WorldWideScience

Sample records for aggregates rock and stone

  1. Geo-engineering evaluation of Termaber basalt rock mass for crushed stone aggregate and building stone from Central Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engidasew, Tesfaye Asresahagne; Barbieri, Giulio

    2014-11-01

    The geology of the central part of Ethiopia exhibits a variety of rock types that can potentially be developed for construction stone production, of which the most wide spread and important one is the Termaber basalt. Even though some preliminary work is done on these rocks towards construction material application, it remains largely that this resource is untouched and needs further scientific characterization for the use in large scale industrial application. Basaltic rocks have been widely used in many parts of the world as concrete aggregate and dimension stone for various civil structures. The present research study was carried out for Geo-engineering evaluation of Termaber basalt rock mass for crushed stone aggregate and building stone from Central Ethiopia (around Debre Birhan). The main objective of the present research study was to assess the general suitability of the Termaber basalt to be used as coarse aggregate for concrete mix and/or to utilize it as cut stone at industrial level. Only choice made with full knowledge of the basic characteristics of the material, of its performance and durability against the foreseen solicitations will ensure the necessary quality of the stone work and thereby a possibility to reach its intended service life. In order to meet out the objective of the present study, data from both field and laboratory were collected and analyzed. The field data included geological investigations based on different methods and sample collection while the laboratory work included, uniaxial compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, dynamic elasticity modulus, bulk density, water absorption, specific gravity, open porosity, aggregate impact value, petrographic examination and XRF, aggregate crushing value, Los Angeles abrasion value, sodium sulfate soundness, X-ray diffraction and alkali silica reactivity tests. The field and laboratory data were compiled and compared together to reveal the engineering performance of the rock mass in

  2. Strength Characteristics of Concrete with Partial Replacement of Coarse Aggregate By Laterite Stone and Fine Aggregate by Quarry Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkata Rao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of concrete mix with partial replacement of fine aggregate by quarry dust and simultaneous partial replacement of coarse aggregate by laterite stone aggregate respectively on compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength and workability of concrete. Concrete mixes containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 25 % and 30%, replacement (by weight of fine aggregate with quarry dust and simultaneously 25% replacement of coarse aggregate (by weight with laterite stone were casted in lab and checked for compressive strength, split tensile strength ,flexure strength and workability .This replacement results in making the concrete more economically available.

  3. From stones to rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortier, Marie-Astrid; Jean-Leroux, Kathleen; Cirio, Raymond

    2013-04-01

    With the Aquila earthquake in 2009, earthquake prediction is more and more necessary nowadays, and people are waiting for even more accurate data. Earthquake accuracy has increased in recent times mainly thanks to the understanding of how oceanic expansion works and significant development of numerical seismic prediction models. Despite the improvements, the location and the magnitude can't be as accurate as citizen and authorities would like. The basis of anticipating earthquakes requires the understanding of: - The composition of the earth, - The structure of the earth, - The relations and movements between the different parts of the surface of the earth. In order to answer these questions, the Alps are an interesting field for students. This study combines natural curiosity about understanding the predictable part of natural hazard in geology and scientific skills on site: observing and drawing landscape, choosing and reading a representative core drilling, replacing the facts chronologically and considering the age, the length of time and the strength needed. This experience requires students to have an approach of time and space radically different than the one they can consider in a classroom. It also limits their imagination, in a positive way, because they realize that prediction is based on real data and some of former theories have become present paradigms thanks to geologists. On each location the analyzed data include landscape, core drilling and the relation established between them by students. The data is used by the students to understand the meaning, so that the history of the formation of the rocks tells by the rocks can be explained. Until this year, the CBGA's perspective regarding the study of the Alps ground allowed students to build the story of the creation and disappearance of the ocean, which was a concept required by French educational authorities. But not long ago, the authorities changed their scientific expectations. To meet the

  4. Dielectric non destructive testing for rock characterization in natural stone industry and cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Buendía, Angel M.; García-Baños, Beatriz; Mar Urquiola, M.; Gutiérrez, José D.; Catalá-Civera, José M.

    2016-04-01

    Dielectric constant measurement has been used in rocks characterization, mainly for exploration objective in geophysics, particularly related to ground penetration radar characterization in ranges of 10 MHz to 1 GHz. However, few data have been collected for loss factor. Complex permittivity (dielectric constant and loss factor) characterization in rock provide information about mineralogical composition as well as other petrophysic parameters related to the quality, such as fabric parameters, mineralogical distribution, humidity. A study was performed in the frequency of 2,45GHz by using a portable kit for dielectric device based on an open coaxial probe. In situ measurements were made of natural stone marble and granite on selected industrial slabs and building stone. A mapping of their complex permittivity was performed and evaluated, and variations in composition and textures were identified, showing the variability with the mineral composition, metal ore minerals content and fabric. Dielectric constant was a parameter more sensible to rock forming minerals composition, particularly in granites for QAPF-composition (quartz-alkali feldspar-plagioclases-feldspathoids) and in marbles for calcite-dolomite-silicates. Loss factor shown a high sensibility to fabric and minerals of alteration. Results showed that the dielectric properties can be used as a powerful tool for petrographic characterization of building stones in two areas of application: a) in cultural heritage diagnosis to estimate the quality and alteration of the stone, an b) in industrial application for quality control and industrial microwave processing.

  5. Performance Evaluation of Stone Mastic Asphalt and Hot Mix Asphalt Mixtures Containing Recycled Concrete Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saeed Pourtahmasb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and economic considerations have encouraged civil engineers to find ways to reuse recycled materials in new constructions. The current paper presents an experimental research on the possibility of utilizing recycled concrete aggregates (RCA in stone mastic asphalt (SMA and hot mix asphalt (HMA mixtures. Three categories of RCA in various percentages were mixed with virgin granite aggregates to produce SMA and HMA specimens. The obtained results indicated that, regardless of the RCA particular sizes, the use of RCA to replace virgin aggregates increased the needed binder content in the asphalt mixtures. Moreover, it was found that even though the volumetric and mechanical properties of the asphalt mixtures are highly affected by the sizes and percentages of the RCA but, based on the demands of the project and traffic volume, utilizing specific amounts of RCA in both types of mixtures could easily satisfy the standard requirements.

  6. Sandals as Icons: Representations in Ancestral Pueblo Rock Art and Effigies in Stone and Wood

    OpenAIRE

    Polly Schaafsma

    2016-01-01

    Dating the late 1000s to the mid-1200s CE, petroglyphs of sandal images are among others that distinguish ancient Pueblo rock art in the San Juan and Little Colorado River drainages on the Colorado Plateau from Ancestral Pueblo rock art elsewhere across the Southwest. The sandal “track” also has counterparts  as effigies in stone and wood often found in ceremonial contexts in Pueblo sites. These representations reflect the sandal styles of the times, both plain in contour and the jog-toed var...

  7. Stochastic structural model of rock and soil aggregates by continuum-based discrete element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yuannian; ZHAO; Manhong; LI; Shihai; J.G.; Wang

    2005-01-01

    This paper first presents a stochastic structural model to describe the random geometrical features of rock and soil aggregates. The stochastic structural model uses mixture ratio, rock size and rock shape to construct the microstructures of aggregates,and introduces two types of structural elements (block element and jointed element) and three types of material elements (rock element, soil element, and weaker jointed element)for this microstructure. Then, continuum-based discrete element method is used to study the deformation and failure mechanism of rock and soil aggregate through a series of loading tests. It is found that the stress-strain curve of rock and soil aggregates is nonlinear, and the failure is usually initialized from weaker jointed elements. Finally, some factors such as mixture ratio, rock size and rock shape are studied in detail. The numerical results are in good agreement with in situ test. Therefore, current model is effective for simulating the mechanical behaviors of rock and soil aggregates.

  8. Aggregation of Calcium Phosphate and Oxalate Phases in the Formation of Renal Stones

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The majority of human kidney stones are comprised of multiple calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals encasing a calcium phosphate nucleus. The physiochemical mechanism of nephrolithiasis has not been well determined on the molecular level; this is crucial to the control and prevention of renal stone formation. This work investigates the role of phosphate ions on the formation of calcium oxalate stones; recent work has identified amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) as a rapidly forming initi...

  9. STRESSES AND DEFORMABILITY OF ROCK MASS UPON OPEN PIT EXPLOITATION OF DIMENSION STONE

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    Siniša Dunda

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of increased stresses and deformability of rock mass in the quarry of Zečevo (exploitation field of Selca – island of Brač has caused a considerable decrease of usability of mineral raw materials, which put into question the survival of the pit. Therefore the research and measurements of the state of stresses and deformability of rock mass within the pit were carried out. Besides detailed laboratory testings (testings on small samples performed were trial in-situ testings on large samples including the corresponding numerical analyses. The exploitation of dimension stone by sowing regularly shaped rectangular blocks has been proved to be appropriate for in-situ testing of bending strength. The paper presents the results of carried out laboratory testings, in-situ testings of bending strength including measuring of deformations after sowing cuts and numerical analyses by which the possible range of horizontal stresses was determined. Since for the case of massive rocks, for which the continuum concept is applied, there are no specifically defined methods of corrections, presented is a possible relation for correction of input size values based on the carried out laboratory and in-situ testings.

  10. In-air broad beam ionoluminescence microscopy as a tool for rocks and stone artworks characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Giudice, Alessandro; Re, Alessandro; Angelici, Debora; Calusi, Silvia; Gelli, Nicla; Giuntini, Lorenzo; Massi, Mirko; Pratesi, Giovanni

    2012-07-01

    Broad beam ionoluminescence (IL) microscopy is a promising technique for the non-destructive characterisation of rocks and stone objects. Luminescence imaging by means of broad ion beams has been sporadically used by other authors but, to our knowledge, its potential has not yet been fully investigated, neither in geological science nor in other fields. The in-air broad beam IL microscope was developed and installed at the INFN-LABEC external microbeam in Florence. Similar to the cathodoluminescence (CL) microscope, the apparatus exploits a CCD colour camera collecting images (few square millimetres wide, with ~10-μm spatial resolution) of the luminescence emitted by the sample hit by a defocused megaelectron volt (MeV) proton beam. The main differences with the well-established and widespread CL are the possibility of working in air (no sampling or conductive coatings required) and the possibility of combining the analysis with microbeam analysis, such as, for example, μ-IL and μ-PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). To show the potential of the technique, IL images of thin sections of lapis lazuli are compared with those obtained by means of an in-vacuum cold CL. An application to the study of stone artworks is also reported. This technique and apparatus will provide a valuable help for interdisciplinary applications, e.g. in geological sciences and in the cultural heritage field.

  11. Sandals as Icons: Representations in Ancestral Pueblo Rock Art and Effigies in Stone and Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polly Schaafsma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dating the late 1000s to the mid-1200s CE, petroglyphs of sandal images are among others that distinguish ancient Pueblo rock art in the San Juan and Little Colorado River drainages on the Colorado Plateau from Ancestral Pueblo rock art elsewhere across the Southwest. The sandal “track” also has counterparts  as effigies in stone and wood often found in ceremonial contexts in Pueblo sites. These representations reflect the sandal styles of the times, both plain in contour and the jog-toed variety, the latter characterized by a projection where the little toe is positioned. These representations are both plain and patterned,  as are their material sandal counterparts. Their significance  as symbolic icons is their dominant aspect, and a ritual meaning is implicit.  As a component of a symbol system that was radically altered after 1300 CE, however, there is no ethnographic information that provides clues as to the sandal icon’s meaning. While there is no significant pattern of its associations with other symbolic content in the petroglyph panels, in some western San Juan sites cases a relationship to the hunt can be inferred. It is suggested that the track itself could refer to a deity, a mythological hero, or the carver ’s social identity. In conclusion, however, no clear meaning of the images themselves is forthcoming, and further research beckons.

  12. Evaluation of the Properties of Bituminous Concrete Prepared from Brick-Stone Mix Aggregate

    OpenAIRE

    Dipankar Sarkar; Manish Pal; Sarkar, Ashoke K.; Umesh Mishra

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes an investigation into mechanical properties of brick-stone bituminous concrete mix. The effect of brick-stone mix on various mechanical properties of the bituminous concrete such as Marshall stability, flow, Marshall Quotient (stability to flow ratio), Indirect Tensile Strength, stripping, rutting, and fatigue life of bituminous concrete overlay has been evaluated. In this study over-burnt brick aggregate (OBBA) and stone aggregate (SA) have been mixed in different ratios ...

  13. Study of the fracture behavior of mortar and concretes with crushed rock or pebble aggregates

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    Sebastião Ribeiro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare the fracture energy of mortar and concretes produced with crushed rock and pebble aggregates using zero, 10, 20, 30 and 40% of aggregates mixed with standard mortar and applying the wedge splitting method to achieve stable crack propagation. The samples were cast in a special mold and cured for 28 days, after which they were subjected to crack propagation tests by the wedge splitting method to determine the fracture energies of the mortar and concrete. The concretes showed higher fracture energy than the mortar, and the concretes containing crushed rock showed higher resistance to crack propagation than all the compositions containing pebbles. The fracture energy varied from 38 to 55 J.m-2. A comparison of the number of aggregates that separated from the two concrete matrices with the highest fracture energies indicated that the concrete containing pebbles crumbled more easily and was therefore less resistant to crack propagation.

  14. The mechanics of rocking stones: equilibria on separated scales

    CERN Document Server

    Domokos, Gábor; Szabó, Tímea

    2011-01-01

    Rocking stones, balanced in counter-intuitive positions have always intrigued geologists. In our paper we explain this phenomenon based on high-precision scans of pebbles which exhibit similar behavior. We construct their convex hull and the heteroclinic graph carrying their equilibrium points. By systematic simplification of the arising Morse-Smale complex in a one-parameter process we show that equilibria occur typically in highly localized groups (flocks), the number of the latter can be reliably observed and determined by hand experiments. Both local and global (micro and macro) equilibria can be either stable or unstable. Most commonly, rocks and pebbles are balanced on stable local equilibria belonging to stable flocks. However, it is possible to balance a convex body on a stable local equilibrium belonging to an unstable flock and this is the intriguing mechanical scenario corresponding to rocking stones. Since outside observers can only reliably perceive flocks, the last described situation will appea...

  15. Leaching properties of natural aggregates. Rock materials and tills; Lakegenskaper foer naturballast. Bergmaterial och moraener

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekvall, Annika; Bahr, Bo von; Andersson, Tove; Lax, Kaj; Aakesson, Urban [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2006-02-15

    The aim of this project is to produce leaching data for natural aggregates needed for assessment of the environmental impact of alternative materials aimed for use in for example road constructions. Both rock materials and tills are tested. The results shows that very little is leached from natural aggregate. A comparison with landfill criteria for inert waste and the Swedish regulations for drinking water shows that a few samples exceeds the criteria for fluoride ions. All other values are lower then these criteria, and a vast majority of the measurements are below the quantification limit.

  16. Evaluation of the Properties of Bituminous Concrete Prepared from Brick-Stone Mix Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an investigation into mechanical properties of brick-stone bituminous concrete mix. The effect of brick-stone mix on various mechanical properties of the bituminous concrete such as Marshall stability, flow, Marshall Quotient (stability to flow ratio, Indirect Tensile Strength, stripping, rutting, and fatigue life of bituminous concrete overlay has been evaluated. In this study over-burnt brick aggregate (OBBA and stone aggregate (SA have been mixed in different ratios (by weight such as 20 : 80, 40 : 60, 60 : 40, and 80 : 20, respectively. The laboratory results indicate that bituminous concrete, prepared by 20% brick aggregate and 80% stone aggregate, gives the highest Marshall stability. This bituminous concrete mix shows considerable improvement in various mechanical properties of the mix as compared to the other mixes.

  17. An Improved Algorithm in Porosity Characteristics Analysis for Rock and Soil Aggregate

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    Yanfang Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rock and soil aggregate (RSA is a special inhomogeneous multiphase geomaterial. It is crucial for stability of engineering by study of RSA mesodamage characteristic. This paper aims at investigating the porosity evolution characteristics of RSA by X-ray computed tomography (CT under uniaxial compressive loading. X-ray tomography images were used to extract defects of RSA specimen under different compressive loading. In this paper, we proposed an improved Ostu method to calibrate the beam hardening phenomenon which is caused by X-ray. Also, based on this Ostu method, the outline of rock blocks in RSA is extracted, and the double gray level threshold of soil and rock block is obtained to ensure the reliability of the porosity calculation. We can conclude that the main reason of RSA cracking is the elasticity mismatch between rock blocks and soil, and the porosity evolution of RSA can be divided into four typical stages. These results may be useful to reveal the mesoscopic cracking mechanism and establish mesodamage evolution equation and constitutive relation for RSA.

  18. Investigation of Usability as Aggregate of Different Originated Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başpinar Tuncay, Ebru; Kilinçarslan, Şemsettin; Yağmurlu, Fuzuli

    2016-10-01

    The general properties of aggregate can determine the performance and durability of the concrete. In this study, mineralogical, petrographic, mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the rock samples of different origin (limestone, recrystallized limestone, dolomite, sand and gravel, tephra-phonolite, trachybasalt) were determined. Samples were obtained from different origin rocks units and they have been classified in three different sizes of aggregate with crushing and screening method. Grading, classification of particle, loose bulk density, water absorption ratio, flakiness index, coefficient of Los Angeles, resistance to freeze-loosening and alkali-silica reaction of aggregates and organic matter determination has been determined. The rocks have been investigated in compliance with the relevant standards. Trachybasalt and dolomite have higher particle density than other rocks. In addition, strength and flexural strength of these rocks are higher than other rocks. Tephra-phonolite has the lowest water absorption rate. At the same time resistance to freeze loosening of Tephra- phonolite is lower than the other rocks. Resistance to fragmentation and the resistance to wear of all of rocks are quite high. Sand and gravel, tephra-phonolite and trachybasalt are evaluated in terms of alkali-silica reaction. Sand and gravel are more reactive than the other aggregates. Organic matter content of the aggregates is low for the quality of aggregate. Also high correlation between some properties of aggregates was observed. For example, high correlation between compressive strength and flexural strength, water absorption and porosity, resistance to fragmentation and the resistance to ware (Micro-Deval).

  19. Captured in Stone: Women in the Rock Art of Canyon de Chelly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Tara

    1997-01-01

    Describes the pictographs (painted images on stone) and petroglyphs (pecked images on stone) found in the Canyon de Chelly National Monument in Arizona. Canyon de Chelly includes one of the largest concentrations of American Indian rock art in the southwest. Discusses the depiction of women in these images. (MJP)

  20. Dawsonite and other carbonate veins in the Cretaceous Izumi Group, SW Japan: a natural support for fracture self-sealing in mud-stone cap-rock in CGS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, Yasuko; Funatsu, Takahiro; Fujii, Takashi [Institute for Geo-Resources and environment, GSJ, AISI, 1-1-1 Higashi, Central 7, Tsukuba, ibaraki 305-8567 (Japan); Take, Shuji [Kishiwada Nature Club, c/o Kishiwada City Natural History Museum, Sakai-Machi 5-6, Kishiwada, Osaka 596-0072 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Dawsonite-bearing carbonate veins are abundant in a compact mud-stone layer of the lower part of the Izumi Group, SW Japan. The mode of occurrence of the veins probably indicates fracturing and mineral sealing associated with upwelling of CO{sub 2}-rich fluid evolved in the reservoir beneath. The carbonate veins studied here can be a natural support to fracturing and healing of mud-stone cap-rock in the CO{sub 2} geological storage. (authors)

  1. Alkali-aggregate reactivity of typical siliceious glass and carbonate rocks in alkali-activated fly ash based geopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Duyou; Liu, Yongdao; Zheng, Yanzeng; Xu, Zhongzi; Shen, Xiaodong

    2013-08-01

    For exploring the behaviour of alkali-aggregate reactivity (AAR) in alkali-activated geopolymeric materials and assessing the procedures for testing AAR in geopolymers, the expansion behaviour of fly ash based geopolymer mortars with pure silica glass and typical carbonate rocks were studied respectively by curing at various conditions, i.e. 23°C and 38°C with relative humidity over 95%, immersed in 1M NaOH solution at 80°C. Results show that, at various curing conditions, neither harmful ASR nor harmful ACR was observed in geopolymers with the criteria specified for OPC system. However, with the change of curing conditions, the geopolymer binder and reactive aggregates may experience different reaction processes leading to quite different dimensional changes, especially with additional alkalis and elevated temperatures. It suggests that high temperature with additional alkali for accelerating AAR in traditional OPC system may not appropriate for assessing the alkali-aggregate reactivity behaviour in geopolymers designed for normal conditions. On the other hand, it is hopeful to control the dimensional change of geopolymer mortar or concrete by selecting the type of aggregates and the appropriate curing conditions, thus changing the harmful AAR in OPC into beneficial AAR in geopolymers and other alkali-activated cementitious systems.

  2. Fasting and Urinary Stones

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    Ali Shamsa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results: The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  3. Fasting and urinary stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods:Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field  of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results:The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  4. Effects of Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size on the Performance of Stone Matrix Asphalt

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    Hongying Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the performance of hot mix asphalt (HMA in service life is closely related to a proper aggregate gradation. A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of nominal maximum aggregate size (NMAS on the performance of stone matrix asphalt (SMA. The volumetric characteristics and performance properties obtained from wheel tracking tests, permeability test, beam bending test, contabro test are compared for SMA mixes with different NMAS. The results indicated that voids in mineral aggregate (VMA and voids filled with asphalt (VFA of SMA mixtures increased with a decrease of aggregate size in aggregate gradation. SMA30 had the lowest optimum asphalt content among all the mixtures. Increase of NMAS contributed to improvement of the rutting resistance of SMA mixtures. However, a decrease of NMAS showed better cracking and raveling resistance. Permeability rate of SMA was primarily affected by the air voids (AV and break point sieve, but was also sensitive to aggregate gradation to some extent, with reduced NMAS corresponding to less permeability rate. Based on the test results, SMA5 and SMA13 are suggested to be used as a water-proof layer in bridge deck pavement, and SMA20 and SMA30 are suggested to be used as binder course in asphalt pavement, which needs to possess superior rutting resistance at high temperature.

  5. Rock magnetic properties and palaeomagnetic results of sediments from a stone implement layer in the Bose Basin, Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Directional samples were taken to study rock magnetism and palaeomagnetic records from the Dong- sheng profile, which is 5 m thick and on the northwest edge of the Bose Basin. Mineralogy and rock magnetism of typical samples indicate that coarse granular titanomagnetite, and fine-grained hematite, superparamagnetic maghemite formed by pedogenesis are in the sediment, which has undergone many transformative processes during different stages of pedogenesis. Parallel samples were taken for thermal demagnetization (TH) (0 to 680℃) and alternating field (AF) demagnetization (0 to 80 mT) respectively. Experimental results of these two kinds of demagnetization illustrate that there are two or more magnetic components in the samples. Intensity of NRM decreases by almost 60% to 90% rapidly when the temperature ranges from 100℃ to 350℃, with a steady magnetic component. It is impossible to analyze the magnetic components at high temperature because those fluctuate widely when the temperature is higher than 400℃. Steady magnetic components from 100℃ to 350℃ indicate that the remanence was mainly carried by fine-grained hematite formed by pedogenesis, reflecting a change in the geomagnetic field while the magnetite was being oxidized into hematite by chemical weathering after deposition. The formative age of the sediments cannot be obtained by magnetic methods in this profile.

  6. Rock magnetic properties and palaeomagnetic results of sediments from a stone implement layer in the Bose Basin, Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XiaoQiang; ZHU ZhaoYu; ZHANG YiNan; LI HuaMei; ZHOU WenJuan; YANG Jie

    2008-01-01

    Directional samples were taken to study rock magnetism and palaeomagnetic records from the Dongsheng profile, which is 5 m thick and on the northwest edge of the Bose Basin. Mineralogy and rock magnetism of typical samples indicate that coarse granular titanomagnetite, and fine-grained hematite,superparamagnetic maghemite formed by pedogenesis are in the sediment, which has undergone many transformative processes during different stages of pedogenesis. Parallel samples were taken for thermal demagnetization (TH) (0 to 680℃) and alternating field (AF) demagnetization (0 to 80 mT)respectively. Experimental results of these two kinds of demagnetization illustrate that there are two or more magnetic components in the samples. Intensity of NRM decreases by almost 60% to 90% rapidly when the temperature ranges from 100℃ to 350℃, with a steady magnetic component. It is impossible to analyze the magnetic components at high temperature because those fluctuate widely when the temperature is higher than 400℃. Steady magnetic components from 100℃ to 350℃ indicate that the remanence was mainly carried by fine-grained hematite formed by pedogenesis, reflecting a change in the geomagnetic field while the magnetite was being oxidized into hematite by chemical weathering after deposition. The formative age of the sediments cannot be obtained by magnetic methods in this profile.

  7. A Stone and a Diamond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司亮

    2010-01-01

    一、故事内容 After a storm, a dry river is filled with water again. Many stones fall down into the river from the hill. Most of the stones are very happy. They sing and dance together. There are two special (特别的) stones. One is black, and the other is white. The white stone is as white as snow. She is proud of herself and she looks down on all the other stones. So no one wants to play with her.

  8. Durability and Testing of Stone for use in Rubblemound structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magoon, O.T.; Baird, W.F.; Ahrends, J.P.;

    1993-01-01

    Rubblemound structures protected from wave action by a layer of quarried rock (stones) are the most common form of breakwaters. While extensive guidelines and procedures exist to select the size of stone there is very little information available on procedures to be followed to assure the quality...

  9. Imprensa e música no Brasil: rock, mpb e contracultura no período Rolling Stone - 1972

    OpenAIRE

    Sberni Junior, Cleber [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the issues of Rolling Stone edited in Brazil between December 1971 and January 1973. More specifically, the goal was to evaluate how the magazine integrates the Rio de Janeiro's rock scene in the early 1970s, promoting and doing record of artistic activities, thus contributing to the dissemination of rock made in Brazil. The analyzed period is characterized by a striking cross-country youthful movement influenced by counterculture, whose ideology was...

  10. Renal stone disease: Pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, C.Y.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiologic considerations; Physiochemistry of urinary stone formations; Nutritional aspects of stone disease; Prevention of recurrent nephrolithiasis; Struvite stones; and Contemporary approaches to removal of renal and ureteral calculi.

  11. Raw Materials, Production and Distribution of Xuejiagang Stone Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Lina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Xuejiagang culture is associated with the latter part of the Neolithic period in southern China. Since the 1970s, we have found many cemeteries associated with this culture, in which stone implements make up an important and significant part of the funerary objects. The perforated stone knife, the yue axe and the adze were especially important. Analysis of the frequency and relationships between raw material, technology and tool types provides a basis for distinguishing between the different production sites associated with the Xuejiagang stone industry. This article discusses the relationship between rock types and stone tools, and between stone artefacts from different production sites. Thin-section analysis was used to identify and characterise stone used for implement manufacture.

  12. Provenance analysis of Roman stone artefacts from sedimentary rocks from the archaeological site near Mošnje, NW Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Miletić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the macroscopic and microfacies characterisation of Roman stone artefacts excavated in 2006 from a Roman villa rustica near Mošnje (NW Slovenia with the aim of defiing their provenance. A total of 28 representative fids (querns, mortars, whetstones, tooled and rounded stones, a fragment of stone slab, mosaic tesserae and two architectural elements - one with a relief made of clastic and carbonate sedimentary rocks were examined. Comparison was made with rock samples taken from quarries and gravel bars close to the archaeological site, as well as from larger distance to the site. The majority of artefact sampled is composed of Upper Palaeozoic quartz sandstones, which are found as pebbles in gravel bars close to the archaeological site; while 2 samples were from Quaternary coarse grained clastic rocks which can be found in local glacio-flvial sediments. Other fids were made of four different Mesozoic shallow-water limestones which outcrop in different areas of Central and SW Slovenia. The nearest Lower Jurassic biopelmicritic limestones are found at the western periphery of Ljubljana in Podutik. Cretaceous miliolid limestones and biocalcarenitic limestones with rudists are common in the successions of the Dinaric Carbonate Platform in SW Slovenia (for example, on the Trieste-Komen Plateau, NE Italy and SW Croatia. This indicates that the limestones for architectural elements, stone mortars and tesserae were brought to Mošnje from distant locations. Smaller stone tools are likely to have been made at the location of the archaeological site from material gathered locally, mostly pebbles from clastic rocks, which were accessible and suitable for tooling.

  13. Natural stones of historic and future importance in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouenborg, Björn; Andersson, Jenny; Göransson, Mattias

    2013-04-01

    Several activities and responsibilities of the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) are related to the work of the newly formed international Heritage Stone Task Group (HSTG) for designating historically important stones. SGU is among other things a referral organization, frequently dealing with the preparation of statements in connection with the quarrying permit applications of stone producers. When preparing these statements, SGU takes into account a number of parameters, e.g. the importance for local and regional business development, historic importance, area of occurrence, quality of the geological documentation of the stone type, peculiarities of the stone types and technical properties relevant for the intended use. Traditionally, SGU has not worked with bedrock mapping looking at the potential of natural stones production but more commonly looking at the potential production of aggregates, industrial minerals and metals. The competence is, therefore, presently being built up with new databases over important natural stone types and definition of criteria for their selection etc. In this respect the criteria defined by the HSTG provide important help. This work goes hand in hand with the task of proposing stone-deposits and quarries of "national interest". The criteria for selection of a stone type, quarry etc as one of national interest are currently being revised. SGU plays an important role in this work. However, the final decision and appointment lies in the hands of the Swedish Board of Housing, Building and Planning (Boverket), an authority dealing with sustainable land use and regional development, town and country planning. Boverket supervises how the planning legislation is handled by the municipal authorities and the county administrative boards. The two latter organizations are those in charge of giving extraction permits for stone quarrying. The "Hallandia gneiss", of SW Sweden, is described as a case story and presented in this paper. Keywords

  14. Effect of rock fragment embedding on the aeolian deposition of dust on stone-covered surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, D.

    2005-01-01

    Many stone-covered surfaces on Earth are subject to aeolian deposition of atmospheric dust. This study investigates how the deposition of dust is affected when rock fragments become gradually more embedded in the ground or, inversely, become more concentrated on the surface. Experiments were execute

  15. Natural aggregates of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William H.

    1988-01-01

    Crushed stone and sand and gravel are the two main sources of natural aggregates. These materials are commonly used construction materials and frequently can be interchanged with one another. They are widely used throughout the United States, with every State except two producing crushed stone. Together they amount to about half the mining volume in the United States. Approximately 96 percent of sand and gravel and 77 percent of the crushed stone produced in the United States are used in the construction industry. Natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States in a variety of geologic environments. Sand and gravel deposits commonly are the results of the weathering of bedrock and subsequent transportation and deposition of the material by water or ice (glaciers). As such, they commonly occur as river or stream deposits or in glaciated areas as glaciofluvial and other deposits. Crushed stone aggregates are derived from a wide variety of parent bedrock materials. Limestone and other carbonates account for approximately three quarters of the rocks used for crushed stone, with granite and other igneous rocks making up the bulk of the remainder. Limestone deposits are widespread throughout the Central and Eastern United States and are scattered in the West. Granites are widely distributed in the Eastern and Western United States, with few exposures in the Midwest. Igneous rocks (excluding granites) are largely concentrated in the Western United States and in a few isolated localities in the East. Even though natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States, they are not universally available for consumptive use. Some areas are devoid of sand and gravel, and potential sources of crushed stone may be covered with sufficient unconsolidated material to make surface mining impractical. In some areas many aggregates do not meet the physical property requirements for certain uses, or they may contain mineral constituents that react

  16. Antagonistic perception of a rock-mass as geomorphosite and/or mineral resource with specific concern of natural stone for heritage conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikryl, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Prior to industrial era, the quarrying of natural stone was primarily local (the stone has been used very close to its extraction in most of the cases), small scale, occasional (the stone has been extracted only when needed for specific construction, permanent operations were much rarer than nowadays) but long-term (the quarrying activity at one site persisted over centuries very often). The landscape affected by such quarrying (as we can observe it at present) gained numerous new values (e.g., increased morphological contrast, succession of wildlife habitat, etc.) that are often appreciated more than the presence of valuable mineral resource - natural stone. If these site were claimed natural monuments or gained another type of environmental protection, any further extraction of natural stone is prohibited. However, if the specific site was used for extraction of natural stone that has been used for construction which later became cultural heritage object, the antagonistic perception of the site might appear - the site might be protected as a geomorphosite but, at the same time, it can be a source of unique natural stone required for the restoration of cultural heritage objects. This paper, along with above mentioned basic relationships, provides some real examples connected with the difficulties to find the extractable source of natural stone for restoration of iconic cultural heritage objects - specifically search for sources of Carboniferous arkoses to be used for replacement of the decayed ashlars at the Gothic Charles Bridge in Prague (Czech Republic).

  17. Opisthorchiasis-associated biliary stones:Light and scanning electron microscopic study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Banchob Sripa; Pipatphong Kanla; Poonsiri Sinawat; Melissa R. Haswell-Elkins

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Biliary stones are frequentty encountered in areas endemic for opisthorchiasis in Thailand. The present study was to describe the prevalence and pathogenesis of these stones.METHODS: Gallstones and/or common bile duct stones and bile specimens from 113 consecutive cholecystectomies were included. Bile samples, including sludge and/or microcalculi, were examined for Opisthorchis viverrini eggs,calcium and bilirubin. The stones were also processed for scanning electron microscopic (SEM) study.RESULTS: Of the 113 cases, 82 had pigment stones, while one had cholesterol stones. The other 30 cases had no stones. Most of the stone cases (76%, 63/83) had multiple stones, while the remainder had a single stone. Stones were more frequently observed in females. Bile examination was positive for O. viverrini eggs in 50% of the cases studied. Aggregates of calcium bilirubinate precipitates were observed in all cases with sludge. Deposition of calcium bilirubinate on the eggshell was visualized by special staining. A SEM study demonstrated the presence of the parasite eggs in the stones. Numerous crystals,morphologically consistent with calcium derivatives and cholesterol precipitates, were seen.CONCLUSION: Northeast Thailand has a high prevalence of pigment stones, as observed at the cholecystectomy, and liver fluke infestation seems involved in the pathogenesis of stone formation.

  18. The rock resources of the Northern Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive; Styles, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The Rock Resources of the Northern Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has vast resources of limestone and hard rock in the northern Emirates. These are currently exploited by quarrying companies to produce construction aggregate and raw material for the manufacture of cement, with a small amount being used to produce rock wool, dimension stone and mineral filler. The demand by industry for higher value mineral products that could be produced from these resources is mostly met by impor...

  19. Kidney Stones in Children and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Kidney Stones in Children and Teens Page Content Article ... teen girls having the highest incidence. Types of Kidney Stones There are many different types of kidney ...

  20. Influence of mesostasis in volcanic rocks on the alkali-aggregate reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Tiecher, Francieli

    2012-11-01

    Mesostasis material present in the interstices of volcanic rocks is the main cause of the alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) in concretes made with these rock aggregates. Mesostasis often is referred to as volcanic glass, because it has amorphous features when analyzed by optical microscopy. However, this study demonstrates that mesostasis in the interstitials of volcanic rocks most often consists of micro to cryptocrystalline mineral phases of quartz, feldspars, and clays. Mesostasis has been identified as having different characteristics, and, thus, this new characterization calls for a re-evaluation of their influence on the reactivity of the volcanic rocks. The main purpose of this study is to correlate the characteristics of mesostasis with the AAR in mortar bars containing basalts and rhyolites. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and renal stones

    OpenAIRE

    Nerli, Rajendra; Jali, Mallikarjuna; Guntaka, Ajay Kumar; Patne, Pravin; Patil, Shivagouda; Hiremath, Murigendra Basayya

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of urinary stone disease has shown a steep rise in recent decades along with marked modifications in dietary habits and life- style. There has been an increased prevalence of urinary stone disease in patients with diabetes. We took up this study to determine the association of diabetes mellitus with kidney stones in patients undergoing surgical treatment. Materials and Methods: Patients presenting with renal stones for surgical management formed the study group. Body...

  2. 77 FR 27245 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN... comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) and environmental assessment (EA) for Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge...: r3planning@fws.gov . Include ``Big Stone Draft CCP/ EA'' in the subject line of the message. Fax:...

  3. Renal Stone Risk during Spaceflight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Jones, Jeffery A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Hudson, Ed K.; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA's objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre-, in-, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all in-flight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that supplementation

  4. Bariatric Surgery and Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2008-09-01

    Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment strategy for patients with morbid obesity that can result in effective weight loss, resolution of diabetes mellitus and other weight related complications, and even improved mortality. However, it also appears that hyperoxaluria is common after modern bariatric surgery, perhaps occurring in up to 50% of patients after Rouxen-Y gastric bypass. Although increasing numbers of patients are being seen with calcium oxalate kidney stones after bariatric surgery, and even a few with oxalosis and renal failure, the true risk of these outcomes remains unknown. The mechanisms that contribute to this enteric hyperoxaluria are also incompletely defined, although fat malabsorption may be an important component. Since increasing numbers of these procedures are likely to be performed in the coming years, further study regarding the prevalence and mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and kidney stones after bariatric surgery is needed to devise effective methods of treatment in order to prevent such complications.

  5. Uranium distribution and radon exhalation from Brazilian dimension stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, P.G.Q.; Galembeck, T.M.B. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bonotto, D.M., E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Artur, A.C. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    This paper provides evaluations of the radiometric behavior and exhalation patterns of radon gas in decorative and dimension stones explored in the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais and Espirito Santo, given the importance of determining radon gas concentrations in human-inhabited environments. A total of 10 silicate rock types were studied, featuring different petrographic/petrophysical characteristics given by seven magmatic rocks (three of which are granitic pegmatites) and three metamorphic rocks. The study, comprising radiometric data of U and monitoring of {sup 222}Rn gas exhalation, shows a strong correlation between petrographic parameters and the physical properties of rocks. U levels ranged between 2.9 and 37 ppm, revealing a good coherence between the presence and the absence of radioactive element-bearing accessory minerals for each rock type. The rate of radon exhalation from the stones is related to the petrographic/petrophysical features of each material. By comparing the {sup 222}Rn level generated by a rock to the amount effectively emanated by it, the rate of emanated gas proves to be insignificant; also, a rock that produces more Rn will not always emanate more. Simulations performed to estimate the radon levels inside residences or any given indoor environment showed that nine samples attained values below the 4 pCi/L EPA limit, whereas one was above that limit. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integration of distinct radiometric data acquired in dimension stones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dimension stones are extensively commercialized abroad. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rn exhalation above the EPA threshold limit of 4 pCi/L.

  6. Electrical resistivity measurements to predict abrasion resistance of rock aggregates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sair Kahraman; Mustafa Fener

    2008-04-01

    The prediction of Los Angeles (LA) abrasion loss from some indirect tests is useful for practical applications. For this purpose, LA abrasion, electrical resistivity, density and porosity tests were carried out on 27 different rock types. LA abrasion loss values were correlated with electrical resistivity and a good correlation between the two parameters was found. To see the effect of rock class on the correlation, regression analysis was repeated for igneous rocks, metamorphic rocks and sedimentary rocks, respectively. It was seen that correlation coefficients were increased for the rock classes. In addition, the data were divided into two groups according to porosity and density, respectively. After repeating regression analysis for these porosity and density groups, stronger correlations were obtained compared to the equation derived for all rocks. The validity of the derived equations was statistically tested and it was shown that all derived equations were significant. Finally, it can be said that all derived equations can alternatively be used for the estimation of LA abrasion loss from electrical resistivity.

  7. Regional and detailed research studies for stone resources in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This report consists of 7 articles. 1) Detail drilling research works on granodiorite stock of Cheanan area near Onyang city in Chungnam province. 2) Regional research studies on granites distributed in Kimje - Jeongeup. 3) Regional survey and feasibility study on diorite rock mass in Kohyeng, Cheonnam province. 4) Regional research study on the stone resources of Hamyang area. 5) A study on variation trends of physical properties of 5 kinds of building stone by means of Weather-Ometer experiment. 6) Borehole radar survey at the granodiorite quarry mine, Cheonan, Chungnam province. 7) Radar velocity tomography in anisotropic media. (author). refs., tabs., figs.

  8. Nephrolithiasis: molecular mechanism of renal stone formation and the critical role played by modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Kanu Priya; Narula, Shifa; Kakkar, Monica; Tandon, Chanderdeep

    2013-01-01

    Urinary stone disease is an ailment that has afflicted human kind for many centuries. Nephrolithiasis is a significant clinical problem in everyday practice with a subsequent burden for the health system. Nephrolithiasis remains a chronic disease and our fundamental understanding of the pathogenesis of stones as well as their prevention and cure still remains rudimentary. Regardless of the fact that supersaturation of stone-forming salts in urine is essential, abundance of these salts by itself will not always result in stone formation. The pathogenesis of calcium oxalate stone formation is a multistep process and essentially includes nucleation, crystal growth, crystal aggregation, and crystal retention. Various substances in the body have an effect on one or more of the above stone-forming processes, thereby influencing a person's ability to promote or prevent stone formation. Promoters facilitate the stone formation while inhibitors prevent it. Besides low urine volume and low urine pH, high calcium, sodium, oxalate and urate are also known to promote calcium oxalate stone formation. Many inorganic (citrate, magnesium) and organic substances (nephrocalcin, urinary prothrombin fragment-1, osteopontin) are known to inhibit stone formation. This review presents a comprehensive account of the mechanism of renal stone formation and the role of inhibitors/promoters in calcium oxalate crystallisation.

  9. Nephrolithiasis: Molecular Mechanism of Renal Stone Formation and the Critical Role Played by Modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanu Priya Aggarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary stone disease is an ailment that has afflicted human kind for many centuries. Nephrolithiasis is a significant clinical problem in everyday practice with a subsequent burden for the health system. Nephrolithiasis remains a chronic disease and our fundamental understanding of the pathogenesis of stones as well as their prevention and cure still remains rudimentary. Regardless of the fact that supersaturation of stone-forming salts in urine is essential, abundance of these salts by itself will not always result in stone formation. The pathogenesis of calcium oxalate stone formation is a multistep process and essentially includes nucleation, crystal growth, crystal aggregation, and crystal retention. Various substances in the body have an effect on one or more of the above stone-forming processes, thereby influencing a person’s ability to promote or prevent stone formation. Promoters facilitate the stone formation while inhibitors prevent it. Besides low urine volume and low urine pH, high calcium, sodium, oxalate and urate are also known to promote calcium oxalate stone formation. Many inorganic (citrate, magnesium and organic substances (nephrocalcin, urinary prothrombin fragment-1, osteopontin are known to inhibit stone formation. This review presents a comprehensive account of the mechanism of renal stone formation and the role of inhibitors/promoters in calcium oxalate crystallisation.

  10. Ornamental Stones and Gemstones: The limits of heritage stone designation: The case for and against Australian Precious Opal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Barry

    2015-04-01

    When the international designation of natural stone types was first mooted in 2007, stones that were utilised in building and construction were the primary focus of attention. However following public discussion it soon became apparent that sculptural stones, stone used for utilitarian purposes such as millstones, as well as archaeological materials including stones used by early man could all be positively assessed as a potential Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR). Over the past 2 years it has been realised there is also a range of ornamental and semi-precious stones that may also be considered in the same international context. Examples in this respect include Imperial Porphyry sourced from Egypt that was much prized in the ancient world and "Derbyshire Blue John" a variety of fluorspar from central England that was used for vases, chalices, urns, candle sticks, jars, bowls door, jewellery and fire-place surrounds, especially in the 18th and 19th centuries. It is at this point that rock materials, sometimes used as gemstones, impinge on the domain of typical heritage stones. In Australia, the gemstone most identifiable with the country is precious opal formed by sedimentary processes in the Great Artesian Basin. In this paper the question is asked whether "Australian Precious Opal" could be or should be considered as a heritage stone of international significance. Immediately Australian Precious Opal satisfies several GHSR criteria including historic use for more than 50 years and wide-ranging utilisation for prestige jewellery around the world. It is also recognised as a cultural icon including association with national identity in Australia as it is legally defined as Australia's "National Gemstone" as well as being the "Gemstone Emblem" for the State of South Australia. Opal continues to be mined. Designation of Australian Precious Opal as a Global Heritage Stone Resource would likely involve formal international recognition of Australian opal in the

  11. Shaft sealing concepts for high-level radioactive waste repositories based on the host-rock options rock salt and clay stone; Schachtverschlusskonzepte fuer zukuenftige Endlager fuer hochradioaktive Abfaelle fuer die Wirtsgesteinsoptionen Steinsalz und Ton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudla, Wolfram; Gruner, Matthias [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdbau und Spezialtiefbau; Herold, Philipp; Jobmann, Michael [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Unlike the shaft barriers used for the dry preservation of former mine workings and underground storage sites, shaft seals designed for radioactive-waste repositories must also fulfil additional requirements associated with the design diversity of the sealing system. This diversity makes use of the simple redundancy principle in order to prevent the proliferation of defects. In practice this means combining several sealing elements made from different materials or from materials with different properties. The R and D project, Shaft sealing systems for final repositories for high-level radioactive waste (ELSA) - phase 2: concept design for shaft seals and testing of the functional elements of shaft seals', which was funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), set out to investigate potential sealing elements for the two host-rock options rock salt and mudstone. This paper combines the text that the authors presented at the First International Freiberg Shaft Colloquium held at the Freiberg University of Mining and Technology on 01.10.2014 with a presentation on the sealing elements that were investigated as part of the R and D project.

  12. 'Saurashtra stone anchors' (Ring-stones) from Dwarka and Somnath, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    , Vijaydurg and Sindhudurg in Maharashtra. A few grapnel-type stone anchors have been reported from Lakshadweep and from Tamil Nadu coast. The majority of stone anchors from Gujarat fall in three categories: (1) composite, (2) grapnel, and (3) ring stone types...

  13. In bits, bytes and stone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    The digital spheres of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Social Network Services (SNS) are influencing 21st. century death. Today the dying and the bereaved attend mourning and remembrance both online and offline. Combined, the cemeteries, web memorials and social network sites...... designs'. Urns, coffins, graves, cemeteries, memorials, monuments, websites, applications and software services, whether cut in stone or made of bits, are all influenced by discourses of publics, economics, power, technology and culture. Designers, programmers, stakeholders and potential end-users often...... do not recognize the need or potential of working with or using, specific 'death-services/products', since they find little or no comfort in contemplating, working or playing around with the concept of death and its life changing consequences. Especially not while being alive and well...

  14. Behavior of crushed rock aggregates used in road construction exposed to cold climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Elena; Pérez Fortes, Ana Patricia; Anastasio, Sara; Willy Danielsen, Svein

    2016-04-01

    Presently, about 90% of the aggregate production in Europe comes from naturally occurring resources: quarries and pits. Due to the increased demand for sand and gravel for construction purposes, not only in building but also in road construction, the last decade has seen a significant trend towards the use of more crushed rock aggregates. This resource has been more and more preferred to sand and gravel thanks to the significant technological development of its process and use phase. The performance of the aggregates is generally evaluated depending on three main factors: the geological origin (mineral composition, texture, structure, degree of weathering), the aggregate processing (crushing, sieving, washing, storing) and the user technology for a specific area of use (e.g. road construction, asphalt binders). Nevertheless climatic conditions should carefully be taken into account in application such as road construction. Large temperature gradients and high levels of humidity are known to significantly affect the performance of the material. Although the problem is, at least in the asphalt field, considered mostly from the binder point of view, this article aims to investigate the effect of aggregate properties on road performance in cold climatic conditions. Two different climatic areas will be taken into account: Norway and Spain. While both these countries are listed among the main European producers of aggregates, they represent significantly different climatic regions. While Norwegian weather is characterized by humid cold winters and relatively mild summers, Spain has temperate climate with cold regions in mountainous and internal areas. Both countries have been significantly affected by climate change with increasing temperature variations and instability. At the same time, similar winter maintenance measures, including the use of a considerable amount of solid and liquid chemicals to avoid ice formation (e.g. NaCl) and/or to provide better friction, are

  15. Environmentalism and natural aggregate mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, L.J.; Langer, W.H.; Sachs, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Sustaining a developed economy and expanding a developing one require the use of large volumes of natural aggregate. Almost all human activity (commercial, recreational, or leisure) is transacted in or on facilities constructed from natural aggregate. In our urban and suburban worlds, we are almost totally dependent on supplies of water collected behind dams and transported through aqueducts made from concrete. Natural aggregate is essential to the facilities that produce energy-hydroelectric dams and coal-fired powerplants. Ironically, the utility created for mankind by the use of natural aggregate is rarely compared favorably with the environmental impacts of mining it. Instead, the empty quarries and pits are seen as large negative environmental consequences. At the root of this disassociation is the philosophy of environmentalism, which flavors our perceptions of the excavation, processing, and distribution of natural aggregate. The two end-member ideas in this philosophy are ecocentrism and anthropocentrism. Ecocentrism takes the position that the natural world is a organism whose arteries are the rivers-their flow must not be altered. The soil is another vital organ and must not be covered with concrete and asphalt. The motto of the ecocentrist is "man must live more lightly on the land." The anthropocentrist wants clean water and air and an uncluttered landscape for human use. Mining is allowed and even encouraged, but dust and noise from quarry and pit operations must be minimized. The large volume of truck traffic is viewed as a real menace to human life and should be regulated and isolated. The environmental problems that the producers of natural aggregate (crushed stone and sand and gravel) face today are mostly difficult social and political concerns associated with the large holes dug in the ground and the large volume of heavy truck traffic associated with quarry and pit operations. These concerns have increased in recent years as society's demand for

  16. Shock Wave Lithotripsy in Ureteral Stones: Evaluation of Patient and Stone Related Predictive Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Yazici

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To evaluate the patient and stone related factors which may influence the final outcome of SWL in the management of ureteral stones.Materials and Methods:Between October 2011 and October 2013, a total of 204 adult patients undergoing SWL for single ureteral stone sizing 5 to 15 mm were included into the study program. The impact of both patient (age, sex, BMI, and stone related factors (laterality, location, longest diameter and density as CT HU along with BUN and lastly SSD (skin to stone distance on fragmentation were analysed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Stone free rates for proximal and distal ureteral stones were 68.8% and 72.7%, respectively with no statistically significant difference between two groups (p=0.7. According to univariate and multivariate analyses, while higher BMI (mean: 26.8 and 28.1, p=0.048 and stone density values (mean: 702 HU and 930 HU, p<0.0001 were detected as statistically significant independent predictors of treatment failure for proximal ureteral stones, the only statistically significant predicting parameter for the success rates of SWL in distal ureteral stones was the higher SSD value (median: 114 and 90, p=0.012.Conclusions:Our findings have clearly shown that while higher BMI and increased stone attenuation values detected by NCCT were significant factors influencing the final outcome of SWL treatment in proximal ureteral stones; opposite to the literature, high SSD was the only independent predictor of success for the SWL treatment of distal ureteral stones.

  17. Primary liquid intake and urinary stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, J; Finlayson, B; Scheaffer, R L; Sierakowski, R; Zoltek, J; Dzegede, S

    1985-01-01

    This investigation indicates that there are important associations between urinary stone disease and a person's primary liquid intake. Based on data collected from 2295 caucasian male patients from two geographical regions, the Carolinas (both North and South) and the Rockies (including Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, Montana, Utah and Wyoming) an important (p less than 0.01) positive association was found between urinary stone disease and soda (carbonated beverage) consumption within both geographical regions. It was also found that negative associations exist between urinary stone disease and both beer consumption and coffee consumption in the Rockies and that no important associations exist between urinary stone disease and any of milk, water, or tea, when these beverages represent a person's primary liquid intake. Moreover, soda can be viewed almost synonymously as sugared cola, since few subjects had diet sodas or sugared non-cola soda as primary fluid. No cause/effect relationships are implied in this paper.

  18. Bariatric Surgery and Urinary Stone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevahir Ozer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major public health problem and has been suggested to play a role in the etiology of urinary tract stone disease. Furthermore, the increasingly widespread use of surgery in the treatment of obesity also is related with urinary stone disease. In daily practice, patients to whom obesity surgery has been planned or who have undergone obesity surgery are seen more frequently. This review aims to highlight the urological evaluation and management of this patient group.

  19. Bariatric Surgery and Urinary Stone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevahir Ozer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major public health problem and has been suggested to play a role in the etiology of urinary tract stone disease. Furthermore, the increasingly widespread use of surgery in the treatment of obesity also is related with urinary stone disease. In daily practice, patients to whom obesity surgery has been planned or who have undergone obesity surgery are seen more frequently. This review aims to highlight the urological evaluation and management of this patient group.

  20. Therapy modifies cystine kidney stones at the macroscopic scale. Do such alterations exist at the mesoscopic and nanometre scale?

    OpenAIRE

    Bazin, Dominique; Daudon, Michel; André, Gilles; Matzen, Guy; Véron, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    International audience; With an incidence of 1:7000 births, cystinuria, the most frequent cause of stone formation among genetic diseases, represents a major medical problem. Twentyfive cystine stones randomly selected from cystinuric patients were investigated. From a crystallographic point of view, cystine stones are composed of micrometre size crystallites, which are made up of an aggregation of nanocrystals. Through scanning electron microscopy, the morphology and size of the crystallites...

  1. Famous Stone Patients and Their Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E.

    2007-04-01

    The fact that stone patients have endured much throughout the ages and that prior to our current era, when the ultimate horror, "being cut for the stone" was the only alternative to the repeated episodes of colic, should be recalled from time to time. Urolithiasis has affected humanity throughout the ages and has been indiscriminate to those lives it touched. A full accounting of those who have suffered and recorded their agonies is beyond the scope of this investigation; however, even a partial accounting is valuable for present day physicians who care for those with stone disease. For the present work, the historical accounts of stone disease literature were scrutinized for individual sufferers who could be cross-referenced from other sources as legitimately afflicted by stones. Only those patients that could be documented and were (or are) well known were included, because the internet is now a verdant repository of thousands of "not so well knowns." Reliable historical data was found for a variety of persons from the pre-Christian era to the present, including those remembered as philosophers and scientists, physicians, clergy, leaders and rulers, entertainers, athletes and fictitious/Hollywood-type individuals. Verified accounts of famous stone formers were chosen for this paper, and are presented in chronological order. The list of urolithiasis sufferers presented here is undoubtedly incomplete, but it is not through lack of trying that they are missing. Most often, the suffering do so silently, and that is always allowed.

  2. Distinguishing aggregate formation and aggregate clearance using cell based assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Eenjes, E.; J.M. Dragich; H. Kampinga (Harm); A. Yamamoto, A.

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe accumulation of ubiquitinated proteinaceous inclusions represents a complex process, reflecting the disequilibrium between aggregate formation and aggregate clearance. Although decreasing aggregate formation or augmenting aggregate clearance will ultimately lead to diminished aggrega

  3. Water hardness and urinary stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, J; Finlayson, B; Scheaffer, R; Sierakowski, R; Zoltek, J; Dzegede, S

    1982-08-01

    On the macrogeographic scale, a strong negative association exists in the United States between water hardness and urinary stone disease. This investigation studies the association on the microgeographical scale, where it is possible to control for confounding environmental factors. The study was conducted on 2,295 patients from 2 regions: the Carolinas which had soft water and high stone incidence, and the Rockies which had hard water and low stone incidence. Home tap water samples from urinary stone patient hospitalizations were compared with that of controls, concurrent inguinal hernia patient hospitalization. After adjusting for environmental factors, no significant difference (p = 0.59) between the 2 groups was obtained in tap water calcium, magnesium, and sodium concentrations. An incidental but potentially important finding was that those consuming water from a private well had an estimated relative risk of 1.5 (p less than 0.01) compared to those using public water. While no cause-effect relationship is suggested, stone-formers might consider avoiding private well water. On the other hand, water hardness should be a minor concern with respect to stone formation.

  4. NEW FRONTIERS ON NEPHROLITHIASIS: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF KIDNEY STONES

    OpenAIRE

    Malan Rajat; Walia Anu; Gupta Sumeet

    2011-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis (also known as kidney stones, renal stones, urinary stones, urolithiasis, and renal calculi) affects a great number of patients worldwide. These can be of different types like calcium-oxalate, struvite, uric acid, cysteine. Larger stones in the urinary tract can cause extreme pain in the lower back or side. Urinary tract infections, kidney disorders and certain metabolic disorders such as hyperparathyroidism are also linked to stone formation. Cystinuria, hyperoxaluria, Hyperc...

  5. Platelet activation and aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Sander; Larsen, O H; Christiansen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces a new laboratory model of whole blood platelet aggregation stimulated by endogenously generated thrombin, and explores this aspect in haemophilia A in which impaired thrombin generation is a major hallmark. The method was established to measure platelet aggregation initiated...

