. But this is changing. Increasingly, users rely on automated agents that save them time and effort by programmatically retrieving content, performing complex interactions, and aggregating data from diverse sources. Programming Spiders, Bots, and Aggregators in Java teaches you how to build and deploy a wide variety of these agents-from single-purpose bots to exploratory spiders to aggregators that present a unified view of information from multiple user accounts. You will quickly build on

  18. Acid Resistance of Concrete Containing Laterite Aggregate as Partial Coarse Aggregate Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Muthusamy


    Full Text Available In Malaysia, issues of granite aggregate depletion in future due to increasing use in concrete industry and the availability of laterite aggregate locally has initiated studies on concrete produced using laterite aggregate as partial coarse aggregate replacement. Although, replacement of laterite aggregate up to 30% able to produce concrete with the targeted strength but durability of this concrete towards acid attack yet to be investigated. Thus, this study presents and discusses the performance of concrete consisting various percentage of laterite aggregate integrated as partial coarse aggregate replacement upon exposure to acidic environment. Mixes consisting various content of laterite aggregate as partial coarse aggregate replacement ranging from 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%, respectively were prepared in form of cubes and then subjected to water curing for 28 days before immersed in hydrochloric acid solution for 1800 h. Performance of the specimens were observed through mass loss and strength reduction. Generally, durability performance of concrete produced using up to 20% of laterite aggregate is comparable to plain concrete.

  19. p53 Aggregates penetrate cells and induce the co-aggregation of intracellular p53.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolyn J Forget

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are unique pathologies in which the infectious particles are prions, a protein aggregate. The prion protein has many particular features, such as spontaneous aggregation, conformation transmission to other native PrP proteins and transmission from an individual to another. Protein aggregation is now frequently associated to many human diseases, for example Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease or type 2 diabetes. A few proteins associated to these conformational diseases are part of a new category of proteins, called prionoids: proteins that share some, but not all, of the characteristics associated with prions. The p53 protein, a transcription factor that plays a major role in cancer, has recently been suggested to be a possible prionoid. The protein has been shown to accumulate in multiple cancer cell types, and its aggregation has also been reproduced in vitro by many independent groups. These observations suggest a role for p53 aggregates in cancer development. This study aims to test the «prion-like» features of p53. Our results show in vitro aggregation of the full length and N-terminally truncated protein (p53C, and penetration of these aggregates into cells. According to our findings, the aggregates enter cells using macropinocytosis, a non-specific pathway of entry. Lastly, we also show that once internalized by the cell, p53C aggregates can co-aggregate with endogenous p53 protein. Together, these findings suggest prion-like characteristics for p53 protein, based on the fact that p53 can spontaneously aggregate, these aggregates can penetrate cells and co-aggregate with cellular p53.

  20. Structure and kinetics of shear aggregation in turbulent flows. I. Early stage of aggregation. (United States)

    Bäbler, Matthäus U; Moussa, Amgad S; Soos, Miroslav; Morbidelli, Massimo


    Aggregation of rigid colloidal particles leads to fractal-like structures that are characterized by a fractal dimension d(f) which is a key parameter for describing aggregation processes. This is particularly true in shear aggregation where d(f) strongly influences aggregation kinetics. Direct measurement of d(f) in the early stages of shear aggregation is however difficult, as the aggregates are small and few in number. An alternative method for determining d(f) is to use an aggregation model that when fitted to the time evolution of the cluster mass distribution allows for estimating d(f). Here, we explore three such models, two of which are based on an effective collision sphere and one which directly incorporates the permeable structure of the aggregates, and we apply them for interpreting the initial aggregate growth measured experimentally in a turbulent stirred tank reactor. For the latter, three polystyrene latexes were used that differed only in the size of the primary particles (d(p) = 420, 600, and 810 nm). It was found that all three models describe initial aggregation kinetics reasonably well using, however, substantially different values for d(f). To discriminate among the models, we therefore also studied the regrowth of preformed aggregates where d(f) was experimentally accessible. It was found that only the model that directly incorporates the permeable structure of the aggregates is able to predict correctly this second type of experiments. Applying this model to the initial aggregation kinetics, we conclude that the actual initial fractal dimension is d(f) = 2.07 +/- 0.04 as found from this model.

  1. Blue-emitting pyrene-based aggregates. (United States)

    Valera, Jorge S; Calbo, Joaquín; Gómez, Rafael; Ortí, Enrique; Sánchez, Luis


    The supramolecular polymerization of pyrene imidazoles 1 and 2, governed by H-bonding and C-H···π interactions, yields aggregates showing the characteristic bluish emission pattern of pyrene-based monomers.

  2. A Survey of Distributed Data Aggregation Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Jesus, Paulo; Almeida, Paulo Sérgio


    Distributed data aggregation is an important task, allowing the decentralized determination of meaningful global properties, that can then be used to direct the execution of other applications. The resulting values result from the distributed computation of functions like COUNT, SUM and AVERAGE. Some application examples can found to determine the network size, total storage capacity, average load, majorities and many others. In the last decade, many different approaches have been proposed, with different trade-offs in terms of accuracy, reliability, message and time complexity. Due to the considerable amount and variety of aggregation algorithms, it can be difficult and time consuming to determine which techniques will be more appropriate to use in specific settings, justifying the existence of a survey to aid in this task. This work reviews the state of the art on distributed data aggregation algorithms, providing three main contributions. First, it formally defines the concept of aggregation, characterizin...

  3. Suspensions of colloidal particles and aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Babick, Frank


    This book addresses the properties of particles in colloidal suspensions. It has a focus on particle aggregates and the dependency of their physical behaviour on morphological parameters. For this purpose, relevant theories and methodological tools are reviewed and applied to selected examples. The book is divided into four main chapters. The first of them introduces important measurement techniques for the determination of particle size and interfacial properties in colloidal suspensions. A further chapter is devoted to the physico-chemical properties of colloidal particles—highlighting the interfacial phenomena and the corresponding interactions between particles. The book’s central chapter examines the structure-property relations of colloidal aggregates. This comprises concepts to quantify size and structure of aggregates, models and numerical tools for calculating the (light) scattering and hydrodynamic properties of aggregates, and a discussion on van-der-Waals and double layer interactions between ...

  4. Nanoscale Ionic Aggregate Morphology in Zwitterionic Copolymers (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Hong; Huyck, Rebecca; Salas-de La Cruz, David; Long, Timothy E.; Winey, Karen I.


    The morphology of two different zwitterionic copolymers, poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate-ran-butyl acrylate), and poly(sulfobetaine methacrylamide-ran-butyl acrylate) are investigated as a function of the mol % content of SBMA (7 and 9 mol %) and SBMAm (6, 10 and 13 mol %), respectively. In both copolymers, X-ray scattering results show a new structure in the material arising from ionic aggregates. The sizes of the ionic aggregates are obtained through the scattering model. The sizes of the ionic aggregates increase as the ion content increases. The application of scanning transmission electron microscopy to the study of ionomer morphology has enabled direct, model-independent visualization of the ionic aggregates. The correlation between X-ray scattering results and the real space imaging for morphology of these zwitterionic copolymers will be presented.

  5. Fish Aggregation Sites in the Florida Keys (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spawning aggregations are an important event in the life-history of many coral reef fish species. During short time periods (typically during full moons), fish will...

  6. Concretes with red mud coarse aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dênio Ramam Carvalho de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Red mud (RM is a mineral waste, residue of the Bayer process used to obtain alumina from bauxite. While the exploration of rolled pebble damages the environment and is much more controlled by the government, the huge RM disposal areas do not stop increasing and polluting soil, rivers and groundwater sources in Amazon. In this work, the material mixtures used to produce coarse aggregates presented up to 80% of RM, 30% of metakaolin and 30% of active silica as recycled waste. Several tests were carried out to determine the aggregates physical properties and to evaluate the mechanical performance of the concretes with the new aggregates, including hydraulic abrasion strength, and the results were compared to the reference ones, i.e. rolled pebble concretes. Additionally, the sintering process neutralizes any toxic substance as occur in some RM products like tiles and bricks, and these results have encouraged an industrial or semi-industrial production of RM aggregates for concretes.

  7. Familial aggregation and childhood blood pressure. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold


    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest progress in gene finding for childhood BP, focusing on the combined effects of multiple loci identified from the genome-wide association studies on adult BP. We further review the evidence on the contribution of the genetic components of other family risk factors to the familial aggregation of childhood BP including obesity, birth weight, sleep quality, sodium intake, parental smoking, and socioeconomic status. At the end, we emphasize the promise of using genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) analysis, a method that uses genome-wide data from unrelated individuals, in answering a number of unsolved questions in the familial aggregation of childhood BP.

  8. Control of aggregation-induced emission by DNA hybridization


    Li, Shaoguang; Langenegger, Simon Matthias; Häner, Robert


    Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) was studied by hybridization of dialkynyl-tetraphenylethylene (DATPE) modified DNA strands. Molecular aggregation and fluorescence of DATPEs are controlled by duplex formation.

  9. Geopolymerization of lightweight aggregate waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labrincha, J. A.


    Full Text Available Geopolymerization is a viable way to process and re-use alumino-silicate industrial waste while producing highstrength, high chemical inertia materials that can effectively immobilize other industrial by-products, and even hazardous waste. In this study industrial waste from different stages of the manufacture of lightweight expanded clay aggregate was characterized for its possible transformation, via alkali activation, to geopolymers. The ultimate aim was to assess the possibility of using such geopolymers to develop thermal and acoustic insulation panels. The containment of hazardous materials is another important application for these new materials. Geopolymers were prepared for this study with different particles size distributions and activator concentrations. Their mechanical properties, composition and microstructure were characterized and a material with promising insulating properties was produced. A preliminary analysis was conducted of the salt formation observed in these geopolymers, the chief drawback to their use.La geopolimerización es una manera viable para procesar y agregar valor a los residuos industriales de alumino-silicato dando lugar a materiales con elevadas resistencias mecánmicas, alta inercia química y que permiten encapsular otros residuos, incluso peligrosos. Los residuos industriales que proceden de diversos tipos de arcillas para la fabricación de áridos ligeros se han caracterizado para la producción de geopolímeros mediante el proceso de ataque alcalino. Su incorporación en una matriz geopolimérica permite la posibilidad de desarrollo de paneles de aislamiento (térmico y acústico. Además, la inmovilización de materiales peligrosos es un logro adicional importante. Los geopolímeros se han producido con fórmulas diferentes y se han caracterizado sus propiedades mecánicas, composición y microestructura, para dar lugar a una composición interesante con propiedades aislantes. Se ha llevado a cabo

  10. Low aggregation state diminishes ferrihydrite reactivity (United States)

    Braunschweig, Juliane; Heister, Katja; Meckenstock, Rainer U.


    Ferrihydrite is an abundant iron(oxy)hydroxide in soils and sediments and plays an important role in microbial iron cycling due to its high reactivity. Therefore, it is often synthesized and used in geomicrobiological and mineralogical studies. The reactivities of synthetic ferrihydrites vary between different studies and synthesis protocols. Hence, we synthesized five different ferrihydrites and characterized them with XRD, FTIR, XPS, and BET specific surface area. The reactivity of the ferrihydrite samples towards ascorbic acid was examined and compared with microbial reduction rates by Geobacter sulfurreducens. FTIR and XRD results show the presence of secondary, higher crystalline iron oxide phases like goethite and akaganeite for two samples. Consequently, those samples revealed lower biotic and abiotic reduction rates compared to pure ferrihydrite. Comparison of reduction rates with the specific surface area of all ferrihydrites showed neither correlation with abiotic reductive dissolution nor with microbial reduction. Especially one sample, characterized by a very low aggregation state and presence of secondary minerals, revealed a poor reactivity. We speculate that apart from the occurring secondary minerals also the low aggregation state played an important role. Decreasing aggregation diminishes the amount of kinks and edges on the surfaces, which are produced at contact sites in aggregates. According to dissolution theories, dissolution mainly starts at those surface defects and slows down with decreasing amount of defects. Furthermore, the non-aggregated ferrihydrite is free of micropores, a further stimulant for dissolution. Independent repetitions of experiments and syntheses according to the same protocol but without formation of secondary minerals, confirmed the low reactivity of the non-aggregated ferrihydrite. In summary, our results indicate that a decreasing aggregation state of ferrihydrite to a certain size does increase the reactivity

  11. Cholesterol impairment contributes to neuroserpin aggregation (United States)

    Giampietro, Costanza; Lionetti, Maria Chiara; Costantini, Giulio; Mutti, Federico; Zapperi, Stefano; La Porta, Caterina A. M.


    Intraneural accumulation of misfolded proteins is a common feature of several neurodegenerative pathologies including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, and Familial Encephalopathy with Neuroserpin Inclusion Bodies (FENIB). FENIB is a rare disease due to a point mutation in neuroserpin which accelerates protein aggregation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here we show that cholesterol depletion induced either by prolonged exposure to statins or by inhibiting the sterol reg-ulatory binding-element protein (SREBP) pathway also enhances aggregation of neuroserpin proteins. These findings can be explained considering a computational model of protein aggregation under non-equilibrium conditions, where a decrease in the rate of protein clearance improves aggregation. Decreasing cholesterol in cell membranes affects their biophysical properties, including their ability to form the vesicles needed for protein clearance, as we illustrate by a simple mathematical model. Taken together, these results suggest that cholesterol reduction induces neuroserpin aggregation, even in absence of specific neuroserpin mutations. The new mechanism we uncover could be relevant also for other neurodegenerative diseases associated with protein aggregation.

  12. Cholesterol impairment contributes to neuroserpin aggregation (United States)

    Giampietro, Costanza; Lionetti, Maria Chiara; Costantini, Giulio; Mutti, Federico; Zapperi, Stefano; La Porta, Caterina A. M.


    Intraneural accumulation of misfolded proteins is a common feature of several neurodegenerative pathologies including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, and Familial Encephalopathy with Neuroserpin Inclusion Bodies (FENIB). FENIB is a rare disease due to a point mutation in neuroserpin which accelerates protein aggregation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here we show that cholesterol depletion induced either by prolonged exposure to statins or by inhibiting the sterol reg-ulatory binding-element protein (SREBP) pathway also enhances aggregation of neuroserpin proteins. These findings can be explained considering a computational model of protein aggregation under non-equilibrium conditions, where a decrease in the rate of protein clearance improves aggregation. Decreasing cholesterol in cell membranes affects their biophysical properties, including their ability to form the vesicles needed for protein clearance, as we illustrate by a simple mathematical model. Taken together, these results suggest that cholesterol reduction induces neuroserpin aggregation, even in absence of specific neuroserpin mutations. The new mechanism we uncover could be relevant also for other neurodegenerative diseases associated with protein aggregation. PMID:28255164

  13. Influence of Phenylalanine on Carotenoid Aggregation (United States)

    Lu, L.; Ni, X.; Luo, X.


    The carotenoids lutein and β-carotene form, in 1:1 ethanol-water mixtures H-aggregates, of different strengths. The effects of phenylalanine on these aggregates were recorded by UV-Vis absorption, steady-state fluorescence, and Raman spectra. The H-aggregate of lutein was characterized by a large 78 nm blue shift in the absorption spectra, confirming the strong coupling between hydroxyl groups of adjacent molecules. The 15 nm blue shift in the β-carotene mixture also indicates that it was assembled by weak coupling between polyenes. After adding phenylalanine, the reducing absorption strength of the aggregates of lutein and reappearance of vibrational substructure indicate that the hydroxyl and amino groups of phenylalanine may coordinate to lutein and disaggregate the H-aggregates. However, phenylalanine had no effect on aggregates of β-carotene. The Raman spectra show three bands of carotenoids whose intensities decreased with increasing phenylalanine concentration. The frequency of ν1 corresponding to the length of the conjugated region was more sensitive to the solution of lutein. This coordination of phenylalanine to lutein could increase the length of the conjugated region. In addition, phenylalanine significantly affected the excited electronic states of carotenoids, which were crucial in the energy transfer from carotenoids to chlorophyll a in vivo.

  14. Growth hormone aggregates in the rat adenohypophysis (United States)

    Farrington, M.; Hymer, W. C.


    Although it has been known for some time that GH aggregates are contained within the rat anterior pituitary gland, the role that they might play in pituitary function is unknown. The present study examines this issue using the technique of Western blotting, which permitted visualization of 11 GH variants with apparent mol wt ranging from 14-88K. Electroelution of the higher mol wt variants from gels followed by their chemical reduction with beta-mercaptoethanol increased GH immunoassayability by about 5-fold. With the blot procedure we found 1) that GH aggregates greater than 44K were associated with a 40,000 x g sedimentable fraction; 2) that GH aggregates were not present in glands from thyroidectomized rats, but were in glands from the thyroidectomized rats injected with T4; 3) that GH aggregates were uniquely associated with a heavily granulated somatotroph subpopulation isolated by density gradient centrifugation; and 4) that high mol wt GH forms were released from the dense somatotrophs in culture, since treatment of the culture medium with beta-mercaptoethanol increased GH immunoassayability by about 5-fold. Taken together, the results show that high mol wt GH aggregates are contained in secretory granules of certain somatotrophs and are also released in aggregate form from these cells in vitro.

  15. Aggregation kinetics of coalescing polymer colloids. (United States)

    Gauer, Cornelius; Jia, Zichen; Wu, Hua; Morbidelli, Massimo


    The aggregation behavior of a soft, rubbery colloidal system with a relatively low glass transition temperature, T(g) approximately -20 degrees C, has been investigated. It is found that the average gyration and hydrodynamic radii, R(g) and R(h), measured by light scattering techniques, evolve in time in parallel, without exhibiting the crossover typical of rigid particle aggregation. Cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) images reveal sphere-like clusters, indicating that complete coalescence between particles occurs during aggregation. Since coalescence leads to a reduction in the total colloidal surface area, the surfactant adsorption equilibrium, and thus the colloidal stability, change in the course of aggregation. It is found that to simulate the observed kinetic behavior based on the population balance equations, it is necessary to assume that all the clusters are spherical and to account for variations in the colloidal stability of each aggregating particle pair with time. This indicates that, for the given system, the coalescence is very fast, i.e., its time scale is much smaller than that of the aggregation.

  16. An Identity Based Aggregate Signature from Pairings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yike Yu


    Full Text Available An aggregate signature is a useful digital signature that supports aggregation: Given n signatures on n distinct messages from n distinct users, aggregate signature scheme is possible to aggregate all these signature into a single short signature. This single signature, along with the n original messages will convince any verifier that the n users did indeed sign the n original messages respectively (i.e., for i=1,...,n user i signed message  mi. In this paper, we propose an identity based aggregate signature scheme which requires constant pairing operations in the verification and the size of aggregate signature is independent of the number of signers. We prove that the proposed signature scheme is secure against existential forgery under adaptively chosen message and identity attack in the random oracle model assuming the intractability of the computational Diffie-Hellman problem.

  17. Aggregation of Dodecyl 1-Pyrenylmethyl Ether and Its Application in Structure-Polarity Relations of Aggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANG,Da-Yong; TIAN,Juan; JI,Guo-Zhen


    The aggregation behavior of dodecyl 1-pyrenylmethyl ether was studied in dioxane-water mixture solvents by fluorescence techniques. The labeled pyrenyl group was effective in monitoring the polarity change of its environment during aggregation processes. Based on the structural effects such as chain-length effect, self-coiling effect,and branch-group effect on the polarity of the probe environment, the structure features of aggregates were discussed and have been used to interpret the effect of the structural features on the aggregates formed by three cholesteryl esters and three long chain alkanes.

  18. The in vitro and in vivo effects of constitutive light expression on a bioluminescent strain of the mouse enteropathogen Citrobacter rodentium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah M. Read


    Full Text Available Bioluminescent reporter genes, such as those from fireflies and bacteria, let researchers use light production as a non-invasive and non-destructive surrogate measure of microbial numbers in a wide variety of environments. As bioluminescence needs microbial metabolites, tagging microorganisms with luciferases means only live metabolically active cells are detected. Despite the wide use of bioluminescent reporter genes, very little is known about the impact of continuous (also called constitutive light expression on tagged bacteria. We have previously made a bioluminescent strain of Citrobacter rodentium, a bacterium which infects laboratory mice in a similar way to how enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC infect humans. In this study, we compared the growth of the bioluminescent C. rodentium strain ICC180 with its non-bioluminescent parent (strain ICC169 in a wide variety of environments. To understand more about the metabolic burden of expressing light, we also compared the growth profiles of the two strains under approximately 2,000 different conditions. We found that constitutive light expression in ICC180 was near-neutral in almost every non-toxic environment tested. However, we also found that the non-bioluminescent parent strain has a competitive advantage over ICC180 during infection of adult mice, although this was not enough for ICC180 to be completely outcompeted. In conclusion, our data suggest that constitutive light expression is not metabolically costly to C. rodentium and supports the view that bioluminescent versions of microbes can be used as a substitute for their non-bioluminescent parents to study bacterial behaviour in a wide variety of environments.

  19. Cloning, expression and characterization of a cold-adapted endo-1, 4-β-glucanase from Citrobacter farmeri A1, a symbiotic bacterium of Reticulitermes labralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Bai


    Full Text Available Background Many biotechnological and industrial applications can benefit from cold-adapted EglCs through increased efficiency of catalytic processes at low temperature. In our previous study, Citrobacter farmeri A1 which was isolated from a wood-inhabiting termite Reticulitermes labralis could secrete a cold-adapted EglC. However, its EglC was difficult to purify for enzymatic properties detection because of its low activity (0.8 U/ml. The objective of the present study was to clone and express the C. farmeri EglC gene in Escherichia coli to improve production level and determine the enzymatic properties of the recombinant enzyme. Methods The EglC gene was cloned from C. farmeri A1 by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR. EglC was transformed into vector pET22b and functionally expressed in E. coli. The recombination protein EglC22b was purified for properties detection. Results SDS-PAGE revealed that the molecular mass of the recombinant endoglucanase was approximately 42 kDa. The activity of the E. coli pET22b-EglC crude extract was 9.5 U/ml. Additionally, it was active at pH 6.5–8.0 with an optimum pH of 7.0. The recombinant enzyme had an optimal temperature of 30–40 °C and exhibited >50% relative activity even at 5 °C, whereas it lost approximately 90% of its activity after incubation at 60 °C for 30 min. Its activity was enhanced by Co2+ and Fe3+, but inhibited by Cd2+, Zn2+, Li+, Triton X-100, DMSO, acetonitrile, Tween 80, SDS, and EDTA. Conclusion These biochemical properties indicate that the recombinant enzyme is a cold-adapted endoglucanase that can be used for various industrial applications.

  20. Regulated protein aggregation: stress granules and neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolozin Benjamin


    Full Text Available Abstract The protein aggregation that occurs in neurodegenerative diseases is classically thought to occur as an undesirable, nonfunctional byproduct of protein misfolding. This model contrasts with the biology of RNA binding proteins, many of which are linked to neurodegenerative diseases. RNA binding proteins use protein aggregation as part of a normal regulated, physiological mechanism controlling protein synthesis. The process of regulated protein aggregation is most evident in formation of stress granules. Stress granules assemble when RNA binding proteins aggregate through their glycine rich domains. Stress granules function to sequester, silence and/or degrade RNA transcripts as part of a mechanism that adapts patterns of local RNA translation to facilitate the stress response. Aggregation of RNA binding proteins is reversible and is tightly regulated through pathways, such as phosphorylation of elongation initiation factor 2α. Microtubule associated protein tau also appears to regulate stress granule formation. Conversely, stress granule formation stimulates pathological changes associated with tau. In this review, I propose that the aggregation of many pathological, intracellular proteins, including TDP-43, FUS or tau, proceeds through the stress granule pathway. Mutations in genes coding for stress granule associated proteins or prolonged physiological stress, lead to enhanced stress granule formation, which accelerates the pathophysiology of protein aggregation in neurodegenerative diseases. Over-active stress granule formation could act to sequester functional RNA binding proteins and/or interfere with mRNA transport and translation, each of which might potentiate neurodegeneration. The reversibility of the stress granule pathway also offers novel opportunities to stimulate endogenous biochemical pathways to disaggregate these pathological stress granules, and perhaps delay the progression of disease.

  1. A Novel Method to Quantify Soil Aggregate Stability by Measuring Aggregate Bond Energies (United States)

    Efrat, Rachel; Rawlins, Barry G.; Quinton, John N.; Watts, Chris W.; Whitmore, Andy P.


    Soil aggregate stability is a key indicator of soil quality because it controls physical, biological and chemical functions important in cultivated soils. Micro-aggregates are responsible for the long term sequestration of carbon in soil, therefore determine soils role in the carbon cycle. It is thus vital that techniques to measure aggregate stability are accurate, consistent and reliable, in order to appropriately manage and monitor soil quality, and to develop our understanding and estimates of soil as a carbon store to appropriately incorporate in carbon cycle models. Practices used to assess the stability of aggregates vary in sample preparation, operational technique and unit of results. They use proxies and lack quantification. Conflicting results are therefore drawn between projects that do not provide methodological or resultant comparability. Typical modern stability tests suspend aggregates in water and monitor fragmentation upon exposure to an un-quantified amount of ultrasonic energy, utilising a laser granulometer to measure the change in mean weight diameter. In this project a novel approach has been developed based on that of Zhu et al., (2009), to accurately quantify the stability of aggregates by specifically measuring their bond energies. The bond energies are measured operating a combination of calorimetry and a high powered ultrasonic probe, with computable output function. Temperature change during sonication is monitored by an array of probes which enables calculation of the energy spent heating the system (Ph). Our novel technique suspends aggregates in heavy liquid lithium heteropolytungstate, as opposed to water, to avoid exposing aggregates to an immeasurable disruptive energy source, due to cavitation, collisions and clay swelling. Mean weight diameter is measured by a laser granulometer to monitor aggregate breakdown after successive periods of calculated ultrasonic energy input (Pi), until complete dispersion is achieved and bond

  2. Spatial Prediction of Soil Aggregate Stability and Aggregate-Associated Organic Carbon Content at the Catchment Scale Using Geostatistical Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The association of organic carbon with secondary parzicles (aggregates) results in its storage and retention in soil. A study was carried out at a catchment covering about 92 km2 to predict spatial variability of soil water-stable aggregates (WSA), mean weight diameter (MWD) of aggregates and organic carbon (OC) content in macro- (> 2 mm), meso- (1-2 mm), and micro-aggregate (< 1 mm) fractions, using geostatistical methods. One hundred and eleven soil samples were c(o)llected at the 0-10 cm depth and fractionated into macro-, meso-, and micro-aggregates by wet sieving. The OC content was determined for each fraction. A greater percentage of water-stable aggregates was found for micro-aggregates, followed by meso-aggregates. Aggregate OC content was greatest in meso-aggregates (9 g kg-1), followed by micro-aggregates (7 g kg-1), while the least OC content was found in macro-aggregates (3 g kg-1). Although a significart effect (P = 0.000) of aggregate size on aggregate OC content was found, however, our findings did not support the model of aggregate hierarchy.Land use had a significant effect (P = 0.073) on aggregate OC content. The coefficients of variation (CVs) for OC contents associated with each aggregate fraction indicated macro-aggregates as the most variable (CV = 71%). Among the aggregate fractions, the micro-aggregate fraction had a lower CV value of 27%. The mean content of WSA ranged from 15% for macro-aggregates to 84% for micro-aggregates. Geostatistical analysis showed that the measured soil variables exhibited differences in their spatial patterns in both magnitude and space at each aggregate size fraction. The relative nugget variance for most aggregate-associated properties was lower than 45%. The range value for the variogram of water-stable aggregates was almost similar (about 3 km) for the three studied aggregate size classes. The range value for the variogram of aggregate-associated OC contents ranged from about 3 km for macro-aggregates

  3. Aspects Concerning the Use of Recycled Concrete Aggregates (United States)

    Robu, I.; Mazilu, C.; Deju, R.


    Natural aggregates (gravel and crushed) are essential non-renewable resources which are used for infrastructure works and civil engineering. Using recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) is a matter of high priority in the construction industry worldwide. This paper presents a study on the use of recycled aggregates, from a concrete of specified class, to acquire new cement concrete with different percentages of recycled aggregates.

  4. Metaconcrete: Engineered aggregates for enhanced dynamic performance (United States)

    Mitchell, Stephanie J.

    This work presents the development and investigation of a new type of concrete for the attenuation of waves induced by dynamic excitation. Recent progress in the field of metamaterials science has led to a range of novel composites which display unusual properties when interacting with electromagnetic, acoustic, and elastic waves. A new structural metamaterial with enhanced properties for dynamic loading applications is presented, which is named metaconcrete. In this new composite material the standard stone and gravel aggregates of regular concrete are replaced with spherical engineered inclusions. Each metaconcrete aggregate has a layered structure, consisting of a heavy core and a thin compliant outer coating. This structure allows for resonance at or near the eigenfrequencies of the inclusions, and the aggregates can be tuned so that resonant oscillations will be activated by particular frequencies of an applied dynamic loading. The activation of resonance within the aggregates causes the overall system to exhibit negative effective mass, which leads to attenuation of the applied wave motion. To investigate the behavior of metaconcrete slabs under a variety of different loading conditions a finite element slab model containing a periodic array of aggregates is utilized. The frequency dependent nature of metaconcrete is investigated by considering the transmission of wave energy through a slab, which indicates the presence of large attenuation bands near the resonant frequencies of the aggregates. Applying a blast wave loading to both an elastic slab and a slab model that incorporates the fracture characteristics of the mortar matrix reveals that a significant portion of the supplied energy can be absorbed by aggregates which are activated by the chosen blast wave profile. The transfer of energy from the mortar matrix to the metaconcrete aggregates leads to a significant reduction in the maximum longitudinal stress, greatly improving the ability of the material

  5. Structure and aggregation in model tetramethylurea solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Rini; Patey, G. N., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada)


    The structure of model aqueous tetramethylurea (TMU) solutions is investigated employing large-scale (32 000, 64 000 particles) molecular dynamics simulations. Results are reported for TMU mole fractions, X{sub t}, ranging from infinite dilution up to 0.07, and for two temperatures, 300 and 330 K. Two existing force fields for TMU-water solutions are considered. These are the GROMOS 53A6 united-atom TMU model combined with SPC/E water [TMU(GROMOS-UA)/W(SPC/E)], and the more frequently employed AMBER03 all-atom force field for TMU combined with the TIP3P water model [TMU(AMBER-AA)/W(TIP3P)]. It is shown that TMU has a tendency towards aggregation for both models considered, but the tendency is significantly stronger for the [TMU(AMBER-AA)/W(TIP3P)] force field. For this model signs of aggregation are detected at X{sub t} = 0.005, aggregation is a well established feature of the solution at X{sub t} = 0.02, and the aggregates increase further in size with increasing concentration. This is in agreement with at least some experimental studies, which report signals of aggregation in the low concentration regime. The TMU aggregates exhibit little structure and are simply loosely ordered, TMU-rich regions of solution. The [TMU(GROMOS-UA)/W(SPC/E)] model shows strong signs of aggregation only at higher concentrations (X{sub t} ≳ 0.04), and the aggregates appear more loosely ordered, and less well-defined than those occurring in the [TMU(AMBER-AA)/W(TIP3P)] system. For both models, TMU aggregation increases when the temperature is increased from 300 to 330 K, consistent with an underlying entropy driven, hydrophobic interaction mechanism. At X{sub t} = 0.07, the extra-molecular correlation length expected for microheterogeneous solutions has become comparable with the size of the simulation cell for both models considered, indicating that even the systems simulated here are sufficiently large only at low concentrations.

  6. Immediate differentiation of salmonella-resembling colonies on brilliant green agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Hoorfar, Jeffrey


    A rapid biochemical system (OBIS) based on immediate enzymatic differentiation of Citrobacter, Proteus, Providencia, Hafnia and Morganella spp. from Salmonella on brilliant green agar was evaluated A total of 96 field isolates from various Salmonella serotypes, 18 Citrobacter freundii and 25...... isolates of other Enterobacteriaceae were tested All Salmonella isolates were identified correctly by the kit, and none of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates were identified as Salmonella. The results indicate complete specificity for Salmonella colonies on brilliant green agar....

  7. Aggregate Particles in the Plumes of Enceladus

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Peter; Zhang, Xi; Ingersoll, Andrew P


    Estimates of the total particulate mass of the plumes of Enceladus are important to constrain theories of particle formation and transport at the surface and interior of the satellite. We revisit the calculations of Ingersoll and Ewald (2011), who estimated the particulate mass of the Enceladus plumes from strongly forward scattered light in Cassini ISS images. We model the plume as a combination of spherical particles and irregular aggregates resulting from the coagulation of spherical monomers, the latter of which allows for plumes of lower particulate mass. Though a continuum of solutions are permitted by the model, the best fits to the ISS data consist either of low mass plumes composed entirely of small aggregates or high mass plumes composed of large aggregates and spheres. The high mass plumes can be divided into a population of large aggregates with total particulate mass of 116 +/- 12 X 10^3 kg, and a mixed population of spheres and aggregates consisting of a few large monomers that has a total plume...

  8. Soil aggregation under different management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Mascioli Rebello Portella


    Full Text Available Considering that the soil aggregation reflects the interaction of chemical, physical and biological soil factors, the aim of this study was evaluate alterations in aggregation, in an Oxisol under no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT, since over 20 years, using as reference a native forest soil in natural state. After analysis of the soil profile (cultural profile in areas under forest management, samples were collected from the layers 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm, with six repetitions. These samples were analyzed for the aggregate stability index (ASI, mean weighted diameter (MWD, mean geometric diameter (MGD in the classes > 8, 8-4, 4-2, 2-1, 1-0.5, 0.5-0.25, and < 0.25 mm, and for physical properties (soil texture, water dispersible clay (WDC, flocculation index (FI and bulk density (Bd and chemical properties (total organic carbon - COT, total nitrogen - N, exchangeable calcium - Ca2+, and pH. The results indicated that more intense soil preparation (M < NT < PC resulted in a decrease in soil stability, confirmed by all stability indicators analyzed: MWD, MGD, ASI, aggregate class distribution, WDC and FI, indicating the validity of these indicators in aggregation analyses of the studied soil.

  9. Soil aggregation and aggregating agents as affected by long term contrasting management of an Anthrosol (United States)

    Zhang, Shulan; Wang, Renjie; Yang, Xueyun; Sun, Benhua; Li, Qinghui


    Soil aggregation was studied in a 21-year experiment conducted on an Anthrosol. The soil management regimes consisted of cropland abandonment, bare fallow without vegetation and cropping system. The cropping system was combined with the following nutrient management treatments: control (CONTROL, no nutrient input); nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK); straw plus NPK (SNPK); and manure (M) plus NPK (MNPK). Compared with the CONTROL treatment, the abandonment treatment significantly increased the formation of large soil macroaggregates (>2 mm) and consequently improved the stability of aggregates in the surface soil layer due to enhancement of hyphal length and of soil organic matter content. However, in response to long-term bare fallow treatment aggregate stability was low, as were the levels of aggregating agents. Long term fertilization significantly redistributed macroaggregates; this could be mainly ascribed to soil organic matter contributing to the formation of 0.5–2 mm classes of aggregates and a decrease in the formation of the >2 mm class of aggregates, especially in the MNPK treatment. Overall, hyphae represented a major aggregating agent in both of the systems tested, while soil organic compounds played significantly different roles in stabilizing aggregates in Anthrosol when the cropping system and the soil management regimes were compared.

  10. Aggregation Pheromone System: A Real-parameter Optimization Algorithm using Aggregation Pheromones as the Base Metaphor (United States)

    Tsutsui, Shigeyosi

    This paper proposes an aggregation pheromone system (APS) for solving real-parameter optimization problems using the collective behavior of individuals which communicate using aggregation pheromones. APS was tested on several test functions used in evolutionary computation. The results showed APS could solve real-parameter optimization problems fairly well. The sensitivity analysis of control parameters of APS is also studied.

  11. Oil-Price Shocks: Beyond Standard Aggregate Demand/Aggregate Supply Analysis. (United States)

    Elwood, S. Kirk


    Explores the problems of portraying oil-price shocks using the aggregate demand/aggregate supply model. Presents a simple modification of the model that differentiates between production and absorption of goods, which enables it to better reflect the effects of oil-price shocks on open economies. (RLH)

  12. Web Data Aggregation in MOLAP: Approach, Language, and Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yan; TANG Hui-jia; MA Yong-qiang


    This paper investigates the Web data aggregation issues in multidimensional on-line analytical processing (MOLAP) and presents a rule-driven aggregation approach. The core of the approach is defining aggregate rules. To define the rules for reading warehouse data and computing aggregates, a rule definition language - array aggregation language (AAL) is developed. This language treats an array as a function from indexes to values and provides syntax and semantics based on monads. External functions can be called in aggregation rules to specify array reading, writing, and aggregating. Based on the features of AAL, array operations are unified as function operations, which can be easily expressed and automatically evaluated. To implement the aggregation approach, a processor for computing aggregates over the base cube and for materializing them in the data warehouse is built, and the component structure and working principle of the aggregation processor are introduced.

  13. Cellular strategies for regulating functional and nonfunctional protein aggregation. (United States)

    Gsponer, Jörg; Babu, M Madan


    Growing evidence suggests that aggregation-prone proteins are both harmful and functional for a cell. How do cellular systems balance the detrimental and beneficial effect of protein aggregation? We reveal that aggregation-prone proteins are subject to differential transcriptional, translational, and degradation control compared to nonaggregation-prone proteins, which leads to their decreased synthesis, low abundance, and high turnover. Genetic modulators that enhance the aggregation phenotype are enriched in genes that influence expression homeostasis. Moreover, genes encoding aggregation-prone proteins are more likely to be harmful when overexpressed. The trends are evolutionarily conserved and suggest a strategy whereby cellular mechanisms specifically modulate the availability of aggregation-prone proteins to (1) keep concentrations below the critical ones required for aggregation and (2) shift the equilibrium between the monomeric and oligomeric/aggregate form, as explained by Le Chatelier's principle. This strategy may prevent formation of undesirable aggregates and keep functional assemblies/aggregates under control.