  6. 再生火山岩骨料混凝土抗压强度及干缩性能试验%Experimental study on compressive strength and dry-shrinkage property of recycled volcanic rock coarse aggregate concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    A recycled volcanic rock coarse aggregate concrete is developed,which the aggregate replacement rate is 100%. The compressive strength and dry-shrinkage performance of recycled volcanic rock aggregate concrete are studied. The results show that the compressive strength of recycled concrete after curing 28 days than that of normal concrete is reduced by about 13%,and the dry-shrinkage strain is about 1. 25 times of the reference concrete.%配置了骨料取代率为100%的再生火山岩粗骨料混凝土,并对其抗压强度和干缩性能进行试验研究,结果表明:再生火山岩混凝土28 d抗压强度比基准混凝土抗压强度降低约13%;干燥收缩应变约为基准混凝土的1.25倍。

  7. Aggregation and Averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Irving H.

    The arithmetic processes of aggregation and averaging are basic to quantitative investigations of employment, unemployment, and related concepts. In explaining these concepts, this report stresses need for accuracy and consistency in measurements, and describes tools for analyzing alternative measures. (BH)

  8. The paradoxical role of urinary macromolecules in the aggregation of calcium oxalate: a further plea to increase diuresis in stone metaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, J M; Affolter, B

    2016-08-01

    This study was designed to get information on aggregation (AGN) of urinary calcium oxalate crystals (CaOx) which seems to occur in stone formation despite a protecting coat of urinary macromolecules (UMs). CaOx crystallization was directly produced in urine, control and albumin solution by Ox titration and was spectrophotometrically followed. A rapid decrease of optical density indicating AGN was absent in 14 of 15 freshly voided urines of 5 healthy controls. However, in the presence of UM-coated hydroxyapatite all urines with relative high sodium concentration, being an indicator of concentrated urine, showed a pronounced AGN which was abolished when these urines were diluted. Albumin relatively found to be an inhibitor of AGN showed after temporary adsorption on Ca Phosphate (CaP) massive self-AGN and changed to a promoter of CaOx AGN. Self-AGN after adsorption on surfaces especially of CaP, being an important compound of Randall's plaques, can thus explain this paradoxical behavior of UMs. Aggregated UMs probably bridge zones of electrostatic repulsion between UM-coated crystals with identical electrical surface charge. These zones extend by urine dilution which decreases ionic strength. Diminution of urinary concentration by increasing diuresis seems, therefore, to be important in stone metaphylaxis.

  9. Cell aggregation and sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R H

    1995-01-01

    The aggregation of cells into clumps or flocs has been exploited for decades in such applications as biological wastewater treatment, beer brewing, antibiotic fermentation, and enhanced sedimentation to aid in cell recovery or retention. More recent research has included the use of cell aggregation and sedimentation to selectively separate subpopulations of cells. Potential biotechnological applications include overcoming contamination, maintaining plasmid-bearing cells in continuous fermentors, and selectively removing nonviable hybridoma cells from perfusion cultures.

  10. 石煤渣在制造建筑轻骨料中的应用研究%Application of Stone Coal Cinder in Manufacturing Architecture for Lightweight Aggregate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯永

    2013-01-01

    以石煤渣作原料来制造建筑轻骨料,所制造的轻骨料密度小、保温性好、抗震性好,应用于高层及大跨度建筑轻骨料混凝土中效果很好。通过实验详细分析了石煤渣在制造轻骨料中的反应,论述了石煤渣掺量与粘结剂对所制造的建筑轻骨料性能及工艺的影响。%Taking the stone coal cinder as raw materials to manufacture building lightweight aggregate, made of lightweight aggregate small density, good insulation resistance, good shock resistance, used in high and large span buildings in lightweight aggregate concrete effect is very good. The author detailed analysis through the experiment of stone coal cinder in manufacturing lightweight aggregate reaction, this paper discusses the dosage of stone coal cinder and binder for the manufacture of building performance of lightweight aggregate and the influence of the process.

  11. Asbestos in crushed stone: an overlooked aspect with potential of broader international research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskovsky, Karel; Prikryl, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Asbestos and related health effects became widely discussed issue during past decades, leading to serious decline in the use of this industrial mineral. Asbestos-like minerals are, however, quite common in several rock types that were and are still used as crushed stone. Unfortunately, there is still missing any broader concern on the detection of these fibrous minerals in aggregate source rocks, and consequently there is lack of knowledge on the potential impacts of the use of asbestos-bearing rocks on the environment and the society. This paper aims to present an introduction to this serious problem and to open a call for wider co-operation on the international level.

  12. Stone anchors of India: Findings, classification and significance.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    and size do not resemble the anchors found during maritime archaeological explorations since 1986. The stone anchors until now recovered from many sites of India can broadly be classified into four types: namely composite, Indo-Arabian, ring stone (mushroom...

  13. Honors Education and Stone-Campbell Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willerton, Chris

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the Stone-Campbell tradition, which produced the North American Disciples of Christ and Churches of Christ. In this tradition he finds the distinctive combination of three emphases to promote civic virtues in an honors context: (1) the individual pursuit of truth; (2) reliance on Scripture; and (3) the drive…

  14. Recycled aggregates concrete: aggregate and mix properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Fonteboa, B.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study of structural concrete made with recycled concrete aggregate focuses on two issues: 1. The characterization of such aggregate on the Spanish market. This involved conducting standard tests to determine density, water absorption, grading, shape, flakiness and hardness. The results obtained show that, despite the considerable differences with respect to density and water absorption between these and natural aggregates, on the whole recycled aggregate is apt for use in concrete production. 2. Testing to determine the values of basic concrete properties: mix design parameters were established for structural concrete in non-aggressive environments. These parameters were used to produce conventional concrete, and then adjusted to manufacture recycled concrete aggregate (RCA concrete, in which 50% of the coarse aggregate was replaced by the recycled material. Tests were conducted to determine the physical (density of the fresh and hardened material, water absorption and mechanical (compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity properties. The results showed that, from the standpoint of its physical and mechanical properties, concrete in which RCA accounted for 50% of the coarse aggregate compared favourably to conventional concrete.

    Se aborda el estudio de hormigones estructurales fabricados con áridos reciclados procedentes de hormigón, incidiéndose en dos aspectos: 1. Caracterización de tales áridos, procedentes del mercado español. Para ello se llevan a cabo ensayos de densidad, absorción, granulometría, coeficiente de forma, índice de lajas y dureza. Los resultados obtenidos han puesto de manifiesto que, a pesar de que existen diferencias notables (sobre todo en cuanto a densidad y absorción con los áridos naturales, las características de los áridos hacen posible la fabricación de hormigones. 2. Ensayos sobre propiedades básicas de los hormigones: se establecen parámetros de dosificaci

  15. Predicting Los Angeles abrasion loss of rock aggregates from crushability index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Kahraman; O Y Toraman

    2008-04-01

    Predicting Los Angeles abrasion loss of aggregate material from some simpler tests will be useful for especially preliminary studies. For this reason, to investigate the possibility of predicting the Los Angeles abrasion loss from the crushability index, Los Angeles abrasion, crushability, density and porosity tests were performed on 11 different rock types collected from different areas of Turkey. The results of the tests were analysed using simple and multiple regression analyses. Generally significant correlations were obtained from both simple and multiple regression analyses. The correlation coefficients and estimation capabilities of the two multiple regression equations are slightly higher than that of the simple regression equation. It was concluded that the simple regression equation is practical and reliable enough for estimation purposes. However, the two multiple regression equations can be used for a more accurate estimation.

  16. 全尾矿废石骨料高强混凝土的试验研究%Experimental Study of High-strength Concrete with Waste Rocks and Iron Tailings as Aggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杏婕; 倪文; 吴辉; 汤畅; 仇夏杰

    2015-01-01

    从资源再生、生态环境保护和循环经济的角度出发,以重新级配后的密云地区铁矿废石为粗骨料、密云地区铁尾矿为细骨料,将铁尾矿与矿渣、水泥熟料、脱硫石膏通过梯级混磨得到混合料,与单独磨细的钢渣粉混合为胶凝材料,加入减水剂和水后制备成高强混凝土材料,并采用X射线衍射( XRD)、扫描电子显微镜( SEM)、能谱分析( EDS)等手段进行微观结构与物相组成的变化研究,进而分析反应机理。所制备的混凝土的固废总比例达到91%,使用废石代替天然石子,铁尾矿代替天然砂子,其天然砂石替代率达到100%,制得的混凝土试块28 d抗压强度达到75.92 MPa。%From viewpoints of resources regeneration,environmental protection and circular economy,the re-graded waste rocks in Miyun area were prepared as coarse aggregate,and iron tailings were prepared as fine aggregate. Then,iron tailings, blast furnace slag,cement clinker and FGD gypsum were mixed and ground to produce the mixture. Steel slag that was ground alone are together with the mixture to prepare cementitious materials. The high-strength concrete materials were produced with the cementitious materials and aggregates,by adding water-reducing agent and water. The changes of microstructure and phase composition of the high-strength concrete were studied by XRD,SEM,EDS,et al. Based on this,its reaction mechanism is ana-lyzed. The produced concrete materials obtained the compressive strength as high as 75. 92 MPa at 28 d and the content of wastes in products reached 91%. The replacement ratio of natural sands and rocks was 100% while natural sands were re-placed by Miyun iron tailings and natural rocks were replaced by Miyun waste rocks.

  17. Kidney stones: Composition, frequency and relation to metabolic diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R. Spivacow

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is one of the most frequent urologic diseases. The aim of this paper is to study the composition and frequency of 8854 patient kidney stones and in a subset of them their metabolic risk factors to be related to their type of calculi. Physicochemical and crystallographic methods were used to assess kidney stone composition. In a subset of 715 patients, we performed an ambulatory metabolic protocol with diagnostic purposes. From the total sample 79% of stones were made of calcium salts (oxalate and phosphate, followed by uric acid stones in 16.5%, calcium salts and uric acid in 2%, other salts in 1.9% and cystine in 0.6%. Male to female ratio was almost three times higher in calcium salts and other types of stones, reaching a marked male predominance in uric acid stones, M/F 18.8 /1.0. The major risk factors for calcium stones are idiopathic hypercalciuria, followed by unduly acidic urine pH and hyperuricosuria. In uric acid stones unduly acidic urine pH and less commonly hyperuricosuria are the most frequent biochemical diagnosis. Our results show that analysis of kidney stones composition and the corresponding metabolic diagnosis may provide a scientific basis for the best management and prevention of kidney stone formation, as well as it may help us to study the mechanisms of urine stone formation.

  18. POTENTIAL OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN KIDNEY, GALL AND URINARY STONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choubey Ankur

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been known for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention of various ailments. Today large number of population suffers from kidney stone, gall stone and urinary calculi. Stone disease has gained increasing significance due to changes in living conditions i.e. industrialization and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence and incidence, the occurrence of stone types and stone location, and the manner of stone removal are explained. Medicinal plants are used from centuries due to its safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects as compared to synthetic drugs. The present article deals with measures to be adopted for the potential of medicinal plants in stone dissolving activity.

  19. Aggregates from natural and recycled sources; economic assessments for construction applications; a materials flow study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.; Goonan, Thomas G.

    1998-01-01

    Increased amounts of recycled materials are being used to supplement natural aggregates (derived from crushed stone, sand and gravel) in road construction. An understanding of the economics and factors affecting the level of aggregates recycling is useful in estimating the potential for recycling and in assessing the total supply picture of aggregates. This investigation includes a descriptive analysis of the supply sources, technology, costs, incentives, deterrents, and market relationships associated with the production of aggregates.

  20. Surface analysis of stone and bone tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemp, W. James; Watson, Adam S.; Evans, Adrian A.

    2016-03-01

    Microwear (use-wear) analysis is a powerful method for identifying tool use that archaeologists and anthropologists employ to determine the activities undertaken by both humans and their hominin ancestors. Knowledge of tool use allows for more accurate and detailed reconstructions of past behavior, particularly in relation to subsistence practices, economic activities, conflict and ritual. It can also be used to document changes in these activities over time, in different locations, and by different members of society, in terms of gender and status, for example. Both stone and bone tools have been analyzed using a variety of techniques that focus on the observation, documentation and interpretation of wear traces. Traditionally, microwear analysis relied on the qualitative assessment of wear features using microscopes and often included comparisons between replicated tools used experimentally and the recovered artifacts, as well as functional analogies dependent upon modern implements and those used by indigenous peoples from various places around the world. Determination of tool use has also relied on the recovery and analysis of both organic and inorganic residues of past worked materials that survived in and on artifact surfaces. To determine tool use and better understand the mechanics of wear formation, particularly on stone and bone, archaeologists and anthropologists have increasingly turned to surface metrology and tribology to assist them in their research. This paper provides a history of the development of traditional microwear analysis in archaeology and anthropology and also explores the introduction and adoption of more modern methods and technologies for documenting and identifying wear on stone and bone tools, specifically those developed for the engineering sciences to study surface structures on micro- and nanoscales. The current state of microwear analysis is discussed as are the future directions in the study of microwear on stone and bone tools.

  1. Composition of common bile duct stones in Chinese patients during and after endoscopic sphincterotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Lun Tsai; Kwok-Hung Lai; Chiun-Ku Lin; Hoi-Hung Chan; Ching-Chu Lo; Ping-I Hsu; Wen-Chi Chen; Jin-Shiung Cheng; Gin-Ho Lo

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) is a well-established therapeutic modality for the removal of common bile duct (CBD) stones. After ES there are still around 10% of patients that experience recurrent CBD stones. The aim of this study is to investigate the composition of CBD stones before and after ES and its clinical significance in Chinese patients.METHODS: From January 1996 to December 2003, 735Veterans General Hospital and stone specimens from 266patients were sent for analysis. Seventy-five patients had recurrent CBD stones and stone specimens from 44patients were sent for analysis. The composition of the stones was analyzed by infrared (IR) spectrometry and they were classified as cholesterol or bilirubinate stones according to the predominant composition. Clinical data were analyzed.RESULTS: In the initial 266 stone samples, 217 (82%)were bilirubinate stones, 42 (16%) were cholesterol stones,3 were calcium carbonate stones, 4 were mixed cholesterol and bilirubinate stones. Patients with bilirubinate stones were significantly older than patients with cholesterol stones (66±13 years vs 56±17 years, P= 0.001). In the 44 recurrent stone samples, 38 (86%) were bilirubinate stones, 3 (7%) were cholesterol stones, and 3 were mixed cholesterol and bilirubinate stones. In 27 patients, bothinitial and recurrent stone specimens can be obtained,23 patients had bilirubinate stones initially and 2 became cholesterol stones in the recurrent attack. In the four patients with initial cholesterol stones, three patients had bilirubinate stones and one patient had a cholesterol stone in the recurrent attack.CONCLUSION: Bilirubinate stone is the predominant composition of initial or recurrent CBD stone in Chinese patients. The composition of CBD stones may be different from initial stones after ES.

  2. "Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

    2014-05-01

    Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products

  3. Rock History and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Éric

    2013-01-01

    Two ambitious works written by French-speaking scholars tackle rock music as a research object, from different but complementary perspectives. Both are a definite must-read for anyone interested in the contextualisation of rock music in western popular culture. In Une histoire musicale du rock (i.e. A Musical History of Rock), rock music is approached from the point of view of the people – musicians and industry – behind the music. Christophe Pirenne endeavours to examine that field from a m...

  4. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  5. Crushed aggregates for roads and their properties for frost protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Elena; Willy Danielsen, Svein

    2015-04-01

    Crushed aggregates for roads and their properties for frost protection Elena Kuznetsova, NTNU and Svein Willy Danielsen, SINTEF With natural (fluvial, glaciofluvial) sand/gravel resources being rapidly depleted in many countries, the last decade has seen a significant trend towards using more alternative materials for construction purpose. In Norway the development and implementation of crushed aggregate technology has been the most important way to get around the problem with increased resource scarcity. Today Norway is one the European countries with the highest percentage of crushed/manufactured aggregates. A crushed product will reveal a different particle size distribution, a sharper, more angular particle shape, and not least - a significantly different mineral composition. The latter may often be characterised by more polymineral composition, and it will also much more depend on the local bedrock. When handled with care and knowledge, these differences can give the user a lot of new opportunities relating to materials design. Norwegian road construction practice has changed significantly during the last 40 years due to the replacement of gravel by crushed rock materials in the granular layers of the pavements. The use of non-processed rock materials from blasting was allowed in the subbase layer until 2012. This was a reason for a lot of problems with frost heaving due to inhomogeneity of this material, and in practice it was difficult to control the size of large stones. Since 2012 there is a requirement that rock materials for use in the subbase layer shall be crushed (Handbook N200, 2014). During the spring 2014 The Norwegian Public Roads Administration introduced a new handbook with requirements for roads construction in Norway, including new specifications for the frost protection layer. When pavements are constructed over moist and/or frost susceptible soils in cold and humid environments, the frost protection layer also becomes a very important part

  6. Analysis and Protection of One Thousand Hand Buddha in Dazu Stone Sculptures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG, Li-Qin(王丽琴); DANG, Gao-Chao(党高潮); WANG, Xiao-Qi(王晓琪); XI, Zhou-Kuan(席周宽); LIANG, Guo-Zheng(梁国正)

    2004-01-01

    The components of the rock, the pigments, the gold foils and the adhesive of One Thousand Hand Buddha in Dazu stone sculptures, Chongqing, China, have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), infrared spectroscopy (IR), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and fiber optics reflectance spectroscopy (FORS). Furthermore, the weathering and degeneration of One Thousand Hand Buddha have been discussed and the protective methods have been provided. In this work some useful information to study on conservation of stone relics is given.

  7. Lessons from a Stone Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, John P.; Rao, P. Nagaraj

    2007-04-01

    The stone farm is a system for measuring macroscopic stone growth of 12 calcium stones simultaneously. It is based on mixed suspension, mixed product removal continuous crystallization principles and the stones are grown continuously for about 500 hours or more. The growth of the stones follows a surface area dependent pattern and the growth rate constants are very similar irrespective of whether the stating materials are fragments of human stone or pieces of marble chip. Increasing citrate from 2mM to 6mM caused a significant growth inhibition which persisted in the presence of urinary macromolecules. Phytate was a very effective inhibitor (about 50% at sub-μM concentrations) but the effective concentration was increased by an order of magnitude in the presence of urinary macromolecules. The effective concentration for inhibition in a crystallization assay was a further two orders of magnitude higher. Urinary macromolecules or almost whole urine were also strongly inhibitory although neither human serum albumin nor bovine mucin had any great effect. The relationship between the size distribution of crystals in suspension and the stone enlargement rate suggests that the primary enlargement mechanism for these in vitro stones is through aggregation. The stone farm is a powerful tool with which to study crystallization inhibitors in a new light. Some differences between inhibition of crystallization and inhibition of stone growth have emerged and we have obtained quantitative evidence on the mechanism of stone enlargement in vitro. Our findings suggest that the interface between crystals in suspension and the stone surface is the key to controlling stone enlargement.

  8. Assessment of kidney stone and prevalence of its chemical compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandeya, A; Prajapati, R; Panta, P; Regmi, A

    2010-09-01

    Kidney stone analysis is the test done on the stone which cause problems when they block the flow of urine through or out of the kidneys. The stones cause severe pain and are also associated with morbidity and renal damage. There is also no clear understanding on the relative metabolic composition of renal calculi. Hence, the study is aimed to find out the chemical composition of it which can guide treatment and give information that may prevent more stones from forming. The study was carried out on the stones that had been sent to the department of Biochemistry (n = 99; M = 61; F = 38; Mean age: 33.6 +/- 14.4 years) Approximately 98.9% of stones were composed of oxalate, 95.9% of Calcium, 85.8% of phosphate, 62.6% of Urate, 46.4% of Ammonium and very few percentages of Carbonate.

  9. 7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada...; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada. Stone and quarry products from...

  10. Mourning in Bits and Stone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    the divide between ‘states of rationale’ and ‘states of sentiment’ and augment the loop of exchanges between the two. We switch interdependently between these states by a seemingly coincidental structure, when subjected to involuntary memories or episodic reminders afforded by trigger parameters...... such as space, artifacts, situations or sensuous representations. In this paper we build upon present research on grief-work and propose a methodological contribution to the study of progressions of digital mourning and remembrance practices [6]–[8]. We present a generalized structure of online mourning...... and memorialization by discussing the publicly and privately digital and social death from a spatial, temporal, physical and digital angle. Further the paper will reflect on how to encompass shifting trends and technologies in ‘traditional’ spaces of mourning and remembrance....

  11. Particulate pollution and stone deterioration

    OpenAIRE

    Kendall, Michaela

    1998-01-01

    The soiling and damage of building surfaces may be enhanced by particulate air pollution, reducing the aesthetic value and lifetimes of historic buildings and monuments. This thesis focuses on the deposition of atmospheric particulate material to building surfaces and identifies potential sources of this material. It also identifies environmental factors influencing two deterioration effects: surface soiling and black crust growth. Two soiling models have been compared to assess their effecti...

  12. Why Was Silcrete Heat-Treated in the Middle Stone Age? An Early Transformative Technology in the Context of Raw Material Use at Mertenhof Rock Shelter, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schmidt

    Full Text Available People heat treated silcrete during the Middle Stone Age (MSA in southern Africa but the spatial and temporal variability of this practice remains poorly documented. This paucity of data in turn makes it difficult to interrogate the motive factors underlying the application of this technique. In this paper we present data on heat treatment of silcrete through the Howiesons Poort and post-Howiesons Poort of the rock shelter site Mertenhof, located in the Western Cape of South Africa. In contrast to other sites where heat treatment has been documented, distance to rock source at Mertenhof can be reasonably well estimated, and the site is known to contain high proportions of a diversity of fine grained rocks including silcrete, hornfels and chert at various points through the sequence. Our results suggest the prevalence of heat treatment is variable through the sequence but that it is largely unaffected by the relative abundance of silcrete prevalence. Instead there is a strong inverse correlation between frequency of heat treatment in silcrete and prevalence of chert in the assemblage, and a generally positive correlation with the proportion of locally available rock. While it is difficult to separate individual factors we suggest that, at Mertenhof at least, heat treatment may have been used to improve the fracture properties of silcrete at times when other finer grained rocks were less readily available. As such, heat treatment appears to have been a component of the MSA behavioural repertoire that was flexibly deployed in ways sensitive to other elements of technological organisation.

  13. Pathophysiology of kidney, gallbladder and urinary stones treatment with herbal and allopathic medicine: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Alok, Shashi; Jain, Sanjay Kumar; Verma, Amita; Kumar, Mayank; Sabharwal, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been known for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention of various ailments. Today large number of population suffers from kidney stone, gall stone and urinary calculi. Stone disease has gained increasing significance due to changes in living conditions i.e. industrialization and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence and incidence, the occurrence of stone types and stone location, and the manner of stone...

  14. Anisotropy indices and the effects on the hydric behaviour of natural stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Rafael; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Varas, Maria Jose; Gomez-Heras, Miguel

    2010-05-01

    Building stone is an anisotropic material. Each type of rock (granite, limestone, slate, marble, etc.) has a different anisotropy, which is related to its own geological history, i.e. formation conditions and alteration processes. Knowing the anisotropy of natural stone is a matter of interest for determining the most adequate way to extract it from the quarry, for a better use during its manufacture or processing, to determine the quality of elements to be used as ashlars/masonry or as ornamental elements carving, as well to their arrangement in a structure. At the same time, materiaĺs anisotropy will condition the placing of, for instance, anchorages in dressing stone slabs. Anisotropy of natural stone controls water entry and its mobility, together with atmospheric pollutantśs, processes that favour the stone decay in building works, mainly those that shows a marked directional component, as it is the case of capillary water absorption. Water tends to be absorbed differently along the distinct main anisotropy directions, which are principally marked due to the arrangement and distribution of porosity in the rock. The aim of this study is to perform a comparative analysis of the various anisotropy indices commonly used when dealing with natural stone, determined by ultrasonic propagation techniques, in order to establish how anisotropy (by means of these indices) affect the process of capillary water absorption. Different type of natural stones have been selected, according to their traditional use for the construction of buildings in the region of Madrid (Spain). Their petrophysical properties have been determined (density, porosity, water absorption, etc), as well as ultrasonic transmission velocity has been measured along the three spatial directions of the test specimens (from 50 to 100 for each petrological type). According to this, the stone specimens were classified in different anisotropy levels or classes. Results show that stones with the highest

  15. Renal intratubular crystals and hyaluronan staining occur in stone formers with bypass surgery but not with idiopathic calcium oxalate stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan, Andrew P; Coe, Fredric L; Gillen, Daniel; Lingeman, James E; Bledsoe, Sharon; Worcester, Elaine M

    2008-03-01

    Whether idiopathic calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone formers form inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) crystal deposits bears on pathogenetic mechanisms of stone formation. In prior work, using light and transmission electron microscopy, we have found no IMCD crystal deposits. Here, we searched serial sections of papillary biopsies from a prior study of 15 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, 4 intestinal bypass patients with CaOx stones, and 4 non-stone-forming subjects, and biopsies from an additional hitherto unreported 15 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers and 1 bypass patient using polarized light oil immersion optics, for deposits overlooked in our original study. We found no IMCD deposits in any of 1,500 serial sections from the 30 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, nor in 87 additional sections from a frozen idiopathic calcium oxalate stone former biopsy sample processed without exposure to aqueous solutions. Among 4 of the 5 bypass patients but in none of the 30 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers or 4 normal stone formers, we found tiny birefringent thin crystalline overlays on scattered IMCD cell membranes. We also found IMCD lumen deposits in two bypass patients that contained mixed birefringent and nonbirefringent crystals, presumably CaOx and apatite. In the bypass patients, we observed focal apical IMCD cell hyaluronan staining, which was absent in idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. The absence of any IMCD deposits in 1,500 serial sections of biopsies from 30 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers allows us to place the upper limit on the probability of their occurrence at approximately 0.002 and place the lower limit of their size at the resolution of the optics (crystal lesion.

  16. Villamayor stone (Golden Stone) as a Global Heritage Stone Resource from Salamanca (NW of Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Villamayor stone is an arkosic stone of Middle Eocene age and belongs to the Cabrerizos Sandstone Formation that comprising braided fluvial systems and paleosoils at the top of each stratigraphic sequence. The sandstone is known by several names: i) the Villamayor Stone because the quarries are located in Villamayor de Armuña village that are situated at 7 km to the North from Salamanca city; ii) the Golden Stone due to its patina that produced a ochreous/golden color on the façades of monuments of Salamanca (World Heritage City,1988) built in this Natural stone (one of the silicated rocks utilised). We present in this work, the Villamayor Stone to be candidate as Global Heritage Stone Resource. The Villamayor Stone were quarrying for the construction and ornamentation of Romanesque religious monuments as the Old Cathedral and San Julian church; Gothic (Spanish plateresc style) as the New Cathedral, San Esteban church and the sculpted façade of the Salamanca University, one of the oldest University in Europe (it had established in 1250); and this stone was one of the type of one of the most sumptuous Baroque monuments is the Main Square of the its galleries and arcades (1729). Also, this stone was used in building palaces, walls and reconstruction of Roman bridge. Currently, Villamayor Stone is being quarried by small and family companies, without a modernized processing, for cladding of the façades of the new buildings until that the construction sector was burst (in 2008 the international economic crisis). However, Villamayor Stone is the main stone material used in the city of Salamanca for the restoration of monuments and, even in small quantities when compared with just before the economic crisis, it would be of great importance for future generations protect their quarries and the craft of masonry. Villamayor Stone has several varieties from channels facies to floodplains facies, in this work the selected varieties are: i) the fine-grained stone

  17. Algal 'greening' and the conservation of stone heritage structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Nick A; Viles, Heather A; Ahmad, Samin; McCabe, Stephen; Smith, Bernard J

    2013-01-01

    In humid, temperate climates, green algae can make a significant contribution to the deterioration of building stone, both through unsightly staining ('greening') and, possibly, physical and chemical transformations. However, very little is known about the factors that influence the deteriorative impact and spatial distribution of green algal biofilms, hindering attempts to model the influence of climate change on building conservation. To address this problem, we surveyed four sandstone heritage structures in Belfast, UK. Our research had two aims: 1) to investigate the relationships between greening and the deterioration of stone structures and 2) to assess the impacts of environmental factors on the distribution of green biofilms. We applied an array of analytical techniques to measure stone properties indicative of deterioration status (hardness, colour and permeability) and environmental conditions related to algal growth (surface and sub-surface moisture, temperature and surface texture). Our results indicated that stone hardness was highly variable but only weakly related to levels of greening. Stone that had been exposed for many years was, on average, darker and greener than new stone of the same type, but there was no correlation between greening and darkening. Stone permeability was higher on 'old', weathered stone but not consistently related to the incidence of greening. However, there was evidence to suggest that thick algal biofilms were capable of reducing the ingress of moisture. Greening was negatively correlated with point measurements of surface temperature, but not moisture or surface texture. Our findings suggested that greening had little impact on the physical integrity of stone; indeed the influence of algae on moisture regimes in stone may have a broadly bioprotective action. Furthermore, the relationship between moisture levels and greening is not straightforward and is likely to be heavily dependent upon temporal patterns in moisture

  18. Marginal Aggregates in Flexible Pavements: Background Survey and Experimental Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    cement, bitumen , and water has been marketed in France under the trade name Stabicol 71 , but it is not yet available in the U.S. This composite...in a pavement base course. Geotextile reinforcement and a new portland cement- bitumen emulsion have considerable potential to upgrade substandard...modifiers with SBS , polyethylene. 30 b) Hard Asphalt Cement - AC 40 asphalt cement. c) Large Stone Asphalt Mixtures - Increase maximum aggregate size. e

  19. Conservation of stone built cultural heritage and preservation of memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Antônio

    2016-04-01

    Certainly, the main justification for the conservation of cultural heritage built, lies in the meanings that these buildings have, either to the history of nations, either as part of the cultural heritage of humanity. On the other hand, and taking into account the use of stone, it can be said that in addition to cultural and aesthetic values usually associated with these monuments or architectural ensembles that make up this heritage, the presence of stone materials gives another dimension to those constructions, which is the geo-memory. This means that, due to the presence of this material, where each has its own history, it is also possible to identify geo-memories for each of these monuments or architectural ensembles that make up this heritage, either the genesis point of view, involving environments and processes, either regarding the formation ages of these materials. At the same time and due to the use of these materials can be said that each monument or group of monuments is a reflection of the geo-diversity of a determined region or territory. In Brazil, due to its large territory, this geo-diversity includes a wide range of geological environments, phenomena and processes, giving rise to diverse stone materials, which can be observed in the monuments that are part of your built heritage. Thus in old buildings of historic sites located in particular in the southern and southeastern regions of Brazil, this geo-diversity is present because many types of rocks were used, igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary compositions and of very different ages. Of these types stands out, for example, granites and gneisses, which were used in the states of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais, where they are very common. In such cases, the rocks were formed, or end of the Paleoproterozoic, or at the end of the Neoproterozoic and have different textures, sometimes with predominance of biotite, among mica, sometimes amphibole, as hornblende, or with garnet. They were often used in

  20. Contrasting histopathology and crystal deposits in kidneys of idiopathic stone formers who produce hydroxy apatite, brushite, or calcium oxalate stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan, Andrew P; Lingeman, James E; Worcester, Elaine M; Sommer, Andre J; Phillips, Carrie L; Williams, James C; Coe, Fredric L

    2014-04-01

    Our previous work has shown that stone formers who form calcium phosphate (CaP) stones that contain any brushite (BRSF) have a distinctive renal histopathology and surgical anatomy when compared with idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF). Here we report on another group of idiopathic CaP stone formers, those forming stone containing primarily hydroxyapatite, in order to clarify in what ways their pathology differs from BRSF and ICSF. Eleven hydroxyapatite stone formers (HASF) (2 males, 9 females) were studied using intra-operative digital photography and biopsy of papillary and cortical regions to measure tissue changes associated with stone formation. Our main finding is that HASF and BRSF differ significantly from each other and that both differ greatly from ICSF. Both BRSF and ICSF patients have significant levels of Randall's plaque compared with HASF. Intra-tubular deposit number is greater in HASF than BRSF and nonexistent in ICSF while deposit size is smaller in HASF than BRSF. Cortical pathology is distinctly greater in BRSF than HASF. Four attached stones were observed in HASF, three in 25 BRSF and 5-10 per ICSF patient. HASF and BRSF differ clinically in that both have higher average urine pH, supersaturation of CaP, and calcium excretion than ICSF. Our work suggests that HASF and BRSF are two distinct and separate diseases and both differ greatly from ICSF.

  1. Drropulli Stone and Gjirokastra World Heritage in Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serjani, Afat; Kramar, Sabina

    2013-04-01

    Ancient Gjirokastra City and Dervician stone deposit, there are located next to each other, in south of Albania, at foots of eastern slope of "Wide Mountain". Building stone it is represented by micritic limestone of white, red and blue colour, formed during Palaeocene-Eocene Period. It contains fossils of rounded forms and it is known and exploited since the ancient times. Argjirokastra, Argjiro's City, appeared since the IV-th Century BC (V.Tola, 2011). Stone City has in its centre Majestic Fortress of a big cruiser view, which is seen from long distance, from all sides of Drinos Valley. "This Majestic Monument of Albanian vigour has an astonishing elegance" has written E. Hoxha (1983). Watching Gjirokastra you will remind "Chronic in Stone", the book of Ismail Kadare, great writer, born in Gjirokastra. All buildings here are of stone. The Large Fortress and high houses as castles are built by stone, and covered by stone tiles. The walls and minarets of religious buildings are of stone. The gates of houses and yards are of engraved stone, protected by metallic nets of artistic forms. The house's walls are built by big stone, while the walls of yards are by small stone of white colour, some times intercalated with lines of red, blue stone. The combination of different colour stone is another one artistic beauty of walls. The roads are paved by black cobblestones of flysch sandstone for protection by slips, some times combined with white limestone mosaics. Steps of houses and roads are by white stone, often reworked masterfully. "Such stones, reworked by very fine skilfully, can not be found in any other place of the World, only in Anadoll" has written on 1 665 Evliya Celepi (2003). Buildings are of specific architecture and by good style. The accounts of the basis are done to keep "houses as castle". The walls have wood antiseismic layers. The architecture of houses, gates, angles, windows, with predomination of arc forms, with engraved stones and ornaments it is

  2. Association between dental pulp stones and calcifying nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jinfeng; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Qimei; Du, Yu; Ling, Junqi

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of dental pulp stones, one type of extraskeletal calcification disease, remains elusive to date. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly referred to as nanobacteria, were reported to be one etiological factor in a number of extraskeletal calcification diseases. We hypothesized that CNPs are involved in the calcification of the dental pulp tissue, and therefore investigated the link between CNPs and dental pulp stones. Sixty-five freshly collected dental pulp stones, each from a different patient, were analyzed. Thirteen of the pulp stones were examined for the existence of CNPs in situ by immunohistochemical staining (IHS), indirect immunofluorescence staining (IIFS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The remaining 52 pulp stones were used for isolation and cultivation of CNPs; the cultured CNPs were identified and confirmed via their shape and growth characteristics. Among the dental pulp stones examined in situ, 84.6% of the tissue samples staines positive for CNPs antigen by IHS; the corresponding rate by IIFS was 92.3 %. In 88.2% of the cultured samples, CNPs were isolated and cultivated successfully. The CNPs were visible under TEM as 200–400 nm diameter spherical particles surrounded by a compact crust. CNPs could be detected and isolated from a high percentage of dental pulp stones, suggesting that CNPs might play an important role in the calcification of dental pulp. PMID:21289988

  3. Urinary Stones in Neonates: Dilemma Between Urolithiasis and Nephrocalcinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Narter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urinary stones are extremely rare in the neonatal population. Most of the urinary stones in the neonate contain calcium. Nephrolithiasis in the neonate may be as urolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis. The incidence of nephrocalcinosis is not yet clear and can be differ in many researches due to the etiology. On the other hand, the incidence of urolithiasis in childhood is almost 10% of that in adults. Especially in the first decade, it is more common in boys. It may occur with inherited metabolic changes such as hypercalciuria, primary hyperoxaluria or cystinuria. Stone formation can be effected by iatrogenic causes such as hyperalimentation (parenteral nutrition, diuretic therapy (furosemide, acetazolamide that is especially in the bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The stone formation may occur due to anatomic or functional obstructions and infections of urinary system. Most of the urinary stones in the neonatal period are diagnosed as a nephrocalcinosis. However there aren’t any exact differences between nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. Some authors suggested nephrocalcinosis is the initial step of urinary stone formation. On the other hand, the others purposed that both of them are different pathologies. In this review, we tried to summarized differences and similarities, in the context of urinary stones and the nephrocalcinosis in the neonates.

  4. Geological-Technical and Geo-engineering Aspects of Dimensional Stone Underground Quarrying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Mauro; Lovera, Enrico

    Underground exploitation of dimensional stones is not a novelty, being long since practised, as proved by a number of historical documents and by a certain number of ancient quarrying voids throughout the world. Anyway, so far, open cast quarrying has been the most adopted practice for the excavation of dimensional stones. One primary reason that led to this situation is of course connected to the lower production costs of an open cast exploitation compared to an underground one. This cheapness has been supported by geological and technical motives: on the one hand, the relative availability of surface deposits and, on the other, the development of technologies, which often can be used only outdoor. But, nowadays, general costs of quarrying activities should be re-evaluated because new, and often proper, restrictions have been strongly rising during recent years. As a consequence of both environmental and technical restrictions, pressure will more and more arise to reduce open cast quarrying and to promote underground exploitations. The trend is already well marked for weak rocks - for instance in the extractive basin of Carrara, where about one hundred quarries are active, 30 per cent is working underground, but also in Spain, Portugal and Greece the number of underground marble quarries is increasing - but not yet for hard rock quarrying, where only few quarries are working underground all around the world. One reason has to be found in cutting technologies traditionally used. In weak rocks, diamond wire saw and chain cutter are usable, with few adaptations, in underground spaces, while drilling and blasting, the traditional exploitation method for hard stone, is not easily usable in a confined space, where often only one free face is available. Many technicians and researchers agree that two technologies will probably open the door to underground quarrying in hard rocks: diamond wire and water jet. The first one is already available; the second should still be

  5. Veneration and Spiritual Pleading through Stone: observations and musings on current practice in rural Turkmenistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenys McLaren

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the population of Turkmenistan is essentially Moslem, older traditions co-exist. In the rural areas medical services are poor, infant mortality and maternal mortality and morbidity are higher than in the West, and superstition is rife. Barrenness is considered a female failing. Women of child-bearing age are under great pressure to be fertile, and make spiritual pleas at venerated sites when pregnancy fails to occur or an infant is lost. There is veneration not only of shrines and revered burial sites but also of ancient sites and old dead trees. Many offerings are in the form of stone or fossils, with continued reuse and deposition of ancient materials. Cloth strips and miniature cradles bearing 'babies' are left in association with stones in pleas for child-bearing. Some stones are handled in special ways. One large stone was used for masturbation in the hope of fecundity. The legend of Paraw Bibi incorporates many of the beliefs and features related to rock that occur across many cultures and are common to folklore of old. Resonances of the same thought processes and behaviour patterns could have originated in the ancient past.

  6. Metabolic Evaluation of Kidney Transplant Recipients for Stone Disease and Comparison with Healthy Controls and Stone Formers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Savaşçı

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to determine the metabolic effects of kidney transplantation and calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs on stone formation in the post-transplant period. Materials and Methods Forty kidney transplant recipients (KTRs and 40 patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL operation due to kidney stone disease between January 2002 and January 2010 were evaluated retrospectively. For control group 20 patients who neither had urinary stone disease (USD nor a kidney transplant were chosen. Results No statistical difference was observed in terms of age, gender, body-mass index (BMI and urinary pH between the groups. Twenty-four hour urine volume was significantly higher in the KTRs (p=0.001. However 24 hour urinary oxalate, citrate, uric acid, sodium and calcium levels were lower in the KTRs when compared to two other groups (p=0.001, p=0.0001, p=0.004, p=0.046, p=0.017, respectively. Twenty-four hour urinary potassium levels in the control group and the phosphorus levels in the group undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy were higher compared to other groups (p=0.022, p=0.008. After follow-up of 23.55±14 (2-50 months none of the KTRs were diagnosed with a urinary stone.Conclusion Although no stones were detected in the transplant group, low levels of urinary citrate may lead to de novo stone formation in the longer follow-up. Low levels of urinary calcium, oxalate, phosphate, uric acid and increased urine volume may axplain the fact that no stone was detected in this group. CNIs may increase metabolic tendency to stone formation in addition to their nephrotoxic effects. However our data does not support routine citrate replacement therapy for preventing stone formation and minimizing the toxic effects of CNIs due to tubular acidosis.

  7. Search and Rescue Plan: Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan outlines search and rescue protocols for staff at Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge. The primary concern of a search and rescue policy is the protection...

  8. Whole-rock Al-Mg systematics of amoeboid olivine aggregates from the oxidized CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Allende

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M.B.; Krot, A.N.; Larsen, Kirsten Kolbjørn;

    2011-01-01

    We report on mineralogy, petrography, and whole-rock Al- Mg systematics of eight amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) from the oxidized CV chondrite Allende. The AOAs consist of forsteritic olivine, opaque nodules, and variable amounts of Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) of different types, and show...... olivine. The AOAs are surrounded by fine-grained, matrix-like rims composed mainly of ferroan olivine and by a discontinuous layer of Ca,Fe-rich silicates. These observations indicate that AOAs experienced in situ elemental open-system iron-alkali-halogen metasomatic alteration during which Fe, Na, Cl......, and Si were introduced, whereas Ca was removed from AOAs and used to form the Ca,Fe-rich silicate rims around AOAs. The whole-rock Al- Mg systematics of the Allende AOAs plot above the isochron of the whole-rock Allende CAIs with a slope of (5.23±0.13)×10 reported by Jacobsen et al. (2008). In contrast...

  9. Encrustation and stone formation: complication of indwelling ureteral stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, K A; Wettlaufer, J N; Oldani, G

    1985-06-01

    Severe encrustation and stone formation on indwelling ureteral stents in 2 patients with a lithogenic history are reported. In both cases this complication occurred in the presence of sterile urine and treatment required pyelolithotomy in one and renal pelvic irrigation with urologic G solution in the other. Analyses of these stones revealed struvite and apatite, respectively. Dissolution of encrustations and stones via renal pelvic irrigation is suggested as a viable alternative to surgical intervention for this problem. A review of the literature shows a correlation between chronic stone formers and stent encrustation, rather than from bacteriuria alone. Long-term antibiotic suppression, more frequent followup with abdominal roentgenograms, and shorter periods of internal stenting are suggested for patients with a lithogenic history.

  10. Star-Paths, Stones and Horizon Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Bernadette

    2015-05-01

    Archaeoastronomers tend to approach ancient monuments focusing on the landscape and the horizon calendar events of sun and moon and, due to problems with precession, generally ignore the movement of the stars. However, locating the position of solar calendar points on the horizon can have other uses apart from calendar and/or cosmological purposes. This paper firstly suggests that the stars do not need to be ignored. By considering the evidence of the Phaenomena, a sky poem by Aratus of Soli, a third century BC Greek poet, and his use of second millennium BC star lore fragments, this paper argues that the stars were a part of the knowledge of horizon astronomy. Aratus' poem implied that the horizon astronomy of the late Neolithic and Bronze Age periods included knowledge of star-paths or 'linear constellations' that were defined by particular horizon calendar events and other azimuths. Knowledge of such star-paths would have enabled navigation and orientation, and by using permanent markers, constructed or natural, to define these paths, they were immune to precession as the stones could redefine a star-path for a future generation. Finally the paper presents other possible intentions behind the diverse orientation of passage tombs and some megalithic sites.

  11. TOF-SIMS study of cystine and cholesterol stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghumman, C A A; Moutinho, A M C; Santos, A; Tolstogouzov, A; Teodoro, O M N D

    2012-05-01

    Two different human stones, cystine and cholesterol from the kidney and gall bladder, were examined by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry using Ga(+) primary ions as bombarding particles. The mass spectra of kidney stone were compared with those measured for the standard compounds, cystine and cysteine. Similar spectra were obtained for the stone and cystine. The most important identification was based on the existence of the protonated molecules [M + H](+) and deprotonated molecules [M-H](-). The presence of cystine salt was also revealed in the stone through the sodiated cystine [M + Na](+) and the associated fragments, which might be due to the patient treatment history. In the gallstone, the deprotonated molecules [M-H](+) of cholesterol along with relatively intense characteristic fragments [M-OH](+) were detected.

  12. Lunar Tractive Forces and Renal Stone Incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyridon Arampatzis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several factors are implicated in renal stone formation and peak incidence of renal colic admissions to emergency departments (ED. Little is known about the influence of potential environmental triggers such as lunar gravitational forces. We conducted a retrospective study to test the hypothesis that the incidence of symptomatic renal colics increases at the time of the full and new moon because of increased lunar gravitational forces. Methods. We analysed 1500 patients who attended our ED between 2000 and 2010 because of nephrolithiasis-induced renal colic. The lunar phases were defined as full moon ± 1 day, new moon ± 1 day, and the days in-between as “normal” days. Results. During this 11-year period, 156 cases of acute nephrolithiasis were diagnosed at the time of a full moon and 146 at the time of a new moon (mean of 0.4 per day for both. 1198 cases were diagnosed on “normal” days (mean 0.4 per day. The incidence of nephrolithiasis in peak and other lunar gravitational phases, the circannual variation and the gender-specific analysis showed no statistically significant differences. Conclusion. In this adequate powered longitudinal study, changes in tractive force during the different lunar phases did not influence the incidence of renal colic admissions in emergency department.

  13. Differences in Ureteroscopic Stone Treatment and Outcomes for Distal, Mid-, Proximal, or Multiple Ureteral Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez Castro, Enrique; Osther, Palle J S; Jinga, Viorel

    2014-01-01

    Ureteroscopy has traditionally been the preferred approach for treatment of distal and midureteral stones, with shock wave lithotripsy used for proximal ureteral stones.......Ureteroscopy has traditionally been the preferred approach for treatment of distal and midureteral stones, with shock wave lithotripsy used for proximal ureteral stones....

  14. Kidney stones and crushed bones secondary to hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreelesh, K P; Sreejith, G Nair; Pranab, K Prabhakaran

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a 65-year-old woman with multiple brown tumors and renal stones secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism. This case highlights the need for early recognition of parathyroid hyperactivity.

  15. Influence of mineral water consumption and renal stone formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRSAY Laszlo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The intake of minerals are very important in maintaining health, but in returning to health either. Mineral waters represents a source of minerals with high bioavailability. There are evidence based studies for the efficency of mineral waters in a series of disorders for both internal and external cures. The advantage of mineral waters in renal lithiasis are significant and the risks of stone formation are neglectable if medical advise is respected. Amongst the patients- but unfortunately also the medical staff- there is the incorrect oppinion that mineral water is a factor that causes renal stones in all consumers. The purpose of the present paper is to present the factors that favour the renal stones, but also scientific arguments that support the value of mineral water, that has a part not only in ensuring the right mineral balance but also, in certain situations, even in preventing renal stones.

  16. Construction aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, T.I.; Bolen, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    Construction aggregates, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.

  17. Urinary Stones in Neonates: Dilemma Between Urolithiasis and Nephrocalcinosis

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma Narter; Fehmi Narter; Kemal Sarıca

    2015-01-01

    Urinary stones are extremely rare in the neonatal population. Most of the urinary stones in the neonate contain calcium. Nephrolithiasis in the neonate may be as urolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis. The incidence of nephrocalcinosis is not yet clear and can be differ in many researches due to the etiology. On the other hand, the incidence of urolithiasis in childhood is almost 10% of that in adults. Especially in the first decade, it is more common in boys. It may occur wit...

  18. Assessment of industrial minerals and rocks in the controlled area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castor, S.B. [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Reno, NV (United States); Lock, D.E. [Mackay School of Mines, Reno, NV (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada, is a potential site for a permanent repository for high-level nuclear waste in Miocene ash flow tuff. The Yucca Mountain controlled area occupies approximately 98 km{sup 2} that includes the potential repository site. The Yucca Mountain controlled area is located within the southwestern Nevada volcanic field, a large area of Miocene volcanism that includes at least four major calderas or cauldrons. It is sited on a remnant of a Neogene volcanic plateau that was centered around the Timber Mountain caldera complex. The Yucca Mountain region contains many occurrences of valuable or potentially valuable industrial minerals, including deposits with past or current production of construction aggregate, borate minerals, clay, building stone, fluorspar, silicate, and zeolites. The existence of these deposits in the region and the occurrence of certain mineral materials at Yucca Mountain, indicate that the controlled area may have potential for industrial mineral and rock deposits. Consideration of the industrial mineral potential within the Yucca Mountain controlled area is mainly based on petrographic and lithologic studies of samples from drill holes in Yucca Mountain. Clay minerals, zeolites, fluorite, and barite, as minerals that are produced economically in Nevada, have been identified in samples from drill holes in Yucca Mountain.

  19. 单轴压缩条件下土石混合体开裂特征研究%CRACKING DEFORMATION CHARACTERISTICS FOR ROCK AND SOIL AGGREGATE UNDER UNIAXIAL COMPRESSIVE TEST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇; 李晓; 李守定; 李关访; 赵志恒

    2015-01-01

    土石混合体作为一种物质成分和内部结构特征极为复杂的多相多组分散粒材料,其破坏是一个复杂的结构变化过程。应用 CT 试验和数值模拟方法研究土石混合体的变形破坏特征,指出开裂是土石混合体区别于其他地质体变形破坏的一个显著特征。土石混合体破坏的根本原因是块石与土体的弹性不匹配和土–石界面的差异滑动,破坏的实质是内部裂纹产生、扩展、互锁和贯通的过程。通过对土石混合体开裂机制的研究得出以下结论:(1)基于CT试验的变形特征分析表明试样、块石包裹体及其邻近土体三个感兴趣区域的CT数随应力水平的增加而不断减小,且块石包裹体的CT数变化较土体更为敏感。(2)数值模拟结果表明试样破坏过程经历了土石结合裂纹的萌生、慢裂、快裂致贯通破坏的过程。土石接触面是最薄弱的部位,荷载作用下界面差异滑动引起裂纹的产生,随后裂纹沿块石边界缓慢扩展直至扩展到土体中,受块石形状及分布的影响,裂纹会出现局部化发展和互锁现象。大量裂纹在土体中快速扩展聚集引起试样的破坏。(3)土石混合体的破坏具有渐进性的过程,破坏可分为三级:一是土–石界面的开裂,二是土体中裂纹的扩展、聚集和贯通并且最终导致试样的破坏,三是针对软弱的片岩块石的穿石破坏。%Rock and soil aggregate(RSA) is a kind of multiphase and multi-component material and its composition and internal structure characteristic is very complex. The damage process of RSA is a complex structure change process. CT tests and numerical simulation method are used to study the deformation and cracking characteristics of RSA,and it is point that cracking failure is a unique characteristic for RSA which differs from other geology bode. The primary reason cracking is the elastic mismatch between rock blocks and soil

  20. Defective urinary crystallization inhibition and urinary stone formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Carvalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nephrocalcin (NC is a glycoprotein produced in the kidney and inhibits calcium oxalate crystal formation. It has been separated into 4 isoforms (A, B, C, and D and found that (A + B are more abundant than (C + D in urine of healthy subjects, but the reverse is seen in human urine of kidney stone patients. To further examine the role of this protein in inhibition of urinary crystallization, nephrocalcin isoforms were purified from 2 genetically pure dog species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied healthy Beagles, known to be non-stone forming dogs, and Mini-Schnauzers, known to be calcium oxalate stone formers. NC was isolated and purified from each group. Urinary biochemistry and calcium oxalate crystal growth inhibition were measured. RESULTS: Specific crystal growth inhibition activity was significantly higher in non-stone forming dogs (9.79 ± 2.25 in Beagles vs. 2.75 ± 1.34 of Mini-Schnauzers, p < 0.005. Dissociation constants toward calcium oxalate monohydrate were 10-fold different, with Beagles' isoforms being 10 times stronger inhibitors compare to those of Mini-Schnauzers'. Isoforms C + D of NC were the main isoforms isolated in stone-forming dogs. CONCLUSION: NC of these two species of dogs differently affects calcium oxalate crystallization and might have a role in determining ulterior urinary stone formation.

  1. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation

    OpenAIRE

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the e...

  2. Elbow joint disorders in relation to vibration exposure and age in stone quarry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, H; Suzuki, H; Momoi, Y; Yamada, S

    1993-01-01

    Elbow joint disorders were studied in relation to vibration exposure and age in 74 male stone quarry workers who operated mainly chipping hammers and sometimes rock drills. They were examined for range of active motion in elbow extension and flexion, and by means of radiographs of the elbow joint. Effects of age and vibratory tool operation on the elbow joint were statistically estimated using multiple regression analysis. In the analysis of all subjects, including those aged over 60 years, age was significantly related to the range of motion in extension and to radiographic changes in both elbows, and the duration of vibratory tool operation was associated with the range of right elbow flexion. Among subjects under the age of 60 years, duration of vibratory tool operation showed a significant dose-effect relationship to the range of flexion and radiographic changes in the right elbow, but there was no significant relationship with age. The present results suggest that the operation of chipping hammers and rock drills contributes to elbow joint disorders or osteoarthrosis, even when the effect of age is taken into account. Besides vibration exposure, it may be necessary to consider various loads on the elbow joint such as firmly grasping and pressing the tool against stones with the arm bent at about 90 degrees, and carrying stones.

  3. The Stones and the Stars Building Scotland's Newest Megalith

    CERN Document Server

    Lunan, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    There are at least 48 identified prehistoric stone circles in Scotland.  In truth, very little is known about the people who erected them, and ultimately about what the stone circles were for.  Most stone circles are astronomically aligned, which has led to the modern debate over the significance of the alignments.  The megaliths certainly represented an enormous cooperative effort, would at the very least have demonstrated power and wealth, and being set away from any dwellings probably served a ceremonial, or perhaps religious, purpose. Observations at the site of the stone circles, of solar, lunar, and stellar events, have already cast light on some of the questions about the construction and use of ancient megalithic observatories. In his capacity as manager of the Glasgow Parks Department Astronomy Project, author Duncan Lunan designed and built in the late 1970s Sighthill, the first astronomically aligned stone circle in Britain in over 3,000 years.  The Stones and the Stars examines the case for as...

  4. NEW FRONTIERS ON NEPHROLITHIASIS: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF KIDNEY STONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malan Rajat

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis (also known as kidney stones, renal stones, urinary stones, urolithiasis, and renal calculi affects a great number of patients worldwide. These can be of different types like calcium-oxalate, struvite, uric acid, cysteine. Larger stones in the urinary tract can cause extreme pain in the lower back or side. Urinary tract infections, kidney disorders and certain metabolic disorders such as hyperparathyroidism are also linked to stone formation. Cystinuria, hyperoxaluria, Hypercalciuria, drinking less water, consuming more salty food can cause stone formation in urinary tract. Various precautions and treatment are available includes life style changing (drinking more water or more fluid intake and reducing calcium rich diet intake, avoid junk food, Medical therapy (use of diuretics and other medicines, the over use of synthetic drugs which results in higher incidence of adverse drug reaction has motivated humans to return to nature for safe remedies and surgical treatment The present article revealed the update knowledge about remedy and treatment of nephrolithiasis for all those peoples who is having renal colic pain.

  5. Aggregating and Disaggregating Flexibility Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja

    2015-01-01

    In many scientific and commercial domains we encounter flexibility objects, i.e., objects with explicit flexibilities in a time and an amount dimension (e.g., energy or product amount). Applications of flexibility objects require novel and efficient techniques capable of handling large amounts...... energy data management and discuss strategies for aggregation and disaggregation of flex-objects while retaining flexibility. This paper further extends these approaches beyond flex-objects originating from energy consumption by additionally considering flex-objects originating from energy production...... and aiming at energy balancing during aggregation. In more detail, this paper considers the complete life cycle of flex-objects: aggregation, disaggregation, associated requirements, efficient incremental computation, and balance aggregation techniques. Extensive experiments based on real-world data from...

  6. Renal struvite stones--pathogenesis, microbiology, and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannigan, Ryan; Choy, Wai Ho; Chew, Ben; Lange, Dirk

    2014-06-01

    Infection stones-which account for 10-15% of all urinary calculi-are thought to form in the presence of urease-producing bacteria. These calculi can cause significant morbidity and mortality if left untreated or treated inadequately; optimal treatment involves complete stone eradication in conjunction with antibiotic therapy. The three key principles of treating struvite stones are: removal of all stone fragments, the use of antibiotics to treat the infection, and prevention of recurrence. Several methods to remove stone fragments have been described in the literature, including the use of urease inhibitors, acidification therapy, dissolution therapy, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), and anatrophic nephrolithotomy. PCNL is considered to be the gold-standard approach to treating struvite calculi, but adjuncts might be used when deemed necessary. When selecting antibiotics to treat infection, it is necessary to acquire a stone culture or, at the very least, urine culture from the renal pelvis at time of surgery, as midstream urine cultures do not always reflect the causative organism.

  7. Effect of surfactant on surface hardness of dental stone and investment casts produced from polyvinyl siloxane duplicating materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Johani, Attalah; Clark, Robert K F; Juszczyk, Andrzej S; Radford, David R

    2008-06-01

    Polyvinylsiloxane duplicating materials are typically treated with a topical surfactant before pouring dental models, but the use of topical surfactants in the dental laboratory may affect the surface hardness of the resultant models. The effect of two different topical surfactants on surface hardness of two dental stones (FujiRock and Dentstone) and one phosphate bonded investment material (Croform WB) produced from polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) dental laboratory duplicating moulds was investigated. Topical surfactants affected the surface hardness of FujiRock, Dentstone and Croform WB investment material. Surface hardness of FujiRock increased with Wax-Mate surfactant. However, surface hardness of Croform WB investment material decreased with both topical surfactants.

  8. Simplified methods for the evaluation of the risk of forming renal stones and the follow-up of stone-forming propensity during the preventive treatment of stone-formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Fèlix; Costa-Bauzá, Antonia

    2016-02-01

    Renal lithiasis is a complex multifactorial disease in which recurrence is common. Thus, simple and reliable procedures are needed to evaluate patients with previous kidney stones to determine the risk of recurrence. In this paper we review simple biochemical procedures that can be used to determine the risk for renal stone formation when the stone is available or unavailable for analysis. Our present knowledge of renal lithiasis indicates that renal stones form due to several well-defined factors. Analysis of the renal stone itself can provide important information about clinical factors that require further investigation. When the stone is unavailable, it is necessary to perform a general evaluation of main urinary risk factors associated to renal stone formation, but this study should be complemented considering information related to direct familial antecedents, recidivant degree, radiological images, medical history, and life style habits. Finally, tools for patient follow-up of stone-forming propensity during the preventive treatment are discussed .

  9. Physical, Chemical and Mineral Properties of the Polonnaruwa Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Jamie; Wickramasinghe, N. C.; Wallis, Daryl H.; Miyake, Nori; Wallis, M. K.; Hoover, Richard B.; Samaranayake, Anil; Wickramarathne, Keerthi; Oldroyd, Anthony

    We report on the physical, chemical and mineral properties of a series of stone fragments recovered from the North Central Province of Sri Lanka following a witnessed fireball event on 29 December 2012. The stones exhibit highly porous poikilitic textures comprising of isotropic silica-rich/plagioclase-like hosts. Inclusions range in size and shape from mm-sized to smaller subangular grains frequently more fractured than the surrounding host and include ilmenite, olivine (fayalitic), quartz and accessory zircon. Bulk mineral compositions include accessory cristobalite, hercynite, anorthite, wuestite, albite, anorthoclase and the high pressure olivine polymorph wadsleyite, suggesting previous endurance of a shock pressure of ~20GPa. Further evidence of shock is confirmed by theconversion of all plagioclase to maskelynite. Here the infrared absorption spectra in the region 580 cm-1 to 380 cm-1 due to the Si-O-Si or Si-O-Al absorption band shows a partial shift in the peak at 380 cm-1 towards 480 cm-1 indicating an intermediate position between crystalline and amorphous phase. Host matrix chemical compositions vary between samples, but all are rich in SiO2. Silica-rich melts display a heterogeneous K-enrichment comparable to that reported in a range of nonterrestrial material from rare iron meteorites to LL chondritic breccias and Lunar granites. Bulk chemical compositions of plagioclase-like samples are comparable to reported data e.g. Miller Ranger 05035 (Lunar), while Si-rich samples accord well with mafic and felsic glasses reported in NWA 1664 (Howardite)as well asdata for fusion crust present in a variety of meteoritic samples.Triple oxygen isotope results show Δ17O = .0.335 with δ18O (‰ rel. SMOW) values of 17.816 ± 0.100 and compare well with those of known CI chondrites and are within the range of CI-like (Meta-C) chondrites. Rare earth elemental abundances show a profound Europium anomaly of between 0.7 and 0.9 ppm while CI normalized REE patterns

  10. Geotechnical Descriptions of Rock and Rock Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    weathering is presented by Dornbusch (1982). 39. Mechanical, or physical, weathering of rock occurs primarily by (a) freeze expansion (or frost wedging...34Engineering Classifica- tion of In-Situ Rock," Technical Report No. AFWL-TR-67-144, Air Force Weapons Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N. Mex. Dornbusch , W

  11. Rock and mineral magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    O’Reilly, W

    1984-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a revolution in the earth sciences. The quantitative, instrument-based measurements and physical models of. geophysics, together with advances in technology, have radically transformed the way in which the Earth, and especially its crust, is described. The study of the magnetism of the rocks of the Earth's crust has played a major part in this transformation. Rocks, or more specifically their constituent magnetic minerals, can be regarded as a measuring instrument provided by nature, which can be employed in the service of the earth sciences. Thus magnetic minerals are a recording magnetometer; a goniometer or protractor, recording the directions of flows, fields and forces; a clock; a recording thermometer; a position recorder; astrain gauge; an instrument for geo­ logical surveying; a tracer in climatology and hydrology; a tool in petrology. No instrument is linear, or free from noise and systematic errors, and the performance of nature's instrument must be assessed and ...

  12. Crushed Stone Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes crushed stone operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  13. Integration of terrestrial laser scanner, ultrasonic and petrographical data in the diagnostic process on stone building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casula, Giuseppe; Fais, Silvana; Giovanna Bianchi, Maria; Cuccuru, Francesco; Ligas, Paola

    2015-04-01

    The Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) is a modern contactless non-destructive technique (NDT) useful to 3D-model complex-shaped objects with a few hours' field survey. A TLS survey produces very dense point clouds made up of coordinates of point and radiometric information given by the reflectivity parameter i.e. the ratio between the amount of energy emitted by the sensor and the energy reflected by the target object. Modern TLSs used in architecture are phase instruments where the phase difference obtained by comparing the emitted laser pulse with the reflected one is proportional to the sensor-target distance expressed as an integer multiple of the half laser wavelength. TLS data are processed by registering point clouds i.e. by referring them to the same reference frame and by aggregation after a fine registration procedure. The resulting aggregate point cloud can be compared with graphic primitives as single or multiple planes, cylinders or spheres, and the resulting residuals give a morphological map that affords information about the state of conservation of the building materials used in historical or modern buildings, in particular when compared with other NDT techniques. In spite of its great productivity, the TLS technique is limited in that it is unable to penetrate the investigated materials. For this reason both the 3D residuals map and the reflectivity map need to be correlated with the results of other NDT techniques such as the ultrasonic method, and a complex study of the composition of building materials is also necessary. The application of a methodology useful to evaluate the quality of stone building materials and locate altered or damaged zones is presented in this study based on the integrated application of three independent techniques, two non destructive such as the TLS and the ultrasonic techniques in the 24-54 kHz range, and a third to analyze the petrographical characteristics of the stone materials, mainly the texture, with optical and

  14. Stone Formation and Fragmentation in Forgotten Ureteral Double J Stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Bas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Nowadays, ureteral stents play an essential role in various endourological and open surgical procedures and common procedures performed in daily urological practice. However, stents can cause significant complications such as migration, infection, fragmentation, stone formation and encrustation, especially when forgotten for a long period. Objectives: We present our experience in endoscopic management of forgotten ureteral stents with a brief review of current literature. Case presentation: A total of 2 patients with forgotten ureteral stents were treated with endourological approaches in our department. Indwelling durations were 18 months and 36 months. After treatment both patients were stone and stent free. Conclusion: An endourological approach is effective for stent and stone removal after a single anesthesia session with minimal morbidity and short hospital stay. However, therapeutic strategy is also determined by the technology available. The best treatment would be the prevention of this complication by providing detailed patient education.

  15. Screening and Management of Asymptomatic Renal Stones in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James; Sargsyan, Ashot; Garcia, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The true risk for renal stone formation in astronauts due to the space flight environment is unknown. Proper management of this condition is crucial to mitigate health and mission risks. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic electronic medical record and the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health databases were reviewed. An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was also done. This work was used to develop a screening and management protocol for renal stones in astronauts that is relevant to the spaceflight operational environment. In the proposed guidelines all astronauts receive a yearly screening and post-flight renal ultrasound using a novel ultrasound protocol. The ultrasound protocol uses a combination of factors, including: size, position, shadow, twinkle and dispersion properties to confirm the presence of a renal calcification. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by a low-dose renal computed tomography scan and urologic consult. Other specific guidelines were also created. A small asymptomatic renal stone within the renal collecting system may become symptomatic at any time, and therefore affect launch and flight schedules, or cause incapacitation during a mission. Astronauts in need of definitive care can be evacuated from the International Space Station, but for deep space missions evacuation is impossible. The new screening and management algorithm has been implemented and the initial round of screening ultrasounds is under way. Data from these exams will better define the incidence of renal stones in U.S. astronauts, and will be used to inform risk mitigation for both short and long duration spaceflights.

  16. Rock blasting and explosives engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, P.-A.; Holmberg, R.; Lee, J. (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Research Center for Energetic Materials)

    1994-01-01

    The book covers the practical engineering aspects of different kinds of rock blasting. It includes a thorough analysis of the cost of the entire process of tunneling by drilling and blasting compared with full-face boring. It covers the economics of the entire rock blasting operation and its dependence on the size of excavation. The book highlights the fundamentals of rock mechanics, shock waves and detonation, initiation and mechanics of rock motion. It describes the engineering design principles and computational techniques for many separate mining methods and rock blasting operations. 274 refs.

  17. Erythrocyte aggregation: Basic aspects and clinical importance

    OpenAIRE

    Oğuz K. Başkurt; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBC) aggregate to form two- and three-dimensional structures when suspended in aqueous solutions containing large plasma proteins or polymers; this aggregation is reversible and shear dependent (i.e., dispersed at high shear and reformed at low or stasis). The extent of aggregation is the main determinant of low shear blood viscosity, thus predicting an inverse relationship between aggregation and in vivo blood flow. However, the effects of aggregation on hemodynamic mechanis...

  18. Coincidence symptomatic gall stone and helicobacter pylori: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kazem Nezam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: On of the most common gasterointrestinal disease is gallstone disease and it`s prevalence is 11%-36%in autopsies. If gallstone leads to symptoms and side effect cholecystectomy will be inevitable. Gastric infection due to H.P will cause several symptoms of which dyspepsia and epigastric pain are outstanding .Gall stones also usually causes epigastric and/or right upper quadrant pain. Pain in other abdominal quadrant is less common. In this study we investigated the coincidence of gall stone and gastro intestinal H.P regarding the common symptom, between these two conditions to prevent unnecessary operation.Methods: The cases were adopted from cholecystectomy candidates due to gall stone disease (proved by ultrasonography. The control group were normal people who proved to be gall stone free ultrasonographicly. Serum IgG anti H.P was checked and compared between the two groups.Results: Seventy percent of patients entered into the study which consisted of 35 case and 35 controls. The two groups were not significantly different in age and gender. There were 22 (68.8% and 10 (31.2% H.P positive cases in case and control groups respectively. Thirteen (34.2% and 25 (65.8% cases were H.P negative in case and control groups respectively. Comparing these results will reveal a statistically significant difference (P=0.004.Conclusion: The relationship between gastric H.P and gall stone in this study supports the role of H.P in gall stone formation. According to our results and the common symptoms of two conditions specially in atypic biliary colic, it seems that in many cases gastrointestinal H.P causes the pain. Prospective studies are recommended.

  19. Famous building stones of our Nation's capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The buildings of our Nation's Capital are constructed with rocks from quarries located throughout the United States and many distant lands. The earliest Government buildings, however, were constructed with stones from nearby sources because it was too difficult and expensive to move heavy materials such as stone any great distance without the aid of modern transportation methods, including large cargo ships, trains, and trucks. This fact sheet describes the source and appearance of three frequently used local stones employed in building Washington, D.C., and the geologic environment in which they were formed.

  20. Ultrasound Based Method and Apparatus for Stone Detection and to Facilitate Clearance Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Michael (Inventor); Kucewicz, John (Inventor); Lu, Wei (Inventor); Sapozhnikov, Oleg (Inventor); Illian, Paul (Inventor); Shah, Anup (Inventor); Dunmire, Barbrina (Inventor); Owen, Neil (Inventor); Cunitz, Bryan (Inventor); Kaczkowski, Peter (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Described herein are methods and apparatus for detecting stones by ultrasound, in which the ultrasound reflections from a stone are preferentially selected and accentuated relative to the ultrasound reflections from blood or tissue. Also described herein are methods and apparatus for applying pushing ultrasound to in vivo stones or other objects, to facilitate the removal of such in vivo objects.

  1. Diversity, intent, and aggregated search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Rijke

    2014-01-01

    Diversity, intent and aggregated search are three core retrieval concepts that receive significant attention. In search result diversification one typically considers the relevance of a document in light of other retrieved documents. The goal is to identify the probable "aspects" of an ambiguous que

  2. Variability of the calcium ion activity with pH in stone-forming and non-stone-forming urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thode, J; Holgersen, R B; Gerstenberg, T

    1993-01-01

    In recurrent renal stone-formers (N = 20) and matched healthy adults (N = 20), the actual activity of ionized calcium (alpha Ca2+) and pH were determined in whole urine with an ion-selective electrode. No significant difference was found for the actual median activity of ionized calcium, however the actual median pH was significantly higher in stone-formers compared to healthy adults (pH = 5.57 vs. pH = 5.24; p titration with HCl/NaOH. In all urines the Ca2+ activity decreased with increasing pH in a typical bifasic manner. All curves showed a characteristic "breaking point" at a similar median pH in the stone-formers and in the healthy adults (pH = 6.81 vs. pH = 6.77) (NS). However the slope of the curves in the stone-formers and healthy adults changed from a median value of delta lg alpha Ca2+/delta pH of -0.139 and -0.173 (NS) respectively, to a highly significant difference of -1.326 and -1.053 (p < 0.0001) between the groups, indicating increased binding/precipitation of Ca2+ in stone-formers than in healthy adults supporting the theory of the lack of inhibitors in stone-formers. The strong relationship between the activity of ionized calcium and pH, combined with a higher actual pH and a higher decrease of ionized calcium with pH in stone-formers than in healthy adults, indicates hydrogen ion as a major factor in stone-formation. The close relationship between Ca2+ activity and pH indicates the need for simultaneous measurements of the pH in order to interpret data for the Ca2+ activity. In order to preserve a low urinary pH, where Ca2+ is predominantly in a free ionic state, our results suggest that treatment with acidifying salts could be a logical choice in order to prevent stone-formation.

  3. Fragmentation of common bile duct and pancreatic duct stones by extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ham Gyum [Ansan Junior College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Soon Yong; Lee, Won Hong [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    To determine its usefulness and safety of extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy in common bile duct and pancreatic duct stones, we analyzed the results of 13 patients with common bile duct stones and 6 patients with pancreatic duct stones which were removed by endoscopic procedures using the balloon or basket, who was performed the extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy using the ultrasonography for stone localization with a spark gap type Lithotriptor(Dornier MPL 9000, Germany). Fragmentation and complete clearance of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct stones were obtained in 19 of 19 patients(100%). Apart from transient attacks of fever in 2 of 13 patients with common bile duct stones(15%) and mild elevation of serum amylase and lipase in 2 of 6 patients with pancreatic duct stones(33%), no other serious side effects were observed. In our experiences, extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy is a safe and useful treatment for endoscopically unretrievable common bile duct and pancreatic duct stones.

  4. Pathological and therapeutic significance of cellular invasion by Proteus mirabilis in an enterocystoplasty infection stone model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B. Mathoera (Rejiv); D.J. Kok (Dirk); C.M. Verduin (Cees); R.J.M. Nijman (Rien)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractProteus mirabilis infection often leads to stone formation. We evaluated how bacterium-mucin adhesion, invasion, and intracellular crystal formation are related to antibiotic sensitivity and may cause frequent stone formation in enterocystoplasties. Five intestinal (Cac

  5. Fossils, rocks, and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lucy E.; Pojeta, John

    1999-01-01

    We study our Earth for many reasons: to find water to drink or oil to run our cars or coal to heat our homes, to know where to expect earthquakes or landslides or floods, and to try to understand our natural surroundings. Earth is constantly changing--nothing on its surface is truly permanent. Rocks that are now on top of a mountain may once have been at the bottom of the sea. Thus, to understand the world we live on, we must add the dimension of time. We must study Earth's history. When we talk about recorded history, time is measured in years, centuries, and tens of centuries. When we talk about Earth history, time is measured in millions and billions of years. Time is an everyday part of our lives. We keep track of time with a marvelous invention, the calendar, which is based on the movements of Earth in space. One spin of Earth on its axis is a day, and one trip around the Sun is a year. The modern calendar is a great achievement, developed over many thousands of years as theory and technology improved. People who study Earth's history also use a type of calendar, called the geologic time scale. It looks very different from the familiar calendar. In some ways, it is more like a book, and the rocks are its pages. Some of the pages are torn or missing, and the pages are not numbered, but geology gives us the tools to help us read this book.

  6. The historical and cultural heritage from Brazil: rocks and deterioration patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Antônio

    2014-05-01

    record and sampling, this last whenever possible, were made. Through macroscopic descriptions was possible to identify the presence of numerous cracks, elevations and detachments of outer layers from some rocks, separation of layers, disaggregation of individual grains or aggregates of grains, loss of original surface due to mechanical action or not, resulting in the presence of smoothed shapes, loss of parts of sculptures, so as the presence of cavities or alveoli formed on the surface of the rock. Were also observed: the presence of crusts by accumulation of exogenous materials and rock itself, color changes, eflorescences, incrustations with surface morphology and color different from those of stone, patinas, graffiti as a result of vandalism and different degrees of biological colonization, involving the presence of mold, lichen, algae and plants. It is hoped that the data obtained may contribute to the indication of preservation methods most recommended for each case of observed deterioration. Considering that the majority of these materials remains exposed to external areas, these efforts will be sufficient only to delay the actions and minimize the effects of these processes of deterioration.

  7. Getter Incorporation into Cast Stone and Solid State Characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmussen, Robert M.; Pearce, Carolyn I.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Neeway, James J.; Miller, Brian L.; Lee, Brady D.; Washton, Nancy M.; Stephenson, John R.; Clayton, Ray E.; Bowden, Mark E.; Buck, Edgar C.; Cordova, Elsa; Qafoku, Nikolla; Williams, Benjamin D.

    2016-09-28

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is collecting relevant available data on waste forms for use as a supplemental immobilization technology, to provide the additional capacity needed to treat low-activity waste (LAW) in Hanford Site tanks and complete the tank waste cleanup mission in a timely and cost-effective manner. One candidate supplemental waste form, fabricated using a low-temperature process, is a cementitious grout called Cast Stone. Cast Stone has been under investigation for this application at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) since initial screening tests in FY13. This report is the culmination of work to lower the diffusivities of Tc and I from Cast Stone using getters. Getters are compounds added to a system designed to selectively sequester a species of interest to provide increased stability to the species. The work contained within this report is related to waste form development and testing and does not directly support the 2017 integrated disposal facility (IDF) performance assessment. However, this work contains valuable information which may be used in performance assessment maintenance past FY17, and in future waste form development. This report on performance characterization of Tc and I getters in Cast Stone fabricated with simulated LAW covers several areas of interest and major findings to WRPS:

  8. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of biliary and pancreatic stones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. den Toom (Rene)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the study was to answer the following questions: Is extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for gallbladder stones a safe and effective therapy? (Chapter 2) Is simultaneous treatment with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and the solvent methyl te.rt-butyl ether feasible, sa

  9. Effect of stone composition,color,size,impaction and location on the efficacy of pneumatic ureterolithotripsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siavash Falahatkar; Gholamreza Mokhtari; Zahra Panahandeh; Sadi Pourjafar; Sara Nikpour; Marzieh Akbarpour

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Assessment of the relationship between stone location,composition,color,size and impaction with success rate of pneumatic ureterolithotripsy.Methods:This study was performed on 440 patients who were candidate for pneumatic uretemllthotripsy adrnitted in an academic urology department from February 2004 to June 2006.Exclusion criteria included active urinary tract infection and pregnancy.Information such as stone composition,color,impaction,size,location and surface were recorded.Success rate was defined as stone fragmentation to <2 mm.We used chi-square test and student t-test for statistical analysis.Results:The Success rate of pneumatic ureterolithotripsy was 83.0%.Mean stone size was 9.86±3.79 mm.The stone free rates in upper,middle and lower ureter were 66.7%,100%and 90.7%respectively(P<0.000 1).Stone free rate was 100%and 69.35%in<5 mm and>5 mm stones respectively(P<0.0001).Impaction did not correlate significandy with stone free rate(P=0.17).The Success rate was 100% in phosphate and cystine stones.There Was a significant statistical difference between success rate and stone comlxmition(P=0.026).The most common fragmented stone color Was gold(95.5%).Stone color correlated significantly with stone free rate(P<0.0001).Conclusion:In this series ureterolithotfipsy,stone free rate had a significant correlation with stone color,size,composition and location,but it Was independent of stone impaction.

  10. The "green stones" of Valtellina and Valchiavenna (central Alps, northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Valtellina and Val Chiavenna (Sondrio, Central Alps, northern Italy) are traditionally areas of production of building and ornamental stones (e.g. Serizzo Ghiandone, Serizzo Valmasino, San Fedelino Granite), and among these the "green stones" have a leading position. These stones had an extensive use in Lombardy, as well as abroad (e.g Switzerland). The "green stones" are related to the two mafic-ultramafic bodies of Valmalenco and Chiavenna, where the two largest quarrying districts of the Province of Sondrio are located. Until the early decades of the XX century, serpentinites (and other lithologies from Valtellina) were also extracted from the erratic boulders of Brianza (north of Milan), but at present time the law protects the few remaining boulders. The extracted and processed materials are various: serpentinites, ophicalcites, soapstones. Even the "Stone of Tresivio", used in the past in important monuments of Valtellina, could be classified among the "green stones" in a broad sense: it is a green chloritic schist with scarce and thin ferriferous calcitic veins, pertaining to the sedimentary "Servino" Formation. In recent times, the ancient quarries of this stone were rediscovered near the homonymous village, a few kilometers from Sondrio. There are also historic reports about other "green stones", used in ancient times, such as the "Stone of Grosio", a chloritic schist, and the "Bormio Prasinite". Currently the extraction and processing of "green stones" occurs mostly in Valmalenco, with 22 active serpentinite quarries and a gross volume of 70000 m3 extracted per year, with a yield of about 50%. The Malenco serpentinite (interpreted as sub-continental mantle rocks) forms a 1-2 km thick tabular body, outcropping over an area of about 170 km2, almost entirely confined within the boundaries of the valley. The antigoritic serpentinites (with variable amounts of olivine, clinopyroxene, chlorite and magnetite) are moderately up to strongly foliated, sometimes

  11. Aggregating and Communicating Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    means for identifying and communicating uncertainty. i 12- APPENDIX A BIBLIOGRAPHY j| 1. Ajzen , Icek ; "Intuitive Theories of Events and the Effects...disregarding valid but noncausal information." (Icak Ajzen , "Intuitive Theo- ries of Events and the Effects of Base-Rate Information on Prediction...9 4i,* ,4.. -. .- S % to the criterion while disregarding valid but noncausal information." (Icak Ajzen , "Intuitive Theories of Events and the Effects

  12. Acetone:isomedzation and aggregation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhan; JIN Ming-xing; XU Xue-song; CHENG Xi-hui; DING Da-jun

    2006-01-01

    The advanced experimental and theoretical techniques enable us to obtain information on the rearrangement of atoms or molecules in a reaction nowadays.As an example,we report on our research work on acetone isomerization and aggregation to give an insight into the reaction pathways,the products and their structures,and the growth regularity of aggregation.The evidences on the structural change of acetone and the stability of acetone clusters are found by a laser ionization mass spectrometer and the results are interpreted from theoretical analysis based on the DFT/B3LYP method.Various isomerization channels of acetone have been established and the optimal structures of the neutral clusters (CH3COCH3)n and the protonated acetone clusters (CH3COCHa)n H+ for n=1-7 have been determined.

  13. Comparison of laparoscopic stone surgery and percutaneous nephrolithotomy in the management of large upper urinary stones: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chenming; Yang, Huan; Tang, Kun; Xia, Ding; Xu, Hua; Chen, Zhiqiang; Ye, Zhangqun

    2016-11-01

    For the treatment of large upper urinary stones percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is generally considered the first choice, and Laparoscopic Stone Surgery (LSS) is an alternative. We aim to compare the efficiency and safety of PCNL with LSS, as far as the management of large upper urinary stones is concerned. A systematic search from Pubmed, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library and Elsevier was performed up to August 1, 2015 for the relevant published studies. After data extraction and quality assessment, meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan 5.3 software. 15 eligible trials evaluating LSS vs. PCNL were identified including 6 prospective and 9 retrospective studies with 473 patients undergoing LSS and 523 patients undergoing PCNL. Although LSS led to longer operative time (p = 0.01) and higher open conversion rate (p = 0.02), patients might benefit from significantly fewer overall complications (p = 0.03), especially lower bleeding rate (p = 0.02), smaller drop in hemoglobin level (p < 0.001), less need of blood transfusion (p = 0.01). The stone free rate was also higher for LSS compared with PCNL (p < 0.001) with less secondary/complementary procedure (p = 0.006). There was no significant difference in other demographic parameters between the two groups. Our data suggests that LSS turns out to be a safe and feasible alternative to PCNL for large upper urinary stones with less bleeding and higher stone free rate. Because of the inherent limitations of the included studies, further large sample prospective, multi-centric studies and randomized control trials should be undertaken to confirm our findings.

  14. DNA FROM ANCIENT STONE TOOLS AND BONES EXCAVATED AT BUGAS-HOLDING, WYOMING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traces of DNA may preserve on ancient stone tools. We examined 24 chipped stone artifacts recovered from the Bugas-Holding site in northwestern Wyoming for the presence of DNA residues, and we compared DNA preservation in bones and stone tools from the same stratigraphic context...

  15. Protein content of human apatite and brushite kidney stones: significant correlation with morphologic measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Rocky; Asplin, John R; Jackson, Molly E; Williams, James C

    2008-10-01

    Apatite and brushite kidney stones share calcium and phosphate as their main inorganic components. We tested the hypothesis that these stone types differ in the amount of proteins present in the stones. Intact stones were intensively analyzed by microcomputed tomography (micro CT) for both morphology (including the volume of voids, i.e., space devoid of X-ray dense material) and mineral type. To extract all proteins present in kidney stones in soluble form we developed a three-step extraction procedure using the ground stone powder. Apatite stones had significantly higher levels of total protein content and void volume compared to brushite stones. The void volume was highly correlated with the total protein contents in all stones (r2 = 0.61, P brushite stones contained significantly fewer void regions and proteins than did apatite stones (3.2 +/- 4.5% voids for brushite vs. 10.8 +/- 11.2% for apatite, P brushite vs. 6.0 +/- 2.4% for apatite, P brushite and apatite stones is higher than that was previously thought, and also suggest that micro CT-visible void regions are related to the presence of protein.

  16. Silicified Granites (Bleeding Stone and Ochre Granite) as Global Heritage Stones Resources from Avila (Central of Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo C.; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago; Molina-Ballesteros, Eloy

    2015-04-01

    Silicified Granites have been widely used to build the main Romanesque monuments in the 12 th century of Avila city that was designated a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO in 1985. The stone was used in the Cathedral (12 th century); churches located interior and exterior of the Walls (e.g. Saint Vincent; Saint Peter). During the Renaissance and Gothic period, 15 th century Silicified Granites have been used mainly to buid ribbed vaults in Avila city (e.g. Royal Palace of the Catholic Monarchs, and Chapel of Mosén Rubí). Silicified Granites are related to an intermediate and upper parts of a complex palaeoweathering mantle developed on the Iberian Hercynian Basement (the greatest part of the western Iberian Peninsula and its oldest geological entity). In the Mesozoic the basement underwent tropical weathering processes. The weathered mantle were truncated by the Alpine tectonic movements during the Tertiary, and Its remnants were unconformably covered by more recent sediments and are located in the west and south part of the Duero Basin and in the north edge of the Ambles Valley graben. For the weathering profiles developed on the Hercynian Basement is possible to define three levels from bottom to top: 1) Lower level (biotitic granodiorite/porphyry and aplite dykes); 2) Intermediate level (ochre granite); 3) Upper level (red/white granite). The lower level has been much used as a source of ornamental stone, Avila Grey granite. The porphyry and applite dykes are mainly used to built the Walls of the City. The intermediate level is called Ochre granite or Caleño and was formed from the previous level through a tropical weathering process that, apart from variations in the petrophysical characteristics of the stone, has been accompanied by important mineralogical changes (2:1 and 1:1 phyllosilicates) and decreases in the contents of the most mobile cations. The upper level has received several names, Bleeding stone, Red and White granite or Silcrete and was formed

  17. HE PROFITABILITY OF DIMENSION STONE DEPOSIT EXPLOITATION IN RELATION TO THE COEFFICIENT OF UTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vidić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dimension stone is a highly valuable mineral raw material per unit of product. From the past experiences and literature it is known that for a certain quantity of commercial blocks, dimension stone should be dug (cut out is significantly larger volume of natural (raw rock mass. Stone residue, resulting in gaining the commercial dimension stone blocks, is usually less value per unit of product. Profitability of the dimension stone exploitation in a deposit is directly dependent on the rock coefficient of utilization. It is therefore a priority task and a challenge to improve the efficiency of dimension stone deposits utilization and reduce the accumulation of mineral residue that would ultimately increase profits. Dependence of profitability on coefficient of utilization of dimension stone deposits can be best expressed by numerical models, as shown in this paper.

  18. The Efficacy of Medical Expulsive Therapy (MET) in Improving Stone-free Rate and Stone Expulsion Time, After Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (SWL) for Upper Urinary Stones: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolarikos, Andreas; Grivas, Nikolaos; Kallidonis, Panagiotis; Mourmouris, Panagiotis; Rountos, Thomas; Fiamegos, Alexandros; Stavrou, Sotirios; Venetis, Chris

    2015-12-01

    In this meta-analysis, we included randomized studies on medical expulsive therapy implemented following shock wave lithotripsy for renal and ureteral stones. Pooled results demonstrated the efficacy of α-blockers, nifedipine, Rowatinex, and Uriston in increasing stone clearance. In addition, the time to stone elimination, the intensity of pain, the formation of steinstrasse, and the need for auxiliary procedures were reduced mainly with α-blockers. Expulsion rate was not correlated with the type of α-blocker, the diameter, and the location of stone. Our results show that medical expulsive therapy for residual fragments after shock wave lithotripsy should be implemented in clinical practice.

  19. Intuitionistic fuzzy aggregation and clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zeshui

    2012-01-01

    This book offers a systematic introduction to the clustering algorithms for intuitionistic fuzzy values, the latest research results in intuitionistic fuzzy aggregation techniques, the extended results in interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy environments, and their applications in multi-attribute decision making, such as supply chain management, military system performance evaluation, project management, venture capital, information system selection, building materials classification, and operational plan assessment, etc.

  20. Erratics and Re-cycled Stone: scholarly irrelevancies or fundamental utilities to lithic studies in prehistoric Britain and beyond?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Stephen Briggs

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many theories explaining later prehistoric 'trade' and 'exchange systems' in stone artefacts. Evidence matching the petrographic information of transported implements with the country rock (local bedrock where 'factories' produced flaked stone axes is felt to be compelling. Consequently, across Europe it is widely believed that the only way 'factory' rock could have reached the places where artefacts have been found was by human carriage. The discovery of implement working floors, or 'factories' in montane areas (c. 1900-1970 on primary exposures of stone, lithologically almost identical to polished axes found considerable distances from them, has led to a belief in the industrial, economic or social processing and carriage of finished products. There are caveats to this proof of evidence, however. Natural processes constantly redistribute incalculable numbers of durable erratic pebble- to boulder-sized clasts, so why could these not have been used for making prehistoric artefacts? There is abundant evidence in the archaeological record that artefacts were crafted from such material. And although there is now an archive of petrographic thin-sections available to help to identify the origins of the artefacts, no comparable data are available on re-cycled stone. Implement provenancing is therefore unlikely to be of lasting scientific value until investigative programmes have accumulated far more accurate petrographic data on pebbles and erratics from superficial deposits. Comparisons between some British-Irish implement distribution patterns with those of glacial erratics suggests the available evidence already better fits an interpretation of deterministic and opportunistic stone procurement rather than one involving long-distance travel by prehistoric peoples. Extensive, long-term sampling and provenancing programmes are now needed to address this requirement.

  1. Digitalization of the exceptional building and decorative stones collection of the Natural History Museum Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrière, Ludovic; Steinwender, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The Natural History Museum Vienna (NHMV) owns one of the largest building, decorative, and ornamental stones collections in Europe. This important collection dates back to the 19th century and was initiated by curator Felix Karrer after a donation of the "Union-Baugesellschaft" (Karrer, 1892). It contains rock samples used for the construction of most of the famous buildings and monuments in Vienna and in the entire Austria and surrounding countries, as well as from other famous constructions and antique (Egyptian, Greek, Roman, etc.) monuments in the world. Decorative stones that were used for the inside parts of buildings as well as artificial materials, such as stucco, tiles, and building-materials like gravel, are also part of this collection. Unfortunately, most specimens of this collection cannot be displayed at the NHMV (i.e., only 500 specimens are visible in the display Hall I) and are therefore preserved in storage rooms, and not accessible to the public. The main objective of our project of digitalization is to share our rock collection and all treasures it contains with the large majority of interested persons, and especially to provide knowledge on these rocks for people who need this information, such as people who work in cultural, architectural, scientific, and commercial fields. So far 4,500 samples from our collection have been processed with the support of the Open Up! project (Opening up the Natural History Heritage for Europeana). Our database contains all information available on these samples (including e.g., the name of the rock, locality, historic use, heritage utilization, etc.), high-quality digital photographs (with both top and bottom sides of the samples), and scanned labels (both "old" NHMV labels and other (original) labels attached to the samples). We plan to achieve the full digitalization of our unique collection within the next two years and to develop a website to provide access to the content of our database (if adequate

  2. [Hearing disorders and rock music].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhardt, Bjarne Orskov

    2008-12-15

    Only few studies have investigated the frequency of hearing disorders in rock musicians. Performing rock music is apparently associated with a hearing loss in a fraction of musicians. Tinnitus and hyperacusis are more common among rock musicians than among the background population. It seems as if some sort of resistance against further hearing loss is developed over time. The use of ear protection devices have not been studied systematically but appears to be associated with diminished hearing loss.

  3. Kidney stones - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... self-care; Nephrolithiasis and self-care; Stones and kidney - self-care; Calcium stones and self-care; Oxalate ... provider or the hospital because you have a kidney stone. You will need to take self-care ...

  4. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-09-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the effects of some popular diets on overall lithogenic risk. High-protein diets, like Dukan diet, raise some concerns, since animal proteins are able to increase urinary calcium and to decrease urinary citrate excretion, thus leading to a high overall lithogenic risk. Low-carbohydrate diets, like Atkins diet or zone diet, may have a protective role against kidney stone formation, but there are also evidences stating that this dietary approach may rise calciuria and decrease citraturia, since it is generally associated to a relatively high intake of animal proteins. Vegan diet can be harmful for urinary stone disease, especially for the risk of hyperuricemia and micronutrient deficiencies, even if only few studies have addressed this specific matter. On the other side, the benefits of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on kidney stone prevention have been largely emphasized, provided that the intake of calcium and oxalate is balanced. Traditional Mediterranean diet should exert a protective effect on nephrolithiasis as well, even if specific studies have not been carried out yet. High phytate and antioxidant content of this diet have however demonstrated to be beneficial in preventing the formation of new or recurrent calculi. Anyway, at the current state of knowledge, the most effective dietary approach to prevent kidney stone disease is a mild animal protein restriction, a balanced intake of carbohydrates and fats and a high intake of fruit and vegetables. Other fundamental aspects

  5. Genus Monilinia on Pome and Stone Fruit Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Hrustić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Different species of the genus Monilinia are common plant pathogens that endangerpome and stone fruit production worldwide. In Serbia, two species of this genus are widelydistributed – M. laxa and M. fructigena, while M. fructicola, which is officially on the A2 EPPOList of quarantine pest organisms in Europe and on the 1A part I List of quarantine pest organismsin Serbia, has so far been detected only on stored apple and nectarine fruits. The mostimportant control measures against these pathogens include chemical control in combinationwith adequate cultural practices, particularly under favourable conditions for diseasedevelopment. Concerning that species of this genus can cause significant economic losses,knowledge of the pathogen biology, disease epidemiology and pathogen-host interactionsis a necessary prerequisite for stable and profitable production of pome and stone fruits.

  6. [Lysophosphatidic acid and human erythrocyte aggregation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheremet'ev, Iu A; Popovicheva, A N; Levin, G Ia

    2014-01-01

    The effects of lysophosphatidic acid on the morphology and aggregation of human erythrocytes has been studied. Morphology of erythrocytes and their aggregates were studied by light microscopy. It has been shown that lysophosphatidic acid changes the shape of red blood cells: diskocyte become echinocytes. Aggregation of red blood cells (rouleaux) was significantly reduced in autoplasma. At the same time there is a strong aggregation of echinocytes. This was accompanied by the formation of microvesicles. Adding normal plasma to echinocytes restores shape and aggregation of red blood cells consisting of "rouleaux". A possible mechanism of action of lysophosphatidic acid on erythrocytes is discussed.

  7. A pilot study of the effect of sodium thiosulfate on urinary lithogenicity and associated metabolic acid load in non-stone formers and stone formers with hypercalciuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyeka W Okonkwo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sodium thiosulfate (STS reduced calcium stone formation in both humans and genetic hypercalciuric stone forming (GHS rats. We sought to measure urine chemistry changes resulting from STS administration in people. DESIGN SETTING PARTICIPANTS MEASUREMENTS: STS was given to healthy and hypercalciuric stone forming adults. Five normal non-stone forming adults (mean age 33 years, and 5 people with idiopathic hypercalciuria and calcium kidney stones (mean age 66 years participated. Two baseline 24-hour urine collections were performed on days 2 and 3 of 3 days of self-selected diets. Subjects then drank STS 10 mmol twice a day for 7 days and did urine collections while repeating the self-selected diet. Results were compared by non-parametric Wilcoxon signed rank test. The primary outcome was the resulting change in urine chemistry. RESULTS: STS administration did not cause a significant change in urinary calcium excretion in either group. In both groups, 24 hour urinary ammonium (P = 0.005 and sulfate excretion (P = 0.007 increased, and urinary pH fell (P = 0.005; citrate excretion fell (P<0.05 in hypercalciuric participants but not in non-stone formers. Among stone formers with hypercalciuria, 3 of 5 patients had measurement of serum HCO3 concentration after the STS period: it did not change. The net effect was an increase in supersaturation of uric acid, and no change in supersaturation of calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate. CONCLUSIONS: The basis for studies demonstrating that STS prevented stones in rats and people was not reflected by the changes in urine chemistry reported here. Although serum HCO3 did not change, urine tests suggested an acid load in both non-stone forming and hypercalciuric stone-forming participants. The long term safety of STS needs to be determined before the drug can be tested in humans for long-term prevention of stone recurrence.

  8. Acute management of stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene; Osther, Palle J S

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stone management is often conservative due to a high spontaneous stone passage rate or non-symptomatic calyceal stones that do not necessarily require active treatment. However, stone disease may cause symptoms and complications requiring urgent intervention. MATERIAL AND METHODS......: In this review, we update latest research and current recommendations regarding acute management of stones, with particular focus on imaging, pain management, active stone interventions, medical expulsive therapy, and urolithiasis in pregnancy and childhood. RESULTS: Acute stone management should be planned...... with careful consideration of stone size and location, symptoms, patient comorbidity and radiation dose. CONCLUSION: In case of infective hydronephrosis, compromised renal function or persistent pain despite adequate analgesic treatment acute intervention is indicated....

  9. Stones with character : animism, agency and megalithic monuments.

    OpenAIRE

    Scarre, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies of megalithic monuments have shown how they incorporate blocks, sometimes taken from different locations, which link the monuments to features of their local landscapes. The slabs were often left unworked, or only minimally shaped, which would have helped preserved the visual resemblance of the stones to the outcrops or boulder fields from which they were derived. The careful selection of megalithic blocks suggests that they incorporated and materialised memories, powers and as...

  10. Decay and durability of building stones in urban environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossi, C. M.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of some pollutant agents in urban environments -gaseous SO2, acid rain and solid particles- on carbonate and siliceous building stones with different petrophysic characteristics. The selected environments have been London, Garston (UK and Burgos (Spain and the exposed materials have been Portland, Combe Down and Hontoria limestones, Laspra dolomite and Rosa Porriño granite. Products generated by the action of gases, acid rain and solid particles on stones have been analyzed. To point out the properties of stones that influence their decay, the results obtained on the stones exposed to the above environments have been compared to those from some laboratory accelerated ageing tests.

    Se estudia el efecto de ciertos agentes de contaminación presentes en ambientes urbanos –SO2 gaseoso, lluvia acida y partículas sólidas- sobre rocas de naturaleza carbonatada y silicatada con características petrofísicas distintas, utilizadas en edificación. Los ambientes seleccionados han sido Londres, Garston (UK y Burgos, y los materiales expuestos han sido las calizas de Portland, Combe Down y Hontoria, la dolomía de Laspra y el granito Rosa Porriño. Se analizan los productos generados por la acción de los gases, la lluvia acida y las partículas sólidas sobre los diferentes tipos de piedra. Se exponen los resultados obtenidos en la piedra expuesta a los ambientes antes citados, y los daños generados en algunos ensayos de envejecimiento artificial acelerado con el fin de resaltar las características intrínsecas de las piedras que condicionan su degradación.

  11. Effect of the Stone Powder Content in Coarse Aggregate on the Properties of C50 High Performance Concrete%粗骨料石粉含量对C50高性能混凝土性能的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安明喆; 苏阳; 王月; 韩松; 余自若

    2013-01-01

    The influences of stone powder contents in basalt gravel,limestone gravel and crushed pebble aggregates on the workability,mechanical properties and durability of C50 high performance concrete were studied through laboratory test methods.Results show that the slump flow of fresh concrete decreases with the increase of the stone powder content,the cohesion and water retention are also improved; but the flowability reaches the maximum when the stone powder content is 2 %,then decreases with the increase of stone powder content.The compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of C50 concrete with three kinds of aggregates all first increases,and then decreases with the increase of stone powder content,the compressive strength reaches the maximum when stone powder content is 2 %; moreover,the splitting tensile strength reaches the maximum when stone powder content is 4%.The type of coarse aggregate has a significant effect on the compressive modulus of elasticity of C50 concrete,the influence level is basalt concrete > limestone concrete > crushed pebble concrete when stone powder content is 4%.While the stone powder content is in the range of 0~6%,the electric flux of C50 concrete with three kinds of coarse aggregates are all below 1 000 C,which indicates the compactness of these concretes are satisfactory.The frost resistance of C50 concrete with 4% stone powder content presents that basalt is the best while crushed pebble is the worst.%运用室内试验方法,研究玄武岩、石灰岩碎石和碎卵石粗骨料中石粉含量对C50高性能混凝土工作性、力学性能和耐久性的影响.结果表明:新拌混凝土的扩展度随石粉含量的增加而减小,其黏聚性和保水性得到改善,而其流动性在石粉含量为2%时达到最大,之后随石粉含量的增加而减小;3种粗骨料的C50混凝土的抗压强度和劈裂抗拉强度均随石粉含量的增加呈先增大后减小的规律,抗压强度

  12. Outcomes of intracorporeal lithotripsy of upper tract stones is not affected by BMI and skin-to-stone distance (SSD in obese and morbid patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Pompeo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study is to determine if body mass index (BMI and stone skin distance (SSD affect stone free rate (SFR in obese and morbid obese patients who underwent flexible URS for proximal ureteral or renal stones < 20 mm. Materials and Methods A retrospective chart review was performed of consecutive patients that underwent flexible URS. Inclusion criteria were: proximal ureteral stones and renal stones less than 20 mm in the preoperative computed tomography (CT. SFR were then compared according to SSD and BMI. Results A total of 153 patients were eligible for this analysis, 49 (32.02% with SSD < 10 cm and 104 (67.97% with SSD ≥ 10 cm. The mean stone size was 10.5 ± 6.4 mm. The overall SFR in our study was 82.4%. The SFR for the SSD < 10 and ≥ 10 were 79.6% and 83.7% respectively (p = 0.698 and for BMI < 30, ≥ 30 and < 40 and ≥ 40 were 82.9%, 81.7% and 90.9% respectively. Regression analysis showed no affect between BMI or SSD regarding SFR. Conclusion Ureteroscopy should be considered as a first-line of treatment for renal/proximal stones in obese and morbid obese patients. URS may be preferable to SWL in obese patients independently of the SSD, BMI or the location of proximal stones.

  13. Sialendoscopy and Combined Minimally Invasive Treatment for Large Parotid Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavázalová, Šárka; Vorobiov, Olexii; Astl, Jaromír

    2016-01-01

    Sialendoscopy (SE) represents nowadays one of the standard diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the treatment of major salivary glands lithiasis. We know from experience that it is successful only in small percentage of patients, when used in monotherapy. However, it represents an indispensable part of all of the combined minimally invasive gland-preserving treatment techniques, the success rate of which is around 90%. In this work, we focused on the role of sialendoscopy in the treatment of patients with larger inflamed fixed stones in glandula parotis. We conducted a total of 364 sialendoscopy procedures in 332 patients on our site. We have confirmed lithiasis as a cause of salivary gland obstruction in 246 (74%) patients. In 9 patients there was larger, single, or multiple inflamed fixed lithiasis of glandula parotis. In this subgroup of patients endoscopically assisted sialolithectomy from external mini-incision has become the method of choice. In 9 of the 9 (100%) cases we have achieved complete elimination of stones, and in 8 of the 9 (89%) cases we have achieved complete elimination of complaints. Sialoendoscopically assisted sialolithectomy of glandula parotis from external mini-incision has proved to be highly effective technique to eliminate stones with minimal complications. PMID:27882318

  14. Inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic systems for conservative treatments of stone and wood materials

    OpenAIRE

    Bergamonti, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic systems for conservative treatments of stone and wood materials The research has focused on the synthesis, characterization and application of inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic systems for conservative treatments of stone and wood. The wood preservatives synthesized and tested for biocidal activity are polyamidoamines functionalized with hydroxyl and siloxane groups, while the coatings applied on the stones are water based TiO2 nanosols with ...

  15. Rejoinder to Lynda Stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Mark E.

    1997-01-01

    Responds to Lynda Stone's comments on the author's essay on the interpretation of history. Demonstrates the linkages between his argument and those of Stone. Concludes by contesting some of her interpretations of his philosophical forebear, Edmund Husserl, and by pointing to the common objectives of both his and Stone's research. (DSK)

  16. Summary of: Salivary stones: symptoms, aetiology, biochemical composition and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, S.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Forouzanfar, T.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Brand, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    Salivary stones, also known as sialoliths, are calcified concrements in the salivary glands. Sialoliths are more frequently located in the submandibular gland (84%), than in the parotid gland (13%). The majority of the submandibular stones are located in Wharton's duct (90%), whereas parotid stones

  17. Salivary stones: symptoms, aetiology, biochemical composition and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, S.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Forouzanfar, T.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Brand, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    Salivary stones, also known as sialoliths, are calcified concrements in the salivary glands. Sialoliths are more frequently located in the submandibular gland (84%), than in the parotid gland (13%). The majority of the submandibular stones are located in Wharton's duct (90%), whereas parotid stones

  18. Definition and Facts for Kidney Stones in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their lifetime. 1 Who is more likely to develop kidney stones? Men are more likely to develop kidney stones than women. If you have a ... of kidney stones, you are more likely to develop them. You are also more likely to develop ...

  19. Behavioral responses of plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to different enantiomer concentrations and blends of the synthetic aggregation pheromone grandisoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host plant odors are important for insect location of food and mates. Synergy between host plant odors and aggregation pheromones occurs in many Curculionidae species. The plum curculio Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest of pome and stone fruit. Males produce t...

  20. The bowing potential of granitic rocks: rock fabrics, thermal properties and residual strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegesmund, S.; Mosch, S.; Scheffzük, Ch.; Nikolayev, D. I.

    2008-10-01

    The bowing of natural stone panels is especially known for marble slabs. The bowing of granite is mainly known from tombstones in subtropical humid climate. Field inspections in combination with laboratory investigations with respect to the thermal expansion and the bowing potential was performed on two different granitoids (Cezlak granodiorite and Flossenbürg granite) which differ in the composition and rock fabrics. In addition, to describe and explain the effect of bowing of granitoid facade panels, neutron time-of-flight diffraction was applied to determine residual macro- and microstrain. The measurements were combined with investigations of the crystallographic preferred orientation of quartz and biotite. Both samples show a significant bowing as a function of panel thickness and destination temperature. In comparison to marbles the effect of bowing is more pronounced in granitoids at temperatures of 120°C. The bowing as well as the thermal expansion of the Cezlak sample is also anisotropic with respect to the rock fabrics. A quantitative estimate was performed based on the observed textures. The effect of the locked-in stresses may also have a control on the bowing together with the thermal stresses related to the different volume expansion of the rock-forming minerals.

  1. A Geochemical and Mineralogical Approach for the Identification of Provenance of Stone Implements and Tempers in Ceramics from the Area of Mirabello in East Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikouras, B.; Dierckx, H. M. C.; Nodarou, E.; Papoutsa, A. D.; Hatzipanagiotou, K.

    2009-04-01

    The Minoans of East Crete used a variety of rocks, usually in the form of water worn cobbles or pebbles, for use as ground stone implements. Generally, these were collected locally, not too distant from their settlement and hence easily accessible to them. The Minoans chose rock types that would be effective in domestic or industrial tasks which depended for the most part on the physical properties of the rocks. The most common rock types include sedimentary rocks such as limestones, sandstones, and breccias. However, an adequate amount of igneous and metamorphic rocks were employed as well for stone implements, such as basalt, dolerite, gabbro and various intermediate to acid plutonic rocks. Some of these were also used in crushed form as tempers in clay thus improving the properties of their ceramics. Pottery shards and ground stone implements form a large quantity of total assemblage of finds on recently excavated sites in East Crete ranging in date from Early Minoan to the Iron Age (ca. 3000-1000 B.C.), which revealed both domestic and/or extensive industrial activities. Moreover, the raw materials used for ground stone tools and ceramic temper deriving from the area of Mirabello Bay indicate the degree and range of the distribution of Mirabello products across the island over two millennia. In this study we employed petrographic and mineralogical methods to investigate the composition of the raw materials encountered in the area, and we compare them to materials with similar lithologies from other parts of Crete in an attempt to discriminate between similar sources of raw materials used for lithics and pottery production across the island and not only within the area of Mirabello. More specifically, we investigated a series of intermediate to acid plutonic lithologies ranging in composition from diorite through quartz-diorite and granodiorite towards granite, as well as metamorphic rocks that include amphibolites and amphibolitic schists. Cretaceous

  2. Bacteriological study and structural composition of staghorn stones removed by the anatrophic nephrolithotomic procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Shafi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the composition of staghorn stones and to assess the proportion of infected stones as well as the correlation between infection in the stones and bacteria grown in urine. Samples of 45 consecutive stones removed through anatrophic nephrolithotomic procedures were taken from the operation site and samples of urine were obtained by simultaneous bladder catheterization. The frequency of infection in the stones and correlation between infection of stone and urine samples were determined with respect to the composition of the stones. Twenty-two males and 23 females, with respective mean ages of 48.3 ± 15.6 years and 51 ± 7.4 years, were studied. The stone and urine cultures yielded positive results in ten and 16 patients, respectively, of a total of 45 patients (22.2% and 35.5%, respectively. Calcium oxalate was the main constituent of staghorn stones, seen in 31 patients (68.8%, uric acid in 12 patients (26.6% and struvite and/or calcium phosphate in 11 patients (24.4%. In seven of ten stones with bacterial growth, bacteria were isolated from urine cultures as well, which accounted for a concordance rate of 70%. The bacteria grown in the stone were the cause of urinary tract infection (UTI in 43.5% of the cases. Stone infection was significantly associated with UTI (OR = 6.47; 95% CI 1.43-31.7, P = 0.021 and presence of phosphate in the stones (OR = 18, 95% CI 3.28-99.6, P = 0.0006. E. coli was the most common bacteria grown from the stones, and was isolated in 50% of the cases; Ureaplasma urealyticum was the most common organism causing UTI, grown in 62.5% of the urine samples. There was a high concordance rate between bacteria in the stones and urine. These findings indicate that the urine culture can provide information for selection of an appropriate anti-microbial agent for stone sterilization. In addition, preventing re-growth or recurrence of stones and treatment of post-surgical infections would be

  3. Steatite and schist as contenders for the Global Heritage Stone Resource due to their importance in Brazil's natural stone built heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberto Costa, Antônio

    2013-04-01

    In Brazil, European natural stones, such as marble and limestone, were used as building material at historically important buildings and monuments, mainly in coastal cities, as well as in contemporary urban centers. However, in the country's central region, these Italian and Portuguese marbles and limestones were scarcely used. Instead, they were substituted for soapstone and several types of schist. As of 1755, the former was employed because of the ease with which it can be worked, essentially in the sculptural art and in the production of ornamental elements. Characterized by the presence of talc, steatite can feature other minerals such as serpentine, chlorite, carbonate, amphiboles, oxides like hematite and magnetite, and sulfites like pyrite, all in broadly variable amounts, which can result in modification of its technological properties (Volumetric Weight, Porosity, Water Absorption, Uniaxial Compression, Abrasion Resistance, Thermal Expansion etc.). In such rocks, talc content will be a decisive factor in their coloration. The higher its talc content is the clearer and softer the stone type will be, which ends up being known as talc stone. In such cases, the rock can display different hues of green, blue and gray. When compared to other rocks, texture patterns containing talc crystals, chlorite and carbonate contribute to low absorption and porosity for steatites. Schists were equally used at historical buildings in the Brazilian inland, especially in constructions in Minas Gerais towns, both in the production of structural elements such as bases, corners, pillars and foundations and in the creation of ornaments. Featuring different compositions, such rocks - which almost always occur interlayered with other ones such as quartzite - display coloration ranging from hues of gray to green to blue. They can be quartz-sericite-albite-chlorite schists featuring great or no amounts of carbonate, magnetite, epidote and tourmaline, sometimes with garnet, such as in

  4. Aggregates from mineral wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baic Ireneusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem concerning the growing demand for natural aggregates and the need to limit costs, including transportation from remote deposits, cause the increase in growth of interest in aggregates from mineral wastes as well as in technologies of their production and recovery. The paper presents the issue related to the group of aggregates other than natural. A common name is proposed for such material: “alternative aggregates”. The name seems to be fully justified due to adequacy of this term because of this raw materials origin and role, in comparison to the meaning of natural aggregates based on gravel and sand as well as crushed stones. The paper presents characteristics of the market and basic application of aggregates produced from mineral wastes, generated in the mining, power and metallurgical industries as well as material from demolished objects.

  5. Research on Mechanism of Rock Burst Generation and Development for High Stress Rock Tunnels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高全臣; 赫建明; 王代华

    2001-01-01

    Through the investigation and analysis of high stress distribution in surrounding rock during the excavation of rock tunnels,the key factors to cause rock burst and the mechanism of rock burst generation and development are researched. The result shows that the scale and range of rock burst are related with elastic deformation energy storied in rock mass and the characteristics of unloading stress waves. The measures of preventing from rock burst for high stress rock tunnels are put forward.