  14. Tetranuclear zinc(II-oxy (benzothiazole-2-thiolate aggregate and copper(I phenylthiolate aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir Goswami


    Full Text Available A tetranuclear zinc-oxy (benzothiazole-2-thiolate aggregate whose structure has a C3-axis passing through ZnO unit relating three other zinc ions and a tetranuclear copper(I phenylthiolate aggregate having each thiphenolate ligand bridging three copper ions are reported. These aggregates were prepared by hydrothermal reactions of 2,2′-dithiobis-(benzothiazole with zinc nitrate or copper(I iodide, respectively. The reaction of zinc nitrate passed through in situ abstraction of a oxy ligand from moisture to form a Zn4O core holding six 2-benzothiazolethiolate ligands, and during the formation of the aggregate, cleavage of S–S bond of 2,2′-dithiobis-(benzothiazole took place. Whereas, an aggregate formed by self-assembling of copper(I phenylthiolate was formed after extensive degradation of 2,2′-dithiobis-(benzothiazole during solvothermal reaction.

  15. An ROLAP Aggregation Algorithm with the Rules Being Specified (United States)

    Zhengqiu, Weng; Tai, Kuang; Lina, Zhang

    This paper introduces the base theory of data warehouse and ROLAP, and presents a new kind of ROLAP aggregation algorithm, which has calculation algorithms. It covers the shortage of low accuracy of traditional aggregation algorithm that aggregates only by addition. The ROLAP aggregation with calculation algorithm which can aggregate according to business rules improves accuracy. And key designs and procedures are presented. Compared with the traditional method, its efficiency is displayed in an experiment.

  16. The Nation's top 25 construction aggregates producers (United States)

    Willett, Jason Christopher


    U.S. production of construction aggregates in 2011 was 2.17 billion short tons, valued at $17.2 billion, free on board (f.o.b.) at plant. Construction aggregates production decreased by 37 percent, and the associated value decreased by 25 percent, compared with the record highs reported in 2006. In 2011, construction aggregates production increased for the first time since 2006, owing to a very slight increase in the production of both construction sand and gravel and crushed stone. The average unit value, which is the f.o.b. at plant price of a ton of material, increased slightly, but is still less than the average unit value of two years prior.

  17. Aggregate ranking of the world's leading universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir M. Moskovkin


    Full Text Available The paper presents a methodology for calculating the aggregate global university ranking (Aggregated Global University Ranking, or AGUR, which consists of an automated presentation of the comparable lists of names for different universities from particular global university rankings (using Machine Learning and Mining Data algorithms and a simple procedure of aggregating particular global university rankings (summing up the university ranking positions from different particular rankings and their subsequent ranking. The second procedure makes it possible to bring lists of universities from particular rankings, which are nonidentical by length, to one size. The paper includes a sample AGUR for six particular global university rankings as of 2013, as well as cross-correlation matrices and intersection matrices for AGUR for 2011-2013, all created by means of using the Python-based software.

  18. Wind energy aggregation: A coalitional game approach

    KAUST Repository

    Baeyens, E.


    In this paper we explore the extent to which a group of N wind power producers can exploit the statistical benefits of aggregation and quantity risk sharing by forming a willing coalition to pool their variable power to jointly offer their aggregate power output as single entity into a forward energy market. We prove that wind power generators will always improve their expected profit when they aggregate their generated power and use tools from coalitional game theory to design fair sharing mechanisms to allocate the payoff among the coalition participants. We show that the corresponding coalitional game is super-additive and has a nonempty core. Hence, there always exists a mechanism for profit-sharing that makes the coalition stable. However, the game is not convex and the celebrated Shapley value may not belong to the core of the game. An allocation mechanism that minimizes the worst-case dissatisfaction is proposed. © 2011 IEEE.

  19. Linguistic Weighted Aggregation under Confidence Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonghui Zhang


    Full Text Available We develop some new linguistic aggregation operators based on confidence levels. Firstly, we introduce the confidence linguistic weighted averaging (CLWA operator and the confidence linguistic ordered weighted averaging (CLOWA operator. These two new linguistic aggregation operators are able to consider the confidence level of the aggregated arguments provided by the information providers. We also study some of their properties. Then, based on the generalized means, we introduce the confidence generalized linguistic ordered weighted averaging (CGLOWA operator. The main advantage of the CGLOWA operator is that it includes a wide range of special cases such as the CLOWA operator, the confidence linguistic ordered weighted quadratic averaging (CLOWQA operator, and the confidence linguistic ordered weighted geometric (CLOWG operator. Finally, we develop an application of the new approach in a multicriteria decision-making under linguistic environment and illustrate it with a numerical example.

  20. Multi-Dimensional Aggregation for Temporal Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böhlen, M. H.; Gamper, J.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard


    when the data hold. In temporal databases, intervals typically capture the states of reality that the data apply to, or capture when the data are, or were, part of the current database state. This paper proposes a new aggregation operator that addresses several challenges posed by interval data. First......Business Intelligence solutions, encompassing technologies such as multi-dimensional data modeling and aggregate query processing, are being applied increasingly to non-traditional data. This paper extends multi-dimensional aggregation to apply to data with associated interval values that capture......, the intervals to be associated with the result tuples may not be known in advance, but depend on the actual data. Such unknown intervals are accommodated by allowing result groups that are specified only partially. Second, the operator contends with the case where an interval associated with data expresses...

  1. Building energy demand aggregation and simulation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gianniou, Panagiota; Heller, Alfred; Rode, Carsten


    to neighbourhoods and cities. Buildings occupy a key place in the development of smart cities as they represent an important potential to integrate smart energy solutions. Building energy consumption affects significantly the performance of the entire energy network. Therefore, a realistic estimation...... of the aggregated building energy use will not only ensure security of supply but also enhance the stabilization of national energy balances. In this study, the aggregation of building energy demand was investigated for a real case in Sønderborg, Denmark. Sixteen single-family houses -mainly built in the 1960s......- were examined, all connected to the regional district heating network. The aggregation of building energy demands was carried out according to typologies, being represented by archetype buildings. These houses were modelled with dynamic energy simulation software and with a simplified simulation tool...

  2. Mechanical Properties of Autoclaved Shell-aggregate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Hailong; CUI Chong; LI Xing; Pierre Chevrier; Vanessa Bouchart; TANG Feng


    Waste solid propylene oxide sludge(POS)and fly ash were used as main raw material to prepare propylene oxide sludge aggregate(POSA)under the condition of autoclaved(180 ℃,1.0 MPa)curing.Three different test methods namely cylinder compressive strength(CCS),individual aggregate compressive strength(IACS)and strength contribution rate(SCR)proposed were used to characterize the mechanical properties of the autoclaved POSA.POS shell-aggregate with SCR of 94% were prepared under the hydrothermal synthesis and autoclaved curing.The experimental results indicate that CCS and IACS have good consistency in characterizing mechanical properties of POSA.It is suggested that SCR not only can characterize the strength of POSA core,but also can reflect the effect of shell on the performance of POSA.By means of least square method,relationships between CCS and IACS,CCS and SCR,IACS and SCR were deduced.

  3. Aggregation of organic matter by pelagic tunicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, L.R. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens); Deibel, D.


    Three genera of pelagic tunicates were fed concentrates of natural seston and an axenic diatom culture. Fresh and up to 4-day-old feces resemble flocculent organic aggregates containing populations of microorganisms, as described from highly productive parts of the ocean, and older feces resemble the nearly sterile flocculent aggregates which are ubiquitous in surface waters. Fresh feces consist of partially digested phytoplankton and other inclusions in an amorphous gelatinous matrix. After 18 to 36 h, a population of large bacteria develops in the matrix and in some of the remains of phytoplankton contained in the feces. From 48 to 96 h, protozoan populations arise which consume the bacteria and sometimes the remains of the phytoplankton in the feces. Thereafter only a sparse population of microorganisms remains, and the particles begin to fragment. Water samples taken in or below dense populations of salps and doliolids contained greater numbers of flocculent aggregates than did samples from adjacent stations.

  4. Synchronized Data Aggregation for Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dnyaneshwar, Mantri; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee


    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are used for monitoring and data collection purposes. A key challenge in effective data collection is to schedule and synchronize the activities of the nodes with global clock. This paper proposes the Synchronized Data Aggregation Algorithm (SDA) using spanning tree...... mechanism. It provides network-wide time synchronization for sensor network. In the initial stage algorithm established the hierarchical structure in the network and then perform the pair - wise synchronization. SDA aggregate data with a global time scale throughout the network. The aggregated packets...... are scheduled using TDMA as the MAC layer protocol. Simulation results show that, SDA gives promising result of energy efficiency and delay as compared with state-of-the-art solutions....

  5. Inflammation Induces TDP-43 Mislocalization and Aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofia Correia

    Full Text Available TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43 is a major component in aggregates of ubiquitinated proteins in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD. Here we report that lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation can promote TDP-43 mislocalization and aggregation. In culture, microglia and astrocytes exhibited TDP-43 mislocalization after exposure to LPS. Likewise, treatment of the motoneuron-like NSC-34 cells with TNF-alpha (TNF-α increased the cytoplasmic levels of TDP-43. In addition, the chronic intraperitoneal injection of LPS at a dose of 1mg/kg in TDP-43(A315T transgenic mice exacerbated the pathological TDP-43 accumulation in the cytoplasm of spinal motor neurons and it enhanced the levels of TDP-43 aggregation. These results suggest that inflammation may contribute to development or exacerbation of TDP-43 proteinopathies in neurodegenerative disorders.

  6. Influence of polysaccharides on wine protein aggregation. (United States)

    Jaeckels, Nadine; Meier, Miriam; Dietrich, Helmut; Will, Frank; Decker, Heinz; Fronk, Petra


    Polysaccharides are the major high-molecular weight components of wines. In contrast, proteins occur only in small amounts in wine, but contribute to haze formation. The detailed mechanism of aggregation of these proteins, especially in combination with other wine components, remains unclear. This study demonstrates the different aggregation behavior between a buffer and a model wine system by dynamic light scattering. Arabinogalactan-protein, for example, shows an increased aggregation in the model wine system, while in the buffer system a reducing effect is observed. Thus, we could show the importance to examine the behavior of wine additives under conditions close to reality, instead of simpler buffer systems. Additional experiments on melting points of wine proteins reveal that only some isoforms of thaumatin-like proteins and chitinases are involved in haze formation. We can confirm interactions between polysaccharides and proteins, but none of these polysaccharides is able to prevent haze in wine.

  7. SUMO modulation of protein aggregation and degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Feligioni


    Full Text Available Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO conjugation and binding to target proteins regulate a wide variety of cellular pathways. The functional aspects of SUMOylation include changes in protein-protein interactions, intracellular trafficking as well as protein aggregation and degradation. SUMO has also been linked to specialized cellular pathways such as neuronal development and synaptic transmission. In addition, SUMOylation is associated with neurological diseases associated with abnormal protein accumulations. SUMOylation of the amyloid and tau proteins involved in Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies may contribute to changes in protein solubility and proteolytic processing. Similar events have been reported for α-synuclein aggregates found in Parkinson's disease, polyglutamine disorders such as Huntington's disease as well as protein aggregates found in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. This review provides a detailed overview of the impact SUMOylation has on the etiology and pathology of these related neurological diseases.

  8. Chaperone effects on prion and nonprion aggregates. (United States)

    Rikhvanov, Eugene G; Romanova, Nina V; Chernoff, Yury O


    Exposure to high temperature or other stresses induces a synthesis of heat shock proteins. Many of these proteins are molecular chaperones, and some of them help cells to cope with heat-induced denaturation and aggregation of other proteins. In the last decade, chaperones have received increased attention in connection with their role in maintenance and propagation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae prions, infectious or heritable agents transmitted at the protein level. Recent data suggest that functioning of the chaperones in reactivation of heat-damaged proteins and in propagation of prions is based on the same molecular mechanisms but may lead to different consequences depending on the type of aggregate. In both cases the concerted and balanced action of "chaperones' team," including Hsp104, Hsp70, Hsp40 and possibly other proteins, determines whether a misfolded protein is to be incorporated into an aggregate, rescued to the native state or targeted for degradation.

  9. Aggregation kinetics and structure of cryoimmunoglobulins clusters

    CERN Document Server

    De Spirito, M; Bassi, F A; Di Stasio, E; Giardina, B; Arcovito, G


    Cryoimmunoglobulins are pathological antibodies characterized by a temperature-dependent reversible insolubility. Rheumatoid factors (RF) are immunoglobulins possessing anti-immunoglobulin activity and usually consist of an IgM antibody that recognizes IgG as antigen. These proteins are present in sera of patients affected by a large variety of different pathologies, such as HCV infection, neoplastic and autoimmune diseases. Aggregation and precipitation of cryoimmunoglobulins, leading to vasculiti, are physical phenomena behind such pathologies. A deep knowledge of the physico-chemical mechanisms regulating such phenomena plays a fundamental role in biological and clinical applications. In this work, a preliminary investigation of the aggregation kinetics and of the final macro- molecular structure of the aggregates is presented. Through static light scattering techniques, the gyration radius R/sub g/ and the fractal dimension D/sub m/ of the growing clusters have been determined. However, while the initial ...

  10. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations.

  11. Protein Aggregation Measurement through Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (United States)

    Affanni, A.; Corazza, A.; Esposito, G.; Fogolari, F.; Polano, M.


    The paper presents a novel methodology to measure the fibril formation in protein solutions. We designed a bench consisting of a sensor having interdigitated electrodes, a PDMS hermetic reservoir and an impedance meter automatically driven by calculator. The impedance data are interpolated with a lumped elements model and their change over time can provide information on the aggregation process. Encouraging results have been obtained by testing the methodology on K-casein, a protein of milk, with and without the addition of a drug inhibiting the aggregation. The amount of sample needed to perform this measurement is by far lower than the amount needed by fluorescence analysis.

  12. Fault tolerant aggregation for power system services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Gehrke, Oliver; Kullmann, Daniel


    Exploiting the flexibility in distributed energy resources (DER) is seen as an important contribution to allow high penetrations of renewable generation in electrical power systems. However, the present control infrastructure in power systems is not well suited for the integration of a very large...... number of small units. A common approach is to aggregate a portfolio of such units together and expose them to the power system as a single large virtual unit. In order to realize the vision of a Smart Grid, concepts for flexible, resilient and reliable aggregation infrastructures are required...

  13. Interface-Based Service Composition with Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Preda, Mila; Gabbrielli, Maurizio; Guidi, Claudio;


    Service-oriented architectures (SOAs) usually comprehend in-the-middle entities such as proxies or service mediators that compose services abstracting from the order in which they exchange messages. Although widely used, these entities are usually implemented by means of ad-hoc solutions....... In this paper we generalise this composition mechanism by identifying the primitive notion of aggregation. We formally define the semantics of aggregation in terms of a process calculus. We also provide a reference implementation for this primitive by extending the Jolie language, thus allowing...

  14. Does it Matter How to Measure Aggregates?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Andreas; Juselius, Katarina

    . This papers shows, however, that the latter is sensitive to the choice of base year when based on real GDP weights whereas not on nominal GDP weights. A comparison of aggregates calculated with different methods shows that the differences are tiny in absolute value but highly persistent. To investigate...... the impact on the cointegration properties in empirical modelling, the monetary model in Coenen & Vega (2001) based on fixed weights was re-estimated using flexible real and nominal GDP weights. In general, the results remained reasonably robust to the choice of aggregation method...

  15. An Aggregation Approach for Group Multicriteria Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Rigopoulos


    Full Text Available We presented an aggregation approach for group multicriteria assignment decisions, where group members express their preferences on problem parameters in numeric format. Individual preferences are aggregated by WOWA operator following the majority concept and a group parameter set is derived that is used as input for the classification algorithm. In addition, we present a numeric example of the approach, demonstrating its applicability. The methodology has been applied to classification problems in business environment, with sufficient results depicting its validity for such problems.

  16. Relative aggregation operator in database fuzzy querying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita DUMITRIU


    Full Text Available Fuzzy selection criteria querying relational databases include vague terms; they usually refer linguistic values form the attribute linguistic domains, defined as fuzzy sets. Generally, when a vague query is processed, the definitions of vague terms must already exist in a knowledge base. But there are also cases when vague terms must be dynamically defined, when a particular operation is used to aggregate simple criteria in a complex selection. The paper presents a new aggregation operator and the corresponding algorithm to evaluate the fuzzy query.

  17. A comparison of thermal zone aggregation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobbs, Justin R. [Cornell University; Hencey, Brandon M. [Cornell University


    The impact of increasing energy prices on building operation budgets has fueled demand for more energy-efficient structures. Existing building energy simulation tools generate an immense amount of data yet comparatively little knowledge. This paper introduces a framework that allows aggregation-based model reduction to operate on geometric building information models. The resulting aggregation sequence provides designers with faster simulations and affords insight into complex multi-scale thermal interactions. A comparison of the trade-off between simulation speed and accuracy for three hierarchical cluster partitioning methods concludes the discussion.

  18. R-Spondins Are Expressed by the Intestinal Stroma and are Differentially Regulated during Citrobacter rodentium- and DSS-Induced Colitis in Mice. (United States)

    Kang, Eugene; Yousefi, Mitra; Gruenheid, Samantha


    The R-spondin family of proteins has recently been described as secreted enhancers of β-catenin activation through the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. We previously reported that Rspo2 is a major determinant of susceptibility to Citrobacter rodentium-mediated colitis in mice and recent genome-wide association studies have revealed RSPO3 as a candidate Crohn's disease-specific inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility gene in humans. However, there is little information on the endogenous expression and cellular source of R-spondins in the colon at steady state and during intestinal inflammation. RNA sequencing and qRT-PCR were used to assess the expression of R-spondins at steady state and in two mouse models of colonic inflammation. The cellular source of R-spondins was assessed in specific colonic cell populations isolated by cell sorting. Data mining from publicly available datasets was used to assess the expression of R-spondins in the human colon. At steady state, colonic expression of R-spondins was found to be exclusive to non-epithelial CD45- lamina propria cells, and Rspo3/RSPO3 was the most highly expressed R-spondin in both mouse and human colon. R-spondin expression was found to be highly dynamic and differentially regulated during C. rodentium infection and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis, with notably high levels of Rspo3 expression during DSS colitis, and high levels of Rspo2 expression during C. rodentium infection, specifically in susceptible mice. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that in the colon, R-spondins are expressed by subepithelial stromal cells, and that Rspo3/RSPO3 is the family member most implicated in colonic homeostasis. The differential regulation of the R-spondins in different models of intestinal inflammation indicate they respond to specific pathogenic and inflammatory signals that differ in the two models and provides further evidence that this family of proteins plays a key role in linking intestinal

  19. Quality guaranteed aggregation based model predictive control and stability analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI DeWei; XI YuGeng


    The input aggregation strategy can reduce the online computational burden of the model predictive controller. But generally aggregation based MPC controller may lead to poor control quality. Therefore, a new concept, equivalent aggregation, is proposed to guarantee the control quality of aggregation based MPC. From the general framework of input linear aggregation, the design methods of equivalent aggregation are developed for unconstrained and terminal zero constrained MPC, which guarantee the actual control inputs exactly to be equal to that of the original MPC. For constrained MPC, quasi-equivalent aggregation strategies are also discussed, aiming to make the difference between the control inputs of aggregation based MPC and original MPC as small as possible. The stability conditions are given for the quasi-equivalent aggregation based MPC as well.