  6. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

    2013-04-01

    As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite

  7. Macroeconomic susceptibility, inflation, and aggregate supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.

    2017-03-01

    We unify aggregate-supply dynamics as a time-dependent susceptibility-mediated relationship between inflation and aggregate economic output. In addition to representing well various observations of inflation-output dynamics this parsimonious formalism provides a straightforward derivation of popular representations of aggregate-supply dynamics and a natural basis for economic-agent expectations as an element of inflation formation. Our formalism also illuminates questions of causality and time-correlation that challenge central banks for whom aggregate-supply dynamics is a key constraint in their goal of achieving macroeconomic stability.

  8. Aggregated Dynamic Dataflow Graph Generation and Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Szabó

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aggregated Dynamic Dataflow Graphs can assist programmers to uncover the main data paths of a given algorithm. This information can be useful when scaling a singlethreaded program into a multi-core architecture. The amount of data movements is crucial when targeting for cache incoherent and/or heterogeneous platforms. This paper presents two methods for generating function-level Aggregated Dynamic Dataflow Graphs. Instruction level trace log was used as a basis, which was generated by Microsoft Giano processor simulator platform. Top-down aggregation strategy and relational database was used to speed up the generation of different views of the aggregated dataflow and call graphs.

  9. Changes in Renal Function and Blood Pressure in Patients with Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worcester, Elaine M.

    2007-04-01

    Stone disease is a rare cause of renal failure, but a history of kidney stones is associated with an increased risk for chronic kidney disease, particularly in overweight patients. Loss of renal function seems especially notable for patients with stones associated with cystinuria, hyperoxaluria, and renal tubular acidosis, in whom the renal pathology shows deposits of mineral obstructing inner medullary collecting ducts, often diffusely. However, even idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers have a mild but significant decrease in renal function, compared to age, sex and weight-matched normals, and appear to lose renal function with age at a slightly faster rate than non-stone formers. There is also an increased incidence of hypertension among stone formers, although women are more likely to be affected than men.

  10. Oxalate-Degrading Capacities of Gastrointestinal Lactic Acid Bacteria and Urinary Tract Stone Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Kargar; Rouhi Afkari; Sadegh Ghorbani-Dalini

    2013-01-01

    Background: Calcium oxalate is one the most significant causes of human kidney stones. Increasing oxalate uptake results in increased urinary oxalate. Elevated urinary oxalate is one the most important causes of kidney stone formation. This study aims to evaluate oxalate-degrading capacity of lactic acid bacteria and its impact on incidence of kidney stone.Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on serum, urinary, and fecal samples. The research population included a tota...

  11. Lower Pole Calyceal Stone and Lithotripsy are Issues with Clearance Fact or Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hammad Ather

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The lower pole calyceal (LPC stone continues to be an enigma. The complex anatomy of the lower pole collecting system, along with other factors like acute pelvi calyceal angle and narrow and long infundibulum, are some of the complicating factors affecting stone clearance. There have been many studies assessing the impact of collecting system anatomy and most conclude that the complex anatomy of the lower pole collecting system does impact the overall stone-free rate.

  12. Production of lightweight aggregates from washing aggregate sludge and fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Corrochano, Beatriz; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto; Rodas, Magdalena

    2010-05-01

    manufactured with 75%:25% and 50%:50% proportions of washing aggregate sludge:fly ash, heated at different temperatures and dwell times, were expanded LWAs (BI > 0). They showed the lowest loose bulk density, the lowest dry and apparent particle density, the lowest water absorption and the highest compressive strength. The possible applications of sintered pellets, taking into consideration compressive strength and water absorption values, could be similar to those of Arlita G3 (insulation, geotechnical applications, gardening and/or horticulture) and/or Arlita F3 (prefabricated lightweight structures and insulation lightweight concretes), two varieties of the most widely marketed LWAs in Spain. References - Benbow, J., September 1987. Mineral in fire protection construction support market. Industrial Minerals, 61-73. - Bethanis, S., Cheeseman, C.R., Sollars, C.J., 2004. Effect of sintering temperature on the properties and leaching of incinerator bottom ash. Waste Management and Research 22 (4), 255-264. - De' Gennaro, R., Cappelletti, P., Cerri, G., De' Gennaro, M., Dondi, M., Langella, A., 2004. Zeolitic tuffs as raw materials for lightweight aggregates. Applied Clay Science 25 (1-2), 71-81. - Fakhfakh, E., Hajjaji, W., Medhioub, M., Rocha, F., López-Galindo, A., Setti, M.,Kooli, F., Zargouni, F., Jamoussi, F., 2007. Effects of sand addition on production of lightweight aggregates from Tunisian smectite-rich clayey rocks. Applied Clay Science 35, 228-237. - UNE-EN-13055-1, 2003. Lightweight aggregates - lightweight aggregates for concrete, mortar and grout. - Yasuda, Y., 1991. Sewage-sludge utilization in Tokyo. Water Science and Technology 23 (10-12), 1743-1752.

  13. Pathogenesis of Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worcester, Elaine M.; Evan, Andrew P.; Coe, Fredric L.

    2008-09-01

    All stones share similar presenting symptoms, and urine supersaturation with respect to the mineral phase of the stone is essential for stone formation. However, recent studies using papillary biopsies of stone formers provide a view of the histology of renal crystal deposition which suggests that the early sequence of events leading to stone formation may differ depending on the type of stone and on the urine chemistry leading to supersaturation. Three general patterns of crystal deposition are seen: interstitial apatite plaque in idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, which is the site of stone attachment; tubule deposition of apatite, seen in all calcium phosphate stone formers; and mixtures of apatite and another crystal phase, such as cystine or calcium oxalate, seen in patients with cystinuria or enteric hyperoxaluria. The presence of apatite crystal in either the interstitial or tubule compartment (and sometimes both) of the renal medulla in stone formers is the rule, and has implications for the initial steps of stone formation and the potential for renal injury.

  14. Influences of petrographic parameters on technological properties of greywackes used for crushed stone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikryl, Richard; Cermak, Martin; Krutilova, Katerina

    2014-05-01

    This study focuses on the influence of petrographic parameters on technological properties of greywackes. These sedimentary rocks make about 27 % of crushed stone market in the Czech Republic. Mainly in Moravia (eastern part of the Czech Republic), greywackes represent almost exclusive high quality aggregate. The behaviour of greywackes varies, however, from quarry to quarry. In this study, we have selected the most important deposits that cover major lithological variation of local greywackes. Studied greywackes were analysed for their petrographic parameters quantitatively (using image analysis of thin sections). The pore space characteristics were determined by using fluorescent dye - epoxy resin impregnated specimens. The studied rocks are composed of subangular and angular quartz grains, lithoclasts (stable rocks: quartzites, and unstable rocks: phylites, metaphylites, siltstones, slates, greywackes, and less frequently acid eruptive rocks), feldspars (orthoclas, microcline, plagioclase), and detrital micas. Detrital and authigenic chlorite has been found as well. The matrix which represents the largest volume of rock-forming components contains a mixture of sericite, chlorite, clay minerals, cements, and clasts in aleuropelitic size. Based on the microscopic examination, all studied rock types were classified as greywacke with fine- to medium-grained massive rock fabric. Only specimen from Bělkovice has shown partly layered structure. Alteration of feldspars and unstable rock fragments represents common feature. Diagenetic features included pressure dissolution of quartz clasts and formation of siliceous and/or calcite cements. Based on the experimental study of technological performance of studied greywackes and its correlation to petrographic features, the average size of clasts and volume of matrix make the driving factors affecting the LA values. The LA values decrease with the increasing of volume of matrix (R = 0.61) and with decreasing average grain

  15. Methabolic Evaluation and Medical Aspects of Recurrent Urinary Tract Calcium Stones

    OpenAIRE

    Naime Canoruç; Fatih Atuğ

    2006-01-01

    Recurrent Stone formation in the urinary tract is a common and important problem. The most important component in the medical treatment of stones is establishing the correct metabolic diagnosis. Unfortunately a significant proportion of patients with recurrent stones do not undergo proper metabolic evaluation. Dietary modification still remains one of the most important strategies for therapy. Recent studies suggest that severe calcium restriction is not useful in patients with recurrent calc...

  16. A pica case confused with renal and bladder stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulum, Mehmet; Yeni, Ercan; Savas, Murat; Sahin, Mehmet Akif; Kati, Mahmut

    2012-12-01

    Pica is considered as an eating-nutritional disorder in childhood and is generally analysed within obsessive-compulsive disorders. A 15-year-old female patient was admitted to the urology clinic with nausea, vomiting, and stomach-ache. A 23 x 23 mm opacity was identified in left T-11-12 level in direct urinary graph. Full abdomen ultrasonography was reported to be normal. Later, it was learned that the patient had the habit of eating stone. The patient was diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder following psychiatric consultation, and appropriate treatment was given.

  17. Investigation and hazard assessment of the 2003 and 2007 Staircase Falls rock falls, Yosemite National Park, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Stock, Gregory M.; Reichenbach, P.; Snyder, J.B.; Borchers, J.W.; Godt, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Since 1857 more than 600 rock falls, rock slides, debris slides, and debris flows have been documented in Yosemite National Park, with rock falls in Yosemite Valley representing the majority of the events. On 26 December 2003, a rock fall originating from west of Glacier Point sent approximately 200 m 3 of rock debris down a series of joint-controlled ledges to the floor of Yosemite Valley. The debris impacted talus near the base of Staircase Falls, producing fragments of flying rock that struck occupied cabins in Curry Village. Several years later on 9 June 2007, and again on 26 July 2007, smaller rock falls originated from the same source area. The 26 December 2003 event coincided with a severe winter storm and was likely triggered by precipitation and/or frost wedging, but the 9 June and 26 July 2007 events lack recognizable triggering mechanisms. We investigated the geologic and hydrologic factors contributing to the Staircase Falls rock falls, including bedrock lithology, weathering, joint spacing and orientations, and hydrologic processes affecting slope stability. We improved upon previous geomorphic assessment of rock-fall hazards, based on a shadow angle approach, by using STONE, a three-dimensional rock-fall simulation computer program. STONE produced simulated rock-fall runout patterns similar to the mapped extent of the 2003 and 2007 events, allowing us to simulate potential future rock falls from the Staircase Falls detachment area. Observations of recent rock falls, mapping of rock debris, and simulations of rock fall runouts beneath the Staircase Falls detachment area suggest that rock-fall hazard zones extend farther downslope than the extent previously defined by mapped surface talus deposits.

  18. Investigation and hazard assessment of the 2003 and 2007 Staircase Falls rock falls, Yosemite National Park, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Wieczorek

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 1857 more than 600 rock falls, rock slides, debris slides, and debris flows have been documented in Yosemite National Park, with rock falls in Yosemite Valley representing the majority of the events. On 26 December 2003, a rock fall originating from west of Glacier Point sent approximately 200 m3 of rock debris down a series of joint-controlled ledges to the floor of Yosemite Valley. The debris impacted talus near the base of Staircase Falls, producing fragments of flying rock that struck occupied cabins in Curry Village. Several years later on 9 June 2007, and again on 26 July 2007, smaller rock falls originated from the same source area. The 26 December 2003 event coincided with a severe winter storm and was likely triggered by precipitation and/or frost wedging, but the 9 June and 26 July 2007 events lack recognizable triggering mechanisms. We investigated the geologic and hydrologic factors contributing to the Staircase Falls rock falls, including bedrock lithology, weathering, joint spacing and orientations, and hydrologic processes affecting slope stability. We improved upon previous geomorphic assessment of rock-fall hazards, based on a shadow angle approach, by using STONE, a three-dimensional rock-fall simulation computer program. STONE produced simulated rock-fall runout patterns similar to the mapped extent of the 2003 and 2007 events, allowing us to simulate potential future rock falls from the Staircase Falls detachment area. Observations of recent rock falls, mapping of rock debris, and simulations of rock fall runouts beneath the Staircase Falls detachment area suggest that rock-fall hazard zones extend farther downslope than the extent previously defined by mapped surface talus deposits.

  19. Determination of minor and trace elements in kidney stones by x-ray fluorescence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anjali; Heisinger, Brianne J.; Sinha, Vaibhav; Lee, Hyong-Koo; Liu, Xin; Qu, Mingliang; Duan, Xinhui; Leng, Shuai; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2014-03-01

    The determination of accurate material composition of a kidney stone is crucial for understanding the formation of the kidney stone as well as for preventive therapeutic strategies. Radiations probing instrumental activation analysis techniques are excellent tools for identification of involved materials present in the kidney stone. In particular, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) can be very useful for the determination of minor and trace materials in the kidney stone. The X-ray fluorescence measurements were performed at the Radiation Measurements and Spectroscopy Laboratory (RMSL) of department of nuclear engineering of Missouri University of Science and Technology and different kidney stones were acquired from the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Presently, experimental studies in conjunction with analytical techniques were used to determine the exact composition of the kidney stone. A new type of experimental set-up was developed and utilized for XRF analysis of the kidney stone. The correlation of applied radiation source intensity, emission of X-ray spectrum from involving elements and absorption coefficient characteristics were analyzed. To verify the experimental results with analytical calculation, several sets of kidney stones were analyzed using XRF technique. The elements which were identified from this techniques are Silver (Ag), Arsenic (As), Bromine (Br), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Gallium (Ga), Germanium (Ge), Molybdenum (Mo), Niobium (Nb), Rubidium (Rb), Selenium (Se), Strontium (Sr), Yttrium (Y), Zirconium (Zr). This paper presents a new approach for exact detection of accurate material composition of kidney stone materials using XRF instrumental activation analysis technique.

  20. Biographies of Stone and Landscape: Lithic Scatters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Jonathon Bond

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Lithic scatters are complex palimpsests. Cores, waste and tools, when interpreted in their landscape context often appear to constitute multiple episodes of activity. These seasonal and cyclical episodes represent different lengths of duration and/or function. This article deals with assemblages from central Somerset, UK, containing artefacts of flint and others of greenstone and sandstone and argues that discarded/deposited artefacts sometimes served as a resource for cultural memory.

  1. Metabolic evaluation and medical management of upper urinary tract stone disease. Guidelines from the Scandinavian Cooperative Group for Urinary Stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Grenabo, L; Haraldsson, G

    1999-01-01

    of the stone disease in the individual stone patient. The initial evaluation in all patients aims at diagnosing conditions with a definitive metabolic, infectious or anatomical/functional cause of stone formation (MIAF urolithiasis). Patients with MIAF urolithiasis are treated according to the nature...

  2. Phenotypic characterization of kidney stone formers by endoscopic and histological quantification of intrarenal calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnes, Michael P; Krambeck, Amy E; Cornell, Lynn; Williams, James C; Korinek, Mark; Bergstralh, Eric J; Li, Xujian; Rule, Andrew D; McCollough, Cynthia M; Vrtiska, Terri J; Lieske, John C

    2013-10-01

    Interstitial Randall's plaques and collecting duct plugs are distinct forms of renal calcification thought to provide sites for stone retention within the kidney. Here we assessed kidney stone precursor lesions in a random cohort of stone formers undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Each accessible papilla was endoscopically mapped following stone removal. The percent papillary surface area covered by plaque and plug were digitally measured using image analysis software. Stone composition was determined by micro-computed tomography and infrared analysis. A representative papillary tip was biopsied. The 24-h urine collections were used to measure supersaturation and crystal growth inhibition. The vast majority (99%) of stone formers had Randall's plaque on at least 1 papilla, while significant tubular plugging (over 1% of surface area) was present in about one-fifth of patients. Among calcium oxalate stone formers the amount of Randall's plaque correlated with higher urinary citrate levels. Tubular plugging correlated positively with pH and brushite supersaturation but negatively with citrate excretion. Lower urinary crystal growth inhibition predicted the presence of tubular plugging but not plaque. Thus, tubular plugging may be more common than previously recognized among patients with all types of stones, including some with idiopathic calcium oxalate stones.

  3. HYDRAULICS, STONE COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  4. Rules: Both Stepping Stones and Stumbling Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart-Wright, Alice

    1994-01-01

    Provides guidelines for Head Start teachers and administrators to determine the utility of classroom rules. Notes that, although some rules are necessary to maintain classroom discipline and a healthy learning environment, others may serve no useful purpose and actually hinder learning opportunities. Lists 10 points to consider when evaluating a…

  5. E-LEARNING: TRENDS AND STEPPING STONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Frolova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acceleration of exchange of educational information its constant updating requires incorporating innovative educational products based on informational communications in educational system. Students who are mostly digital natives use information communication technologies more frequent and willingly compared to teaching staff. Consequently it calls for urgent measures to be taken to satisfy contemporary students’ emerging needs. Integration of information communication technologies, enhancing students’ motivation, adding to personalized learning, into higher education is challenging but beneficial. It is particularly acute in the field of foreign language learning which requires language competence formation along with knowledge of grammar patterns, vocabulary specificity and reproductive skills in listening, reading, speaking and writing. The given article reflects the current trends of e-learning of foreign languages, providing insights of teaching and learning practice, providing theoretical literature review and empirical data gained by qualitative and quantitive research methods, by students’ opinion polls in NRU HSE Nizhniy Novgorod branch in particular. Both advantages and shortcomings are analyzed and the comparison of the traditional classroom education and innovative one is carried out. Recent trends in e-learning of foreign languages, use of various tools such as wiki sites, educational platforms, Massive Online Open Courses, Gamification, flipped classrooms and other inspiring techniques are considered.

  6. Sticks, Stones--And Words, Too?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Jeremy Waldron, a professor of social and political theory at University of Oxford and also a professor of law at New York University, contends that laws against hate speech deserve further consideration, even if he doubts they "will ever pass constitutional muster in America." He contends that "The Harm in Hate Speech," as his title has it,…

  7. Scattering from Rock and Rock Outcrops

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    on Hashin-Shtrikman-Walpole bounds [3]. These measurements in conjunction with effective medium theory resulted in estimates of 6393 m/ s for the...of America, vol. 79, no. 5, pp. 1410-1422, 1986. [13] J. Dettmer, S . Dosso and C. Holland , "Model selection and Bayesian inference for high...FFI’s HUGIN HISAS system on rocky objects over a wide range of sizes (from less than 1 m up to several 10’ s of m). The HISAS yields high- resolution

  8. Credit and savings: stepping stones from poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents an interview with Mariame Dem, Zonal Program Manager for West Africa, concerning Oxfam's contribution to financial assets of women in helping them to achieve sustainable livelihoods. It was known that credit could improve the status of women and bargaining position within their household by giving them their own money. Dem said that the program has given grants for revolving credit funds, built women's literacy skills, and has kept them in touch with credit management organizations. Moreover, she said that Oxfam has invested in many micro-credit schemes for the empowerment of women. Their partners have set up a learning group and plan to train and network in the coming years.

  9. Coatings Preserve Metal, Stone, Tile, and Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    John B. Schutt, a chemist at Goddard Space Flight Center, created a coating for spacecraft that could resist corrosion and withstand high heat. After retiring from NASA, Schutt used his expertise to create new formulations for Daytona Beach, Florida-based Adsil Corporation, which now manufactures a family of coatings to preserve various surfaces. Adsil has created 150 jobs due to the products.

  10. Sand and Stone%沙与石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄川; 孙静

    2006-01-01

    @@ Astory tells that two friends were walking through the desert. During some point of the journey they had an argument, and one friend slapped the other one in the face1. The one who got slapped was hurt, but without saying anything, he wrote in the sand: "TODAY MY BEST FRIEND SLAPPED ME IN THE FACE."

  11. Porosity characterization of fresh and altered stones by ultrasound velocity and mercury intrusion porosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrivano, Simona; Gaggero, Laura; Gisbert Aguilar, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Porosity is the main physical feature dealing with rocks durability and storage capacity. The analysis of this parameter is key factor in predicting rock performances (Molina et al., 2011). There are several techniques that can be applied to acquire the widest information range possible about pores (e.g. size, shape, distribution), leading to a better understanding of decay processes and trapping capacity. The coupling of a detailed minero-petrographic analysis with physical measures such as ultrasounds and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) proved to be a valid tool for understanding the porous network and its evolution during weathering processes. Both fresh and salt-weathered samples were analysed to investigate the modification triggered in the porous network by crystallization. The ageing process was induced using a Na2SO4 saturated saline solution with the partial continuous immersion method (Benavente et al., 2001). The study was addressed to four sedimentary lithotypes: 1) Arenaria Macigno, a greywacke made up of thickened clasts of quartz, plagioclase and K-feldspar cemented by micritic calcite and phyllosilicates; 2) Breccia Aurora, a calcareous breccia with nodules of compact limestone and micritic cement joints; 3) Rosso Verona, a biomicrite where the compact bio-micrite matrix is cut by clay minerals veins; and 4) Vicenza Stone, an organogenic limestone rich in micro- and macro foraminifera, algae, bryozoans and remains of echinoderms, with iron oxides. An appropriate description of the porous network variation and recognition of the origin of secondary porosity was attained. The study defined that the pore shape and distribution (anisotropy coefficient K) has a fluctuation up to the 50% after weathering treatments and pore-size distribution (defined in a range between 0,0025 - 75 μm), allowing modelling the mechanisms of water transport and evaluating decay susceptibility of these lithotypes. Molina E, Cultrone G, Sebastián E, Alonso FJ, Carrizo L

  12. Habitat selection of stone and starry flounders in an estuary in relation to feeding and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, Takeshi; Omori, Michio

    2008-09-01

    Juveniles of both stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus and starry flounder Platichthys stellatus utilize estuaries as nursery grounds. To understand their habitat selection and the functions of habitats such as food supply, we defined the seasonal distribution of recently settled fish of these species in shallow nursery areas and investigated their feeding habits in the Natori River estuary, Japan. Distribution of stone flounder was limited to the lower estuary (shrimp Crangon uritai. Early juvenile stone and starry flounders consumed mainly siphons of the bivalve Nuttallia olivacea and the mysid Neomysis awatschensis, respectively; however, 1- and 2-yr-old fish of both stone and starry flounders fed mainly on the bivalve siphons. These results indicate that habitat selections of juvenile stone and starry flounders enable utilization of preferred prey and predator avoidance, respectively, and that non-overlap of these species' habitats results in avoidance of inter-specific competition for food between these two species.

  13. Soap-stone in architecture of North European cities. A nomination as a candidate for a Global Heritage Stones Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulakh, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Soap stone represents soft Proterozoic rock type from the deposit Nunnalahti situated on the western shore of the big Lake Pielinen in Eastern Finland. It consists of talc (40 - 50 %), magnesite MgCO3 (40 - 50 %), chlorite (5 - 8 %), dolomite, calcite, etc. The colour of the stone is very spectacular and varies from yellow and brownish-yellow to grey, greenish grey. The soft stone is a highly workable material for a sculptor's chisel. It was one of the most popular ornamental rocks used architecture of the Modern style in St Petersburg, Helsinki, Turku, Tampere and other North European cities lately in the XIX-th centuries. Examples are given and discussed. References: Bulakh, A.G., Abakumova, N.B., and Romanovsky, J.V. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p. (In English).

  14. Thermally induced rock stress increment and rock reinforcement response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, M. [KMS Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland); Stroem, J.; Nujiten, G.; Uotinen, L. [Rockplan, Helsinki (Finland); Siren, T.; Suikkanen, J.

    2014-07-15

    This report describes a detailed study of the effect of thermal heating by the spent nuclear fuel containers on the in situ rock stress, any potential rock failure, and associated rock reinforcement strategies for the Olkiluoto underground repository. The modelling approach and input data are presented together repository layout diagrams. The numerical codes used to establish the effects of heating on the in situ stress field are outlined, together with the rock mass parameters, in situ stress values, radiogenic temperatures and reinforcement structures. This is followed by a study of the temperature and stress evolution during the repository's operational period and the effect of the heating on the reinforcement structures. It is found that, during excavation, the maximum principal stress is concentrated at the transition areas where the profile changes and that, due to the heating from the deposition of spent nuclear fuel, the maximum principal stress rises significantly in the tunnel arch area of NW/SW oriented central tunnels. However, it is predicted that the rock's crack damage (CD, short term strength) value of 99 MPa will not be exceeded anywhere within the model. Loads onto the reinforcement structures will come from damaged and loosened rock which is assumed in the modelling as a free rock wedge - but this is very much a worst case scenario because there is no guarantee that rock cracking would form a free rock block. The structural capacity of the reinforcement structures is described and it is predicted that the current quantity of the rock reinforcement is strong enough to provide a stable tunnel opening during the peak of the long term stress state, with damage predicted on the sprayed concrete liner. However, the long term stability and safety can be improved through the implementation of the principles of the Observational Method. The effect of ventilation is also considered and an additional study of the radiogenic heating effect on the

  15. Inorganic treatments for the consolidation and protection of stone artefacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Matteini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Consolidation and protection are two of the principal kinds of treatments through which the decay of old statues, stone facades, plasters and mural paintings caused by both natural atmospheric agents and, above all in the last five decades, by atmospheric pollution, is faced. The most traditional approach has been and is mainly based on the use of organic polymeric materials. They offer the advantage of easy application procedures and the possibility to obtain, at short times, very satisfying results. Different is their behaviour at long times. Some drawbacks come out over time both under the esthetical point of view as well as to the durability, compatibility and efficacy. Particularly critical is the situation when porous materials and soluble salts - gypsum above all - are simultaneously present. In such a situation inorganic treatments demonstrate to be much more appropriate. They assure durable and compatible results. In the present paper two of the most efficient and appropriate inorganic methods are reviewed in detail: the barium hydroxide method, both as desulfating and consolidating agent, and the ammonium oxalate method as passivating agent, consolidant and as a treatment capable of improving the natural colour contrast of the stone, when it is lost due to decay processes.

  16. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV;

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...

  17. From Implement to Outcrop: a model for identifying implement source rock at outcrop

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Davis; Vin Davis; Mik Markham

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, the sourcing of prehistoric stone tools in Britain has been done most successfully by comparing the petrological and geochemical characteristics of individual stone tools with rock and debitage from known prehistoric quarry sites and stone tool production sites. However, this is a very rare occurrence because only a very small proportion of stone tools in Britain have a secure archaeological provenance, including those from prehistoric quarries or production sites. Substantial ...

  18. Spatial Aggregation: Data Model and Implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez, Leticia; Kuijpers, Bart; Vaisman, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Data aggregation in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is only marginally present in commercial systems nowadays, mostly through ad-hoc solutions. In this paper, we first present a formal model for representing spatial data. This model integrates geographic data and information contained in data warehouses external to the GIS. We define the notion of geometric aggregation, a general framework for aggregate queries in a GIS setting. We also identify the class of summable queries, which can be efficiently evaluated by precomputing the overlay of two or more of the thematic layers involved in the query. We also sketch a language, denoted GISOLAP-QL, for expressing queries that involve GIS and OLAP features. In addition, we introduce Piet, an implementation of our proposal, that makes use of overlay precomputation for answering spatial queries (aggregate or not). Our experimental evaluation showed that for a certain class of geometric queries with or without aggregation, overlay precomputation outperforms R-tre...

  19. Influence of Polyethylene Glycol on Asphaltic Concrete for Cubical and Rod shaped Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Arun Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aggregates are the principle material in pavement construction. Conventional road aggregates in India are natural aggregates obtained by crushing rocks. Aggregate characteristics such as particle size, shape, and texture etc.., influence the performance and serviceability of pavement. Pavements laid with polymer modified asphalt exhibits greater resistance to rutting, thermal cracking and fatigue damages and hence these were used at locations of higher stress. The present work concentrates on aggregate characteristics which include the shape indices. The particle shapes namely Cubical and Rod are being used in the study. The study shows the behavior of the two shapes of aggregate in terms of Penetration, Ductility, Softening Point and Marshall Stability tests with varying percentages of asphalt and also with varying the percentages of PEG. The results of unmodified asphalt mix are compared with the modified asphalt mix against some critical Marshall Mix parameters.

  20. Natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rate in Brazilian igneous rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, C.L.; Artur, A.C. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bonotto, D.M., E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.b [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Guedes, S. [Departamento de Cronologia e Raios Cosmicos, Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Rua Sergio Buarque de Holanda No. 777, CEP 13083-859, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Martinelli, C.D. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    This paper reports the natural radioactivity of Brazilian igneous rocks that are used as dimension stones, following the trend of other studies on the evaluation of the risks to the human health caused by the rocks radioactivity as a consequence of their use as cover indoors. Gamma-ray spectrometry has been utilized to determine the {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th activity concentrations in 14 rock types collected at different quarries. The following activity concentration range was found: 12.18-251.90 Bq/kg for {sup 226}Ra, 9.55-347.47 Bq/kg for {sup 232}Th and 407.5-1615.0 Bq/kg for {sup 40}K. Such data were used to estimate Ra{sub eq}, H{sub ex} and I{sub {gamma}}, which were compared with the threshold limit values recommended in literature. They have been exceeded for Ra{sub eq} and H{sub ex} in five samples, where the highest indices corresponded to a rock that suffered a process of ductile-brittle deformation that caused it a microbrecciated shape. The exhalation rate of Rn and daughters has also been determined in slabs consisting of rock pieces {approx}10 cm-long, 5 cm-wide and 3 cm-thick. It ranged from 0.24 to 3.93 Bq/m{sup 2}/h and exhibited significant correlation with eU (={sup 226}Ra), as expected. The results indicated that most of the studied rocks did not present risk to human health and may be used indoors, even with low ventilation. On the other hand, igneous rocks that yielded indices above the threshold limit values recommended in literature may be used outdoors without any restriction or indoors with ample ventilation.

  1. Choosing between a rock and a hard place: Camouflage in the round-tailed horned lizard Phrynosoma modestum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William E.COOPER; Wade C.SHERBROOKE

    2012-01-01

    The round-tailed horned lizard Phrynosoma modestum is cryptically colored and resembles a small stone when it draws legs close to its body and elevates its back.We investigated effectiveness of camouflage in P.modestum and its dependence on stones by placing a lizard in one of two microhabitats (uniform sand or sand with surface rocks approximately the same size as lizards).An observer who knew which microhabitat contained the lizard was asked to locate the lizard visually.Latency to detection was longer and probability of no detection within 60 s was higher for lizards on rock background than on bare sand.In arenas where lizards could choose to occupy rock or bare sand,much higher proportions selected rocky backgrounds throughout the day;at night all lizards slept among stones.A unique posture gives P.modestum a rounded appearance similar to many natural stones.Lizards occasionally adopted the posture,but none did so in response to a nearby experimenter.Stimuli that elicit the posture are unknown.That P.modestum is better camouflaged among rocks than on bare sand and prefers to occupy rocky areas suggests that special resemblance to rocks (masquerade) enhances camouflage attributable to coloration and immobility.

  2. KIDNEY STONE INCIDENCE AND METABOLIC URINARY CHANGES AFTER MODERN BARIATRIC SURGERY: REVIEW OF CLINICAL STUDIES, EXPERIMENTAL MODELS, AND PREVENTION STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Canales, Benjamin K.; Hatch, Marguerite

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery has been associated with increased metabolic kidney stone risk and post-operative stone formation. A MEDLINE search, performed for articles published between January 2005 and November 2013, identified 24 pertinent studies containing 683 bariatric patients with 24-hour urine profiles, 6,777 bariatric patients with kidney stone incidence, and 7,089 non-stone forming controls. Of all procedures reviewed, only Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) was linked to post-...

  3. Influence of temprature moisture and time on dimensional change of stone type IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahebi.SM.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Different temperature and moisture around Iran and wide usage of stone type IV in dental laboratories in our country were the reasons for us for doing this study. Purpose: In this survey the effect of temperature, moisture and time on dimensional change of dental stone type IV (Velmix were investigated. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study cube shape Metal models (10×10×10mm was made for Taking impression. We used special tray, which has ten holes (15×20×25mm and made impression with condensational silicone in two-step procedure, and poured it with stone type IV. stone cubes were divided to different groups. 3 groups holed in fix moisture and variable tempraure and 5 groups in fix temperature and variable moisture. After 2 hours, 24 hours and one-week dimension of stone cubes were measured. Then analysis was done with ANOVA and dauncan. Results: The following conclusions were achieved: 1-Time has no effect on dimensional changes. 2-Tempreture and moisture has some effect on dimensional changes in stone IV. Increasing of temperature result in stone contraction and increasing in moisture result in stone expansion. Conclusion: The best temperature for least dimensional change is 20C and the best moisture for a least dimensional change is 30 %.

  4. Flow and edge scour in current adjacent to stone covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thor U.; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Bøgelund, Jon;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on edge scour adjacent to a stone cover laid on a sandy bed. The three-dimensional flow over the edge of the stone layer has been investigated by the use of particle image velocimetry. The flow measurements show a significant amount...

  5. Evaluation of biochemical urinary stone composition and its relationship to tap water hardness in Qom province, central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslemi MK

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Kazem Moslemi1, Hossein Saghafi2, Seyed Mohammad Amin Joorabchin31Department of Urology, Kamkar Hospital, 2Department of Nephrology, Kamkar Hospital, School of Medicine, 3School of Medicine, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, IranPurpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biochemical stone composition in general population of Qom province, central Iran, and its relationship with high tap water hardness.Materials and methods: In a prospective study, from March 2008 to July 2011, biochemical analysis of urinary stones in patients living in Qom province for at least 5 years was performed. Stones were retrieved by spontaneous passage, endoscopic or open surgery, and after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. Demographic findings and the drinking water supply of patients were evaluated and compared with biochemical stone analysis.Results: Stone analysis was performed in 255 patients. The most dominant composition of urinary stones was calcium oxalate (73%, followed by uric acid (24%, ammonium urate (2%, and cystine (1%. The peak incidence of urinary stone was in patients in their forties. Overall male to female ratio was 4.93:1.Conclusion: The dominant stone composition in inhabitants of central Iran, where tap water hardness is high, was calcium oxalate stones. On the basis of this study, biochemical urinary stone composition of Qom does not differ from other regions of Iran with lower water hardness.Keywords: stone analysis, water hardness, urinary stones, stone composition

  6. Cost-effective analysis of pneumatic and laser lithotripsy techniques in ureteral stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Bilgehan Yüksel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URSL is a commontreatment alternative in ureteral stones. We aimedto evaluate pneumatic and laser lithotripsy techniques,which are used for fragmentation of stones.Materials and methods: The data of 100 patients whounderwent URSL by using pneumatic and laser lithotriptorswere analyzed. The sample divided in 2 groups, eachincluding 50 patients. URSL was performed in lithotomyposition under general anesthesia. The absence of residualstone at second week urinary system graphy wasaccepted as the criteria of success. We evaluated thepresence of differences in terms of efficiency and costeffectivityof pneumatic and laser lithotripsy techniques.Results: The mean ages were 42 and 45 years, respectively.The mean operation time was 43.1 min in pneumaticgroup and 40 min in laser group. Stone-free rates werefound 93.9% and 78%, respectively. The stone migrationrate was determined 16% in pneumatic group and 4.1% inlaser group. Complication rates were 4.1% in pneumaticgroup and 8% in laser group. The cost analysis showedthat pneumatic lithotriptor device cost 10000 TL and laserlithotriptor system cost 76000 TL. Nevertheless, the SocialSecurity Administration paid the same cost for bothlithotripsy techniques.Conclusion: Higher stone-free and lower stone migrationrates were determined in laser lithotripsy application.Therefore, low incidence of the requirement of subsequentsecondary treatments for residual stones in lasertreatment decreased the treatment costs. Nevertheless,the cost is significantly higher in laser technique. It requiresmore detailed studies.Key words: Ureteral stone, ureteroscopy, lithotripsy, efficiency,cost

  7. Geological and geomechanical properties of the carbonate rocks at the eastern Black Sea Region (NE Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Hakan; Yalçinalp, Bülent; Arslan, Mehmet; Babacan, Ali Erden; Çetiner, Gözde

    2016-11-01

    Turkey located in the Alpine-Himalayan Mountain Belt has 35% of the natural stone reserves of the world and has good quality marble, limestone, travertine and onyx reserves especially in the western regions of the country. The eastern Black Sea Region with a 1.4 million meters cubes reserve has a little role on the natural stone production in the country. For this reason, this paper deals with investigation on the potential of carbonate stone in the region and determination of the geological and geo-mechanical properties of these rocks in order to provide economic contribution to the national economy. While the study sites are selected among the all carbonate rock sites, the importance as well as the representative of the sites were carefully considered for the region. After representative samples were analyzed for major oxide and trace element compositions to find out petrochemical variations, the experimental program conducted on rock samples for determination of both physical and strength properties of the carbonate rocks. The results of the tests showed that there are significant variations in the geo-mechanical properties of the studied rock groups. The density values vary from 2.48 to 2.70 gr/cm3, water absorption by weight values range from 0.07 to 1.15% and the apparent porosity of the carbonate rocks are between 0.19 and 3.29%. However, the values of the UCS shows variation from 36 to 80 MPa. Tensile and bending strength values range from 3.2 to 7.5 MPa and 6.0-9.2 MPa respectively. Although the onyx samples have the lowest values of apparent porosity and water absorption by weight, these samples do not have the highest values of UCS values owing to occurrence of the micro-cracks. The UCS values of the rock samples were also found after cycling tests However, the limestone samples have less than 5% deterioration after freezing-thawing and wetting-drying tests, but travertine and onyx samples have more than 15% deterioration. Exception of the apparent

  8. Protein aggregation and lyophilization: Protein structural descriptors as predictors of aggregation propensity

    OpenAIRE

    Roughton, Brock C.; Iyer, Lavanya K.; Bertelsen, Esben; Topp, Elizabeth M.; Camarda, Kyle V.

    2013-01-01

    Lyophilization can induce aggregation in therapeutic proteins, but the relative importance of protein structure, formulation and processing conditions are poorly understood. To evaluate the contribution of protein structure to lyophilization-induced aggregation, fifteen proteins were co-lyophilized with each of five excipients. Extent of aggregation following lyophilization, measured using size-exclusion chromatography, was correlated with computational and biophysical protein structural desc...

  9. Programming spiders, bots, and aggregators in Java

    CERN Document Server

    Heaton, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The content and services available on the web continue to be accessed mostly through direct human control. But this is changing. Increasingly, users rely on automated agents that save them time and effort by programmatically retrieving content, performing complex interactions, and aggregating data from diverse sources. Programming Spiders, Bots, and Aggregators in Java teaches you how to build and deploy a wide variety of these agents-from single-purpose bots to exploratory spiders to aggregators that present a unified view of information from multiple user accounts. You will quickly build on

  10. CAST STONE TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINWALL HJ

    2011-04-08

    Cast stone technology is being evaluated for potential application in the treatment and immobilization of Hanford low-activity waste. The purpose of this document is to provide background information on cast stone technology. The information provided in the report is mainly based on a pre-conceptual design completed in 2003.

  11. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140786Deng Zhenping(Institute of Karst Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Guilin 541004,China);Yang Wen-qiong Application of Stripping Voltammetry with a Solid Amalgam Electrode for Determination of Copper in a Tracer and Groundwater Tracing Experiment(Rock and Mineral Analy-

  12. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131550 Bai Jinfeng(Institute of Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Langfang 065000,China);Bo Wei Determination of 36Elements in Geochemical Samples by High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,31(5),2012,p.814

  13. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070252 Chen Meilan (Biological and Environmental College, Zhejiang Shuren University, Hangzhou 310015, China); Li Li Study on Adsorption of Phenol by Modified Organobentonite (Rock and Mineral Analysis, ISSN0254-5357, CN11-2131/TD, 24(4), 2005, p.259-261, 267, 6 illus., 1 table, 11 refs.) Key words: bentonite, benzene, adsorption

  14. Ellipsoidal anisotropy in elasticity for rocks and rock masses

    CERN Document Server

    Pouya, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    One of the interesting features with the ellipsoidal models of anisotropy presented in this paper is their acceptance of analytical solutions for some of the basic elasticity problems. It was shown by Pouya (2000) and Pouya and Zaoui (2006) that many closed-form solutions for basic problems involving linear isotropic materials could be extended by linear transformation to cover a variety of "ellipsoidal" materials. This paper will describe two main varieties of ellipsoidal elastic models and show how well they fit the in situ data for sedimentary rocks; numerical homogenization results for several varieties of fractured rock masses will also be provided.

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of biliary sludge, cast and stone following liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianbao Kong; Xuehao Wang; Fen Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate etiological facts and treatment of biliary sludge, cast and stone following orthotopic liver transplantation(OLT). Methods: A review was made using data collected from 81 cases with OLTs performed in our center from February 2003 to January 2004, and confirmed by retrospective study. Etiological factors of biliary sludge, cast and stone following OLT were analyzed, and treatment of biliary sludge, cast and stone following OLT were discussed. Result: Nine cases of biliary sludge, cast and stone were diagnosed and the incidence rate was 11.1%. Of these, five were biliary sludge and cast, 2 were bile stone and 2 were necrotic debris. Two cases with hepatic artery embolism received retransplantation and survived. The other one with hepatic artery embolism was ameliorated with nasobiliary drainage by ERCP. Two cases with biliary sludge and cast were resolved by non-operative treatment. Four cases were reoperated, 2 resolved and 2 cases died. Conclusion: Biliary injury and ischemia reperfusion injury, reject reaction, infection and changes of bile kinetics are the important factors causing biliary sludge, cast and stone following OLT. Shortening the time of cold and heat ischemia reperfusion injury of liver, reducing the injury of the blood supply of donor bile duct, actively preventing and early treating of infection and rejection reaction might reduce the incidence rate of biliary sludge, cast and stone following OLT.

  16. Directional sensing and streaming in Dictyostelium aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Sofia; Dilão, Rui

    2016-05-01

    We merge the Kessler-Levine simple discrete model for Dictyostelium cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production and diffusion with the Dilão-Hauser directional sensing aggregation mechanism. The resulting compound model describes all the known transient patterns that emerge during Dictyostelium aggregation, which include the spontaneous formation of cAMP self-sustained target and spiral waves and streaming. We show that the streaming patterns depend on the speed of the amoebae, on the relaxation time for the production of cAMP, on the cAMP degradation rate, and on directional sensing. Moreover, we show that different signaling centers emerge during Dictyostelium aggregation.

  17. Treatment of cystine stones: combined approach using open pyelolithotomy, percutaneous pyelolithotripsy, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and chemolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabech, J; Andersen, J T

    1993-01-01

    Treatment of cystine stones in the urinary tract can be difficult because of a high frequency of recurrence, resistance to Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL), difficulty in localization and access to peripheral stones during Percutaneous Nephrolithotripsy (PCNL), and the insufficient...

  18. Stone anchors (composite type) from the Saurshtra coast, India: An indicator of ancient ports and sea routes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    Marine archaeological investigations on the Saurashtra coast specially at Dwarka, Bet Dwarka, Armada and Somnath brought to light a large number of stone anchors of various type which include composite, grapnel and ring-stone types. The present...

  19. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SOIL MICROBIAL BIOMASS, AGGREGATE STABILITY AND AGGREGATE ASSOCIATED-C: A MECHANISTIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Guidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the identification of C pools involved in soil aggregation, a physically-based aggregate fractionation was proposed, and  additional pretreatments were used in the measurement of the 1-2 mm aggregate stability in order to elucidate the relevance of the role of soil microorganisms with respect to the different aggregate breakdown mechanisms. The study was carried out on three clay loam Regosols, developed on calcareous shales, known history of organic cultivation.Our results showed that the soil C pool controlling the process of stabilisation of aggregates was related to the microbial community. We identified the resistance to fast wetting as the major mechanism of aggregate stability driven by microorganims. The plausible hypothesis is that organic farming promotes fungi growth, improving water repellency of soil aggregates by fungal hydrophobic substances. By contrast, we failed in the identification of C pools controlling the formation of aggregates, probably because of the disturbance of mechanical tillage which contributes to the breakdown of soil aggregates.The physically-based aggregate fractionation proposed in this study resulted useful in the  mechanistically understanding of the role of microorganisms in soil aggregation and it might be suggested for studying the impact of management on C pools, aggregates properties and their relationships in agricultural soils.

  20. Stone Carving in The Locality 0f Eskişehir With its Natural and Cultural Properties: Meerschaum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurbiye UZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Also known as sepiolite, meerschaum is a rock with magnesium and silicium base. This stone is whitish in color, with a very thin texture. Although known to be mostly used for making pipes, the archeological researches about this stone revealed that it had been known for about 5000 years and had been used for various purposes. Today it is seen to be used as a filtering and insulation material thanks to its absorbent property, whereas it has another use in knickknack making with its easily carved texture. Meerschaum is found in countries such as Somali, Czech Republic, United States of America, Greece, Spain, and France in the world, and around the city of Eskişehir in our country. Almost all of the free-milling deposits of this stone is in Turkey, quarrying of which is rather hard. Meerschaum carving, as a craft identified with Eskişehir, is a challenging artisanship that requires mastery, experience, skill, and patience. Although the sizes and durability are not very attractive for the artists, it is possible to see examples of sculpture made of meerschaum. 

  1. Portuguese Ornamental Stones - Identity and Cultural Heritage around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luis

    2016-04-01

    Portugal has established itself as an independent state on October, 5th 1143 being confined to the south-eastern tip of Europe, with sealed land access to the rest of the continent by the others Iberian Peninsula kingdoms, enemies at the time who did not accept Portuguese autonomy. From the fourteenth century, the history of Portugal reports a period of epic discoveries. New commercial maritime routes have been established. Those routes sailing around Africa, passing through India, drove Portuguese people to Macao and Timor. To the East other routes reach the South American continent. Besides commercial interest, and because the church also financed these trips, they had the mission to evangelize the native peoples that were found. In every formed captaincies, over 29 actual countries, numerous churches, hospitals and fortifications were built. Combining a long tradition and mastery of monumental stone building and stonemasonry, which dates back to the Roman Period, Portuguese were able to combine the need to provide ships stability, using already worked stone as ballast. When arrived to these remote locations, quickly and with few local resources, could erect towering and admirable structures that still prevail today. Most of these regions were colonized and gave rise to independent countries in the 70's of the 20th Century, in some of them Portuguese is the official language and these constitutes the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP). This work shows that in addition to the language, traditions, customs, and architecture, there's also a very rich Portuguese Natural Stones monumental heritage building record, which constitutes a very strong link that binds this so special community. References Casal Moura, A., 2000. Granitos e Rochas Similares de Portugal, Instituto Geológico e Mineiro, Lisboa, ISBN 972-98469-5-2. 179. Casal Moura, A.; Carvalho, C.; Almeida, I.; Saúde, J. G.; Farinha Ramos, J.; Augusto, J.; Rodrigues, J. D.; Carvalho, J.; Martins

  2. Diagnosing stone decay in built heritage. Facts and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lodola, Stefania

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Stone and other materials used for the construction of historic buildings, memorial statues, gravestones and similar are exposed to weathering and polluting agents and, therefore, progressive decay. Such deterioration, whether physical, chemical or biological, involves mineral phases and their interrelationships (structure and texture.A review of the analytical procedures applied in scientific research on stone damage has revealed the need for appropriate tools and tests (each with a specific scope, depending on the extant damage to identify decay processes and apply the correct “therapy”, i.e. temporary and/or permanent protection (cleaning, protection, reinforcement, repair and/or replacement. A number of case histories of famous components of the Italian built heritage are discussed in the context of the use of integrated methodologies for researching decay in different kinds of stone.La piedra y otros materiales utilizados para construir edificios históricos, estatuas conmemorativas, lápidas, etc. sufren la acción de los agentes atmosféricos y contaminantes y, por tanto, a una degradación progresiva. En dicha degradación, ya sea física, química o biológica, intervienen las fases minerales de la piedra y sus correspondientes interrelaciones (estructura y textura.Un análisis de los procedimientos analíticos aplicados en la investigación científica sobre los daños en la piedra ha puesto de manifiesto la necesidad de herramientas y pruebas adecuadas (cada una con un objetivo concreto, según el daño existente para identificar los procesos de degradación y aplicar la «terapia» adecuada; es decir, una protección provisional o definitiva (limpieza, protección, refuerzo, reparación o sustitución.Se comentan varios casos prácticos relacionados con conocidos elementos del patrimonio construido italiano en el contexto del empleo de metodologías integradas para la investigación de la degradación en distintos tipos

  3. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>20050704 Cheng Lin (Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China); Feng Songlin Analysis of Colored Elements in Ancient Colored Glaze by SRXRF (Rock and Mineral Analysis, ISSN0254-5357, CN11 -2131/TD, 23 (2), 2004, p. 113-116, 120, 3 illus. , 3 tables, 6 refs. )

  4. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20142093Chen Daohua(Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey,Guangzhou 510075,China);Diao Shaobo The Latest Progress of Geological Marine Testing Technology in China(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,32(6),2013,p.850-859,105refs.)Key words:chemical analysis,China

  5. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160255 Wang Na(Tianjin Center of Geological Survey,China Geological Survey,Tianjin 300170,China);Teng Xinhua Determination of Low-Content Iron Carbonate in Stream Sediments by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Aluminum Chloride Extraction(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,34(2),2015,p.229

  6. First experience of electron microscopic and bacteriological examination of the prostate gland stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Vinogradov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is based on a study of prostate stones obtained by transurethral resection of the prostate in 5 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia in combination with chronic calculous prostatitis. Stones have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microstructural analysis, as well as a comparative study of bacteriological swabs from the surface of the stones after ultrasonic treatment of stone and without it. Pretreatment ultrasound prostate stones before sowing on nutrient medium swabs improves bacteriological diagnosis, which may be due to the dispersion of biofilms and exit vegetative forms of bacteria from it. This feature can serve as ultrasound theoretical justification for its use to improve the efficiency of diagnosis of various forms of prostatitis.

  7. MSCT renal stone protocol; dose penalty and influence on management decision of patients: Is it really worth the radiation dose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hamimi

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Considering time is of the essence; MSCT renal stone protocol using low dose technique is crucial in the management of renal stone in acute setting including the diagnosis and management decision.

  8. Percutaneous biliary stones removal using balloon sphincteroplasty and hydraulic pressure as primary therapeutic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Soo; You, Jin Jong [Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Chinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    We wanted to report on the efficacy and safety of the percutaneous biliary stone removal technique using hydraulic pressure after balloon sphincteroplasty through the PTBD tract for patients with bile duct stones. The subjects of this study were 85 patients (46 men and 39 women) with bile duct stones who came to hospital over a period of the previous 4 years. All subjects had undergone attempts for with the biliary tree through PTBD. First, an 8-9F sheath was inserted into the biliary tree through the PTBD route by using a balloon catheter prior to sphincteroplasty, and 50cc of hydraulic pressure with contrast-mixed saline solution was then injected via the sheath. Follow-up cholangiogram was performed 1-3 days later to evaluate the results of stone removal. For residual stones, we attempted second, third, and fourth trials to completely remove the stones. The size and number of stones were analyzed. The results were analyzed, together with the complications, after classifying the cases as 'success', 'partial removal' or 'failure' according to the number of remaining stones. Out of 85 patients, 71 (83%) cases had successful results, and 43 (51%) cases resulted in success with the first attempt. The second, third and fourth trials were conducted on 16, 10 and 2 cases, respectively. Out of 14 failure cases, 10 patients had too many intrahepatic duct stones. The complications were abdominal pain (n=21), fever (n=9), and pancreatitis (n=2), and portal vein thrombosis, biloma and sepsis were also found in 1 case each. We report that this percutaneus biliary stone removal technique using hydraulic pressure after balloon sphincteroplasty through the PTBD is safe and effective, and particularly, it achieves good results as the primary therapy for treating only choledocholiths.

  9. Suspensions of colloidal particles and aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Babick, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This book addresses the properties of particles in colloidal suspensions. It has a focus on particle aggregates and the dependency of their physical behaviour on morphological parameters. For this purpose, relevant theories and methodological tools are reviewed and applied to selected examples. The book is divided into four main chapters. The first of them introduces important measurement techniques for the determination of particle size and interfacial properties in colloidal suspensions. A further chapter is devoted to the physico-chemical properties of colloidal particles—highlighting the interfacial phenomena and the corresponding interactions between particles. The book’s central chapter examines the structure-property relations of colloidal aggregates. This comprises concepts to quantify size and structure of aggregates, models and numerical tools for calculating the (light) scattering and hydrodynamic properties of aggregates, and a discussion on van-der-Waals and double layer interactions between ...

  10. Detection of Distribution Dimension of the Earth-rock Aggregate Based on Digital Image Process%土石分形检测中的数字图像处理方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜召彬; 王建勋; 平根建

    2012-01-01

    土木工程人员经常用粗料颗粒分布分维、粗料轮廓分维这些结构指标作为土石混合体定量化研究的依据,用以解释土石混合体的力学特性,并以这些参数作为土石混合体工程分类的依据。目前技术人员以手工筛分实验来计算粒度分维数。展开对土石混合体微结构研究,劳动强度大,操作不便,极大地制约了对土石混合体微结构的研究。提出了利用数字图像处理技术来测量土石混合体分形维数的方法。实验验证结果表明,该方法减轻了工程技术人员手工检测的劳动强度,实用有效。%Some parameters including distribution fractal dimension of coarse grain and coarse grain boundary contour line are used as a new research method on microstructure of earth-rock aggregate by engineering technicians, which can explain the characteristics of mechanical behavior of earth-rock aggregate. The parameters of distribution fractal dimension can also be clas- sification basis for engineering of earth-rock aggregate. Now technicians can only calculate grain-size fractal dimension by sieve analysis in manual operation way to research on the microstructure of earth-rock aggregate, which restricts the technicians' fur- ther research for its great labor intensity and its inconvenient operation. In this paper the detection of distribution fractal dimension of earth-rock aggregate base on digital image process is put forward. This method is simple and practical. It can decrease labor intensity and enriched the research method of microstructure of earth-rock aggregate for technicians.

  11. DURABILITY OF DIMENSION STONE

    OpenAIRE

    Branko Crnković

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents a survey of the possible origins of the strain and deformation of stone. A range of origins which can be influenced is suggested, from those occurring under natural conditions in the deposit to those resulting from technologies applied in quarrying, stone processing and dressing, including environment with natural and technogenic factors. No new information can be given on the behavior of the stone processed and used in building according to the most recent technologies, be...

  12. Fingermark recovery from riot debris: Bricks and stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lisa; Fisher, Ruth

    2015-03-01

    During the UK riots in August 2011, large volumes of bricks and stones were used as weapons or projectiles in acts of violence or to gain illegal entry to properties. As a result, it has been emphasised that it is necessary to determine suitable chemical treatment(s) that will enable the development of fingermarks on such items in order to identify those involved. This study has undertaken the task of attempting to develop latent fingermarks on common house bricks, limestone and sandstone using current techniques including ninhydrin and fluorescence. Results produced have shown that, with fluorescent fingerprint powder, silver nitrate and superglue providing the best results, it is now possible to enhance fingermarks that were previously left undeveloped. In addition, Isomark T-1 Rapid Grey High Resolution Forensic Impression Material has proved extremely effective as an alternative method of recovering fingermarks developed with fluorescent fingerprint powder.

  13. Usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA renography and diuretic renography in predicting successful stone discharge following outpatient ESWL in patients with a single ureteral stone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soga, Norihito; Komeda, Yoshinori [Yokkaichi Health Insurance Hospital, Mie (Japan); Suzuki, Ryuichi; Kawamura, Juichi

    1996-11-01

    We analyzed the {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA renogram with and without diuresis to predict the possibility of stone discharge on the outpatient basis by renogram patterns. Between October 1993 and December 1995, {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA renography was performed in 79 patients with a single ureteral stone. The {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA renogram pattern was classified into the three types of normal function, obstruction and lower function patterns and the complete stone discharge rate was 93, 63 and 25%, respectively. In addition, diuretic renography using Furosemide was performed in patients with an obstruction pattern and the three renogram patterns of return to the normal curve, a diuretic response and no response were obtained; the complete stone discharge rate was 44, 65.3 and 93%, respectively. From this study, patients with a single ureteral stone with a normal pattern on the regular DTPA renogram and patients with no response pattern on the diuretic renogram, even if in such patients an obstructive pattern was seen on the regular DTPA renogram, seem to be a good candidate for obtaining a high rate of a stone discharge with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) treatment in the outpatients basis. (author)

  14. Remote sensing and airborne geophysics in the assessment of natural aggregate resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knepper, D.H.; Langer, W.H.; Miller, S.H.