  20. Carrier Aggregation for LTE-Advanced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Klaus Ingemann; Frederiksen, Frank; Rosa, Claudio


    Carrier aggregation (CA) is one of the key features for LTE-Advanced. By means of CA, users gain access to a total bandwidth of up to 100 MHz in order to meet the IMT-Advanced requirements. The system bandwidth may be contiguous, or composed of several non-contiguous bandwidth chunks, which are a...

  1. Aggregation of MBP in chronic demyelination (United States)

    Frid, Kati; Einstein, Ofira; Friedman-Levi, Yael; Binyamin, Orli; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Gabizon, Ruth


    Objectives Misfolding of key disease proteins to an insoluble state is associated with most neurodegenerative conditions, such as prion, Parkinson, and Alzheimer’s diseases. In this work, and by studying animal models of multiple sclerosis, we asked whether this is also the case for myelin basic protein (MBP) in the late and neurodegenerative phases of demyelinating diseases. Methods To this effect, we tested whether MBP, an essential myelin component, present prion-like properties in animal models of MS, as is the case for Cuprizone-induced chronic demyelination or chronic phases of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE). Results We show here that while total levels of MBP were not reduced following extensive demyelination, part of these molecules accumulated thereafter as aggregates inside oligodendrocytes or around neuronal cells. In chronic EAE, MBP precipitated concomitantly with Tau, a marker of diverse neurodegenerative conditions, including MS. Most important, analysis of fractions from Triton X-100 floatation gradients suggest that the lipid composition of brain membranes in chronic EAE differs significantly from that of naïve mice, an effect which may relate to oxidative insults and subsequently prevent the appropriate insertion and compaction of new MBP in the myelin sheath, thereby causing its misfolding and aggregation. Interpretation Prion-like aggregation of MBP following chronic demyelination may result from an aberrant lipid composition accompanying this pathological status. Such aggregation of MBP may contribute to neuronal damage that occurs in the progressive phase of MS. PMID:26273684



    Levedahl, J. William; Reed, Albert J.; Clark, J. Stephen


    Two aggregation schemes for food demand systems are tested for consistency with the Generalized Composite Commodity Theorem (GCCT). One scheme is based on the standard CES classification of food expenditures. The second scheme is based on the Food Guide Pyramid. Evidence is found that both schemes are consistent with the GCCT.

  3. Metaconcrete: designed aggregates to enhance dynamic performance (United States)

    Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Pandolfi, Anna; Ortiz, Michael


    We propose a new type of concrete for the attenuation of elastic waves induced by dynamic excitation. In this metamaterial, which we call metaconcrete, the stone, sand, and gravel aggregates of standard concrete are replaced with spherical inclusions consisting of a heavy metal core coated with a soft outer layer. These engineered aggregates can be tuned so that particular frequencies of a propagating blast wave will activate resonant oscillations of the heavy mass within the inclusions. The resonant behavior causes the system to exhibit negative effective mass, and this interaction between the wave motion and the resonant aggregates results in the attenuation of the applied dynamic loading. We introduce the concept of negative mass by deriving the effective momentum mass for the system and we define the geometrical and material parameters for the design of resonant aggregates. We develop finite element models for the analysis of metaconcrete behavior, defining a section of slab containing a periodic arrangement of inclusions. By computing the energy histories for the system when subject to a blast load, we show that there is a transfer of energy between the inclusions and the surrounding mortar. The inclusions are able to absorb a significant portion of the applied energy, resulting in a reduction in the amount of stress carried by the mortar phase and greatly improving the ability of the material to resist damage under explosive dynamic loading.

  4. Familial aggregation of hypospadias: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnack, Tine H; Zdravkovic, Slobodan; Myrup, Charlotte


    Hypospadias is one of the most common birth defects. However, its etiology remains largely unknown. The authors investigated the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to familial aggregation of hypospadias. Using Danish health registers, they identified 5,380 boys diagnosed...

  5. Assays for alpha-synuclein aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giehm, Lise; Lorenzen, Nikolai; Otzen, Daniel


    leading to their formation is important for designing new drugs as well as in development of new nano-biomaterials such as nano-tubes, wires, scaffolds etc. 6. Understanding the process of amyloid formation requires an ability to reproduce this aggregation under controlled circumstances, in other words...

  6. The route to protein aggregate superstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetri, Valeria; Foderà, Vito


    Depending on external conditions, native proteins may change their structure and undergo different association routes leading to a large scale polymorphism of the aggregates. This feature has been widely observed but is not fully understood yet. This review focuses on morphologies, physico-chemical...


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Dendrimer conjugates are presented, which are formed between a dendrimer and a protein solubilising substance. Such dendrimer conjugates are effective in the treatment of protein aggregate-related diseases (e.g. prion-related diseases). The protein solubilising substance and the dendrimer together...

  8. Ring aggregation pattern of Human Travel Trips

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zi-Yang; Zhu, Peng; Qin, Yong; Jia, Li-Min


    Although a lot of attentions have been paid to human mobility, the relationship between travel pattern with city structure is still unclear. Here we probe into this relationship by analyzing the metro passenger trip data.There are two unprecedented findings. One, from the average view a linear law exists between the individual's travel distance with his original distance to city center. The mechanism underlying is a travel pattern we called "ring aggregation", i.e., the daily movement of city passengers is just aggregating to a ring with roughly equal distance to city center.Interestingly, for the round trips the daily travel pattern can be regarded as a switching between the home ring at outer area with the office ring at the inner area. Second, this linear law and ring aggregation pattern seems to be an exclusive characteristic of the metro system. It can not be found in short distance transportation modes, such as bicycle and taxi, neither as multiple transportation modes. This means the ring aggregation p...

  9. Surfactant effects on soil aggregate tensile strength (United States)

    Little is known regarding a soil aggregate's tensile strength response to surfactants that may be applied to alleviate soil water repellency. Two laboratory investigations were performed to determine surfactant effects on the tensile strength of 1) Ap horizons of nine wettable, agricultural soils co...

  10. Quasi-Species and Aggregate Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Anders; Görnerup, Olof; Jacobi, Martin Nilsson


    At an early stage in pre-biotic evolution, groups of replicating molecules must coordinate their reproduction to form aggregated units of selection. Mechanisms that enable this to occur are currently not well understood. In this paper we introduce a deterministic model of primitive replicating ag...


    Extensive research has shown that microorganisms exhibit increased resistance due to clumping, aggregation, particle association, or modification of antecedent growth conditions. During the course of investigating a major water-borne Vibrio cholerae outbreak in Peru, U.S. EPA inv...

  12. Individual expectations and aggregate macro behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assenza, T.; Heemeijer, P.; Hommes, C.; Massaro, D.


    The way in which individual expectations shape aggregate macroeconomic variables is crucial for the transmission and effectiveness of monetary policy. We study the individual expectations formation process and the interaction with monetary policy, within a standard New Keynesian model, by means of l

  13. Individual expectations and aggregate macro behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assenza, T.; Heemeijer, P.; Hommes, C.; Massaro, D.


    The way in which individual expectations shape aggregate macroeconomic variables is crucial for the transmission and effectiveness of monetary policy. We study the individual expectations formation process and the interaction with monetary policy, within a standard New Keynesian model, by means of l

  14. Kinetics of fibrilar aggregation of food proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnaudov, L.N.


    In this thesis we study the kinetics of fibrilar aggregation of two model proteins widely used in the food industry -b-lactoglobulin (b-lg) and hen eg

  15. Face detection by aggregated Bayesian network classifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.V.; Worring, M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.


    A face detection system is presented. A new classification method using forest-structured Bayesian networks is used. The method is used in an aggregated classifier to discriminate face from non-face patterns. The process of generating non-face patterns is integrated with the construction of the aggr

  16. Nonlinear Evolution of Aggregates with Inextensible Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-XiangCHEN; WeiYANG; 等


    Crystalline and semicrystalline polymers are formed as aggregates of grains with evolving inextensible axes.This inextensible constratint leads to texture evolution under large plastic deformation.This paper reveals the nonlinear texture evolution of crystalline polymers under axi-symmetric straining.

  17. Utilitarian Aggregation of Beliefs and Tastes. (United States)

    Gilboa, Itzhak; Samet, Dov; Schmeidler, David


    Harsanyi's utilitarianism is extended here to Savage's framework. We formulate a Pareto condition that implies that both society's utility function and its probability measure are linear combinations of those of the individuals. An indiscriminate Pareto condition has been shown to contradict linear aggregation of beliefs and tastes. We argue that…

  18. Aggregation of log-linear risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Embrechts, Paul; Hashorva, Enkeleijd; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin


    In this paper we work in the framework of a k-dimensional vector of log-linear risks. Under weak conditions on the marginal tails and the dependence structure of a vector of positive risks, we derive the asymptotic tail behaviour of the aggregated risk {and present} an application concerning log...

  19. A discrete anisotropic model for Scheibe aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bang


    Full Text Available A discrete anisotropic nonlinear model for the dynamics of Scheibe aggregates is investigated. The collapse of the collective excitations found by Möbius and Kuhn is described as a shrinking ring wave, which is eventually absorbed by an acceptor molecule. An optimal acceptor loss is found.

  20. Does it Matter How to Measure Aggregates?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Andreas; Juselius, Katarina

    Beyer, Doornik and Hendry (2000, 2001) show analytically that three out of four aggregation methods yield problematic results when exchange rate shifts induce relative-price changes between individual countries and found the least problematic method to be the variable weight method of growth rates...

  1. Aggregate Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education (United States)

    Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas


    Aggregate unemployment may affect individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…

  2. Thermodynamics of Micellization of Surfactants of Low Aggregation Number: The Aggregation of Propranolol Hydrochloride. (United States)

    Mosquera; Ruso; Attwood; Jones; Prieto; Sarmiento


    The self-association of propranolol hydrochloride in aqueous solution has been studied as a function of temperature. The critical concentration (C*) and the degree of ionization (alpha) were determined by conductivity measurements at temperatures over the range 298.15 to 313.15 K. The enthalpy change on aggregation in water was measured by microcalorimetry. To calculate changes in the thermodynamic properties of aggregation the mass action model for high and low aggregation numbers was applied, the latter model giving better agreement between experimental and theoretical enthalpy changes. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  3. Copper-triggered aggregation of ubiquitin. (United States)

    Arnesano, Fabio; Scintilla, Simone; Calò, Vincenza; Bonfrate, Elena; Ingrosso, Chiara; Losacco, Maurizio; Pellegrino, Teresa; Rizzarelli, Enrico; Natile, Giovanni


    Neurodegenerative disorders share common features comprising aggregation of misfolded proteins, failure of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and increased levels of metal ions in the brain. Protein aggregates within affected cells often contain ubiquitin, however no report has focused on the aggregation propensity of this protein. Recently it was shown that copper, differently from zinc, nickel, aluminum, or cadmium, compromises ubiquitin stability and binds to the N-terminus with 0.1 micromolar affinity. This paper addresses the role of copper upon ubiquitin aggregation. In water, incubation with Cu(II) leads to formation of spherical particles that can progress from dimers to larger conglomerates. These spherical oligomers are SDS-resistant and are destroyed upon Cu(II) chelation or reduction to Cu(I). In water/trifluoroethanol (80:20, v/v), a mimic of the local decrease in dielectric constant experienced in proximity to a membrane surface, ubiquitin incubation with Cu(II) causes time-dependent changes in circular dichroism and Fourier-transform infrared spectra, indicative of increasing beta-sheet content. Analysis by atomic force and transmission electron microscopy reveals, in the given order, formation of spherical particles consistent with the size of early oligomers detected by gel electrophoresis, clustering of these particles in straight and curved chains, formation of ring structures, growth of trigonal branches from the rings, coalescence of the trigonal branched structures in a network. Notably, none of these ubiquitin aggregates was positive to tests for amyloid and Cu(II) chelation or reduction produced aggregate disassembly. The early formed Cu(II)-stabilized spherical oligomers, when reconstituted in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) liposomes and in POPC planar bilayers, form annular and pore-like structures, respectively, which are common to several neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, amyotrophic

  4. Copper-triggered aggregation of ubiquitin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Arnesano

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative disorders share common features comprising aggregation of misfolded proteins, failure of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and increased levels of metal ions in the brain. Protein aggregates within affected cells often contain ubiquitin, however no report has focused on the aggregation propensity of this protein. Recently it was shown that copper, differently from zinc, nickel, aluminum, or cadmium, compromises ubiquitin stability and binds to the N-terminus with 0.1 micromolar affinity. This paper addresses the role of copper upon ubiquitin aggregation. In water, incubation with Cu(II leads to formation of spherical particles that can progress from dimers to larger conglomerates. These spherical oligomers are SDS-resistant and are destroyed upon Cu(II chelation or reduction to Cu(I. In water/trifluoroethanol (80:20, v/v, a mimic of the local decrease in dielectric constant experienced in proximity to a membrane surface, ubiquitin incubation with Cu(II causes time-dependent changes in circular dichroism and Fourier-transform infrared spectra, indicative of increasing beta-sheet content. Analysis by atomic force and transmission electron microscopy reveals, in the given order, formation of spherical particles consistent with the size of early oligomers detected by gel electrophoresis, clustering of these particles in straight and curved chains, formation of ring structures, growth of trigonal branches from the rings, coalescence of the trigonal branched structures in a network. Notably, none of these ubiquitin aggregates was positive to tests for amyloid and Cu(II chelation or reduction produced aggregate disassembly. The early formed Cu(II-stabilized spherical oligomers, when reconstituted in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC liposomes and in POPC planar bilayers, form annular and pore-like structures, respectively, which are common to several neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's, Alzheimer

  5. Practical problems in aggregating expert opinions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, J.M.; Picard, R.R.; Meyer, M.A.


    Expert opinion is data given by a qualified person in response to a technical question. In these analyses, expert opinion provides information where other data are either sparse or non-existent. Improvements in forecasting result from the advantageous addition of expert opinion to observed data in many areas, such as meteorology and econometrics. More generally, analyses of large, complex systems often involve experts on various components of the system supplying input to a decision process; applications include such wide-ranging areas as nuclear reactor safety, management science, and seismology. For large or complex applications, no single expert may be knowledgeable enough about the entire application. In other problems, decision makers may find it comforting that a consensus or aggregation of opinions is usually better than a single opinion. Many risk and reliability studies require a single estimate for modeling, analysis, reporting, and decision making purposes. For problems with large uncertainties, the strategy of combining as diverse a set of experts as possible hedges against underestimation of that uncertainty. Decision makers are frequently faced with the task of selecting the experts and combining their opinions. However, the aggregation is often the responsibility of an analyst. Whether the decision maker or the analyst does the aggregation, the input for it, such as providing weights for experts or estimating other parameters, is imperfect owing to a lack of omniscience. Aggregation methods for expert opinions have existed for over thirty years; yet many of the difficulties with their use remain unresolved. The bulk of these problem areas are summarized in the sections that follow: sensitivities of results to assumptions, weights for experts, correlation of experts, and handling uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the sources of these problems and describe their effects on aggregation.

  6. Small file aggregation in a parallel computing system (United States)

    Faibish, Sorin; Bent, John M.; Tzelnic, Percy; Grider, Gary; Zhang, Jingwang


    Techniques are provided for small file aggregation in a parallel computing system. An exemplary method for storing a plurality of files generated by a plurality of processes in a parallel computing system comprises aggregating the plurality of files into a single aggregated file; and generating metadata for the single aggregated file. The metadata comprises an offset and a length of each of the plurality of files in the single aggregated file. The metadata can be used to unpack one or more of the files from the single aggregated file.

  7. Soil structure and soil organic matter: I. Distribution of aggregate size classes and aggregate associated carbon


    J. Six; K. Paustian; Elliott, E.T.; C. Combrink


    Metadata only record This study compares aggregate size and carbon in three different soils, each with three tillage treatments (native vegetation (NV), no-tillage (NT), and conventional tillage (CT)).

  8. Influence of granitic aggregates from Northeast Brazil on the alkali-aggregate reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes Neto, David de Paiva; Santana, Rodrigo Soares de; Barreto, Ledjane Silva, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias dos Materiais e Engenharia; Conceicao, Herbert; Lisboa, Vinicios Anselmo Carvalho [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia


    The alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) in concrete structures is a problem that has concerned engineers and researchers for decades. This reaction occurs when silicates in the aggregates react with the alkalis, forming an expanded gel that can cause cracks in the concrete and reduce its lifespan. The aim of this study was to characterize three coarse granitic aggregates employed in concrete production in northeastern Brazil, correlating petrographic analysis with the kinetics of silica dissolution and the evolution of expansions in mortar bars, assisted by SEM/EDS, XRD, and EDX. The presence of grains showing recrystallization into individual microcrystalline quartz subgrains was associated with faster dissolution of silica and greater expansion in mortar bars. Aggregates showing substantial deformation, such as stretched grains of quartz with strong undulatory extinction, experienced slower dissolution, with reaction and expansion occurring over longer periods that could not be detected using accelerated tests with mortar bars. (author)

  9. Properties of Concrete with Tire Derived Aggregate Partially Replacing Coarse Aggregates. (United States)

    Siringi, Gideon; Abolmaali, Ali; Aswath, Pranesh B


    Tire derived aggregate (TDA) has been proposed as a possible lightweight replacement for mineral aggregate in concrete. The role played by the amount of TDA replacing coarse aggregate as well as different treatment and additives in concrete on its properties is examined. Conventional concrete (without TDA) and concrete containing TDA are compared by examining their compressive strength based on ASTM C39, workability based on ASTM C143, splitting tensile strength based on ASTM C496, modulus of rupture (flexural strength) based on ASTM C78, and bond stress based on ASTM C234. Results indicate that while replacement of coarse aggregates with TDA results in reduction in strength, it may be mitigated with addition of silica fume to obtain the desired strength. The greatest benefit of using TDA is in the development of a higher ductile product while utilizing recycled TDA.

  10. Properties of Concrete with Tire Derived Aggregate Partially Replacing Coarse Aggregates (United States)

    Siringi, Gideon; Abolmaali, Ali; Aswath, Pranesh B.


    Tire derived aggregate (TDA) has been proposed as a possible lightweight replacement for mineral aggregate in concrete. The role played by the amount of TDA replacing coarse aggregate as well as different treatment and additives in concrete on its properties is examined. Conventional concrete (without TDA) and concrete containing TDA are compared by examining their compressive strength based on ASTM C39, workability based on ASTM C143, splitting tensile strength based on ASTM C496, modulus of rupture (flexural strength) based on ASTM C78, and bond stress based on ASTM C234. Results indicate that while replacement of coarse aggregates with TDA results in reduction in strength, it may be mitigated with addition of silica fume to obtain the desired strength. The greatest benefit of using TDA is in the development of a higher ductile product while utilizing recycled TDA. PMID:26161440

  11. Properties of Concrete with Tire Derived Aggregate Partially Replacing Coarse Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Siringi


    Full Text Available Tire derived aggregate (TDA has been proposed as a possible lightweight replacement for mineral aggregate in concrete. The role played by the amount of TDA replacing coarse aggregate as well as different treatment and additives in concrete on its properties is examined. Conventional concrete (without TDA and concrete containing TDA are compared by examining their compressive strength based on ASTM C39, workability based on ASTM C143, splitting tensile strength based on ASTM C496, modulus of rupture (flexural strength based on ASTM C78, and bond stress based on ASTM C234. Results indicate that while replacement of coarse aggregates with TDA results in reduction in strength, it may be mitigated with addition of silica fume to obtain the desired strength. The greatest benefit of using TDA is in the development of a higher ductile product while utilizing recycled TDA.