    1994-01-01

    Natural aggregate made from crushed stone and deposits of sand and gravel is a vital element of the construction industry in the United States. Although natural aggregate is a high volume/low value commodity that is relatively abundant, new sources of aggregate are becoming increasingly difficult to find and develop because of rigid industry specifications, political considerations, development and transporation costs, and environmental concerns, especially in urban growth centers where much of the aggregate is used. As the demand for natural aggregate increases in response to urban growth and the repair and expansion of the national infrastructure, new sources of natural aggregate will be required. The USGS has recognized the necessity of developing the capability to assess the potential for natural aggregate sources on Federal lands; at present, no methodology exists for systematically describing and evaluating potential sources of natural aggregate. Because remote sensing and airborne geophysics can detect surface and nearsurface phenomena, these tools may useful for detecting and mapping potential sources of natural aggregate; however, before a methodology for applying these tools can be developed, it is necessary to understand the type, distribution, physical properties, and characteristics of natural aggregate deposits, as well as the problems that will be encountered in assessing their potential value. There are two primary sources of natural aggregate: (1) exposed or near-surface igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary bedrock that can be crushed, and (2) deposits of sand and gravel that may be used directly or crushed and sized to meet specifications. In any particular area, the availability of bedrock suitable for crushing is a function of the geologic history of the area - the processes that formed, deformed, eroded and exposed the bedrock. Deposits of sand and gravel are primarily surficial deposits formed by the erosion, transportation by water and ice

  15. Familial aggregation and childhood blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest progress in gene finding for childhood BP, focusing on the combined effects of multiple loci identified from the genome-wide association studies on adult BP. We further review the evidence on the contribution of the genetic components of other family risk factors to the familial aggregation of childhood BP including obesity, birth weight, sleep quality, sodium intake, parental smoking, and socioeconomic status. At the end, we emphasize the promise of using genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) analysis, a method that uses genome-wide data from unrelated individuals, in answering a number of unsolved questions in the familial aggregation of childhood BP.

  16. New exploration on the types and forms of stone needle%砭石类型与形制新探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍秋鹏

    2009-01-01

    The basic use of stone needles in curing disease is cutting the carbuncles and purulences and pricking and draining off the sores. As a result, the forms of stone needle need to have a sharp cutting edge or slender point. Combining with corresponding unearthed material objects of archeology, the microlith-ie stone needle of mainly consists of a scraper, tip-like device and stone arrowheads. The stone needle of polished stone implements can be divided into three categories according to different forms and functions, that is conical-tip stone needles for pricking, e.g. lithostyle, coup de poing and stone arrowhead etc. ; sick-le-shaped needle stone for cutting, e.g. stone knife, stone sickle, stone adze and stone chisel etc; spear-shaped stone needle for both cutting and pricking, e.g. stone spear, stone sword, jade(stone) spear etc. From the usage cases recorded in the ancient literature, the conical-tip stone needle for pricking ought to be the most used of the ancient stone needles. Use of the stone needle for hot stroking, massage and knoc-king at the body surface, which was raised by some related scholars, does not belong to the domain of ancient stone needles.%砭石在治疗疾病中的基本用途是切割痈脓和刺泻瘀血,因而在形制上需具有锋利的刃口或细长的尖锋.结合相应的考古出土实物,细石器中的砭石,主要为刮削器、尖状器和石镞.磨制石器中的砭石,按照形制和功能可以分为三大类,即用于锥刺的锥尖状砭石,如石针、石锥、石镞等;用于切割的刀镰状砭石,如石刀、石镰、石锛、石凿等;兼具切割和锥刺功能的戈矛状砭石,如石矛、石剑、玉(石)戈等.从古代文献记载的使用情况来看,其中用于锥刺的锥尖状砭石应是古代砭石的主流.有关学者提出的用于熨烫、按摩及扣击体表的砭石,并不属于古代砭石的范畴.

  17. The systematic classification of gallbladder stones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie Qiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To develop a method for systematic classification of gallbladder stones, analyze the clinical characteristics of each type of stone and provide a theoretical basis for the study of the formation mechanism of different types of gallbladder stones. METHODOLOGY: A total of 807 consecutive patients with gallbladder stones were enrolled and their gallstones were studied. The material composition of gallbladder stones was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and the distribution and microstructure of material components was observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy. The composition and distribution of elements were analyzed by an X-ray energy spectrometer. Gallbladder stones were classified accordingly, and then, gender, age, medical history and BMI of patients with each type of stone were analyzed. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gallbladder stones were classified into 8 types and more than ten subtypes, including cholesterol stones (297, pigment stones (217, calcium carbonate stones (139, phosphate stones (12, calcium stearate stones (9, protein stones (3, cystine stones (1 and mixed stones (129. Mixed stones were those stones with two or more than two kinds of material components and the content of each component was similar. A total of 11 subtypes of mixed stones were found in this study. Patients with cholesterol stones were mainly female between the ages of 30 and 50, with higher BMI and shorter medical history than patients with pigment stones (P<0.05, however, patients with pigment, calcium carbonate, phosphate stones were mainly male between the ages of 40 and 60. CONCLUSION: The systematic classification of gallbladder stones indicates that different types of stones have different characteristics in terms of the microstructure, elemental composition and distribution, providing an important basis for the mechanistic study of gallbladder stones.

  18. Experimental and Statistical Evaluation of Cutting Methods in Relation to Specific Energy and Rock Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Irfan Celal; Bayram, Fatih; Yasitli, Nazmi Erhan

    2013-07-01

    In a processing plant, natural stone can be cut by methods such as circular sawing (CS), frame sawing (FS), water jet cutting (WJC) and abrasive water jet cutting (AWJC). The efficiency of cutting systems can be compared using various parameters. In this study, the specific energy values were determined and compared to evaluate the efficiency of rock-cutting methods. Rock-cutting experiments were performed on 12 different types of rock samples using a circular sawing machine and an AWJC machine. The experimental results showed that the specific energy values in AWJC were generally higher than in CS. In addition, the relationships between specific energy values and rock properties were explained in this study. The Shore hardness and abrasion resistance were found to be strongly related to the specific energy values, and according to these parameters prediction charts of specific energy values were created.

  19. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101621 Chen Heping (Nanyang Geology Testing & Research Center of Henan Province, Nanyang 473000, China); Sha Yanmei Simultaneous Determination of Major and Minor Elements in Carbonates by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry with Multi-direction Viewing Mode (Rock and Mineral Analysis, ISSN0254-5357, CN11-2131/TD, 28(4), 2009, p.367-369, 5 tables, 10 refs.)

  20. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070970 Cheng Jian(Center of Analysis and Testing,Hunan Zhuye Torch Metals Co., Ltd.,Zhuzhou 412004,China)Direct Deter- mination of Lead in Refined Indium by Flume Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN 0254- 5357,CN11-2131/TD,25(1),2006,p.91 -92,94,1 illus.,7 tables,5 refs.) Key words:lead,atomic absorption

  1. Analysis of urinary stone constituents using powder X-ray diffraction and FT-IR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pragnya A Bhatt; Parimal Paul

    2008-03-01

    Constituents of urinary stones obtained from various patients from western part of India, which is a highly urinary stone disease-prone area, have been analysed. Eight stones from four patients were collected through urologists and have been analysed using powder X-ray diffraction and FT-IR. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) image of selected samples were also carried out. The analysis revealed that calcium oxalate monohydrate, which is also known as whewellite, is the common constituent of all of the stones, particularly at the initial stage of stone formation. However, multi phases viz. whewellite phase, and hydroxyl and carbonate apatite phases are also detected in the case of third and fourth patients, from where multiple stones were obtained. Interestingly, in these mixed phase stones the concentration of whewellite decreases with increasing the concentration of apatite phases. Thermal behaviour of the whewellite phase was studied by TGA and variable temperature XRD analysis. Morphology of the whewellite and apatite phases, examined by SEM image, has also been reported.

  2. Characterization and provenance of the building stones from Pompeii's archaeological site (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balassone, G.; Kastenmeier, P.; di Maio, G.; Mormone, A.; Joachimski, M.

    2009-04-01

    Pompeii is one of the most famous and complex areas of archaeological investigation in the world and with a uniquely favorable state of preservation. Even if many studies have been devoted in time to many archaeological aspects of this ancient city, large-scale and detailed studies aimed at characterizing mineralogy, petrography and isotope geochemistry of the building stones are still lacking. The scope of the present research is to fill this gap, pointing to the definition of the provenance of the stony materials used for ancient constructions of the city of Pompeii and to the possible trade routes. This work is part of a large-scale survey carried out by the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut of Berlin, with the purposes of reconstructing the sources of raw materials of various archaeological sites of the Sarno Plain (e.g. Longola-Poggiomarino settlement, Nuceria, Stabiae, etc.) and consequently also the paleo-environments of this area during the Olocene (Seiler, 2006, 2008; Kastemeier and Seiler, 2007). We sampled all the litotypes with different macroscopic characteristics from various buildings according to location, age (time span VI century B.C. - I century A.D.) and utilization; the architectural buildings considered for this study are mainly represented public and religious buildings, houses and funerary monuments. As possible source areas, representative litotypes have been sampled from ancient pits and outcrops surrounding Pompeii as well. A set of 80 samples have been sampled by means of micro-drillings for mineralogical, petrographic and geochemical analyses, comprising optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma mass, X-ray fluorescence and C-O isotope geochemistry. Minero-petrographic and XRD studies of Pompeii rock samples have shown that at least ten different litologies occur as building stones, belonging to basaltic to tephritic lavas, pyroclasts (tuffs, scoriae, etc.) and sedimentary rocks (limestone, travertines

  3. Volcanic Rocks and Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Volcanoes have contributed significantly to the formation of the surface of our planet. Volcanism produced the crust we live on and most of the air we breathe. The...

  4. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110887 Chen Yong(College of Geo-Resources and Information,China University of Petroleum,Qingdao 266555,China);Ge Yunjin Experimental Study on the Modes of Hydrocarbon-Bearing Inclusion Trapped in Carbonate Rock Reservoirs(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,29(3),2010,p.217-220,1 illus.,16 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:petroleum products,organic inclusion,carbonates20110888 Cheng Zhizhong(Institute of Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Langfang 065000,China);Gu Tiexin Preparation of Nine Iron Ore Reference Materials of GFe-1~GFe-9(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,29(3),2010,p.305-308,5 tables,13 refs.)Key words:iron ores,type specimens Nine standard reference iron ore samples of GFe-1~GFe-9 were developed.The concentrations of TFe of the samples ranged from 20.17% to 66.87%,which covered a wide iron concentration range from concentrated iron ore powder to poor iron ores and can meet the needs for iron ore exploration and ore-dressing.Powder XRF technique was used for homogeneity test and the analytical results indicated that all elements tested were in good homogeneity.

  5. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111673 Cao Ban(Zhejiang Institute of Geological & Mineral Resources,Hangzhou 310007,China);Ma Jun Determination of 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Groundwater by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence-Ultraviolet Detector(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,29(5),2010,p.539-542,2 illus.,4 tables,15 refs.)Key words:liquid chromatography,polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,fluorescence analysis

  6. The potential for ore, industrial minerals and commercial stones in the Simpevarp area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindroos, Hardy [MIRAB Mineral Resurser AB, Uppsla (Sweden)

    2004-10-01

    On behalf of SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company), a survey has been made of existing information concerning the potential for ore, industrial minerals and commercial stones in and around the two candidate areas for a deep repository in Oskarshamn. A deep repository for spent nuclear fuel should not be located in a rock type or in an area where mineral extraction might be considered in the future, since this would make it difficult or impossible to exploit this natural resource. Avoiding such areas reduces the risk that people in the future will come into contact with the deep repository through mineral prospecting or mining activities.The survey has made use of the geoscientific information compiled in the more regional investigations in Oskarshamn Municipality in 1998-99. The new information after the municipal study includes extensive geophysical measurements from both the air and the ground. The results of the recently completed geophysical helicopter survey of the Simpevarp area are presented in a special chapter. The judgement of an area's ore potential is in part based on the evaluation of these geophysical measurements. In order to be better able to judge the ore potential, a geochemical investigation of soil samples, including reanalysing of older samples collected by the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), has been carried out. The report also discusses prospecting efforts in the area as well as relevant Swedish mining legislation. In cooperation with SGU a mineral resource map of the Simpevarp area has been prepared. The map shows two areas with a potential for commercial stones, namely the granites at Goetemar and Uthammar, situated in the northernmost respectively the southernmost part of the study area. Furthermore, the Goetemar granite has probably a small potential for ores containing tin (Sn) and/or wolfram (W). Although no mineralizations of this type have so far been found, the Goetemar granite area may be unsuitable or

  7. Rock Music and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Herb

    1971-01-01

    It is the fear of this author that this generation, stupefied by their own self-indulgence, deluded by their pretensions of lovingness, unconsciously motivated by intense intimacy-anxiety, while projecting their conflict on ready targets such as the Establishment and the police, might be fertile ground for a destructive dictator. (Author)

  8. Shock Wave Lithotripsy: Effects on the Pancreas and Recurrent Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krambeck, Amy E.; Rohlinger, Audrey L.; Lohse, Christine M.; Patterson, David E.; Gettman, Matthew T.

    2007-04-01

    Long-term effects of shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) are unknown; however, we recently found an association between SWL and diabetes mellitus in a population based case control cohort. To further study the association between SWL and diabetes mellitus, we determined the immediate impact of SWL on the pancreas as well as the long-term natural history of stone disease following treatment. Chart review identified 630 patients treated with SWL at our institution in 1985. Questionnaires focusing on recurrent stone episodes after SWL were sent to 578 patients alive in 2004. To further assess impact of SWL on the pancreas, pancreatic enzyme measurements were performed on 24 symptomatic stone patients treated in 2006 with ureteroscopy (n=12) and SWL (n=12). Serum amylase and lipase were evaluated pre and post SWL. A⩾5 U/L increase in either lab value was considered significant. Among patients in the long-term SWL treatment group, the questionnaire response rate was 58.9% (288/489). Recurrent stone events were noted in 154 (53.5%) of the survey respondents. Characteristics associated with stone recurrences were: gender (p=0.004), age at SWL (p=0.022), BMI (p=0.007), SWL complications (p=0.009), and lower pole SWL (p=0.025). Recurrent stone disease was also associated with the development of diabetes mellitus (p=0.020). In the contemporary group of treated stone patients, pancreatic enzyme analysis demonstrated an increase in serum amylase and lipase in 3 (25.0%) SWL patients and 1 (8.3%) ureteroscopy patient (p=0.273). In conclusion, over half of the patients treated with SWL will develop recurrent stone events. We found a strong association between recurrent stone disease and the development of diabetes mellitus at long-term follow-up. Although not statistically significant due to small number, data in a contemporary treatment cohort suggest the possibility that the pancreas can be adversely affected by SWL.

  9. Exploration methods for granitic natural stones – geological and topographical aspects from case studies in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olavi Selonen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Regional and local geological constraints for location of natural stone deposits in glaciated terrains of southern and central Finland have been studied and applied to practical exploration for natural stone. A list of geological and topographical aspects to be considered in exploration, is presented. Important aspects refer to: 1. Regional geology of the target area. 2. Magmatism (type and structure of intrusion, relative time of pluton emplacement. 3. Metamorphism (grade, mineral composition, parent material. 4. Deformation (lineaments, shear zones, folding, fault zones, fracture zones, shape preferred mineral orientations, and 5. Topography (relative elevation, micro topography. The proposed aspects can be used as geological guidelines in exploration for granitic natural stones.

  10. p53 Aggregates penetrate cells and induce the co-aggregation of intracellular p53.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolyn J Forget

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are unique pathologies in which the infectious particles are prions, a protein aggregate. The prion protein has many particular features, such as spontaneous aggregation, conformation transmission to other native PrP proteins and transmission from an individual to another. Protein aggregation is now frequently associated to many human diseases, for example Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease or type 2 diabetes. A few proteins associated to these conformational diseases are part of a new category of proteins, called prionoids: proteins that share some, but not all, of the characteristics associated with prions. The p53 protein, a transcription factor that plays a major role in cancer, has recently been suggested to be a possible prionoid. The protein has been shown to accumulate in multiple cancer cell types, and its aggregation has also been reproduced in vitro by many independent groups. These observations suggest a role for p53 aggregates in cancer development. This study aims to test the «prion-like» features of p53. Our results show in vitro aggregation of the full length and N-terminally truncated protein (p53C, and penetration of these aggregates into cells. According to our findings, the aggregates enter cells using macropinocytosis, a non-specific pathway of entry. Lastly, we also show that once internalized by the cell, p53C aggregates can co-aggregate with endogenous p53 protein. Together, these findings suggest prion-like characteristics for p53 protein, based on the fact that p53 can spontaneously aggregate, these aggregates can penetrate cells and co-aggregate with cellular p53.

  11. Application of the Electrical Resistivity Tomography to the stone content estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y.; Chanzy, André; Courdier, Florence; Mariotte, Nicolas; Rachedi, Sabrina

    2009-04-01

    Electrical Resistivity of the soil is regarded as a proxy for many soil properties as structure, moisture content or bedrock depth. The stone content is important for the trees as a large number of stones in the soil restrict the volume of soil that is available for roots to uptake water and nutrients. The potential of ERT for estimating the stone content is evaluated by regarding the stony soil as a two-exponent mixture with stones, which are less conductive, suspend in a conductive matrix. The resistivity of the two components was obtained separately by 2-electrode and 4-electrode methods. On the basis of the resistivity of the soils and the stones, the stone size effect on the effective resistivity was addressed using numerical modeling by Windows based resistivity modeling program RES2DINV and RES3DINV. The effective resistivity at different stone content was calculated by inverting the simulated potential which reproduces a linear panel experiment. The results demonstrate that stone size effect is not very significant. Field measurements were carried out at Mt-Ventoux and l'Issole, located in south of France in the Provence Region. The sites stand in Karstic terrain with soils having high and variable stone content and lying on a bed rock which can be found very close to the surface. Pits were dug and their stone content (volumetric fraction) was estimated. There is an apparent relation between the effective resistivity values extracted from the ERT inversion results and the stone content, the tendency are in good agreement with theoretical results. However, exceptions are found with relatively higher stone content and lower ER value, it can be explained by 3D effect from soil characteristics surrounding the pit. An error assessment in stone content is given according to the resistivity contrast between phases (stones and soil) and the variability in electric resistivity within each phase.

  12. Structure and kinetics of shear aggregation in turbulent flows. I. Early stage of aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäbler, Matthäus U; Moussa, Amgad S; Soos, Miroslav; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2010-08-17

    Aggregation of rigid colloidal particles leads to fractal-like structures that are characterized by a fractal dimension d(f) which is a key parameter for describing aggregation processes. This is particularly true in shear aggregation where d(f) strongly influences aggregation kinetics. Direct measurement of d(f) in the early stages of shear aggregation is however difficult, as the aggregates are small and few in number. An alternative method for determining d(f) is to use an aggregation model that when fitted to the time evolution of the cluster mass distribution allows for estimating d(f). Here, we explore three such models, two of which are based on an effective collision sphere and one which directly incorporates the permeable structure of the aggregates, and we apply them for interpreting the initial aggregate growth measured experimentally in a turbulent stirred tank reactor. For the latter, three polystyrene latexes were used that differed only in the size of the primary particles (d(p) = 420, 600, and 810 nm). It was found that all three models describe initial aggregation kinetics reasonably well using, however, substantially different values for d(f). To discriminate among the models, we therefore also studied the regrowth of preformed aggregates where d(f) was experimentally accessible. It was found that only the model that directly incorporates the permeable structure of the aggregates is able to predict correctly this second type of experiments. Applying this model to the initial aggregation kinetics, we conclude that the actual initial fractal dimension is d(f) = 2.07 +/- 0.04 as found from this model.

  13. Regulated protein aggregation: stress granules and neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolozin Benjamin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The protein aggregation that occurs in neurodegenerative diseases is classically thought to occur as an undesirable, nonfunctional byproduct of protein misfolding. This model contrasts with the biology of RNA binding proteins, many of which are linked to neurodegenerative diseases. RNA binding proteins use protein aggregation as part of a normal regulated, physiological mechanism controlling protein synthesis. The process of regulated protein aggregation is most evident in formation of stress granules. Stress granules assemble when RNA binding proteins aggregate through their glycine rich domains. Stress granules function to sequester, silence and/or degrade RNA transcripts as part of a mechanism that adapts patterns of local RNA translation to facilitate the stress response. Aggregation of RNA binding proteins is reversible and is tightly regulated through pathways, such as phosphorylation of elongation initiation factor 2α. Microtubule associated protein tau also appears to regulate stress granule formation. Conversely, stress granule formation stimulates pathological changes associated with tau. In this review, I propose that the aggregation of many pathological, intracellular proteins, including TDP-43, FUS or tau, proceeds through the stress granule pathway. Mutations in genes coding for stress granule associated proteins or prolonged physiological stress, lead to enhanced stress granule formation, which accelerates the pathophysiology of protein aggregation in neurodegenerative diseases. Over-active stress granule formation could act to sequester functional RNA binding proteins and/or interfere with mRNA transport and translation, each of which might potentiate neurodegeneration. The reversibility of the stress granule pathway also offers novel opportunities to stimulate endogenous biochemical pathways to disaggregate these pathological stress granules, and perhaps delay the progression of disease.

  14. Lower pole stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanguedolce, Francesco; Breda, Alberto; Millan, Felix

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess efficacy and safety of prone- and supine percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for the treatment of lower pole kidney stones. METHODS: Data from patients affected by lower pole kidney stones and treated with PCNL between December 2005 and August 2010 were collected retrospectivel...

  15. Control of pome and stone fruit virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Marina; Ilardi, Vincenza; Pasquini, Graziella

    2015-01-01

    Many different systemic pathogens, including viruses, affect pome and stone fruits causing diseases with adverse effects in orchards worldwide. The significance of diseases caused by these pathogens on tree health and fruit shape and quality has resulted in the imposition of control measures both nationally and internationally. Control measures depend on the identification of diseases and their etiological agents. Diagnosis is the most important aspect of controlling fruit plant viruses. Early detection of viruses in fruit trees or in the propagative material is a prerequisite for their control and to guarantee a sustainable agriculture. Many quarantine programs are in place to reduce spread of viruses among countries during international exchange of germplasm. All these phytosanitary measures are overseen by governments based on agreements produced by international organizations. Also certification schemes applied to fruit trees allow the production of planting material of known variety and plant health status for local growers by controlling the propagation of pathogen-tested mother plants. They ensure to obtain propagative material not only free of "quarantine" organisms under the national legislation but also of important "nonquarantine" pathogens. The control of insect vectors plays an important role in the systemic diseases management, but it must be used together with other control measures as eradication of infected plants and use of certified propagation material. Apart from the control of the virus vector and the use of virus-free material, the development of virus-resistant cultivars appears to be the most effective approach to achieve control of plant viruses, especially for perennial crops that are more exposed to infection during their long life span. The use of resistant or tolerant cultivars and/or rootstocks could be potentially the most important aspect of virus disease management, especially in areas in which virus infections are endemic. The

  16. Structure and aggregation in model tetramethylurea solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Rini; Patey, G. N., E-mail: patey@chem.ubc.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2014-08-14

    The structure of model aqueous tetramethylurea (TMU) solutions is investigated employing large-scale (32 000, 64 000 particles) molecular dynamics simulations. Results are reported for TMU mole fractions, X{sub t}, ranging from infinite dilution up to 0.07, and for two temperatures, 300 and 330 K. Two existing force fields for TMU-water solutions are considered. These are the GROMOS 53A6 united-atom TMU model combined with SPC/E water [TMU(GROMOS-UA)/W(SPC/E)], and the more frequently employed AMBER03 all-atom force field for TMU combined with the TIP3P water model [TMU(AMBER-AA)/W(TIP3P)]. It is shown that TMU has a tendency towards aggregation for both models considered, but the tendency is significantly stronger for the [TMU(AMBER-AA)/W(TIP3P)] force field. For this model signs of aggregation are detected at X{sub t} = 0.005, aggregation is a well established feature of the solution at X{sub t} = 0.02, and the aggregates increase further in size with increasing concentration. This is in agreement with at least some experimental studies, which report signals of aggregation in the low concentration regime. The TMU aggregates exhibit little structure and are simply loosely ordered, TMU-rich regions of solution. The [TMU(GROMOS-UA)/W(SPC/E)] model shows strong signs of aggregation only at higher concentrations (X{sub t} ≳ 0.04), and the aggregates appear more loosely ordered, and less well-defined than those occurring in the [TMU(AMBER-AA)/W(TIP3P)] system. For both models, TMU aggregation increases when the temperature is increased from 300 to 330 K, consistent with an underlying entropy driven, hydrophobic interaction mechanism. At X{sub t} = 0.07, the extra-molecular correlation length expected for microheterogeneous solutions has become comparable with the size of the simulation cell for both models considered, indicating that even the systems simulated here are sufficiently large only at low concentrations.

  17. Petrology of unshocked crystalline rocks and shock effects in lunar rocks and minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, E.C.T.; James, O.B.; Minkin, J.A.; Boreman, J.A.; Jackson, E.D.; Raleigh, C.B.

    1970-01-01

    On the basis of rock modes, textures, and mineralogy, unshocked crystalline rocks are classified into a dominant ilmenite-rich suite (subdivided into intersertal, ophitic, and hornfels types) and a subordinate feldspar-rich suite (subdivided into poikilitic and granular types). Weakly to moderately shocked rocks show high strain-rate deformation and solid-state transformation of minerals to glasses; intensely shocked rocks are converted to rock glasses. Data on an unknown calcium-bearing iron metasilicate are presented.

  18. Tensile strength and fracture of cemented granular aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affes, R; Delenne, J-Y; Monerie, Y; Radjaï, F; Topin, V

    2012-11-01

    Cemented granular aggregates include a broad class of geomaterials such as sedimentary rocks and some biomaterials such as the wheat endosperm. We present a 3D lattice element method for the simulation of such materials, modeled as a jammed assembly of particles bound together by a matrix partially filling the interstitial space. From extensive simulation data, we analyze the mechanical properties of aggregates subjected to tensile loading as a function of matrix volume fraction and particle-matrix adhesion. We observe a linear elastic behavior followed by a brutal failure along a fracture surface. The effective stiffness before failure increases almost linearly with the matrix volume fraction. We show that the tensile strength of the aggregates increases with both the increasing tensile strength at the particle-matrix interface and decreasing stress concentration as a function of matrix volume fraction. The proportion of broken bonds in the particle phase reveals a range of values of the particle-matrix adhesion and matrix volume fraction for which the cracks bypass the particles and hence no particle damage occurs. This limit is shown to depend on the relative toughness of the particle-matrix interface with respect to the particles.

  19. SUMO modulation of protein aggregation and degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Feligioni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO conjugation and binding to target proteins regulate a wide variety of cellular pathways. The functional aspects of SUMOylation include changes in protein-protein interactions, intracellular trafficking as well as protein aggregation and degradation. SUMO has also been linked to specialized cellular pathways such as neuronal development and synaptic transmission. In addition, SUMOylation is associated with neurological diseases associated with abnormal protein accumulations. SUMOylation of the amyloid and tau proteins involved in Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies may contribute to changes in protein solubility and proteolytic processing. Similar events have been reported for α-synuclein aggregates found in Parkinson's disease, polyglutamine disorders such as Huntington's disease as well as protein aggregates found in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. This review provides a detailed overview of the impact SUMOylation has on the etiology and pathology of these related neurological diseases.

  20. Chaperone effects on prion and nonprion aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikhvanov, Eugene G; Romanova, Nina V; Chernoff, Yury O

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to high temperature or other stresses induces a synthesis of heat shock proteins. Many of these proteins are molecular chaperones, and some of them help cells to cope with heat-induced denaturation and aggregation of other proteins. In the last decade, chaperones have received increased attention in connection with their role in maintenance and propagation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae prions, infectious or heritable agents transmitted at the protein level. Recent data suggest that functioning of the chaperones in reactivation of heat-damaged proteins and in propagation of prions is based on the same molecular mechanisms but may lead to different consequences depending on the type of aggregate. In both cases the concerted and balanced action of "chaperones' team," including Hsp104, Hsp70, Hsp40 and possibly other proteins, determines whether a misfolded protein is to be incorporated into an aggregate, rescued to the native state or targeted for degradation.

  1. Aggregation kinetics and structure of cryoimmunoglobulins clusters

    CERN Document Server

    De Spirito, M; Bassi, F A; Di Stasio, E; Giardina, B; Arcovito, G

    2002-01-01

    Cryoimmunoglobulins are pathological antibodies characterized by a temperature-dependent reversible insolubility. Rheumatoid factors (RF) are immunoglobulins possessing anti-immunoglobulin activity and usually consist of an IgM antibody that recognizes IgG as antigen. These proteins are present in sera of patients affected by a large variety of different pathologies, such as HCV infection, neoplastic and autoimmune diseases. Aggregation and precipitation of cryoimmunoglobulins, leading to vasculiti, are physical phenomena behind such pathologies. A deep knowledge of the physico-chemical mechanisms regulating such phenomena plays a fundamental role in biological and clinical applications. In this work, a preliminary investigation of the aggregation kinetics and of the final macro- molecular structure of the aggregates is presented. Through static light scattering techniques, the gyration radius R/sub g/ and the fractal dimension D/sub m/ of the growing clusters have been determined. However, while the initial ...

  2. Motion of rock masses on slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Petje

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the different ways of how rock masses (stones, rocks, and blocks move along slopes and for each different way of motion (free fall, bouncing, rolling, sliding, slowing down, lubrication, fluidizationadequatedynamicequationsaregiven.Knowingthe kinematics and dynamics of travelling rock masses is necessary for mathematical modeling of motion and by this an assessment of maximal possible rockfall runout distances as an example of a sudden and hazardeous natural phenomenon, threatening man and his property, especially in the natural environment.

  3. 贝雷法在级配碎石基层级配检验中的应用%Application of Bailey Method in Aggregate Grading Test of Graded Crushed Stone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐云晴; 孟芹; 李贵乾; 吴楚钢

    2013-01-01

    Selecting within the scope of graded crushed stone specification, 12 typical aggregate gradations are examined by Bailey method combined with their mechanical index of CBR. The results show that the correlation coefficient of CA and CBR is 0.6901, the correlation coefficient of K-value and CBR is 0.8178, and FAc and FAf have no significant effect on CBR. Therefore, it is possible to evaluate the graded performance with CBR, CA and K- value. The CA value in 0.58 around the mixture has higher strength, and it is suggested that the K-value of CA is between 92.99~104.58.%引进贝雷法矿料级配检验手段,结合碎石力学指标CBR,对级配碎石规范范围内选取的12个典型的级配进行检验,分析了CA比、FAc比、FAf比和K值对CBR的影响.试验结果表明:CA和CBR的相关系数为0.6901,K值和CBR的相关系数为0.8178,FAc比和FAf比对CBR的影响不明显.因此,用CBR、CA比和K值这三项指标评价级配碎石性能是可行的.CA在0.58左右的级配碎石混合料有较高的强度,并建议其K值在92.99~104.58之间.

  4. Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from foods Uric Acid Stones Limit animal protein Reduce sodium Talk with a health care professional about how ... MSG sodium alginate sodium nitrate or nitrite To reduce sodium to help prevent kidney stones, avoid processed and ...

  5. Aggregation of Dodecyl 1-Pyrenylmethyl Ether and Its Application in Structure-Polarity Relations of Aggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANG,Da-Yong; TIAN,Juan; JI,Guo-Zhen

    2006-01-01

    The aggregation behavior of dodecyl 1-pyrenylmethyl ether was studied in dioxane-water mixture solvents by fluorescence techniques. The labeled pyrenyl group was effective in monitoring the polarity change of its environment during aggregation processes. Based on the structural effects such as chain-length effect, self-coiling effect,and branch-group effect on the polarity of the probe environment, the structure features of aggregates were discussed and have been used to interpret the effect of the structural features on the aggregates formed by three cholesteryl esters and three long chain alkanes.

  6. Mysterious Jiana Stone Compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuBingshu

    2004-01-01

    In Tibetan-inhabited areas, visitors can often find piles of stone carved with six-word mystic teaching of truth or Buddhist sutras at lakesides, mountain entrances, monasteries, roadsides or burial sites. Those ubiquitous stone piles, painted in white, red or blue, are the mysterious and world famous Manipile, or called “holy pile”.

  7. Rock bending creep and disturbance effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付志亮; 郑颖人; 刘元雪

    2008-01-01

    The bending creep and its disturbance effects of red sandstone rock beam and oil shale rock beam were studied by adopting the self-developed gravitation level style rock creep test machine and bending creep test system,and the constitutive equations were established.It is found that fracture morphology of rock beams under no disturbance load is regular,cracking position of fractures is on part of loading concentration,the crack starts from a neutral plane.However,fracture morphology of rock beams under disturbance load is irregular,cracking position of fractures deviates from a neutral plane.Delayed instability of rock beam occurs for some time under constant disturbance load.When disturbance load is beyond a certain range,suddenly instability of occurs rock beam in a certain time.The results show that there is a guiding significance for creep stability in the geotechnical engineering fields.

  8. 1989 Waterfowl Nesting Study and Nesting Summary 1984-1989 : Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 1989 nesting season marked the sixth consecutive and final year that Big Stone personnel have conducted waterfowl nesting research. In addition, an experimental...

  9. Ureteroscopy for management of stone disease: an up to date on surgical technique and disposable devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Fabio C; Marchini, Giovanni S; Pedro, Renato N; Monga, Manoj

    2016-12-01

    The surgical management of urinary stone disease developed substantially over the past decades and advanced minimally invasive techniques have been successfully introduced into clinical practice. Retrograde ureteroscopy and ureterorrenoscopy have become the first-line option for treatment of ureteral and renal stones worldwide with high success rates allied with a low morbidity profile. In this review, we will discuss some key points in ureteroscopy for stone disease, such as the access to upper urinary tract, including balloon and catheter dilation; how to choose and use some disposable devices (hydrophilic versus PTFE guide wires, ureteral catheters, and laser fiber setting); and lastly present and compare different techniques for kidney or ureteral stone treatment (dusting versus basketing).

  10. Cumulative sum analysis for experiences of a single-session retrograde intrarenal stone surgery and analysis of predictors for stone-free status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Yong Cho

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the learning curve of a single-session retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS in patients with mid-sized stones. Competence and trainee proficiency for RIRS was assessed using cumulative sum analysis (CUSUM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study design and the use of patients' information stored in the hospital database were approved by the Institutional Review Board of our institution. A retrospective review was performed for 100 patients who underwent a single-session RIRS. Patients were included if the main stone had a maximal diameter between 10 and 30 mm. The presence of a residual stone was checked on postoperative day 1 and at one-month follow-up visit. Fragmentation efficacy was calculated "removed stone volume (mm(3 divided by operative time (min". CUSUM analysis was used for monitoring change in fragmentation efficacy, and we tested whether or not acceptable surgical outcomes were achieved. RESULTS: The mean age was 54.7±14.8 years. Serum creatinine level did not change significantly. Estimated GFR and hemoglobin were within normal limits postoperatively. The CUSUM curve tended to be flat until the 25th case and showed a rising pattern but declined again until the 56th case. After that point, the fragmentation efficacy reached a plateau. The acceptable level of fragmentation efficacy was 25 ml/min. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that stone-free rate was significantly lower for cases with multiple stones than those with a single stone (OR = 0.147, CI 0.032 - 0.674, P value  = 0.005 and for cases with higher number of sites (OR = 0.676, CI 0.517 - 0.882, P value  = 0.004. CONCLUSIONS: The statistical analysis of RIRS learning experience revealed that 56 cases were required for reaching a plateau in the learning curve. The number of stones and the number of sites were significant predictors for stone-free status.

  11. Inflammation Induces TDP-43 Mislocalization and Aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofia Correia

    Full Text Available TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43 is a major component in aggregates of ubiquitinated proteins in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD. Here we report that lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation can promote TDP-43 mislocalization and aggregation. In culture, microglia and astrocytes exhibited TDP-43 mislocalization after exposure to LPS. Likewise, treatment of the motoneuron-like NSC-34 cells with TNF-alpha (TNF-α increased the cytoplasmic levels of TDP-43. In addition, the chronic intraperitoneal injection of LPS at a dose of 1mg/kg in TDP-43(A315T transgenic mice exacerbated the pathological TDP-43 accumulation in the cytoplasm of spinal motor neurons and it enhanced the levels of TDP-43 aggregation. These results suggest that inflammation may contribute to development or exacerbation of TDP-43 proteinopathies in neurodegenerative disorders.

  12. THE TYPES OF USAGE OF STONES AND GEMSTONES FOR TREATMENT PURPOSES IN TURKISH MEDICAL MANUSCRIPTS

    OpenAIRE

    Feyza Tokat

    2014-01-01

    Folk medicine is a hard to classify and identify field, part of which can be reached from written text. In practises of both natural folk medicine and magicoreligious folk medicine, stones and ores are used to prevent and treat diseases. In natural folk medicine, stones and ores are used by swallowing, drinking its juice, rubbing to the skin, tinging with kohl whereas in magico-religious practices of folk medicine, unlike the natural folk medicine, practices based on believed powers and ...

  13. Inhibition of the Crystal Growth and Aggregation of Calcium Oxalate by Algae Sulfated Polysaccharide In-vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu Mei WU; Jian Ming OUYANG; Sui Ping DENG; Ying Zhou CEN

    2006-01-01

    The influence of sulfated polysaccharide (SPS) isolated from marine algae Sargassum fusiforme on the morphology and phase compositions of urinary crystal calcium oxalate was investigated in vitro by means of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. SPS maybe is a potential inhibitor to CaOxa urinary stones by inhibiting the growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), preventing the aggregation of COM, and inducing the formation of calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals.

  14. Lessons Carved in Stone: Basics of Buddhism at Sichuan's Dazu Rock Carvings Part Ⅱ%大足石刻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The thing is, even with the carvings to yourself, there's still too much to appreciate in one visit. The figures choke the cliff face, telling stories on salvation via animated figures tinted in rosy ochre,plum, lapis lazuli and gold leaf. I began with Sakyamuni's Filial Piety, 68 statues which depicted the prince's devout attention to his parents and self-sacrifice through such acts as nourishing them by cutting off a slice of his own flesh and offering his eye as medicine when his father fell ill.

  15. Web Data Aggregation in MOLAP: Approach, Language, and Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yan; TANG Hui-jia; MA Yong-qiang

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the Web data aggregation issues in multidimensional on-line analytical processing (MOLAP) and presents a rule-driven aggregation approach. The core of the approach is defining aggregate rules. To define the rules for reading warehouse data and computing aggregates, a rule definition language - array aggregation language (AAL) is developed. This language treats an array as a function from indexes to values and provides syntax and semantics based on monads. External functions can be called in aggregation rules to specify array reading, writing, and aggregating. Based on the features of AAL, array operations are unified as function operations, which can be easily expressed and automatically evaluated. To implement the aggregation approach, a processor for computing aggregates over the base cube and for materializing them in the data warehouse is built, and the component structure and working principle of the aggregation processor are introduced.

  16. Building energy demand aggregation and simulation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gianniou, Panagiota; Heller, Alfred; Rode, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    to neighbourhoods and cities. Buildings occupy a key place in the development of smart cities as they represent an important potential to integrate smart energy solutions. Building energy consumption affects significantly the performance of the entire energy network. Therefore, a realistic estimation...... of the aggregated building energy use will not only ensure security of supply but also enhance the stabilization of national energy balances. In this study, the aggregation of building energy demand was investigated for a real case in Sønderborg, Denmark. Sixteen single-family houses -mainly built in the 1960s......- were examined, all connected to the regional district heating network. The aggregation of building energy demands was carried out according to typologies, being represented by archetype buildings. These houses were modelled with dynamic energy simulation software and with a simplified simulation tool...

  17. Cellular strategies for regulating functional and nonfunctional protein aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gsponer, Jörg; Babu, M Madan

    2012-11-29

    Growing evidence suggests that aggregation-prone proteins are both harmful and functional for a cell. How do cellular systems balance the detrimental and beneficial effect of protein aggregation? We reveal that aggregation-prone proteins are subject to differential transcriptional, translational, and degradation control compared to nonaggregation-prone proteins, which leads to their decreased synthesis, low abundance, and high turnover. Genetic modulators that enhance the aggregation phenotype are enriched in genes that influence expression homeostasis. Moreover, genes encoding aggregation-prone proteins are more likely to be harmful when overexpressed. The trends are evolutionarily conserved and suggest a strategy whereby cellular mechanisms specifically modulate the availability of aggregation-prone proteins to (1) keep concentrations below the critical ones required for aggregation and (2) shift the equilibrium between the monomeric and oligomeric/aggregate form, as explained by Le Chatelier's principle. This strategy may prevent formation of undesirable aggregates and keep functional assemblies/aggregates under control.

  18. Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge...

  19. Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge and Wetland Management District: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1997 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  20. Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge and Wetland Management District: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1996 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  1. Big Stone Wetland Management District: Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Big Stone Wetland Management District for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the...

  2. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY COMPARING TAMSULOSIN AND SILODOSIN IN MEDICAL EXPULSIVE THERAPY FOR LOWER URETERIC STONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedhar Reddy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The urinary stone disease is one of the most common afflictions of the modern society and it has been described since antiquity with the westernization of global culture. The efficacy of mini-invasive therapies, such as Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy [ESWL] and ureteroscopy are not risk free, are problematic and are quite expensive. Recently, the use of watchful waiting approach has been extended by using Pharmacotherapy. This can reduce symptoms and facilitate stone expulsion. MATERIALS AND METHODS This prospective randomised study was conducted between September 2015 and May 2016 at Rajarajeshwari Medical College and Hospital, Bangalore. The cohort comprised 100 adult patients (54 men and 46 women who presented with a symptomatic, unilateral, single, uncomplicated lower ureteric stone of ≤ 10 mm. Patients were randomized into two equal groups, 50 (50% patients received a daily single dose of tamsulosin 0.4 mg for 28 days and 50 (50% patients received a daily single dose of silodosin 8 mg for 28 days. Both groups were compared in terms of patient’s demographics, socioeconomic status, stone size and side, type of MET, stone expulsion rate, stone expulsion time, number of pain episodes, need for analgesics use and incidence of side effects. Subgroup analysis was performed according to stone size ≤ or > 5 mm. RESULTS No significant differences among the two groups for patient’s age, gender, stone side and stone size. Spontaneous stone expulsion rate within 28 days was observed in 44 (88% patients in the tamsulosin group and in 45 (90% patients in the silodosin group without statistically significant differences. There were no statistically significant differences observed in terms of mean expulsion time, mean number of pain episodes and need for analgesics. Retrograde ejaculation was significantly higher in the silodosin arm, while the incidence of side effects related to peripheral vasodilation were higher in the tamsulosin arm

  3. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150204 Abaydulla Alimjan(Department of Chemistry and Environmental Sciences,Kashgar Teachers College,Kashgar 844006,China);Cheng Chunying Non-Metallic Element Composition Analysis of Non-Ferrous Metal Ores from Oytagh Town,Xinjiang(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,33(1),2014,p.44-50,5illus.,4tables,28refs.)Key words:nonferrous metals ore,nonmetals,chemical analysis,thermogravimetric analysis Anions in non-ferrous ore materials

  4. Diagnosis of obstruction and stone passage after extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorwerk, D.; Auffermann, W.; Fischer, N.

    1987-09-01

    78 patients with ureteral formations of stone fragments after ESWL therapy have been controlled by both ultrasound and plain abdominal films. Detection of renal stone fragments was possible similarly by sonography or radiographs. The plain films demonstrated well location and length of the 'Steinstrasse', which did not necessarily cause obstruction. Combination of sonography and plain abdominal film allows an easy follow-up after ESWL therapy, so i.v. urogramm is not acquired routinely.

  5. Electric conductivity and aggregation of anthracite and graphite particles in concretes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.A. Fanina; A.N. Lopanov [Belgorod State Technological University, Belgorod (Russian Federation)

    2009-02-15

    A statistical model of the electric conductivity of a heterogeneous system based on coal and a binding agent is presented. In this system, a conductive phase appears because of particle aggregation. The model was tested in the systems of anthracite and graphite in cement stone. The consistency between the experimental and calculated electric conductivities with a correlation coefficient higher than 0.9 was found on a linear interpolation of model parameters. It was found that the presence of a surfactant (cetylpyridinium chloride) and a high-molecular-weight compound (polyvinyl acetate) changed the number of particles in anthracite and graphite aggregates to affect the specific conductivity of the heterogeneous system. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110144 Hu Lan(Anhui Institute of Geological Experiment,Hefei 230001,China);Liu Yueyou Determination of Micro-amount of Bismuth in Polymetallic Ores by Hydride Generation-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry with Alkaline Mode(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,29(1),2010,p.87-88,2 tables,10 refs.)Key words:atomic fluorescence spectrometry,bismuthA method for the determination of micro-amount of bismuth in polymetallic ores by hydride gen

  7. Anti-erosion stone bunds influence rodent dynamics and crop damage in Ethiopian highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meheretu, Yonas; Welegerima, Kiros; Teferi, Mekonen; Yirga, Gidey; Haile, Mitiku; Sluydts, Vincent; Bauer, Hans; Nyssen, Jan; Deckers, Jozef; Leirs, Herwig

    2014-05-01

    In areas of subsistence agriculture, a variety of soil conservation methods have been implemented in the last few decades to improve crop yields, however these can have unintended consequences such as providing habitat for rodent pests. We studied rodent population dynamics and estimated crop damage in high and low stone bund density fields for four cropping seasons in Tigray highlands, northern Ethiopia. Stone bunds are physical structures for soil and water conservation, and potentially habitat for rodents. We used a general model to relate the proportion of crop damage to rodent abundance, stone bund density and crop stages. We found a positive correlation between rodent abundance and crop damage, and significant variation in rodent abundance and crop damage between high and low stone bund density fields. Furthermore, crop damage also varied significantly between crop stages. We concluded that Mastomys awashensis and Arvicanthis dembeensis were the two most important crop pests in the highlands causing significant damage. Fields with high stone bund density (~10 m average distance apart) harbor more rodents and endure a significantly higher proportion of crop damage compared to fields with lower stone bund density (~15 m average distance apart). The fact that rodent abundances peaked during the reproductive stage of the crop and around harvest implies the need for management intervention before these crop stages are attained.

  8. Differentiation and analysis on rock breaking characteristics of TBM disc cutter at different rock temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭青; 张桂菊; 夏毅敏; 李建芳

    2015-01-01

    In order to study rock breaking characteristics of tunnel boring machine (TBM) disc cutter at different rock temperatures, thermodynamic rock breaking mathematical model of TBM disc cutter was established on the basis of rock temperature change by using particle flow code theory and the influence law of interaction mechanism between disc cutter and rock was also numerically simulated. Furthermore, by using the linear cutting experiment platform, rock breaking process of TBM disc cutter at different rock temperatures was well verified by the experiments. Finally, rock breaking characteristics of TBM disc cutter were differentiated and analyzed from microscale perspective. The results indicate the follows. 1) When rock temperature increases, the mechanical properties of rock such as hardness, and strength, were greatly reduced, simultaneously the microcracks rapidly grow with the cracks number increasing, which leads to rock breaking load decreasing and improves rock breaking efficiency for TBM disc cutter. 2) The higher the rock temperature, the lower the rock internal stress. The stress distribution rules coincide with the Buzin Neske stress circle rules: the maximum stress value is below the cutting edge region and then gradually decreases radiant around; stress distribution is symmetrical and the total stress of rock becomes smaller. 3) The higher the rock temperature is, the more the numbers of micro, tensile and shear cracks produced are by rock as well as the easier the rock intrusion, along with shear failure mode mainly showing. 4) With rock temperature increasing, the resistance intrusive coefficients of rock and intrusion power decrease obviously, so the specific energy consumption that TBM disc cutter achieves leaping broken also decreases subsequently. 5) The acoustic emission frequency remarkably increases along with the temperature increasing, which improves the rock breaking efficiency.

  9. The provenance of stone tabernacle and altar table from the St. Emmeram's Cathedral (Nitra City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pivko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An unique stone Renaissance tabernacle (1497 was discovered in the upper church of the St. Emmeram's Cathedral (Nitra in the year 2007. The rocks from the tabernacle and probably altar table of the same age come from the Gerecse Mts. in northern Hungary. The parts of the tabernacle and altar table are from the Liassic red nodular limestone, which was quarried between Tardos and Lábatlan also in time when the tabernacle was made. On the basis of the stable oxygen and carbon isotope the analysed sample can be compared with the samples from Bányahegy quarry near Tardos and the samples from Late Gothic and Renaissance fountains and font of Matthias Corvinus king palace in Visegrád of the 15th century. Parts of the tabernacle are also from yellowish crinoidal limestone of the Lower Cretaceous which is probably from the Tata quarry. The altar table was prolonged to both sides by tuff from Obyce probably during the building of new Baroque main altar in the 18th century. “Gerecse red marble” was used almost in the same time in Gothic tombstone (1492 and Renaissance tabernacle (1497 both from the upper church of the St. Emmeram's Cathedral.

  10. Ultrastructural Analysis of Urinary Stones by Microfocus Computed Tomography and Comparison with Chemical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Karakan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the ultra-structure of urinary system stones using micro-focus computed tomography (MCT, which makes non-destructive analysis and to compare with wet chemical analysis. Methods: This study was carried out at the Ankara Train­ing and Research hospital. Renal stones, removed from 30 patients during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL surgery, were included in the study. The stones were blindly evaluated by the specialists with MCT and chemi­cal analysis. Results: The comparison of the stone components be­tween chemical analysis and MCT, showed that the rate of consistence was very low (p0.05. It was also seen that there was no significant relation between its 3D structure being heterogeneous or homogenous. Conclusion: The stone analysis with MCT is a time con­suming and costly method. This method is useful to un­derstand the mechanisms of stone formation and an im­portant guide to develop the future treatment modalities.

  11. Rings and sector : intrasite spatial analysis of stone age sites.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapert, Durk

    1992-01-01

    This thesis deals with intrasite spatial analysis: the analysis of spatial patterns on site level. My main concern has been to develop a simple method for analysing Stone Age sites of a special type: those characterised by the presence of a hearth closely associated in space with an artefact scatter

  12. Damage Model of Brittle Coal-Rock and Damage Energy Index of Rock Burst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹光志; 张东明; 魏作安; 李东伟

    2003-01-01

    Based on the mechanical experiment of brittle coal-rock and the damage mechanical theory, a damage model was established. Coal-Rock damage mechanical characteristic was researched. Furthermore, interior energy transformation mechanism of rock was analyzed from the point of view of damage mechanics and damage energy release rate of brittle coal rock was derived. By analyzing the energy transformation of rock burst, a new conception, damage energy index of rock burst, was put forward. The condition of rock burst was also established.

  13. Individual expectations and aggregate macro behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assenza, T.; Heemeijer, P.; Hommes, C.; Massaro, D.

    2013-01-01

    The way in which individual expectations shape aggregate macroeconomic variables is crucial for the transmission and effectiveness of monetary policy. We study the individual expectations formation process and the interaction with monetary policy, within a standard New Keynesian model, by means of l

  14. Individual expectations and aggregate macro behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assenza, T.; Heemeijer, P.; Hommes, C.; Massaro, D.

    2011-01-01

    The way in which individual expectations shape aggregate macroeconomic variables is crucial for the transmission and effectiveness of monetary policy. We study the individual expectations formation process and the interaction with monetary policy, within a standard New Keynesian model, by means of l

  15. Utilitarian Aggregation of Beliefs and Tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Itzhak; Samet, Dov; Schmeidler, David

    2004-01-01

    Harsanyi's utilitarianism is extended here to Savage's framework. We formulate a Pareto condition that implies that both society's utility function and its probability measure are linear combinations of those of the individuals. An indiscriminate Pareto condition has been shown to contradict linear aggregation of beliefs and tastes. We argue that…

  16. Soil aggregation and aggregating agents as affected by long term contrasting management of an Anthrosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shulan; Wang, Renjie; Yang, Xueyun; Sun, Benhua; Li, Qinghui

    2016-12-01

    Soil aggregation was studied in a 21-year experiment conducted on an Anthrosol. The soil management regimes consisted of cropland abandonment, bare fallow without vegetation and cropping system. The cropping system was combined with the following nutrient management treatments: control (CONTROL, no nutrient input); nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK); straw plus NPK (SNPK); and manure (M) plus NPK (MNPK). Compared with the CONTROL treatment, the abandonment treatment significantly increased the formation of large soil macroaggregates (>2 mm) and consequently improved the stability of aggregates in the surface soil layer due to enhancement of hyphal length and of soil organic matter content. However, in response to long-term bare fallow treatment aggregate stability was low, as were the levels of aggregating agents. Long term fertilization significantly redistributed macroaggregates; this could be mainly ascribed to soil organic matter contributing to the formation of 0.5–2 mm classes of aggregates and a decrease in the formation of the >2 mm class of aggregates, especially in the MNPK treatment. Overall, hyphae represented a major aggregating agent in both of the systems tested, while soil organic compounds played significantly different roles in stabilizing aggregates in Anthrosol when the cropping system and the soil management regimes were compared.

  17. Spatial Prediction of Soil Aggregate Stability and Aggregate-Associated Organic Carbon Content at the Catchment Scale Using Geostatistical Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.MOHAMMADI; M.H.MOTAGHIAN

    2011-01-01

    The association of organic carbon with secondary parzicles (aggregates) results in its storage and retention in soil. A study was carried out at a catchment covering about 92 km2 to predict spatial variability of soil water-stable aggregates (WSA), mean weight diameter (MWD) of aggregates and organic carbon (OC) content in macro- (> 2 mm), meso- (1-2 mm), and micro-aggregate (< 1 mm) fractions, using geostatistical methods. One hundred and eleven soil samples were c(o)llected at the 0-10 cm depth and fractionated into macro-, meso-, and micro-aggregates by wet sieving. The OC content was determined for each fraction. A greater percentage of water-stable aggregates was found for micro-aggregates, followed by meso-aggregates. Aggregate OC content was greatest in meso-aggregates (9 g kg-1), followed by micro-aggregates (7 g kg-1), while the least OC content was found in macro-aggregates (3 g kg-1). Although a significart effect (P = 0.000) of aggregate size on aggregate OC content was found, however, our findings did not support the model of aggregate hierarchy.Land use had a significant effect (P = 0.073) on aggregate OC content. The coefficients of variation (CVs) for OC contents associated with each aggregate fraction indicated macro-aggregates as the most variable (CV = 71%). Among the aggregate fractions, the micro-aggregate fraction had a lower CV value of 27%. The mean content of WSA ranged from 15% for macro-aggregates to 84% for micro-aggregates. Geostatistical analysis showed that the measured soil variables exhibited differences in their spatial patterns in both magnitude and space at each aggregate size fraction. The relative nugget variance for most aggregate-associated properties was lower than 45%. The range value for the variogram of water-stable aggregates was almost similar (about 3 km) for the three studied aggregate size classes. The range value for the variogram of aggregate-associated OC contents ranged from about 3 km for macro-aggregates

  18. 露天坑回填土石混合体的渗流特性及颗粒元数值分析%PERMEABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF ROCK AND SOIL AGGREGATE OF BACKFILLING OPEN-PIT AND PARTICLE ELEMENT NUMERICAL ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高谦; 刘增辉; 李欣; 李俊华

    2009-01-01

    Combining with the backfilling(RSA) engineering in stope III of Sijiaying open-pit to underground iron mining of Hebei Iron and Steel Group Mining Co.,Ltd.,the permeability of rock and soil aggregate(RSA) is studied systematically by laboratory test,in-situ experiment and numerical simulation. The results show that there is an approximation linear relationship between the permeability coefficient of RSA and its non-uniform degree,and the permeability coefficient of RSA is directly proportional to the void ratio. The permeability of RSA can be reduced effectively by controlling the gradation of particle size of waste rock backfilled and reducing the average particle size and non-uniformity reasonably. The influence order to the seepage discharge of RSA is determined by particle element numerical orthogonal tests. The relationship formulas of the effects of four factors(thickness of back-packing,head pressure,porosity,particle diameter) on the seepage are obtained by quadratic stepwise regression analysis,and it can provide a calculation tool for impermeability of RSA.%针对土石混合体的渗透性,结合唐钢司家营铁矿III采场露天转井下的回填土石混合体工程,采用室内试验、现场试验和数值模拟的方法对其进行系统地研究,得出土石混合体的渗透系数与其非均匀度近似存在线性关系,渗透系数与混合土的孔隙比成正比;合理控制回填废石的粒径级配,降低平均粒径与非均匀度,可有效降低回填土石混合体的渗透性.通过颗粒元数值正交试验确定对土石混合体的渗流量影响顺序,并二次逐步回归出回填层厚度,水头压力,孔隙率,平均粒径对渗流量的关系式,为土石混合体防渗抗渗提供计算工具.

  19. Tetranuclear zinc(II-oxy (benzothiazole-2-thiolate aggregate and copper(I phenylthiolate aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir Goswami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A tetranuclear zinc-oxy (benzothiazole-2-thiolate aggregate whose structure has a C3-axis passing through ZnO unit relating three other zinc ions and a tetranuclear copper(I phenylthiolate aggregate having each thiphenolate ligand bridging three copper ions are reported. These aggregates were prepared by hydrothermal reactions of 2,2′-dithiobis-(benzothiazole with zinc nitrate or copper(I iodide, respectively. The reaction of zinc nitrate passed through in situ abstraction of a oxy ligand from moisture to form a Zn4O core holding six 2-benzothiazolethiolate ligands, and during the formation of the aggregate, cleavage of S–S bond of 2,2′-dithiobis-(benzothiazole took place. Whereas, an aggregate formed by self-assembling of copper(I phenylthiolate was formed after extensive degradation of 2,2′-dithiobis-(benzothiazole during solvothermal reaction.

  20. Mineralogical Composition of Urinary Stones and Their Frequency in Patients: Relationship to Gender and Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Keshavarzi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation reports the mineralogy and possible pathological significance of urinary stones removed from patients in Fars province, Iran. X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and polarizing microscope (PM techniques were used to investigate the mineralogical compositions of urinary stones. The identified mineral components include whewellite, weddellite, hydroxyapatite, uricite and cystine. These techniques revealed that the whewellite and uricite were the most common mineral phases. Platy-like/monoclinic whewellite, prismatic/monoclinic uric acid and hexagonal cystine crystals were revealed by SEM. Biominerals (calcium carbonate and quartz were also identified in PM images. Of the variables determining the type of precipitated minerals, the effects of pH on depositional conditions proved to be the most apparent parameter, as shown by occurrences and relationships among the studied minerals. Our results revealed the importance of detailed knowledge of mineralogical composition in assessing the effects of age and sex. The highest incidence of urinary stones was observed in the 40–60 age group. Calcium oxalate and uric acid stones are more frequent in men than women. Finally, the study concluded that knowledge of the mineralogical composition of urinary stones is important as it helps the scientific community to explain the chemistry and the etiology of the calculi in the urinary system.

  1. Renal histopathology and crystal deposits in patients with small bowel resection and calcium oxalate stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan, Andrew P; Lingeman, James E; Worcester, Elaine M; Bledsoe, Sharon B; Sommer, Andre J; Williams, James C; Krambeck, Amy E; Philips, Carrie L; Coe, Fredric L

    2010-08-01

    We present here the anatomy and histopathology of kidneys from 11 patients with renal stones following small bowel resection, including 10 with Crohn's disease and 1 resection in infancy for unknown cause. They presented predominantly with calcium oxalate stones. Risks of formation included hyperoxaluria (urine oxalate excretion greater than 45 mg per day) in half of the cases, and acidic urine of reduced volume. As was found with ileostomy and obesity bypass, inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCDs) contained crystal deposits associated with cell injury, interstitial inflammation, and papillary deformity. Cortical changes included modest glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis. Randall's plaque (interstitial papillary apatite) was abundant, with calcium oxalate stone overgrowth similar to that seen in ileostomy, idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, and primary hyperparathyroidism. Abundant plaque was compatible with the low urine volume and pH. The IMCD deposits all contained apatite, with calcium oxalate present in three cases, similar to findings in patients with obesity bypass but not an ileostomy. The mechanisms for calcium oxalate stone formation in IMCDs include elevated urine and presumably tubule fluid calcium oxalate supersaturation, but a low calcium to oxalate ratio. However, the mechanisms for the presence of IMCD apatite remain unknown.

  2. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091570 Ge Yunjin(College of Geo-Resource and Information,China University of Petroleum,Dongying 257061,China);Chen Yong Advance in Low Temperature Phase Transition and Raman Spectrum Technique in Composition Determination of Fluid Inclusions(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,27(3),2008,p.207-210,22 refs.)Key words:fluid inclusions,Raman spectraThe principle and development of low-temperature analytical techniques for fluid inclusions were expounded.The traditional low-temperature analytical technology mainly focused on the measurement of inorganic salt using congealed microthermometry,but now it is developed to semi-quantitative and quantitative analysis of fluid inclusions using in-situ cryogenic Raman spectrometry.

  3. Huashan rock paintings and other simitar paintings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China is one of the countries with the rechest rock paintings in the world. The Huashan rock paintings features color paintings, quite different from those in the North China areas where petroglyphs were created by engraving, chiseling,incising,or grinding,such as those in Inner Mongolia and Helan Mountains in Gansu.The rock paintings at Ulanchabu of Inner Mongolia are regarded as works of the Neolithic age,bronze age and iron age ,featuring mainly such grassland animals as

  4. Skid resistance and surface roughness testing of historic stone surfaces: advantages and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Ákos

    2013-04-01

    Skid resistance tests are mostly applied for testing road surfaces and almost never applied for testing stones at cultural heritage sites. The present study focuses on the possibilities of using these techniques in assessing the surface roughness of paving stones at a historic site. Two different methods were used in a comparative way to evaluate the surface properties of various types of stones ranging from travertine to non-porous limestone and granite. The applied techniques included the use of SRT pendulum (Skid Resistance Tester) providing USRV values and a mobile equipment to analyze the surface properties (Floor Slide Control) by surface profiling and providing angle of friction. The main aims of tests were to understand the wearing of stone materials due to intense pedestrian use and to detect surface changes/surface roughness and slip resistance within few year periods. The measured loss in surface slip resistance (i.e. USRV values) was in the order of 20% for granites, while most limestones lost at least 40% in terms of USRV values. An opposite trend was detected for a porous travertine type, where the surface became rougher after years of use. The limitations of these techniques are also addressed in the paper. The tests have shown that the introduction of the use of these equipments in heritage studies provide useful information on the longevity of historic stone pavements that are open for public use.

  5. Soil structure and soil organic matter: I. Distribution of aggregate size classes and aggregate associated carbon

    OpenAIRE

    J. Six; K. Paustian; Elliott, E.T.; C. Combrink

    2000-01-01

    Metadata only record This study compares aggregate size and carbon in three different soils, each with three tillage treatments (native vegetation (NV), no-tillage (NT), and conventional tillage (CT)).

  6. Biopsy proven medullary sponge kidney: clinical findings, histopathology, and role of osteogenesis in stone and plaque formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan, Andrew P; Worcester, Elaine M; Williams, James C; Sommer, Andre J; Lingeman, James E; Phillips, Carrie L; Coe, Fredric L

    2015-05-01

    Medullary sponge kidney (MSK) is associated with recurrent stone formation, but the clinical phenotype is unclear because patients with other disorders may be incorrectly labeled MSK. We studied 12 patients with histologic findings pathognomonic of MSK. All patients had an endoscopically recognizable pattern of papillary malformation, which may be segmental or diffuse. Affected papillae are enlarged and billowy, due to markedly enlarged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD), which contain small, mobile ductal stones. Patients had frequent dilation of Bellini ducts, with occasional mineral plugs. Stones may form over white (Randall's) plaque, but most renal pelvic stones are not attached, and have a similar morphology as ductal stones, which are a mixture of calcium oxalate and apatite. Patients had no abnormalities of urinary acidification or acid excretion; the most frequent metabolic abnormality was idiopathic hypercalciuria. Although both Runx2 and Osterix are expressed in papillae of MSK patients, no mineral deposition was seen at the sites of gene expression, arguing against a role of these genes in this process. Similar studies in idiopathic calcium stone formers showed no expression of these genes at sites of Randall's plaque. The most likely mechanism for stone formation in MSK appears to be crystallization due to urinary stasis in dilated IMCD with subsequent passage of ductal stones into the renal pelvis where they may serve as nuclei for stone formation.

  7. South-East Asian Fortified Stone Walls: Angkor Thom (Cambodia, Ho Citadel (Vietnam and Ratu Boko (Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Lluís Pérez Garcia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze three significant examples of defensive walls from South-East Asia made of solid stone blocks (both rock as well as stone-like laterite and provided with different but equivalent functions –a fortified imperial capital-city (Angkor Thom, in Cambodia, a fortified royal citadel (Ho Citadel, in the North of Vietnam and a royal palace with a partly fortified appearance (Ratu Boko, in Java Island, Indonesia–, focusing on their constructive and technical characteristics and establishing parallels between them and their closest counterparts, from China and India. We will see how their design and structure can be closely related to the fortifications of neighbouring empires, as places of origin of their strong cultural influences and, at the same time, we will try to identify the local particularities. We will pay special attention to the form of the fortified enceintes, considering the long tradition of the quadrangular plan in the walls of royal capitals, inspired in the ideal model of Chinese and Indian cities. Our research also make us think that the walls of Ratu Boko, despite their functions as symbolic limits or for retaining the soil, could also have had a defensive purpose, no matter if secondary, or at least they could be used to provide protection to the complex in case of external menace.

  8. Diagnostics and correction of metabolic disorders in patients with recurrent urolithiasis after endoscopic removal of stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kh. Nazarov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of kidney stones. The authors provide the results of a study of 107 men aged 48 to 76 years, were divided into three groups – primary and two control groups. The main and the first control group consisted of 40 patients with recurrent urolithiasis without urinary tract obstruction after endoscopic stone removal and partial androgen deficiency. The second control group consisted of 27 healthy men aged 48 to 70 years. Patients for one year he was promoted endoscopic removal of urinary stones: transurethral nephrolithotripsy – 55 patients, and percutaneous nephrolithotripsy – 25. After discharge from hospital all patients had a diagnosis and correction of metabolic disorders using physical-chemical and biochemical indicators of urine and blood. To study the mineral composition and structural-textural features of urinary stones and their fragments after surgical interventions were performed: x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, polarization and electron microscopy. Was carried out following the relapse of urolithiasis: patients of the main group received pathogenetic androgen therapy as monotherapy, and patients in the control group conventional treatment (antibiotics, spasmolytic, herbal remedies. The results of therapy and follow-up care for 6 years showed a low recurrence of stone formation in patients of the main group and highest in the control. Age-related decline in androgen levels in men may be an additional factor in stone formation. Pathogenic androgen replacement therapy leads to normalization of the content of lithogenic substances in the blood and urine, as well as physico-chemical properties of urine, thereby reducing the process of stone formation.

  9. DURABILITY OF DIMENSION STONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Crnković

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a survey of the possible origins of the strain and deformation of stone. A range of origins which can be influenced is suggested, from those occurring under natural conditions in the deposit to those resulting from technologies applied in quarrying, stone processing and dressing, including environment with natural and technogenic factors. No new information can be given on the behavior of the stone processed and used in building according to the most recent technologies, because the time-span of its exposure to the influence of natural and technogenic factors has been too short.

  10. Quality guaranteed aggregation based model predictive control and stability analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI DeWei; XI YuGeng

    2009-01-01

    The input aggregation strategy can reduce the online computational burden of the model predictive controller. But generally aggregation based MPC controller may lead to poor control quality. Therefore, a new concept, equivalent aggregation, is proposed to guarantee the control quality of aggregation based MPC. From the general framework of input linear aggregation, the design methods of equivalent aggregation are developed for unconstrained and terminal zero constrained MPC, which guarantee the actual control inputs exactly to be equal to that of the original MPC. For constrained MPC, quasi-equivalent aggregation strategies are also discussed, aiming to make the difference between the control inputs of aggregation based MPC and original MPC as small as possible. The stability conditions are given for the quasi-equivalent aggregation based MPC as well.

  11. Correlation between microstructural characteristics and weight loss of natural stones exposed to simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzoni, Elisa; Sassoni, Enrico

    2011-12-15

    The correlation between stone microstructural characteristics and material degradation (in terms of weight loss), in given environmental conditions, was investigated. Seven lithotypes, having very different microstructural characteristics, were used. Four acidic aqueous solutions were prepared to simulate acid rain (two adding H(2)SO(4) and two adding HNO(3) to deionized water, in order to reach, for each acid, pH values of 5.0 and 4.0), and deionized water at pH=5.6 was used to simulate clean rain. Stone samples were then immersed in such aqueous solutions, the surface alteration being periodically inspected and the weight loss periodically measured. After 14 days of immersion, a good correlation was found between weight loss and the product of carbonate content and specific surface area in the starting materials. This was explained considering that this product accounts for the weight loss owing to the sample's fraction actually composed of calcite (the most soluble fraction) and the effective surface area exposed to dissolving solution (which depends on stone porosity and pore size distribution). Such correlation between stone microstructure and degradation may be useful for comparing the durability of different lithotypes, in given environmental conditions, and quantitatively predicting the weight loss of a lithotype, compared to another one. Hence, the correlation found in this study may be used to specifically tailor to various stone types, with different microstructural characteristics, some results that have been calculated in literature for specific stone types and then proposed as possibly representative for a broad category of stones with similar characteristics.

  12. Biliary stone causing afferent loop syndrome and pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    André Roncon Dias; Roberto Iglesias Lopes

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of an 84-year-old female who had a partial gastrectomy with Billroth-Ⅱ anastomosis 24years ago for a benign peptic ulcer who now presented an acute pancreatitis secondary to an afferent loop syndrome. The syndrome was caused by a gallstone that migrated through a cholecystoenteric fistula. This is the first description in the literature of a biliary stone causing afferent loop syndrome.

  13. Distribution and characteristics of diamonds from Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, T. T.; Davies, R. M.; Griffin, W. L.; Wathanakul, P.; French, D. H.

    2001-08-01

    Diamonds occur in headless placers at several locations within Myanmar. Twenty-six stones from the Momeik area of northern Myanmar and 111 stones from the Theindaw area of southern Myanmar have been studied to characterise their morphology, crystal forms, colour, degree of resorption, surface features, internal structures, mineral inclusions, and nitrogen content and aggregation state. Most stones grew originally as octahedra, but now show very high degrees of resorption, and highly polished surfaces, reflecting transport in a magma. Etch features are abundant, and breakage and abrasion are common, due to alluvial transport. Brown radiation spots are common, suggesting that these diamonds have a long history in surface environments. Cathodoluminescence (CL) images of plates and whole stones commonly display marked oscillatory zoning of yellow and blue bands, outlining octahedral growth zones. Many other stones show uniform yellow CL. Syngenetic mineral inclusions identified thus far are mainly of peridotitic paragenesis and include olivine, chromite and native iron. Infrared spectroscopy studies show that ˜10% of the diamonds have very low-N contents (Type II diamonds). More N-rich diamonds show high degrees of aggregation (Type IaAB). Both types are consistent with derivation from the upper mantle, rather than from crustal metamorphic sources. The primary source of these diamonds is believed to be an alkaline igneous rock (lamproitic rather than kimberlitic) but they may have reached their present locations via a secondary collector such as a sedimentary rock.

  14. Thermoluminescence of pyramid stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomaa, M.A.; Eid, A.M. (Atomic Energy Establishment, Cairo (Egypt))

    1982-01-01

    It is the aim of the present study to investigate some thermoluminescence properties of pyramid stones. Using a few grammes of pyramid stones from Pyramids I and II, the TL glow peaks were observed at 250 and 310/sup 0/C, respectively. The TL glow peaks of samples annealed at 600/sup 0/C, then exposed to /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays were observed at 120, 190 and 310/sup 0/C, respectively. The accumulated dose of natural samples is estimated to be around 310 Gray (31 krad). By assuming an annual dose is 1 mGy, the estimated age of pyramid stones is 0.31 M year.

  15. Overexpression of ROCK1 and ROCK2 inhibits human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junbo; He, Xue; Ma, Yueying; Liu, Yanli; Shi, Huaiyin; Guo, Weiwei; Liu, Liangfa

    2015-01-01

    Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK) over-expression has been implicated in the progression of many tumor types. The aim of this study was to explore the roles of ROCK1 and ROCK2 in human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). ROCK1 and ROCK2 expression levels were examined in 50 cases of human LSCC samples by immunohistochemistry. Effects of ROCK1 and ROCK2 on LSCC cell proliferation and motility were investigated in the presence of the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632. The results showed that ROCK1 expression was positively correlated with tumor size and lymph node metastasis (P ROCK2 positively correlated with tumor size (P ROCK2 by Y-27632 significantly inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasion of LSCC cells. Our data indicate that expression of ROCK1 and ROCK2 are closely associated with tumor growth and lymph node metastasis of LSCC. Thus, these two ROCK isoforms may be useful as molecular makers for LSCC diagnosis and may be useful therapeutic targets as well.

  16. Modeling decisions information fusion and aggregation operators

    CERN Document Server

    Torra, Vicenc

    2007-01-01

    Information fusion techniques and aggregation operators produce the most comprehensive, specific datum about an entity using data supplied from different sources, thus enabling us to reduce noise, increase accuracy, summarize and extract information, and make decisions. These techniques are applied in fields such as economics, biology and education, while in computer science they are particularly used in fields such as knowledge-based systems, robotics, and data mining. This book covers the underlying science and application issues related to aggregation operators, focusing on tools used in practical applications that involve numerical information. Starting with detailed introductions to information fusion and integration, measurement and probability theory, fuzzy sets, and functional equations, the authors then cover the following topics in detail: synthesis of judgements, fuzzy measures, weighted means and fuzzy integrals, indices and evaluation methods, model selection, and parameter extraction. The method...

  17. Effect of the pre-treatment and the aggregate content on the adhesion strength of repair mortars on Miocene porous limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szemerey-Kiss, Balázs; Török, Ákos

    2016-04-01

    The adhesion between porous limestone and newly prepared repair mortars are crucial in the preservation of historic stone structures. Besides mechanical compatibility other matches such as chemical composition and porosity are also essential, but the current research focuses on the adhesion strength of repair mortars that are used in the restoration of Hungarian porous limestone. 8 mortars (4 commercial and 4 specially prepared) were selected for the tests. Mortars with different amount of aggregate were prepared and caste to stone surface. The stone substrate was highly porous Miocene limestone. The strength was tested by standardized pull-out tests which method is commonly used for concrete testing. The limestone surfaces were either used in their natural conditions or were pre-treated (pre-wetting). The strength of the stone/mortar bond was tested. The failure mechanism was documented and various failure modes were identified. Strength test results suggest that especially pre-treatment influences strongly the pull-out strength at mortar/stone interface. Increasing aggregate content also reduces pull out strength of tested repair mortars, but at various rates depending on the mortar type. The financial support of OTKA post-doctoral grant to BSZK (reference number is: PD 112-955) and National Research, Development and Innovation (NKFI) Fund to ÁT (ref. no. K 116532) are appreciated.

  18. Treatment of ureteral stones: A prospective randomized controlled trial on comparison of Ho:YAG laser and pneumatic lithotripsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robab Maghsoudi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the treatment of ureteric stones by HO:YAG laser lithotripsy and pneumatic lithotripsy and to evaluate the results of the two treatment modalities to assess effectiveness and complications. Materials and Methods: Over 1-year period, a total of 79 patients with 82 ureteral stones were randomized into two groups. In group 1 (39 cases with 41 ureteral stones ureteroscopic HO:YAG laser lithotripsy was performed using a rigid 8 Fr-ureteroscope (LL group. In group 2 (40 cases with 41 ureteral stones pneumatic lithotripsy was performed in like manner. Efficacy safety and complications in both groups were analyzed. Results: A total of 79 patients with 82 calculi were treated. Two cases in LL group and one in PL group had bilateral ureteral stones. Mean stone size was 12.07 mm in LL group and 10.2 mm in PL group. Stones located in lower ureter in 30 cases on LL group and 29 cases in PL group. Proximal migration of stone occurred in 1 case on LL group and in 3 cases on PL group. Successful fragmentation occurred in 37 cases on LL group and in 30 cases on PL group. Stone-free rate after 1 month in the base of Kidney Ureter Bladder (KUB and sonography was 95% in LL group and 80.5% in PL group. Ureteral perforation, urinoma, and urosepsis were not seen in both groups. Conclusion: HO:YAG laser has advantages over PL in high efficacy of stone fragmentation and a low-retrograde migration of ureteral stone treatment. Other complication of ureteral stone treatment with LL and PL are the same and very rare.

  19. Firm default and aggregate fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobson, Tor; Linde, Jesper; Roszbach, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between macroeconomic fluctuations and corporate defaults while conditioning on industry affiliation and an extensive set of firm-specific factors. By using a panel data set for virtually all incorporated Swedish businesses over 1990-2009, a period which includes

  20. Aggregation of Information and Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottaviani, Marco; Sørensen, Peter Norman

    In a binary prediction market in which risk-neutral traders have heterogeneous prior beliefs and are allowed to invest a limited amount of money, the static rational expectations equilibrium price is demonstrated to underreact to information. This effect is consistent with a favorite-longshot bias......, and is more pronounced when prior beliefs are more heterogeneous. Relaxing the assumptions of risk neutrality and bounded budget, underreaction to information also holds in a more general asset market with heterogeneous priors, provided traders have decreasing absolute risk aversion. In a dynamic asset market...

  1. Broadcast and Aggregation in BBC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a process calculus BBC that has both forms of communication. For both many-to-one and one-to-many communication, it is often a natural assumption that communication is bounded; this reflects two distinct aspects of the limitations of a medium. In the case of broadcast......, the bound limits the number of possible recipients of a message. In the case of collection, the bound limits the number of messages that can be received. For this reason, BBC uses a notion of bounded broadcast and collection. Moreover, the syntax of the calculus introduces an explicit notion of connectivity...

  2. Fluorosurfactants at structural extremes: adsorption and aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastoe, Julian; Rogers, Sarah E; Martin, Laura J; Paul, Alison; Guittard, Frédéric; Guittard, Elisabeth; Heenan, Richard K; Webster, John R P

    2006-02-28

    Fluorosurfactants with several structural modifications have been synthesized, and the air/water interface and bulk aggregation properties investigated. The compounds were fluorinated ethylene oxide (EO) nonionics where the number and position of the hydrophilic group(s) has been radically altered to generate linear, bolaform, and Y-shaped analogues. A noticeable structure-interfacial packing relationship was observed via both tensiometric measurements and neutron reflection studies: the limiting molecular areas, a(cmc), and surface excesses, gamma(cmc), are strongly dependent on the number and position of the EO headgroups. Differing bulk aqueous properties were also observed. Small-angle neutron scattering shows an evolution of micelle structure from cylindrical to disk-like aggregates on changing from Y-shaped to bolaform molecular structure.

  3. Nutritional Management of Kidney Stones (Nephrolithiasis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Adam M.; Seifter, Julian L.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of kidney stones is common in the United States and treatments for them are very costly. This review article provides information about epidemiology, mechanism, diagnosis, and pathophysiology of kidney stone formation, and methods for the evaluation of stone risks for new and follow-up patients. Adequate evaluation and management can prevent recurrence of stones. Kidney stone prevention should be individualized in both its medical and dietary management, keeping in mind the specific risks involved for each type of stones. Recognition of these risk factors and development of long-term management strategies for dealing with them are the most effective ways to prevent recurrence of kidney stones. PMID:26251832

  4. Statistical mixing and aggregation in Feller diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteneodo, C.; Duarte Queirós, S. M.

    2009-10-01

    We consider Feller mean-reverting square-root diffusion, which has been applied to model a wide variety of processes with linearly state-dependent diffusion, such as stochastic volatility and interest rates in finance, and neuronal and population dynamics in the natural sciences. We focus on the statistical mixing (or superstatistical) process in which the parameter related to the mean value can fluctuate—a plausible mechanism for the emergence of heavy-tailed distributions. We obtain analytical results for the associated probability density function (both stationary and time-dependent), its correlation structure and aggregation properties. Our results are applied to explain the statistics of stock traded volume at different aggregation scales.

  5. Sharing refuges on arid islands: ecological and social influence on aggregation behaviour of wall geckos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Sara; Santos, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Background The extent of social behaviour among reptiles is underappreciated. Two types of aggregations are recognized in lizards: ecological and social, i.e., related to the attraction to a site or to animals of the same species, respectively. As most lizards are territorial, aggregations increase the probability of aggressive interactions among individuals, a density-dependent behaviour. Methods After some spurious observations of aggregation behaviour in the endemic Cabo Verde nocturnal gecko Tarentola substituta, we conducted a field-based study in order to thoroughly characterize it. We sampled 48 transects and 40 10 × 10 m quadrats on São Vicente Island to describe the incidence, size and composition of aggregations and to study the effect of gecko and refuge density, plus refuge quality, on refuge sharing. We hypothesize that when density of animals and scarcity of high-quality refuges is higher, lizards have increased probability of aggregating. We also predict a consistent pattern of size and composition of groups (male–female pairs, only one adult male per group) throughout the year if there is a selected behaviour to avoid agonistic interactions, and low thermal advantage to aggregating individuals. Results We present one of the first evidences of aggregation for Phyllodactylidae geckos. We found that T. substituta forms aggregations around 30–40% of the time, and that refuges are almost always shared by a female-male pair, sometimes with a juvenile, probably a mechanism to avoid aggressive interactions. We also observed that refuge sharing is dependent on refuge quality, as medium–large (thermally more stable and positively selected) rocks are shared much more frequently than small ones, but independent of adult sizes. Refuge sharing is also directly related to the density of geckos and inversely related to the density of high-quality refuges. We found no relation between body temperatures of geckos and refuge sharing when controlling the

  6. Sharing refuges on arid islands: ecological and social influence on aggregation behaviour of wall geckos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Vasconcelos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The extent of social behaviour among reptiles is underappreciated. Two types of aggregations are recognized in lizards: ecological and social, i.e., related to the attraction to a site or to animals of the same species, respectively. As most lizards are territorial, aggregations increase the probability of aggressive interactions among individuals, a density-dependent behaviour. Methods After some spurious observations of aggregation behaviour in the endemic Cabo Verde nocturnal gecko Tarentola substituta, we conducted a field-based study in order to thoroughly characterize it. We sampled 48 transects and 40 10 × 10 m quadrats on São Vicente Island to describe the incidence, size and composition of aggregations and to study the effect of gecko and refuge density, plus refuge quality, on refuge sharing. We hypothesize that when density of animals and scarcity of high-quality refuges is higher, lizards have increased probability of aggregating. We also predict a consistent pattern of size and composition of groups (male–female pairs, only one adult male per group throughout the year if there is a selected behaviour to avoid agonistic interactions, and low thermal advantage to aggregating individuals. Results We present one of the first evidences of aggregation for Phyllodactylidae geckos. We found that T. substituta forms aggregations around 30–40% of the time, and that refuges are almost always shared by a female-male pair, sometimes with a juvenile, probably a mechanism to avoid aggressive interactions. We also observed that refuge sharing is dependent on refuge quality, as medium–large (thermally more stable and positively selected rocks are shared much more frequently than small ones, but independent of adult sizes. Refuge sharing is also directly related to the density of geckos and inversely related to the density of high-quality refuges. We found no relation between body temperatures of geckos and refuge sharing when

  7. Differential Regulation of Adhesion Complex Turnover by ROCK1 and ROCK2

    OpenAIRE

    Lock, Frances E.; Katie R Ryan; Poulter, Natalie S.; Maddy Parsons; Hotchin, Neil A

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ROCK1 and ROCK2 are serine/threonine kinases that function downstream of the small GTP-binding protein RhoA. Rho signalling via ROCK regulates a number of cellular functions including organisation of the actin cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and cell migration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we use RNAi to specifically knockdown ROCK1 and ROCK2 and analyse their role in assembly of adhesion complexes in human epidermal keratinocytes. We observe that loss of ROCK1 inhibi...

  8. Oxalate-Degrading Capacities of Gastrointestinal Lactic Acid Bacteria and Urinary Tract Stone Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kargar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium oxalate is one the most significant causes of human kidney stones. Increasing oxalate uptake results in increased urinary oxalate. Elevated urinary oxalate is one the most important causes of kidney stone formation. This study aims to evaluate oxalate-degrading capacity of lactic acid bacteria and its impact on incidence of kidney stone.Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on serum, urinary, and fecal samples. The research population included a total of 200 subjects divided in two equal groups. They were selected from the patients with urinary tract stones, visiting urologist, and also normal people. The level of calcium, oxalate, and citrate in the urinary samples, parathyroid and calcium in the serum samples, and degrading activity of fecal lactobacillus strains of all the subjects were evaluated. Then, data analysis was carried out using SPSS-11.5, χ2 test, Fisher’s exact test, and analysis of variance. Results: The results revealed that the patients had higher urinary level of oxalate and calcium, as well as higher serum level of parathyroid hormone than normal people. In contrast, urinary level of citrate was higher in normal people. In addition, there was a significant difference between the oxalate-degrading capacities of lactobacillus isolated from the patients and their normal peers.Conclusion: Reduction of digestive lactobacillus-related oxalate-degrading capacity and increased serum level of parathyroid hormone can cause elevated urinary level of oxalate and calcium in people with kidney stone.

  9. Structural Transitions and Aggregation in Amyloidogenic Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckmann, Timothy; Chapagain, Prem; Gerstman, Bernard; Computational and Theoretical Biophysics Group at Florida International University Team

    2014-03-01

    Amyloid fibrils are a common component in many debilitating human neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. A detailed molecular-level understanding of the formation process of amyloid fibrils is crucial for developing methods to slow down or prevent these horrific diseases. Alpha-helix to beta-sheet structural transformation is commonly observed in the process of fibril formation. We performed replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations of structural transformations in an engineered model peptide cc-beta. Several sets of simulations with different number of cc-beta monomers were considered. Conversion of alpha-helix monomers to beta strands and the aggregation of beta strand monomers into sheets were analyzed as a function of the system size. Hydrogen bond analysis was performed and the beta-aggregate structures were characterized by a nematic order parameter.

  10. Rock Goes to School on Screen: A Model for Teaching Non-"Learned" Musics Derived from the Films "School of Rock" (2003) and "Rock School" (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Michael

    2007-01-01

    What can be learned from two films with "rock" and "school" in their titles, about rock in school and about music and schooling more broadly? "School of Rock" (2003), a "family comedy," and "Rock School" (2005), a documentary, provoke a range of questions, ideological and otherwise, surrounding the inclusion of rock in formal instructional…

  11. Chronic stress and calcium oxalate stone disease: is it a potential recurrence risk factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzoz-Fabregas, Montserrat; Ibarz-Servio, Luis; Edo-Izquierdo, Sílvia; Doladé-Botías, María; Fernandez-Castro, Jordi; Roca-Antonio, Josep

    2013-04-01

    Chronic emotional stress is associated with increased cortisol release and metabolism disorders. However, few studies have evaluated the influence of chronic stress on calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone disease and its recurrence. A total of 128 patients were enrolled in this case-control study over a period of 20 months. All patients were CaOx stone formers with a recent stone episode (chronic stress were evaluated with self-reported validated questionnaires measuring stressful life events, perceived stress, anxiety, depression, burnout and satisfaction with life. An ad hoc self-reporting questionnaire was designed to evaluate stress-related specifically to stone episodes. Blood and urine samples were collected to determine cortisol levels and urinary composition. In addition, epidemiological data, socioeconomic information, diet and incidences of metabolic syndrome (MS) were reported. Overall, no significant differences were observed in the scores of cases and controls on any of the questionnaires dealing with stress. The number (p chronic stress, the number and intensity of stressful life events were higher in RS than in FS. These differences correlate with variations in blood and urinary levels and with metabolic disorders, indicating an association between chronic stress and risk of recurrent CaOx stone formation.

  12. Rock Music and Korean Adolescent's Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inkyung; Kwak, Keumjoo; Chang, Geunyoung; Yang, Jinyoung

    The relationship between rock music preference and antisocial behavior among Korean adolescents was examined. The Korean versions of the Sensation Seeking Scale and the Antisocial Behavior Checklist were used to measure sensation seeking motivation and delinquency. Adolescents (N=1,079) were categorized as "rock/metal,""dance," or "ballad" based…

  13. Rock Music and Korean Adolescent's Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inkyung; Kwak, Keumjoo; Chang, Geunyoung; Yang, Jinyoung

    The relationship between rock music preference and antisocial behavior among Korean adolescents was examined. The Korean versions of the Sensation Seeking Scale and the Antisocial Behavior Checklist were used to measure sensation seeking motivation and delinquency. Adolescents (N=1,079) were categorized as "rock/metal,""dance,"…

  14. Hypothesis: Urbanization and exposure to urban heat islands contribute to increasing prevalence of kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, David S; Hirsch, Jacqueline

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing worldwide. Various etiologies may in part explain this observation including increased prevalence of diabetes, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, increased dietary protein and salt content, and decreased dietary dairy products. We hypothesize an additional and novel potential contributor to increasing kidney stone prevalence: migration to urban settings, or urbanization, and resultant exposure of the population to the higher temperatures of urban heat islands (UHIs). Both urbanization and exposure to UHIs are worldwide, continuous trends. Because the difference in temperature between rural and urban settings is greater than the increase in temperature caused by global warming, the potential effect of urbanization on stone prevalence may be of greater magnitude. However, demonstration of a convincing link between urbanization and kidney stones is confounded by many variables simultaneously affected by migration to cities, such as changes in occupation, income, and diet. No data have yet been published supporting this proposed association. We explore the plausibility and limitations of this possible etiology of increasing kidney stone prevalence.

  15. Comparison of Pneumatic and Laser Lithotripsy in the Endoscopic Treatment of Upper Ureteral Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozer Guzel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to compare the success rate of the use of a pneumatic and a holmium laser lithotripter for endoscopic treatment of upper ureteral calculi with semirigid uretero-renoscopy (URS. Material and Method: A total of 74 patients were included in this study. The patients were divided into two groups; a ballistic lithotripter was used for group 1 containing 33 and a Holmium-YAG laser lithotripter for the remaining 41 patients in group 2. Both groups were compared in terms of stone size the duration of the operation, postoperative hospitalization time, stone-free rate and complications. Results: The mean age of the patients was 47.6. The mean stone size in groups 1 and 2 were 16.4mm and 11.0mm, respectively (p=0.043. The mean stone-free rate groups 1 and 2 were 78.7% and 80.5% respectively at the approximately 1 month follow-up (p=0.391. In group 1 two patients and in group 2 two patients had a minor complication (ClavienI-II. In group 1 three patients had major complications due to ureteral perforation (Clavien 3a and 3b. No major complications (Clavien III-V occurred in Group 2. Discussion: Based on these findings laser lithotripsy can be regarded as safer. If laser lithotripter is available in medical centers, we argue that it should be the first choice for the treatment of upper ureteral stones.

  16. Vascular Calcification and Stone Disease: A New Look towards the Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen J. Yiu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate (CaP crystals are formed in pathological calcification as well as during stone formation. Although there are several theories as to how these crystals can develop through the combined interactions of biochemical and biophysical factors, the exact mechanism of such mineralization is largely unknown. Based on the published scientific literature, we found that common factors can link the initial stages of stone formation and calcification in anatomically distal tissues and organs. For example, changes to the spatiotemporal conditions of the fluid flow in tubular structures may provide initial condition(s for CaP crystal generation needed for stone formation. Additionally, recent evidence has provided a meaningful association between the active participation of proteins and transcription factors found in the bone forming (ossification mechanism that are also involved in the early stages of kidney stone formation and arterial calcification. Our review will focus on three topics of discussion (physiological influences—calcium and phosphate concentration—and similarities to ossification, or bone formation that may elucidate some commonality in the mechanisms of stone formation and calcification, and pave the way towards opening new avenues for further research.

  17. Aggregate of nanoparticles: rheological and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The understanding of the rheological and mechanical properties of nanoparticle aggregates is important for the application of nanofillers in nanocompoistes. In this work, we report a rheological study on the rheological and mechanical properties of nano-silica agglomerates in the form of gel network mainly constructed by hydrogen bonds. The elastic model for rubber is modified to analyze the elastic behavior of the agglomerates. By this modified elastic model, the size of the network mesh can be estimated by the elastic modulus of the network which can be easily obtained by rheology. The stress to destroy the aggregates, i.e., the yield stress (σy , and the elastic modulus (G' of the network are found to be depended on the concentration of nano-silica (ϕ, wt.% with the power of 4.02 and 3.83, respectively. Via this concentration dependent behavior, we can extrapolate two important mechanical parameters for the agglomerates in a dense packing state (ϕ = 1: the shear modulus and the yield stress. Under large deformation (continuous shear flow, the network structure of the aggregates will experience destruction and reconstruction, which gives rise to fluctuations in the viscosity and a shear-thinning behavior.

  18. Transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of seminal vesicle stones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Tao; ZHANG Xu; ZHANG Lei; ZHANG Fan; FU Wei-jun

    2012-01-01

    Background Seminal vesicle stones are one of the main causes of persistent hemospermia.Treatment requires removal of the stone,generally through open vesiculectomy.The purpose of this study was to apply a transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy for diagnosis and treatment of the seminal vesicle stones with an ureteroscope.We assessed whether this transurethral endoscopic technique is feasible and effective in the diagnosis and treatment of the seminal vesicle stones with intractable hemospermia.Methods Totally 12 patients with intractable hemospermia underwent transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy through the distal seminal tracts using a 7.3-French rigid ureteroscope.Age of patients ranged from 25 to 57 years (mean age (43.7±10.5) years).The patients' symptoms ranged in duration from 4 to 180 months (mean duration (47.8±45.3)months).All patients underwent transrectal ultrasonography,pelvic computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging before the operation.Positive imaging findings were observed in patients with seminal vesicle stones and dilated seminal vesicle size.A 7.3-French rigid ureteroscope entered the lumen of the verumontanum,and then the seminal vesicle under direct vision.Seminal vesicle stones were found unilaterally in 11 cases and bilaterally in one case.Results All 12 patients successfully underwent transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy.The seminal vesicle interior with single or multiple yellowish stones ranging from 1to 5 mm in diameter was clearly visible.All the stones were easily fragmented and endoscopically removed using a grasper.The operative time was 30 to 120 minutes (mean (49±22)minutes).The mean follow-up period was (6.9±3.0) months (range 3-13 months).Symptoms of hemospermia disappeared after one month in 10 patients and after three months in two patients.Three patients with painful ejaculation could completely be relieved postoperation.There was also improvement in one patient with erectile dysfunction.There were no postoperative

  19. Geochemical Characteristics and Metallogenesis of Volcanic Rocks as Exemplified by Volcanic Rocks in Ertix,Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘铁庚; 叶霖

    1997-01-01

    Volcanic rocks in Ertix,Xinjiang,occurring in the collision zone between the Siberia Plate and the Junggar Plate,are distributed along the Eritix River Valley in northern Xinjiang.The volcanic rocks were dated at Late Paleozoic and can be divided into the spilite-keratophyre series and the basalt-andesite series.The spilite-keratophyre series volcanic rocks occur in the Altay orogenic belt at the southwest margin of the Siberia Plate.In addition to sodic volcanic rocks.There are also associated potassic-sodic volcanic rocks and potassic volcanic rocks.The potassic-sodic volcanic rocks occur at the bottom of the eruption cycle and control the distribution of Pb and Zn deposits.The potassic volcanic rocks occur at the top of the eruption cycle and are associated with Au and Cu mineralizations.The sodic volcanic rocks occur in the middle stage of eruption cycle and control the occurrence of Cu(Zn) deposits.The basalt-andesite series volcanic rocks distributed in the North Junggar orogenic belt at the north margin of the Junggar-Kazakstan Plate belong to the potassic sodic volcain rocks.The volcanic rocks distributed along the Ulungur fault are relatively rich in sodium and poor in potassium and are predominated by Cu mineralization and associated with Au mineralization.Those volcanic rocks distributed along the Ertix fault are relatively rich in K and poor in Na,with Au mineralization being dominant.

  20. Potential Pharmacologic Treatments for Cystinuria and for Calcium Stones Associated with Hyperuricosuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldfarb, David S. (NYUSM)

    2012-03-14

    Two new potential pharmacologic therapies for recurrent stone disease are described. The role of hyperuricosuria in promoting calcium stones is controversial with only some but not all epidemiologic studies demonstrating associations between increasing urinary uric acid excretion and calcium stone disease. The relationship is supported by the ability of uric acid to 'salt out' (or reduce the solubility of) calcium oxalate in vitro. A randomized, controlled trial of allopurinol in patients with hyperuricosuria and normocalciuria was also effective in preventing recurrent stones. Febuxostat, a nonpurine inhibitor of xanthine oxidase (also known as xanthine dehydrogenase or xanthine oxidoreductase) may have advantages over allopurinol and is being tested in a similar protocol, with the eventual goal of determining whether urate-lowering therapy prevents recurrent calcium stones. Treatments for cystinuria have advanced little in the past 30 years. Atomic force microscopy has been used recently to demonstrate that effective inhibition of cystine crystal growth is accomplished at low concentrations of L-cystine methyl ester and L-cystine dimethyl ester, structural analogs of cystine that provide steric inhibition of crystal growth. In vitro, L-cystine dimethyl ester had a significant inhibitory effect on crystal growth. The drug's safety and effectiveness will be tested in an Slc3a1 knockout mouse that serves as an animal model of cystinuria.

  1. Ureteroscopy and Laser Lithotripsy for Treatment of Ureteral Stones in Pregnants: Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Okan İstanbulluoğlu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report our ureteroscopic laser lithotrip­sy experiences in the treatment of symptomatic ureter stones in pregnants which do not respond to conservative treatment Methods: A total of 6 pregnants aged between 22-33 years in second or third trimester were studied. Holmium-YAG laser lithotripsy was performed with 6.5 F semirigid uretroscope. Results: The diagnosis of ureter stone was made with ab­dominal ultrasonography in 5 patients and with magnetic resonance in one patient. Adequate stone fragmentation was performed in 2 mid-ureter and 4 distal-ureter stones. J stent was applied in one patient after the fragmenta­tion process. The mean operation time was 24.8 ± 10.0 minutes after the entry of bladder with ureteroscope un­der spinal anesthesia. No urologic, anesthetic or obstetric complication was seen and all patients gave healthy birth at term. Conclusion: Fine calibrated ureteroscopes for the treat­ment of ureter stones in pregnants are fast and effective treatment modalities which decrease the operation time and remove difficulties in entering the ureter.

  2. Assessment of compatibility and durability of photocatalytic TiO2 for stone coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calia, Angela; Lettieri, Maria Teresa; Licciulli, Antonio; Masieri, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    The use of Titanium dioxide nano-particles has received increasing attention in many fields as these particles can trap and decompose organic and inorganic soiling matter and air pollutants by a photocatalytic process, providing new functional properties in terms of self-cleaning and depolluting performances to the treated materials. Since recent years, the use of photocatalytic TiO2 as external coating for natural stones has been allowed thanks to the fine-tuning of nano-titania preparation, overcoming the initial limits of application related to a necessary thermal treatment. Notwithstanding nano-titania benefits, the potential of its application as stone coating needs to be assessed with respect to basic requirements involved for any surface stone treatment, especially in the field of the preservation of historical-architectural heritage. They concern the harmlessness with respect to the original characteristics of the stones, the effectiveness and durability of the treatments themselves. In this work we present the study for the assessment of compatibility of Titania coatings applied to calcareous stones paying attention to their effects on chromatic properties, water absorption by capillarity, permeability to water vapour, water wettability. The durability of the coatings under mechanical action in laboratory simulated conditions was also investigated.

  3. Pore structure of natural and regenerated soil aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Arthur, Emmanuel; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative characterization of aggregate pore structure can reveal the evolution of aggregates under different land use and management practices and their effects on soil processes and functions. Advances in X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) provide powerful means to conduct such characterization....... This study examined aggregate pore structure of three differently managed same textured Danish soils (mixed forage cropping, MFC; mixed cash cropping, MCC; cereal cash cropping, CCC) for (i) natural aggregates, and (ii) aggregates regenerated after 20 months of incubation. In total, 27 aggregates (8-16 mm......) were sampled from nine different treatments; 3 natural soils and 3 repacked lysimeters without and 3 with organic matter (ground rape) amendment. Three dimensional X-ray CT images, tensile strength, and organic carbon were obtained for each aggregate. Aggregate-associated organic carbon differed...

  4. Effect of antimicrobial preservatives on partial protein unfolding and aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Regina L; Singh, Surinder M; Cabello-Villegas, Javier; Mallela, Krishna M G

    2013-02-01

    One-third of protein formulations are multi-dose. These require antimicrobial preservatives (APs); however, some APs have been shown to cause protein aggregation. Our previous work on a model protein cytochrome c indicated that partial protein unfolding, rather than complete unfolding, triggers aggregation. Here, we examined the relative strength of five commonly used APs on such unfolding and aggregation, and explored whether stabilizing the aggregation 'hot-spot' reduces such aggregation. All APs induced protein aggregation in the order m-cresol > phenol > benzyl alcohol > phenoxyethanol > chlorobutanol. All these enhanced the partial protein unfolding that includes a local region which was predicted to be the aggregation 'hot-spot'. The extent of destabilization correlated with the extent of aggregation. Further, we show that stabilizing the 'hot-spot' reduces aggregation induced by all five APs. These results indicate that m-cresol causes the most protein aggregation, whereas chlorobutanol causes the least protein aggregation. The same protein region acts as the 'hot-spot' for aggregation induced by different APs, implying that developing strategies to prevent protein aggregation induced by one AP will also work for others.

  5. Acoustics in rock and pop music halls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian

    2007-01-01

    The existing body of literature regarding the acoustic design of concert halls has focused almost exclusively on classical music, although there are many more performances of rhythmic music, including rock and pop. Objective measurements were made of the acoustics of twenty rock music venues...

  6. Rock Plasticity from Microtomography and Upscaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Liu; Reem Freij-Ayoub; Klaus Regenauer-Lieb

    2015-01-01

    We present a workflow for upscaling of rock properties using microtomography and percolation theory. In this paper we focus on a pilot study for assessing the plastic strength of rocks from a digital rock image. Firstly, we determine the size of mechanical representative volume ele-ment (RVE) by using upper/lower bound dissipation computations in accordance with thermody-namics. Then the mechanical RVE is used to simulate the rock failure at micro-scale using FEM. Two cases of different pressures of linear Drucker-Prager plasticity of rocks are computed to com-pute the macroscopic cohesion and the angle of internal friction of the rock. We also detect the criti-cal exponents of yield stress for scaling laws from a series of derivative models that are created by a shrinking/expanding algorithm. We use microtomographic data sets of two carbonate samples and compare the results with previous results. The results show that natural rock samples with irregular structures may have the critical exponent of yield stress different from random models. This unex-pected result could have significant ramifications for assessing the stability of solid materials with internal structure. Therefore our pilot study needs to be extended to investigate the scaling laws of strength of many more natural rocks with irregular microstructure.

  7. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of kidney stones if taken in large doses. Metabolic disorders. Having a metabolic disorder (a problem in the way the body breaks ... arthritis), other kidney diseases , conditions that affect the thyroid or parathyroid gland, and some urinary tract infections ( ...

  8. Kidney Stones in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking the wrong types of fluids, such as soft drinks or drinks with caffeine, may cause substances in ... such as chocolate, peanut butter, and dark-colored soft drinks. Children who form uric acid or cystine stones ...

  9. Technetium and Iodine Getters to Improve Cast Stone Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.; Snyder, Michelle MV

    2015-02-19

    To determine the effectiveness of the various getter materials prior to their solidification in Cast Stone, a series of batch sorption experiments was performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. To quantify the effectiveness of the removal of Tc(VII) and I(I) from solution by getters, the distribution coefficient, Kd (mL/g), was calculated. Testing involved placing getter material in contact with spiked waste solutions at a 1:100 solid-to-solution ratio for periods up to 45 days with periodic solution sampling. One Tc getter was also tested at a 1:10 solid-to-solution ratio. Two different solution media, 18.2 MΩ deionized water (DI H2O) and a 7.8 M Na LAW simulant, were used in the batch sorption tests. Each test was conducted at room temperature in an anoxic chamber containing N2 with a small amount of H2 (0.7%) to maintain anoxic conditions. Each getter-solution combination was run in duplicate. Three Tc- and I-doping concentrations were used separately in aliquots of both the 18.2 MΩ DI H2O and a 7.8 M Na LAW waste simulant. The 1× concentration was developed based on Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model runs to support the River Protection Project System Plan Revision 6. The other two concentrations were 5× and 10× of the HTWOS values. The Tc and I tests were run separately (i.e., the solutions did not contain both solutes). Sampling of the solid-solution mixtures occurred nominally after 0.2, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 days and ~35 to 45 days. Seven getter materials were tested for Tc and five materials were tested for I. The seven Tc getters were blast furnace slag 1 (BFS1) (northwest source), BFS2 (southeast source), Sn(II)-treated apatite, Sn(II) chloride, nano tin phosphate, KMS (a potassium-metal-sulfide), and tin hydroxapatite. The five iodine getters were layered bismuth hydroxide (LBH), argentite mineral, synthetic argentite, silver-treated carbon, and silver-treated zeolite. The Tc Kd values measured from experiments conducted

  10. Technetium and Iodine Getters to Improve Cast Stone Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.; Snyder, Michelle MV

    2014-07-01

    To determine the effectiveness of the various getter materials prior to their solidification in Cast Stone, a series of batch sorption experiments was performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. To quantify the effectiveness of the removal of Tc(VII) and I(I) from solution by getters, the distribution coefficient, Kd (mL/g), was calculated. Testing involved placing getter material in contact with spiked waste solutions at a 1:100 solid-to-solution ratio for periods up to 45 days with periodic solution sampling. One Tc getter was also tested at a 1:10 solid-to-solution ratio. Two different solution media, 18.2 MΩ deionized water (DI H2O) and a 7.8 M Na LAW simulant, were used in the batch sorption tests. Each test was conducted at room temperature in an anoxic chamber containing N2 with a small amount of H2 (0.7%) to maintain anoxic conditions. Each getter-solution combination was run in duplicate. Three Tc- and I-doping concentrations were used separately in aliquots of both the 18.2 MΩ DI H2O and a 7.8 M Na LAW waste simulant. The 1× concentration was developed based on Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model runs to support the River Protection Project System Plan Revision 6. The other two concentrations were 5× and 10× of the HTWOS values. The Tc and I tests were run separately (i.e., the solutions did not contain both solutes). Sampling of the solid-solution mixtures occurred nominally after 0.2, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 days and ~35 to 45 days. Seven getter materials were tested for Tc and five materials were tested for I. The seven Tc getters were blast furnace slag 1 (BFS1) (northwest source), BFS2 (southeast source), Sn(II)-treated apatite, Sn(II) chloride, nano tin phosphate, KMS (a potassium-metal-sulfide), and tin hydroxapatite. The five iodine getters were layered bismuth hydroxide (LBH), argentite mineral, synthetic argentite, silver-treated carbon, and silver-treated zeolite. The Tc Kd values measured from experiments conducted

  11. Stone fragmentation by ultrasound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Shrivastava; Kailash

    2004-08-01

    The presence of kidney stone in the kidney causes discomfort to patients. Hence, removal of such stones is important which is commonly done these days, non-destructively, with lithotripters without surgery. Commercially, lithotripters like extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripters (ESWL) made by Siemens etc are in routine use. These methods are very cumbersome and expensive. Treatment of the patients also takes comparatively more time because of more number of sittings. Some delicate nerves and fibres in the surrounding areas of the stones present in the kidney are also damaged by high ultrasonic intensity used in such systems. In the present work, enhancement of the kidney stone fragmentation by using ultrasound is studied. The cavitation bubbles are found to implode faster, with more disintegration efficiency of the lithotripters, which give better treatment to the patients.

  12. Matrix rigidity differentially regulates invadopodia activity through ROCK1 and ROCK2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrell, Rachel J; Parekh, Aron

    2016-04-01

    ROCK activity increases due to ECM rigidity in the tumor microenvironment and promotes a malignant phenotype via actomyosin contractility. Invasive migration is facilitated by actin-rich adhesive protrusions known as invadopodia that degrade the ECM. Invadopodia activity is dependent on matrix rigidity and contractile forces suggesting that mechanical factors may regulate these subcellular structures through ROCK-dependent actomyosin contractility. However, emerging evidence indicates that the ROCK1 and ROCK2 isoforms perform different functions in cells suggesting that alternative mechanisms may potentially regulate rigidity-dependent invadopodia activity. In this study, we found that matrix rigidity drives ROCK signaling in cancer cells but that ROCK1 and ROCK2 differentially regulate invadopodia activity through separate signaling pathways via contractile (NM II) and non-contractile (LIMK) mechanisms. These data suggest that the mechanical rigidity of the tumor microenvironment may drive ROCK signaling through distinct pathways to enhance the invasive migration required for cancer progression and metastasis.

  13. Stone dusting process advance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt Ryan; David Humphreys [Mining Attachments (Qld.) Pty Ltd. (Australia)

    2009-01-15

    The coal mining industry has, for many years, used dry stone dust or calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) in the prevention of the propagation of coal dust explosions throughout their underground mines in Australia. In the last decade wet stone dusting has been introduced. This is where stone dust and water are mixed together to form a paste like slurry. This mixture is pumped and sprayed on to the underground roadway surfaces. This method solved the contamination of the intake airways but brought with it a new problem known as 'caking'. Caking is the hardened layer that is formed as the stone dust slurry dries. It was proven that this hardened layer compromises the dispersal characteristics of the stone dust and therefore its ability to suppress a coal dust explosion. This project set out to prove a specially formulated, non toxic slurry additive and process that could overcome the caking effect. The slurry additive process combines dry stone dust with water to form a slurry. The slurry is then treated with the additive and compressed air to create a highly vesicular foam like stone dusted surface. The initial testing on a range of additives and the effectiveness in minimising the caking effect of wet dusting were performed at Applied Chemical's research laboratory in Melbourne, Victoria and independently tested at the SGS laboratory in Paget, Queensland. The results from these tests provided the platform to conduct full scale spraying trials at the Queensland Mines Rescue Station and Caledon Coal's Cook Colliery, Blackwater. The project moved into the final stage of completion with the collection of data. The intent was to compare the slurry additive process to dry stone dusting in full-scale methane explosions at the CSIR Kloppersbos explosion facility in Kloppersbos, South Africa.

  14. A brief review of the construction aggregates market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Jason Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey defines the construction aggregates industry as those companies that mine and process crushed stone and/or construction sand and gravel. Aggregates have been used from the earliest times of our civilization for a variety of purposes - construction being the major use. As construction aggregates, crushed stone and construction sand and gravel are the basic raw materials used to build the foundation for modern society. The widespread use of construction aggregates is the result of their general availability throughout the country and around the world along with their relatively low cost. Although construction aggregates have a low unit value, their widespread use makes them major contributors to, and indicators of, the economic well-being of the nation.

  15. Altered Calcium and Vitamin D Homeostasis in First-Time Calcium Kidney Stone-Formers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemamalini Ketha

    Full Text Available Elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH2D concentrations have been reported among cohorts of recurrent calcium (Ca kidney stone-formers and implicated in the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria. Variations in Ca and vitamin D metabolism, and excretion of urinary solutes among first-time male and female Ca stone-formers in the community, however, have not been defined.In a 4-year community-based study we measured serum Ca, phosphorus (P, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, 1,25(OH2D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH2D, parathyroid hormone (PTH, and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23 concentrations in first-time Ca stone-formers and age- and gender frequency-matched controls.Serum Ca and 1,25(OH2D were increased in Ca stone-formers compared to controls (P = 0.01 and P = 0.001. Stone-formers had a lower serum 24,25(OH2D/25(OHD ratio compared to controls (P = 0.008. Serum PTH and FGF-23 concentrations were similar in the groups. Urine Ca excretion was similar in the two groups (P = 0.82. In controls, positive associations between serum 25(OHD and 24,25(OH2D, FGF-23 and fractional phosphate excretion, and negative associations between serum Ca and PTH, and FGF-23 and 1,25(OH2D were observed. In SF associations between FGF-23 and fractional phosphate excretion, and FGF-23 and 1,25(OH2D, were not observed. 1,25(OH2D concentrations associated more weakly with FGF-23 in SF compared with C (P <0.05.Quantitative differences in serum Ca and 1,25(OH2D and reductions in 24-hydroxylation of vitamin D metabolites are present in first-time SF and might contribute to first-time stone risk.