  12. Biological framework for soil aggregation: Implications for ecological functions. (United States)

    Ghezzehei, Teamrat; Or, Dani


    Soil aggregation is heuristically understood as agglomeration of primary particles bound together by biotic and abiotic cementing agents. The organization of aggregates is believed to be hierarchical in nature; whereby primary particles bond together to form secondary particles and subsequently merge to form larger aggregates. Soil aggregates are not permanent structures, they continuously change in response to internal and external forces and other drivers, including moisture, capillary pressure, temperature, biological activity, and human disturbances. Soil aggregation processes and the resulting functionality span multiple spatial and temporal scales. The intertwined biological and physical nature of soil aggregation, and the time scales involved precluded a universally applicable and quantifiable framework for characterizing the nature and function of soil aggregation. We introduce a biophysical framework of soil aggregation that considers the various modes and factors of the genesis, maturation and degradation of soil aggregates including wetting/drying cycles, soil mechanical processes, biological activity and the nature of primary soil particles. The framework attempts to disentangle mechanical (compaction and soil fragmentation) from in-situ biophysical aggregation and provides a consistent description of aggregate size, hierarchical organization, and life time. It also enables quantitative description of biotic and abiotic functions of soil aggregates including diffusion and storage of mass and energy as well as role of aggregates as hot spots of nutrient accumulation, biodiversity, and biogeochemical cycles.

  13. Effect of antimicrobial preservatives on partial protein unfolding and aggregation. (United States)

    Hutchings, Regina L; Singh, Surinder M; Cabello-Villegas, Javier; Mallela, Krishna M G


    One-third of protein formulations are multi-dose. These require antimicrobial preservatives (APs); however, some APs have been shown to cause protein aggregation. Our previous work on a model protein cytochrome c indicated that partial protein unfolding, rather than complete unfolding, triggers aggregation. Here, we examined the relative strength of five commonly used APs on such unfolding and aggregation, and explored whether stabilizing the aggregation 'hot-spot' reduces such aggregation. All APs induced protein aggregation in the order m-cresol > phenol > benzyl alcohol > phenoxyethanol > chlorobutanol. All these enhanced the partial protein unfolding that includes a local region which was predicted to be the aggregation 'hot-spot'. The extent of destabilization correlated with the extent of aggregation. Further, we show that stabilizing the 'hot-spot' reduces aggregation induced by all five APs. These results indicate that m-cresol causes the most protein aggregation, whereas chlorobutanol causes the least protein aggregation. The same protein region acts as the 'hot-spot' for aggregation induced by different APs, implying that developing strategies to prevent protein aggregation induced by one AP will also work for others.

  14. Foam stabilization by solid particle aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guignot, S.; Faure, S. [CEA Marcoule, Lab. des Procedes Avances de Decontamination, 30 (France); Pitois, O. [UniversiteParis-Est Marne-La-Valle, Lab. Physique des Materiaux Divises et des Interfaces (LPMDI), 77 - Marne la Vallee (France)


    During the dismantling of nuclear facilities, radioactive deposits on exposed areas are removed and solubilized by successive rinses of reactive liquid. Using this liquid in a foam state reduces the amount of resulting wastes. During the required decontamination time (1 to 5 hours) the foam has to be sufficiently wet (1). In the Laboratory of Advanced Processes for Decontamination, new formulations are currently studied to slow down the drainage kinetics of these foams, by adding colloidal particles of hydrophilic fumed silica into the classical mixtures of well-defined non ionic foaming surfactants previously used (2). The objective of our study is to shed light on the foam surprising stability induced by these particles. The study focuses on drainage of foams generated by air sparging through a suspension lying on a porous glass. The foaming suspensions contain between 0 and 70 g.L-1 of a fumed silica (Aerosil 380) which is well-known to form gels for concentrations above 200 g.L{sup -1}. In the studied solutions this silica builds up into aggregates of dozens of microns, whose volume-averaged mean diameter after sonication is centred around 300 nm. Under gentle stirring, they display no sign of re-aggregation during 24 h. On a free drainage configuration, a foam that contains particles keeps a significant amount of its initial liquid: up to 60 % during up to 5 hours, in contrast to classical foams that drain out all of their liquid in about 20 minutes. From a rheological point of view, the most concentrated suspensions display a yield stress behaviour. This evidences the structuring of the aggregates into a coherent network that might explain the incomplete drainage of the solutions. For the lowest concentrated solutions, such rheological properties have not been observed although the corresponding foams can retain large amount of solution. This suggests that local concentrations of aggregates can rise owing to their retention by foam channels, until they form

  15. Pore structure of natural and regenerated soil aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Arthur, Emmanuel; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen


    Quantitative characterization of aggregate pore structure can reveal the evolution of aggregates under different land use and management practices and their effects on soil processes and functions. Advances in X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) provide powerful means to conduct such characterization....... This study examined aggregate pore structure of three differently managed same textured Danish soils (mixed forage cropping, MFC; mixed cash cropping, MCC; cereal cash cropping, CCC) for (i) natural aggregates, and (ii) aggregates regenerated after 20 months of incubation. In total, 27 aggregates (8-16 mm......) were sampled from nine different treatments; 3 natural soils and 3 repacked lysimeters without and 3 with organic matter (ground rape) amendment. Three dimensional X-ray CT images, tensile strength, and organic carbon were obtained for each aggregate. Aggregate-associated organic carbon differed...

  16. Shaping the Growth Behaviour of Bacterial Aggregates in Biofilms

    CERN Document Server

    Melaugh, Gavin; Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Irie, Yasuhiko; Roberts, Aled; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Diggle, Steve P; Gordon, Vernita; Allen, Rosalind J


    Bacterial biofilms are usually assumed to originate from individual cells deposited on a surface. However, many biofilm-forming bacteria tend to aggregate in the planktonic phase meaning it is possible that many natural and infectious biofilms originate wholly or partially from pre-formed cell aggregates. Here, we use agent-based computer simulations to investigate the role of pre-formed aggregates in biofilm development. Focusing on the role of aggregate shape, we find that the degree of spreading of an aggregate on a surface can play a key role in determining its eventual fate during biofilm development. Specifically, initially spread aggregates perform better when competition with surrounding bacterial cells is low, while initially rounded aggregates perform better when competition is high. These contrasting outcomes are governed by a trade-off between aggregate surface area and height. Our results provide new insight into biofilm formation and development, and reveal new factors that may be at play in the...

  17. Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Aggregate Size on Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Okuda-Shimazaki


    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (titania nanoparticle aggregation is an important factor in understanding cytotoxicity. However, the effect of the aggregate size of nanoparticles on cells is unclear. We prepared two sizes of titania aggregate particles and investigated their biological activity by analyzing biomarker expression based on mRNA expression analysis. The aggregate particle sizes of small and large aggregated titania were 166 nm (PDI = 0.291 and 596 nm (PDI = 0.417, respectively. These two size groups were separated by centrifugation from the same initial nanoparticle sample. We analyzed the gene expression of biomarkers focused on stress, inflammation, and cytotoxicity. Large titania aggregates show a larger effect on cell viability and gene expression when compared with the small aggregates. This suggests that particle aggregate size is related to cellular effects.

  18. Colonization of diatom aggregates by the dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiselius, P.; Kiørboe, Thomas


    Abundance and vertical distribution of the dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans were studied during a diatom bloom in the Benguela current. Video observations showed the occurrence of abundant Chaetoceros spp. aggregates colonized by N. scintillans. The diatom aggregates were formed by regular...

  19. Statistical mixing and aggregation in Feller diffusion (United States)

    Anteneodo, C.; Duarte Queirós, S. M.


    We consider Feller mean-reverting square-root diffusion, which has been applied to model a wide variety of processes with linearly state-dependent diffusion, such as stochastic volatility and interest rates in finance, and neuronal and population dynamics in the natural sciences. We focus on the statistical mixing (or superstatistical) process in which the parameter related to the mean value can fluctuate—a plausible mechanism for the emergence of heavy-tailed distributions. We obtain analytical results for the associated probability density function (both stationary and time-dependent), its correlation structure and aggregation properties. Our results are applied to explain the statistics of stock traded volume at different aggregation scales.

  20. Topological data analysis of biological aggregation models. (United States)

    Topaz, Chad M; Ziegelmeier, Lori; Halverson, Tom


    We apply tools from topological data analysis to two mathematical models inspired by biological aggregations such as bird flocks, fish schools, and insect swarms. Our data consists of numerical simulation output from the models of Vicsek and D'Orsogna. These models are dynamical systems describing the movement of agents who interact via alignment, attraction, and/or repulsion. Each simulation time frame is a point cloud in position-velocity space. We analyze the topological structure of these point clouds, interpreting the persistent homology by calculating the first few Betti numbers. These Betti numbers count connected components, topological circles, and trapped volumes present in the data. To interpret our results, we introduce a visualization that displays Betti numbers over simulation time and topological persistence scale. We compare our topological results to order parameters typically used to quantify the global behavior of aggregations, such as polarization and angular momentum. The topological calculations reveal events and structure not captured by the order parameters.

  1. Fluorosurfactants at structural extremes: adsorption and aggregation. (United States)

    Eastoe, Julian; Rogers, Sarah E; Martin, Laura J; Paul, Alison; Guittard, Frédéric; Guittard, Elisabeth; Heenan, Richard K; Webster, John R P


    Fluorosurfactants with several structural modifications have been synthesized, and the air/water interface and bulk aggregation properties investigated. The compounds were fluorinated ethylene oxide (EO) nonionics where the number and position of the hydrophilic group(s) has been radically altered to generate linear, bolaform, and Y-shaped analogues. A noticeable structure-interfacial packing relationship was observed via both tensiometric measurements and neutron reflection studies: the limiting molecular areas, a(cmc), and surface excesses, gamma(cmc), are strongly dependent on the number and position of the EO headgroups. Differing bulk aqueous properties were also observed. Small-angle neutron scattering shows an evolution of micelle structure from cylindrical to disk-like aggregates on changing from Y-shaped to bolaform molecular structure.

  2. Spatial control of chirality in supramolecular aggregates. (United States)

    Castriciano, Maria A; Gentili, Denis; Romeo, Andrea; Cavallini, Massimiliano; Scolaro, Luigi Monsù


    Chirality is one of the most intriguing properties of matter related to a molecule's lack of mirror symmetry. The transmission of chirality from the molecular level up to the macroscopic scale has major implications in life sciences but it is also relevant for many chemical applications ranging from catalysis to spintronic. These technological applications require an accurate control of morphology, homogeneity and chiral handedness of thin films and nanostructures. We demonstrate a simple approach to specifically transfer chirality to the model supramolecular system of J aggregates of the protonated form of tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)-porphyrin by utilizing a soft lithography technique. This approach successfully allows the fabrication of an ordered distribution of sub-micrometric structures in precise and controllable positions with programmed chirality, providing a fundamental breakthrough toward the exploitation of chiral supramolecular aggregates in technological applications, such as sensors, non-linear optics and spintronic.

  3. Diffusion-Limited Aggregation with Polygon Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓礼; 王延颋; 欧阳钟灿


    Diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) assumes that particles perform pure random walk at a finite tem- perature and aggregate when they come close enough and stick together. Although it is well known that DLA in two dimensions results in a ramified fractal structure, how the particle shape influences the formed morphology is still un- clear. In this work, we perform the off-lattice two-dimensional DLA simulations with different particle shapes of triangle, quadrangle, pentagon, hexagon, and octagon, respectively, and compare with the results for circular particles. Our results indicate that different particle shapes only change the local structure, but have no effects on the global structure of the formed fractal duster. The local compactness decreases as the number of polygon edges increases.

  4. Spatial control of chirality in supramolecular aggregates (United States)

    Castriciano, Maria A.; Gentili, Denis; Romeo, Andrea; Cavallini, Massimiliano; Scolaro, Luigi Monsù


    Chirality is one of the most intriguing properties of matter related to a molecule’s lack of mirror symmetry. The transmission of chirality from the molecular level up to the macroscopic scale has major implications in life sciences but it is also relevant for many chemical applications ranging from catalysis to spintronic. These technological applications require an accurate control of morphology, homogeneity and chiral handedness of thin films and nanostructures. We demonstrate a simple approach to specifically transfer chirality to the model supramolecular system of J aggregates of the protonated form of tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)-porphyrin by utilizing a soft lithography technique. This approach successfully allows the fabrication of an ordered distribution of sub-micrometric structures in precise and controllable positions with programmed chirality, providing a fundamental breakthrough toward the exploitation of chiral supramolecular aggregates in technological applications, such as sensors, non-linear optics and spintronic. PMID:28275239

  5. Neutral Aggregation in Finite Length Genotype space

    CERN Document Server

    Houchmandzadeh, Bahram


    The advent of modern genome sequencing techniques allows for a more stringent test of the neutrality hypothesis of Evolution, where all individuals have the same fitness. Using the individual based model of Wright and Fisher, we compute the amplitude of neutral aggregation in the genome space, i.e., the probability PL,$\\Theta$,M (k) of finding two individuals at genetic distance k for a genome of size L and mutation and migration number $\\Theta$ and M. In well mixed populations, we show that for $\\Theta$ $\\ll$ L, neutral aggregation is the dominant force and most individuals are found at short genetic distances from each other. For $\\Theta$ $\\sim$ L/2 on the contrary, individuals are randomly dispersed in genome space. For a geographically dispersed population, the controlling parameter is a combination of mutation and migration numbers. The theory we develop can be used to test the neutrality hypothesis in various ecological and evolutionary systems.

  6. Mapuche Herbal Medicine Inhibits Blood Platelet Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Skanderup Falkenberg


    Full Text Available 12 plant species traditionally used by the Mapuche people in Chile to treat wounds and inflammations have been evaluated for their direct blood platelet inhibition. Seven of the 12 tested plant species showed platelet inhibitory effect in sheep blood, and four of these were also able to inhibit the ADP- (5.0 μM and collagen- (2.0 μg/mL induced aggregations in human blood. These four species in respective extracts (in brackets were Blechnum chilense (MeOH, Luma apiculata (H2O, Amomyrtus luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1 and Cestrum parqui (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1. The platelet aggregating inhibitory effects of A. luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1, and L. apiculata (H2O were substantial and confirmed by inhibition of platelet surface activation markers.

  7. Rank Aggregation via Nuclear Norm Minimization

    CERN Document Server

    Gleich, David F


    The process of rank aggregation is intimately intertwined with the structure of skew-symmetric matrices. We apply recent advances in the theory and algorithms of matrix completion to skew-symmetric matrices. This combination of ideas produces a new method for ranking a set of items. The essence of our idea is that a rank aggregation describes a partially filled skew-symmetric matrix. We extend an algorithm for matrix completion to handle skew-symmetric data and use that to extract ranks for each item. Our algorithm applies to both pairwise comparison and rating data. Because it is based on matrix completion, it is robust to both noise and incomplete data. We show a formal recovery result for the noiseless case and present a detailed study of the algorithm on synthetic data and Netflix ratings.

  8. Monitoring nanoparticle aggregation by optical procedures (United States)

    Chicea, Dan


    The traditional Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) produces the average size of the suspended particles from a recorded time series of the light scattered at a particular angle. A modified and simplified version of DLS was designed, tested and used in monitoring FE3O4 nanoparticle aggregation in aqueous suspensions. In addition two another simple and easy to implement optical procedures were tested aiming a qualitative monitoring of the nanoparticle aggregation process. One of them consists of monitoring the time variation of the scattered light intensity at a certain angle and fitting an analytic function on it and the other one in monitoring the refractive index of the aqueous suspension during nanofluid dilution. The results are presented and discussed.

  9. Design of Road Pavement Using Recycled Aggregate (United States)

    Remišová, Eva; Decký, Martin; Mikolaš, Milan; Hájek, Matej; Kovalčík, Luboš; Mečár, Martin


    The presented article gives special attention to codified clauses of the road construction law, the relevant clauses of the standards and technical regulations to design and control the quality of recycled aggregate constructions. The article also presents the authors’ suggestions to design of earth constructions and pavements of roads according to the Slovak technical standards, technical regulations and objectively determined results of research and development of road infrastructure. The article presents a comparison of the mechanical characteristics measurements of the structural layers of road pavements built from the recycled and natural aggregate. It also presents correlation functions of results obtained from in situ and in laboratory CBR (Californian Bearing Ratio) measuring, representing the world's most widely used control method of bearing capacity of mentioned construction layers.

  10. Structural Transitions and Aggregation in Amyloidogenic Proteins (United States)

    Steckmann, Timothy; Chapagain, Prem; Gerstman, Bernard; Computational and Theoretical Biophysics Group at Florida International University Team


    Amyloid fibrils are a common component in many debilitating human neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. A detailed molecular-level understanding of the formation process of amyloid fibrils is crucial for developing methods to slow down or prevent these horrific diseases. Alpha-helix to beta-sheet structural transformation is commonly observed in the process of fibril formation. We performed replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations of structural transformations in an engineered model peptide cc-beta. Several sets of simulations with different number of cc-beta monomers were considered. Conversion of alpha-helix monomers to beta strands and the aggregation of beta strand monomers into sheets were analyzed as a function of the system size. Hydrogen bond analysis was performed and the beta-aggregate structures were characterized by a nematic order parameter.

  11. Modeling decisions information fusion and aggregation operators

    CERN Document Server

    Torra, Vicenc


    Information fusion techniques and aggregation operators produce the most comprehensive, specific datum about an entity using data supplied from different sources, thus enabling us to reduce noise, increase accuracy, summarize and extract information, and make decisions. These techniques are applied in fields such as economics, biology and education, while in computer science they are particularly used in fields such as knowledge-based systems, robotics, and data mining. This book covers the underlying science and application issues related to aggregation operators, focusing on tools used in practical applications that involve numerical information. Starting with detailed introductions to information fusion and integration, measurement and probability theory, fuzzy sets, and functional equations, the authors then cover the following topics in detail: synthesis of judgements, fuzzy measures, weighted means and fuzzy integrals, indices and evaluation methods, model selection, and parameter extraction. The method...

  12. Dataset of aggregate producers in New Mexico (United States)

    Orris, Greta J.


    This report presents data, including latitude and longitude, for aggregate sites in New Mexico that were believed to be active in the period 1997-1999. The data are presented in paper form in Part A of this report and as Microsoft Excel 97 and Data Interchange Format (DIF) files in Part B. The work was undertaken as part of the effort to update information for the National Atlas. This compilation includes data from: the files of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); company contacts; the New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, New Mexico Bureau of Mine Inspection, and the Mining and Minerals Division of the New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department (Hatton and others, 1998); the Bureau of Land Management Information; and direct communications with some of the aggregate operators. Additional information on most of the sites is available in Hatton and others (1998).

  13. Aggregate geometry in amyloid fibril nucleation

    CERN Document Server

    Irbäck, A; Linnemann, N; Linse, B; Wallin, S; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.058101


    We present and study a minimal structure-based model for the self-assembly of peptides into ordered beta-sheet-rich fibrils. The peptides are represented by unit-length sticks on a cubic lattice and interact by hydrogen bonding and hydrophobicity forces. By Monte Carlo simulations with >100,000 peptides, we show that fibril formation occurs with sigmoidal kinetics in the model. To determine the mechanism of fibril nucleation, we compute the joint distribution in length and width of the aggregates at equilibrium, using an efficient cluster move and flat-histogram techniques. This analysis, based on simulations with 256 peptides in which aggregates form and dissolve reversibly, shows that the main free-energy barriers that a nascent fibril has to overcome are associated with changes in width.