  16. Wanted: suitable replacement stones for the Lede stone (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kock, T.; Dewanckele, J.; Boone, M. A.; De Boever, W.; De Schutter, G.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

    2012-04-01

    The Lede stone is an arenaceous limestone with a Lutetian age, occurring as discrete (most of the times three) stone banks in the marine sandy sediments of the Lede Formation (Belgium). It has a quartz content of approximate 40%. This increases abrasion strength and together with the cementation results in an average compressive strength of about 80-85 MPa. The cement is a microsparitic calcite cement. Other carbonate particles are both microfossils (mainly foraminifers) and macrofossils (bivalves, serpulids, echinoderms, …). This great diversity gives the stone a heterogeneous, animated appearance. The intra- and interparticle porosity is in total 5-10 % in average and the apparent density is 2400-2550 kg/m3. Another important constituent is glauconite, present in a few percent. In fresh state, the stone has a greenish-grey colour, but when it is exposed to atmospheric conditions for a couple of years, the stone acquires a yellowish to rust-coloured patina due to the weathering of glauconite. Sulphatation causes severe damage to the stone, and black gypsum crusts are common in urban environments on stones protected from runoff. This stone was excavated in both open air and underground quarries in the areas of Brussels and Ghent. The proximity of main rivers such as the Scheldt and Zenne provided transport routes for export towards the north (e.g. Antwerp and The Netherlands). Its first known use dates back to Roman times but the stone flourished in Gothic architecture due to its easy workability and its 'divine' light coloured patina. This results nowadays in a dominant occurrence in the cultural heritage of northwestern Belgium and the south of The Netherlands. Socio-economical reasons caused several declines and revivals of Lede stone in use. In the beginning of the 20th century, only a few excavation sites remained, with as main quarry the one located at Bambrugge (Belgium). By the end of the first half of the 20th century, however, no quarry sites remained

  17. Stone tools and foraging in northern Madagascar challenge Holocene extinction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Robert E.; Radimilahy, Chantal; Wright, Henry T.; Jacobs, Zenobia; Kelly, Gwendolyn O.; Berna, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Past research on Madagascar indicates that village communities were established about AD 500 by people of both Indonesian and East African heritage. Evidence of earlier visits is scattered and contentious. Recent archaeological excavations in northern Madagascar provide evidence of occupational sites with microlithic stone technologies related to foraging for forest and coastal resources. A forager occupation of one site dates to earlier than 2000 B.C., doubling the length of Madagascar’s known occupational history, and thus the time during which people exploited Madagascar’s environments. We detail stratigraphy, chronology, and artifacts from two rock shelters. Ambohiposa near Iharana (Vohémar) on the northeast coast, yielded a stratified assemblage with small flakes, microblades, and retouched crescentic and trapezoidal tools, probably projectile elements, made on cherts and obsidian, some brought more that 200 km. 14C dates are contemporary with the earliest villages. No food remains are preserved. Lakaton’i Anja near Antsiranana in the north yielded several stratified assemblages. The latest assemblage is well dated to A.D. 1050–1350, by 14C and optically stimulated luminescence dating and pottery imported from the Near East and China. Below is a series of stratified assemblages similar to Ambohiposa. 14C and optically stimulated luminescence dates indicate occupation from at least 2000 B.C. Faunal remains indicate a foraging pattern. Our evidence shows that foragers with a microlithic technology were active in Madagascar long before the arrival of farmers and herders and before many Late Holocene faunal extinctions. The differing effects of historically distinct economies must be identified and understood to reconstruct Holocene histories of human environmental impact. PMID:23858456

  18. Carbonatogenesis: microbial contribution to the conservation of monuments and artwork of stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaranjit S. Cameotra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades there has been increasing global concern over the deterioration of historical monuments and stone works of art. It has posed a big challenge for the archaeologist, geobiologists and bioconservators and consequently encouraged the search for developing novel preventive and remedial methodologies for safeguarding these sculptural monuments and stone works of art. Many conventional methods which rely on use of physical and chemical treatments have been applied but none of them have yielded satisfactory results. Recently, bioconservation and consolidation methods employing carbonatogenic microbes have received much attention. These microorganisms can precipitate calcium carbonate and, thereby, confer protection to historic monuments.

  19. Assessing Genetic Structure in Common but Ecologically Distinct Carnivores: The Stone Marten and Red Fox.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda P Basto

    Full Text Available The identification of populations and spatial genetic patterns is important for ecological and conservation research, and spatially explicit individual-based methods have been recognised as powerful tools in this context. Mammalian carnivores are intrinsically vulnerable to habitat fragmentation but not much is known about the genetic consequences of fragmentation in common species. Stone martens (Martes foina and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes share a widespread Palearctic distribution and are considered habitat generalists, but in the Iberian Peninsula stone martens tend to occur in higher quality habitats. We compared their genetic structure in Portugal to see if they are consistent with their differences in ecological plasticity, and also to illustrate an approach to explicitly delineate the spatial boundaries of consistently identified genetic units. We analysed microsatellite data using spatial Bayesian clustering methods (implemented in the software BAPS, GENELAND and TESS, a progressive partitioning approach and a multivariate technique (Spatial Principal Components Analysis-sPCA. Three consensus Bayesian clusters were identified for the stone marten. No consensus was achieved for the red fox, but one cluster was the most probable clustering solution. Progressive partitioning and sPCA suggested additional clusters in the stone marten but they were not consistent among methods and were geographically incoherent. The contrasting results between the two species are consistent with the literature reporting stricter ecological requirements of the stone marten in the Iberian Peninsula. The observed genetic structure in the stone marten may have been influenced by landscape features, particularly rivers, and fragmentation. We suggest that an approach based on a consensus clustering solution of multiple different algorithms may provide an objective and effective means to delineate potential boundaries of inferred subpopulations. sPCA and progressive

  20. Histopathology Predicts the Mechanism of Stone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan, Andrew P.

    2007-04-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life and these numbers appear to be on the rise. Despite years of scientific research into the mechanisms of stone formation and growth, limited advances have been made until recently. Randall's original observations and thoughts on the mechanisms for kidney stone formation have been validated for idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF) but not for most other stone forming groups. Our current studies on selected groups of human stone formers using intraoperative papillary biopsies has shown overwhelming evidence for the presence of Randall's plaque in ICSF and that stone formation and growth are exclusively linked to its availability to urinary ions and proteins. Intense investigation of the plaque-stone junction is needed if we are to understand the factors leading to the overgrowth process on exposed regions of plaque. Such information should allow the development of treatment strategies to block stone formation in ICSF patients. Patients who form brushite stones, or who form apatite stones because of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), or patients with calcium oxalate stones due to obesity bypass procedures, or patients with cystinuria, get plugged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) which leads to total destruction of the lining cells and focal sites of interstitial fibrosis. These stone formers have plaque but at levels equal to or below non-stone formers, which would suggest that they form stones by a different mechanism than do ICSF patients.

  1. Ureteroscopy Outcomes, Complications and Management of Perforations in Impacted Ureter Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göksel Bayar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate ureteroscopy (URS outcomes and management of perforations in impacted ureteral stones. Materials and Methods We retrospectively evaluated data from 81 patients who had undergone URS for impacted ureteral stones. Per-operative complications were evaluated visually and retrograde ureterography was performed when needed. Injuries of less than 50% around the ureter were classified as minor perforation and greater levels, as major perforation. Perforations were treated by double-j stent or a primary repair with consideration of the perforation grade. Results The stone-free rate was 69% on the first URS attempt and 79% at the end of 3 months. Complications occurred in 34 (42% patients. Minor perforation occurred in five patients and only double-j insertion was performed at the end of the procedure. Permanent ureteral stricture occurred in four of five patients. Three patients were treated by open ureterolithotomy, fibrotic segment resection and ureteroureterostomy due to major perforations. Transient or permanent ureteral stricture occurred in none of the three patients. The stricture rate was significantly higher in patients who were treated with double-j stent (80% vs. 0% p=0.028 although they had lower perforation rate. Upper location, bigger size (>10 mm of the ureteral stones and not using smash and go strategy were found to be significant predictors of complications. Conclusion URS for impacted ureteral stone has low success and high complication rates, especially for proximal and big stones. The conservative treatment may fail and result in stricture when perforation is present. Therefore, perforation treatment must be done by fibrotic segment excision and ureteroureterostomy.

  2. New strategies for measuring and sorting shaped glass stones using image processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Kelnar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to propose progressive methods for objectively evaluating significant mechanical and geometrical characteristics of gemstones used for making fashion jewellery. These characteristics significantly affect the overall visual aesthetic look of the respective jewellery stones. Different image processing methods are used in industrial microscopy to design new products. The key aspects for having a successful design is thoroughly analysing the material for possible gem-stone defects and properly defining their behaviour when using different optical systems. Using a high-tech experimental laboratory, the authors carried out a control measurement. The main contribution of this paper is the design, implementation and verification of the functionality of new methods for evaluating the quality of machine cut jewellery stones. These progressive methods have the potential to succeed in industrial microscopy or defectoscopy.

  3. Microstructure and Properties of Silty Siliceous Crushed Stone-lime Aerated Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiankun; CHEN Youzhi; LI Fangxian; SUN Tao; XU Bingbo

    2006-01-01

    The clayish crushed stone was used for making aerated concrete. Through studying hydro-thermal synthesis reaction, mix ratio, gas-forming and performance analysis, Grade-B05 and Grade-B06 aerated concrete were prepared successfully. The proper mix ratio and key processing parameters were achieved. The microstructure of aerated concrete with crush stone was analyzed by means of XRD and SEM. The experimental results indicate that the hydration products are poorly crystalline C-S-H (B), tobermorite and hydrogarnet. No component of clay was found. Unreacted SiO2 can be in existence, and the structure system of aerated concrete is homogeneous and dense.

  4. Some influences of rock strength and strain rate on propagation of rock avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Elisabeth; Rait, Kim

    2016-04-01

    Rock avalanches are extreme and destructive mass movements in which large volumes of rock (typically >1 million cubic metres) travel at high speeds, covering large distances, and the occurrence of which is highly unpredictable. The "size effect" in rock avalanches, whereby those with larger volumes produce greater spreading efficiency (as defined by an increase in normalised runout) or lower farboschung angle (defined as the tangent of the ratio of fall height to runout length), is well known. Studies have shown that rock strength is a controlling factor in the mobility of rock avalanches - that is, mass movements involving lower strength rock are generally found to produce greater mobility as evidenced by the spread of deposits or low farboschung angle. However, there are conflicting ideas as to how and why this influence is manifested. This paper discusses different theories of rock comminution in light of numerical simulations of rock clasts undergoing normal and shear induced loading, experimental work on rock avalanche behaviour, and dynamic fracture mechanics. In doing so, we introduce the idea of thresholds of strain rate for the production of dynamic fragmentation (as opposed to pseudo-static clast crushing) that are based, inter alia, on static rock strength. To do this, we refer to data from physical models using rock analogue materials, field data on chalk cliff collapses, and field statistics from documented rock avalanches. The roles of normal and shear loading and loading rate within a rock avalanche are examined numerically using 3D Discrete Element Method models of rock clasts loaded to failure. Results may help to reconcile the observations that large rock avalanches in stronger materials tend not to fragment as much as those in weaker materials and also possess lower mobility, while small cliff collapses (typically > 1000 cubic metres) in weak chalk can exhibit rock avalanche-like behaviour at much smaller volumes.

  5. Facile residue analysis of recent and prehistoric cook-stones using handheld Raman spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Short, Laura; Cao, Bin; Sinyukov, Alexander M; Joshi, Amitabh; Scully, Rob; Sanders, Virgil; Voronine, Dmitri V

    2013-01-01

    We performed food residue analysis of cook-stones from experimental and prehistoric earth ovens using a handheld Raman spectrometry. Progress in modern optical technology provides a facile means of rapid non-destructive identification of residue artifacts from archaeological sites. For this study spectral signatures were obtained on sotol (Dasylirion spp.) experimentally baked in an earth oven as well as sotol residue on an experimentally used processing tool. Inulin was the major residue component. The portable handheld Raman spectrometer also detected traces of inulin on boiling stones used to boil commercially obtained inulin. The Raman spectra of inulin and sotol may be useful as signatures of wild plant residues in archaeology. Spectroscopic analysis of millennia-old cook-stones from prehistoric archaeological sites in Fort Hood, TX revealed the presence of residues whose further identification requires improvement of current optical methods.

  6. Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA is a gap-graded mix that is gaining popularity worldwide. Generally, gap graded mixes are thought to be weak in fatigue resistance. In this study, cellulose fibers were pre-blended in PG64-22 binder with fiber proportions of 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1.0% by weight of aggregates. The fiber-modified binder showed improved rheological properties and showed that the PG64-22 binder can be modified and raised to PG70-22 grade. The cellulose oil palm fiber (COPF was found to improve the diameteral fatigue performance of SMA design mix. The fatigue life increased to a maximum at a fiber content of about 0.6%, whilst the tensile stress and stiffness also showed a similar trend in performance. The initial strains of the mix were lowest at a fiber content of 0.6%.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnasamy Muniandy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA is a gap-graded mix that is gaining popularity worldwide. Generally, gap graded mixes are thought to be weak in fatigue resistance. In this study, cellulose fibers were pre-blended in PG64-22 binder with fiber proportions of 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1.0% by weight of aggregates. The fiber-modified binder showed improved rheological properties and showed that the PG64-22 binder can be modified and raised to PG70-22 grade. The cellulose oil palm fiber (COPF was found to improve the diameteral fatigue performance of SMA design mix. The fatigue life increased to a maximum at a fiber content of about 0.6%, whilst the tensile stress and stiffness also showed a similar trend in performance. The initial strains of the mix were lowest at a fiber content of 0.6%.

  7. Hyaluronan Biology and Regulation in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells and its Role in Kidney Stone Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asselman (Marino)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractRenal stone disease is a widespread problem afflicting more and more people throughout the world. Epidemiological studies show an increase in incidence and prevalence rates. In North America and Europe the yearly incidence is estimated to be about 0.5% 1, 2. The prevalence of kidney ston

  8. Accelerated weathering of limestone for CO2 mitigation: Opportunities for the stone and cement industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William H.; San, Juan A.; Rau, Greg H.; Caldeira, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Accelerated weathering of limestone appears to provide a low-tech, inexpensive, high-capacity, environmentally friendly CO2 mitigation method that could be applied to about 200 fossil fuel fired power plants and about eight cement plants located in coastal areas in the conterminous U.S. This approach could also help solve the problem of disposal of limestone waste fines in the crushed stone industry. Research and implementation of this technology will require new collaborative efforts among the crushed stone and cement industries, electric utilities, and the science and engineering communities.

  9. Rock avalanches: significance and progress (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    1. The probability distribution of landslide volumes follows a power-law indicating that large rock avalanches dominate the terrestrial sediment supply from mountains, and that their source area morphologies dominate mountain topography. 2. Large rock slope failures (~ 106 m3 or greater) often mobilise into rock avalanches, which can travel extraordinarily long distances with devastating effect. This hypermobility has been the subject of many investigations; we have demonstrated that it can be explained quantitatively and accurately by considering the energetics of the intense rock fragmentation that always occurs during motion of a large rock mass. 3. Study of rock avalanche debris psd shows that the energy used in creating new rock surface area during fragmentation is not lost to surface energy, but is recycled generating a high-frequency elastic energy field that reduces the frictional resistance to motion during runout. 4. Rock avalanches that deposit on glaciers can eventually form large terminal moraines that have no connection with any climatic event; unless these are identified as rock-avalanche-influenced they can confuse palaeoclimatic inferences drawn from moraine ages. Rock-avalanche-derived fines, however, can be identified in moraine debris up to ten thousand years old by the characteristic micron-scale agglomerates that form during intense fragmentation, and which are absent from purely climatically-induced moraines; there is thus a strong case for re-examining existing palaeoclimatic databases to eliminate potentially rock-avalanche-influenced moraine ages. 5. Rock avalanches (especially coseismic ones) are a serious hazard, being very destructive in their own right; they also block river valleys, forming landslide dams and potentially devastating dambreak floods, and subsequent severe decade-scale aggradation of downstream fans and floodplains. Rock avalanches falling into lakes or fiords can cause catastrophic tsunami that pose a serious risk to

  10. Stone temperature and moisture variability under temperate environmental conditions: Implications for sandstone weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Daniel; Warke, Patricia; McCabe, Stephen

    2017-03-01

    Temperature and moisture conditions are key drivers of stone weathering processes in both natural and built environments. Given their importance in the breakdown of stone, a detailed understanding of their temporal and spatial variability is central to understanding present-day weathering behaviour and for predicting how climate change may influence the nature and rates of future stone decay. Subsurface temperature and moisture data are reported from quarry fresh Peakmoor Sandstone samples exposed during summer (June-July) and late autumn/early winter (October-December) in a mid-latitude, temperate maritime environment. These data demonstrate that the subsurface thermal response of sandstone comprises numerous short-term (minutes), low magnitude fluctuations superimposed upon larger-scale diurnal heating and cooling cycles with distinct aspect-related differences. The short-term fluctuations create conditions in the outer 5-10 mm of stone that are much more 'energetic' in comparison to the more subdued thermal cycling that occurs deeper within the sandstone samples. Data show that moisture dynamics are equally complex with a near-surface region (5-10 mm) in which frequent moisture cycling takes place and this, combined with the thermal dynamism exhibited by the same region, may have significant implications for the nature and rate of weathering activity. Data indicate that moisture input from rainfall, particularly when it is wind-driven, can travel deep into the stone where it can prolong the time of wetness. This most often occurs during wetter winter months when moisture input is high and evaporative loss is low but can happen at any time during the year when the hydraulic connection between near-surface and deeper regions of the stone is disrupted with subsequent loss of moisture from depth slowing as it becomes reliant on vapour diffusion alone. These data illustrate the complexity of temperature and moisture conditions in sandstone exposed to the 'moderate

  11. Organic carbon, water repellency and soil stability to slaking at aggregate and intra-aggregate scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán López, Antonio; García-Moreno, Jorge; Gordillo-Rivero, Ángel J.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Cerdà, Artemi; Alanís, Nancy; Jiménez-Compán, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    Water repellency (WR) is a property of some soils that inhibits or delays water infiltration between a few seconds and days or weeks. Inhibited or delayed infiltration contributes to ponding and increases runoff flow generation, often increasing soil erosion risk. In water-repellent soils, water infiltrates preferentially through cracks or macropores, causing irregular soil wetting patterns, the development of preferential flow paths and accelerated leaching of nutrients. Although low inputs of hydrophobic organic substances and high mineralization rates lead to low degrees of WR in cropped soils, it has been reported that conservative agricultural practices may induce soil WR. Although there are many studies at catchment, slope or plot scales very few studies have been carried out at particle or aggregate scale. Intra-aggregate heterogeneity of physical, biological and chemical properties conditions the transport of substances, microbial activity and biochemical processes, including changes in the amount, distribution and chemical properties of organic matter. Some authors have reported positive relationships between soil WR and aggregate stability, since it may delay the entry of water into aggregates, increase structural stability and contribute to reduce soil erosion risk. Organic C (OC) content, aggregate stability and WR are therefore strongly related parameters. In the case of agricultural soils, where both the type of management as crops can influence all these parameters, it is important to evaluate the interactions among them and their consequences. Studies focused on the intra-aggregate distribution of OC and WR are necessary to shed light on the soil processes at a detailed scale. It is extremely important to understand how the spatial distribution of OC in soil aggregates can protect against rapid water entry and help stabilize larger structural units or lead to preferential flow. The objectives of this research are to study [i] the OC content and the

  12. Stone or Sound. Memory and Monuments in Contemporary Public Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Salvatori

    2015-12-01

    This essay tackles the issue whether contemporary monuments can still provide plausible supports for memory, even when they undermine the traditional forms of commemoration and are labeled as “anti-monuments” or “counter-monuments”. A starting point has been detected in the experiences of the 1960s, when the monumental tradition started to loose its essential self-referentiality, and artistic production with memorial aims challenged traditional boundaries and lost its traditional frame characterized by stability, universality and rhetoric. In this period, related theoretical efforts were made to grasp the ongoing change and to understand the relationship between "document" and "monument" and viceversa as connected with the interpretation of history and its manipulation. It was, however, the discussion, developing from the late 1980s and early 1990s about Public art (as an evolution from "site specificity" to art for the public place, and public interest that involved also the status of monuments as technical hybrids extending across disciplines and artifacts, sometimes contingent and perishable, but which nevertheless fulfil both a documentary and an artistic function. Thus, examples of recent relevant exhibitions and specific monuments have been selected that are supposed to be a memorial in relationship with contemporary public art, where collective and individual experiences basically intersect. They are all artworks that implement the criticism of traditional monuments and attempt to provide alternatives involving different audiences and moving between opposites as presence and absence, persistence and temporality materiality and immateriality. And yet, in post-monumental times monuments persist (in sound or stone if they can embody historical contingency. In questo saggio si affronta la nozione di monumento nel mondo contemporaneo a partire dalla domanda se essi possano ancora fungere da supporti plausibili per la memoria anche quando, etichettati come

  13. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20041935 Chen Bailin (China University of Geosciences, Beijing);Shu Bin X-Ray Analysis of Deformed Rocks from Beishan Area, Gansu Province, China (Journal of Jilin University (Earth Science Edition ), ISSN 1671-5888 CN22-1343/P, 33(4), 2003, p. 424-429, 442, 2 illus. , 3 tables, 13 refs. )

  14. Differential regulation of adhesion complex turnover by ROCK1 and ROCK2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances E Lock

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: ROCK1 and ROCK2 are serine/threonine kinases that function downstream of the small GTP-binding protein RhoA. Rho signalling via ROCK regulates a number of cellular functions including organisation of the actin cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and cell migration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we use RNAi to specifically knockdown ROCK1 and ROCK2 and analyse their role in assembly of adhesion complexes in human epidermal keratinocytes. We observe that loss of ROCK1 inhibits signalling via focal adhesion kinase resulting in a failure of immature adhesion complexes to form mature stable focal adhesions. In contrast, loss of ROCK2 expression results in a significant reduction in adhesion complex turnover leading to formation of large, stable focal adhesions. Interestingly, loss of either ROCK1 or ROCK2 expression significantly impairs cell migration indicating both ROCK isoforms are required for normal keratinocyte migration. CONCLUSIONS: ROCK1 and ROCK2 have distinct and separate roles in adhesion complex assembly and turnover in human epidermal keratinocytes.

  15. Comparison of ultrasonic velocity and IR thermography for the characterisation of stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinzato, E.; Marinetti, S.; Bison, P. G.; Concas, M.; Fais, S.

    2004-12-01

    Preliminary results of a study aiming to implement a new non-destructive methodology about physical and elastic characteristics of building materials are presented. Our target is to assess the state of decay of wall stones by means of the correlation of thermal and elastic waves. At first, thermal diffusivity and ultrasound velocities have been measured on samples of known mechanical properties. An effective testing procedure for the evaluation of the stone durability has been performed on a historical Church. In particular, the variation of ultrasonic velocity mainly due to cracks is mapped and compared with thermographic readings.

  16. Non-operative residual biliary stone extraction by using steerable catheter and basket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. W.; Chang, J. C.; Park, C. Y. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-06-15

    Nonoperative residual biliary stone removal through the T-tube sinus tract was performed in 9 patients by using steerable catheter and basket under fluoroscopic guidance and the result was satisfactory. There is no significant complication or morbidity. We concluded that this method is 1. easy of performance, highly successful and of no demonstrable risk. 2. can be performed without any medication and in our patient department. 3. the method of choice of treatment in post-op residual biliary stone with T-tube.

  17. The Civil Palaces in Gravina street, Alicante: building stones and salt weathering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis, M.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study into the architecture and construction of the 18th Century Civil Palaces located in Gravina street (Provincial Museum of Fine Arts of Alicante, the building stones used and the mineral related decay processes that these materials have suffered. The original building stones and other stones used in subsequent restorations in these Civil Palaces are bioclastic limestones and/or calcarenites (San Julian Stone and Bateig Stone. Campello stone and other limestones are also present. Granular disintegration and alveolar weathering are the main forms of deterioration developed on the exterior of these Civil Palaces. These stone decay types are related to salt crystallisation, caused by sea spray salts and/or soil capillary waters. Halite is the most common salt found, probably due to the buildings' proximity to the coast. The halite is also present in indoor efflorescences. Gypsum is present in some efflorescences and ettringite on the inner face of the outdoor cladding stone. The cladding has been destroyed and replaced in the last restoration process.

    En este trabajo se realiza un estudio de la arquitectura, construcción y materiales utilizados en los Palacios Civiles del siglo XVIII, situados en la calle Gravina (actual sede del Museo Provincial de Bellas Artes de Alicante. Las rocas utilizadas en la construcción original así como las utilizadas en sustituciones posteriores en estos Palacios Civiles son calizas bioclásticas y/o calcarenitas (Piedra de San Julián y Piedra Bateig. También están presentes la Piedra de Campello y otras calizas. La disgregación granular y la erosión alveolar son las formas de alteración más abundantes en el exterior de estos Palacios Civiles. Estos tipos de alteración están relacionados con la cristalización de sales, procedentes del spray marino y/o de las aguas capilares del suelo. El NaCl es la sal más abundante debido a la proximidad de la costa. La

  18. Co-combustion of peach and apricot stone with coal in a bubbling fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atimtay, Aysel T.; Kaynak, Burcak [Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey)

    2008-02-15

    In this study a bubbling fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) having an inside diameter of 102 mm and a height of 900 mm was used to investigate the co-combustion characteristics of peach and apricot stones produced as a waste from the fruit juice industry with coal. A lignite coal was used for co-combustion. On-line concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X} and total hydrocarbons (C{sub m}H{sub n}) were measured in the flue gas during combustion experiments. Variations of emissions of various pollutants were studied by changing the operating parameters (excess air ratio, fluidization velocity, and fuel feed rate). Temperature distribution along the bed was measured with thermocouples. For co-combustion of apricot and peach fruit stones with a lignite coal, various ratios of biomass to coal ranging from 0 to 100 wt.% were tested. For the peach stone co-combustion tests, efficiencies are about 98% and for the apricot stone co-combustion tests, efficiencies ranged between 94.7% and 96.9% for 25%, 50% and 75% of apricot stone in the fuel mixture. The results of this study have shown that as the biomass ratio in the fuel mixture increases, the combustion takes place at the upper regions of the main column. This causes higher temperatures in the freeboard than the bed. Also the CO and hydrocarbon (C{sub m}H{sub n}) emissions increase as the biomass percentage increases in the fuel mixture. This causes decrease in the combustion efficiency. These results suggest that peach and apricot stones are potential fuels that can be utilized for clean energy production in small-scale fruit juice industries by using BFBC. The percentage of peach stones or apricot stones in the fuel mixture is suggested to be below 50 wt.% in order to obtain the emission limits of EU. During the design of the BFBC, one has to be careful about the volatile matter (VM) content of the biomass. For the complete combustion of the VM, longer freeboard or secondary air addition should be

  19. The human impact on natural rock reserves using basalt, anorthosite, and carbonates as raw materials in insulation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Tais Wittchen; Clausen, Anders U.; Hansen, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    Typical crustal rocks such as basalt, limestone, and anorthosite are used in stone wool insulation products. The raw materials for stone wool production are not specific to any rare mineral source but depend upon the mixture of materials having the correct chemical composition, exemplified by 40 ...... materials serve as excellent source materials for new products. Moreover, current production lines exploit more than 30 natural and 20-30 synthetic source materials that circumvent regional depletion and contribute to the recycling of other industrial materials.......Typical crustal rocks such as basalt, limestone, and anorthosite are used in stone wool insulation products. The raw materials for stone wool production are not specific to any rare mineral source but depend upon the mixture of materials having the correct chemical composition, exemplified by 40 wt...... exploration. Globally, anorthositic provinces comprise smaller volumes than do limestone or basalt, but still occur in sufficient amounts to supply for the production of insulation materials indefinitely. An evaluation of the modern consumption rates and reserves shows that the crustal inventories...

  20. Acoustics in rock and pop music halls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelman-Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian

    2007-01-01

    The existing body of literature regarding the acoustic design of concert halls has focused almost exclusively on classical music, although there are many more performances of rhythmic music, including rock and pop. Objective measurements were made of the acoustics of twenty rock music venues...... in Denmark and a questionnaire was used in a subjective assessment of those venues with professional rock musicians and sound engineers. Correlations between the objective and subjective results lead, among others, to a recommendation for reverberation time as a function of hall volume. Since the bass...

  1. Modeling transport and aggregation of volcanic ash particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Antonio; Folch, Arnau; Macedonio, Giovanni; Durant, Adam

    2010-05-01

    A complete description of ash aggregation processes in volcanic clouds is an very arduous task and the full coupling of ash transport and ash aggregation models is still computationally prohibitive. A large fraction of fine ash injected in the atmosphere during explosive eruptions aggregate because of complex interactions of surface liquid layers, electrostatic forces, and differences in settling velocities. The formation of aggregates of size and density different from those of the primary particles dramatically changes the sedimentation dynamics and results in lower atmospheric residence times of ash particles and in the formation of secondary maxima of tephra deposit. Volcanic ash transport models should include a full aggregation model accounting for all particle class interaction. However this approach would require prohibitive computational times. Here we present a simplified model for wet aggregation that accounts for both atmospheric and volcanic water transport. The aggregation model assumes a fractal relationship for the number of primary particles in aggregates, average efficiencies factors, and collision frequency functions accounting for Brownian motion, laminar and turbulent fluid shear, and differential settling velocity. We implemented the aggregation model in the WRF+FALL3D coupled modelling system and applied it to different eruptions where aggregation has been recognized to play an important role, such as the August and September 1992 Crater Peak eruptions and the 1980 Mt St Helens eruption. Moreover, understanding aggregation processes in volcanic clouds will contribute to mitigate the risks related with volcanic ash transport and sedimentation.

  2. Distributed snow and rock temperature modelling in steep rock walls using Alpine3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberkorn, Anna; Wever, Nander; Hoelzle, Martin; Phillips, Marcia; Kenner, Robert; Bavay, Mathias; Lehning, Michael

    2017-02-01

    In this study we modelled the influence of the spatially and temporally heterogeneous snow cover on the surface energy balance and thus on rock temperatures in two rugged, steep rock walls on the Gemsstock ridge in the central Swiss Alps. The heterogeneous snow depth distribution in the rock walls was introduced to the distributed, process-based energy balance model Alpine3D with a precipitation scaling method based on snow depth data measured by terrestrial laser scanning. The influence of the snow cover on rock temperatures was investigated by comparing a snow-covered model scenario (precipitation input provided by precipitation scaling) with a snow-free (zero precipitation input) one. Model uncertainties are discussed and evaluated at both the point and spatial scales against 22 near-surface rock temperature measurements and high-resolution snow depth data from winter terrestrial laser scans.In the rough rock walls, the heterogeneously distributed snow cover was moderately well reproduced by Alpine3D with mean absolute errors ranging between 0.31 and 0.81 m. However, snow cover duration was reproduced well and, consequently, near-surface rock temperatures were modelled convincingly. Uncertainties in rock temperature modelling were found to be around 1.6 °C. Errors in snow cover modelling and hence in rock temperature simulations are explained by inadequate snow settlement due to linear precipitation scaling, missing lateral heat fluxes in the rock, and by errors caused by interpolation of shortwave radiation, wind and air temperature into the rock walls.Mean annual near-surface rock temperature increases were both measured and modelled in the steep rock walls as a consequence of a thick, long-lasting snow cover. Rock temperatures were 1.3-2.5 °C higher in the shaded and sunny rock walls, while comparing snow-covered to snow-free simulations. This helps to assess the potential error made in ground temperature modelling when neglecting snow in steep bedrock.

  3. Visualization and quantification of weathering effects on capillary water uptake of natural building stones by using neutron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raneri, Simona; Barone, Germana; Mazzoleni, Paolo; Rabot, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Building stones are frequently subjected to very intense degradation due to salt crystallization, often responsible for strong modifications of their pore network. These effects have a great influence on the mechanical properties and durability of the materials, and on the penetration of water. Therefore, the quantification and visualization of water absorption into the pore network of degraded stones could provide useful information to better understand the weathering process. In this study, neutron radiography has been used (1) to monitor and visualize in two dimensions the capillary water uptake in a Sicilian calcarenite widely used as building and replace stone (namely Sabucina stone) and (2) to quantify the water content distribution, as a function of time and weathering degree. Additionally, traditional experiments based on gravimetric methods have been performed, following the standard recommendations. Results demonstrated a change in the physical properties of Sabucina stones with the intensification of the degradation process, with severe effects on the capillary imbibition dynamics. The water penetration depth at the end of the experiment was substantially higher in the fresh than in the weathered stones. The water absorption kinetics was faster in the weathered samples, and the amount of water absorbed increased with the number of weathering cycles. Good agreement between classical and neutron imaging data has also been evidenced. However, neutron radiography has allowed retrieving additional spatial information on the water absorption process, and to better understand how salt weathering affects the petrophysical properties of the studied stone and how it influences then the stone response against water.

  4. Visualization and quantification of weathering effects on capillary water uptake of natural building stones by using neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raneri, Simona; Barone, Germana; Mazzoleni, Paolo [University of Catania, Department of Biological, Geological and Environment Sciences, Catania (Italy); Rabot, Eva [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (CNRS/CEA), Gif-Sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-11-15

    Building stones are frequently subjected to very intense degradation due to salt crystallization, often responsible for strong modifications of their pore network. These effects have a great influence on the mechanical properties and durability of the materials, and on the penetration of water. Therefore, the quantification and visualization of water absorption into the pore network of degraded stones could provide useful information to better understand the weathering process. In this study, neutron radiography has been used (1) to monitor and visualize in two dimensions the capillary water uptake in a Sicilian calcarenite widely used as building and replace stone (namely Sabucina stone) and (2) to quantify the water content distribution, as a function of time and weathering degree. Additionally, traditional experiments based on gravimetric methods have been performed, following the standard recommendations. Results demonstrated a change in the physical properties of Sabucina stones with the intensification of the degradation process, with severe effects on the capillary imbibition dynamics. The water penetration depth at the end of the experiment was substantially higher in the fresh than in the weathered stones. The water absorption kinetics was faster in the weathered samples, and the amount of water absorbed increased with the number of weathering cycles. Good agreement between classical and neutron imaging data has also been evidenced. However, neutron radiography has allowed retrieving additional spatial information on the water absorption process, and to better understand how salt weathering affects the petrophysical properties of the studied stone and how it influences then the stone response against water. (orig.)

  5. Effects Comparison between Endoscopic Papillary Large Balloon Dilatation and Endoscopic Sphincterotomy for Common Bile Duct Stone Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandong Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST is a treatment of choice for stone extraction and is now most frequently used. The study was to compare the efficacy of endoscopic papillary large balloon dilatation (EPLBD and endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST for common bile duct stone removal. Trials comparing the effects between EPLBD and EST treatment were searched according to the study protocol. Overall stone removal rate, complete removal rate in 1st session, treatment duration, mechanical lithotripsy using rate, and overall complication rate were compared using risk ratio (RR and mean difference (MD and their 95% confidence interval (CI via RevMan 5.2 software. For overall stone removal rate, two therapies showed similar effect, but EPLBD showed better overall stone removal rate for stone >10 mm in diameter. For complete stone removal rate in 1st session, no difference was found, even for those with stone >10 mm in diameter; EPLBD showed longer treatment duration, higher mechanical lithotripsy using rate obvious overall complications rate, and more serious bleeding, whereas there were no significant differences for perforation, hyperamylasemia, pancreatitis, and cholecystitis/cholangitis. EPLBD showed better efficacy in certain conditions compared to EST, however with shortcomings, such as more duration, higher mechanical lithotripsy using rate, more serious overall complications rate, and bleeding.

  6. 32 CFR 644.551 - Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand... § 644.551 Equal opportunity—sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures...) Sale of standing timber. (b) Sale of embedded sand, gravel, and stone in their natural state. (c)...

  7. Bladder Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... does not include routine preventive screening for bladder cancer.If you do not treat bladder stones, you can have lasting damage. This includes repeat UTIs or injury to your bladder, kidney, or urethra. Questions to ask your doctor How do I ...

  8. Is scoring system of computed tomography based metric parameters can accurately predicts shock wave lithotripsy stone-free rates and aid in the development of treatment strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser ALI Badran

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Stone size, stone density (HU, and SSD is simple to calculate and can be reported by radiologists to applying combined score help to augment predictive power of SWL, reduce cost, and improving of treatment strategies.

  9. Chute System Research in Stone Transportation of Hazardous Rock Cutting%危岩体削方石料转运溜槽系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢全敏; 王红彬; 吴勇

    2011-01-01

    溜槽系统是山体开采中一种经济、安全的运输方式,它的优越性已逐渐被人们意识到,但其理论研究十分稀少,特别是溜槽系统的设计无相关理论和规范可参考.为此,研究了岩块在溜槽系统中的运动形式、运动速度和飞跃距离,并在此基础之上,以黄石市板岩山危岩体削方工程为例,探讨了溜槽系统在危岩体削方石料转运中的应用.溜槽系统充分利用了地形高差大的特点,节约了石料运输成本,加快了施工进程,有较好的推广前景和参考价值.%Chute system is a kind of economic and safe mode of transportation in mountain exploitation. Although having realized its advantages, people study rarely about its theories. In particular, there aren't related theories and standards in its designs. For this reason, the article studies about the form, velocity and flying distance of rock moving in chute system. And basing on this, taking Banyan Mountain hazardous rock cutting for example, the article discusses application of chute system. Chute system makes full use of the characteristic of large altitude difference. The fact shows that, it not only saves transportation cost, but also accelerates construction progress. Chute system has better spreading prospect and reference value.

  10. Study on the Ancient Star Map Carved on the Stone in DPR Korea: Present Status and Prospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George; Kim, Kyong Chol; Jong, Sok; Ji, Kwang Nam

    2015-08-01

    Korean Dolmens are the most distinctive and impressive megalithic monuments in Korean history. It has been known that Korean dolmens are typical funerary monuments of the New Stone Age and Bronze Age.We have searched and analyzed some Korean dolmens in astronomical aspects. Korean dolmen consists of two foundation stones, two dammed stones and one cover stone. Two foundation stones were put up on both sides and two small stones were dammed right and left so as to make a room for grave. Then tens of ton stone was covered on them. For example, one of the cover stones of Korean dolmens is 6.3m in length, 4m in width and 70cm in thickness. And the height of this dolmen is about 1.75m.More than twenty thousand dolmens are scattered around the Korean peninsula. Especially the Taedong River basin including Pyongyang that was a capital of Ancient Korea is the birthplace and centre of dolmens in our country, where about fourteen thousand dolmens are distributed. This region is of the highest density in terms of the distribution of dolmen and has every different kind of dolmens. Korean dolmen was very popular from BC.3000 to BC.2000 and began to disappear in the late BC.2000.It is interesting that we have found dolmens with star map on the cover stone. We found two hundred dolmens with various star atlas-like patterns of cup-marks. We analyzed the star maps on the cover stones of some dolmens and identified the constellations such as Big Dipper, Aquila, Cygnus, Draco and so on.It is thought that ancestor carved stars in the sky at that time on the cover stone of Korean dolmens, archaeological stone tombs. We also consider that Korean Dolmen is one of the oldest stone monuments relative to astronomy.We assume that there are many unidentified dolmens with star map on the cover stone and also many unexcavated dolmens in northern part of Korean peninsula yet, which are expected to arouse the great interest of astronomers and archaeologists.

  11. Calcium carbonate precipitation by heterotrophic bacteria isolated from biofilms formed on deteriorated ignimbrite stones: influence of calcium on EPS production and biofilm formation by these isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Moreno, Angélica; Sepúlveda-Sánchez, José David; Mercedes Alonso Guzmán, Elia Mercedes; Le Borgne, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrophic CaCO3-precipitating bacteria were isolated from biofilms on deteriorated ignimbrites, siliceous acidic rocks, from Morelia Cathedral (Mexico) and identified as Enterobacter cancerogenus (22e), Bacillus sp. (32a) and Bacillus subtilis (52g). In solid medium, 22e and 32a precipitated calcite and vaterite while 52g produced calcite. Urease activity was detected in these isolates and CaCO3 precipitation increased in the presence of urea in the liquid medium. In the presence of calcium, EPS production decreased in 22e and 32a and increased in 52g. Under laboratory conditions, ignimbrite colonization by these isolates only occurred in the presence of calcium and no CaCO3 was precipitated. Calcium may therefore be important for biofilm formation on stones. The importance of the type of stone, here a siliceous stone, on biological colonization is emphasized. This calcium effect has not been reported on calcareous materials. The importance of the effect of calcium on EPS production and biofilm formation is discussed in relation to other applications of CaCO3 precipitation by bacteria.

  12. The Fifth National Day of Viewing Stone will Opening Soon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    In order to carry forward the culture of the viewing stone and spread the ideas of viewing stone appreciation as well as promote the cultural undertakings and industry of viewing stone towards the healthy development trend,Viewing Stone Association of China pioneered and established the National Day of Viewing Stone.With the background of national cultural development strategies,the

  13. Distinct roles for ROCK1 and ROCK2 in the regulation of cell detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianjian; Wu, Xiangbing; Surma, Michelle; Vemula, Sasidhar; Zhang, Lumin; Yang, Yu; Kapur, Reuben; Wei, Lei

    2013-02-07

    This study, using mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells derived from ROCK1(-/-) and ROCK2(-/-) mice, is designed to dissect roles for ROCK1 and ROCK2 in regulating actin cytoskeleton reorganization induced by doxorubicin, a chemotherapeutic drug. ROCK1(-/-) MEFs exhibited improved actin cytoskeleton stability characterized by attenuated periphery actomyosin ring formation and preserved central stress fibers, associated with decreased myosin light chain 2 (MLC2) phosphorylation but preserved cofilin phosphorylation. These effects resulted in a significant reduction in cell shrinkage, detachment, and predetachment apoptosis. In contrast, ROCK2(-/-) MEFs showed increased periphery membrane folding and impaired cell adhesion, associated with reduced phosphorylation of both MLC2 and cofilin. Treatment with inhibitor of myosin (blebbistatin), inhibitor of actin polymerization (cytochalasin D), and ROCK pan-inhibitor (Y27632) confirmed the contributions of actomyosin contraction and stress fiber instability to stress-induced actin cytoskeleton reorganization. These results support a novel concept that ROCK1 is involved in destabilizing actin cytoskeleton through regulating MLC2 phosphorylation and peripheral actomyosin contraction, whereas ROCK2 is required for stabilizing actin cytoskeleton through regulating cofilin phosphorylation. Consequently, ROCK1 and ROCK2 can be functional different in regulating stress-induced stress fiber disassembly and cell detachment.

  14. Characterization and modeling of thermal diffusion and aggregation in nanofluids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Goodson, Kenneth E. (Stanford University, Stanford, CA)

    2010-05-01

    Fluids with higher thermal conductivities are sought for fluidic cooling systems in applications including microprocessors and high-power lasers. By adding high thermal conductivity nanoscale metal and metal oxide particles to a fluid the thermal conductivity of the fluid is enhanced. While particle aggregates play a central role in recent models for the thermal conductivity of nanofluids, the effect of particle diffusion in a temperature field on the aggregation and transport has yet to be studied in depth. The present work separates the effects of particle aggregation and diffusion using parallel plate experiments, infrared microscopy, light scattering, Monte Carlo simulations, and rate equations for particle and heat transport in a well dispersed nanofluid. Experimental data show non-uniform temporal increases in thermal conductivity above effective medium theory and can be well described through simulation of the combination of particle aggregation and diffusion. The simulation shows large concentration distributions due to thermal diffusion causing variations in aggregation, thermal conductivity and viscosity. Static light scattering shows aggregates form more quickly at higher concentrations and temperatures, which explains the increased enhancement with temperature reported by other research groups. The permanent aggregates in the nanofluid are found to have a fractal dimension of 2.4 and the aggregate formations that grow over time are found to have a fractal dimension of 1.8, which is consistent with diffusion limited aggregation. Calculations show as aggregates grow the viscosity increases at a faster rate than thermal conductivity making the highly aggregated nanofluids unfavorable, especially at the low fractal dimension of 1.8. An optimum nanoparticle diameter for these particular fluid properties is calculated to be 130 nm to optimize the fluid stability by reducing settling, thermal diffusion and aggregation.

  15. The Use of "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone" to Discuss Identity Development With Gifted Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Andrew J.; McBee, Matthew T.

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the process of identity development in gifted adolescents and provides a theoretical and research-based explanation of its importance for influencing achievement and quality of life in adulthood. Teachers, counselors, and parents can use "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone" (Rowling, 1997) as a springboard into discussion…

  16. Characterizing the microbial colonization of a dolostone quarry: implications for stone biodeterioration and response to biocide treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara, Beatriz; De los Ríos, Asuncion; Urizal, Marta; de Buergo, Mónica Alvarez; Varas, Maria Jose; Fort, Rafael; Ascaso, Carmen

    2011-08-01

    This study examines the microbial colonization of three fronts of an abandoned dolostone quarry (Redueña, Madrid, Spain) exposed to atmospheric conditions for different time periods since Roman times to the present. Through scanning electron microscopy in backscattered electron mode (SEM-BSE), endolithic colonization was predominantly detected in the most recently exposed front, while in the longer exposed quarry fronts, epilithic forms of growth were most often observed. These observations were confirmed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. Based on the distribution pattern of microbial colonization in the different quarry fronts, we then established a sequence of colonization events that took place over this long time frame. Bioalteration processes related to this sequential colonization were also identified. Characterizing these sequential processes can be useful for interpreting biodeterioration processes in historic dolostone monuments, especially those affecting constructions in the area of the Redueña stone quarry. In a second experimental stage, different biocide treatments were tested on this quarry rock to find the best way to avoid the microbial colonization effects identified. Through combined SEM-BSE/DGGE analysis, the efficacy of several biocides against the microorganisms inhabiting the dolostones was assessed after 4 and 16 months treatment. In general, all treatments were effective at reducing around 80% of the lichen cover, although effects on endolithic lithobiontic communities were dependent on how well the rock surface had been mechanically cleaned prior to treatment and gradually disappeared over time.

  17. Advances in percutaneous stone surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Hartman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of large renal stones has changed considerably in recent years. The increasing prevalence of nephrolithiasis has mandated that urologists perform more surgeries for large renal calculi than before, and this has been met with improvements in percutaneous stone surgery. In this review paper, we examine recent developments in percutaneous stone surgery, including advances in diagnosis and preoperative planning, renal access, patient position, tract dilation, nephroscopes, lithotripsy, exit strategies, and post-operative antibiotic prophylaxis.

  18. Using a rainfall simulator to explore the influence of stone size and vertical position on overland flow, splash detachment and slopewash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Jennifer; Walsh, Rory

    2016-04-01

    The Influences of rock fragments on overland flow and soil erosion are complex and much debated. The exact role played by differences in splash, pooling and channelling patterns associated with fragment covers of differing character in accounting for contrasting results found by studies is largely unexplored. This poster reports the findings of a study using a laboratory-based rainfall simulator to investigate the influences of rock fragment presence, size and vertical position on overland flow, slopewash and splash detachment. A set of 49 experimental runs of 15 minutes duration was conducted with a gravity-driven rainfall simulator delivering rainfall at a constant intensity of 125.4 mm hr-1. The experiment tested 3 rock fragment size classes: (small (10-20mm), medium (30-49mm) and large (50-70mm) and 2 vertical positions (free-standing and embedded so as to be flush with the soil surface). The rock fragments used were smooth in form. Experiments were conducted on a square plot, 900 cm2 in area and oriented diamond-fashion downslope at an angle of 2°. The soil comprised a dry topsoil (6 % silt, 94 % sand), which was replaced after each run, overlying a sandy subsoil. Seven replicate simulation runs were carried out on each of the 6 combinations of size and position, plus on a bare soil 'control' plot. All runs with rock fragments had a 50 % stone cover evenly and symmetrically arranged within the plot, with fragments equispaced from each other along 'staggered' horizontal lines. Overland flow at the downstream outlet of the plot was recorded at 5-minute intervals and then later filtered to yield slopewash data. Splash detachment was sampled by four splash funnels (127 mm diameter) lined with filter paper and sited just outside the plot at the midpoints of each side. Overland flow was over double bare soil values on plots containing rock fragments. Slopewash was lower on bare soil in the majority of cases. Recorded overland flow and slopewash amounts varied

  19. Calcium Oxalate Stone Agglomeration Inhibition [tm] Reflects Renal Stone-Forming Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, J S; Cole, F E; Romani, W; Husserl, F E; Fuselier, H A; Kok, D J; Erwin, D T

    2000-04-01

    Louisiana and other Gulf South states comprise a "Stone Belt" where calcium oxalate stone formers (CaOx SFs) are found at a high rate of approximately 5%. In these patients, the agglomeration of small stone crystals, which are visible in nearly all morning urine collections, forms stones that can become trapped in the renal parenchyma and the renal pelvis. Without therapy, about half of CaOx SFs repeatedly form kidney stones, which can cause excruciating pain that can be relieved by passage, fragmentation (lithotripsy), or surgical removal. The absence of stones in "normal" patients suggests that there are stone inhibitors in "normal" urines.At the Ochsner Renal Stone Clinic, 24-hour urine samples are collected by the patient and sent to the Ochsner Renal Stone Research Program where calcium oxalate stone agglomeration inhibition [tm] measurements are performed. Urine from healthy subjects and inactive stone formers has demonstrated strongly inhibited stone growth [tm] in contrast to urine from recurrent CaOx SFs. [tm] data from 1500 visits of 700 kidney stone patients have been used to evaluate the risk of recurrence in Ochsner's CaOx SF patients. These data have also been used to demonstrate the interactive roles of certain identified urinary stone-growth inhibitors, citrate and Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), which can be manipulated with medication to diminish recurrent stone formation. Our goal is to offer patients both financial and pain relief by reducing their stones with optimized medication, using medical management to avoid costly treatments.

  20. Forgotten and fragmented ureteral j stent with stone formation: combined endoscopic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Sen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjective : Ureteral stents are widely used in endo-urological procedures. However, ureteral stents can be forgotten and cause serious complications, including fragmentation, migration and urosepsis.There are few reports about forgotten and fragmented ureteral stents with stone formation. We aimed to present this rare case with successful combined endo-urological management.

  1. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in the treatment of renal and ureteral stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio César Miranda Torricelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of certain technical principles and the selection of favorable cases can optimize the results of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL. The aim of this study is to review how ESWL works, its indications and contraindications, predictive factors for success, and its complications. A search was conducted on the Pubmed® database between January 1984 and October 2013 using "shock wave lithotripsy" and "stone" as key-words. Only articles with a high level of evidence, in English, and conducted in humans, such as clinical trials or review/meta-analysis, were included. To optimize the search for the ESWL results, several technical factors including type of lithotripsy device, energy and frequency of pulses, coupling of the patient to the lithotriptor, location of the calculus, and type of anesthesia should be taken into consideration. Other factors related to the patient, stone size and density, skin to stone distance, anatomy of the excretory path, and kidney anomalies are also important. Antibiotic prophylaxis is not necessary, and routine double J stent placement before the procedure is not routinely recommended. Alpha-blockers, particularly tamsulosin, are useful for stones >10mm. Minor complications may occur following ESWL, which generally respond well to clinical interventions. The relationship between ESWL and hypertension/diabetes is not well established.

  2. Research present situation and analysis on classification of rock drillability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhi-hong; MA Qin-yong

    2001-01-01

    Rock drillability reflects the drill bit fragments rock hardly or easily. At present, rock drillability classification indexes have rock single-axle compressive strength, point load intensity,fracture stress during chiseling, drill speed, chiseling specific work, acoustic parameter, cutting magnitude, and so on. Every index reflects rock drillability but isn't overall. It is feasible that using many indexes of fuzzy mathematics method etc. to evaluate rock drillability.

  3. Efficient extraction of olive pulp and stone proteins by using an enzyme-assisted method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Barberán, María; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto Francisco

    2014-07-01

    An efficient protein extraction protocol for proteins from olive pulp and stone by using enzymes was developed. For this purpose, different parameters that affect the extraction process, such as enzyme type and content, pH, and extraction temperature and time, were tested. The influence of these factors on protein recovery was examined using the standard Bradford assay, while the extracted proteins were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The best extraction conditions were achieved at pH 7.0 and 5% (v/v) Palatase® 20000 L (lipase) for pulp and Lecitase® Ultra (phospholipase) for stone proteins. The optimal extraction temperature and time were 30 and 40 °C for 15 min for pulp and stone tissues, respectively. Under these conditions, several protein extracts coming from olive fruits of different genetic variety were analyzed, their profiles being compared by SDS-PAGE. The developed enzyme-assisted extraction method showed faster extraction, higher recovery, and reduced solvent usage than the nonenzymatic methods previously described in the literature. In the case of stone proteins, different electrophoretic profiles and band intensities were obtained that could be helpful to distinguish samples according to their genetic variety.

  4. Distinct roles of ROCK1 and ROCK2 during development of porcine preimplantation embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin Yu; Dong, Huan Sheng; Oqani, Reza K; Lin, Tao; Kang, Jung Won; Jin, Dong Il

    2014-07-01

    Cell-to-cell contact mediated by cell adhesion is fundamental to the compaction process that ensures blastocyst quality during embryonic development. In this study, we first showed that Rho-associated coiled-coil protein kinases (ROCK1 and ROCK2) were expressed both in porcine oocytes and IVF preimplantation embryos, playing different roles in oocytes maturation and embryo development. The amount of mRNA encoding ROCK1 and the protein concentration clearly increased between the eight-cell and morula stages, but decreased significantly when blastocysts were formed. Conversely, ROCK2 was more abundant in the blastocyst compared with other embryonic stages. Moreover, immunostaining showed that ROCK1 protein distribution changed as the embryo progressed through cleavage and compaction to the morula stage. Initially, the protein was predominantly associated with the plasma membrane but later became cytoplasmic. By contrast, ROCK2 protein was localized in both the cytoplasm and the spindle rotation region during oocyte meiosis, but in the cytoplasm and nucleus as the embryo developed. In addition, ROCK2 was present in the trophectoderm cells of the blastocyst. Treatment with 15 μM Y27632, a specific inhibitor of ROCKs, completely blocked further development of early four-cell stage embryos. Moreover, we did not detect the expression of ROCK1 but did detect ROCK2 expression in blastocysts. Moreover, lysophosphatidic acid an activator of ROCKs significantly improved the rates of blastocyst formation. These data demonstrate that ROCKs are required for embryo development to the blastocyst stage. Together, our results indicate that ROCK1 and ROCK2 may exert different biological functions during the regulation of compaction and in ensuring development of porcine preimplantation embryos to the blastocyst stage.

  5. DIMENSION STONE DEPOSITS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Crnković

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The geology, petrographycal composition and properties of dimension stone deposits in Croatia are described. Dimension stone deposits in the conception of mobilistic view of the genesis and structure of Dinarides, as well as after stratigraphic units, are considered. Valuation of the dimension stones of the active quarries is exposed. The marketable categories of dimension stone in Croatia are different varietes of limestones and calcareous clastites, primarly of Cretaceous age, and to lesser degree of Jurassic and Paleogene. The greatest part of deposits is concentrated in the Adriatic carbonate platform or Adriaticum.

  6. Influence of oxygen partial pressure on crystallization behaviour and high-temperature stability of stone wool fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaasgaard, M.; Jacobsen, P.A.L.; Yue Yuanzheng [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Section of Chemistry

    2005-04-01

    The influence of oxygen partial pressure on the redox state of the iron in stone wool is studied using thermogravimetry (TG). The thermal response of the stone wool is measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The high-temperature stability of stone wool depending on the oxygen partial pressure is observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is confirmed that the oxidation of Fe{sup 2+} to Fe{sup 3+} is responsible for the high-temperature stability of stone wool. Even a minor increase in oxygen partial pressure can considerably alter the crystallization behaviour and enhance the high-temperature stability of the stone wool. The origin for that is discussed. (orig.)

  7. Stone-dwelling actinobacteria Blastococcus saxobsidens, Modestobacter marinus and Geodermatophilus obscurus proteogenomes

    KAUST Repository

    Sghaier, Haïtham

    2015-06-30

    The Geodermatophilaceae are unique model systems to study the ability to thrive on or within stones and their proteogenomes (referring to the whole protein arsenal encoded by the genome) could provide important insight into their adaptation mechanisms. Here we report the detailed comparative genome analysis of Blastococcus saxobsidens (Bs), Modestobacter marinus (Mm) and Geodermatophilus obscurus (Go) isolated respectively from the interior and the surface of calcarenite stones and from desert sandy soils. The genome-scale analysis of Bs, Mm and Go illustrates how adaptation to these niches can be achieved through various strategies including ‘molecular tinkering/opportunism’ as shown by the high proportion of lost, duplicated or horizontally transferred genes and ORFans. Using high-throughput discovery proteomics, the three proteomes under unstressed conditions were analyzed, highlighting the most abundant biomarkers and the main protein factors. Proteomic data corroborated previously demonstrated stone-related ecological distribution. For instance, these data showed starvation-inducible, biofilm-related and DNA-protection proteins as signatures of the microbes associated with the interior, surface and outside of stones, respectively.

  8. Efficacy of Microwave Disinfection on Moist and Dry Dental Stone Casts with Different Irradiation Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Robati Anaraki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dental practice contains the use of instruments and multiuse items that should be sterilized or disinfected properly. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of microwave irradiation on dental stone cast disinfection in moist and dry condition. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 76 stone casts were prepared by a sterile method. The casts were contaminated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212 as well as Candida albicans (ATCC 10231. Half the samples were dried for two hours and the other half was studied while still moist. The samples were irradiated by a household microwave at 600 W for 3, 5 and 7 minutes. The microorganisms on the samples were extracted by immersion in tryptic soy broth and .001 ml of that was cultured in nutrient agar media, incubated overnight and counted and recorded as colony forming unit per milliliter (CFU/mL. Results: The findings showed that microorganisms reduced to 4.87 logarithm of CFU/mL value on dental cast within seven minutes in comparison with positive control. Although microbial count reduction was observed as a result of exposure time increase, comparison between moist and dried samples showed no significant difference. Conclusions: Seven-minute microwave irradiation at 600 W can effectively reduce the microbial load of dental stone casts. Wetting the casts does not seem to alter the efficacy of irradiation.   Keywords: Microwave Disinfection; Dental Stone Casts; Irradiation Times

  9. Identification of medicinal plants for the treatment of kidney and urinary stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Baharvand-Ahmadi, Babak; Tajeddini, Pegah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Naghdi, Nasrollah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Kidney stones are the third most common urinary tract problems after urinary tract infections and prostate pathology. Kidney stones may cause extreme pain and blockage of urine flow. They are usually treated with medications that may cause a number of side-effects. Medicinal herbs are used in different cultures as a reliable source of natural remedies. Objectives: This study aimed to determine native medicinal plants used by traditional healers of Shiraz for the treatment of kidney stones. Materials and Methods: The ethno-medicinal data were collected between July and September 2012 through face-to-face interview with local herbalist. Results: A total of 18 species belonging to 19 botanical families were recorded in study area. Species with the highest frequency of mentions were Alhagi maurorum (51.58%), Tribulus terrestris (51.58%), and Nigella sativa (48.14). The most frequently used plant parts were aerial parts (38%), leaf (33%) and fruits (17%). Decoction (68%) was the most frequently prescribed method of preparation. Most of the medicinal plants recommended by Shirazian herbalists have not been investigated in animal and humane models of renal stone which provides a new area of research. Conclusion: In the case of safety and effectiveness, they can be refined and processed to produce natural drugs. PMID:27689108

  10. Reading about the Power of Music: "Mole Music" and "Children of the Stone"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I review two books that address the power of music for the individual and group. Both books address the benefits of making, learning, and listening to music during times of conflict. The first brief review is David McPhail's picture book "Mole Music." The second is "Children of the Stone: The Power of Music in a…

  11. Dissolution of infection-induced struvite bladder stones by using a noncalculolytic diet and antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkardt, Nancy E; Houston, Doreen M

    2004-10-01

    An 8-year-old, female spayed miniature schnauzer was presented for pollakiuria and gross hematuria. Infection-induced struvite urolithiasis with concurrent bacterial urinary tract infection was diagnosed. The treatment is described, followed by a brief discussion of struvite stones and their medical management.

  12. Dissolution of infection-induced struvite bladder stones by using a noncalculolytic diet and antibiotic therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Rinkardt, Nancy E.; Houston, Doreen M.

    2004-01-01

    An 8-year-old, female spayed miniature schnauzer was presented for pollakiuria and gross hematuria. Infection-induced struvite urolithiasis with concurrent bacterial urinary tract infection was diagnosed. The treatment is described, followed by a brief discussion of struvite stones and their medical management.

  13. The Role of Stone in Neolithic Monumental Art: case studies and methods of representation in Ireland and Brittany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Robin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, there has been a great deal of interest in the stone used as building material in megalithic monuments. Several studies have been carried out on the location of quarries and on the monumental and symbolic role of stones in various types of architecture (O'Sullivan 1996; 2006; Cooney 2000, 135-8. However, very few works exist on the relationship between the parietal art of these monuments and the materials that carry them (Shee 1973, 164; O'Sullivan 1997, 28. This is in contrast to work on the Upper Palaeolithic, where there have been several studies exploring the links between paintings and the relief of caves (Clottes 1996. In the case of Neolithic monumental art there are many questions left unanswered; is the stone only a support for the carved motifs? Is its role only practical, without significance? Or did it have a more developed function related to the symbolism of the carvings? In this article, we would like to show through different examples in Ireland and Brittany that the stone did have a role in Neolithic monumental art. Different case studies show that there are relationships between carvings and stone texture, stone colour and stone relief. After the presentation of these case studies we would like to show how three-dimensional modelling can be a relevant tool for this kind of archaeological question.

  14. H- and J-aggregation of fluorene-based chromophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yonghong; Yuan, Wen; Jia, Zhe; Liu, Gao

    2014-12-11

    Understanding of H- and J-aggregation behaviors in fluorene-based polymers is significant both for determining the origin of various red-shifted emissions occurring in blue-emitting polyfluorenes and for developing polyfluorene-based device performance. In this contribution, we demonstrate a new theory of the H- and J-aggregation of polyfluorenes and oligofluorenes, and understand the influence of chromosphere aggregation on their photoluminescent properties. H- and J-aggregates are induced by a continuous increasing concentration of the oligofluorene or polyfluorene solution. A relaxed molecular configuration is simulated to illustrate the spatial arrangement of the bonding of fluorenes. It is indicated that the relaxed state adopts a 21 helical backbone conformation with a torsion angle of 18° between two connected repeat units. This configuration makes the formation of H- and J-aggregates through the strong π-π interaction between the backbone rings. A critical aggregation concentration is observed to form H- and J-aggregates for both polyfluorenes and oligofluorenes. These aggregates show large spectral shifts and distinct shape changes in photoluminescent excitation (PLE) and emission (PL) spectroscopy. Compared with "isolated" chromophores, H-aggregates induce absorption spectral blue-shift and fluorescence spectral red-shift but largely reduce fluorescence efficiency. "Isolated" chromophores not only refer to "isolated molecules" but also include those associated molecules if their conjugated backbones are not compact enough to exhibit perturbed absorption and emission. J-aggregates induce absorption spectral red-shift and fluorescence spectral red-shift but largely enhance fluorescence efficiency. The PLE and PL spectra also show that J-aggregates dominate in concentrated solutions. Different from the excimers, the H- and J-aggregate formation changes the ground-state absorption of fluorene-based chromophores. H- and J-aggregates show changeable

  15. Potential anthropogenic mobilisation of mercury and arsenic from soils on mineralised rocks, Northland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craw, D

    2005-02-01

    Eroded roots of hot spring systems in Northland, New Zealand consist of mineralised rocks containing sulfide minerals. Marcasite and cinnabar are the dominant sulfides with subordinate pyrite. Deep weathering and leached soil formation has occurred in a warm temperate to subtropical climate with up to 3 m/year rainfall. Decomposition of the iron sulfides in natural and anthropogenic rock exposures yields acid rock drainage with pH typically between 2 and 4, and locally down to pH 1. Soils and weathered rocks developed on basement greywacke have negligible acid neutralisation capacity. Natural rainforest soils have pH between 4 and 5 on unmineralised greywacke, and pH is as low as 3.5 in soils on mineralised rocks. Roads with aggregate made from mineralised rocks have pH near 3, and quarries from which the rock was extracted can have pH down to 1. Mineralised rocks are enriched in arsenic and mercury, both of which are environmentally available as solid solution impurities in iron sulfides and phosphate minerals. Base metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) are present at low levels in soils, at or below typical basement rock background. Decomposition of the iron sulfides releases the solid solution arsenic and mercury into the acid rock drainage solutions. Phosphate minerals release their impurities only under strongly acid conditions (pHacid rock drainage areas have arsenic and mercury below drinking water limits. Leaching experiments and theoretical predictions indicate that both arsenic and mercury are least mobile in acid soils, at pH of c. 3-4. This optimum pH range for fixation of arsenic and mercury on iron oxyhydroxides in soils is similar to natural pH at the field site of this study. However, neutralisation of acid soils developed on mineralised rocks is likely to decrease adsorption and enhance mobility of arsenic and mercury. Hence, development of farmland by clearing forest and adding agricultural lime may mobilise arsenic and mercury from underlying soils on mineralised

  16. Assessment of exposure to hand-arm vibration and its related health effects in workers employed in stone cutting workshops of Hamadan city

    OpenAIRE

    Roya Bayat; Mohsen Aliabadi; Rostam Golmohamadi; Masoud Shafiee Motlagh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The workers employed in stone cutting workplace are exposed to hand-arm vibration and its complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure to hand-arm vibration and its health effects on workers in the stone cutting workshops. Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, 40 workers of Hamadan city stone cutting who worked with stone cutting machines were examined. Measuring exposure to hand-arm vibration was performed by standard methods ISO 5349. Symptoms r...

  17. On the Origin and Basic Types of Polished Stone Tools%略论磨制石器的起源及其基本类型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱耀鹏

    2004-01-01

    Judged by the types of early polished stone tools and certain cultural phenomena from the Neolithic Age onward, the origination of polished stone tools was mainly from the needs of wood working in house construction and compound tool making. It had no direct relationship with the origin of agriculture. Wood working implements must have been the basic polished stone-tools. Their development pushed forward the advance of all technology in stone-tool industry.

  18. Dimensional accuracy of stone casts made from silicone-based impression materials and three impression techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitti, Rafael Pino; da Silva, Marcos Aurélio Bomfim; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure and compare the dimensional accuracy of stone casts of a partially edentulous mandibular arch made by two condensation silicones, two addition silicones and three impression techniques (1-step putty/light-body, 2-step putty/light-body and monophase technique). A partially edentulous standard stainless steel mandibular arch cast was obtained with reference points on the permanent mandibular right and left canines, and permanent mandibular right and left second molars. The anteroposterior distances (between the mandibular left canine and second molar and between the mandibular right canine and second molar) and transverse distances (between the mandibular left and right canines and between the mandibular left and right second molars) of stainless steel cast were measured by a microscope at 30× magnification and 0.5 µm accuracy. All impressions were made with condensation or addition silicones. The 1- and 2-step putty/light-body impressions were accomplished with putty and light-body materials and the monophase impressions with light-body material only. After the impression procedures, accuracy of each material and technique was assessed measuring the stone casts poured (n=5) from the impressions, by the same microscope. The differences between the values of stone cast and stainless steel cast were calculated, presented as percentages and analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and the means compared by Tukey's test (α=0.05). All distances measured on stone casts showed altered dimensions with significantly negative linear changes (shrinkage) as compared to those of the stainless steel cast. The stone casts made from the addition silicones were dimensionally more accurate. No differences were found among the impression techniques.

  19. The Identification of Chemical and Bacterial Composition and Determination of FimH Gene Frequency of Kidney Stones of Iranian Patients

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    Ali Shojaeian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background There is rare study on the association between FimH and kidney stone formation in our country. Objectives Here we studied on stones and identified the bacteria in stones isolated from kidney stone disease and/or UTI patients attending to Hashemi-Nejad hospital (Tehran, Iran to find out a possible correlation between stone composition and the diseases. We also measure the frequency of fimH gene and its related protein in Escherichia coli isolated from the patients to clarify the effect of this gene in kidney stone formation. Patients and Methods In This observational-descriptive study, 40 kidney stone samples were gathered and the composition of each sample was determined. The frequency of fimH gene and its related protein was measured using PCR and protein extraction from separated E. coli bacteria. Results The most prevalence of stones belonged to calcium oxalate stones and the most frequent bacterium in kidney stones was E. coli. The frequency of fimH gene in isolated E. coli was 57.14%. Conclusions Our data indicated that almost all chemical types of kidney stones may involve in UTI and kidney stone formation. We also realized that although E. coli is a non-urea splitting bacteria, it is the most causative microorganism found in urine and stones. Finally we recognized that fimH gene is seen in the majority of kidney stone samples so it may have a role in formation of kidney stone, although it should be more clarified in future studies.

  20. Surface protection treatments of highly porous building stones and sustainability problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calia, Angela; Lettieri, Maria Teresa; Matera, Loredana; Sileo, Maria

    2013-04-01

    The growing attention to the cultural value and the potential touristic attraction of the historic towns has led to increasing activities of rehabilitation and conservation of the historical built heritage. Chemical treatments have become a common practice for the protection of the stone building surface against the decay agents and traditional methods of protection, such as the application of sacrificial layers, have been even more neglected. The use of chemical products on large scale works on the historical built heritage draws the attention towards the sustainability of the conservation treatments, that involve peculiar features with relation to the different types of stones. Sustainability is undoubtedly in terms of human and environmental impact of the used products, so that the use of new formulations based on aqueous solvent should be preferred. Sustainability also means the equilibrium between the required performances of the treatments and the preservation of the original stone properties (colour, permeability, etc), namely harmlessness and effectiveness of the treatments. This can be a critical aspect when we deal with very porous stones, namely having porosity between 30-40%, that are widely used in many countries as traditional building materials. In most cases no information - or very general recommendations - is reported in the technical sheets of the conservation products with reference to the application to these types of stones. Relevant problems of compatibility can arise from the significant amounts absorbed by the high porous structure, as well as in terms of cost effectiveness of the treatments. In this work several calcarenites with different petro-physic characteristics and porosity between 30 and 45% are concerned for the assessment of the performance of two commercial water based products for stone protection, respectively an alcoxy-siloxane with low molecular weight and a modified organo-silane. This activity is a part of the Apulia

  1. Teaching Aggregate Demand and Supply Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Graeme

    2010-01-01

    The author analyzes the inflation-targeting model that underlies recent textbook expositions of the aggregate demand-aggregate supply approach used in introductory courses in macroeconomics. He shows how numerical simulations of a model with inflation inertia can be used as a tool to help students understand adjustments in response to demand and…

  2. Familial Aggregation and Childhood Blood Pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest prog

  3. Precipitation Aggregation and the Local Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Mark

    The details of large-scale spatial structures of precipitation have only recently become apparent with the advent of high-resolution near-global observations from space-borne radars. As such, the relationships between these structures and the local environment and global climate are just beginning to emerge in the scientific community. Precipitation aggregates on a wide variety of scales, from individual boundary layer instabilities to extra-tropical cyclones. Separate aggregation states have been associated with widely varying precipitation rates and atmospheric states, motivating the inclusion of spatial information in hydrologic and climate models. This work adds to the body of knowledge surrounding large-scale precipitation aggregation and its driving factors by describing and demonstrating a new method of defining the spatial characteristics of precipitation events. The analysis relies on the high sensitivity and high resolution of the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar for the identification of precipitation with near-global coverage. The method is based on the dependence of the probability of precipitation on search area, or spatial resolution. Variations in this relationship are caused by variations in the principal characteristics of event spatial patterns: the relative spacing between events, the number density of events, and the overall fraction of precipitating scenes at high resolution. Here, this relationship is modeled by a stretched exponential containing two coefficients, that are shown to depict seasonal general circulation patterns as well as local weather. NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications is then used to place those spatial characteristics in the context of the local and large-scale environment. At regional scale, precipitation event density during the Amazon wet season is shown to be dependent on zonal wind speed. On a global scale, the relative spacing of shallow oceanic precipitation depends on the

  4. Efficacy and safety of totally tubeless standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy in patients with kidney stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemil Aydın

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL is the first- line treatment for large and complex renal calculi. In this study, we aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of the totally tubeless PNL versus the standard PNL. Methods:Between January 2012 and July 2013, 73 selected patients were treated standard or totally tubeless PNL, nephrostomy tube and ureteral stent was not placed at the end of the operation in 35 (39.7% (Group 1 of them and 38 (43.1% (Group 2 patient underwent standard PNL. Stone disintegration was performed with a pneumatic lithotripter. We retrospectively compared patient and stone characteristics, operation time, duration of hospitalization, analgesia requirements, stone-free rate, operative findings, blood loss, and perioperative complications between two groups. Results:The mean operation time, excluding the preparation course, was 38,3±15,4 minutes vs 51,2±12,9 minutes and mean fluoroscopy time was 4,5±2,4 minutes vs 4,8±2,1 minutes, respectively. No significant intraoperative complication or indication additional access or second-look PNL due to residual stones was observed. In both groups none of the patients demonstrated a urinoma, hemorrhage or residual stones in postoperative ultrasonography and plain radiograph. Blood transfusion was needed only in a patient vs two patients for group 1 and 2, respectively. There were no significant differences in preoperative patient characteristics, postoperative complications between two groups, but the totally tubeless PNL group showed a shorter hospitalization and a lesser analgesic requirement compared with other group. Conclusion: Absence of the nephrostomy tube and ureteral stent may help in keeping the patient comfortable after the operation and reduction in the analgesia requirement and length of hospital stay. We believe totally tubeless PNL is safe and effective management option in properly selected cases.

  5. Comparative Study between Slow Shock Wave Lithotripsy and Fast Shock Wave Lithotripsy in the Management of Renal Stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AKM Zamanul Islam Bhuiyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Renal calculi are frequent causes of ureteric colic. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is the most common treatment of these stones. It uses focused sound waves to break up stones externally. Objective: To compare the efficiency of slow and fast delivery rate of shock waves on stone fragmentation and treatment outcome in patients with renal calculi. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was done in the department of Urology, National Institute of Kidney diseases and Urology, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka from July 2006 to June 2007. Total 90 patients were treated using the Storz Medical Modulith ® SLX lithotripter. Patients were divided into Group A, Group B and Group C – each group having 30 subjects. Group A was selected for extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL by 60 shock waves per minute, Group B by 90 shock waves per minute and Group C by 120 shock waves per minute. Results: Complete clearance of stone was observed in 24 patients in Group A and 13 patients in both Group B and Group C in first session. In Group A only 3 patients needed second session but in Group B and Group C, 12 and 8 patients needed second session. In Group A only one patient needed third session but third session was required for 3 patients in Group B and 5 patients in Group C for complete clearance of stone. In Group A, subsequent sessions were performed under spinal anesthesia and in Group B under sedation and analgesia (p>0.001. Mean number of sessions for full clearance of stones in group A was 1.37 ± 0.85, in Group B was 1.8 ± 0.887 and in Group C was 2.0 ± 1.083. Significant difference was observed in term of sessions among groups (p>0.05. In first follow-up, complete clearance of stones was seen in 24 patients in Group A and 13 in both Group B and Group C. In second follow-up, 3 patients in Group A, 12 in Group B and 8 in Group C showed complete clearance of stones. It was observed that rate of stone clearance was higher in Group A

  6. [Treatment of infection stones. I. Dissolution of experimental infection stones in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, H; Tomoyoshi, T

    1983-03-01

    The in vivo solubility of struvite stones experimentally induced in rats was investigated. The struvite stones implanted into bladders of normal rats were reduced in weight; and, they were dissolved by oral administration of ammonium chloride. Cefmetazone cured pyelonephritis and dissolved the bladder stones when it was administered to rats with urinary tract infection caused by Proteus mirabilis. Normalization of urine by antibiotics and acidifying agents may dissolve struvite stones, and help treat infection stones.

  7. Renal stone in crossed fused renal ectopia and its laparoscopic management: Case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Agrawal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of renal stone in crossed fused renal ectopia (CFRE is difficult because of abnormal location, malrotation, and its relations with vertebral column and small bowel. Management is not standardized because of the paucity of literature and variable anatomy. We managed an 8-year-old boy with multiple renal stones in right side crossed kidney by laparoscopic pyelolithotomy and nephro pyeloscopy with the help of ureteroscope. Until now, there is only one prior report of laparoscopic pyelolithotomy in CFRE. We share our experience in this case and review the literature regarding the management of kidney stones in this rare anomaly.

  8. The kidney stone and increased water intake trial in steel workers: results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotan, Yair; Antonelli, Jodi; Jiménez, Inmaculada Buendia; Gharbi, Hakam; Herring, Ron; Beaver, Allison; Dennis, Aphrihl; Von Merveldt, Dendra; Carter, Suzie; Cohen, Adam; Poindexter, John; Moe, Orson W; Pearle, Margaret S

    2017-04-01

    Preventing dehydration in subjects at risk may provide a means of primary prevention of kidney stones. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the hydration status of an at-risk group of steel plant workers based on end-of-shift ('post-shift') spot urine osmolality and 24-h urinary stone risk parameters. 100 volunteers were recruited from Gerdau Midlothian steel mill in Texas on 11/14/14 and 12/5/14. Clinical data were recorded and post-shift spot urine sample was used to measure urine osmolality. Participants were invited to submit a 24-h urine sample within 4 weeks of enrollment. The mean age was 41 years and 95 % were men. The majority of subjects were white (75 %), followed by 10 % Hispanic and 9 % black. The mean body mass index was 30.1 kg/m(2) and overall 16 % had a past history of stone disease. Mean post-shift urine spot osmolality was 704.5 mOsm (169-1165 mOsm) and was >800 and >700 mOsm in 39 and 57 %, respectively. Among 59 24-h urines samples, the mean volume was 1.89 ± 0.92 l/day, with 56 % 250 mg/TV), 39 % for uric acid (>700 mg/TV), 25 % for oxalate (>45 mg/TV) and 50 % for sodium (>200 meq/TV). The prevalence of stone disease in this population of steel workers was higher than the published prevalence of stone disease in the general population. A significant number of workers had concentrated post-shift and 24-h urines and elevated levels of urinary analytes.

  9. Bone metabolism and renal stone risk during International Space Station missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M; Heer, Martina; Shackelford, Linda C; Sibonga, Jean D; Spatz, Jordan; Pietrzyk, Robert A; Hudson, Edgar K; Zwart, Sara R

    2015-12-01

    Bone loss and renal stone risk are longstanding concerns for astronauts. Bone resorption brought on by spaceflight elevates urinary calcium and the risk of renal stone formation. Loss of bone calcium leads to concerns about fracture risk and increased long-term risk of osteoporosis. Bone metabolism involves many factors and is interconnected with muscle metabolism and diet. We report here bone biochemistry and renal stone risk data from astronauts on 4- to 6-month International Space Station missions. All had access to a type of resistive exercise countermeasure hardware, either the Advanced Resistance Exercise Device (ARED) or the Interim Resistance Exercise Device (iRED). A subset of the ARED group also tested the bisphosphonate alendronate as a potential anti-resorptive countermeasure (Bis+ARED). While some of the basic bone marker data have been published, we provide here a more comprehensive evaluation of bone biochemistry with a larger group of astronauts. Regardless of exercise, the risk of renal stone formation increased during spaceflight. A key factor in this increase was urine volume, which was lower during flight in all groups at all time points. Thus, the easiest way to mitigate renal stone risk is to increase fluid consumption. ARED use increased bone formation without changing bone resorption, and mitigated a drop in parathyroid hormone in iRED astronauts. Sclerostin, an osteocyte-derived negative regulator of bone formation, increased 10-15% in both groups of astronauts who used the ARED (p<0.06). IGF-1, which regulates bone growth and formation, increased during flight in all 3 groups (p<0.001). Our results are consistent with the growing body of literature showing that the hyper-resorptive state of bone that is brought on by spaceflight can be countered pharmacologically or mitigated through an exercise-induced increase in bone formation, with nutritional support. Key questions remain about the effect of exercise-induced alterations in bone

  10. Petrologic and REE Geochemical Characters of Burnt Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Lei; LIU Chiyang; YANG Lei; ZHAO Junfeng; FANG Jianjun

    2008-01-01

    The study of burnt rocks is beneficial to the discussion on the tectonic movement,paleoclimate and paleogeography that coal seams are subjected to after they were formed. In order to obtain the basic data on the features of the burnt rocks, a systematic study of petrology and REE geochemistry on burnt rocks in Shenmu, Northern Shaanxi Province has been done, using the methods of SEM, EDS, susceptibility measurements and ICP-MS. The burnt rocks are divided into two series in the section: the melted rocks and the baked rocks. SEM and EDS analyses reveal that all the minerals show burnt and melted traces, and there are no clay minerals except iliite found in the burnt rocks. Susceptibility measurements reveal that the burnt rocks have abnormally high susceptibility values,whereas a geochemical analysis shows that the REE distribution pattern of burnt rocks is similar to that of sedimentary rocks (initial rocks). In the longitudinal section, with increasing degree of burning (from baked rocks to melted rocks), the ΣREE gradually decreases, and the total REE of melted rocks is obviously lower than that of baked rocks. Besides, the melted rocks show apparent negative Ce anomalies, while the baked rocks show no anomaly of Ce, and sometimes even show positive anomalies.

  11. Distinct roles for ROCK1 and ROCK2 in the regulation of keratinocyte differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances E Lock

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human epidermis is comprised of several layers of specialized epithelial cells called keratinocytes. Normal homoeostasis of the epidermis requires that the balance between keratinocyte proliferation and terminal differentiation be tightly regulated. The mammalian serine/threonine kinases (ROCK1 and ROCK2 are well-characterised downstream effectors of the small GTPase RhoA. We have previously demonstrated that the RhoA/ROCK signalling pathway plays an important role in regulation of human keratinocyte proliferation and terminal differentiation. In this paper we addressed the question of which ROCK isoform was involved in regulation of keratinocyte differentiation. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used RNAi to specifically knockdown ROCK1 or ROCK2 expression in cultured human keratinocytes. ROCK1 depletion results in decreased keratinocyte adhesion to fibronectin and an increase in terminal differentiation. Conversely, ROCK2 depletion results in increased keratinocyte adhesion to fibronectin and inhibits terminal differentiation. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that ROCK1 and ROCK2 play distinct roles in regulating keratinocyte adhesion and terminal differentiation.

  12. Spectroscopic characterization of phenazinium dye aggregates in water and acetonitrile media: effect of methyl substitution on the aggregation phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Deboleena; Das, Paramita; Girigoswami, Agnishwar; Chattopadhyay, Nitin

    2008-10-09

    Absorption, fluorescence, and fluorescence excitation spectral studies of two planar, cationic phenazinium dyes, namely, phenosafranin (PSF) and safranin-T (ST), have been performed in protic and aprotic polar solvents. The studies reveal the formation of both J- and H-aggregates in concentrated solutions. The planarity of the phenazinium skeleton and the presence of a positive charge are attributed to be the driving force for this aggregation behavior. The aggregates are established to be dimers only. The positive inductive effect of the methyl substituents in safranin-T augments the aggregation process. The experiments reveal that for both dyes, the polar protic solvent favors the aggregation process more than the aprotic solvent.

  13. On The Use Of High-Density Rock In Rubble Mound Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgason, Einar; Burcharth, H. F.

    2005-01-01

    Natural rock with high density is widely used in the Scandinavian countries. However, the use of natural rock with density higher than 2:9t=m3 is ordinarily associated with some kind of problem solving, e.g. where normal density stones have to be replaced with heavier stones without increasing...... the construction volume or layer thickness. Most common design formulae do not give a clear conclusion on the in°uence of the rock density on the stability. The present paper presents results of small and large scale model tests in which is used rock with different densities. It is shown that the positive effect...

  14. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Leave no (spilled) stone unturned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilton, P B; Andy, O J; Peters, J J; Thomas, C F; Patel, V S; Scott-Conner, C E

    1993-01-01

    Stones are sometimes spilled at the time of cholecystectomy. Retrieval may be difficult, especially during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Little is known about the natural history of missed stones which are left behind in the peritoneal cavity. We present a case in which a patient developed an intraabdominal abscess around such a stone. The abscess recurred after drainage and removal of the stone was needed for resolution. This case suggests that care should be taken to avoid stone spillage, and that stones which are spilled into the abdomen should be retrieved.

  15. Examples of weathering and deterioration of Tertiary building stones at St. Michaels Cathedral in Cluj-Napoca (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Koch

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available St. Michaels Cathedral is one of the oldest Gothic architectural monuments in Cluj. It is built predominantly of Cenozoic (Eocene limestones which were deposited on a shallow carbonate platform. They are composed of different facies and microfacies types with varying amounts of particles, matrix and cement. Limestones from the Baci quarry (Cluj Limestone, which is situated about 3 km from the centre of Cluj, were commonly used. The weathering features correspond to the microfacies types, to the position of the stones in the walls and to the exposure (east, south, west, and north, which controls the moisture/dry cycles. This interrelationship is documented by macroscopic and microscopic examples of the decay of samples analyzed from the lower part of the walls. General parameters for a correct classification of carbonate rocks and their importance for weathering are discussed. The general mechanisms of weathering (thermal expansion, water uptake, freezing, chemical weathering are described. The migration of moisture (capillarity and the formation of crusts of varying mineralogy on the surface of building stones are documented. Macroscopic description of damage includes the decay into plates and flakes, the formation of crusts, the formation of fractures, and the growth of lichens and microorganisms. The microscopic analysis documents characteristic damage in detail: fractures parallel to the surface of the stone, internal cementation of fossil chambers (micro-nodules, repeated formation of crusts in varying generations, fracturing in intensively lithified, rigid limestones, and settling of lichens in different positions. Furthermore, different historical mortars and modern “concrete-mortars” and their behaviour in comparison to the adjacent limestones are briefly discussed. The possible conservation and restoration of weathered limestones in St. Michaels Cathedral are discussed with regard to the most recent conservation methods. The

  16. Kinetic and hydrodynamic models of chemotactic aggregation

    CERN Document Server

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri

    2007-01-01

    We derive general kinetic and hydrodynamic models of chemotactic aggregation that describe certain features of the morphogenesis of biological colonies (like bacteria, amoebae, endothelial cells or social insects). Starting from a stochastic model defined in terms of N coupled Langevin equations, we derive a nonlinear mean field Fokker-Planck equation governing the evolution of the distribution function of the system in phase space. By taking the successive moments of this kinetic equation and using a local thermodynamic equilibrium condition, we derive a set of hydrodynamic equations involving a damping term. In the limit of small frictions, we obtain a hyperbolic model describing the formation of network patterns (filaments) and in the limit of strong frictions we obtain a parabolic model which is a generalization of the standard Keller-Segel model describing the formation of clusters (clumps). Our approach connects and generalizes several models introduced in the chemotactic literature. We discuss the anal...

  17. Monitoring of chemical and physical characteristics of stone surfaces by a portable spectroradiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camaiti, Mara; Benvenuti, Marco; Costagliola, Pilar; Di Benedetto, Francesco; Del Ventisette, Chiara; Garfagnoli, Francesca; Lombardi, Luca; Moretti, Sandro; Pecchioni, Elena; Vettori, Silvia

    2013-04-01

    al Monte), selected as case study. Both systems showed good accuracy, within the experimental errors of the spectroradiometer, but the possibility of geo-referencing any small area of the building surface makes the theodolite the better system for monitoring different critical areas of historical stone surfaces. [1] S. Vettori, M. Benvenuti, M. Camaiti, L. Chiarantini, P. Costagliola, S. Moretti, E. Pecchioni, 2008, "Assessment of the deterioration status of historical buildings by Hyperspectral Imaging techniques", in Proceedings of the "In situ monitoring of monumental surfaces - SMS/08" Congress, Edifir-Edizioni Firenze, 2008, 55-64. [2] M. Camaiti, S. Vettori, M. Benvenuti, L. Chiarantini, P. Costagliola, F. Di Benedetto, S. Moretti, F. Paba, E. Pecchioni, 2011, "Hyperspectral sensor for gypsum detection on monumental buildings", Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, 8, 126-131. [3] L. Alparone, M. Benvenuti, M. Camaiti, L. Chiarantini, P. Costagliola, F. Garfagnoli, S. Moretti, E. Pecchioni, S. Vettori, 2011, "Hyperspectral Instruments as Potential Tools for Monitoring Decay Processes of Historical Building Surfaces", in Proceedings COST 2011, Florence 2011, 192-194. [4] R.N. Clark , 1995, " ", Rock Physics and Phase Relations - Handbook of Physical Constants, (Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union), 178-88.

  18. Attentiveness cycles: synchronized behavior and aggregate fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Gomes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A sticky-information macroeconomic model is developed in order to analyze the behavior of the time trajectories of the inflation rate and of the output gap, when disturbed by eventual monetary policy shocks. In opposition to what is typical in the literature on this subject, different paces on information updating explicitly lead to a setting with interaction among heterogeneous agents. Specifically, we consider firms with different information updating frequencies whose behavior implies the emergence of attentiveness cycles of possibly large lengths; within these cycles we deduct a differently shaped Phillips curve for each time period. Systematic changes on the form of the aggregate supply relation will be the engine that triggers a sluggish response to shocks and the eventual persistence of business fluctuations.

  19. Catastrophe mechanism and disaster countermeasure for soft rock roadway surrounding rock in Meihe mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yang⇑; Zhu Caikun; Chong Deyu; Liu Yang; Li Sichao

    2015-01-01

    The soft rock’s heterogeneity and nonlinear mechanical behavior cause extremely difficult maintenance on the soft rock roadway. Aiming at the asymmetric deformation and destruction phenomenon appearing after excavating and supporting the 7101 air return way in Meihe mine, this paper comprehensively adopted a variety of methods to analyze the roadway surrounding rock deformation rule, obtaining the roadway surrounding rock stress and plastic zone distribution rule under no supporting condition and the roadway surrounding rock deformation features under original symmetric supporting condition. Furthermore, this paper revealed the catastrophe mechanism, and proposed the concept of‘weak struc-ture’ and the disaster countermeasure of‘overall stabilizing the roadway and strengthening the support of weak structure’ . The industrial test shows that the disaster control technology can realize the coordination deformation of the supporting structure and roadway surrounding rock, thus significantly controlling the deformation of roadway surrounding rock.

  20. National and International Income Dispersion and Aggregate Expenditures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Fillat; J.F. François (Joseph)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe examine linkages between aggregate household income, distribution of that income, and aggregate cross-country expenditure patterns. We are able to decompose income effects into international income dispersion effects (from variations in average income) and national income dispersion (

  1. STUDY OF URINE PH, HYPERCALCIURIA, URINARY TRACT INFECTION AND ITS CORRELATION WITH STONE COMPOSITION IN BHOPAL REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This prospective case control study is an attempt to study the importance and significance of urinary pH, urinary tract infection (Urinary Culture and hypercalciuria and its correlation with stone composition in patients of urolithiasis. METHODS: This prospective cases control study is done at the Department of Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated Hamidia Hospital, Bhopal (M.P. India from October 2013 to October 2014. We have included 25 healthy persons as control group for the comparison of study group i.e. patients of urolithiasis. RESULTS: Total (43.5% persons were having stones in upper urinary tract. The mean age (+/-SD of the study group was 31.5 for the males and 34.5 for the females. In control group it was 30.4 males and 30.2 for the females. The overall ratio of M/F was 1.5:1.0 in stone former (Study group group and 2.1:1.0 in control group. Most (82.5% of stone former persons were in lower and middle socioeconomic group. 65.2% persons in stone former group were taking water less than 2 liters per day while in normal control group it was 48%. Milk and milk products consumption was very high in stone formers i.e. 34/46(73.9%. Pain in the flanks is the first symptom of upper urinary tract calculi. Haematuria and burning during micturition were present in 75% and 50% patients respectively. Pain during micturition was in 75% of the stone formers. Urinary pH was mostly acidic in stone formers. The pH of urine in stone formers was 5.40±0.05 whereas in control group it was 6.34±0.08. In our study we found that most of the stones formed in normal acidic urine pH were composed of mainly calcium oxalate as dominant component while in alkaline urine at pH 6 to 8 triple phosphate is the major stone component. Uric acid is mainly present in stones formed in acidic urine. 24 Hours urine volume was significantly low in stone formers (750±156ml than in normal individuals (1250±250ml. S. Calcium level was also raised marginally

  2. Stoning for Adultery in Christianity and Islam and its Implementation in Contemporary Muslim Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman bin Mohd Noor

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper examines the scriptural bases of stoning for adultery in the two sister religions and its implementation in contemporary Muslim societies. Based upon archival and documentary research, this study found that stoning to death for adultery is prescribed in both the Bible and the Qur’ān. Christians, however, have abandoned this law and it is no longer practiced in any Christian-dominant country. With the expansion of Western imperialism, the same trend seems to be taking place in Muslim societies. There are a few Muslim countries that are trying to implement this law but they face a good deal of criticism from the Western media and other secular organizations, consequently, shying away from implementing this punishment in public.

  3. Analysis and Implementation of Kidney Stone Detection by Reaction Diffusion Level Set Segmentation Using Xilinx System Generator on FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalannagari Viswanath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound imaging is one of the available imaging techniques used for diagnosis of kidney abnormalities, which may be like change in shape and position and swelling of limb; there are also other Kidney abnormalities such as formation of stones, cysts, blockage of urine, congenital anomalies, and cancerous cells. During surgical processes it is vital to recognize the true and precise location of kidney stone. The detection of kidney stones using ultrasound imaging is a highly challenging task as they are of low contrast and contain speckle noise. This challenge is overcome by employing suitable image processing techniques. The ultrasound image is first preprocessed to get rid of speckle noise using the image restoration process. The restored image is smoothened using Gabor filter and the subsequent image is enhanced by histogram equalization. The preprocessed image is achieved with level set segmentation to detect the stone region. Segmentation process is employed twice for getting better results; first to segment kidney portion and then to segment the stone portion, respectively. In this work, the level set segmentation uses two terms, namely, momentum and resilient propagation (Rprop to detect the stone portion. After segmentation, the extracted region of the kidney stone is given to Symlets, Biorthogonal (bio3.7, bio3.9, and bio4.4, and Daubechies lifting scheme wavelet subbands to extract energy levels. These energy levels provide evidence about presence of stone, by comparing them with that of the normal energy levels. They are trained by multilayer perceptron (MLP and back propagation (BP ANN to classify and its type of stone with an accuracy of 98.8%. The prosed work is designed and real time is implemented on both Filed Programmable Gate Array Vertex-2Pro FPGA using Xilinx System Generator (XSG Verilog and Matlab 2012a.

  4. The true stone composition and abnormality of urinary metabolic lithogenic factors of rats fed diets containing melamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaoming; Gu, Xiaojian; Xu, Yan; Sun, Xizhao; Shen, Luming

    2014-06-01

    To better understand the toxicity of melamine to humans, the stone composition and urinary metabolic lithogenic factors of rats fed diets containing melamine including the infant's melamine-induced stone composition were studied. Sixty 4-week-old male rats divided into three groups were, respectively, fed diets containing no melamine (control), 0.1% melamine, and 1% melamine for 4 weeks. At the end of experiment, the collected stones and 24-h urines from rats were, respectively, measured with compositions and metabolic lithogenic parameters. The stone from an infant who ingested melamine-adulterated formula was also included in compositional analysis. Across three groups, the stone was only detected in 1% melamine group, with composition of almost melamine different from the affected infant's stone composed of melamine and uric acid with a ratio of 1:2. Compared with control group, urine calcium and phosphate excretions were significantly increased in 1% melamine group. Urine uric acid excretion was significantly increased but citrate excretion was significantly decreased in 0.1% and 1% melamine groups. Urine oxalate excretion and pH were indicated without any significant difference. In addition based on urine physicochemical characters, melamine-uric acid stone seems difficult to be formed in the rats due to their characters of urine high-pH and low-uric acid. These results demonstrated that (1) the stone composition of rats fed melamine was not and could not be as that of infants fed melamine-adulterated formula, two species had a different mechanism of melamine-induced stone formation; (2) the exposure of melamine could result in abnormalities of urine metabolic lithogenic factors to rats, perhaps as well as human beings.

  5. Geology and Geochemistry of Reworking Gold Deposits in Intrusive Rocks of China—Ⅰ. Features of the Intrusive Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀璋; 程景平; 等

    1998-01-01

    Most gold deposits in intrusive rocks were formed as a result of reworking processes.the intrusive rocks containing gold deposits and consisting of ultramafic-mafic,intermediateacid and alkaline rocks of the Archean,Proterozoic,Caledonian,Hercynian and Yenshanian periods occur in cratons,activated zones of cratons and fold belts.Among them,ultramaficmafic rocks,diorite,alkaline rocks,and anorthosite are products of remelting in the mantle or mantle-crust or mantle with crustal contamination,However,auriferous intermediate-acid rocks are products of metasomatic-remelting in auriferous volcainc rocks or auriferous volcanosedimentary rocks in the deep crust.

  6. MicroRNA-144 suppresses osteosarcoma growth and metastasis by targeting ROCK1 and ROCK2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Xin; Wei, Min

    2015-04-30

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary tumor of bone. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenously expressed small non-coding RNAs that are strongly implicated in cancerous processes. However, our current understanding of the biological role of miRNAs in OS remains incomplete. In the present study, miR-144 was markedly downregulated in OS cell lines and clinical specimens. Low-level expression of miR-144 was significantly associated with distant metastasis and poor prognosis. Functional studies demonstrated that ectopic expression of miR-144 suppresses tumor cell proliferation and metastasis in vitro as well as in vivo. Furthermore, we identified Rho-associated kinases 1 and 2 (ROCK1 and ROCK2) as direct targets for miR-144 binding, resulting in suppression of their expression. Exogenous expression of ROCK1 or ROCK2 in 143B-miR-144 cells partially restored miR-144-inhibited cell proliferation and invasion. In clinical OS specimens, ROCK1 and ROCK2 levels were elevated, relative to that in paired normal bone tissues, and inversely correlated with miR-144 expression. Taken together, miR-144 suppresses OS progression by directly downregulating ROCK1 and ROCK2 expression, and may be a promising therapeutic target for OS.

  7. Thermoclastic and cryoclastic action on calcareous building stone: durability to artificial ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germinario, Luigi; Andriani, Gioacchino Francesco; Laviano, Rocco

    2014-05-01

    Short and long-term climate changes are a critical factor of stone decay even in temperate Mediterranean areas, when the combined fluctuations of temperature and moisture lead to thermoclastism and cryoclastism. The effects of weathering are of particular concern in the conservation field, for the assessment of the vulnerability of outdoor-exposed stone materials in the historical built heritage. An example of this outline is Apulia, a region of southern Italy characterized by warm, dry summers and mild, rather rainy winters that can bring sub-zero temperatures; here, climate-driven decay can seriously affect the state of conservation of the local calcareous stone used in the monumental heritage, especially the most porous and softest materials. The dynamic behavior of the Apulian calcareous stone in response to thermo-hygrometric stresses was studied here by means of an artificial accelerated ageing test, focusing on a single local stone variety known as "pietra gentile". It is a fine-grained, soft and porous calcarenite, which is exploited in the Murge area from the outcrops of the "Calcare di Caranna" Fm. (late Campanian?-Maastrichtian). The quarrying activity is concentrated in the territory of Valle d'Itria and mainly of Ostuni, touristically known as "the White Town", where the stone is widely used for the sacred and civil architecture. The ageing test was programmed according to the typical climatic characteristics of the considered area, following the historical recordings by the official Apulian monitoring institute (Struttura di Monitoraggio Meteoclimatico, Centro Funzionale Regionale); in order to simulate the seasonal climatic changes, the extreme temperatures were considered, while the possible insolation effects for higher temperatures were also taken into account. So, samples of "pietra gentile" were subjected to 100 temperature cycles from 60 to -5 °C, in a climatic chamber with a maximum relative humidity of 60%. Before the ageing, the samples

  8. Percolation and Physical Properties of Rock Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarzadeh, S.; Hesse, M. A.; Prodanovic, M.

    2015-12-01

    Textural equilibrium controls the distribution of the liquid phase in many naturally occurring porous materials such as partially molten rocks and alloys, salt-brine and ice-water systems. In these materials, pore geometry evolves to minimize the solid-liquid interfacial energy while maintaining a constant dihedral angle, θ, at solid-liquid contact lines. A characteristic of texturally equilibrated porous media, in the absence of deformation, is that the pore network percolates at any porosity for θ60°. However, in ductile polycrystalline materials including rock salt, the balance between surface tension and ductile deformation controls the percolation of fluid pockets along grain corners and edges. Here we show sufficiently rapid deformation can overcome this threshold by elongating and connecting isolated pores by examining a large number of accessible salt samples from deep water Gulf of Mexico. We first confirm the percolation threshold in static laboratory experiments on synthetic salt samples with X-ray microtomography. We then provide field evidence on existence of interconnected pore space in rock salt in extremely low porosities, significantly below the static percolation threshold. Scaling arguments suggest that strain rates in salt are sufficient to overcome surface tension and may allow percolation. We also present the first level-set computations of three-dimensional texturally equilibrated melt networks in realistic rock fabrics. The resulting pore space is used to obtain the effective physical properties of rock, effective electrical conductivity and mechanical properties, with a novel numerical model.

  9. Comparative study of static and dynamic parameters of rock for the Xishan Rock Cliff Statue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin JIANG; Jin-zhong SUN

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic wave testing was applied to investigate the quality and weathering status of rock specimens obtained in two borings situated in the Xishan Buddha rock slope in Taiyuan,China.This paper pays special attention to the distribution of bulk density,dynamic parameters and static parameters of rock specimens as well as the relationship between static and dynamic parameters.The results illustrate that the distribution of both parameters is identical along the depth of two drilled holes in the rock slope.When the hole depth increases,the density of rock mass,saturated compression strength and static elastic modulus,dynamic elastic modulus and wave velocity also show increase tendency.The weathering degree in the rock mass ranging from the surface of cliffto the depth of 2.5 m is the highest while the rock mass is unsalted and more rigid when the depth is larger than 3.0 m.The relationship between dynamic elastic modulus,sonic wave velocity and horizontal depth indicates that dynamic elastic modulus is more sensitive than sonic wave velocity.Conversely,by comparing quantity relationship between static elastic modulus and sonic wave velocity,it is found that the composition of rock has a great influence on the relationship between static and dynamic parameters,that is,inequality of rock composition will lead to dispersion and abnormality of the distribution of static and dynamic parameters.

  10. Stones from bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worcester, Elaine M

    2002-12-01

    Kidney stones are increased in patients with bowel disease, particularly those who have had resection of part of their gastrointestinal tract. These stones are usually CaOx, but there is a marked increase in the tendency to form uric acid stones, as well, particularly in patients with colon resection. These patients all share a tendency to chronic volume contraction due to loss of water and salt in diarrheal stool, which leads to decreased urine volumes. They also have decreased absorption, and therefore diminished urinary excretion, of citrate and magnesium, which normally act as inhibitors of CaOx crystallization. Patients with colon resection and ileostomy form uric acid stones, as loss of bicarbonate in the ileostomy effluent leads to formation of an acid urine. This, coupled with low urine volume, decreases the solubility of uric acid, causing crystallization and stone formation. Prevention of stones requires treatment with alkalinizing agents to raise urine pH to about 6.5, and attempts to increase urine volume, which increases the solubility of uric acid and prevents crystallization. Patients with small bowel resection may develop steatorrhea; if the colon is present, they are at risk of hyperoxaluria due to increased permeability of the colon to oxalate in the presence of fatty acids, and increased concentrations of free oxalate in the bowel lumen due to fatty acid binding of luminal calcium. EH leads to supersaturation of urine with respect to CaOx, in conjunction with low volume, hypocitraturia and hypomagnesuria. Therapy involves a low-fat, low-oxalate diet, attempts to increase urine volume, and agents such as calcium given to bind oxalate in the gut lumen. Correction of hypocitraturia and hypomagnesuria are also helpful.

  11. Brushite Stone Disease as a Consequence of Lithotripsy?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of calcium phosphate (CaP) stone disease has increased over the last three decades; specifically, brushite stones are diagnosed and treated more frequently than in previous years. Brushite is a unique form of CaP, which in certain patients can form into large symptomatic stones. Treatment of brushite stones can be difficult since the stones are resistant to shock wave and ultrasonic lithotripsy, and often require ballistic fragmentation. Patients suffering from brushite stone di...

  12. From Implement to Outcrop: a model for identifying implement source rock at outcrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Davis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the sourcing of prehistoric stone tools in Britain has been done most successfully by comparing the petrological and geochemical characteristics of individual stone tools with rock and debitage from known prehistoric quarry sites and stone tool production sites. However, this is a very rare occurrence because only a very small proportion of stone tools in Britain have a secure archaeological provenance, including those from prehistoric quarries or production sites. Substantial numbers of stone tools in the British archaeological record are chance finds; they lack a secure archaeological context. Through a case study of Carrock Fell and the Implement Petrology Group XXXIV, this article presents a new methodological and statistical model for assembling, analysing and interpreting fieldwork evidence, which combines petrological, geochemical portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF data, and geochemical inductively coupled plasma-atomic spectroscopy (ICP data to establish a signature for 17 gabbroic prehistoric stone implements (Table 1. These results are then compared with similar data gathered from rocks at outcrop. Through qualitative and quantitative analysis, seven gabbroic implements could be securely provenanced to rock from particular outcrop locations. The model is transferable to other similar contexts where sources of implement rock are sought from apparently random distributions of stone tools.

  13. Effect of heat and moisture transport and storage properties of building stones on the hygrothermal performance of historical building envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    KoÅáková, Dana; Kočí, Václav; Žumár, Jaromír; Keppert, Martin; Holčapek, Ondřej; Vejmelková, Eva; Černý, Robert

    2016-12-01

    The heat and moisture transport and storage parameters of three different natural stones used on the Czech territory since medieval times are determined experimentally, together with the basic physical properties and mechanical parameters. The measured data are applied as input parameters in the computational modeling of hygrothermal performance of building envelopes made of the analyzed stones. Test reference year climatic data of three different locations within the Czech Republic are used as boundary conditions on the exterior side. Using the simulated hygric and thermal performance of particular stone walls, their applicability is assessed in a relation to the geographical and climatic conditions. The obtained results indicate that all three investigated stones are highly resistant to weather conditions, freeze/thaw cycles in particular.

  14. Salt damage of stone, plaster and painted layers at a medieval church, South-Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Ákos; Galambos, Éva

    2016-04-01

    The Chapel of Pécsvárad is one of the best preserved and oldest medieval stone monument in South Hungary. It dates back to the 11th century. The interior of the chapel is decorated with wall paintings, which are later and probably originating from the late 12th century. The wall painting is partly preserved and it is located on an interior stone wall of the chapel facing to the East. The wall painting shows various forms of damage from salt efflorescence to chipping. The current research provides information on the in situ and laboratory analyses of salts, plasters, pigments and stone material suggesting mechanisms of decay that lead to partial loss of the painting. Both on site techniques and laboratory analyses were performed. Imaging techniques such as UV luminescence and IR thermography were used to identify the moist and salt covered zones on the wall surface. Portable moisture meter were also applied to map the wet zones in the interior and also at the external part of the chapel. Schmidt hammer and Duroscop were used for testing the surface strength of stone. Laboratory tests were focused on mineralogical and chemical compositional analyses. Small samples of stone, mortar, plaster and pigments were tested by optical microscopy, SEM-EDX, XRD and Thermogravimetric analyses. According to our tests the chapel was predominantly made of porous limestone and sandstone. Laboratory analyses proved that the major salt responsible for the damage of external walls are gypsum and halite, while in the interior part higher amount of halite and significant amount of sodium-nitrate were found besides gypsum. The painted layers are on Byzantine-type of plaster with organic compounds (plant fragments) and with a substrate layer rich in calcium carbonate. The identified pigments are dominantly earth pigments such as iron-oxide containing red and yellow (ochre) and green earth. A unique preservation of ultramarine blue in Hungary was found on the wall painting. The partial

  15. The Possibilities of Women and Men: Gender and the California Milling Stone Horizon

    OpenAIRE

    McGuire, Kelly R; Hildebrandt, William R

    1994-01-01

    Traditional formulations of gender, as they have been applied to prehistoric subsistence practices and work organization in California, have sometimes served to mask or obfuscate aspects of adaptive variation. This is particularly true of more ancient lifeways, such as those subsumed under the Milling Stone Horizon, that are not so easily recognized in the cultural landscape of ethnographic California. In this paper, it is argued that gender organization was much less circumscribed during the...

  16. Biliary ascariasis: an uncommon cause for recurrent biliary colic after biliary sphincterotomy and common bile duct stone removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thandassery, Ragesh Babu; Jha, Ashish Kumar; Goenka, Mahesh Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography is the most commonly used technique for removal of common bile duct stones. Biliary sphincterotomy during the procedure facilitates stone retrieval from the common bile duct. However, sphincterotomy ablates the normal biliary sphincter mechanism. This facilitates duodeno-biliary reflex and can result in inward migration of luminal parasite into the biliary system. In areas where ascariasis is endemic there is an increased risk of biliary ascariasis in postbiliary sphincterotomy patients. We report an unusual case where a patient presented with recurrent biliary colic after cholecystectomy and common bile duct stone extraction and was diagnosed to have biliary ascariasis with the help of endoscopic ultrasound examination of the biliary system.

  17. Mechanism of zonal disintegration in surrounding rock mass around deep rock engineering and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical behaviors of deep rock mass are different from those of shallow rock mass.Through cases of Jinping II Hydropower Station,the special phenomenon of zonal disintegration in the surrounding rock mass around the diversion tunnels,is analyzed.On the basis of fracture mechanics,a new strength criterion for deep rock mass is derived.The new nonlinear strength criterion that is relative to the rock mass rating classification can be applied to the study of the tensile failure of deep rock mass.Subsequently,zonal disintegration model is established,and the radius of fractured zone and none-fractured zone of deep surrounding rock mass around cylindrical tunnel are obtained,their exact positions and the evolution law of zonal disintegration of surrounding rock mass is determined.To validate the present model,comparison between calculation results and the experiment observation on facture and failure around underground openings is carried out.It is found that the numerical simulation result is in good agreement with the experimental one on failure modes around the hole.Through sensitivity analysis,the effects of stress condition,cohesion and the angle of internal friction on the phenomenon of zonal disintegration are determined.Finally,the present model is adopted in the analysis of the zonal disintegration in the surrounding rock mass around the diversion tunnels in Jinping II Hydropower Station.Meanwhile,the magnitude and distributions of fractured zones are determined by numerical simulation.

  18. Heuristic economic assessment of the Afghanistan construction materials sector: cement and dimension stone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossotti, Victor G.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, the U.S. Government has invested more than $106 billion for physical, societal, and governmental reconstruction assistance to Afghanistan (Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction, 2012a). This funding, along with private investment, has stimulated a growing demand for particular industrial minerals and construction materials. In support of this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey released a preliminary mineral assessment in 2007 on selected Afghan nonfuel minerals (Peters and others, 2007). More recently, the 2007 mineral assessment was updated with the inclusion of a more extensive array of Afghan nonfuel minerals (Peters and others, 2011). As a follow-up on the 2011 assessment, this report provides an analysis of the current use and prospects of the following Afghan industrial minerals required to manufacture construction materials: clays of various types, bauxite, gypsum, cement-grade limestone, aggregate (sand and gravel), and dimension stone (sandstone, quartzite, granite, slate, limestone, travertine, marble). The intention of this paper is to assess the: Use of Afghan industrial minerals to manufacture construction materials, Prospects for growth in domestic construction materials production sectors, Factors controlling the competitiveness of domestic production relative to foreign imports of construction materials, and Feasibility of using natural gas as the prime source of thermal energy and for generating electrical energy for cement production. The discussion here is based on classical principles of supply and demand. Imbedded in these principles is an understanding that the attributes of supply and demand are highly variable. For construction materials, demand for a given product may depend on seasons of the year, location of construction sites, product delivery time, political factors, governmental regulations, cultural issues, price, and how essential a given product might be to the buyer. Moreover, failure on the

  19. Recycling of quarry waste as part of sustainable aggregate production: Norwegian and Italian point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Willy Danielsen, Svein; Chiappino, Claudia; Primavori, Piero; Engelsen, Christian John

    2016-04-01

    Resource preservation is one of the main challenges in Europe, together with waste management and recycling; recently several researchers are interested in the recovering of critical raw materials and secondary raw materials from landfill. Aggregate supply, even if it is not "critical" sensus stricto (s.s.), is one of the European priorities (low value but high volume needs). On the other side, the management of quarry waste , mainly from dimension stones, but also as fines from aggregate crushing, is still a matter of concern. Such materials are managed in different ways both locally and nationwide, and often they are landfilled, because of an unclear legislation and a general lack of data. Most of time the local authorities adopt the maximum precaution principle or the enterprises find it little profitable to recover them, so that the sustainable recycling of such material is not valued. Several studies have shown, depending on the material specific characteristics, the viability of recycling quarry waste into new raw materials used in glass and ceramic industries, precast concrete production, infrastructures etc. (Loudes et al. 2012, Dino&Marian 2015, Bozzola et al 2012, Dino et al. 2012, etc.). Thus, aggregate production may be one of the profitable ways to use quarry waste and is falling under the priority of EU (aggregate supply). Positive economic and environmental effects are likely to be achieved by systematic recycling of quarry waste planned by industries (industrial planning) and public authorities (national and local planning of aggregate exploitation). Today, the recycling level varies to a great extent and systematic recovery is not common among European Countries. In Italy and Norway no significant incentives on recycling or systematic approaches for local aggregate exploitation exist. The environmental consequences can be overexploitation of the natural resources, land take for the landfills, environmental contamination and landscape alteration by

  20. Oxidative stress