  14. Important Features of Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko V. Šolar


    Full Text Available Every society, whether developed, developing or in a phase of renewal following governmental change, requires stable, adequate and secure supplies of natural resources. In the latter case, there could be significant need for construction materials for rebuilding infrastructure, industrial capacity, and housing. It is essential that these large-volume materials be provided in a rational manner that maximizes their societal contribution and minimizes environmental impacts. We describe an approach to resource management based on the principles of sustainable development. Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management offers a way of addressing the conflicting needs and interests of environmental, economic, and social systems. Sustainability is an ethics based concept that utilizes science and democratic processes to reach acceptable agreements and tradeoffs among interests, while acknowledging the fundamental importance of the environment and social goods. We discuss the features of sustainable aggregate resource management.

  15. Important features of Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management (United States)

    Solar, Slavko V.; Shields, Deborah J.; Langer, William H.


    Every society, whether developed, developing or in a phase of renewal following governmental change, requires stable, adequate and secure supplies of natural resources. In the latter case, there could be significant need for construction materials for rebuilding infrastructure, industrial capacity, and housing. It is essential that these large-volume materials be provided in a rational manner that maximizes their societal contribution and minimizes environmental impacts. We describe an approach to resource management based on the principles of sustainable developed. Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management offers a way of addressing the conflicting needs and interests of environmental, economic, and social systems. Sustainability is an ethics based concept that utilizes science and democratic processes to reach acceptable agreements and tradeoffs among interests, while acknowledging the fundamental importance of the environment and social goods. We discuss the features of sustainable aggregate resource management.

  16. Immunochemical analyses of serum antibodies from pig herds in a Salmonella non-endemic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiuff, Camilla; Thorberg, Britt-Marie; Engvall, Anders


    the reactivity of the Swedish sera in the mix-ELISA. Reactivities against other related bacterial LPS such as Citrobacter freundii LPS and Yersinia enterocolitica 0:3 LPS were observed in the Swedish sera, but these LPS antigens were unable to inhibit the reactivities in: the m_ix-ELISA as efficiently as S...

  17. Dysgonic fermenter 3-associated abscess in a diabetic patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Frederiksen, W; Bruun, B


    We report a case in which a strain of the U.S.A. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) dysgonic fermenter (DF) 3, together with Citrobacter freundii, was isolated from an abscess in a diabetic patient. DF 3 may be easily overlooked due to its fastidious nature, a characteristic shared with two former...

  18. In vitro activity of ceftazidime-avibactam combination in in vitro checkerboard assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, J.; Melchers, M.J.B.; Mil, A.C. van; Nichols, W.W.; Mouton, J.W.


    To evaluate the in vitro effects of the combination of ceftazidime and avibactam on the MICs of both compounds, checkerboard assays were performed for 81 clinical strains, including 55 Enterobacteriaceae strains (32 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 19 Escherichia coli, 1 Citrobacter freundii, and 3 Enterobact

  19. Occurrence of CTX-M-3, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-14, and CTX-M-9 Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae Clinical Isolates in Korea (United States)

    Kim, Jungmin; Lim, Yu-Mi; Jeong, Young-Sook; Seol, Sung-Yong


    Among 603 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae collected between June and November 2003 from three university hospitals within Korea, blaCTX-M-3, blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-14, and blaCTX-M-9 were detected in 41 isolates of species from five different genera of Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter spp., and Serratia marcescens. PMID:15793142

  20. Aerobic bacteria cultured from the mouth of the American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) with reference to bacteria associated with bite infections.


    Howell, J. M.; Dalsey, W C


    The American opossum inflicts bite injuries both when hunted for food and when accidentally provoked when handled in captivity. This study involved aerobically culturing organisms from the mouths of seven wild opossums (Didelphis virginiana). Isolates included streptococci, coagulase-positive and -negative staphylococci, Aeromonas spp., Citrobacter freundii, Eikenella corrodens, and Escherichia coli.

  1. Phylogenetic and Metabolic Diversity of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)-transforming Bacteria in Strictly Anaerobic Mixed Cultures Enriched on RDX as Nitrogen Source (United States)


    the Enterobacteriaceae family ( Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, Citrobacter freundii, and Escherichia coli) [10,11... wastewater to methane (70% of the total gas released). The following compounds were added to the basic salts and vitamins medium to enrich bacteria using RDX...RDX biodegradation by a methanogenic enrichment culture obtained from an explosives man- ufacturing wastewater treatment plant. Technical report, pp. 99

  2. Dynamics of proteins aggregation. I. Universal scaling in unbounded media (United States)

    Zheng, Size; Javidpour, Leili; Shing, Katherine S.; Sahimi, Muhammad


    It is well understood that in some cases proteins do not fold correctly and, depending on their environment, even properly-folded proteins change their conformation spontaneously, taking on a misfolded state that leads to protein aggregation and formation of large aggregates. An important factor that contributes to the aggregation is the interactions between the misfolded proteins. Depending on the aggregation environment, the aggregates may take on various shapes forming larger structures, such as protein plaques that are often toxic. Their deposition in tissues is a major contributing factor to many neuro-degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and prion. This paper represents the first part in a series devoted to molecular simulation of protein aggregation. We use the PRIME, a meso-scale model of proteins, together with extensive discontinuous molecular dynamics simulation to study the aggregation process in an unbounded fluid system, as the first step toward MD simulation of the same phenomenon in crowded cellular environments. Various properties of the aggregates have been computed, including dynamic evolution of aggregate-size distribution, mean aggregate size, number of peptides that contribute to the formation of β sheets, number of various types of hydrogen bonds formed in the system, radius of gyration of the aggregates, and the aggregates' diffusivity. We show that many of such quantities follow dynamic scaling, similar to those for aggregation of colloidal clusters. In particular, at long times the mean aggregate size S(t) grows with time as, S(t) ˜ tz, where z is the dynamic exponent. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the qualitative similarity between aggregation of proteins and colloidal aggregates has been pointed out.

  3. Probabilistic prediction models for aggregate quarry siting (United States)

    Robinson, G.R.; Larkins, P.M.


    Weights-of-evidence (WofE) and logistic regression techniques were used in a GIS framework to predict the spatial likelihood (prospectivity) of crushed-stone aggregate quarry development. The joint conditional probability models, based on geology, transportation network, and population density variables, were defined using quarry location and time of development data for the New England States, North Carolina, and South Carolina, USA. The Quarry Operation models describe the distribution of active aggregate quarries, independent of the date of opening. The New Quarry models describe the distribution of aggregate quarries when they open. Because of the small number of new quarries developed in the study areas during the last decade, independent New Quarry models have low parameter estimate reliability. The performance of parameter estimates derived for Quarry Operation models, defined by a larger number of active quarries in the study areas, were tested and evaluated to predict the spatial likelihood of new quarry development. Population density conditions at the time of new quarry development were used to modify the population density variable in the Quarry Operation models to apply to new quarry development sites. The Quarry Operation parameters derived for the New England study area, Carolina study area, and the combined New England and Carolina study areas were all similar in magnitude and relative strength. The Quarry Operation model parameters, using the modified population density variables, were found to be a good predictor of new quarry locations. Both the aggregate industry and the land management community can use the model approach to target areas for more detailed site evaluation for quarry location. The models can be revised easily to reflect actual or anticipated changes in transportation and population features. ?? International Association for Mathematical Geology 2007.

  4. Aggregation Operator Based Fuzzy Pattern Classifier Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mönks, Uwe; Larsen, Henrik Legind


    This paper presents a novel modular fuzzy pattern classifier design framework for intelligent automation systems, developed on the base of the established Modified Fuzzy Pattern Classifier (MFPC) and allows designing novel classifier models which are hardware-efficiently implementable. The perfor....... The performances of novel classifiers using substitutes of MFPC's geometric mean aggregator are benchmarked in the scope of an image processing application against the MFPC to reveal classification improvement potentials for obtaining higher classification rates....

  5. Radiation shielding concrete made of Basalt aggregates. (United States)

    Alhajali, S; Yousef, S; Kanbour, M; Naoum, B


    In spite of the fact that Basalt is a widespread type of rock, there is very little available information on using it as aggregates for concrete radiation shielding. This paper investigates the possibility of using Basalt for the aforementioned purpose. The results have shown that Basalt could be used successfully for preparing radiation shielding concrete, but some attention should be paid to the choice of the suitable types of Basalt and for the neutron activation problem that could arise in the concrete shield.

  6. Aggregate of nanoparticles: rheological and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yu


    Full Text Available Abstract The understanding of the rheological and mechanical properties of nanoparticle aggregates is important for the application of nanofillers in nanocompoistes. In this work, we report a rheological study on the rheological and mechanical properties of nano-silica agglomerates in the form of gel network mainly constructed by hydrogen bonds. The elastic model for rubber is modified to analyze the elastic behavior of the agglomerates. By this modified elastic model, the size of the network mesh can be estimated by the elastic modulus of the network which can be easily obtained by rheology. The stress to destroy the aggregates, i.e., the yield stress (σy , and the elastic modulus (G' of the network are found to be depended on the concentration of nano-silica (ϕ, wt.% with the power of 4.02 and 3.83, respectively. Via this concentration dependent behavior, we can extrapolate two important mechanical parameters for the agglomerates in a dense packing state (ϕ = 1: the shear modulus and the yield stress. Under large deformation (continuous shear flow, the network structure of the aggregates will experience destruction and reconstruction, which gives rise to fluctuations in the viscosity and a shear-thinning behavior.

  7. Platelet aggregation associated with ethanol intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk, S.; Walenga, J.; Fareed, J.; Schumacher, H. (Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (USA))


    Alcohol is known to produce profound effects on blood; during chronic intoxication, prolongation of bleeding time has been reported. Utilizing human platelet rich plasma, we have studied the effect of alcohol on epinephrine, arachidonic acid and ADP induced aggregation. Control responses were obtained with saline from which the relative inhibition by alcohol was calculated. These studies were carried out at a concentration of 1.25-5.0 mg/ml which represents 0.125-0.5% alcohol blood levels. From 25 normal male and female volunteers, without prior hemostatic defects or drug ingestion, a dose-dependent inhibition by alcohol of all three agonist induced aggregations was noted. Alcohol itself did not produce any aggregation response. These studies demonstrate that alcohol at levels which are reached during intoxication is capable of impairing platelet function. The implication of this finding on the bleeding complications in healthy intoxicated patients may be significant during traumatic events, and individuals taking antiplatelet drugs may present a more serious hemostatic deficit during alcohol intoxication.

  8. Understanding sexual harassment using aggregate construct models. (United States)

    Nye, Christopher D; Brummel, Bradley J; Drasgow, Fritz


    Sexual harassment has received a substantial amount of empirical attention over the past few decades, and this research has consistently shown that experiencing these behaviors has a detrimental effect on employees' well-being, job attitudes, and behaviors at work. However, these findings, and the conclusions that are drawn from them, make the implicit assumption that the empirical models used to examine sexual harassment are properly specified. This article presents evidence that properly specified aggregate construct models are more consistent with theoretical structures and definitions of sexual harassment and can result in different conclusions about the nomological network of harassment. Results from 3 large samples, 2 military and 1 from a civilian population, are used to illustrate the differences between aggregate construct and reflective indicator models of sexual harassment. These analyses suggested that the factor structure and the nomological network of sexual harassment differ when modeling harassment as an aggregate construct. The implications of these results for the continued study of sexual harassment are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Role of Prion Protein Aggregation in Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullio Florio


    Full Text Available In several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson, Alzheimer’s, Huntington, and prion diseases, the deposition of aggregated misfolded proteins is believed to be responsible for the neurotoxicity that characterizes these diseases. Prion protein (PrP, the protein responsible of prion diseases, has been deeply studied for the peculiar feature of its misfolded oligomers that are able to propagate within affected brains, inducing the conversion of the natively folded PrP into the pathological conformation. In this review, we summarize the available experimental evidence concerning the relationship between aggregation status of misfolded PrP and neuronal death in the course of prion diseases. In particular, we describe the main findings resulting from the use of different synthetic (mainly PrP106-126 and recombinant PrP-derived peptides, as far as mechanisms of aggregation and amyloid formation, and how these different spatial conformations can affect neuronal death. In particular, most data support the involvement of non-fibrillar oligomers rather than actual amyloid fibers as the determinant of neuronal death.

  10. Staring at Economic Aggregators through Information Lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Nock, Richard; Celimene, Fred; Nielsen, Frank


    It is hard to exaggerate the role of economic aggregators -- functions that summarize numerous and / or heterogeneous data -- in economic models since the early XX$^{th}$ century. In many cases, as witnessed by the pioneering works of Cobb and Douglas, these functions were information quantities tailored to economic theories, i.e. they were built to fit economic phenomena. In this paper, we look at these functions from the complementary side: information. We use a recent toolbox built on top of a vast class of distortions coined by Bregman, whose application field rivals metrics' in various subfields of mathematics. This toolbox makes it possible to find the quality of an aggregator (for consumptions, prices, labor, capital, wages, etc.), from the standpoint of the information it carries. We prove a rather striking result. From the informational standpoint, well-known economic aggregators do belong to the \\textit{optimal} set. As common economic assumptions enter the analysis, this large set shrinks, and it e...

  11. Pathophysiological importance of aggregated damaged proteins. (United States)

    Höhn, Annika; Jung, Tobias; Grune, Tilman


    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed continuously in the organism even under physiological conditions. If the level of ROS in cells exceeds the cellular defense capacity, components such as RNA/DNA, lipids, and proteins are damaged and modified, thus affecting the functionality of organelles as well. Proteins are especially prominent targets of various modifications such as oxidation, glycation, or conjugation with products of lipid peroxidation, leading to the alteration of their biological function, nonspecific interactions, and the production of high-molecular-weight protein aggregates. To ensure the maintenance of cellular functions, two proteolytic systems are responsible for the removal of oxidized and modified proteins, especially the proteasome and organelles, mainly the autophagy-lysosomal systems. Furthermore, increased protein oxidation and oxidation-dependent impairment of proteolytic systems lead to an accumulation of oxidized proteins and finally to the formation of nondegradable protein aggregates. Accordingly, the cellular homeostasis cannot be maintained and the cellular metabolism is negatively affected. Here we address the current knowledge of protein aggregation during oxidative stress, aging, and disease.

  12. Disaggregases, molecular chaperones that resolubilize protein aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Z. Mokry


    Full Text Available The process of folding is a seminal event in the life of a protein, as it is essential for proper protein function and therefore cell physiology. Inappropriate folding, or misfolding, can not only lead to loss of function, but also to the formation of protein aggregates, an insoluble association of polypeptides that harm cell physiology, either by themselves or in the process of formation. Several biological processes have evolved to prevent and eliminate the existence of non-functional and amyloidogenic aggregates, as they are associated with several human pathologies. Molecular chaperones and heat shock proteins are specialized in controlling the quality of the proteins in the cell, specifically by aiding proper folding, and dissolution and clearance of already formed protein aggregates. The latter is a function of disaggregases, mainly represented by the ClpB/Hsp104 subfamily of molecular chaperones, that are ubiquitous in all organisms but, surprisingly, have no orthologs in the cytosol of metazoan cells. This review aims to describe the characteristics of disaggregases and to discuss the function of yeast Hsp104, a disaggregase that is also involved in prion propagation and inheritance.

  13. Asbestos Tailings as Aggregates for Asphalt Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xinoming; XU Linrong


    To use many asbestos tailings collected in Ya-Lu highway, and to explore the feasibility of using asbestos tailings as aggregates in common asphalt mixtures, and properties of some asphalt mixtures were evaluated as well. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescent (XRF), and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) were employed to determine the solid waste content of copper, zinc, lead, and cadmium. Volume properties and pavement performances of AC-25 asphalt mixture with asbestos tailings were also evaluated compared with those with basalt as aggregates.XRD and XRF measurement results infer that asbestos tailing is an excellent road material. Volume properties of AC-25 asphalt mixture with asbestos tailings satisfied the related specifications. No heavy metals and toxic pollution were detected in AAS test and the value of pH test is 8.23, which is help to the adhesion with asphalt in the asphalt concrete. When compared with basalt, high temperature property and the resistance to low temperature cracking of AC-25 asphalt mixture was improved by using asbestos tailings as aggregates. In-service AC-25 asphalt pavement with asbestos tailings also presented excellent performance and British Pendulum Number (BPN) coefficient of surface.

  14. Performance of Uplink Carrier Aggregation in LTE-Advanced Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus


    Carrier aggregation (CA) has been proposed to aggregate two or more component carriers (CCs) to support a much wider transmission bandwidth for LTE-Advanced systems. With carrier aggregation, it is possible to schedule a user equipment (UE) on multiple component carriers simultaneously. In this p...

  15. Retiring the Short-Run Aggregate Supply Curve (United States)

    Elwood, S. Kirk


    The author argues that the aggregate demand/aggregate supply (AD/AS) model is significantly improved--although certainly not perfected--by trimming it of the short-run aggregate supply (SRAS) curve. Problems with the SRAS curve are shown first for the AD/AS model that casts the AD curve as identifying the equilibrium level of output associated…

  16. [A method for studying intravascular platelet aggregation in vitro]. (United States)

    Ikonnikova, E I; Chernousova, L A; Moshkina, I R


    A simple available method for evaluating intravascular platelet aggregation is proposed. It consists in graphic recording of disaggregation of platelet-rich citrate plasma, which indicates the degree of intravascular aggregation. Intravascular aggregation is notably increased in coronary patients and negligible in normal subjects. The method may be used for the diagnosis of diseases with a high thrombogenic risk.

  17. 21 CFR 864.5700 - Automated platelet aggregation system. (United States)


    ... addition of an aggregating reagent to a platelet-rich plasma. (b) Classification. Class II (performance... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated platelet aggregation system. 864.5700... § 864.5700 Automated platelet aggregation system. (a) Identification. An automated platelet...

  18. Evaluation of Colemanite Waste as Aggregate Hot Mix Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat MOROVA


    Full Text Available In this study usability of waste colemanite which is obtained after cutting block colemanite for giving proper shape to blocks as an aggregate in hot mix asphalt. For this aim asphalt concrete samples were prepared with four different aggregate groups and optimum bitumen content was determined. First of all only limestone was used as an aggregate. After that, only colemanite aggregate was used with same aggregate gradation. Then, the next step of the study, Marshall samples were produced by changing coarse and fine aggregate gradation as limestone and colemanite and Marshall test were conducted. When evaluated the results samples which produced with only limestone aggregate gave the maximum Marshall Stability value. When handled other mixture groups (Only colemanite, colemanite as coarse aggregate-limestone as fine aggregate, colemanite as fine aggregate-limestone as coarse aggregate all groups were verified specification limits. As a result, especially in areas where there is widespread colemanite waste, if transportation costs did not exceed the cost of limestone, colemanite stone waste could be used instead of limestone in asphalt concrete mixtures as fine aggregate

  19. 5 CFR 581.401 - Aggregate disposable earnings. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aggregate disposable earnings. 581.401 Section 581.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... § 581.401 Aggregate disposable earnings. The “aggregate disposable earnings”, when used in reference...

  20. Reinforcement of rubber by fractal aggregates (United States)

    Witten, T. A.; Rubinstein, M.; Colby, R. H.


    Rubber is commonly reinforced with colloidal aggregates of carbon or silica, whose structure has the scale invariance of a fractal object. Reinforced rubbers support large stresses, which often grow faster than linearly with the strain. We argue that under strong elongation the stress arises through lateral compression of the aggregates, driven by the large bulk modulus of the rubber. We derive a power-law relationship between stress and elongation λ when λgg 1. The predicted power p depends on the fractal dimension D and a second structural scaling exponent C. For diffusion-controlled aggregates this power p should lie beween 0.9 and 1.1 ; for reaction-controlled aggregates p should lie between 1.8 and 2.4. For uniaxial compression the analogous powers lie near 4. Practical rubbers filled with fractal aggregates should approach the conditions of validity for these scaling laws. On renforce souvent le caoutchouc avec des agrégats de carbone ou de silice dont la structure a l'invariance par dilatation d'un objet fractal. Les caoutchoucs ainsi renforcés supportent de grandes contraintes qui croissent souvent plus vite que l'élongation. Nous prétendons que, sous élongation forte, cette contrainte apparaît à cause d'une compression latérale des agrégats induite par le module volumique important du caoutchouc. Nous établissons une loi de puissance reliant la contrainte et l'élongation λ quand λgg 1. Cet exposant p dépend de la dimension fractale D et d'un deuxième exposant structural C. Pour des agrégats dont la cinétique de formation est limitée par diffusion, p vaut entre 0,9 et 1,1. Si la cinétique est limitée par le soudage local des particules, p vaut entre 1,8 et 2,4. Sous compression uniaxiale, les puissances homologues valent environ 4. Des caoutchoucs pratiques chargés de tels agrégats devraient approcher des conditions où ces lois d'échelle sont valables.

  1. Effects of maximum aggregate size on UPV of brick aggregate concrete. (United States)

    Mohammed, Tarek Uddin; Mahmood, Aziz Hasan


    Investigation was carried out to study the effects of maximum aggregate size (MAS) (12.5mm, 19.0mm, 25.0mm, 37.5mm, and 50.0mm) on ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) of concrete. For investigation, first class bricks were collected and broken to make coarse aggregate. The aggregates were tested for specific gravity, absorption capacity, unit weight, and abrasion resistance. Cylindrical concrete specimens were made with different sand to aggregate volume ratio (s/a) (0.40 and 0.45), W/C ratio (0.45, 0.50, and 0.55), and cement content (375kg/m(3) and 400kg/m(3)). The specimens were tested for compressive strength and Young's modulus. UPV through wet specimen was measured using Portable Ultrasonic Non-destructive Digital Indicating Tester (PUNDIT). Results indicate that the pulse velocity through concrete increases with an increase in MAS. Relationships between UPV and compressive strength; and UPV and Young's modulus of concrete are proposed for different maximum sizes of brick aggregate.

  2. Optical spectroscopy of a highly fluorescent aggregate of bacteriochlorophyll c (United States)

    Causgrove, T. P.; Cheng, P.; Brune, D. C.; Blankenship, R. E.


    Bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) c and a similar model compound, Mg-methyl bacteriopheophorbide d, form several types of aggregates in nonpolar solvents. One of these aggregates is highly fluorescent, with a quantum yield higher than that of the monomer. This aggregate is also unusual in that it shows a rise time in its fluorescence emission decay at certain wavelengths, which is ascribed to a change in conformation of the aggregate. An analysis of fluorescence depolarization data is consistent with either a linear aggregate of four or five monomers or preferably a cyclic arrangement of three dimers.

  3. Drug governs the morphology of polyalkylated block copolymer aggregates. (United States)

    Le Dévédec, F; Her, S; Vogtt, K; Won, A; Li, X; Beaucage, G; Yip, C; Allen, C


    Polyalkylated copolymers based on mPEG-b-(AGE-C6,12 or 18)25 have been used to formulate clinically relevant concentrations of doxorubicin (DOX) and the impact of drug incorporation on copolymer aggregation behaviour was examined. The copolymer aggregates were analyzed by various microscopy techniques (TEM, cryo-TEM and AFM) and scattering methods (SANS, DLS). In the absence of the drug, the copolymers formed largely non-spherical aggregates (i.e. cylinders, vesicles). Drug incorporation during copolymer aggregate formation directed the formation of only spherical aggregates. As well, the nature of the core-forming block was found to influence drug release and cytotoxicity of the formulations.

  4. Assays for studying nucleated aggregation of polyglutamine proteins (United States)

    Jayaraman, Murali; Thakur, Ashwani K.; Kar, Karunakar; Kodali, Ravindra; Wetzel, Ronald


    The aggregation of polyglutamine containing protein sequences is implicated in a family of familial neurodegenerative diseases, the expanded CAG repeat diseases. While the cellular aggregation process undoubtedly depends on the flux and local environment of these proteins, their intrinsic physical properties and folding/aggregation propensities must also contribute to their cellular behavior. Here we describe a series of methods for determining mechanistic details of the spontaneous aggregation of polyQ-containing sequences, including the identification and structural examination of aggregation intermediates. PMID:21232603

  5. Procedure for Validation of Aggregators Providing Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondy, Daniel Esteban Morales; Gehrke, Oliver; Thavlov, Anders;


    As aggregators become viable sources of ancillary services, they will be required to undergo a validation process similar to the prequalification process of traditional generators. Aggregators are fundamentally different from traditional generators in that they are formed of a large quantity...... of small heterogeneous resources that are geographically distributed. Therefore, a new test procedure must be designed for the aggregator validation. This work proposes such a procedure and exemplifies is with a study case. The validation of aggregators is essential if aggregators are to be integrated...

  6. Frost resistance of concrete with crushed brick as aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Ksenija


    Full Text Available The investigation included concrete made by using recycled brick as aggregate. Experimental work included several types of concrete made with the same cement content (385 kg/m3, and same consistency (slump about 1 cm. Recycled brick and combination of natural river aggregate and recycled brick were used as aggregates. The influence of percentage and grain size of crushed brick aggregate on concrete compressive strength, water absorption and frost resistance were observed. On the basis of the results obtained during experimental research, a general conclusion can be drawn that the application of recycled concrete as aggregate can lead to new composites with satisfactory physical-mechanical properties.

  7. Organic carbon, water repellency and soil stability to slaking at aggregate and intra-aggregate scales (United States)

    Jordán López, Antonio; García-Moreno, Jorge; Gordillo-Rivero, Ángel J.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Cerdà, Artemi; Alanís, Nancy; Jiménez-Compán, Elizabeth


    Water repellency (WR) is a property of some soils that inhibits or delays water infiltration between a few seconds and days or weeks. Inhibited or delayed infiltration contributes to ponding and increases runoff flow generation, often increasing soil erosion risk. In water-repellent soils, water infiltrates preferentially through cracks or macropores, causing irregular soil wetting patterns, the development of preferential flow paths and accelerated leaching of nutrients. Although low inputs of hydrophobic organic substances and high mineralization rates lead to low degrees of WR in cropped soils, it has been reported that conservative agricultural practices may induce soil WR. Although there are many studies at catchment, slope or plot scales very few studies have been carried out at particle or aggregate scale. Intra-aggregate heterogeneity of physical, biological and chemical properties conditions the transport of substances, microbial activity and biochemical processes, including changes in the amount, distribution and chemical properties of organic matter. Some authors have reported positive relationships between soil WR and aggregate stability, since it may delay the entry of water into aggregates, increase structural stability and contribute to reduce soil erosion risk. Organic C (OC) content, aggregate stability and WR are therefore strongly related parameters. In the case of agricultural soils, where both the type of management as crops can influence all these parameters, it is important to evaluate the interactions among them and their consequences. Studies focused on the intra-aggregate distribution of OC and WR are necessary to shed light on the soil processes at a detailed scale. It is extremely important to understand how the spatial distribution of OC in soil aggregates can protect against rapid water entry and help stabilize larger structural units or lead to preferential flow. The objectives of this research are to study [i] the OC content and the

  8. Multi-scale interactions in Dictyostelium discoideum aggregation (United States)

    Dixon, James A.; Kelty-Stephen, Damian G.


    Cellular aggregation is essential for a wide range of phenomena in developmental biology, and a crucial event in the life-cycle of Dictyostelium discoideum. The current manuscript presents an analysis of multi-scale interactions involved in D. discoideum aggregation and non-aggregation events. The multi-scale fractal dimensions of a sequence of microscope images were used to estimate changing structure at different spatial scales. Three regions showing aggregation and three showing non-aggregation were considered. The results showed that both aggregation and non-aggregation regions were strongly multi-fractal. Analyses of the over-time relationships among nine scales of the generalized dimension, D(q), were conducted using vector autoregression and vector error-correction models. Both types of regions showed evidence that across-scale interactions serve to maintain the equilibrium of the system. Aggregation and non-aggregation regions also showed different patterns of effects of individual scales on other scales. Specifically, aggregation regions showed greater effects of both the smallest and largest scales on the smaller scale structures. The results suggest that multi-scale interactions are responsible for maintaining and altering the cellular structures during aggregation.

  9. Modeling transport and aggregation of volcanic ash particles (United States)

    Costa, Antonio; Folch, Arnau; Macedonio, Giovanni; Durant, Adam


    A complete description of ash aggregation processes in volcanic clouds is an very arduous task and the full coupling of ash transport and ash aggregation models is still computationally prohibitive. A large fraction of fine ash injected in the atmosphere during explosive eruptions aggregate because of complex interactions of surface liquid layers, electrostatic forces, and differences in settling velocities. The formation of aggregates of size and density different from those of the primary particles dramatically changes the sedimentation dynamics and results in lower atmospheric residence times of ash particles and in the formation of secondary maxima of tephra deposit. Volcanic ash transport models should include a full aggregation model accounting for all particle class interaction. However this approach would require prohibitive computational times. Here we present a simplified model for wet aggregation that accounts for both atmospheric and volcanic water transport. The aggregation model assumes a fractal relationship for the number of primary particles in aggregates, average efficiencies factors, and collision frequency functions accounting for Brownian motion, laminar and turbulent fluid shear, and differential settling velocity. We implemented the aggregation model in the WRF+FALL3D coupled modelling system and applied it to different eruptions where aggregation has been recognized to play an important role, such as the August and September 1992 Crater Peak eruptions and the 1980 Mt St Helens eruption. Moreover, understanding aggregation processes in volcanic clouds will contribute to mitigate the risks related with volcanic ash transport and sedimentation.

  10. Strength Characteristics of Concrete with Partial Replacement of Coarse Aggregate By Laterite Stone and Fine Aggregate by Quarry Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkata Rao


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of concrete mix with partial replacement of fine aggregate by quarry dust and simultaneous partial replacement of coarse aggregate by laterite stone aggregate respectively on compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength and workability of concrete. Concrete mixes containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 25 % and 30%, replacement (by weight of fine aggregate with quarry dust and simultaneously 25% replacement of coarse aggregate (by weight with laterite stone were casted in lab and checked for compressive strength, split tensile strength ,flexure strength and workability .This replacement results in making the concrete more economically available.

  11. Spectroscopic characterization of phenazinium dye aggregates in water and acetonitrile media: effect of methyl substitution on the aggregation phenomenon. (United States)

    Sarkar, Deboleena; Das, Paramita; Girigoswami, Agnishwar; Chattopadhyay, Nitin


    Absorption, fluorescence, and fluorescence excitation spectral studies of two planar, cationic phenazinium dyes, namely, phenosafranin (PSF) and safranin-T (ST), have been performed in protic and aprotic polar solvents. The studies reveal the formation of both J- and H-aggregates in concentrated solutions. The planarity of the phenazinium skeleton and the presence of a positive charge are attributed to be the driving force for this aggregation behavior. The aggregates are established to be dimers only. The positive inductive effect of the methyl substituents in safranin-T augments the aggregation process. The experiments reveal that for both dyes, the polar protic solvent favors the aggregation process more than the aprotic solvent.

  12. Statistical analysis of aggregation in freeway traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jun-Wei; Lin Bo-Liang; Huang Yong-chang


    We restudy the master-equation approach to aggregation in freeway traffic based on the theory of birth-death process,in which the clustering behaviour in one-lane freeway traffic model is investigated.The transition probabilities for the jump processes are reconstructed by using Greenshields'model,and the equation of the mean size of the cluster at any time t is derived from the birth-death equation.Numerical experiments show the clustering behaviours varying with time very well.

  13. Platelet aggregation secondary to coronary obstruction. (United States)

    Moore, S


    From many observations made at autopsy it is apparent that thrombosis in a coronary artery is usually, if not always, associated with rupture of an atheromatous plaque. The sequelae of such rupture include hemorrhage into the plaque with further narrowing of the lumen, formation of an occlusive thrombus or of a non-occlusive thrombus. A developing thrombus in an artery undergoes fragmentation with showering of the distal microcirculation by aggregates of platelets possibly with some admixture of fibrin. In many cases of sudden cardiac death associated with severe atherosclerotic stenosis of the coronary vessels, an occlusive thrombus is not found and the myocardium shows no morphological lesion or else focal patchy early damage in the subendocardial region. One possible mechanism that might explain these findings is microembolism from mural nonobstructing coronary thrombus. Such a mechanism is well established in transient ischemia of the brain and retina related to ulcerated atheroma of the internal carotid artery. Experimental observations indicate that platelet aggregates in the myocardial circulation cause arrhythmias, sudden death, vasculitis, and myocardial ischemic damage. Induction of an occlusive coronary artery thrombus is associated with development of an infarct involving the full thickness of the myocardium. A nonocclusive thrombus is associated with either no myocardial damage or focal subendocardial ischemic injury. It is possible that further aggregation of platelets may facilitate the extension of infarction subsequent to an occlusive event, although there is little evidence on this point. A number of clinical studies show increased platelet reactivity to agents causing aggregation, such as norepinephrine or collagen, in subjects experiencing thromboembolic episodes. It seems unlikely, however, that in vitro tests of platelet function can identify or predict clinical arterial thrombotic disease, although studies of platelet survival and turnover

  14. Bacterial Association with Particles: Aggregation to Dissolution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, M.J.B.D.

    that are orders of magnitude higher than in the ambient water (Caron, 1987; Caron et al., 1986; Turley and Mackie, 1994). They are the ?microchip? of the vast oceans realms, be it in the deep ocean vents or the pelagic ecosystems; bacteria attached to particles... to the deep sea floor. Contribution by PAB to total bacterial production in the deep waters is about 48% (Turley and Stutt, 2000). Macroscopic organic aggregates in the ocean as well as in lakes are decomposed by microorganisms. Traditionally marine...

  15. Aggregated Control of Domestic Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten M.; Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom S.


    A challenge in Denmark in the near future is to balance the electrical grid due to a large increase in the renewable energy production mainly from wind turbines. In this work an aggregated control system using heat pumps in single family houses to help balancing the grid is investigated....... The control system is able to adjust the consumptions of the heat pump without affecting the comfort in the houses and uses this ability to shift the total consumption to hours with high wind energy production....

  16. Thresholded Range Aggregation in Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Lin, Zhifeng; Mamoulis, Nikos


    called thresholded range aggregate query (TRA), which retrieves the IDs of the sensors for which the average measurement in their neighborhood exceeds a user-given threshold. This query provides results that they are robust against individual sensor abnormality, and yet precisely summarize the sensors......' status in each local region. In order to process the (snapshot) TRA query, we develop energy-efficient protocols based on appropriate operators and filters in sensor nodes. The design of these operators and filters is non-trivial, due to the fact that each sensor measurement influences the actual results...

  17. Broadband Clutter due to Aggregations of Fish (United States)


    Fish     Richard  H.  Love   BayouAcoustics   Abita  Springs,  LA  70420   Phone:    (985...Long  Term  Goals     Develop  an  understanding  of  physical  parameters  of  aggregations   of   fish  that  control...Acoustic  Uncertainty  due  to   Marine  Mammals  and   Fish ,”  which  was  informally  known  as

  18. Spectrum Aggregation: initial outcomes from SAMURAI project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vivier, Guillame; Badic, Biljana; Cattoni, Andrea Fabio


    challenges. The SAMURAI project aims at investigating such challenges as well as at providing realistic performance results. This paper presents first outcomes of the project, with a specific focus of Carrier Aggregation (CA). Two aspects are discussed: CA at PHY/RF level with implementation challenges. Then......, the system aspect of CA, providing new flexibility in terms of radio resource management is investigated. System simulations show capacity improvement when CA is enabled. SAMURAI outcomes in the MU-MIMO aspects are reported in a companion paper....

  19. An Aß concatemer with altered aggregation propensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giehm, L; Dal Degan, F; Fraser, P;


    We present an analysis of the conformational and aggregative properties of an A beta concatemer (Con-Alz) of interest for vaccine development against Alzheimer's disease. Con-Alz consists of 3 copies of the 43 residues of the A beta peptide separated by the P2 and P30 T-cell epitopes from...... stage in the fibrillation process. Physically linking multiple copies of the A beta-peptide may thus sterically restrict Con-Alz against forming cytotoxic oligomers, forcing it instead to adopt a less well-organized assembly of intermeshed polypeptide chains. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  20. Subassembly aggregates of papaya mosaic virus protein. (United States)

    Erickson, J W; Hallett, F R; Bancroft, J B


    An examination of the number of subunits in small aggregates of papaya mosaic virus (PMV) coat protein is presented based on a model system which gives results consistent with the experimental observation that the 14 S subassembly species is a double disc, composed of two rows of nine subunits each. The estimated hydration of the disc, about 0.85 g 1H20/9 protein, is unusually large and indicates a cavitated structure for the disc. Comparison with other rod-shaped viruses suggests that the flexuous nature of PMV is a consequence of sparse axial inter-subunit contacts at high radius.

  1. Detection of ubiquitinated huntingtin species in intracellular aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eJuenemann


    Full Text Available Protein conformation diseases, including polyglutamine diseases, result from the accumulation and aggregation of misfolded proteins. Huntington’s disease is one of nine diseases caused by an expanded polyglutamine repeat within the affected protein and is hallmarked by intracellular inclusion bodies composed of aggregated N-terminal huntingtin fragments and other sequestered proteins. Fluorescence microscopy and filter trap assay are conventional methods to study protein aggregates, but cannot be used to analyze the presence and levels of post-translational modifications of aggregated huntingtin such as ubiquitination. Ubiquitination of proteins can be a signal for degradation and intracellular localization, but also affects protein activity and protein-protein interactions. The function of ubiquitination relies on its mono- and polymeric isoforms attached to protein substrates. Studying the ubiquitination pattern of aggregated huntingtin fragments offers an important possibility to understand huntingtin degradation and aggregation processes within the cell. For the identification of aggregated huntingtin and its ubiquitinated species, solubilization of the cellular aggregates is mandatory. Here we describe methods to identify post-translational modifications such as ubiquitination of aggregated mutant huntingtin. This approach is specifically described for use with mammalian cell culture and is suitable to study other disease-related proteins prone to aggregate.

  2. Aggregation of red blood cells in patients with Gaucher disease. (United States)

    Adar, Tomer; Ben-Ami, Ronen; Elstein, Deborah; Zimran, Ari; Berliner, Shlomo; Yedgar, Saul; Barshtein, Gershon


    Gaucher disease is associated with increased red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, but the pathophysiological significance of this phenomenon and its correlation with disease manifestations are unclear. RBC aggregation was evaluated in 43 patients with Gaucher disease and 53 healthy controls. Dynamic RBC aggregation was examined in a narrow-gap flow chamber at varying shear stress. Compared with the controls, RBC aggregation in Gaucher disease was increased by 25%. Comparison of RBC aggregation in autologous plasma and in dextran (500 kDa) showed an increase both in plasma-dependent (extrinsic) and -independent (intrinsic) RBC aggregation. Subgroup analysis revealed that increased RBC aggregation was limited to patients with an intact spleen. RBC aggregation in patients did not correlate with plasma fibrinogen concentration, disease severity, enzyme replacement therapy or genotype. We conclude that RBC aggregation is increased in patients with Gaucher disease and an intact spleen, possibly reflecting the accumulation of glucocerebroside and other substances in the plasma and RBC membranes of these patients. Our results do not support a role for RBC aggregation in the pathogenesis of vascular complications of Gaucher disease.

  3. Aggregation in Organic Solutions of Malonamides: Consequences for Water Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meridiano, Y.; Berthon, L.; Crozes, X.; Sorel, C. [CEA ValRho, DEN DRCP SCPS LCSE, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze, (France); Dannus, P. [CEA Saclay, INSTN UEIN, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Antonio, M.R.; Chiarizia, R. [Argonne Natl Lab, CSE Div, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Zemb, T. [CEA CNRS UM2 ENSCM, Inst Chin Separat Marcoule, Bagnols Sur Ceze, (France)


    The molecular organization of N, N'-dimethyl-N, N'-dioctyl-hexyl-ethoxy-malonamide (DMDOHEMA), the current reference extractant for the DIAMEX (Diamide Extraction) process, is correlated with its water extraction properties from neutral media. The aggregation of DMDOHEMA in n-heptane was investigated by vapor pressure osmometry (VPO) and the aggregate speciation characterized by combined small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering (SANS and SAXS, respectively). Two approaches were taken to model the aggregation of the diamide and the water extraction as a function of the diamide concentration by taking into account a single aggregation equilibrium with an average aggregation number N equal to 4.28 {+-} 0.05; and a competition between two types of aggregates in the organic phase, namely, aggregates of the reverse micelle type with 4 diamides per aggregate, and an oligomeric structure composed of about 10 diamide molecules which appears at high extractant concentration ({>=} 1 mol/L). In both cases, the supramolecular speciation representing the monomers/aggregates distribution was determined, and for each supramolecular organization, a solubilization parameter was calculated using the Sergievskii-Dannus relationship. Thus, the correlation between the two types of micellization of the diamide and the extraction of water into the organic phase was demonstrated. The larger aggregates can extract about five times more water than monomers. (authors)

  4. H- and J-aggregation of fluorene-based chromophores. (United States)

    Deng, Yonghong; Yuan, Wen; Jia, Zhe; Liu, Gao


    Understanding of H- and J-aggregation behaviors in fluorene-based polymers is significant both for determining the origin of various red-shifted emissions occurring in blue-emitting polyfluorenes and for developing polyfluorene-based device performance. In this contribution, we demonstrate a new theory of the H- and J-aggregation of polyfluorenes and oligofluorenes, and understand the influence of chromosphere aggregation on their photoluminescent properties. H- and J-aggregates are induced by a continuous increasing concentration of the oligofluorene or polyfluorene solution. A relaxed molecular configuration is simulated to illustrate the spatial arrangement of the bonding of fluorenes. It is indicated that the relaxed state adopts a 21 helical backbone conformation with a torsion angle of 18° between two connected repeat units. This configuration makes the formation of H- and J-aggregates through the strong π-π interaction between the backbone rings. A critical aggregation concentration is observed to form H- and J-aggregates for both polyfluorenes and oligofluorenes. These aggregates show large spectral shifts and distinct shape changes in photoluminescent excitation (PLE) and emission (PL) spectroscopy. Compared with "isolated" chromophores, H-aggregates induce absorption spectral blue-shift and fluorescence spectral red-shift but largely reduce fluorescence efficiency. "Isolated" chromophores not only refer to "isolated molecules" but also include those associated molecules if their conjugated backbones are not compact enough to exhibit perturbed absorption and emission. J-aggregates induce absorption spectral red-shift and fluorescence spectral red-shift but largely enhance fluorescence efficiency. The PLE and PL spectra also show that J-aggregates dominate in concentrated solutions. Different from the excimers, the H- and J-aggregate formation changes the ground-state absorption of fluorene-based chromophores. H- and J-aggregates show changeable

  5. A comparative study on the aggregating effects of guanidine thiocyanate, guanidine hydrochloride and urea on lysozyme aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emadi, Saeed, E-mail:; Behzadi, Maliheh


    Highlights: • Lysozyme aggregated in guanidine thiocyanate (1.0 and 2.0 M). • Lysozyme aggregated in guanidine hydrochloride (4 and 5 M). • Lysozyme did not aggregated at any concentration (0.5–5 M) of urea. • Unfolding pathway is more important than unfolding per se in aggregation. - Abstract: Protein aggregation and its subsequent deposition in different tissues culminate in a diverse range of diseases collectively known as amyloidoses. Aggregation of hen or human lysozyme depends on certain conditions, namely acidic pH or the presence of additives. In the present study, the effects on the aggregation of hen egg-white lysozyme via incubation in concentrated solutions of three different chaotropic agents namely guanidine thiocyanate, guanidine hydrochloride and urea were investigated. Here we used three different methods for the detection of the aggregates, thioflavin T fluorescence, circular dichroism spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Our results showed that upon incubation with different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 M) of the chemical denaturants, lysozyme was aggregated at low concentrations of guanidine thiocyanate (1.0 and 2.0 M) and at high concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride (4 and 5 M), although no fibril formation was detected. In the case of urea, no aggregation was observed at any concentration.

  6. Simulation of red blood cell aggregation in shear flow. (United States)

    Lim, B; Bascom, P A; Cobbold, R S


    A simulation model has been developed for red blood cell (RBC) aggregation in shear flow. It is based on a description of the collision rates of RBC, the probability of particles sticking together, and the breakage of aggregates by shear forces. The influence of shear rate, hematocrit, aggregate fractal dimension, and binding strength on aggregation kinetics were investigated and compared to other theoretical and experimental results. The model was used to simulate blood flow in a long large diameter tube under steady flow conditions at low Reynolds numbers. The time and spatial distribution of the state of aggregation are shown to be in qualitative agreement with previous B-mode ultrasound studies in which a central region of low echogenicity was noted. It is suggested that the model can provide a basis for interpreting prior measurements of ultrasound echogenicity and may help relate them to the local state of aggregation.

  7. The structure of dust aggregates in hierarchical coagulation

    CERN Document Server

    Dominik, Carsten; Borel, Herman


    Dust coagulation in interstellar space and protoplanetary disks is usually treated as one of 2 extreme cases: Particle-Cluster Aggregation and Cluster-Cluster Aggregation. In this paper we study the process of hierarchical growth, where aggregates are built from significantly smaller aggregates (but not monomers). We show that this process can be understood as a modified, PCA-like process that produces porous, but non-fractal particles whose filling factor is chiefly determined by the porosity of the building blocks. We also show that in a coagulation environment where relative velocities are driven by turbulence, a logarithmically flat mass distribution (equal mass per mass decade) as it is typically found in environments where fragmentation replenishes small grains, leads to a situation where small particles and aggregates dominate the growth of large ones. Therefore, in such environments, hierarchical growth should be seen as the norm. Consequently, we predict that the aggregates in such environments are n...

  8. Precipitation Aggregation and the Local Environment (United States)

    Smalley, Mark

    The details of large-scale spatial structures of precipitation have only recently become apparent with the advent of high-resolution near-global observations from space-borne radars. As such, the relationships between these structures and the local environment and global climate are just beginning to emerge in the scientific community. Precipitation aggregates on a wide variety of scales, from individual boundary layer instabilities to extra-tropical cyclones. Separate aggregation states have been associated with widely varying precipitation rates and atmospheric states, motivating the inclusion of spatial information in hydrologic and climate models. This work adds to the body of knowledge surrounding large-scale precipitation aggregation and its driving factors by describing and demonstrating a new method of defining the spatial characteristics of precipitation events. The analysis relies on the high sensitivity and high resolution of the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar for the identification of precipitation with near-global coverage. The method is based on the dependence of the probability of precipitation on search area, or spatial resolution. Variations in this relationship are caused by variations in the principal characteristics of event spatial patterns: the relative spacing between events, the number density of events, and the overall fraction of precipitating scenes at high resolution. Here, this relationship is modeled by a stretched exponential containing two coefficients, that are shown to depict seasonal general circulation patterns as well as local weather. NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications is then used to place those spatial characteristics in the context of the local and large-scale environment. At regional scale, precipitation event density during the Amazon wet season is shown to be dependent on zonal wind speed. On a global scale, the relative spacing of shallow oceanic precipitation depends on the

  9. Assays for studying nucleated aggregation of polyglutamine proteins


    Jayaraman, Murali; Thakur, Ashwani K.; Kar, Karunakar; Kodali, Ravindra; Wetzel, Ronald


    The aggregation of polyglutamine containing protein sequences is implicated in a family of familial neurodegenerative diseases, the expanded CAG repeat diseases. While the cellular aggregation process undoubtedly depends on the flux and local environment of these proteins, their intrinsic physical properties and folding/aggregation propensities must also contribute to their cellular behavior. Here we describe a series of methods for determining mechanistic details of the spontaneous aggregati...

  10. Mathematical modelling of cell aggregation in liver tissue engineering


    Green, John Edward E.


    A promising method for growing functional liver tissue in vitro involves culturing hepatocytes as spheroidal cell aggregates. In this thesis, we develop mathematical models of cell aggregation, and use them to determine how hepatocytes' interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM) on which they are seeded, and with stellate cells, affect the process. Chapters 2-4 focus on the effect that cell-ECM coupling has on the aggregation process. We use a novel formulation that couples a mechani...

  11. Application of recycled aggregates in concrete -- Experiences from the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietersen, H. S.; Fraay, A. L. A.; Hendriks, C. F.


    Experiences with the use of recycled aggregates obtained from demolition waste are described. The practice is particularly well developed in the Netherlands due the lack of landfill space available. The emphasis is on recycled aggregates in concrete, as opposed to recycled aggregates in road construction. Mix design, strength, durability, (chloride ingress and freeze-thaw resistance), environmental performance, product standardization, quality control, and quality certification are some of the topics covered.

  12. Characterization and modeling of thermal diffusion and aggregation in nanofluids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Goodson, Kenneth E. (Stanford University, Stanford, CA)


    Fluids with higher thermal conductivities are sought for fluidic cooling systems in applications including microprocessors and high-power lasers. By adding high thermal conductivity nanoscale metal and metal oxide particles to a fluid the thermal conductivity of the fluid is enhanced. While particle aggregates play a central role in recent models for the thermal conductivity of nanofluids, the effect of particle diffusion in a temperature field on the aggregation and transport has yet to be studied in depth. The present work separates the effects of particle aggregation and diffusion using parallel plate experiments, infrared microscopy, light scattering, Monte Carlo simulations, and rate equations for particle and heat transport in a well dispersed nanofluid. Experimental data show non-uniform temporal increases in thermal conductivity above effective medium theory and can be well described through simulation of the combination of particle aggregation and diffusion. The simulation shows large concentration distributions due to thermal diffusion causing variations in aggregation, thermal conductivity and viscosity. Static light scattering shows aggregates form more quickly at higher concentrations and temperatures, which explains the increased enhancement with temperature reported by other research groups. The permanent aggregates in the nanofluid are found to have a fractal dimension of 2.4 and the aggregate formations that grow over time are found to have a fractal dimension of 1.8, which is consistent with diffusion limited aggregation. Calculations show as aggregates grow the viscosity increases at a faster rate than thermal conductivity making the highly aggregated nanofluids unfavorable, especially at the low fractal dimension of 1.8. An optimum nanoparticle diameter for these particular fluid properties is calculated to be 130 nm to optimize the fluid stability by reducing settling, thermal diffusion and aggregation.

  13. Floating Ice-Algal Aggregates below melting Arctic Sea Ice


    Philipp Assmy; Jens K. Ehn; Mar Fernández-Méndez; Haakon Hop; Christian Katlein; Arild Sundfjord; Katrin Bluhm; Malin Daase; Anja Engel; Agneta Fransson; Granskog, Mats A.; Hudson, Stephen R.; Svein Kristiansen; Marcel Nicolaus; Ilka Peeken


    During two consecutive cruises to the Eastern Central Arctic in late summer 2012, we observed floating algal aggregates in the melt-water layer below and between melting ice floes of first-year pack ice. The macroscopic (1 – 15 cm in diameter) aggregates had a mucous consistency and were dominated by typical ice-associated pennate diatoms embedded within the mucous matrix. Aggregates maintained buoyancy and accumulated just above a strong pycnocline that separated meltwater and seawater layer...

  14. Involvement of fibrinogen specific binding in erythrocyte aggregation


    Lominadze, David; DEAN, WILLIAM L.


    Increased fibrinogen concentration and erythrocyte aggregation are significant risk factors during various cardiovascular diseases and cerebrovascular disorders. Currently, fibrinogen-induced erythrocyte aggregation is thought to be caused by a non-specific binding mechanism. However, the published data on changes in erythrocyte aggregation during hypertension point to the possible existence of other mechanism(s). Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that specific binding of fibrinogen is invo...

  15. Production of lightweight aggregates from washing aggregate sludge and fly ash (United States)

    González-Corrochano, Beatriz; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto; Rodas, Magdalena


    Increasing generation of wastes is one of the main environmental problems in industrialised countries. Heat treatment at high temperatures can convert some types of wastes into ceramic products with a wide range of microstructural features and properties (Bethanis et al., 2004). A lightweight aggregate (LWA) is a granular material with a bulk density (bd) not exceeding 1.20 g/cm3 or with a particle density not exceeding 2.00 g/cm3 (UNE-EN-13055-1, 2003). They have become a focus of interest because the low particle density and the low bulk density entail a decrease in the load transmitted to the ground, and less work and effort are required to transport them (De' Gennaro et al., 2004). The benefits associated with these low densities, which are due to the formation of voids and pores, are very good thermal and acoustic insulation and materials with a good resistance to fire (Benbow, 1987; Fakhfakh et al., 2007). The objective was to recycle fly ash, used motor oil from cars and mineral wastes from washing aggregate sludge, in order to obtain a usable material such as lightweight aggregates, and also to ensure that they are of good quality for different applications. Raw materials have been physically, chemically and mineralogically characterized. On the basis of the results obtained, they were mixed, milled to a grain size of less than 200 μm (Yasuda, 1991), formed into pellets, pre-heated for 5 min and sintered in a rotary kiln at 1150°C, 1175°C, 1200°C and 1225°C for 10 and 15 min at each temperature (Theating). Effects of raw material characteristics, heating temperature and dwell time on the following LWAs properties were determined: loss on ignition (LOI), bloating index (BI), loose bulk density (bd), apparent and dry particle density (ad, dd), voids (H), water absorption (WA24h) and compressive strength (S). The products obtained were lightweight aggregates in accordance with norm UNE-EN-13055-1 (bd ≤1.20 g/cm3 or particle density ≤2.00 g/cm3). LWAs

  16. [Research methods of carbon sequestration by soil aggregates: a review]. (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Xia; Liang, Ai-Zhen; Zhang, Xiao-Ping


    To increase soil organic carbon content is critical for maintaining soil fertility and agricultural sustainable development and for mitigating increased greenhouse gases and the effects of global climate change. Soil aggregates are the main components of soil, and have significant effects on soil physical and chemical properties. The physical protection of soil organic carbon by soil aggregates is the important mechanism of soil carbon sequestration. This paper reviewed the organic carbon sequestration by soil aggregates, and introduced the classic and current methods in studying the mechanisms of carbon sequestration by soil aggregates. The main problems and further research trends in this study field were also discussed.

  17. Monitoring the aggregation of single casein micelles using fluorescence microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomholt, Julie; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Harboe, Marianne


    The aggregation of casein micelles (CMs) induced by milk-clotting enzymes is a process of fundamental importance in the dairy industry for cheese production; however, it is not well characterized on the nanoscale. Here we enabled the monitoring of the kinetics of aggregation between single CMs (30......, suggesting significant differences in their composition or structure. Detailed size histograms of CMs during aggregation also revealed the presence of two distinct subpopulations with different growth amplitudes and kinetics. The dependence of these distinct nanoscale processes/parameters on aggregation...

  18. Aggregate Characteristics During Natural revegetation on the Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Shao-Shan; HUANG Yi-Mei; ZHENG Fen-Li; YANG Jian-Guo


    Field investigations and laboratory analysis were conducted to study the characteristics of soil water-stable aggregates during vegetation rehabilitation in typical grassland soils of the hilly-gullied loess area. The relationship between water-stable aggregates and other soil properties was analyzed using canonical correlation analysis and principal component analysis. The results show that during the natural revegetation, the aggregates > 5 mm dominated and constituted between 50% and 80% of the total soil water-stable aggregates in most of the soil layers. The 2-5 mm aggregate class was the second main component. The mean value of water-stable aggregates > 5 mm within the 0-2 m soil profile under different plant communities decreased in the following order: Stipa grandis > Stipa bungeana Trin. > Artemisia sacrorum Ledeb. > Thymus mongolicus Ronn. > Hierochloe odorata (L.) Beauv. Clay, organic matter, and total N were the key factors that influenced the water stability of the aggregates. Total N and organic matter were the main factors that affected the water stability of the aggregates > 5 mm and 0.5-1 mm in size. The contents of Fe2O3, Al2O3, and physical clay (< 0.01 mm) were the main factors which affected the water stability of the 1-2 and 0.25-0.5 mm aggregates.

  19. Opportunities for Price Manipulation by Aggregators in Electricity Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Ruhi, Navid Azizan; Chen, Niangjun; Wierman, Adam


    Aggregators are playing an increasingly crucial role in the integration of renewable generation in power systems. However, the intermittent nature of renewable generation makes market interactions of aggregators difficult to monitor and regulate, raising concerns about potential market manipulation by aggregators. In this paper, we study this issue by quantifying the profit an aggregator can obtain through strategic curtailment of generation in an electricity market. We show that, while the problem of maximizing the benefit from curtailment is hard in general, efficient algorithms exist when the topology of the network is radial (acyclic). Further, we highlight that significant increases in profit are possible via strategic curtailment in practical settings.

  20. Molecular mechanism of abnormal aggregation of α-synuclein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU HongYua; LIN XiaoJing


    The abnormal aggregation of α-synuclein (α-Syn) is thought to be closely associated with Parkinson's disease, but the pathogenesis is still unclear. In this review, we survey the latest development in the molecular mechanism of abnormal α-Syn aggregation, especially in the aspects of the core sequences, aggregation inhibitors, structural transformation and filament morphologies. By exploring the mechanism of α-Syn aggregation, we will have a better understanding of the disease pathogenesis, and develop strategies for preventing and treating this severe disease.